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Sample records for fertilization in vitro

  1. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

    MedlinePlus

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a complex series of procedures used to ... fertility or genetic problems and assist with the conception of a child. During IVF, mature eggs are ...

  2. In vitro fertilization (IVF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007279.htm In vitro fertilization (IVF) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the joining of a woman's egg ...

  3. IVF-In Vitro Fertilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, George H.

    1980-01-01

    Issues surrounding the controversial topic of in vitro fertilization and artificial manipulation of reproduction are discussed. The author examines the moral and ethical implications and presents results of a survey of various religious groups. (SA)

  4. IVF-In Vitro Fertilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, George H.

    1980-01-01

    Issues surrounding the controversial topic of in vitro fertilization and artificial manipulation of reproduction are discussed. The author examines the moral and ethical implications and presents results of a survey of various religious groups. (SA)

  5. Risks of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications ...

  6. Human rights to in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Dickens, Bernard M; Dughman-Manzur, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    The Inter-American Court of Human Rights (the Court) has ruled that the Supreme Court of Costa Rica's judgment in 2000 prohibiting in vitro fertilization (IVF) violated the human right to private and family life, the human right to found and raise a family, and the human right to non-discrimination on grounds of disability, financial means, or gender. The Court's conclusions of violations contrary to the American Convention on Human Rights followed from its ruling that, under the Convention, in vitro embryos are not "persons" and do not possess a right to life. Accordingly, the prohibition of IVF to protect embryos constituted a disproportionate and unjustifiable denial of infertile individuals' human rights. The Court distinguished fertilization from conception, since conception-unlike fertilization-depends on an embryo's implantation in a woman's body. Under human rights law, legal protection of an embryo "from conception" is inapplicable between its creation by fertilization and completion of its implantation in utero. © 2013.

  7. [In vitro fertilization. Prognostic factors].

    PubMed

    Alpüstün, S; al-Hasani, S; Diedrich, K; Bauer, O; Werner, A; Krebs, D

    1993-05-01

    Multiple factors influence the outcome of in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). In our prospective study different factors have been subject of examination concerning their effect on the outcome of in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer. 1237 couples undergoing 1675 consecutive treatment cycles between 1.1.1990-31.12.1991 were included in this study. Prior to treatment, couples were divided into "good" and "poor" prognosis groups. Cycles were prospectively labelled as carrying a potentially "poor prognosis", if one or more of the following factors were noted: 1) female age > 35; 2) an existence of male factor; 3) couples with more than 3 previous unsuccessful treatment cycles. Couples with none of these factors were assigned to the "good" prognosis group. The pregnancy rate per cycle in the "poor" prognosis group was 5.96%, compared with 17.92% per cycle in the "good" prognosis group (p < 0.001). The most important factors determining pregnancy rates were female age and male factor, and we observed that the rate of pregnancy declined after the third treatment cycle. An explanation may be seen in lower fertilisation rates after the age of 35 and cases of poor semen quality. Both will result in poor embryo quality.

  8. Cell adhesion molecules and in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Simopoulou, Maria; Nikolopoulou, Elena; Dimakakos, Andreas; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This review addresses issues regarding the need in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) field for further predictive markers enhancing the standing embryo selection criteria. It aims to serve as a source of defining information for an audience interested in factors related to the wide range of multiple roles played by cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in several aspects of IVF ultimately associated with the success of an IVF cycle. We begin by stressing the importance of enriching the standing embryo selection criteria available aiming for the golden standard: "extract as much information as possible focusing on non-invasive techniques" so as to guide us towards selecting the embryo with the highest implantation potential. We briefly describe the latest trends on how to best select the right embryo, moving closer towards elective single embryo transfer. These trends are: frozen embryo transfer for all, preimplantation genetic screening, non-invasive selection criteria, and time-lapse imaging. The main part of this review is dedicated to categorizing and presenting published research studies focused on the involvement of CAMs in IVF and its final outcome. Specifically, we discuss the association of CAMs with conditions and complications that arise from performing assisted reproductive techniques, such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, the state of the endometrium, and tubal pregnancies, as well as the levels of CAMs in biological materials available in the IVF laboratory such as follicular fluid, trophectoderm, ovarian granulosa cells, oocytes, and embryos. To conclude, since CAMs have been successfully employed as a diagnostic tool in several pathologies in routine clinical work, we suggest that their multi-faceted nature could serve as a prognostic marker in assisted reproduction, aiming to enrich the list of non-invasive selection and predictive criteria in the IVF setting. We propose that in light of the well-documented involvement of CAMs in the developmental

  9. Impaired fertilizing ability of superoxide dismutase 1-deficient mouse sperm during in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Satoshi; Kawano, Natsuko; Miyado, Kenji; Kimura, Naoko; Fujii, Junichi

    2012-11-01

    The oxidative modification of gametes by a reactive oxygen species is a major deleterious factor that decreases the successful rate of in vitro fertilization. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) plays a pivotal role in antioxidation by scavenging the superoxide anion, and its deficiency causes infertility in female mice, but the significance of the enzyme in male mice remains unclear. In the present study, we characterized Sod1(-/-) (Sod1-KO) male reproductive organs and compiled the first report of the impaired fertilizing ability of Sod1-KO sperm in in vitro fertilization. Insemination of wild-type oocytes with Sod1-KO sperm exhibited lower rates of fertility compared with insemination by wild-type sperm. The low fertilizing ability found for Sod1-KO sperm was partially rescued by reductant 2-mercaptoethanol, which suggested the oxidative modification of sperm components. The numbers of motile and progressive sperm decreased during the in vitro fertilization process, and a decline in ATP content and elevation in lipid peroxidation occurred in the Sod1-KO sperm in an incubation time-dependent manner. Tyrosine phosphorylation, which is a hallmark for sperm capacitation, was also impaired in the Sod1-KO sperm. These results collectively suggest that machinery involved in sperm capacitation and motility are vulnerable to oxidative damage during the in vitro fertilization process, which could increase the rate of inefficient fertilization.

  10. Perspectives on access to in vitro fertilization in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Silva, S; Barros, H

    2012-04-01

    To analyze users' reasons for choosing in vitro fertilization treatment in public or private services and to identify their suggestions for improving fertility treatment. A qualitative study using an interpretative approach was conducted. Fifteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment (nine women, one man and five couples) at home or at their workplace in the districts of Viana do Castelo, Braga, Porto and Lisbon, Portugal, between July 2005 and February 2006. Users evaluated access to in vitro fertilization treatment in public and private services based mainly on their individual experiences and called for more access to less costly, faster and friendlier care with suitable facilities, appropriate time management and caring medical providers. These perceptions were also associated with views on the need for fighting stigmatization of infertility, protecting children's rights and guaranteeing sustainability of health care system. Interviewees sought to balance reduced waiting time and more attentive care with costs involved. The choice of services depended on the users' purchase power and place of residence and availability of attentive care. Current national policies on in vitro fertilization treatment meet user's demands of promoting access to, and quality, availability and affordability of in vitro fertilization treatment. However, their focus on legal regulation and technical-scientific aspects contrasts with the users' emphasis on reimbursement, insurance coverage and focus on emotional aspects of the treatment. The study showed these policies should ensure insurance coverage, participation of user representatives in the National Council for Assisted Reproductive Technology, promotion of infertility research and certification of fertility laboratories.

  11. The role of management in an in vitro fertilization practice.

    PubMed

    Masler, Steve; Strickland, Robert R

    2013-05-01

    An in vitro fertilization (IVF) practice is an enterprise. Like any enterprise, it has management that plays a major role, forming the structure, framework, and components that make the practice viable. Management of an IVF practice consists of two key teams: the fertility team and the management team. Management activities of the teams fall into eight core areas: business operations, financial, human resources, information technology, organizational governance, risk management, patient care systems, and quality management. Shady Grove Fertility Centers and Huntington Reproductive Center are two examples of professionally managed large fertility practices, one managed mostly centrally and the other largely managed in a decentralized way. Management is what takes a physician's IVF practice and converts it to a professional enterprise.

  12. In vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization of mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Kidder, Benjamin L

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the germline is important for reproductive success of mammals. Misregulation of genes whose expression is correlated with reproductive success may result in subfertility or infertility. To study epigenetic events that occur during oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development, it is important to generate large numbers of ovarian follicles and embryos. Oocyte maturation can be modeled using in vitro maturation (IVM), which is a system of maturing ovarian follicles in a culture dish. In addition, fertilization and early embryogenesis can be modeled using in vitro fertilization (IVF), which involves the fertilization of mature oocytes with capacitated sperm in a culture dish. Here, we describe protocols for in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryo culture. These protocols are suitable for the study of oocyte and embryo biology and the production of embryonic mice.

  13. Steroid production by the cumulus: relationship to fertilization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, G M

    1989-10-01

    Insemination media were collected from 92 follicles of 14 patients stimulated to undergo oocyte retrieval for in-vitro fertilization. Levels of progesterone and oestradiol in the insemination drops were assayed, corrected for carry-over from follicular fluid and volume and expressed as production per microgram of protein in the cumulus. Significantly higher progesterone production per unit protein was associated with oocytes which fertilized in vitro (P less than 0.02). Oocytes fertilizing with subsequent fragmentation or degeneration showed progesterone levels significantly higher than oocytes fertilizing normally (P less than 0.05). Polyspermic oocytes (n = 3) were associated with very high levels of progesterone production but were not significantly different due to the low numbers. Oestradiol production per unit protein was significantly greater in oocytes which fertilized normally than in those which degenerated (P less than 0.05). The protein content of cumuli whose oocytes fertilized appeared to be significantly lower than those which did not (P less than 0.05). These results probably reflect the maturity of the follicle, although direct actions of cumulus products upon the gametes cannot be ruled out.

  14. Utilization of third-party in vitro fertilization in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, Vitaly A; Darmon, Sarah K; Shapiro, Alice J; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H; Gleicher, Norbert

    2017-03-01

    The use of in vitro fertilization that includes third-party in vitro fertilization is increasing. However, the relative contribution of third-party in vitro fertilization that includes the use of donor oocytes, sperm, or embryo and a gestational carrier to the birth cohort after in vitro fertilization is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of third-party in vitro fertilization to the in vitro fertilization birth cohort over the past decade. This retrospective analysis investigated 1,349,874 in vitro fertilization cycles that resulted in 421,525 live births and 549,367 liveborn infants in the United States from 2004-2013. Cycles were self-reported by fertility centers to a national registry: Society for Assisted Reproductive Technologies Clinic Outcome Reporting System. Third-party in vitro fertilization accounted for 217,030 (16.1%) of all in vitro fertilization cycles, 86,063 (20.4%) of all live births, and 115,024 (20.9%) of all liveborn infants. Overall, 39.7% of third-party in vitro fertilization cycles resulted in a live birth, compared with 29.6% of autologous in vitro fertilization cycles. Use of third-party in vitro fertilization increased with maternal age and accounted for 42.2% of all in vitro fertilization cycles and 75.3% of all liveborn infants among women >40 years old. Oocyte donation was the most common third-party in vitro fertilization technique, followed by sperm donation. Over the study period, annual cycle volume and live birth rates gradually increased for both autologous in vitro fertilization and third-party in vitro fertilization (P<.0001 for all). Live birth rates were the highest when multiple third-party in vitro fertilization modalities were used, followed by oocyte donation. Third-party in vitro fertilization use and efficacy have increased over the past decade, now comprising >20% of the total in vitro fertilization birth cohort. In women who are >40 years old, third-party in vitro

  15. In Vitro Fertilization and Multiple Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    increased need for medical and social support. The Technology Being Reviewed IVF was first developed as a method to overcome bilateral Fallopian tube obstruction. The procedure includes several steps: (1) the woman’s egg is retrieved from the ovaries; (2) exposed to sperm outside the body and fertilized; (3) the embryo(s) is cultured for 3 to 5 days; and (4) is transferred back to the uterus. IFV is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for infertility today. According to data from the Canadian Assisted Reproductive Technology Registry, the average live birth rate after IVF in Canada is around 30%, but there is considerable variation in the age of the mother and primary cause of infertility. An important advantage of IVF is that it allows for the control of the number of embryos transferred. An elective single embryo transfer in IVF cycles adopted in many European countries was shown to significantly reduce the risk of multiple pregnancies while maintaining acceptable birth rates. However, when number of embryos transferred is not limited, the rate of IVF-associated multiple pregnancies is similar to that of other treatments involving ovarian stimulation. The practice of multiple embryo transfer in IVF is often the result of pressures to increase success rates due to the high costs of the procedure. The average rate of multiple pregnancies resulting from IVF in Canada is currently around 30%. An alternative to IVF is IUI. In spite of reported lower success rates of IUI (pregnancy rates per cycle range from 8.7% to 17.1%) it is generally attempted before IVF due to its lower invasiveness and cost. Two major drawbacks of IUI are that it cannot be used in cases of bilateral tubal obstruction and it does not allow much control over the risk of multiple pregnancies compared with IVF. The rate of multiple pregnancies after IUI with COS is estimated to be about 21% to 29%. Ontario Health Insurance Plan Coverage Currently, the Ontario Health Insurance Plan covers

  16. Influence of L-arginine during bovine in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Silva, Thiago Velasco Guimarães; da Silva, Bruno Baraúna; de Sá, André Luiz Alves; da Costa, Nathalia Nogueira; Sampaio, Rafael Vilar; Cordeiro, Marcela da Silva; Santana, Priscila Di Paula Bessa; Adona, Paulo Roberto; Santos, Simone do Socorro Damasceno; Miranda, Moysés dos Santos; Ohashi, Otávio Mitio

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of using L-arginine during in vitro fertilization (IVF) on in vitro embryonic development using Bos taurus and Bos indicus semen. Effect of different concentrations (0, 1, 10 and 50 mM) of L-arginine, added to the IVF medium, was evaluated on the fertilization rate at 18 h post-fertilization (hpf), NO3(-)/NO2(-) production during IVF by the Griess colorimetric method (30 hpf), cleavage and blastocyst rates (on Day 2 and Day 7 of culture, respectively) and total blastocyst cell number (Day 7 of culture). The results reveal that the addition of 50 mM L-arginine to IVF medium, with either Bos taurus or Bos indicus spermatozoa, decreased the cleavage rate and blastocyst rate compared to the control group. Other concentrations did not affect embryo production. However, 1 mM L-arginine with Bos indicus semen increased the proportion of hatched blastocysts. These results indicate that high L-arginine concentrations may exhibit toxic effects on bovine gametes during in vitro fertilization.

  17. In Vitro Fertilization with Isolated, Single Gametes Results in Zygotic Embryogenesis and Fertile Maize Plants.

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, E; Lorz, H

    1993-01-01

    We demonstrate here the possibility of regenerating phenotypically normal, fertile maize plants via in vitro fertilization of isolated, single sperm and egg cells mediated by electrofusion. The technique leads to the highly efficient formation of polar zygotes, globular structures, proembryos, and transition-phase embryos and to the formation of plants from individually cultured fusion products. Regeneration of plants occurs via embryogenesis and occasionally by polyembryony and organogenesis. Flowering plants can be obtained within 100 days of gamete fusion. Regenerated plants were studied by karyological and morphological analyses, and the segregation of kernel color was determined. The hybrid nature of the plants was confirmed. PMID:12271084

  18. In vitro fertilization and embryo development in pigs.

    PubMed

    Abeydeera, L R

    2001-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the in vitro production of pig embryos using improved methods for in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF). Despite the progress, polyspermic penetration remains a problem for in vitro-matured oocytes. Variation among boars, ejaculates and IVF protocols used in different laboratories appears to influence the incidence of polyspermy. Recent studies indicate that oviduct cells and their secretions play a role in reducing polyspermy. Very early attempts to culture in vivo-derived pig embryos met with little success and most were arrested at the four-cell stage. At present, many culture media are available that can overcome the four-cell block and support development to the blastocyst stage. In contrast, blastocyst development of in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos in these culture media varies significantly. Significant differences in morphology and numbers of cells have been observed in in vitro-produced blastocysts compared with in vivo-derived blastocysts. Surgical transfer of in vitro-produced embryos to recipient animals has resulted in acceptable pregnancy rates with moderate litter sizes. Although several systems are available for the generation of in vitro-produced embryos, the problems of polyspermy and poor embryo survival prevent large-scale production of embryos. Further research should be directed to improve oocyte and embryo quality, and to develop methods to minimize polyspermy through development of better IVM, IVF and embryo culture techniques.

  19. [In vitro fertilization of bovine oocytes in in-vitro protein-free culture system].

    PubMed

    Smetanina, I G; Tatarinova, L V; Krivokharchenko, A S

    2006-01-01

    We studied the possibility of fertilization of bovine oocyte-cumulus complexes, matured in vitro in a protein-free medium, in a protein-free culture system without preliminary capacitation of spermatozoa. The development of embryos to the morula-blastocyst and blastocyst stage was considered as a criterion of successful fertilization. It was shown that replacement of bovine serum albumin for polyvinyl alcohol or polyvinylpyrrolidone in Tyrode medium for fertilization did not affect significantly the development to the morula-blastocyst stage and the number of cells in blastocysts. It was also found that replacement bovine serum albumin for polyvinyl alcohol in all used media, Tyrode medium for washing of oocytes, medium for sperm preparation to fertilization, and Tyrode medium for fertilization, did not affect significantly the development to the morula-blastocyst and blastocyst stages, as well as on the number of cells in blastocysts. The results obtained suggest that in vitro fertilization of bovine oocyte-cumulus complexes is possible in a protein-free culture system without significant reduction in the capacity for in vitro development of the obtained embryos and number of cells in blastocysts.

  20. Optimizing Inflammatory Bowel Disease for Successful In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Mora; Kane, Edward; Konijeti, Gauree

    2016-01-01

    We present a nulliparous woman with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis (UC) and multiple failed cycles of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in whom we achieved a successful, viable pregnancy following clinical and endoscopic UC remission. Infertile patients with inflammatory bowel disease who have failed multiple cycles of IVF should try to achieve clinical remission and mucosal healing (absence of erosions or ulcers) prior to reattempting conception. Furthermore, deficiencies in vitamin B12, vitamin D, and iron should be addressed. PMID:28119950

  1. [Fertilization rate analysis as a predictive variable for an in-vitro fertilization program success].

    PubMed

    Kably Ambe, Alberto; Ruiz Anguas, Julián; Garzón Núñez, José Antonio; Anta Jaen, Everardo; Carballo Mondragón, Esperanza

    2003-01-01

    Determining if fertilization rates can be used as a predictive factor for pregnancy induction in ETIVF-ICSI programs. Retrospective, observational and descriptive. Six hundred and seventy nine cycles of the in vitro fertilization program, using long protocol hypophyseal suppression, stop, or antagonsits, were included. Ovarian stimulation was carried out with menotropines or recombinant FSH. Those patients whose cycle was stopped due to the lack of follicular development were excluded. Variables under study were: age, fertilization percentage, pregnancy rate, pre-ovulatory estradiol levels, number and quality of captured oocytes, transferred embrios and endometrial thickness on the day of transference and the presence of pregnancy. The Pearson P Test with a 95% confidence interval and the Student T Test used to establish differences with a 95% confidence interval statistical analyses were applied. Six hundred and seventy nine cycles were studied, 487 of which used the conventional fertilization method, and 192 used the ICSI method. Mean age among patients was 34 +/- 1.1 years old, with pre-ovulatory estradiol levels of 4,023 +/- 1,134 pg/mL, the average quantity of captured oocytes was 11.7 +/- 3.2 with a capture rate of 69.6%. Mean fertilization rates averaged 54% with a 20.7% pregnancy rates using the transference method. After analyzing the fertilization rate in each group, a statistically significant linear correlation was observed (P = 0.547, CI 95%) with the pregnancy rate. After assigning patients to two different groups: conventional IVF and ICSI, a higher positive correlation was observed (P = 0.827, CI 99%) in the first group. No significant differences were observed in the remaining parameters between both groups, excepting oocyte maturity, where greater prophase I and metaphase II percentages were observed in the ICSI group. When 50% fertilization was taken as the cutting point, a 78.19% negative predictive value was determined, with a 25% positive

  2. Fertilization capacity of cryopreserved Iberian ibex epididymal sperm in a heterologous in vitro fertilization assay.

    PubMed

    López-Saucedo, J; Santiago-Moreno, J; Fierro, R; Izquierdo, D; Coloma, M A; Catalá, M G; Jiménez, I; Paramio, M T

    2015-02-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) can be used to assess the fertilization capacity of sperm. Heterologous IVF may be useful when assessing that of wild animals as it is often difficult to obtain adequate numbers of naturally corresponding oocytes. The aim of the present study was to assess the fertilization capacity of frozen-thawed ibex epididymal spermatozoa via heterologous IVF involving the oocytes of prepubertal domestic goats. The effect on fertilization and embryo development of adding oestrous sheep serum (ESS) to the fertilization medium was also examined. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in TCM-199 for 24-27 h at 38.5°C in a 5% CO2 in air atmosphere. Frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa were selected by density gradient centrifugation. After maturation, the oocytes were co-incubated with spermatozoa in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) with different concentrations of ESS: SOF-C (0%), SOF-2 (2%) and SOF-20 (20%). At 17 h post-insemination (hpi), zygotes with one female and one male pronucleus (2PN) were categorised as normal; zygotes with 3PN were recorded as polyspermic, and oocytes with 1PN as asynchronous. Cleavage and blastocyst development were assessed at 48 and 168 hpi respectively. The percentage of zygotes with 2PN was higher in the SOF-2 than in the SOF-20 treatment group (27.7% versus 2.9% P < 0.05). The percentage of blastocysts formed with the SOF-C, SOF-2 and SOF-20 treatments were 1.1%, 7.5% and 0% respectively. These results show that the presence of 2% ESS achieves better results than the use of no serum or the standard 20% concentration. Heterologous IVF may be an effective method for predicting the fertilization capacity of ibex spermatozoa, and therefore perhaps that of other wild mountain ungulates.

  3. Microrobots for in vitro fertilization applications.

    PubMed

    Boukallel, M; Gauthier, M; Piat, E; Abadie, J; Roux, C

    2004-05-01

    The Micromanipulation and Micro-actuation Research Group at the LAB has activities related to biological and surgical applications. Concerning cells micromanipulation, our laboratory works in collaboration with the research team "Genetic and Reproduction" of the Besançon's hospital (France). The global final objective is the development of an automatic intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) device in order to improve performances and ergonomics of current devices. In the future this new device will contain various modules: module for removal of cumulus cells, modules for characterization of oocytes, microinjection module, cells transport system. The first subsystem developed is a new single cell transport system. It consists in a so-called micropusher which pushes single cells without having contact with the external environment. This micropusher is a ferromagnetic particle (from 400 x 400 x 20 microm3 to 100 x 100 x 5 microm3) which follows the movement of a permanent magnet located under the biological medium. A 2D micro-positioning table moves this magnet under the glass slide. The pusher and cells positions are measured through an optical microscope with a CCD camera located above the biological medium. The second subsystem is developed to measure oocytes mechanical stiffness in order to sort them. We have then developed a micro/nano-force sensor based on the diamagnetic levitation principle: a glass tip end-effector (with 20 microm in diameter) is fixed on the equipment which is in levitation (0.5 mm in diameter, 100 mm in length). When a force is applied to the levitated glass tip, it moves to a new equilibrium position. Thanks to themeasurement of this displacement, the applied force can be measured. Since there is no contact and friction between the levitated tip and the fixed part, the resolution of this sensor is very high (10 nN).

  4. In vitro activation of dormant follicles for fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in radiotherapy and chemotherapy have led to higher cure rates for female children and adolescents with cancer. However, these treatments adversely affect germ cell survival, and ovarian failure is thus a probable side effect of these anticancer therapies. Moreover, an increasing number of women are choosing to postpone childbearing until later in life, but their primordial follicle reserves degenerate with advancing age. Thus there is a pressing need for the development of fertility preservation methods for these individuals. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation prior to loss of the primordial follicle population either due to cancer treatments or normal aging is a promising option for safeguarding fertility. A complete in vitro maturation (IVM) system could help generate mature eggs for later use without the patient having to undergo the cumbersome process involved in current assisted reproduction methods to generate mature eggs. Cryopreserved ovarian cortical tissues have attracted the attention of reproductive biologists and clinicians because of the large number of safely frozen primordial follicles in them, and it is theoretically possible to use these follicles for in vitro activation (IVA) and subsequent IVM. Ovarian tissue collection is independent of patient age and social or personal conditions. Despite being widely accepted potential techniques for fertility preservation, IVA and IVM of human primordial follicles to obtain fertilizable eggs remains far from reality. This chapter highlights the current achievements and obstacles in obtaining growing follicles through activation of dormant follicles.

  5. Fertility comparison between wild type and transgenic mice by in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Kuzhalini; Raber, James; Sztein, Jorge

    2010-08-01

    Transgenic mice are increasingly used as animal models for studies of gene function and regulation of mammalian genes. Although there has been continuous and remarkable progress in the development of transgenic technology over several decades, many aspects of the resulting transgenic model's phenotype cannot be completely predicted. For example, it is well known that as a consequence of the random insertion of the injected DNA construct, several founder mice of the new line need to be analyzed for possible differences in phenotype secondary to different insertion sites. The Knock out technique for transgenic production disrupts a specific gene by insertion or homologous recombination creating a null expression or replacement of the gene with a marker to localize it expression. This modification could result in pleiotropic phenotype if the gene is also expressed in tissues other than the target organs. Although the future breeding performance of the newly created model is critical to many studies, it is rarely anticipated that the new integrations could modify the reproductive profile of the new transgenic line. To date, few studies have demonstrated the difference between the parent strain's reproductive performance and the newly developed transgenic model. This study was designed to determine whether a genetic modification, knock out (KO) or transgenics, not anticipated to affect reproductive performance could affect the resulting reproductive profile of the newly developed transgenic mouse. More specifically, this study is designed to study the impact of the genetic modification on the ability of gametes to be fertilized in vitro. We analyzed the reproductive performance of mice with different background strains: FVB/N, C57BL/6 (129Sv/J x C57Bl/6)F1 and outbred CD1((R)) and compared them to mice of the same strain carrying a transgene or KO which was not anticipated to affect fertility. In vitro Fertilization was used to analyze the fertility of the mice. Oocytes

  6. Mother-daughter in vitro fertilization triplet surrogate pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Michelow, M C; Bernstein, J; Jacobson, M J; McLoughlin, J L; Rubenstein, D; Hacking, A I; Preddy, S; Van der Wat, I J

    1988-02-01

    A successful triplet pregnancy has been established in a surrogate gestational mother following the transfer of five embryos fertilized in vitro. The oocytes were donated by her biological daughter, and the sperm obtained from the daughter's husband. The daughter's infertility followed a total abdominal hysterectomy performed for a postpartum hemorrhage as a result of a placenta accreta. Synchronization of both their menstrual cycles was obtained using oral contraceptive suppression for 2 months, followed by stimulation of both the surrogate gestational mother and her daughter such that embryo transfer would occur at least 48 hr after the surrogate gestational mother's own ovulation. This case raises a number of medical, social, psychological, and ethical issues.

  7. Does a woman's educational attainment influence in vitro fertilization outcomes?

    PubMed

    Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Berry, Katharine F; Hornstein, Mark D; Cramer, Daniel W; Missmer, Stacey A

    2011-06-30

    The association between educational level and cycle outcomes was quantified by applying multivariable logistic and linear regression within a prospective cohort of 2,569 women commencing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle. Although a woman's educational attainment was not associated with the likelihood of implantation failure, chemical pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, or live birth, the odds of cycle cancellation before egg retrieval were 40% lower among those with an college degree and 48% lower among those with graduate school attendance compared with women who had no college degree, suggesting that educational attainment is inversely associated with the likelihood of cycle cancellation.

  8. Dizygotic triplet pregnancy following in-vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Avrech, O; Schoenfeld, A; Amit, S; Ovadia, J; Fisch, B

    1993-12-01

    We present a case of dizygotic triplet pregnancy (mono-amniotic twins and a singleton) that, as far as we know, is the first reported one induced by artificial reproductive technology. It ended in the delivery of three healthy normal babies: two monozygotic twin boys and a girl. It appears that zygote splitting is significantly more common in patients treated with ovulation-inducing agents than in the general population. Also, in-vitro conditions of embryonic growth might influence the chances of multifetal gestation and the incidence of identical twinning. This may be due to changes in the physical properties of the zona pellucida and subsequent partial hatching of the pre-embryo. Evaluation of similar cases in the future may shed more light on the mechanism underlying their occurrence following in-vitro fertilization.

  9. Hair mercury concentrations and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes among women from a fertility clinic

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Shelley; Smith, Kristen; Williams, Paige L.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Batsis, Maria; Toth, Thomas L.; Hauser, Russ

    2015-01-01

    Total hair mercury (Hg) was measured among 205 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and the association with prospectively collected IVF outcomes (229 IVF cycles) was evaluated. Hair Hg levels (median=0.62 ppm, range: 0.03-5.66 ppm) correlated with fish intake (r=0.59), and exceeded the recommended EPA reference of 1ppm in 33% of women. Generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts accounting for within-woman correlations across treatment cycles were used to evaluate the association of hair Hg with IVF outcomes adjusted for age, body mass index, race, smoking status, infertility diagnosis, and protocol type. Hair Hg levels were not related to ovarian stimulation outcomes (peak estradiol levels, total and mature oocyte yields) or to fertilization rate, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy rate or live birth rate. PMID:25601638

  10. A new in vitro fertilization technique: intravaginal culture.

    PubMed

    Ranoux, C; Aubriot, F X; Dubuisson, J B; Cardone, V; Foulot, H; Poirot, C; Chevallier, O

    1988-04-01

    Intravaginal culture (IVC) is a new technique elaborated by the authors for the fertilization and culture of human oocytes. Its principle consists of fertilization and early development of the eggs in a closed, air-free milieu without the addition of CO2. One to five ovocytes are deposited in a tube completely filled with 3 ml of culture medium less than 1 hour after their recovery, with 10,000 to 20,000 spermatozoa per ml previously prepared. The tube is then hermetically closed and it is placed in the maternal vagina and held by a diaphragm for incubation for 44 to 50 hours. After this time, the content of the tube is examined and embryos are transferred to the uterus. In the first 100 consecutive punctures, 22 clinical pregnancies were obtained: 17 deliveries, 3 spontaneous abortions, and 2 tubal pregnancies. Also, a randomized study comparing IVC to in vitro fertilization (IVF) was done (160 cycles) and no statistically different cleavage, transfer, or pregnancy rate was seen between IVC and IVF. By simplifying the laboratory manipulations, this technique decreases the cost of IVF and permits its standardization and diffusion. It creates a psychologic comfort permitting active participation of the mother in this stage of embryo development. Also, the use of this technique may give greater knowledge of human gamete metabolism and of the physiology of reproduction.

  11. Techniques for in vitro and in vivo fertilization in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Seita, Yasunari; Takizawa, Akiko; Maedomari, Naoki; Ito, Junya; Serikawa, Tadao

    2010-01-01

    Although in vitro and in vivo fertilization are powerful tools for restoring conserved sperm as well as stocked males in the rat, the techniques have progressively gained importance. However, the techniques are not used extensively for efficient production of rat offspring, because the techniques require a great deal of skill. This chapter describes the protocols for in vitro and in vivo fertilization in the rat. Namely, sperm collection, sperm cryopreservation, pre-incubation of sperm, and insemination (co-culture with sperm and oocytes) for in vitro fertilization and intrauterine insemination for in vivo fertilization with fresh or frozen/thawed spermatozoa are provided.

  12. Effect of alpha-tocopherol on bovine in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Marques, A; Santos, P; Antunes, G; Chaveiro, A; Moreira da Silva, F

    2010-02-01

    The objectives of this work are to determine if exogenous supplementation with alpha-tocopherol increases the in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate of bovine oocytes and improves viability of selected spermatozoa after 'swim-up'. The percentage of fertilized oocytes was significantly but negatively correlated (r = -0.941, p < 0.01) with the concentration of alpha-tocopherol. The control resulted in 95% of fertilized oocytes, which decreased as follows: 25 microM alpha-tocopherol (alpha25) 86%, 50 microM alpha-tocopherol (alpha50) 74%, 100 microM alpha-tocopherol (alpha100) 66% and 200 microM alpha-tocopherol (alpha200) 56%. Relatively to sperm viability after 'swim-up' with alpha-tocopherol supplementation, this antioxidant proved to have a beneficial effect as its concentration increased up to alpha50, decreasing for the concentrations of alpha100 and alpha200. Control resulted in 83% of live cells and 16% of dead cells; alpha25 resulted in 88% of live cells and 12% of dead cells; alpha50 resulted in 91% of live cells and 9% of dead cells; alpha100 resulted in 67% of live cells and 33% of dead cells; and finally alpha200 resulted in 57% of live cells and 42% of dead cells. In summary, the present study allows to conclude that, in our conditions, supplementation with the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol in IVF of bovine oocytes has a detrimental effect on fertilization rates. Nevertheless, exogenous supplementation with alpha-tocopherol at a concentration of 50 mM in the sperm-TALP media during the 'swim-up' technique has a significant beneficial effect on the selected spermatozoa viability.

  13. Modeling the superovulation stage in in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Yenkie, Kirti M; Diwekar, Urmila M; Bhalerao, Vibha

    2013-11-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most common technique in assisted reproductive technology and in most cases the last resort for infertility treatment. It has four basic stages: superovulation, egg retrieval, insemination/fertilization, and embryo transfer. Superovulation is a drug-induced method to enable multiple ovulation per menstrual cycle. The success of IVF majorly depends upon successful superovulation, defined by the number and similar quality of eggs retrieved in a cycle. Modeling the superovulation stage can help in predicting the outcomes of IVF before the cycle is complete. In this paper, we developed a model for superovulation stage. The model is adapted from the theory of batch crystallization. The aim of crystallization is to get maximum crystals of similar size and purity, while superovulation aims at eggs of similar quality and size. The rate of crystallization and superovulation are both dependent on the process conditions and varies with time. The kinetics of follicle growth is modeled as a function of injected hormones and the follicle properties are represented in terms of the moments. The results from the model prediction were verified with the known data from Jijamata Hospital, Nanded, India. The predictions were found to be in agreement with the actual observations.

  14. Vocal symptoms in women undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Al Barazi, Randa; Kanaan, Alyssa; Sinno, Solara; Soubra, Anwar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in vocal symptoms in relation to estrogen level in women undergoing in vitro fertilization. A total of 31 women were enrolled in this study. The following vocal symptoms were investigated: vocal tiring or fatigue, vocal straining, throat clearing, lump sensation, hoarseness, and aphonia (or loss of voice). The severity of these symptoms was graded from 0 to 4, where 0 means absence of the symptom and 3 means severe symptom presence. The frequency of these symptoms was evaluated in the first visit at presentation; second visit, 4 to 5 days after ovarian stimulation; and third visit, 8 to 10 days after stimulation. In the second and third visits, the estradiol levels were measured. The mean age was 32.33 ± 4.80 years. Ten of the 31 patients had at least 1 vocal symptom. The most common vocal symptom in all 3 visits was throat clearing, with an incidence of 22.6% in the first and second visits and 19.4% in the third visit. This was followed by vocal fatigue or tiring and lump sensation, with an incidence of 9.68% for both. The incidence of all the vocal symptoms as well as their severity did not change throughout the visits, except for throat clearing, which has decreased in the third visit but not significantly (22.6% vs 19.4%, P = 1). Subjects with vocal symptoms had lower estradiol level compared with those with no vocal symptoms; however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = .108 and .267, respectively). Subjects undergoing in vitro fertilization do not experience changes in their vocal symptoms when present, except for throat clearing. However, those with vocal symptoms have lower levels of estradiol compared with those with no vocal symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Ovarian puncture in fertilization in vitro: what analgesia?].

    PubMed

    Zaccabri, A; Fresson, J; Denis, E; Guillet-May, F; Barbarino, P; Routiot, T

    2001-09-01

    We compared two techniques of local anesthesia used in transvaginal ultrasound guided oocyte recovery in in vitro fertilization: paracervical lidocaïne block versus vaginal application of Emla, a topical anesthesic cream. The study included 103 patients divided in two groups. Pain was evaluated by visual analog scale and questionnaire. Univariate analysis showed that the patients were satisfied with neither of the two protocols. Multivariate analysis revealed paracervical lidocaïne block to be superior. The premedication appeared inadequate. We decide to use paracervical lidocaïne block and to improve the premedication. Indications for general and locoregional anesthesia were also enlarged. A new study showed a significantly greater patient satisfaction. One variable analysis indicated that no one of these protocols satisfied our patients.

  16. Sperm midpiece apoptotic markers: impact on fertilizing potential in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Talarczyk-Desole, Joanna; Kotwicka, Małgorzata; Jendraszak, Magdalena; Pawelczyk, Leszek; Murawski, Marek; Jędrzejczak, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between apoptotic markers present in human spermatozoa, namely phosphatidylserine translocation (PST) from the inner to the outer layer of the cytomembrane and the active form of caspase-3 (c3) versus the fertilizing potential of male gametes in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) models. A total of 116 male patients treated with their partners for infertility underwent basic semen analysis and an assessment of the presence of PST and the active c3 in sperm using flow cytometry. Forty patients underwent IVF, group A, while 76 patients underwent ICSI, group B. The fertilizing potential of the gametes was measured as the percentage of oocytes with pronuclei present after either procedure. PST and active c3 were identified in vital gametes, mainly in the midpiece area. Concentration, motility, morphology, and viability of spermatozoa strongly negatively correlated with both markers. In group A, a negative correlation between both markers and the success rate of conventional IVF was observed (r = -0.4, p = 0.04 for PST; r = -0.4, p = 0.02 for active c3, respectively). In group B, the success rate of ICSI did not correlate with either marker (r = -0.2, p = 0.85 for PST and r = 0.1, p = 0.51 for active c3). The two apoptotic markers localized in the sperm midpiece area may affect their function not only by decreasing basic andrologic parameters but also by reducing the probability of conception. Therefore, analysis of PST and active c3 in the sperm of patients undergoing infertility treatment should be recommended.

  17. Inositol and In Vitro Fertilization with Embryo Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Simi, G.; Genazzani, A. R.; Obino, M. E. R.; Papini, F.; Pinelli, S.; Cela, V.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, studies on inositol supplementation during in vitro fertilization program (IVF) have gained particular importance due to the effect of this molecule on reducing insulin resistance improving ovarian function, oocyte quality, and embryo and pregnancy rates and reducing gonadotropin amount during stimulation. Inositol and its isoforms, especially myoinositol (MYO), are often used as prestimulation therapy in infertile patients undergoing IVF cycle. Inositol supplementation started three months before ovarian stimulation, resulting in significant improvements in hormonal responses, reducing the amount of FSH necessary for optimal follicle development and serum levels of 17beta-estradiol measured the day of hCG injection. As shown by growing number of trials, MYO supplementation improves oocyte quality by reducing the number of degenerated and immature oocytes, in this way increasing the quality of embryos produced. Inositol can also improve the quality of sperm parameters in those patients affected by oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. PMID:28348586

  18. In vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Rubina; Gandhi, Goral; Allahbadia, Gautam N.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in the field of assisted reproduction, and particularly micromanipulation, now heralds a new era in the management of severe male factor infertility, not amenable to medical or surgical correction. By overcoming natural barriers to conception, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), subzonal sperm insemination, partial zona dissection, and intracytoplasmatic injection of sperm (ICSI) now offer couples considered irreversibly infertile, the option of parenting a genetically related child. However, unlike IVF, which necessitates an optimal sperm number and function to successfully complete the sequence of events leading to fertilization, micromanipulation techniques, such as ICSI, involving the direct injection of a spermatozoon into the oocyte, obviate all these requirements and may be used to alleviate severe male factor infertility due to the lack of sperm in the ejaculate due to severely impaired spermatogenesis (non-obstructive azoospermia) or non-reconstructable reproductive tract obstruction (obstructive azoospermia). ICSI may be performed with fresh or cryopreserved ejaculate sperm where available, microsurgically extracted epididymal or testicular sperm with satisfactory fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates. However, despite a lack of consensus regarding the genetic implications of ICSI or the application and efficacy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART), the widespread use of ICSI, increasing evidence of the involvement of genetic factors in male infertility and the potential risk of transmission of genetic disorders to the offspring, generate major concerns with regard to the safety of the technique, necessitating a thorough genetic evaluation of the couple, classification of infertility and adequate counseling of the implications and associated risks prior to embarking on the procedure. The objective of this review is to highlight the indications, advantages

  19. In vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Rubina; Gandhi, Goral; Allahbadia, Gautam N

    2011-01-01

    Progress in the field of assisted reproduction, and particularly micromanipulation, now heralds a new era in the management of severe male factor infertility, not amenable to medical or surgical correction. By overcoming natural barriers to conception, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), subzonal sperm insemination, partial zona dissection, and intracytoplasmatic injection of sperm (ICSI) now offer couples considered irreversibly infertile, the option of parenting a genetically related child. However, unlike IVF, which necessitates an optimal sperm number and function to successfully complete the sequence of events leading to fertilization, micromanipulation techniques, such as ICSI, involving the direct injection of a spermatozoon into the oocyte, obviate all these requirements and may be used to alleviate severe male factor infertility due to the lack of sperm in the ejaculate due to severely impaired spermatogenesis (non-obstructive azoospermia) or non-reconstructable reproductive tract obstruction (obstructive azoospermia). ICSI may be performed with fresh or cryopreserved ejaculate sperm where available, microsurgically extracted epididymal or testicular sperm with satisfactory fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates. However, despite a lack of consensus regarding the genetic implications of ICSI or the application and efficacy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART), the widespread use of ICSI, increasing evidence of the involvement of genetic factors in male infertility and the potential risk of transmission of genetic disorders to the offspring, generate major concerns with regard to the safety of the technique, necessitating a thorough genetic evaluation of the couple, classification of infertility and adequate counseling of the implications and associated risks prior to embarking on the procedure. The objective of this review is to highlight the indications, advantages

  20. [Neonatal complications of children born after in vitro fertilization].

    PubMed

    Atanassova, V; Stevkova, N; Yonov, M; Valkova, A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare the neonatal indices and the frequency of neonatal pathology in children, born after in vitro fertilization with those after natural conception. The study, which is a retrospective one, comprises all newborns from the three maternity hospitals of Pleven (University hospital, Saint Marina Obstetrical clinic, Avis-Medica Hospital) for the last 2 years. The comparative indices of the babies in the two groups are: birth weight and gestation age at birth, morbidity by separate nosological units: asphyxia, intraamniotic infection, intrauterine growth retardation, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, congenital anomalies etc.), multiple births. The maternity age, delivery pattern, mean hospital stay and mortality are discussed too. The results are compared with other international data.

  1. In vitro fertilization outcome in women with diminished ovarian reserve

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Kim, Gieun; Park, Seon Hee; Noe, Eun Bee; Seo, Seok Kyo; Cho, SiHyun; Choi, Young Sik

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to identify factors that affect in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). Methods We reviewed 99 IVF cycles in 52 women with DOR between September 2010 and January 2015. DOR was defined as serum anti-Müllerian hormone level of <1.1 ng/dL or serum follicle-stimulating hormone level of ≥20 mIU/mL. Total 96 cycles in 50 patients were evaluated after excluding fertility preservation cases. Results The clinical pregnancy rate was 11.5% per cycle, and the total cancellation rate was 34.4%. Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly associated with the antral follicle count and the cause of the DOR. Age, serum anti-Müllerian hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, antral follicle count, peak estradiol level, and the cause of DOR were significantly associated with cycle cancellation. However, history of previous ovarian surgery remained as a significant factor of clinical pregnancy (model 1: odds ratio [OR] 10.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.46 to 70.84, P=0.019; model 2: OR 10.85, 95% CI 1.05 to 111.71, P=0.045). In cancellation models, idiopathic or previous chemotherapy group showed borderline significance (model 1: OR 3.76, 95% CI 0.83 to 17.04, P=0.086; model 2: OR 3.15, 95% CI 0.84 to 11.84, P=0.09). Conclusion DOR caused by previous ovarian surgery may show better pregnancy outcome, whereas that caused by chemotherapy could significantly increase the cycle cancellation rate. Furthermore, patients with DOR who previously received gonadotoxic agents may show reduced efficacy and increased risk of IVF cycle cancellation. PMID:28217671

  2. Maternal-fetal attachment during pregnancy following in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Stanton, F; Golombok, S

    1993-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the degree of anxiety experienced by pregnant women who had conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF), as well as their attitudes towards the pregnancy and the strength of their attachment to the fetus. Fifteen women who had conceived by IVF were compared with 20 women who had conceived without assistance. Each woman was administered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Childbearing Attitudes Questionnaire and the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale. While the two groups of expectant mothers did not differ on these measures, a clear relationship was found for all of the women combined between general attitudes towards childbearing and attachment to the fetus, showing that women who are less positive about pregnancy, childbirth and childcare show weaker attachment to their unborn child.

  3. Bovine in vitro fertilization: in vitro oocyte maturation and sperm capacitation with heparin.

    PubMed

    Parrish, John J

    2014-01-01

    As a result of research in the 1980s on in vitro maturation, sperm capacitation, and in vitro fertilization, the bovine is now one of the important models for development. Further, the current production of bovine embryos in vitro rivals that of in vivo embryo production for commercial applications. Researchers of today may be unaware of why decisions were made in the procedures. This review addresses the state of the art at the time of the work by Parrish et al. (Bovine in vitro fertilization with frozen thawed semen. Theriogenology 1986;25:591-600), and how later work would explain success or failure of competing procedures. Important was the use of frozen semen and heparin capacitation, because this allowed future researchers/practitioners to change sperm numbers and capacitation conditions to adjust for variations among bulls. The large numbers of citation of the original work stand the testament of time in the repeatability and success of the procedures. The work was done within the environment of the N.L. First laboratory and the unique interactions with a large number of talented graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and technicians.

  4. Simulated Microgravity Influences Bovine Oocyte In Vitro Fertilization and Preimplantation Embryo Development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether in vitro fertilization and preimplantation embryos exposed to a simulated microgravity environment in vitro would improve, or be deleterious to, their fertilization and embryonic development. A Rotating Cell Culture System™ (RCCS) bioreactor with a Hi...

  5. Back pain in in-vitro fertilized and spontaneous pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Kristiansson, P; Nilsson-Wikmar, L; von Schoultz, B; Svärdsudd, K; Wramsby, H

    1998-11-01

    The influence of ovarian stimulation in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) on the prevalence of back pain with onset during pregnancy was studied in 31 women who became pregnant after IVF treatment and compared with that of 200 spontaneously pregnant women. A two times higher prevalence rate of sacral pain in late pregnancy was reported among IVF pregnant women (P < 0.0001), as well as a significantly higher prevalence rate of positive results of pelvic pain provocation tests performed in late pregnancy (0.0001 < or = P < or = 0.015), as compared with that of the spontaneously pregnant women. Among the IVF pregnant women, there was a significant positive correlation between relaxin concentrations in early pregnancy and the outcome of pelvic pain provocation tests (0.44 < or = r < or = 0.51, P < 0.05). In addition, the serum relaxin concentration was the factor that best explained differences in sacral pain prevalence. When the influence of serum relaxin concentration on back pain prevalence was taken into account, women carrying multiple pregnancies had no more pain than women carrying singletons, and IVF pregnant women had no more pain than spontaneously pregnant women. These results support the hypothesis that relaxin is involved in the generation of pelvic pain in pregnant women.

  6. Methods for Improving In Vitro and In Vivo Boar Sperm Fertility.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, H

    2015-07-01

    Fertility of boar spermatozoa is changed after ejaculation in vivo and in vitro. During processing for in vitro fertilization (IVF), although spermatozoa are induced capacitation, resulting in a high penetration rate, persistent obstacle of polyspermic penetration is still observed with a high incidence. For artificial insemination (AI), we still need a large number of spermatozoa and lose a majority of those in the female reproductive tract. Fertility of cryopreserved boar spermatozoa is still injured through freezing and thawing process. In the present brief review, factors affecting fertility of boar sperm during IVF, AI and cryopreservation are discussed in the context of discovering methodologies to improve it.

  7. [Application of microfluidics in sperm isolation and in vitro fertilization].

    PubMed

    Li, Fang-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Zhou, Shu-Min; You, Fan

    2014-05-01

    Due to the low effectiveness of traditional assisted reproductive technology (ART), new technological possibilities are constantly explored. Lots of studies have demonstrated the potential of microfluidics to revolutionize the fundamental processes of in vitro fertilization (IVF). With the advantages of high efficiency, short time, harmless collection, real-time observation of separation, similar microenvironment, and automation, the application of microfluidics in sperm isolation and IVF has shown an evident superiority over the conventional approaches and provided a new platform for ART. This review highlights the application of various microfluidic techniques in sperm motility assessment and isolation, sperm chemotaxis assay, IVF, sperm concentration, and sperm separation and enrichment in recent years. It also briefly introduces the basic principles, structural design, and operation processes of the microfluidic platform, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of each method and the potential of their clinical application. Obviously, there are still some challenges to the application of microfluidics in ART. However, it is believed that the development of this new technology would be toward a highly integrated application of several steps in one single device, known as IVF-lab-on-a-chip.

  8. Optimum gas atmosphere for in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization of bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Pinyopummintr, T; Bavister, B D

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine optimal gas atmosphere conditions for in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of bovine oocytes. In Experiment 1, groups of 10 to 12 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured (24 h) and fertilized (18 h) under 1) 5% CO(2), 5% O(2;) 2) 5% CO(2), 10% O(2) or 3) 5% CO(2), 20% 0(2.) The COCs were cultured in 50 microl drops of maturation medium (TCM-199 + 10% bovine calf serum + oLH, oFSH and estrogen) or fertilization medium (TALP + swim-up separated spermatozoa +1 microg/ml heparin sulfate) under a layer of 10 ml paraffin oil at 39 degrees C with saturated humidity. Half of the oocytes in each drop were assigned randomly for maturation scoring and the remainder were inseminated. Reduced atmospheric O(2) drastically decreased proportions of oocytes reaching MII (71.4, 26.9 and 9.3% with 20, 10 and 5% O(2), respectively; P < 0.05). The percentages of total fertilization in 10 and 20% O(2) were similar and considerably higher than in 5% O(2) (80.3, 87.0 and 53.1%, respectively; P < 0.05). In addition, the percentage of polyspermy markedly increased when IVF was conducted in reduced O(2) (26.6 and 28.8% in 5 and 10% O(2) vs 15.4% in 20% O(2;) P < 0.05). Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1 except that CO(2) was the variable: 1) 2.5% CO(2) in air, 2) 5% CO(2) in air and 3) 10% CO(2) in air. The proportion of MII oocytes did not differ across treatments (64.9, 68.9 and 61.9%, respectively; P > 0.05). Although the percentages of total fertilization among treatments were not different (75.4, 80.9 and 76.1%, respectively), the proportion of normal fertilization was significantly reduced in 10% C0(2) (55.1%) when compared with that of either 2.5% CO(2) (62.7%) or 5% CO(2) (68.7%; P < .05). This study indicates that low O(2) is detrimental for IVM/IVF of bovine oocytes and that optimal atmospheric conditions are either 2.5 or 5% CO(2) and 20% O(2).

  9. Influence of cysteamine on in vitro maturation, in vitro and in vivo fertilization of equine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Deleuze, S; Dubois, C S; Caillaud, M; Bruneau, B; Goudet, G; Duchamp, G

    2010-02-01

    Contents The effect of cysteamine on in vitro nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of equine oocytes collected by transvaginal ultrasound guided follicular aspiration was assessed. Oocytes were matured in vitro with (cysteamine group) or without (control group) cysteamine. The nuclear stage after DNA Hoechst staining, penetration rates after two different in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques (IVF media with ionophore and Hepes buffer with heparin) and the embryo yield following oocyte intra-oviductal transfer were used as a criterion for assessing nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, respectively. Contrary to the data described in other domestic species, there was no effect of cysteamine on in vitro nuclear maturation, IVF or in vivo embryonic development under our conditions. Ovum pick up yields (52%) and maturation rates (control group: 47% and cysteamine group: 55%) were similar to those previously reported. From 57 oocytes transferred to the oviduct in each group, the number of embryos collected was 10 (17%) in the control group and five in the cysteamine group (9%). Those two percentages were not statistically different (p > 0.05). No effect of IVF technique was seen on the success rate (6%) in each group.

  10. Keratoconus Progression Induced by In Vitro Fertilization Treatment.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Erdem; Yalinbas, Duygu; Aydin, Bahri; Bilgihan, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate patients with keratoconus who manifested progression after in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Patients with keratoconus who received IVF treatment were included in this study. None of the patients became pregnant as a result of the IVF treatment. Progression of keratoconus was determined by changes in corrected distance visual acuity and/or topographic changes and subjective assessments. Three patients with keratoconus received IVF treatment and keratoconus progression was detected in all 6 eyes of the patients. The mean age of the patients was 32.3 ± 3.6 years (range: 28 to 36 years) and the mean follow-up duration was 15.6 ± 3.2 months (range: 12 to 18 months). The mean and the maximum keratometry values increased and corrected distance visual acuity decreased after 2.3 IVF treatments. Drugs used in IVF treatment increase estrogen levels, which may affect corneal biomechanics and induce progression of keratoconus. Corneal cross-linking treatment could be offered to minimize the risk of keratoconus progression before IVF treatment. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. [Comparison of ovulation induction protocols for in vitro fertilization].

    PubMed

    Geva, E; Yovel, I; Lessing, J B; Yaron, Y; Botchan, A; David, M P; Peyser, M R; Amit, A

    1993-09-01

    In a retrospective study we evaluated 4 controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) protocols for in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Treatment cycles 4 through 8 were analyzed in patients, who in 3 previous attempts reached the stage of embryo transfer (ET) but did not conceive. The 426 recorded cycles included all indications for IVF, but not the male factor. The age range was 25-46 years. Patients underwent from 4 cycles (169 women) to 8 cycles (27 women). The COH protocols used included established combinations of menotropins, clomiphene citrate/hMG, and short and long protocols of GnRH analogs followed by hMG. There were no statistically significant differences in patient age, etiology and duration of infertility, or distribution of the various COH protocols among the groups of patients. No single protocol was significantly superior to any other when the pregnancy rate per cycle was assessed. The results did not justify changing a COH protocol which had lead to ET but not to pregnancy, for another protocol.

  12. Miliary tuberculosis after in vitro fertilization and embryo transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hongbo, Liu; Li, Zhao

    2015-06-01

    With the development of assisted reproductive technology, more patients with infertility prefer to get pregnant by in vitro fertilization and embryo transplantation (IVF-ET). But the indications of IVF-ET must be strictly controlled by the clinicians. We described a case of a 29-year-old pregnant Chinese woman with military tuberculosis. She was admitted to the hospital with complaints of fever and shortness of breath. She received IVF-ET 83 days ago, because of infertility with bilateraltubal occlusion, and was in pregnancy status. We presented the clinical, laboratory and two chest CT scan features of the patient. The second chest CT scan showed randomly distributed, innumerable tiny, military nodules throughout the lungs. The fluorescence quantitative PCR of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The M. tuberculosis was cultured from BALF on Day 29. So we made the diagnosis of military tuberculosis. It is important to rule out tuberculosis for the infertility patients especially with bilateraltubal occlusion before IVF-ET in order to avoid tuberculosis disseminate during pregnancy.

  13. Hepatitis B virus infection reduces fertilization ability during in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lin; Liu, Shan; Zhao, Wanqiu; Zhou, Hanying; Ren, Wenjuan; Shi, Juanzi

    2014-07-01

    Whether hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection impairs human infertility is unclear. The present retrospective case-controlled study investigated the impact of HBV on sperm parameters, ovarian stimulation, and outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer. A total of 224 couples with at least one partner being HBsAg-seropositive undergoing their first IVF and embryo transfer cycle were identified, which included 77 couples with female partners being HBsAg-seropositive, 136 couples with male partners being HBsAg-seropositive, and 11 couples with both partners being HBsAg-seropositive. A total of 448 both HBsAg-seronegative couples served as controls. The percentage of normal sperm morphology was significantly lower in HBsAg-seropositive male partners than that in HBsAg-seronegative male partners (11.9 ± 9.4% vs. 19.0 ± 11.9%, P < 0.01). The duration of infertility was significantly prolonged in HBV-seropositive patients compared with HBV-seronegative patients (4.9 vs. 4.1 years, P < 0.01). Couples with female partners being HBsAg-seropositive had significantly lower top-quality embryo rate than control group (22.4% vs. 31.6%, P < 0.01). In addition, the fertilization rates in groups with male or female partners being HBsAg-seropositive were both significantly lower than the matched controls (80.2% vs. 82.8%, P < 0.05; 76.6% vs. 84.3%, P < 0.01, respectively). HBV infection was also found to be associated negatively with fertilization rate by logistic regression analysis (odds ratios: 0.410, 95% confidence interval: 0.186-0.906, P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in clinical pregnancy rates between HBsAg-seropositive and HBsAg-seronegative group. These results suggest that chronic HBV infection is likely to represent a significant cause of infertility.

  14. [In vitro fertilization and systemic lupus erythematosus or antiphospholipid syndrome: An update].

    PubMed

    Orquevaux, P; Masseau, A; Le Guern, V; Gayet, V; Vauthier, D; Boutin, D; Wechsler, B; Morel, N; Guettrot-Imbert, G; Pennaforte, J-L; Piette, J-C; Costedoat-Chalumeau, N

    2015-03-01

    Fertility is not impaired in systemic lupus erythematosus or antiphospholipid syndrome, but, similarly to the general population, these patients may undergo in vitro fertilization. This type of treatment increases the risk of lupus flare, thrombosis, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. This review will focus on in vitro fertilization in systemic lupus erythematosus or antiphospholipid syndrome. Literature data are relatively scant with only 3 reported studies. The first one included 17 patients and 63 cycles of induction ovulation/in vitro fertilization leading to 25 % of lupus flare, no thrombosis, and 3 % of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The second study included 10 patients and 40 cycles of in vitro fertilization showing 31 % of lupus flare, no thrombosis and no ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The last one included 34 patients and 83 procedures of in vitro fertilization leading to 8 % of flares, 5 % of thrombosis and no ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Interestingly, in this last study, half of the complications were explained by poor adherence to treatment. These data are reassuring but it is important to remember that in vitro fertilization should be scheduled and carefully supervised in the same way as the high-risk pregnancies occurring in these patients.

  15. The fertilization ability and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro.

    PubMed

    Makita, Miho; Ueda, Mayuko; Miyano, Takashi

    2016-08-25

    In vitro growth culture systems for oocytes are being developed in several mammalian species. In these growth culture systems, in vitro grown oocytes usually have lower blastocyst formation than in vivo grown oocytes after in vitro fertilization. Furthermore, there have been a few reports that investigated the fertilization ability of in vitro grown oocytes in large animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fertilization process and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes collected from bovine early antral follicles (0.4-0.7 mm in diameter) were cultured for growth with 17β-estradiol and androstenedione for 14 days and matured in vitro. These oocytes were then inseminated for 6 or 12 h, and further cultured for development up to 8 days in vitro. After growth culture, oocytes grew from 95 µm to around 120 µm and acquired maturation competence (79%). Although fertilization rates of in vitro grown oocytes were low after 6 h of insemination, 34% of in vitro grown oocytes fertilized normally after 12 h of insemination, having two polar bodies and two pronuclei with a sperm tail, and 22% of these oocytes developed into blastocysts after 8 days of culture. The fertilization and blastocyst formation rates were similar to those of in vivo grown oocytes. In addition, blastocyst cell numbers were also similar between in vitro and in vivo grown oocytes. In conclusion, in vitro grown bovine oocytes are similar to in vivo grown oocytes in fertilization ability and can develop into blastocysts.

  16. The fertilization ability and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro

    PubMed Central

    MAKITA, Miho; UEDA, Mayuko; MIYANO, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In vitro growth culture systems for oocytes are being developed in several mammalian species. In these growth culture systems, in vitro grown oocytes usually have lower blastocyst formation than in vivo grown oocytes after in vitro fertilization. Furthermore, there have been a few reports that investigated the fertilization ability of in vitro grown oocytes in large animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fertilization process and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes collected from bovine early antral follicles (0.4−0.7 mm in diameter) were cultured for growth with 17β-estradiol and androstenedione for 14 days and matured in vitro. These oocytes were then inseminated for 6 or 12 h, and further cultured for development up to 8 days in vitro. After growth culture, oocytes grew from 95 µm to around 120 µm and acquired maturation competence (79%). Although fertilization rates of in vitro grown oocytes were low after 6 h of insemination, 34% of in vitro grown oocytes fertilized normally after 12 h of insemination, having two polar bodies and two pronuclei with a sperm tail, and 22% of these oocytes developed into blastocysts after 8 days of culture. The fertilization and blastocyst formation rates were similar to those of in vivo grown oocytes. In addition, blastocyst cell numbers were also similar between in vitro and in vivo grown oocytes. In conclusion, in vitro grown bovine oocytes are similar to in vivo grown oocytes in fertilization ability and can develop into blastocysts. PMID:27151093

  17. Heat stress during in vitro fertilization decreases fertilization success by disrupting anti-polyspermy systems of the oocytes.

    PubMed

    Sakatani, Miki; Yamanaka, Kenichi; Balboula, Ahmed Z; Takenouchi, Naoki; Takahashi, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Low pregnancy rates during the summer are due, in part, to reduced fertilization. Given that elevated temperature is associated with this season, we investigated the effect of heat stress during fertilization using an in vitro model. Three experiments were performed to determine the mechanism by which exposure to elevated temperature disrupts fertilization. Oocytes were fertilized for 6 hr at 38.5°C or 41.0°C or 40.0°C with non-pre-incubated sperm, or for 6 hr at 38.5°C with sperm that had been pre-incubated at 38.5°C or 41.0°C for 4 hr. In each experiment, zygotes were cultured at 38.5°C in 5% CO(2) and 5% O(2). Rates of cleavage and blasocyst formation were reduced when fertilization occurs at elevated temperatures. The percent of sperm classified as alive, using fluorescein diacetate labeling, was decreased by pre-incubation and fertilization at 40.0°C. Although no difference was observed in sperm penetration rate, polyspermy tended to be increased by heat stress during fertilization. The zona pellucidae of zygotes formed following fertilization at 40.0°C for 6 hr were more sensitive to digestion with pronase. Furthermore, these zygotes exhibited higher hydrogen peroxide levels, measured by 2,7-dihydrodichlorofluorescein diacetate staining, and showed increased transcript abundance for HSPA1A, a gene involved in the heat-shock response, but decreased transcript abundance for UCHL1, a gene involved in preventing polyspermy. Results indicate that heat stress during fertilization is lethal to sperm, and causes oxidative stress, altered transcript abundance, and a defective block to polyspermy in the zygote. Thus, an increase in polyspermy is likely one cause of the reduced competency of zygotes fertilized under elevated temperatures to develop to the blastocyst stage.

  18. Dairy intake in relation to in vitro fertilization outcomes among women from a fertility clinic

    PubMed Central

    Afeiche, M.C.; Chiu, Y.-H.; Gaskins, A.J.; Williams, P.L.; Souter, I.; Wright, D.L.; Hauser, R.; Chavarro, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is dairy food consumption associated with live birth among women undergoing infertility treatment? SUMMARY ANSWER There was a positive association between total dairy food consumption and live birth among women ≥35 years of age. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Dairy food intake has been previously related to infertility risk and measures of fertility potential but its relation to infertility treatment outcomes are unknown. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Our study population comprised a total of 232 women undergoing 353 in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment cycles between February 2007 and May 2013, from the Environment and Reproductive Health study, an ongoing prospective cohort. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Diet was assessed before assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Study outcomes included ovarian stimulation outcomes (endometrial thickness, estradiol levels and oocyte yield), fertilization rates, embryo quality measures and clinical outcomes (implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates). We used generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts to account for multiple ART cycles per woman while simultaneously adjusting for age, caloric intake, BMI, race, smoking status, infertility diagnosis, protocol type, alcohol intake and dietary patterns. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The age- and calorie-adjusted difference in live birth between women in the highest (>3.0 servings/day) and lowest (<1.34 servings/day) quartile of dairy intake was 21% (P = 0.02). However, after adjusting for additional covariates, this association was observed only among women ≥35 years (P, interaction = 0.04). The multivariable-adjusted live birth (95% CI) in increasing quartiles of total dairy intake was 23% (11, 42%), 39% (24, 56%), 29% (17, 47%) and 55% (39, 69%) (P, trend = 0.02) among women ≥35 years old, and ranged from 46 to 54% among women <35 years old (P, trend = 0.69). There

  19. Post-thaw motility of frozen boar sperm does not predict success with in vitro fertilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using cryopreserved boar sperm rather than liquid semen for in vitro fertilization (IVF) allows improved IVF consistency. However, cryopreservation of boar sperm results in reduced post-thaw motility, fertilization and embryo development. Boars are often screened on an individual basis prior to use ...

  20. Sperm DNA damage or progressive motility: which one is the better predictor of fertilization in vitro?

    PubMed

    Simon, Luke; Lewis, Sheena E M

    2011-06-01

    Sperm progressive motility has been reported to be one of the key factors influencing in vitro fertilization rates. However, recent studies have shown that sperm DNA fragmentation is a more robust predictor of assisted reproductive outcomes including reduced fertilization rates, embryo quality, and pregnancy rates. This study aimed to compare the usefulness of sperm progressive motility and DNA damage as predictive tools of in vitro fertilization rates. Here, 136 couples provided 1,767 eggs with an overall fertilization rate of 64.2%. The fertilization rate in vitro correlated with both sperm progressive motility (r² = 0.236; P = 0.002) and DNA fragmentation (r² = -0.318; P < 0.001). The relative risk of a poor fertilization rate was 9.5 times higher in sperm of men with high DNA fragmentation (>40%) compared with 2.6 times in sperm with poor motility (<40%). Further, sperm DNA fragmentation gave a higher specificity (93.3%) in predicting the fertilization rate than progressive motility (77.8%). Finally, the odds ratio to determine fertilization rate (>70%) was 4.81 (1.89-12.65) using progressive motility compared with 24.18 (5.21-154.51) using DNA fragmentation. This study shows that fertilization rates are directly dependent upon both sperm progressive motility and DNA fragmentation, but sperm DNA fragmentation is a much stronger test.

  1. Elective single embryo transfer following in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Min, Jason K; Hughes, Ed; Young, David

    2010-04-01

    To review the effect of elective single embryo transfer (eSET) compared with double embryo transfer (DET) following in vitro fertilization (IVF), and to provide guidelines on the use of eSET in order to optimize live birth rates and minimize twin pregnancies. Rates of live birth, clinical pregnancy, and multiple pregnancy following eSET and DET are compared. Live birth, clinical pregnancy, and multiple pregnancy rates, and cost-effectiveness. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, Medline, and The Cochrane Library in 2009, using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., elective single embryo transfer) and key words (e.g., embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, assisted reproductive technologies, blastocyst, and multiple pregnancy). Results were restricted to English language systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to November 2009. Additional references were identified through searches of bibliographies of identified articles and international medical specialty societies. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. Available evidence was reviewed by the Joint Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologist of Canada-Canadian Fertility and Andrology Society Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee and the Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, and was qualified using the evaluation of evidence criteria outlined in the report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. This guideline is intended to minimize the occurrence

  2. Urinary paraben concentrations and in vitro fertilization outcomes among women from a fertility clinic

    PubMed Central

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chiu, Yu-Han; Messerlian, Carmen; Williams, Paige L.; Sabatini, Mary E.; Toth, Thomas L.; Ford, Jennifer B.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between urinary paraben concentrations and IVF outcomes among women attending an academic fertility center. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Fertility clinic in a hospital setting. Patient(s) A total of 245 women contributing 356 IVF cycles. Intervention(s) None. Quantification of urinary concentrations of parabens by isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry, and assessment of clinical endpoints of IVF treatments abstracted from electronic medical records at the academic fertility center. Main Outcome Measure(s) Total and mature oocyte counts, proportion of high quality embryos, fertilization rates, and rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy and live births. Results The geometric mean of the urinary concentrations of methyl (MP), propyl (PP) and butyl paraben (BP) in our study population were 133, 24 and 1.5 µg/L, respectively. In models adjusted for age, body mass index, race/ethnicity, smoking status and primary infertility diagnosis, urinary MP, PP and BP concentrations were not associated with IVF outcomes, specifically total and mature oocyte counts, proportion of high embryo quality and fertilization rates. Moreover, no significant associations were found between urinary paraben concentrations and rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy and live births. Conclusion(s) Urinary paraben concentrations were not associated with IVF outcomes among women undergoing infertility treatments. PMID:26654974

  3. Perinatal outcome after in-vitro fertilization-surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, J; Tran, C; Tan, T; Nelson, J; Batzofin, J; Serafini, P

    1999-03-01

    The perinatal outcome of pregnancies (both single and multiple) established after in-vitro fertilization (IVF)-surrogacy was evaluated and compared to the outcome of pregnancies that resulted from standard IVF. Analysis of medical records and a telephone interview with physicians, IVF-surrogates, and commissioning mothers were conducted to assess prenatal follow up and delivery care in several hospitals. 95 IVF-surrogates delivered 128 liveborn (65 singletons, 27 sets of twins and two sets of triplets). The commissioning mothers and the IVF-surrogates average ages were 37.7 +/- 5.0 and 30.4 +/- 4.7 years old respectively. IVF-surrogates carrying twin and triplet gestations delivered substantially earlier than those who gestated singleton pregnancies (36.2 +/- 0.4 versus 35.5 versus 38.7 +/- 0.3 weeks gestation respectively; P < 0.001). Twin newborns were significantly lighter than singleton infants born through IVF-surrogacy (2.7 +/- 0.06 versus 3.5 +/- 0.07 kg; P < 0.001). The incidence of low birth weight infants rose from 3.3% in the single births to 29.6% (P < 0.01) in the twins and to 33.3% in the triplets born through IVF-surrogacy. The incidence of prematurity was significantly greater in both twins delivered by IVF-surrogates (20.4%) and infertile IVF patients (58%). The occurrence of pregnancy-induced hypertension and bleeding in the third trimester was four to five times lower in the IVF-surrogates, independently of whether they were carrying multiples. The incidence of Caesarean section was 21.3% for singleton gestations, while two times higher in the IVF-surrogates carrying multiples (56.3%). Postpartum complications occurred in 6.3% of patients and the incidence of malformation was similar to those reported for the general population. The results provide general reassurance regarding perinatal outcome to couples who wish to pursue IVF-surrogacy.

  4. Oocyte recovery, maturation and fertilization in vitro in the puma (Felis concolor).

    PubMed

    Miller, A M; Roelke, M E; Goodrowe, K L; Howard, J G; Wildt, D E

    1990-01-01

    Eight female pumas were treated i.m. with 1000 (N = 5) or 2000 (N = 3) i.u. PMSG followed 84 h later by 800 i.u. hCG. Eggs were recovered 24-26 h after hCG from ovarian follicles by using laparoscopy and transabdominal aspiration. Mature eggs were inseminated in vitro 4-6 h later whereas immature eggs were cultured for 24 h and then inseminated. Electroejaculates from 3 pumas were diluted with mKRB before insemination to evaluate the influence of sperm concentration on fertilization. Seven of 8 pumas responded with follicle development, and 140 eggs were recovered from 145 follicles (96.6%; 77 mature, 43 immature, 20 degenerate eggs; mean +/- s.e.m., 20.0 +/- 5.9 eggs/female). Overall fertilization rate was 43.5% (total eggs fertilized = 40) despite using inseminates containing 82-99% pleiomorphic spermatozoa. Of the 36 immature oocytes matured in vitro and inseminated, 12 were fertilized even though 50% of the inseminating spermatozoa contained an acrosomal defect. Fertilization rate of mature oocytes collected from follicles appeared unrelated (P greater than 0.05) to PMSG dose or number of spermatozoa/inseminate. This study demonstrates that a high proportion of follicular eggs can be recovered laparoscopically from adult pumas treated with PMSG and hCG. These gametes are capable of being fertilized in vitro (immediately or after maturation in vitro) even with low quality semen with a high incidence of sperm pleiomorphisms.

  5. In vitro fertilizing potential of urethral and epididymal spermatozoa collected from domestic cats (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Prochowska, S; Niżański, W

    2017-03-28

    The aim of this study was to provide a comparative analysis of in vitro fertilizing potential of frozen-thawed urethral and epididymal feline spermatozoa. Both types of semen were collected from 7 cats and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. To perform in vitro fertilization, both urethral and epididymal samples from the same individual were thawed and spermatozoa were co-incubated with in vitro matured cat oocytes. Obtained embryos were cultured in vitro for 7 days in a commercial medium. Cleavage rate, morula rate and blastocyst rate were calculated. Experiment was run in 10 replicates. The examined parameters showed no significant differences between urethral and epididymal spermatozoa (p>0.05). Cleavage rate and embryo's development were highly variable between replicates, even for the different sperm samples collected from one individual. There was no significant correlation between fertilizing capacity of two types of spermatozoa collected from the same male. In this study we confirmed that cryopreserved urethral spermatozoa have equally good fertilizing potential as epididymal ones, and both can be successfully used for in vitro fertilization in cats with the use of commercial medium.

  6. The secretory products of Trichomonas vaginalis decrease fertilizing capacity of mice sperm in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Jaesook; Lim, Young-Su; Seo, Min-Young; Choi, Yuri; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in humans and is now recognized as an important cause of infertility in men. There is little information about the effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from T. vaginalis on sperm, but previous reports do not provide a conclusive description of the functional integrity of the sperm. To investigate the impact of EPS on the fertilizing capacity of sperm, we assessed sperm motility, acrosomal status, hypo-osmotic swelling, and in vitro fertilization rate after incubating the sperm with EPS in vitro using mice. The incubation of sperm with EPS significantly decreased sperm motility, viability, and functional integrity in a concentration and time-dependent manner. These effects on sperm quality also resulted in a decreased fertilization rate in vitro. This is the first report that demonstrates the direct negative impact of the EPS of T. vaginalis on the fertilization rate of sperm in vitro. However, further study should be performed using human sperm to determine if EPS has similar negative impact on human sperm fertilizing capacity in vitro. PMID:25578937

  7. Ejaculate and type of freezing extender affect rates of fertilization of horse oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Roasa, L M; Choi, Y H; Love, C C; Romo, S; Varner, D D; Hinrichs, K

    2007-09-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) was performed on in vitro-matured equine oocytes in three experiments. Frozen-thawed sperm were prepared using swim-up separation and heparin treatment. In Experiment 1, fertilization was achieved with sperm from only one frozen ejaculate of four obtained from the same stallion. Within this ejaculate, fertilization rates were higher with fresh media, as compared to media held for 6-8 days before use (39.6% versus 7.3%, respectively; P<0.001). The type of bovine serum albumin used affected fertilization rates (4% versus 39.6%; P<0.001). To determine if IVF rates were influenced by factors associated with the freezing process (Experiment 2), a single ejaculate from a second stallion was frozen using eight variations in timing of steps in the freezing protocol. There were no differences among treatments in fertilization rates (range, 0-3%). In Experiment 3, fertilization rates of semen frozen in an extender containing 21.5% egg yolk were lower than fertilization rates of semen from the same ejaculate but frozen with a 3% egg-yolk extender (0% versus 15%, respectively; P<0.01). We inferred that rates of equine IVF with frozen-thawed sperm were influenced by ejaculate, the composition and age of the media used, and freezing extender. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ejaculate or extender differences affecting in vitro fertilization in this species. These factors may help to explain the great variability in fertilization rates reported with equine IVF, both among and within laboratories.

  8. Transient exposure to calcium ionophore enables in vitro fertilization in sterile mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete, Felipe A.; Alvau, Antonio; Lee, Hoi Chang; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen; Leon, Patricia Martin-De; Santi, Celia M.; Krapf, Dario; Mager, Jesse; Fissore, Rafael A.; Salicioni, Ana M.; Darszon, Alberto; Visconti, Pablo E.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian sperm acquire fertilizing capacity in the female tract in a process called capacitation. At the molecular level, capacitation requires protein kinase A activation, changes in membrane potential and an increase in intracellular calcium. Inhibition of these pathways results in loss of fertilizing ability in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrated that transient incubation of mouse sperm with Ca2+ ionophore accelerated capacitation and rescued fertilizing capacity in sperm with inactivated PKA function. We now show that a pulse of Ca2+ ionophore induces fertilizing capacity in sperm from infertile CatSper1 (Ca2+ channel), Adcy10 (soluble adenylyl cyclase) and Slo3 (K+ channel) KO mice. In contrast, sperm from infertile mice lacking the Ca2+ efflux pump PMACA4 were not rescued. These results indicate that a transient increase in intracellular Ca2+ can overcome genetic infertility in mice and suggest this approach may prove adaptable to rescue sperm function in certain cases of human male infertility. PMID:27627854

  9. Asymmetric cell division of rice zygotes located in embryo sac and produced by in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akiko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Okamoto, Takashi

    2010-09-01

    In angiosperms, a zygote generally divides into an asymmetric two-celled embryo consisting of an apical and a basal cell. This unequal division of the zygote is a putative first step for formation of the apical-basal axis of plants and is a fundamental feature of early embryogenesis and morphogenesis in angiosperms. Because fertilization and subsequent embryogenesis occur in embryo sacs, which are deeply embedded in ovular tissue, in vitro fertilization of isolated gametes is a powerful system to dissect mechanisms of fertilization and post-fertilization events. Rice is an emerging molecular and experimental model plant, however, profile of the first zygotic division within embryo sac and thus origin of apical-basal embryo polarity has not been closely investigated. Therefore, in the present study, the division pattern of rice zygote in planta was first determined accurately by observations employing serial sections of the egg apparatus, zygotes and two-celled embryos in the embryo sac. The rice zygote divides asymmetrically into a two-celled embryo consisting of a statistically significantly smaller apical cell with dense cytoplasm and a larger vacuolated basal cell. Moreover, detailed observations of division profiles of zygotes prepared by in vitro fertilization indicate that the zygote also divides into an asymmetric two-celled embryo as in planta. Such observations suggest that in vitro-produced rice zygotes and two-celled embryos may be useful as experimental models for further investigations into the mechanism and control of asymmetric division of plant zygotes.

  10. The effect of pentoxifylline on mouse in-vitro fertilization and early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Tournaye, H; Van der Linden, M; Van den Abbeel, E; Devroey, P; Van Steirteghem, A

    1994-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on fertilization and early embryonic development in the mouse. Oocytes from superovulated B6CBA female mice were inseminated in vitro with spermatozoa from B6CBA males incubated with PTX according to different protocols, i.e. (i) 3.6 and 7.2 mM PTX washed out prior to insemination, (ii) 3.6 and 7.2 mM PTX diluted six times in the insemination medium and (iii) PTX present at 3.6 and 7.2 mM in the insemination medium. After insemination and washing, fertilization was assessed by the presence of 2-cell stage embryos. These were further cultured up to the blastocyst or egg-cylinder stage to assess embryonic development. Parthenogenetic activation was evaluated by exposing post-ovulatory oocytes to 3.6 and 7.2 mM PTX. If spermatozoa were washed free from PTX before insemination, no effect on either fertilization or subsequent development was found. If PTX was not washed out, fertilization was reduced significantly, yet development of fertilized oocytes was unaffected. If insemination was performed in the presence of PTX both fertilization and development were impaired. Parthenogenetic activation was not increased by PTX exposure. We conclude that if used in in-vitro fertilization, exposure of oocytes and/or zygotes to PTX has to be avoided by washing out the compound thoroughly to prevent adverse effects on early embryonic development.

  11. Vitamin D status and fertility outcomes during winter among couples undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Neville, Grace; Martyn, Fiona; Kilbane, Mark; O'Riordan, Mairead; Wingfield, Mary; McKenna, Malachi; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-11-01

    To assess the vitamin D status of men and women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and to investigate associations between vitamin D status and fertility variables. A cross-sectional prospective study was undertaken of men and women attending a fertility clinic in Ireland for IVF/ICSI between January and March 2014. Vitamin D status was determined by measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Questionnaires examined knowledge and practices concerning vitamin D. Fertility variables and pregnancy outcomes were assessed in relation to vitamin D status. Overall, 73 men and 64 women provided blood samples. Among men, no correlation was found between 25(OH)D and total motility (ρ=0.069, P=0.562), progressive motility (ρ=0.066, P=0.576), count (ρ=0.001, P=0.996), or morphology (ρ=-0.034, P=0.774) of sperm. Additionally, there was no association between 25(OH)D and ongoing pregnancy rates (P=0.158). There was no difference in 25(OH)D between men with and without male factor subfertility issues (P=0.856). Among women, there was no significant correlation between 25(OH)D and anti-Müllerian hormone (P=0.629) or number of collected (P=0.198) and fertilized oocytes (P=0.136). There was no difference in 25(OH)D between women with and without ongoing pregnancy (P=0.222). No correlation was found between fertility variables or pregnancy outcomes and male or female vitamin D status. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of simulated microgravity on mammalian fertilization and preimplantation embryonic development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Y; Sasaki, S; Kubota, Y; Ikeuchi, T; Hayashi, Y; Kohri, K

    2000-12-01

    To study the effects of simulated microgravity on mammalian fertilization and preimplantation embryonic development in vitro with the use of a horizontal clinostat device. Controlled animal study. Research laboratory at a university medical school. B6D2F1 (C57BL/6 x DBA/2) and ICR mice between 8 and 10 weeks old. The first experiment was performed to investigate whether gravity is required for fertilization in vitro under three conditions: clinostat rotation, rotational control, and stationary control. In the second experiment, one-cell embryos were cultured under each condition and their morphology and viability were assessed at 96 hours. The fertilized numbers and embryonic numbers at the morula and blastocyst stages were recorded in each condition. In the first experiment, there were no statistically significant differences in the efficiency of achieving normal fertilization in vitro among the conditions. In the second experiment, there was a statistically significant decrease in the number of embryos reaching the morula and blastocyst stages after 96 hours in culture under clinostat rotation. These results suggest that the process of fertilization in vitro is not sensitive to the gravitational vector. However, the possibility exists that the frequency of early embryonic lethality is increased by microgravity.

  13. Human sperm devoid of germinal angiotensin-converting enzyme is responsible for total fertilization failure and lower fertilization rates by conventional in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Li, Le-Jun; Zhang, Feng-Bin; Liu, Shu-Yuan; Tian, Yong-Hong; Le, Fang; Wang, Li-Ya; Lou, Hang-Ying; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Huang, He-Feng; Jin, Fan

    2014-06-01

    In conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF), complete failure of fertilization occurs in 5% to 15% of treatments. Although the causes may be unclear, sperm defects appear to be the major contributor. However, a convincing test is not yet available that can predict the risk of fertilization failure. In this study, we found that germinal angiotensin-converting enzyme (gACE) (also called testicular ACE) was undetectable in sperm from patients who had total fertilization failure (TFF) and lower fertilization rates (LFRs) by IVF based on Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence analyses. Additionally, almost all of the patients without gACE on sperm (23 of 25) manifested a TT genotype of the rs4316 single-nucleotide polymorphism of ACE. Overall, our results indicate that the absence of gACE expression is responsible for TFF and LFRs by IVF. The rs4316 polymorphism of ACE might be associated with infertility in those patients. We conclude that sperm lacking gACE may be recognized before commencing IVF and that the patients may be directed instead to consider intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  14. Effects of Unilateral Iatrogenic Vas Deferens Trauma on Fertility: An Experimental In Vitro Fertilization Mice Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Mohammad; Najafi, Gholamreza; Shalizar Jalali, Ali; Behfar, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine bilateral effects of unilateral iatrogenic vas deferens trauma (UIT) on epididymal sperm characteristics and in vitro fertilizing capacity in an experimental mouse model. Methods: Experiments were performed on three equal groups each comprising six adult male mice. Following anaesthesia, UIT was induced by clamping left vas deferens with a mosquito clamp in fully locked fashion for 2 minutes in UIT group. Control-sham mice only had exposure of the left vas deferens through a groin incision. Control animals only received ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg) intraperitoneally at the day of experimental UIT induction. Ipsilateral and contralateral epididymal sperm characteristics and in vitro fertilizing capacity were evaluated after 35 days. Results: UIT significantly decreased sperm concentration, motility and viability as well as fertilization, two-cell embryos, blastocysts and hatched blastocysts rates. Moreover, incidence of DNA damage and abnormality in spermatozoa was significantly higher in UIT group. Conclusion: The findings suggest that a non-recognized iatrogenic vas deferens trauma may have detrimental effects on spermatozoa leading to infertility. PMID:27162916

  15. Fertility treatment, use of in vitro fertilization, and time to live birth based on initial provider type

    PubMed Central

    Boltz, Mandy W.; Sanders, Jessica N.; Simonsen, Sara E.; Stanford, Joseph B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To explore the relationship between initial clinician type (generalist versus subspecialist) seen by infertile women, type of treatment received, and time to pregnancy. Methods In a retrospective cohort design, we analyzed mixed-mode questionnaire data from 867 women with primary infertility enrolled through population- and fertility clinic-based sampling. We compared women presenting first to generalist providers with women presenting first to fertility subspecialists, with the main outcomes of receiving in vitro fertilization (IVF), time to pregnancy, and live birth. Results The first point of contact for most (84%) women with infertility was a generalist provider. Only 8% of women sought care first from a fertility subspecialist, and these women were more likely to be older and have been trying to conceive longer before seeking care. Women who presented first to a generalist provider were less likely to receive IVF (aOR 0.48, 95% CI 0.28, 0.82), were equally likely to achieve pregnancy, and had similar times to pregnancy (aHR 1.11, 95% CI 0.80, 1.53) compared to women who presented first to a subspecialist. Conclusions Generalist providers are frequently the first point of care for women with difficulty conceiving and are uniquely positioned to promote a balanced management of infertility. PMID:28379830

  16. Effect of antral follicle count in beef heifers on in vitro fertilization/production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective has been to compare the in vitro fertilization (IVF) and production (IVP) of embryos from low and high antral follicle count (AFC) heifers. This is the 4th year of the study with years 1 to 3 reported individually. For this report, we add data for the 4th year and present a combined an...

  17. In vitro fertilization in Japan — Early days of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and future prospects for assisted reproductive technology —

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Masakuni

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) has been essential in the treatment of infertility. The world’s first IVF-ET baby was born in 1978 based on the technique developed by Dr. Robert Edwards and Dr. Patrick Steptoe.1) In Japan, the first IVF-ET birth was reported in 1983 by Prof. Masakuni Suzuki at Tohoku University School of Medicine.2,3) IVF-ET is a procedure used to achieve pregnancy that consists of extracting oocytes from an infertile woman, fertilizing them in vitro, and transferring fertilized eggs into the patient’s uterine cavity (Fig. 1). Since the first report of successful IVF-ET, numerous techniques related to ART, such as cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos, gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and microinsemination, have been developed and refined (Table 1). Herein we describe the history of basic research in IVF-ET that led to human applications, how the birth of the first IVF-ET baby was achieved in Japan, the current status of ART in Japan, issues related to ART, and future prospects for ART. PMID:24814992

  18. In vitro fertilization in Japan - early days of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and future prospects for assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masakuni

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) has been essential in the treatment of infertility. The world's first IVF-ET baby was born in 1978 based on the technique developed by Dr. Robert Edwards and Dr. Patrick Steptoe. In Japan, the first IVF-ET birth was reported in 1983 by Prof. Masakuni Suzuki at Tohoku University School of Medicine. IVF-ET is a procedure used to achieve pregnancy that consists of extracting oocytes from an infertile woman, fertilizing them in vitro, and transferring fertilized eggs into the patient's uterine cavity (Fig. 1). Since the first report of successful IVF-ET, numerous techniques related to ART, such as cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos, gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and microinsemination, have been developed and refined (Table 1). Herein we describe the history of basic research in IVF-ET that led to human applications, how the birth of the first IVF-ET baby was achieved in Japan, the current status of ART in Japan, issues related to ART, and future prospects for ART.

  19. Artificial oocyte activation in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles using testicular sperm in human in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Jung; Lee, Sun-Hee; Park, Yong-Seog; Lim, Chun Kyu; Ko, Duck Sung; Yang, Kwang Moon; Park, Dong-Wook

    2015-06-01

    Artificial oocyte activation (AOA) is an effective method to avoid total fertilization failure in human in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. AOA performed using a calcium ionophore can induce calcium oscillation in oocytes and initiate the fertilization process. We evaluated the usefulness of AOA with a calcium ionophore in cases of total fertilization failure in previous cycles and in cases of severe male factor infertility patients with non-motile spermatozoa after pentoxifylline (PF) treatment. The present study describes 29 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-AOA cycles involving male factor infertility at Cheil General Hospital from January 2006 to June 2013. Patients were divided into two groups (control, n=480; AOA, n=29) depending on whether or not AOA using a calcium ionophore (A23187) was performed after testicular sperm extraction-ICSI (TESE-ICSI). The AOA group was further split into subgroups according to sperm motility after PF treatment: i.e., motile sperm-injected (n=12) and non-motile sperm-injected (n=17) groups (total n=29 cycles). The good embryo rate (52.3% vs. 66.9%), pregnancy rate (20.7% vs. 52.1%), and delivery rate (10.3% vs. 40.8%) were lower in the PF/AOA group than in the control group. When evaluating the effects of restoration of sperm motility after PF treatment on clinical outcomes there was no difference in fertilization rate (66.6% vs. 64.7% in non-motile and motile sperm, respectively), pregnancy rate (17.6% vs. 33.3%), or delivery rate (5.9% vs. 16.7%) between the two groups. We suggest that oocyte activation is a useful method to ensure fertilization in TESE-ICSI cycles regardless of restoration of sperm motility after PF treatment. AOA may be useful in selected patients who have a low fertilization rate or total fertilization failure.

  20. Artificial oocyte activation in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles using testicular sperm in human in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee Jung; Lee, Sun-Hee; Park, Yong-Seog; Lim, Chun Kyu; Ko, Duck Sung; Yang, Kwang Moon

    2015-01-01

    Objective Artificial oocyte activation (AOA) is an effective method to avoid total fertilization failure in human in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. AOA performed using a calcium ionophore can induce calcium oscillation in oocytes and initiate the fertilization process. We evaluated the usefulness of AOA with a calcium ionophore in cases of total fertilization failure in previous cycles and in cases of severe male factor infertility patients with non-motile spermatozoa after pentoxifylline (PF) treatment. Methods The present study describes 29 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-AOA cycles involving male factor infertility at Cheil General Hospital from January 2006 to June 2013. Patients were divided into two groups (control, n=480; AOA, n=29) depending on whether or not AOA using a calcium ionophore (A23187) was performed after testicular sperm extraction-ICSI (TESE-ICSI). The AOA group was further split into subgroups according to sperm motility after PF treatment: i.e., motile sperm-injected (n=12) and non-motile sperm-injected (n=17) groups (total n=29 cycles). Results The good embryo rate (52.3% vs. 66.9%), pregnancy rate (20.7% vs. 52.1%), and delivery rate (10.3% vs. 40.8%) were lower in the PF/AOA group than in the control group. When evaluating the effects of restoration of sperm motility after PF treatment on clinical outcomes there was no difference in fertilization rate (66.6% vs. 64.7% in non-motile and motile sperm, respectively), pregnancy rate (17.6% vs. 33.3%), or delivery rate (5.9% vs. 16.7%) between the two groups. Conclusion We suggest that oocyte activation is a useful method to ensure fertilization in TESE-ICSI cycles regardless of restoration of sperm motility after PF treatment. AOA may be useful in selected patients who have a low fertilization rate or total fertilization failure. PMID:26161332

  1. Noninvasive assays of in vitro matured human oocytes showed insignificant correlation with fertilization and embryo development.

    PubMed

    Ashourzadeh, Sareh; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Omidi, Marjan; Mahani, Seyed Nooraldin Nematollahi; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Aflatoonian, Abbas; Habibzadeh, Victoria

    2015-08-01

    Recently, the upgrading of in vitro maturation (IVM) of human oocytes as a promising strategy has emerged in assisted reproductive technology (ART). The goal was to evaluate the correlation of the in vitro matured oocytes selected on the basis of the zona pellucida (ZP) birefringence and meiotic spindles (MS) detection with fertilization and subsequent embryo development in ICSI program. A total of 168 immature oocytes [germinal vesicle (n = 140) and metaphase I (n = 28)] obtained from patients undergoing oocytes retrieval for ICSI. After in vitro culture for 24-40 h, 112 (67 %) oocytes reached to MII stage. Using a polarized microscopy, the presence of MS and ZP birefringence were assessed in matured oocytes, followed by ICSI performance. The rates of fertilization in oocytes with spindles (51.3 %) were similar to that of the oocytes without spindles (50.7 %; P = 1.00). Moreover, the fertilization rates in high birefringence (HB) oocytes was not statistically different than oocytes with low birefringence (LB) (P = 0.44). The findings also showed that 64.9 % of the fertilized oocytes developed to embryos, in which 33.3 % were derived from spindle-detected oocytes. Regarding the ZP birefringence, 35.5 % of the embryos were derived from HB oocytes. There were insignificant relationships between the MS detection and ZP birefringence score with the rates of fertilization and embryo development in IVM oocytes.

  2. Spontaneous pregnancies among couples previously treated by in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Troude, Pénélope; Bailly, Estelle; Guibert, Juliette; Bouyer, Jean; de la Rochebrochard, Elise

    2012-07-01

    To determine the frequency of live births following spontaneous pregnancy (BSP) and to examine their associated factors among couples who have unsuccessfully or successfully experienced fertility treatments. Retrospective cohort. Eight IVF centers. A total of 2,134 couples who began IVF treatment in the centers in 2000-2002 and were followed up by a postal questionnaire sent 7-9 years after they started treatment in the inclusion center. None. Rates of BSP and factors associated with BSP. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression. The BSP rate was 17% (218/1,320) among couples who had previously had a child through medical treatment and 24% (193/814) among couples who had remained childless after treatment. In both groups, the probability of BSP was higher among younger women and increased with a smaller number of IVF attempts. Probability was also higher when the cause of infertility was unexplained. Our results should give hope to couples who have been unsuccessfully treated by IVF, especially young couples with unexplained infertility. Nonetheless, it should be remembered that the BSP rates are cumulative rates observed over a long period of time and that these couples have a very low monthly probability of conceiving. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rescue in vitro fertilization method for legacy stock of frozen mouse sperm.

    PubMed

    Nakagata, Naomi; Takeo, Toru; Fukumoto, Kiyoko; Haruguchi, Yukie; Kondo, Tomoko; Takeshita, Yumi; Nakamuta, Yuko; Umeno, Tomoko; Tsuchiyama, Shuuji

    2014-04-24

    Sperm cryopreservation has been widely adopted for maintenance of the genetically engineered mouse (GEM). The cryopreserved sperm are being exchanged among many institutes worldwide. However, the recipients are not always able to obtain high fertilization rates with the frozen sperm shipped from senders. In this study, we cryopreserved mouse sperm via various methods and performed in vitro fertilization (IVF) in which the combination of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin for sperm preincubation and reduced glutathione for insemination was used (the MBCD-GSH IVF). In addition, frozen sperm sent from the Jackson Laboratory (USA) were thawed and used for IVF in the same manner. The fertilization rates of both the sperm cryopreserved via the methods applied in some countries and the cryopreserved GEM sperm improved when used with the MBCD-GSH IVF method. Therefore, we strongly believe that the MBCD-GSH IVF method brings about relatively high fertilization rates with any strain of frozen mouse sperm.

  4. In vitro fertilization with rice gametes: production of zygotes and zygote and embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) systems using isolated male and female gametes have been utilized to dissect fertilization-induced events in angiosperms, such as egg activation, zygote development, and early embryogenesis, since the female gametophytes of plants are deeply embedded within ovaries. A rice IVF system was established to take advantage of the abundant resources stemming from rice research for investigations into the mechanisms of fertilization and early embryogenesis. Fusion of gametes can be performed using electrofusion and the fusion product, a zygote, forms a cell wall and an additional nucleolus. The zygote divides into an asymmetric two-celled embryo and develops into an early globular embryo, as in planta. The embryo further develops into irregularly shaped cell masses and fertile plants can be regenerated from the cell masses. This rice IVF system is a powerful tool for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in the early embryogenesis of angiosperms and for making new cultivars.

  5. Adoption Actions and Attitudes of Couples Seeking In Vitro Fertilization: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Linda S.

    1992-01-01

    Examined adoption actions and attitudes of 16 childless women, and husbands of 14 of the women, who applied for or underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF). Found that IVF and adoption were sought concurrently by most and that wives were more in favor of adoption than were husbands. (Author/NB)

  6. Effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on in vitro fertilization outcome.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Brooke E; Rogers, Jayna L; Shahine, Lora K; Westphal, Lynn M; Lathi, Ruth B

    2009-10-01

    A review of 950 patients was performed to investigate the impact of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on in vitro fertilization outcome. The 41 patients (4.3%) taking an SSRI had a higher cycle cancellation rate but no statistically significant difference in pregnancy rate and live birth rate per cycle started.

  7. Novel and traditional traits of frozen-thawed porcine sperm related to in vitro fertilization success

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cryopreserved semen allows the use of single ejaculates for repeated analyses, potentially improving in vitro fertilization (IVF) consistency by eliminating inter-ejaculate variability observed with fresh semen. However, the freezing and thawing processes result in compromised sperm function and IVF...

  8. Adoption Actions and Attitudes of Couples Seeking In Vitro Fertilization: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Linda S.

    1992-01-01

    Examined adoption actions and attitudes of 16 childless women, and husbands of 14 of the women, who applied for or underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF). Found that IVF and adoption were sought concurrently by most and that wives were more in favor of adoption than were husbands. (Author/NB)

  9. Significance of the ultrasonic morphology of preovulatory ovarian follicles prior to in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Lenz, S; Lauritsen, G J; Lindenberg, S

    1983-01-01

    Forty-eight oocytes were collected from 47 follicles in 36 cycles from 24 patients with tubal infertility by ultrasonically guided percutaneous puncture under local anesthesia. The ultrasonic represented morphology of the aspirated follicles was compared to the presence of an egg-cumulus-mass in the follicular aspirate and the result of oocyte fertilization. There was a higher frequency of a cumulus-mass in the aspirate from follicles containing echoes (90 per cent) compared to ultrasonically empty follicles (37 per cent). Thirty-four oocytes were fertilized corresponding to a fertilization rate of 71 per cent. The mean diameter of follicles in the fertilized group was bigger (20.9 mm) than the mean diameter of follicles in the non-fertilized group (18.5 mm). The fertilization rate was higher in oocytes collected from follicles with internal echoes (87 per cent) compared to echo-free follicles (50 per cent). It seems that the ultrasonic demonstration of a fine cloud projecting into the follicle or a clouding of the cavity increases the possibility of collecting an oocyte suitable for in vitro fertilization.

  10. Collection of gametes from live axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, and standardization of in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Mansour, N; Lahnsteiner, F; Patzner, R A

    2011-01-15

    This study established the first protocol for collection of gametes from live axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, by gentle abdominal massage and in vitro fertilization. To stimulate spermiation and ovulation, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and Ovopel pellets, which are commercially used to stimulate spawning in fish, were tested. The hCG was more effective than Ovopel pellets and yielded a higher semen volume in the injected males and a shorter response time in the females. Collected semen by this method was already motile and fertile. Fertile eggs could be collected in 3-4 successive collection times after the female has started the typical spawning behaviour. The fertilization condition that yielded the highest hatching rate was mixing semen with eggs before the addition of a fertilization saline solution (20 mmol/l NaCl, 1 mmol/l KCl, 1 mmol/l Mg(2)SO(4), 1 mmol Ca(2)Cl, 3 mmol NaHCO(3), 10 mmol/l Tris, pH 8.5 - Osmolality = 65 mosmol/kg). When the pH of the fertilization solution was increased to ≥ 10, the hatching rate was significantly increased. The use of fertilization solutions with osmolalities of ≥ 150 and ≥ 182 were accompanied with a significant decrease in hatching rates and the appearance of deformed larvae, respectively. In conclusion, a reliable protocol for gamete collection from live axolotl is established as a laboratory model of in vitro fertilization for urodele amphibians. This protocol may be transferable to endangered urodeles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. In Vitro Fertilization and the Family: Quality of Parenting, Family Functioning, and Child Psychosocial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Chun-Shin; DiPietro, Janet A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined associations between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parenting quality, family functioning, and emotional/behavioral adjustment of 3- to 7-year-olds. Found that IVF mothers reported greater protectiveness than mothers of naturally conceived children. Teachers rated IVF mothers as displaying greater warmth but not overprotective or…

  12. In Vitro Fertilization and the Family: Quality of Parenting, Family Functioning, and Child Psychosocial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Chun-Shin; DiPietro, Janet A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined associations between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parenting quality, family functioning, and emotional/behavioral adjustment of 3- to 7-year-olds. Found that IVF mothers reported greater protectiveness than mothers of naturally conceived children. Teachers rated IVF mothers as displaying greater warmth but not overprotective or…

  13. Male soy food intake was not associated with in vitro fertilization outcomes among their partners attending a fertility center

    PubMed Central

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Afeiche, Myriam C; Chiu, Yu-Han; Vanegas, Jose C; Williams, Paige L; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Toth, Thomas L; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    Male factor etiology may be a contributing factor in up to 60% of infertility cases. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens has been related to abnormal semen quality and hormone levels. However, its effect on couple fecundity is still unclear. Intake of soy products was assessed in 184 men from couples undergoing infertility treatment with in vitro fertilization (IVF). Couples were recruited between February 2007 and May 2014 and prospectively followed to document treatment outcomes including fertilization, implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth. Multivariate generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts, binomial distribution and logit link function were used to examine this relation while accounting for repeated treatment cycles and adjusting for potential confounders. Male partner’s intake of soy foods and soy isoflavones was unrelated to fertilization rates, the proportions of poor quality embryos, accelerated or slow embryo cleavage rate, and implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth. The adjusted live birth rates per initiated cycle (95% CI) for partners of men in increasing categories of soy food intake were 0.36 (0.28 to 0.45), 0.42 (0.29 to 0.56), 0.36 (0.24 to 0.51), and 0.37 (0.24 to 0.52), respectively. Soy food intake in men was not related to clinical outcomes among couples presenting at an infertility clinic. Data on the relation between phytoestrogens and male reproductive potential remains scarce and additional research is needed to clarify its role in human reproduction. PMID:26097060

  14. In vitro effect of myo-inositol on sperm motility in normal and oligoasthenospermia patients undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Artini, P G; Casarosa, E; Carletti, E; Monteleone, P; Di Noia, A; Di Berardino, O M

    2017-02-01

    It is a known fact that abnormal seminal liquid specimens contain abnormal amounts of oxygen free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and that the use of antioxidant molecules both in vivo and in vitro leads to improvement of semen quality in terms of motility, reduction in DNA damage, with obvious consequences on the fertilization potential. Myo-inositol has been observed to have anti-oxidant properties and be present in much greater concentrations specifically in seminal liquid than in the blood. Moreover, there seems to be a direct relationship between myo-inositol and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and sperm motility. Studies performed in vivo have demonstrated that a dietary supplementation with myo-inositol in men undergoing assisted reproduction techniques may improve sperm quality and motility in oligoasthenospermia (OAT) patients. In the following study we utilized myo-inositol in vitro to verify its effect on semen quality in both normal and OAT patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with respect to standard sperm medium. In vitro incubation of seminal liquid carried out using myo-inositol (Andrositol-Lab, Lo.Li. Pharma-Roma, Italy) at a concentration of 15 μl/ml improved progressive motility in both normospermia and OAT subjects. In our opinion, myo-inositol may prove to be a useful strategy to improve sperm preparation for clinical use in IVF.

  15. Varicocele management in the era of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Piyush; Chandrashekar, Aravind; Hakky, Tariq S; Pastuszak, Alexander W

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is the most common surgically treatable cause of male infertility, and often results in alterations in semen parameters, sperm DNA damage, and changes to the seminal milieu. Varicocele repair can result in improvement in these parameters in the majority of men with clinical varicocele; data supporting repair in men with subclinical varicocele are less definitive. In couples seeking fertility using assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), varicocele repair may offer improvement in semen parameters and sperm health that can increase the likelihood of successful fertilization using techniques such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or may decrease the level of ART needed to achieve successful pregnancy. Male infertility is an indicator of general male health, and evaluation of the infertile male with an eye toward future health can facilitate optimal screening and treatment of these men. Furthermore, varicocele may represent a progressive lesion, offering an argument for its repair, although this is currently unclear. PMID:27030086

  16. In vitro fertilization of mouse ova by spermatozoa exposed isothermally to radio-frequency radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, S.F.; Liu, L.M.; Graham, R.; East, J. )

    1989-01-01

    Mouse spermatozoa were exposed in vitro for 1 h to 27- or 2,450-MHz CW RF radiation at SARs of 0 to 90 W/kg under isothermal (37 +/- 0.2 degrees C) conditions. Exposure at either frequency to RF radiation at SARs of 50 W/kg or greater resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the ability of irradiated sperm to fertilize mouse ova in vitro (P less than .05). Over the range of SARs there was no apparent difference in the effects of 27- vs. 2,450-MHz RF radiation. There were no readily detectable exposure effects on spermatozoan morphology, ultrastructure, or capacitation. The reduction of in vitro fertilization is attributed to a direct effect of RF radiation on spermatozoa rather than to heating.

  17. Pig Spermatozoa Defect in Acrosome Formation Caused Poor Motion Parameters and Fertilization Failure through Artificial Insemination and In vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Young; Lee, Ran; Kim, Hee Chan; Lee, Kyung Hoon; Cui, Xiang Shun; Kim, Nam Hyung; Kim, Sang Hyun; Lee, Il Joo; Uhm, Sang Jun; Yoon, Min Jung; Song, Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    The selection of morphologically normal spermatozoa is critical to obtain high breeding performances in boar breeding farms and artificial insemination (AI) centers. Parameters for the selection of semen mainly include total sperm motility, concentration, and morphology. However, these primary parameters are often not reliable for discriminating between normal and abnormal, non-fertilizable spermatozoa. The present study was designed to compare the motion characteristics, fertilization ability using in vitro fertilization (IVF), and acrosome formation of the semen from boars having low (boar number 2012) and normal (boar number 2004 and 2023) breeding performances. The ultimate goal was to identify additional simple and easy criteria for the selection of normal sperm. There was no significant difference between boar 2004 and boar 2023 sperm total motility in computer assisted sperm analysis. However, boar number 2012 semen presented a significantly reduced population of rapid moving spermatozoa and an increased population of slow moving spermatozoa compared to boar numbers 2004 and 2023. Analysis of detailed motion characteristics revealed that sperm from boar number 2012 had significantly reduced motility in progressiveness, average path velocity, straight-line velocity (VSL), curvilinear velocity (VCL), straightness, and linearity. The assessment of the fertilizing ability by IVF also showed that sperm from boar number 2012 showed a fertility rate of 3.4%, whereas sperm from boar number 2023 had a fertility rate of 75.45%. Interestingly, most of the sperm nuclei were found on the peripheral area of the oocytes, suggesting that the sperm from boar number 2012 lacked penetration ability into the oocyte zonapellucida. The acrosome formation analysis using Pisum sativum agglutinin staining demonstrated that the sperm from boar number 2012 had a defect in acrosome formation. Consequently, primary parameters for selecting semen before AI such as motility are not

  18. Pig Spermatozoa Defect in Acrosome Formation Caused Poor Motion Parameters and Fertilization Failure through Artificial Insemination and In vitro Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Young; Lee, Ran; Kim, Hee Chan; Lee, Kyung Hoon; Cui, Xiang Shun; Kim, Nam Hyung; Kim, Sang Hyun; Lee, Il Joo; Uhm, Sang Jun; Yoon, Min Jung; Song, Hyuk

    2014-10-01

    The selection of morphologically normal spermatozoa is critical to obtain high breeding performances in boar breeding farms and artificial insemination (AI) centers. Parameters for the selection of semen mainly include total sperm motility, concentration, and morphology. However, these primary parameters are often not reliable for discriminating between normal and abnormal, non-fertilizable spermatozoa. The present study was designed to compare the motion characteristics, fertilization ability using in vitro fertilization (IVF), and acrosome formation of the semen from boars having low (boar number 2012) and normal (boar number 2004 and 2023) breeding performances. The ultimate goal was to identify additional simple and easy criteria for the selection of normal sperm. There was no significant difference between boar 2004 and boar 2023 sperm total motility in computer assisted sperm analysis. However, boar number 2012 semen presented a significantly reduced population of rapid moving spermatozoa and an increased population of slow moving spermatozoa compared to boar numbers 2004 and 2023. Analysis of detailed motion characteristics revealed that sperm from boar number 2012 had significantly reduced motility in progressiveness, average path velocity, straight-line velocity (VSL), curvilinear velocity (VCL), straightness, and linearity. The assessment of the fertilizing ability by IVF also showed that sperm from boar number 2012 showed a fertility rate of 3.4%, whereas sperm from boar number 2023 had a fertility rate of 75.45%. Interestingly, most of the sperm nuclei were found on the peripheral area of the oocytes, suggesting that the sperm from boar number 2012 lacked penetration ability into the oocyte zonapellucida. The acrosome formation analysis using Pisum sativum agglutinin staining demonstrated that the sperm from boar number 2012 had a defect in acrosome formation. Consequently, primary parameters for selecting semen before AI such as motility are not

  19. The secretory products of Trichomonas vaginalis decrease fertilizing capacity of mice sperm in vitro.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jaesook; Lim, Young-Su; Seo, Min-Young; Choi, Yuri; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in humans and is now recognized as an important cause of infertility in men. There is little information about the effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from T. vaginalis on sperm, but previous reports do not provide a conclusive description of the functional integrity of the sperm. To investigate the impact of EPS on the fertilizing capacity of sperm, we assessed sperm motility, acrosomal status, hypo-osmotic swelling, and in vitrofertilization rate after incubating the sperm with EPS in vitrousing mice. The incubation of sperm with EPS significantly decreased sperm motility, viability, and functional integrity in a concentration and time-dependent manner. These effects on sperm quality also resulted in a decreased fertilization rate in vitro. This is the first report that demonstrates the direct negative impact of the EPS of T. vaginalis on the fertilization rate of sperm in vitro. However, further study should be performed using human sperm to determine if EPS has similar negative impact on human sperm fertilizing capacity in vitro.

  20. Alcohol consumption and in vitro fertilization: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nicolau, Pau; Miralpeix, Ester; Solà, Ivan; Carreras, Ramon; Checa, Miguel Angel

    2014-11-01

    The aim of our study is to determine whether alcohol consumption affects the results of in vitro fertilization. A review of the literature was performed to find prospective cohort studies of couples undergoing in vitro fertilization in which alcohol intake was recorded. A primary search returned 389 studies, 2 of which were finally considered eligible. A total of 2908 couples were analyzed in terms of pregnancy outcomes depending on drinking habits. The risk of IVF failure increased 4.14-fold and 2.86-fold with an increased alcohol intake of 12 gr/d in women during the week and month before, respectively. The odds ratio (OR) of live birth rate in women who drank at least four drinks per week compared with women who drank fewer was 0.84; this difference was statistically significant. Paternal alcohol use levels 1 month, 1 week and during the attempts were also associated with worse reproductive effects. Our review, though including a small number of studies that were heterogeneous in design, revealed decreased rates of pregnancy and fertilization outcomes for couples who drank before or during their in vitro fertilization techniques. This suggests that couples undergoing IVF should be advised to abstain from alcohol prior to and during their procedures.

  1. [Is an act of human love the in vitro fertilization? A proposal ethical analysis].

    PubMed

    García Sánchez, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Since 1978, when the first test tube baby, Louis Brown, was born, thousands of children have been born every year through in vitro fertilization. Many families keep attending fertility clinics in order to receive some treatment for their infertility problems and have a child. Children born in this way are worthy human beings. Their parents love them and devote themselves to their children admirably, showing real parental love. However, does this loving kindness justify, from an ethical point of view, any way of desiring and having a son or daughter? Is it really an act of human love to long for a child and satisfy this desire using artificial methods? Is it equally human and worthy to wish them choosing in vitro fertilization than to wish them through an intimate and loving relationship, in which the child emerges as a result of interpersonal donation? I answer these questions by analyzing the ethics proposal formulated by Rhonheimer and Carrasco de Paula. In short, only the intimate and loving sexual union between a man and a woman -as long as it is unconditional love- may be the dignity cause of the existence of a human being. And such union and unconditional requirement are absent in vitro fertilization.

  2. [Embryonic quality in the use of urofolitropin vs recombinant FSH for in vitro fertilization].

    PubMed

    Contreras Bretherton, C; David Vargas, R; Cedillo, F J; Vilchez, R; Das Neves, D; Bernal, M A; Verez Ruíz, J R; Stern Colin y Nunes, J J; Gutiérrez Nájar, A

    1999-05-01

    There were no differences in both groups as tho the age of the patients; received doses of both types of FSH, nor HMG; but there was as to the amount of captured ovocytes, amount, and quality, embrionary, in special 1+ 2+ in favor of the group that received urofolitropine, specially under 35 years of age. In this study there was better qualy and amount, embrionary, obtained with the use of urofolitropine, as compared with FSH recombinant for in vitro fertilization.

  3. Placental and fetal findings in intrauterine Candida lusitaniae infection following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Michael; Cham, Elaine M; Eppes, Carey S; Gerber, Susan E; Reed, Kurt D; Ernst, Linda M

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine infection with non- albicans Candida species is rare but can be catastrophic to the fetus. A subset of intrauterine infections with non- albicans Candida species has occurred in women who have undergone in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). We report a case of a 33-year-old healthy woman, pregnant with triplets by in vitro fertilization, who experienced preterm premature rupture of membranes of fetus A at 16 weeks' gestation and subsequently developed oligohydramnios in all 3 fetuses. Following elective pregnancy termination, microscopic examination and molecular analysis demonstrated Candida lusitaniae chorioamnionitis and pneumonia in all 3 fetuses associated with granulomatous inflammation. Our case is only the 2nd report of C. lusitaniae chorioamnionitis and should raise awareness that C. lusitaniae intrauterine infection is associated with IVF-ET. We also show here that C. lusitaniae can cause granulomatous intraplacental inflammation and intrauterine pneumonia.

  4. HIGH INCIDENCE OF POLYSPERMIC FERTILIZATION IN BOVINE OOCYTES MATURED IN VITRO AFTER CRYOTOP VITRIFICATION.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Sul; Kwon, Dae-Jin; Im, Gi-Sun; Tashima, Kazuya; Hochi, Shinichi; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2016-01-01

    Vitrification with the Cryotop device is the most promising technique for oocyte cryopreservation, but the high post-warming morphological survival of bovine oocytes does not guarantee high developmental competence after in vitro fertilization (IVF). This study was designed to examine achievement of normal fertilization in bovine oocytes vitrified-warmed with the Cryotop device. Oocytes were matured in vitro and vitrified-warmed after complete removal of the cumulus layers. Distribution of cortical granules (CGs) was assessed by Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA) lectin staining. Ten hours after IVF, presumptive zygotes were analyzed for pronuclear formation. Day-8 blastocysts were harvested and stained with Hoechst-33342 for total cell counting. Both yield and mean cell number of the blastocysts were impaired by Cryotop vitrification. Incidence of polyspermic fertilization was three-times higher in vitrified oocytes compared to fresh oocytes. No difference in CG distribution was found between vitrified and fresh oocytes. Polyspermic fertilization induced in vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes may be one of the possible causes responsible for their low developmental potential.

  5. IVF versus ICSI for the fertilization of in-vitro matured human oocytes.

    PubMed

    Walls, M; Junk, S; Ryan, J P; Hart, R

    2012-12-01

    Traditional dogma suggests that intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) should be performed to ensure successful oocyte fertilization in an in-vitro maturation (IVM) cycle. This study postulated that there would be no difference in the fertilization rate when ICSI was compared with IVF. This hypothesis was tested in a randomized trial of IVF versus ICSI in IVM. A total of 150 immature oocytes were collected in eight cycles of IVM for patients diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Patients were primed with minimal FSH before transvaginal oocyte aspiration. Sibling oocytes were inseminated by 50% IVF and 50% ICSI. There was no significant difference in fertilization, useable or total blastocyst development between the two insemination technique groups. Clinical pregnancy results for combined fresh and cryopreserved transfers were identical between the two insemination techniques with a total of two fresh and five cryopreserved IVF-inseminated embryos resulting in three clinical pregnancies (42.9%) and five fresh and two cryopreserved ICSI-derived embryos resulting in three clinical pregnancies (42.9%). This research has shown IVF to be a legitimate fertilization technique for IVM oocytes in PCOS patients and provides a greater awareness of the use of a fertilization method previously not utilized with IVM. In-vitro maturation (IVM) is an alternative treatment method to traditional IVF. Due to the minimal use of stimulating hormones in this treatment, IVM has a lower risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, it can be used for fertility preservation in cancer patients and it is more cost conservative. Early research into the effects of IVM showed a hardening effect on the membrane surrounding the egg (the zona pellucida). It was initially believed that, to overcome this hardening in order to allow the egg to be fertilized, spermatozoa would need to be injected into the egg using intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Due to recent advances in hormonal

  6. In vitro assessment of sperm from bulls of high and low field fertility.

    PubMed

    Al Naib, A; Hanrahan, J P; Lonergan, P; Fair, S

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reasons for differences in field fertility of bulls following insemination with frozen-thawed semen. The study was carried out in two separate parts over two years and comparisons were made between 5 high and 4 low fertility Holstein Friesian bulls as determined by their either 90 day non-return rate (Year 1) or calving rate (Year 2). Two high fertility Limousin bulls were included in Year 1 for comparative purposes. The ability of sperm from each bull to penetrate artificial mucus was assessed (Year 1 = 7 replicates; Year 2 = 5 replicates). Glass capillary tubes (2 per bull per replicate) were filled with artificial mucus and incubated with sperm stained in 1% Hoechst 33342 for 30 min at 37 °C. The number of sperm were subsequently counted at 10 mm intervals along the tube between 40 and 80 mm markers. Sperm mitochondrial activity of each bull was assessed by the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay (4 replicates in each year). Sperm were incubated with MTT for 1 h at 37 °C following which the absorbance of formazan was read using a spectrophotometer. Sperm viability after thawing was assessed for each bull using a live/dead sperm viability kit (Year 1 = 3 replicates; Year 2 = 4 replicates). A minimum of 250 cells were assessed per bull in each replicate and classified as either live or dead. Finally, the ability of sperm to fertilize oocytes in vitro and their ability to develop to blastocyst stage embryos were assessed (5 replicates in each year involving 220 to 306 oocytes per bull). Data transformation to normalize residuals was required for mucus sperm penetration (square root) and IVF (cleavage and blastocyst rate) results (arcsin). The mean number of sperm counted at each 10 mm mark between 40 and 80 mm was higher in the high fertility (56.0; 95% CI 39.5 to 75.3) compared to the low fertility (42.9; 95% CI 29.3 to 59.1) Holstein Friesian bulls but the difference did not

  7. Transferability and inter-laboratory variability assessment of the in vitro bovine oocyte fertilization test.

    PubMed

    Tessaro, Irene; Modina, Silvia C; Crotti, Gabriella; Franciosi, Federica; Colleoni, Silvia; Lodde, Valentina; Galli, Cesare; Lazzari, Giovanna; Luciano, Alberto M

    2015-01-01

    The dramatic increase in the number of animals required for reproductive toxicity testing imposes the validation of alternative methods to reduce the use of laboratory animals. As we previously demonstrated for in vitro maturation test of bovine oocytes, the present study describes the transferability assessment and the inter-laboratory variability of an in vitro test able to identify chemical effects during the process of bovine oocyte fertilization. Eight chemicals with well-known toxic properties (benzo[a]pyrene, busulfan, cadmium chloride, cycloheximide, diethylstilbestrol, ketoconazole, methylacetoacetate, mifepristone/RU-486) were tested in two well-trained laboratories. The statistical analysis demonstrated no differences in the EC50 values for each chemical in within (inter-runs) and in between-laboratory variability of the proposed test. We therefore conclude that the bovine in vitro fertilization test could advance toward the validation process as alternative in vitro method and become part of an integrated testing strategy in order to predict chemical hazards on mammalian fertility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Charting new frontiers in In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): The Role of Bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Márcia M; Lamaita, Rívia M; Barbosa, Marcos P; Silva-Filho, Agnaldo L

    2015-02-01

    Since the beginning of in vitro fertilization (IVF) 36 years ago, scientists have studied and critically analyzed the techniques in order to find ways to improve outcomes. However, success rates vary significantly among clinics due to poor reproducibility and inconsistency across operators. Much research has been conducted on the chemical environment, or culture medium, surrounding the oocyte/ embryo, but little attention has been given to the actual equipment and physical culture environment, which has changed very little over the years. The aim of this paper was to evaluate how the physical factors are important regulators of oocyte and embryo function and to improve understanding of the physical forces involved in the processes in human reproduction. A review the available literature was conducted using PubMed from 1966 through July 2014 in an attempt to help integrate mechanics into our understanding of the molecular basis of IVF. Keywords included in vitro fertilization, biomechanics, bioengineering, oocyte and embryo. The mechanical characterization of oocytes and embryos represents an opportunity to detect cellular defects, assess quality and bio-viability of processes such as cryopreservation as well as select the best embryo for transfer. Defining the mechanical forces at play during embryo transfer is also an important step towards improving results in in vitro fertilization. The further analysis of these phenomena needs a detailed monitoring of the mechanical conditions and more extensive studies of events on the cellular and molecular levels.

  9. In vitro fertilization experiments using sockeye salmon reveal that bigger eggs are more fertilizable under sperm limitation.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Christopher P; Hoysak, Drew J; Liley, N Robin; Gage, Matthew J G

    2009-07-07

    Although theory and widespread evidence show that the evolution of egg size is driven primarily by offspring and maternal fitness demands, an additional explanation invokes sperm limitation as a selective force that could also influence egg size optima. Levitan proposed that constraints from gamete encounter in external fertilization environments could select for enlargement of ova to increase the physical size of the fertilization target. We test this theory using in vitro fertilization experiments in an externally fertilizing fish. Sockeye salmon (Onchorhyncus nerka) females show considerable between-individual variation in ovum size, and we explored the consequences of this natural variation for the fertilization success of individual eggs under conditions of sperm limitation. By engineering consistent conditions where in vitro fertilization rate was always intermediate, we were able to compare the sizes of fertilized and unfertilized eggs across 20 fertilization replicates. After controlling for any changes in volume through incubation, results showed that successfully fertilized eggs were significantly larger than the eggs that failed to achieve fertilization. Under conditions without sperm limitation, fertility was unaffected by egg size. Our findings therefore support Levitan's theory, demonstrating empirically that some element of egg size variation could be selected by fertilization demands under sperm limitation. However, further research on sperm limitation in natural spawnings is required to assess the selective importance of these results.

  10. In vitro fertilization experiments using sockeye salmon reveal that bigger eggs are more fertilizable under sperm limitation

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, Christopher P.; Hoysak, Drew J.; Liley, N. Robin; Gage, Matthew J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Although theory and widespread evidence show that the evolution of egg size is driven primarily by offspring and maternal fitness demands, an additional explanation invokes sperm limitation as a selective force that could also influence egg size optima. Levitan proposed that constraints from gamete encounter in external fertilization environments could select for enlargement of ova to increase the physical size of the fertilization target. We test this theory using in vitro fertilization experiments in an externally fertilizing fish. Sockeye salmon (Onchorhyncus nerka) females show considerable between-individual variation in ovum size, and we explored the consequences of this natural variation for the fertilization success of individual eggs under conditions of sperm limitation. By engineering consistent conditions where in vitro fertilization rate was always intermediate, we were able to compare the sizes of fertilized and unfertilized eggs across 20 fertilization replicates. After controlling for any changes in volume through incubation, results showed that successfully fertilized eggs were significantly larger than the eggs that failed to achieve fertilization. Under conditions without sperm limitation, fertility was unaffected by egg size. Our findings therefore support Levitan's theory, demonstrating empirically that some element of egg size variation could be selected by fertilization demands under sperm limitation. However, further research on sperm limitation in natural spawnings is required to assess the selective importance of these results. PMID:19364734

  11. Male reproductive traits, semen cryopreservation, and heterologous in vitro fertilization in the bobcat (Lynx rufus).

    PubMed

    Gañán, N; González, R; Sestelo, A; Garde, J J; Sánchez, I; Aguilar, J M; Gomendio, M; Roldan, E R S

    2009-08-01

    There is limited information on bobcat ejaculate traits and sperm cryopreservation and fertilizing ability. Bobcats were electroejaculated under general anesthesia in November (autumn) and April (spring), and endocrine and sperm traits were characterized. Testosterone (mean+/-SEM: 0.90+/-0.15 ng/mL) was not different between sampling times, but cortisol (average: 13.95+/-1.73 microg/dL) was significantly higher in April. Average number of spermatozoa was 10.0+/-3.4 x 10(6) sperm/ejaculate, with values being significantly higher in April. Sperm motility (average 55.7+/-5.8% motile sperm) was not different between sampling times. The proportion of normal spermatozoa in the ejaculate (average: 14.7+/-2.1%) was significantly higher in April, but the percentage of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes (average: 43.7+/-3.8%) was significantly higher in autumn. Spermatozoa were cryopreserved in a Tes-Tris-based diluent (TEST) or Biladyl, both containing 20% egg yolk and 4% glycerol. Diluted sperm were loaded into straws, refrigerated using a programmable thermoblock with a dry chamber, frozen in nitrogen vapors, thawed, and incubated in F-10 medium with 5% fetal bovine serum for up to 3h. After cryopreservation in TEST, there were about 50% motile sperm upon thawing, and survival was high during incubation post-thaw. Cryopreservation in Biladyl led to similar results, but motility decreased substantially during incubation post-thaw. Bobcat spermatozoa fertilized domestic cat oocytes matured in vitro. Fertilization rates were higher for sperm collected in April and cryopreserved in TEST (46%) than for those cryopreserved using Biladyl (<3%). Fertilized oocytes cleaved in culture, and some (27%) reached the morula stage. This study has allowed us to gain further baseline information on bobcat reproduction, explore sperm cryopreservation conditions, and show that fertilizing capacity can be tested using in vitro-matured cat oocytes. These results will be important for future

  12. Fertility Preservation in Cancer Patients: In Vivo and In Vitro Options

    PubMed Central

    Fathi, Rouhollah; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba; Ebrahimi, Bita; Eivazkhani, Farideh; Akbarpour, Mahzad; Tahaei, Leila Sadat; Abtahi, Naeimeh Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Oocyte, embryo and ovarian tissue cryopreservation are being increasingly proposed for fertility preservation among cancer patients undergoing therapy to enable them to have babies after the cancer is cured. Embryo cryopreservation is not appropriate for single girls without any sperm partner and also because oocyte retrieval is an extended procedure, it is impossible in cases requiring immediate cancer cure. Thus ovarian tissue cryopreservation has been suggested for fertility preservation especial in cancer patients. The main goal of ovarian cryopreservation is re-implanting the tissue into the body to restore fertility and the hormonal cycle. Different cryopreservation protocols have been examined and established for vitrification of biological samples. We have used Cryopin to plunge ovarian tissue into the liquid nitrogen and promising results have been observed. Ovarian tissue re-implantation after cancer cure has one problem- the possibility of recurrence of malignancy in the reimplanted tissue is high. Xenografting-implantation of the preserved tissue in another species- also has its drawbacks such as molecular signaling from the recipient. In vitro follicle culturing is a safer method to obtain mature oocytes for fertilization and the various studies that have been carried out in this area are reviewed in this paper. PMID:28670510

  13. Fertility Preservation in Cancer Patients: In Vivo and In Vitro Options.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Rouhollah; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba; Ebrahimi, Bita; Eivazkhani, Farideh; Akbarpour, Mahzad; Tahaei, Leila Sadat; Abtahi, Naeimeh Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Oocyte, embryo and ovarian tissue cryopreservation are being increasingly proposed for fertility preservation among cancer patients undergoing therapy to enable them to have babies after the cancer is cured. Embryo cryopreservation is not appropriate for single girls without any sperm partner and also because oocyte retrieval is an extended procedure, it is impossible in cases requiring immediate cancer cure. Thus ovarian tissue cryopreservation has been suggested for fertility preservation especial in cancer patients. The main goal of ovarian cryopreservation is re-implanting the tissue into the body to restore fertility and the hormonal cycle. Different cryopreservation protocols have been examined and established for vitrification of biological samples. We have used Cryopin to plunge ovarian tissue into the liquid nitrogen and promising results have been observed. Ovarian tissue re-implantation after cancer cure has one problem- the possibility of recurrence of malignancy in the reimplanted tissue is high. Xenografting-implantation of the preserved tissue in another species- also has its drawbacks such as molecular signaling from the recipient. In vitro follicle culturing is a safer method to obtain mature oocytes for fertilization and the various studies that have been carried out in this area are reviewed in this paper.

  14. Effects of lead on the male mouse as investigated by in vitro fertilization and blastocyst culture

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, L.; Sjoeblom, P.; Wide, M.

    1987-02-01

    Long-term exposure of male mice to inorganic lead (lead chloride, 1 g/liter) in the drinking water reduces their fertility. The cause of this reduction, expressed as a decrease in the number of mated females showing inplantations, was investigated, using an in vivo fertilization method. It was found that spermatozoa from lead-exposed males had a significantly lower ability to fertilize mouse eggs than those from unexposed males. Preimplantation embryos, isolated from uterine horns of mice mated with lead-exposed males. Preimplantation embryos, isolated from uterine horns of mice mated with lead-exposed males, were examined. No morphologically abnormal embryos were found. However, when cultured in vitro over the implantation period, blastocysts of the group mated with lead-exposed males showed an increased frequency of delayed hatching from the zona pellucida or an inability to hatch. Among blastocysts from this group a decreased frequency of inner cell mass development was also found.

  15. Live Births from Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris) Embryos Produced by In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Jennifer B.; Sylvester, Skylar R.; Nelson, Jacquelyn L.; Cheong, Soon Hon; Mukai, Chinatsu; Lambo, Colleen; Flanders, James A.; Meyers-Wallen, Vicki N.; Songsasen, Nucharin; Travis, Alexander J.

    2015-01-01

    Development of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in the dog has resisted progress for decades, due to their unique reproductive physiology. This lack of progress is remarkable given the critical role ART could play in conserving endangered canid species or eradicating heritable disease through gene-editing technologies—an approach that would also advance the dog as a biomedical model. Over 350 heritable disorders/traits in dogs are homologous with human conditions, almost twice the number of any other species. Here we report the first live births from in vitro fertilized embryos in the dog. Adding to the practical significance, these embryos had also been cryopreserved. Changes in handling of both gametes enabled this progress. The medium previously used to capacitate sperm excluded magnesium because it delayed spontaneous acrosome exocytosis. We found that magnesium significantly enhanced sperm hyperactivation and ability to undergo physiologically-induced acrosome exocytosis, two functions essential to fertilize an egg. Unlike other mammals, dogs ovulate a primary oocyte, which reaches metaphase II on Days 4–5 after the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. We found that only on Day 6 are oocytes consistently able to be fertilized. In vitro fertilization of Day 6 oocytes with sperm capacitated in medium supplemented with magnesium resulted in high rates of embryo development (78.8%, n = 146). Intra-oviductal transfer of nineteen cryopreserved, in vitro fertilization (IVF)-derived embryos resulted in seven live, healthy puppies. Development of IVF enables modern genetic approaches to be applied more efficiently in dogs, and for gamete rescue to conserve endangered canid species. PMID:26650234

  16. Effect of high and low antral follicle count in pubertal beef heifers on in vitro fertilization (IVF)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pubertal heifers can be classified between those with high (= 25) and low (= 15) antral follicle counts (AFC). The objective of this study was to determine oocyte development and maturation (e.g., fertility) in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) system for high and low AFC heifers. From a pool of 120...

  17. In vitro fertilization and artificial activation of eggs of the direct-developing anuran Eleutherodactylus coqui

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Esteban; Michael, Scott F

    2004-01-01

    Although much is known about the reproductive biology of pond-breeding frogs, there is comparatively little information about terrestrial-breeding anurans, a highly successful and diverse group. This study investigates the activation and in vitro fertilization of eggs of the Puerto Rican coqui frog obtained by hormonally induced ovulation. We report that spontaneous activation occurs in 34% of eggs, probably in response to mechanical stress during oviposition. Artificial activation, as evidenced by the slow block to polyspermy and the onset of zygote division, was elicited both by mechanical stimulation and calcium ionophore exposure in 64% and 83% of the cases, respectively. Finally, one in vitro fertilization protocol showed a 27% success rate, despite the fact that about one third of all unfertilized eggs obtained by hormone injection auto-activate. We expect these findings to aid in the conservation effort of Eleutherodactylus frogs, the largest vertebrate genus. PMID:15296510

  18. In vitro fertilization and artificial activation of eggs of the direct-developing anuran Eleutherodactylus coqui.

    PubMed

    Toro, Esteban; Michael, Scott F

    2004-08-05

    Although much is known about the reproductive biology of pond-breeding frogs, there is comparatively little information about terrestrial-breeding anurans, a highly successful and diverse group. This study investigates the activation and in vitro fertilization of eggs of the Puerto Rican coqui frog obtained by hormonally induced ovulation. We report that spontaneous activation occurs in 34% of eggs, probably in response to mechanical stress during oviposition. Artificial activation, as evidenced by the slow block to polyspermy and the onset of zygote division, was elicited both by mechanical stimulation and calcium ionophore exposure in 64% and 83% of the cases, respectively. Finally, one in vitro fertilization protocol showed a 27% success rate, despite the fact that about one third of all unfertilized eggs obtained by hormone injection auto-activate. We expect these findings to aid in the conservation effort of Eleutherodactylus frogs, the largest vertebrate genus.

  19. The relation of psychological stress to pregnancy outcome among women undergoing in-vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Vaslamatzis, Grigorios

    2011-06-21

    A considerable literature has been accumulated regarding the relation of psychological factors to in-vitro fertilization outcome. However, study findings have been inconsistent, and the association between psychological stress and in-vitro fertilization outcomes is still unclear. The aim of the authors in this study was to examine the relation of infertility-related stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms to in-vitro fertilization outcome. The sample consisted of 160 women with fertility problems undergoing fertility treatment in a public hospital in Athens, Greece between November 2008 and July 2009. The relation of infertility-related stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms to in-vitro fertilization outcome was assessed by using hierarchical, sequential logistic regression, while controlling for the effects of relevant biomedical factors. After the embryo transfer, 41 women (26%) had a positive pregnancy outcome. Logistic regression analyses revealed that, controlling for biomedical factors (age, number of oocytes retrieved, and embryos transferred) infertility-specific stress (OR = 0.964, p = .011) and nonspecific anxiety (OR = 0.889, p = .006) were negatively associated with a positive pregnancy outcome after IVF. Psychological stress was negatively associated with in-vitro fertilization outcome, after controlling for biomedical variables. Fertility treatment protocols should consider including counselling interventions to potentially mitigate adverse effects of stress.

  20. Benefits of TEMPOL on ram semen motility and in vitro fertility: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Mara, Laura; Accardo, Carla; Pilichi, Susanna; Dattena, Maria; Chessa, Fabrizio; Chessa, Bernardo; Branca, Andrea; Cappai, Pietro

    2005-05-01

    Extending the preservation time of fresh semen is an important goal in artificial insemination programs particularly for ewes in natural oestrus, where insemination periods are longer than for ewes synchronized with hormonal treatments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the antioxidant TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) on the maintenance in long term storage of ram semen motility and fertility. Semen from Sarda breed rams was diluted in two extenders: sodium citrate buffer with TEMPOL and skimmed milk, used as control. Samples diluted with TEMPOL were cooled at either 15 degrees C or 22 degrees C, while those diluted with skimmed milk were cooled at 15 degrees C. Each sample was divided into four stocks, and stored for different times (5 min, 24, 48 and 72 h). Three aliquots were taken from each stock for every storage period. One was immediately evaluated under microscope; one was used for in vitro fertilization; one was incubated for 2 h in controlled humidified atmosphere (5% CO2, 7% O2 and 88% N2) at 39 degrees C, then evaluated for motility and utilized for in vitro fertilization. Ram semen diluted with media containing TEMPOL demonstrated increased motility, fertility and an improved protective effect when it was stored at 15 degrees C.

  1. Fertilization of Mouse Gametes in Vitro Using a Digital Microfluidic System.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hong-Yuan; Shen, Hsien-Hua; Chung, Lung-Yuan; Chung, Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Chih-Chen; Hsu, Chia-Hsien; Fan, Shih-Kang; Yao, Da-Jeng

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrated in vitro fertilization (IVF) using a digital microfluidic (DMF) system, so-called electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD). The DMF device was proved to be biocompatible and the DMF manipulation of a droplet was harmless to the embryos. This DMF platform was then used for the fertilization of mouse gametes in vitro and for embryo dynamic culture based on a dispersed droplet form. Development of the embryos was instantaneously recorded by a time-lapse microscope in an incubator. Our results indicated that increasing the number of sperms for IVF would raise the rate of fertilization. However, the excess of sperms in the 10 μL culture medium would more easily make the embryo dead during cell culture. Dynamic culture powered with EWOD can manipulate a single droplet containing mouse embryos and culture to the eight-cell stage. The fertilization rate of IVF demonstrated by DMF system was 34.8%, and about 25% inseminated embryos dynamically cultured on a DMF chip developed into an eight-cell stage. The results indicate that the DMF system has the potential for application in assisted reproductive technology.

  2. The effect of medical clowning on pregnancy rates after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Friedler, Shevach; Glasser, Saralee; Azani, Liat; Freedman, Laurence S; Raziel, Arie; Strassburger, Dvora; Ron-El, Raphael; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2011-05-01

    This experimental prospective quasi-randomized study examining the impact of a medical clowning encounter after embryo transfer (ET) after in vitro fertilization (IVF) found that the pregnancy rate in the intervention group was 36.4%, compared with 20.2% in the control group (adjusted odds ratio, 2.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-5.24). Medical clowning as an adjunct to IVF-ET may have a beneficial effect on pregnancy rates and deserves further investigation.

  3. Lasers in the in-vitro fertilization laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadir, Yona; Neev, Joseph; Berns, Michael W.

    1993-05-01

    Laser beams are routinely used in the clinical practice of assisted reproduction. The main applications are in laparoscopic and hysteroscopic surgery. The potential applications of laser microbeams as a tool for gamete manipulations are studied and basic concepts are discussed.

  4. Improvement on in vitro maturation, fertilization and development of minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Asada, M; Tetsuka, M; Ishikawa, H; Ohsumi, S; Fukui, Y

    2001-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to improve in vitro maturation, fertilization and subsequent development of minke whale oocytes. We investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 10 and 20%) of fetal whale serum (FWS) in maturation medium on nuclear maturation, morphological grade (A or B) of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) obtained from prepubertal and adult minke whales. Grade A (> or = 5 layers of cumulus cells) COC collected from the adult whales and cultured in the medium with 20% FWS had a higher (P < 0.05) maturation rate (31.8%) than those in the medium without FWS (0%). Adding FWS to the maturation medium significantly (P < 0.01) improved the proportion of oocytes at Metaphase II (M-II): without FWS (7.9%), with 10% (19.4%) and 20% (21.4%) FWS. However, sexual maturity of whales and COC grades were not significantly affected by M-II oocytes. When in vitro fertilization of matured oocytes was performed in the presence of 20% FWS or 0.6% BSA in the fertilization medium, the proportions of sperm penetration and two-pronuclei formation in matured oocytes were not significantly different. Grade A COC cultured in a culture medium supplemented with 10% FWS cleaved at a higher rate (15.4%, P < 0.05) than did Grade A and B COCs cultured in the medium without FWS (0%). Neither Grade A nor B COCs cleaved when the medium was without FWS. The proportions of cleaved oocytes increased (P < 0.05) with FWS supplementation (6.9% and 8.1% for 1.0% FWS and 20% FWS, respectively). Grade A COC was significantly (P < 0.05) superior in its ability to cleave (14.5%) and develop to morula (4.2%) compared with that of the oocytes from Grade B COC (2.5% and 0%). Coculture with granulosa cells during in vitro culture did not significantly affect cleavage and development to the morula stage. These results indicate that FWS addition in the maturation medium improved the rate of in vitro maturation and cleavage after insemination of minke whale oocytes. The BSA

  5. An Antioxidant Davallialactone from Phellinus baumii Enhances Sperm Penetration on In Vitro Fertilization of Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Myeong

    2016-01-01

    Davallialactone (DAVA) is a hispidin analogue derived from the medicinal fungus Phellinus baumii. We examined the effect of DAVA on in vitro fertilization (IVF) of pigs. Boar spermatozoa were incubated in fertilization medium with varying concentrations of DAVA, then sperm motility and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level were evaluated. Higher sperm motility was found following the addition of 0.5 or 1 µM DAVA after incubation than addition of other concentrations or controls. ROS level decreased significantly with the addition of DAVA. The rate of normal fertilization was higher in the presence of 1 µM DAVA (65.1%) than were those of other concentrations or controls (45.4~59.4%), and the highest total fertilization rate (mono- and polyspermic oocytes) was observed at 1 µM DAVA (83%). In conclusion, addition of DAVA to fertilization medium improved sperm motility, and reduced ROS level so as to potentially improve sperm-oocyte binding in IVF, suggesting the potential of a compound isolated from mushrooms in assisted reproductive technology for humans and animals. PMID:27103855

  6. Embryo production by parthenogenetic activation and fertilization of in vitro matured oocytes from Cebus apella.

    PubMed

    Lima, Julianne S; Leão, Danuza L; Sampaio, Rafael V; Brito, Adriel B; Santos, Regiane R; Miranda, Moysés S; Ohashi, Otávio M; Domingues, Sheyla F S

    2013-05-01

    The efficiency of in vitro fertilization (IVF) depends on the viability of spermatozoa. For capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), in vitro capacitation of spermatozoa is challenging because of their unique seminal coagulum. Motile spermatozoa can be obtained after liquefaction of the semen coagulum in coconut water-based solution. The objective of the present study was to establish an optimal in vitro maturation (IVM) protocol for capuchin monkeys and to observe the effect of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) on IVF and parthenogenetic activation (PA) of oocytes collected from unstimulated females. We assessed spermatozoa quality after recovery from seminal coagulum using the solution ACP-118® as an extender. Oocytes were matured in vitro for 36 or 40 h and subjected to IVF or PA by applying ionomycin combined either with 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) or roscovitine. In total, 87% of oocytes reached metaphase II (MII) after 40 IVM and 4-cell embryo production was obtained after IVF and parthenogenesis using ionomycin/6-DMAP. ACP-118® was used successfully to harvest viable spermatozoa from semen coagulum and in the preservation of spermatozoa, which were able to fertilize oocytes in vitro.

  7. Establishment of an in vitro fertilization system in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Uchiumi, Takao; Uemura, Isao; Okamoto, Takashi

    2007-08-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) systems using isolated male and female gametes have been utilized to dissect fertilization-induced events in angiosperms, such as egg activation, zygote development and early embryogenesis, as the female gametophytes of plants are deeply embedded within ovaries. In this study, a rice IVF system was established to take advantage of the abundant resources stemming from rice research for investigations into the mechanisms of fertilization and early embryogenesis. Fusion of gametes was performed using a modified electrofusion method, and the fusion product, a zygote, formed cell wall and an additional nucleolus. The zygote divided into a two-celled embryo 15-24 h after fusion, and developed into a globular-like embryo consisting of an average of 15-16 cells by 48 h after fusion. Comparison of the developmental processes of zygotes produced by IVF with those of zygotes generated in planta suggested that zygotes produced by IVF develop and grow into early globular stage embryos in a highly similar manner to those in planta. Although the IVF-produced globular embryos did not develop into late globular-stage or differentiated embryos, but into irregularly shaped cell masses, fertile plants were regenerated from the cell masses and the seeds harvested from these plants germinated normally. The rice IVF system reported here will be a powerful tool for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in the early embryogenesis of angiosperms and for making new cultivars.

  8. In vitro maturation and fertilization of prepubertal and pubertal black Bengal goat oocytes.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Momena; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Musharraf Uddin; Ahmed, Jalal Uddin; Haque, Aminul; Rahman, Mohammad Bozlur; Shamsuddin, Mohammed

    2011-03-01

    Oocytes retrieval, in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) efficiency are inevitable steps towards in vitro production of embryos. In the present study, these parameters were investigated in the ovaries of prepubertal (n = 31) and pubertal (n = 61) black Bengal goats obtained from a slaughterhouse. Nuclear maturation was evaluated upon aspiration and following IVM in TCM-199 (Earle's salt with L-glutamine and sodium bicarbonate) for 27 h at 39°C under 5% CO(2) in humidified air. The oocytes retrieval and efficiency (mean ± SD) per prepubertal and pubertal goats were 5.2 ± 0.6 and 6.8 ± 0.6, and 77.3 ± 0.1% and 80.5 ± 0.6%, respectively. Anaphase I - telophase I stages differed significantly (7.3 ± 0.8 vs. 2.6 ± 0.2, p < 0.05) between the two groups of goats. After IVM, the percentages of metaphase II were significantly higher (66.3 vs. 60.3, p < 0.05) in pubertal goats than in their prepubertal counterparts. The percentages of normal in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Fert-Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate of pubertal goat oocytes did not differ between Percoll and swim-up sperm separation methods (36.7 ± 0.9% vs. 32.7 ± 1.3%, p > 0.05). Furthermore, sperm capacitation by heparin alone or in combination with ionomycin did not lead to a significant increase in the normal fertilization rate (34.8 ± 1.7 vs. 32.2 ± 1.5%, respectively) in the oocytes of pubertal goats. In conclusion, the ovaries of pubertal black Bengal goats obtained from the slaughterhouse could be used for in vitro embryo production. However, further optimization of the IVM and IVF techniques are necessary for satisfactory in vitro embryo production.

  9. In vitro maturation and fertilization of prepubertal and pubertal black Bengal goat oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Khatun, Momena; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Musharraf Uddin; Ahmed, Jalal Uddin; Haque, Aminul; Shamsuddin, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Oocytes retrieval, in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) efficiency are inevitable steps towards in vitro production of embryos. In the present study, these parameters were investigated in the ovaries of prepubertal (n = 31) and pubertal (n = 61) black Bengal goats obtained from a slaughterhouse. Nuclear maturation was evaluated upon aspiration and following IVM in TCM-199 (Earle's salt with L-glutamine and sodium bicarbonate) for 27 h at 39℃ under 5% CO2 in humidified air. The oocytes retrieval and efficiency (mean ± SD) per prepubertal and pubertal goats were 5.2 ± 0.6 and 6.8 ± 0.6, and 77.3 ± 0.1% and 80.5 ± 0.6%, respectively. Anaphase I - telophase I stages differed significantly (7.3 ± 0.8 vs. 2.6 ± 0.2, p < 0.05) between the two groups of goats. After IVM, the percentages of metaphase II were significantly higher (66.3 vs. 60.3, p < 0.05) in pubertal goats than in their prepubertal counterparts. The percentages of normal in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Fert-Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate of pubertal goat oocytes did not differ between Percoll and swim-up sperm separation methods (36.7 ± 0.9% vs. 32.7 ± 1.3%, p > 0.05). Furthermore, sperm capacitation by heparin alone or in combination with ionomycin did not lead to a significant increase in the normal fertilization rate (34.8 ± 1.7 vs. 32.2 ± 1.5%, respectively) in the oocytes of pubertal goats. In conclusion, the ovaries of pubertal black Bengal goats obtained from the slaughterhouse could be used for in vitro embryo production. However, further optimization of the IVM and IVF techniques are necessary for satisfactory in vitro embryo production. PMID:21368566

  10. Validation of a heterologous fertilization assay and comparison of fertilization rates of equine oocytes using in vitro fertilization, perivitelline, and intracytoplasmic sperm injections.

    PubMed

    Sessions-Bresnahan, D R; Graham, J K; Carnevale, E M

    2014-07-15

    IVF in horses is rarely successful. One reason for this could be the failure of sperm to fully capacitate or exhibit hyperactive motility. We hypothesized that the zona pellucida (ZP) of equine oocytes prevents fertilization in vitro, and bypassing the ZP would increase fertilization rates. Limited availability of equine oocytes for research has necessitated the use of heterologous oocyte binding assays using bovine oocytes. We sought to validate an assay using bovine oocytes and equine sperm and then to demonstrate that bypassing the ZP using perivitelline sperm injections (PVIs) with equine sperm capacitated with dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine would result in higher fertilization rates than standard IVF in bovine and equine oocytes. In experiment 1, bovine oocytes were used for (1) IVF with bovine sperm, (2) IVF with equine sperm, and (3) intracytoplasmic sperm injections (ICSIs) with equine sperm. Presumptive zygotes were either stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole from 18 to 26 hours at 2-hour intervals or evaluated for cleavage at 56 hours after addition of sperm. Equine sperm fertilized bovine oocytes; however, pronuclei formation was delayed compared with bovine sperm after IVF. The delayed pronuclear formation was not seen after ICSI. In experiment 2, bovine oocytes were assigned to the following five groups: (1) cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) coincubated with bovine sperm; (2) COC exposed to sucrose then coincubated with bovine sperm; (3) COC coincubated with equine sperm; (4) COC exposed to sucrose, and coincubated with equine sperm; and (5) oocytes exposed to sucrose, and 10 to 15 equine sperm injected into the perivitelline (PV) space. Equine sperm tended (P = 0.08) to fertilize more bovine oocytes when injected into the PV space than after IVF. In experiment 3, oocytes were assigned to the following four groups: (1) IVF, equine, and bovine COC coincubated with equine sperm; (2) PVI of equine and bovine oocytes; (3) PVI with equine oocytes

  11. [Comparative analysis of pregnancy rate/captured oocytes in an in vitro fertilization program].

    PubMed

    Kably Ambe, Alberto; Estévez González, Sergio; Carballo Mondragón, Esperanza; Durán Monterrosas, Leonor

    2008-05-01

    Since in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer is used as a common assisted reproductive technique there have been attempts to increase its success rate. One way is to obtain more good quality mature ovules to fertilize them, and two to three good quality embryos to transfer. To determine if the number of retrieved oocytes is related with the pregnancy rate in IVF-ET. Reproductive and descriptive study; 172 patients in the IVF program were included. Whole patients had ovary stimulation with FSHr and antagonist multidose protocol. Five study groups were considered depending on the oocyte number retrieved. Data were analized and correlated with fertilization and pregnancy rate. There were no statistical differences among age, body mass index, percentage of mature oocyte, fertilization rate, embryo cell stage or basal levels of LH and Estradiol. Group three showed the highest pregnancy rate (64.29%) nevertheless group five had major number of embryo transferred (2.97 +/- 0.54 vs 3.17 +/- 0.45, p = 0.21). According to FSH doses given, group one had statistical difference related to group three, with higher dose (54.1 vs 62.1). According to previous studies, related to the number of oocyte retrieved, the possibility of pregnancy is higher with more than 13 oocytes retrieved (OR: 0.9 IC 95%: 0.4 -1.7). Pregnancy rate is higher when ten to fifteen oocytes were retrieved.

  12. Functional capacity and fertilizing longevity of frozen-thawed scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) spermatozoa in a heterologous in vitro fertilization system.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J K; Roth, T L

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if cryopreservation and thawing reduces the quality of scimitar-horned oryx spermatozoa and thus might be responsible for sub-optimal artificial insemination (Al) efficiency. Functional capacity of frozen thawed oryx spermatozoa was compared in a heterologous bovine in vitro fertilization (IVF) system after being prepared by four methods. Fertilizing longevity was also assessed after thawing and pre-incubating spermatozoa for 12 or 24 h before IVF. Sperm characteristics (viability, morphology, acrosomal and capacitation status) were superior for samples prepared by Percoll centrifugation and standard swim-up compared with microdrop swim-up and wash methods. Regardless of variation in sperm characteristics over time, fertilization success and embryo development were high and did not differ among treatments. Fertilization and cleavage success for spermatozoa pre-incubated for 12 h before IVF were comparable with that achieved with non-incubated spermatozoa. Even 24 h after thawing, spermatozoa were capable of fertilizing oocytes, but percentage fertilization and embryo cleavage were significantly lower than for spermatozoa pre-incubated for 12 h. Overall, functional capacity of oryx spermatozoa after thawing appears comparable with that of domestic bull spermatozoa. When used for Al, frozen-thawed oryx spermatozoa should be capable of fertilizing oocytes in females ovulating 12 or even 24 h after insemination, providing sperm transport mechanisms are adequate. The functional capacity and fertilizing longevity of oryx sperm after thawing is high, and therefore unlikely to be responsible for decreased Al efficiency in the scimitar-horned oryx.

  13. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations and association with in vitro fertilization outcomes among women from a fertility clinic

    PubMed Central

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Chiu, Yu-Han; Williams, Paige L.; Ehrlich, Shelley; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Petrozza, John C.; Ford, Jennifer B.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are urinary BPA concentrations associated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes among women attending an academic fertility center? SUMMARY ANSWER Urinary BPA concentrations were not associated with adverse reproductive and pregnancy outcomes among women from a fertility clinic. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, is detected in the urine of most Americans. Although animal studies have demonstrated that BPA reduces female fertility through effects on the ovarian follicle and uterus, data from human populations are scarce and equivocal. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION This prospective cohort study between 2004 and 2012 at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center included 256 women (n = 375 IVF cycles) who provided up to two urine samples prior to oocyte retrieval (total N = 673). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS Study participants were women enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study. Intermediate and clinical end-points of IVF treatments were abstracted from electronic medical records. We used generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts to evaluate the association between urinary BPA concentrations and IVF outcomes adjusted by age, race, body mass index, smoking status and infertility diagnosis. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The specific gravity-adjusted geometric mean of BPA was 1.87 µg/l, which is comparable to that for female participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012. Urinary BPA concentrations were not associated with endometrial wall thickness, peak estradiol levels, proportion of high quality embryos or fertilization rates. Furthermore, there were no associations between urinary BPA concentrations and implantation, clinical pregnancy or live birth rates per initiated cycle or per embryo transfer. Although we did not find any associations between urinary BPA concentrations and IVF outcomes, the relation between

  14. Variability in in vitro fertilization outcomes of prepubertal goat oocytes explained by basic semen analyses.

    PubMed

    Palomo, M J; Quintanilla, R; Izquierdo, M D; Mogas, T; Paramio, M T

    2016-12-01

    This work analyses the changes that caprine spermatozoa undergo during in vitro fertilization (IVF) of in vitro matured prepubertal goat oocytes and their relationship with IVF outcome, in order to obtain an effective model that allows prediction of in vitro fertility on the basis of semen assessment. The evolution of several sperm parameters (motility, viability and acrosomal integrity) during IVF and their relationship with three IVF outcome criteria (total penetration, normal penetration and cleavage rates) were studied in a total of 56 IVF replicates. Moderate correlation coefficients between some sperm parameters and IVF outcome were observed. In addition, stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted that considered three grouping of sperm parameters as potential explanatory variables of the three IVF outcome criteria. The proportion of IVF outcome variation that can be explained by the fitted models ranged from 0.62 to 0.86, depending upon the trait analysed and the variables considered. Seven out of 32 sperm parameters were selected as partial covariates in at least one of the nine multiple regression models. Among these, progressive sperm motility assessed immediately after swim-up, the percentage of dead sperm with intact acrosome and the incidence of acrosome reaction both determined just before the gamete co-culture, and finally the proportion of viable spermatozoa at 17 h post-insemination were the most frequently selected sperm parameters. Nevertheless, the predictive ability of these models must be confirmed in a larger sample size experiment.

  15. Oocyte cryopreservation and in vitro culture affect calcium signalling during human fertilization.

    PubMed

    Nikiforaki, D; Vanden Meerschaut, F; Qian, C; De Croo, I; Lu, Y; Deroo, T; Van den Abbeel, E; Heindryckx, B; De Sutter, P

    2014-01-01

    What are the precise patterns of calcium oscillations during the fertilization of human oocytes matured either in vivo or in vitro or aged in vitro and what is the effect of cryopreservation? Human oocytes matured in vivo exhibit a specific pattern of calcium oscillations, which is affected by in vitro maturation, in vitro ageing and cryopreservation. Oscillations in cytoplasmic calcium concentration are crucial for oocyte activation and further embryonic development. While several studies have described in detail the calcium oscillation pattern during fertilization in animal models, studies with human oocytes are scarce. This was a laboratory-based study using human MII oocytes matured in vivo or in vitro either fresh or after cryopreservation with slow freezing or vitrification. Altogether, 205 human oocytes were included in the analysis. In vivo and in vitro matured human oocytes were used for this research either fresh or following vitrification/warming (V/W) and slow freezing/thawing (F/T). Human oocytes were obtained following written informed consent from patients undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation. For the calcium pattern analysis, oocytes were loaded with the ratiometric calcium indicator fluorescent dye Fura-2. Following ICSI using sperm from a single donor, intracellular calcium was measured for 16 h at 37°C under 6% CO(2). The calcium oscillation parameters were calculated for all intact oocytes that showed calcium oscillations and were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Human in vivo MII oocytes display a specific pattern of calcium oscillations following ICSI. This pattern is significantly affected by in vitro ageing, with the calcium oscillations occurring over a longer period of time and with a lower frequency, shorter duration and higher amplitude (P < 0.05). In vitro matured oocytes from the GV and MI stage exhibit a different pattern of calcium oscillations with calcium transients being of lower frequency and shorter duration compared with

  16. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition during porcine in vitro maturation modifies oocyte protein S-nitrosylation and in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Romero-Aguirregomezcorta, Jon; Santa, Ángela Patricia; García-Vázquez, Francisco Alberto; Coy, Pilar; Matás, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule involved in many reproductive processes. Its importance during oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) has been demonstrated in various species although sometimes with contradictory results. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of NO during IVM of cumulus oocyte complexes and its subsequent impact on gamete interaction in porcine species. For this purpose, IVM media were supplemented with three NOS inhibitors: NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and aminoguanidine (AG). A NO donor, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), was also used. The effects on the cumulus cell expansion, meiotic resumption, zona pellucida digestion time (ZPdt) and, finally, on in vitro fertilization (IVF) parameters were evaluated. The oocyte S-nitrosoproteins were also studied by in situ nitrosylation. The results showed that after 42 h of IVM, AG, L-NAME and L-NMMA had an inhibitory effect on cumulus cell expansion. Meiotic resumption was suppressed only when AG was added, with 78.7% of the oocytes arrested at the germinal vesicle state (P<0.05). Supplementation of the IVM medium with NOS inhibitors or NO donor did not enhance the efficiency of IVF, but revealed the importance of NO in maturation and subsequent fertilization. Furthermore, protein S-nitrosylation is reported for the first time as a pathway through which NO exerts its effect on porcine IVM; therefore, it would be important to determine which proteins are nitrosylated in the oocyte and their functions, in order to throw light on the mechanism of action of NO in oocyte maturation and subsequent fertilization.

  17. Reductive dechlorination reduces negative impact of PCBs on in vitro fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, K.; Mousa, M.; Quensen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The variety of toxic effects ascribed to commercial PCB mixtures is likely because the individual congeners differ in their modes of toxicity and potencies. Similarly, a change in the congener composition of a PCB mixture due to reductive dechlorination by anaerobic microorganisms might be expected to alter the toxicological properties of that PCB mixture. In this study, Aroclors 1,242 and 1,254 were reductively dechlorinated using cultures of microorganisms from two different sites. The resulting dechlorination products and Aroclors were then tested for their effects on in vitro fertilization using mouse gametes. In general, percent fertilization increased with the extent of dechlorination. For example, fertilization in treatments with 10 {micro}g/ml of either Aroclor was only 40% of that in controls without Aroclor, but equal total molar concentrations of the dechlorination products produced by River Raisin microorganisms had no significant effect on fertilization. By this measure, therefore, the microbial dechlorination of PCBs appears to have a beneficial effect in reducing reproductive toxicity.

  18. ["Initial results of the first ambulatory program for in vitro fertilization in Mexico"].

    PubMed

    Kably Ambe, A; Barrón Vallejo, J; Carballo Mondragón, E; Anta Jaen, E

    1997-06-01

    Infertile couples treated with in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) seeking highest standards of case. The new programmes of IVF-ET are under pressure to generate as quickly as possible acceptable pregnancy rates. We report our experiences at a new IVF clinic, performing conventional IVF-ET and oocyte donation. Patients were treated in groups, their menstrual cycles were previously synchronized with luteal phase noretisterone. Both variants of IVF produced clinical pregnancies since the start of activity. In this paper the logistic and methodology are discussed. Today the aim of the programme is increasing the efficiency and efficacy of same.

  19. Phospholipase C-zeta deficiency as a cause for repetitive oocyte fertilization failure during ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization with ICSI: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chithiwala, Zahabiya H; Lee, Hoi Chang; Hill, David L; Jellerette-Nolan, Teru; Fissore, Rafael; Grow, Daniel; Dumesic, Daniel A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe impaired oocyte fertilization from phospholipase C-zeta (PLC-ζ) deficiency in normal-appearing sperm that was successfully treated using calcium (Ca(2+)) ionophore with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of oocytes matured in vitro. An infertile couple undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) experienced failed oocyte fertilization following ICSI with normal-appearing sperm. A semen sample collected from the patient was used to assess the expression of sperm PLC- ζ protein by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence and PLC-ζ bioactivity by an in vitro model of Ca(2+) release. A second IVF cycle was performed using Ca(2+) ionophore with ICSI to enhance Ca(2+)-induced oocyte activation of oocytes matured in vitro. Sperm PLC-ζ protein deficiency was demonstrated by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence and confirmed by reduced PLC-ζ bioactivity using an in vitro model of Ca(2+) release. Nevertheless, with this sperm and supplementation of Ca(2+) ionophore following ICSI, fertilization of four of six oocytes matured in vitro was obtained. In addition, four embryos underwent cleavage and two of them reached the blastocyst stage. Transfer of these blastocysts into the uterus led to a single pregnancy and live birth. Deficiency of PLC-ζ in normal-appearing human sperm is associated with impaired Ca(2+)-dependent oocyte activation during ICSI. Under this condition, use of Ca(2+) ionophore following ICSI of oocytes matured in vitro improves embryo developmental competence, possibly through the activation of Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms governing fertilization and preimplantation embryogenesis.

  20. In vitro fertilization for endometriosis-associated infertility.

    PubMed

    Polat, Mehtap; Yaralı, İrem; Boynukalın, Kübra; Yaralı, Hakan

    2015-08-01

    Endometriosis is an enigmatic disease affecting 10-15% of reproductive aged women and is encountered in 25-35% of women suffering from infertility. IVF is an effective tool to overcome endometriosis-associated infertility when expectant management or surgery fails. Direct IVF should be envisioned if the female age is greater than 38 year and infertility is long lasting. Likewise, semen characteristics or tubal status that is incompatible with natural conception mandates going straight to IVF. IVF, not only bypasses the distortion of pelvic anatomy associated with advanced stage endometriosis, but also removes gametes from a hostile peritoneal environment. In this article, we address the impact, if any, of endometriosis and endometriomason IVF outcome, whether surgical treatment of early-stage disease, endometriomas or deep infiltrating endometriosis would enhance pregnancy rates in IVF, which protocol to employ for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF and finally the impact, if any, of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF on progression of endometriosis.

  1. Semen evaluation following preparation for in vitro fertilization of human oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tarlatzis, B C; Laufer, N; Murillo, O; Makler, A; Naftolin, F; DeCherney, A H

    1986-01-01

    Semen preparation is an important step of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and can affect the success of this procedure. Prior to oocyte insemination, spermatozoa are washed to remove seminal plasma which is believed to contain decapacitation factors. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of preparation on semen quality and subsequent successful IVF. Oocytes were recovered from 12 hMG/hCG-stimulated women by laparoscopy, and 6 h later semen specimens were obtained from the male partners. After liquefaction, 1 ml of semen was centrifuged twice in Ham's F10 medium supplemented with 10% of homologous serum, and the final suspension was used to inseminate the preovulatory eggs. In the initial and washed-sperm suspensions, motility was evaluated by the MEP method, and the occurrence of acrosome reaction and sperm viability were evaluated by the triple-stain technique. Fertilization was documented by the formation of two pronuclei. Washing caused a significant decrease in the percentage of motile sperm from 68% to 59% but significantly increased mean sperm velocity from 26 to 29 micron/sec (p less than 0.01). The mean fertilization rate was 65%, and no correlation was found with any of the parameters of semen quality before or after washing. Semen preparation for IVF is associated with a decrease in the percentage of motile sperm that does not seem to affect the fertilizing ability of normal spermatozoa but may be of importance in patients with abnormal semen.

  2. In vitro effect of produced water on cod, Gadus morhua, sperm cells and fertilization.

    PubMed

    Hamoutene, Dounia; Samuelson, S; Lush, L; Burt, K; Drover, D; King, T; Lee, K

    2010-05-01

    The in vitro effect of produced water released by oil and gas platforms was assessed by exposing cod sperm cells to realistic concentrations of this mixture (100, 200, 500 ppm). We investigated produced water impact on enzymes of the aerobic (citrate synthase) and glycolytic metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase), lipid catabolism (lipase), as well as an anti-oxidant enzyme (catalase). Fertilization rates, viability, respiration, ATP, and total motility duration were also evaluated. To explore correlations between these parameters, we have also tested the effect of conserving sperm for 24 h at 4 degrees C. After conservation, fertilization success was decreased but other parameters were not affected. Produced water did not result in a significant change in fertilization; a significant increase in sperm protein amounts and citrate synthase activity can be observed. No correlations are found between parameters showing that sperm viability and unchanged energy levels do not translate into equivalent fertilization capacity. To conclude, exposure of sperm to produced water resulted only in subtle effects on cells. These findings bring information on the effect of produced water on sperm itself rather than on spermatogenesis or testis development of an exposed fish.

  3. Quality management systems for your in vitro fertilization clinic's laboratory: Why bother?

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Jan I; Banker, Manish R; Sjoblom, Late Peter

    2013-01-01

    Several countries have in recent years introduced prescribed requirements for treatment and monitoring of outcomes, as well as a licensing or accreditation requirement for in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics and their laboratories. It is commonplace for Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) laboratories to be required to have a quality control system. However, more effective Total Quality Management systems are now being implemented by an increasing number of ART clinics. In India, it is now a requirement to have a quality management system in order to be accredited and to help meet customer demand for improved delivery of ART services. This review contains the proceedings a quality management session at the Indian Fertility Experts Meet (IFEM) 2010 and focuses on the creation of a patient-oriented best-in-class IVF laboratory. PMID:23869142

  4. Quality management systems for your in vitro fertilization clinic's laboratory: Why bother?

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Jan I; Banker, Manish R; Sjoblom, Late Peter

    2013-01-01

    Several countries have in recent years introduced prescribed requirements for treatment and monitoring of outcomes, as well as a licensing or accreditation requirement for in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics and their laboratories. It is commonplace for Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) laboratories to be required to have a quality control system. However, more effective Total Quality Management systems are now being implemented by an increasing number of ART clinics. In India, it is now a requirement to have a quality management system in order to be accredited and to help meet customer demand for improved delivery of ART services. This review contains the proceedings a quality management session at the Indian Fertility Experts Meet (IFEM) 2010 and focuses on the creation of a patient-oriented best-in-class IVF laboratory.

  5. Isolation and in vitro binding of mating type plus fertilization tubules from Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nedra F

    2008-01-01

    During fertilization in Chlamydomonas, adhesion and fusion of gametes occur at the tip of specialized regions of the plasma membrane, known as mating structures. The mating type minus (mt[-]) structure is a slightly raised dome-shaped region located at the apical end of the cell body. In contrast, the activated mating type plus (mt[+]) structure is an actin-filled, microvillouslike organelle. Interestingly, a similar type of "fusion organelle" is conserved across diverse groups. Chlamydomonas provides an ideal model system for studying the process of gametic cell fusion in that it is amenable to genetic manipulations as well as cell and molecular biological approaches. Moreover, the ease of culturing Chlamydomonas combined with the ability to isolate the mt(+) fertilization tubule and the development of in vitro assays for adhesion makes it an ideal system for biochemical studies focused on dissecting the molecular mechanisms that underlie the complex process of gametic cell fusion.

  6. The Effect of Complementary and Alternative Medicine on Subfertile Women with In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuehui; Fu, Yiman; Han, Fengjuan; Kuang, Hongying; Hu, Min; Wu, Xiaoke

    2014-01-01

    About 10–15% of couples have difficulty conceiving at some point in their reproductive lives and thus have to seek specialist fertility care. One of the most commonly used treatment options is in vitro fertilization (IVF) and its related expansions. Despite many recent technological advances, the average IVF live birth rate per single initiated cycle is still only 30%. Consequently, there is a need to find new therapies to promote the efficiency of the procedure. Many patients have turned to complementary and alternative medical (CAM) treatments as an adjuvant therapy to improve their chances of success when they undergo IVF treatment. At present, several CAM methods have been used in infertile couples with IVF, which has achieved obvious effects. However, biologically plausible mechanisms of the action of CAM for IVF have not been systematically reviewed. This review briefly summarizes the current progress of the impact of CAM on the outcomes of IVF and introduces the mechanisms. PMID:24527047

  7. Successful in vitro fertilization and generation of transgenics in Black and Tan Brachyury (BTBR) mice.

    PubMed

    Baan, Mieke; Krentz, Kathleen J; Fontaine, Danielle A; Davis, Dawn Belt

    2016-12-01

    The Black and Tan Brachyury (BTBR) mouse strain is a valuable model for the study of long-term complications from obesity-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus and autism spectrum disorder. Due to technical difficulties with assisted reproduction, genetically modified animals on this background have previously been generated through extensive backcrossing, which is expensive and time-consuming. We successfully generated two separate transgenic mouse lines after direct zygote microinjection into this background strain. Additionally, we developed in vitro fertilization (IVF) methods for the BTBR mouse. We found low rates of fertilization and implantation in this strain, and identified the BTBR oocyte as the primary culprit of low success with BTBR IVF. We achieved an increase in live born pups from 5.9 to 35.6 % with IVF in the BTBR strain by use of BTBR females at a younger age (18-25 days), collection of oocytes 15-17 h after superovulation, and the use of supplemented fertilization media. This method eliminates the need for time consuming assisted embryo manipulations that are otherwise required for success with BTBR oocytes. This advancement provides an exciting opportunity to directly generate BTBR transgenics and gene-edited mice using both traditional and emerging genomic editing techniques, such as CRISPR/Cas9. These methods also allow effective colony preservation and rederivation with these strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing embryo manipulations in BTBR mice.

  8. In vitro fertilization (IVF) of mouse ova in HEPES-buffered culture media.

    PubMed

    Behr, B R; Stratton, C J; Foote, W D; Knutzen, V; Sher, G

    1990-02-01

    Some major drawbacks of a bicarbonate-buffered culture medium include the requirement of an elaborate incubator system able to maintain a 5% CO2 environment and the inability of the culture medium to maintain a physiological pH range (pH 7.3-7.4) in room air (0.03% CO2). This work resulted in the development of IVF culture media, BB (modified T6) and Hams-HEPES, which use HEPES-buffered systems not requiring the specialized CO2 environment to maintain a physiological pH range in room air. These media generate above-average cleavage rates in in vitro fertilized, superovulated B6CBAF1 mice ova. The effect of heparin and HEPES on cleavage was studied and neither had a significant effect at the concentrations used. Cleavage rates of nonfertilized ova (parthenogenic division) were 9 to 13%. There was no significant difference in parthenogenesis between any of the culture media and it appears to be a function of the strain of mice and the timing between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection and ovum collection. These results emphasize the need to account for parthenogenesis when determining cleavage rates of in vitro fertilized mouse ova. Also, the results suggest that because of individual mouse differences in cleavage rates, it is important to use an adequate number of mice per group to determine an accurate, average cleavage rate.

  9. Proteomic analysis of human follicular fluid in poor ovarian responders during in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jae Won; Kim, Seul Ki; Cho, Kyung-Cho; Kim, Min-Sik; Suh, Chang Suk; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    2017-03-01

    Poor ovarian response (POR) in controlled ovarian stimulation is often observed during in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer cycles and it is a major problem. A POR has been found to be related to several factors, including advanced age, high body mass index, and history of ovarian or pelvic surgery. However, it is difficult to predict POR, as there are no specific biomarkers known. In this study, we used quantitative proteomic analyses to investigate potential biomarkers that can predict poor response during in vitro fertilization based on follicular fluid samples. A total of 1079 proteins were identified using a high-resolution orbitrap mass spectrometer coupled online to a nanoflow-LC system. It is notable that 65 upregulated and 66 downregulated proteins were found to be functionally enriched in poor responders. We also validated these differentially expressed proteins using a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer for quantification of targeted proteins. Of the differentially expressed proteins, three proteins (pregnancy zone protein, renin, and sushi repeat-containing protein SRPX) were regarded as statistically significant (p < 0.05). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Effects of glucose concentration on in vitro fertilization in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, H T; Chou, C K; Lin, C S; Huang, M C

    2003-12-01

    BALB/c mice are widely used in genetic, tumour and immunological studies. However, the mice demonstrate a lower reproduction rate, low fertility and small litters, because of their highly genetic homozygoisty. Based on in vitro fertilization (IVF), a routine technique for biomedical studies, it is worth to evaluate the effects to BALB/c mice on IVF efficiency. In order to test the genetic factor affecting the IVF efficiency of BALB/c, four reciprocal IVF tests of BALB/cByJ and FVB/NCrl mice were performed. The results showed that the average fertility of IVF sponsored by FVB/NCrl spermatozoa was 69.6%, but only 12.1% was obtained from BALB/cByJ strain. Effect of glucose contained in the culture medium to the IVF efficiency of BALB/cByJ was also evaluated. The results showed that the fertility of BALB/cByJ spermatozoa incubated with 0, 2.7, 5.5, 11.1 and 22.2 mm of glucose in the TYH medium were 6.8, 9.9, 13.9, 32.7 and 22.2%, respectively. It is showed that IVF efficiency of BALB/cByJ spermatozoa could be improved depending on the concentration of glucose in the IVF medium. According to the results, it is beleived that lower IVF of BALB/cByJ mice might be due to the genetic defect in spermatozoa and increasing glucose in the IVF medium which significantly affect the IVF efficiency of BALB/cByl via activating the spermatozoa.

  11. In vitro developmental competence of in vitro-matured bovine oocytes fertilized and cultured in completely defined media.

    PubMed

    Keskintepe, L; Brackett, B G

    1996-08-01

    The objective was to establish an in vitro system in which bovine oocytes can be matured, fertilized, and cultured up to the blastocyst stage without support of serum, BSA, or somatic cells. Media consisted of modified tissue culture medium 199 (mTCM 199) with ovine LH (oLH) for maturation (IVM), experimental alterations of modified defined medium (mDM) for sperm selection and insemination (IVF), and citrate+synthetic oviductal fluid+nonessential amino acids (c-SOF+NEA) for zygote/embryo culture (IVC). Effects of heparin, BSA, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), penicillamine (P), Hepes, and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) were studied. Results included proportions of oocytes that cleaved by 48 h and that reached morulae by 120 h, blastocysts by 168 h, and expanded blastocysts by 216 h postinsemination (pi). Best results were obtained when the IVF medium included 0.5 mg P+1.0 mg PVA per milliliter with no more than 10 mM Hepes, and when 3.0 mg PVA/ml and 10 mM Hepes were present for IVC. Different concentrations of NaHCO3, up to 50 mM from 25 mM, during IVF did not alter results. Embryos produced in defined conditions yielding the best results remained viable after vitrification as evidenced by continued development in vitro for 96 h postthawing. Bovine oocytes matured in defined medium supplemented with LH were fertilized and cultured up to the blastocyst stage in chemically defined conditions that afforded results comparable to those reported earlier after inclusion of serum, BSA, and/or somatic cells.

  12. Use of combinations of in vitro quality assessments to predict fertility of bovine semen.

    PubMed

    Sellem, E; Broekhuijse, M L W J; Chevrier, L; Camugli, S; Schmitt, E; Schibler, L; Koenen, E P C

    2015-12-01

    Predicting in vivo fertility of bull ejaculates using in vitro-assessed semen quality criteria remains challenging for the breeding industry. New technologies such as computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) and flow cytometry may provide accurate and objective methods to improve semen quality control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between semen quality parameters and field fertility of bull ejaculates. A total of 153 ejaculates from 19 Holstein bulls have been analyzed using CASA (postthawing semen motility and morphology) and several flow cytometric tests, including sperm DNA integrity, viability (estimated by membrane integrity), acrosomal integrity, mitochondria aerobic functionality and oxidation. Samples were analyzed both immediately after thawing and after 4 hours at 37 °C. A fertility value (FV), based on nonreturn rate at 56 days after insemination and adjusted for environment factors, was calculated for each ejaculate. Simple and multiple regressions have been used to correlate FV with CASA and flow cytometric parameters. Significant simple correlations have been observed between some parameters and FV (e.g., straight line velocity [μm/s], r(2) = -0.12; polarized mitochondria sperm (%), r(2) = 0.07), but the relation between simple parameter and FV was too week to predict the fertility. Partial least square procedure identified several mathematical models combining flow cytometer and CASA variables and had better correlations with FV (adjusted r(2) ranging between 0.24 and 0.40 [P < 0.0001], depending on the number of included variables). In conclusion, this study suggests that quality assessment of thawed bull sperm using CASA and flow cytometry may provide a reasonable prediction of bovine semen fertility. Additional work will be required to increase the prediction reliability and promote this technology in routine artificial insemination laboratory practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. In vitro fertilization (IVF): a review of 3 decades of clinical innovation and technological advancement

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jeff; Sauer, Mark V

    2006-01-01

    In vitro fertilization, popularly referred to as IVF, has captured the attention of the public since its sensational introduction in 1978. Today assisted reproductive technology is available throughout most of the civilized world, and the practice is largely different from that used during the early days. Refinements in laboratory technology and clinical practice have allowed IVF to evolve into a medical procedure that is efficient, safe, readily accessible, and relatively affordable. More than 2 million IVF children have been born to date, and it is likely that continued enhancements will widen its appeal and applicability. PMID:18360648

  14. In vitro fertilization (IVF): a review of 3 decades of clinical innovation and technological advancement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jeff; Sauer, Mark V

    2006-12-01

    In vitro fertilization, popularly referred to as IVF, has captured the attention of the public since its sensational introduction in 1978. Today assisted reproductive technology is available throughout most of the civilized world, and the practice is largely different from that used during the early days. Refinements in laboratory technology and clinical practice have allowed IVF to evolve into a medical procedure that is efficient, safe, readily accessible, and relatively affordable. More than 2 million IVF children have been born to date, and it is likely that continued enhancements will widen its appeal and applicability.

  15. Tubal Pregnancy Associated with Endometrial Carcinoma after In Vitro Fertilization Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Bayoglu Tekin, Yesim; Guvendag Guven, Emine Seda; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Guven, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is rarely seen during reproductive ages and commonly related to infertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and obesity. Pregnancy associated endometrial carcinoma is even rarer and this is the second case reported in the literature concerning tubal pregnancy associated endometrial carcinoma. We present a case of a 36-year-old woman with a history of PCOS, infertility, and several attempts of ovulation induction and in vitro fertilization, who was diagnosed with tubal pregnancy and a well differentiated endometrial carcinoma. We also review the literature about pregnancy associated endometrial carcinoma in the first trimester. PMID:25614844

  16. Complete in vitro generation of fertile oocytes from mouse primordial germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Morohaku, Kanako; Tanimoto, Ren; Sasaki, Keisuke; Kawahara-Miki, Ryouka; Kono, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Hirao, Yuji; Obata, Yayoi

    2016-01-01

    Reconstituting gametogenesis in vitro is a key goal for reproductive biology and regenerative medicine. Successful in vitro reconstitution of primordial germ cells and spermatogenesis has recently had a significant effect in the field. However, recapitulation of oogenesis in vitro remains unachieved. Here we demonstrate the first reconstitution, to our knowledge, of the entire process of mammalian oogenesis in vitro from primordial germ cells, using an estrogen-receptor antagonist that promotes normal follicle formation, which in turn is crucial for supporting oocyte growth. The fundamental events in oogenesis (i.e., meiosis, oocyte growth, and genomic imprinting) were reproduced in the culture system. The most rigorous evidence of the recapitulation of oogenesis was the birth of fertile offspring, with a maximum of seven pups obtained from a cultured gonad. Moreover, cryopreserved gonads yielded functional oocytes and offspring in this culture system. Thus, our in vitro system will enable both innovative approaches for a deeper understanding of oogenesis and a new avenue to create and preserve female germ cells. PMID:27457928

  17. Complete in vitro generation of fertile oocytes from mouse primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Morohaku, Kanako; Tanimoto, Ren; Sasaki, Keisuke; Kawahara-Miki, Ryouka; Kono, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Hirao, Yuji; Obata, Yayoi

    2016-08-09

    Reconstituting gametogenesis in vitro is a key goal for reproductive biology and regenerative medicine. Successful in vitro reconstitution of primordial germ cells and spermatogenesis has recently had a significant effect in the field. However, recapitulation of oogenesis in vitro remains unachieved. Here we demonstrate the first reconstitution, to our knowledge, of the entire process of mammalian oogenesis in vitro from primordial germ cells, using an estrogen-receptor antagonist that promotes normal follicle formation, which in turn is crucial for supporting oocyte growth. The fundamental events in oogenesis (i.e., meiosis, oocyte growth, and genomic imprinting) were reproduced in the culture system. The most rigorous evidence of the recapitulation of oogenesis was the birth of fertile offspring, with a maximum of seven pups obtained from a cultured gonad. Moreover, cryopreserved gonads yielded functional oocytes and offspring in this culture system. Thus, our in vitro system will enable both innovative approaches for a deeper understanding of oogenesis and a new avenue to create and preserve female germ cells.

  18. Osteopontin improves sperm capacitation and in vitro fertilization efficiency in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Boccia, Lucia; Di Francesco, Serena; Neglia, Gianluca; De Blasi, Marina; Longobardi, Valentina; Campanile, Giuseppe; Gasparrini, Bianca

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of osteopontin (OPN), an ubiquitous acid glycoprotein, on in vitro sperm capacitation and on in vitro embryo production (IVEP) efficiency in buffalo. In experiment 1, after swim-up separation the sperm were incubated in Tyrode albumin lactate pyruvate medium in the absence of capacitating agents (control), with the standard concentration of heparin (0.01 mM) and three different concentrations of OPN (0.1, 1, and 10 mcg/mL), both in the presence and absence of heparin, for 2 and 4 hours. Capacitation was assessed indirectly by estimating the percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm after incubation with lysophosphatidylcholine. In order to determine the effect of OPN, in the presence of heparin, on fertilization (Experiment 2) and in vitro embryo development (experiment 3), in vitro-matured buffalo oocytes were fertilized in the presence of 0, 0.1, 1, and 10 mcg/mL of OPN. After IVF, the presumptive zygotes were dezonated, fixed, stained, and then evaluated microscopically. At Days 5 and 7 of culture, the cleavage and blastocyst rates were evaluated, respectively. Two hours of treatment with OPN at the two higher concentrations (1 and 10 mcg/mL) promoted in vitro capacitation of buffalo sperm (experiment 1). A synergic action of OPN with heparin was also done for all OPN concentrations tested. At 4 hours incubation, all treatments, including heparin (20.4%), improved (P < 0.01) capacitation compared with the control (16.2%). Interestingly, the best results were reported in all groups treated with OPN + heparin (40.8%, 38.6%, and 33.8%, respectively; P < 0.01). The addition of OPN to the IVF medium had a positive influence on total penetration, synchronous pronuclei formation (experiment 2), and IVEP efficiency (experiment 3). In particular, the two lower concentrations of OPN (0.1 and 1 mcg/mL), compared with the control, gave higher synchronous pronuclei formation (73.5%, 75.0%, and 46.5%, respectively; P < 0.01) and

  19. [Successful treatment of a cervical heterotopic pregnancy following an in vitro fertilization procedure].

    PubMed

    Elena, Hernán E; Elena, Alfredo F; Miola, Anselmo; Glujovsky, Demian; Sueldo, Carlos E

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old nulligravida infertile female had a cervical heterotopic pregnancy following an in vitro fertilization procedure. Early intervention on the 6th week of gestation with a manual vacuum aspirator reached to remove the cervical pregnancy. Ligation of the descending cervical branches of the uterine arteries and a cervical cerclage, were placed before the aspiration, for prevention of possible hemorrhage. Successful removal of the cervical pregnancy was achieved with only mild bleeding. An intrauterine pregnancy progressed to viability without complications, resulting in a vaginal delivery of a preterm live-birth at 35.4 weeks, of a male that weighted 2740 g.

  20. The "brave new baby" and the law: fashioning remedies for the victims of in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M E

    1978-01-01

    The birth of the world's first "test-tube baby", a child conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF), raises serious medical, ethical, and legal problems. This Note explores the present controversy over the use of IVF and advocates federal regulation of the technique. Furthermore, this Note argues that, in order to deter unduly hazardous use of IVF and to compensate its victims, an experimenter should be subject to civil liability for either negligent, or willful and nonconsensual, destruction of an IVF conceptus, and held strictly liable when an IVF child is born with severe defects that are attributable to the use of the technique.

  1. Comparison of normal and abnormal fertilization of in vitro-matured human oocyte according to insemination method.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Hee; Jee, Byung Chul; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Our purpose was to compare the normal fertilization rate, multi-pronuclei (PN) formation rate, and embryonic development of in vitro-matured oocytes between conventional insemination and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A total of 213 stimulated in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles were selected, in which at least one immature oocyte was obtained (from 2010 to 2014). Immature oocytes were assigned to germinal vesicle (GV)-stage or metaphase I (MI)-stage oocyte groups. Cycles with obligatory ICSI due to male-factor infertility were excluded. Cycles were divided into two groups according to fertilization method: there were 97 cycles with conventional insemination and 116 cycles with ICSI. After in vitro maturation of 324 GV-stage oocytes and 341 MI-stage oocytes, the fertilization rate, multi-PN formation rate, and embryonic development were compared according to the fertilization method. The normal fertilization rate was similar in the conventional insemination and the ICSI both in GV-derived and MI-derived oocytes. Both fertilization methods resulted in a similar multi-PN formation rate in GV-derived oocytes; however, in MI-derived oocytes, the multi-PN formation rate was zero with ICSI and this was significantly lower than that with conventional insemination (9.6%, P = 0.001). In non-male-factor infertility, ICSI should be considered when MI oocytes are matured. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. In vitro culture and in vitro fertilization techniques for prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Horie, Kengo; Hidema, Shizu; Hirayama, Takashi; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2015-08-07

    Prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a highly social animal and is a commonly used animal model for neuropsychopharmacological and psychiatric studies. To date, only a few reports on the development of transgenic prairie voles which was primarily due to the suboptimal development of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in prairie voles. Limitations in ART further hinder the development of genetically modified prairie voles such as the application of conventional gene targeting technologies using embryonic stem (ES) or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to generate chimeric prairie voles. Moreover, recent advancement in genome-editing tools such as transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas technology provide an unprecedented opportunity to create gene targeting animal model and the development of ART in prairie voles is necessary for future development of novel transgenic prairie vole model. We have established efficient method for in vitro embryo culture and sperm cryopreservation with high fertilization rate. In G-1 PLUS and G-2 PLUS sequential culture condition, 81.0% (# of Blastocysts/total n) of one-cell embryos developed to blastocysts. In contrary, no embryos were developed to blastocyst stage in KSOM medium (0/total # of embryos in culture). In vitro fertilization rate using fresh and frozen-thawed sperm was 32.6% and 29.3%, respectively. This is the first report of IVF using cryopreserved prairie vole sperm. We employed mouse IVF methods in prairie voles and optimize culture conditions using human G-1/G-2 PLUS sequential culture method that resulted in high embryonic development rate. The development in vole reproductive technology will facilitate the generation of transgenic voles in the future.

  3. The role of in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in couples with unexplained infertility after failed intrauterine insemination.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, A; Remohí, J; Minguez, Y; Guanes, P P; Simón, C; Pellicer, A

    1997-07-01

    To determine an optimal insemination technique in patients undergoing IVF after failed IUI and the role of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in such cases. Prospective, randomized study in couples with unexplained infertility (n = 63) and mild endometriosis (n = 7) undergoing IVF after four IUI cycles. Sibling oocytes were randomized into standard IVF or ICSI insemination according to the order of retrieval. In vitro fertilization program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad, Valencia, Italy. Seventy couples with unexplained infertility undergoing IVF after failing to conceive with controlled ovarian stimulation and IUI. In vitro fertilization and ICSI. Fertilization, cleavage, and embryo quality were compared in IVF- and ICSI-inseminated oocytes. There was no significant difference in fertilization rates between ICSI (60.4%) and conventional IVF (54.0%). Similarly, there was no difference in embryo quality between both groups. There was no total fertilization failure in ICSI-inseminated oocytes, whereas 8 (11.4%) of 70 cases showed absence of fertilization when conventional IVF was used. Couples with unexplained infertility and mild endometriosis failing to conceive with IUI and undergoing IVF have an 11.4% chance of fertilization failure that can be overcome easily by using ICSI in at least some oocytes. ICSI, however, is not superior to IVF as an insemination technique in most cases. These data should be used in counseling patients.

  4. MicroRNA expression profiling of elongated cloned and in vitro-fertilized bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Castro, F O; Sharbati, S; Rodríguez-Alvarez, L L; Cox, J F; Hultschig, C; Einspanier, R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed in bovine (Bos Taurus) cloned embryos at Day 17 of development (Day 0=day of nucleus transfer or in vitro fertilization) during elongation. Day 7 bovine expanded blastocysts produced by hand made cloning (HMC) or in vitro fertilization were bulk-transferred to synchronized recipient cattle (48 HMC embryos to 10 recipients and 28 in vitro-produced embryos to four recipients). Elongated embryos were retrieved at Day 17; miRNAs were isolated and subjected to microarray screening using custom composite slides spotted with human, mouse, and rat and in silico-predicted miRNAs. An initial profile of expressed miRNAs was determined in cloned embryos and somatic donor cells; this profile changed after somatic cell nucleus transfer, identifying differentially expressed miRNAs between cloned and in vitro-produced bovine embryos. Furthermore, microarray data were validated using a miRNA-specific quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) approach (miR-Q). There was an 83% correlation (P=0.01) between microarray and qPCR data. Based on qRT-PCR, correct reprogramming of some miRNAs from the donor cells was confirmed in cloned bovine embryos, whereas other somatic miRNAs were not appropriately reprogrammed. Some of the miRNAs that were equally reprogrammed clustered on the same chromosomal location in the bovine genome. In conclusion, reprogramming of miRNAs seemed to occur in cloned bovine embryos. This could have profound implications for elucidating nuclear reprogramming in somatic cloning, as well as for the role of miRNAs in preimplantation mammalian development.

  5. [In vitro inhibition of celastrol on spermatozoa fertilization ability of guinea pig].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Y Y; Gu, Z P; Shi, Q X; Qin, G W; Xu, R S; Cao, L

    1995-01-01

    The effects of celastrol (Cel), isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii, on guinea pig sperm forward motility (FM), capacitation (Cap), the acrosome reaction (AR) and sperm penetration assay (SPA) were assessed in vitro. Cel (5 micrograms.ml-1) was found to inhibit these spermatozoal functions, and the inhibitions were proportional to the concentrations of Cel used. The potency of inhibition of Cel on the fertilizing ability in guinea pig spermatozoa in vitro seems to follow the order: Cap > FM > SPA > AR. The inhibitory effect appeared to be reversible after washing away Cel if the duration of exposure of spermatozoa to Cel was shorter than 3 h. In a comparative study, the inhibitory effects of Cel on guinea pig sperm FM and AR were significantly stronger than those of gossypol acetic acid.

  6. Generation of rats from vitrified oocytes with surrounding cumulus cells via in vitro fertilization with cryopreserved sperm.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Katsuyoshi; Kamoshita, Maki; Kato, Tsubasa; Ito, Junya; Kashiwazaki, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate fertility and full-term development of rat vitrified oocytes after in vitro fertilization (IVF) with cryopreserved sperm. Oocytes with or without surrounding cumulus cells were vitrified with 30% ethylene glycol + 0.5 mol/L sucrose + 20% fetal calf serum by using the Cryotop method. The warmed oocytes were co-cultured with sperm. Although the denuded/vitrified oocytes were not fertilized, some of the oocytes vitrified with cumulus cells were fertilized (32.7%) after IVF with fresh sperm. When IVF was performed with cryopreserved sperm, vitrified or fresh oocytes with cumulus cells were fertilized (62.9% or 41.1%, respectively). In addition, to confirm the full-term development of the vitrified oocytes with surrounding cumulus cells after IVF with cryopreserved sperm, 108 vitrified oocytes with two pronuclei (2PN) were transferred into eight pseudopregnant females, and eight pups were obtained from three recipients. The present work demonstrates that vitrified rat oocytes surrounded by cumulus cells can be fertilized in vitro with cryopreserved sperm, and that 2PN embryos derived from cryopreserved gametes can develop to term. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful generation of rat offspring derived from vitrified oocytes that were fertilized in vitro with cryopreserved sperm.

  7. First llama (Lama glama) pregnancy obtained after in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture of gametes from live animals.

    PubMed

    Trasorras, V; Baca Castex, C; Alonso, A; Giuliano, S; Santa Cruz, R; Arraztoa, C; Chaves, G; Rodríguez, D; Neild, D; Miragaya, M

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the developmental competence and pregnancy rate of llama hatched blastocysts produced in vitro using gametes from live animals and two different culture conditions. Fifteen adult females were superstimulated with 1500 IU of eCG, eleven (73%) responded to the treatment and were used as oocyte donors. Follicular aspiration was conducted by flank laparotomy. Semen collections were performed under general anesthesia by electroejaculation of the male. Sixty-six COCs were recovered from 77 aspirated follicles (86% recovery) and were randomly placed in Fertil-TALP microdroplets with the sperm suspension (20 × 10(6)live spermatozoa/ml). After 24 h, they were placed in SOFaa medium supplemented with FCS and randomly assigned to one of two culture conditions. Culture condition 1 (CC1) consisted of 6 days of culture (n=28) and culture condition 2 (CC2) consisted of renewing the culture medium every 48 h (n=35). In CC1, the blastocyst rate was 36% (10/28) and the hatched blastocyst rate was 28% (8/28) whereas in CC2, the blastocyst rate was 34% (12/35) and the hatched blastocyst rate was 20% (7/35) (p>0.05). No pregnancies were obtained after embryo transfer (ET) of CC1 blastocysts (0/8) while one pregnancy was obtained (1/7) after transferring a hatched blastocyst from CC2. Forty-two days after the ET, the pregnancy was lost. This study represents the first report of a pregnancy in the llama after intrauterine transfer of embryos produced by in vitro fertilization using gametes from live animals.

  8. Effect of dietary selenium deficiency on the in vitro fertilizing ability of mice spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gutiérrez, M; García-Montalvo, E A; Izquierdo-Vega, J A; Del Razo, L M

    2008-08-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for mammals, being integral part of antioxidant system. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of selenium deficiency on in vitro fertilization (IVF) capacity of spermatozoa and on oxidative stress in these cells. Male C57BL/6N mice were maintained on selenium-deficient or selenium-sufficient diets (0.02 or 0.2 ppm of selenium as selenomethionine, respectively) for 4 months. Liver glutathione peroxidase activity measurements were used to confirm selenium deficiency. Sperm quality and IVF capability among both groups were evaluated. To assess oxidative damage, lipid peroxidation as malondialdehyde production was determined in spermatozoa as well as the testes. Ultrastructural analyses of spermatozoa nuclei using transmission electron microscopy were also performed. The percentage of eggs fertilized with sperm from selenium-deficient mice was significantly decreased by approximately 67%. This reduced fertilization capacity was accompanied by increased levels of lipid peroxidation in both the testes and sperm, indicating that selenium deficiency induced oxidative stress. Consistent with this finding, spermatozoa from selenium-deficient animals exhibited altered chromatin condensation. Deficiency in dietary selenium decreases the reproductive potential of male mice and is associated with oxidative damage in spermatozoa.

  9. Antioxidant requirements for bovine oocytes varies during in vitro maturation, fertilization and development.

    PubMed

    Ali, A A; Bilodeau, J F; Sirard, M A

    2003-02-01

    Antioxidants may be beneficial additives to synthetic culture media because these well defined media lack serum or other macromolecules that serve as reactive oxygen species scavengers. In this study, three separate experiments were performed to determine the effects of antioxidants on the development of oocytes to the morula and blastocyst stage when added during in vitro maturation (IVM) of bovine oocytes, during in vitro fertilization (IVF), and during embryo culture for the first 72 h of the development period. Bovine oocytes were matured, fertilized (under 20% O(2)), and embryos were cultured (under 7% O(2)) in defined conditioned medium in vitro with or without supplementation with the antioxidant cysteine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Significant improvements in the proportion of oocytes undergoing morula and blastocyst development (33.3% versus 20.3%, P<0.05) were achieved when cysteine (0.6 mM) was added to the maturation medium as compared to control medium without antioxidant supplementation. However, the addition of NAC (0.6mM), catalase (5 or 127 U/ml) or SOD (10 or 1000 U/ml) to the maturation medium did not improve the proportion of oocytes undergoing morula and blastocyst development. During the IVF period, addition of antioxidants (cysteine or NAC 0.6mM, catalase 127U/ml, SOD 100U/ml) significantly reduced the subsequent rate of bovine embryo development to the morula and blastocyst stage (P<0.05). In a defined medium for embryo culture (7% O(2)), the addition of cysteine improved the development of bovine embryos while NAC, catalase and SOD had no positive effect on embryonic development. Our study showed that medium supplementation with cysteine during IVM and in vitro culture (IVC) improved the rate of bovine embryo development, in contrast to extracellular antioxidants like catalase and SOD that caused no improvement.

  10. Improving porcine in vitro fertilization output by simulating the oviductal environment

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Úbeda, Cristina; García-Vázquez, Francisco A.; Romero-Aguirregomezcorta, Jon; Matás, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Differences between the in vitro and in vivo environment in which fertilization occurs seem to play a key role in the low efficiency of porcine in vitro fertilization (IVF). This work proposes an IVF system based on the in vivo oviductal periovulatory environment. The combined use of an IVF medium at the pH found in the oviduct in the periovulatory stage (pHe 8.0), a mixture of oviductal components (cumulus-oocyte complex secretions, follicular fluid and oviductal periovulatory fluid, OFCM) and a device that interposes a physical barrier between gametes (an inverted screw cap of a Falcon tube, S) was compared with the classical system at pHe 7.4, in a 4-well multidish (W) lacking oviduct biological components. The results showed that the new IVF system reduced polyspermy and increased the final efficiency by more than 48%. This higher efficiency seems to be a direct consequence of a reduced sperm motility and lower capacitating status and it could be related to the action of OFCM components over gametes and to the increase in the sperm intracellular pH (pHi) caused by the higher pHe used. In conclusion, a medium at pH 8.0 supplemented with OFCM reduces polyspermy and improves porcine IVF output.

  11. Gene expression profiling of single bovine embryos uncovers significant effects of in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sadie L; Everts, Robin E; Sung, Li-Ying; Du, Fuliang; Page, Raymond L; Henderson, Boyd; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Nedambale, Tshimangadzo L; Renard, Jean-Paul; Lewin, Harris A; Yang, Xiangzhong; Tian, X Cindy

    2009-01-01

    In vitro production (IVP) has been shown to affect embryonic gene expression and often result in large offspring syndrome (LOS) in cattle and sheep. To dissect the effects of in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture on bovine embryos, we compared the expression profiles of single blastocysts generated by: (1) in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture (IVF); (2) in vivo maturation, fertilization and in vitro culture (IVD); and (3) in vivo maturation, fertilization and development (AI). To conduct expression profiling, total RNA was isolated from individual embryos, linearly amplified and hybridized to a custom bovine cDNA microarray containing approximately 6,300 unique genes. There were 306, 367, and 200 genes differentially expressed between the AI and IVD, IVF and IVD, and AI and IVF comparisons, respectively. Interestingly, 44 differentially expressed genes were identified between the AI embryos and both the IVF and IVD embryos, making these potential candidates for LOS. There were 60 genes differentially expressed between the IVF embryos and the AI and IVD embryos. The Gene Ontology category "RNA processing" was over-represented among the genes that were down-regulated in the IVF embryos, indicating an effect of in vitro oocyte maturation/fertilization on the ability to transcribe maternal RNA stores. A culture effect on the expression of genes involved in translation was also observed by the comparison of AI with IVD embryos.

  12. Cost and efficacy comparison of in vitro fertilization and tubal anastomosis for women after tubal ligation

    PubMed Central

    Messinger, Lauren B.; Alford, Connie E.; Csokmay, John M.; Henne, Melinda B.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Segars, James H.; Armstrong, Alicia Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare cost and efficacy of tubal anastomosis to in vitro fertilization (IVF) in women who desired fertility after a tubal ligation. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis. Setting Not applicable. Patient(s) Not applicable. Intervention(s) Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure(s) Cost per ongoing pregnancy. Result(s) Cost per ongoing pregnancy for women after tubal anastomosis ranged from $16,446 to $223,482 (2014 USD), whereas IVF ranged from $32,902 to $111,679 (2014 USD). Across maternal age groups <35 and 35–40, years tubal anastomosis was more cost effective than IVF for ongoing pregnancy. Sensitivity analyses validated these findings across a wide range of ongoing pregnancy probabilities as well as costs per procedure. Conclusion(s) Tubal anastomosis was the most cost-effective approach for most women less than 41 years of age, whereas IVF was the most cost-effective approach for women aged ≥41 years who desired fertility after tubal ligation. A model was created that can be modified based on cost and success rates in individual clinics for improved patient counseling. PMID:26006734

  13. ESR1 rs9340799 Is Associated with Endometriosis-Related Infertility and In Vitro Fertilization Failure

    PubMed Central

    Paskulin, Diego Davila; Cunha-Filho, João Sabino; Paskulin, Livia Davila; Souza, Carlos Augusto Bastos; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptor alpha has a central role in human fertility by regulating estrogen action in all human reproductive tissues. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) expression, a cytokine critical for blastocyst implantation, is mediated by estrogen signaling, so we hypothesized that ESR1 gene polymorphisms might be candidate risk markers for endometriosis-related infertility and in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure. We included 98 infertile women with endometriosis, 115 infertile women with at least one IVF failure and also 134 fertile women as controls. TaqMan SNP assays were used for genotyping LIF (rs929271), MDM2 (rs2279744), MDM4 (rs1563828), USP7 (rs1529916), and ESR1 (rs9340799 and rs2234693) polymorphisms. The SNP ESR1 rs9340799 was associated with endometriosis-related infertility (P < 0.001) and also with IVF failure (P = 0.018). After controlling for age, infertile women with ESR1 rs9340799 GG genotype presented 4-fold increased risk of endometriosis (OR 4.67, 95% CI 1.84–11.83, P = 0.001) and 3-fold increased risk of IVF failure (OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.38–8.03, P = 0.007). Our results demonstrate an association between ESR1 rs9340799 polymorphism and infertile women with endometriosis and also with women who were submitted to IVF procedures and had no blastocyst implantation. PMID:24427778

  14. Development of fertile mouse oocytes from mitotic germ cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Morohaku, Kanako; Hirao, Yuji; Obata, Yayoi

    2017-09-01

    Mammalian fetal ovaries contain numerous primordial germ cells (PGCs), although few mature oocytes are obtained from females, owing to apoptosis and follicle atresia. The regulatory mechanisms underlying oogenesis/folliculogenesis remain unknown. Development of methods for obtaining mature oocytes from PGCs in fetal ovaries in vitro could contribute to clarifying these mechanisms. The failure of follicle assembly has been found to be the most challenging aspect in conventional culture conditions. Recently, we established novel culture conditions that enable successful follicle assembly, sustaining interactions between the oocyte and somatic cells, and, in turn, promoting oocyte growth and maturation. Mature oocytes were differentiated from PGCs after a 1-month culture period. A hundred mouse offspring were obtained from approximately a thousand mature oocytes, indicating that oocytes that were differentiated from PGCs in vitro acquired totipotency after fertilization. Here we provide a detailed protocol for using this in vitro system. This in vitro system will potentially provide a novel platform for studying oogenesis and preservation of female germ cells.

  15. Acute intermittent porphyria exacerbation following in vitro fertilization treatment.

    PubMed

    New, Geok Huey; Hsu, Pei-Yang; Wu, Meng-Hsing

    2016-04-01

    Assisted reproductive technology is commonly used for women with infertility. We report a case of acute intermittent porphyria associated with in vitro fertilization treatment. A 35-year-old woman with tubal factor infertility presented to our clinic with persistent low abdominal pain and hyponatremia after transvaginal oocyte retrieval. During admission, she experienced a generalized tonic-clonic seizure attacked following by dark brown color urine. Urinary tests showed elevated porphobilinogen, 5-aminolevulinic acid, uroporphyrin, and coproporphyrin, confirming the diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria. The patient's condition continued to improve after hemin treatment and rehabilitation. Newly onset acute intermittent porphyria during the course of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization is a rare but possible complication. Acute intermittent porphyria should be taken into consideration for persisted unexplained abdominal pain and seriously alerted if accompanied with neurological symptoms. Special tests for acute intermittent porphyria should be taken into consideration for the differential diagnosis of lower abdominal pain after oocyte retrieval. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Potential Pathophysiological Mechanisms of the Beneficial Role of Endometrial Injury in In Vitro Fertilization Outcome.

    PubMed

    Siristatidis, Charalampos; Vrachnis, Nikos; Vogiatzi, Paraskevi; Chrelias, Charalampos; Retamar, Andrea Quinteiro; Bettocchi, Stefano; Glujovsky, Demián

    2014-08-01

    Successful embryo implantation is a complex process that involves multiple biological mechanisms and reciprocal interactions between the embryo and the proliferated endometrium. In this review, we provide an informative contribution on the pathways underlying the beneficial nature of endometrial injury toward improving implantation rates of embryos conceived and through in vitro fertilization. The evidence published to date are in favor of inducing local endometrial injury in the preceding cycle of ovarian stimulation to improve pregnancy outcomes in women with unexplained and recurrent implantation failure. Endometrial injury triggers a series of biological responses but the findings suggest that no particular pathway is solely adequate to explain the association between trauma and improved pregnancy rates rather than a cluster of events in response to trauma which benefits embryo implantation in ways both known and unknown to the scientific community.

  17. The creation of "monsters": the discourse of opposition to in vitro fertilization in Poland.

    PubMed

    Radkowska-Walkowicz, Magdalena

    2012-12-01

    In Poland, there is a campaign to criminalise in vitro fertilization, led by the Catholic church. This article explores how this campaign makes "monsters" of IVF children in its discourse, that is, embodiments of "the other" in the sense of Frankenstein's monster. Basing the analysis primarily on Catholic mass media publications, the article investigates the discursive strategies employed to oppose IVF, most notably by the Catholic clergy and activists and journalists associated with the Church. They attribute "monstrosity" to the children in the following ways: physical (possible bodily deformity), psychological (survivor syndrome, identity crisis), social (loneliness, uncertain place in family relations), and ethical (a life burdened with the deaths of many embryos). Although the world of families with IVF does not provide examples of children who could be considered monsters in any of these terms, these arguments have become the primary reasons given for banning IVF. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Gamete laboratory. Determining factors of success in in-vitro fertilization].

    PubMed

    Kably Ambe, A; Carballo Mondragon, E; Karchmer Krivitsky, S

    2001-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate the gamete laboratory parameters that can to determine the possibility of achieving pregnancy in in vitro fertilization (IVF). A prospective study was carried in 196 patients undergone to conventional and oocyte donation IVF. After the evaluation of oocytes, embryos and the pregnancies was established that postmature oocytes were more frequently retrieved from patients that did not get pregnant. A good embryo morphology and principally the transfer of 4-cell embryos are common events in IVF. However, there were not significant difference in embryo parameters, number of blastomeres and embryo quality, between pregnant and not pregnant patients. In conclusion, it appear that bad oocyte quality has a negative effect over the possibility of achieving pregnancy. The number of blastomeres and embryo quality were not predictive of the possibility to get pregnant.

  19. Royal Jelly alleviates sperm toxicity and improves in vitro fertilization outcome in Stanozolol-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Shalizar Jalali, Ali; Najafi, Gholamreza; Hosseinchi, Mohammadreza; Sedighnia, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stanozolol (ST) is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid often abused by athletes. An increasing body of evidence points towards the role of ST misuses in the pathogenesis of a wide range of adverse effects including reprotoxicity. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the possible reproprotective effect of royal jelly (RJ) as an efficient antioxidant in ST-treated mice. Materials and Methods: Adult male mice were divided into four groups (n=5). Two groups of mice received ST (4.6 mg/kg/day) via gavage for 35 days. RJ was given orally to one of these groups at the dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight per day synchronously. Untreated control group and RJ-only treated group were also included. Epididymal sperm characteristics and in vitro fertilizing capacity were evaluated after 35 days. Results: ST treatment caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count and motility and fertilization rate along with poor blastocyst formation and increased sperm DNA damage. Moreover, the incidence of apoptosis and abnormality in spermatozoa was significantly (p<0.05) higher in ST-exposed mice than those of control. The above-mentioned parameters were restored to near normal level by RJ co-administration. Conclusion: Data from the current study suggest that RJ has a potential repro-protective action against ST-induced reproductive toxicity in mice. However, clinical studies are warranted to investigate such an effect in human subjects. PMID:25653671

  20. Release of sICAM-1 in Oocytes and In Vitro Fertilized Human Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Canto, Maria Beatrice Dal; Fumagalli, Daniela; Renzini, Mario Mignini; Fadini, Rubens; Stignani, Marina; Baricordi, Olavio Roberto; Gambari, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Background During the last years, several studies have reported the significant relationship between the production of soluble HLA-G molecules (sHLA-G) by 48–72 hours early embryos and an increased implantation rate in IVF protocols. As consequence, the detection of HLA-G modulation was suggested as a marker to identify the best embryos to be transferred. On the opposite, no suitable markers are available for the oocyte selection. Methodology/Principal Findings The major finding of the present paper is that the release of ICAM-1 might be predictive of oocyte maturation. The results obtained are confirmed using three independent methodologies, such as ELISA, Bio-Plex assay and Western blotting. The sICAM-1 release is very high in immature oocytes, decrease in mature oocytes and become even lower in in vitro fertilized embryos. No significant differences were observed in the levels of sICAM-1 release between immature oocytes with different morphological characteristics. On the contrary, when the mature oocytes were subdivided accordingly to morphological criteria, the mean sICAM-I levels in grade 1 oocytes were significantly decreased when compared to grade 2 and 3 oocytes. Conclusions/Significance The reduction of the number of fertilized oocytes and transferred embryos represents the main target of assisted reproductive medicine. We propose sICAM-1 as a biochemical marker for oocyte maturation and grading, with a possible interesting rebound in assisted reproduction techniques. PMID:19092999

  1. Royal Jelly alleviates sperm toxicity and improves in vitro fertilization outcome in Stanozolol-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Shalizar Jalali, Ali; Najafi, Gholamreza; Hosseinchi, Mohammadreza; Sedighnia, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Stanozolol (ST) is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid often abused by athletes. An increasing body of evidence points towards the role of ST misuses in the pathogenesis of a wide range of adverse effects including reprotoxicity. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible reproprotective effect of royal jelly (RJ) as an efficient antioxidant in ST-treated mice. Adult male mice were divided into four groups (n=5). Two groups of mice received ST (4.6 mg/kg/day) via gavage for 35 days. RJ was given orally to one of these groups at the dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight per day synchronously. Untreated control group and RJ-only treated group were also included. Epididymal sperm characteristics and in vitro fertilizing capacity were evaluated after 35 days. ST treatment caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count and motility and fertilization rate along with poor blastocyst formation and increased sperm DNA damage. Moreover, the incidence of apoptosis and abnormality in spermatozoa was significantly (p<0.05) higher in ST-exposed mice than those of control. The above-mentioned parameters were restored to near normal level by RJ co-administration. Data from the current study suggest that RJ has a potential repro-protective action against ST-induced reproductive toxicity in mice. However, clinical studies are warranted to investigate such an effect in human subjects.

  2. In Vitro Fertilization and Development of Porcine Oocytes Matured in Follicular Fluid

    PubMed Central

    AGUNG, Budiyanto; OTOI, Takeshige; FUCHIMOTO, Dai-ichiro; SENBON, Shoichiro; ONISHI, Akira; NAGAI, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted to assess the fertilization and development of porcine oocytes matured in a solo follicular fluid (pFF) using different in vitro culture systems and insemination periods. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), follicular cells (FCs), and pFF were collected from the follicles of ovaries. The pFF was used as a maturation medium (MpFF) after supplementation with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and antibiotics. The COCs were matured in a 15 ml test tube containing 3.5 ml of MpFF with FCs (5.2 × 106 cells/ml; rotating culture system) or 2 ml of MpFF without FCs in a 35-mm petri dish (static culture system) for 44 to 48 h. After maturation culture, oocytes were co-incubated with frozen-thawed spermatozoa for 5 h and then cultured for 7 days. The total mean rates of sperm penetration, normal fertilization, male pronucleus (MPN) formation, cleavage, and development to the blastocyst stage of oocytes after insemination were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the rotating culture system than in the static culture system. In conclusion, compared with the static culture system, the rotating culture system is adequate for the production of developmentally competent porcine oocytes when MpFF is used as a maturation medium. PMID:23428620

  3. Use of Bayesian Inference to Correlate In Vitro Embryo Production and In Vivo Fertility in Zebu Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Sudano, Mateus José; Crespilho, André Maciel; Fernandes, Claudia Barbosa; Junior, Alicio Martins; Papa, Frederico Ozanam; Rodrigues, Josemar; Machado, Rui; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda Da Cruz

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test in vitro embryo production (IVP) as a tool to estimate fertility performance in zebu bulls using Bayesian inference statistics. Oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro using sperm cells from three different Zebu bulls (V, T, and G). The three bulls presented similar results with regard to pronuclear formation and blastocyst formation rates. However, the cleavage rates were different between bulls. The estimated conception rates based on combined data of cleavage and blastocyst formation were very similar to the true conception rates observed for the same bulls after a fixed-time artificial insemination program. Moreover, even when we used cleavage rate data only or blastocyst formation data only, the estimated conception rates were still close to the true conception rates. We conclude that Bayesian inference is an effective statistical procedure to estimate in vivo bull fertility using data from IVP. PMID:21547211

  4. Spectral interferometry for morphological imaging in in vitro fertilization (IVF) (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yizheng; Li, Chengshuai

    2016-03-01

    Morphological assessment of spermatozoa is of critical importance for in vitro fertilization (IVF), especially intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-based IVF. In ICSI, a single sperm cell is selected and injected into an egg to achieve fertilization. The quality of the sperm cell is found to be highly correlated to IVF success. Sperm morphology, such as shape, head birefringence and motility, among others, are typically evaluated under a microscope. Current observation relies on conventional techniques such as differential interference contrast microscopy and polarized light microscopy. Their qualitative nature, however, limits the ability to provide accurate quantitative analysis. Here, we demonstrate quantitative morphological measurement of sperm cells using two types of spectral interferometric techniques, namely spectral modulation interferometry and spectral multiplexing interferometry. Both are based on spectral-domain low coherence interferometry, which is known for its exquisite phase determination ability. While spectral modulation interferometry encodes sample phase in a single spectrum, spectral multiplexing interferometry does so for sample birefringence. Therefore they are capable of highly sensitive phase and birefringence imaging. These features suit well in the imaging of live sperm cells, which are small, dynamic objects with only low to moderate levels of phase and birefringence contrast. We will introduce the operation of both techniques and demonstrate their application to measuring the phase and birefringence morphology of sperm cells.

  5. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human follicular fluid and in vitro fertilization outcomes, a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Michael S; Fujimoto, Victor Y; Storm, Robin; Zhang, Li; Butts, Celeste D; Sollohub, Diana; Jansing, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitously distributed among the U.S. population and adversely impact human reproduction. These compounds have been detected in human ovarian follicular fluid (FF), where they directly contact a developing oocyte. As a pilot investigation, we measured 43 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and its persistent metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in residual FF collected from 32 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). We identified significant inverse associations between higher levels of PCB congeners and indicators of ovarian reserve (e.g., antral follicle count), follicular response to administered gonadotropins (e.g., peak estradiol, number of oocytes retrieved, endometrial thickness), intermediate IVF endpoints (e.g., oocyte fertilization and embryo quality), and clinical IVF outcomes (e.g., embryo implantation and live birth), after adjusting for body mass index, cigarette smoking, race, and age. Our results suggest that ongoing exposure to POPs impacts IVF and merit confirmation in a larger and more definitive future study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum unconjugated bisphenol A concentrations in men may influence embryo quality indicators during in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Michael S.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Kim, Dongsul; Taylor, Julia A.; Lamb, Julie D.; Fujimoto, Victor Y.

    2011-01-01

    Here we assess bisphenol A (BPA) in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and indicators of embryo quality; embryo cell number (ECN) and embryo fragmentation score (EFS). Twenty-seven couples provided serum on the day of oocyte retrieval. Unconjugated BPA was measured by HPLC with Coularray detection. Odds ratios (OR) were generated using ordinal logistic regression including female and male BPA concentrations, age and race, and day of embryo transfer for ECN. Inverse associations are suggested for male BPA with ECN (OR=0.70, P=0.069), and EFS (OR=0.54, P=0.009), but not for women. Male BPA exposure may affect embryo quality during IVF. PMID:21843814

  7. Impact of ketorolac administration around ovarian stimulation on in vivo and in vitro fertilization and subsequent embryo development.

    PubMed

    Jee, Byung Chul; Youm, Hye Won; Lee, Jae Ho; Kim, Jee Hyun; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2013-05-01

    We performed this study to investigate the effect of ketorolac (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) administration around ovarian stimulation on in vivo and in vitro fertilization process. Sixty-four female mice (ICR) were injected with ketorolac (0, 7.5, 15 and 30 µg/d) for 3 d starting from the day of eCG treatment. In experiment 1, 41 mice were triggered by hCG and then mated; two-cell embryos were obtained and in vitro development up to blastocyst was observed. In experiment 2, 23 mice were triggered by hCG and mature oocytes were collected; in vitro fertilization rate and subsequent embryo development up to blastocyst was recorded. In experiment 1, the blastocyst-forming rates per in vivo fertilized two-cell embryo showed an inverse relationship with a dosage of ketorolac (97.6%, 64.2%, 35.4% and 25.9%). In experiment 2, degenerated oocytes were frequently observed in a dose-dependent manner (4.3%, 22.9%, 22.4% and 75.0%). Lower fertilization rates were noted in all the three ketorolac-treating groups; blastocyst-forming rate was significantly lower in 30-µg-treating group when compared with the control group. Administration of ketorolac around ovarian stimulation significantly affects the development of in vivo fertilized embryo in a dose-dependent manner. High-dose ketorolac could result in a poor oocyte quality and decreased embryo developmental competence.

  8. Coping and cognitive factors in adaptation to in vitro fertilization failure.

    PubMed

    Litt, M D; Tennen, H; Affleck, G; Klock, S

    1992-04-01

    Characteristics were identified that predict adaptation following an unsuccessful attempt at in vitro fertilization (IVF). Forty-one women and their husbands were interviewed and administered questionnaires prior to IVF and 2 weeks after notice of a positive or negative pregnancy test. Of the 36 couples who failed to conceive as a result of IVF, 6 of the women studied developed clinical depressive symptoms. Those women who reported poorest adaptation to IVF failure were more likely to have reported depressive symptoms prior to IVF, were more likely to have reported feeling a general loss of control over their lives as a result of infertility, tended to use escape as a coping strategy, and reported having felt some responsibility for their IVF failure. Dispositional optimism, as well as a sense of being partially responsible for the infertility, was protective of distress following IVF failure.

  9. Optimization of oestradiol assays to improve utility in an in vitro fertilization setting.

    PubMed

    Peavey, M; Akbas, N; Gibbons, W; Zarutskie, P; Devaraj, S

    2017-01-01

    Background The measurement of oestradiol is an integral component for the management of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization. Automated immunoassays offer fast assay times and high throughput, with less sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study is to optimize the oestradiol assay in patients undergoing ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization via comparison of oestradiol values obtained using two immunoassays compared with mass spectrometry. Methods Patients undergoing ovarian stimulation were prospectively recruited. Serum samples were analysed with ADVIA Centaur® CP Immunoassay, Abbott Architect i1000® immunoassay and AB Sciex 5500 liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) systems. Per cent bias was determined for each system to report the average tendency of the values to be larger or smaller than the LC-MS/MS value. Linear regression of total follicular volume and oestradiol was computed. Results The ADVIA Centaur® CP assay had a positive bias of 20% compared with LC-MS/MS, while the Architect i1000® had a non-significant, negative bias of 0.3%. With regression fit, a clear, positive relationship was seen between follicular volume and oestradiol. The Architect i1000® assay had a greater correlation (R(2 )= 0.46) compared with Centaur® CP (R(2 )= 0.36), when oestradiol values were >1000 pg/mL (3670 pmol/L). Conclusions The Abbott Architect i1000® oestradiol assay exhibits greater agreement with LC-MS/MS and exhibited better correlation to follicular volume when oestradiol values are >1000 pg/mL (3670 pmol/L), prompting a change in the clinic's oestradiol platform. Attention to assay quality assurance via LC-MS/MS can improve the oestradiol accuracy and permit more informed clinical decisions for improved patient outcomes.

  10. The first dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) offspring obtained from in vitro matured, in vitro fertilized and in vitro cultured abattoir-derived oocytes.

    PubMed

    Khatir, Hadj; Anouassi, AbdelHaq

    2006-06-01

    Dromedary offspring have never been produced fully in vitro. We have previously demonstrated that embryos obtained by culture in semi-defined medium (mKSOMaa) have better in vitro development ability than those cultured with oviductal epithelial cells. The aim of the present experiment was to study the pregnancy rate after embryo transfer of in vitro-produced (IVP) dromedary embryos cultured in semi-defined modified medium (mKSOMaa). IVM/IVF procedures were conducted on six hundred and sixty four (664) cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) aspirated from ovaries collected at a local slaughterhouse and cultured in vitro (38.5 degrees C; 5% CO2, and maximum humidity >95%). Maturation was completed by incubation in TCM-199 medium supplemented with 10% heat-treated Fetal Calf Serum (FCS), 10 ng/mL EGF, 1 microg/mL FSH, 1 microg/mL E2 and 500 microM cysteamine for 30 h. In vitro fertilization was performed using fresh semen (0.5 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL in modified TALP-solution). Fertilized oocytes were cultured in mKSOMaa, under 38.5 degrees C, 5% CO2 and 90% N2 with maximum humidity (>95%). All IVC steps were done in seven replicates. The cleavage rate (two cells to blastocyst stage) was 64% (425/664) and the percentage of oocytes reaching the blastocyst stage was 23% (155/664). The hatching rate of blastocyst obtained after culture was 46% (71/155). Good quality hatched blastocysts (n = 66) were transferred individually to synchronized recipients. Pregnancy rates, determined by ultrasonography at 15, 60 and 90 days after embryo transfer (ET), were 38%, 32% and 27%, respectively. Out of 18 pregnant females 5 aborted between the fifth and seventh month of pregnancy and 13 females (20%) remained pregnant. After 385 days of pregnancy, the first healthy and normal male-dromedary offspring produced fully in vitro was born at a birth weight of 38 kg. More dromedary calves (n = 4) were born later on. The remaining pregnant females (n = 8) are due to calf within the next months. In

  11. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Camlin, Nicole J.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.; Holt, Janet E.

    2014-12-15

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in vivo and in vitro animal models have been developed. This article represents a systematic review of the literature regarding four of experimental model types: 1) direct exposure of ovarian cells and follicles to smoking constituents’ in vitro, 2) direct exposure of whole ovarian tissue with smoking constituents in vitro, 3) whole body exposure of animals to smoking constituents and 4) whole body exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. We summarise key findings and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each model system, and link these to the molecular mechanisms identified in smoke-induced fertility changes. - Highlights: • In vivo exposure to individual cigarette smoke chemicals alters female fertility. • The use of in vitro models in determining molecular mechanisms • Whole cigarette smoke inhalation animal models negatively affect ovarian function.

  12. INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22

    EPA Science Inventory

    INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22. SC Jeffay*, SD Perreault, KL Bobseine*, JE Welch*, GR Klinefelter, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    SP22, a rat sperm membrane protein that is highly-correlated w...

  13. INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22

    EPA Science Inventory

    INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22. SC Jeffay*, SD Perreault, KL Bobseine*, JE Welch*, GR Klinefelter, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    SP22, a rat sperm membrane protein that is highly-correlated w...

  14. Use of the egg-share model to investigate the paternal influence on fertilization and embryo development after in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Sakkas, Denny; D'Arcy, Yvonne; Percival, Gail; Sinclair, Lucinda; Afnan, Masoud; Sharif, Khaldoun

    2004-07-01

    To investigate whether sperm from different males can influence fertilization and embryo development. To use an egg-sharing model, in which the eggs from one woman are shared between herself and a recipient, and different spermatozoa are used to fertilize the eggs. Assisted Conception Unit, Birmingham Women's Hospital, Edgbaston, United Kingdom. Infertile women undergoing egg sharing. In vitro fertilization (IVF). Fertilization rates and the mean day 2 or 3 embryo score (cell number X grade) were examined for egg-sharing pairs. A comparison was also made for pairs in which intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and IVF was used as the insemination method. A paired samples t-test was used to compare the sharer and recipient results. Pregnancy rates did not differ between sharer and recipient couples. Interestingly, when comparing fertilization, there was a significant difference (P<.05) in favor of IVF over ICSI. When comparing embryo development between egg-sharing pairs, we found that approximately 30% of patients showed a difference in mean embryo score of >or= 5 in all embryo development and 14% in the quality of embryos available for transfer. We showed that the egg-sharing model is a successful alternative for the treatment of women who required donated eggs. More important, the egg-sharing model shows that, in a certain percentage of couples, differences in early embryo development are paternally influenced.

  15. Vitrification, in vitro fertilization, and development of Atg7 deficient mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Bang, Soyoung; Lee, Geun-Kyung; Shin, Hyejin; Suh, Chang Suk; Lim, Hyunjung Jade

    2016-03-01

    Autophagy contributes to the clearance and recycling of macromolecules and organelles in response to stress. We previously reported that vitrified mouse oocytes show acute increases in autophagy during warming. Herein, we investigate the potential role of Atg7 in oocyte vitrification by using an oocyte-specific deletion model of the Atg7 gene, a crucial upstream gene in the autophagic pathway. Oocyte-specific Atg7 deficient mice were generated by crossing Atg7 floxed mice and Zp3-Cre transgenic mice. The oocytes were vitrified-warmed and then subjected to in vitro fertilization and development. The rates of survival, fertilization, and development were assessed in the Atg7 deficient oocytes in comparison with the wildtype oocytes. Light chain 3 (LC3) immunofluorescence staining was performed to determine whether this method effectively evaluates the autophagy status of oocytes. The survival rate of vitrified-warmed Atg7(f/f) ;Zp3-Cre (Atg7(d/d) ) metaphase II (MII) oocytes was not significantly different from that of the wildtype (Atg7(f/f) ) oocytes. Fertilization and development in the Atg7(d/d) oocytes were significantly lower than the Atg7(f/f) oocytes, comparable to the Atg5(d/d) oocytes previously described. Notably, the developmental rate improved slightly in vitrified-warmed Atg7(d/d) MII oocytes when compared to fresh Atg7(d/d) oocytes. LC3 immunofluorescence staining showed that this method can be reliably used to assess autophagic activation in oocytes. We confirmed that the LC3-positive signal is nearly absent in Atg7(d/d) oocytes. While autophagy is induced during the warming process after vitrification of MII oocytes, the Atg7 gene is not essential for survival of vitrified-warmed oocytes. Thus, induction of autophagy during warming of vitrified MII oocytes seems to be a natural response to manage cold or other cellular stresses.

  16. Vitrification, in vitro fertilization, and development of Atg7 deficient mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Soyoung; Lee, Geun-Kyung; Shin, Hyejin; Suh, Chang Suk

    2016-01-01

    Objective Autophagy contributes to the clearance and recycling of macromolecules and organelles in response to stress. We previously reported that vitrified mouse oocytes show acute increases in autophagy during warming. Herein, we investigate the potential role of Atg7 in oocyte vitrification by using an oocyte-specific deletion model of the Atg7 gene, a crucial upstream gene in the autophagic pathway. Methods Oocyte-specific Atg7 deficient mice were generated by crossing Atg7 floxed mice and Zp3-Cre transgenic mice. The oocytes were vitrified-warmed and then subjected to in vitro fertilization and development. The rates of survival, fertilization, and development were assessed in the Atg7 deficient oocytes in comparison with the wildtype oocytes. Light chain 3 (LC3) immunofluorescence staining was performed to determine whether this method effectively evaluates the autophagy status of oocytes. Results The survival rate of vitrified-warmed Atg7f/f;Zp3-Cre (Atg7d/d) metaphase II (MII) oocytes was not significantly different from that of the wildtype (Atg7f/f) oocytes. Fertilization and development in the Atg7d/d oocytes were significantly lower than the Atg7f/f oocytes, comparable to the Atg5d/d oocytes previously described. Notably, the developmental rate improved slightly in vitrified-warmed Atg7d/d MII oocytes when compared to fresh Atg7d/d oocytes. LC3 immunofluorescence staining showed that this method can be reliably used to assess autophagic activation in oocytes. Conclusion We confirmed that the LC3-positive signal is nearly absent in Atg7d/d oocytes. While autophagy is induced during the warming process after vitrification of MII oocytes, the Atg7 gene is not essential for survival of vitrified-warmed oocytes. Thus, induction of autophagy during warming of vitrified MII oocytes seems to be a natural response to manage cold or other cellular stresses. PMID:27104152

  17. [Perinatal results in pregnancies obtained with embryo transfer in vitro fertilization: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Barros Delgadillo, Juan Carlos; Alvarado Méndez, Luz María; Gorbea Chávez, Viridiana; Villalobos Acosta, Sergio; Sánchez Solís, Víctor; Gaviño Gaviño, Fernando

    2006-12-01

    In 1978 the first successfull birth by in vitro fertilization took place and this assisted reproduction technique became alternative of treatment in the couples with infertility that had not obtained pregnancy with conventional treatments. The conditions of clinical treatment and laboratory improved, which were in greater number of pregnancies. In 1985 the first study was published that showed adverse perinatal results in pregnancies obtained with fertilization in vitro. Some researchers attributed these results to the increase in the number of multiple pregnancies, pregnant patients older than 35 years, and to the antecedents of infertility. To compare the perinatal outcomes of pregnancies obtained by in vitro IVFET vs spontaneous pregnancies. A retrospective, case-control study. All pregnancies obtained after IVF ET from October 1st 1999 to November 30th 2004 were compared with a control group of naturally conceived pregnancies and matched by maternal age and the number of fetus. Data concerning obstetric complications and perinatal outcomes were recorded and matched with their control. We analyzed 26 vs 52 singleton, 10 vs 20 twins, 5 vs 5 triplet pregnancies, there were no controls for the quadruplet and quintuplet pregnancies. The mean gestational age at delivery and Capurro score in the singleton pregnancies were 37.8 vs 38.8 y 38.2 vs 39.4 weeks for the study and control groups respectively (p < 0.05), the female sex was more frequent in singleton pregnancies obtained by FIVTE (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant difference in the premature rupture of membranes, preterm labor, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, placenta accreta, preterm delivery and low birth weight. The mean birth weight of the pregnancies obtained by IVF were of 2,962.8, 2,100 and 1,532 g for singleton, twin, and triplet respectively. A higher incidence of preterm delivery was found in twin pregnancies but it was not statistically significant. The rates of adverse perinatal

  18. Effect of Paternal Age on Reproductive Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yixuan; Kang, Xiangjin; Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Haiying; Liu, Jianqiao

    2015-01-01

    Although the adverse effects of maternal aging on reproductive outcomes have been investigated widely, there is no consensus on the impact of paternal age. Therefore, we investigated the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcomes in a retrospective analysis of 9,991 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles performed at the Reproductive Medicine Center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (China) between January 2007 and October 2013. Samples were grouped according to maternal age [<30 (3,327 cycles), 30-34 (4,587 cycles), and 35-38 (2,077 cycles)] and then subgrouped according to paternal age (<30, 30-32, 33-35, 36-38, 39-41, and ≥42). The groups did not differ in terms of fertilization rate, numbers of viable and high-quality embryos and miscarriage rate when controlling maternal age (P >0.05). Chi-squared analysis revealed that there were no differences in implantation and pregnancy rates among the different paternal age groups when maternal age was <30 and 35-38 years (P >0.05). However, implantation and pregnancy rates decreased with paternal age in the 31-34 y maternal age group (P <0.05). Our study indicates that paternal age has no impact on fertilization rate, embryo quality at the cleavage stage and miscarriage rate. For the 30-34 y maternal age group, the implantation rate decreased with increased paternal age, with the pregnancy rate in this group being significantly higher in the paternal <30 y and 30-32 y age groups, compared with those in the 36-38 y and 39-41 y groups.

  19. In vitro and in vivo developmental competence of dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) oocytes following in vitro fertilization or parthenogenetic activation.

    PubMed

    Khatir, H; Anouassi, A; Tibary, A

    2009-07-01

    Parthenogenetic activation of the oocyte represents an important step in the somatic cloning. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness (in term of in vitro development) of different methods of parthenogenetic activation of dromedary oocytes. Selected cumulus-oocytes-complexes (n=1264) collected by follicular aspiration from ovaries obtained postmortem were matured in vitro (IVM) for 30 h then divided randomly into seven groups and submitted to artificial activation. Two groups were preactivated with 25 microM of calcium ionophore (CaI) for 20 min then incubated for 4h with either 2mM 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) (group 1, n=202) or with 10 microg/mL cycloheximide (CHX) (group 2, n=194). Group 3 (n=172) and group 4 (n=184), oocytes were pretreated with 5 microM ionomycin (Iono) for 5 min then incubated with either 2mM 6-DMAP or 10 microg/mL cycloheximide for 4h, respectively. Group 5 (n=161) and group 6 (n=155) oocytes were preactivated with electrical stimulation (ES) then activated with either 2mM 6-DMAP or 10 microg/mL cycloheximide for 4h, respectively. Group 7 (n=196) oocytes were submitted to in vitro fertilization (IVF) and served as a control. All groups containing oocytes were cultured in vitro following activation or IVF, at 38.5 degrees C under 5% CO(2) in air with >95% humidity. The in vitro development rates of dromedary oocytes exposed to 6-DMAP after CaI (61%), ES (74%) and the IVF group (71%) were similar and significantly greater (P<0.05) than other treatments (10% for group 2, 47% for group 3, 27% for group 4 and 41% for group 6). The blastocyst developmental rate was better (P<0.05) in parthenotes following activation with Iono/6-DMAP (21%) compared to activation with Iono/CHX (12%). However, all were less than that achieved in the IVF group (35%). We conclude that parthenogenetic activation of camel oocytes with 6-DMAP is more effective than activation with CHX for all pre-treatments tested (CaI, Iono or ES). The viability

  20. New reproductive technology and the family: the parent-child relationship following in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Colpin, H; Demyttenaere, K; Vandemeulebroecke, L

    1995-11-01

    Parent-child relationships and the parents' psychosocial functioning were assessed in families with a 24-30-month-old, single born child conceived by homologous in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in a control group of families with a naturally conceived child. The investigation included behavioural observations of mother-child interactions in the home, and self-rated questionnaires. No significant multivariate group effects were found for indicators of the parent-child relationship, nor for the parents' psychosocial functioning. However, in the case of IVF the employment status of the mother was associated with her behaviour towards her child: employed IVF-mothers showed less respect for their child's autonomy compared with both nonemployed IVF-mothers and employed control mothers.

  1. Clinical Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization among Chinese Infertile Couples Treated for Syphilis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Zhao, Xiaomiao; Yuan, Ping; Fang, Tingfeng; Ouyang, Nengyong; Li, Ruiqi; Ou, Songbang; Wang, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes of infertile patients with and without syphilis after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), in this case-control study, 320 infertile couples were enrolled and divided into syphilis (n = 160) and control groups (n = 160). The primary IVF outcomes were the clinical pregnancy rate and the birth of a healthy baby. All syphilis patients received the standard anti-syphilis treatment before undergoing IVF/ICSI. Our results showed that the endometrial thickness of the syphilis group was greater than that of the control group following hCG injection (16.9±5.4 vs. 13.0±4.7 mm, P<0.001). The numbers of normally fertilized eggs and normally cleaved fertilized eggs and the implantation rate were 6.8±4.8, 6.3±4.7 and 24.2%, respectively, for the syphilis group and 8.3±4.6, 8.1±4.6 and 34.4%, respectively, for the control group, and these values were significantly different between the groups. The clinical pregnancy rate was lower in the syphilis group compared with that in the control group (43.8% vs. 55.6%, P = 0.03). Lower offspring birth weight was observed in the infected male group compared with those in the infected female (2.7±0.4 vs. 3.0±0.4 kg, P = 0.01) and infected couple groups (2.7±0.4 vs. 3.1±0.5 kg, P = 0.007). Therefore, syphilis infection reduces the clinical pregnancy rate after IVF/ICSI. PMID:26208116

  2. Toxic trace metals and human oocytes during in vitro fertilization (IVF)

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Michael S.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Browne, Richard W.; Kim, Keewan; Coccaro, Gregory A.; Conti, Giulia C.; Narayan, Natasha; Fujimoto, Victor Y.

    2010-01-01

    Trace exposures to the toxic metals mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) may threaten human reproductive health. The aim of this study is to generate biologically-plausible hypotheses concerning associations between Hg, Cd, and Pb and in vitro fertilization (IVF) endpoints. For 15 female IVF patients, a multivariable log-binomial model suggests a 75% reduction in the probability for a retrieved oocyte to be in metaphase-II arrest for each μg/dL increase in blood Pb concentration (relative risk (RR) = 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03–2.50, P = 0.240). For 15 male IVF partners, each μg/L increase in urine Cd concentration is associated with an 81% decrease in the probability for oocyte fertilization (RR = 0.19, 95% CI 0.03–1.35, P = 0.097). Because of the magnitude of the effects, these results warrant a comprehensive study with sufficient statistical power to further evaluate these hypotheses. PMID:20096775

  3. Toxic trace metals and human oocytes during in vitro fertilization (IVF).

    PubMed

    Bloom, Michael S; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Schisterman, Enrique F; Browne, Richard W; Kim, Keewan; Coccaro, Gregory A; Conti, Giulia C; Narayan, Natasha; Fujimoto, Victor Y

    2010-06-01

    Trace exposures to the toxic metals mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) may threaten human reproductive health. The aim of this study is to generate biologically-plausible hypotheses concerning associations between Hg, Cd, and Pb and in vitro fertilization (IVF) endpoints. For 15 female IVF patients, a multivariable log-binomial model suggests a 75% reduction in the probability for a retrieved oocyte to be in metaphase-II arrest for each microg/dL increase in blood Pb concentration (relative risk (RR)=0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03-2.50, P=0.240). For 15 male IVF partners, each microg/L increase in urine Cd concentration is associated with an 81% decrease in the probability for oocyte fertilization (RR=0.19, 95% CI 0.03-1.35, P=0.097). Because of the magnitude of the effects, these results warrant a comprehensive study with sufficient statistical power to further evaluate these hypotheses.

  4. Evaluation of Zona Pellucida Function for Sperm Penetration During In Vitro Fertilization in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    TANIHARA, Fuminori; NAKAI, Michiko; KANEKO, Hiroyuki; NOGUCHI, Junko; OTOI, Takeshige; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In porcine oocytes, the function of the zona pellucida (ZP) with regard to sperm penetration or prevention of polyspermy is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the ZP on sperm penetration during in vitro fertilization (IVF). We collected in vitro-matured oocytes with a first polar body (ZP+ oocytes). Some of them were freed from the ZP (ZP− oocytes) by two treatments (pronase and mechanical pipetting), and the effects of these treatments on sperm penetration parameters (sperm penetration rate and numbers of penetrated sperm per oocyte) were evaluated. There was no evident difference in the parameters between the two groups. Secondly, we compared the sperm penetration parameters of ZP+ and ZP− oocytes using frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa from four boars. Sperm penetration into ZP+ oocytes was found to be accelerated relative to ZP− oocytes. Thirdly, we evaluated the sperm penetration of ZP+ and ZP− oocytes at 1−10 h after IVF (3 h gamete co-incubation). The proportions of oocytes penetrated by sperm increased significantly with time in both groups; however, the number of penetrated sperm per oocyte did not increase in ZP− oocytes. Finally, we performed IVF using ZP− oocytes divided into control (3 h) and prolonged gamete co-incubation (5 h) groups. Greater numbers of sperm penetrated in the 5 h group than in the control group. These results suggest that the ZP and oolemma are not competent factors for prevention of polyspermy in our present porcine IVF system. However, it appears that ZP removal is one of the possibilities for reducing polyspermic penetration in vitro in pigs. PMID:23666494

  5. Does Embryo Culture Medium Influence the Health and Development of Children Born after In Vitro Fertilization?

    PubMed

    Bouillon, Céline; Léandri, Roger; Desch, Laurent; Ernst, Alexandra; Bruno, Céline; Cerf, Charline; Chiron, Alexandra; Souchay, Céline; Burguet, Antoine; Jimenez, Clément; Sagot, Paul; Fauque, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In animal studies, extensive data revealed the influence of culture medium on embryonic development, foetal growth and the behaviour of offspring. However, this impact has never been investigated in humans. For the first time, we investigated in depth the effects of embryo culture media on health, growth and development of infants conceived by In Vitro Fertilization until the age of 5 years old. This single-centre cohort study was based on an earlier randomized study. During six months, in vitro fertilization attempts (No. 371) were randomized according to two media (Single Step Medium--SSM group) or Global medium (Global group). This randomized study was stopped prematurely as significantly lower pregnancy and implantation rates were observed in the SSM group. Singletons (No. 73) conceived in the randomized study were included (42 for Global and 31 for SSM). The medical data for gestational, neonatal and early childhood periods were extracted from medical records and parental interviews (256 variables recorded). The developmental profiles of the children in eight domains (social, self-help, gross motor, fine motor, expressive language, language comprehension, letter knowledge and number knowledge--270 items) were compared in relation to the culture medium. The delivery rate was significantly lower in the SSM group than in the Global group (p<0.05). The culture medium had no significant effect on birthweight, risk of malformation (minor and major), growth and the frequency of medical concerns. However, the children of the Global group were less likely than those of the SSM group to show developmental problems (p = 0.002), irrespective of the different domains. In conclusion, our findings showed that the embryo culture medium may have an impact on further development.

  6. Does Embryo Culture Medium Influence the Health and Development of Children Born after In Vitro Fertilization?

    PubMed Central

    Bouillon, Céline; Léandri, Roger; Desch, Laurent; Ernst, Alexandra; Bruno, Céline; Cerf, Charline; Chiron, Alexandra; Souchay, Céline; Burguet, Antoine; Jimenez, Clément; Sagot, Paul; Fauque, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In animal studies, extensive data revealed the influence of culture medium on embryonic development, foetal growth and the behaviour of offspring. However, this impact has never been investigated in humans. For the first time, we investigated in depth the effects of embryo culture media on health, growth and development of infants conceived by In Vitro Fertilization until the age of 5 years old. This single-centre cohort study was based on an earlier randomized study. During six months, in vitro fertilization attempts (No. 371) were randomized according to two media (Single Step Medium—SSM group) or Global medium (Global group). This randomized study was stopped prematurely as significantly lower pregnancy and implantation rates were observed in the SSM group. Singletons (No. 73) conceived in the randomized study were included (42 for Global and 31 for SSM). The medical data for gestational, neonatal and early childhood periods were extracted from medical records and parental interviews (256 variables recorded). The developmental profiles of the children in eight domains (social, self-help, gross motor, fine motor, expressive language, language comprehension, letter knowledge and number knowledge – 270 items) were compared in relation to the culture medium. The delivery rate was significantly lower in the SSM group than in the Global group (p<0.05). The culture medium had no significant effect on birthweight, risk of malformation (minor and major), growth and the frequency of medical concerns. However, the children of the Global group were less likely than those of the SSM group to show developmental problems (p = 0.002), irrespective of the different domains. In conclusion, our findings showed that the embryo culture medium may have an impact on further development. PMID:27008092

  7. Production of oocytes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) for in vitro fertilization via hormonal treatments.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, A F A; Alvarenga, É R; Oliveira, D A A; Aleixo, C G; Prado, S A; Luz, R K; Sarmento, N L A F; Teixeira, E A; Luz, M R; Turra, E M

    2013-12-01

    Only a few studies have described hormonal treatments for induction of synchronicity and gamete collection in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), both important for assortative matings in breeding programmes and essential for polyploidy technologies. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of carp pituitary extract (CPE), Nile tilapia pituitary extract (TPE), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) protocols on the induction of spawning and egg production in Nile tilapia. Among the hormonal treatments analysed, only hCG was effective for producing viable gametes for in vitro fertilization. To verify the viability of this hormonal treatment, hCG was tested using different doses (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 IU/kg) in a large number of females (208 animals) from two Nile tilapia lines. The results indicated that hCG doses between 1000 and 5000 IU/kg could be used to induce final oocyte maturation in Nile tilapia with collection of stripped oocytes. This is the first study to report differential reproductive responses to hormonal treatment between tilapia lines: line 1 was more efficient at producing eggs and post-hatching larvae after hCG induction than line 2. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the hCG protocol may be applied on a large scale to induce final oocyte maturation in Nile tilapia. The development of a protocol for in vitro fertilization in Nile tilapia may aid in breeding programmes and biotechnological assays for the development of genetically modified lines of Nile tilapia. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Antioxidant capacity of follicular fluid from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo; Li, Zhou; Ai, Jihui; Zhu, Lixia; Li, Yufeng; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Hanwang

    2014-01-01

    This study measured the antioxidant activity of follicular fluid (FF) in infertile patients and assessed its possible correlation between ovarian stimulation and pregnancy outcomes. Samples from 191 infertile patients undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) were determined by α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, superoxide radical scavenging, β-Carotene bleaching assay, ferrothiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid assays. The comparison between a positive IVF outcome and FF’s antioxidant activity was also studied. The results showed FF had strong antioxidant activity, which equated to common antioxidants Vc and BHT (100 μg/mL). Patients with endometriosis had less efficient antioxidant activity in FF than that of patients with tubal occlusion or polycystic ovary syndrome. In conclusion, this study detected, for the first time, the antioxidant activity of FF from patients undergoing an IVF and the FF exhibited strong antioxidant activity. PMID:24966936

  9. Phosphorylated H2AX in parthenogenetically activated, in vitro fertilized and cloned bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A F; Melo, L M; Freitas, V J F; Salamone, D F

    2015-08-01

    In vitro embryo production methods induce DNA damage in the embryos. In response to these injuries, histone H2AX is phosphorylated (γH2AX) and forms foci at the sites of DNA breaks to recruit repair proteins. In this work, we quantified the DNA damage in bovine embryos undergoing parthenogenetic activation (PA), in vitro fertilization (IVF) or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) by measuring γH2AX accumulation at different developmental stages: 1-cell, 2-cell and blastocyst. At the 1-cell stage, IVF embryos exhibited a greater number of γH2AX foci (606.1 ± 103.2) and greater area of γH2AX staining (12923.6 ± 3214.1) than did PA and SCNT embryos. No differences at the 2-cell stage were observed among embryo types. Although PA, IVF and SCNT were associated with different blastocyst formation rates (31.1%, 19.7% and 8.3%, P < 0.05), no differences in the number of γH2AX foci or area were detected among the treatments. γH2AX is detected in bovine preimplantation embryos produced by PA, IVF and SCNT; the amount of DNA damage was comparable among those embryos developing to the blastocyst stage among different methods for in vitro embryo production. While IVF resulted in increased damage at the 1-cell embryo stage, no difference was observed between PA and SCNT embryos at any developmental stage. The decrease in the number of double-stranded breaks at the blastocyst stage seems to indicate that DNA repair mechanisms are functional during embryo development.

  10. Are sperm DNA fragmentation, hyperactivation, and hyaluronan-binding ability predictive for fertilization and embryo development in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection?

    PubMed

    Pregl Breznik, Barbara; Kovačič, Borut; Vlaisavljević, Veljko

    2013-04-01

    To determine the diagnostic value of the following sperm function tests in predicting the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): hyaluronan-binding assay (HBA), DNA fragmentation (Halosperm), and hyperactivity. Prospective study. University medical center. 133 couples undergoing infertility treatment with IVF/ICSI. Analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation, hyaluronan-binding ability, and hyperactivation on washed semen samples used for the insemination of oocytes. Correlation between the results of sperm function tests and the fertilization rate (FR) or embryo quality (EQ) after IVF and ICSI. Comparison of the sperm DNA fragmentation, hyperactivation, and hyaluronan binding ability between cycles with less than 50% (group 1) and more than 50% (group 2) of oocytes fertilized after IVF. Both FR and EQ in IVF cycles negatively correlated with sperm DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between FR and hyaluronan-binding ability or induced hyperactivity. The semen samples from the IVF cycles with low FR (group 1) were characterized by statistically significantly higher sperm DNA fragmentation and lower hyaluronan-binding ability in comparison with semen samples from the group with high levels of fertilization (group 2). In ICSI cycles, no relationship was found between sperm function tests and FR or EQ. The Halosperm test, the HBA test, and induced hyperactivity are useful in predicting the ability of spermatozoa to fertilize oocytes in IVF and are helpful in distinguishing semen samples suitable for IVF or ICSI. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rare ectopic pregnancies after in-vitro fertilization: one unilateral twin and four bilateral tubal pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Rizk, B; Morcos, S; Avery, S; Elder, K; Brinsden, P; Mason, B; Edwards, R

    1990-11-01

    Between 1985 and 1989, one unilateral twin and four bilateral tubal pregnancies were encountered among 124 extrauterine pregnancies and 1648 intrauterine pregnancies following in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. The two factors associated with this high incidence of single and multiple extrauterine pregnancies were tubal damage and multiple embryo transfer. Embryos at different stages of development appear to have the capacity to implant ectopically. Despite advances in diagnostic capabilities, ectopic pregnancy remains a major cause of maternal mortality. Early diagnosis prior to rupture must be made if mortality and morbidity are to be abolished. The use of transvaginal sonography has improved the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy and should be routinely used in all pregnancies following assisted conception. The identification of an intrauterine pregnancy should not be sufficient to rule out the possibility of an extrauterine pregnancy or even bilateral tubal pregnancies.

  12. Is in-vitro fertilization for older women ethical? A personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Perla, L

    2001-03-01

    Fertility treatments raise a range of social and ethical issues regarding self-identity for family, sexual intimacy, and the interests and welfare of potential children. Eggs and sperm are combined to produce fertilized eggs. These eggs are then implanted as embryos and grow into viable fetuses, which are carried by the original mother or a surrogate mother. This artificial form of conception can challenge religious values and family structures. In-vitro fertilization (IVF) can be considered either as a medical miracle or playing with divinity. What obligation do medical professionals have to infertile women and to what extent? The bioethical dilemma of IVF use encompasses different moral issues for all involved in the process. Ethical issues address respect for personal autonomy, access and care, and the duty of the health care provider to be compassionate to persons whose actions and moral values may be different from their own. Health care providers need to impart empathy, understanding and sensitivity towards this unique type of patient population. The conflict for those treating patients who are trying to conceive by IVF includes respect for personal autonomy, nonmaleficence, justice, utility and the ethics of care. As a registered nurse in a postpartum hospital unit, I have seen antepartum and postpartum women involved with this new technology. I have worked with mothers and their partners as they experience different levels of anxiety and hope for the future. There is an underlying psychosocial connection with patients who undergo IVF treatments. The purpose of this article is to explore the ethical use of IVF on older women. Is this type of biotechnolgy being applied for the right reasons and for the best patient population?

  13. Developmental competence of Dromedary camel oocytes fertilized in vitro by frozen-thawed ejaculated and epididymal spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Scholkamy, T. H.; El-Badry, D. A.; Mahmoud, K. Gh. M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the in vitro fertilizing capacity of frozen-thawed ejaculated and epididymal spermatozoa in order to standardize the semen preparation protocol for camel in vitro fertilization (IVF). Semen samples were collected from 7 Dromedary camels by means of artificial vagina (AV). Ten cauda epididymes were obtained from slaughtered adult camels, isolated, incised and rinsed for obtaining the sperm rich fluid. Ejaculated and epididymal spermatozoa were processed for cryopreservation. Fresh and frozen-thawed ejaculated and epididymal spermatozoa were evaluated for motility, livability, membrane and acrosomal integrities. Frozen-thawed ejaculated and epididymal spermatozoa were used to fertilize camel mature oocytes in vitro. The results showed that, the progressive motility of freshly collected epididymal spermatozoa was significantly (P<0.05) higher than ejaculated spermatozoa (49.25 ± 1.75 vs. 38.50 ± 1.50%, respectively). The viability index of epididymal spermatozoa was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of ejaculated spermatozoa (96.63 ± 2.45 vs. 84.00 ± 4.08, respectively). The post-thaw acrosome and membrane integrities of epididymal spermatozoa were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those of ejaculated spermatozoa. Morula and blastocyst rates of camel oocytes in vitro fertilized by frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa (59.4 ± 0.8, 19.12 ± 0.7 and 10.29 ± 0.7%, respectively) were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those fertilized by frozen-thawed ejaculated spermatozoa (48.27 ± 3.1, 11.63 ± 1.1 and 5.43 ± 0.8%, respectively). In conclusion, the Dromedary camel frozen epididymal spermatozoa have the capacity to endure cryopreservation, fertilize oocytes and produce embryos in vitro better than ejaculated sperm. PMID:28224009

  14. Improving the safety of the embryo and the patient during in vitro fertilization procedures

    PubMed Central

    Wdowiak, Artur; Wdowiak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a method of treatment for infertility in selected indications. Recent years have brought dynamic development of technologies related to IVF. This article presents problems pertaining to the safety of technology with respect to the patient, as well as the embryo, based on an analysis of scientific reports and our own experience. Invasiveness of the IVF procedure for the woman and the embryo varies on an individual basis. Minimization of the invasiveness of IVF requires experience of the staff performing the procedure, especially with respect to the assessment of risk for an individual patient. Technologies related to IVF are constantly being improved, and the effectiveness of the selected individual treatment methods is not always scientifically confirmed. PMID:27829935

  15. Centrifugation on Percoll density gradient enhances motility, membrane integrity and in vitro fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed boar sperm.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Michiko; Yoshioka, Koji; Hikono, Hirokazu; Iwagami, Gentaro; Suzuki, Chie; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2015-02-01

    The effects of Percoll density gradient centrifugation on sperm quality, in vitro fertilizability and developmental capacity of frozen-thawed boar sperm were evaluated. Two-step density gradient centrifugation by Percoll enhanced significantly the motility parameters of sperm compared with a simple centrifugation procedure. Percentages of motile sperm and sperm with intact plasma and acrosome membranes after Percoll separation were significantly greater than those after simple centrifugation. The rates of penetration, cleavage and blastocyst formation after in vitro fertilization were significantly improved by Percoll separation compared with simple centrifugation and were influenced positively by the intactness of sperm head membranes, but not any sperm motility parameters. However, insemination with increased concentrations of sperm prepared by Percoll gradient centrifugation did not improve the success of fertilization and embryo development in vitro. Our results indicate that the integrity of sperm head membranes after Percoll separation is important for successful embryo development in vitro, more so than sperm motility.

  16. Inhibition of In Vitro Fertilizing Capacity of Cryopreserved Mouse Sperm by Factors Released by Damaged Sperm, and Stimulation by Glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    Background In vitro fertilization (IVF) of eggs by frozen and thawed C57BL/6J mouse sperm is inhibited by dead sperm and enhanced by preincubation of the sperm in calcium-free medium. In other species, the presence of sperm killed by freezing and thawing has been associated with the generation of hydrogen peroxide. Methodology/Principal Findings The proportion of eggs fertilized by cryopreserved C57BL/6J mouse sperm was increased significantly by increasing the volume of fertilization medium in which sperm and eggs were coincubated. Enhanced fertilization occurred even though the concentration of potentially fertile sperm was decreased fivefold. This suggested that if a putative soluble factor was inhibiting fertilization, dilution of that factor, but not the sperm, should increase the fertilization rate. This was achieved by coincubation of the gametes in cell culture inserts (Transwells®) that during incubation were transferred progressively to wells containing fresh fertilization medium. Fertilization rates using inserts were high (66.6±2.4% versus 27.3%±2.8% in wells alone). On the assumption that the soluble factor could be H2O2, reduced glutathione was added to the fertilization medium. This enhanced fertilization rate significantly (76.6%±2.0% versus 21.2%±1.9%), while addition of oxidized glutathione did not (82.7%±6.5% with reduced glutathione; 44.5±8.8% with oxidized glutathione; 47.8%±12.1% with no glutathione). Positive effects of reduced glutathione on IVF were also seen with frozen 129S1, FVB, and C3H sperm, and sperm from two lines of genetically modified C57BL/6J mice. Conclusions/Significance IVF in cell culture inserts and addition of glutathione to fertilization medium significantly increased the proportion of eggs fertilized by cryopreserved mouse sperm from four inbred strains, suggesting that reactive oxygen species generated during fertilization inhibit fertilization. The modified IVF techniques developed here enhance the feasibility

  17. [Morphological changes in gametes of tiger barb Puntius tetrazona (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) and the implementation of in vitro fertilization].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Castanedo, Omar; Toledano-Olivares, Ángel; Martínez-Espinosa, David; Ávalos-Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    The production of ornamental fishes represents an economic activity of a growing number of Mexican families. Nevertheless, the reproduction of fish in captivity is one of the complications faced by farmers. This study was set up to: (i) evaluate the morphological and functional changes induced by hydration in the gametes of fish tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona; 240 samples) at tree times after hydration (10, 20 and 30s) with classic spermograms (volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and normal morphology); and (ii) evaluate the implementation of in vitro fertilization based on the ovulation rate, the percentage of fertilization and hatching; and the larval numbers obtained after 72 hours. The average volume of milt was 3.0 ± 0.7 μL, and the minimum, maximum and average concentration of sperm was 44.4 x 10(6) spz/mL, 52.3 x 10(6) spz/mL, and 48.1 ± 5.9 x 10(6) spz/mL, respectively. The viability and motility of the sperm was 84.6 ± 3.2% and 81.5 ± 2.2%, respectively. The diameter of the sperm with/without water contact was 2.10 ± 6 μm and 3.8 ± 1.0 μm (p < 0.05); the largest diameter was recorded 30 seconds after the contact with water. For oocytes, the smaller and larger diameters were recorded at 10 and 30s, respectively (both with/without water contact); the oocytes diameters after 10 and 30 seconds of contact with water were 1.11 and 1.55 mm, respectively. A higher ovulation rate was recorded using the in vitro fertilization: 250 ± 50 oocytes versus 28 ± 09 oocytes (during natural fertilization; p < 0.05). Nevertheless, fertilization and hatching rates were higher for the natural fertilization (80 and 60%, respectively). Considering the number of larvae obtained after 72 hours, our results showed a higher value for the in vitro fertilization (75 ± 18 compared to 13.4 ± 12 of the natural fertilization; p < 0.05). We propose this fish as a model for other ornamental fishes of commercial interest. Our results demonstrate that the in vitro

  18. Estradiol in saliva for monitoring follicular stimulation in an in vitro fertilization program

    SciTech Connect

    Belkien, L.D.; Bordt, J.; Moeller, P.; Hano, R.; Nieschlag, E.

    1985-09-01

    A rapid and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed to compare serum and saliva estradiol (E/sub 2/) levels in patients undergoing ovulation induction in an in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program. Serum and saliva E/sub 2/ were compared in 23 patients. The sensitivity of the saliva RIA standard curve was 11 fmol/tube (equal to 3.2 pg/tube). There was a highly significant correlation between serum and saliva E/sub 2/ throughout the stimulated cycles. The ratio of serum to saliva E/sub 2/ was constant throughout the stimulated cycles. The E/sub 2/ concentration per follicle was 1548 pmol/l in serum and 23 pmol/l in saliva. Mean E/sub 2/ levels in saliva (+/- SD) were 74 +/- 21 pmol/l at midcycle and 46 +/- 12 pmol/l at midluteal phase. The findings indicate that measurement of saliva E/sub 2/ provides a reliable, noninvasive method and may replace serum measurements for monitoring stimulated cycles in an IVF-ET program.

  19. In vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection for couples with unexplained infertility after failed direct intraperitoneal insemination.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, S; Minoura, H; Shibahara, T; Shen, X; Futamura, N; Toyoda, N

    2000-10-01

    The objective was to determine the optimal insemination technique in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) after failed direct intraperitoneal insemination (DIPI) and the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in such cases. In case-control studies, 53 couples with unexplained infertility who underwent IVF after four failed DIPI cycles were compared with 75 couples with tubal or endometriosis infertility as controls. Thirty couples with unexplained infertility after failing to conceive with DIPI and conventional IVF who underwent ICSI and 58 couples with male-factor infertility as controls also were compared. Fertilization cleavage, embryo quality, implantation, and pregnancy were compared after IVF and after ICSI. There was a significant difference in fertilization rates after IVF between cases of unexplained infertility after failing to conceive with DIPI (40.4%) and patients with tubal or endometriosis infertility (67.9%). There also was a significant difference in total fertilization failure rates between the two groups (30.4% and 3.9%, respectively). There was a slight but significant difference in numbers of fertilized oocytes after ICSI between patients with low fertilization rate undergoing IVF after failing to conceive DIPI (85.8%) and patients with male factor (90.4%). Total fertilization failure was not observed in these cases. Couples with unexplained infertility after failing to conceive with DIPI show a failed fertilization or a low fertilization rate after IVF. However, they demonstrated a good chance of becoming pregnant after subsequent ICSI, even with statistically significant difference in fertilization rate as compared with male-factor cases.

  20. Handling of boar spermatozoa during and after flow cytometric sex-sorting process to improve their in vitro fertilizing ability.

    PubMed

    del Olmo, D; Parrilla, I; Gil, M A; Maside, C; Tarantini, T; Angel, M A; Roca, J; Martinez, E A; Vazquez, J M

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an adequate sperm handling protocol in order to obtain a sex-sorted sperm population with an optimal fertilizing ability. For this purpose, different aspects of the sorting procedure were examined. The effects of the high dilution rates (experiment 1), type of collection medium used (experiment 2), and sheath fluid composition (experiment 3) on sorted boar sperm quality and function were evaluated. Sperm quality was assessed by motility and viability tests, whereas sperm function was evaluated by an in vitro fertilization assay which determined the penetration and polyspermy rates as well as the mean number of sperm penetrating each oocyte. In experiment 1, the results obtained indicated that the high dilution rates did not cause a decrease either in the sperm quality parameters evaluated or the in vitro fertilization ability of spermatozoa. In experiment 2, although sperm quality was not affected, fertilizing ability was compromised after sorting, regardless of the collection medium that was used. In the experiment 3, all groups displayed adequate sperm quality values, but higher in vitro fertility parameters were obtained for spermatozoa sorted in presence of EDTA in the sheath fluid and egg yolk (EY) in the collection media when compared with those sorted in absence of these protective agents. No differences in penetration rates between unsorted highly diluted (control) and sorted sperm in the presence of EDTA and EY were observed. In conclusion, fertilizing ability was compromised in sex-sorted sperm. The addition of EDTA to sheath fluid and EY to collection medium improved boar sperm fertilizing ability, and both agents should be included as essential media components in future studies.

  1. Tumor necrosis factor-308 polymorphism increases the embryo implantation rate in women undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Vialard, F; El Sirkasi, M; Tronchon, V; Boudjenah, R; Molina-Gomes, D; Bergere, M; Mauduit, C; Wainer, R; Selva, J; Benahmed, M

    2013-10-01

    Do TNF-308 and -238 polymorphisms impact the embryo implantation rate after in vitro fertilization (IVF) in women without female infertility factor? The presence of the TNF-308A allele is associated with high implantation and multiple pregnancy rates in women without known infertility factors after ovarian hyperstimulation with exogenous FSH. Multiple pregnancies are frequent after the use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Single embryo transfer (SET) has been proposed as a simple way to prevent these risks. However, the extension of SET indications to patients not selected based on specific criteria is controversial because of reduced pregnancy rates. To date, the predictive value of the parameters used for SET (age, gynecological history of the patient and uterine characteristics) allows a pregnancy rate of ~30%. The potential predictive value of TNF polymorphisms (-308, rs1800629 and -238, rs361525) on implantation rate was evaluated in 424 women requiring IVF due to male fertility factors. This cohort retrospective study was conducted over 4 years in University-affiliated hospitals. The entire patient group included 424 women undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) due to male fertility factors without the contribution of any female factor. From among this group, a selected patient group included 120 women with a normal karyotype, age under 38 years, serum follicle-stimulating hormone (Day-3 FSH) levels below 10 IU/l, a long agonist desensitization protocol associated with recombinant FSH treatment and a Caucasian background. The TNF-238 polymorphism was not associated with implantation rate. In contrast, the presence of the TNF-308A allele was associated with increased Day 3-E2 levels as well as higher implantation and multiple pregnancy rates after fresh embryo transfer in women from the entire and selected patient groups. Moreover, in the selected patient group, the presence of the TNF-308A allele was also associated with a decrease in the

  2. Effect of sperm entry on blastocyst development after in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection - mouse model.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Nitsche, Karolina; Chan, Anthony W S

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), influence the embryo's development and its quality using the mouse as a model. Assisted fertilization was performed using ICSI and IVF. Fluorescent beads were adhered to the fertilization cone or place of previous sperm injection in the natural mated (NM), IVF and ICSI embryos, respectively. Embryo examination was carried out at the two-cell and blastocyst stage to determine the position of fluorescent bead. Protein expression was detected by fluorescence immunocytochemical staining and confocal microscopic imaging of blastocysts. IVF and ICSI embryos developed at rates comparable to NM group. Embryos show similar expression patterns of two transcription factors, Oct4 and Cdx2. The most preferred place for spermatozoa attachment was the equatorial site of the egg, whether fertilization occurred in vitro or under natural conditions. We also link the sperm entry position (SEP) to embryo morphology and the number of cells at the blastocyst stage, with no influence of the method of fertilization. IVF and ICSI, do not compromise in vitro pre-implantation development. Additional data, related to sperm entry, could offer further criteria to predict embryos that will implant successfully. Based on embryo morphology, developmental rate and protein expression level of key transcription factors, our results support the view that ART techniques, such as IVF and ICSI, do not perturb embryonic development or quality.

  3. Evaluation of human embryo development in in vitro fertilization- and intracytoplasmic sperm injection-fertilized oocytes: A time-lapse study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Yoon, Hye Jin; Jang, Jung Mi; Lee, Won Don; Yoon, San Hyun; Lim, Jin Ho

    2017-06-01

    We investigated whether the insemination method (in vitro fertilization [IVF] or intracytoplasmic sperm injection [ICSI]) affected morphokinetic events and abnormal cleavage events in embryonic development. A total of 1,830 normal fertilized embryos were obtained from 272 IVF and ICSI cycles that underwent ovum retrieval culture using a time-lapse system (Embryoscope) from June 2013 to March 2015. All embryos were investigated by a detailed time-lapse analysis that measured the developmental events in the hours after IVF or ICSI insemination. No significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding clinical outcomes (p>0.05). ICSI-derived embryos showed significantly faster morphokinetics than those derived from conventional IVF, from the time to pronuclear fading to the time to 6 cells (p<0.05). However, no significant differences were found from the time to 7 cells to the time to expanded blastocyst (p>0.05). There were no differences in abnormal cleavage events between the two groups (p>0.05); they showed the same rates of direct cleavage from 1 to 3 cells, 2 multinucleated cells, 2 uneven cells, and reverse cleavage. The morphokinetics of embryo development was found to vary between IVF- and ICSI-fertilized oocytes, at least until the 6-cell stage. However, these differences did not affect the clinical outcomes of the embryo. Additionally, no significant differences in abnormal cleavage events were found according to the fertilization method.

  4. [The age as a predictive factor in in vitro fertilization cycles].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Luiz Mauro Oliveira; Canha, Aparecida Dos Santos; Dzik, Artur; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Juliano, Yara; Dos Santos, Sandra Irene Sprogis; Cavagna, Mario

    2009-05-01

    to evaluate the patient's age as an outcome predictor in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) program. transversal study, which has included 302 women with ages varying from 24 to 46 years old, submitted to IVF, from May 2005 to July 2007. The patients were divided in three groups, according to their age: Gor=40 (n=52). The number of collected oocytes, the fertilization rates, the number of transferred embryos, the embryonary quality and the pregnancy rate were evaluated. Statistical analysis was realized through Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis and chi(2) test. in the Gin the G 36-49 group, 7.4; and in the G>or=40 group, 1.6. The number of oocytes obtained in G>or=40 group was significantly lower than in the other two groups (p<0.001).The fertilization rate was similar in the three groups, 61.4, 65.8 e 64.6% (p=0.2288), respectively. The percentage of good quality embryos was not statistically different among the three groups either, with rates of 57.4, 63.2 and 56.0% (p=0.2254), respectively. The average number of transferred embryos in each group was 3.1 (Gor=40), respectively, with statistically significant decrease in the G>or=40 group (p<0.001). Concerning pregnancy rates, the G>or=40 group has presented a rate of 9.6%, a result which is significantly lower (p=0.0330) than the one presented by the G

  5. In vitro fertilization as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in a patient with partial 17,20-desmolase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pellicer, A; Miró, F; Sampaio, M; Gómez, E; Bonilla-Musoles, F M

    1991-05-01

    To present a case with 17,20-desmolase activity deficiency in which in vitro fertilization (IVF) served not only as a therapeutic approach but also as a diagnostic tool for the specificity of the enzymatic deficiency. IVF in the patient under study compared with a control group. All women treated with pure follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). IVF program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. A patient with primary amenorrhea, who was the subject under study, and seven normally cycling control patients undergoing IVF in the same series. IVF, steroidogenesis in vitro of granulosa-luteal cell obtained at ovum pick-up. Oocyte fertilization and embryo cleavage. Serum and follicular fluid (FF) levels of estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), testosterone (T), androstendione (A), 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP). In vitro accumulation of E2 and P. Ovulation induction with FSH was successful in achieving follicular development despite low circulating E2. Fertilization and cleavage rates were similar to the control subjects. The patient developed ovarian hyperstimulation. The lack of 17,20-desmolase activity was detected by normal P levels in serum and FF, high 17-OHP, and low T, A, and E2 levels in serum and FF. Granulosaluteal cell cultures in the presence of T restored normal E2 and P production in response to gonadotropins. In patients with 17,20-desmolase deficiency, follicular development, oocyte maturation, and fertilization can take place in a low estrogenic environment.

  6. Influence of temperature stress on in vitro fertilization and heat shock protein synthesis in maize (Zea mays L. ) reproductive tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis, I.; Dumas, C. )

    1990-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the response of maize (Zea mays) male and female mature reproductive tissues to temperature stress. We have tested the fertilization abilities of the stressed spikelets and pollen using in vitro pollination-fertilization to determine their respective tolerance to stress. The synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) was also analyzed in male and female tissues using electrophoresis of {sup 35}S-labeled proteins and fluorography, to establish a relationship between the physiological and molecular responses. Pollen, spikelets, and pollinated spikelets were exposed to selected temperatures (4, 28, 32, 36, or 40{degree}C) and tested using an in vitro fertilization system. The fertilization rate is highly reduced when pollinated spikelets are exposed to temperatures over 36{degree}C. When pollen and spikelets are exposed separately to temperature stress, the female tissues appear resistant to 4 hours of cold stress (4{degree}C) or heat stress (40{degree}C). Under heat shock conditions, the synthesis of a typical set of HSPs is induced in the female tissues. In contrast, the mature pollen is sensitive to heat stress and is responsible for the failure of fertilization at high temperatures. At the molecular level, no heat shock response is detected in the mature pollen.

  7. In vitro fertilization (IVF) from low or high antral follicle count pubertal beef heifers using semi-defined culture conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antral follicle counts (AFC) vary among pubertal beef heifers. Our objective was to compare the in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes collected from low and high AFC heifers. Previously we reported results using serum-based IVF media and in this study report results using semi-defined m...

  8. In vitro fertility rate of 129 strain is improved by buserelin (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) administration prior to superovulation.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, K; Sztein, J M

    2012-10-01

    The 129 mice are well recognized for their low fertility and it is speculated that this lack of fertility may be due to the oocyte condition. In this study we investigated superovulation regimens for the 129S1/SvImJ mouse strain to improve the oocyte quality and fertility rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Female mice were divided into four groups based on hormone and timing of injection. Group 1 received pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and 48 h later human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); using the same dose, group 2 received hCG 52 h post-PMSG and group 3, 55 h post-PMSG. Group 4 received buserelin (gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist [GnRH]) followed 24 h later by PMSG and then hCG 55 h post-PMSG. IVF was performed using 129S1/SvImJ oocytes and sperm; C57BL/6J sperm with 129S1/SvImJ oocytes was used as fertility control. The IVF fertility rate was 1% (Groups 1 and 2), 17% (Group 3) and 55% (Group 4) for 129 oocytes fertilized with 129 sperm. For 129 oocytes fertilized with C57BL/6J sperm, the fertility rate was 5% (Group 1), 10% (Group 2), 40% (Group 3) and 59% (Group 4). These results suggest that extending the interval time between PMSG and hCG and giving GnRH in addition to the standard PMSG and hCG treatments can improve IVF fertility rate of 129S1/SvImJ mouse strains significantly.

  9. In vitro fertility rate of 129 strain is improved by Buserelin (GnRH) administration prior to superovulation

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, K; Sztein, J M

    2012-01-01

    The 129 mice are well recognized for their low fertility and it is speculated that this lack of fertility may be due to oocyte condition. In this study we investigated superovulation regimens for 129S1/SvImJ mouse strain to improve the oocyte quality and fertility rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Female mice were divided into four groups based on hormone and timing of injection. Group 1 received pregnant mare serum gonatotropin (PMSG) and 48 hours later human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); using the same dose, group 2 received hCG 52 hours post PMSG and group 3, 55 hours post PMSG. Group 4 received Buserelin (gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist [GnRH]) followed 24 hours later by PMSG and then hCG 55 hours post PMSG. IVF was performed using 129S1/SvImJ oocytes and sperm; C57BL/6J sperm with 129S1/SvImJ oocytes was used as fertility control. The IVF fertility rate was 1% (Groups 1 & 2), 17% (Group 3) and 55% (Group 4) for 129 oocytes fertilized with 129 sperm. For 129 oocytes fertilized with C57BL/6J sperm, the fertility rate was 5% (Group 1) 10% (Group 2) 40% (Group 3) and 59% (Group 4).-These results suggest that extending the interval time between PMSG and hCG and giving GnRH in addition to the standard PMSG and hCG treatment can improve IVF fertility rate of 129S1/SvImJ strain mice significantly. PMID:23097563

  10. In vitro fertilization (IVF) using semi-defined culture conditions from low or high antral follicle count pubertal beef heifers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To compare the in vitro fertilization (IVF) and production (IVP) of embryos from low and high antral follicle count (AFC) heifers, AFC were determined on 106 heifers using transrectal ultrasonography. Ten heifers with the lowest AFC (avg. 13.2) and 10 heifers with the highest AFC (avg. 27.4) with ev...

  11. In vitro and in vivo effects of ulipristal acetate on fertilization and early embryo development in mice.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Elías, Matías D; Munuce, María J; Bahamondes, Luis; Cuasnicú, Patricia S; Cohen, Débora J

    2016-01-01

    Does ulipristal acetate (UPA), a selective progesterone receptor modulator used for emergency contraception (EC), interfere with fertilization or early embryo development in vitro and in vivo? At doses similar to those used for EC, UPA does not affect mouse gamete transport, fertilization or embryo development. UPA acts as an emergency contraceptive mainly by inhibiting or delaying ovulation. However, there is little information regarding its effects on post-ovulatory events preceding implantation. This was an in vitro and in vivo experimental study involving the use of mouse gametes and embryos from at least three animals in each set of experiments. For in vitro fertilization experiments, mouse epididymal spermatozoa capacitated in the presence of different concentrations of UPA (0-1000 ng/ml) were used to inseminate cumulus-intact or cumulus-free eggs in the presence or absence of UPA during gamete co-incubation, and the percentage of fertilized eggs was determined. For in vivo fertilization experiments, superovulated females caged with proven fertile males were injected with UPA (40 mg/kg) or vehicle just before or just after mating and the percentage of fertilized eggs recovered from the ampulla was determined. To investigate the effect of UPA on embryo development, zygotes were recovered from mated females, cultured in the presence of UPA (1000 ng/ml) for 4 days and the progression of embryo development was monitored daily. In vitro studies revealed that the presence of UPA during capacitation and/or gamete co-incubation does not affect fertilization. Whereas the in vivo administration of UPA at the same time as hCG injection produced a decrease in the number of eggs ovulated compared with controls (vehicle injected animals, P < 0.05), no effects on fertilization were observed when UPA was administered shortly before or after mating. No differences were observed in either the percentage of cleaved embryos or the cleavage speed when UPA was present during in

  12. Effects of previous ovarian drilling on cumulative ongoing pregnancy rates among patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jiali; Liu, Lanlan; Sun, Lingbin; Sha, Aiguo; Jiang, Xiaoming; Ren, Jianzhi

    2016-09-01

    To determine if history of undergoing laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) was associated with changes in cumulative ongoing pregnancy rates following in-vitro fertilization in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The present retrospective study was performed in an in vitro fertilization unit in Xiamen, China, between June 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012. Patient characteristics and in vitro fertilization treatment outcomes were compared between patients with PCOS and a history of LOD (LOD group), patients with PCOS without a history of LOD (no-LOD group), and age-matched patients without PCOS and with no history of LOD (age-matched group). The study included 110 patients in the LOD group, 127 patients in the no-LOD group, and 990 patients in the age-matched group. A lower number of retrieved oocytes, fewer available embryos, and a lower number of cryopreserved embryos were observed in among patients in the LOD-group compared with the other groups (P≤0.001). No differences in birth rates following fresh embryo transfers were observed between the LOD-group, and the age-matched group (P=0.274) and the no-LOD group (P=0.120). A higher adjusted odds ratio of cumulative pregnancy per initiated in vitro fertilization cycle was observed in the no-LOD group when compared with the LOD group (1.976; 95% confidence interval 1.091-3.580). LOD could compromise cumulative ongoing pregnancy rates during subsequent in vitro fertilization. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Polycystic ovary syndrome and maternal obesity affect oocyte size in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    PubMed

    Marquard, Kerri L; Stephens, Sahar M; Jungheim, Emily S; Ratts, Valerie S; Odem, Randall R; Lanzendorf, Susan; Moley, Kelle H

    2011-05-01

    To determine the impact of maternal metabolic state on oocyte development in women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI), we retrospectively analyzed a cohort of women with PCOS undergoing IVF/ICSI from 2008-2009 in a university-based fertility center. We determined that women with PCOS and obesity have smaller oocytes than control subjects, and that when further subdivided by body mass index, both PCOS and obesity independently influence oocyte size. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Recovery of motile sperm using the migration-sedimentation technique in an in-vitro fertilization-embryo transfer programme.

    PubMed

    Lucena, E; Lucena, C; Gómez, M; Ortiz, J A; Ruiz, J; Arango, A; Diaz, C; Beuerman, C

    1989-02-01

    Sperm washing techniques, based on the swim-up principle used before inseminating the human oocyte in in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer programmes (IVF-ET), usually require prior centrifugation which causes damage to the sperm cell. A technique is described for separating sperm at laboratory temperature based on sperm migration--sedimentation principles, using two concentric tubes and recovering 70-90% forward-moving cells. A group of 17 patients is presented who were managed with this method. The results were 85% fertilization rate, 4% polyspermia and six clinical pregnancies.

  15. Oxidative Stress in Granulosa-Lutein Cells From In Vitro Fertilization Patients.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Julio; González-Fernández, Rebeca; Rotoli, Deborah; Hernández, Jairo; Palumbo, Angela

    2016-12-01

    Ovarian aging is associated with gradual follicular loss by atresia/apoptosis. Increased production of toxic metabolites such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species as well as external oxidant agents plays an important role in the process of ovarian senescence and in the pathogenesis of ovarian pathologies such as endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This review provides a synthesis of available studies of oxidative stress (OS) in the ovary, focusing on the most recent evidence obtained in mural granulosa-lutein (GL) cells of in vitro fertilization patients. Synthesis of antioxidant enzymes such as peroxiredoxin 4, superoxide dismutase, and catalase and OS damage response proteins such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 3, member A2 decreases with aging in human GL cells, favoring an unbalance in ROS/antioxidants that mediates molecular damage and altered cellular function. The increase in OS in the granulosa cell correlates with diminished expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and a dysregulation of the FSHR signaling pathway and may be implicated in disrupted steroidogenic function and poor response to FSH in women with aging. Women with endometriosis and PCOS have lower antioxidant production capacity that may contribute to abnormal follicular development and infertility. Further investigation of the signaling pathways involved in cellular response to OS could shed light into molecular characterization of these diseases and development of new treatment strategies to improve reproductive potential in these women.

  16. Rapid evaluation of soluble HLA-G levels in supernatants of in vitro fertilized embryos.

    PubMed

    Rebmann, Vera; Switala, Magdalena; Eue, Ines; Schwahn, Eva; Merzenich, Markus; Grosse-Wilde, Hans

    2007-04-01

    Human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) molecules are crucial for the maternal tolerance against the fetus during pregnancy. Thus, the presence of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) in embryo cultures is thought to be correlated to a successful pregnancy after assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Here, we established a rapid detection assay based on Luminex technology, which can be integrated into ART proceedings, allowing sHLA-G quantification in sample volumes of only 10 microl within 1.5 hours. Using this method, sHLA-G levels of 526 single-embryo cultures, 47 two-embryo cultures, and 15 three-embryo cultures were analyzed corresponding to 313 ART cycles. In 117 embryo cultures, sHLA-G was detectable. In single-embryo cultures, the sHLA-G levels were positively correlated to embryo quality (p = 0.048, r = 0.20, n = 100). The presence of sHLA-G in embryo cultures was significantly (p < 0.0001) associated with clinical pregnancy after intracytoplasmatic sperm injections (ICSI), especially in couples with male factor infertility, but not after in vitro fertilization (IVF) or in couples with female infertility. Importantly, in sHLA-G negative embryos, the abortion rate was increased threefold (p = 0.04). In conclusion, the results obtained by our novel method support strongly the diagnostic relevance of sHLA-G for predicting pregnancy outcome after ART. The ultimate conditions for this prediction have to be further investigated in a multicenter study.

  17. Anti-mullerian hormone and cumulative pregnancy outcome in in-vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Li, H. W. Raymond; Morrell, Dave; Pickering, Sue; Thong, K. Joo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the role of Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) in predicting cumulative pregnancy outcome during in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Methods Serum AMH levels on day 6 of ovarian stimulation were taken from 180 women undergoing IVF with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The main outcome measures were ongoing pregnancy in the fresh cycle, cumulative ongoing pregnancy and ovarian response. Results There was a trend of higher median AMH levels in subjects achieving ongoing pregnancy in the fresh IVF cycle. The median AMH levels were significantly higher in subjects attaining ongoing pregnancy cumulatively and in subjects showing ovarian hyper-response in the stimulated cycle. Areas under the ROC curves were 0.606 and 0.792 for the prediction of cumulative ongoing pregnancy and ovarian hyper-response respectively. Conclusions Serum AMH concentration on day 6 of stimulation was significantly higher in subjects who achieved cumulative ongoing pregnancy in IVF compared to those who did not. Serum AMH is a reasonably good predictor of ovarian hyper-response. PMID:20467803

  18. Male caffeine and alcohol intake in relation to semen parameters and in vitro fertilization outcomes among fertility patients.

    PubMed

    Karmon, A E; Toth, T L; Chiu, Y-H; Gaskins, A J; Tanrikut, C; Wright, D L; Hauser, R; Chavarro, J E

    2017-03-01

    Much of the literature on the impact of male caffeine and alcohol intake on reproductive outcomes has utilized semen quality as a proxy for male fertility, although semen parameters have a limited predictive value for spontaneous pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether male caffeine and alcohol intakes are associated with semen parameters and assisted reproductive technology outcome. The Environment and Reproductive Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study, enrolls subfertile couples presenting for treatment at an academic fertility center (2007-2012). A total of 171 men with 338 semen analyses and 205 assisted reproductive technology cycles were included in this analysis. Diet was assessed using a 131-item food frequency questionnaire. Mixed models adjusting for potential confounders were used to evaluate the relationships of male caffeine and alcohol intakes with semen parameters and assisted reproductive technology outcomes. There was no association between male caffeine and alcohol intake and semen quality. Male caffeine intake was negatively related to live birth after assisted reproductive technologies (p-trend < 0.01), and male alcohol intake was positively related to live birth after assisted reproductive technologies (p-trend = 0.04). Adjusted live birth rate among couples with a male partner in the highest quartile of caffeine intake (≥272 mg/day) compared to couples with a male partner in the lowest quartile of intake (<99 mg/day) was 19% vs. 55%, respectively, p < 0.01. In terms of alcohol intake, adjusted live birth rate among couples with a male partner in the highest quartile of alcohol intake (≥22 g/day) compared to couples with a male partner in the lowest quartile of intake (<3 g/day) was 61% vs. 28%, respectively, p = 0.05. In conclusion, male pre-treatment caffeine and alcohol intakes were associated with live birth after assisted reproductive technologies, but not with semen parameters, among

  19. Altered helper Tcell-mediated immune responses in male mice conceived through in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Hiwa; Mahdavi, Pooya; Fakhari, Shohreh; Faryabi, Mohammad Reza; Esmaeili, Parisa; Banafshi, Omid; Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Fathi, Fardin; Mokarizadeh, Aram

    2017-03-08

    A study using a mouse IVF model was conducted to examine the hypothesis that in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment may lead to immune alteration in the offspring. Phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogen, alloantigen, and purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium bovis were investigated in the splenocytes of BCG-treated male mice conceived by IVF or natural conception. Intracellular expression of T-bet and GATA3 in helper T-cell population were examined in both groups. Moreover, the serum levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 along with BCG-specific levels of IgG1 and IgG2a were assessed by ELISA. In comparison with naturally-conceived mice, PPD-specific proliferative response and T-bet/GATA3 ratio were significantly decreased in IVF-conceived mice. Moreover, IVF-conceived mice exhibited marked decreases in IFN-γ/IL-4 and IgG2a/IgG1 ratios. Results indicate that in comparison with male mice conceived by natural conception, IVF counterparts exhibit less efficient immune responses against BCG through further promotion of Th2 responses.

  20. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Mandrik, Olena; Knies, Saskia; Severens, Johan L

    2015-01-01

    Background An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypothetical cohort of an IVF population born in 2009 using the methodology of generational accounting. Governmental expenses related to this population included social benefits, education and health care, unemployment support, and pensions. Where available, country-specific data referencing official sources were applied. Results The average health care cost needed to achieve one additional birth from the governmental perspective varied from $2,599 in Ukraine to $5,509 in Belarus. The net present value from the population born using IVF was positive in all countries: for Ukraine ($9,839), Belarus ($21,702), and Kazakhstan ($2,295). The break-even costs of drugs and supplies per IVF procedure is expected to be $3,870, $8,530, and $1,780, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses based on 5,000 simulations show that the average net present value per person remains positive: $1,894±$7,619, $27,925±$12,407, and $17,229±$24,637 in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, respectively. Conclusion Financing IVF may represent a good investment in terms of governmental financial returns, even in lower-income countries with state-financed health care systems such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. PMID:26109873

  1. Injury effects of ginkgolide B on maturation of mouse oocytes, fertilization, and fetal development in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shiao, Nion-Heng; Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2009-07-10

    Ginkgolide B (GKB), the major active component of Ginkgo biloba extracts, exerts both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on apoptotic signaling. Previous studies by our group demonstrated that ginkgolide treatment of mouse blastocysts induces apoptosis, decreases cell number, hinders early postimplantation blastocyst development, and increases early-stage blastocyst death. Here, we further investigate the effects of GKB on oocyte maturation, and subsequent pre- and postimplantation development in vitro and in vivo. In our experiments, GKB induced a significant reduction in the rate of oocyte maturation, fertilization, and in vitro embryonic development. Treatment of oocytes with 1-6 microM GKB during in vitro maturation (IVM) led to increased resorption of postimplantation embryos and decreased placental and fetal weights. Data obtained using an in vivo mouse model further disclosed that consumption of drinking water containing 3-6 microM GKB led to decreased oocyte maturation and in vitro fertilization, as well as early embryo developmental injury, specifically, inhibition of development to the blastocyst stage in vivo. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the impact of GKB on maturation of mouse oocytes, fertilization, and sequential embryonic development.

  2. Serum oxidizability and antioxidant status in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Aurrekoetxea, Igor; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio; del Agua, Ainhoa Ruiz; Navarro, Rosaura; Hernández, M Luisa; Matorras, Roberto; Prieto, Begoña; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the serum oxidizability and antioxidant status in women undergoing an in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle and to assess the possible relationship of the oxidizability indexes with the pregnancy rate. Prospective, longitudinal study. Public university and public university hospital. Systematically recruited cohort of 125 women undergoing either IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Serum samples were collected before the beginning of the use of gonadotropins (basal) and the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (final) during an IVF cycle. The Cu2+-induced serum oxidation in terms of the oxidation rate in the lag (Vlag) and propagation (Vmax) phases and the time at which the oxidation rate is maximal (tmax), and measurements of serum total antioxidant activity (TAA), tocopherol, hydrophilic antioxidants, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide. Albumin, urate, bilirubin, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol, TAA, and tmax statistically significantly decreased after the IVF cycle. Conception cycles were associated with a serum more prone to oxidation compared with nonconception cycles. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the difference (final-basal) of the oxidation index Vlag (OR 1.394) and the body mass index (OR 0.785) were independent predictors of pregnancy. Treatment with IVF induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is reflected in a serum less protected against oxidation. The results also suggest a role for ROS in the occurrence of conception in IVF. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Blood cell chimerism in dizygotic twins conceived by in vitro fertilization].

    PubMed

    Martos-Moreno, G Á; Campos, C; Flores, R; Yturriaga, R; Pérez-Jurado, L A; Argente, J

    2013-10-01

    We present a case of hematopoietic chimerism in dizygotic twins (male and female) conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF). At 8 years of age a blood karyotype was performed on the female due to the presence of clitoromegaly. Two different lines: 46,XX (53%) and 46,XY (47%) were found. FISH studies confirmed the presence of the SRY gene in 46,XY cells. Karyotyping of the male showed two different lines: 46,XY (58%) and 46,XX (42%). SRY gene was present in 46,XY cells. Microsatellite analyses of blood DNA revealed tetra-allelic contribution at some autosomal loci with similar proportions of maternal and paternal alleles and X/Y chromosome dose. FISH in buccal mucous showed that all cells from the female were 46,XX and those from the male 46,XY. The gonadal karyotype in the female was 46,XX without SRY. Hence, we report 46,XX/46,XY chimerism in dizygotic twins. Blood chimerism was confirmed by performing FISH on the buccal cells of the patients.

  4. Unilateral twin tubal pregnancy and subsequent heterotopic pregnancy in a patient following in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Kasum, Miro

    2009-09-01

    Unilateral twin tubal gestations are extremely rare with a reported incidence of 1 per 200 ectopic pregnancies. In recent years, the incidence of heterotopic pregnancy associated with in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) has risen to 1%-3% of achieved pregnancies. We report a very rare case of a 32-year-old woman with 6-year primary infertility with unilateral twin tubal pregnancy and subsequent heterotopic pregnancy following two IVF treatments. Her gynecologic history was notable for previous distal occlusion of the left fallopian tube treated by laparoscopic reconstructive surgery. After ovulation induction and IVF with ET of two embryos, transvaginal sonography at 6 weeks revealed two separate gestational sacs in the left adnexal mass. Emergency laparoscopy showed unruptured ampullar pregnancy and salpingectomy was carried out. On second IVF two years later, after ovulation induction and ET of three embryos, endovaginal sonography at 6 weeks revealed only one intrauterine sac. One week later, the patient complained of intermittent episodes of lower abdominal pain in the right quadrant. Ultrasound confirmed intrauterine pregnancy and revealed right tubal gestational sac. Laparoscopy showed unruptured right ampullar pregnancy and salpingectomy was performed. Histology of salpingectomy specimens showed signs of chronic infection in both tubes. The intrauterine pregnancy progressed to term when a healthy infant was delivered vaginally. Gynecologists should always consider the possibility of ectopic pregnancy in pregnancies following IVF-ET, particularly in cases with tubal disease and abdominal pain.

  5. Fertility outcome of laparoscopic treatment in patients with severe endometriosis and repeated in vitro fertilization failures.

    PubMed

    Soriano, David; Adler, Iris; Bouaziz, Jerome; Zolti, Matti; Eisenberg, Vered H; Goldenberg, Mordechai; Seidman, Daniel S; Elizur, Shai E

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate fertility outcomes in infertile women with severe endometriosis (The revised American Fertility Society classification [AFS] 3-4) and repeated IVF failures, who underwent surgery due to exacerbation of endometriosis-related symptoms. Retrospective cohort study. University hospital. All women who failed IVF treatment before surgery and who underwent laparoscopic surgery for severe endometriosis between January 2006 and December 2014. All patients were operated by highly skilled surgeons specializing in laparoscopic surgery for advanced endometriosis. Only patients with evidence of endometriosis in the pathology specimens were included in this study. Delivery rate after surgery. Seventy-eight women were included in the present study. All women were diagnosed with severe endometriosis during surgery (AFS 3-4) and all women had experienced failed IVF treatments before surgery. All women were symptomatic before their surgery. After surgical treatment 33 women (42.3%) delivered. Three women (9%) conceived spontaneously and all other women conceived after IVF treatment. Women who delivered were younger (32.5 [±4.1] years vs. 35.5 [±3.8] years), were less often diagnosed with diminished ovarian reserve before surgery (6% vs. 28.8%), and were more often diagnosed with normal uterine anatomy (by preoperative transvaginal ultrasound and during operation). In addition, performing salpingectomy during surgery was associated with a trend of improvement in delivery rates after surgery (70% in women who delivered vs. 51% in women who failed to deliver). Symptomatic women with severe endometriosis and repeated IVF implantation failures may benefit from extensive laparoscopic surgery when performed by an experienced multidisciplinary surgical team to improve IVF outcome. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk of Colorectal Cancer After Ovarian Stimulation for In Vitro Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Spaan, Mandy; van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W; Burger, Curt W; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2016-05-01

    Apart from lifestyle factors, sex hormones also seem to have a role in the etiology of colorectal cancer. This raises interest in the possible effects of fertility drugs, especially because the use of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF) has strongly increased over the past decades. In 1996, a nationwide cohort study was set up to examine cancer risk in a population that included 19,158 women who received ovarian stimulation for IVF (IVF group) and 5950 women who underwent subfertility treatments other than IVF (non-IVF group). Cancer incidence was ascertained through linkage with the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Colorectal cancer risk in the IVF group was compared with those in the general population and in the non-IVF group. After a median follow-up of 21 years, 109 colorectal cancers were observed. Compared with the general population, risk of colorectal cancer was not increased in the IVF group (standardized incidence ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80-1.23), and was significantly decreased in the non-IVF group (standardized incidence ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.36-0.88). Women in the IVF group had a significant increase in risk compared with women in the non-IVF group (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.10-2.94). No trend emerged with more IVF cycles or more ampules of gonadotropins administered. Colorectal cancer risk did not increase with longer follow-up periods. Although women who receive ovarian stimulation for IVF do not have an increased risk for colorectal cancer compared with the general population, findings from our nationwide cohort study indicate that their risk is increased compared with women who received subfertility treatments other than IVF. Further research is warranted to examine whether ovarian stimulation for IVF contributes to development of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization alters endometrial receptivity in humans: protocol effects.

    PubMed

    Haouzi, Delphine; Assou, Said; Dechanet, Clothilde; Anahory, Tal; Dechaud, Hervé; De Vos, John; Hamamah, Samir

    2010-04-01

    The impact of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist long compared with GnRH antagonist protocols, under in vitro fertilization conditions on endometrial receptivity, is still debated. Therefore, we compared the effect of both GnRH antagonist and agonist long protocols on the endometrial receptivity by analyzing, to our knowledge for the first time, the global gene expression profile shift during the prereceptive and receptive stages of stimulated cycles under the two GnRH analogue protocols compared with natural cycles in the same patients. For the same normal-responder patients, endometrial biopsies were collected on the day of oocyte retrieval and on the day of embryo transfer after human chorionic gonadotropin administration of a stimulated cycle with either GnRH agonist long or GnRH antagonist protocols and compared with the prereceptive and receptive stages of a natural cycle. Samples were analyzed using DNA microarrays. Gene expression profiles and biological pathways involved during the prereceptive stage to the receptive endometrial transition of stimulated and natural cycles were analyzed and compared for each patient. Both protocols affect endometrial receptivity in comparison with their natural cycle in the same patients. Major differences in endometrial chemokines and growth factors under stimulated cycles in comparison with natural cycles were observed. Such an effect has been associated with gene expression alterations of endometrial receptivity. However, the endometrial receptivity under the GnRH antagonist protocol was more similar to the natural cycle receptivity than that under the GnRH agonist protocol.

  8. Tax credits, insurance, and in vitro fertilization in the U.S. military health care system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mae; Henne, Melinda; Propst, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    The FAMILY Act, an income tax credit for infertility treatments, was introduced into the U.S. Senate on May 12, 2011. We estimated the costs and utilization of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in the military if infertility treatment became a tax credit or TRICARE benefit. We surveyed 7 military treatment facilities (MTFs) that offer IVF, with a 100% response rate. We first modeled the impact of the FAMILY Act on the MTFs. We then assessed the impact and costs of a TRICARE benefit for IVF. In 2009, MTFs performed 810 IVF cycles with average patient charges of $4961 and estimated pharmacy costs of $2K per cycle. With implementation of the FAMILY Act, we estimate an increase in IVF demand at the MTFs to 1165 annual cycles. With a TRICARE benefit, estimated demand would increase to 6,924 annual IVF cycles. MTF pharmacy costs would increase to $7.3 annually. TRICARE medical and pharmacy costs would exceed $24.4 million and $6.5 million, respectively. In conclusion, if the FAMILY Act becomes law, demand for IVF at MTFs will increase 29%, with a 50% decrease in patient medical expenses after tax credits. MTF pharmacy costs will rise, and additional staffing will be required to meet the demand. If IVF becomes a TRICARE benefit, demand for IVF will increase at least 2-fold. Current MTFs would be unable to absorb the increased demand, leading to increased TRICARE treatment costs at civilian centers.

  9. The development and expression of pluripotency genes in embryos derived from nuclear transfer and in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li-Bing; He, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Feng-Mei; Cao, Jun-Wei; Cheng, Teng

    2014-11-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer can be used to produce embryonic stem (ES) cells, cloned animals, and can even increase the population size of endangered animals. However, the application of this technique is limited by the low developmental rate of cloned embryos, a situation that may result from abnormal expression of some zygotic genes. In this study, sheep-sheep intra-species cloned embryos, goat-sheep inter-species cloned embryos, or sheep in vitro fertilized embryos were constructed and cultured in vitro and the developmental ability and expression of three pluripotency genes, SSEA-1, Nanog and Oct4, were examined. The results showed firstly that the developmental ability of in vitro fertilized embryos was significantly higher than that of cloned embryos. In addition, the percentage of intra-species cloned embryos that developed to morula or blastocyst stages was also significantly higher than that of the inter-species cloned embryos. Secondly, all three types of embryos expressed SSEA-1 at the 8-cell and morula stages. At the 8-cell stage, a higher percentage of in vitro fertilized embryos expressed SSEA-1 than occurred for cloned embryos. However, at the morula stage, all detected embryos could express SSEA-1. Thirdly, the three types of embryos expressed Oct4 mRNA at the morula and blastocyst stages, and embryos at the blastocyst stage expressed Nanog mRNA. The rate of expression of Oct4 and Nanog mRNA at these developmental stages was higher in in vitro fertilized embryos than in cloned embryos. These results indicated that, during early development, the failure to reactivate some pluripotency genes maybe is a reason for the low cloning efficiency found with cloned embryos.

  10. Increased incidence of ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization in women with decreased ovarian reserve.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shengli; Yang, Rui; Chi, Hongbin; Lian, Ying; Wang, Jiejing; Huang, Shuo; Lu, Cuiling; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2017-02-28

    The incidence of ectopic pregnancy after assisted reproductive technology is increased approximately 2.5-5-fold compared with natural conceptions.Strategies were used to decrease the incidence of ectopic pregnancy, but ectopic pregnancy still occurs. In the present study, women were selected with decreased ovarian reserve (defined as FSH > 10 IU/L) aged 20 to 38 years who underwent IVF-ET between 2009 and 2014. These 2,061 women were age-matched with an equal number of women with normal ovarian reserve (defined as FSH ≤ 10 IU/L). During cycles following fresh embryo transfer, 93 patients were diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy in clinical pregnancies was significantly higher in the decreased ovarian reserve than in the normal ovarian reserve group (5.51% vs. 2.99%). After adjusting for confounding factors, the incidence of ectopic pregnancy was significantly associated with decreased ovarian reserve. Our results showed that decreased ovarian reserve is an independent risk factor for ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

  11. [Effect of intramural and subserous myomas on in vitro fertilization cycles and their perinatal results].

    PubMed

    Ballesteros Manzo, Alberto; Barros Delgadillo, Juan Carlos; Ochoa Rueda, Senia; Villalobos Acosta, Sergio; Barroso Villa, Gerardo; Sánchez Solís, Victor; Gaviño Gaviño, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of intramural and subserous myomas in in vitro fertilization cycles, as well as its perinatal results. Cases and controls. All the IVF cycles between October 1999 and December 2004 were included. The variables of size and type of myomas, as well as variables of IVF cycles, implantation and pregnancy rates, and perinatal results were analyzed. We calculated the chi-square test to analyze the relationship between myomas and pregnancy. The t-Student test was used to establish the difference in the average between both groups regarding the studied variables. In the logistic regression analysis we controlled confusing variables. We analyzed 431 cycles made in 364 patients divided into two groups: study cases (with myomas-65 cycles) and control cases (without myomas-366 cycles). Age was two years older in the study group (35.7 vs 33.5, p < 0.001). There was no difference in: duration, type of infertility, days of stimulation, gonadotrophin dose, total and mature follicles, and fertilization and implantation rates. We only observed a difference in the recovered oocytes (8.0 vs 9.7, p = 0.027). The pregnancy, abortion and live-born children rates were of 20.0 vs 23.2, 46.1 vs 29.4, and 46.1 vs 58.8%, respectively (study and control groups; p > 0.05). Logistic regression showed that myomas do not affect the possibility of getting pregnant. Intramural and subserous myomas < 5 cm do not seem to have an effect in the IVF cycles nor in its perinatal results. In women with myomas < 5 cm that no dot distortion the uterine cavity it is questionable the usefulness of a myomectomy prior to IVF cycles.

  12. The impact of bariatric surgery on obesity-related infertility and in vitro fertilization outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Orkun; Carr, Bruce R

    2012-12-01

    Obesity-related infertility is one of the most common problems of reproductive-age obese women who desire childbearing. The various types of bariatric surgeries have proved effective in controlling excessive weight gain, improving fertility, and preventing certain maternal and fetal complications in these women. This article summarizes the current evidence regarding the impact of bariatric surgery on obesity-related infertility and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. We have also attempted to draw conclusions about maternal and fetal risks and the benefits of bariatric surgery. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y procedures are the two most commonly performed bariatric surgeries. Bariatric surgery was believed to improve menstrual irregularity and increase ovulation rate in anovulatory obese women, which lead to increased pregnancy rates. Although there are data in the literature suggesting the improvement of both the ovulatory function and the spontaneous pregnancy rates in obese women who lost weight after bariatric surgery, most of these are case-control studies with a small number of patients. The data are insufficient to determine an ideal time interval for pregnancy after bariatric surgery; however, the general consensus is that pregnancy should be delayed 12 to 18 months after bariatric surgery to avoid nutritional deficiencies. Few data exist regarding IVF success rates in women who have undergone bariatric surgery. One pairwise study discussed five patients who underwent bariatric surgery followed by IVF that resulted in three term pregnancies in three patients after the first IVF cycle. Many studies reported reductions in obesity-related pregnancy complications such as gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders after bariatric surgery. Although data are inconsistent, some studies reported increased rate of preterm delivery and small for gestational age infants after bariatric surgery. Pregnancies after bariatric surgery may be

  13. Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations and Implantation Failure among Women Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Shelley; Williams, Paige L.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Flaws, Jodi A.; Berry, Katharine F.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Petrozza, John C.; Wright, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic chemical widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins found in numerous consumer products. In experimental animals, BPA increases embryo implantation failure and reduces litter size. Objective: We evaluated the association of urinary BPA concentrations with implantation failure among women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Methods: We used online solid phase extraction–high performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry to measure urinary BPA concentrations in 137 women in a prospective cohort study among women undergoing IVF at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center in Boston, Massachusetts. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association of cycle-specific urinary BPA concentrations with implantation failure, accounting for correlation among multiple IVF cycles in the same woman using generalized estimating equations. Implantation failure was defined as a negative serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin test (β-hCG < 6 IU/L) 17 days after egg retrieval. Results: Among 137 women undergoing 180 IVF cycles, urinary BPA concentrations had a geometric mean (SD) of 1.53 (2.22) µg/L. Overall, 42% (n = 75) of the IVF cycles resulted in implantation failure. In adjusted models, there was an increased odds of implantation failure with higher quartiles of urinary BPA concentrations {odds ratio (OR) 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35, 2.95}, 1.60 (95% CI: 0.70, 3.78), and 2.11 (95% CI: 0.84, 5.31) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively, compared with the lowest quartile (p-trend = 0.06). Conclusion: There was a positive linear dose–response association between BPA urinary concentrations and implantation failure. PMID:22484414

  14. Association of physical activity in the past year and immediately after in vitro fertilization on pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Evenson, Kelly R; Calhoun, Kathryn C; Herring, Amy H; Pritchard, David; Wen, Fang; Steiner, Anne Z

    2014-04-01

    To estimate the association of physical activity on in vitro fertilization (IVF). Prospective cohort study. Academic infertility clinic. Women (n = 121) undergoing nondonor IVF embryo transfer (fresh or frozen). The women completed a questionnaire on past year physical activity and wore an accelerometer from embryo transfer to serum pregnancy testing. Implantation, intrauterine gestation, and live birth. Based on self-reported past year physical activity, the adjusted odds of intrauterine gestation was higher among those that had higher continuous active living (odds ratio [OR] 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-3.50), sports/exercise (OR 1.48, CI 1.02-2.15), and total activity (OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.15-2.01) indices. After embryo transfer, women did almost no vigorous activity (median 0 min/d) as measured by the accelerometer. More of their time was spent in light activity (median 3.0 h/d) and sedentary behaviors (median 9.3 h/d). Accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behavior after embryo transfer were not associated with any IVF outcome. An active lifestyle in the preceding year favorably impacted the IVF outcome. After embryo transfer, women engaged in mostly light physical activity and sedentary behaviors; therefore, the impact of vigorous physical activity on implantation could not be determined. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relaxin in sera during the luteal phase of in-vitro fertilization cycles.

    PubMed

    Eddie, L W; Martinez, F; Healy, D L; Sutton, B; Bell, R J; Tregear, G W

    1990-03-01

    To identify the time when relaxin can first be detected in peripheral sera after in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer, blood samples were collected from 20 women up to 14 days after oocyte retrieval. Sixteen women did not become pregnant and in eight of them relaxin (but not beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin, beta-hCG) was measurable for the first time at days 6 to 12. Concentrations of other hormones measured were also different in these eight women compared with the remaining eight non-pregnant women; their serum concentrations of 17 alpha-OH progesterone, progesterone and oestradiol were higher but concentrations of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were lower. Three women became pregnant; relaxin and beta-hCG were first detected on the same day (10 to 12). The remaining woman had increased beta-hCG levels but did not develop a clinical pregnancy. Measurement of serum relaxin during IVF cycles may allow assessment of corpora luteal function before its identification by levels of steroid hormones.

  16. Association of physical activity in the past year and immediately after in vitro fertilization on pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Calhoun, Kathryn C.; Herring, Amy H.; Pritchard, David; Wen, Fang; Steiner, Anne Z.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association of physical activity on in vitro fertilization (IVF). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Academic infertility clinic. Patient(s) Women (n = 121) undergoing nondonor IVF embryo transfer (fresh or frozen). Intervention(s) The women completed a questionnaire on past year physical activity and wore an accelerometer from embryo transfer to serum pregnancy testing. Main Outcome Measure(s) Implantation, intrauterine gestation, and live birth. Result(s) Based on self-reported past year physical activity, the adjusted odds of intrauterine gestation was higher among those that had higher continuous active living (odds ratio [OR] 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09–3.50), sports/exercise (OR 1.48, CI 1.02–2.15), and total activity (OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.15–2.01) indices. After embryo transfer, women did almost no vigorous activity (median 0 min/d) as measured by the accelerometer. More of their time was spent in light activity (median 3.0 h/d) and sedentary behaviors (median 9.3 h/d). Accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behavior after embryo transfer were not associated with any IVF outcome. Conclusion(s) An active lifestyle in the preceding year favorably impacted the IVF outcome. After embryo transfer, women engaged in mostly light physical activity and sedentary behaviors; therefore, the impact of vigorous physical activity on implantation could not be determined. PMID:24524834

  17. Emotional aspects and support in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer programs.

    PubMed

    Callan, V J; Hennessey, J F

    1988-10-01

    Little is known about the emotional demands upon women of the step-by-step procedures characteristic of involvement in an in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program. In this study, 77 women provided their perceptions of the emotional demands of IVF-ET and explanations for failed attempts, as well as describing their coping strategies and sources of emotional support. Nominated as the two most difficult stages of IVF were the wait for a possible pregnancy after the procedure and the blood tests and injections prior to hospitalization. Women were overly optimistic with a first attempt, with 70% being moderately to highly optimistic about success. Levels of optimism, however, generally declined across attempts. About half of the women intended to stop after four attempts, and almost all would stop after six treatment cycles. Women attributed their lack of success to a wide range of factors, including the low success rate, being anxious or stressed, bad luck, or problems associated with their condition and the procedure. Asked how they coped with the program, the women reported that the major strategy was to adopt the attitude that they might be successful in the long term. Other coping strategies involved keeping busy, staying calm, and seeking the support of other IVF women and husbands. Husbands were listed as the major source of emotional support, followed by other infertile women and nurses, counselors, and doctors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Promising system for selecting healthy in vitro-fertilized embryos in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Akai, Tomonori; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Somfai, Tamás; Inaba, Yasushi; Hirayama, Muneyuki; Yamanouchi, Tadayuki; Matsuda, Hideo; Kobayashi, Shuji; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Kobayashi, Eiji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Conventionally, in vitro-fertilized (IVF) bovine embryos are morphologically evaluated at the time of embryo transfer to select those that are likely to establish a pregnancy. This method is, however, subjective and results in unreliable selection. Here we describe a novel selection system for IVF bovine blastocysts for transfer that traces the development of individual embryos with time-lapse cinematography in our developed microwell culture dish and analyzes embryonic metabolism. The system can noninvasively identify prognostic factors that reflect not only blastocyst qualities detected with histological, cytogenetic, and molecular analysis but also viability after transfer. By assessing a combination of identified prognostic factors--(i) timing of the first cleavage; (ii) number of blastomeres at the end of the first cleavage; (iii) presence or absence of multiple fragments at the end of the first cleavage; (iv) number of blastomeres at the onset of lag-phase, which results in temporary developmental arrest during the fourth or fifth cell cycle; and (v) oxygen consumption at the blastocyst stage--pregnancy success could be accurately predicted (78.9%). The conventional method or individual prognostic factors could not accurately predict pregnancy. No newborn calves showed neonatal overgrowth or death. Our results demonstrate that these five predictors and our system could provide objective and reliable selection of healthy IVF bovine embryos.

  19. In vitro oocyte maturation, fertilization and culture after ovum pick-up in an endangered gazelle (Gazella dama mhorr).

    PubMed

    Berlinguer, F; González, R; Succu, S; del Olmo, A; Garde, J J; Espeso, G; Gomendio, M; Ledda, S; Roldan, E R S

    2008-02-01

    The recovery of immature oocytes followed by in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture (IVMFC) allows the rescue of biological material of great genetic value for the establishment of genetic resource banks of endangered species. Studies exist on sperm cryopreservation of endangered Mohor gazelle (Gazella dama mhorr), but no work has been carried out yet on oocyte collection, fertilization and culture in this or related species. The purpose of this study was to develop a protocol for ovarian stimulation for the recovery of oocytes and subsequent IVMFC in the Mohor gazelle using frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Ovum pick-up was performed after ovarian stimulation with a total dose of 5.28 mg of ovine FSH. A total of 35 oocytes were recovered from 56 punctured follicles (62%) (N=6 females). Out of 29 cumulus-oocyte complexes matured in vitro, 3% were found at germinal vesicle stage, 7% at metaphase I, 21% were degenerated, and 69% advanced to metaphase II. Fertilization and cleavage rates of matured oocytes were 40 and 30%, respectively. Embryos cleaved in vitro up to the 6-8 cell stage but none progressed to the blastocyst stage, suggesting the existence of a developmental block and the need to improve culture conditions. Although more studies are needed to improve hormonal stimulation and oocyte harvesting, as well as IVMFC conditions, this study demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of in vitro fertilization with frozen-thawed semen of in vitro matured oocytes collected by ovum pick-up from FSH-stimulated endangered gazelles.

  20. The effect of cumulus cells on domestic cat (Felis catus) oocytes during in vitro maturation and fertilization.

    PubMed

    Sowińska, N; Frankowska, K; Filipczyk, A; Adamaszek, A; Nalik, K; Fic, K; Pietsch-Fulbiszewska, A

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of co-culture of denuded oocytes with cumulus cells (CC) or cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) on in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Immature oocytes were collected from ovaries of domestic cats following a routine ovariectomy. Oocytes were matured in vitro for 24 hr within four groups: (i) denuded oocytes (DO), (ii) DO co-cultured with CC, (iii) DO co-cultured with COC and (iv) COC as a control group. In further experiments, COCs were matured in vitro for 24 hr, and then, oocytes were randomly divided into four groups as previously described and fertilized in vitro. Embryos were cultured for up to 7 days. At the end of each experiment, oocytes/embryos were stained with Hoechst 33342 solution and observed under an inverted fluorescence microscope. The results of oocyte maturation showed that their meiotic competence decreased significantly in all experimental groups, compared to the control group. The maturation rates were approximately 45%, 24%, 43% and 76% in experiment 1, and 21%, 14%, 33% and 50% in experiment 2 in groups (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv), respectively. Examination of in vitro fertilization revealed that embryos developed up to the morula stage in all experimental groups. DO and oocytes cultured with COC during fertilization showed a lower cleavage rate-36% and 25% as opposed to those co-cultured with loose CC and the control group-43% and 42%, respectively. Results of this study indicate that cumulus cells connected with an oocyte into a cumulus-oocyte complex are irreplaceable for the maturation of domestic cat oocyte, but that the addition of loose CC may be beneficial for IVF. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Effect of antioxidants during bovine in vitro fertilization procedures on spermatozoa and embryo development.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, F S; Barretto, L S S; Arruda, R P; Perri, S H V; Mingoti, G Z

    2010-02-01

    Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during in vitro fertilization (IVF) may cause cytotoxic damage to gametes, whereas small amounts of ROS favour sperm capacitation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of antioxidants [50 microm beta-mercaptoethanol (beta-ME) and 50 microm cysteamine (Cyst)] or a pro-oxidant (5 mm buthionine sulfoximine) on the quality and penetrability of spermatozoa into bovine oocytes and on the subsequent embryo development and quality when added during IVF. Sperm quality, evaluated by the integrity of plasma and acrosomal membranes, and mitochondrial function, was diminished (p < 0.05) after 4-h culture in the presence of antioxidants. Oocyte penetration rates were similar between treatments (p > 0.05), but antioxidants adversely affected the normal pronuclear formation rates (p < 0.05). The incidence of polyspermy was high for beta-ME (p < 0.05). No differences were observed in cleavage rates between treatments (p > 0.05). However, the developmental rate to the blastocyst stage was adversely affected by Cyst treatment (p < 0.05). The quality of embryos that reached the blastocyst stage, evaluated by total, inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm cell numbers and ICM/total cell ratio was unaffected (p > 0.05) by treatments. The results indicate that ROS play a role in the fertilizing capacity in bovine spermatozoa, as well as in the interaction between the spermatozoa and the oocytes. It can be concluded that supplementation with antioxidants during IVF procedures impairs sperm quality, normal pronuclear formation and embryo development to the blastocyst stage.

  2. Optimal control for predicting customized drug dosage for superovulation stage of in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Yenkie, Kirti M; Diwekar, Urmila

    2014-08-21

    in vitro fertilization (IVF) is one of the most highly pursued assisted reproductive technologies (ART) worldwide. IVF procedure is divided into four stages: Superovulation, Egg-retrieval, Insemination/Fertilization and Embryo transfer. Among these superovulation is the most crucial stage since it involves external injection of hormones to stimulate development and maturation of multiple follicles or oocytes. Although numerous advancements have been made in IVF procedures, little attention has been given to modifying the existing protocols based on a 'patient specific' predictive model. A model for follicle growth and number change as a function of the injected hormones and patient characteristics has been developed and validated for data available on 50 superovulation cycles. The model has 9 patient specific parameters which can be determined from the initial 2 days of observation and can help in projecting the superovulation outcome for the ongoing cycle. Based on this model, the dosage of the hormones to stimulate multiple ovulation or follicle growth is predicted by using the theory of optimal control. The objective of successful superovulation is to obtain maximum number of mature oocytes/follicles within a particular size range. Using the mathematical model of follicle growth dynamics and optimal control theory, optimal dose and frequency of medication customized for each patient (n=5) is predicted for obtaining the desired result. The results indicate a better final day follicle size distribution when the dosage of the hormones is varied by some amounts as compared to the actual dosage given to the patient in the existing cycles. This ensures a better success rate for the superovulation cycles and reduces the costs of excess medication and daily monitoring. The idea is to provide the medical practitioners with a guideline for planned treatment, for a procedure currently based on trial and error in order to get better success rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  3. In vitro fertilization using frozen-thawed feline epididymal spermatozoa from corpus and cauda regions.

    PubMed

    Kunkitti, Panisara; Axnér, Eva; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi; Sjunnesson, Ylva

    2016-10-01

    Epididymal sperm preservation offers a potential for rescuing genetic material from endangered or valuable animals after injury or death. Spermatozoa from corpus, as well as from cauda, have the capability to be motile and to undergo capacitation and can thus potentially be preserved for assisted reproductive technologies. In the present study, feline frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa from corpus and cauda regions were investigated for their ability to fertilize homologous oocytes and further embryo development in vitro. Epididymal spermatozoa from corpus and cauda of seven cats were cryopreserved and used for IVF. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (n = 419) were obtained from female cats after routine spaying. Frozen-thawed corpus epididymal spermatozoa showed similar properties of acrosome integrity, membrane integrity, and chromatin integrity as frozen-thawed spermatozoa from cauda except corpus spermatozoa showed lower motility (P < 0.05). The fertilizing capacity of frozen-thawed corpus epididymal spermatozoa was confirmed by similar number of embryos developing to the two- and four-cell stages compared with sperm from cauda (32.03% vs. 33.33%). However, oocytes fertilized with corpus spermatozoa had lower potential to develop to the blastocyst stage (6.79%) and had lower cell numbers compared to oocytes fertilized with cauda spermatozoa (14.08%). In conclusion, spermatozoa from corpus epididymis had a similar capability to fertilize homologous oocytes in vitro as sperm from cauda but resulted in fewer embryos developing to the blastocyst stage compared to spermatozoa from the cauda.

  4. Non-Invasive Assessment of Viability in Human Embryos Fertilized in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Montskó, Gergely; Zrínyi, Zita; Farkas, Nelli; Várnagy, Ákos; Bódis, József

    2016-01-01

    Human reproduction is a relatively inefficient process and therefore the number of infertile couples is high. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have facilitated the birth of over five million children worldwide. ART, however, superimposes its own relative inefficiency on the preexisting inefficiency of normal reproduction. The efficiency (expressed as pregnancy rate) is generally not more than 30%. Modern reproductive medicine is gradually moving from multiple embryo transfer to the transfer of a single embryo, mainly because of obvious and unwanted side effects of multiple embryo transfer (e.g. „epidemic” multiple pregnancies). This concept, however, requires a fast, professional selection of the most viable embryo during the first few days of ART. Thus the aim of a modern ART is the safe transfer of a healthy, viable, single embryo. Accurate and rapid methods of quantifying embryo viability are needed to reach this goal. Methodological advances have the potential to make an important contribution, and there has been a drive to develop alternative non-invasive methods to better meet clinical needs. Metabolic and genetic profiling of spent embryo culture (SEC) media should offer an exceptional opportunity for the assessment of embryo viability. The current review focuses on the latest non-invasive diagnostic approaches for pre-implantation viability assessment of in vitro fertilized embryos. PMID:27683524

  5. Uncertainty in clinical data and stochastic model for in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Yenkie, Kirti M; Diwekar, Urmila

    2015-02-21

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most widely used technique in assisted reproductive technologies (ART). It has been divided into four stages; (i) superovulation, (ii) egg retrieval, (iii) insemination/fertilization and (iv) embryo transfer. The first stage of superovulation is a drug induced method to enable multiple ovulation, i.e., multiple follicle growth to oocytes or matured follicles in a single menstrual cycle. IVF being a medical procedure that aims at manipulating the biological functions in the human body is subjected to inherent sources of uncertainty and variability. Also, the interplay of hormones with the natural functioning of the ovaries to stimulate multiple ovulation as against single ovulation in a normal menstrual cycle makes the procedure dependent on several factors like the patient's condition in terms of cause of infertility, actual ovarian function, responsiveness to the medication, etc. The treatment requires continuous monitoring and testing and this can give rise to errors in observations and reports. These uncertainties are present in the form of measurement noise in the clinical data. Thus, it becomes essential to look at the process noise and account for it to build better representative models for follicle growth. The purpose of this work is to come up with a robust model which can project the superovulation cycle outcome based on the hormonal doses and patient response in a better way in presence of uncertainty. The stochastic model results in better projection of the cycle outcomes for the patients where the deterministic model has some deviations from the clinical observations and the growth term value is not within the range of '0.3-0.6'. It was found that the prediction accuracy was enhanced by more than 70% for two patients by using the stochastic model projections. Also, in patients where the prediction accuracy did not increase significantly, a better match with the trend of the clinical data was observed in case of the

  6. Perinatal and somatic growth properties of preterm babies born from spontaneous and in vitro fertilization multiple pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Ramoğlu, Mehmet Gökhan; Kavuncuoğlu, Sultan; Özbek, Sibel; Aldemir, Esin

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to examine perinatal and neonatal properties of preterm infants with a corrected age of 24–36 months who were born as a result of spontaneous and in vitro fertilization multiple pregnancies, to interrogate somatic growth properties of these infants and evaluate the factors which had an impact by comparing groups. Material and Methods: A total of 125 children with a birth weight below 2 500 g and a gestational age below the 37th gestational week 60 of whom were born as a result of in vitro fertilization multiple pregnancies and 65 of whom were born as a result of spontaneous multiple pregnancies were included in the study. Maternal age and morbidity, early rupture of membranes, birth weigth, gestational week, gender, APGAR score, hospitalization reasons in the neonatal period, requirement for intensive care, frequency of congenital anomaly, outpatient follow-up status, rehospitalization and socioeconomic levels were interrogated in the patients. Detailed physical examination and current height, weight and head circumference measurements were performed and the findings were placed in the growth curves of Neyzi et al. Ethics committee approval was received for this study from the ethics committee of Bakırköy Gynecology Obstetrics and Pediatrics Education and Research Hospital (12.10.2010; no:305). Results: The rate of cesarean section, mean maternal age, the rate of chronic disease in the mother and the rate of maternal disease which occured during pregnancy were significantly higher in the in vitro fertilization group (p<0.05). While no difference was found in mean gestational age, birth weight, rate of hospitalization, time of hospitalization, frequency of follow-up in the intensive care unit, rates of congenital anomaly and rehospitalization, APGAR score in the 5th minute was significantly higher in the in vitro fertilization group. The socioeconomical score was not different between the groups, but the in vitro

  7. Microheater as an alternative to lasers for in-vitro fertilization applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, Daniel V.; Turovets, Igor; Glazer, Rima; Reubinoff, Benjamin E.; Hilman, Dalia; Lewis, Aaron

    1999-06-01

    During the last decade various lasers have been applied to drilling of the micrometer-sized holes in the zona pellucida of oocytes for in-vitro fertilization applications. In this paper we describe an alternative approach to laser instrumentation based on microfabricated device capable of precise drilling of uniform holes in the zona pellucida of oocytes. This device consists of a thin (1 micrometer) film microheater built on the tip of glass capillary with a diameter varying between a few to a few tens of micrometers. Duration of the pulse of heat produced by this microheater determines the spatial confinement of the heat wave in the surrounding liquid medium. We have demonstrated that gradual microdrilling of the zona pellucida can be accomplished using a series of pulses with duration of about 300 microseconds when the microheater was held in contact with the zona pellucida. Pulse energy applied to 20 micrometer tip was about 4 (mu) J. In vitro development and hatching of 127 micromanipulated embryos was compared to 103 non-drilled control embryos. The technique was found to be highly efficient in creating round, uniform, well defined holes with a smooth wall surface, matching the size of the heating source. The architecture of the surrounding zona pellucida was unaffected by the drilling, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. Micromanipulated embryos presented no signs of thermal damage under light microscopy. The rate of blastocyst formation and hatching was similar in the micromanipulated and control groups. Following further testing in animal models, this methodology may be used as a cost- effective alternative to laser-based instrumentation in clinical applications such as assisted hatching and embryo biopsy.

  8. Melatonin prevents postovulatory oocyte aging in the mouse and extends the window for optimal fertilization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lord, Tessa; Nixon, Brett; Jones, Keith T; Aitken, R John

    2013-03-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes deteriorates rapidly following ovulation as the result of an aging process associated with impaired fertilizing potential, disrupted developmental competence, and increased likelihood of embryonic resorption. Because oxidative stress accelerates the onset of apoptosis in oocytes and influences their capacity for fertilization, this study aimed to characterize the significance of such stress in the postovulatory aging of mouse oocytes in vitro. We investigated the ability of the potent antioxidant melatonin to arrest the aging process when used to supplement oocyte culture medium. This study demonstrated that oxidative stress may occur in oocytes after as little as 8 h in culture and coincides with the appearance of early apoptotic markers such as phosphatidylserine externalization, followed 16 h later by caspase activation (P < 0.05) and morphological evidence of oocyte senescence. Importantly, supplementation of oocyte culture medium with 1 mM melatonin was able to significantly relieve the time-dependent appearance of oxidative stress in oocytes (P < 0.05) and, as a result, significantly delay the onset of apoptosis (P < 0.05). Furthermore, melatonin supplementation extended the optimal window for fertilization of oocytes aged for 8 and 16 h in vitro (P < 0.05) and significantly improved the quality of the resulting embryos (P < 0.01). We conclude that melatonin may be a useful tool in a clinical setting to prevent the time-dependent deterioration of oocyte quality following prolonged culture in vitro.

  9. Effect of a fertilization-promoting peptide on the fertilizing ability and glycosidase activity in vitro of frozen-thawed spermatozoa in the pig.

    PubMed

    Park, C K; Hwang, I S; Cheong, H T; Yang, B K; Kim, C I

    2002-07-15

    This study has evaluated the effect of fertilization-promoting peptide (FPP) on the fertilizing ability and glycosidase activity in vitro of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. Use of chlortetracycline (CTC) fluorescence analysis, as well as various glycosidase analyses and the oocyte penetration test showed that FPP can promote the fertilizing ability and glycosidase activity of frozen-thawed spermatozoa in vitro. There were significantly (P < 0.05) more acrosome-reacted and penetrated in medium with 100 nM FPP than with 0, 50, 200 or 400 nM. The beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (beta-GlcNAcase) activity was at least two-fold higher than other glycosidase regardless of FPP concentrations. In the same glycosidase, there were no differences in medium with different concentrations of FPP. The percentages of spermatozoa that reached acrosome reaction were affected by different periods (0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 h) of spermatozoa preincubation and were higher in medium with than without FPP. Penetration rates were decreased with preincubation periods of spermatozoa when oocytes were inseminated with spermatozoa preincubated in medium with and without FPP for the different periods. These rates were higher in spermatozoa preincubated with that than without FPP and had a tendency to increase as time of culture periods when the sperm-oocyte were cultured for 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 or 24 h. The activities of alpha-fucosidase, alpha-mannosidase, beta-galactosidase and beta-GlcNAcase were higher in medium with that than without FPP regardless of periods of sperm preincubation and sperm-oocyte culture. These results suggest that FPP may have a positive role in promoting sperm function and glycosidase activity in the pig.

  10. Effect of bovine viral diarrhoea virus biotypes on adherence of sperm to oocytes during in-vitro fertilization in cattle.

    PubMed

    Garoussi, M Talebkhan; Mehrzad, J

    2011-04-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), a member of the Pestivirus genus, is one of the most important pathogens of dairy cattle; it can cause several clinical syndromes, ranging from subclinical to severe disease. The objectives of the current studies were to assess the effects of two biotypes of BVDV on sperm attachment to the zona pellucida (ZP) of oocytes and on fertilization rate in bovine in vitro fertilization (IVF). In two experiments, sperm at two concentrations (10⁵ and 10⁶/mL) and oocytes were incubated with 10⁶ TCID₅₀/mL cythopatic (CP) or noncythopatic (NCP) BVDV. In the first experiment, with the lower sperm concentration (10⁵/mL), male and female gametes were infected with CP or NCP BVDV, whereas in the second experiment, the sperm concentration was 10⁶/mL, and sperm and oocytes were also infected with CP or NCP BVDV. The number of sperm attached to the ZP and the fertilization rate were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy on the ZP of fertile and infertile oocytes. In the first experiment, compared to the control group (n = 97), oocytes infected with CP BVDV and incubated at the lower (10⁵/mL) sperm concentration positively affected sperm attachment (n = 123) to the ZP of fertile oocytes (P < 0.05). In comparison with the control group (n = 115), sperm infected with CP BVDV negatively affected sperm binding (n = 93) to the ZP of infertile oocytes (P < 0.05). In the second experiment (10⁶ sperm/mL), for both fertile and infertile oocyte groups, sperm attachment in the control group was very high and deemed uncountable. However, in treated groups, the number of sperm attached to the ZP was countable. Only sperm infected with CP BVDV negatively affected sperm binding capacity (n = 81) to the ZP of fertile oocytes (P < 0.05). Although CP and NCP BVDV significantly reduced the fertilization rate of oocytes incubated with a higher sperm concentration, with the lower sperm concentration, only NCP BVDV significantly diminished

  11. Cryopreservation of human embryos and its contribution to in vitro fertilization success rates.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kai Mee; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Repping, Sjoerd

    2014-07-01

    Cryopreservation of human embryos is now a routine procedure in assisted reproductive technologies laboratories. There is no consensus on the superiority of any protocol, and substantial differences exist among centers in day of embryo cryopreservation, freezing method, selection criteria for which embryos to freeze, method of embryo thawing, and endometrial preparation for transfer of frozen-thawed embryos. In the past decade, the number of frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles per started in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle increased steadily, and at the same time the percentage of frozen-thawed embryo transfers that resulted in live births increased. Currently, cryopreservation of human embryos is more important than ever for the cumulative pregnancy rate after IVF. Interestingly, success rates after frozen-thawed embryo transfer are now nearing the success rates of fresh embryo transfer. This supports the hypothesis of so called freeze-all strategies in IVF, in which all embryos are frozen and no fresh transfer is conducted, to optimize success rates. High-quality randomized controlled trials should be pursued to find out which cryopreservation protocol is best and whether the time has come to completely abandon fresh transfers.

  12. Cell-free DNA and telomere length among women undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment.

    PubMed

    Czamanski-Cohen, J; Sarid, O; Cwikel, J; Douvdevani, A; Levitas, E; Lunenfeld, E; Har-Vardi, I

    2015-11-01

    The current research is aimed at finding potential non-invasive bio-markers that will help us learn more about the mechanisms at play in failed assisted reproduction treatment. This exploratory pilot study examined the relationship between cell-free DNA (CFD) in plasma and telomere length in lymphocytes among women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and compared telomere length and CFD levels to a healthy control group. Blood of 20 women undergoing IVF was collected at three time points during the IVF cycle. We assessed the relationship between CFD and telomere length as well as controlling for morning cortisol levels. We also collected blood of 10 healthy controls at two time points (luteal and follicular phases of the menstrual cycle) and compared mean telomere length, CFD, and cortisol levels between the IVF patients and healthy controls. The results revealed an inverse relationship between CFD levels and telomere lengths at several time points that remained significant even after controlling for cortisol levels. Women undergoing IVF had statistically significant higher levels of CFD and shorter telomeres compared to healthy controls. The relationship between telomere length and CFD should be further explored in larger studies in order to uncover potential mechanisms that cause both shortened telomere length and elevated CFD in women undergoing IVF.

  13. Immunocytogenetic effects of gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue: Triptorelin Pamoate (Decapeptyl) during in vitro fertilization treatment.

    PubMed

    Al-Qashi, S; Al-Qaoud, K M; Ja'fer, M; Khali, A M

    2006-10-01

    In this study, the immunocytogenetic effects of Decapeptyl (Triptorelin Pamoate) were assessed in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of females undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Blood samples were taken from 34 females (23 treated and 11 controls), cultured and examined for sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and cell replication index (CRI). The SCE frequency increased around ovulation time in the controls, and around the time of human chorionic gonadotropin administration in the IVF group. However, the SCE rate was significantly higher in the latter group. Furthermore, the white blood cells (WBC) count was significantly higher on the day of ovum pick up compared to the day preceding luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) treatment. Similar observations were recorded with respect to phagocytic activity tested by nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay. The nitric oxide production abilities of macrophages were not significantly changed in the LH, FSH-treated group relative to its control. Finally, the 50% complement hemolytic activity (CH50) assay results indicated that Decapeptyl lacks a significant potential to affect the complement system.

  14. Bowel complications of deep endometriosis during pregnancy or in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Setúbal, António; Sidiropoulou, Zacharoula; Torgal, Mariana; Casal, Ester; Lourenço, Carlos; Koninckx, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    To review bowel complications caused by deep endometriosis during pregnancy or in vitro fertilization (IVF). Three case reports and a systematic review. A tertiary referral center for deep endometriosis surgery. Three case reports of bowel perforation or occlusion during pregnancy caused by deep endometriosis. A PubMed search was conducted to identify complications of deep endometriosis during pregnancy or IVF. The literature search identified 13 articles. According to these, 12 articles described 12 bowel complications caused by progression of deep endometriosis during pregnancy, and 1 article described six cases of bowel occlusion during IVF. In 12 of 15 women, complications occurred during the third trimester of pregnancy, whereas 3 of 15 women presented with complications in the postpartum period. All complications during IVF occurred during stimulation. No specific factors that could predict these complications were identified, leading to the conclusion that endometriosis complications that occur in pregnancy or in IVF patients are probably underreported. Bowel complications during pregnancy or IVF stimulation may occur in women with deep endometriosis. This suggests that the endocrine environment of pregnancy does not prevent progression, at least in some women. These complications are rare, although probably underreported. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impaired imprinted X chromosome inactivation is responsible for the skewed sex ratio following in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kun; An, Lei; Miao, Kai; Ren, Likun; Hou, Zhuocheng; Tao, Li; Zhang, Zhenni; Wang, Xiaodong; Xia, Wei; Liu, Jinghao; Wang, Zhuqing; Xi, Guangyin; Gao, Shuai; Sui, Linlin; Zhu, De-Sheng; Wang, Shumin; Wu, Zhonghong; Bach, Ingolf; Chen, Dong-bao; Tian, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic epigenetic reprogramming occurs during normal embryonic development at the preimplantation stage. Erroneous epigenetic modifications due to environmental perturbations such as manipulation and culture of embryos during in vitro fertilization (IVF) are linked to various short- or long-term consequences. Among these, the skewed sex ratio, an indicator of reproductive hazards, was reported in bovine and porcine embryos and even human IVF newborns. However, since the first case of sex skewing reported in 1991, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We reported herein that sex ratio is skewed in mouse IVF offspring, and this was a result of female-biased peri-implantation developmental defects that were originated from impaired imprinted X chromosome inactivation (iXCI) through reduced ring finger protein 12 (Rnf12)/X-inactive specific transcript (Xist) expression. Compensation of impaired iXCI by overexpression of Rnf12 to up-regulate Xist significantly rescued female-biased developmental defects and corrected sex ratio in IVF offspring. Moreover, supplementation of an epigenetic modulator retinoic acid in embryo culture medium up-regulated Rnf12/Xist expression, improved iXCI, and successfully redeemed the skewed sex ratio to nearly 50% in mouse IVF offspring. Thus, our data show that iXCI is one of the major epigenetic barriers for the developmental competence of female embryos during preimplantation stage, and targeting erroneous epigenetic modifications may provide a potential approach for preventing IVF-associated complications. PMID:26951653

  16. Oocyte donation in low responders to conventional ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Remohi, J; Vidal, A; Pellicer, A

    1993-06-01

    To analyze endometrial response (endometrial dating and implantation) to exogenous administration of E2-valerate and P in women with low response to gonadotropins undergoing oocyte donation. Prospective study. A cycle in which endometrial specimens were obtained and subsequent cycles with ET were evaluated. The control group was made up of patients with premature ovarian failure (POF) undergoing the same procedure. In Vitro Fertilization program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. A total of 37 women with low response to gonadotropins in previous cycles and 33 women with POF. First artificial cycle with E2-valerate and P in the absence of previous pituitary suppression to determine endometrial adequacy. Successive artificial cycles in which ET was performed on cycle day 17. Oocytes donated from infertile patients undergoing IVF. Serum steroid levels were measured during the artificial cycle. Histologic dating of the endometrium on cycle days 15 and 26. Ultrasonographically documented IVF-ET pregnancies. Postovulatory changes on cycle day 15 were observed in 36.4% of low responders treated with E2-valerate and P in the absence of simultaneous pituitary suppression. Pregnancy rates were higher in women with previous sufficiently (77.8%) or insufficiently (80%) estrogen-primed endometrium than in the cases showing postovulatory changes (37.5%). Pregnancy rates (PRs) per transfer were significantly higher in low responders (63.8%) than in patients with POF (37.2%). Patients with endometriosis had a 71.4% PR per transfer. Embryos derived from oocytes from polycystic ovaries had a 48.3% PR. Oocyte donation is a reliable alternative for women with low response to gonadotropins, including those with severe endometriosis. The efficacy of the steroid replacement regimen in controlling ovarian function may influence outcome. Thus, women with functional ovaries despite exogenous steroid replacement might be differently treated. Women with polycystic ovaries are an

  17. The Quality of Life in Pregnant Women Conceiving Through in Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    GLOBEVNIK VELIKONJA, Vislava; LOZEJ, Tina; LEBAN, Gaja; VERDENIK, Ivan; VRTAČNIK BOKAL, Eda

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim was to determine whether pregnant women conceiving through in vitro fertilization (IVF) differ from those conceiving spontaneously in terms of psychological well-being and the quality of life. Methods In a prospective study we included 75 women conceived after IVF and 78 who conceived spontaneously in the same time period (control group). All the women were sent a self-report questionnaire about demographic and reproductive history, health, pregnancy concerns, containing Subjective Quality of Life Scale (QLS), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Psychological Well-Being Scale (PWB), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Zung Self-Assessment Anxiety Scale (SAS); obstetric and newborn’s data were obtained from medical records. Response rate was 66.6% in the IVF and 83.3% in control group. Results The mean women’s age was 33.8 years in the IVF, and 32.5 years in the control group (NS). There were no significant differences between groups on the most of the outcome measures assessing psychological status. IVF mothers were just less satisfied in “friend/acquaintances” (P=0.03), a higher percentage had sexual problems prior to conception (P=0.03); the length of hospitalization during pregnancy was longer (P=0.02), and the preterm delivery rate was higher (P=0.01). Withingroup changes over gestation time indicated that IVF women, not controls, showed an increase in positive affect (P=0.04) and purpose in life (P=0.05). Conclusions IVF women are inclined to social isolation. Despite more medical problems during pregnancy, they reported improved positive emotions and purpose in life as the pregnancy progressed. PMID:27647083

  18. Monitoring in-vitro bovine embryo development during the first days after fertilization (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Mikhail E.; Rubessa, Marcello; Fernandes, Daniel; Nguyen, Tan H.; Wheeler, Matthew B.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    Conventional label-based contrast enhancement techniques (e.g., fluorescence) frequently modify the genetic makeup of tagged cells, making them poor candidates for use in in-vitro fertilization applications. Instead, we choose a label-free form of contrast, based on interferometric imaging, sensitive to optical path length differences. Compared to, single HeLa cells, typical mammalian ova and embryos are more than an order of magnitude thicker. As a result, regions of large phase variation lead to phase wrapping and an overall reduction in signal intensity occurs due to multiple scattering. These effects manifest themselves in low-spatial frequencies (blurs), with the desired details buried in the background. We present a phase shifting interferometer that yields the derivative of the phase, a quantity whose value is particularly sensitive to local variations and fine details. We demonstrate that our new real-time imaging platform is valuable in measuring the multiday development of bovine embryos. Reconstructing the derivative of the image phase and amplitude, we characterize the motion of previously low-contrast structures, which are relevant for embryo viability tests.

  19. Alterations in uterine hemodynamics caused by uterine fibroids and their impact on in vitro fertilization outcomes.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jei-Won; Kim, Chung-Hoon; Kim, Jun-Bum; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the impact of fibroids on the blood flow of the uterine and subendometrial arteries and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. In this study, we analyzed 86 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in which a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol was used for controlled ovarian stimulation between January 2008 and March 2009. The subjects comprised 86 infertile women with (fibroid group, n=43) or without (control group, n=43) uterine fibroids. Patient characteristics were similar between the fibroid and control groups. The IVF/ICSI outcomes in patients with fibroids were similar to those of patients in the control group. The resistance index (RI) and pulsatile index (PI) of the uterine and subendometrial arteries on the day of embryo transfer were also comparable between the two groups. IVF outcomes and uterine hemodynamics in patients with multiple (≥2) fibroids were similar to those of patients with a single fibroid. However, clinical pregnancy and implantation rates were significantly lower in patients with fibroids who experienced uterine cavity distortion than in patients with fibroids who had a normal uterine cavity (both p<0.05). The RI and PI of the subendometrial artery were significantly higher on the day of embryo transfer in patients with fibroids who experienced uterine cavity distortion than in patients with fibroids who had a normal uterine cavity (both p<0.05). Fibroids which distorting the uterine cavity might impair the subendometrial artery blood flow clinical pregnancy rate and embryo implantation rate in infertile patients undergoing IVF. Otherwise, IVF outcomes were not influenced by the presence of uterine fibroids.

  20. Alterations in uterine hemodynamics caused by uterine fibroids and their impact on in vitro fertilization outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jei-Won; Kim, Jun-Bum; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of fibroids on the blood flow of the uterine and subendometrial arteries and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. Methods In this study, we analyzed 86 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in which a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol was used for controlled ovarian stimulation between January 2008 and March 2009. The subjects comprised 86 infertile women with (fibroid group, n=43) or without (control group, n=43) uterine fibroids. Results Patient characteristics were similar between the fibroid and control groups. The IVF/ICSI outcomes in patients with fibroids were similar to those of patients in the control group. The resistance index (RI) and pulsatile index (PI) of the uterine and subendometrial arteries on the day of embryo transfer were also comparable between the two groups. IVF outcomes and uterine hemodynamics in patients with multiple (≥2) fibroids were similar to those of patients with a single fibroid. However, clinical pregnancy and implantation rates were significantly lower in patients with fibroids who experienced uterine cavity distortion than in patients with fibroids who had a normal uterine cavity (both p<0.05). The RI and PI of the subendometrial artery were significantly higher on the day of embryo transfer in patients with fibroids who experienced uterine cavity distortion than in patients with fibroids who had a normal uterine cavity (both p<0.05). Conclusion Fibroids which distorting the uterine cavity might impair the subendometrial artery blood flow clinical pregnancy rate and embryo implantation rate in infertile patients undergoing IVF. Otherwise, IVF outcomes were not influenced by the presence of uterine fibroids. PMID:26816875

  1. Psychosocial and demographic correlates of the discontinuation of in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Van Dongen, Angelique; Huppelschoten, Aleida G; Kremer, Jan A M; Nelen, Willianne L D M; Verhaak, Christianne M

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between psychosocial factors assessed pre-treatment and the discontinuation of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment after one year. A cohort study was performed in a Dutch fertility clinic and included 667 couples. Demographic characteristics, scores for psychosocial factors, discontinuation rates, reasons for discontinuation and outcome data of the treatment were measured. Discontinuation due to personal reasons was differentiated from discontinuation because of changing a clinic or physicians' advice. The results showed that 37.5% of the couples became pregnant, while 40 (6%) discontinued IVF treatment because of personal reasons. A sample size of 288 women remained for analysis. A longer duration of infertility, less perceived social support in women and higher scores on acceptance of infertility in both men and women were significantly correlated with discontinuation. Multivariate analysis, using these variables including the age of the women, showed that these factors could explain 29% of the discontinuation. These results point to a differentiation between couples who choose positively choose to discontinue treatment and those discontinuing from a more negative perspective. Opportunities to tailor interventions to this second group of couples need to be investigated.

  2. Production of fertile offspring from oocytes grown in vitro by nuclear transfer in cattle.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Yuji; Naruse, Kenji; Kaneda, Masahiro; Somfai, Tamas; Iga, Kosuke; Shimizu, Manabu; Akagi, Satoshi; Cao, Feng; Kono, Tomohiro; Nagai, Takashi; Takenouchi, Naoki

    2013-09-01

    Because of recent advancements in reproductive technology, oocytes have attained an increasingly enriched value as a unique cell population in the production of offspring. The growing oocytes in the ovary are an immediate potential source that serve this need; however, complete oocyte growth before use is crucial. Our research objective was to create in vitro-grown (IVG) oocytes that would have the ability to perform specialized activities, including nuclear reprogramming, as an alternative to in vivo-grown oocytes. Bovine oocyte-granulosa cell complexes with a mean oocyte diameter of approximately 100 μm were cultured on Millicell membrane inserts, with culture medium supplemented with 4% polyvinylpyrrolidone (molecular weight, 360,000), 20 ng/ml androstenedione, 2 mM hypoxanthine, and 5 ng/ml bone morphogenetic protein 7. Oocyte viability after the 14-day culture period was 95%, and there was a 71% increase in oocyte volume. Upon induction of oocyte maturation, 61% of the IVG oocytes extruded a polar body. Eighty-four percent of the reconstructed IVG oocytes that used cumulus cells as donor cells underwent cleavage, and half of them became blastocysts. DNA methylation analyses of the satellite I and II regions of the blastocysts revealed a similar highly methylated status in the cloned embryos derived from in vivo-grown and IVG oocytes. Finally, one of the nine embryos reconstructed from the IVG oocytes developed into a living calf following embryo transfer. Fertility of the offspring was confirmed. In conclusion, the potential of a proportion of the IVG oocytes was comparable to that of in vivo-grown oocytes.

  3. Body composition in children and adolescents born after in vitro fertilization or spontaneous conception.

    PubMed

    Ceelen, Manon; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Roos, Jan C; Vermeiden, Jan P W; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A

    2007-09-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that adverse conditions during prenatal life are associated with the development of chronic diseases in adult life. It is still unclear whether in vitro fertilization (IVF) conception could affect the vulnerable developmental processes in humans occurring during early prenatal development with long-term perturbations of developmental pathways. Our objective was to examine body composition in 8- to 18-yr-old IVF singletons and spontaneously conceived controls born from subfertile parents. This follow-up study was conducted at the VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Participants included 233 IVF children (139 pubertal children) and 233 age- and gender-matched control children (143 pubertal children). Body composition measures were assessed by anthropometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in the pubertal subpopulation. IVF children had a significantly lower subscapular-triceps skinfold ratio and a significantly higher sum of peripheral skinfolds, peripheral body mass, and percentage of peripheral body fat as compared with controls. Although not reaching statistical significance, both dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and skinfold measurements suggested that total body fat in IVF children is increased. Neither current and early risk factors nor parental factors, such as subfertility cause, could explain the differences in peripheral fat assessed by anthropometry between IVF children and controls. No differences in bone mineral composition between IVF children and controls were found. Our observations indicate that body fat composition in IVF children is disturbed. Follow-up of IVF children to monitor body fat pattern and potentially related health problems from adolescence into adulthood is of great importance.

  4. Factors Associated with the Success of In Vitro Fertilization in Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oza, Sveta Shah; Pabby, Vikas; Dodge, Laura E.; Hacker, Michele R.; Fox, Janis H.; Moragianni, Vasiliki A.; Correia, Katharine; Missmer, Stacey A.; Ibrahim, Yetunde; Penzias, Alan S.; Burakoff, Robert; Friedman, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether certain factors are associated with the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Aim This study assessed whether certain characteristics are associated with greater success of live birth following IVF. Methods In a cohort study of 8684 women with IBD seen at two tertiary care centers, we identified 121 women with IBD who underwent IVF. We assessed the effect of numerous factors on likelihood of achieving live birth after IVF. Results Seventy-one patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 49 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) were analyzed. Patients with UC who achieved a live birth were younger (p = 0.03), had a shorter duration of disease (p = 0.01), and were more likely to be in remission (p = 0.03) versus those who did not achieve live birth. Patients with CD who achieved live birth were younger (p < 0.001), had lower body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.02), and had lower cycle day 3 follicle-stimulating hormone levels (p = 0.02). There was no difference in likelihood of achieving live birth among patients in remission and those with mild or unknown disease status (p = 0.69), though most CD patients (79.5 %) were in remission. Prior surgery was not associated with live birth in patients with UC (p = 0.31) or CD (p = 0.62). Conclusions As in the general infertility population, younger patients and those with lower BMI were more likely to achieve live birth. History of surgery was not associated with live birth among IBD patients. This is important information for practitioners counseling IBD patients. PMID:26888767

  5. Support through patient internet-communities: Lived experience of Russian in vitro fertilization patients

    PubMed Central

    Isupova, Olga G.

    2011-01-01

    The article is concerned with the life experiences of infertile women going through infertility treatment and their need for social and psychological support, which they try to find in their immediate social environment. The Internet has become one place where everyone can find “people like oneself.” The best support is received from these people who are in the same life situation and are able and willing to share their lived experiences with each other. Communication via the Internet and the formation of a virtual community of patients has both positive and negative aspects, all of which are examined in the article. On the one hand, it creates a psychologically favorable atmosphere and might potentially increase the success rate of IVF treatment. On the other, this leads to the seclusion of patients within the circle of “similar people” and sometimes to negative attitudes towards people outside the circle. The article is based on the author's “netnography” research of a virtual community of Russian In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF)1 patients. PMID:21760835

  6. Support through patient internet-communities: Lived experience of Russian in vitro fertilization patients.

    PubMed

    Isupova, Olga G

    2011-01-01

    The article is concerned with the life experiences of infertile women going through infertility treatment and their need for social and psychological support, which they try to find in their immediate social environment. The Internet has become one place where everyone can find "people like oneself." The best support is received from these people who are in the same life situation and are able and willing to share their lived experiences with each other. Communication via the Internet and the formation of a virtual community of patients has both positive and negative aspects, all of which are examined in the article. On the one hand, it creates a psychologically favorable atmosphere and might potentially increase the success rate of IVF treatment. On the other, this leads to the seclusion of patients within the circle of "similar people" and sometimes to negative attitudes towards people outside the circle. The article is based on the author's "netnography" research of a virtual community of Russian In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF)(1) patients.

  7. Analysis of in vitro fertilization data with multiple outcomes using discrete time-to-event analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Arnab; Williams, Paige; Ryan, Louise; Missmer, Stacey; Coull, Brent; Hauser, Russ

    2014-01-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is an increasingly common method of assisted reproductive technology. Because of the careful observation and followup required as part of the procedure, IVF studies provide an ideal opportunity to identify and assess clinical and demographic factors along with environmental exposures that may impact successful reproduction. A major challenge in analyzing data from IVF studies is handling the complexity and multiplicity of outcome, resulting from both multiple opportunities for pregnancy loss within a single IVF cycle in addition to multiple IVF cycles. To date, most evaluations of IVF studies do not make use of full data due to its complex structure. In this paper, we develop statistical methodology for analysis of IVF data with multiple cycles and possibly multiple failure types observed for each individual. We develop a general analysis framework based on a generalized linear modeling formulation that allows implementation of various types of models including shared frailty models, failure specific frailty models, and transitional models, using standard software. We apply our methodology to data from an IVF study conducted at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Massachusetts. We also summarize the performance of our proposed methods based on a simulation study. PMID:24317880

  8. Risk Factors and Early Predictors for Heterotopic Pregnancy after In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Ling; Xia, Mingdi; Zhai, Junyu; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yuchao; Sun, Yinhua; Zhang, Jiangtao; Zhu, Dongyi; Zhao, Han; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the risk factors and early predictors for heterotopic pregnancy (HP) after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). From January 2008 to January 2013, 41 cases of HP and 72 cases of intrauterine twin pregnancy after IVF-ET were recruited and retrospectively analyzed. Compared with intrauterine twin pregnancy group, the HP group had a lower basal luteinizing hormone (LH) level (P = 0.005) and more cases had a history of hydrosalpinx (P = 0.008). After 14 days of IVF-ET, the serum β-HCG (β-human chorionic gonadotropin), E2 (Estradiol) and P (Progesterone) levels were lower in HP group (P<0.001, respectively). Moreover, vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain were the significant features of HP before diagnosis (P<0.001, respectively). Further by logistic regression, serum β-hCG, P levels on the 14th day after ET, and vaginal bleeding were identified as the independent factors of HP. These results indicate that when two or more embryos transferred in IVF procedure, β-hCG, P levels on the 14th day after ET, and vaginal bleeding could be taken as predictors for HP. PMID:26510008

  9. Anesthesia Related Toxic Effects on In Vitro Fertilization Outcome: Burden of Proof

    PubMed Central

    Matsota, Paraskevi; Kaminioti, Eva; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Management of pain and anxiety during oocyte retrieval makes anesthesia an important part of the in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures. There are many studies investigating the influence of anesthesia on IVF success. This review article provides an overview of published data regarding the potential toxic effects of different anesthetic techniques (Loco-regional, general anesthesia (GA), and monitored anesthesia care (MAC)), different anesthetic agents, and alternative medicine approach (principally acupuncture) on the IVF outcome. From our analysis, evidence of serious toxicity in humans is not well established. Trials regarding different anesthetic techniques ended up without clear conclusions. Studies about GA came up with conflicting results. A few trials relate GA with lower pregnancy rates, although some others failed to prove this conclusion. Furthermore, detectable amounts of some anesthetic agents are measurable in the follicular fluid but these findings are not strongly associated with toxicity. MAC and Loco-regional anesthesia appear as safe alternative choices and there is evidence of improved outcome. Whereas acupuncture may provide assistance increasing IVF success according to some trials, some others could not obtain these effects. Questions about the appropriate time of application and the underlying mechanism of action are not answered yet, so further investigation should be done. PMID:26161404

  10. Effects of fetal number and multifetal reduction on length of in vitro fertilization pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Haning, R V; Seifer, D B; Wheeler, C A; Frishman, G N; Silver, H; Pierce, D J

    1996-06-01

    To determine the effects of multifetal reduction and other variables on the duration of gestation of in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancies. All 274 IVF pregnancies from the inception of the Women and Infants' Hospital IVF Program on May 26, 1988, until December 31, 1993, were evaluated. Spontaneous reduction occurred in ten pregnancies, and multifetal reduction was elected in 28 multiple gestations. Among 260 pregnancies that remained viable beyond 20 weeks, 162 singletons (37.9 +/- 0.29 weeks; mean +/- standard error) had a longer mean gestation than did 64 twins (34.6 +/- 0.61 weeks), 25 pregnancies reduced to twins (33.4 +/- 1.0 weeks), or nine triplets (29.7 +/- 1.9 weeks). Triplets delivered 4.9 weeks earlier than nonreduced twins (P < .05) and 3.7 weeks before twins resulting from multifetal pregnancy reduction (P < .05). Regression analysis showed that at the 8-week ultrasound, each viable fetus could be expected to reduce the duration of the gestation by about 3.6 weeks, and each fetus reduced medically or as a result of natural causes could be expected to prolong the gestation by approximately 3.0 weeks. Only 14% of triplet pregnancies underwent spontaneous multifetal reduction. Multifetal reduction of pregnancies with three or more fetuses was beneficial and increased the duration of gestation.

  11. Deep phenotyping to predict live birth outcomes in in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Prajna; Choi, Bokyung; Shahine, Lora K.; Jun, Sunny H.; O’Leary, Kathleen; Lathi, Ruth B.; Westphal, Lynn M.; Wong, Wing H.; Yao, Mylene W. M.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 75% of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments do not result in live births and patients are largely guided by a generalized age-based prognostic stratification. We sought to provide personalized and validated prognosis by using available clinical and embryo data from prior, failed treatments to predict live birth probabilities in the subsequent treatment. We generated a boosted tree model, IVFBT, by training it with IVF outcomes data from 1,676 first cycles (C1s) from 2003–2006, followed by external validation with 634 cycles from 2007–2008, respectively. We tested whether this model could predict the probability of having a live birth in the subsequent treatment (C2). By using nondeterministic methods to identify prognostic factors and their relative nonredundant contribution, we generated a prediction model, IVFBT, that was superior to the age-based control by providing over 1,000-fold improvement to fit new data (p < 0.05), and increased discrimination by receiver–operative characteristic analysis (area-under-the-curve, 0.80 vs. 0.68 for C1, 0.68 vs. 0.58 for C2). IVFBT provided predictions that were more accurate for ∼83% of C1 and ∼60% of C2 cycles that were out of the range predicted by age. Over half of those patients were reclassified to have higher live birth probabilities. We showed that data from a prior cycle could be used effectively to provide personalized and validated live birth probabilities in a subsequent cycle. Our approach may be replicated and further validated in other IVF clinics. PMID:20643955

  12. Deep phenotyping to predict live birth outcomes in in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Prajna; Choi, Bokyung; Shahine, Lora K; Jun, Sunny H; O'Leary, Kathleen; Lathi, Ruth B; Westphal, Lynn M; Wong, Wing H; Yao, Mylene W M

    2010-08-03

    Nearly 75% of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments do not result in live births and patients are largely guided by a generalized age-based prognostic stratification. We sought to provide personalized and validated prognosis by using available clinical and embryo data from prior, failed treatments to predict live birth probabilities in the subsequent treatment. We generated a boosted tree model, IVFBT, by training it with IVF outcomes data from 1,676 first cycles (C1s) from 2003-2006, followed by external validation with 634 cycles from 2007-2008, respectively. We tested whether this model could predict the probability of having a live birth in the subsequent treatment (C2). By using nondeterministic methods to identify prognostic factors and their relative nonredundant contribution, we generated a prediction model, IVF(BT), that was superior to the age-based control by providing over 1,000-fold improvement to fit new data (p<0.05), and increased discrimination by receiver-operative characteristic analysis (area-under-the-curve, 0.80 vs. 0.68 for C1, 0.68 vs. 0.58 for C2). IVFBT provided predictions that were more accurate for approximately 83% of C1 and approximately 60% of C2 cycles that were out of the range predicted by age. Over half of those patients were reclassified to have higher live birth probabilities. We showed that data from a prior cycle could be used effectively to provide personalized and validated live birth probabilities in a subsequent cycle. Our approach may be replicated and further validated in other IVF clinics.

  13. Selenium and vitamin E improve the in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture to blastocyst of porcine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tareq, K M A; Akter, Quzi Sharmin; Khandoker, M A M Yahia; Tsujii, Hirotada

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) and vitamin E (Vit-E), as integral parts of antioxidant systems, play important roles for sperm and embryos in vitro. In this study, the effects of Se and Vit-E on the maturation, in vitro fertilization and culture to blastocysts of porcine oocytes and accumulation of ammonia in the culture medium during different development stages were investigated. The maturation was performed in modified tissue culture medium (mTCM)-199 supplemented with 10% (v/v) porcine follicular fluid, the fertilization medium was modified Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate (mTALP), and the embryo culture medium was modified North Carolina State University (mNCSU)-23. Se in the form of sodium selenite (SS) and seleon-L-methionine (SeMet) and Vit-E at different concentrations were also used. The incorporation and oxidation of (14)C(U)-glucose were assessed with a liquid scintillation counter. In this study, SeMet and SeMet+Vit-E increased oocyte maturation, fertilization and incorporation and oxidation of (14)C(U)-glucose significantly (P<0.05) compared with the control and other treatments. In addition, embryo development, specifically in terms of the numbers of morulae and blastocysts, significantly increased (P<0.05) with SeMet and SeMet+Vit-E. In contrast, the accumulation of ammonia was reduced with SeMet and SeMet+Vit-E compared with other treatments. These findings indicate that SeMet and SeMet+Vit-E may play important roles in reducing the accumulation of ammonia and subsequently in increasing the rate of maturation of porcine oocytes and fertilization, as well as development of the blastocyst and utilization of glucose in in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture to blastocysts of porcine oocytes.

  14. Transforming hope: the lived experience of infertile women who terminated treatment after in vitro fertilization failure.

    PubMed

    Su, Tsann-Juu; Chen, Yueh-Chih

    2006-03-01

    Assisted reproductive treatments provide the hope of pregnancy for infertile women, but do not always turn this hope into reality. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of infertile women who terminated treatment after in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure. Using a qualitative research design, 24 subjects were recruited who had experienced IVF failure and decided to terminate their treatment. Data were collected through interviews, and analyzed using interpretive research strategies of phenomenology. This study protocol was reviewed and approved by the University Review Board for Research. Informed consent was obtained from each subject. The theme of lived experience which emerged from the data was "transforming hope". This theme included three categories: (1) accepting the reality of infertility, (2) acknowledging the limitations of treatment involving high technology, and (3) re-identifying one's future. The results illustrated that counseling for these women should involve the provision of both positive and negative information, evaluation of the response to treatment, and assistance in defining their future.

  15. Factors influencing serum progesterone level on triggering day in stimulated in vitro fertilization cycles.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Hee; Jee, Byung Chul; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Elevated serum progesterone (P) levels on triggering day have been known to affect the pregnancy rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF). This study aimed to identify the possible factors influencing serum P levels on triggering day in stimulated IVF cycles. Three hundred and thirty consecutive fresh IVF cycles were included in the study. All cycles were first attempts and were performed in a single infertility center. The indications for IVF were male factor infertility (n=114), ovulatory infertility (n=84), endometriosis (n=61), tubal infertility (n=59), unexplained infertility (n=41), and uterine factor infertility (n=39). A luteal long protocol of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (n=184) or a GnRH antagonist protocol (n=146) was used for pituitary suppression. Ovarian sensitivity was defined as the serum estradiol level on triggering day per 500 IU of administered gonadotropins (OS[a]) or the retrieved oocyte number per 500 IU of administered gonadotropins (OS[b]). Univariate analysis revealed that the serum P level on triggering day was associated with the serum estradiol level on triggering day (r=0.379, p<0.001), the number of follicles ≥14 mm (r=0.247, p<0.001), the number of retrieved oocytes (r=0.384, p<0.001), and ovarian sensitivity (OS[a]: r=0.245, p<0.001; OS[b]: r=0.170, p=0.002). The woman's age, body mass index, antral follicle count, and basal serum follicle stimulating hormone and estradiol levels were not associated with serum P level on triggering day. The serum P level on triggering day did not show significant variation depending on the type or cause of infertility, pituitary suppression protocol, or the type of gonadotropins used. The serum P level on triggering day was closely related to the response to ovarian stimulation.

  16. Factors influencing serum progesterone level on triggering day in stimulated in vitro fertilization cycles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju Hee; Jee, Byung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Objective Elevated serum progesterone (P) levels on triggering day have been known to affect the pregnancy rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF). This study aimed to identify the possible factors influencing serum P levels on triggering day in stimulated IVF cycles. Methods Three hundred and thirty consecutive fresh IVF cycles were included in the study. All cycles were first attempts and were performed in a single infertility center. The indications for IVF were male factor infertility (n=114), ovulatory infertility (n=84), endometriosis (n=61), tubal infertility (n=59), unexplained infertility (n=41), and uterine factor infertility (n=39). A luteal long protocol of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (n=184) or a GnRH antagonist protocol (n=146) was used for pituitary suppression. Ovarian sensitivity was defined as the serum estradiol level on triggering day per 500 IU of administered gonadotropins (OS[a]) or the retrieved oocyte number per 500 IU of administered gonadotropins (OS[b]). Results Univariate analysis revealed that the serum P level on triggering day was associated with the serum estradiol level on triggering day (r=0.379, p<0.001), the number of follicles ≥14 mm (r=0.247, p<0.001), the number of retrieved oocytes (r=0.384, p<0.001), and ovarian sensitivity (OS[a]: r=0.245, p<0.001; OS[b]: r=0.170, p=0.002). The woman's age, body mass index, antral follicle count, and basal serum follicle stimulating hormone and estradiol levels were not associated with serum P level on triggering day. The serum P level on triggering day did not show significant variation depending on the type or cause of infertility, pituitary suppression protocol, or the type of gonadotropins used. Conclusion The serum P level on triggering day was closely related to the response to ovarian stimulation. PMID:26161336

  17. Monitoring neonatal abstinence syndrome in buprenorphine-exposed in vitro fertilization twins: A case study.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Laura; Swoboda, Patrick; Fischer, Gabriele; Unger, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have reported on the pregnancies and outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in special subpopulations; however, there is a lack of studies on opioid-exposed IVF-conceived neonates. A young adult IVF-pregnant woman was maintained on buprenorphine throughout pregnancy and received follow-up from the addiction clinic from estimated gestational week 32. She delivered healthy dichorionic twins via cesarean section at 38 weeks gestational age (buprenorphine dose at time of delivery: 16 mg). All maternal supervised urinalysis taken as of gestational week 32 were negative for concomitant substances (prior to treatment initiation at the addiction clinic, only self-reports of abstinence from concomitant substances were available). Both healthy children (male birth weight: 3140 g, female birth weight: 2650 g) developed an unusual course of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) requiring extensive treatment (total morphine dose male: 22 mg, and female: 26.75 mg; length of treatment: 33 and 34 days, respectively; duration of hospitalization: 40 days). The highly severe and long-lasting NAS in both neonates represents a very unusual course following an uneventful pregnancy, and influencing iatrogenic factors cannot be ruled out. Given the multiple variables influencing infant outcomes, this highlights the importance of high-quality, evidence-based standard operating procedures, which (1) are initiated as early as possible during pregnancy to minimize risk factors for adverse infant outcomes, such as concomitant substance use during pregnancy; (2) support the substance-dependent woman throughout the postpartum period, especially in cases of multiple and/or IVF-conceived pregnancies, where additional challenges may arise; and (3) consider the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health.

  18. Circulating microRNAs in follicular fluid, powerful tools to explore in vitro fertilization process

    PubMed Central

    Scalici, E.; Traver, S.; Mullet, T.; Molinari, N.; Ferrières, A.; Brunet, C.; Belloc, S.; Hamamah, S.

    2016-01-01

    Circulating or “extracellular” microRNAs (miRNAs) detected in biological fluids, could be used as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of several disease, such as cancer, gynecological and pregnancy disorders. However, their contributions in female infertility and in vitro fertilization (IVF) remain unknown. This study investigated the expression profiles of five circulating miRNAs (let-7b, miR-29a, miR-30a, miR-140 and miR-320a) in human follicular fluid from 91 women with normal ovarian reserve and 30 with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and their ability to predict IVF outcomes. The combination of FF miR-30a, miR-140 and let-7b expression levels discriminated between PCOS and normal ovarian reserve with a specificity of 83.8% and a sensitivity of 70% (area under the ROC curve, AUC = 0.83 [0.73–0.92]; p < 0.0001). FF samples related to low number of mature oocytes (≤2) contained significant less miR-320a levels than those related to a number of mature oocytes >2 (p = 0.04). Moreover, FF let-7b predicted the development of expanded blastocysts with 70% sensitivity and 64.3% specificity (AUC = 0.67 [0.54–0.79]; p = 0.02) and FF miR-29a potential to predict clinical pregnancy outcome reached 0.68 [0.55–0.79] with a sensitivity of 83.3% and a specificity of 53.5% (p = 0.01). Therefore, these miRNAs could provide new helpful biomarkers to facilitate personalized medical care during IVF. PMID:27102646

  19. Laser irradiation of mouse spermatozoa enhances in-vitro fertilization and Ca2+ uptake via reactive oxygen species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Natalie; Lubart, Rachel; Rubinstein, Sara; Breitbart, Haim

    1996-11-01

    630 nm He-Ne laser irradiation was found to have a profound influence on Ca2+ uptake in mouse spermatozoa and the fertilizing potential of these cells. Laser irradiation affected mainly the mitochondrial Ca2+ transport mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of light was found to be Ca2+-dependent. We demonstrate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the cascade of biochemical events evoked by laser irradiation. A causal association between laser irradiation, ROS generation, and sperm function was indicated by studies with ROS scavengers, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and exogenous hydrogen peroxide. SOD treatment resulted in increased Ca2+ uptake and in enhanced fertilization rate. Catalase treatment impaired the light-induced stimulation in Ca2+ uptake and fertilization rate. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide was found to enhance Ca2+ uptake in mouse spermatozoa and the fertilizing capability of these cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the effect of 630 nm He-Ne laser irradiation is mediated through the generation of hydrogen peroxide by the spermatozoa and that this effect plays a significant role in the augmentation of the sperm cells' capability to fertilize metaphase II-arrested eggs in-vitro.

  20. The lived experience of women pregnant (including preconception) post in vitro fertilization through the lens of virtual communities.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Sharyl Eve; Montgomery, Rebecca M

    2009-11-01

    In this study, researchers explore and describe the experience of pregnancy via in vitro fertilization (IVF). The lived experience portrayed herein represents the experience of women from at least seven different countries (the United States, Australia, England, Ireland, Canada, Columbia, and Borneo). Professionals from multiple disciplines may use insights gained from this study to better understand emotional, psychological, and physical health needs of women pregnant post IVF.

  1. LOCALIZATION OF THE SPERM PROTEIN SP22 AND INHIBITION OF FERTILITY IN VIVO AND IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously established that the levels sperm membrane protein SP22 are highly correlated with the fertility of sperm from the cauda epididymidis of rats exposed to both epididymal and testicular toxicants, and that a testis-specific SP22 transcript is expressed in post-meiotic...

  2. LOCALIZATION OF THE SPERM PROTEIN SP22 AND INHIBITION OF FERTILITY IN VIVO AND IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously established that the levels sperm membrane protein SP22 are highly correlated with the fertility of sperm from the cauda epididymidis of rats exposed to both epididymal and testicular toxicants, and that a testis-specific SP22 transcript is expressed in post-meiotic...

  3. Public health implications of a North American publicly funded in vitro fertilization program; lessons to learn.

    PubMed

    Shaulov, Talya; Belisle, Serge; Dahan, Michael H

    2015-09-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to determine trends in practice and outcomes that occurred since the implementation of the publicly funded in vitro fertilization (IVF) and single embryo transfer (SET) program in Quebec, in August, 2010. Data presented was extracted from an advisory report by the Health and Welfare Commissioner, and from a report by the Ministry of Health and Social Services published in June 2014 and October 2013, respectively. This data is publicly available, and was collected from all six private and three public-assisted reproduction centers in Quebec providing IVF services. Data pertains to all IVF cycles performed from the 2009-2010 to 2012-2013 fiscal years. SET was performed in 71 % of cycles in 2012. The number of children born from IVF was 1057 in 2009-2010 and 1723 in 2012-2013 (p < 0.0001). Multiple birth rates from IVF were 24 % in 2009-2010 (before the program began) and 9.45 % in 2012-2013 (p < 0.0001). The proportions of IVF babies that were premature, that were the result of multiple births, or that required neonatal intensive care unit admission (NICU) all decreased by 35.5 % (p < 0.0001), 55 % (p < 0.0001), and 37 % (p < 0.0001), respectively, from 2009-2010 to 2012-2013. The cost per NICU admission for an IVF baby increased from $19,990 to $28,418 from 2009-2010 to 2011-2012. This first North American publicly funded IVF program with a SET policy shows that such a program contributes substantially to number of births. It has also succeeded in increasing access to treatment and decreasing perinatal morbidity by decreasing multiple birth rates from IVF. A substantial increase in global public health care costs occurred as well.

  4. Differential influence of ampullary and isthmic derived epithelial cells on zona pellucida hardening and in vitro fertilization in ovine.

    PubMed

    Dadashpour Davachi, Navid; Zare Shahneh, Ahmad; Kohram, Hamid; Zhandi, Mahdi; Shamsi, Helia; Hajiyavand, Amir M; Saadat, Mozafar

    2016-03-01

    The central role of the oviduct, as the site of zona pellucida (ZP) maturation, fertilization and early embryogenesis, has been recognized. The objective of this study was to investigate whether ampullary and isthmic derived epithelial cells have different effects on in vitro ZP hardening, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) of the resulting embryos. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in a coculture system with ampullary/isthmic epithelial cells, TCM199 supplemented with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epithelial derived growth factor (EGF) (GF treated group), conditioned media produced using ampullary (ACM), isthmic (ICM), COCs+ampullary, and COCs+isthmic epithelial cells, contactless culture system, oviductal fluid, GF+ACM/ICM, and drops of TCM199 (control), for 24h. The matured oocytes were randomly divided into two groups: Group I was subjected to ZP digestion; Group II underwent IVF. The duration of the ZP digestion, in a coculture system with ampullary epithelial cells (AE) was significantly increased (p<0.05), compared with other groups. Penetrated oocytes and monospermic fertilization were significantly increased (p<0.05) in the AE group. The mean number of spermatozoa per penetrated oocyte was reduced dramatically for the AE group (p<0.05). A significant increase (p<0.05) in the embryo development was observed in all treated groups, compared to the control. Results revealed that epithelial cells harvested from the ampullary segment of the oviduct had in vitro specialized role in ZP hardening and have subsequent IVF and IVC outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  5. Integration of single oocyte trapping, in vitro fertilization and embryo culture in a microwell-structured microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Zhang, Qiufang; Ma, Rui; Xie, Lan; Qiu, Tian; Wang, Lei; Mitchelson, Keith; Wang, Jundong; Huang, Guoliang; Qiao, Jie; Cheng, Jing

    2010-11-07

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) therapy is an important treatment for human infertility. However, the methods for clinical IVF have only changed slightly over decades: culture medium is held in oil-covered drops in Petri dishes and manipulation occurs by manual pipetting. Here we report a novel microwell-structured microfluidic device that integrates single oocyte trapping, fertilization and subsequent embryo culture. A microwell array was used to capture and hold individual oocytes during the flow-through process of oocyte and sperm loading, medium substitution and debris cleaning. Different microwell depths were compared by computational modeling and flow washing experiments for their effectiveness in oocyte trapping and debris removal. Fertilization was achieved in the microfluidic devices with similar fertilization rates to standard oil-covered drops in Petri dishes. Embryos could be cultured to blastocyst stages in our devices with developmental status individually monitored and tracked. The results suggest that the microfluidic device may bring several advantages to IVF practices by simplifying oocyte handling and manipulation, allowing rapid and convenient medium changing, and enabling automated tracking of any single embryo development.

  6. Posthumous reproduction with surplus in vitro fertilization embryos: a study exploring users' choices.

    PubMed

    Côté, Stéphanie; Affdal, Aliya-Oulaya; Kadoch, Isaac-Jacques; Hamet, Pavel; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2014-11-01

    To report results of analysis of in vitro fertilization (IVF) users' choices regarding the potential use of their surplus cryopreserved embryos for posthumous assisted reproduction (PAR). Examination of signed consent forms. Public IVF clinic. A total of 498 individuals who had signed consent forms for cryopreservation of surplus embryos. Content analysis of consent form. Agreement to PAR; importance of appropriate counseling within the consent process. Approximately 68% of individuals consented to the use of surplus embryos for embryologist training and improvement of assisted reproductive techniques, and 56% consented to the use of surplus embryos in a research project; 73.5% of men and 61.8% of women agreed to leave their cryopreserved embryos to their partners for reproductive use in the event of their death. Our results demonstrate that a majority of both men and women agree to leave their frozen embryos to their partners for PAR in a "real life" context, i.e., in which they were required to provide consent for this prospective option. PAR involves complex issues, including the psychologic aspects of initiating a pregnancy while mourning the loss of a loved one or the effect on the prospective child. We argue that in light of the acceptability of PAR-as demonstrated by our results-further research is required regarding how to best counsel and inform IVF users about the choices they are making in this context, to ensure that their consent for PAR is in fact well informed. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Conception via in vitro fertilization and delivery by Caesarean section are associated with paediatric asthma incidence.

    PubMed

    Guibas, G V; Moschonis, G; Xepapadaki, P; Roumpedaki, E; Androutsos, O; Manios, Y; Papadopoulos, N G

    2013-09-01

    The association between perinatal factors and asthma inception is under rigorous investigation. Nevertheless, evidence of a correlation between asthma, conception via in vitro fertilization (IVF) and delivery through Caesarean section (C-section) is inconclusive. We aimed to assess the relation of asthma incidence with IVF and C-section, after controlling for several potential confounding factors. Parent-reported wheeze in the last 12 months (current), wheeze ever, physician-diagnosed asthma, method of conception, and type of delivery were recorded from questionnaires filled in by the parents of 2016 Greek children aged 9-13, (the Healthy Growth Study population). Some perinatal data were recorded from children's medical records and others were reported by parents; anthropometric measurements were also conducted in children. IVF was correlated with physician-diagnosed asthma (OR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.11-4.56), but not with current/ever wheeze after adjustment for potential confounding factors. After adjustment, C-section was also associated with asthma (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.04-1.87), but not with current/ever wheeze. When the association of both IVF and C-section with asthma was examined in the same multivariate logistic regression model, it was weakened to borderline significance (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1-4.15 and OR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1-1.81 respectively). Conception via IVF and delivery by C-section may predispose children to future asthma development. Either variable could also exert a confounding effect on the link of the other to asthma; this may partially be accountable for inconsistencies in the findings of pertinent studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Prolonged activation of the coagulation system during in vitro fertilization cycles.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yoni; Tulandi, Togas; Almog, Benny; Zohav, Eyal; Deutsch, Varda; Many, Ariel; Amit, Ami; Cohen, Aviad

    2017-09-01

    To investigate coagulation system changes during an in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle using Thromboelastogram (TEG) that enables analysis of the elastic properties of whole blood samples and provides a global assessment of the hemostatic function. A prospective study. TEG indices were evaluated in 23 women who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF at four points in time: 1. At the beginning of the cycle (corresponding to the lowest levels of E2), 2. On the day of hCG administration (maximal stimulation with highest E2 levels), 3. On the day of ovum pickup and 4. At the first pregnancy test (approximately 14days after ovum pickup). The main outcome measures were TEG indices including R-time (time until initial fibrin formation), K-time (time until a 20mm amplitude is achieved), α angle (the rate of clot formation), Maximum Amplitude (MA, strength of the fibrin clot), Coagulation Index (CI, calculated overall indicator of coagulation) and LY30 (the decrease in graph amplitude). R, K, α angle, MA and CI before hCG administration and at the time of the first pregnancy test were significantly higher compared to the baseline measurement before gonadotropins administration. No correlation was found between E2 and TEG indices. Ovarian stimulation is associated with prolonged increased coagulability that extends after the time of maximal ovarian stimulation. The lack of association between E2 levels and TEG indices suggest that additional factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of increased coagulability in women with ovarian stimulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exposure to ethanol during capacitation impairs the fertilizing ability of human spermatozoa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Salonen, I

    1986-08-01

    To validate earlier findings, mainly in laboratory animals, the effect of ethanol on the fertilizing ability of human spermatozoa has been investigated. Ethanol added to the capacitation medium reduced the penetration of zona-free hamster eggs by human spermatozoa in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations from 50 to 500 mg % (0.05-0.5%). Fertilizing capacity was at least partially restored by washing in ethanol-free medium. Ethanol exposure before capacitation had a slight stimulatory effect on the penetration of spermatozoa into zona-free hamster ova. The motility of spermatozoa was not altered significantly, either quantitatively or qualitatively, by the presence of ethanol in the capacitation medium. These results suggest that the decrease in fertilizing ability of spermatozoa induced by ethanol during capacitation is due to a specific action on the capacitation process.

  10. Women's alcohol consumption and cumulative incidence of live birth following in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Dodge, L E; Missmer, S A; Thornton, K L; Hacker, M R

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of alcohol consumption on outcomes among women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). This study is a retrospective cohort study. This study was performed in a private academically affiliated IVF center. Patients included women presenting for their first IVF cycle from July 2004 through October 2012. Women completed self-administered questionnaires before their first IVF cycle, which included report of usual alcohol consumption. Women were categorized as non-drinkers, social drinkers, or daily drinkers, as well as by the number of drinks consumed per week. Competing risks analysis was used to calculate the cumulative incidence of live birth after 6 cycles stratified by alcohol consumption. Main outcome measures included spontaneous abortion, clinical pregnancy, and live birth following IVF. There were 591 (27.7%) non-drinkers, 1466 (68.7%) social drinkers, and 77 (3.6%) daily drinkers (total n = 2134). In the first cycle, compared to non-drinkers, daily drinkers had a twofold increased risk of spontaneous abortion (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-4.5) among all cycle starts, and while their risk of live birth was 30% lower (aRR 0.7; 95% CI 0.4-1.3), the sample size was small, and it was not significantly lower. By the end of 6 cycles, social drinkers and daily drinkers did not differ from non-drinkers in their cumulative incidence of live birth (56.1, 50.6, and 52.1%, respectively; both P ≥ 0.28). There was a trend towards lower risk of live birth among daily drinkers. Daily drinkers had an increased risk of spontaneous abortion in the first cycle, but the number of daily drinkers was small.

  11. Parenting style of women who conceived using in vitro fertilization: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Ming; Shu, Bih-Ching; Fetzer, Susan; Chang, Ying-Ju

    2014-06-01

    Research has shown that the mental health of women contributes to their parenting style. However, it remains unclear whether the experience of in vitro fertilization (IVF) affects parenting style. This study was designed to assess whether there is a difference in parenting styles between women who conceived using IVF and those who conceived naturally. This meta-analysis searched three electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and CINAHL) for relevant articles published between 1978 and 2011. Key words used included parenting, mothering, parent-child relations, childrearing, infertility, assisted reproductive technique, IVF, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Study inclusion criteria were as follows: published in an English-language peer-reviewed journal, with the definition of parenting style categorized as one of two dimensions: warmth and control; quantification of the parenting behaviors; use of a case-controlled study design to compare IVF and natural conceptions; and reported data sufficient to calculate the effect sizes. Studies that included women who conceived using a donor egg or sperm for IVF and those that included women who were either surrogates or in homosexual relationships were excluded. Three hundred ninety studies were identified. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to appraise the quality of the data. The IVF participants used significantly greater controlling parenting behaviors than their natural conception participant peers (d = 0.148, p < .01). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of parenting behaviors related to warmth, rejection, or respect for autonomy. The homogeneity test for the effect size of warmth and controlling parenting behavior achieved significance. Women who conceive using IVF have slightly but still significantly greater controlling parenting behaviors than women who conceive naturally. The results of this study may help professionals to better understand the

  12. Live-Birth Rate Associated With Repeat In Vitro Fertilization Treatment Cycles.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew D A C; Tilling, Kate; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A

    The likelihood of achieving a live birth with repeat in vitro fertilization (IVF) is unclear, yet treatment is commonly limited to 3 or 4 embryo transfers. To determine the live-birth rate per initiated ovarian stimulation IVF cycle and with repeated cycles. Prospective study of 156,947 UK women who received 257,398 IVF ovarian stimulation cycles between 2003 and 2010 and were followed up until June 2012. In vitro fertilization, with a cycle defined as an episode of ovarian stimulation and all subsequent separate fresh and frozen embryo transfers. Live-birth rate per IVF cycle and the cumulative live-birth rates across all cycles in all women and by age and treatment type. Optimal, prognosis-adjusted, and conservative cumulative live-birth rates were estimated, reflecting 0%, 30%, and 100%, respectively, of women who discontinued due to poor prognosis and having a live-birth rate of 0 had they continued. Among the 156,947 women, the median age at start of treatment was 35 years (interquartile range, 32-38; range, 18-55), and the median duration of infertility for all 257,398 cycles was 4 years (interquartile range, 2-6; range, <1-29). In all women, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 29.5% (95% CI, 29.3%-29.7%). This remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. The cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate across all cycles continued to increase up to the ninth cycle, with 65.3% (95% CI, 64.8%-65.8%) of women achieving a live birth by the sixth cycle. In women younger than 40 years using their own oocytes, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 32.3% (95% CI, 32.0%-32.5%) and remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. Six cycles achieved a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 68.4% (95% CI, 67.8%-68.9%). For women aged 40 to 42 years, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 12.3% (95% CI, 11.8%-12.8%), with 6 cycles achieving a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 31.5% (95% CI, 29

  13. Serum concentrations of HE4 change little during in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Hallamaa, Marianne; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Suvitie, Pia; Perheentupa, Antti

    2014-07-01

    Human epididymal secretory protein 4 (HE4) is a biomarker for ovarian cancer. The effect of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulation during in vitro fertilization (IVF) on HE4 was evaluated to determine whether substantial hormonal stimulation of the ovaries affects the serum levels of this marker. Findings were compared with serum concentrations of cancer antigen 125 (CA125), currently the most commonly used marker for ovarian cancer. Prospective cohort study. University hospital infertility clinic. Infertility patients undergoing IVF treatment. We determined the serum concentration of HE4 and CA125 in serial blood samples in 20 women treated with IVF. Samples were taken following gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist suppression, two to three times during FSH stimulation, at ovum pick-up and 2 weeks following embryo transfer at the time of the pregnancy test. Ovarian follicles were counted and serum estradiol concentrations measured throughout treatment. Serum HE4, CA125 and estradiol concentrations. Serum HE4 levels did not increase significantly during the FSH stimulation. The majority of values remained below the normal reference range (<70 pm) throughout the treatment. Serum CA125 concentration also remained low during stimulation. Serum estradiol concentration reflected the severity of ovarian stimulation during IVF, increasing 3.9-fold with stimulation. Serum HE4 concentrations respond little if at all to supraphysiological ovarian stimulation, suggesting that the amount of circulating HE4 in women with normal ovaries is independent of gonadotropin stimulation. Hormonal stimulation of the ovaries is unlikely to affect the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors with HE4. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Resource allocation of in vitro fertilization: a nationwide register-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Klemetti, Reija; Gissler, Mika; Sevón, Tiina; Hemminki, Elina

    2007-01-01

    Background Infertility is common and in vitro fertilization (IVF) is a widely used treatment. In IVF the need increases and the effectiveness and appropriateness decrease by age. The purpose of this study was to describe allocation of resources for IVF by women's age, socioeconomic position, area of residence and treatment sector (public vs. private) and to discuss how fairly the IVF resources are allocated in Finland. Methods Women who received IVF between 1996 and 1998 (N = 9175) were identified from the reimbursement records of the Social Insurance Institution (SII). Information on IVF women's background characteristics came from the Central Population Register and the SII, on treatment costs from IVF clinics and the SII, and on births from the Medical Birth Register. The main outcome measures were success of IVF by number of cycles and treated women, expenditures per IVF cycles, per women, per live-birth, and per treatment sector, and private and public expenditures. Expenditures were estimated from health care visits and costs. Results During a mean period of 1.5 years, older women (women aged 40 or older) received 1.4 times more IVF treatment cycles than younger women (women aged below 30). The success rate decreased by age: from 22 live births per 100 cycles among younger women to 6 per 100 among older women. The mean cost of a live birth increased by age: compared to younger women, costs per born live birth of older women were 3-fold. Calculated by population, public expenditure was allocated most to young women and women from the highest socioeconomic position. Regional differences were not remarkable. Conclusion Children of older infertile women involve more expense due to the lower success rates of IVF. Socioeconomic differences suggest unfair resource allocation in Finland. PMID:18154645

  15. Novel and traditional traits of frozen-thawed porcine sperm related to in vitro fertilization success.

    PubMed

    Daigneault, Bradford W; McNamara, Kelli A; Purdy, Phillip H; Krisher, Rebecca L; Knox, Robert V; Miller, David J

    2014-07-15

    Cryopreserved semen allows the use of single ejaculates for repeated analyses, potentially improving IVF consistency by eliminating interejaculate variability observed with fresh semen. However, the freezing and thawing processes result in compromised sperm function and IVF success. Semen samples are often screened for motility before use for IVF. Samples that are below a designated motility threshold may be discarded. Our objectives were to determine if post-thaw sperm motility, other traits that may be indicative of sperm function, or a novel assay of oviduct binding were related to IVF success. Semen from 16 boars was cooled to 15 °C for overnight shipment before cryopreservation. Semen was thawed and motility was recorded microscopically and confirmed using computer-automated sperm assessment. Each sample was tested by IVF in two to three independent replicates. Regression and correlation analyses were employed to determine the interrelationships between sperm traits and the relationships between post-thaw motility, sperm-oviduct binding and IVF outcomes. Among the sperm traits examined, sperm acrosome integrity was negatively correlated with post-thaw motility (r(2) = 0.64) but not with IVF results. The number of sperm bound to oviduct aggregates was correlated with IVF polyspermy rates (r(2) = 0.62, P < 0.05) but less with overall IVF rates (r(2) = 0.31, P > 0.10). There was some relationship of post-thaw motility with IVF monospermic fertilization (P = 0.06, r(2) = 0.08) but not to other IVF outcomes. Our results indicate that post-thaw motility of frozen-thawed boar sperm is strongly related to acrosome integrity but has limited use for predicting IVF success. The number of sperm bound to oviduct cells was related to IVF polyspermy rates and may be more indicative of in vitro sperm function than traditional sperm motility and acrosome status evaluation.

  16. Association of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) with in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Missmer, Stacey A; Maity, Arnab; Williams, Paige L; Meeker, John D; Berry, Katharine; Ehrlich, Shelley; Perry, Melissa J; Cramer, Daniel W; Hauser, Russ

    2012-02-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) are persistent chlorinated pesticides with endocrine activity that may adversely affect the early stages of human reproduction. Our goal was to determine the association of serum levels of HCB, DDT, and DDE with implantation failure, chemical pregnancy, and spontaneous abortion in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) from 1994 to 2003. Levels of HCB and congeners of DDT and DDE were measured in serum collected during the follicular phase. Multivariable-adjusted statistical models accommodating multiple outcomes and multiple cycles per woman were used to estimate the relation between serum pesticide levels and IVF outcomes. A total of 720 women with a mean ± SD age 35.4 ± 4.2 years at enrollment contributed 774 IVF cycles. All samples had detectable levels of HCB, DDT, and DDE, with median levels of 0.087 ng/g serum for HCB, 1.12 ng/g serum for total DDT, and 1.04 ng/g serum for p,p´-DDE. Compared with the lowest quartile (Q1) of HCB, the lipid- and multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for failed implantation was significantly elevated for those with higher HCB quartiles [Q2-Q4; adjusted ORs: for Q2, 1.71; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 2.82; for Q3, 2.30; 95% CI: 1.39, 3.81; for Q4, 2.32; 95% CI: 1.38, 3.90] and showed a significantly increasing trend (p = 0.001). No statistically significant associations were observed between DDT/DDE and IVF outcomes or between HCB and chemical pregnancy or spontaneous abortion. Serum HCB concentrations were on average lower than that of the general U.S. population and associated with failed implantation among women undergoing IVF.

  17. Association of Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) with in Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Missmer, Stacey A.; Maity, Arnab; Williams, Paige L.; Meeker, John D.; Berry, Katharine; Ehrlich, Shelley; Perry, Melissa J.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Hauser, Russ

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) are persistent chlorinated pesticides with endocrine activity that may adversely affect the early stages of human reproduction. Objective: Our goal was to determine the association of serum levels of HCB, DDT, and DDE with implantation failure, chemical pregnancy, and spontaneous abortion in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) from 1994 to 2003. Methods: Levels of HCB and congeners of DDT and DDE were measured in serum collected during the follicular phase. Multivariable-adjusted statistical models accommodating multiple outcomes and multiple cycles per woman were used to estimate the relation between serum pesticide levels and IVF outcomes. Results: A total of 720 women with a mean ± SD age 35.4 ± 4.2 years at enrollment contributed 774 IVF cycles. All samples had detectable levels of HCB, DDT, and DDE, with median levels of 0.087 ng/g serum for HCB, 1.12 ng/g serum for total DDT, and 1.04 ng/g serum for p,p´-DDE. Compared with the lowest quartile (Q1) of HCB, the lipid- and multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for failed implantation was significantly elevated for those with higher HCB quartiles [Q2–Q4; adjusted ORs: for Q2, 1.71; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 2.82; for Q3, 2.30; 95% CI: 1.39, 3.81; for Q4, 2.32; 95% CI: 1.38, 3.90] and showed a significantly increasing trend (p = 0.001). No statistically significant associations were observed between DDT/DDE and IVF outcomes or between HCB and chemical pregnancy or spontaneous abortion. Conclusions: Serum HCB concentrations were on average lower than that of the general U.S. population and associated with failed implantation among women undergoing IVF. PMID:22204795

  18. Effect of reduced oxygen concentrations on the outcome of in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Kea, Bory; Gebhardt, Janice; Watt, Jill; Westphal, Lynn M; Lathi, Ruth B; Milki, Amin A; Behr, Barry

    2007-01-01

    We compared the effects of two standard oxygen concentrations, physiological (5% O(2), 5% CO(2), and 90% N(2)) and atmospheric (5% CO(2) with the balance as air), on fertilization, embryo development, and pregnancy rate in 106 patients undergoing IVF, excluding donor oocyte cycles and preimplantation genetic diagnosis cycles. The differences in oxygen concentration did not significantly affect fertilization rate, blastocyst formation, or pregnancy rate, but there was a significant difference in mean embryo score between physiological and atmospheric groups on day 3.

  19. Effect of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin treatment of pig spermatozoa on in vitro fertilization and embryo development in the absence or presence of caffeine.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jiude; Wu, Guang-Ming; Prather, Randy S; Smith, Michael F; Cantley, Tom; Rieke, August; Didion, Brad A; Day, Billy N

    2005-12-01

    A series of experiments were carried out to develop a new method to reduce pig polyspermic fertilization and produce more normal embryos, in vitro. Experiment 1 determined the effect of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCD) treatment during cryopreservation on sperm acrosome reaction and sperm fertilization. Compared to the non-MCD-treated control, MCD treatment increased the percentage of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa at thawing and 2h after incubation in fertilization medium (P<0.01). Treatment with MCD also increased (P<0.05) sperm-penetration rate, number of spermatozoa in oocytes, and fertilization efficiency in the caffeine-free fertilization medium. Experiment 2 was designed to examine the effect of withdrawal of caffeine (caffeine-free) from fertilization medium on fertilization parameters and early embryo development. Using MCD-treated spermatozoa, there was no difference in sperm-penetration rate, oocyte cleavage rate, and blastocyst formation rate between the caffeine-free and caffeine-supplemented groups. However, polyspermic fertilization rate was lower, and fertilization efficiency and blastocyst cell number were higher in the caffeine-free group compared to the caffeine-supplemented group (P<0.05). Experiment 3 studied the effect of caffeine and different concentrations of spermatozoa on fertilization parameters. Sperm-penetration rate did not differ between the caffeine-free and the caffeine-supplemented groups at different sperm concentrations. Caffeine and sperm concentration had an effect on the number of spermatozoa in oocytes and on the polyspermic fertilization rate (P<0.002). Caffeine also affected fertilization efficiency (P<0.05). In conclusion, treating spermatozoa with MCD and withdrawing caffeine from fertilization medium may provide a new method to produce a large number of normal embryos, in vitro.

  20. The effect of sperm preparation and co-incubation time on in vitro fertilization of Bos indicus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Dode, M A N; Rodovalho, N C; Ueno, V G; Fernandes, C E

    2002-01-23

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of various methods of sperm selection and various sperm-oocyte co-incubation times on in vitro fertilization (IVF) of zebu (Bos indicus) oocytes. Frozen semen from one ejaculate of a single bull was used for all treatments and replicates. After thawed, sperm was subjected to one of the three treatments: 45 and 90% discontinuous Percoll gradient, swim-up and washing by centrifugation. In all treatments, the spermatozoa were incubated with in vitro matured oocytes for 3, 6, 12 and 18h. After co-incubation oocytes were transferred to the culture medium and culture for 44h, when the cleavage was evaluated. The uncleavaged oocytes were fixed and stained to determine penetration, pronucleus formation and polyspermy. The sperm selection method did not influence (P<0.05) polyspermy, pronucleus formation, penetration and cleavage rates. No interaction between method of selection and sperm-oocyte co-incubation time was observed (P>0.05). However, sperm-oocyte co-incubation time affected fertilization. The lower penetration (26.5%) and cleavage rates (13.1%) were obtained at 3-h period. The penetration and cleavage percentages increased (P<0.05) progressively at 6h (63.3 and 54.4%) and 12h (77.6 and 67.6%). No differences (P>0.05) were observed between 12 and 18h of incubation for penetration and cleavage rates. The incidence of polyspermy and pronucleus formation was similar (P>0.05) for all time points. It is concluded that the methods used in this study for sperm selection do not affect fertilization; therefore, they all can be used for bovine IVF. In addition, regardless the method used better fertilization results were obtained when sperm and oocytes were co-incubated for 12h, and the prolongation of that time for up to 18h had no detrimental effect on fertilization.

  1. The analysis of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and variants for in vitro fertilization failure in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Mao, Genhong; Lu, Ping; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Wu-Liang; Tao, Shi-Bo; Li, Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the associations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and variants with in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure. A retrospective, comparative study of 260 fresh IVF cycles in a Han Chinese population was performed from July 2011 to April 2014. Seventy-three couples had low fertilization rates (≤30%) or total fertilization failure, and 187 controls with normal fertilization were included. Human sperm mtDNA haplogroups and variants were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR and direct sequencing. One unreported point variant, A15397G, and two novel deletions at positions 8270-8278 and 8276-8284 were found in this study. A homozygous variant, G9053A in MT-ATP6, was detected in 4 of the 73 cases with fertilization failure, whereas this substitution was not detected in the control group (p < 0.01). The frequency of the point 10397 homozygous variant in MT-ND3 in the IVF failure group was markedly lower than that in the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, this study showed that the frequencies of point 8701 and 8943 heterozygous variants in MT-ATP6 in the IVF failure group were also markedly lower than those in the control group (p < 0.05). In addition, the frequency of haplogroup Z was markedly higher in the IVF failure group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Our results suggested that MT-ATP6 variants might be possible causes of IVF failure, but the 10397 homozygous variant in MT-ND3 might help decrease the risk of developing IVF failure. Furthermore, this study indicated that men with haplogroup Z might inherit a higher risk of IVF failure in the Han Chinese population.

  2. The benefits of other treatments than in vitro fertilization to aid conception in minimal and mild endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Leung, Annie S; Dahan, Michael H

    2016-12-01

    The treatment of minimal or mild endometriosis prior to non-in-vitro fertilization (IVF) assisted reproduction to improve pregnancy outcomes is controversial. Ovulation suppression may be offered to women who do not wish to conceive to suppress advancement of the disease. There is little evidence to suggest improvements in fertility associated ovarian suppression prior to non-IVF infertility treatments. The use of intrauterine insemination without ovulation induction offers little benefit, with low pregnancy rates in most studies. Surgical ablation seems to improve outcomes when other care will not be delivered. Although controversial, surgical ablation before ovulation induction may offer benefit but further studies would be helpful. Ovulation induction seems to increase pregnancy rates and either letrozole or clomiphene citrate should be considered as first line options. If pregnancy does not occur with three months of ovulation induction, based on dropping success rates with further cycles of ovarian stimulation, IVF should be offered.

  3. In vitro fertilization in pigs: New molecules and protocols to consider in the forthcoming years.

    PubMed

    Romar, Raquel; Funahashi, Hiroaki; Coy, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Assisted reproduction technology (ART) protocols are used in livestock for the improvement and preservation of their genetics and to enhance reproductive efficiency. In the case of pigs, the potential use of embryos for biomedicine is being followed with great interest by the scientific community. Owing to the physiological similarities with humans, embryos produced in vitro and many of those produced in vivo are used in research laboratories for the procurement of stem cells or the production of transgenic animals, sometimes with the purpose of using their organs for xenotransplantation. Several techniques are required for the production of an in vitro-derived embryo. These include in vitro oocyte maturation, sperm preparation, IVF, and further culture of the putative zygotes. Without doubt, among these technologies, IVF is still a critical limiting factor because of the well-known, but still unsolved, question of polyspermy. Despite the improvements made in the past decade, current IVF systems hardly reach 50% to 60% efficiency and any progression in porcine ARTs requires an unavoidable improvement in the monospermy rate. It is time, then, to learn from what happens under in vivo physiological conditions and to transfer this knowledge into ART. This review describes the latest advances in porcine IVF, from sperm preparation procedures to culture media supplements with special attention paid to molecules with a known or potential role in in vivo fertilization. Oviductal fluid is the natural medium in which fertilization takes place, and, in the near future, could become the definitive supplement for culture media, where it would help to solve many of the problems inherent in ARTs in swine and improve the quality of in vitro-derived porcine embryos.

  4. Estrogen supplementation to progesterone as luteal phase support in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Lv, Fang; Wang, Pin; Huang, Xia-Man; Liu, Kai-Feng; Pan, Yu; Dong, Nai-Jun; Ji, Yu-Rong; She, Hong; Hu, Rong

    2015-02-01

    Meta-analyses have found conflicting results with respect to the use of progesterone or progesterone plus estrogen as luteal phase support for in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocols involving gonadotropins and/or gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. The aim of the present study was to perform an updated meta-analysis on the efficacy of progesterone versus progesterone plus estrogen as luteal phase support. We searched the MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases (up to March 18, 2014). The search terms were (estrogen OR estradiol OR oestradiol) AND (progesterone) AND (IVF OR in vitro fertilization) AND (randomized OR prospective). We did not limit the form of estrogen and included subjects who contributed more than 1 cycle to a study. The primary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate. Secondary outcomes were ongoing pregnancy rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate, and miscarriage rate. A total of 11 articles were included in the present analysis, with variable numbers of studies assessing each outcome measure. Results of statistical analyses indicated that progesterone plus estrogen treatment was more likely to result in clinical pregnancy than progesterone alone (pooled odds ratio 1.617, 95% confidence interval 1.059-2.471; P = 0.026). No significant difference between the 2 treatment regimens was found for the other outcome measures. Progesterone plus estrogen for luteal phase support is associated with a higher clinical pregnancy rate than progesterone alone in women undergoing IVF, but other outcomes such as ongoing pregnancy rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate, and miscarriage rate are the same for both treatments.

  5. Microtubule assembly and in vitro development of bovine oocytes with increased intracellular glutathione level prior to vitrification and in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Hara, H; Yamane, I; Noto, I; Kagawa, N; Kuwayama, M; Hirabayashi, M; Hochi, S

    2014-11-01

    Although vitrification is a useful technique for preservation of bovine oocytes, the yield of blastocysts derived from the vitrified oocytes is still low. We have recently reported a new type of cryoinjury, multiple aster formation, by which pronuclear migration and development of vitrified-warmed and in vitro-fertilized bovine oocytes are impaired. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of glutathione (GSH) content of vitrified bovine oocytes on multiple aster formation and subsequent in vitro development. Treatment of bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes with β-mercaptoethanol (βME) and L-cysteine (Cys) during in vitro maturation resulted in 2.5-fold higher GSH content not only in fresh control but also in vitrified-warmed oocytes. The percentage of normally fertilized zygotes exhibiting sperm aster(s) was >95% in all four groups (with or without βME/Cys × fresh control or vitrified). The frequency of multiple aster formation in vitrified oocytes (three-fold higher than that in fresh control oocytes) was not affected by the increased level of intracellular GSH with βME/Cys. Consequently, the migration and development of pronuclei as well as the yield of blastocysts from vitrified-warmed oocytes (17 versus 41%) were not improved. In addition, there was no effect of increased GSH level on the yield of blastocysts in fresh control groups.

  6. Comparison of different anaesthetic methodologies for sedation during in vitro fertilization procedures: effects on patient physiology and oocyte competence.

    PubMed

    Piroli, Alba; Marci, Roberto; Marinangeli, Franco; Paladini, Antonella; Di Emidio, Giovanna; Giovanni Artini, Paolo; Caserta, Donatella; Tatone, Carla

    2012-10-01

    The main goal of the present retrospective study is to compare four analgesic methodologies (EMLA cream, propofol, thiopental sodium, sevoflurane) for in vitro fertilization (IVF) oocyte retrieval. We found that most anaesthetic parameters were not significantly different among all treatments. In contrast, significant differences were revealed in all groups for total number of oocytes retrieved per patient, rate of mature oocytes at metaphase II stage (MII) and percentage of fertilization and embryo development. In the EMLA cream and thiopental sodium groups we observed the highest percentage of MII oocytes (P < 0.001). Fertilization rate in the EMLA and sevoflurane groups were similar but significantly higher than the propofol and thiopental sodium groups (P < 0.001). The highest rate of anomalous fertilization was observed in the propofol group. Rate of embryo development was similar in all groups but sevoflurane group had a lower percentage of good embryos. In conclusion, by comparing different anaesthetic techniques with different mechanisms of action and administration, potential negative effects of these drugs on the initial stages of human IVF procedure were revealed. Therefore, a local anaesthetic cream is proposed as an acceptable alternative option for anaesthesia during transvaginal oocyte retrieval.

  7. In vitro fertilization (IVF) in mammals: epigenetic and developmental alterations. Scientific and bioethical implications for IVF in humans.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Juncá, Patricio; Irarrázaval, Isabel; Rolle, Augusto J; Gutiérrez, Juan I; Moreno, Ricardo D; Santos, Manuel J

    2015-12-18

    The advent of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in animals and humans implies an extraordinary change in the environment where the beginning of a new organism takes place. In mammals fertilization occurs in the maternal oviduct, where there are unique conditions for guaranteeing the encounter of the gametes and the first stages of development of the embryo and thus its future. During this period a major epigenetic reprogramming takes place that is crucial for the normal fate of the embryo. This epigenetic reprogramming is very vulnerable to changes in environmental conditions such as the ones implied in IVF, including in vitro culture, nutrition, light, temperature, oxygen tension, embryo-maternal signaling, and the general absence of protection against foreign elements that could affect the stability of this process. The objective of this review is to update the impact of the various conditions inherent in the use of IVF on the epigenetic profile and outcomes of mammalian embryos, including superovulation, IVF technique, embryo culture and manipulation and absence of embryo-maternal signaling. It also covers the possible transgenerational inheritance of the epigenetic alterations associated with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), including its phenotypic consequences as is in the case of the large offspring syndrome (LOS). Finally, the important scientific and bioethical implications of the results found in animals are discussed in terms of the ART in humans.

  8. Production of fertile sperm from in vitro propagating enriched spermatogonial stem cells of farmed catfish, Clarias batrachus.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Swapnarani; Ferosekhan, Shajahan; Sahoo, Sangram Ketan; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Spermatogenesis is a highly co-ordinated and complex process. In vitro propagation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) could provide an avenue in which to undertake in vivo studies of spermatogenesis. Very little information is known about the SSC biology of teleosts. In this study, collagenase-treated testicular cells of farmed catfish (Clarias batrachus, popularly known as magur) were purified by Ficoll gradient centrifugation followed by magnetic activated cell sorting using Thy1.2 (CD90.2) antibody to enrich for the spermatogonial cell population. The sorted spermatogonial cells were counted and gave ~3 × 106 cells from 6 × 106 pre-sorted cells. The purified cells were cultured in vitro for >2 months in L-15 medium containing fetal bovine serum (10%), carp serum (1%) and other supplements. Microscopic observations depicted typical morphological SSC features, bearing a larger nuclear compartment (with visible perinuclear bodies) within a thin rim of cytoplasm. Cells proliferated in vitro forming clumps/colonies. mRNA expression profiling by qPCR documented that proliferating cells were Plzf + and Pou2+, indicative of stem cells. From 60 days onwards of cultivation, the self-renewing population differentiated to produce spermatids (~6 × 107 on day 75). In vitro-produced sperm (2260 sperm/SSC) were free swimming in medium and hence motile (non-progressive) in nature. Of those, 2% were capable of fertilizing and generated healthy diploid fingerlings. Our documented evidence provides the basis for producing fertile magur sperm in vitro from cultured magur SSCs. Our established techniques of SSC propagation and in vitro sperm production together should trigger future in vivo experiments towards basic and applied biology research.

  9. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on fertility quality of life and pregnancy rates among women subjected to first in vitro fertilization treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Long, Ling; Liu, Yu; He, Wei; Li, Min

    2016-02-01

    Generally, undergoing an in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is an emotional and physical burden for the infertile woman, which may negatively influence the treatment outcome. We conducted a study to investigate the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) among women subjected to first IVF treatment at a fertility medical center in China. Among infertile women registered for their first IVF treatment, 58 completed the intervention, and 50 were assigned to a control group using a non-randomized controlled study. Standardized measures of mindfulness, self-compassion, emotion regulation difficulties, infertility-related coping strategies and fertility quality of life (FertiQoL) were endorsed pre- and post-MBI, and measure of pregnancy rates at the sixth months after the intervention. Both groups were shown to be equivalent at baseline. By the end of the intervention, women who attended the intervention revealed a significant increase in mindfulness, self-compassion, meaning-based coping strategies and all FertiQoL domains. Inversely, they presented a significant decrease in emotion regulation difficulties, active- and passive-avoidance coping strategies. Women in the control group did not present significant changes in any of the psychological measures. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences between participants in the pregnancy rates, the experiment group higher than the control group. Being fully aware of the present moment without the lens of judgment, seems to help women relate to their infertility and IVF treatment in new ways. This is beneficial for promoting their self-compassion, adaptive emotion regulation and infertility-related coping strategies, which, in turn, may influence the FertiQoL and pregnancy rates. The brief and nonpharmaceutical nature of this intervention makes it a promising candidate for women' use during first IVF treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of the first in vitro fertilization cycle for unexplained infertility: a cost-effectiveness analysis of split in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    PubMed Central

    Vitek, Wendy S.; Galárraga, Omar; Klatsky, Peter C.; Robins, Jared C.; Carson, Sandra A.; Blazar, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the cost-effectiveness of split IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for the treatment of couples with unexplained infertility. Design Adaptive decision model. Setting Academic infertility clinic. Patient(s) A total of 154 couples undergoing a split IVF-ICSI cycle and a computer-simulated cohort of women <35 years old with unexplained infertility undergoing IVF. Intervention(s) Modeling insemination method in the first IVF cycle as all IVF, split IVF-ICSI, or all ICSI, and adapting treatment based on fertilization outcomes. Main Outcome Measure(s) Live birth rate, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Result(s) In a single cycle, all IVF is preferred as the ICER of split IVF-ICSI or all ICSI ($58,766) does not justify the increased live birth rate (3%). If two cycles are needed, split IVF/ICSI is preferred as the increased cumulative live birth rate (3.3%) is gained at an ICER of $29,666. Conclusion(s) In a single cycle, all IVF was preferred as the increased live birth rate with split IVF-ICSI and all ICSI was not justified by the increased cost per live birth. If two IVF cycles are needed, however, split IVF/ICSI becomes the preferred approach, as a result of the higher cumulative live birth rate compared with all IVF and the lesser cost per live birth compared with all ICSI. PMID:23876534

  11. Management of the first in vitro fertilization cycle for unexplained infertility: a cost-effectiveness analysis of split in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Vitek, Wendy S; Galárraga, Omar; Klatsky, Peter C; Robins, Jared C; Carson, Sandra A; Blazar, Andrew S

    2013-11-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of split IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for the treatment of couples with unexplained infertility. Adaptive decision model. Academic infertility clinic. A total of 154 couples undergoing a split IVF-ICSI cycle and a computer-simulated cohort of women <35 years old with unexplained infertility undergoing IVF. Modeling insemination method in the first IVF cycle as all IVF, split IVF-ICSI, or all ICSI, and adapting treatment based on fertilization outcomes. Live birth rate, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). In a single cycle, all IVF is preferred as the ICER of split IVF-ICSI or all ICSI ($58,766) does not justify the increased live birth rate (3%). If two cycles are needed, split IVF/ICSI is preferred as the increased cumulative live birth rate (3.3%) is gained at an ICER of $29,666. In a single cycle, all IVF was preferred as the increased live birth rate with split IVF-ICSI and all ICSI was not justified by the increased cost per live birth. If two IVF cycles are needed, however, split IVF/ICSI becomes the preferred approach, as a result of the higher cumulative live birth rate compared with all IVF and the lesser cost per live birth compared with all ICSI. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Antioxidant effect of crocin on bovine sperm quality and in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Sapanidou, V; Taitzoglou, I; Tsakmakidis, Ι; Kourtzelis, I; Fletouris, D; Theodoridis, A; Zervos, I; Tsantarliotou, M

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production above critical levels affects the genetic and functional integrity of spermatozoa by causing oxidative stress. Spermatozoa are susceptible to oxidative stress in terms of motility and fertilization capacity. Crocin (crocetin di-gentiobiose ester), a main constituent of Crocus Sativus L. (saffron), is known for its antioxidant activity by scavenging ROS, especially superoxide anion. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of crocin on the quality characteristics of spermatozoa and fertilization rate. Frozen-thawed and washed spermatozoa from four different bulls were incubated with three different concentrations of crocin (0.5, 1, and 2 mM), for 120 and 240 minutes, in the presence of a negative control, and were evaluated in terms of motility, viability, acrosomal status, DNA fragmentation index, intracellular ROS, and lipid peroxidation. The most potent concentration of crocin (1 mM) was also added in the fertilization medium to test its impact on fertilization outcome. The results indicate that the incubation of spermatozoa with 1 mM of crocin resulted in a statistically significant lower production of ROS, lower lipid peroxidation and in better maintenance of motility, viability, and acrosomal integrity, with a very small number of fragmented cells, compared to the control and the other treated groups (P < 0.05). Crocin concentration of 1 mM resulted in a significant increase of blastocyst rate, compared to the control group (P < 0.01). These data indicate that crocin (1 mM) improves bovine sperm quality and its fertilization capability, directly and/or indirectly, by modulating ROS concentration.

  13. In vitro fertilization and the effect of progesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone on acrosome reaction of mouse epididymal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Kholkute, S K; Rodriquez, J; Dukelow, W R

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of progesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17 alpha-OH-progesterone) at concentrations of 0.01-10 micrograms/ml, on the acrosome reaction and in vitro fertilizing ability of mouse epididymal spermatozoa. Cumulus masses containing oocytes were cultured in Brinster's medium, to which were added capacitated epididymal spermatozoa which had been incubated in medium with various concentrations of progesterone or 17 alpha-OH-progesterone for 90 min. IVF success rate was assessed 20-24 h following insemination. Progesterone was found to increase the fertilization rate at the 1 microgram/ml and 10 microgram/ml concentrations while lower concentrations had no effect. However, 17 alpha-OH-progesterone failed to show any effect on fertilizing ability. Incubation of epididymal spermatozoa in medium containing 1 microgram/ml and 10 micrograms/ml progesterone significantly increased the acrosome reaction as monitored by a chlortetracycline fluorescence assay. 17 alpha-OH-progesterone, however, failed to show any effect on the acrosome reaction. The results suggest direct effects of progesterone, but not of 17 alpha-OH-progesterone, on fertilization and the acrosome reaction of mouse spermatozoa.

  14. Heterologous in vitro fertilization and sperm capacitation in an endangered African antelope, the scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah).

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; Weiss, R B; Buff, J L; Bush, L M; Wildt, D E; Bush, M

    1998-02-01

    Scimitar-horned oryx sperm function was studied using protocols developed for domestic cattle. Objectives were to assess sperm 1) viability and motility in vitro over time, 2) capacitation in heparin- or calcium-supplemented medium, and 3) function in an in vitro fertilization system using heterologous (domestic cow) oocytes. Seminal aliquots were washed, and sperm were resuspended in 1) Talp with 5% fetal calf serum (TALP), 2) TALP + 10 microM heparin, 3) TALP + 20 microM heparin, and 4) TALP + 10 mM CaCl. At 0, 3, and 6 h, aliquots were evaluated for sperm motility, viability (using Hoechst 33258), and ability to acrosome-react when exposed to lysophosphatidylcholine (LC). Sperm function was assessed by evaluating fertilization and embryo development after coculture of in vitro-matured domestic cow oocytes with oryx sperm. Overall mean percentages of motile and viable sperm remained high at 6 h (> 60% and > 70%, respectively). Fewer (p < 0.05) sperm incubated in TALP + 10 microM heparin for 6 h contained intact acrosomes after exposure to LC, but there were no differences between LC and control samples after incubation in TALP without heparin. LC-treated sperm in TALP + 10 mM CaCl contained fewer (p < 0.05) intact acrosomes at 3 and 6 h (52.6% and 31.2%, respectively) than paired controls (83.6% and 70.0%, respectively). Oryx sperm from all males were capable of fertilizing cow oocytes (range 17 of 26 [65.4%] to 25 of 26 [96.2%]). Of the 55 2-cell embryos produced, 34 (61.8%) developed to > or = 8 cells. Of the 24 uncleaved oocytes, 7 (29.2%) were polyspermic. These data demonstrate that processed sperm from the endangered scimitar-horned oryx remain vigorous in vitro for at least 6 h. Capacitation can be induced using cattle sperm-processing techniques, with sperm appearing most responsive to elevated CaCl concentrations. Most interesting was the successful production and development of hybrid embryos after coincubation of oryx sperm with cow oocytes, suggesting

  15. Factors associated with second-trimester pregnancy loss in women with normal uterine anatomy undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Hawkins Bressler, Leah; Correia, Katharine F; Srouji, Serene S; Hornstein, Mark D; Missmer, Stacey A

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate factors associated with second-trimester pregnancy loss in patients with normal uterine anatomy who conceived through in vitro fertilization. Women aged 21-44 years with ongoing in vitro fertilization pregnancy (at least one fetus with fetal heart tones at 12 weeks of gestation) at an academic hospital from 2001 to 2012 were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective cohort. Comprehensive uterine evaluation permitted inclusion of only women with anatomically normal uterine cavities. Maternal and clinical characteristics associated with spontaneous second-trimester pregnancy loss (between 12 1/7 and 23 6/7 weeks of gestation) were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression generated adjusted odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and Wald two-sided P values. Among ongoing second-trimester pregnancies, 60 (2.1%) ended in spontaneous pregnancy loss and 2,841 (97.9%) ended in live birth. Multiple gestations (twins or more) conferred greater odds of pregnancy loss (adjusted OR 1.93, CI 1.15-3.24, P=.01) and were more prevalent among losses (48.3%) than live births (34.1%). Uterine leiomyomas were present in 16.7% of losses and 4.7% of live births and were associated with a nearly fourfold increased odds of second-trimester pregnancy loss (adjusted OR 3.82, CI 1.85-7.89, P<.001). Women with obese body mass index ([BMI] 30 or higher) at cycle start experienced twofold greater odds of pregnancy loss compared with normal-weight women (adjusted OR 2.38, CI 1.05-5.65, P=.04). There were eight obese women (32%) among losses and 209 obese women (16.5%) among live births. In vitro fertilization treatment parameters were not associated with odds of second-trimester loss nor were maternal age, ethnicity, or history of recurrent pregnancy loss. Odds of second-trimester spontaneous pregnancy loss among in vitro fertilization conceived pregnancies were greater with multiple gestations, leiomyomas, and obese maternal BMI. II.

  16. Effect of sericin supplementation during in vitro maturation on the maturation, fertilization and development of porcine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Do, L T K; Namula, Z; Luu, V V; Sato, Y; Taniguchi, M; Isobe, T; Kikuchi, K; Otoi, T

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of sericin supplementation during in vitro oocyte maturation on the nuclear maturation, fertilization and development of porcine oocytes. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured in maturation medium supplemented with 0 (control), 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0% sericin and were then subjected to in vitro fertilization and embryo culture. More COCs matured with 1.0% sericin underwent germinal vesicle breakdown and reached metaphase II compared with the control COCs matured without sericin (p < 0.01). The proportions of oocytes with DNA-fragmented nuclei did not differ between the groups, regardless of the sericin level. The total fertilization rate of oocytes matured with 1.0% sericin was higher (p < 0.05) than that of oocytes matured with 0.1%, 2.5% and 5.0% sericin. Supplementation with more than 1.0% sericin decreased the DNA fragmentation index of the blastocysts compared with the control group (p < 0.05). However, the supplementation of the maturation medium with sericin had no beneficial effects on the cleavage, development to the blastocyst stage and the total cell number of the embryos. Our findings indicate that supplementation with 1.0% sericin during maturation culture may improve the nuclear maturation and the quality of the embryos but does not affect blastocyst formation.

  17. Live birth following vitrification of in vitro matured oocytes derived from sibling smaller follicles at follicle selection phase in the context of in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Lv, Jie-Qiang; Ge, Hong-Shan; Wu, Xin-Mei; Xi, Hai-Tao; Chi, Hai-Hong; Zhu, Chun-Fang; Huang, Jian-Ying

    2014-09-01

    In ovarian stimulation, a 31-year-old woman with polycystic ovary syndrome was at the risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, follicle aspiration was performed, and eight immature oocytes were collected from follicle fluids. After 28 h in vitro culture, six of them reached MII and were vitrified. The patient failed to conceive in her fresh in vitro fertilization cycle and next two replacement cycles. In the third replacement cycle, a successful pregnancy was obtained by vitrified-thawed oocytes. This case demonstrates that follicular aspiration during follicle selection phase has protective effects against developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and rescued immature oocytes are viable and could produce promising embryos for live birth.

  18. Novel dehydroepiandrosterone troche supplementation improves the serum androgen profile of women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Kevin N; Hinchliffe, Peter M; Namdar, Navid; Conceicao, Jason L; Newsholme, Philip; Yovich, John L

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the most abundant steroid hormone in the circulation and has potent multifunctional activity. Epidemiological evidence suggests that levels of serum DHEA decrease with advancing age, and this has been associated with onset or progression of various age-related ailments, including cognitive decline and dementia, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. Consequently, these findings have sparked intense research interest in DHEA supplementation as an “antiaging” therapy. Currently, DHEA is being used by 25% of in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinicians as an adjuvant in assisted reproductive programs, yet the therapeutic benefit of DHEA is unclear. Here, we examined the use of novel DHEA-containing oral troches in patients undertaking IVF and investigated the impact of these troches on their serum androgen profile. This retrospective study determined the androgen profile of 31 IVF patients before (baseline) and after DHEA supplementation (with DHEA). Baseline serum measurements of testosterone (total and free), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and androstenedione were made before and after supplementation. Each patient received DHEA troches containing 25 mg of micronized DHEA, and troches were administered sublingually twice daily for a period of no greater than 4 months. Adjuvant treatment with DHEA boosted the serum concentration of a number of androgen-related analytes, including total and free testosterone, androstenedione, and DHEAS, while serum SHBG remained unchanged. Supplementation also significantly increased the free-androgen index in IVF patients. Interestingly, the increase in serum analyte concentration following DHEA supplementation was found to be dependent on body mass index (BMI), but not individual age. Patients with the lowest BMI (<20.0 kg/m2) tended to have lower testosterone and DHEAS, but higher SHBG and androstenedione levels in comparison with other BMI groups postsupplementation

  19. Zona reaction in porcine oocytes fertilized in vivo and in vitro as seen with scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, H; Ekwall, H; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2000-11-01

    Morphological changes in zona pellucidae (ZP) isolated from in vitro-matured (IVM) and ovulated porcine oocytes were compared before or after fertilization in vitro and in vivo, respectively, by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ZP of some ovulated or IVM oocytes and in vivo- or in vitro-fertilized (IVF) zygotes were equally split into two halves while immersed in an enzyme-inhibitor solution, using a surgical blade. After washing, intact and ZP halves were fixed in 1% glutaraldehyde solution in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer, processed, and examined using SEM. The outer surface of ZP in ovulated oocytes had a mesh-like structure. The outer morphology in IVM oocytes was more smooth although the mesh-like structure was still visible at high magnification. In in vivo zygotes and IVM-IVF zygotes, this lysed, mesh-like structure was more obvious. The inner surface of ZP had some small depressions (orifices). The mean number of orifices per 100 micrometer(2) of ZP surface was larger in IVM oocytes as compared to ovulated ones. The number of orifices per 100 micrometer(2) decreased in IVM-IVF zygotes as compared to IVM oocytes; whereas, in vivo zygotes did not differ from ovulated oocytes. The mean diameter of intact ZP as well as their mean thickness was greater in ovulated oocytes than IVM oocytes. The mean thickness of the ZP was larger in ovulated oocytes than IVM ones. The ZP thickness was larger in zygotes than in in vivo oocytes, whereas that of IVM-IVF zygotes did not differ from that of IVM oocytes. These results indicate that the morphology of ZP and the ZP reaction at sperm penetration appears to be much different between IVM oocytes and ovulated ones.

  20. Effect of magnetized extender on sperm membrane integrity and development of oocytes in vitro fertilized with liquid storage boar semen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a magnetized extender on sperm membrane damage and development of oocytes in vitro fertilized with liquid storage boar semen. Before semen dilution, extender was flowed through a neodymium magnet (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000G) for 5min and collected semen was preserved for 168h at 18°C. In results, plasma membrane integrity with live sperm was significantly higher in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 4000G than sperm treated with extenders magnetized at 0G during semen preservation for 120-168h (p<0.05). In addition, acrosomal membrane damage was significantly lower in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 4000 and 6000G compared to 0 and 2000G during semen preservation for 168h (p<0.05). And mitochondrial membrane damage with all sperm was significantly lower in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 2000G than other groups during semen preservation for 168h. The ability of semen to achieve successful in vitro fertilization was also not significantly different among the groups during preservation. However, when the semen was preserved for 168h, the blastocyst formation rates were significantly higher at 6000G compared to 0 and 2000G (p<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that highly magnetized semen extender could protect the sperm membrane from damage, and improve the ability of rates of in vitro blastocyst development and magnetized semen diluter is beneficial for long liquid preservation of boar semen.

  1. Hysterosalpingography contrast media and chromotubation dye inhibit peritoneal lymphocyte and macrophage function in vitro: a potential mechanism for fertility enhancement.

    PubMed

    Goodman, S B; Rein, M S; Hill, J A

    1993-05-01

    To determine the effects of hysterosalpingography (HSG) contrast media (CM) and chromotubation dye on peritoneal lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage phagocytosis in vitro. Peritoneal fluid (PF) lymphocytes and macrophages were isolated from 40 subfertile women undergoing diagnostic laparoscopy and 12 fertile women having laparoscopic tubal ligation. Dilutions of renografin, ethiodol, methylene blue, and indigo carmine were added to peritoneal lymphocyte and macrophage cultures. Tissue culture media alone served as control. Lymphocyte proliferation was assessed by hemocytometer counts and 3H-thymidine incorporation. Macrophage function was determined by phagocytosis of fluorescent microspheres. Peritoneal lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage phagocytosis were significantly inhibited by renografin, ethiodol, methylene blue, and indigo carmine in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of PF immune cell function by HSG CM and chromotubation dye may provide a potential mechanism for fertility enhancement after these diagnostic procedures.

  2. The influence of reduced glutathione in fertilization medium on the fertility of in vitro-matured C57BL/6 mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Y; Nishimura, M; Matsumoto, K; Miyashita, M; Takeo, T; Nakagata, N; Hosoi, Y; Anzai, M

    2013-09-15

    It is well known that IVM oocytes show a decreased potential for fertility and development compared with in vivo-matured oocytes. In this study, we added reduced glutathione (GSH) to the fertilization medium during IVF to investigate its effect on the fertility and early embryo development of IVM oocytes. The fertilization rate for IVM oocytes and fresh sperm increased with the addition of GSH (0, 1.0, and 2.0 mM: 51%, 76%, and 70%). Moreover, the addition of GSH to the fertilization medium also improved the developmental potential compared with the control sample (0 mM). In addition, we performed IVF using IVM oocytes and frozen/thawed sperm that had been cryopreserved in a mouse bank. Results indicated a marked increase in the fertilization rate when 1.0 mM GSH was added to the fertilization medium compared with when no GSM was used (0.0 mM GSH: 2% (3/195); 1.0 mM GSH: 33% (156/468)). Furthermore, the fertilization rate improved dramatically via zona drilling using laser equipment (52%: 267/516), whereas normal offspring were obtainsed after transferring embryos created via IVF using IVM oocytes and frozen/thawed sperm. This is the first report in which offspring have been obtained via IVF using IVM oocytes and frozen/thawed sperm.

  3. Clinical predictors of failing one dose of methotrexate for ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Brady, Paula C; Missmer, Stacey A; Farland, Leslie V; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical predictors of failure of a single dose of methotrexate (MTX) for management of ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization (IVF). A retrospective cohort study was performed of women who conceived ectopic pregnancies following fresh or frozen IVF cycles at an academic infertility clinic between 2007 and 2014, and received intramuscular MTX (50 mg/m(2)). Successful single-dose MTX treatment was defined as a serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) decline ≥15% between days 4 and 7 post-treatment. Logistic regression models adjusted for oocyte age, number of embryos transferred, and prior ectopic pregnancy were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of failing one dose of MTX. Sixty-four patients with ectopic pregnancies after IVF were included. Forty required only one dose of MTX (62.5%), while 15 required additional MTX alone (up to four total doses, 23.4%), and 9 required surgery (14.1%). By multivariable logistic regression, the highest tertiles of serum hCG at peak (≥499 IU/L, OR = 9.73, CI 1.88-50.25) and at first MTX administration (≥342 IU/L, OR = 4.74, CI 1.11-20.26), fewer embryos transferred (OR = 0.37 per each additional embryo transferred, CI 0.19-0.74), and adnexal mass by ultrasound (OR = 3.65, CI 1.10-12.11) were each correlated with greater odds of requiring additional MTX and/or surgery. This is the first study to report that in women with ectopic pregnancies after IVF, higher hCG-though well below treatment failure thresholds previously described in spontaneous pregnancies-fewer embryos transferred, and adnexal masses are associated with greater odds of failing one dose of MTX. These findings can be used to counsel IVF patients regarding the likelihood of success with single-dose MTX.

  4. Effect of Rat Medicated Serum Containing You Gui Wan on Mouse Oocyte In Vitro Maturation and Subsequent Fertilization Competence

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiao-Hui; Deng, Yan-li; Lu, Hua; Duan, Heng; Zhen, Xia; Hu, Xiang; Liang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    You Gui Wan (YGW) is a classic herbal formula in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used for the clinical treatment of infertility. This study was to explore whether YGW has an impact on mouse oocyte maturation in vitro and subsequent fertilization competence. Rat medicated serum containing YGW was prepared by orally administrating YGW. Mouse immature oocytes were cultured with YGW medicated serum and compared to those cultured with or without normal rat serum or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). YGW medicated serum significantly increased the percentages of matured oocytes when compared to the groups with or without normal rat serum (P < 0.01). Furthermore, YGW medicated serum increased the rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) when compared to the groups treated with FSH and with or without normal rat serum (P < 0.001). YGW medicated serum also had significant effects on the mRNA expressions of PKA, CREB, MAPK, PKC, PKG, and MPF and the concentrations of cAMP, cGMP, and NO in matured oocytes. These results indicate that YGW can promote mouse oocyte maturation and IVF in vitro. Signaling pathways, such as the cAMP/PKA/MAPK, the PKC-MAPK, and the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway, which are similar to those induced by FSH, may be responsible for this action. PMID:25530775

  5. In vitro differentiation of fertile sperm from cryopreserved spermatogonia of the endangered endemic cyprinid honmoroko (Gnathopogon caerulescens)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higaki, Shogo; Shimada, Manami; Kawamoto, Kazuaki; Todo, Takaaki; Kawasaki, Toshihiro; Tooyama, Ikuo; Fujioka, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Noriyoshi; Takada, Tatsuyuki

    2017-02-01

    Many endemic fish species are threatened with extinction. Conservation strategies and the restoration of endemic fish after extinction must therefore be investigated. Although sperm cryopreservation is indispensable for the conservation of endangered fishes, the limited number of mature fish and limited availability (volume and period) of sperm from small endemic fish hinders the optimization and practical use of this material. In this report, we demonstrate the in vitro differentiation of fertile sperm from cryopreserved spermatogonia of juveniles of the endangered small cyprinid honmoroko (Gnathopogon caerulescens), which is endemic to Lake Biwa in Japan. The entire process of spermatogenesis was recapitulated in vitro using cryopreserved spermatogonia of non-spawning adult and juvenile fish. The differentiation of sperm from spermatogonia was captured as a time-lapse video and confirmed by 5-ethynyl-2‧-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation into sperm. Fertility was demonstrated by artificial insemination. These results suggest that the combination of cryopreservation of spermatogonia and in vitro sperm differentiation will provide a new and promising strategy for the preservation of paternal genetic materials.

  6. In vitro differentiation of fertile sperm from cryopreserved spermatogonia of the endangered endemic cyprinid honmoroko (Gnathopogon caerulescens)

    PubMed Central

    Higaki, Shogo; Shimada, Manami; Kawamoto, Kazuaki; Todo, Takaaki; Kawasaki, Toshihiro; Tooyama, Ikuo; Fujioka, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Noriyoshi; Takada, Tatsuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Many endemic fish species are threatened with extinction. Conservation strategies and the restoration of endemic fish after extinction must therefore be investigated. Although sperm cryopreservation is indispensable for the conservation of endangered fishes, the limited number of mature fish and limited availability (volume and period) of sperm from small endemic fish hinders the optimization and practical use of this material. In this report, we demonstrate the in vitro differentiation of fertile sperm from cryopreserved spermatogonia of juveniles of the endangered small cyprinid honmoroko (Gnathopogon caerulescens), which is endemic to Lake Biwa in Japan. The entire process of spermatogenesis was recapitulated in vitro using cryopreserved spermatogonia of non-spawning adult and juvenile fish. The differentiation of sperm from spermatogonia was captured as a time-lapse video and confirmed by 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation into sperm. Fertility was demonstrated by artificial insemination. These results suggest that the combination of cryopreservation of spermatogonia and in vitro sperm differentiation will provide a new and promising strategy for the preservation of paternal genetic materials. PMID:28211534

  7. A new rolling culture-based in vitro fertilization system capable of reducing polyspermy in porcine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kitaji, Hideki; Ookutsu, Shoji; Sato, Masahiro; Miyoshi, Kazuchika

    2015-05-01

    The high incidence of polyspermy is one of the major obstacles during in vitro fertilization (IVF) in pigs. To overcome this, we developed a novel IVF method, which involves constant rotation. Oocytes matured in vitro were mixed with spermatozoa (0.2 × 10(5) sperm/mL) in an IVF medium (200 μL) using a 200 μL PCR tube. This tube was then rotated at 1 rpm for 6 h at 38.5°C in a rotation mixer (experimental group). A second PCR tube was simultaneously cultured without rotation (control group). The rate of polyspermy was evaluated 12 h after insemination and was significantly (P < 0.05; 21.0% vs. 48.3%) lower in the experimental group than in the control group. Sperm penetration rate was similar in oocytes from the experimental and control groups (75.2% vs. 83.1%). However, monospermic fertilization rate of the oocytes was significantly (P < 0.05; 44.8% vs. 21.2%) higher in the experimental group than in the control group. Furthermore, the rate of blastocyst formation (30.1% vs. 20.8%) increased in the experimental group, as compared to the control group. This present system will contribute to increase the efficacy of blastocyst production through reduction of polyspermic penetration.

  8. Vitrification of in vitro matured oocytes collected from surplus ovarian medulla tissue resulting from fertility preservation of ovarian cortex tissue.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huiqun; Jiang, Hong; Kristensen, Stine Gry; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the maturation rate of immature oocytes collected from ovarian medulla tissue normally discarded during preparation of ovarian cortical tissue for fertility preservation. Further we evaluated survival of derived MII oocytes following vitrification and warming. 36 patients aged from 8 to 41 years who had one ovary excised for fertility preservation were included. Oocytes were collected from the medulla tissue and matured in vitro 44-48 h followed by vitrification. Number of oocytes collected, the rates of maturation and post-warming survival were assessed. On average, 11 immature oocytes were collected per patient. The overall maturation rate was 29 % irrespective of whether the ovary was transported 4-5 h on ice or obtained immediately after oophorectomy. The maturation rate in patients below 20 years of age (55 %) was significantly higher than that of patients aged 20-30 years (29 %) and above 30 years (26 %). The post-warming survival rate was 64 %. No significant relationship was observed between the number of collected oocytes and the age of patients. Approximately three MII oocytes were obtained per patient following in vitro maturation (IVM) of immature oocytes collected from medulla tissue, of which two survived vitrification and warming. This approach represents an add-on method to potentially augment the fertility opportunity for cancer patients, especially in young women with cancer where transplantation of cortical tissue may pose a risk of relapse, but the IVM approach is currently too inefficient to be the only method used for fertility preservation.

  9. Sperm-mediated gene transfer-treated spermatozoa maintain good quality parameters and in vitro fertilization ability in swine.

    PubMed

    Bacci, M L; Zannoni, A; De Cecco, M; Fantinati, P; Bernardini, C; Galeati, G; Spinaci, M; Giovannoni, R; Lavitrano, M; Seren, E; Forni, M

    2009-12-01

    A simple and efficient method for producing multitransgenic animals is required for medical and veterinary applications. Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is an effective method for introducing multiple genes into pigs (Sus, Sus scrofa). The major benefits of this technique are the high efficiency, low cost, and ease of use compared with that of other methods: Sperm-mediated gene transfer does not require embryo handling or expensive equipment. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of SMGT treatment and exogenous DNA uptake on sperm quality. Even after a coincubation with a 20-fold larger amount (100 microg/mL) of DNA than usual (5 microg/mL), sperm quality parameters were not significantly affected, confirming the hypothesis that the SMGT protocol itself or the amount of bound DNA do not compromise the possibility of an extended employment of SMGT. More importantly, we found that semen used for in vitro fertilization 24h after DNA uptake gave good cleavage (60% vs. 58%, treated vs. control) and developmental rates definitely positive (41% vs. 48%, treated vs. control). These good results are connected to a competitive efficiency of transformation (62%) due to the numerous improvements in SMGT technique. We demonstrate that SMGT-treated spermatozoa retain good quality and fertilization potential for at least 24h, expanding the possibility to apply transgenesis in field conditions in swine, where the greatest hurdles are fertilization timing and plain procedure.

  10. In vitro fertilization and sperm cryopreservation in the black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) and sand cat (Felis margarita).

    PubMed

    Herrick, J R; Campbell, M; Levens, G; Moore, T; Benson, K; D'Agostino, J; West, G; Okeson, D M; Coke, R; Portacio, S C; Leiske, K; Kreider, C; Polumbo, P J; Swanson, W F

    2010-03-01

    Studies of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and sperm cryopreservation have been conducted in several small cat species, but virtually no data exist for black-footed cats (Felis nigripes) (BFCs) or sand cats (Felis margarita) (SCs). The objectives of this study were 1) to compare in vitro motility and acrosome status of fresh and cryopreserved (frozen in pellets on dry ice or in straws in liquid nitrogen vapor) BFC and SC spermatozoa cultured in feline-optimized culture medium (FOCM) or Ham F-10, 2) to assess ovarian responsiveness in BFCs and SCs following exogenous gonadotropin treatment and laparoscopic oocyte recovery, and 3) to evaluate the fertility of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa from both species using homologous and heterologous (domestic cat oocytes) IVF in the two culture media. Motility and acrosomal integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa from BFCs and SCs were similar (P > 0.05) in both media during 6 h of culture. Although effects were more pronounced in SCs, cryopreservation in straws was superior (P < 0.05) to cryopreservation in pellets for both species. Gonadotropin stimulation produced approximately 16 ovarian follicles per female, and >80% of recovered oocytes were of optimal (grade 1) quality. The BFC and SC spermatozoa fertilized 60.0%-79.4% of homologous and 37.7%-42.7% of heterologous oocytes in both culture media, with increased (P < 0.05) cleavage of homologous (SC) and heterologous (BFC and SC) oocytes in FOCM. These results provide the first information to date on the gamete biology of two imperiled cat species and further our capacity to apply reproductive technologies for their conservation.

  11. Exposure to heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury) and its effect on the outcome of in-vitro fertilization treatment.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Coskun, Serdar; Mashhour, Abdullah; Shinwari, Neptune; El-Doush, Inaam; Billedo, Grisellhi; Jaroudi, Kamal; Al-Shahrani, Abdulaziz; Al-Kabra, Maya; El Din Mohamed, Gamal

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the effect of lead, cadmium and mercury exposure on pregnancy and fertilization rate outcome among 619 Saudi women (age 19-50 years) who sought in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment between 2002 and 2003. The concentrations of lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in both blood and follicular fluids. At levels well below the current US occupational exposure limit guidelines (40microg/dL) and even less than the current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention level of concern for preventing lead poisoning in children (10microg/dL), blood lead level was negatively associated with fertilization outcome in both adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression models. We found that among various demographic, socioeconomic and environmental factors, fish consumption was positively associated with blood lead levels. These results support the hypothesis that a raised blood lead level affects infertility and intervention to reduce the lead exposure might be needed for women of reproductive age. The present results also revealed unexpected finding - the positive relationship between follicular cadmium levels and fertilization outcome, which points to the necessity for further investigation. Though adverse effect of mercury on pregnancy outcome or fertilization rate was not evident in this study, mercury5.8microg/L (EPA safety limit) was found in the blood and follicular fluid of 18.7% and 8.3% of the women, respectively. Concerns about its possible adverse effects on the physiology of reproduction or fetal development cannot be ruled out. It should be noted that skin-lightening creams and dental amalgam were important contributors to mercury exposure. Such finding is alarming and priority for further studies are, urgently, needed.

  12. Human chorionic gonadotrophin priming for fertility treatment with in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Reavey, Jane; Vincent, Katy; Child, Timothy; Granne, Ingrid E

    2016-11-16

    In vitro maturation (IVM) is a fertility treatment that involves the transvaginal retrieval of immature oocytes, and their subsequent maturation and fertilisation. Although the live birth rate is lower than conventional in vitro fertilisation (IVF) with ovarian stimulation, it is a useful treatment, as it avoids the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Women with polycystic ovaries (PCO) or polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are at an increased risk of OHSS. Thus, IVM may be a more useful treatment in this patient group.Strategies to maximise the maturation rates of the immature oocytes are important. This review focuses on the administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) prior to immature oocyte retrieval. To determine the effectiveness and safety of hCG priming in subfertile women who are undergoing IVM treatment in the context of assisted reproduction. We searched the following electronic databases up to 29 August 2016: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register of controlled trials, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINAHL. We also searched the trial registries ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO ICTPR to identify ongoing and registered trials. We sought recently published papers not yet indexed in the major databases, and reviewed the reference lists of reviews and retrieved studies as sources of potentially relevant studies. There were no language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared hCG priming with placebo or no priming in women undergoing IVM. We also included RCTs that compared different doses of hCG, or the timing of oocyte retrieval. The primary outcomes were live birth rate and miscarriage rate per woman randomised. Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, and with a third author, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted the original authors where data were missing. For dichotomous outcomes, we used the Mantel-Haenszel method to calculate

  13. The Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on In Vitro Fertilization Success Rate in N MRI Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hafizi, Leili; Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Mousavifar, Nezhat; Karimi, Mohammad; Ghorbani, Saleh; Kazemi, Mohammad Reza; Emami Meibodi, Neda; Hosseini, Golkoo; Mostafavi Toroghi, Hesam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) on reproduction systems have been widely debated. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether low frequency EMF could ameliorate the in vitro fertilization success rate in Naval medical research institute (NMRI) Mice. Materials and Methods: In this randomized comparative animal study, ten NMRI mice were randomly divided into 2 equal groups (control and experimental). 10 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was injected intraperitoneally to both groups in order to stimulate ovulating, and ovums were then aspirated and kept in KSOM (modified version of sequential simplex optimization medium with a higher K+ concentration) culture medium. Metaphase II ovums were separated, and sperms obtained by "swim out" method were added to metaphase II ovums in the culture medium. The experimental group was exposed to 1.3 millitesla pulsed electromagnetic field at 4 kilohertz frequency for 5 hours. To assess the efficacy, we considered the identification of two-pronuclear zygote (2PN) under microscope as fertilizing criterion. Results: Total number of collected ovums in the control and experimental groups was 191 and 173, respectively, from which 58 (30.05%) and 52 (30.36%) ovums were collected from metaphase II, respectively. In vitro fertilization (IVF) success rate was 77% in extremely low frequency- pulsed electromagnetic field (ELFPEMF) for exposed group (experimental), whereas the rate was 68% for control group. Conclusion: Despite increased percentile of IVF success rate in exposed group, there was no statistically significant difference between 2 groups, but this hypothesis has still been stated as a question. Further studies with larger sample sizes and different EMF designs are suggested. PMID:24381855

  14. Royal jelly may improve the metabolism of glucose and redox state of ovine oocytes matured in vitro and embryonic development following in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Eshtiyaghi, Mahbobeh; Deldar, Hamid; Pirsaraei, Zarbakht Ansari; Shohreh, Bahram

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of royal jelly (RJ) on in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization, cleavage, blastocyst rates, glutathione (GSH) content in ovine oocyte, mRNA abundance of antioxidant enzymes in both oocyte and cumulus, and glucose metabolism-related genes in cumulus cells. In vitro maturation of oocyte was performed in the presence of control (RJ0), 2.5 (RJ2.5), 5 (RJ5), and 10 (RJ10) mg/mL of RJ. Nuclear status, intracellular GSH content in oocytes, and mRNA abundance of selected genes were evaluated following 24 hours of IVM. Following the IVM, fertilization and embryo culture were carried out in all the groups and embryonic development was examined. The addition of 10-mg/mL RJ to maturation media not only yielded a higher number of oocytes at MII stage but also showed an increased level of intracellular GSH content than did RJ2.5 and control groups. Fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst rate were higher in the RJ10 treatment group in comparison to the control one. In cumulus cells, the expression of PFKM, PFKL, and G6PDH were increased following the addition of RJ to the maturation media. Supplementation of 10-mg/mL RJ to IVM medium increased the GPx mRNA abundance in both oocyte and cumulus cells and SOD expression in the cumulus cells. The CAT mRNA abundance was not influenced by the addition of RJ to the maturation media in either oocyte or cumulus cells. It seems that the improvement of oocyte maturation and its subsequent development in RJ10 group may be associated with amelioration of redox status in the oocytes and activation of glucose metabolic pathways in their surrounding cumulus cells.

  15. Current achievements and future research directions in ovarian tissue culture, in vitro follicle development and transplantation: implications for fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Smitz, J; Dolmans, M M; Donnez, J; Fortune, J E; Hovatta, O; Jewgenow, K; Picton, H M; Plancha, C; Shea, L D; Stouffer, R L; Telfer, E E; Woodruff, T K; Zelinski, M B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Female cancer patients are offered 'banking' of gametes before starting fertility-threatening cancer therapy. Transplants of fresh and frozen ovarian tissue between healthy fertile and infertile women have demonstrated the utility of the tissue banked for restoration of endocrine and fertility function. Additional methods, like follicle culture and isolated follicle transplantation, are in development. METHODS Specialist reproductive medicine scientists and clinicians with complementary expertise in ovarian tissue culture and transplantation presented relevant published literature in their field of expertise and also unpublished promising data for discussion. As the major aims were to identify the current gaps prohibiting advancement, to share technical experience and to orient new research, contributors were allowed to provide their opinioned expert views on future research. RESULTS Normal healthy children have been born in cancer survivors after orthotopic transplantation of their cryopreserved ovarian tissue. Longevity of the graft might be optimized by using new vitrification techniques and by promoting rapid revascularization of the graft. For the in vitro culture of follicles, a successive battery of culture methods including the use of defined media, growth factors and three-dimensional extracellular matrix support might overcome growth arrest of the follicles. Molecular methods and immunoassay can evaluate stage of maturation and guide adequate differentiation. Large animals, including non-human primates, are essential working models. CONCLUSIONS Experiments on ovarian tissue from non-human primate models and from consenting fertile and infertile patients benefit from a multidisciplinary approach. The new discipline of oncofertility requires professionalization, multidisciplinarity and mobilization of funding for basic and translational research.

  16. Current achievements and future research directions in ovarian tissue culture, in vitro follicle development and transplantation: implications for fertility preservation

    PubMed Central

    Smitz, J.; Dolmans, M.M.; Donnez, J.; Fortune, J.E.; Hovatta, O.; Jewgenow, K.; Picton, H.M.; Plancha, C.; Shea, L.D.; Stouffer, R.L.; Telfer, E.E.; Woodruff, T.K.; Zelinski, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Female cancer patients are offered ‘banking’ of gametes before starting fertility-threatening cancer therapy. Transplants of fresh and frozen ovarian tissue between healthy fertile and infertile women have demonstrated the utility of the tissue banked for restoration of endocrine and fertility function. Additional methods, like follicle culture and isolated follicle transplantation, are in development. METHODS Specialist reproductive medicine scientists and clinicians with complementary expertise in ovarian tissue culture and transplantation presented relevant published literature in their field of expertise and also unpublished promising data for discussion. As the major aims were to identify the current gaps prohibiting advancement, to share technical experience and to orient new research, contributors were allowed to provide their opinioned expert views on future research. RESULTS Normal healthy children have been born in cancer survivors after orthotopic transplantation of their cryopreserved ovarian tissue. Longevity of the graft might be optimized by using new vitrification techniques and by promoting rapid revascularization of the graft. For the in vitro culture of follicles, a successive battery of culture methods including the use of defined media, growth factors and three-dimensional extracellular matrix support might overcome growth arrest of the follicles. Molecular methods and immunoassay can evaluate stage of maturation and guide adequate differentiation. Large animals, including non-human primates, are essential working models. CONCLUSIONS Experiments on ovarian tissue from non-human primate models and from consenting fertile and infertile patients benefit from a multidisciplinary approach. The new discipline of oncofertility requires professionalization, multidisciplinarity and mobilization of funding for basic and translational research. PMID:20124287

  17. Follicular fluid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate is a credible marker of oocyte maturity and pregnancy outcome in conventional in vitro fertilization cycles.

    PubMed

    Chimote, Natachandra M; Nath, Nirmalendu M; Chimote, Nishad N; Chimote, Bindu N

    2015-01-01

    To investigate if the level of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s) in follicular fluid (FF) influences the competence of oocytes to fertilize, develop to the blastocyst stage, and produce a viable pregnancy in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Prospective study of age-matched, nonpolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women undergoing antagonist stimulation protocol involving conventional insemination and day 5 blastocyst transfer. FF levels of DHEA-s and E2 were measured by a radio-immuno-assay method using diagnostic kits. Fertilization rate, embryo development to the blastocyst stage and live birth rate were main outcome measures. Cycles were divided into pregnant/nonpregnant groups and also into low/medium/high FF DHEA-s groups. Statistical analysis was done by GraphPad Prism V software. FF DHEA-s levels were significantly higher in pregnant (n = 111) compared to nonpregnant (n = 381) group (1599 ± 77.45 vs. 1372 ± 40.47 ng/ml; P = 0.01). High (n = 134) FF DHEA-s group had significantly higher percentage of metaphase II (MII) oocytes (91.5 vs. 85.54 vs. 79.44%, P < 0.0001), fertilization rate (78.86 vs. 74.16 vs. 71.26%, P < 0.0001), cleavage rate (83.67 vs. 69.1 vs. 66.17%, P = 0.0002), blastocyst formation rate (37.15 vs. 33.01 vs. 26.95%, P < 0.0001), and live birth rate (29.85 vs. 22.22 vs. 14.78%, P = 0.017) compared to medium (n = 243) and low (n = 115) FF DHEA-s groups, respectively despite comparable number of oocytes retrieved and number of blastocysts transferred. FF DHEA-s levels correlated significantly with the attainment of MII oocytes (Pearson r = 0.41) and fertilization rates (Pearson r = 0.35). FF DHEA-s level influences the oocyte maturation process and is predictive of fertilization, embryo development to the blastocyst stage and live birth rates in non-PCOS women undergoing conventional IVF cycles.

  18. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinchi, Mohammadreza; Soltanalinejad, Farhad; Najafi, Gholamreza; Roshangar, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA3) is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA) administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF) medium containing 4 mg mL(-1) bovine serum albumin (BSA) .Total number of sperms, the percentage of live sperms, immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin and IVF were examined. The oocytes were obtained from immature rats after the injection of pregnant mare's serum (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) hormones. Human tubular fluid was used as the fertilization medium and zygotes transferred to fresh 1-cell rat embryos culture medium (mR1ECM) to reach the blastocyst stage. This study showed that GA3 could decrease the number of total sperms on days 30 and 45 in treated group comparison with the control and sham groups. Additionally, GA3 increased the immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin. The percentage of fertilization, two-cell embryos and blastocyst resulting from the treatment group on days 30 and 45 also decreased and showed significant differences with the control and sham groups (p < 0.05). The results obtained from this study indicated that the oral use of GA3 could reduce the fertility in rats by influencing the sperm number and the quality of sperm's chromatins.

  19. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinchi, Mohammadreza; Soltanalinejad, Farhad; Najafi, Gholamreza; Roshangar, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA3) is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA) administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF) medium containing 4 mg mL-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA) .Total number of sperms, the percentage of live sperms, immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin and IVF were examined. The oocytes were obtained from immature rats after the injection of pregnant mare's serum (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) hormones. Human tubular fluid was used as the fertilization medium and zygotes transferred to fresh 1-cell rat embryos culture medium (mR1ECM) to reach the blastocyst stage. This study showed that GA3 could decrease the number of total sperms on days 30 and 45 in treated group comparison with the control and sham groups. Additionally, GA3 increased the immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin. The percentage of fertilization, two-cell embryos and blastocyst resulting from the treatment group on days 30 and 45 also decreased and showed significant differences with the control and sham groups (p < 0.05). The results obtained from this study indicated that the oral use of GA3 could reduce the fertility in rats by influencing the sperm number and the quality of sperm’s chromatins. PMID:25568681

  20. Effects of modification of in vitro fertilization techniques on the sex ratio of the resultant bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Iwata, H; Shiono, H; Kon, Y; Matsubara, K; Kimura, K; Kuwayama, T; Monji, Y

    2008-05-01

    The duration of sperm-oocyte co-incubation has been observed to affect the sex ratio of in vitro produced bovine embryos. The purpose of this study was to investigate some factors that may be responsible for the skewed sex ratio. The factors studied were selected combinations of the duration of co-incubation, the presence or absence of cumulus cells, and the level of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the culture medium. Experiment 1 examined the effect of selected combinations of different factors during the fertilization phase of in vitro oocyte culture. The factors were the nature of the sperm or its treatment, the duration of the sperm-oocyte co-incubation, and the level of hyaluronic acid in the culture medium. In experiment 2, the capacitation of frozen-thawed-Percoll-washed sperm (control), pre-incubated, and non-binding sperm was evaluated by the zona pellucida (ZP) binding assay and the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST). The purpose of experiment 3 was to determine the oocyte cleavage rate and sex ratio of the embryos (>5 cells) produced as a consequence of the 10 treatments used in experiment 1. In treatments 1-3 (experiments 1 and 3) COC were co-cultured with sperm for 1, 5 or 18 h. Polyspermic fertilization rose as the co-incubation period increased (1 h 6.5%, 5 h 15.9%, 18 h 41.8%; P<0.05), and the highest rate of normal fertilization was observed for 5h culture (73.4%; P<0.05). The sex ratio was significantly (P<0.05) skewed from the expected 50:50 towards males following 1 h (64.4%) and 5 h (67.3%) co-incubation, but was not affected by 18 h incubation (52.3%). In treatment 4, sperm was pre-incubated for 1h and cultured with COC for 5 h. Relative to control sperm, pre-incubation of sperm increased ZP binding (116 versus 180 per ZP; P<0.05) and decreased the proportion of HOST positive sperm (65.8-48.6%; P<0.05; experiment 2). Pre-incubation did not affect the rates of polyspermy, normal fertilization or the sex ratio of the embryos (experiments 1 and 3). The

  1. [Comparison of Alarelin and Triptorelin in the long-protocol ovulation induction in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer].

    PubMed

    Duan, Jin-Liang; Jiang, Yuan-Hua; Liu, Ying; Zeng, Qiong-Fang; Huang, Ya-Dan

    2010-07-01

    To compare the pituitary down-regulatory effects of the two gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists Alarelin and Triptorelin in the long protocol of ovulation induction in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). We included in this study 122 patients aged 24-39 years treated by IVF-ET for secondary infertility, with 10-20 pre-antral follicles and obstruction of the fallopian tube. Seventy-eight of them received Alarelin, and the other 44 Triptorelin. Comparative analyses were made on the pituitary down-regulatory effects of the two gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and the clinical outcomes of IVF-ET. No premature LH surge and ovulation, nor severe hyperovarian stimulation syndrome was found in either group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the mean dose and duration of gonodatropin treatment, the numbers of oocytes retrieved, mature oocytes and top-quality embryos, and the rates of 2PN, multi-sperm fertilization, cleavage, embryo transfer, embryo implantation, clinical pregnancy and early miscarriage (P > 0.05), but the rate of cancelled cycles was significantly higher in the Triptorelin than in the Alarelin group (P < 0.05). Alarelin and Triptorelin can achieve similar pituitary down-regulatory effects and clinical outcomes in IVF-ET when used in the long protocol of ovulation induction.

  2. Effect of the volume of medium and number of oocytes during in vitro fertilization on embryo development in pigs.

    PubMed

    Gil, Maria Antonia; Abeydeera, Lalantha R; Day, Billy N; Vazquez, Juan M; Roca, Jordi; Martinez, Emilio A

    2003-09-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect of the volume of medium (VM) and the number of oocytes (NOOC) during in vitro fertilization (IVF) on embryo development in pigs. Groups of 15, 30 and 50 in vitro matured oocytes were transferred to 2, 1 and 0.1 ml of modified Tris-buffered medium (mTBM) and inseminated with frozen-thawed spermatozoa (2000 spermatozoa/oocyte) in a 3 x 3 factorial experiment. A total of 2739 oocytes from four replicates were exposed to spermatozoa for 6 h and then cultured in embryo culture medium for 6 h (pronuclear formation) or 7 days (blastocyst formation: BF). The efficiency of fertilization (EF: number of monospermic oocytes/total number of inseminated oocytes) and BF decreased (P<0.03) as the VM increased (EF: 45.9+/-2.2, 43.8+/-2.6 and 36.9+/-1.6% and BF: 29.4+/-2.7, 23.2+/-1.8 and 19.9+/-2.1% for VM 0.1, 1 and 2 ml, respectively). The BF, but not EF, was also affected (P<0.04) by NOOC (19.8+/-1.6, 28.1+/-2.3 and 24.6+/-2.9% for groups of 15, 30 and 50 oocytes, respectively). The effect of the interaction VM x NOOC on EF and BF was not significant. These results indicate that when 2000 spermatozoa/oocyte were used, a low volume of IVF medium (0.1 ml) and the number of oocytes during IVF (30-50) can improve the in vitro embryo production in pigs.

  3. Hollow fiber vitrification provides a novel method for cryopreserving in vitro maturation/fertilization-derived porcine embryos.

    PubMed

    Maehara, Miki; Matsunari, Hitomi; Honda, Kasumi; Nakano, Kazuaki; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Kanai, Takahiro; Matsuda, Taisuke; Matsumura, Yukina; Hagiwara, Yui; Sasayama, Norihisa; Shirasu, Akio; Takahashi, Masashi; Watanabe, Masahito; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Hanazono, Yutaka; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    In vitro matured (IVM) oocytes have been used to create genetically modified pigs for various biomedical purposes. However, porcine embryos derived from IVM oocytes are very cryosensitive. Developing improved cryopreservation methods would facilitate the production of genetically modified pigs and also accelerate the conservation of genetic resources. We recently developed a novel hollow fiber vitrification (HFV) method; the present study was initiated to determine whether this new method permits the cryopreservation of IVM oocyte-derived porcine embryos. Embryos were created from the in vitro fertilization of IVM oocytes with frozen-thawed sperm derived from a transgenic pig carrying a humanized Kusabira-Orange (huKO) gene. Morula-stage embryos were assigned to vitrification and nonvitrification groups to compare their in vitro and in vivo developmental abilities. Vitrified morulae developed to the blastocyst stage at a rate similar to that of nonvitrified embryos (66/85, 77.6% vs. 67/84, 79.8%). Eighty-eight blastocysts that developed from vitrified morulae were transferred into the uteri of three recipient gilts. All three became pregnant and produced a total of 17 piglets (19.3%). This piglet production was slightly lower, albeit not significantly, than that of the nonvitrification group (27/88, 30.7%). Approximately half of the piglets in the vitrification (10/17, 58.8%) and nonvitrification (15/27, 55.6%) groups were transgenic. There was no significant difference in the growth rates among the piglets in the two groups. These results indicate that the HFV method is an extremely effective method for preserving cryosensitive embryos such as porcine in vitro maturation/fertilization-derived morulae.

  4. Effect of embryo density on in vitro development and gene expression in bovine in vitro-fertilized embryos cultured in a microwell system.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Akai, Tomonori; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Matsuda, Hideo; Kobayashi, Shuji; Kobayashi, Eiji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2013-01-01

    To identify embryos individually during in vitro development, we previously developed the well-of-the-well (WOW) dish, which contains 25 microwells. Here we investigated the effect of embryo density (the number of embryos per volume of medium) on in vitro development and gene expression of bovine in vitro-fertilized embryos cultured in WOW dishes. Using both conventional droplet and WOW culture formats, 5, 15, and 25 bovine embryos were cultured in 125 μl medium for 168 h. The blastocysts at Day 7 were analyzed for number of cells and expression of ten genes (CDX2, IFN-tau, PLAC8, NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, AKR1B1, ATP5A1, GLUT1 and IGF2R). In droplet culture, the rates of formation of >4-cell cleavage embryos and blastocysts were significantly lower in embryos cultured at 5 embryos per droplet than in those cultured at 15 or 25 embryos per droplet, but not in WOW culture. In both droplet and WOW culture, developmental kinetics and blastocyst cell numbers did not differ among any groups. IFN-tau expression in embryos cultured at 25 embryos per droplet was significantly higher than in those cultured at 15 embryos per droplet and in artificial insemination (AI)-derived blastocysts. Moreover, IGF2R expression was significantly lower in the 25-embryo group than in the 5-embryo group and in AI-derived blastocysts. In WOW culture, these expressions were not affected by embryo density and were similar to those in AI-derived blastocysts. These results suggest that, as compared with conventional droplet culture, in vitro development and expression of IFN-tau and IGF2R in the microwell system may be insensitive to embryo density.

  5. Effect of Embryo Density on In Vitro Development and Gene Expression in Bovine In Vitro-fertilized Embryos Cultured in a Microwell System

    PubMed Central

    SUGIMURA, Satoshi; AKAI, Tomonori; HASHIYADA, Yutaka; AIKAWA, Yoshio; OHTAKE, Masaki; MATSUDA, Hideo; KOBAYASHI, Shuji; KOBAYASHI, Eiji; KONISHI, Kazuyuki; IMAI, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To identify embryos individually during in vitro development, we previously developed the well-of-the-well (WOW) dish, which contains 25 microwells. Here we investigated the effect of embryo density (the number of embryos per volume of medium) on in vitro development and gene expression of bovine in vitro-fertilized embryos cultured in WOW dishes. Using both conventional droplet and WOW culture formats, 5, 15, and 25 bovine embryos were cultured in 125 µl medium for 168 h. The blastocysts at Day 7 were analyzed for number of cells and expression of ten genes (CDX2, IFN-tau, PLAC8, NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, AKR1B1, ATP5A1, GLUT1 and IGF2R). In droplet culture, the rates of formation of >4-cell cleavage embryos and blastocysts were significantly lower in embryos cultured at 5 embryos per droplet than in those cultured at 15 or 25 embryos per droplet, but not in WOW culture. In both droplet and WOW culture, developmental kinetics and blastocyst cell numbers did not differ among any groups. IFN-tau expression in embryos cultured at 25 embryos per droplet was significantly higher than in those cultured at 15 embryos per droplet and in artificial insemination (AI)-derived blastocysts. Moreover, IGF2R expression was significantly lower in the 25-embryo group than in the 5-embryo group and in AI-derived blastocysts. In WOW culture, these expressions were not affected by embryo density and were similar to those in AI-derived blastocysts. These results suggest that, as compared with conventional droplet culture, in vitro development and expression of IFN-tau and IGF2R in the microwell system may be insensitive to embryo density. PMID:23154384

  6. Autism and mental retardation among offspring born after in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Sandin, Sven; Nygren, Karl-Gösta; Iliadou, Anastasia; Hultman, Christina M; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2013-07-03

    Between 1978 and 2010, approximately 5 million infants were born after in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments. Yet limited information on neurodevelopment after IVF exists, especially after the first year of life. To examine the association between use of any IVF and different IVF procedures and the risk of autistic disorder and mental retardation in the offspring. A population-based, prospective cohort study using Swedish national health registers. Offspring born between 1982 and 2007 were followed up for a clinical diagnosis of autistic disorder or mental retardation until December 31, 2009. The exposure of interest was IVF, categorized according to whether intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for male infertility was used and whether embryos were fresh or frozen. For ICSI, whether sperm were ejaculated or surgically extracted was also considered. Relative risks (RRs) for autistic disorder and mental retardation and rates per 100,000 person-years, comparing spontaneously conceived offspring with those born after an IVF procedure and comparing 5 IVF procedures used in Sweden vs IVF without ICSI with fresh embryo transfer, the most common treatment. We also analyzed the subgroup restricted to singletons. Of the more than 2.5 million infants born, 30,959 (1.2%) were conceived by IVF and were followed up for a mean 10 (SD, 6) years. Overall, 103 of 6959 children (1.5%) with autistic disorder and 180 of 15,830 (1.1%) with mental retardation were conceived by IVF. The RR for autistic disorder after any procedure compared with spontaneous conception was 1.14 (95% CI, 0.94-1.39; 19.0 vs 15.6 per 100,000 person-years). The RR for mental retardation was 1.18 (95% CI, 1.01-1.36; 46.3 vs 39.8 per 100,000 person-years). For both outcomes, there was no statistically significant association when restricting analysis to singletons. Compared with IVF without ICSI with fresh embryo transfer, there were statistically significantly increased risks of autistic disorder following

  7. Detection of a procoagulable state during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization with global assays of haemostasis.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Eli; Henriksson, Peter; Wallén, Håkan; Hovatta, Outi; Wallberg, Kenny Rodriguez; Antovic, Alexandra

    2012-10-01

    Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation during in vitro fertilization (IVF) causes profound increments in serum estradiol which may influence haemostasis and the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. In the present study we investigated the effect of the standard IVF-stimulation protocol on coagulation and fibrinolysis as assessed by different global haemostatic assays. Blood samples were drawn from 31 women during the down-regulation phase when estradiol secretion is inhibited, and before egg retrieval, i.e. when estradiol levels are at supraphysiological levels, in the following called high level stimulation phase. Haemostasis was assessed during both treatment phases with 1) the calibrated automated thrombogram which measures thrombin generation, 2) overall haemostasis potential which measures fibrin formation and degradation and 3) fibrin gel permeability measurements which measures the quality of the fibrin network. Estradiol increased from <150pg/mL to 5889pg/mL (range 1620-19500pg/mL). We found both increased thrombin generation as measured by the calibrated automated thrombogram (p<0.001) and an increase in overall haemostasis potential (p<0.001) from time of down-regulation to high level stimulation. The assays used indicated procoagulable changes in haemostasis during in vitro fertilization. Further studies should evaluate their potential in the prediction of thrombosis and hyperstimulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Unresolved grief in women and men in Sweden three years after undergoing unsuccessful in vitro fertilization treatment

    PubMed Central

    Volgsten, Helena; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta; Olsson, Pia

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To explore the experience of undergoing unsuccessful in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and of remaining childless 3 years after IVF in both women and men. Design. Qualitative-approach study. Sample. Ten women and nine men who had attended a public fertility clinic in Sweden. Methods. Individual qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with qualitative content analysis guiding the analysis. Results. Three years after the end of IVF treatment, most men and women were still processing and had not adapted to childlessness, indicating that the grieving process was unresolved. Unsuccessful IVF was experienced by women in terms of grief, whereas men took upon themselves a supportive role and did not express grief. A need for professional support and counseling in how to handle grief was described. An unstructured end after IVF treatment left unanswered questions. Conclusions. The grieving process after unsuccessful IVF treatment was hampered among both men and women. The provision of additional individual support during IVF is recommended as men and women experienced childlessness differently. Support and counseling concerning grief reactions following IVF failure, and a structured final consultation after IVF may facilitate the grieving process after undergoing unsuccessful IVF treatment. PMID:20846062

  9. Heterotopic Pregnancy After In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer After Bilateral Total Salpingectomy/Tubal Ligation: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Lu, Yingli; Chen, Huiling; Li, Dandan; Zhang, Jingwen; Zheng, Lianwen

    2016-01-01

    Heterotopic pregnancy is defined as the simultaneous occurrence of intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy, either of which may be single or multiple. It occurs in up to 1% of pregnancies after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. This article reports 2 rare cases of heterotopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization and presents a literature review. In the first case, a 28-year-old woman had previous laparoscopic bilateral total salpingectomy for a right tubal pregnancy and a left hydrosalpinx. However, she had ovarian heterotopic pregnancy after a third in vitro fertilization cycle. Emergency laparotomy was performed. The synchronous intrauterine pregnancy continued with no further complications and ended in the delivery of a singleton term pregnancy. The second case combined interstitial and intrauterine pregnancies after bilateral tubal ligation for hydrosalpinges followed by in vitro fertilization and frozen embryo transfer. The possibility of heterotopic pregnancy after bilateral total salpingectomy/tubal ligation, although extremely rare, should also be considered by gynecologists when they treat an in vitro fertilization patient even though an intrauterine pregnancy has been confirmed.

  10. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Sperm-Oocyte Interactions Opinions Relative to in Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

    PubMed Central

    Anifandis, George; Messini, Christina; Dafopoulos, Konstantinos; Sotiriou, Sotiris; Messinis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    One of the biggest prerequisites for pregnancy is the fertilization step, where a human haploid spermatozoon interacts and penetrates one haploid oocyte in order to produce the diploid zygote. Although fertilization is defined by the presence of two pronuclei and the extraction of the second polar body the process itself requires preparation of both gametes for fertilization to take place at a specific time. These preparations include a number of consecutive biochemical and molecular events with the help of specific molecules and with the consequential interaction between the two gametes. These events take place at three different levels and in a precise order, where the moving spermatozoon penetrates (a) the outer vestments of the oocyte, known as the cumulus cell layer; (b) the zona pellucida (ZP); where exocytosis of the acrosome contents take place and (c) direct interaction of the spermatozoon with the plasma membrane of the oocyte, which involves a firm adhesion of the head of the spermatozoon with the oocyte plasma membrane that culminates with the fusion of both sperm and oocyte membranes (Part I). After the above interactions, a cascade of molecular signal transductions is initiated which results in oocyte activation. Soon after the entry of the first spermatozoon into the oocyte and oocyte activation, the oocyte’s coat (the ZP) and the oocyte’s plasma membrane seem to change quickly in order to initiate a fast block to a second spermatozoon (Part II). Sometimes, two spermatozoa fuse with one oocyte, an incidence of 1%–2%, resulting in polyploid fetuses that account for up to 10%–20% of spontaneously aborted human conceptuses. The present review aims to focus on the first part of the human sperm and oocyte interactions, emphasizing the latest molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling this process. PMID:25054321

  11. Ultrastructure of oocyte maturation, fertilization, and early embryo development in vitro in the Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica).

    PubMed

    Gjørret, J O; Crichton, E G; Loskutoff, N M; Armstrong, D L; Hyttel, P

    2002-09-01

    The application of assisted reproduction techniques to wild cats has been stalled by a lack of basic knowledge of the reproductive biology in these species. In this study, the ultrastructure of Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs), as well as in vitro produced (IVP) zygotes and embryos were investigated, to estimate the normality of the manipulated reproduction processes. Adult female tigers were subjected to a purified porcine pFSH/pLH stimulation treatment followed by oocyte aspiration. According to morphological appearance at the stereomicroscopical level, COCs were classified as mature, immature, or degenerated, and then allocated into the following groups: presumptively immature COCs, which were in vitro matured (IVM-group) before fixation; presumptively mature COCs, which were either fixed after retrieval (pre-IVF-group), following in vitro insemination (IVF-group) or following in vitro insemination and subsequent in vitro culture (IVC-group). All specimens were processed for light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both the IVM- and pre-IVF-group included oocytes in meiotic stages ranging from prophase I to metaphase II, and some prophase I oocytes in the IVM-group were apparently in their growth phase. The IVF-group presented features of presumptive normal fertilization, but aberrations such as polynucleation were also noted. The IVC-group included cleavage stage embryos of which, however, many were polynucleated. In conclusion, the procedures used for stimulation, aspiration, and classification of COCs resulted in retrieval of a heterogeneous population of oocytes which, following IVF and IVC, displayed a high rate of developmental deviations. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. [Application of spontaneous acrosome reaction of sperm in prediction of outcome of in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer].

    PubMed

    Xuan, X J; Xu, C; Zhao, Y R; Wu, K L; Chen, T; Zhang, H B; Li, X; Su, S Z; Ma, G; Tang, R; Sheng, Y; Ma, J L

    2016-04-26

    To investigate the clinical application of spontaneous acrosome reaction (AR) rate of sperm in predicting the outcome of in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). The spontaneous AR rate of the sperm of patients who underwent IVF-ET treatment in our center during the period from November to December 2014 were studied. The cut-off value from 6% to 12% were set and analyzed its association between the IVF-ET outcomes (including fertility rates, normal fertilization rates and high-quality embryo rates). For those who underwent fresh embryo transplantation, the rates of chemical pregnancy and clinical pregnancy were calculated, and compared the spontaneous AR rates and quantity of acrosomal enzyme according to the pregnancy outcome. There were 202 patients in this study and the mean spontaneous AR rate was 5.99%±5.18%. For patients with the spontaneous AR rate ≥9% versus <9%, the fertility rate, normal fertilization rate and high-quality embryo rate were 81.33% vs 83.85%, 60.53% vs 60.99%, and 51.10% vs 59.67%, respectively, with statistically significant difference in the high-quality embryo rate (P=0.02). For patients who underwent fresh embryo transplantation, when comparison was made between those with spontaneous AR rate ≥8% and those <8%, the rate of chemical pregnancy and clinical pregnancy were 48.57% (17/35) vs 69.64% (78/112) and 37.14% (13/35) vs 63.39% (71/112), respectively, both with statistically significant difference (P=0.02 and P<0.01). The patients with clinical pregnancy had lower spontaneous AR rate than those without clinical pregnancy (5.41%±3.87% vs 7.40%±6.79%, P=0.04), while the quantity of acrosomal enzyme showed no significant difference [(131.79±68.50) vs (153.62±59.59) μU/10(6,) P=0.06]. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated association between spontaneous AR rates and clinical pregnancy (OR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.87-0.99, P=0.03). The spontaneous AR rate of sperm may have clinical significance in predicting the outcome of

  13. Laser-assisted in vitro fertilization facilitates fertilization of vitrified-warmed C57BL/6 mouse oocytes with fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa, producing live pups.

    PubMed

    Woods, Stephanie E; Qi, Peimin; Rosalia, Elizabeth; Chavarria, Tony; Discua, Allan; Mkandawire, John; Fox, James G; García, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The utility of cryopreserved mouse gametes for reproduction of transgenic mice depends on development of assisted reproductive technologies, including vitrification of unfertilized mouse oocytes. Due to hardening of the zona pellucida, spermatozoa are often unable to penetrate vitrified-warmed (V-W) oocytes. Laser-assisted in vitro fertilization (LAIVF) facilitates fertilization by allowing easier penetration of spermatozoa through a perforation in the zona. We investigated the efficiency of V-W C57BL/6NTac oocytes drilled by the XYClone laser, compared to fresh oocytes. By using DAP213 for cryoprotection, 83% (1,470/1,762) of vitrified oocytes were recovered after warming and 78% were viable. Four groups were evaluated for two-cell embryo and live offspring efficiency: 1) LAIVF using V-W oocytes, 2) LAIVF using fresh oocytes, 3) conventional IVF using V-W oocytes and 4) conventional IVF using fresh oocytes. First, the groups were tested using fresh C57BL/6NTac spermatozoa (74% motile, 15 million/ml). LAIVF markedly improved the two-cell embryo efficiency using both V-W (76%, 229/298) and fresh oocytes (69%, 135/197), compared to conventional IVF (7%, 12/182; 6%, 14/235, respectively). Then, frozen-thawed C57BL/6NTac spermatozoa (35% motile, 15 million/ml) were used and LAIVF was again found to enhance fertilization efficiency, with two-cell embryo rates of 87% (298/343) using V-W oocytes (P<0.05, compared to fresh spermatozoa), and 73% (195/266) using fresh oocytes. Conventional IVF with frozen-thawed spermatozoa using V-W (6%, 10/168) and fresh (5%, 15/323) oocytes produced few two-cell embryos. Although live offspring efficiency following embryo transfer was greater with conventional IVF (35%, 18/51; LAIVF: 6%, 50/784), advantage was seen with LAIVF in live offspring obtained from total oocytes (5%, 50/1,010; conventional IVF: 2%, 18/908). Our results demonstrated that zona-drilled V-W mouse oocytes can be used for IVF procedures using both fresh and frozen

  14. Microdose follicular flare: a viable alternative for normal-responding patients undergoing in vitro fertilization?

    PubMed

    Levens, Eric D; Whitcomb, Brian W; Kort, Jonathan D; Materia-Hoover, Donna; Larsen, Frederick W

    2009-01-01

    To compare cycle outcomes among normal-responding patients in the LL group received 1 mg/day leuprolide acetate (LA) on cycle day 21, which was reduced to 0.25 mg/day 10-14 days later. Patients in the MDF group received LA (40 microg twice a day) beginning 3 days after discontinuing OCPs. Both groups received a combination of hMG and recombinant FSH. Primary outcomes were implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live-birth rates; in-cycle variables included peak E(2), oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturity, and fertilization rate. Multivariable models controlling for confounding by treatment indication found no significant differences between groups in implantation (MDF, 36%; LL, 38%), clinical pregnancy (MDF, 53%; LL, 56%), and live-birth rates (MDF, 47%; LL, 50%). No differences were observed in peak E(2), oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturity, fertilization rate, or embryos transferred. MDF use among normal-responding ART patients produced no differences in cycle outcome when compared with LL. Therefore, MDF may be a viable alternative for normal-responding patients.

  15. Anti-laminin-1 antibodies in serum and follicular fluid of women with Hashimoto's thyroiditis undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Caccavo, Domenico; Pellegrino, Nelly M; Nardelli, Claudia; Vergine, Silvia; Leone, Luca; Marolla, Alessandra; Vacca, Margherita P; Depalo, Raffaella

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of anti-laminin-1 antibodies (aLN-1) in sera and follicular fluid (FF) of infertile women affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and its impact on oocyte maturation and IVF outcome. aLN-1 were measured by a home-made enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in: (1) sera and FF from 44 infertile women affected by HT (HTIW) with tubal factor or male factor as primary cause of infertility; (2) in sera and FF from 28 infertile women without HT, with tubal factor or male factor as cause of infertility (infertile controls-ICTR); and (3) in sera from 50 fertile women (FW). aLN-1 serum levels were significantly higher in HTIW when compared with both fertile women and ICTR (P <0.001and P <0.01, respectively). Assuming as cutoff the 99th percentile of values obtained in sera of FW, 43.2% of HTIW and 3.6% of ICTR were aLN-1 positive (P = 0.0001). Also aLN-1 detected in FF from HTIW were significantly higher in comparison with those found in FF of ICTR (P = 0.006). In HTIW, metaphase II oocyte count showed inverse correlation with both serum and FF aLN-1 levels (r = 0.34, P = 0.02 and r = 0.33, P = 0.03, respectively). Implantation and pregnancy rates were significantly lower in HTIW (7.9% and 9.1%, respectively) when compared with ICTR (23% and 31.1%, respectively) (P = 0.015 and P = 0.03, respectively). Our results demonstrated for the first time the presence of aLN-1 in a relevant percentage of HTIW and suggest that these auto-antibodies may impair IVF outcome.

  16. Lignosulfonic acid blocks in vitro fertilization of macaque oocytes when sperm are treated either before or after capacitation.

    PubMed

    Tollner, Theodore L; Overstreet, James W; Li, Ming W; Meyers, Stuart A; Yudin, Ashley I; Salinas, Edward R; Cherr, Gary N

    2002-01-01

    Lignin-derived macromolecules (LDMs) are biologically active compounds that affect a variety of cell-to-cell interactions including the inhibition of fertilization and embryo development in a number of nonmammalian species. The effect of ligno-sulfonic acid (LSA), a highly sulfonated LDM, on cynomolgus macaque sperm-oocyte interaction was evaluated with a zona pellucida binding assay and by in vitro fertilization (IVF). Sperm were treated with LSA (1.5 mg/mL) either before washing or after capacitation. Capacitation included centrifugation through 80% Percoll followed by 2 consecutive washes with medium, overnight incubation, and activation with dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate and caffeine. The zona binding assay was performed using immature oocytes that had adhered to the center of glass "binding chambers." The number of capacitated sperm that attached to the zona over a 3-minute period was recorded. Sperm attachment was significantly inhibited by LSA as compared to controls whether treatment occurred after capacitation (92.5%; P <.001) or before washing (82.5%; P <.001). When sperm were treated similarly with fucoidin, a sulfated polysaccharide known to inhibit sperm-oocyte interaction, sperm-zona binding was significantly inhibited by postcapacitation treatment but not by prewash treatment. Treatment of sperm with LSA consistently blocked fertilization over 4 IVF cycles both before washing and after capacitation. Fertilization rate for controls was 65% +/- 17%. No LSA-treated sperm were observed on the surface of lightly rinsed oocytes after 4 hours of coincubation. Localization of biotinylated LSA showed labeling over the entire sperm surface with the greatest intensity observed over the head and midpiece. LSA treatment had no effect on the percentage of motile sperm or quality of sperm motility. Due to the antifertility properties of this nontoxic molecule, LSA appears to have potential as a vaginal contraceptive.

  17. Pregnancy Outcome Using General Anesthesia Versus Spinal Anesthesia for In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Azmude, Azra; Agha'amou, Shahrzad; Yousefshahi, Fardin; Berjis, Katayoun; Mirmohammad'khani, Majid; Sadaat'ahmadi, Farahnaz; Ghods, Kamran; Dabbagh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a considerable rate of fertility failure and this causes a great burden of untoward effects for patients. Usually a considerable number of these patients undergo anesthesia for their treatment. Objectives This study was designed to compare the effects of general and spinal anesthesia on these patients. Patients and Methods In a randomized clinical trial, after taking informed written consent from the patients, 200 patients entered the study; 100 in each. During a 2 year period, women aged 20 to 40 years entered the study (one group receiving spinal anesthesia and the other, receiving general anesthesia). Ovum retrieval protocols were the same. Nonparametric and parametric analyses were used for data analysis. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results There was no difference between the two groups regarding demographic variables. 15 of 100 patients (15%) in the general anesthesia group and 27 of 100 patients (27%) in the spinal anesthesia group had successful pregnancy after IVF; so, spinal anesthesia increased significantly the chance of IVF success (P value < 0.001; Chi Square). Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that spinal anesthesia increased the chance of fertilization success. PMID:24282775

  18. An Overview of The Available Methods for Morphological Scoring of Pre-Implantation Embryos in In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Nahid; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of embryo quality in order to choose the embryos that most likely result in pregnancy is the critical goal in assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The current trend in human in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF/ET) protocols is to decrease the rate of multiple pregnancies after multiple embryo transfer with maintaining the pregnancy rate at admissible levels (according to laboratory standards). Assessment of morphological feathers as a reliable non-invasive method that provides valuable information in prediction of IVF/intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome has been frequently proposed in recent years. This article describes the current status of morphological embryo evaluation at different pre-implantation stages. PMID:25685730

  19. Decreased in vitro fertility in male rats exposed to fluoride-induced oxidative stress damage and mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss

    SciTech Connect

    Izquierdo-Vega, Jeannett A.; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Manuel; Razo, Luz Maria del

    2008-08-01

    Fluorosis, caused by drinking water contamination with inorganic fluoride, is a public health problem in many areas around the world. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of environmentally relevant doses of fluoride on in vitro fertilization (IVF) capacity of spermatozoa, and its relationship to spermatozoa mitochondrial transmembrane potential ({delta}{psi}{sub m}). Male Wistar rats were administered at 5 mg fluoride/kg body mass/24 h, or deionized water orally for 8 weeks. We evaluated several spermatozoa parameters in treated and untreated rats: i) standard quality analysis, ii) superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, iii) the generation of superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}}{sup -}), iv) lipid peroxidation concentration, v) ultrastructural analyses of spermatozoa using transmission electron microscopy, vi) {delta}{psi}{sub m}, vii) acrosome reaction, and viii) IVF capability. Spermatozoa from fluoride-treated rats exhibited a significant decrease in SOD activity ({approx} 33%), accompanied with a significant increase in the generation of O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}} ({approx} 40%), a significant decrease in {delta}{psi}{sub m} ({approx} 33%), and a significant increase in lipid peroxidation concentration ({approx} 50%), relative to spermatozoa from the control group. Consistent with this finding, spermatozoa from fluoride-treated rats exhibited altered plasmatic membrane. In addition, the percentage of fluoride-treated spermatozoa capable of undergoing the acrosome reaction was decreased relative to control spermatozoa (34 vs. 55%), while the percentage fluoride-treated spermatozoa capable of oocyte fertilization was also significantly lower than the control group (13 vs. 71%). These observations suggest that subchronic exposure to fluoride causes oxidative stress damage and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, resulting in reduced fertility.

  20. Evaluation of genetic components in traits related to superovulation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Dikmen, S; Null, D J; Cole, J B; Hansen, P J

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and identify regions of the genome associated with traits related to embryo transfer in Holsteins. Reproductive technologies are used in the dairy industry to increase the reproductive rate of superior females. A drawback of these methods remains the variability of animal responses to the procedures. If some variability can be explained genetically, selection can be used to improve animal response. Data collected from a Holstein dairy farm in Florida from 2008 to 2015 included 926 superovulation records (number of structures recovered and number of good embryos), 628 in vitro fertilization records (number of oocytes collected, number of cleaved embryos, number of high- and low-quality embryos, and number of transferrable embryos), and 12,089 embryo transfer records (pregnancy success). Two methods of transformation (logarithmic and Anscombe) were applied to count variables and results were compared. Univariate animal models were fitted for each trait with the exception of pregnancy success after embryo transfer. Due to the binary nature of the latter trait, a threshold liability model was fitted that accounted for the genetic effect of both the recipient and the embryo. Both transformation methods produced similar results. Single-step genomic BLUP analyses were performed and SNP effects estimated for traits with a significant genetic component. Heritability of number of structures recovered and number of good embryos when log-transformed were 0.27 ± 0.08 and 0.15 ± 0.07, respectively. Heritability estimates from the in vitro fertilization data ranged from 0.01 ± 0.08 to 0.21 ± 0.15, but were not significantly different from zero. Recipient and embryo heritability (standard deviation) of pregnancy success after embryo transfer was 0.03 (0.01) and 0.02 (0.01), respectively. The 10-SNP window explaining the largest proportion of variance (0.37%) for total structures collected was located on

  1. Increased Fertilization Rates after In Vitro Culture of Frozen-Thawed Testicular Immotile Sperm in Nonobstructive Azoospermic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez-Calonge, R.; Cortes, S.; Gago, M.; López, P.; Caballero-Peregrin, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To optimise the use of freeze/thaw testicular immotile spermatozoa from nonobstructive azoospermia patients and to analyse the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of such spermatozoa. Methods. Testicular specimens were retrieved and cryopreserved from forty patients with nonobstructive azoospermia and underwent one cycle with thawed spermatozoa (Group I) that led to pregnancy in sixteen cases. Twenty-four patients of group I underwent treatment with the same batch of thawed spermatozoa (Group II). For the first ICSI attempt, injection was performed when motile spermatozoa were found. In group II, injection was performed when maximum motility was reached. We compared mean of fertilization rate, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy rate and embryo implantation rate. Results. The mean percentage of motility was significantly higher in the group II than in the group I (18, 6 versus 8, 2). Group I showed a significant decrease in fertilization rates when compared with cryopreserved testicular spermatozoa in group II (54% versus 72%, P < 0.05). No difference was noted between the cleavage rate, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy rates and implantation rates among group II and I. Conclusion. Fecundation rate can be significantly improved after in-vitro culture and sperm selection of frozen-thawed immotile testicular spermatozoa in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia. PMID:22567413

  2. Embryological outcomes in cycles with human oocytes containing large tubular smooth endoplasmic reticulum clusters after conventional in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Itoi, Fumiaki; Asano, Yukiko; Shimizu, Masashi; Honnma, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    There have been no studies analyzing the effect of large aggregates of tubular smooth endoplasmic reticulum (aSERT) after conventional in vitro fertilization (cIVF). The aim of this study was to investigate whether aSERT can be identified after cIVF and the association between the embryological outcomes of oocytes in cycles with aSERT. This is a retrospective study examining embryological data from cIVF cycles showing the presence of aSERT in oocytes 5-6 h after cIVF. To evaluate embryo quality, cIVF cycles with at least one aSERT-metaphase II (MII) oocyte observed (cycles with aSERT) were compared to cycles with normal-MII oocytes (control cycles). Among the 4098 MII oocytes observed in 579 cycles, aSERT was detected in 100 MII oocytes in 51 cycles (8.8%). The fertilization rate, the rate of embryo development on day 3 and day 5-6 did not significantly differ between cycles with aSERT and control group. However, aSERT-MII oocytes had lower rates for both blastocysts and good quality blastocysts (p < 0.05). aSERT can be detected in the cytoplasm by removing the cumulus cell 5 h after cIVF. However, aSERT-MII oocytes do not affect other normal-MII oocytes in cycles with aSERT.

  3. Sericin accelerates the production of hyaluronan and decreases the incidence of polyspermy fertilization in bovine oocytes during in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Hosoe, Misa; Yoshida, Nao; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Teramoto, Hidetoshi; Takahashi, Toru; Niimura, Sueo

    2014-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) has been widely used as a supplement in the maturation medium of bovine oocytes in vitro. However, serum contains many undefined factors and is potentially infectious to humans and animals. As a serum replacement, we evaluated the feasibility of using the silk protein, sericin, derived from the cocoons of silkworm. To examine the rates of oocyte maturation and fertilization, cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured in TCM-199 supplemented with 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1% or 0.15% sericin or 5% FBS. The sizes of the perivitelline space that might relate to polyspermy, the expressions of Has2 and CD44 mRNA, the amount of hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid: HA) contained in the oocytes and the rates of blastocyst formation following insemination were then compared between the oocytes cultured with 0.05% sericin and 5% FBS, because the polyspermy rates in oocytes cultured with 0.05% sericin were significantly lower than in those cultured with 5% FBS. After in vitro maturation (IVM), the mean size of the perivitelline space was significantly greater in oocytes cultured with sericin than in those cultured with FBS, although the rates of nuclear maturation, fertilization and blastocyst formation of oocytes under both IVM conditions were not significantly different. The expression of HAS2 and CD44 mRNA and the amount of HA in the denuded oocytes cultured with 0.05% sericin were significantly greater than in those cultured with FBS. These results indicate the feasibility of sericin as an alternative protein supplement for IVM in bovine oocytes.

  4. Sericin Accelerates the Production of Hyaluronan and Decreases the Incidence of Polyspermy Fertilization in Bovine Oocytes During In Vitro Maturation

    PubMed Central

    HOSOE, Misa; YOSHIDA, Nao; HASHIYADA, Yutaka; TERAMOTO, Hidetoshi; TAKAHASHI, Toru; NIIMURA, Sueo

    2014-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) has been widely used as a supplement in the maturation medium of bovine oocytes in vitro. However, serum contains many undefined factors and is potentially infectious to humans and animals. As a serum replacement, we evaluated the feasibility of using the silk protein, sericin, derived from the cocoons of silkworm. To examine the rates of oocyte maturation and fertilization, cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured in TCM-199 supplemented with 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1% or 0.15% sericin or 5% FBS. The sizes of the perivitelline space that might relate to polyspermy, the expressions of Has2 and CD44 mRNA, the amount of hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid: HA) contained in the oocytes and the rates of blastocyst formation following insemination were then compared between the oocytes cultured with 0.05% sericin and 5% FBS, because the polyspermy rates in oocytes cultured with 0.05% sericin were significantly lower than in those cultured with 5% FBS. After in vitro maturation (IVM), the mean size of the perivitelline space was significantly greater in oocytes cultured with sericin than in those cultured with FBS, although the rates of nuclear maturation, fertilization and blastocyst formation of oocytes under both IVM conditions were not significantly different. The expression of HAS2 and CD44 mRNA and the amount of HA in the denuded oocytes cultured with 0.05% sericin were significantly greater than in those cultured with FBS. These results indicate the feasibility of sericin as an alternative protein supplement for IVM in bovine oocytes. PMID:24748396

  5. Basal serum testosterone levels correlate with ovarian reserve and ovarian response in cycling women undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shan; Li, Yubin; Long, Lingli; Luo, Canqiao; Mai, Qingyun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between basal serum testosterone levels and in vitro fertilization (IVF) parameters in cycling women. A retrospective cohort study was performed at a clinical IVF center, and 495 women with regular menstruation were enrolled. Serum testosterone levels were measured before the start of IVF treatment cycle. We found that basal serum testosterone levels were negatively associated with female age and FSH/LH ratios. In contrast, we found a positive correlation between serum testosterone levels and the number of oocytes and available embryos. However, there was no significant association between testosterone levels and pregnancy outcome. Our results suggest that basal serum testosterone levels were significantly related to certain classic indicators of ovarian reserve, such as age and FSH/LH ratios. Increased testosterone levels improved ovarian response in cycling women, but they fail to predict pregnancy and miscarriage rate.

  6. The relationship between follicle development and progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) expression in women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Elassar, Alyaa; Liu, Xiufang; Scranton, Victoria; Wu, Carol A.; Peluso, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component-1 (PGRMC1) expression and the outcome of in vitro fertilization treatment. Design A prospective study in which PGRMC1 mRNA levels, methylation status of the Pgrmc1 promoter, and the presence of point mutations within Pgrmc1 were obtained from granulosa/luteal cells of women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). Setting Fertility center/Basic science laboratory Patients Eighty-five IVF patients and 10 women, who were undergoing COH for the purpose of oocyte donation, were included in this study. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures PGRMC1 measurements were correlated with clinical outcomes, such as number of follicles, number of retrieved oocytes and ongoing pregnancy rates. Results PGRMC1 mRNA levels within granulosa/luteal cells of 18% of IVF patients were > 2.25 fold higher than those of oocyte donors. Individuals with elevated PGRMC1 mRNA levels had 30% fewer large follicles and fewer oocytes retrieved. The elevated PGRMC1 mRNA levels were associated with an increase in the methylation of Pgrmc1 promoter. Conclusion In patients with elevated PGRMC1 mRNA levels, gonadotropin-induced follicle development is attenuated, although sufficient numbers of follicles develop to allow for embryo transfer and subsequent pregnancy. PMID:22245528

  7. Pregnancy, Delivery, and Neonatal Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer in Patient with Previous Cesarean Scar

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ningyuan; Chen, Hua; Xu, Zhipeng; Wang, Bin; Sun, Haixiang; Hu, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Background What role should previous cesarean section play in affecting clinical pregnancy outcomes and avoiding the complications of in vitro fertilization? In this article, we focus on elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) versus double-embryo transfer (DET) and assess the clinical efficacy and safety of eSET in patients who have a previous cesarean scar. Material/Methods The pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcomes of 130 patients who had a previous cesarean scar and received in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) were retrospectively analyzed. The number of transferred embryos was chosen depending on patients’ desire after acknowledging all benefits and risks, including eSET (eSET group, n=56) and DET (DET group, n=74). A total of 101 patients with previous vaginal delivery receiving IVF-ET in the same period were included as a control group. Results The pregnancy rates, multiple birth rates, abortion rates, ectopic pregnancy rates, gestational age at delivery, preterm birth rates, neonatal birth weight, and take-home baby rates were similar between the previous cesarean section group and the previous vaginal delivery group. A previous cesarean section scar did not affect embryo implantation and pregnancy outcomes in IVF. In the eSET and DET groups of previous cesarean section patients, the embryo implantation rates, pregnancy rates, abortion rates, and take-home baby rates were similar. However, the rate of multiple pregnancies reached 50% in the DET group, which led to more preterm births and lower birth weight. Conclusions Elective single-embryo transfer is a well-accepted strategy to avoid multiple pregnancies and improve the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of singleton pregnancy in IVF patients with a previous cesarean section. PMID:27636504

  8. Pregnancy, Delivery, and Neonatal Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer in Patient with Previous Cesarean Scar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningyuan; Chen, Hua; Xu, Zhipeng; Wang, Bin; Sun, Haixiang; Hu, Yali

    2016-09-16

    BACKGROUND What role should previous cesarean section play in affecting clinical pregnancy outcomes and avoiding the complications of in vitro fertilization? In this article, we focus on elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) versus double-embryo transfer (DET) and assess the clinical efficacy and safety of eSET in patients who have a previous cesarean scar. MATERIAL AND METHODS The pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcomes of 130 patients who had a previous cesarean scar and received in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) were retrospectively analyzed. The number of transferred embryos was chosen depending on patients' desire after acknowledging all benefits and risks, including eSET (eSET group, n=56) and DET (DET group, n=74). A total of 101 patients with previous vaginal delivery receiving IVF-ET in the same period were included as a control group. RESULTS The pregnancy rates, multiple birth rates, abortion rates, ectopic pregnancy rates, gestational age at delivery, preterm birth rates, neonatal birth weight, and take-home baby rates were similar between the previous cesarean section group and the previous vaginal delivery group. A previous cesarean section scar did not affect embryo implantation and pregnancy outcomes in IVF. In the eSET and DET groups of previous cesarean section patients, the embryo implantation rates, pregnancy rates, abortion rates, and take-home baby rates were similar. However, the rate of multiple pregnancies reached 50% in the DET group, which led to more preterm births and lower birth weight. CONCLUSIONS Elective single-embryo transfer is a well-accepted strategy to avoid multiple pregnancies and improve the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of singleton pregnancy in IVF patients with a previous cesarean section.

  9. Production of diabetic offspring using cryopreserved epididymal sperm by in vitro fertilization and intrafallopian insemination techniques in transgenic pigs.

    PubMed

    Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Honda, Kasumi; Matsunari, Hitomi; Nakano, Kazuaki; Hidaka, Tatsuro; Sekiguchi, Keito; Mochizuki, Hironori; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Tsukasa; Watanabe, Masahito; Nagaya, Masaki; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2013-12-17

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a useful technique for creating pig strains that model human diseases. However, production of numerous cloned disease model pigs by SCNT for large-scale experiments is impractical due to its complexity and inefficiency. In the present study, we aimed to establish an efficient procedure for proliferating the diabetes model pig carrying the mutant human hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α gene. A founder diabetes transgenic cloned pig was generated by SCNT and treated with insulin to allow for normal growth to maturity, at which point epididymal sperm could be collected for cryopreservation. In vitro fertilization and intrafallopian insemination using the cryopreserved epididymal sperm resulted in diabetes model transgenic offspring. These results suggest that artificial reproductive technology using cryopreserved epididymal sperm could be a practical option for proliferation of genetically modified disease model pigs.

  10. Reduction of centrifugation force in discontinuous percoll gradients increases in vitro fertilization rates without reducing bovine sperm recovery.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, A C G; Leivas, F G; Santos, F W; Schwengber, E B; Giotto, A B; Machado, C I U; Gonçalves, C G M; Folchini, N P; Brum, D S

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different centrifugation forces in bovine sperm separation by discontinuous Percoll gradients for in vitro fertilization IVF. The semen samples from each bull were pooled or each bull were centrifuged separately and centrifuged in discontinuous Percoll gradients (30, 60 and 90%) at different forces: F1 (9000×g), F2 (6500×g), F3 (4500×g) and F4 (2200×g), according experiment. The sperm samples were evaluated to determine the concentration, motility, vigor, morphology, reactive oxygen species (ROS), integrity of the plasma membrane, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and embryo development were also evaluated. No difference was observed in the concentration of sperm submitted to different centrifugation forces. The total percentage of motile sperm was increased after centrifugation at F3 and F4, and the ROS production at F1 was greater than the other forces. When the bulls semen were processed individually, no significant differences were observed for the sperm quality parameters between F1 and F4, including lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, cleavage rate and average time to the first cleavage. This work demonstrated for the first time that centrifugation at 2200×g enhanced the sperm penetration and fertilization rates without reducing sperm recovery compared to the typical centrifugation force (9000×g) currently used by the commercial bovine IVF industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. /sup 125/I-labeled radioimmunoassay kits for progesterone evaluated for use in an in vitro fertilization program

    SciTech Connect

    Blight, L.F.; White, G.H.

    1983-06-01

    We have evaluated two commercially available /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay kits (Diagnostic Products Corp., DPC; and Radioassay Systems Laboratories, RSL) for measurement of serum or plasma progesterone, to determine their suitability for use in in vitro fertilization programs. Both kits were suitably rapid for program requirements. Results by both were linear with concentration up to 60 nmol/L, and both had acceptable lower detection limits of 0.3 nmol/L. Kit-determined progesterone concentrations (y) for 100 patients' samples correlated well with results by our existing 3H radioimmunoassay method (y . 1.11x + 0.2, r . 0.965 for the DPC kit; y . 1.01x + 1.4, r . 0.974 for the RSL kit). Mean analytical recovery for the RSL kit was 116%, that for the DPC kit, 202%. Within-batch precision, expressed as the mean CV for three concentrations of progesterone, was 6.5% for the RSL kit, and 16.4% for the DPC kit; between-day CV was 8.1% for the RSL kit, 17.7% for the DPC kit. We conclude that the RSL kit provides a rapid, precise, and accurate assay for serum progesterone, suitable for use in a fertilization program, but do not recommend the DPC kit for either this purpose or the more general purpose of tracking menstrual cycles.

  12. Creating the 'ethics industry': Mary Warnock, in vitro fertilization and the history of bioethics in Britain.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Duncan

    2011-06-01

    Recent decades have seen a shift in the management and discussion of biomedicine. Issues once considered by doctors and scientists are now handled by a diverse array of participants, including philosophers, lawyers, theologians and lay representatives. This new approach, known as 'bioethics', has become the norm in regulatory committees and public debate. In this article, I argue that bioethics emerged as a valued enterprise in Britain during the 1980s because it fulfilled, and linked, the concerns of several groups. My analysis centres on the moral philosopher Mary Warnock, who chaired a government inquiry into human fertilization and embryology between 1982 and 1984, and became a strong advocate of bioethics. I detail how Warnock's promotion of bioethics tallied with the Conservative government's desire for increased surveillance of hitherto autonomous professions - while fulfilling her own belief that philosophers should engage in public affairs. And I also show that Warnock simultaneously promoted bioethics to doctors and scientists as an essential safeguard against declining political and public trust. This stance, I argue, framed bioethics as a vital intermediary between politics, the public, and biomedicine, and explains the growth and endurance of what the Guardian identified as an ethics industry.

  13. The role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists in in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, K; Ludwig, M; Felberbaum, R E

    2001-09-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-antagonists can suppress the pituitary hormone secretion completely within a few hours, allowing the avoidance of premature luteinization within controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) for assisted reproductive technologies (ART) by midcycle administration. Two different protocols were described, which were widely used in COH in several phase II and III studies as well as in clinical practice since the GnRH-antagonists Cetrorelix (Cetrotidesound recording copyright sign; Serono International S.A., Geneva, Switzerland) and Ganirelix (Orgalutansound recording copyright sign, Antagonsound recording copyright sign; Organon, Oss, The Netherlands) are available on the market. Cetrorelix was applied in single- and multiple-dose protocols; Ganirelix was used until now only according to the multiple-dose protocol. Fertilization rates of >60% as well as clinical pregnancy rates of about 30% per transfer sound most promising. Estradiol secretion is not compromised by the GnRH-antagonists using recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) for COH. The incidence of a premature leutinizing hormone (LH) surge is far below 2% while the pituitary response remains preserved, allowing the induction of ovulation by GnRH or GnRH-agonists. However, luteal phase support remains mandatory. The incidence of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) seems to be lower under antagonist treatment than in the long agonistic protocol. Treatment time is significantly shortened. Without any doubt GnRH-antagonists have the potential to become the new standard for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation.

  14. Effects of meiotic inhibitors and gonadotrophins on porcine oocytes in vitro maturation, fertilization and development.

    PubMed

    Gil, M A; Nohalez, A; Martinez, C A; Ake-Villanueva, J R; Centurion-Castro, F; Maside, C; Cuello, C; Roca, J; Parrilla, I; Martinez, E A

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of three reversible meiotic inhibitors (MINs) and their interaction with gonadotrophins (Gns) on the meiotic maturation and developmental competence of porcine oocytes. In experiment 1, the oocytes were matured for 22 hr in the presence or absence of dbcAMP (1 mM), cycloheximide (7 μM) or cilostamide (20 μM) with or without Gns, and for an additional 22 hr in the absence of MINs and Gns. At 22 hr of maturation, regardless of the presence of Gns, a higher proportion (p < .001) of oocytes cultured in the presence of MINs were effectively arrested at the germinal vesicle stage compared with the oocytes cultured without MINs. At 44 hr of maturation, the proportion of oocytes that reached MII was higher (p < .05) in groups with Gns compared with groups without Gns. In experiment 2, oocytes that were matured as in experiment 1 were inseminated and cultured for 7 days to evaluate fertilization parameters and blastocyst formation. Only oocytes from the dbcAMP + Gns group had higher (p < .05) efficiency of fertilization compared with the other treatment groups. The presence of dbcAMP during maturation also increased (p < .05) blastocyst formation and efficiency of blastocyst formation in both the presence and absence of Gns. These results indicate that the interaction of Gns with the tested MINs improved meiotic progression. In addition, regardless of supplementation with Gns, the presence of dbcAMP during the first maturation period increased and even doubled the capacity of oocytes to develop to the blastocyst stage. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions in children whose fathers underwent vasectomy reversal or in vitro fertilization with epididymal sperm aspiration: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Ghirelli-Filho, Milton; de Marchi, Patricia Leme; Mafra, Fernanda Abani; Cavalcanti, Viviane; Christofolini, Denise Maria; Barbosa, Caio Parente; Bianco, Bianca; Glina, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions in individuals born from vasectomized fathers who underwent vasectomy reversal or in vitro fertilization with sperm retrieval by epididymal aspiration (percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration). Methods A case-control study comprising male children of couples in which the man had been previously vasectomized and chose vasectomy reversal (n=31) or in vitro fertilization with sperm retrieval by percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (n=30) to conceive new children, and a Control Group of male children of fertile men who had programmed vasectomies (n=60). Y-chromosome microdeletions research was performed by polymerase chain reaction on fathers and children, evaluating 20 regions of the chromosome. Results The results showed no Y-chromosome microdeletions in any of the studied subjects. The incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions in individuals born from vasectomized fathers who underwent vasectomy reversal or in vitro fertilization with spermatozoa recovered by percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration did not differ between the groups, and there was no difference between control subjects born from natural pregnancies or population incidence in fertile men. Conclusion We found no association considering microdeletions in the azoospermia factor region of the Y chromosome and assisted reproduction. We also found no correlation between these Y-chromosome microdeletions and vasectomies, which suggests that the assisted reproduction techniques do not increase the incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions. PMID:28076602

  16. Day three versus day two embryo transfer following in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Brown, Julie; Daya, Salim; Matson, Phill

    2016-12-14

    Embryo transfer (ET) was traditionally performed two days after oocyte retrieval; however, developments in culture media have allowed embryos to be maintained in culture for longer periods. Delaying transfer from Day two to Day three would allow for further development of the embryo and might have a positive effect on pregnancy outcomes. To determine if there are any differences in live birth and pregnancy rates when embryo transfer is performed on day three after oocyte retrieval, compared with day two, in infertile couples undergoing treatment with in vitro fertilisation (IVF), including intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid) from the inception of the databases to 26th April 2016. We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO portal for ongoing trials plus citation lists of relevant publications, review articles and included studies, as well as abstracts of appropriate scientific meetings. Randomised controlled trials that compared Day 3 versus Day 2 embryo transfer after oocyte retrieval during an IVF or ICSI treatment cycle in infertile couples. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. The primary outcome measures were live birth rate and ongoing pregnancy rate. We included 15 studies. Fourteen studies reported data per woman (2894 women) and one study reported data per cycle (969 cycles). The quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach ranged from moderate quality to very low quality. The main reasons for downgrading evidence were poor methodological reporting, selective reporting, inconsistency and imprecision. Live birth per woman - Overall, there was no evidence of a difference in live birth rate between Day three and Day two embryo transfer (risk ratio

  17. From Embryos to Adults: A DOHaD Perspective on In Vitro Fertilization and Other Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Feuer, Sky; Rinaudo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Human in vitro fertilization (IVF) as a treatment for infertility is regarded as one of the most outstanding accomplishments of the 20th century, and its use has grown dramatically since the late 1970s. Although IVF is considered safe and the majority of children appear healthy, reproductive technologies have been viewed with some skepticism since the in vitro environment deviates substantially from that in vivo. This is increasingly significant because the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis has illuminated the sensitivity of an organism to its environment at critical stages during development, including how suboptimal exposures restricted specifically to gamete maturation or the preimplantation period can affect postnatal growth, glucose metabolism, fat deposition, and vascular function. Today, some of the physiological metabolic phenotypes present in animal models of IVF have begun to emerge in human IVF children, but it remains unclear whether or not in vitro embryo manipulation will have lasting health consequences in the offspring. Our expanding knowledge of the DOHaD field is fueling a paradigm shift in how disease susceptibility is viewed across the life course, with particular emphasis on the importance of collecting detailed exposure information, identifying biomarkers of health, and performing longitudinal studies for any medical treatment occurring during a developmentally vulnerable period. As IVF use continues to rise, it will be highly valuable to incorporate DOHaD concepts into the clinical arena and future approaches to public health policy. PMID:27517965

  18. Different temporal gene expression patterns for ovine pre-implantation embryos produced by parthenogenesis or in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Bebbere, Daniela; Bogliolo, Luisa; Ariu, Federica; Fois, Stefano; Leoni, Giovanni Giuseppe; Succu, Sara; Berlinguer, Fiammetta; Ledda, Sergio

    2010-09-15

    Parthenogenetic activation of the mammalian oocyte constitutes an essential step to a number of oocyte- or embryo-related technologies. Mammalian parthenotes are useful tools for studying the roles of paternal and maternal genomes in early mammalian development and are considered potential candidates for an ethical source of embryonic stem cells. We investigated the in vitro developmental competence of pre-implantation ovine embryos derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parthenogenetic activation (PA) together with the expression of a panel of fourteen genes at different times of development. IVF and PA embryos showed similar developmental competence. No differences in gene expression were observed between PA and IVF two cell-stage embryos, while PA morulae showed a significantly higher expression of IGF2. At the blastocyst stage, parthenotes exhibited up-regulation of TP-1, CDC2, and IGF2 transcripts and significantly lower levels of AQP3, ATP1A1, H2A.Z, hsp90beta, and OCT4, while NANOG, BAX, CCNB1, CDH1, GAPDH, and IGF2R displayed similar expression patterns in the two groups. Our study indicates that oocyte parthenogenetic activation does not impair in vitro pre-implantation development to the blastocyst stage, but affects the gene expression status of the embryo after the activation of its own genome.

  19. Influence of co-culture with denuded oocytes during in vitro maturation on fertilization and developmental competence of cumulus-enclosed porcine oocytes in a defined system.

    PubMed

    Appeltant, Ruth; Somfai, Tamás; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Maes, Dominiek; Van Soom, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Co-culture of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with denuded oocytes (DOs) during in vitro maturation (IVM) was reported to improve the developmental competence of oocytes via oocyte-secreted factors in cattle. The aim of the present study was to investigate if addition of DOs during IVM can improve in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) results for oocytes in a defined in vitro production system in pigs. The maturation medium was porcine oocyte medium supplemented with gonadotropins, dbcAMP and β-mercaptoethanol. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were matured without DOs or with DOs in different ratios (9 COC, 9 COC+16 DO and 9 COC+36 DO). Consequently; oocytes were subjected to IVF as intact COCs or after denudation to examine if DO addition during IVM would affect cumulus or oocyte properties. After fertilization, penetration and normal fertilization rates of zygotes were not different between all tested groups irrespective of denudation before IVF. When zygotes were cultured for 6 days, no difference could be observed between all treatment groups in cleavage rate, blastocyst rate and cell number per blastocyst. In conclusion, irrespective of the ratio, co-culture with DOs during IVM did not improve fertilization parameters and embryo development of cumulus-enclosed porcine oocytes in a defined system.

  20. [The analysis of physicians' work: announcing the end of attempts at in vitro fertilization].

    PubMed

    Santiago-Delefosse, M; Cahen, F; Coeffin-Driol, C

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study is to analyze modalities of announcing the end of attempts at in vitro ferti-lization to women who, for various reasons, were not able to have a child after several trials. What are the problems physicians face when, in the course of their work, they make these announcements? How do they give (or not give) support to these women who have placed so much hope in this technique? These are some of the questions that led the authors to conduct this empirical study within the framework of a clinical and qualitative approach to work psychology. Within this framework, work is conceptualised as a complex activity that involves the subject, both bodily and through his various modes of socialisation. The field of clinical and quali-tative approach to work psychology situations focuses on different ways of expressing distress related to contradictory work demands, as the activity is being performed; it also focuses on those creative processes used by the subject to cope with those internal and external conflicts that hinder task performance. A review of the literature and preliminary observations led us to postulate that the problems physicians are faced with when they announce the end of attempts at in vitro fertilisation (IVF) are linked to several conflicts between work values (that are specific to the medical world) and the recognition of work failure: termination of attempts at IVF. The popu-lation that participated in this research project belongs to a network of private practitioners who work with the in-house team of a Parisian clinic. But the group is not uniform and some physicians perform IVFs more frequently than others. Our qualitative study involved 10 semi-directive interviews of approximately 1 1/2 hours each, which were recorded and transcribed. Initial instructions focused on a concrete description of situations of abandonment of attempts at IVF, in terms of their preparation, development, and the way they are experienced

  1. A critical assessment of the effect of serine protease inhibitors on porcine fertilization and quality parameters of porcine spermatozoa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Beek, J; Maes, D; Nauwynck, H; Piepers, S; Van Soom, A

    2015-03-01

    Proteases play an important role during mammalian fertilization. Their function is frequently investigated using specific inhibitors. We analyzed four serine protease inhibitors [4-(2-aminoethyl) benzene sulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF), soybean trypsin inhibitor from glycine max (STI), Nα-tosyl-L-lysine-chloromethyl ketone hydrochloride (TLCK) and N(p)-tosyl-L-phenylalanine-chloromethyl ketone (TPCK)] for their in vitro effect on fertilization and sperm quality in pigs. Inhibitor concentrations were chosen based on the reduction of fertilization rate during preliminary dose-response experiments with cryopreserved epididymal spermatozoa. The inhibitor effects on in vitro fertilization (IVF) and sperm parameters (membrane and acrosomal integrity, motility and mitochondrial membrane potential - MMP) were evaluated using diluted fresh semen. AEBSF (100 μM), TLCK (100 μM) and TPCK (100 μM) decreased total fertilization and polyspermy rates by at least 50%. STI (5 μM) lowered total fertilization rates but not the level of polyspermy. AEBSF and TPCK reduced fertilization parameters to a similar degree using cryopreserved epididymal spermatozoa (dose-response experiment) or diluted fresh semen. Inhibition by STI was more pronounced using cryopreserved epididymal spermatozoa, whereas TLCK inhibited IVF only with diluted fresh semen. AEBSF and STI had no effect on sperm parameters, and TLCK significantly reduced motility. TPCK diminished MMP and motility and affected membrane and acrosomal integrity in a negative way. In summary, serine protease inhibitors differed in the way they reduce the fertilization rate. These results emphasize the necessity of inhibitor testing before they can be applied in fertilization studies. AEBSF and STI can be used in the future IVF studies without compromising sperm quality.

  2. The use of time lapse photography in an in vitro fertilization programme for better selection for embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Kovačič, Borut; Hojnik, Nina; Vlaisavljević, Veljko

    2014-01-01

    The time lapse photography is not a new method for assessing the dynamics of early embryo development in vitro. It has been used many times in the past for studying cleavages and blastulation of embryos of various animal species. However, this technique became available for routine use in an human in vitro fertilization (IVF) programme only a couple years ago and it becomes more and more popular today. The new time lapse systems are using modified microscopes which are positioned within the incubators. The observation of embryos does not need the opening of incubators. By sequential photographing of each embryo separately with camera of low intensity illumination, more than 1400 pictures of embryo are made. All these pictures are collected together and transformed into a short movie with software. This system offers the observation of dynamics of embryo development. The studies, which have used a time lapse technique for studying embryo development, revealed that the timing between different events can be used for predicting its developmental potential. In this paper the advantages and drawbacks of time lapse photography is precisely described. An overview through the published papers analyzing the dynamics of human embryo development from the zygote toward blastocyst is done and new timing parameters for grading zygotes, early embryos and blastocysts are analyzed.

  3. In Vitro Fertilization in Women With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Is as Successful as in Women From the General Infertility Population

    PubMed Central

    Oza, Sveta Shah; Pabby, Vikas; Dodge, Laura E.; Moragianni, Vasiliki A.; Hacker, Michele R.; Fox, Janis H.; Correia, Katharine; Missmer, Stacey A.; Ibrahim, Yetunde; Penzias, Alan S.; Burakoff, Robert; Friedman, Sonia; Cheifetz, Adam S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects women of reproductive age, so there are concerns about its effects on fertility. We investigated the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in patients with IBD compared with the general (non-IBD) IVF population. METHODS We conducted a matched retrospective cohort study of female patients with IBD who under-went IVF from 1998 through 2011 at 2 tertiary care centers. Patients were matched 4:1 to those without IBD (controls). The primary outcome was the cumulative rate of live births after up to 6 cycles of IVF. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of patients who became pregnant and the rate of live births for each cycle. RESULTS Forty-nine patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), 71 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 1 patient with IBD-unclassified, and 470 controls underwent IVF during the study period. The cumulative rate of live births was 53% for controls, 69% for patients with UC (P = .08 compared with controls), and 57% for patients with CD (P = .87 compared with controls). The incidence of pregnancy after the first cycle of IVF was similar among controls (40.9%), patients with UC (49.3%; P = .18), and patients with CD (42.9%; P = .79). Similarly, the incidence of live births after the first cycle of IVF was similar among controls (30.2%), patients with UC (33.8%; P = .54), and patients with CD (30.6%; P = .95). CONCLUSIONS Based on a matched cohort study, infertile women with IBD achieve rates of live births after IVF that are comparable with those of infertile women without IBD. PMID:25818081

  4. Results of in vitro fertilization in Italy after the introduction of a new law.

    PubMed

    Levi Setti, Paolo Emanuele; Albani, Elena; Novara, Paola; Cesana, Amalia; Negri, Luciano

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the consequences of a law introduced in Italy in 2004 that forbids the fertilization or injection of more than three oocytes for assisted reproduction and does not allow any embryo selection or cryopreservation. Retrospective observational analysis. Subfertile patients enrolled in an assisted reproduction program. Before the introduction of the law there were 1,179 cycles and after its enactment there were 1,860 cycles in 1,619 subfertile couples. Ovarian stimulation for IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) attempts. Pregnancy and implantation rate. Pregnancy rates (PR) per cycle (24.34% vs. 23.11%), per retrieval (28.64% vs. 25.65%), per transfer (31.37% vs. 27.74%), and the take-home babies per started cycle (19.1% vs. 18%) was not significantly different between the two periods. After introduction of the law, the PR significantly decreased in patients whose total motile sperm count was <1 x 10(6) (40.85% vs. 23.62%) and in patients receiving two embryos (35.71% vs. 23.53%). This difference was mostly the result of a reduced PR in patients <36 years old receiving two unselected embryos (41.16% vs. 30.90%). This result was, however, obscured by the higher proportion of patients <36 years (3.9% vs. 45.12%) receiving three embryos after the enactment of the law, which lead to a significantly higher PR (28.73% vs. 37.56%) and a consequent significantly higher triplet rate (0.58% vs. 4.71%). Women in whom elective transfer of two embryos was allowed before passing the law and couples with a severe male infertility factor had significantly reduced success rates. Although the overall PR did not change after the new law, if the transfer of frozen e