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Sample records for fetal body weight

  1. Relationships between fetal body weight of Wistar rats at term and the extent of skeletal ossification.

    PubMed

    Chahoud, I; Paumgartten, F J R

    2005-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between fetal body weight at term (pregnancy day 21) and the extent of ossification of sternum, metacarpus, metatarsus, phalanges (proximal, medial and distal) of fore- and hindlimbs and cervical and coccygeal vertebrae in Wistar rats. The relationships between fetal body weight and sex, intrauterine position, uterine horn, horn size, and litter size were determined using historical control data (7594 fetuses; 769 litters) of untreated rats. Relationships between body weight and degree of ossification were examined in a subset of 1484 historical control fetuses (154 litters) which were subsequently cleared and stained with alizarin red S. Fetal weight was independent of horn size, uterine horn side (left or right) or intrauterine position. Males were heavier than females and fetal weight decreased with increasing litter size. Evaluation of the skeleton showed that ossification of sternum, metacarpus and metatarsus was extensively complete and independent of fetal weight on pregnancy day 21. In contrast, the extent of ossification of fore- and hindlimb phalanges and of cervical and sacrococcygeal vertebrae was dependent on fetal body weight. The strongest correlation between body weight and degree of ossification was found for hindlimb, medial and proximal phalanges. Our data therefore suggest that, in full-term rat fetuses (day 21), reduced ossification of sternum, metacarpus and metatarsus results from a localized impairment of bone calcification (i.e., a malformation or variation) rather than from general growth retardation and that ossification of hindlimb (medial and proximal) phalanges is a good indicator of treatment-induced fetal growth retardation.

  2. Human Placental Arterial Distensibility, Birth Weight, and Body Size Are Positively Related to Fetal Homocysteine Concentration.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Stephen W; Solanky, Nita; Guarino, Jane; Moat, Stuart; Sibley, Colin P; Taggart, Michael; Glazier, Jocelyn D

    2017-07-01

    Methionine demethylation during metabolism generates homocysteine (Hcy) and its remethylation requires folate and cobalamin. Elevated Hcy concentrations are associated with vascular-related complications of pregnancy, including increased vascular stiffness, predictive of clinical vascular disease. Maternal and fetal total Hcy (tHcy) concentrations are positively related, yet the influence of Hcy on fetoplacental vascular function in normal pregnancy has not been examined. We hypothesized that Hcy alters fetoplacental vascular characteristics with influences on fetal growth outcomes. We investigated (1) placental chorionic plate artery distensibility and neonatal blood pressure in relation to umbilical plasma tHcy; (2) relationships between cord venous (CV) and cord arterial (CA) plasma tHcy, folate, and cobalamin concentrations; and (3) tHcy associations with birth weight and anthropometric measurements of body size as indices of fetal growth in normal pregnancies with appropriate weight-for-gestational age newborns. Maternal plasma tHcy, folate, and cobalamin concentrations were consistent with published data. Placental chorionic plate artery distensibility index (β; measure of vessel stiffness) was inversely related to CA tHcy, yet neonatal blood pressure was not significantly affected. CV and CA tHcy concentrations were positively related and CV tHcy negatively related to CV cobalamin but not folate. CV tHcy concentration positively related to birth weight, corrected birth weight percentile, length, head circumference, and mid-arm circumference of newborns. CV cobalamin was inversely related to fetal growth indices but not to folate concentration. Our study demonstrates a potential relationship between fetal tHcy and placental artery distensibility, placing clinical relevance to cobalamin in influencing Hcy concentration and maintaining low vascular resistance to facilitate nutrient exchange favorable to fetal growth.

  3. Prenatal Centrifugation: A Mode1 for Fetal Programming of Body Weight?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.

    2005-01-01

    'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1 -g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also crossfostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P) 12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.

  4. Prenatal Centrifugation: A Mode1 for Fetal Programming of Body Weight?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.

    2005-01-01

    'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1 -g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also crossfostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P) 12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.

  5. Fetal growth parameters and birth weight: their relationship to neonatal body composition

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W; Balasubramaniam, M; Deter, RL; Hassan, SS; Gotsch, F; Kusanovic, JP; Goncalves, LF; Romero, R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The main goal was to investigate the relationship between prenatal sonographic parameters and birth weight in predicting neonatal body composition. Methods Standard fetal biometry and soft tissue parameters were assessed prospectively in third-trimester pregnancies using three-dimensional ultrasonography. Growth parameters included biparietal diameter (BIPARIETAL DIAMETER (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), mid-thigh circumference and femoral diaphysis length (FDL). Soft tissue parameters included fractional arm volume (AVol) and fractional thigh volume (TVol) that were derived from 50% of the humeral or femoral diaphysis lengths, respectively. Percentage of neonatal body fat (%BF) was determined within 48 h of delivery using a pediatric air displacement plethysmography system based on principles of whole-body densitometry. Correlation and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed with potential prenatal predictors and %BF as the outcome variable. Results Eighty-seven neonates were studies with a mean ± SD %BF of 10.6 ± 4.6%. TVol had the greatest correlation with newborn %BF of all single-parameter models. This parameter alone explained 46.1% of the variability in %BF and the best stepwise multiple linear regression model was: %BF = 0.129 (TVol) – 1.03933 (P<0.001). Birth weight similarly explained 44.7% of the variation in %BF. AC and estimated fetal weight (EFW) accounted for only 24.8% and 30.4% of the variance in %BF, respectively. Skeletal growth parameters, such as FDL (14.2%), HC (7.9%) and BPD (4.0%), contributed the least towards explaining the variance in %BF. Conclusions During the late third trimester of pregnancy %BF is most highly correlated with TVol. Similar to actual birth weight, this soft tissue parameter accounts for a significant improvement in explaining the variation in neonatal %BF compared with fetal AC or EFW alone. PMID:19253324

  6. Chronic Protein Restriction in Mice Impacts Placental Function and Maternal Body Weight before Fetal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Barbeito-Andrés, Jimena; Klenin, Natasha; Cross, James C.; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of resource allocation are essential for maternal and fetal survival, particularly when the availability of nutrients is limited. We investigated the responses of feto-placental development to maternal chronic protein malnutrition to test the hypothesis that maternal low protein diet produces differential growth restriction of placental and fetal tissues, and adaptive changes in the placenta that may mitigate impacts on fetal growth. C57BL/6J female mice were fed either a low-protein diet (6% protein) or control isocaloric diet (20% protein). On embryonic days E10.5, 17.5 and 18.5 tissue samples were prepared for morphometric, histological and quantitative RT-PCR analyses, which included markers of trophoblast cell subtypes. Potential endocrine adaptations were assessed by the expression of Prolactin-related hormone genes. In the low protein group, placenta weight was significantly lower at E10.5, followed by reduction of maternal weight at E17.5, while the fetuses became significantly lighter no earlier than at E18.5. Fetal head at E18.5 in the low protein group, though smaller than controls, was larger than expected for body size. The relative size and shape of the cranial vault and the flexion of the cranial base was affected by E17.5 and more severely by E18.5. The junctional zone, a placenta layer rich in endocrine and energy storing glycogen cells, was smaller in low protein placentas as well as the expression of Pcdh12, a marker of glycogen trophoblast cells. Placental hormone gene Prl3a1 was altered in response to low protein diet: expression was elevated at E17.5 when fetuses were still growing normally, but dropped sharply by E18.5 in parallel with the slowing of fetal growth. This model suggests that nutrients are preferentially allocated to sustain fetal and brain growth and suggests the placenta as a nutrient sensor in early gestation with a role in mitigating impacts of poor maternal nutrition on fetal growth. PMID:27018791

  7. Chronic Protein Restriction in Mice Impacts Placental Function and Maternal Body Weight before Fetal Growth.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Paula N; Gasperowicz, Malgorzata; Barbeito-Andrés, Jimena; Klenin, Natasha; Cross, James C; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of resource allocation are essential for maternal and fetal survival, particularly when the availability of nutrients is limited. We investigated the responses of feto-placental development to maternal chronic protein malnutrition to test the hypothesis that maternal low protein diet produces differential growth restriction of placental and fetal tissues, and adaptive changes in the placenta that may mitigate impacts on fetal growth. C57BL/6J female mice were fed either a low-protein diet (6% protein) or control isocaloric diet (20% protein). On embryonic days E10.5, 17.5 and 18.5 tissue samples were prepared for morphometric, histological and quantitative RT-PCR analyses, which included markers of trophoblast cell subtypes. Potential endocrine adaptations were assessed by the expression of Prolactin-related hormone genes. In the low protein group, placenta weight was significantly lower at E10.5, followed by reduction of maternal weight at E17.5, while the fetuses became significantly lighter no earlier than at E18.5. Fetal head at E18.5 in the low protein group, though smaller than controls, was larger than expected for body size. The relative size and shape of the cranial vault and the flexion of the cranial base was affected by E17.5 and more severely by E18.5. The junctional zone, a placenta layer rich in endocrine and energy storing glycogen cells, was smaller in low protein placentas as well as the expression of Pcdh12, a marker of glycogen trophoblast cells. Placental hormone gene Prl3a1 was altered in response to low protein diet: expression was elevated at E17.5 when fetuses were still growing normally, but dropped sharply by E18.5 in parallel with the slowing of fetal growth. This model suggests that nutrients are preferentially allocated to sustain fetal and brain growth and suggests the placenta as a nutrient sensor in early gestation with a role in mitigating impacts of poor maternal nutrition on fetal growth.

  8. The effect of dietary restriction, pregnancy, and fetal type in different ewe types on fetal weight, maternal body weight, and visceral organ mass in ewes.

    PubMed

    Scheaffer, A N; Caton, J S; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P

    2004-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate maternal body changes in response to dietary restriction or the increased nutrient requirement of fetal growth. In Exp. 1, 28 mature crossbred ewes (61.6 +/- 1.8 kg initial BW) were fed a pelleted forage-based diet to evaluate effects of pregnancy and nutrient restriction on visceral organ mass. Treatments were arranged in 2 x 3 factorially, with dietary restriction (60% restriction vs. 100% maintenance) and reproductive status (nonpregnant [NP], d 90 or d 130 of gestation) as main effects. Dietary treatments were begun at d 50 of gestation, and restricted ewes remained at 60% of maintenance throughout the experiment. Nonpregnant and d-90 ewes were fed dietary treatments for 40 d and slaughtered. The d-130 ewes were fed dietary treatments for 80 d and then slaughtered. In Exp. 2, four Romanov ewes were naturally mated (Romanov fetus and Romanov dam; R/ R), and two Romanov embryos were transferred to each of four Columbia recipients (Romanov embryos and Columbia recipient; R/C). Three Columbia ewes were naturally mated (Columbia fetus and Columbia recipient; C/C). In both experiments, maternal organ weights were reported as fresh weight (grams), scaled to empty body weight (EBW; grams per kilogram) and maternal body weight (MBW; grams per kilogram). In Exp. 1, ewe EBW and fetal mass were decreased (P < 0.02) with restriction compared with maintenance. Dietary restriction decreased liver mass (16.7 vs. 14.5 g/kg EBW or 18.8 vs. 16.4 g/kg MBW; P < 0.01), but dietary restriction did not affect total digestive tract mass. In Exp. 2, ewe BW was less for the R/R compared with R/C and C/C (44.8 vs. 110.4 and 98.1 +/- 7.9 kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Fetal weight at d 130 was less for the R/R than for R/C and C/C (2.2 vs. 3.3 and 4.7 +/- 0.3 kg, respectively; P < 0.01) when measured as individual fetuses; however, when measured as total fetal mass carried in each ewe, there was no effect of ewe type. These data suggest that the

  9. The propeptide precursor proSAAS is involved in fetal neuropeptide processing and body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Daniel J; Wei, Suwen; Gomes, Ivone; Czyzyk, Traci; Mzhavia, Nino; Pan, Hui; Devi, Lakshmi A; Fricker, Lloyd D; Pintar, John E

    2010-06-01

    Mice with a targeted mutation in proSAAS have been generated to investigate whether peptides derived from this precursor could function as an inhibitor of prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) in vivo as well as to determine any alternate roles for proSAAS in nervous and endocrine tissues. Fetal mice lacking proSAAS exhibit complete, adult-like processing of prodynorphin in the prenatal brain instead of the incomplete processing seen in the brains of wild-type fetal mice where inhibitory proSAAS intermediates are transiently accumulated. This study provides evidence that proSAAS is directly involved in the prenatal regulation of neuropeptide processing in vivo. However, adult mice lacking proSAAS have normal levels of all peptides detected using a peptidomics approach, suggesting that PC1/3 activity is not affected by the absence of proSAAS in adult mice. ProSAAS knockout mice exhibit decreased locomotion and a male-specific 10-15% decrease in body weight, but maintain normal fasting blood glucose levels and are able to efficiently clear glucose from the blood in response to a glucose challenge. This work suggests that proSAAS-derived peptides can inhibit PC1/3 in embryonic brain, but in the adult brain proSAAS peptides may function as neuropeptides that regulate body weight and potentially other behaviors.

  10. Prenatal exposure of a novel antipsychotic aripiprazole: impact on maternal, fetal and postnatal body weight modulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, K P; Tripathi, Nidhi

    2014-03-01

    Nearly all atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) of second- generation are associated with body weight gain in adults with prolonged exposure; but reports on third-generation AAPDs like Aripiprazole (ARI) and weight gain are scanty and ambiguous. This may be attributed to some unknown mechanism of action, the study of which is essential to investigate gestational exposure of equivalent therapeutic doses of ARI on maternal and fetal weight gain and its longlasting impact on postnatal development and growth of offspring in rodent model. 30 pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to selected doses (2mg, 3mg and 5mg/kg BW) of ARI from GD3-21 orally, with control subjects. Half of the pregnant subjects of each group were sacrificed at GD22 and rest dams were allowed to deliver normally and pups were reared postnatally up to 10 weeks of age. In ARI treated groups, there was no substantial alteration of body weight gain and food intake in pregnant subjects while significant reduction was found in fetal and postnatal (pre-and post weaning) body weight gain. ARI was found neutral for substantial weight gain in pregnant rats but may induce significant weight loss in fetuses, creating long-lasting negative impact on offspring growth (in weight) till PND70. Therefore, ARI could be a good alternative of second- generation AAPDs for adult females but may not be safe for developing fetuses and offspring.

  11. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sudden weight gain can be due to medicines, thyroid problems, heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.

  12. Sonography in Fetal Birth Weight Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Oyekan, O. O.

    2009-01-01

    The estimation of fetal birth weight is an important factor in the management of high risk pregnancies. The information and knowledge gained through this study, comparing a combination of various fetal parameters using computer assisted analysis, will help the obstetrician to screen the high risk pregnancies, monitor the growth and development,…

  13. Sonography in Fetal Birth Weight Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Oyekan, O. O.

    2009-01-01

    The estimation of fetal birth weight is an important factor in the management of high risk pregnancies. The information and knowledge gained through this study, comparing a combination of various fetal parameters using computer assisted analysis, will help the obstetrician to screen the high risk pregnancies, monitor the growth and development,…

  14. [Maternal factors associated with fetal weight estimated by ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Melo, Adriana Suely de Oliveira; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos de; Assunção, Paula Lisiane; Melo, Fabiana de Oliveira; Gondim, Sheila Sherezaide Rocha; Carvalho, Danielle Franklin de; Cardoso, Maria Aparecida Alves

    2008-09-01

    to evaluate the effect of maternal, socioeconomic and obstetric variables, as well the presence of artery incisions in the 20th and 24th weeks on the fetal weight estimated at the end of pregnancy (36th week) in pregnant women attended by Programa Saúde da Família, in an inland town of the northeast of Brazil. a longitudinal study including 137 pregnant women, who have been followed up every four weeks in order to assess clinical, socioeconomic and obstetric conditions, including their weight. The uterine arteries were evaluated by Doppler in the 20th and 24th weeks, the fetal weight and the amniotic fluid index (AFI), determined in the 36th week. The initial maternal nutritional state has been determined by the body mass index (BMI), the pregnant women being classified as low weight, eutrophic, over weight and obese. Weight gain during gestation has been evaluated, according to the initial nutritional state, being classified at the end of the second and third trimester as insufficient, adequate and excessive weight gain. Analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the association of the fetal weight in the 36th week with the predictor variables, adjusted by multiple linear regression. an association between the fetal weight estimated in the 36th week and the mother's age (p=0.02), mother's job (p=0.02), initial nutritional state (p=0.04), weight gain in the second trimester (p=0.01), presence of incisions in the uterine arteries (p=0.02), and AFI (p=0.007) has been observed. The main factors associated to the fetal weight estimated in the 36th week, after the multiple regression analysis were: BMI at the pregnancy onset, weight gain in the second trimester, AFI and tabagism. in the present study, the fetal weight is positively associated with the initial maternal nutritional state, the weight gain in the second trimester and the volume of amniotic fluid, and negatively, to tabagism.

  15. Religion and body weight.

    PubMed

    Kim, K H; Sobal, J; Wethington, E

    2003-04-01

    Relationships between religion and body weight were examined in a US national sample. Data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS), collected through telephone and postal questionnaires, were analyzed for 3032 adults aged 25-74. Religious denomination was significantly related to higher body weight in men after accounting for sociodemographic controls. Conservative Protestant men had a 1.1 +/- 0.45 higher body mass index (BMI) than those reporting no religious affiliation. Other religion variables that initially had significant relationships with greater body weight before adjusting for control variables became nonsignificant after smoking was controlled. No significant relationships between religion and body weight were present in women. Religious denomination was related to body weight in men. Other dimensions of religiosity showing a relationship with higher BMI appeared to be because of the lower rates of smoking among more religious individuals.

  16. The Effects of Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain on Fetal Macrosomia Among American Indian/Alaska Native Women.

    PubMed

    Rockhill, Karilynn; Dorfman, Haley; Srinath, Meghna; Hogue, Carol

    2015-11-01

    The American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) population is a high-risk group across many health indicators, including fetal macrosomia. We aimed to investigate the effects of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on macrosomia and explore possible racial and geographical variations among AI/AN women. This retrospective cohort study was conducted from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System in eight states (2004-2011) among live, singleton, term births to AI/AN women 20 years or older. Prevalence of macrosomia (birth weight ≥ 4000 g) by select characteristics were estimated; differences were assessed with Chi-squares. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for effects on macrosomia of BMI and GWG (enumerating the pounds women deviated from the Institute of Medicine guidelines for GWG) controlling for other factors in the total sample and stratified by race and state of residence. The prevalence of macrosomia was 14 %, ranging from 8 to 21 % (Utah-Alaska). Among AI/AN women, 30 % were obese prepregnancy and 50 % had excess GWG. Significant independent effects were found for macrosomia of prepregnancy overweight (aOR 1.27; 95 % Confidence Interval 1.01-1.59), obesity (aOR 1.63; 1.29-2.07), and excess GWG (aOR 1.16; 1.13-1.20 per five pounds gained beyond appropriate). Adjusted estimates varied between race and state. Prepregnancy BMI and GWG are independent factors for macrosomia among AI/AN women. Future research should prioritize development, testing, and implementation of weight management programs, which account for variations among AI/AN women, both before and during pregnancy for BMI regulation and GWG control.

  17. Association of Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain with Preterm Births and Fetal Size: an Observational Study from Lebanon.

    PubMed

    El Rafei, Rym; Abbas, Hussein A; Charafeddine, Lama; Nakad, Pascale; Al Bizri, Ayah; Hamod, Dany; Yunis, Khalid A

    2016-01-01

    Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) are reported to impact the preterm birth (PTB) rate and newborn size. Most studies have been conducted in developed countries, although PTB and adverse pregnancy outcomes are more frequent in the developing world. The aim of this study is to elucidate the association of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG on the occurrence of PTB and sub-optimal fetal size in Lebanon. This is a retrospective cohort study using a hospital-based register covering 35% of births in Lebanon between 2001 and 2012. Data were collected on 170 428 pregnancies from 32 hospitals using medical records and interviews. After adjusting for confounders, underweight women had increased odds of having very preterm [odds ratio (OR) 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16, 2.14], preterm (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.28, 1.58), and small for gestational age (SGA) (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.37, 1.63) neonates. When BMI was analysed with GWG, only SGA remained significant in underweight women with low GWG. For all BMI groups, low GWG was protective against large for gestational age (LGA) and high GWG increased the odds of LGA. GWG, both low (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.15, 1.35) and high (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.32, 1.55) increased the risk of PTB in normal weight women. The same result was obtained for overweight women. High GWG increased the risk of LGA for all groups and PTB in normal weight and overweight women, whereas low GWG increased the risk of SGA and PTB. Given that there are not many studies from middle income/developing countries on patterns of weight gain during pregnancy, findings from this study may help with pre-conception counselling with emphasis on the importance of an optimal pre-pregnancy BMI and appropriate weight gain during pregnancy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Marijuana and body weight.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2014-07-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status-i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight.

  19. Effects of selenium supply and dietary restriction on maternal and fetal body weight, visceral organ mass and cellularity estimates, and jejunal vascularity in pregnant ewe lambs.

    PubMed

    Reed, J J; Ward, M A; Vonnahme, K A; Neville, T L; Julius, S L; Borowicz, P P; Taylor, J B; Redmer, D A; Grazul-Bilska, A T; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S

    2007-10-01

    To examine effects of nutrient restriction and dietary Se on maternal and fetal visceral tissues, 36 pregnant Targhee-cross ewe lambs were allotted randomly to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments were plane of nutrition [control, 100% of requirements vs. restricted, 60% of controls] and dietary Se [adequate Se, ASe (6 microg/kg of BW) vs. high Se, HSe (80 microg/kg of BW)] from Se-enriched yeast. Selenium treatments were initiated 21 d before breeding and dietary restriction began on d 64 of gestation. Diets contained 16% CP and 2.12 Mcal/kg of ME (DM basis) and differing amounts were fed to control and restricted groups. On d 135 +/- 5 (mean +/- range) of gestation, ewes were slaughtered and visceral tissues were harvested. There was a nutrition x Se interaction (P = 0.02) for maternal jejunal RNA:DNA; no other interactions were detected for maternal measurements. Maternal BW, stomach complex, small intestine, large intestine, liver, and kidney mass were less (P < or = 0.01) in restricted than control ewes. Lung mass (g/kg of empty BW) was greater (P = 0.09) in restricted than control ewes and for HSe compared with ASe ewes. Maternal jejunal protein content and protein:DNA were less (P < or = 0.002) in restricted than control ewes. Maternal jejunal DNA and RNA concentrations and total proliferating jejunal cells were not affected (P > or = 0.11) by treatment. Total jejunal and mucosal vascularity (mL) were less (P < or = 0.01) in restricted than control ewes. Fetuses from restricted ewes had less BW (P = 0.06), empty carcass weight (P = 0.06), crown-rump length (P = 0.03), liver (P = 0.01), pancreas (P = 0.07), perirenal fat (P = 0.02), small intestine (P = 0.007), and spleen weights (P = 0.03) compared with controls. Fetuses from HSe ewes had heavier (P < or = 0.09) BW, and empty carcass, heart, lung, spleen, total viscera, and large intestine weights compared with ASe ewes. Nutrient restriction resulted in less protein content (mg, P

  20. Estimating fetal weight for best clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Clinical decisions are often based on the results of third trimester sonograms, particularly with small or large babies and so accuracy of estimating fetal weight (EFW) is essential. There are numerous EFW formula available and yet in Australia no one formula has been recommended for use due to the lack of clinical evidence as to their accuracy. Objectives: 1 To assess inter/intra observer error for fetal parameter measurements with multiple observers. 2 To compare six of the most commonly used EFW formulae and analyse inter/intra formulae variations for different weight range. Method: EFW of 121 pregnancies assessed within 7 days of birth by measuring the BPD, OFD, HC, AC, FL and comparing to actual birth weight. Results: Inter‐observer error: 1.3 to 3.1%. Intra‐observer error: 1.1 to 1.9% depending on fetal parameter. Accuracy of each EFW formula changed with different weight ranges. For all formulae the highest random error occurred in the macrosomic group. The lowest random error in all weight groups was the Hadlock B formula incorporating the HC/AC/FL (7.7%). Conclusion: Considering the possible problems of head moulding this study suggests the use of: Hadlock FP et al (1982) – Formula B – incorporating HC/AC/FL. PMID:28191133

  1. Prenatal centrifugation: A model for fetal programming of adult weight?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.

    2005-08-01

    'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1-g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also cross- fostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P)12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.

  2. Ultrasound versus Clinical Examination to Estimate Fetal Weight at Term

    PubMed Central

    Lanowski, Jan-Simon; Lanowski, Gabriele; Schippert, Cordula; Drinkut, Kristina; Hillemanns, Peter; Staboulidou, Ismini

    2017-01-01

    Introduction At term, fetal weight estimation is an important factor for decisions about the delivery mode and the timing of labor induction. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of abdominal palpation with that of ultrasound performed by different examiners to estimate fetal weight. The study investigated whether differences in the examinersʼ training affected fetal weight estimates. The accuracy of the weight estimates made for fetuses with extreme birth weights was also evaluated. Finally, the accuracy of Johnsonʼs method and of Insler and Bernsteinʼs formula for estimating fetal weight were compared with the other two methods. Methods This prospective study included singleton pregnancies between 37 weeks of gestation and 12 days post-term planned for vaginal delivery or cesarean section. Ultrasound and abdominal palpation using Leopoldʼs maneuvers were performed by examiners with different levels of professional experience. Fetal weight was additionally estimated using Insler and Bernsteinʼs formula and Johnsonʼs method. Statistical analysis calculated the accuracy of fetal weight estimates for the different examiners and the four methods. Results A total of 204 women were included in the analysis. Trained ultrasound examiners were most accurate when estimating fetal weight compared with all other examiners. The comparison of all four methods showed that fetal weight was assessed most accurately with ultrasound. No learning curve could be established. BMI and advanced gestational age affected the accuracy of the estimated weight. The analysis showed that a greater deviation between estimated weight and actual weight occurred with all four methods for fetuses at either end of the extremes of fetal weight, i.e., with very low or very high birth weights. Conclusion Fetal weight should be estimated using ultrasound. A good ultrasound training is essential. PMID:28392581

  3. Body weight perception and body weight control behaviors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Frank, Robson; Claumann, Gaia S; Felden, Érico P G; Silva, Diego A S; Pelegrini, Andreia

    2017-08-10

    To investigate the association between the perception of body weight (as above or below the desired) and behaviors for body weight control in adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study that included 1051 adolescents (aged 15-19 years) who were high school students attending public schools. The authors collected information on the perception of body weight (dependent variable), weight control behaviors (initiative to change the weight, physical exercise, eating less or cutting calories, fasting for 24h, taking medications, vomiting, or taking laxatives), and measured body weight and height to calculate the body mass index and then classify the weight status. Associations were tested by multinomial logistic regression analysis. Adolescents of both sexes who perceived their body weight as below the expected weight took more initiatives to gain weight, and those who perceived themselves as overweight made more efforts to lose weight. In adolescents who perceived themselves as overweight, the behavior of not taking medication was associated with the outcome only in boys (OR=8.12), whereas in girls, an association was observed with the variables eating less, cutting calories, or avoiding fatty foods aiming to lose or avoid increasing body weight (OR=3.39). Adolescents of both sexes who practiced exercises were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight (male OR=2.00; OR=1.93 female). The perception of the body weight as above and below one's expected weight was associated with weight control behaviors, which were more likely to result in initiatives to lose and gain weight, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  4. Body weight, health, and longevity.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P; Van Itallie, T B

    1984-02-01

    In the United States, the weight associated with the greatest longevity tends to below the average weight of the population under consideration, if such weights are not associated with a history of significant medical impairment. Overweight persons tend to die sooner than average-weight persons, especially those who are overweight at younger ages. The effect of being overweight on mortality is delayed and may not be seen in short-term studies. Cigarette smoking is a potential confounder of the relationship between obesity and mortality. Studies on body weight, morbidity, and mortality must be interpreted with careful attention to the definitions of obesity or relative weight used, preexisting morbid conditions, the length of follow-up, and confounders in the analysis. The terminology of body weight standards should be defined more precisely and cited appropriately. An appropriate database relating body weight by sex, age, and possibly frame size to morbidity and mortality should be developed to permit the preparation of reference tables for defining the desirable range of body weight based on morbidity and mortality statistics.

  5. Metabolic disruption in male mice due to fetal exposure to low but not high doses of bisphenol A (BPA): Evidence for effects on body weight, food intake, adipocytes, leptin, adiponectin, insulin and glucose regulation

    PubMed Central

    Angle, Brittany M.; Do, Rylee Phuong; Ponzi, Davide; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Drury, Bertram E.; Nagel, Susan C.; Welshons, Wade V.; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Taylor, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is implicated in many aspects of metabolic disease in humans and experimental animals. We fed pregnant CD-1 mice BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50,000 μg/kg/day, spanning 10-fold below the reference dose to 10-fold above the currently predicted no adverse effect level (NOAEL). At BPA doses below the NOAEL that resulted in average unconjugated BPA between 2 and 200pg/ml in fetal serum (AUC0–24h),we observed significant effects in adult male offspring: an age-related change in food intake, an increase in body weight and liver weight, abdominal adipocyte mass, number and volume, and in serum leptin and insulin, but a decrease in serum adiponectin and in glucose tolerance. For most of these outcomes non-monotonic dose–response relationships were observed; the highest BPA dose did not produce a significant effect for any outcome. A 0.1-μg/kg/day dose of DES resulted in some but not all low-dose BPA outcomes. PMID:23892310

  6. Diabetes medications and body weight.

    PubMed

    Mitri, Joanna; Hamdy, Osama

    2009-09-01

    Tight diabetes control sometimes comes with a price: weight gain and hypoglycemia. Two of the three major recent trials that looked at the relationship between intensive diabetes control and cardiovascular events reported significant weight gain among the intensively treated groups. There is a growing concern that the weight gain induced by most diabetes medications diminishes their clinical benefits. On the other hand, there is a claim that treating diabetes with medications that are weight neutral or induces weight loss or less weight gain while minimizing those that increase body weight may emerge as the future direction for treating overweight and obese patients with diabetes. This review clarifies the weight effect of each of the currently available diabetes medications, and explains the mechanism of action behind this effect. Despite the great variability among reviewed clinical trials, the currently available evidence is quite sufficient to demonstrate the change in body weight in association with most of the currently available medications. This review also provides some guidelines on using diabetes medications during weight management programs.

  7. Association of ultrasound-based measures of fetal body composition with newborn adiposity.

    PubMed

    Ikenoue, S; Waffarn, F; Sumiyoshi, K; Ohashi, M; Ikenoue, C; Buss, C; Gillen, D L; Simhan, H N; Entringer, S; Wadhwa, P D

    2017-08-01

    Newborns exhibit substantial variation in gestational age-adjusted and sex-adjusted fat mass proportion. The antecedent characteristics of fetal body composition that are associated with newborn fat mass proportion are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether a composite measure of fetal fat mass is prospectively associated with newborn adiposity. In a longitudinal study of 109 low-risk pregnancies, fetal ultrasonography was performed at approximately 12, 20 and 30 weeks gestation. Estimated fetal adiposity (EFA) was derived by integrating cross-sectional arm and thigh per cent fat area and anterior abdominal wall thickness. Newborn per cent body fat was quantified by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. The association between EFA and newborn per cent body fat was determined by multiple linear regression. After controlling for confounding factors, EFA at 30 weeks was significantly associated with newborn per cent body fat (standardized β = 0.41, p < 0.001) and explained 24.0% of its variance, which was substantially higher than that explained by estimated fetal weight (8.1%). The observed effect was driven primarily by arm per cent fat area. A composite measure of fetal adiposity at 30 weeks gestation may constitute a better predictor of newborn per cent body fat than estimated fetal weight by conventional fetal biometry. Fetal arm fat deposition may represent an early indicator of newborn adiposity. After replication, these findings may provide a basis for an improved understanding of the ontogeny of fetal fat deposition, thereby contributing to a better understanding of its intrauterine determinants and the development of potential interventions. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  8. Factors affecting pregnancy weight gain and relationships with maternal/fetal outcomes in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Akgun, Nilufer; Keskin, Huseyin L.; Ustuner, Isık; Pekcan, Gulden; Avsar, Ayse F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on maternal and fetal complications, and to examine whether Turkish women achieve the recommended gestational weight gain. We also investigated the relationship between pregnancy weight gain and mode of delivery, with an examination of maternal anthropometry. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on a population of 986 pregnant women between November 2011 and November 2015 at Atatürk Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Maternal age, BMI, monthly weight gain during pregnancy, infant birth weight, gender, and maternal and fetal adverse outcomes were evaluated. Results: The frequency of maternal complications was positively associated with elevated pre-pregnancy BMI (p<0.05), and weight gain during pregnancy was associated with parity and increased infant birth weight (p<0.05). However, no correlations were observed between mean pregnancy weight gain and maternal complications (p>0.05). The percentage of women who gained the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-recommended amount of weight was the highest in the underweight BMI group (54.1%) and the lowest in the obese BMI group (24.3%). Pregnancy weight gain exceeded IOM recommendations in the overweight (56.3%) and obese (52.5%) groups. Conclusions: While maternal weight gain during pregnancy affects neonatal body weight, higher pre-pregnancy BMI has an adverse effect on recommended weight gain during pregnancy, with increased maternal complications. PMID:28439600

  9. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  10. Alcohol consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Norton, Edward C; Fang, Hai; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2010-07-01

    The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared with the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates.

  11. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  12. Body weight relationships in early marriage. Weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk.

    PubMed

    Bove, Caron F; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-12-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants' body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood.

  13. Evidence for carbon monoxide as the major factor contributing to lower fetal weights in rats exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Carmines, Edward L; Rajendran, Narayanan

    2008-04-01

    One of the major effects of cigarette smoking during pregnancy is bearing a child with lower birth weight. It has previously been demonstrated under experimental conditions in rats that exposure to reference cigarette smoke results in reduced birth weight (E. L. Carmines et al., 2003, Toxicol. Sci. 75, 134-147; C. L. Gaworski et al., 2004, Toxicol. Sci. 79, 157-169). The role of various smoke constituents on lower birth weight was evaluated by exposing time-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at the concentrations found in cigarette smoke. The rats were exposed for 2 h/day 7 days/week by nose-only inhalation. The target concentrations were designed to produce the same plasma levels of biomarkers as exposure to 2R4F reference cigarette smoke at a concentration of 600 mg/m(3) total particulate matter. The smoke constituents evaluated included carbon monoxide (CO), nicotine, and a mixture of aldehydes (acrolein, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde). The smoke constituents were tested individually as well as in mixtures to evaluate potential interactions. Exposure to cigarette smoke during gestation produced a reduction in both maternal body weight gain and fetal weights. Exposure to nicotine reduced maternal body weight gain but had no effect on fetal weight. Exposure to CO had no effect on maternal body weight gain but reduced fetal weight to a degree comparable to cigarette smoke. Exposure to a mixture of aldehydes (acrolein, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde) had no effect on either maternal body weight gain or fetal weight. Exposure to mixtures of nicotine and CO or nicotine, CO, and aldehydes did not demonstrate any interactions. The results of this study suggest that the observed reduction in fetal weight after exposure to cigarette smoke in rats is due to CO toxicity and not nicotine toxicity.

  14. Birth weight, gestational age, fetal growth and childhood asthma hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood asthma may have a fetal origin through fetal growth and development of the immunocompetence or respiratory organs. Objective We examined to which extent short gestational age, low birth weight and fetal growth restriction were associated with an increased risk of asthma hospitalization in childhood. Methods We undertook a cohort study based on several national registers in Denmark, Sweden and Finland. We included all live singleton born children in Denmark during 1979-2005 (N = 1,538,093), in Sweden during 1973-2004 (N = 3,067,670), and a 90% random sample of singleton children born in Finland during 1987-2004 (N = 1,050,744). The children were followed from three years of age to first hospitalization for asthma, emigration, death, their 18th birthday, or the end of study (the end of 2008 in Denmark, and the end of 2007 in Sweden or Finland), whichever came first. We computed the pseudo-values for each observation and used them in a generalized estimating equation to estimate relative risks (RR) for asthma hospitalization. Results A total of 131,783 children were hospitalized for asthma during follow-up. The risk for asthma hospitalization consistently increased with lower birth weight and shorter gestational age. A 1000-g decrease in birth weight corresponded to a RR of 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.18). A one-week decrease in gestational age corresponded to a RR of 1.05 (95% CI 1.04-1.06). Small for gestational age was associated with an increased risk of asthma hospitalization in term but not in preterm born children. Conclusions Fetal growth and gestational age may play a direct or indirect causal role in the development of childhood asthma. PMID:24602245

  15. Timing of Gestational Weight Gain on Fetal Growth and Infant Size at Birth in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Young, Melissa F.; Hong Nguyen, Phuong; Addo, O. Yaw; Pham, Hoa; Nguyen, Son; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the importance of timing of gestational weight gain during three time periods: 1: ≤ 20 weeks gestation), 2: 21–29 weeks) and 3: ≥ 30 weeks) on fetal growth and infant birth size. Methods Study uses secondary data from the PRECONCEPT randomized controlled trial in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam (n = 1436). Prospective data were collected on women starting pre-pregnancy through delivery. Maternal conditional weight gain (CWG) was defined as window-specific weight gains, uncorrelated with pre-pregnancy body mass index and all prior body weights. Fetal biometry, was assessed by ultrasound measurements of head and abdomen circumferences, biparietal diameter, and femoral length throughout pregnancy. Birth size outcomes included weight and length, and head, abdomen and mid upper arm circumferences as well as small for gestational age (SGA). Adjusted generalized linear and logistic models were used to examine associations. Results Overall, three-quarters of women gained below the Institute of Medicine guidelines, and these women were 2.5 times more likely to give birth to a SGA infant. Maternal CWG in the first window (≤ 20 weeks), followed by 21–29 weeks, had the greatest association on all parameters of fetal growth (except abdomen circumference) and infant size at birth. For birth weight, a 1 SD increase CWG in the first 20 weeks had 3 times the influence compared to later CWG (≥ 30 weeks) (111 g vs. 39 g) and was associated with a 43% reduction in SGA risk (OR (95% CI): 0.57 (0.46–0.70). Conclusion There is a need to target women before or early in pregnancy to ensure adequate nutrition to maximize impact on fetal growth and birth size. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01665378 PMID:28114316

  16. Factors affecting pregnancy weight gain and relationships with maternal/fetal outcomes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akgun, Nilufer; Keskin, Huseyin L; Ustuner, Isık; Pekcan, Gulden; Avsar, Ayse F

    2017-05-01

    To determine the effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on maternal and fetal complications, and to examine whether Turkish women achieve the recommended gestational weight gain. We also investigated the relationship between pregnancy weight gain and mode of delivery, with an examination of maternal anthropometry.  Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on a population of 986 pregnant women between November 2011 and November 2015 at Atatürk Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Maternal age, BMI, monthly weight gain during pregnancy, infant birth weight, gender, and maternal and fetal adverse outcomes were evaluated. Results: The frequency of maternal complications was positively associated with elevated pre-pregnancy BMI (p less than 0.05), and weight gain during pregnancy was associated with parity and increased infant birth weight (p less than 0.05). However, no correlations were observed between mean pregnancy weight gain and maternal complications (p greater than 0.05). The percentage of women who gained the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-recommended amount of weight was the highest in the underweight BMI group (54.1%) and the lowest in the obese BMI group (24.3%). Pregnancy weight gain exceeded IOM recommendations in the overweight (56.3%) and obese (52.5%) groups. Conclusions: While maternal weight gain during pregnancy affects neonatal body weight, higher pre-pregnancy BMI has an adverse effect on recommended weight gain during pregnancy, with increased maternal complications.

  17. Correlation between Maternal Characteristics during Early Pregnancy, Fetal Growth Rate and Newborn Weight in Healthy Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Caradeux, Javier; Serra, Ramón; Palmeiro, Yasna; Correa, Paula J; Valenzuela, Ignacio; Olguin, Jaime; Montenegro, Lazaro; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osorio, Eduardo; Illanes, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal characteristics in early pregnancy and fetal growth (FG) and birth weight (BW). A prospective cohort study was performed in unselected pregnant women who attended an ultrasound evaluation at 11-14 weeks of pregnancy. Medical history, biochemical blood tests, biophysical variables and fetal weight at 20-25 and 30-36 weeks as well as the BW were assessed. Bivariate and multivariate linear models were constructed. In all, 543 patients with normal pregnancy and labor were selected. The multiple regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between maternal body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy and the uterine artery pulsatility index (UtAPI) in the first trimester with BW (p < 0.0008) and with the ratio of fetal growth between the second and third trimesters (p < 0.0001). No correlation was found between these variables and first trimester levels of hemoglobin or glycemia. Maternal first trimester BMI and UtAPI correlate with the rate of intrauterine FG and with the BW. This evidence highlights the influence of maternal first trimester variables on fetuses with normal growth and the potential role of these variables in fetal programming. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Performance of ultrasound fetal weight estimation in twins.

    PubMed

    Dimassi, Kaouther; Karoui, Abir; Triki, Amel; Gara, Mohamed Faouzi

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasonography is an essential tool in the management of twin pregnancies. Fetal weight estimation is useful to anticipate neonatal care in case of weight restriction or growth discordance. To assess the accuracy of estimated fetal weight (EFW) in twins and to assess the accuracy of sonographic examination to predict birth weight discordance (BWD) and small birth weight (SBW).    Methods : This was  a longitudinal prospective study over a period of one year. We have included 50 twin pregnancies with a first trimester ultrasound calculated term and specified chorionicity. An ultrasound EFW was scheduled for all patients within an interval of 4 days before delivery. We calculated the differences between EFW and BW in terms of absolute difference and percentage error. We studied the correlation and the agreement between EFW and BW. Finally we calculated the sensitivity, the specificity, PPV and NPV of ultrasound in the diagnosis of BWD and SBW. Absolute differences between BWF and BW were similar for the two twins. The relative difference was 7.7% [0-32] for T1 and 8.2% [0-27] for T2. The margin of error was greater than 10% in 38% of the cases for T1 and in 34% of cases for T2. Furthermore, correlation coefficients R1 and R2 for T1 and T2 were close to 1; R 1 =0.87 and  R 2 = 0.89. Linear regression analysis allowed us to calculate the birth weight based on the estimated weight and this according to the following equations: For the first twin BW T1 = 0.846 * EFW 415,57+ T1 For the second twin BW T2 = 65.68 + 0.963 * EFW T2 in 34% of cases for T2. Chorionicity, presentation and gestational age did not affect the estimations. Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of SBW had a sensitivity of 90.32%, a specificity of 76.82%, a (PPV) of 80% and a (VPN) of 87%. The performance of ultrasound in the diagnosis of BWD varied according to the adopted threshold. Ultrasound is an effective examination to estimate twins weight. Regarding prenatal diagnosis of birth weight

  19. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal fetal lung.

    PubMed

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Brugger, Peter C; Csapo, Bence; Weber, Michael; Hörmann, Marcus; Bankier, Alexander; Bammer, Roland; Herold, Christian J; Prayer, Daniela

    2008-04-01

    To quantify apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in fetuses with normal lungs and to determine whether ADC can be used in the assessment of fetal lung development. In 53 pregnancies (20-37th weeks of gestation), we measured ADC on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the apical, middle, and basal thirds of the right lung. ADCs were correlated with gestational age. Differences between the ADCs were assessed. Fetal lung volumes were measured on T2-weighted sequences and correlated with ADCs and with age. ADCs were 2.13 +/- 0.44 microm(2)/ms (mean +/- SD) in the apex, 1.99 +/- 0.42 microm(2)/ms (mean +/- SD) in the middle third, and 1.91 +/- 0.41 microm(2)/ms (mean +/- SD) in the lung base. Neither the individual ADC values nor average ADC values showed a significant correlation with gestational age or with lung volumes. Average ADCs decreased significantly from the lung apex toward the base. Individual ADCs showed little absolute change and heterogeneity. Lung volumes increased significantly during gestation. We have not been able to identify a pattern of changes in the ADC values that correlate with lung maturation. Furthermore, the individual, gravity-related ADC changes are subject to substantial variability and show nonuniform behavior. ADC can therefore not be used as an indicator of lung maturity.

  20. Fetal growth and birth size is associated with maternal anthropometry and body composition.

    PubMed

    Thame, Minerva; Osmond, Clive; Trotman, Helen

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to investigate the association of maternal weight, height and body composition with fetal growth. We recruited 425 women at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica, who had singleton pregnancies, were less than 15 weeks gestation and had no systemic illness. Maternal weight, height and skinfold thicknesses were measured at the first antenatal visit and lean mass was calculated. Sonographic measurements of the fetus were made at 15, 25 and 35 weeks gestation. Weight, crown-heel length and head circumference were measured at birth. Analyses were confined to 360 (85%) women; 65 women did not complete the study. Maternal height was positively associated with femoral length at 25 and 35 weeks gestation and with head circumference at 35 weeks (all P < 0.02). Maternal weight was positively associated with abdominal circumference and femoral length at 25 weeks, and with larger head and abdominal circumference and longer femur at 35 weeks (all P < 0.02). Maternal lean mass had similar associations to maternal weight and they were both positively associated with estimated fetal weight (all P < 0.02). All three maternal measurements were positively associated with birthweight, length and head circumference. Maternal size was associated with fetal size as early as 25 weeks gestation, with height strongly associated with femoral length, and with weight and lean mass strongly associated with abdominal circumference.

  1. Maternal and fetal genetic contribution to gestational weight gain.

    PubMed

    Warrington, N M; Richmond, R; Fenstra, B; Myhre, R; Gaillard, R; Paternoster, L; Wang, C A; Beaumont, R N; Das, S; Murcia, M; Barton, S J; Espinosa, A; Thiering, E; Atalay, M; Pitkänen, N; Ntalla, I; Jonsson, A E; Freathy, R; Karhunen, V; Tiesler, C M T; Allard, C; Crawford, A; Ring, S M; Melbye, M; Magnus, P; Rivadeneira, F; Skotte, L; Hansen, T; Marsh, J; Guxens, M; Holloway, J W; Grallert, H; Jaddoe, V W V; Lowe, W L; Roumeliotaki, T; Hattersley, A T; Lindi, V; Pahkala, K; Panoutsopoulou, K; Standl, M; Flexeder, C; Bouchard, L; Nohr, E A; Marina, L S; Kogevinas, M; Niinikoski, H; Dedoussis, G; Heinrich, J; Reynolds, R M; Lakka, T; Zeggini, E; Raitakari, O T; Chatzi, L; Inskip, H M; Bustamante, M; Hivert, M-F; Jarvelin, M-R; Sørensen, T I A; Pennell, C; Felix, J F; Jacobsson, B; Geller, F; Evans, D M; Lawlor, D A

    2017-10-09

    Clinical recommendations to limit gestational weight gain (GWG) imply high GWG is causally related to adverse outcomes in mother or offspring, but GWG is the sum of several inter-related complex phenotypes (maternal fat deposition and vascular expansion, placenta, amniotic fluid and fetal growth). Understanding the genetic contribution to GWG could help clarify the potential effect of its different components on maternal and offspring health. Here we explore the genetic contribution to total, early and late GWG. A genome-wide association study was used to identify maternal and fetal variants contributing to GWG in up to 10 543 mothers and 16 317 offspring of European origin, with replication in 10 660 mothers and 7561 offspring. Additional analyses determined the proportion of variability in GWG from maternal and fetal common genetic variants and the overlap of established genome-wide significant variants for phenotypes relevant to GWG (e.g. maternal BMI and glucose, birthweight). Approximately 20% of the variability in GWG was tagged by common maternal genetic variants, and the fetal genome made a surprisingly minor contribution to explaining variation in GWG. Variants near the Pregnancy Specific Beta-1-Glycoprotein 5 (PSG5) gene reached genome-wide significance (P=1.71 × 10(-8)) for total GWG in the offspring genome, but did not replicate. Some established variants associated with increased BMI, fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes were associated with lower early, and higher later GWG. Maternal variants related to higher systolic blood pressure were related to lower late GWG. Established maternal and fetal birthweight variants were largely unrelated to GWG. We found a modest contribution of maternal common variants to GWG and some overlap of maternal BMI, glucose and type 2 diabetes variants with GWG. These findings suggest that associations between GWG and later offspring/maternal outcomes may be due to the relationship of maternal BMI and diabetes with

  2. Body weight of hypersonic aircraft, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    The load bearing body weight of wing-body and all-body hypersonic aircraft is estimated for a wide variety of structural materials and geometries. Variations of weight with key design and configuration parameters are presented and discussed. Both hot and cool structure approaches are considered in isotropic, organic composite, and metal matrix composite materials; structural shells are sandwich or skin-stringer. Conformal and pillow-tank designs are investigated for the all-body shape. The results identify the most promising hypersonic aircraft body structure design approaches and their weight trends. Geometric definition of vehicle shapes and structural analysis methods are presented in appendices.

  3. Relationships between fetal biometry, maternal factors and birth weight of purebred domestic cat kittens.

    PubMed

    Gatel, L; Rosset, E; Chalvet-Monfray, K; Buff, S; Rault, D N

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the relation between kittens' birth weights and biometrical factors from the kittens and the mother during pregnancy. Knowing fetal birth weight could help in detecting abnormalities before parturition. A Caesarean-section or a postnatal management plan could be scheduled. Consequently, the neonatal mortality rate should be decreased. We used ultrasonographic measurements of femur length (FL) or fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), pregnancies, and maternal factors to obtain a model of prediction. For this purpose, linear mixed-effects models were used because of random effects (several fetuses for one queen and a few paired measurements) and fixed effects (litter size, pregnancy rank, weight, wither height, and age of the queen). This study was performed in 24 purebred queens with normal pregnancies and normal body conditions. Queens were scanned in the second half of pregnancy, using a micro-convex probe. They gave birth to 140 healthy kittens whose mean birth weight was 104 g (ranged 65 to 165 g). No correlation between the birth weight and the age of the queen, as a maternal factor alone, was observed. But the birth weight was found to be inversely proportional to the pregnancy rank and the litter size. Moreover, birth weight increased when the weight and wither height of queen increased. BPD and FL increased linearly during pregnancy so a model was used to estimate mean birth weight. Using this model, we found a correlation between mean birth weights and an association of parameters: maternal factors (wither height and age), and litter size.

  4. [Fetal weight at weight as predisposing risk factor for type 2 diabetes in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Hernández Valencia, M; Zárate, A

    2001-10-01

    When the fetus growth in an unfavorable intrauterine environment, this process has implications in the adult life, that predisposes to suffer metabolic abnormalities as obesity, hypertension and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The unfavorable intrauterine environment includes the pregnancy with diabetes mellitus, pregnancy with gestational diabetes, and pregnancy with maternal undernutrition. Multiple epidemiological studies developed in North America and Europe appear to broadly confirm the association of the low birth weight in babies borne at term, with the glucose metabolism impairments in the adult life. An implication of metabolic impairments on high birth weight for the gestational age has been founded. This alteration could start when there are changes in nutritional habits in migrate populations, having number and function of the pancreatic islets altered, maybe because during fetal life they were faced to blood fluid decreased, and nutrients also decrease as well as the differentiation of cells was modified, as an important intent for fetal survival. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been reported in 13 to 25% for low birth weight. On the other hand, maternal hyperglycemia leads to beta-cell hyperplasia in the fetus, by a constant stimulus over the insulin production which stimulates the use of glucose as nutrients, leading to the increase in fetal weight and determining genetic changes. In overnutrition conditions, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been reported of 8 to 18%. Growth of tissues has critical periods at different times and intrauterine environment can be one mechanism for may permanently changes in pancreas structure and hormonal secretion patterns. Thus, the hypothesis that autoprotective fetal changes during the intrauterine life occur, took place, specially during the critical period of development, leaves to permanent changes called "programmed changes", including an endocrine disturbance of pancreatic functions

  5. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  6. Modelling body weight, dieting and obesity traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Paolo Nicola

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation into why losing weight is so difficult even in the absence of rational addiction, time-inconsistent preferences or bounded rationality. We add to the existing literature by focusing on the role that individual metabolism has on weight loss. The results from the theoretical model provide multiple steady states and a threshold revealing a situation of "obesity traps" that the individual must surpass in order to successfully lose weight. Any weight-loss efforts that the individual undertakes have to surpass such threshold in order to result in permanent weight loss, otherwise the individual will gradually regain weight and converge to his or her previous body weight.

  7. Amniotic fluid index and estimated fetal weight for prediction of fetal macrosomia: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    El Khouly, Nabih I; Elkelani, Osama A; Saleh, Said A

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of combining the estimated fetal weight (EFW) and amniotic fluid index (AFI) measured in term patients early in labor with intact membranes for prediction of macrosomia. In a single center, prospective observational study, 600 patients in the first stage of labor before rupture of membranes in whom ultrasonography was performed to measure AFI and EFW, and these data were analyzed statistically to evaluate prediction of fetal macrosomia. Macrosomia occurred in 64 cases (10.6%). The AFI was significantly higher in the macrosomic group (p = 0.001). It was noted that the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for EFW was 0.93 and that of AFI was 0.67. Based on suggested combined EFW and AFI cutoffs of 4000 g and 164 mm, respectively, the positive predictive value (PPV) for combined parameters (92.3%) was higher than that of EFW (75%) and that of AFI (27%) and the likelihood ratio for combination (93.7%) was higher than that of EFW (24.7%) and that of AFI (21%). Combined use of EFW and AFI improves prediction of macrosomia at birth rather than the EFW alone.

  8. Body Weight Image and Gender Influence Emotional Response Patterns to Body Weight Related Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelRosario, Marlene W.; And Others

    Young adult females' attitudes toward body weight regulation contain important emotional components. To study the effects of body weight cues on emotionality, 160 college students (75 females, 85 males) completed either a body weight related (Q1) or control (Q2) questionnaire prior to taking the California Test of Personality (CTP). An analysis of…

  9. Body Weight Image and Gender Influence Emotional Response Patterns to Body Weight Related Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelRosario, Marlene W.; And Others

    Young adult females' attitudes toward body weight regulation contain important emotional components. To study the effects of body weight cues on emotionality, 160 college students (75 females, 85 males) completed either a body weight related (Q1) or control (Q2) questionnaire prior to taking the California Test of Personality (CTP). An analysis of…

  10. Body weight changes associated with psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Vanina, Yelena; Podolskaya, Anna; Sedky, Karim; Shahab, Hasan; Siddiqui, Abufarah; Munshi, Firoz; Lippmann, Steven

    2002-07-01

    The authors discuss changes in body weight associated with various psychopharmaceuticals. A large number of articles and books about drug-induced changes in body weight, selected on the basis of various literature searches and the authors' clinical experiences with psychopharmaceuticals, were reviewed. Many psychotropic drugs with antipsychotic, mood stabilizing, and antidepressant properties are associated with weight gain. Others, such as fluoxetine, isocarboxazid, nefazadone, topiramate, and psychostimulants, may cause weight loss. The antipsychotic drugs chlorpromazine, clozapine, and olanzapine are often associated with weight gain. Among antidepressants, amitriptyline and mirtazapine are known to cause weight gain. However, reductions are sometimes observed, and each antidepressant has its own unique weight-effect profile. Mood stabilizers, especially valproate-related products, are also associated with weight gain. Careful monitoring and consideration of alternative therapies are essential.

  11. Brain nuclear receptors and body weight regulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essent...

  12. Daptomycin Dosing Based on Ideal Body Weight versus Actual Body Weight: Comparison of Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Warren E.; Fox, Barry C.; Andes, David R.; Buhr, Kevin A.; Fish, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Daptomycin use at our institution changed to ideal body weight dosing based on a published analysis of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic efficacy target attainment, bacterial ecology, and a desire to reduce drug toxicity. The current study compared outcomes between actual body weight and ideal body weight dosing of daptomycin before and after this intervention. In the evaluable group, 69 patients received doses based on actual body weight and 48 patients received doses based on ideal body weight. Patients were treated for documented Enterococcus species, Staphylococcus aureus, or coagulase-negative Staphylococcus infections, including bloodstream, intraabdominal, skin and soft tissue, urinary, and bone. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical success between the groups (88.9% for actual body weight compared to 89.1% for ideal body weight, P = 0.97). After we adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, concomitant 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl–coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, infection type, and organism type, clinical success rates remained similar between groups (adjusted odds ratio of 0.68 in favor of actual body weight, 95% confidence interval [CI] of 0.13 to 3.55). Microbiological outcomes, length of stay, mortality, and adverse effects were also similar between groups. Further studies are warranted to confirm that ideal body weight dosing provides similar outcomes to actual body weight dosing for all patients and types of infections and organisms. PMID:24145531

  13. Body Weight Independently Affects Articular Cartilage Catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Denning, W. Matt; Winward, Jason G.; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J. Ty; Seeley, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key points Walking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration. Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in

  14. Correlation between pre-pregnancy body mass index and maternal visceral adiposity with fetal biometry during the second trimester.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Karina R M; Souza, Alex Sandro R; Figueiroa, José N; Alves, João Guilherme B

    2017-08-01

    To determine the correlation between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and maternal visceral adiposity with fetal biometry during the second trimester. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted among pregnant women who received prenatal care at a center in Recife, Brazil, between October 3, 2011, and September 27, 2013. Pre-pregnancy BMI was determined at the first prenatal care visit. Maternal visceral adiposity and fetal biometry were measured at the same ultrasonography session. The associations between maternal and fetal variables were evaluated using the Pearson correlation coefficient (R). The Student t test was used to test the null hypothesis of adjusted correlation coefficients. Overall, 740 women were included. No correlation was found between pre-pregnancy BMI and any of the fetal biometric variables assessed. By contrast, maternal visceral adiposity positively correlated with fetal abdominal circumference (R=0.529), estimated fetal weight (R=0.524), head circumference (R=0.521), femur length (R=0.521), and biparietal diameter (R=0.524; P<0.001 for all fetal variables). These findings remained statistically significant after controlling for pregnancy length. Maternal visceral adiposity, but not pre-pregnancy BMI, positively correlated with fetal biometry during the second trimester. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  15. Association of Second and Third Trimester Weight Gain in Pregnancy with Maternal and Fetal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Drehmer, Michele; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Kac, Gilberto; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between weekly weight gain, during the second and third trimesters, classified according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM/NRC) recommendations, and maternal and fetal outcomes. Methods Gestational weight gain was evaluated in 2,244 pregnant women of the Brazilian Study of Gestational Diabetes (Estudo Brasileiro do Diabetes Gestacional – EBDG). Outcomes were cesarean delivery, preterm birth and small or large for gestational age birth (SGA, LGA). Associations between inadequate weight gain and outcomes were estimated using robust Poisson regression adjusting for pre-pregnancy body mass index, trimester-specific weight gain, age, height, skin color, parity, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Results In fully adjusted models, in the second trimester, insufficient weight gain was associated with SGA (relative risk [RR] 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26–2.33), and excessive weight gain with LGA (RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16–2.31); in third trimester, excessive weight gain with preterm birth (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.08–2.70) and cesarean delivery (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.03–1.44). Women with less than recommended gestational weight gain in the 2nd trimester had a lesser risk of cesarean deliveries (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.71–0.96) than women with adequate gestational weight gain in this trimester. Conclusion Though insufficient weight gain in the 3rd trimester was not associated with adverse outcomes, other deviations from recommended weight gain during second and third trimester were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. These findings support, in part, the 2009 IOM/NRC recommendations for nutritional monitoring during pregnancy. PMID:23382944

  16. Parental perception of preschool child body weight.

    PubMed

    Garrett-Wright, Dawn

    2011-10-01

    Obesity in preschoolers has risen dramatically in the last decade. Although studies have demonstrated that parents of preschoolers have incorrect perceptions of their child's body weight, little is known about the factors that may be associated with these perceptions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental perceptions of preschool child body weight and parental psychosocial factors. Quantitative analyses included descriptive statistics, correlations, and regression analyses. More than one third of the children in the sample were at risk for being overweight or were already overweight. However, less than 6% of parents felt that their child had an elevated body weight. Results from univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the parent's health literacy level was a significant predictor of the accuracy of their perceptions regarding their child's body weight (p < .05). Parental concern regarding child weight and perceived level of efficacy did not significantly predict the accuracy of their perceptions. Results from this study indicate that assessing parental perceptions of preschool child body weight can help providers accurately understand how parents view their children and lead to tailored educational interventions. In addition, the results support previous research suggesting that parental health literacy is a key to providing high-quality family-centered care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [The influence of hyperleptinemia during pregnancy on fetal weight and obesity development in progeny mice with agouti yellow mutation].

    PubMed

    Makarova, E N; Syracheva, M S; Bazhan, N M

    2014-03-01

    Maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in the offspring, and obesity is accompanied by an increase in blood leptin levels. Leptin can influence the progeny metabolism via its influence on fetal growth and, possibly, via its action on AgRP expression in placenta. The "yellow" mutation at the mouse agouti locus (A(y)) evokes obesity and increases blood leptin levels in pregnant mice. The aim was to examine the influence of A(y) mutation in pregnant mice on fetal weight, placental expression of AgRP gene and food intake and obesity development in progeny. A(y) pregnant females as compared to control ones had increased circulating leptin levels on days 13 and 18 of pregnancy. Both fetal weight and placental expression of AgRP gene were increased on day 13 of pregnancy and decreased on day 18 of pregnancy in A(y) females as compared to control ones. Both control (a/a) and obesity prone (A(y)/a) male young born to A(y) mothers had lowered body weight and enhanced food intake between 5 and 11 weeks of age as compared to male progeny of control mothers. The enhanced leptin levels during pregnancy in mice are associated with retardation of obesity development in obesity prone male offspring and with changes in fetal weight and AgRP gene expression in placenta.

  18. Fetal Hemodynamics and Fetal Growth Indices by Ultrasound in Late Pregnancy and Birth Weight in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Liu, Yong; Lai, Ya-Ping; Gu, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Dong-Mei; Yang, Min

    2016-09-05

    The offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are prone to macrosomia. However, birth weight is difficult to be correctly estimated by ultrasound because of fetal asymmetric growth characteristics. This study aimed to investigate the correlations between fetal hemodynamics, fetal growth indices in late pregnancy, and birth weight in GDM. A total of 147 women with GDM and 124 normal controls (NC) were enrolled in this study. Fetal hemodynamic indices, including the systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D), resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI) of umbilical artery (UA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), and renal artery (RA), were collected. Fetal growth indices, including biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur length, were also measured by ultrasound. Birth weight, newborn gender, and maternal clinical data were collected. The independent samples t-test showed that BPD, HC, and AC were larger in GDM than in NC (P < 0.05). Fetal hemodynamic indices of the UA and MCA were lower (P < 0.05), but those of the RA were higher (P < 0.001) in GDM than in NC. Birth weight was higher in GDM than in NC (P < 0.001). Pearson's correlation analysis showed that hemodynamic indices of the UA were negatively correlated with birth weight, BPD, HC, and AC in both groups (P < 0.05). MCA (S/D, PI, and RI) was negatively correlated with birth weight, HC, and AC in GDM (r = -0.164, -0.206, -0.200, -0.226, -0.189, -0.179, -0.196, -0.177, and - 0.172, respectively, P< 0.05), but there were no correlations in NC (P > 0.05). RA (S/D, PI, and RI) was positively correlated with birth weight in GDM (r = 0.168, 0.207, and 0.184, respectively, P< 0.05), but there were no correlations in NC (P > 0.05). Fetal hemodynamic indices in late pregnancy might be helpful for estimating newborn birth weight in women with GDM.

  19. Fetal Hemodynamics and Fetal Growth Indices by Ultrasound in Late Pregnancy and Birth Weight in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Liu, Yong; Lai, Ya-Ping; Gu, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Dong-Mei; Yang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Background: The offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are prone to macrosomia. However, birth weight is difficult to be correctly estimated by ultrasound because of fetal asymmetric growth characteristics. This study aimed to investigate the correlations between fetal hemodynamics, fetal growth indices in late pregnancy, and birth weight in GDM. Methods: A total of 147 women with GDM and 124 normal controls (NC) were enrolled in this study. Fetal hemodynamic indices, including the systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D), resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI) of umbilical artery (UA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), and renal artery (RA), were collected. Fetal growth indices, including biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur length, were also measured by ultrasound. Birth weight, newborn gender, and maternal clinical data were collected. Results: The independent samples t-test showed that BPD, HC, and AC were larger in GDM than in NC (P < 0.05). Fetal hemodynamic indices of the UA and MCA were lower (P < 0.05), but those of the RA were higher (P < 0.001) in GDM than in NC. Birth weight was higher in GDM than in NC (P < 0.001). Pearson's correlation analysis showed that hemodynamic indices of the UA were negatively correlated with birth weight, BPD, HC, and AC in both groups (P < 0.05). MCA (S/D, PI, and RI) was negatively correlated with birth weight, HC, and AC in GDM (r = −0.164, −0.206, −0.200, −0.226, −0.189, −0.179, −0.196, −0.177, and − 0.172, respectively, P < 0.05), but there were no correlations in NC (P > 0.05). RA (S/D, PI, and RI) was positively correlated with birth weight in GDM (r = 0.168, 0.207, and 0.184, respectively, P < 0.05), but there were no correlations in NC (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Fetal hemodynamic indices in late pregnancy might be helpful for estimating newborn birth weight in women with GDM. PMID:27569240

  20. Sildenafil citrate increases fetal weight in a mouse model of fetal growth restriction with a normal vascular phenotype.

    PubMed

    Dilworth, Mark Robert; Andersson, Irene; Renshall, Lewis James; Cowley, Elizabeth; Baker, Philip; Greenwood, Susan; Sibley, Colin Peter; Wareing, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined as the inability of a fetus to achieve its genetic growth potential and is associated with a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinically, FGR is diagnosed as a fetus falling below the 5(th) centile of customised growth charts. Sildenafil citrate (SC, Viagra™), a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, corrects ex vivo placental vascular dysfunction in FGR, demonstrating potential as a therapy for this condition. However, many FGR cases present without an abnormal vascular phenotype, as assessed by Doppler measures of uterine/umbilical artery blood flow velocity. Thus, we hypothesized that SC would not increase fetal growth in a mouse model of FGR, the placental-specific Igf2 knockout mouse, which has altered placental exchange capacity but normal placental blood flow. Fetal weights were increased (by 8%) in P0 mice following maternal SC treatment (0.4 mg/ml) via drinking water. There was also a trend towards increased placental weight in treated P0 mice (P = 0.056). Additionally, 75% of the P0 fetal weights were below the 5(th) centile, the criterion used to define human FGR, of the non-treated WT fetal weights; this was reduced to 51% when dams were treated with SC. Umbilical artery and vein blood flow velocity measures confirmed the lack of an abnormal vascular phenotype in the P0 mouse; and were unaffected by SC treatment. (14)C-methylaminoisobutyric acid transfer (measured to assess effects on placental nutrient transporter activity) per g placenta was unaffected by SC, versus untreated, though total transfer was increased, commensurate with the trend towards larger placentas in this group. These data suggest that SC may improve fetal growth even in the absence of an abnormal placental blood flow, potentially affording use in multiple sub-populations of individuals presenting with FGR.

  1. Sildenafil Citrate Increases Fetal Weight in a Mouse Model of Fetal Growth Restriction with a Normal Vascular Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Dilworth, Mark Robert; Andersson, Irene; Renshall, Lewis James; Cowley, Elizabeth; Baker, Philip; Greenwood, Susan; Sibley, Colin Peter; Wareing, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined as the inability of a fetus to achieve its genetic growth potential and is associated with a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinically, FGR is diagnosed as a fetus falling below the 5th centile of customised growth charts. Sildenafil citrate (SC, Viagra™), a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, corrects ex vivo placental vascular dysfunction in FGR, demonstrating potential as a therapy for this condition. However, many FGR cases present without an abnormal vascular phenotype, as assessed by Doppler measures of uterine/umbilical artery blood flow velocity. Thus, we hypothesized that SC would not increase fetal growth in a mouse model of FGR, the placental-specific Igf2 knockout mouse, which has altered placental exchange capacity but normal placental blood flow. Fetal weights were increased (by 8%) in P0 mice following maternal SC treatment (0.4 mg/ml) via drinking water. There was also a trend towards increased placental weight in treated P0 mice (P = 0.056). Additionally, 75% of the P0 fetal weights were below the 5th centile, the criterion used to define human FGR, of the non-treated WT fetal weights; this was reduced to 51% when dams were treated with SC. Umbilical artery and vein blood flow velocity measures confirmed the lack of an abnormal vascular phenotype in the P0 mouse; and were unaffected by SC treatment. 14C-methylaminoisobutyric acid transfer (measured to assess effects on placental nutrient transporter activity) per g placenta was unaffected by SC, versus untreated, though total transfer was increased, commensurate with the trend towards larger placentas in this group. These data suggest that SC may improve fetal growth even in the absence of an abnormal placental blood flow, potentially affording use in multiple sub-populations of individuals presenting with FGR. PMID:24204949

  2. Fetal Cardiac Responding: A Correlate of Birth Weight and Neonatal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emory, Eugene K.; Noonan, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Explores whether an empirical classification of healthy fetuses as fetal heart rate accelerators or decelerators would predict birth weight and neonatal behavior scored with the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale. (Author/RH)

  3. Organ weights in human fetuses after formalin fixation: standards by gestational age and body weight.

    PubMed

    Guihard-Costa, Anne-Marie; Ménez, Françoise; Delezoide, Anne-Lise

    2002-01-01

    This study provides new standards of fetal organ weights (brain, heart, liver, pancreas, spleen, lungs, kidneys, adrenals, thymus, and thyroid) and body dimensions (crown-heel and crown-rump lengths, head circumference, and foot length). Subjects came from a large dataset including more than 4,000 fetuses autopsied in fetopathology units of pediatric hospitals in Paris between 1986 and 2001. From this dataset, 673 subjects were carefully selected by exclusion of multiple pregnancies, macerated and malformed fetuses, subjects with abnormal karyotypes, and those with severe infections. Fetal age ranged from 9 to 42 gestational weeks, with a very large sample of fetuses in the first half of gestation. Each organ was weighed after fixation in formalin. The standards were computed in relation to age and body weight. The mathematical models used to fit the percentile growth curves were carefully selected for each organ or dimension. This study, based on reliable methodology, affords a whole set of accurate growth standards useful for pathologists.

  4. Excessive Body Weight in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Bales, Connie W

    2015-08-01

    The health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and understudied. A defined treatment of geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related comorbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This retrospective article highlights the current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. The findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions help one to move closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults.

  5. Association between dietary carbohydrates and body weight.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunsheng; Olendzki, Barbara; Chiriboga, David; Hebert, James R; Li, Youfu; Li, Wenjun; Campbell, MaryJane; Gendreau, Katherine; Ockene, Ira S

    2005-02-15

    The role of dietary carbohydrates in weight loss has received considerable attention in light of the current obesity epidemic. The authors investigated the association of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) with dietary intake of carbohydrates and with measures of the induced glycemic response, using data from an observational study of 572 healthy adults in central Massachusetts. Anthropometric measurements, 7-day dietary recalls, and physical activity recalls were collected quarterly from each subject throughout a 1-year study period. Data were collected between 1994 and 1998. Longitudinal analyses were conducted, and results were adjusted for other factors related to body habitus. Average body mass index was 27.4 kg/m(2) (standard deviation, 5.5), while the average percentage of calories from carbohydrates was 44.9 (standard deviation, 9.6). Mean daily dietary glycemic index was 81.7 (standard deviation, 5.5), and glycemic load was 197.8 (standard deviation, 105.2). Body mass index was found to be positively associated with glycemic index, a measure of the glycemic response associated with ingesting different types of carbohydrates, but not with daily carbohydrate intake, percentage of calories from carbohydrates, or glycemic load. Results suggest that the type of carbohydrate may be related to body weight. However, further research is required to elucidate this association and its implications for weight management.

  6. The baboon model (Papio hamadryas) of fetal loss: Maternal weight, age, reproductive history and pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Moore, Charleen M.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Dunn, Betty G.; Dudley, Donald; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated with the incidence of human stillbirths. The prevention of stillbirths in women is a pressing clinical problem. Methods We reviewed 402 pathology records of fetal loss occurring in a large baboon (Papio spp.) colony during a 15-year period. Clinical histories of 565 female baboons with one or more fetal losses during a 20-year period were analyzed for weight, age, and reproductive history. Results Fetal loss was most common at term (35.57%) and preterm (28.61%) and less common in the first half of gestation (11.20%) and post-term (5.22%). Greater maternal weight, older age, history of stillbirth and higher parity were independent predictors for stillbirth. An exponential increase in the incidence of fetal loss was observed beginning at age 14 years in baboons. Conclusion Fetal loss and maternal risk factors associated with stillbirths in baboons were similar to those documented in women. PMID:19017195

  7. Effects of strenuous maternal exercise on fetal organ weights and skeletal muscle development in rats.

    PubMed

    Mottola, M F; Bagnall, K M; Belcastro, A N

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the effects of strenuous maternal aerobic exercise throughout gestation on fetal outcome in the rat. The strenuous exercise intensity consisted of a treadmill speed of 30 m.min-1 on a 10 degrees incline, for 120 min.day-1, 5 days.week-1. The rats were conditioned to run on a motor-driven treadmill by following a progressive two-week exercise program, so that by the end of the two weeks the rats were capable of running comfortably at this strenuous intensity in the non-pregnant state. Following the two-week running programme, the rats were paired by weight and randomly assigned to either a pregnant group that continued the running program throughout gestation (pregnant runner), or a pregnant group that did not continue the running program throughout pregnancy (pregnant control). At birth the neonates born to the pregnant running group did not differ in average neonatal body weight values, number per litter or total litter weight values when compared to controls, nor were superficial gross abnormalities observed in neonates born to the pregnant control or pregnant running groups. The strenuous maternal exercise intensity did not alter neonatal organ weight values (brain, heart, liver, lung, kidney), nor neonatal skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius, sternomastoid, diaphragm) when compared to control values. It is suggested that maternal exercise of this intensity throughout gestation does not affect fetal outcome in the rat, and may be due to the animals accustomization to the strenuous exercise protocol prior to pregnancy.

  8. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences.

  9. Creatine monohydrate supplementation on body weight and percent body fat.

    PubMed

    Kutz, Matthew R; Gunter, Michael J

    2003-11-01

    Seventeen active males (age 22.9 +/- 4.9 year) participated in a study to examine the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on total body weight (TBW), percent body fat, body water content, and caloric intake. The TBW was measured in kilograms, percent body fat by hydrostatic weighing, body water content via bioelectrical impedance, and caloric intake by daily food log. Subjects were paired and assigned to a creatine or placebo group with a double-blind research design. Supplementation was given for 4 weeks (30 g a day for the initial 2 weeks and 15 g a day for the final 2 weeks). Subjects reported 2 days a week for supervised strength training of the lower extremity. Significant increases before and after the study were found in TBW (90.42 +/- 14.74 to 92.12 +/- 15.19 kg) and body water content (53.77 +/- 1.75 to 57.15 +/- 2.01 L) for the creatine group (p = 0.05). No significant changes were found in percent body fat or daily caloric intake in the creatine group. No significant changes were noted for the placebo group. These findings support previous research that creatine supplementation increases TBW. Mean percent body fat and caloric intake was not affected by creatine supplementation. Therefore weight gain in lieu of creatine supplementation may in part be due to water retention.

  10. Liquid calories, sugar, and body weight.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Bellisle, France

    2007-03-01

    The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been linked to rising rates of obesity in the United States. The standard explanation is that energy-containing liquids are less satiating than are solid foods. However, purely physiologic mechanisms do not fully account for the proposed links between liquid sugar energy and body weight change. First, a reevaluation of published epidemiologic studies of consumption of sweetened beverages and overweight shows that most such studies either are cross-sectional or are based on passive surveillance of temporal trends and thus permit no conclusions about causal links. Second, research evidence comparing the short-term satiating power of different types of liquids and of solids remains inconclusive. Numerous clinical studies have shown that sugar-containing liquids, when consumed in place of usual meals, can lead to a significant and sustained weight loss. The principal ingredient of liquid meal replacement shakes is sugar, often high-fructose corn syrup, which is present in amounts comparable to those in soft drinks. Far from suppressing satiety, one such liquid shake is marketed on the grounds that it helps control hunger and prevents hunger longer when consumed for the purpose of weight loss. These inconsistencies raise the question whether the issue of sugars and body weight should continue to be framed purely in metabolic or physiologic terms. The effect of sugar consumption on body weight can also depend on behavioral intent, context, and the mode of use, availability, and cost of sweetened liquids.

  11. Sex differences in fetal growth responses to maternal height and weight

    PubMed Central

    Gotsch, Francesca; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A.; Romero, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in fetal growth have been reported, but how this happens remains to be described. It is unknown if fetal growth rates, a reflection of genetic and environmental factors, express sexually dimorphic sensitivity to the mother herself. This analysis investigated homogeneity of male and female growth responses to maternal height and weight. The study sample included 3495 uncomplicated singleton pregnancies followed longitudinally. Analytic models regressed fetal and neonatal weight on tertiles of maternal height and weight, and modification by sex was investigated (n=1814 males, n=1681 females) with birth gestational age, maternal parity and smoking as covariates. Sex modified the effects of maternal height and weight on fetal growth rates and birth weight. Among boys, tallest maternal height influenced fetal weight growth prior to 18 gestational weeks of age (p=0.006), pre-pregnancy maternal weight and BMI subsequently had influence (p<0.001); this was not found among girls. Additionally, interaction terms between sex, maternal height, and maternal weight identified that males were more sensitive to maternal weight among shorter mothers (p=0.003), and more responsive to maternal height among lighter mothers (p<=0.03), compared to females. Likewise, neonatal birth weight dimorphism varied by maternal phenotype. A male advantage of 60 grams occurred among neonates of the shortest and lightest mothers (p=0.08), compared to 150 and 191 grams among short and heavy mothers, and tall and light weight mothers, respectively (p=0.01). Sex differences in response to maternal size are underappreciated sources of variation in fetal growth studies and may reflect differential growth strategies. PMID:19950190

  12. The dynamics of human body weight change.

    PubMed

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D

    2008-03-28

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in body weight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that a mathematical model of the macronutrient flux balances can capture the long-term dynamics of human weight change; all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamic behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of possible states. Surprisingly, perturbations of dietary energy intake or energy expenditure can give identical responses in both model classes, and existing data are insufficient to distinguish between these two possibilities. Nevertheless, this distinction has important implications for the efficacy of clinical interventions that alter body composition and mass.

  13. The Dynamics of Human Body Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Carson C.; Hall, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in body weight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that a mathematical model of the macronutrient flux balances can capture the long-term dynamics of human weight change; all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamic behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of possible states. Surprisingly, perturbations of dietary energy intake or energy expenditure can give identical responses in both model classes, and existing data are insufficient to distinguish between these two possibilities. Nevertheless, this distinction has important implications for the efficacy of clinical interventions that alter body composition and mass. PMID:18369435

  14. Relationship between nutritionally-mediated placental growth restriction and fetal growth, body composition and endocrine status during late gestation in adolescent sheep.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J M; Bourke, D A; Aitken, R P; Palmer, R M; Da Silva, P; Cruickshank, M A

    2000-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the consequences of nutritionally-mediated placental growth restriction on fetal organ growth, conformation, body composition and endocrine status during late gestation. Embryos recovered from superovulated adult ewes inseminated by a single sire were transferred in singleton to the uterus of peripubertal adolescent recipients. Post-transfer, adolescent dams were offered a high (H) or moderate (M) level of a complete diet to promote rapid or moderate maternal growth rates, respectively (n=7 per group). After day 100 of gestation the feed intake of the M dams was adjusted weekly to maintain body condition score. Liveweight gain during the first 100 days of gestation was 301+/-24 and 90+/-4.6 g/day for the H and M groups, respectively. Maternal plasma concentrations of insulin, IGF-I and urea were significantly higher and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations significantly lower in H compared with M dams prior to slaughter on day 128 of gestation. At this stage of gestation, total placentome weight was 50 per cent lower in H compared with M groups (P< 0.001) and was associated with a 37 per cent reduction in fetal weight (P< 0.01). All variables of fetal conformation and absolute fetal organ weights, with the exception of the adrenal glands, were lower (P< 0. 05) in the fetuses from H intake dams. However, relative fetal organ weights expressed as g/kg fetal body weight, with the exception of the gut, were not influenced by maternal dietary intake. Furthermore, fetal weight but not maternal nutritional group were predictive of individual organ weight for all organs dissected. Together these results imply that growth restriction in the fetuses derived from H intake dams was largely symmetrical. Fetal plasma concentrations of insulin, IGF-I and glucose were attenuated (P< 0.05) in fetuses from H compared with M groups. The lower fetal body weight in the former group was associated with a reduction in absolute but not relative crude protein

  15. [Body composition at menarche. Estimation of total body weight, total body water, lean and fat body weight].

    PubMed

    Zurlo de Mirotti, S M; Lesa, A M; Barrón de Carbonetti, M; Roitter, H; Villagra de Lacuara, S

    1995-01-01

    Our aim was to confirm in our environment what has been observed and described by other writers about the importance of achieving a "critical body weight'' and an adequate "fat percentage'' -on the basis of the calculation of total body water- for the initiation and development of pubertal events. This study included 92 girls, healthy, well nourished, belonging to upper middle class from a high school of The National University of Cordoba. The longitudinal method of control was used every 6 months and at the precise moment of menarche. Out of 20 antropometrical variables observed height, weight and height, TBW as percentage of body weight, lean body and fat weight, fat percentage and skin folds ppercentiles for each girl at menarche. A regression between fat percentage and skin folds was done. Percentiles 5 to 95 of fat percentage in relation to body water percentage were estimated. At menarche the average for the different variables are: Heigth 155.6 cm +/- 0.469; Weight 45.8 Kg +/- 0,5; TBW 25.216 lit. +/- 0.318; lean body weigth 35.02 Kg (S.D.2.98); fat weigth 10.86 Kg (S. D. 3.17). The addition of skin folds was correlated fat percentage, thus, an equation was obtained for the average calculation of such percentage %F= 12.16 + (0.313 x fold addition). The minium percentage for the onset of menstrual cycles is 17.3% and corresponds to percentile 10. However, there is a 5% of girls who start to menstruate with a 15.5% of fat and none of them is below that value. The reasons mentioned above suggest that is necessary to obtain a "critical body weigth'' as well as a "fat percentage'' minimum for the onset and maintenance of menstrual cycles, among our girls, similar o what has been obtained by doctor Frisch.

  16. Inadequate weight gain in overweight and obese pregnant women: what is the effect on fetal growth?

    PubMed

    Catalano, Patrick M; Mele, Lisa; Landon, Mark B; Ramin, Susan M; Reddy, Uma M; Casey, Brian; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Rouse, Dwight J; Thorp, John M; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Peaceman, Alan M; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2014-08-01

    We sought to evaluate inadequate gestational weight gain and fetal growth among overweight and obese women. We conducted an analysis of prospective singleton term pregnancies in which 1053 overweight and obese women gained >5 kg (14.4 ± 6.2 kg) or 188 who either lost or gained ≤5 kg (1.1 ± 4.4 kg). Birthweight, fat mass, and lean mass were assessed using anthropometry. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as ≤10th percentile of a standard US population. Univariable and multivariable analysis evaluated the association between weight change and neonatal morphometry. There was no significant difference in age, race, smoking, parity, or gestational age between groups. Weight loss or gain ≤5 kg was associated with SGA, 18/188 (9.6%) vs 51/1053 (4.9%); (adjusted odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-4.7; P = .003). Neonates of women who lost or gained ≤5 kg had lower birthweight (3258 ± 443 vs 3467 ± 492 g, P < .0001), fat mass (403 ± 175 vs 471 ± 193 g, P < .0001), and lean mass (2855 ± 321 vs 2995 ± 347 g, P < .0001), and smaller length, percent fat mass, and head circumference. Adjusting for diabetic status, prepregnancy body mass index, smoking, parity, study site, gestational age, and sex, neonates of women who gained ≤5 kg had significantly lower birthweight, lean body mass, fat mass, percent fat mass, head circumference, and length. There were no significant differences in neonatal outcomes between those who lost weight and those who gained ≤5 kg. In overweight and obese women weight loss or gain ≤5 kg is associated with increased risk of SGA and decreased neonatal fat mass, lean mass, and head circumference. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Surgical options for reducing body weight].

    PubMed

    Vasas, Péter; Pór, Ferenc

    2014-06-22

    Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in adults and children, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. Sixty-two percent of the Hungarian adult population has overweight and 27% is morbidly obese and, therefore, it is a significant interest to treat this condition. The authors review the diagnosis and the associated diseases of morbid obesity. The initial enthusiasm with the gastric band has settled now, as the long-term outcome showed only very limited reduction in the excess body weight and the complication rate was as high as 50%. The sleeve gastrectomy may induce 60-70% of excess weight loss, however, the long term follow-up data is very limited. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the gold-standard of the bariatric procedures, with proven 60-75% excess weight loss and 80% type 2 diabetes remission. The body image usually changes with weight loss, and frequently a body contouring procedure is required to improve it. Multi-disciplinary team of super-specialised doctors is required to perform these procedures.

  18. Thermogenic ingredients and body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Hursel, R; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2010-04-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has increased considerably in the last decade. Tools for obesity management, including consumption of caffeine, capsaicin and different teas such as green, white and oolong tea, have been proposed as strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance, as they may increase energy expenditure (4-5%), fat oxidation (10-16%) and have been proposed to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that is present during weight loss. Daily increases in thermogenesis of approximately 300-400 kJ can eventually lead to substantial weight loss. However, it becomes clearer that certain conditions have to be met before thermogenic ingredients yield an effect, as intra-variability with respect to body weight regulation has been shown between subjects. Furthermore, the sympathetic nervous system is involved in the regulation of lipolysis, and the sympathetic innervation of white adipose tissue may have an important role in the regulation of total body fat in general. Taken together, these functional ingredients have the potential to produce significant effects on metabolic targets such as satiety, thermogenesis and fat oxidation. A significant clinical outcome may sometimes appear straightforward and may also depend very strongly on full compliance of subjects. Nevertheless, thermogenic ingredients may be considered as functional agents that could help in preventing a positive energy balance and obesity.

  19. Brain nuclear receptors and body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; O'Malley, Bert W; Elmquist, Joel K

    2017-04-03

    Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essential roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Understanding the role and the underlying mechanisms of NRs in the context of energy balance control may facilitate the identification of novel targets to treat obesity. Notably, NRs are abundantly expressed in the brain, and emerging evidence indicates that a number of these brain NRs regulate multiple aspects of energy balance, including feeding, energy expenditure and physical activity. In this Review we summarize some of the recent literature regarding effects of brain NRs on body weight regulation and discuss mechanisms underlying these effects.

  20. Relationship between birth weight or fetal growth rate and postnatal allergy: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Amy L; McMillan, Mark; Marshall, Helen S; Gatford, Kathryn L

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize the best available evidence on the relationship between size at birth or fetal growth and postnatal allergy. Specifically, this review aims to assess evidence regarding relationships between absolute birth weight at term, birth weight corrected for gestational age, expressed as relative to population or customized growth data, or fetal growth measures and physician-diagnosed or parent- and self-reported postnatal clinical allergic disease (eczema/atopic dermatitis, hay fever/rhinitis, allergic asthma or anaphylaxis).The specific review question is: what is the association between the absolute birth weight at full-term or birth weight relative to population or customized data and corrected for gestational age or direct measures of fetal growth, and physician-diagnosed or parent- and self-reported clinical allergic disease (eczema/atopic dermatitis, hay fever/rhinitis, allergic asthma or anaphylaxis)?

  1. Body contouring following massive weight loss.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jesse; Shermak, Michele

    2004-09-01

    Obesity and its associated medical morbidities carry substantial health risk. While massive weight loss allows improvement in health status and lifestyle, physical sequelae due to symptomatic skin redundancy still require treatment. Areas affected include the arms, breasts, abdomen, back, and thighs. After open gastric bypass, patients often have poor abdominal support and incisional hernias. To completely address the treatment of patients following massive weight loss, body contouring procedures are performed, often in one stage and tailored to each patient, to rid the functional and esthetic impairment from skin redundancy. This retrospective study includes 30 patients treated from March 1998 to August 2002 by a single surgeon at an academic hospital. Average weight loss had been 71 kg, and average weight and BMI at the time of contouring surgery were 98.6 kg and 33 kg/m2 respectively. Procedures included abdominal panniculectomy, thighlift, backlift, brachioplasty, mastopexy and incisional hernia repair, performed either alone or in combination. Average weight of resected tissue was 5.9 kg. Average length of stay was 3 days. Complications included seroma, wound breakdown, hematoma requiring surgical drainage, and lymphocele after brachioplasty. One patient died of a pulmonary embolus within weeks after surgery. Patients requiring surgical skin excision after massive weight loss for functional and/or esthetic reasons are challenging, and require individualized approaches with intensive follow-up.

  2. Predictiveness of sonographic fetal weight estimation as a function of prior probability of intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Simon, N V; Levisky, J S; Shearer, D M; Morris, K C; Hansberry, P A

    1988-06-01

    We evaluated the predictiveness of sonographically estimated fetal weight as a function of the estimation of probability of having intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) before obtaining an ultrasound scan (prior probability). The value of the estimated fetal weight resided more in its high specificity than in its sensitivity, hence in its ability to confirm that the fetus is normal. The predictiveness of the method was further enhanced when the fetal weight estimation was placed in the context of the prior probability of IUGR. In particular, the positive predictive value of the test as well as the likelihood of having a growth-retarded infant in spite of an estimated fetal weight within the normal range were considerably higher as the prior probability of IUGR increased. Since the obstetrician using all available evidence is likely to form a rather good estimate of the possibility of IUGR before ordering a scan, this improvement in the predictiveness of estimated fetal weight through a Bayesian approach can be advantageously applied to ultrasound analysis and can effectively support clinical decision making.

  3. A new look at the fetus: thick-slab T2-weighted sequences in fetal MRI.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Peter C; Mittermayer, Christoph; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-02-01

    Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the fetus is considered an established adjunct to fetal ultrasound, stacks of images alone cannot provide an overall impression of the fetus. The present study evaluates the use of thick-slab T2-weighted MR images to obtain a three-dimensional impression of the fetus using MRI. A thick-slab T2-weighted sequence was added to the routine protocol in 100 fetal MRIs obtained for various indications (19th to 37th gestational weeks) on a 1.5 T magnet using a five-element phased-array surface coil. Slice thickness adapted to fetal size and uterine geometry varied between 25 and 50mm, as did the field of view (250-350 mm). Acquisition of one image took less than 1s. The pictorial essay shows that these images visualize fetal anatomy in a more comprehensive way than is possible with a series of 3-4mm thick slices. These thick-slab images facilitate the assessment of the whole fetus, fetal proportions, surface structures, and extremities. Fetal pathology may be captured in one image. Thick-slab T2-weighted images provide additional information that cannot be gathered from a series of images and are considered a valuable adjunct to conventional 2D MR images.

  4. Protein diets, body weight loss and weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Martens, Eveline A P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2014-01-01

    The review addresses briefly the relevance of protein diets for body weight loss and weight maintenance. The addition of recent findings on age-dependent protein requirements, specific effects of protein intake and protein source, the relevance of the other dietary macronutrients, especially of 'low-carb', 'protein leverage', the mechanisms of protein-induced satiety, and food-reward makes the review up-to-date. Different effects of protein diets in different age groups result from age-dependent protein requirements that are primarily related to effects on body composition. A protein intake of 0.8 g/kg/day is sufficient to sustain a negative energy balance in adults, irrespective of the protein source. 'Low-carb' diets trace back to the protein-induced effects. Evidence that protein intake drives energy intake as suggested by the 'Protein leverage hypothesis' is scarce and equivocal. Finally, limited protein-induced food reward may affect compliance to a protein diet. An implication of the findings for clinical practice is that a protein intake of 0.8-1.2 g/kg/day is sufficient to sustain satiety, energy expenditure, and fat-free mass, independent of a dietary 'low-carb' content. Limited protein-induced food reward may affect compliance to a protein diet.

  5. Cord blood ASP is predicted by maternal lipids and correlates with fetal birth weight.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Jumana; Al-Riyami, Hamed D S; Chaudhary, Taqdees A; Cianflone, Katherine

    2008-06-01

    The acylation stimulating protein (ASP) is a potent lipogenic adipokine that correlates with postprandial triglyceride (TG) clearance and is linked to the pathophysiology of obesity and related disorders. To investigate ASP levels in cord blood and its relation to maternal and cord blood lipid parameters and fetal birth weight. Thirty nondiabetic pregnant women, their newborns, and thirty-three nonpregnant controls were included in this study. Fasting maternal and cord blood ASP, TGs, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), cholesterol, glucose levels, in addition to maternal BMI and fetal birth weight were measured. No significant difference was found between cord blood ASP (16.3 +/- 0.96 nmol/l) and ASP levels in the adult controls (15.7 +/- 1.0 nmol/l). Cord blood ASP, however, was lower than maternal plasma ASP levels (25.4 +/- 1.6 nmol/l, P < 0.001). Yet, lipid levels in cord blood, particularly TGs were markedly decreased compared to control and maternal TG levels (threefold and 7.4-fold, P < 0.001 respectively). Maternal TGs significantly correlated with fetal birth weight (r = 0.54, P = 0.002). Multiple regression analysis showed that maternal TGs (beta = 0.57, P = 0.01) and NEFAs (beta = 0.43, P = 0.024) predicted 45% variation in cord blood ASP levels, independent of all measured maternal and cord blood parameters. Cord blood ASP showed a positive correlation with fetal birth weight (r = 0.524, P = 0.037) in neonates above average fetal birth weight of the studied population. This is the first study investigating ASP in cord blood. We suggest that maternal hypertriglyceridemia is associated with increased fetal ASP production, thus enhancing fetal fat storage independent of maternal glucose variations in nondiabetic women.

  6. Accuracy of ultrasound in estimating fetal weight and growth discordancy in triplet pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Amir; Matanes, Emad; Drugan, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Sonographic estimation of fetal weight is a fundamental part of the routine obstetrical practice and may affect management decisions particularly in multiple gestations. The data available on the accuracy of sonographic estimation of fetal weight in triplets are very limited. In the present study we investigated the accuracy of sonographic fetal weight estimation and discordancy in triplet gestations. We analyzed the sonographic data of 33 sets of triplets born at one medical center between January 2001 and March 2013. Estimated fetal weight was calculated from biometric measurements and compared with actual neonatal weights following delivery. The Pearson correlation coefficient, linear regression analyses, and Bland-Altman method were used for statistical comparisons. The differences between predicted and actual birth weights (ABW) were <10% in 69 newborns (70%), 10%-20% in 19 newborns (19%), and more than 20% in 11 newborns (11%). There was a good correlation between predicted and ABW (correlation coefficient=0.928, r2=0.86, P<0.0001). Weight assessment in triplets does not fall behind that of singletons or twins, and decisions based upon these examinations are reliable in the majority of cases.

  7. Glycaemic index, appetite and body weight.

    PubMed

    Ford, Heather; Frost, Gary

    2010-05-01

    Much interest has been focused on the relationship between glycaemic index and body-weight loss, some of which is fueled by popular media. However, there is a number of potential mechanisms that could be triggered by reducing the glycaemic index of the carbohydrate consumed in the diet. For example, the effect of foods on the gastrointestinal tract and the effect on blood glucose both could lead to potential appetite effects. Acute meal studies seem to point to an effect of glycaemic index on appetite regulation. However, the results of longer-term studies of weight loss are not as clear. In the present review a possible reason for this variation in outcome from the weight-loss studies will be discussed. The present review focuses on the possibility that the fermentable fibre content of the low-glycaemic-index diet may be important in weight-loss efficacy. A novel receptor that binds SCFA, the products of carbohydrate fermentation, has recently been described on the enteroendocrine L-cell in the colon. This cell releases a number of anorectic hormones and could offer an explanation of the appetite suppressant effects of fermentable carbohydrates. It could also explain the variability in the results of glycaemic-index weight-loss studies.

  8. Concomitant changes in sleep duration and body weight and body composition during weight loss and 3-mo weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-07-01

    An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss. A total of 98 healthy subjects (25 men), aged 20-50 y and with BMI (in kg/m(2)) from 28 to 35, followed a 2-mo very-low-energy diet that was followed by a 10-mo period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (measured by using deuterium dilution and air-displacement plethysmography), eating behavior (measured by using a 3-factor eating questionnaire), physical activity (measured by using the validated Baecke's questionnaire), and sleep (estimated by using a questionnaire with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed before and immediately after weight loss and 3- and 10-mo follow-ups. The average weight loss was 10% after 2 mo of dieting and 9% and 6% after 3- and 10-mo follow-ups, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and time to fall asleep decreased during weight loss. Short (≤7 h) and average (>7 to <9 h) sleepers increased their sleep duration, whereas sleep duration in long sleepers (≥9 h) did not change significantly during weight loss. This change in sleep duration was concomitantly negatively correlated with the change in BMI during weight loss and after the 3-mo follow-up and with the change in fat mass after the 3-mo follow-up. Sleep duration benefits from weight loss or vice versa. Successful weight loss, loss of body fat, and 3-mo weight maintenance in short and average sleepers are underscored by an increase in sleep duration or vice versa. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  9. Fetal weight estimation for prediction of fetal macrosomia: does additional clinical and demographic data using pattern recognition algorithm improve detection?

    PubMed Central

    Degani, Shimon; Peleg, Dori; Bahous, Karina; Leibovitz, Zvi; Shapiro, Israel; Ohel, Gonen

    2008-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to test whether pattern recognition classifiers with multiple clinical and sonographic variables could improve ultrasound prediction of fetal macrosomia over prediction which relies on the commonly used formulas for the sonographic estimation of fetal weight. Methods The SVM algorithm was used for binary classification between two categories of weight estimation: >4000gr and <4000gr. Clinical and sononographic input variables of 100 pregnancies suspected of having LGA fetuses were tested. Results Thirteen out of 38 features were selected as contributing variables that distinguish birth weights of below 4000gr and of 4000gr and above. Considering 4000gr. as a cutoff weight the pattern recognition algorithm predicted macrosomia with a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 73%, positive predictive value of 81% and negative predictive value of 73%. The comparative figures according to the combined criteria based on two commonly used formulas generated from regression analysis were 88.1%, 34%, 65.8%, 66.7%. Conclusions The SVM algorithm provides a comparable prediction of LGA fetuses as other commonly used formulas generated from regression analysis. The better specificity and better positive predictive value suggest potential value for this method and further accumulation of data may improve the reliability of this approach. PMID:22439018

  10. Body weight, metabolism and clock genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Biological rhythms are present in the lives of almost all organisms ranging from plants to more evolved creatures. These oscillations allow the anticipation of many physiological and behavioral mechanisms thus enabling coordination of rhythms in a timely manner, adaption to environmental changes and more efficient organization of the cellular processes responsible for survival of both the individual and the species. Many components of energy homeostasis exhibit circadian rhythms, which are regulated by central (suprachiasmatic nucleus) and peripheral (located in other tissues) circadian clocks. Adipocyte plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, the signaling of satiety and cellular differentiation and proliferation. Also, the adipocyte circadian clock is probably involved in the control of many of these functions. Thus, circadian clocks are implicated in the control of energy balance, feeding behavior and consequently in the regulation of body weight. In this regard, alterations in clock genes and rhythms can interfere with the complex mechanism of metabolic and hormonal anticipation, contributing to multifactorial diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The aim of this review was to define circadian clocks by describing their functioning and role in the whole body and in adipocyte metabolism, as well as their influence on body weight control and the development of obesity. PMID:20712885

  11. Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men.

  12. The defence of body weight: a physiological basis for weight regain after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Sumithran, Priya; Proietto, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Although weight loss can usually be achieved by restricting food intake, the majority of dieters regain weight over the long-term. In the hypothalamus, hormonal signals from the gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue and other peripheral sites are integrated to influence appetite and energy expenditure. Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by several physiological changes which encourage weight regain, including alterations in energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and hormone pathways involved in appetite regulation, many of which persist beyond the initial weight loss period. Safe effective long-term strategies to overcome these physiological changes are needed to help facilitate maintenance of weight loss. The present review, which focuses on data from human studies, begins with an outline of body weight regulation to provide the context for the subsequent discussion of short- and long-term physiological changes which accompany diet-induced weight loss.

  13. The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts: A Multinational Longitudinal Study of Ultrasound Biometric Measurements and Estimated Fetal Weight

    PubMed Central

    Carroli, Guillermo; Widmer, Mariana; Neerup Jensen, Lisa; Giordano, Daniel; Abdel Aleem, Hany; Talegawkar, Sameera A.; Benachi, Alexandra; Diemert, Anke; Tshefu Kitoto, Antoinette; Thinkhamrop, Jadsada; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Tabor, Ann; Kriplani, Alka; Gonzalez Perez, Rogelio; Hecher, Kurt; Hanson, Mark A.; Gülmezoglu, A. Metin; Platt, Lawrence D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Against this background, WHO made it a high priority to provide the present fetal growth charts for estimated fetal weight (EFW) and common ultrasound biometric measurements intended for worldwide use. Methods and Findings We conducted a multinational prospective observational longitudinal study of fetal growth in low-risk singleton pregnancies of women of high or middle socioeconomic status and without known environmental constraints on fetal growth. Centers in ten countries (Argentina, Brazil, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Norway, and Thailand) recruited participants who had reliable information on last menstrual period and gestational age confirmed by crown–rump length measured at 8–13 wk of gestation. Participants had anthropometric and nutritional assessments and seven scheduled ultrasound examinations during pregnancy. Fifty-two participants withdrew consent, and 1,387 participated in the study. At study entry, median maternal age was 28 y (interquartile range [IQR] 25–31), median height was 162 cm (IQR 157–168), median weight was 61 kg (IQR 55–68), 58% of the women were nulliparous, and median daily caloric intake was 1,840 cal (IQR 1,487–2,222). The median pregnancy duration was 39 wk (IQR 38–40) although there were significant differences between countries, the largest difference being 12 d (95% CI 8–16). The median birthweight was 3,300 g (IQR 2,980–3,615). There were differences in birthweight between countries, e.g., India had significantly smaller neonates than the other countries, even after adjusting for gestational age. Thirty-one women had a miscarriage, and three fetuses had

  14. The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts: A Multinational Longitudinal Study of Ultrasound Biometric Measurements and Estimated Fetal Weight.

    PubMed

    Kiserud, Torvid; Piaggio, Gilda; Carroli, Guillermo; Widmer, Mariana; Carvalho, José; Neerup Jensen, Lisa; Giordano, Daniel; Cecatti, José Guilherme; Abdel Aleem, Hany; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Benachi, Alexandra; Diemert, Anke; Tshefu Kitoto, Antoinette; Thinkhamrop, Jadsada; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Tabor, Ann; Kriplani, Alka; Gonzalez Perez, Rogelio; Hecher, Kurt; Hanson, Mark A; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Platt, Lawrence D

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Against this background, WHO made it a high priority to provide the present fetal growth charts for estimated fetal weight (EFW) and common ultrasound biometric measurements intended for worldwide use. We conducted a multinational prospective observational longitudinal study of fetal growth in low-risk singleton pregnancies of women of high or middle socioeconomic status and without known environmental constraints on fetal growth. Centers in ten countries (Argentina, Brazil, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Norway, and Thailand) recruited participants who had reliable information on last menstrual period and gestational age confirmed by crown-rump length measured at 8-13 wk of gestation. Participants had anthropometric and nutritional assessments and seven scheduled ultrasound examinations during pregnancy. Fifty-two participants withdrew consent, and 1,387 participated in the study. At study entry, median maternal age was 28 y (interquartile range [IQR] 25-31), median height was 162 cm (IQR 157-168), median weight was 61 kg (IQR 55-68), 58% of the women were nulliparous, and median daily caloric intake was 1,840 cal (IQR 1,487-2,222). The median pregnancy duration was 39 wk (IQR 38-40) although there were significant differences between countries, the largest difference being 12 d (95% CI 8-16). The median birthweight was 3,300 g (IQR 2,980-3,615). There were differences in birthweight between countries, e.g., India had significantly smaller neonates than the other countries, even after adjusting for gestational age. Thirty-one women had a miscarriage, and three fetuses had intrauterine death. The 8,203 sets of ultrasound

  15. The relationship between gestational weight gain and fetal growth: time to take stock?

    PubMed

    O'Higgins, Amy C; Doolan, Anne; Mullaney, Laura; Daly, Niamh; McCartney, Daniel; Turner, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this article is to review the current evidence on gestational weight gain (GWG). Maternal obesity has emerged as one of the great challenges in modern obstetrics as it is becoming increasingly common and is associated with increased maternal and fetal complications. There has been an upsurge of interest in GWG with an emphasis on the relationship between excessive GWG and increased fetal growth. Recent recommendations from the Institute of Medicine in the USA have revised downwards the weight gain recommendations in pregnancy for obese mothers. We believe that it is time to take stock again about the advice that pregnant women are given about GWG and their lifestyle before, during, and after pregnancy. The epidemiological links between excessive GWG and aberrant fetal growth are weak, particularly in obese women. There is little evidence that intervention studies decrease excessive GWG or improve intrauterine fetal growth. Indeed, there is a potential risk that inappropriate interventions during the course of pregnancy may lead to fetal malnutrition that may have adverse clinical consequences, both in the short- and long-term. It may be more appropriate to shift the focus of attention from monitoring maternal weight to increasing physical activity levels and improving nutritional intakes.

  16. Relationship between perilipin gene polymorphisms and body weight and body composition during weight loss and weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Mariman, Edwin C M; Vogels, Neeltje; Bouwman, Freek G; den Hoed, Marcel; Brown, Louise; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-03-23

    Genetic variation in the perilipin (PLIN) gene may play a role in the etiology and treatment of obesity. To examine different polymorphisms in the PLIN gene in relation to body-weight regulation. 118 subjects followed a 6 wk VLCD, followed by 1 year weight maintenance. Body-weight (BW), body composition, leptin concentration, and polymorphisms of the PLIN gene: PLIN1:rs2289487, PLIN4:rs894160, PLIN6:rs1052700, PLIN5:rs2304795 and PLIN7:rs 2304796 were determined. BW loss during VLCD was 7.0+/-3.1 kg (p<0.05), and BW regain was 3.7+/-1.4 kg (p<0.05), including changes in body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference, body-composition and leptin concentrations (p<0.05). Linkage disequilibria were observed between PLIN1 and PLIN4: D' >0.9, r2=0.72; PLIN5 and PLIN7: D' >0.9, r2=0.85. In men, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body fat, leptin concentrations were significantly lower for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). In women weight loss and loss of fat mass were larger for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). For PLIN6 genotypes body weight and body fat were lower for homozygotes of the minor allele (T/T) in the men; in the women leptin concentrations were lower. The haplotype of PLIN5 and PLIN7 consisting of A/G and G/G of PLIN5 and A/A of PLIN7 showed a reduction in FM: 5.9+/-0.6 kg vs 3.1+/-0.4 kg, % body fat: 5.5+/-0.6% vs 2.2+/-0.2%, and leptin: 20.5+/-10.8 ng/ml vs 12.9+/-6.7 ng/ml over time in the women (p<0.05). Since the haplotype of the minor alleles PLIN1-4, PLIN5-7 and PLIN6, was related to body-weight regulation at a lower level of body-weight in the men as well in the women we conclude that the PLIN1-4, 6, and 5-7 locus appears as a genetic influencer of obesity risk in humans.

  17. Effects of maternal obesity on fetal growth and body composition: implications for programming and future health.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Dilys J

    2010-04-01

    Since the hypothesis linking low birth weight and poor fetal growth with future risk of cardiovascular disease was first proposed, there has been much interest in the early origins of disease. As rates of obesity increase and as maternal obesity has become common, interest has been directed towards the early origins of obesity. It is likely that a complex interaction of inherited gene effects and in-utero environment may interact in the developing fetus to programme pathways leading to future obesity. It is clear that maternal metabolism is disturbed in pregnancy in obese women, and that offspring of obese mothers have a higher percentage of body fat and are insulin resistant. This review discusses the ideas contributing to the current working concept of obesity programming, and discusses several potential mechanisms that may underlie obesity programming and susceptibility to future metabolic and vascular disease.

  18. [Early diagnosis of intra-uterine growth restriction by ultrasonographic estimation of fetal weight].

    PubMed

    Martins, Maria Marta; Tedesco, José Júlio de Azevedo

    2005-01-01

    Aiming to reduce the perinatal and late morbidity and lethality through opportune prenatal intervention, this study proposed to sequentially evaluate the echographic fetal weight at the 25th and 27th weeks of gestation, establishing cut-off values for echographic fetal weight useful in the diagnosis of small-for-gestational-age at this gestation time, and developing a mathematical model able to recognize the probability of a newborn small-for- gestational-age. Eighty-five newborns were evaluated, 35 small and 50 adequate for gestational age. The mothers who underwent prenatal care at our Institution were healthy or presented chronic arterial hypertension as the only disease, no history of addictions, gemellarity or malformed fetuses. All mothers performed ultrasonographic exams at the 25th and 27th weeks for estimation of the fetal weight. The exams were able to detect the inadequate development of those fetuses small-for-gestational-age group. The cut-off values for echographic fetal weight were established as 775 grams and 1015 grams for the 25th and 27th weeks, respectively. A mathematical model was developed, capable of quantifying the probability of newborns exhibiting insufficient intra-uterine growth, being small-for-gestational-age.

  19. Medical weight loss versus bariatric surgery: does method affect body composition and weight maintenance after 15% reduction in body weight?

    PubMed

    Kulovitz, Michelle G; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Conn, Carole A; Cohen, Deborah A; Ferraro, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate body composition changes in fat mass (FM) to lean body mass (LBM) ratios following 15% body weight loss (WL) in both integrated medical treatment and bariatric surgery groups. Obese patients (body mass index [BMI] 46.6 ± 6.5 kg/m(2)) who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery (BS), were matched with 24 patients undergoing integrated medical and behavioral treatment (MT). The BS and MT groups were evaluated for body weight, BMI, body composition, and waist circumference (WC) at baseline and after 15% WL. Following 15% body WL, there were significant decreases in %FM and increased %LBM (P < 0.0001). Additionally, both groups saw 76% of WL from FM, and 24% from LBM indicating a 3:1 ratio of FM to LBM loss during the first 15% reduction in body weight. Finally, no significant differences (P = 0.103) between groups for maintenance of WL at 1 y were found. For both groups, baseline FM was found to be negatively correlated with percentage of weight regained (%WR) at 1 y post-WL (r = -0.457; P = 0.007). Baseline WC and rate of WL to 15% were significant predictors of %WR only in the BS group (r = 0.713; P = 0.020). If followed closely by professionals during the first 15% body WL, patients losing 15% weight by either medical or surgical treatments can attain similar FM:LBM loss ratios and can maintain WL for 1 y. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Placental Weight Mediates the Effects of Prenatal Factors on Fetal Growth: the Extent Differs by Preterm Status

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Fengxiu; Parker, Margaret; Cerda, Sandra; Pearson, Colleen; Fu, Lingling; Gillman, Matthew W.; Zuckerman, Barry; Wang, Xiaobin

    2012-01-01

    Elevated pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), excessive gestational weight gain (GWG), and gestational diabetes (GDM) are known determinants of fetal growth. The role of placental weight is unclear. We aimed to examine the extent to which placental weight mediates the associations of pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG, and GDM with birthweight-for-gestational age, and whether the relationships differ by preterm status. We examined 1035 mother-infant pairs at birth from the Boston Birth Cohort. Data were collected by questionnaire and clinical measures. Placentas were weighed without membranes or umbilical cords. We performed sequential models excluding and including placental weight, stratified by preterm status. We found that 21% of mothers were obese, 42% had excessive GWG, and 5% had GDM. 41% were preterm. Among term births, after adjustment for sex, gestational age, maternal age, race, parity, education, smoking and stress during pregnancy, birthweight-for-gestational age z-score was 0.55 (0.30, 0.80) units higher for pre-pregnancy obesity vs. normal weight. It was 0.34 (0.13, 0.55) higher for excessive vs. adequate GWG, 0.67 (0.24, 1.10) for GDM vs. no DM, with additional adjustment for pre-pregnancy BMI. Adding placental weight to the models attenuated the estimates for pre-pregnancy obesity by 20%, excessive GWG by 32%, and GDM by 21%. Among preterm infants, GDM was associated with 0.67 (0.34, 1.00) higher birthweight-for-gestational age z-score, but pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive GWG were not. Attenuation by placental weight was 36% for GDM. These results suggest that placental weight partially mediates the effects of pre-pregnancy obesity, GDM and excessive GWG on fetal growth among term infants. PMID:23592670

  1. [Weight maintenance after weight loss - how the body defends its weight].

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, C; Hauner, H

    2011-01-01

    Mean weight loss of most conservative therapeutic weight loss programmes is about five to six kilograms after one year. In our "obesogenic" environment it is difficult for persons to maintain the new weight. Also continuation of the programme cannot prevent a moderate weight increase in the follow-up year. The reasons for this are not clear: individual lifestyle, environmental and genetic factors may play a role, but also the complex regulatory system of the body "to defend its weight". Nevertheless, for weight maintenance a lifelong change of lifestyle is of critical importance. Concerning nutrition a fat-reduced diet with a decrease of energy density together with regular eating habits and adequate portion size promises the greatest benefit and is likely to allow sufficient satiety. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Comparison of 2- and 3-Dimensional Sonography for Estimation of Birth Weight and Neonatal Adiposity in the Setting of Suspected Fetal Macrosomia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Kelly S; Stetzer, Bradley; Catalano, Patrick M; Myers, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    To compare the accuracy of 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) fetal measurements for prediction of birth weight Z score and neonatal adiposity (percent body fat) in the setting of suspected fetal macrosomia. We conducted a prospective observational study of term singleton pregnancies with suspected macrosomia. Patients were enrolled on admission to labor and delivery and underwent sonographic examinations. Within 48 hours of delivery, neonatal anthropometric measurements were obtained. Thirty-four neonates were included in the analysis. Mothers were very obese (mean body mass index ± SD, 39.1 ± 7.8 kg/m(2)); 56.5% were white; and 39.1% had diabetes. Neonates were 38% female and had a mean birth weight of 3940.0 ± 496.8 g, percent body fat of 18.5% ± 4.0%, and Ponderal index of 2.8 ± 0.3 g/cm(3). Mean 2D estimated fetal weight was 3973 ± 443 g; mean 3D estimated fetal weight was 3803 ± 528 g; and mean thigh volume was 102.5 ± 19.6 cm(3). Both 2D and 3D measurements accounted for about half the variance in predicted birth weight (R(2) for 2D = 0.53, 71% within 10% of birth weight; R(2) for 3D = 0.47, 65% within 10% of birth weight). Thigh volume Z score was the prenatal parameter most highly correlated with both birth weight Z score (R(2) = 0.52; r = 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.84; P < .001) and percent body fat (R(2) = 0.22; r = 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.69; P = .04). In our population of fetuses with suspected macrosomia, fractional thigh volume was the best sonographic estimate of neonatal percent body fat and birth weight Z score. Future research on prediction of neonatal weight and adiposity in macrosomic fetuses should include an estimate of fetal soft tissue given the generalized increase in body fat of these fetuses. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. A novel mechatronic body weight support system.

    PubMed

    Frey, Martin; Colombo, Gery; Vaglio, Martino; Bucher, Rainer; Jörg, Matthias; Riener, Robert

    2006-09-01

    A novel mechatronic body weight support (BWS) system has been developed to provide precise body weight unloading for patients with neurological or other impairments during treadmill training. The system is composed of a passive elastic spring element to take over the main unloading force and an active closed-loop controlled electric drive to generate the exact desired force. Both force generating units, the passive spring and the active electric drive, act on the patient via a polyester rope connected to a harness worn by the patient. The length of the rope can be adjusted with an electric winch to adapt the system to different patient sizes. The system is fully computer controlled. At unloading loads of up to 60 kg and walking speeds of up to 3.2 km/h, the mean unloading error and the maximum unloading error of the presented BWS system was less than 1 and 3 kg, respectively. The performance was compared with those of two purely passive BWS systems currently being used by most other rehabilitation groups. This comprised counterweight systems and static BWS systems with fixed rope lengths. Counterweight systems reached mean and maximum unloading errors of up to 5.34 and 16.22 kg, respectively. The values for the static BWS were 11.02 kg and 27.67 kg, respectively. The novel mechatronic BWS system presented in this study adjusts desired unloading changes of up to 20 kg within less than 100 ms. Thus, not only constant BWS, but also gait cycle dependent or time variant oscillations of the desired force can be realized with high accuracy. Precise and constant unloading force is believed to be an important prerequisite for BWS gait therapy, where it is important to generate physiologically correct segmental dynamics and ground reaction forces. Thus, the novel BWS system presented in this paper is an important contribution to maximize the therapeutic outcome of human gait rehabilitation.

  4. Effect of tobacco smoking on the maternal and fetal adipokine axis in relation to newborn birth weight and length.

    PubMed

    Chełchowska, Magdalena; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Mazur, Joanna; Lewandowski, Leszek; Maciejewski, Tomasz M; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Gajewski, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of tobacco smoking on the concentrations of leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), total adiponectin, and free leptin index (FLI) in the serum of maternal-cord pairs. We also investigated the correlations between these biochemical parameters and newborn birth weight and length. The study included eighty-five healthy pregnant women, who were divided into smoking and tobacco- abstinent groups according to serum cotinine concentrations. We found that maternal and fetal leptin, sOB-R concentrations, and free leptin index were similar in smoking and tobacco abstinent groups. We observed significant negative relationship between the reported number of cigarettes smoked daily during pregnancy and cord blood leptin (r=-0.37; p<0.05). In the group of smoking women, total serum adiponectin concentrations were significantly lower than in the tobacco abstinent group in mothers as well as in cord blood (p<0.05). A significant negative association between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and total adiponectin concentration in maternal as well as newborn serum was observed (r=-0.38; p<0.05). Umbilical serum leptin, sOB-R, and FLI levels were significantly lower and adiponectin higher compared with maternal concentrations at birth (p<0.05). Mean birth weight and body length of the smoking mothers' infants were significantly lower (p<0.001; p=0.015, respectively) compared with the abstinent group, and negatively correlated with the daily number of cigarettes consumed (birth weight r=-0.39; p<0.05; birth length r=-0.37; p<0.05). Cord blood values of leptin, FLI and adiponectin were significantly correlated with newborn birth weight. We also observed a positive relationship between cord blood adiponectin levels and the birth body length in the two studied groups (r=0.49; p<0.002). Tobacco smoking during pregnancy decreases maternal and fetal serum adiponectin levels but does not have a significant effect on blood leptin concentrations. The direct

  5. Impact of fetal alcohol exposure on body systems: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Courtney; Wood, Erin; Jabbour, Leila

    2016-06-01

    Review of published manuscripts on fetal alcohol exposure on several body systems. Articles in this review were found online using databases such as Medline, Medline Complete, PubMed, and Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition. The following terms were searched: fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, fetal alcohol syndrome, prenatal alcohol exposure, and alcohol related birth defects. Thirteen articles were gathered, five original investigations and eight reviews. This review identified several abnormalities in the body systems discussed and their associations to fetal alcohol syndrome. Evidence shows that the brain was the most severely impacted organ of the body systems discussed. However, prenatal alcohol exposure causes several abnormalities within the heart, kidney, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and the endocrine systems. In addition, preventative measures need to be taken by mothers during pregnancy. Birth Defects Research (Part C), 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 108:174-180, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Fetal maturity and morbidity as related to placental weight and secondary ossification

    PubMed Central

    Pryse-Davies, J.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of objectivity in histopathology is illustrated by an attempt to determine the normal range and significance of two observations, placental weight and secondary ossification, made in perinatal pathology. Neither offered a satisfactory estimation of fetal maturity. The placental weight provided little evidence of any primary placental dysfunction: the placenta was very small in association with only 50% of the very small infants and a very small placental fetal weight ratio was an infrequent finding of doubtful significance. A method of classifying relatively retarded and advanced secondary ossification was devised. Significant retardation was found in association with males, growth retardation, some malformations, and multiple births: significantly advanced ossification was found in anencephaly. PMID:1197178

  7. Estimation of fetal weight by measurement of fetal thigh soft-tissue thickness in the late third trimester.

    PubMed

    Scioscia, M; Scioscia, F; Vimercati, A; Caradonna, F; Nardelli, C; Pinto, L R; Selvaggi, L E

    2008-03-01

    The accuracy of current formulae for the sonographic estimation of fetal weight (EFW) is compromised by significant intra- and interobserver variability of biometrical measurements, particularly circumferences. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the linear measurement of mid-thigh soft-tissue thickness (STT) and to derive a novel formula for EFW. This was a prospective study involving 388 singleton uncomplicated pregnancies. There were three consecutive phases: (1) to verify the relationship between STT and birth weight, (2) to derive a novel formula for EFW using femur length and STT only, and (3) to test the accuracy of the new equation. Only the 290 patients who delivered within 48 h of measurement were considered for the analysis. A comparison with other formulae was performed. STT was significantly correlated with both abdominal circumference and birth weight (r(2) = 0.36 and 0.46, respectively; P < 0.001). Both intra- and interobserver variability were satisfactory (0.44 +/- 0.27 and 0.57 +/- 0.35 mm, respectively). The equation for EFW was developed using multiple stepwise regression analysis (EFW = - 1687.47 + (54.1 x femur length) + (76.68 x STT)) and tested prospectively on 69 patients. The new formula yielded results (r = 0.79) that were slightly better in accuracy than two other published equations, and had an absolute mean error of < 15% in 97% of cases. Our findings confirm the potential of the linear measurement of mid-thigh STT as a valuable parameter for the sonographic assessment of fetal growth and EFW. Our new equation is apparently at least as reliable as the most widely used formulae for EFW. Copyright (c) 2008 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of Fetal Thyroid with 3D Gradient Echo T1-weighted MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shinya; Nagaishi, Junichi; Mukuda, Naoko; Kaneda, Sachi; Inoue, Chie; Fukunaga, Takeru; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2017-07-10

    The characteristics of fetal thyroid on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, including normal thyroid and disorders other than goiter have not been fully evaluated. Our aim was to assess fetal thyroid using three dimensional (3D) gradient echo (GRE) T1-weighted MR imaging and to examine the usefulness of this modality. The study included 27 3D GRE T1-weighted images from 26 fetuses. The largest possible region of interest (ROI) within the thyroid at the slice level depicting the thyroid was manually defined and three circular ROIs on neck muscle were manually defined on the image slices showing the highest signal intensity (SI) of the thyroid. Maximum and mean thyroid-to-muscle SI ratios (SIRs) were then calculated as SIR = maximum or mean thyroid SI/muscle SI. The thyroid could not be identified in two cases. Fetal thyroid function was normal in 17 cases, and there were 7 cases of hypothyroidism (6 transient and 1 thyroid dysgenesis). There was no linear relationship between mean and maximum SIR and gestational age. The mean and maximum SIR in the cases of normal fetal thyroid were 1.85 ± 0.20 and 2.61 ± 0.39, and the mean and maximum SIR in fetal hypothyroidism were 1.58 ± 0.20 and 2.13 ± 0.37. Mean (P = 0.0088) and maximum (P = 0.0221) SIR values were significantly different between euthyroid and hypothyroid fetuses. Thyroid SIR measurement provided useful information regarding fetal thyroid function.

  9. Accuracy of body weight perception and obesity among Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Fu, Mei R; Hu, Sophia H; Wang, Vincent Y; Crupi, Robert; Qiu, Jeanna M; Cleland, Chuck; D'Eramo Melkus, Gail

    2016-09-01

    Accuracy of body weight perception is an individual's perception of their body weight in comparison with actual body weight and is associated with weight-related behaviors. Chinese Americans have increased risk for obesity but no studies have examined accuracy of body weight perception. This study was a descriptive and cross-sectional study, which was conducted in a community health center in New York. Study subjects were all Chinese-American adults. Demographic information, accuracy of perception of body weight, anthropometric measures (weight, height, body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], hip circumference [HC], weight to height ratio, weight to hip ratio), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and obesity-related diseases (hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke) were assessed. A total of 162 Chinese Americans were recruited. 52 subjects (32%) did not perceive body weight correctly: 32 subjects had underestimation and 20 subjects had overestimation of body weight. Significant differences were found among subjects in the three groups of different accuracy of body weight perception in terms of gender (p=0.003), age (p=0.003), education years (p=0.047), WC (p<0.001), HC (p≤0.001), weight/height ratio (p=0.001), and BMI (p<0.001). Accuracy of perception of body weight significantly predicted WC (p<0.001), HC (p<0.001), weight to height ratio (p=0.001), BMI (p<0.001) and weight (<0.001) even after controlling for all demographic factors. The study identified that around one-third of Chinese Americans did not perceive their body weight correctly. Intervention studies for obesity management in Chinese Americans should address gender difference, target on older subjects, and focus on educating the normal values and significances of WC, HC and HbA1C among Chinese Americans. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  11. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  12. Heritability of body weight: moving beyond genetics.

    PubMed

    Russo, P; Lauria, F; Siani, A

    2010-12-01

    Obesity is a complex disease, arising from the interaction between several genetic and environmental factors. Until recently, the genetic basis of complex diseases in general, and of obesity in particular, were poorly characterized. While the relatively rare monogenic and syndromic forms of obesity clearly recognize a genetic origin, the actual worldwide epidemics of obesity represent a challenge for the identification of the genetic factors involved, being likely the effect of several loci each having a subtle influence on the phenotypic expression. Progress in DNA analysis techniques and in computational tools, and the increasing level of characterization of the variability of the human genome has recently allowed to study comprehensively the association between genetic variants and obesity. To date, well-conducted and powered genome-wide association studies allowed to consistently identify genomic regions - lying on different chromosomes and affecting different metabolic pathways - influencing the predisposition to the accumulation of body fat, ultimately leading to overweight and obesity. However, the population attributable risk for obesity linked to the most statistically significant loci, like FTO and MC4R, remains discouragingly low, explaining only small fractions of the overall variance of body weight. In the last few years, the role of the complex interaction between genetic determinants and environmental factors in the rapid global increase of obesity has been further challenged by the entry of new players, that is the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, summarized under the emerging discipline of epigenetics. The key challenge now is to move from the identification of causal genes and variants to the integration of different "omics" disciplines, finally allowing the molecular understanding of obesity and related conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Counseling for fetal macrosomia: an estimated fetal weight of 4,000 g is excessively low.

    PubMed

    Peleg, David; Warsof, Steven; Wolf, Maya Frank; Perlitz, Yuri; Shachar, Inbar Ben

    2015-01-01

    Because of the known complications of fetal macrosomia, our hospital's policy has been to discuss the risks of shoulder dystocia and cesarean section (CS) in mothers with a sonographic estimated fetal weight (SEFW) ≥ 4,000 g at term. The present study was performed to determine the effect of this policy on CS rates and pregnancy outcome. We examined the pregnancy outcomes of the macrosomic (≥ 4,000 g) neonates in two cohorts of nondiabetic low risk women at term without preexisting indications for cesarean: (1) SEFW ≥ 4,000 g (correctly suspected macrosomia) and (2) SEFW < 4,000 g (unsuspected macrosomia). There were 238 neonates in the correctly suspected group and 205 neonates in the unsuspected macrosomia group, respectively. Vaginal delivery was accomplished in 52.1% of the suspected group and 90.7% of the unsuspected group, respectively, p < 0.001. There was no difference in the rates of shoulder dystocia. The odds ratio for CS was 9.0 (95% confidence interval, 5.3-15.4) when macrosomia was correctly suspected. The policy of discussing the risk of macrosomia with SEFW ≥ 4,000 g to women is not justified. A higher SEFW to trigger counseling for shoulder dystocia and CS, more consistent with American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) guidelines, should be considered. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Birth weight, Early Life Course BMI, and Body Size Change: Chains of Risk to Adult Inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Cheadle, Jacob E.; McDade, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how body size changes over the early life course predict high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in a U.S. based sample. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we test the chronic disease epidemiological models of fetal origins, sensitive periods, and chains of risk from birth into adulthood. Few studies link birth weight and changes in obesity status over adolescence and early adulthood to adult obesity and inflammation. Consistent with fetal origins and sensitive periods hypotheses, body size and obesity status at each developmental period, along with increasing body size between periods, are highly correlated with adult CRP. However, the predictive power of earlier life course periods is mediated by body size and body size change at later periods in a pattern consistent with the chains of risk model. Adult increases in obesity had effect sizes of nearly .3sd, and effect sizes from overweight to the largest obesity categories were between .3–1sd. There was also evidence that risk can be offset by weight loss, which suggests that interventions can reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk, that females are more sensitive to body size changes, and that body size trajectories over the early life course account for African American-and Hispanic-white disparities in adult inflammation. PMID:26685708

  15. Body mass index and weight loss in overweight and obese korean women: the mediating role of body weight perception.

    PubMed

    Boo, Sunjoo

    2013-12-01

    This study were to assess the relationships among BMI, body weight perception, and efforts to lose weight in a public sample of Korean women who are overweight and obese and to examine the mediating role of body weight perception on the relationship between BMI and weight loss efforts. This cross-sectional study used data from the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The sample was 1,739 Korean women 20 years old or older with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23 kg/m(2). Bivariate relationships among variables of interests were assessed. Three separate regressions were used to test the mediating role of body weight perception on the relationship between BMI and weight loss efforts. BMI and body weight perception were significant correlates of weight loss efforts. BMI was significantly associated with weight perception, but a large proportion of women underestimated their weight. Weight perception partially mediated the relationship between BMI and weight loss efforts in Korean women. In light of the high prevalence of overweight or obesity and the many health consequences associated with obesity, Korean women should be aware of a healthy body weight and try to achieve that weight. Nursing interventions should consider body weight perception to effectively motivate overweight and obese Korean women to lose weight, as necessary. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Liquid-Diet with Alcohol Alters Maternal, Fetal and Placental Weights and the Expression of Molecules Involved in Integrin Signaling in the Fetal Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Ujjwal K.; Dhossche, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes wide range of behavioral and structural deficits in children, commonly known as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). Children with FAS may suffer behavioral deficits in the absence of obvious malformations. In rodents, the exposure to alcohol during gestation changes brain structures and weights of offspring. The mechanism of FAS is not completely understood. In the present study, an established rat (Long-Evans) model of FAS was used. The litter size and the weights of mothers, fetuses and placentas were examined on gestation days 18 or 20. On gestation day 18, the effects of chronic alcohol on the expression levels of integrin receptor subunits, phospholipase-Cγ and N-cadherin were examined in the fetal cerebral cortices. Presence of alcohol in the liquid-diet reduced the consumption and decreased weights of mothers and fetuses but increased the placental weights. Expression levels of β1 and α3 integrin subunits and phospholipase-Cγ2 were significantly altered in the fetal cerebral cortices of mothers on alcohol containing diet. Results show that alcohol consumption during pregnancy even with protein, mineral and vitamin enriched diet may affect maternal and fetal health, and alter integrin receptor signaling pathways in the fetal cerebral cortex disturbing the development of fetal brains. PMID:21139874

  17. Liquid-diet with alcohol alters maternal, fetal and placental weights and the expression of molecules involved in integrin signaling in the fetal cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Rout, Ujjwal K; Dhossche, Julie M

    2010-11-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes wide range of behavioral and structural deficits in children, commonly known as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). Children with FAS may suffer behavioral deficits in the absence of obvious malformations. In rodents, the exposure to alcohol during gestation changes brain structures and weights of offspring. The mechanism of FAS is not completely understood. In the present study, an established rat (Long-Evans) model of FAS was used. The litter size and the weights of mothers, fetuses and placentas were examined on gestation days 18 or 20. On gestation day 18, the effects of chronic alcohol on the expression levels of integrin receptor subunits, phospholipase-Cγ and N-cadherin were examined in the fetal cerebral cortices. Presence of alcohol in the liquid-diet reduced the consumption and decreased weights of mothers and fetuses but increased the placental weights. Expression levels of β(1) and α(3) integrin subunits and phospholipase-Cγ(2) were significantly altered in the fetal cerebral cortices of mothers on alcohol containing diet. Results show that alcohol consumption during pregnancy even with protein, mineral and vitamin enriched diet may affect maternal and fetal health, and alter integrin receptor signaling pathways in the fetal cerebral cortex disturbing the development of fetal brains.

  18. Substrate-energy metabolism and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease in relation to fetal growth and adult body composition.

    PubMed

    Kensara, Osama A; Wooton, Steve A; Phillips, David I W; Patel, Mayank; Hoffman, Daniel J; Jackson, Alan A; Elia, Marinos

    2006-08-01

    The effect of fetal programming on intermediary metabolism is uncertain. Therefore, we examined whether fetal programming affects oxidative and nonoxidative macronutrient metabolism and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in adult life. Healthy older men, aged 64-72 years, with either a lower birth weight (LBW, weight (HBW, >or=75th %ile; n = 13) had measurements of 1) net oxidative metabolism using indirect calorimetry before and for 6 h after a mixed meal (3,720 kJ) and 2) postprandial oxidation of exogenous [13C]palmitic acid. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. After adjustment for current weight and height, the LBW group had a lower resting energy expenditure (REE) in the preprandial (4.01 vs. 4.54 kJ/min, P = 0.015) and postprandial state (4.60 vs. 5.20 kJ/min, P = 0.004), and less fat-free mass than the HBW group. The BW category was a significant, independent, and better predictor of REE than weight plus height. There were no significant differences between groups in net oxidative and nonoxidative macronutrient (protein, fat, carbohydrate) metabolism (or of exogenous [13C]palmitate) or in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, which was present almost twice as commonly in the LBW than in the HBW group. The study suggests that fetal programming affects both pre- and postprandial EE in older life by mechanisms that are at least partly related to the mass of the fat-free body. BW was found to be a significant predictor of REE that was independent of adult weight plus height.

  19. Does 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate affect fetal biometry and birth weight in twin pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Mulder, E J H; Versteegh, E M J; Bloemenkamp, K W M; Lim, A C; Mol, B W J; Bekedam, D J; Kwee, A; Bruinse, H W; Christiaens, G C M L

    2013-09-01

    Increasingly, maternal administration of 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) is utilized to prevent preterm birth, but the fetal safety of 17-OHPC is still a matter of concern. This study aimed to assess whether exposure to 17-OHPC during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy affects fetal biometry in twin gestations. This study included a subset of women with a twin pregnancy who had been previously included in a randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of 17-OHPC and placebo on neonatal outcomes and preterm birth rates in multiple pregnancy. In the present study, the individual growth patterns of femur length, head circumference and abdominal circumference were compared between fetuses of women who had been randomized to receive weekly injections of either 17-OHPC (n = 52) or placebo (n = 58) at between 16-20 and 36 weeks' gestation. The three biometric variables assessed developed similarly in fetuses in both the group exposed to 17-OHPC and the placebo group during the second half of pregnancy. Birth weight adjusted for parity and fetal sex was also comparable between groups. The use of 17-OHPC has no adverse effects on fetal biometry and birth weight in twins. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Neurohumoral regulation of body weight gain.

    PubMed

    Devaskar, S U

    2001-09-01

    The regulation of body weight is a complex process which relies on a balance between supply of nutrients and demand on these nutrients in the form of energy expenditure. Various central and peripheral mechanisms play a crucial role in maintaining this balance. While various neuropeptides in the central nervous system (CNS), particularly in the hypothalamus, maintain the necessary harmony between hyperphagia and anorexia, peripheral signals arising from the gastrointestinal tract (cholecystokinin-8 [CCK-8], amylin), pancreas (insulin) and adipose tissue (leptin) provide the necessary stimuli or a feedback inhibition for the synthesis and secretion of these hypothalamic neuropeptides. Various metabolites of the carbohydrate and fat metabolism are also involved in regulating the neuronal activity in the hypothalamus which ultimately leads to a release of key neuropeptides. In addition to the central mechanisms, peripheral mechanisms that regulate energy expenditure, particularly in the brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, are critical in maintaining the overall balance. Insight into these mechanisms sets the stage for developing novel strategies in the treatment of emerging childhood diseases such as obesity, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia. Further, delineation of these processes in the fetus and newborn sets the stage for investigating their role in molding the adult phenotype due to intrauterine adaptations.

  1. Weight Loss Practices and Body Weight Perceptions among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…

  2. Weight Loss Practices and Body Weight Perceptions among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…

  3. Weight, Weight-Related Aspects of Body Image, and Depression in Early Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa

    1997-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that early adolescent girls (N=175) with more negative weight-related body images would report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Results indicate that the more subjective and personal measures of weight-related body image discontent (weight dissatisfaction and weight concerns) were associated with increased depressive…

  4. Adolescent ballet school students: their quest for body weight change.

    PubMed

    Bettle, N; Bettle, O; Neumärker, U; Neumärker, K J

    1998-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and body type of female and male adolescent ballet dancers (n = 90) and school students (n = 156) were determined. Participants were asked for the body weight she or he would prefer, and ballet students were administered the Eating Attitudes Test-40 (EAT-40). Results between age groups and with reference values were compared. Both in dancers and controls, girls wanted to lose more body weight than boys, with female ballet dancers more than female controls. The desire for reducing body weight was expressed by female ballet dancers of all BMI percentiles and body types, with the highest difference between real and desired body weight in 11-, 13-, and 16-year-olds. In the other groups, a quest for lower body weight was expressed only by adolescents of higher BMI and pyknomorphic and/or mesomorphic body type. Female ballet dancers of all age groups sought to reach body weights below the 5th percentile or below 82% of normal body weight. Desired body weight change was influenced by BMI and body type and correlated positively with EAT-40 score.

  5. Relationships between Neonatal Weight, Limb Lengths, Skinfold Thicknesses, Body Breadths and Circumferences in an Australian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T.; Cole, Tim J.; O'Callaghan, Michael; Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. Methods We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male) from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia). We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. Results Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg) were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference), this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. Conclusions Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length

  6. International estimated fetal weight standards of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project.

    PubMed

    Stirnemann, J; Villar, J; Salomon, L J; Ohuma, E; Ruyan, P; Altman, D G; Nosten, F; Craik, R; Munim, S; Cheikh Ismail, L; Barros, F C; Lambert, A; Norris, S; Carvalho, M; Jaffer, Y A; Noble, J A; Bertino, E; Gravett, M G; Purwar, M; Victora, C G; Uauy, R; Bhutta, Z; Kennedy, S; Papageorghiou, A T

    2017-04-01

    Estimated fetal weight (EFW) and fetal biometry are complementary measures used to screen for fetal growth disturbances. Our aim was to provide international EFW standards to complement the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Fetal Growth Standards that are available for use worldwide. Women with an accurate gestational-age assessment, who were enrolled in the prospective, international, multicenter, population-based Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS) and INTERBIO-21(st) Fetal Study (FS), two components of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project, had ultrasound scans every 5 weeks from 9-14 weeks' until 40 weeks' gestation. At each visit, measurements of fetal head circumference (HC), biparietal diameter, occipitofrontal diameter, abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) were obtained blindly by dedicated research sonographers using standardized methods and identical ultrasound machines. Birth weight was measured within 12 h of delivery by dedicated research anthropometrists using standardized methods and identical electronic scales. Live babies without any congenital abnormality, who were born within 14 days of the last ultrasound scan, were selected for inclusion. As most births occurred at around 40 weeks' gestation, we constructed a bootstrap model selection and estimation procedure based on resampling of the complete dataset under an approximately uniform distribution of birth weight, thus enriching the sample size at extremes of fetal sizes, to achieve consistent estimates across the full range of fetal weight. We constructed reference centiles using second-degree fractional polynomial models. Of the overall population, 2404 babies were born within 14 days of the last ultrasound scan. Mean time between the last scan and birth was 7.7 (range, 0-14) days and was uniformly distributed. Birth weight was best estimated as a function of AC and HC (without FL) as log(EFW) = 5.084820 - 54.06633 × (AC/100)(3)  - 95.80076 × (AC/100)(3)  × log(AC/100)

  7. The Development of Body Image and Weight Bias in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Paxton, S J; Damiano, S R

    2017-01-01

    Negative body image attitudes are related to the onset of disordered eating, poor self-esteem, general mental health problems, and obesity. In this chapter, we will review the nature of body image attitudes in girls and boys in early (approximately 3-7 years old) and later childhood (approximately 8-11 years old). The body image attitudes explored in this chapter include body image attitudes related to the self, with a focus on body dissatisfaction, and body image attitudes related to others, with a focus on weight bias. Issues of measurement of body image and weight bias will first be explored. In light of measurement considerations, the prevalence and predictors of body dissatisfaction and related concerns, and weight bias will be examined. The chapter will conclude with a review of promising directions in the prevention of body dissatisfaction and weight bias in children. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of delivering low birth weight infant: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon C S; Malone, Fergal D; Ball, Robert H; Nyberg, David A; Comstock, Christine H; Hankins, Gary D V; Berkowitz, Richard L; Gross, Susan J; Dugoff, Lorraine; Craigo, Sabrina D; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E; Carr, Stephen R; Wolfe, Honor M; D'Alton, Mary E

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine if first trimester fetal growth is associated with birth weight, duration of pregnancy, and the risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant. Design Prospective cohort study of 38 033 pregnancies between 1999 and 2003. Setting 15 centres representing major regions of the United States. Participants 976 women from the original cohort who conceived as the result of assisted reproductive technology, had a first trimester ultrasound measurement of fetal crown-rump length, and delivered live singleton infants without evidence of chromosomal or congenital abnormalities. First trimester growth was expressed as the difference between the observed and expected size of the fetus, expressed as equivalence to days of gestational age. Main outcome measures Birth weight, duration of pregnancy, and risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant. Results For each one day increase in the observed size of the fetus, birth weight increased by 28.2 (95% confidence interval 14.6 to 41.2) g. The association was substantially attenuated by adjustment for duration of pregnancy (adjusted coefficient 17.1 (6.6 to 27.5) g). Further adjustments for maternal characteristics and complications of pregnancy did not have a significant effect. The risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant decreased with increasing size in the first trimester (odds ratio for a one day increase 0.87, 0.81 to 0.94). The association was not materially affected by adjustment for maternal characteristics or complications of pregnancy. Conclusion Variation in birth weight may be determined, at least in part, by fetal growth in the first 12 weeks after conception through effects on timing of delivery and fetal growth velocity. PMID:17355993

  9. Effect of age, weight, and sire on embryo and fetal survival in sheep.

    PubMed

    Shorten, P R; O'Connell, A R; Demmers, K J; Edwards, S J; Cullen, N G; Juengel, J L

    2013-10-01

    The goal was to estimate the heritabilities and genetic variances for embryo and fetal survival (ES) in sheep along with the effect of premating ewe weight, age, and bilateral or unilateral ovulation on ES. The data consisted of 11,369 records on ovulation rate and litter size. Statistical models for ES included year and ovulation rate as fixed effects, premating ewe weight, and age as covariates, and sire of embryo, maternal grandsire (MGS), and permanent maternal environmental effects of the ewe as random effects. The variance components were estimated using REML. In ewes that survived to yr 6, the mean litter size was 1.87, 2.05, 2.01, 2.07, and 1.91 ± 0.04 in ewes of age 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 yr, respectively. Litter size was less in ewes of age 2 and 6 yr compared to ewes of age 3, 4, and 5 yr (P < 0.01). Ovulation rate was lower at age 2 yr and increased from age 2 to 6 yr (P < 0.05). Two-year-old ewes had lower ES than 3-yr-old ewes (P < 0.01) and the probability of ES decreased after age 3 yr (P < 0.01). Thus, ES contributes significantly to lower fertility in 2-yr-old ewes. In ewes with high ovulation rates (i.e., 5 corpora lutea, CL), more balanced ovulations (i.e., 2 or 3 CL on each ovary) tended (P = 0.06) to be associated with increased ES. A quadratic relationship was observed between ewe weight and litter size (P < 0.01) and a positive linear relationship between premating ewe weight and ovulation rate (P < 0.01). A quadratic effect of ewe weight on ES was observed, with decreased ES for low and high ewe weights (P < 0.01). The optimal ewe weight for ES increased with ovulation rate, which is consistent with the requirement of greater body reserves for maintaining a larger number of fetuses during gestation. A quadratic relationship between ewe weight and the probability that a ewe is able to maintain a pregnancy was also observed (P < 0.05). Pregnancy loss is due to failure of the embryo or fetus or failure of the dam to maintain the pregnancy. The

  10. Body composition during fetal development and infancy through the age of 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Toro-Ramos, T; Paley, C; Pi-Sunyer, FX; Gallagher, D

    2015-01-01

    Fetal body composition is an important determinant of body composition at birth, and it is likely to be an important determinant at later stages in life. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview by presenting data from previously published studies that report on body composition during fetal development in newborns and the infant/child through 5 years of age. Understanding the changes in body composition that occur both in utero and during infancy and childhood, and how they may be related, may help inform evidence-based practice during pregnancy and childhood. We describe body composition measurement techniques from the in utero period to 5 years of age, and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research efforts. Available literature on chemical and cadaver analyses of fetal studies during gestation is presented to show the timing and accretion rates of adipose and lean tissues. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fetal lean and fat mass accretion could be especially useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. The practicality of different pediatric body composition measurement methods in the clinical setting is discussed by presenting the assumptions and limitations associated with each method that may assist the clinician in characterizing the health and nutritional status of the fetus, infant and child. It is our hope that this review will help guide future research efforts directed at increasing the understanding of how body composition in early development may be associated with chronic diseases in later life. PMID:26242725

  11. Weight loss, body fat mass, and leptin in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lorefält, Birgitta; Toss, Göran; Granérus, Ann-Kathrine

    2009-04-30

    Weight loss is a common problem in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the causative mechanisms behind this weight loss are unclear. We compared 26 PD patients with sex and age matched healthy controls. Examinations were repeated at baseline, after one and after two years. Body fat mass was measured by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Seventy three per cent of the PD patients lost body weight. Loss of body fat mass constituted a considerable part of the loss of body weight. In the patients who lost weight, serum leptin levels were lower than in those who did not lose weight. The relationship between low body fat mass and low leptin levels seems to be relevant, at least for female PD patients. It is reasonable to believe that low leptin levels in these patients could be secondary to the decreased body fat mass. (c) 2009 Movement Disorder Society.

  12. Comparative evaluation of atracurium dosed on ideal body weight vs. total body weight in morbidly obese patients

    PubMed Central

    van Kralingen, Simone; van de Garde, Ewoudt M W; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; Diepstraten, Jeroen; Wiezer, Marinus J; van Ramshorst, Bert; van Dongen, Eric P A

    2011-01-01

    AIMS This double-blind randomized study evaluated atracurium dosing based on ideal body weight vs. total body weight for muscle relaxation in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. METHODS Twenty patients (body weight 112–260 kg, BMI 38–79 kg m−2) were randomized to receive atracurium 0.5 mg kg−1 ideal body weight vs. 0.5 mg kg−1 total body weight. Primary endpoint was neuromuscular blockade using train-of-four ratios (TOF ratios) and secondary endpoints were intubation conditions and need for antagonism with neostigmine. RESULTS In the ideal body weight group, times to recovery of TOF ratio from 0 to 5%, 50% and 75% were significantly shorter [TOF ratio from 0 to 5%: mean difference 30 min (95% CI 23, 39 min)] and with lower variability compared with the total body weight group. In the total body weight group there was a significant correlation between atracurium dose and time to a TOF ratio of 5% (r = 0.82, P < 0.001), which was absent in the ideal body weight group (r = 0.24). In both groups, intubation conditions were good while 70% of the patients in the total body weight group needed neostigmine at the end of surgery compared with 0% in the ideal body weight group. CONCLUSION In morbid obesity (112–260 kg), atracurium 0.5 mg kg−1 ideal body weight results in a predictable profile of muscle relaxation allowing for adequate intubation conditions and recovery of muscle strength to a TOF ratio >90% within 60 min with lack of need for antagonism. A dose-dependent prolongation of action is shown when dosing is based on total body weight. PMID:21143499

  13. Maternal body weight gain and fetus development of rats fed a moderately altered olive oil.

    PubMed

    López-Varela, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Pérez-Granados, A M; Cuesta, C

    1998-03-01

    The present study examines whether the consumption of a moderately altered olive oil influenced body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of pregnant rats as well as placental and fetal development. Olive oil used for frying 15 times undergoes a relatively slight alteration involving a statistically significant increase in polar content (9.0+/-0.1 mg/100 mg oil vs 2.0+/-0.1 mg/100 mg oil; p < 0.001). The methyl ester content also increased (5.1+/-0.8 mg/100 mg oil vs 1.8+/-0.5 mg/100 mg oil; p < 0.02), while the linoleic acid and oleic acid contents decreased significantly (6.2+/-0.6% oil vs 7.2+/-0.2% oil and 75.8+/-0.6% vs 78.9+/-0.2%, respectively, both p < 0.05). Wistar rats were divided into four groups, two of which included pregnant rats (P1 and P2) and the other two, non-pregnant rats (NP1 and NP2). Groups NP1 and P1 received a diet containing 15% of fat as unused olive oil, while groups NP2 and P2 were fed a diet with a fat content of 15% as the olive oil used in 15 fryings. Pregnancy increased food intake, body weight, weight gain and food efficiency ratio (P1 vs NP1, and P2 vs NP1), while consumption of the used olive oil diet with respect to the unused oil diet did not alter food intake, body weight, weight gain and food efficiency ratio, placental weight, fetal weight and the number of fetuses in P2 rats with respect to P1 ones. These results suggest that in pregnant rats consumption of olive oil with a moderate level of alteration, as the only dietary fat source, exerts no detrimental effects on the mother weight gain or conceptus development.

  14. Accuracy of body weight perception and obesity among Chinese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan; Hu, Sophia H.; Wang, Vincent Y.; Crupi, Robert; Qiu, Jeanna M.; Cleland, Chuck; Melkus, Gail D’Eramo

    2015-01-01

    Background Accuracy of body weight perception is an individual’s perception of their body weight in comparison with actual body weight and is associated with weight related behaviors. Chinese Americans have increased risk for obesity but no studies have examined accuracy of body weight perception. Methods This study was a descriptive and cross-sectional study, which was conducted in a community health center in New York. Study subjects were all Chinese-American adults. Demographic information, accuracy of perception of body weight, anthropometric measures (Weight, Height, BMI, weight to height ratio, weight to hip ratio), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1C and obesity related disease including hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, stroke were assessed. Results A total of 162 Chinese American were recruited.52 subjects (32%) did not perceive body weight correctly, in which 32 subjects had underestimation and 20 subjects had overestimation of body weight. Significant differences were found among subjects in three groups of different accuracy of body weight perception in terms of gender (p=0.003), age (p=0.003), education years (p=0.047). WC (p<0.001), HC (p=<0.001), weight/height ratio (p=0.001), BMI (p<0.001). Subjects in consistent/accurate estimation group and underestimation group had similar obesity related-characteristics but different from subjects in overestimation group. Discussion and Conclusion The study identified around one third of Chinese American did not perceive their body weight correctly. Intervention studies for obesity management in Chinese American should address gender difference, target on older subjects, and focus on educating the normal values and significances of WC, HC and HbA1C among Chinese Americans. PMID:25937164

  15. Birth weight and fetal growth in infants born to female hairdressers and their sisters.

    PubMed

    Axmon, A; Rylander, L

    2009-03-01

    To investigate birth weight and fetal growth in female hairdressers, while controlling for intergenerational effects and effects related to childhood exposures. A cohort of women who had attended vocational schools for hairdressers were compared to their sisters with respect to birth weight and fetal growth (measured as small for gestational age (SGA) or large for gestational age (LGA), respectively) in their infants. In total, 6223 infants born to 3137 hairdressers and 8388 infants born to 3952 hairdressers' sisters were studied. Among the infants born to the hairdressers' sisters, the distribution of birth weights were wider than that among the infants born to the hairdressers. This was also reflected in that hairdresser cohort affiliation tended to be protective against both SGA (odds ratio 0.80; 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 1.31) and LGA (0.77; 0.54 to 1.09). For LGA, this effect was even more pronounced among women who had actually worked as hairdressers during at least one pregnancy (0.60; 0.39 to 0.92). The infants born to these women also had a significantly lower mean birth weight (3387 g vs 3419 g; p = 0.033). The results from the present study suggest that infants born to hairdressers have a decreased risk of being LGA. This is most likely not caused by a shift in birth weight distribution or abnormal glucose metabolism.

  16. Body Weight, Body Image, and Perception of Fad Diets in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)

  17. Body Weight, Body Image, and Perception of Fad Diets in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)

  18. Body weight and beauty: the changing face of the ideal female body weight.

    PubMed

    Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P

    2011-01-01

    By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  19. Sonographic weight estimation in fetal macrosomia: influence of the time interval between estimation and delivery.

    PubMed

    Faschingbauer, F; Dammer, U; Raabe, E; Schneider, M; Faschingbauer, C; Schmid, M; Mayr, A; Schild, R L; Beckmann, M W; Kehl, S

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the influence of the time interval between examination and delivery on the accuracy of sonographic weight estimation (WE) in fetal macrosomia. 896 singleton pregnancies (birth weight > 4,000 g) with a total of 1,281 sonographic weight estimations were included in this retrospective cohort study. Fetuses were divided into six groups with regard to the time interval between estimation and delivery: group 1: scan-to-delivery interval: 0 days; group 2: scan-to-delivery interval: 1-3 days; group 3: scan-to-delivery interval: 4-7 days; group 4: scan-to-delivery interval: 8-14 days; group 5: scan-to-delivery interval: 15-21 days; group 6: scan-to-delivery interval: 22-42 days. The accuracy of WE was compared between five commonly used formulas using means of percentage errors (MPE), random error, medians of absolute percentage errors (MAPE), and proportions of estimates within 10 % of actual birth weight. Significant differences were found between the time interval groups with regard to MAPE and MPE values (p < 0.001). All formulas showed a systematic underestimation of fetal weight (negative MPEs) (p < 0.05). MPE values were closest to zero in time interval group 1 and 2. From group 3 to 6, a continuous decrease was observed. The lowest MAPE was found with the Merz formula in group 1 and 2. Values increased continuously from group 3 to 6. Differences between time interval group one and three did not reach statistical significance. WE in fetal macrosomia shows the best results when examinations are performed within 7 days before delivery, using the formula of Merz et al. Accuracy significantly decreases after this time period.

  20. Mechanisms of body weight fluctuations in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson's disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD.

  1. Mechanisms of Body Weight Fluctuations in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD. PMID:24917848

  2. Correlates of Body Mass Index, Weight Goals, and Weight-Management Practices among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2004-01-01

    The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…

  3. Perceptions of Body Weight, Weight Management Strategies, and Depressive Symptoms among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…

  4. Perceptions of Body Weight, Weight Management Strategies, and Depressive Symptoms among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…

  5. Correlates of Body Mass Index, Weight Goals, and Weight-Management Practices among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2004-01-01

    The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…

  6. Exercise and weight loss: no sex differences in body weight response to exercise.

    PubMed

    Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Finlayson, Graham; Näslund, Erik; Blundell, John

    2014-07-01

    There is a view that exercise is less effective for weight loss in women compared with men. This systematic review examines the evidence for sex-based differences in the effect of exercise on body weight. We hypothesize that, when energy expenditure is equivalent, there will be no evidence for sex differences in body weight response to exercise.

  7. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW) and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW). Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  8. Religion and body weight: a review of quantitative studies.

    PubMed

    Yeary, Karen Hye-Cheon Kim; Sobal, Jeffery; Wethington, Elaine

    2017-10-01

    Increasing interest in relationships between religion and health has encouraged research about religion and body weight, which has produced mixed findings. We systematically searched 11 bibliographic databases for quantitative studies of religion and weight, locating and coding 85 studies. We conducted a systematic review, analysing descriptive characteristics of the studies as well as relevant religion-body weight associations related to study characteristics. We summarized findings for two categories of religion variables: religious affiliation and religiosity. For religious affiliation, we found evidence for significant associations with body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, Seventh-Day Adventists had lower body weight than other denominations in cross-sectional analyses. For religiosity, significant associations occurred between greater religiosity and higher body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, greater religiosity was significantly associated with higher body weight in bivariate analyses but less so in multivariate analyses. A greater proportion of studies that used a representative sample, longitudinal analyses, and samples with only men reported significant associations between religiosity and weight. Evidence in seven studies suggested that health behaviours and psychosocial factors mediate religion-weight relationships. More longitudinal studies and analyses of mediators are needed to provide stronger evidence and further elucidate religion-weight relationships. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  9. Genetic factors contributing to obesity and body weight can act through mechanisms affecting muscle weight, fat weight, or both.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Gudrun A; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Neuschl, Christina; Churchill, Gary A; Li, Renhua

    2009-01-08

    Genetic loci for body weight and subphenotypes such as fat weight have been mapped repeatedly. However, the distinct effects of different loci and physiological interactions among different traits are often not accounted for in mapping studies. Here we used the method of structural equation modeling to identify the specific relationships between genetic loci and different phenotypes influencing body weight. Using this technique, we were able to distinguish genetic loci that affect adiposity from those that affect muscle growth. We examined the high body weight-selected mouse lines NMRI8 and DU6i and the intercross populations NMRI8 x DBA/2 and DU6i x DBA/2. Structural models help us understand whether genetic factors affect lean mass and fat mass pleiotropically or nonpleiotropically. Sex has direct effects on both fat and muscle weight but also influences fat weight indirectly via muscle weight. Three genetic loci identified in these two crosses showed exclusive effects on fat deposition, and five loci contributed exclusively to muscle weight. Two additional loci showed pleiotropic effects on fat and muscle weight, with one locus acting in both crosses. Fat weight and muscle weight were influenced by epistatic effects. We provide evidence that significant fat loci in strains selected for body weight contribute to fat weight both directly and indirectly via the influence on lean weight. These results shed new light on the action of genes in quantitative trait locus regions potentially influencing muscle and fat mass and thus controlling body weight as a composite trait.

  10. [Influence of maternal nutritional status, weight gain and energy intake on fetal growth in high-risk pregnancies].

    PubMed

    Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Paiva, Letícia Vieira; Costa, Verbênia Nunes; Liao, Adolfo Wenjaw; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2012-03-01

    To analyze the influence of maternal nutritional status, weight gain and energy consumption on fetal growth in high-risk pregnancies. A prospective study from August 2009 to August 2010 with the following inclusion criteria: puerperae up to the 5th postpartum day; high-risk singleton pregnancies (characterized by medical or obstetrical complications during pregnancy); live fetus at labor onset; delivery at the institution; maternal weight measured on the day of delivery, and presence of medical and/or obstetrical complications characterizing pregnancy as high-risk. Nutritional status was assessed by pregestational body mass index and body mass index in late pregnancy, and the patients were classified as: underweight, adequate, overweight and obese. A food frequency questionnaire was applied to evaluate energy consumption. We investigated maternal weight gain, delivery data and perinatal outcomes, as well as fetal growth based on the occurrence of small for gestational age and large for gestational age neonates. We included 374 women who were divided into three study groups according to newborn birth weight: adequate for gestational age (270 cases, 72.2%), small for gestational age (91 cases, 24.3%), and large for gestational age (13 cases, 3.5%). Univaried analysis showed that women with small for gestational age neonates had a significantly lower mean pregestational body mass index (23.5 kg/m², p<0.001), mean index during late pregnancy (27.7 kg/m², p<0.001), and a higher proportion of maternal underweight at the end of pregnancy (25.3%, p<0.001). Women with large for gestational age neonates had a significantly higher mean pregestational body mass index (29.1 kg/m², p<0.001), mean index during late pregnancy (34.3 kg/m², p<0.001), and a higher proportion of overweight (30.8%, p=0.02) and obesity (38.5%, p=0.02) according to pregestational body mass index, and obesity at the end of pregnancy (53.8%, p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed the index value

  11. Control of Body Weight by Eating Behavior in Children

    PubMed Central

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Bergh, Cecilia; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Esfandiari, Maryam; Shield, Julian; Lightman, Stafford; Leon, Michael; Södersten, Per

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen. PMID:26539422

  12. Body weight gain and deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Rieu, Isabelle; Derost, Philippe; Ulla, Miguel; Marques, Ana; Debilly, Bérangère; De Chazeron, Ingrid; Chéreau, Isabelle; Lemaire, Jean Jacques; Boirie, Yves; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Durif, Franck

    2011-11-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical technique that has now been available for some 25 years. It is used in the treatment of various motor disorders, e.g. Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor and dystonia, and neuropsychiatric illnesses, e.g. obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome. The surgical targets of DBS include the thalamic ventralis intermedius nucleus (Vim), the globus pallidus internus (GPi) and more recently the subthalamic nucleus (STN), currently considered as the reference target in the treatment of PD. In the last ten years, most studies in PD patients have described a rapid and marked weight gain in the months following DBS of the STN. This weight gain sometimes induces obesity and can have metabolic repercussions. The physiopathological mechanisms responsible for the weight gain are multifactorial (changes in energy metabolism and eating behaviour, reduction of motor complications, etc.). This review reports current knowledge concerning weight changes in patients treated by DBS with different surgical targets. It also describes the mechanisms responsible for weight gain and the health outcome for the patients.

  13. Body image, maternal-fetal attachment, and choice of infant feeding method: a study in taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Chi; Wang, Shing-Yaw; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2004-09-01

    Many factors contribute to a pregnant woman's choice of infant feeding method, yet few studies have investigated which factors might be specific to pregnant women in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among factors of body image, maternal-fetal attachment, and the choices made by pregnant Taiwanese women about infant feeding method. One hundred and ninety-five pregnant women were recruited during their third trimester at five hospitals in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Participants completed three questionnaires, including a demographic data form, an attitude to body image scale, and a modified maternal-fetal attachment scale. The results of stepwise logistic regression indicated that the best subset for predicting the criterion variable of breastfeeding intention included higher level of education, primiparity, and a higher level of maternal-fetal attachment. Maternal-fetal attachment, education, and parity are predictive of intended infant feeding method by pregnant women who choose breastfeeding, thereby adding to existing knowledge of the factors involved in feeding method choices of Taiwanese women. Further research should incorporate maternal-fetal attachment into a supportive model of breastfeeding.

  14. Weight status, negative body talk, and body dissatisfaction: A dyadic analysis of male friends.

    PubMed

    Chow, Chong Man; Tan, Cin Cin

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the associations among weight status, body dissatisfaction, and negative body talk with a sample of young adult male friends (N = 55 pairs). Actor-Partner Interdependence Model revealed that individuals' body dissatisfaction was positively associated with their own body mass index, but was negatively associated with their friend's body mass index. In addition, having a friend with low body mass index escalated the association between individuals' own body mass index and body dissatisfaction. Further, when individuals with higher body mass index engaged in higher negative body talk, they had lower body dissatisfaction compared to those who engaged in lower negative body talk. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Body talk among undergraduate women: why conversations about exercise and weight loss differentially predict body appreciation.

    PubMed

    Wasylkiw, Louise; Butler, Nicole A

    2014-08-01

    Undergraduate women (N = 143) completed self-reports on exercise behavior, body orientation, body appreciation, and body-related talk. Results showed that conversations about weight loss/dieting and conversations about exercise differentially predicted body appreciation. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the relationship between talk type and body appreciation was explained by the object-process dichotomy: Conversations about exercise oriented women to consider what their bodies can do which, in turn, predicted appreciation of one's body. In contrast, the relationship between conversations about weight loss/dieting and body appreciation was mediated by negative attitudes about one's body but not by an object orientation.

  16. Tracking of weight status and body fatness in Italian children.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Di Michele, Rocco

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of weight disorders among school-aged children is an increasing phenomenon and it is of great importance to identify the characteristics of individuals at risk of gaining or retaining weight. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of weight disorders and their tracking over a 3-year period in a sample of Italian children. Body mass, body height and selected skinfold thicknesses were assessed in 355 children at the age of 7 and 10 years. Tracking of body mass index (BMI), inverted BMI (iBMI) and skinfold-based body fat were analyzed and the relationships between changes in BMI and body fat were examined. Children presenting with overweight or obesity at 7 years old showed a trend toward lower weight categories at 10 years old. Conversely, a trend to become overweight was observed among normal weight boys, and a trend to become underweight was observed among normal weight girls. BMI, iBMI and body fat showed good levels of tracking, with high correlations between measurements performed at 7 and 10 years of age. Furthermore, BMI and iBMI changes were correlated to body fatness changes. The present study shows the importance of carefully following children's development over time because weight disorders may appear even in previously normal weight children.

  17. Applicability of fetal thoracic aortic diameter measurement in the prediction of birth weight in Holstein-Friesian cows - Short communication.

    PubMed

    Vincze, Boglárka; Gáspárdy, András; Kovács, Levente; Albert, Ervin; Kézér, Luca; Baska, Ferenc; Szenci, Ottó

    2017-03-01

    Transabdominal ultrasonography has been shown to be a useful and reliable method for assessing fetal well-being in horses and cattle. To test the applicability of fetal aortic diameter measurement in cattle, 44 late-term pregnant cows and heifers were examined 21 to 0 days prior to calving. Mean fetal aortic diameter was 2.07 ± 0.14 cm and mean fetal heart rate (FHR) was 109 ± 17 bpm. Three dead calves were dissected and their aortic diameter was measured in a water bath. The mean birth weight (n = 44) was 39.9 ± 5.8 kg. There was a significant negative correlation between FHR and fetal aortic diameter. However, although some studies have shown that fetal aortic diameter strongly correlates with birth weight in near-term horses and cattle, in this study there was no correlation between fetal aortic diameter and birth weight in Holstein-Friesian cows and heifers irrespective of whether the fetus was born alive or dead.

  18. The Use of a Software-Assisted Method to Estimate Fetal Weight at and Near Term Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kadji, Caroline; De Groof, Maxime; Camus, Margaux F; De Angelis, Riccardo; Fellas, Stéphanie; Klass, Magdalena; Cecotti, Vera; Dütemeyer, Vivien; Barakat, Elie; Cannie, Mieke M; Jani, Jacques C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply a semi-automated calculation method of fetal body volume and, thus, of magnetic resonance-estimated fetal weight (MR-EFW) prior to planned delivery and to evaluate whether the technique of measurement could be simplified while remaining accurate. MR-EFW was calculated using a semi-automated method at 38.6 weeks of gestation in 36 patients and compared to the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Per patient, 8 sequences were acquired with a slice thickness of 4-8 mm and an intersection gap of 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, or 20 mm. The median absolute relative errors for MR-EFW and the time of planimetric measurements were calculated for all 8 sequences and for each method (assisted vs. PACS), and the difference between the methods was calculated. The median delivery weight was 3,280 g. The overall median relative error for all 288 MR-EFW calculations was 2.4% using the semi-automated method and 2.2% for the PACS method. Measurements did not differ between the 8 sequences using the assisted method (p = 0.313) or the PACS (p = 0.118), while the time of planimetric measurement decreased significantly with a larger gap (p < 0.001) and in the assisted method compared to the PACS method (p < 0.01). Our simplified MR-EFW measurement showed a dramatic decrease in time of planimetric measurement without a decrease in the accuracy of weight estimates. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Low birth weight and fetal anaemia as risk factors for infant morbidity in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kalanda, Boniface; Verhoeff, Francine; le Cessie, Saskia; Brabin, John

    2009-06-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) and fetal anaemia (FA) are common in malaria endemic areas. To investigate the incidence of infectious morbidity in infants in rural Malawi in relation to birth weight and fetal anaemia, a cohort of babies was followed for a year on the basis of LBW (<2500) and FA (cord haemoglobin < 12.5 g/dl). A matched group of normal birth weight (NBW), non-anaemic (NFA) new-borns were enrolled as controls. Morbidity episodes were recorded at 4-weekly intervals and at each extra visit made to a health centre with any illness. Infants in the NBW NFA group experienced an average of 1.15 (95% C.I. 0.99, 1.31), 1.04 (0.89, 1.19), 0.92 (0.73, 1.11) episodes per year of malaria, respiratory infection and diarrhoea respectively. Corresponding values for the LBW FA group were 0.83 (0.5, 1.16), 0.82 (0.5, 1.16) and 0.76 (0.33, 1.19). FA was not associated with a higher incidence of morbidity, but was significantly associated with a shorter time to first illness episode (p = 0.014). LBW was not a significant risk factor for higher morbidity incidence. LBW and FA were not significant risk factors for incidence of illness episodes in infants.

  20. Weight and Body Composition Changes During Oral Contraceptive Use in Obese and Normal Weight Women

    PubMed Central

    Torgal, Anupama H.; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Oral contraceptive (OC) use seems to have little effect on weight change in normal weight women. Most previous studies have excluded obese women, so the effect of OC use on weight change in obese women is unknown. Methods: This analysis evaluates weight and body composition change with OC use among obese (body mass index [BMI] 30.0–39.9) and normal weight (BMI 19.0–24.9) women who were randomly assigned to two OC doses: 20 μg ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 100 μg levonorgestrel (LNG) OCs or 30 μg EE and 150 μg LNG OCs. Follow-up occurred after three to four OC cycles. Weight and body composition were measured at baseline and at follow-up using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Results: Among 150 women (54 obese and 96 normal weight) who used OCs for 3 to 4 months, there were no clinically or statistically significant weight or body composition changes in the overall group or by BMI or OC formulation group. Conclusions: These findings add to evidence that EE/LNG OCs are not associated with short term weight or body composition change for normal weight women and suggest that OCs are also are not associated with short term weight or body composition change in obese women. PMID:24156617

  1. The effects of body mass on cremation weight.

    PubMed

    May, Shannon E

    2011-01-01

    Cremains have become increasingly frequent in forensic contexts, while higher body mass in the general population has simultaneously made cremation a more cost-effective mortuary practice. This study analyzed the relationship between body mass and bone mass, as reflected through cremation weight. Antemortem data were recorded for samples used in the multi-regional data set. Each was rendered through commercial crematoriums and reweighed postincineration. Pearson's correlation demonstrates clear association between body mass and cremation weight (r=0.56; p<0.0001). However, multiple linear regression revealed sex and age variables also have a significant relationship (t=7.198; t=-2.5, respectively). Regressed in conjunction, body mass, sex, and age contribute approximately 67% of all variation observed in cremation weight (r=0.668). Analysis of covariance indicates significant regional variation in body and cremation weight. Explanations include bone modification resulting from increased loading stress, as well as glucose intolerance and altered metabolic pathways related to obesity.

  2. Adolescent preferences and reactions to language about body weight.

    PubMed

    Puhl, R M; Himmelstein, M S; Armstrong, S C; Kingsford, E

    2017-07-01

    Over 30% of youth and adolescents have overweight or obesity, and health care providers are increasingly discussing weight-based health with these patients. Stigmatizing language in provider-patient communication about obesity is well documented and could be particularly detrimental to youth and adolescents. Although some research has examined preferences for weight-based terminology among adults, no studies have addressed these issues in youth populations. This study represents a preliminary and systematic investigation of weight-based language preferences among adolescents with overweight and obesity enrolled in a summer weight loss camp. Participants (N=50) indicated preferences for weight-based language and emotional responses to words that their family members used in reference to their body weight. Weight neutral terminology ('weight', 'body mass index') were most preferred, although some differences in word preferences emerged by the participants' gender. Boys preferred having their weight described as 'overweight' and 'heavy', while girls preferred the word 'curvy'. A large proportion of participants, particularly girls, reported experiencing sadness, shame, and embarrassment if parents used certain words to describe their body weight, which highlights the importance of considering the emotional impact of weight-based terminology. Providers may consider asking youth and adolescents for their preferences when discussing weight-based health.

  3. Body image and quality of life in post massive weight loss body contouring patients.

    PubMed

    Song, Angela Y; Rubin, J Peter; Thomas, Veena; Dudas, Jason R; Marra, Kacey G; Fernstrom, Madelyn H

    2006-09-01

    Because post-bariatric surgery patients undergo massive weight loss, the resulting skin excess can lead to both functional problems and profound dissatisfaction with appearance. Correcting skin excess could improve all these corollaries, including body image. Presently, few data are available documenting body image and weight-related quality of life in this population. Eighteen patients who underwent both bariatric surgery and body contouring completed our study. Both established surveys and new surveys designed specifically for the study were used to assess body perception and ideals, quality of life, and mood. Patients were surveyed at the following time-points: pre-body contouring (after massive weight loss) and both 3 and 6 month post-body contouring. Statistical testing was performed using Student's t test and ANOVA. The mean age of the patients was 46 +/- 10 years (standard deviation). Quality of life improved after obesity surgery and was significantly enhanced after body contouring. Three months after body contouring, subjects ascribed thinner silhouettes to both current appearance and ideal body image. Body image also improved with body contouring surgery. Mood remained stable over 6 months. Body contouring after surgical weight loss improved both quality-of-life measurements and body image. Initial body dissatisfaction did not correlate with mood. Body contouring improved body image but produced dissatisfaction with other parts of the body, suggesting that as patients become closer to their ideal, these ideals may shift. We further developed several new assessment methods that may prove useful in understanding these post-surgical weight loss patients.

  4. Misconceptions in body weight regulation: implications for the obesity pandemic.

    PubMed

    Flatt, J P

    2012-01-01

    Energy is a concept of universal importance. In applying it to body weight regulation, the focus has been on energy balance and how this balance is affected by intakes and expenditures. However, energy is an abstract concept without biological equivalent and applying it to explain body weight regulation has led to various misconceptions and created intellectual obstacles in understanding the obesity problem. When nutrient and substrate interactions are considered, instead, a number of important issues pertaining to body weight regulation and to the obesity epidemic can be much more pertinently addressed.

  5. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

  6. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

  7. Increase in body weight after pramipexole treatment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kumru, Hatice; Santamaria, Joan; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Marti, Maria J; Tolosa, Eduardo

    2006-11-01

    Body weight changes occur during the clinical course of Parkinson's disease (PD) and with surgical treatment, but the effect of dopaminergic treatment on weight is unknown. Body mass index (BMI), Hamilton depression scale score (HDS), and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III (UPRS-III) were measured before and 3 months after starting pramipexole in 28 PD patients. Pramipexole produced a significant weight increase, as well as motor and mood improvement (P <0.001). HDS and BMI changes were mildly related (P = 0.05). A direct effect of pramipexole on limbic D(3) receptors involved in the control of feeding may be responsible for weight gain in PD.

  8. The relationship of newborn adiposity to fetal growth outcome based on birth weight or the modified neonatal growth assessment score

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W; Riggs, T; Koo, W; Deter, RL; Yeo, L; Romero, R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives (1) Develop reference ranges of neonatal adiposity using air displacement plethysmography. (2) Use new reference ranges for neonatal adiposity to compare two different methods of evaluating neonatal nutritional status. Methods Three hundred and twenty-four normal neonates (35–41 weeks post-menstrual age) had body fat (%BF) and total fat mass (FM, g) measured using air displacement plethysmography shortly after delivery. Results were stratified for 92 of these neonates with corresponding fetal biometry using two methods for classifying nutritional status: (1) population-based weight percentiles; and (2) a modified neonatal growth assessment score (m3NGAS51). Results At the 50th percentile, &BF varied from 7.7% (35 weeks) to 11.8% (41 weeks), while the corresponding 50th percentiles for total FM were 186–436g. Among the subset of 92 neonates, no significant differences in adiposity were found between small for gestational age (SGA), appropriate for gestational age (AGA), and large for gestational age (LGA) groups using population-based weight standards. Classification of the same neonates using m3NGAS51 showed significant differences in mean %BF between corresponding groups. Conclusions Population-based weight criteria for neonatal nutritional status can lead to misclassification on the basis of adiposity. A neonatal growth assessment score, that considers the growth potential of several anatomic parameters, appears to more effectively classify under-and over-nourished newborns. PMID:22494346

  9. Estimate of fetal weight by ultrasound within two weeks of delivery in the detection of fetal macrosomia.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Amy M; Galdamez, Amy B; Ounpraseuth, Songthip T; Magann, Everett F

    2014-10-01

    Delivery of a macrosomic fetus can be linked with significant maternal and perinatal morbidity. Detection of the macrosomic fetus prior to delivery could have a significant impact on reducing that morbidity. The purpose of this study was to determine the likelihood of detection of macrosomia at the time of labour and delivery admission using ultrasound. Retrospective review using the electronic medical record and delivery room logs to identify women admitted to labour and delivery with a birthweight of ≥4000 g. There were 272 macrosomic neonates delivered between January 2010 and December 2012, of which, 91 (33.46%) were identified as macrosomic by ultrasound. Using Spearman correlation, the association between the estimated fetal weight by ultrasound and birthweight was r = 0.214 (95% CI: 0.098-0.325; P = 0.0004). In bivariate analyses, only White race was significant for macrosomia detection with 59 of 149 (39.6%) identified compared with 32 of 123 (26.02%) (P = 0.020) non-White people. In the multivariate model, race remained significant. The odds of being labelled macrosomia for White people was 2.051 (95% CI: 1.188-3.542) compared with non-White people (P = 0.010). Only 33% of fetuses whose birthweight was ≥4000 g were identified by a labour and delivery ultrasound. White race was the only significant factor that increased the odds of having a correct diagnosis of macrosomia by ultrasound. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Do Early Fetal Measurements and Nuchal Translucency Correlate With Term Birth Weight?

    PubMed

    Hackmon, Rinat; Librach, Clifford; Burwick, Richard; Rodrigues, Nicole; Farine, Dan; Berger, Howard

    2017-09-01

    Traditionally, physiological variation in fetal weight is believed to emerge during the latter half of pregnancy. Although recent evidence suggests that crown-rump length (CRL) and nuchal translucency (NT) measured at 11-14 weeks correlate with abnormal fetal growth, findings have been limited by dating accuracy in spontaneous gestations. Therefore, we sought to determine whether CRL or NT measurements correlated with term birth weight (BW) or BW ratio in a cohort of IVF pregnancies, in which the date of conception is precisely known. This retrospective cohort study included 227 term, singleton IVF pregnancies. Subjects were included if they had an early first-trimester ultrasound examination and subsequent nuchal translucency (NT) screening. The difference between the measured and the expected CRL and the biparietal diameter (BPD) and NT measurement were calculated and correlated with the actual term BW or BW ratio. The BW ratio was calculated using the actual BW and the expected BW for GA. The difference between measured and expected mid-first-trimester CRL, and the BPD at NT assessment, correlated with BW ratio at delivery (rSpearman = 0.15, P = 0.023 and rSpearman = 0.27, P < 0.001, respectively). Absolute NT measurements and NT percentiles (adjusted for CRL) correlated with BW ratio at delivery (rSpearman = 0.18, r = 0.14, and P = 0.005 and 0.038, respectively). In this well-dated IVF population, we report a significant correlation between BW ratio and first-trimester CRL, BPD, and NT measurements. These findings support the hypothesis that physiological variation in BW can be reflected by variation in first-trimester fetal measurements. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Body change techniques in Iranian adolescents. Relationship to sex and body weight status.

    PubMed

    Hatami, Monireh; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Abu Saad, Hazizi; Djazayery, Abolghasem

    2013-01-01

    Several studies indicated that techniques to change body weight and appearance were prevalent and different among adolescents. The aim of the study, therefore, was to assess differences in frequency and type of body change techniques used among adolescents by sex and body weight status. A sample of 758 adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited from private and public schools in Tehran. Information about socio-demographic background and body change techniques were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. A high percentage of adolescents used body change techniques frequently to alter their body appearance. Girls changed normal eating pattern significantly (p=0.007) to lose weight more frequently than boys while boys used this method significantly (p=0.01) to gain weight more frequently than girls. Overweight/obese adolescents exercised significantly to change muscle size (p=0.03) and changed normal diet to lose weight (p<0.001) more frequently than normal weight adolescents. The relation between sex and body weight status with body change techniques (p<0.0) implied that male and female adolescents especially overweight/obese adolescents were frequently trying to change their body appearance. Significant differences existed in using body change techniques according to sex and body weight status and these should be considered in obesity prevention programs for adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy metabolism, fuel selection and body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Galgani, J; Ravussin, E

    2008-12-01

    Energy homeostasis is critical for the survival of species. Therefore, multiple and complex mechanisms have evolved to regulate energy intake and expenditure to maintain body weight. For weight maintenance, not only does energy intake have to match energy expenditure, but also macronutrient intake must balance macronutrient oxidation. However, this equilibrium seems to be particularly difficult to achieve in individuals with low fat oxidation, low energy expenditure, low sympathetic activity or low levels of spontaneous physical activity, as in addition to excess energy intake, all of these factors explain the tendency of some people to gain weight. Additionally, large variability in weight change is observed when energy surplus is imposed experimentally or spontaneously. Clearly, the data suggest a strong genetic influence on body weight regulation implying a normal physiology in an 'obesogenic' environment. In this study, we also review evidence that carbohydrate balance may represent the potential signal that regulates energy homeostasis by impacting energy intake and body weight. Because of the small storage capacity for carbohydrate and its importance for metabolism in many tissues and organs, carbohydrate balance must be maintained at a given level. This drive for balance may in turn cause increased energy intake when consuming a diet high in fat and low in carbohydrate. If sustained over time, such an increase in energy intake cannot be detected by available methods, but may cause meaningful increases in body weight. The concept of metabolic flexibility and its impact on body weight regulation is also presented.

  13. Energy metabolism, fuel selection and body weight regulation

    PubMed Central

    Galgani, J; Ravussin, E

    2010-01-01

    Energy homeostasis is critical for the survival of species. Therefore, multiple and complex mechanisms have evolved to regulate energy intake and expenditure to maintain body weight. For weight maintenance, not only does energy intake have to match energy expenditure, but also macronutrient intake must balance macronutrient oxidation. However, this equilibrium seems to be particularly difficult to achieve in individuals with low fat oxidation, low energy expenditure, low sympathetic activity or low levels of spontaneous physical activity, as in addition to excess energy intake, all of these factors explain the tendency of some people to gain weight. Additionally, large variability in weight change is observed when energy surplus is imposed experimentally or spontaneously. Clearly, the data suggest a strong genetic influence on body weight regulation implying a normal physiology in an ‘obesogenic’ environment. In this study, we also review evidence that carbohydrate balance may represent the potential signal that regulates energy homeostasis by impacting energy intake and body weight. Because of the small storage capacity for carbohydrate and its importance for metabolism in many tissues and organs, carbohydrate balance must be maintained at a given level. This drive for balance may in turn cause increased energy intake when consuming a diet high in fat and low in carbohydrate. If sustained over time, such an increase in energy intake cannot be detected by available methods, but may cause meaningful increases in body weight. The concept of metabolic flexibility and its impact on body weight regulation is also presented. PMID:19136979

  14. Birth Weight, Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Fetal Susceptibility to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ladinig, Andrea; Foxcroft, George; Ashley, Carolyn; Lunney, Joan K.; Plastow, Graham; Harding, John C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necropsied along with their fetuses 21 days later. Ovulation rates and litter size did not differ between groups, but fetuses from low birth weight gilts were shorter, lighter and demonstrated evidence of asymmetric growth with large brain:organ weight ratios (i.e. brain sparing). The number of intrauterine growth retarded fetuses, defined by brain:organ weight ratios greater than 1 standard deviation from the mean, was significantly greater in low, compared to high, birth weight gilts. Although γδ T cells significantly decreased over time in high compared to low birth weight gilts, viral load in serum and tissues, gilt serum cytokine levels, and litter outcome, including the percent dead fetuses per litter, did not differ by birth weight group. Thus, this study provided no substantive evidence that the severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is affected by dam birth weight. However, intrauterine growth retarded fetuses had lower viral loads in both fetal thymus and in endometrium adjacent to the umbilical stump. Crown rump length did not significantly differ between fetuses that survived and those that died at least one week prior to termination. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates that birth weight is a transgenerational trait in pigs, and provides evidence that larger fetuses are more susceptible to transplacental PRRSv infection. PMID:25275491

  15. The effect of breech presentation on the accuracy of estimated fetal weight.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Jennifer M; Odibo, Anthony O; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2012-05-01

    To determine whether fetal presentation affects the accuracy of ultrasonographic estimated fetal weight (EFW). This is a retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies that underwent ultrasonographic EFW within 3 weeks of delivery at a single institution from 1993 to 2008. Breech presenting fetuses were compared with those presenting cephalic. EFW using the Hadlock formula was compared with actual birth weight (ABW) and reported as mean difference and mean percentage difference. Differences were also considered categorically. Subgroup analyses were performed of women who delivered within 4 days of scan and excluding women with comorbidities. Ability to detect small and large for gestational age infants was compared. Evaluation of 3770 patients, 183 (4.9%) breech presenting and 3587 (95.1%) cephalic presenting revealed no difference in mean gram difference (-222.1 g ± 312.6 vs. -210.7 g ± 793.2, p = 0.084), respectively, or ability to accurately predict within 10% of ABW (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.23; 95% CI, 0.89,1.69; p = 0.208). Subgroup analyses revealed similar results. There was no difference in the ability to detect small and large for gestational age infants. Presentation does not demonstrably affect the accuracy of ultrasonographic EFW when utilizing the Hadlock formula. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Assisted reproduction causes placental maldevelopment and dysfunction linked to reduced fetal weight in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuqiang; Sun, Fang-zhen; Huang, Xiuying; Wang, Xiaohong; Tang, Na; Zhu, Baoyi; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Compelling evidence indicates that stress in utero, as manifested by low birth weight (LBW), increases the risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Singletons conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART) display a significant increase in LBW risk and ART offspring have a different metabolic profile starting at birth. Here, used mouse as a model, we found that ART resulted in reduced fetal weight and placental overgrowth at embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5). The ART placentae exhibited histomorphological alterations with defects in placental layer segregation and glycogen cells migration at E18.5. Further, ART treatments resulted in downregulation of a majority of placental nutrient transporters and reduction in placental efficiency. Moreover, the ART placentae were associated with increased methylation levels at imprinting control regions of H19, KvDMR1 and disrupted expression of a majority of imprinted genes important for placental development and function at E18.5. Our results from the mouse model show the first piece of evidence that ART treatment could affect fetal growth by disrupting placental development and function, suggests that perturbation of genomic imprinting resulted from embryo manipulation may contribute to these problems. PMID:26085229

  17. Effects of chronic leptin infusion on subsequent body weight and composition in mice: Can body weight set point be reset?

    PubMed

    Ravussin, Y; LeDuc, C A; Watanabe, K; Mueller, B R; Skowronski, A; Rosenbaum, M; Leibel, R L

    2014-07-01

    Circulating leptin concentrations correlate with fat mass and signal the status of somatic energy stores to the brain. Previous studies suggest that diet-induced elevations of body weight increase body weight "set-point". To assess whether chronic hyperleptinemia is responsible for this shift in defended body weight, we elevated circulating leptin concentrations in lean mice to those comparable to diet-induced obese mice for eighteen weeks. We hypothesized that following cessation of leptin infusion, a higher body weight would be defended. Compared to saline-infused controls, leptin-infused mice had elevated circulating leptin concentrations, gained less weight, yet had similar metabolic rates. Following cessation of leptin administration, leptin-infused mice gained some weight yet plateaued at 5-10% below controls. These results suggest that, unlike mice rendered hyperleptinemic by diet-induced weight gain, leptin-infused mice do not subsequently "defend" a higher body weight, suggesting that hyperleptinemia per se does not mimic the CNS consequences of chronic weight gain.

  18. Body Weight Gain during Altered Gravity: Spaceflight, Centrifugation and Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Harper, J. S.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Gravity is a force that influences all living systems, and is often disregarded in the study of environment on growth and development. To assess the effect of gravity exposure on growth, immature rats (130-200 g) were evaluated during chronic altered gravity exposure and during transition between gravity fields. The effects of 14 days of spaceflight on body weight gain were evaluated (n=12) and compared to controls. Spaceflight did not affect weight gain. In 6 rats, the transition from spaceflight to 1 G showed a significant (p less than 0.05) post flight weight loss over 48 hr of 13 g compared to controls. Over subsequent days this loss was compensated for with no difference noted after 5 days. Exposure to hypergravity, 2 G for 16 days, was evaluated in groups of n=6 (Control; On Center Control (OCC); Centrifuged). With centrifugation or OCC there was a reduction in body weight within 24 hr. The OCC regained control weights within 13 days. The weight difference, 26 +/- 1 g, persisted with 2 G with no subsequent difference in weight gain over days 3-16 compared to controls; 3.7 +/- 0.1 versus 3.9 +/- 0.1 g/day respectively. Transition from centrifugation to 1 G resulted in a weight increase within 48 hours. Over 16 days the rate of gain was increased 3.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for centrifuge compared to 2.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for controls between Day 3 to 16. However, differences from control were still noted on Day 16. Transition from one gravity field to another causes acute changes in body weight. Transition to microgravity or 1 G, following the acute changes, results in adjustments to attain a normal weight. In hypergravity the acute reduction in body weight persist, but weight gain is normal. Transitioning from hypergravity to 1G results in an increased weight gain to compensate for the persistent reduction during exposure.

  19. Short-term variability in body weight predicts long-term weight gain.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Feig, Emily H; Winter, Samantha R; Stice, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Body weight in lower animals and humans is highly stable despite a very large flux in energy intake and expenditure over time. Conversely, the existence of higher-than-average variability in weight may indicate a disruption in the mechanisms responsible for homeostatic weight regulation. In a sample chosen for weight-gain proneness, we evaluated whether weight variability over a 6-mo period predicted subsequent weight change from 6 to 24 mo. A total of 171 nonobese women were recruited to participate in this longitudinal study in which weight was measured 4 times over 24 mo. The initial 3 weights were used to calculate weight variability with the use of a root mean square error approach to assess fluctuations in weight independent of trajectory. Linear regression analysis was used to examine whether weight variability in the initial 6 mo predicted weight change 18 mo later. Greater weight variability significantly predicted amount of weight gained. This result was unchanged after control for baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI change from baseline to 6 mo and for measures of disinhibition, restrained eating, and dieting. Elevated weight variability in young women may signal the degradation of body weight regulatory systems. In an obesogenic environment this may eventuate in accelerated weight gain, particularly in those with a genetic susceptibility toward overweight. Future research is needed to evaluate the reliability of weight variability as a predictor of future weight gain and the sources of its predictive effect. The trial on which this study is based is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00456131. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Short-term variability in body weight predicts long-term weight gain1

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Michael R; Feig, Emily H; Winter, Samantha R; Stice, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background: Body weight in lower animals and humans is highly stable despite a very large flux in energy intake and expenditure over time. Conversely, the existence of higher-than-average variability in weight may indicate a disruption in the mechanisms responsible for homeostatic weight regulation. Objective: In a sample chosen for weight-gain proneness, we evaluated whether weight variability over a 6-mo period predicted subsequent weight change from 6 to 24 mo. Design: A total of 171 nonobese women were recruited to participate in this longitudinal study in which weight was measured 4 times over 24 mo. The initial 3 weights were used to calculate weight variability with the use of a root mean square error approach to assess fluctuations in weight independent of trajectory. Linear regression analysis was used to examine whether weight variability in the initial 6 mo predicted weight change 18 mo later. Results: Greater weight variability significantly predicted amount of weight gained. This result was unchanged after control for baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI change from baseline to 6 mo and for measures of disinhibition, restrained eating, and dieting. Conclusions: Elevated weight variability in young women may signal the degradation of body weight regulatory systems. In an obesogenic environment this may eventuate in accelerated weight gain, particularly in those with a genetic susceptibility toward overweight. Future research is needed to evaluate the reliability of weight variability as a predictor of future weight gain and the sources of its predictive effect. The trial on which this study is based is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00456131. PMID:26354535

  1. Associations of body weight perception and weight control behaviors with problematic internet use among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun

    2017-05-01

    We examined the association of body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, and weight control behaviors with problematic Internet use in a nationwide sample of Korean adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey collected from 37,041 boys and 33,655 girls in middle- and high- schools (grades 7-12) were analyzed. Participants were classified into groups based on BMI (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), body weight perception (underweight, normal weight, and overweight), and weight control behavior (no weight control behavior, appropriate weight control behavior, inappropriate weight control behavior). The risk of problematic Internet use was assessed with the Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form. Both boys and girls with inappropriate weight control behavior were more likely to have problematic Internet use. Underweight, overweight, and obese boys and girls were more likely to have problematic Internet use. For both boys and girls, subjective perception of underweight and overweight were positively associated with problematic Internet use. Given the negative effect of inappropriate weight control behavior, special attention needs to be given to adolescents' inappropriate weight control behavior, and an educational intervention for adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is needed.

  2. What is a healthy body weight? Perspectives of overweight youth.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Heather M; Irwin, Jennifer D

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative assessment was completed of overweight/obese youths' perceptions of the meaning of "healthy body weight," barriers and facilitators to healthy body weight attainment, and what would effectively enhance and support their healthy body weight behaviours. This qualitative study targeted a sample of overweight and obese youth, aged 14 to 16 years. An experienced interviewer conducted 11 in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three qualitative researchers conducted independent and simultaneous inductive content analysis to facilitate confirmability. Data trustworthiness was supported via member checking, peer debriefing, and reflexive journalling. Most participants characterized healthy body weight as a combination of healthy eating and regular physical activity. Some included a psychological dimension in the definition. Perceived facilitators of a healthy body weight included family support, access to nutritious food at home, physical activity encouragement, and a physical activity environment at school. Perceived barriers included lack of family support, a poor nutrition environment, an unsupportive school environment, time, self-esteem, and bullying. Participants identified preferences for an intervention that would include opportunities for unstructured coeducational recreational activities, coeducational nutrition education sessions, and a gender-specific discussion forum. Participants provided a wealth of information to form the foundation of future youth-focused efficacious healthy body weight interventions.

  3. Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P < 0.001) by age and sex without interaction. Weights varied by year (P < 0.001) on Pools 7 and 8. Mean weights increased (P < 0.01) within age and sex classes by date and averaged 3.6 and 2.7 g daily on Pools 7 and 8 and Pool 19, respectively. Percent fat was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with carcass weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.

  4. Weight change and lower body disability in older Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Al Snih, Soham; Raji, Mukaila A; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Goodwin, James S

    2005-10-01

    To examine the association between 2-year weight change and onset of lower body disability over time in older Mexican Americans. Data were from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (1993-2001). Weight change was examined by comparing baseline weight to weight at 2-year follow-up. Incidence of lower body disability was studied from the end of this period through an additional 5 years. Five southwestern states: Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and California. One thousand seven hundred thirty-seven noninstitutionalized Mexican-American men and women aged 65 and older who reported no limitation in activities of daily living (ADLs) and were able to perform the walk test at 2-year follow-up. In-home interviews assessed sociodemographic factors, self-reported physician diagnoses of medical conditions (arthritis, diabetes mellitus, heart attack, stroke, hip fracture, and cancer), self-reported ADLs, depressive symptoms, and number of hospitalizations. Cognitive function, handgrip muscle strength, and body mass index (BMI) were obtained. The outcomes were any limitation of lower body ADL (walking across a small room, bathing, transferring from a bed to a chair, and using the toilet) and limitation on the walk test over subsequent 5-year follow-up period. General Estimation Equation (GEE) was used to estimate lower body disability over time. Weight change of 5% or more occurred in 42.3% of the participants; 21.7% lost weight, 20.6% gained weight, and 57.7% had stable weight. Using GEE analysis, with stable weight as the reference, weight loss of 5% or more was associated with greater risk of any lower body ADL limitation (odds ratio (OR)=1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.06-1.95) and walking limitation (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.03-1.76) after controlling for sociodemographic variables and BMI at baseline. Weight gain of 5% or more was associated with greater risk of any lower body ADL limitation (OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.02-1.89), after

  5. True Believers? Religion, Physiology, and Perceived Body Weight in Texas.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Andrea L; Acevedo, Gabriel A

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines relationships between body weight, religion, and gender while controlling for relevant covariates and body mass index (BMI), a measure of physical/biological body type. Using data from the 2004 Survey of Texas Adults (n = 1,504), we present results of ordered logistic regression models which indicate that religious factors work distinctly for men and women when controlling for BMI. While church attendance is associated with lower odds of overweight perceptions among women, it is religious salience that is associated with lower odds of self-reported excess weight in men. Implications for research which associates religious and physiological factors are discussed.

  6. Does eating good-tasting food influence body weight?

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Pearson, Jordan A; Ellis, Hillary T; Poole, Rachel L

    2017-03-01

    Does eating good-tasting food influence body weight? To investigate, we first established some concentrations of sucralose and mineral oil in chow that mice strongly preferred. Then, in Experiment 1, we compared groups of 16 mice fed plain chow (i.e., chow with no additives) to groups fed chow with added (a) sucralose, (b) mineral oil, (c) sucralose and mineral oil, or (d) sucralose on odd days and mineral oil on even days. During a 6-week test, the body weights and body compositions of the five groups never differed. In Experiment 2, we compared groups of 18 mice fed plain chow or plain high-fat diet to groups fed these diets with added sucralose. During a 9-week test, the high-fat diet caused weight gain, but the body weights of mice fed the sucralose-sweetened diets did not differ from those fed the corresponding plain versions. Two-cup choice tests conducted at the end of each experiment showed persisting strong preferences for the diets with added sucralose and/or mineral oil. In concert with earlier work, our results challenge the hypothesis that the orosensory properties of a food influence body weight gain. A good taste can stimulate food intake acutely, and guide selection toward nutrient-dense foods that cause weight gain, but it does not determine how much is eaten chronically.

  7. [Method of determining body thickness from weight and height].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kenichi

    2009-01-20

    With attention given to the fact that information on weight and height is available in advance from electronic medical charts, we devised a method for determining body thickness on the basis of a simple calculation. The formula is as follows: body thickness=weight(a) x height(b) xf. In order to obtain body thickness from the above formula, it is necessary to determine optimal factors of a, b, and f. Therefore, the formula is modified to give f=body thickness/weight(a) x height(b). Then, a multiplier of a with b is changed to determine a combination in which f is varied to the smallest extent. Every site of the body is checked to find that an optimal multiplier of a with b is weight(0.6) x height(-0.8). This multiplier is applicable to all sites of the body. Then, f is given as a median of 15 to 74 cases in which calculation is made for each case based on the formula of weight(0.6) x height(-0.8) and the body thickness. A difference between calculation values and measured values is equivalent to the variation of f in which the median is given as 100%. The variation of f at all sites of the body is 3% to 11% in terms of average absolute deviation. The calculation difference is obtained by the formula of body thickness x average absolute deviation. Where the calculation difference is within the above range, clinical practices will be influenced to a small extent. Thus, this study will provide an effective method for determining body thickness.

  8. Impact of Body Weight and Body Composition on Ovarian Cancer Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Sarah A; Elliott, Sarah A; Kroenke, Candyce H; Sawyer, Michael B; Prado, Carla M

    2016-02-01

    Measures of body weight and anthropometrics such as body mass index (BMI) are commonly used to assess nutritional status in clinical conditions including cancer. Extensive research has evaluated associations between body weight and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients, yet little is known about the potential impact of body composition (fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)) in these patients. Thus, the purpose of this publication was to review the literature (using PubMed and EMBASE) evaluating the impact of body weight and particularly body composition on surgical complications, morbidity, chemotherapy dosing and toxicity (as predictors of prognosis), and survival in ovarian cancer patients. Body weight is rarely associated with intra-operative complications, but obesity predicts higher rates of venous thromboembolism and wound complications post-operatively in ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of FM and FFM are superior predictors of length of hospital stay compared to measures of body weight alone, but the role of body composition on other surgical morbidities is unknown. Obesity complicates chemotherapy dosing due to altered pharmacokinetics, imprecise dosing strategies, and wide variability in FM and FFM. Measurement of body composition has the potential to reduce toxicity if the results are incorporated into chemotherapy dosing calculations. Some findings suggest that excess body weight adversely affects survival, while others find no such association. Limited studies indicate that FM is a better predictor of survival than body weight in ovarian cancer patients, but the direction of this relationship has not been determined. In conclusion, body composition as an indicator of nutritional status is a better prognostic tool than body weight or BMI alone in ovarian cancer patients.

  9. Effects of total fat intake on body weight.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Bunn, Diane; Brown, Tracey; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Skeaff, C Murray

    2015-08-07

    In order to prevent overweight and obesity in the general population we need to understand the relationship between the proportion of energy from fat and resulting weight and body fatness in the general population. To assess the effects of proportion of energy intake from fat on measures of weight and body fatness (including obesity, waist circumference and body mass index) in people not aiming to lose weight, using all appropriate randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies in adults, children and young people We searched CENTRAL to March 2014 and MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL to November 2014. We did not limit the search by language. We also checked the references of relevant reviews. Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised intervention trial, 2) included children (aged ≥ 24 months), young people or adults, 3) randomised to a lower fat versus usual or moderate fat diet, without the intention to reduce weight in any participants, 4) not multifactorial and 5) assessed a measure of weight or body fatness after at least six months. We also included cohort studies in children, young people and adults that assessed the proportion of energy from fat at baseline and assessed the relationship with body weight or fatness after at least one year. We duplicated inclusion decisions and resolved disagreement by discussion or referral to a third party. We extracted data on the population, intervention, control and outcome measures in duplicate. We extracted measures of weight and body fatness independently in duplicate at all available time points. We performed random-effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, subgrouping, sensitivity and funnel plot analyses. We included 32 RCTs (approximately 54,000 participants) and 30 sets of analyses of 25 cohorts. There is consistent evidence from RCTs in adults of a small weight-reducing effect of eating a smaller proportion of energy from fat; this was seen in almost all included studies and was highly resistant to

  10. Body checking is associated with weight- and body-related shame and weight- and body-related guilt among men and women.

    PubMed

    Solomon-Krakus, Shauna; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2017-09-05

    This study examined whether body checking was a correlate of weight- and body-related shame and guilt for men and women. Participants were 537 adults (386 women) between the ages of 17 and 74 (Mage=28.29, SD=14.63). Preliminary analyses showed women reported significantly more body-checking (p<.001), weight- and body-related shame (p<.001), and weight- and body-related guilt (p<.001) than men. In sex-stratified hierarchical linear regression models, body checking was significantly and positively associated with weight- and body-related shame (R(2)=.29 and .43, p<.001) and weight- and body-related guilt (R(2)=.34 and .45, p<.001) for men and women, respectively. Based on these findings, body checking is associated with negative weight- and body-related self-conscious emotions. Intervention and prevention efforts aimed at reducing negative weight- and body-related self-conscious emotions should consider focusing on body checking for adult men and women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lithium increases body weight of rats: relation to thymolysis.

    PubMed

    Levine, Seymour; Saltzman, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Lithium treatment of patients and laboratory animals causes increased body weight. Lithium also elevates the plasma corticosterone levels of rats. Our purpose was to correlate the gain of body weight with the effects of lithium on the thymus gland, the organ most susceptible to stress and to elevated corticosterone levels. Toward this end, it was also necessary to establish a reliable and reproducible model by use of an inbred strain of rats. Female rats of the inbred Lewis strain were injected subcutaneously with lithium chloride or saline for an 18-day period. Necropsies were performed one day after the last treatment or at intervals during the treatment period. Lithium increased body weight gain compared to controls in all the experiments on Lewis rats. Contrary to the body as a whole, lithium caused loss of weight of the thymus gland. The spleen lost less weight than the thymus. Both lithium and nonspecific stress elevate plasma corticosterone and cause thymolysis. Mild nonspecific stress is known to cause increased weight gain in rats as well as in humans. Our data suggest that lithium acts like nonspecific stress to increase weight gain as a consequence of elevated glucocorticoids, manifested in our experiments by thymolysis. This mechanism has not been proposed previously.

  12. Effect of restricted food supply to pregnant rats inhaling carbon monoxide on fetal weight, compared with cigarette smoke exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tachi, N.; Aoyama, M.

    1986-12-01

    Although many studies have shown that cigarette smoking during gestation retarded the intrauterine fetal growth, resulting in the decreased birth weight in babies born to smoking mothers, neither causal substance nor mechanism of action to disturb fetal growth has been firmly established yet. Based on the human and animal studies, researchers have implied that fetal hypoxia induced by carbon monoxide (CO) in the cigarette smoke to be responsible for the event. A shortage in energy intake in smoking mothers also has been suspected to cause the retardation in fetal development. In the previous results (Tachi and Aoyama 1983), the weight increment in CO exposed animals was greater than that in the smoke exposed group. The phenomenon seemed to indicate that the reduction in the food intake occurs in animals which inhale the cigarette smoke, and induces the disturbance of fetal development in association with CO. In the present study, so as to evaluate the role of energy intake upon the fetal development in utero, the experiment of paired feeding with pregnant rats exposed to cigarette smoke is designed in animals which inhale the cigarette smoke, CO, or room air, following after the observation of the quantity of food taken by mothers exposed to cigarette smoke, CO, or room air.

  13. The downside of weight loss: realistic intervention in body-weight trajectory.

    PubMed

    Bosomworth, N John

    2012-05-01

    To explore the reasons why long-term weight loss is seldom achieved and to evaluate the consequences of various weight trajectories, including stability, loss, and gain. Studies evaluating population weight metrics were mainly observational. Level I evidence was available to evaluate the influence of weight interventions on mortality and quality of life. Sustained weight loss is achieved by a small percentage of those intending to lose weight. Mortality is lowest in the high-normal and overweight range. The safest body-size trajectory is stable weight with optimization of physical and metabolic fitness. With weight loss there is evidence for lower mortality in those with obesity-related comorbidities. There is also evidence for improved health-related quality of life in obese individuals who lose weight. Weight loss in the healthy obese, however, is associated with increased mortality. Weight loss is advisable only for those with obesity-related comorbidities. Healthy obese people wishing to lose weight should be informed that there might be associated risks. A strategy that leads to a stable body mass index with optimized physical and metabolic fitness at any size is the safest weight intervention option.

  14. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Victoria, Emilio; Yago, María Dolores

    2012-06-01

    In animal studies, n-3 PUFA have been shown to influence body composition and to reduce the accumulation of body fat, thereby affecting body weight homeostasis. In addition, it has been suggested that an additional supply of n-3 PUFA during pregnancy or lactation, or both, would have a beneficial effect on birth weight and infant growth and development. The purpose of the present study was to systematically review interventional clinical trials on the effects of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on body weight in adult subjects and in infants whose mothers were supplemented with these fatty acids during pregnancy and/or lactation. A systematic search, focused on n-3 PUFA and body weight, and limited to controlled clinical trials, was performed in different databases. The quality of all included studies was assessed against set criteria, and results of eligible trials were compared. There were few studies targeting this topic. In adults, all of the five studies included, except for one, show no change in body weight by dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA. Within those trials conducted in pregnant and/or lactating women in which a main outcome was birth weight or growth in infancy, two showed a modest increase in birth weight and the rest showed no effect. None of the trials showed an effect of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation on infant's weight at the short term. However, it should be noted that a number of limitations, including a variety of experimental designs, type and doses of n-3 PUFA, and high attrition rates, among others, make impossible to draw robust conclusions from this review.

  15. Personality Traits and Body Weight: Evidence Using Sibling Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinho

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Past research has shown that personality traits relate to body weight, but this relationship may be confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics such as genetic endowments. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the association between personality traits, as measured by the Big Five taxonomy, and body weight among young adults is spurious owing to shared family background. Methods Participants were drawn from the full (n = 14,366) and family (n = 2,813) samples of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The study employed family-fixed effects to eliminate shared family background factors that might affect personality traits and body weight simultaneously. Results Among the Big Five personality traits, only conscientiousness showed a robust association with body weight, including body mass index (BMI) and obesity risk. These results were robust to adjustments for family-fixed effects, which indicates that the association between conscientiousness and body weight is generally not confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics shared by siblings. A one-standard-deviation increase in conscientiousness was associated with a decrease in BMI by 0.89 (equivalent to a 2.5 kg decrease in weight for an individual with an average height of the sample) and a 12% reduction in the probability of being obese. This study also found some suggestive evidence of gender and racial/ethnic differences. The association between conscientiousness and obesity was larger and statistically significant only for women, and conscientiousness was most strongly associated with obesity among Hispanic people. Conclusion Conscientiousness is associated with decreased body weight net of unobserved background characteristics that are shared by siblings. The results suggest that interventions that develop personality traits may have “spillover effects”; in other words, they may also help reduce obesity. PMID

  16. Personality traits and body weight: Evidence using sibling comparisons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho

    2016-08-01

    Past research has shown that personality traits relate to body weight, but this relationship may be confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics such as genetic endowments. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the association between personality traits, as measured by the Big Five taxonomy, and body weight among young adults is spurious owing to shared family background. Participants were drawn from the full (n = 14,366) and family (n = 2813) samples of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The study employed family-fixed effects to eliminate shared family background factors that might affect personality traits and body weight simultaneously. Among the Big Five personality traits, only conscientiousness showed a robust association with body weight, including body mass index (BMI) and obesity risk. These results were robust to adjustments for family-fixed effects, which indicates that the association between conscientiousness and body weight is generally not confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics shared by siblings. A one-standard-deviation increase in conscientiousness was associated with a decrease in BMI by 0.89 (equivalent to a 2.5 kg decrease in weight for an individual with an average height of the sample) and a 12% reduction in the probability of being obese. This study also found some suggestive evidence of gender and racial/ethnic differences. The association between conscientiousness and obesity was larger and statistically significant only for women, and conscientiousness was most strongly associated with obesity among Hispanic people. Conscientiousness is associated with decreased body weight net of unobserved background characteristics that are shared by siblings. The results suggest that interventions that develop personality traits may have "spillover effects"; in other words, they may also help reduce obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Negotiating the Early Developing Body: Pubertal Timing, Body Weight, and Adolescent Girls' Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite knowledge that early pubertal timing predicts adolescent girls' substance use, it is still unclear whether this relationship persists beyond early adolescence and whether it is conditional on girls' body weight. This study examined the moderating role of body weight in the association between early pubertal timing and adolescent girls'…

  18. Relationships between Weight and Body Dissatisfaction, Body Esteem, and Teasing in African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…

  19. Relationships between Weight and Body Dissatisfaction, Body Esteem, and Teasing in African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…

  20. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status.

    PubMed

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a "promotion focus" (to show an attractive body), or a "prevention focus" (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were "Not at all" concerned about weight gain, and girls' percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  1. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12–17 years old; 2007–2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a “promotion focus” (to show an attractive body), or a “prevention focus” (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were “Not at all” concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics. PMID:26284248

  2. After massive weight loss: patients' expectations of body contouring surgery.

    PubMed

    Kitzinger, Hugo B; Abayev, Sara; Pittermann, Anna; Karle, Birgit; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Langer, Felix B; Prager, Gerhard; Frey, Manfred

    2012-04-01

    Massive weight loss following bariatric surgery leads to excess skin with functional and aesthetic impairments. Surplus skin can then contribute to problems with additional weight loss or gain. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency of massive soft tissue development in gastric bypass patients, to determine whether males and females experience similar post-bypass body changes, and to learn about the expectations and impairments related to body contouring surgery. A questionnaire addressing information on the satisfaction of body image, quality of life, and expectation of body contouring surgery following massive weight loss was mailed to 425 patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery between 2003 and 2009. Of these 425 individuals, 252 (59%) patients completed the survey. Ninety percent of women and 88% of men surveyed rated their appearance following massive weight loss as satisfactory, good, or very good. However, 96% of all patients developed surplus skin, which caused intertriginous dermatitis and itching. In addition, patients reported problems with physical activity (playing sports) and finding clothing that fit appropriately. Moreover, 75% of female and 68% of male patients reported desiring body contouring surgery. The most important expectation of body contouring surgery was improved appearance, followed by improved self-confidence and quality of life. Surplus skin resulting from gastric bypass surgery is a common issue that causes functional and aesthetic impairments in patients. Consequently, this increases the desire for body contouring surgery with high expectations for the aesthetic outcome as well as improved life satisfaction.

  3. Temperament and Body Weight from ages 4 to 15

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Kerr, Jessica A.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives In adulthood, conscientiousness and neuroticism are correlates of body weight and weight gain. The present research examines whether the childhood antecedents of these traits, persistence and negative reactivity, respectively, are associated with weight gain across childhood. We likewise examine sociability as a predictor of childhood weight gain and whether these three traits are associated with weight concerns and weight management strategies in adolescence. Subjects/Methods Participants (N=4,153) were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, an ongoing, population-based study of child and family health and well-being. At the baseline assessment, caregivers reported on their child's temperament. At every assessment from ages 4-5 to 14-15, study children were weighed and measured by trained staff; there were up to six biennial assessments of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. At age 14-15, study children (n=2,975) also self-reported on their weight concerns and weight management strategies. Results Study children rated lower in persistence or higher in negative reactivity in early childhood gained more weight between the ages of 4 and 15. Sociability was associated with weight gain among girls but not among boys. Lower persistence and higher negative reactivity at age 4-5 were also associated with greater weight concerns, restrained eating, and use of unhealthy weight management strategies at ages 14-15. Conclusions Childhood traits related to conscientiousness and neuroticism are associated with objective weight gain across childhood and with concerns and strategies to manage weight in adolescence. These results are consistent with a lifespan perspective that indicates that trait psychological functioning contributes to health-related markers from childhood through old age. PMID:28280272

  4. Effect of Body Image on Pregnancy Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ushma J.; Herring, Amy H.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of women gain more weight during pregnancy than what is recommended. Since gestational weight gain is related to short and long-term maternal health outcomes, it is important to identify women at greater risk of not adhering to guidelines. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between body image and gestational weight gain. The Body Image Assessment for Obesity tool was used to measure ideal and current body sizes in 1,192 women participating in the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Study. Descriptive and multivariable techniques were used to assess the effects of ideal body size and discrepancy score (current—ideal body sizes), which reflected the level of body dissatisfaction, on gestational weight gain. Women who preferred to be thinner had increased risk of excessive gain if they started the pregnancy at a BMI ≤26 kg/m2 but a decreased risk if they were overweight or obese. Comparing those who preferred thin body silhouettes to those who preferred average size silhouettes, low income women had increased risk of inadequate weight gain [RR = 1.76 (1.08, 2.88)] while those with lower education were at risk of excessive gain [RR = 1.11 (1.00, 1.22)]. Our results revealed that body image was associated with gestational weight gain but the relationship is complex. Identifying factors that affect whether certain women are at greater risk of gaining outside of guidelines may improve our ability to decrease pregnancy-related health problems. PMID:20204481

  5. Body weight control practice as a cause of infertility.

    PubMed

    Bates, G W

    1985-09-01

    Evidence concerning the relationship between the ratio of lean mass to body fat in the female body and the maintenance of female reproductive functions was examined, and the results of a US clinical study in which a weight gain regime was used to treat unexplained in fertility in 29 fashionabely slim women were presented. During the female pubertal process, there is an average increase in the lean body weight of 44% and a mean increase in the body fat of 120%. Apparently, the accummulation of fat is a necessary prerequisite for the onset of menarche and the establishment and maintenance of regular ovulatory cycles. A small change in body weight produces a relatively large shift in the body weight to fat ratio. As a result, weight loss is frequently followed by amenorrhea. Studies of the endocrine and central nervous system changes in patients with anorexia nervosa, an extreme form of overzealous weight control, provides clues for understanding the effects of less extreme weight control practices on reproductive functions. The gonadotropin secretory pattern of anorexia nervosa patients is similar to the prepubertal pattern. When gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is administered to patients with 53%-64% of their ideal body weight (IBW), they have a weak luteinizing hormone (LH) response and a normal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) response. As their weight increases, the LH response becomes stronger, and at 90%-94% of their IBW, the LH response is frequently exaggerated. Other studies indicate that an exaggerated LH response also occurs when GnRH is administered to fashionably slim women. This finding suggests that gonadotropin secretory studies should be conducted when evaluating women with weight related menstrual dysfunctions. In the present study, 29 patients with unexplained infertility were identified as being overly, but not excessively, concerned with maintaining a slim body image. On the average, they were 91% below their IBW. The women were asked to

  6. Maternal insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, body mass index, and fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, R.; Holly, J; Soothill, P.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To examine the hypothesis that the maternal insulin-like growth factor system may constrain fetal growth.
METHODS—A prospective observational study of maternal serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and fetal growth was undertaken in neonates with birthweights below the 5th centile. They had been classified either as having fetal growth restriction (FGR) due to placental dysfunction (increased umbilical artery Doppler pulsatility index (PI); n = 25) or as being small for gestational age (SGA; normal umbilical artery PI, growth velocity and amniotic fluid; n = 27). Eighty nine controls had normal birthweights (5th-95th centile), umbilical artery PI, growth velocity, and amniotic fluid. IGFBP-1 was measured by radioimmunoassay.
RESULTS—Among the controls, there was no significant correlation between IGFBP-1 and birthweight after allowing for body mass index (BMI). Maternal BMI was high in FGR and after adjusting for this, IGFBP-1 was increased (109 ng/ml) compared with SGA babies (69ng/ml) and controls (57 ng/ml) and correlated with the umbilical artery PI.
CONCLUSIONS—Maternal IGFBP-1 is probably not part of normal placental function. Its increase in FGR could be the cause or consequence of impaired placental perfusion, but high IGFBP-1 concentrations might further reduce the availability of maternal IGF-I to the placenta. This could worsen placental function and so adversely affect fetal growth.
 PMID:10685983

  7. Weight status and the perception of body image in men.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%-7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  8. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  9. Body-Weight Fluctuations and Outcomes in Coronary Disease.

    PubMed

    Bangalore, Sripal; Fayyad, Rana; Laskey, Rachel; DeMicco, David A; Messerli, Franz H; Waters, David D

    2017-04-06

    Body-weight fluctuation is a risk factor for death and coronary events in patients without cardiovascular disease. It is not known whether variability in body weight affects outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease. We determined intraindividual fluctuations in body weight from baseline weight and follow-up visits and performed a post hoc analysis of the Treating to New Targets trial, which involved assessment of the efficacy and safety of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with atorvastatin. The primary outcome was any coronary event (a composite of death from coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, revascularization, or angina). Secondary outcomes were any cardiovascular event (a composite of any coronary event, a cerebrovascular event, peripheral vascular disease, or heart failure), death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Among 9509 participants, after adjustment for risk factors, baseline lipid levels, mean body weight, and weight change, each increase of 1 SD in body-weight variability (measured according to average successive variability and used as a time-dependent covariate) was associated with an increase in the risk of any coronary event (2091 events; hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.07; P=0.01), any cardiovascular event (2727 events; hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.07; P<0.001), and death (487 events; hazard ratio,1.09; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.12; P<0.001). Among patients in the quintile with the highest variation in body weight, the risk of a coronary event was 64% higher, the risk of a cardiovascular event 85% higher, death 124% higher, myocardial infarction 117% higher, and stroke 136% higher than it was among those in the quintile with the lowest variation in body weight in adjusted models. Among participants with coronary artery disease, fluctuation in body weight was associated with higher mortality and a higher rate of cardiovascular events

  10. Gestational Weight Gain and Fetal-Maternal Adiponectin, Leptin, and CRP: results of two birth cohorts studies

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Chad A.; Bornemann, Rebecca; Koenig, Wolfgang; Reister, Frank; Walter, Viola; Fantuzzi, Giamila; Weyermann, Maria; Brenner, Hermann; Genuneit, Jon; Rothenbacher, Dietrich

    2017-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Unlike behaviors such as smoking and alcohol consumption, the effect of GWG throughout pregnancy on fetal development and other outcomes has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of GWG with endocrine factors such as adiponectin, leptin, and C-reactive protein which may be associated with inflammatory response, fetal growth, and adiposity later in life. Data were obtained from the Ulm Birth Cohort Study (UBCS) and the Ulm SPATZ Health Study, two methodologically similar birth cohort studies including newborns and their mothers recruited from 11/2000–11/2001 and 04/2012–05/2013. In the two included birth cohorts we consistently observed statistically significant positive associations between GWG beginning as early as the second trimester with fetal cord blood leptin and stronger association beginning as early as the first trimester with post-delivery maternal serum leptin. Total weight gain exceeding commonly accepted recommended guidelines was consistently associated with higher leptin levels in both cord blood and post-delivery maternal serum. These results suggest a potential pathomechanistic link between fetal environment and surrogate markers of long-term health. PMID:28150815

  11. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Lennart P J; Grabowski, Alena; Kram, Rodger

    2007-12-01

    The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In the present study, we investigated how independently altering body weight and body mass affects the metabolic cost of running. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that reducing body weight would decrease metabolic rate proportionally, and adding mass and weight would increase metabolic rate proportionally. Further, because previous studies show that adding mass alone does not affect the forces generated on the ground, we hypothesized that adding mass alone would have no substantial effect on metabolic rate. We manipulated the body weight and body mass of 10 recreational human runners and measured their metabolic rates while they ran at 3 m s(-1). We reduced weight using a harness system, increased mass and weight using lead worn about the waist, and increased mass alone using a combination of weight support and added load. We found that net metabolic rate decreased in less than direct proportion to reduced body weight, increased in slightly more than direct proportion to added load (added mass and weight), and was not substantially different from normal running with added mass alone. Adding mass alone was not an effective method for determining the metabolic cost attributable to braking/propelling body mass. Runners loaded with mass alone did not generate greater vertical or horizontal impulses and their metabolic costs did not substantially differ from those of normal running. Our results show that generating force to support body weight is the primary determinant of the metabolic cost of running. Extrapolating our reduced weight data to zero weight suggests that supporting body weight comprises at most 74% of the net cost of running. However, 74% is probably an

  12. Lower-limb amputation and body weight changes in men.

    PubMed

    Littman, Alyson J; Thompson, Mary Lou; Arterburn, David E; Bouldin, Erin; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA) and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96) and 3,790 nondisabled persons frequency-matched (5:1) on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline during up to 39 mo of follow-up in participants with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%-9% increase) than in men with a PFA (3%-6% increase). Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue.

  13. Body weight reducing effect of oral boric acid intake.

    PubMed

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear.

  14. Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611

  15. Weight loss expectations and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight.

    PubMed

    Siervo, M; Montagnese, C; Muscariello, E; Evans, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Papa, A; Iannetti, E; Colantuoni, A

    2014-04-01

    Unrealistic weight loss expectations (WLEs) and greater body dissatisfaction may be associated with the poor long-term outcomes of dietary and lifestyle weight loss treatments. We evaluated the association between body size, WLEs and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight. Forty-four young healthy women [age range 18-35 years, body mass index (BMI) range 23-40 kg/m2] were recruited. Women were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI <30.0 kg/m2). The Body Dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and the Body Image Assessment for Obesity silhouette charts were used to assess body dissatisfaction. WLEs were categorised according to personal (ideal, happiness, satisfaction, weight history), lifestyle (fitness) and social (career, family acceptance, peer acceptance, mass media, social pressure) factors. Individual WLEs were compared with recommended clinical targets (5%, 10% and 20%) for weight loss. Body dissatisfaction was lower in non-obese subjects and was directly associated with BMI (P < 0.05). WLEs were directly associated with BMI and the obese group reported greater expectations. Five non-obese subjects (23%) desired to lose more than 20% of their body weight, whereas the proportion was significantly higher in the obese group (17 subjects; 74%). Subjects derived the greatest WLEs from mass media, whereas they perceived that family and friends were supportive of a lesser degree of weight loss. We observed a mismatch between clinical and personal expectations, and social pressure and interpersonal relationships appear to have a prominent role with respect to influencing the association. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Body weight and response acquisition with delayed reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Lattal, K A; Williams, A M

    1997-01-01

    The relation between body weight and responding established with unsignaled delayed reinforcement was investigated. In three experiments, naive rats were deprived to either 70%, 80%, or 90% of ad libitum weight and were then exposed to tandem variable-interval 15-s differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior 30-s schedules. The tandem schedule defined a resetting unsignaled delay-of-reinforcement procedure. In the first experiment, speed of magazine training, acquisition of lever pressing, and final rate of lever pressing were related to body weight. In the next experiment, lever pressing was established and maintained in rats that were magazine trained at 70% of ad libitum weight but that were then exposed to the delay procedure at 90% of ad libitum weight. Responding did not change consistently either across or within subjects in subsequent conditions in which body weight was manipulated. In the final experiment, lever pressing was established and maintained with delayed reinforcement in the absence of magazine training for each of 2 rats at 70% and for 1 of 2 rats at 90% of ad libitum weight. The results further illuminate the conditions under which responding can be established in the absence of training and when such responses are reinforced only following an unsignaled delay period. PMID:9037784

  17. Body weight perception and weight loss practices among Sri Lankan adults.

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Ranil; Byrne, Nuala M; Soares, Mario J; Katulanda, Prasad; Hills, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between self-perception of body weight, weight loss approaches and measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among Sri Lankan adults. A nationally representative sample of 600 adults aged ≥18 years was selected using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique. An interviewer-administrated questionnaire was used to assess demographic characteristics, body weight perception, abdominal obesity perception and details of weight losing practices. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured and Asian anthropometric cut-offs for BMI and WC were applied. Body weight mis-perception was common among Sri Lankan adults. Two-thirds of overweight males and 44.7% females considered themselves as ‘about right weight’, moreover, 4.1% and 7.6% overweight men and women reported themselves as being ‘underweight’. Over one third of both male and female obese subjects perceived themselves as ‘about right weight’ or ‘underweight’. Nearly 32% of centrally obese men and women perceived that their WC is about right. People who perceived themselves as overweight or very overweight (n = 154) only 63.6% tried to lose weight (n = 98), and one quarter of adults sought advice from professionals (n = 39). Body weight misperception was common among underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese adults in Sri Lanka. Over 2/3 of overweight and 1/3 of obese Sri Lankan adults believe they are in right weight category or are under weight. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . All rights reserved.

  18. Body weight loss as an indicator of breast cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Marinho, L A; Rettori, O; Vieira-Matos, A N

    2001-01-01

    Body weight loss (BWL), a major prognostic factor in breast cancer, was included as a parameter to be monitored in the recent breast cancer surveillance guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. The aim of this work was prospectively to evaluate BWL as an indicator of breast cancer recurrence. Body weight was measured every 2 months for 10.4+/-3.7 (SD) months in 109 disease-free breast cancer patients in stage II node-positive and stage III disease. The correlation between unexplained BWL and recurrence was studied. Attempts were made to define the limits in weight variations among disease-free patients beyond which recurrence could be suspected. Unexplained BWL was observed in 16/19 (84%) patients developing recurrence, versus 9/90 (10%) patients remaining disease-free. There was a significant (p < 0.001) correlation between BWL and recurrence. BWL anticipated the diagnosis of recurrence by 6 (range 4-12) months. Based on the average percentage weight variation +/- 2 SD (95% confidence interval) of the disease-free group, the limits for BWL beyond which recurrence could be suspected were a 5.8% decrease in the last 6 months, 3.6% in the last 2 months or 3.0% of the patient's mean weight. However, because of the large variation in the amplitude of individual weight oscillations among disease-free patients (from < 0.5% to > 5.9% of the mean weight), individual limits derived from the patient's own body weight curve seemed more reliable. The results suggest that unexplained BWL is a valuable indicator of incipient breast cancer recurrence. Careful monitoring of body weight in breast cancer patients during follow-up is encouraged.

  19. Combined oral contraceptives and body weight: do oral contraceptives cause weight gain? A primate model.

    PubMed

    Edelman, A; Jensen, J T; Bulechowsky, M; Cameron, J

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if oral contraceptive (OC) use affects body weight, body composition and metabolism in primates. Reproductive-age female rhesus monkeys of normal and obese BMI were studied to document baseline weight stability, then treated continuously with an OC (dosed to achieve equivalent human serum levels for a 30 µg ethinyl estradiol/150 µg levonorgestrel preparation) for 237 days. Monkeys were monitored for changes in body weight, levels of physical activity (measured by a triaxial Actical accelerometer), food/caloric intake, percent body fat (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, DEXA) and metabolism (24 h metabolic rate and serum metabolic substrate and hormone concentrations). All 10 monkeys completed the study protocol with no adverse events. While body weight (-0.73% change) and percent body fat (-1.78% change) of the normal BMI group did not significantly decrease from baseline, obese monkeys showed a significant decrease in body weight (-8.58% change, P < 0.01) and percent body fat (-12.13% change P = 0.02) with OC treatment. In both the obese (P = 0.03) and the normal BMI (P = 0.01) groups, there was a significant increase in basal metabolic rate with OC use. No changes were seen in food intake, activity level or % lean muscle mass with OC use for either BMI-based group. Overall, OC use appears to cause a slight increase in basal metabolic rate in female monkeys, leading to a decrease in body weight and percent body fat in obese individuals.

  20. Modeling of daily body weights and body weight changes of Nordic Red cows.

    PubMed

    Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2015-10-01

    Increased availability of automated weighing systems have made it possible to record massive amounts of body weight (BW) data in a short time. If the BW measurement is unbiased, the changes in BW reflect the energy status of the cow and can be used for management or breeding purposes. The usefulness of the BW data depends on the reliability of the measures. The noise in BW measurements can be smoothed by fitting a parametric or time series model into the BW measurements. This study examined the accuracy of different models to predict BW of the cows based on daily BW measurements and investigated the usefulness of modeling in increasing the value of BW measurements as management and breeding tools. Data included daily BW measurements, production, and intake from 230 Nordic Red dairy cows. The BW of the cows was recorded twice a day on their return from milking. In total, the data included 50,594 daily observations with 98,418 BW measurements. A clear diurnal change was present in the BW of the cows even if they had feed available 24 h. The daily average BW were used in the modeling. Five different models were tested: (1) a cow-wise fixed second-order polynomial regression model (FiX) including the exponential Wilmink term, (2) a random regression model with fixed and random animal lactation stage functions (MiX), (3) MiX with 13 periods of weighing added (PER), (4) natural cubic smoothing splines with 8 equally spaced knots (SPk8), and (5) spline model with no restriction on knots but a smoothing parameter corresponding to a fit of 5 degrees of freedom (SPdf5). In the original measured BW data, the within-animal variation was 6.4% of the total variance. Modeling decreased the within animal variation to levels of 2.9 to 5.1%. The smallest day-to-day variation and thereafter highest day-to-day repeatabilities were with PER and MiX models. The usability of modeled BW as energy balance (EB) indicator were evaluated by estimating relationships between EB, or EB

  1. Soy germ protein concentrate diet decreased body fat weight and increased hindlimb muscle weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hisashi; Saito, Sanshiro; Itoh, Atsushi; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of soy germ protein intake on body composition. Wistar rats were fed experimental diets for 16 weeks. These consisted of soy germ protein, soy protein, or casein. Abdominal adipose tissue weights significantly lower and hindlimb muscle weights were significantly higher in the soy germ protein group than in the casein group.

  2. Eating and weight control behaviors among middle school girls in relationship to body weight and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Shisslak, Catherine M; Mays, Mary Z; Crago, Marjorie; Jirsak, Jan K; Taitano, Keolani; Cagno, Colleen

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the links among body mass index (BMI), weight control practices, binge eating, and eating disorders in 1164 middle school girls. Both the prevalence and frequency of weight control behaviors increased as BMI increased, but binge eating was reported approximately equally by girls across the BMI spectrum.

  3. Dietary energy density and body weight: is there a relationship?

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Marmonier, Corinne; Lluch, Anne

    2004-11-01

    The energy density of foods and beverages is defined as the available energy per unit weight (kJ/g). Energy density of the diet is usually calculated excluding non-caloric beverages and drinking water. Because water contributes more to the weight of foods than any macronutrient, energy-dense foods are not necessarily those high in sugar or fat, but those that are dry. Evidence linking dietary energy density with body weight is critically evaluated in this review. Existing reports of a positive association between dietary energy density, higher energy intakes, and weight gain are based on laboratory and clinical studies. Although some cross-sectional epidemiological studies have linked dietary energy density with higher body mass index (BMI) values, the data are not consistent. At this time, there are no longitudinal cohort data linking dietary energy density with higher obesity risk.

  4. Use of a tissue adhesive to repair fetal bodies after dissection.

    PubMed Central

    Gau, G S; Napier, K; Bhundia, J

    1991-01-01

    The repair of fetal bodies after dissection is extremely difficult because of the delicacy of the skin. A tissue adhesive, Histoacryl blue, was used to repair bodies that had been dissected either before or after immersion in formalin. The repairs were achieved rapidly and neatly. The technique was easy to learn and, providing the method of repair described was followed, there was no breakdown subsequently. The body cavities and reflected skin surfaces were lightly dried with absorbent paper towels and the body loosely packed with cotton wool. "Holding lines" of glue were made and a mid-line strip of glue was applied to the sternum, abdomen, and skull vault, allowing the skin edges to align neatly. Care must be taken to avoid using excess glue as this produces an exothermic reaction. It is recommended that if a fetus has to be repaired after dissection Histoacryl blue will give a good result. Images PMID:1918405

  5. Body Weight, Marital Status, and Changes in Marital Status

    PubMed Central

    Teachman, Jay

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I use 20 years of data taken from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth to examine the relationship between body weight and both marital status and changes in marital status. I use a latent growth curve model that allows both fixed and random effects. The results show that living without a partner, either being divorced or never married, is associated with lower body weight. Cohabitors and married respondents tend to weigh more. Marital transitions also matter but only for divorce. Gender does not appear to moderate these results. PMID:26778872

  6. Neurotrophic Factor Control of Satiety and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Baoji; Xie, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    Energy balance, the relationship between energy intake and expenditure, is regulated by a complex interplay of hormones, brain circuits and peripheral tissues. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine that suppresses appetite and increases energy expenditure. Ironically, obese individuals have high levels of plasma leptin and are resistant to leptin treatment. Neurotrophic factors, particularly ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are also important for the control of body weight. CNTF can overcome leptin resistance to reduce body weight, although CNTF and leptin activate similar signalling cascades. Mutations in the gene for BDNF lead to insatiable appetite and severe obesity. PMID:27052383

  7. Association between duration of the sleep and body weight.

    PubMed

    Adámková, V; Hubácek, J A; Lánská, V; Vrablík, M; Králová Lesná, I; Suchánek, P; Zimmelová, P; Veleminský, M

    2009-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that there could be an association between the duration of sleep in humans and development of the obesity. We have analyzed the group of the probands (n = 3970, 2038 males and 1932 females, aged 18-65 years), with permanent address in the Central or South Bohemia. We ascertained the relationship between the duration of their sleep (obtained per questionnaire) and body mass index, weight, height, the value of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, waist and hip circumference, the values of total-, high density- and low density- cholesterol, thyroid hormone and body exercise performed. The optimal values of the body mass index (and optimal body weight) were associated with the duration of sleep 7 hours per night (P < 0.001). This association was found both in males and females and in both districts. Other anthropometrical and biochemical parameters were not associated with the sleep duration.

  8. Effect of Achyranthes aspera L. on fetal abortion, uterine and pituitary weights, serum lipids and hormones.

    PubMed

    Shibeshi, Workineh; Makonnen, Eyasu; Zerihun, Legesse; Debella, Asfaw

    2006-06-01

    The practice of traditional medicine for the control of fertility in rural Ethiopia is based on folk use of numerous antifertility herbs and Achyranthes aspera is one of these used for this purpose. Many plants are known to possess anti-fertility effect through their action on hypothlamo-pituitary-gonadal axis or direct hormonal effects on reproductive organs resulting in inhibition of ovarian steroidogenesis. The present study focused to investigate the effect of methanolic leaves extract of Achyranthes aspera L. on some indicators for anti-fertility activities such as abortifacient, estrogenesity, pituitary weight, and ovarian hormone level and lipids profile in female rats, in attempt to validate the traditional claim. The abortifacient effect of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Achyranthes aspera was determined by counting the dead fetuses in vivo. Effect on estrogenesity was assessed by taking the ratio of the uterine weight to body weight. The ratio of the pituitary weight to body weight was also calculated. The effect of the extract on the level of ovarian hormones and lipid profile was evaluated using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The extract showed significant (p<0.05) abortifacient activity and increased pituitary and uterine wet weights in ovarectimized rats. The extract, however, did not significantly influence serum concentration of the ovarian hormones and various lipids except lowering HDL at doses tested. The methanolic leaves extract of Achyranthes aspera possesses anti-fertility activity, which might be exploited to prevent unwanted pregnancy and control the ever-increasing population explosion.

  9. Does body image influence the relationship between body weight and breastfeeding maintenance in new mothers?

    PubMed

    Swanson, Vivien; Keely, Alice; Denison, Fiona C

    2017-09-01

    Obese women have lower breastfeeding initiation and maintenance rates than healthy weight women. Research generally focuses on biomedical explanations for this. Psychosocial factors including body image and well-being after childbirth are less well understood as predictors of breastfeeding. In obese and healthy weight women, we investigated changes in body image between 72 hrs post-delivery and 6-8 weeks post-natal, studying how women's body image related to breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. We also investigated how psychological distress was related to body image. Longitudinal semi-structured questionnaire survey. Body image and psychological distress were assessed within 72 hrs of birth and by postal questionnaire at 6-8 weeks, for 70 obese and 70 healthy weight women initiating exclusive (breastmilk only) breastfeeding or mixed feeding (with formula milk) in hospital. Breastfeeding was re-assessed at 6-8 weeks. Obese women were less likely to exclusively breastfeed in hospital and maintain breastfeeding to 6-8 weeks. Better body image was related to maintaining breastfeeding and to lower post-natal psychological distress for all women, but education level was the most significant predictor of maintenance in multivariate regression including body image and weight status. Body image mediated, but did not moderate the relationship between weight and breastfeeding maintenance. Body image was lower overall in obese women, but all women had low body image satisfaction around childbirth, reducing further at 6-8 weeks. Health professionals should consider women's body image when discussing breastfeeding. A focus on breast function over form may support breastfeeding for all women. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Obesity can negatively affect breastfeeding initiation and maintenance, but there is little information about how psychosocial factors affect this relationship. Body image may be an important factor, but has not

  10. Sleep duration, sleep quality and body weight: parallel developments.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Adam, Tanja C; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-09-10

    The increase in obesity, including childhood obesity, has developed over the same time period as the progressive decrease in self-reported sleep duration. Since epidemiological studies showed an inverse relationship between short or disturbed sleep and obesity, the question arose, how sleep duration and sleep quality are associated with the development of obesity. In this review, the current literature on these topics has been evaluated. During puberty, changes in body mass index (BMI) are inversely correlated to changes in sleep duration. During adulthood, this relationship remains and at the same time unfavorable metabolic and neuro-endocrinological changes develop, that promote a positive energy balance, coinciding with sleep disturbance. Furthermore, during excessive weight loss BMI and fat mass decrease, in parallel, and related with an increase in sleep duration. In order to shed light on the association between sleep duration, sleep quality and obesity, until now it only has been shown that diet-induced body-weight loss and successive body-weight maintenance contribute to sleep improvement. It remains to be demonstrated whether body-weight management and body composition improve during an intervention concomitantly with spontaneous sleep improvement compared with the same intervention without spontaneous sleep improvement.

  11. Energy density, energy intake, and body weight regulation in adults.

    PubMed

    Karl, J Philip; Roberts, Susan B

    2014-11-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Influence of Body Weight on Bone Mass, Architecture, and Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Turner, Russell T.

    2016-01-01

    Weight-dependent loading of the skeleton plays an important role in establishing and maintaining bone mass and strength. This review focuses on mechanical signaling induced by body weight as an essential mechanism for maintaining bone health. In addition, the skeletal effects of deviation from normal weight are discussed. The magnitude of mechanical strain experienced by bone during normal activities is remarkably similar among vertebrates, regardless of size, supporting the existence of a conserved regulatory mechanism, or mechanostat, that senses mechanical strain. The mechanostat functions as an adaptive mechanism to optimize bone mass and architecture based on prevailing mechanical strain. Changes in weight, due to altered mass, weightlessness (spaceflight), and hypergravity (modeled by centrifugation), induce an adaptive skeletal response. However, the precise mechanisms governing the skeletal response are incompletely understood. Furthermore, establishing whether the adaptive response maintains the mechanical competence of the skeleton has proven difficult, necessitating development of surrogate measures of bone quality. The mechanostat is influenced by regulatory inputs to facilitate non-mechanical functions of the skeleton, such as mineral homeostasis, as well as hormones and energy/nutrient availability that support bone metabolism. While the skeleton is very capable of adapting to changes in weight, the mechanostat has limits. At the limits, extreme deviations from normal weight and body composition are associated with impaired optimization of bone strength to prevailing body size. PMID:27352896

  13. Strength and Body Weight in US Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ervin, R. Bethene; Fryar, Cheryl D.; Wang, Chia-Yih; Miller, Ivey M.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Regular aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity in youth has been positively associated with health and may help prevent obesity. The purpose of this study is to provide reference values on 4 core, upper, and lower body measures of muscle strength among US children and adolescents and to investigate the association between these measures of strength and weight status. METHODS We assessed muscular strength using 4 different tests (plank, modified pull-up, knee extension, and grip strength) in 1224 youth aged 6 to 15 years collected during the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey. Mean and median estimates are provided by gender, age, and weight status. Weight status was defined based on standard categories of obesity, overweight, normal weight, and underweight using the gender-specific BMI-for-age Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. RESULTS There were significant positive trends with age for each of the strength tests (P < .001) except the modified pull-up among girls. The length of time the plank was held decreased as weight status increased for both girls and boys (P < .001). As weight status increased the number of modified pull-ups decreased (P < .001 boys and girls). Scores on the knee extension increased as weight status increased (P < .01). Grip strength increased as weight status increased (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS Increasing weight status had a negative association with measures of strength that involved lifting the body, but was associated with improved performances on tests that did not involve lifting the body. PMID:25157016

  14. [Sex differences in body image, weight control and Body Mass Index of Spanish adolescents].

    PubMed

    Ramos Valverde, Pilar; Rivera de Los Santos, Francisco; Moreno Rodríguez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Sex differences in body image, weight control and Body Mass Index of Spanish adolescents. This research paper studied the differences among 21,811 adolescents (between the ages of 11 and 18) in key variables in the development of eating disorders, including the Body Mass Index, the perception of and satisfaction with their body image, and the behaviours used to control weight. In spite of the fact that the girls had a better adjusted BMI and a lesser degree of overweight and obesity, we found that they perceived themselves as being fatter, were less satisfied with body image, and the ones who dieted the most to lose weight. On the other hand, we found that the main reason for boys and girls to diet in an effort to lose weight was not their real body weight, but rather their perception of their own bodies, followed by just how satisfied they were with their bodies. Therefore, important differences are revealed between boys and girls in this article, which must be taken into consideration in the design and development of the various programs that are aimed at the prevention of problems with body image and diet behaviour.

  15. Relationship of amniotic fluid index (AFI) in third trimester with fetal weight and gender in a southeast Nigerian population

    PubMed Central

    Ugwu, Anthony C; Shem, Samuel L; Abba, Muhammed

    2016-01-01

    Background Amniotic fluid (AF) is one of the major determinants of fetal biophysical profile and can predict pregnancy outcome. Abnormal value of amniotic fluid index (AFI) may indicate fetal and maternal disorders. Purpose To establish reference standards for AFI for this population after 28 weeks of pregnancy and evaluate the relationship between AFI, the estimated fetal weight (EFWT), and fetal gender. Material and Methods A prospective cross-sectional estimation of AFI and FWT was done in 385 apparently healthy pregnant women in the gestational age range of 28–42 weeks. General scanning in longitudinal, transverse, and oblique directions of the abdomen was done to assess the fetal wellbeing and determine the fetal gender for each participant. AF was measured in each of the quadrants of the abdomen. The four values of the AF were summed to get the AFI. Measurement of the head circumference, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, and femoral length of the fetus were obtained. The EFWT was calculated using Hadlock’s formula. The data were divided into five groups: 28–30 weeks 6 days; 31–33 weeks 6 days; 34–36 weeks 6 days; 37–39 weeks 6 days; and 40–42 weeks. AFI for the different gestational age group studied and their percentiles were obtained. Results AFI normogram for the local population was established. Positive and significant correlations of AF and EFWT were seen in all the gestational age groups of the women. No significant correlations between AF and EFWT was seen in male fetuses. Regression equations of EFWT and AFI were obtained for female fetuses. Conclusion The normal range for AFI values for the third trimester was established and could be used to evaluate AFI in the studied population. Established fetal weight should be taken into account when interpreting AFI for female fetuses but this need not be applied for male fetuses. PMID:27570636

  16. Impact of body-composition methodology on the composition of weight loss and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Pourhassan, M; Schautz, B; Braun, W; Gluer, C-C; Bosy-Westphal, A; Müller, M J

    2013-05-01

    We intended to (i) to compare the composition of weight loss and weight gain using densitometry, deuterium dilution (D₂O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the four-compartment (4C) model and (ii) to compare regional changes in fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and skeletal muscle as assessed by DXA and MRI. Eighty-three study participants aged between 21 and 58 years with a body mass index range of 20.2-46.8 kg/m(2) had been assessed at two different occasions with a mean follow-up between 23.5 and 43.5 months. Body-weight changes within < 3% were considered as weight stable, a gain or a loss of >3% of initial weight was considered as a significant weight change. There was a considerable bias between the body-composition data obtained by the individual methods. When compared with the 4C model, mean bias of D₂O and densitometry was explained by the erroneous assumption of a constant hydration of FFM, thus, changes in FM were underestimated by D₂O but overestimated by densitometry. Because hydration does not normalize after weight loss, all two-component models have a systematic error in weight-reduced subjects. The bias between 4C model and DXA was mainly explained by FM% at baseline, whereas FFM hydration contributed to additional 5%. As to the regional changes in body composition, DXA data had a considerable bias and, thus, cannot replace MRI. To assess changes in body composition associated with weight changes, only the 4C model and MRI can be used with confidence.

  17. Relationships between heart score, heart weight and body weight in Greyhound dogs.

    PubMed

    Steel, J D; Taylor, R I; Davis, P E; Stewart, G A; Salmon, P W

    1976-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between heart score (mean QRS interval), heart weight and body weight in Greyhound dogs. Highly significant correlations between these measurements have been observed and distinct sex differences have been demonstrated. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that 66% of the variation in heart weight was due to variation in heart score and body weight. From the regression analysis, a formula for heart weight prediction with a standard deviation of 27.1 g was derived. The implications of these findings have been discussed briefly and emphasis has been placed on the need for good electrocardiographic technique, if the procedures outlined are to be used successfully. The positive correlation between heart score and heart size demonstrated here in Greyhounds is in accord with similar correlations reported previously in racehorses and human athletes.

  18. Body weight, anorexia, and undernutrition in older people.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian M

    2013-09-01

    Ideal body weight for maximum life expectancy increases with advancing age. Older people, however, tend to weigh less than younger adults, and old age is also associated with a tendency to lose weight. Weight loss in older people is associated with adverse outcomes, particularly if unintentional, and initial body weight is low. When older people lose weight, more of the tissue lost is lean tissue (mainly skeletal muscle) than in younger people. When excessive, the loss of lean muscle tissue results in sarcopenia, which is associated with poor health outcomes. Unintentional weight loss in older people may be a result of protein-energy malnutrition, cachexia, the physiological anorexia of aging, or a combination of these. The physiological anorexia of aging is a decrease in appetite and energy intake that occurs even in healthy people and is possibly caused by changes in the digestive tract, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and activity, neurotransmitters, and cytokines. A greater understanding of this decrease in appetite and energy intake during aging, and the responsible mechanisms, may aid the search for ways to treat undernutrition and weight loss in older people. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Which is the most accurate formula to estimate fetal weight in women with severe preterm preeclampsia?

    PubMed

    Geerts, Lut; Widmer, Tania

    2011-02-01

    To identify the most accurate formula to estimate fetal weight (EFW) from ultrasound parameters in severe preterm preeclampsia. In a prospective study, serial ultrasound assessments were performed in 123 women with severe preterm preeclampsia. The EFW, calculated for 111 live born, normal, singleton fetuses within 7 days of delivery using 38 published formulae, was compared to the actual birth weight (ABW). Accuracy was assessed by correlations, mean (absolute and signed) (%) errors, % correct predictions within 5-20% of ABW and limits of agreement. Accuracy was highly variable. Most formulae systematically overestimated ABW. Five Hadlock formulae utilizing three or four variables and Woo 3 formula had the highest accuracy and did not differ significantly (mean absolute % errors 6.8-7.2%, SDs 5.3-5.8%, > 75% of estimations within 10% of ABW and 95% limits of agreement between -18/20% and +14/15%). They were not negatively affected by clinical variables but had some inconsistency in bias over the ABW range. All other formulae, including those targeted for small, preterm or growth restricted fetuses, were inferior and/or affected by multiple clinical variables. In this GA window, Hadlock formulae using three or four variables or Woo 3 formula can be recommended.

  20. Body weight perception among adolescents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, A O; bin Zaal, A A; D'Souza, R

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the body image perceptions among adolescents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 661 adolescents (324 males; 337 females) aged 12-17 years selected from government schools using a multistage stratified random sampling technique. A pretested validated questionnaire was employed to determine the perception of adolescents toward their weight status. A nine figure silhouette illustration was used to measure perceptions of their ideal body image and how it compares with their current body weight. The results revealed that overweight (18.5%) and obesity (27.2%) were higher among males than in females (13.1% and 20.5% respectively). A high proportion of overweight males and females considered themselves as average (45.0% and 52.3%, respectively). Similarly, 56.9% of obese male and 46.4% of females considered themselves as average weight. Of non-overweight/obese males and females, 27.6% and 39.3% respectively, were pressured by parents to gain weight (p > 0.000). In general overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to face pressure from their parents and teased by friends than non-overweight/obese adolescents. Compared to their current body image, overweight and obese adolescents chose a significantly lighter figure as their ideal (p < 0.000). It is suggested that the current health education curriculum should include information related to healthy body weight and appropriate diet and lifestyle so as to minimize risk of developing distorted body image concerns in adolescence and beyond.

  1. Evaluation of Body Weight, Body Condition, and Muscle Condition in Cats with Hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Peterson, M E; Castellano, C A; Rishniw, M

    2016-11-01

    The contribution of fat loss versus muscle wasting to the loss of body weight seen in hyperthyroid cats is unknown. To investigate body weight, body condition score (BCS), and muscle condition score (MCS) in hyperthyroid cats. Four hundred sixty-two cats with untreated hyperthyroidism, 117 of which were reevaluated after treatment. Prospective cross-sectional and before-after studies. Untreated hyperthyroid cats had body composition evaluated (body weight, BCS, and MCS). A subset of these cats were reevaluated 3-12 months after treatment when euthyroid. Pretreatment body weight (median, 4.36 kg; IQR, 3.5 to 5.2 kg) was lower than premorbid weight (5.45 kg; IQR, 4.6 to 6.4 kg, P < .0001) recorded 1-2 years before diagnosis. 154 (35.3%) cats were thin or emaciated; 357 (77.3%) had loss of muscle mass. Cats showed increases in body weight (median, 4.1 kg to 5.0 kg), BCS (median, 3/5 to 3.5/5), and MCS (2/3 to 3/3) after treatment (P < .001), but mild-to-moderate muscle wasting persisted in 45% of treated cats. Most hyperthyroid cats lose body weight but maintain an ideal or overweight BCS, with only a third being underweight. As in human hyperthyroid patients, this weight loss is associated with muscle wasting, which affects >75% of hyperthyroid cats. Successful treatment leads to weight gain and increase of BCS in most cats, but almost half fail to regain normal muscle mass. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Regulation of body weight: what is the regulated parameter?

    PubMed

    Bessesen, Daniel H

    2011-09-26

    Despite dramatic variations in day to day intake and energy expenditure, weight remains relatively stable in most animals and humans. There are clear physiological responses to over and underfeeding suggesting that the body strives to maintain a constant weight. Despite this, for most humans and experimental animals, there is a tendency for weight to increase slowly over the lifespan. Recent increases in the prevalence of both obesity and anorexia nervosa suggest that factors other than homeostatic physiological mechanisms are important in determining body weight. Clearly reward pathways are activated by palatable food and evidence is emerging that energy balance can modulate these reward pathways and alter the salience of food related stimuli. Significant inhibitory control of reward pathways also comes from a number of brain regions involved in regulation of behavior. Finally there is strong evidence of the important role that social and environmental factors play in modulating both food intake and physical activity behaviors which in turn result in alterations in weight over time. While some aspects of these regulatory systems are within the conscious awareness of people, many, perhaps even most are not. The evidence then would suggest that weight is controlled by several complex regulatory systems that respond to internal metabolic and hormonal signals, hedonic properties of food, internal forces of valuation and self-control, and social factors. Each of these systems is likely 'regulated' and is important in ultimately determining body weight. Experimental paradigms that test one variable in one of these interrelated systems should, where possible control or at least consider the other systems in an effort to provide an integrated picture of weight regulation.

  3. Opposite effects of gentle handling on body temperature and body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Michel, C; Cabanac, M

    1999-10-01

    Opposite effects of gentle handling on body temperature and body weight in rats. PHhe aim of this study was to measure the body weight set point when rats are being handled gently and thus experience emotional rise in body temperature. Wistar male rats were used in this experiment, and each rat was its own control. Body weight set point was estimated from the rat's food hoarding behavior. The set point is the intersection of the regression line for hoarding with the X axis. During hoarding sessions the experimenter handled the rat and took its colonic temperature six to eight times, an action sufficient to arouse emotional fever. On alternate days the rats were not handled. Thus, body weight set point was obtained for each rat without handling and with handling. In sessions with handling, rats raised their body temperature, ate less, and defecated more than in control sessions. When handled, the body weight set point declined from 388 +/- 44 g to 366 +/- 47 g (p = 0.048, t = 2,39). The decline in the set point induced by gentle handling is believed to result from an elevation of the hypothalamic CRH.

  4. Influence of Weekend Lifestyle Patterns on Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Racette, Susan B.; Weiss, Edward P.; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Steger-May, Karen; Villareal, Dennis T.; Obert, Kathleen A.; Holloszy, John O.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether alterations in diet and/or activity patterns during weekends contribute to weight gain or hinder weight loss. Methods and Procedures Randomized, controlled trial comparing 1 year of caloric restriction (CR) with 1 year of daily exercise (EX). Subjects included 48 healthy adults (30F, 18M) aged 50–60 years with BMI 23.5–29.9 kg/m2. Body weight was measured on 7 consecutive mornings for a total of 165 weeks at baseline and 437 weeks during the 1-year interventions. Daily weight changes were calculated for weekends (Friday to Monday) and weekdays (Monday to Friday). Daily energy intake was estimated using food diaries; daily physical activity was measured using accelerometers. Both measures were validated against doubly labeled water (DLW). Results At baseline, participants consistently gained weight on weekend days (+0.06 ± 0.03 kg/day, (mean ± s.e.), P = 0.02), but not on weekdays (−0.02 ± 0.02 kg/day, P = 0.18). This was attributable to higher dietary intake on Saturdays and lower physical activity on Sundays relative to weekdays (both P < 0.05). During the interventions, both CR and EX participants were in negative energy balance on weekdays (P < 0.005). On weekends, however, CR participants stopped losing weight, and EX participants gained weight (+0.08 ± 0.03 kg/day, P < 0.0001) due to higher dietary intakes on weekends. This helps to explain the slower-than-expected rate of weight loss during the interventions. Discussion Alterations in lifestyle behaviors on weekends contribute to weight gain or cessation of weight loss on weekends. These results provide one explanation for the relatively slow rates of weight loss observed in many studies, and the difficulty with maintaining significant weight loss. PMID:18551108

  5. Associations between Body Weight and Bullying among South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seung-Gon; Yun, Ilhong; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on the association between bullying and body weight were performed using North American or White samples from Western countries. The present study is the first empirical endeavor to examine whether such an association exists in a sample of adolescents from East Asia. Specifically, the authors examined the associations between…

  6. Associations between Body Weight and Bullying among South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seung-Gon; Yun, Ilhong; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on the association between bullying and body weight were performed using North American or White samples from Western countries. The present study is the first empirical endeavor to examine whether such an association exists in a sample of adolescents from East Asia. Specifically, the authors examined the associations between…

  7. Family meals and body weight in US adults.

    PubMed

    Sobal, Jeffery; Hanson, Karla

    2011-09-01

    Family meals are an important ritual in contemporary societies and many studies have reported associations of family meals with several biopsychosocial outcomes among children and adolescents. However, few representative analyses of family meals have been conducted in samples of adults, and adults may differ from young people in predictors and outcomes of family meal consumption. We examined the prevalence and predictors of adult family meals and body weight outcomes. The cross-sectional 2009 Cornell National Social Survey (CNSS) included questions about the frequency of family meals, body weight as BMI and sociodemographic characteristics. The CNSS telephone survey used random digit dialling to sample individuals. We analysed data from 882 adults living with family members in a nationally representative US sample. Prevalence of family meals among these adults revealed that 53 % reported eating family meals seven or more times per week. Predictive results revealed that adults who more frequently ate family meals were more likely to be married and less likely to be employed full-time, year-round. Outcome results revealed that the overall frequency of family meals among adults was not significantly associated with any measure of body weight. However, interaction term analysis suggested an inverse association between frequency of family meals and BMI for adults with children in the household, and no association among adults without children. These findings suggest that family meals among adults are commonplace, associated with marital and work roles, and marginally associated with body weight only in households with children.

  8. Religion and body weight in an underserved population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Religions prominence in some underserved groups that bear a disproportionate burden of the obesity epidemic (e.g. rural, Southern, minority) may play an important role in body weight. Data (1662 African American and Caucasian adults aged 18+) from a representative U.S. sample of a predominately rura...

  9. The role of whole grains in body weight regulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole grain (WG)-rich diets are purported to have a variety of health benefits including a favorable role in body weight regulation. Current dietary recommendations advocate substituting WG for refined grains (RG) as many of the beneficial bioactive components intrinsic to WG are lost during the re...

  10. Body Dissatisfaction, Dietary Restraint, Depression, and Weight Status in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…

  11. Body Dissatisfaction, Dietary Restraint, Depression, and Weight Status in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…

  12. Body Percept Change in Obese Females after Weight Reduction Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Measured video-image representations of body size for 68 females undergoing weight reduction counseling. All judged themselves significantly more obese than they actually were. After therapy, more realistic estimates of their physiques ensued. Dropouts saw themselves as significantly more obese than those who graduated from the program. (JAC)

  13. The Relationship Between Body Weight, Frailty, and the Disablement Process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To prospectively examine the relationship between body weight, frailty, and the disablement process. Method. Longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (1998–2006) were used to examine the relationship between being underweight, overweight, or obese (compared with normal weight) and the onset and progression of functional limitations and disabilities in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and activities of daily living (ADL) among a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults (aged 50 and older) with characteristics of frailty (n = 11,491). Nonlinear multilevel models additionally adjusted for demographic characteristics and intra-individual changes in body weight, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and health conditions over the course of 8 years. Results. Compared with their nonfrail normal weight counterparts, prefrail obese respondents have a 16% (p ≤ 0.001) reduction in the expected functional limitations rate and frail overweight and obese respondents have a 10% (p ≤ 0.01) and 36% (p ≤ 0.001) reduction in the expected functional limitations rate, respectively. In addition, frail obese respondents have a 27% (p ≤ 0.05) reduction in the expected ADL disability rate. Discussion. This study’s findings suggest that underweight, overweight, and obese status differentially affect the risk for functional limitations and disabilities in IADL and ADL. Among prefrail and frail adults, some excess body weight in later life may be beneficial, reducing the rate of functional limitations and disability. PMID:22967933

  14. The gut sensor as regulator of body weight.

    PubMed

    Reinehr, Thomas; Roth, Christian L

    2015-05-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract comprises a large endocrine organ that regulates not only nutrient sensing and metabolising but also satiety and energy homeostasis. More than 20 hormones secreted from the stomach, intestine, and pancreas as well as signaling mediators of the gut microbiome are involved in this process. A better understanding of how related pathways affect body weight and food intake will help us to find new strategies and drugs to treat obesity. For example, weight loss secondary to lifestyle intervention is often accompanied by unfavorable changes in multiple GI hormones, which may cause difficulties in maintaining a lower body weight status. Conversely, bariatric surgery favorably changes the hormone profile to support improved satiety and metabolic function. This partially explains stronger sustained body weight reduction resulting in better long-term results of improved metabolic functions. This review focuses on GI hormones and signaling mediators of the microbiome involved in satiety regulation and energy homeostasis and summarizes their changes following weight loss. Furthermore, the potential role of GI hormones as anti-obesity drugs is discussed.

  15. Food shopping and weight concern. Balancing consumer and body normality.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Holm, Lotte

    2014-11-01

    The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were observed. The study shows that the aim of achieving a normal body does not eclipse the importance of enacting values linked to ideas of the 'normal consumer'. Using empirical examples, the study illuminates how consumer freedom is attained in ways that are both complementary to, and in conflict with, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management and food consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anorexia nervosa at normal body weight!--The abnormal normal weight control syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crisp, A H

    1981-01-01

    Disgust with "fatness" and a consequent preoccupation with body weight, coupled with an inability to reduce it to or sustain it at the desired low level, characterizes the abnormal normal weight control syndrome. Individuals remain sexually active in a biological sense and often also socially. Indeed their sexual behaviour may be as impulse ridden as is their eating behaviour, which often comprises phases of massive bingeing coupled with vomiting and/or purgation. The syndrome is unlike frank anorexia nervosa in that the latter involves a regression to a position of phobic avoidance of normal body weight and consequent low body weight control with inhibition of both biological and social sexual activity. In abnormal normal weight control there is a strong and sometimes desperate hedonistic and extrovert element that will often not be denied so long as body weight does not get too low. Individuals nevertheless feel desperately "out of control" and insecure beneath their bravura. The syndrome is much more common in females than in males. There is a clinical overlap with anorexia nervosa and obesity in many cases as the disorder evolves. Depression, stealing, drug dependence (including alcohol) and acute self-poisoning and self-mutilation are common complications. Clinic cases probably only represent the tip of the iceberg of the much more widespread morbidity within the general population. Like anorexia nervosa and for the same reasons the disorder is probably more common than it used to be.

  17. Body weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea supplementation.

    PubMed

    Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S; Lejeune, Manuela P G M; Kovacs, Eva M R

    2005-07-01

    Investigation of the effect of a green tea-caffeine mixture on weight maintenance after body weight loss in moderately obese subjects in relation to habitual caffeine intake. A randomized placebo-controlled double blind parallel trial in 76 overweight and moderately obese subjects, (BMI, 27.5 +/- 2.7 kg/m2) matched for sex, age, BMI, height, body mass, and habitual caffeine intake was conducted. A very low energy diet intervention during 4 weeks was followed by 3 months of weight maintenance (WM); during the WM period, the subjects received a green tea-caffeine mixture (270 mg epigallocatechin gallate + 150 mg caffeine per day) or placebo. Subjects lost 5.9 +/-1.8 (SD) kg (7.0 +/- 2.1%) of body weight (p < 0.001). At baseline, satiety was positively, and in women, leptin was inversely, related to subjects' habitual caffeine consumption (p < 0.01). High caffeine consumers reduced weight, fat mass, and waist circumference more than low caffeine consumers; resting energy expenditure was reduced less and respiratory quotient was reduced more during weight loss (p < 0.01). In the low caffeine consumers, during WM, green tea still reduced body weight, waist, respiratory quotient and body fat, whereas resting energy expenditure was increased compared with a restoration of these variables with placebo (p < 0.01). In the high caffeine consumers, no effects of the green tea-caffeine mixture were observed during WM. High caffeine intake was associated with weight loss through thermogenesis and fat oxidation and with suppressed leptin in women. In habitual low caffeine consumers, the green tea-caffeine mixture improved WM, partly through thermogenesis and fat oxidation.

  18. Birth weight, postnatal weight gain and adult body composition in five low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Adair, Linda; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Fall, Caroline H D; Lee, Nanette; Norris, Shane A.; Osmond, Clive; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Stein, Aryeh D.; Victora, Cesar G

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate associations between birth weight (BW), infancy and childhood weight gain and adult body composition. Methods Subjects included participants of five birth cohort studies from low and middle income nations (Brazil, Guatemala, India, Philippines, South Africa; n=3432). We modeled adult body composition as a function of BW and conditional weight gain (CW), representing changes in weight trajectory relative to peers, in three age intervals (0-12m, 12-24m, 24m-mid childhood). Results In 34 of 36 site- and sex-specific models, regression coefficients associated with BW and CWs were higher for adult fat-free than for fat mass. The strength of coefficients predicting fat-free mass relative to those predicting fat mass was greatest for birth weight, intermediate for CWs through 24 months, and weaker thereafter. However, because fat masses were smaller and showed larger variances than fat-free masses, weaker relationships with fat mass still yielded modest but significant increases in adult % body fat (PBF). CW at 12 months and mid-childhood tended to be strongest predictors of PBF, while BW was generally the weakest predictor of PBF. For most early growth measures, a 1 SD change predicted less than a 1% change in adult body fat, suggesting that any health impacts of early growth on changes in adult body composition are likely to be small in these cohorts. Conclusions Birth weight and weight trajectories up to 24 months tend to be more strongly associated with adult fat-free mass than with fat mass, while weight trajectories in mid-childhood predict both fat mass and fat-free mass. PMID:22121058

  19. Body contouring surgery for military personnel following massive weight loss.

    PubMed

    Chong, S J; Kok, Y O; Foo, C L

    2011-12-01

    The burgeoning global obesity epidemic extends to the military service, where 6-53% of military personnel are overweight. Obese military personnel who adhere to a strict training and diet regime may potentially achieve and maintain significant weight loss. They may however face physical problems such as excess skin folds causing discomfort, difficulty in uniform fitting, personal hygiene, interference with full physical activities and psychological issues such as body image dissatisfaction, low self esteem and difficulty in social acceptance. We present a case report of a highly motivated military conscript who achieved and maintained significant weight loss but had physical defects following Massive Weight Loss. Body contouring surgery was successfully utilised to correct his physical defects and allowed him to return to full physical duties.

  20. Drude weight fluctuations in many-body localized systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Michele; Brouwer, Piet W.; Eisert, Jens; von Oppen, Felix

    2016-11-01

    We numerically investigate the distribution of Drude weights D of many-body states in disordered one-dimensional interacting electron systems across the transition to a many-body localized phase. Drude weights are proportional to the spectral curvatures induced by magnetic fluxes in mesoscopic rings. They offer a method to relate the transition to the many-body localized phase to transport properties. In the delocalized regime, we find that the Drude weight distribution at a fixed disorder configuration agrees well with the random-matrix-theory prediction P (D ) ∝(γ2+D2) -3 /2 , although the distribution width γ strongly fluctuates between disorder realizations. A crossover is observed towards a distribution with different large-D asymptotics deep in the many-body localized phase, which however differs from the commonly expected Cauchy distribution. We show that the average distribution width <γ >, rescaled by L Δ ,Δ being the average level spacing in the middle of the spectrum and L the systems size, is an efficient probe of the many-body localization transition, as it increases (vanishes) exponentially in the delocalized (localized) phase.

  1. Intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring as a predictor of fetal distress and immediate neonatal condition in low-birth weight (less than or equal to 1,800 grams) infants.

    PubMed

    Douvas, S G; Meeks, G R; Graves, G; Walsh, D A; Morrison, J C

    1984-02-01

    Among 1,318 live born infants delivered in our institution during a 120-day period, 1,025 (77.8%) were monitored electronically. Of the 1,025 monitored infants, 89 were of low birth weight (less than or equal to 1,800 gm) and were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Twenty-seven (30%) of these had abnormal fetal heart rate tracings. The remaining 62 (70%) had normal fetal heart rate tracings. Of the 27 low-birth weight neonates with an abnormal fetal heart rate tracing, 24 (89%) were asphyxiated, whereas of those 62 low-birth weight infants with a normal fetal heart rate tracing, only nine (14%) had asphyxia (p less than 0.001). Of the 27 low-birth weight neonates with abnormal fetal heart rate tracings, 20 (74%) developed hyaline membrane disease, whereas of the 62 low-birth weight neonates with normal fetal heart rate tracings, 10 (16%) developed hyaline membrane disease (p less than 0.001). The results of this study suggest that electronic fetal monitoring provides a specific and sensitive method for identifying those low-birth weight infants who are at high risk for asphyxia and hyaline membrane disease.

  2. Attitudes to body weight, weight gain and eating behavior in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Abraham, S; King, W; Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1994-12-01

    The eating behavior and attitudes to body weight of 100 healthy women were studied 3 days after the birth of their first child. During pregnancy women 'watch their weight' and use a range of methods of weight control which include cigarette smoking and inducing vomiting. During pregnancy 41 women reported weight control problems and 20 women considered their weight and eating problems to be greater than at any previous time. Picking was the most common unwanted behavior. Binge eating was experienced by 44 women, nine of whom reported it to be a 'severe' problem. Although women were ambivalent about being weighed at each antenatal visit, 81 recommended weighing once each month. The women held differing opinions on the effects of breastfeeding on body weight and on the need for nutritional supplements during pregnancy. Women reporting 'disordered eating' were more likely to have antenatal complications and give birth to low birthweight babies. The results suggest good obstetric care should include a history of the woman's eating behavior and body weight.

  3. Body weight and metabolic level in growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Keller, J

    1977-01-01

    Body weight and metabolic level in growing chickens. Acta Physiol. Pol., 1977, 28 (6): 575-583. In the investigations carried out on 128 White Rock chicken the metabolic level was determined under standard conditions in chickens characterising by different growth rate resulted from different feeding levels. It was shown that the feeding level of growing chicken has an essential influence on the character of the regression between the metabolic level and body weight. It was also found that this regression is not necessarily ot the character of Kleiber's function H = aWb. The differences in the metabolic level between the chickens maintained on different feeding levels did not disappear even after 4 days of starvation. In the light of the obtained results and recent investigations by other authors the usefulness of the so-called metabolic unit of the body size based on W0.75 in context to growing animals within one species has bee criticized.

  4. Smoking and Body Weight: Evidence using Genetic Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Wilcox, Allen; Lie, Rolv T.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have evaluated whether the high and rising obesity rates over the past three decades may be due to the declining smoking rates. There is mixed evidence across studies – some find negative smoking effects and positive cigarette cost effects on body weight, while others find opposite effects. This study applies a unique approach to identify the smoking effects on body weight and to evaluate the heterogeneity in these effects across the body mass index (BMI) distribution by utilizing genetic instruments for smoking. Using a data sample of 1,057 mothers from Norway, the study finds heterogeneous effects of cigarette smoking on BMI – smoking increases BMI at low/moderate BMI levels and decreases BMI at high BMI levels. The study highlights the potential advantages and challenges of employing genetic instrumental variables to identify behavior effects including the importance of qualifying the instruments and the need for large samples. PMID:22024417

  5. Body Mass Index and perceived weight status in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sciacca, J P; Melby, C L; Hyner, G C; Brown, A C; Femea, P L

    1991-06-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and weight for 1,123 university students who returned a questionnaire mailed to a 10 percent random sample of the entire undergraduate population of a large midwestern university. Seventeen percent of the females and 20 percent of the males were determined to be in excess of normal BMI standards. However, significantly more women (40%) considered themselves overweight in comparison to men (24%). Also, significantly more women (53%) than men (20%) reported experiencing discomfort due to excessive weight. Inaccurate perceptions of body image are common among individuals with eating disorders. There is a higher incidence of eating disorders among college-age women than among their male peers. A distorted body image as reflected by perceived overweight may serve as a marker for individuals at risk for eating disorders.

  6. Actual Body Weight and the Parent’s Perspective of Child’s Body Weight among Rural Canadian Children

    PubMed Central

    Karunanayake, Chandima P.; Rennie, Donna C.; Hildebrand, Carole; Lawson, Joshua A.; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James A.; Pahwa, Punam

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of being overweight during childhood continues to increase in the USA and Canada and children living in rural areas are more at risk than their urban counterparts. The objectives of this study were to evaluate how well the parent’s perception of their child’s weight status correlated with objectively measured weight status among a group of rural children and to identify predictors of inaccurate parental perceptions of child’s weight status. Participants were children from the Saskatchewan Rural Health Study conducted in 2010. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed through rural schools to parents of children in grades one to eight. Parents reported their child’s height and weight and rated their child’s weight status (underweight, just about the right weight, or overweight). Standardized body mass index (BMI) categories were calculated for clinically measured height and weight and for parental report of height and weight for 584 children. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of misclassification of the parent’s perception of child’s weight status adjusting for potential confounders. Clinically measured overweight was much higher (26.5%) compared to parental perceived overweight (7.9%). The misclassification of the child’s BMI was more likely to occur if the child was a boy (odds ratio (OR) = 1.58) or non-Caucasian (OR = 2.03). Overweight was high in this group of rural children and parental perception of weight status underestimated the actual weight status of overweight school-age children. Parental reporting of child weight status has implications for public health policy and prevention strategies. Future research should focus on assessing longitudinal effects of parental misperceptions of child’s weight status. PMID:27527235

  7. Evaluating Approaches for Communication About Genomic Influences on Body Weight.

    PubMed

    Persky, Susan; Street, Richard L

    2015-10-01

    Developments in genomics may improve patient consultations about weight management; however, optimal approaches for these communications are unstudied. We assessed the influence of receiving generic, genomic information and of physician communication approach on overweight females in simulated clinical weight counseling interactions. Two hundred participants were randomized to receive information about genomic or behavioral underpinnings of body weight from a virtual reality-based physician who used either a supportive or directive communication approach. Participants completed post-test self-report questionnaires. Genomic explanations for body weight led patients to perceive less blame [F (1,196) = 47.68, p < .0001] and weight stigma [F (1,196) = 5.75, p = .017] in the consultation. They did not lead to negative outcomes in physician-patient interaction or affect health behavior-related attitudes and beliefs. Physician's supportive or directive communication approach did not moderate these effects. Integrating genomic concepts into health care has potential to positively influence the patient-provider relationship while addressing longstanding challenges in weight management. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01443910.

  8. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions.

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Garthe, Ina

    2011-01-01

    The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that a high proportion of athletes are using extreme weight-control methods and that the rules of some sports might be associated with the risk of continuous dieting, energy deficit, and/or use of extreme weight-loss methods that can be detrimental to health and performance. Thus, preventive strategies are justified for medical as well as performance reasons. The most urgent needs are: (1) to develop sport-specific educational programmes for athletic trainers, coaches, and athletes; (2) modifications to regulations; and (3) research related to minimum percentage body fat and judging patterns.

  9. The relationship between bone and ash weight to body weight and body length of Thai corpses in Bangkok and central part of Thailand after cremation.

    PubMed

    Chirachariyavej, Thamrong; Limburanasombat, Sulawan; Tiensuwan, Montip

    2007-09-01

    Although information about bone and ash weight compare to body weight and body length of Thai people exists, it was based on a few samples. Collect data of the bone and ash weight after cremation and find out the relationship between bone and ash weight, body weight, body length, and age. Two hundred and twenty three corpses, 97 females and 126 males were collected from four temples, three temples from Bangkok and one temple from Angtong province. The crematoria used in the present study created a temperature between 850 degrees C and 1,200 degrees C. Each cremation took about 1-1.5 hours. The average with SD of bone and ash weight of males was 2.44 kg +/- 0.9 Kg, while the weight of females was 2.07 +/- 0.89 Kg, and the average of bone and ash weight of total subjects was 2.28 +/- 0.95. There was negative correlation between age and bone & ash weight, while there was positive correlation between body length and body weight, body length and bone & ash weight, and body weight and bone & ash weight. The results of the present study indicated that age and body weight affected the bone and ash weight. The fitted linear equation was Log (bone & ash weight +1) = 0.413 - 0.001 (age) + 0.003 (body weight). Age and body weight affect bone and ash weight. Moreover, the age, body weight, and body length could be estimated by using the bone and ash weight.

  10. Effects of green tea on weight maintenance after body-weight loss.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Eva M R; Lejeune, Manuela P G M; Nijs, Ilse; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2004-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether green tea may improve weight maintenance by preventing or limiting weight regain after weight loss of 5 to 10 % in overweight and moderately obese subjects. The study had a randomised, parallel, placebo-controlled design. A total of 104 overweight and moderately obese male and female subjects (age 18-60 years; BMI 25-35 kg/m(2)) participated. The study consisted of a very-low-energy diet intervention (VLED; 2.1 MJ/d) of 4 weeks followed by a weight-maintenance period of 13 weeks in which the subjects received green tea or placebo. The green tea contained caffeine (104 mg/d) and catechins (573 mg/d, of which 323 mg was epigallocatechin gallate). Subjects lost 6.4 (sd 1.9) kg or 7.5 (sd 2.2) % of their original body weight during the VLED (P<0.001). Body-weight regain was not significantly different between the green tea and the placebo group (30.5 (sd 61.8) % and 19.7 (sd 56.9) %, respectively). In the green tea treatment, habitual high caffeine consumption was associated with a higher weight regain compared with habitual low caffeine consumption (39 (sd 17) and 16 (sd 11) %, respectively; P<0.05). We conclude that weight maintenance after 7.5 % body-weight loss was not affected by green tea treatment and that habitual caffeine consumption affected weight maintenance in the green tea treatment.

  11. Associations between Obesity, Body Fat Distribution, Weight Loss and Weight Cycling on Serum Pesticide Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Frugé, Andrew Dandridge; Cases, Mallory Gamel; Schildkraut, Joellen Martha; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preliminary studies suggest pesticides may be linked to increased cancer risk. Since most pesticides are lipophilic and stored within adipose tissue, serum levels of organochlorines are affected not only by environmental exposures, but also by factors related to lipid turnover and storage. Our objective was to investigate whether serum organochlorines are influenced by weight loss, body fat distribution, and weight cycling. Methods Ten overweight women were recruited upon entry into a weight loss program and surveyed regarding weight history, childbearing/lactation, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Anthropometric measures and phlebotomy were conducted at baseline and at four weeks (mean weight loss=5.1 kg). Serum was analyzed for 19 common polychlorinated pesticides and metabolites and 10 PCB congeners. Results Organochlorine levels were not significantly affected by weight loss nor associated with body mass index (BMI). Strong positive correlations were noted between levels of DDE/DDT and age (DDE β=0.6986/p=0.0246/DDT β=0.6536/p=0.0404) and between DDE/DDT and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (DDE β=0.4356/p=0.0447/DDT β=0.8108/p=0.0044). Trends were noted for decreased levels of DDT in women who reported more episodes of weight cycling. Conclusion Serum organochlorine levels may be affected not only by age, but also factors related to lipid turnover (i.e., episodes of weight cycling and WHR), and warrants further study. PMID:27478857

  12. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of fetal lung maturation in sheep: effect of prenatal cortisone administration on ADC values.

    PubMed

    Much, Chressen Catharina; Schoennagel, Björn Phillip; Yamamura, Jin; Buchert, Ralph; Kooijman, Hendrik; Schätzle, Anne-Kathrin; Adam, Gerhard; Wedegaertner, Ulrike

    2013-07-01

    To assess changes in diffusion properties in the fetal lung after cortisone administration with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in fetal sheep. DWI was performed on 11 pregnant sheep with singleton pregnancies on a 1.5-T MRI scanner. Four animals received cortisone injections before baseline imaging. Seven animals served as controls. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured on DWI in the fetal lungs by two independent readers. The Pearson test was used to correlate ADC and gestational age. A t-test was performed to compare differences in ADC values at the baseline and follow-up images within and between groups. Inter-rater reliability was calculated. In the cortisone group, ADC values increased about 10 % between the baseline and follow-up images (P = 0.039). Comparing the cortisone and control groups, ADC values of the baseline images did not differ; whereas in the follow-up imaging, ADC values were significantly higher in the cortisone group (P = 0.024). Lung ADC values did not correlate with gestational age (P = 0.970). Inter-rater reliability was high (0.970, P = 0.000). In this experimental model, MR-DWI can detect cortisone-induced changes in diffusion properties of the fetal lung. • Corticosteroids are frequently administered antenatally to prevent fetal lung immaturity at birth • DWI can detect changes in the fetal lung after corticosteroid administration • Changes can be detected as early as 5 days after treatment • Fetal MRI may offer a non-invasive method of monitoring lung maturation.

  13. Fetal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Dopamine Receptor D2 and Increases Pituitary Weight and Prolactin Production via Epigenetic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Gangisetty, Omkaram; Wynne, Olivia; Jabbar, Shaima; Nasello, Cara; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicated that alcohol exposure during the fetal period increases the susceptibility to tumor development in mammary and prostate tissues. Whether fetal alcohol exposure increases the susceptibility to prolactin-producing tumor (prolactinoma) development in the pituitary was studied by employing the animal model of estradiol-induced prolactinomas in Fischer 344 female rats. We employed an animal model of fetal alcohol exposure that simulates binge alcohol drinking during the first two trimesters of human pregnancy and involves feeding pregnant rats with a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol during gestational day 7 to day 21. Control rats were pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet or fed ad libitum with rat chow diet. Adult alcohol exposed and control female offspring rats were used in this study on the day of estrus or after estrogen treatment. Results show that fetal alcohol-exposed rats had increased levels of pituitary weight, pituitary prolactin (PRL) protein and mRNA, and plasma PRL. However, these rats show decreased pituitary levels of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) mRNA and protein and increased pituitary levels of D2R promoter methylation. Also, they show elevated pituitary mRNA levels of DNA methylating genes (DNMT1, DNMT3b, MeCP2) and histone modifying genes (HDAC2, HDAC4, G9a). When fetal alcohol exposed rats were treated neonatally with a DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza deoxycytidine and/or a HDAC inhibitor trichostatin-A their pituitary D2R mRNA, pituitary weights and plasma PRL levels were normalized. These data suggest that fetal alcohol exposure programs the pituitary to increase the susceptibility to the development of prolactinomas possibly by enhancing the methylation of the D2R gene promoter and repressing the synthesis and control of D2R on PRL-producing cells. PMID:26509893

  14. Adolescent Boys and Body Image: Weight and Muscularity Concerns as Dual Pathways to Body Dissatisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…

  15. Adolescent Boys and Body Image: Weight and Muscularity Concerns as Dual Pathways to Body Dissatisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…

  16. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  17. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  18. The role of whole grains in body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Karl, J Philip; Saltzman, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Whole grain (WG)-rich diets are purported to have a variety of health benefits, including a favorable role in body weight regulation. Current dietary recommendations advocate substituting WG for refined grains (RG), because many of the beneficial bioactive components intrinsic to WG are lost during the refining process. Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate that higher intakes of WG, but not RG, are associated with lower BMI and/or reduced risk of obesity. However, recent clinical trials have failed to support a role for WG in promoting weight loss or maintenance. Though the biochemical and structural characteristics of WG have been shown to modulate appetite, nutrient availability, and energy utilization, the capacity of WG foods to elicit these effects varies with the type and amount of grain consumed as well as the nature of its consumption. As such, WG foods differentially affect physiologic factors influencing body weight with the common practice of processing and reconstituting WG ingredients during food production likely mitigating the capacity for WG to benefit body weight regulation.

  19. Use of factor scores for predicting body weight from linear body measurements in three South African indigenous chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Malomane, Dorcus Kholofelo; Norris, David; Banga, Cuthbert B; Ngambi, Jones W

    2014-02-01

    Body weight and weight of body parts are of economic importance. It is difficult to directly predict body weight from highly correlated morphological traits through multiple regression. Factor analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between body weight and five linear body measurements (body length, body girth, wing length, shank thickness, and shank length) in South African Venda (VN), Naked neck (NN), and Potchefstroom koekoek (PK) indigenous chicken breeds, with a view to identify those factors that define body conformation. Multiple regression was subsequently performed to predict body weight, using orthogonal traits derived from the factor analysis. Measurements were obtained from 210 chickens, 22 weeks of age, 70 chickens per breed. High correlations were obtained between body weight and all body measurements except for wing length in PK. Two factors extracted after varimax rotation explained 91, 95, and 83% of total variation in VN, NN, and PK, respectively. Factor 1 explained 73, 90, and 64% in VN, NN, and PK, respectively, and was loaded on all body measurements except for wing length in VN and PK. In a multiple regression, these two factors accounted for 72% variation in body weight in VN, while only factor 1 accounted for 83 and 74% variation in body weight in NN and PK, respectively. The two factors could be used to define body size and conformation of these breeds. Factor 1 could predict body weight in all three breeds. Body measurements can be better selected jointly to improve body weight in these breeds.

  20. Green tea catechins, caffeine and body-weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2010-04-26

    The global prevalence of obesity has increased considerably in the last decade. Tools for obesity management including caffeine, and green tea have been proposed as strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance. These ingredients may increase energy expenditure and have been proposed to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that is present during weight loss. Positive effects on body-weight management have been shown using green tea mixtures. Green tea, by containing both tea catechins and caffeine, may act through inhibition of catechol O-methyl-transferase, and inhibition of phosphodiesterase. Here the mechanisms may also operate synergistically. A green tea-caffeine mixture improves weight maintenance, through thermogenesis, fat oxidation, and sparing fat free mass. The sympathetic nervous system is involved in the regulation of lipolysis, and the sympathetic innervation of white adipose tissue may play an important role in the regulation of total body fat in general. Taken together, these functional ingredients have the potential to produce significant effects on metabolic targets such as thermogenesis, and fat oxidation. An ethnic or genetic effect, and habitual caffeine or green tea catechin intake may act as confounders; this remains to be revealed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Validity of lamellar body count as a fetal lung maturity assessment in twin pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Tomomi; Sumigama, Seiji; Kawabata, Ichiro; Takahashi, Yuichiro; Iwagaki, Shigenori; Kigoshi, Kaori; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2012-08-01

    Fetal lung maturity assessment in twin pregnancy has been discussed, but is still controversial. The purpose of this study is to predict the occurrence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) using lamellar body count (LBC) and analyze the validity of LBC for fetal lung maturity assessment in twin pregnancy. Three-hundred two amniotic fluid samples were obtained at cesarean section from 29 to 38 weeks of gestation. Samples were analyzed immediately with no centrifugation and the number of lamellar bodies was counted using a platelet channel on the Sysmex SF-3000. There were 18 neonates (6.0%) suffering from RDS. An LBC cut-off value of 2.95×10⁴/μL resulted in 91.5% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity for predicting RDS. This cut-off value for predicting RDS was the same as that in singleton pregnancy. Moreover, the median LBC value in RDS cases was significantly lower than in non-RDS cases (1.50±1.1×10⁴/μL vs. 10.6±7.5×10⁴/μL; p<.001). This is the first report on the validity of LBC in twin pregnancy and also the largest study on fetal lung maturity assessment in twin pregnancy. An LBC value of >2.95×10⁴/μL means reassuring findings for RDS even in twin pregnancy. We believe the data in this study provide valuable, new information for the management of twin pregnancies.

  2. Accuracy of Sonographically Estimated Fetal Weight Near Delivery in Pregnancies Complicated With Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Valent, Amy M; Newman, Tondra; Kritzer, Sara; Magner, Kristin; Warshak, Carri R

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of sonographic estimations of fetal weight (FW) and signed percent error between pregnant patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all singleton nonanomalous live births who delivered after 34 weeks and received a sonographic estimation of FW within 2 weeks of delivery at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center between 2008 and 2011. Our primary outcome compared the ΔFW and signed percent error between DM and non-DM pregnancies. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the prediction of FW greater than 4000 g in each study group. Linear regression analysis assessed correlation coefficients, R(2) values, and variance of the ΔFW by live birth weight. The mean ΔFWs were 62 and 103 g for non-DM and DM pregnancies, respectively (P = .04). However, the signed percent error (mean ± SD, 1.7% ± 9.8% versus 2.6% ± 9.9%; P = .15) was similar between the study groups. Linear regression comparing the ΔFW to the live birth weight revealed a weak correlation in DM (r = 0.34; R(2)  = 0.11) and non-DM pregnancies, (r = 0.17; R(2)  = 0.03) pregnancies. Overall sensitivity for the prediction of FW greater than 4000 g was poor (0.41 and 0.62 in non-DM and DM pregnancies). However, the specificity was high (0.97 and 0.99 for both groups). Although DM alters the biometric measurements of the fetus with increasing thoracoabdominal size, there are no clinically significant alterations in the accuracy of sonography for FW prediction when performed near delivery. Sonography is highly specific for birth weight greater than 4000 g, which is helpful for delivery planning and management. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. Body Weight Can Change How Your Emotions Are Perceived

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Accurately interpreting other’s emotions through facial expressions has important adaptive values for social interactions. However, due to the stereotypical social perception of overweight individuals as carefree, humorous, and light-hearted, the body weight of those with whom we interact may have a systematic influence on our emotion judgment even though it has no relevance to the expressed emotion itself. In this experimental study, we examined the role of body weight in faces on the affective perception of facial expressions. We hypothesized that the weight perceived in a face would bias the assessment of an emotional expression, with overweight faces generally more likely to be perceived as having more positive and less negative expressions than healthy weight faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants were asked to sort the emotional expressions of overweight and healthy weight facial stimuli that had been gradually morphed across six emotional intensity levels into one of two categories—“neutral vs. happy” (Experiment 1) and “neutral vs. sad” (Experiment 2). As predicted, our results demonstrated that overweight faces were more likely to be categorized as happy (i.e., lower happy decision threshold) and less likely to be categorized as sad (i.e., higher sad decision threshold) compared to healthy weight faces that had the same levels of emotional intensity. The neutral-sad decision threshold shift was negatively correlated with participant’s own fear of becoming fat, that is, those without a fear of becoming fat more strongly perceived overweight faces as sad relative to those with a higher fear. These findings demonstrate that the weight of the face systematically influences how its emotional expression is interpreted, suggesting that being overweight may make emotional expressions appear more happy and less sad than they really are. PMID:27870892

  4. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in South Asian children: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Pallan, Miranda J; Hiam, Lucinda C; Duda, Joan L; Adab, Peymane

    2011-01-09

    Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls). BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese) were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size) and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size). The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99) and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31), adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity). Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96) and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67)). Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in this population. This needs to be considered when designing

  5. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls). BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese) were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size) and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size). The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99) and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31), adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity). Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96) and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67)). Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in this population

  6. Body Weight Concerns and Antifat Attitude in Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    Garousi, Saideh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI) and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD) between boys and girls (P < 0.05). There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children. PMID:25709795

  7. Correlation between human maternal-fetal placental transfer and molecular weight of PCB and dioxin congeners/isomers.

    PubMed

    Mori, Chisato; Nakamura, Noriko; Todaka, Emiko; Fujisaki, Takeyoshi; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Nakaoka, Hiroko; Hanazato, Masamichi

    2014-11-01

    Establishing methods for the assessment of fetal exposure to chemicals is important for the prevention or prediction of the child's future disease risk. In the present study, we aimed to determine the influence of molecular weight on the likelihood of chemical transfer from mother to fetus via the placenta. The correlation between molecular weight and placental transfer rates of congeners/isomers of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins was examined. Twenty-nine sample sets of maternal blood, umbilical cord, and umbilical cord blood were used to measure PCB concentration, and 41 sample sets were used to analyze dioxins. Placental transfer rates were calculated using the concentrations of PCBs, dioxins, and their congeners/isomers within these sample sets. Transfer rate correlated negatively with molecular weight for PCB congeners, normalized using wet and lipid weights. The transfer rates of PCB or dioxin congeners differed from those of total PCBs or dioxins. The transfer rate for dioxin congeners did not always correlate significantly with molecular weight, perhaps because of the small sample size or other factors. Further improvement of the analytical methods for dioxin congeners is required. The findings of the present study suggested that PCBs, dioxins, or their congeners with lower molecular weights are more likely to be transferred from mother to fetus via the placenta. Consideration of chemical molecular weight and transfer rate could therefore contribute to the assessment of fetal exposure.

  8. Relation between interdialytic weight gain, body weight and nutrition in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ifudu, Onyekachi; Uribarri, Jaime; Rajwani, Imran; Vlacich, Vera; Reydel, Kathy; Delosreyes, Georgina; Friedman, Eli A

    2002-01-01

    Though interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) is used as an index of fluid and dietary compliance among hemodialysis patients, neither its clinical correlates nor an actual 'normal range' is established. Consequently, clinicians impose uniform dietary and fluid restrictions to limit IDWG, hoping to avoid symptomatic intravascular volume overload. We studied 309 stable hemodialysis patients over a 3-month period to determine the spectrum of their IDWG and the relation between IDWG, dry weight, nutritional and demographic parameters. Mean IDWG was 2.8 +/- 1.2 kg (range -0.8 to 8.2 kg). Dry weight had a direct correlation with actual IDWG (r = 0.31; p = 0.001) but an inverse correlation with percent IDWG (r = -0.25; p = 0.001). IDWG was less in older patients (r = -0.34; p = 0.001) even after adjustment for dry weight. Actual IDWG was greater in men than women (3.1 +/- 1.2 vs. 2.5 +/- 1.2 kg, p = 0.001), but was equivalent after adjustment for dry weight (men 4.2 +/- 1.8%; women 3.9 +/- 1.9%, p = 0.1). Hematocrit (r = 0.14; p = 0.02) and serum creatinine concentration (r = 0.18; p = 0.02) had direct correlations with IDWG. We conclude that IDWG in hemodialysis patients is proportional to body weight. Differences in body weight explain excess IDWG in men but not in younger hemodialysis patients. Fluid and dietary restrictions in hemodialysis patients should be individually prescribed as opposed to a fixed amount irrespective of body weight. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Extracellular matrix-induced synthesis of a low molecular weight collagen by fetal calf ligament fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Sage, H; Mecham, R

    1987-01-01

    Fetal calf ligamentum nuchae fibroblasts, cultured from animals of different gestational age, synthesize a unique, low molecular weight collagen termed FCL-1 (Sage, H., Mecham, R., Johnson, C., and Bornstein, P., 1983, J. Cell Biol. 97:1933-1938). Previous studies on the elastogenic differentiation of these cells in vitro demonstrated that the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein elastin was specifically induced in undifferentiated fibroblasts when they were grown on ligament ECM isolated from animals at later stages of development (Mecham, R.P., Madaras, J.G., and Senior, R.M., 1984. J. Cell Biol. 98:1804-1812). To investigate the expression of FCL-1 as a function of developmental age, we grew fetal calf ligament fibroblasts from an 85 d (first trimester) animal (FCL 85d) on three different substrata: ligament from a 120 d (second trimester) animal, ligament from a 270 d (term) animal, and unmodified plastic tissue culture dishes. FCL 270d fibroblasts were grown on plastic substrata and served as a differentiated cellular control. Analysis of metabolically radiolabeled proteins from both the culture media and the cell layers showed that the synthesis of FCL-1 was selectively increased in those cells cultured on ligament ECM. For FCL 85d fibroblasts grown on 120 d and 270 d ligaments, FCL-1 comprised 17% and 22%, respectively, of the culture medium proteins that precipitated at concentrations of ammonium sulfate from 20-50%. FCL 85d and 270d fibroblasts grown on plastic substrata yielded values of 2.5% and 1.0%, respectively. This effect appeared to be specific for this collagen and did not reflect a general increase in the synthesis of connective tissue proteins of the ECM (e.g., types I and III procollagen). As percent of total newly-synthesized cellular protein, the output of FCL-1 was 10-fold higher by FCL 85d cells grown on 270d ligament ECM (5.8%) as compared to that of the same cellular population grown on a plastic surface (0.56%). The presence of the

  10. Role of oxytocin signaling in the regulation of body weight.

    PubMed

    Blevins, James E; Ho, Jacqueline M

    2013-12-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are growing health concerns in the US and worldwide. In the US alone, more than two-thirds of the adult population is classified as either overweight or obese [1], highlighting the need to develop new, effective treatments for these conditions. Whereas the hormone oxytocin is well known for its peripheral effects on uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection during lactation, release of oxytocin from somatodendrites and axonal terminals within the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated in both the formation of prosocial behaviors and in the control of energy balance. Recent findings demonstrate that chronic administration of oxytocin reduces food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) and genetically obese rodents with impaired or defective leptin signaling. Importantly, chronic systemic administration of oxytocin out to 6 weeks recapitulates the effects of central administration on body weight loss in DIO rodents at doses that do not result in the development of tolerance. Furthermore, these effects are coupled with induction of Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) in hindbrain areas (e.g. dorsal vagal complex (DVC)) linked to the control of meal size and forebrain areas (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala) linked to the regulation of food intake and body weight. This review assesses the potential central and peripheral targets by which oxytocin may inhibit body weight gain, its regulation by anorexigenic and orexigenic signals, and its potential use as a therapy that can circumvent leptin resistance and reverse the behavioral and metabolic abnormalities associated with DIO and genetically obese models.

  11. The effects of rikkunshito on body weight loss after esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masaki; Nakamori, Mikihito; Ojima, Toshiyasu; Katsuda, Masahiro; Hayata, Keiji; Iwahashi, Makoto; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2016-07-01

    After esophagectomy, esophageal cancer patients suffer from malnutrition, anorexia, and dysfunction of digestion and absorption. Rikkunshito, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, reportedly attenuates gastrointestinal symptoms and appetite loss after gastrointestinal surgery. We evaluated the clinical effect of rikkunshito and its relationship with ghrelin in esophageal cancer patients after esophagectomy. This prospective nonrandomized study included 40 patients with esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy at Wakayama Medical University Hospital. They were assigned to either the control group (n = 20, April 2011-January 2012) or the rikkunshito group (n = 20, January 2012-August 2012). Patients in the rikkunshito group received 2.5 g of rikkunshito before every meal for 48 wk beginning 4 wk after surgery. During the 48-week treatment, we assessed body weight loss, nutritional parameters, and quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Esophageal scale). The primary end point was the rate of body weight loss in two groups after the 48-week treatments. The rate of body weight loss was significantly less in the rikkunshito group than in the control group (P = 0.016). The acyl ghrelin level after the 48-week treatments was significantly higher in the rikkunshito group (131.7% ± 74.5%) than in the control group (75.6% ± 47.5%, P = 0.039). For the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Esophageal symptom scale, satisfaction of food consumption in the rikkunshito group was significantly better than in the control group at 52 wk postoperatively (P = 0.031). For esophageal cancer patients after esophagectomy, rikkunshito is useful for improving body weight loss in connection with an increase in plasma acyl ghrelin levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of oxytocin signaling in the regulation of body weight

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, James E.; Ho, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are growing health concerns in the US and worldwide. In the US alone, more than two-thirds of the adult population is classified as either overweight or obese [1], highlighting the need to develop new, effective treatments for these conditions. Whereas the hormone oxytocin is well known for its peripheral effects on uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection during lactation, release of oxytocin from somatodendrites and axonal terminals within the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated in both the formation of prosocial behaviors and in the control of energy balance. Recent findings demonstrate that chronic administration of oxytocin reduces food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) and genetically obese rodents with impaired or defective leptin signaling. Importantly, chronic systemic administration of oxytocin out to 6 weeks recapitulates the effects of central administration on body weight loss in DIO rodents at doses that do not result in the development of tolerance. Furthermore, these effects are coupled with induction of Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) in hindbrain areas (e.g. dorsal vagal complex (DVC)) linked to the control of meal size and forebrain areas (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala) linked to the regulation of food intake and body weight. This review assesses the potential central and peripheral targets by which oxytocin may inhibit body weight gain, its regulation by anorexigenic and orexigenic signals, and its potential use as a therapy that can circumvent leptin resistance and reverse the behavioral and metabolic abnormalities associated with DIO and genetically obese models. PMID:24065622

  13. Different measures of body weight as predictors of sickness absence.

    PubMed

    Korpela, Katri; Roos, Eira; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Laaksonen, Mikko

    2013-02-01

    Excessive weight is associated with increased sickness absence from work due to obesity-linked health problems. However, it is not known which obesity measure best predicts sickness absence. First, we aimed to compare body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) as predictors of sickness absence spells of various lengths. Second, we aimed to compare BMI based on self-reported and measured weight and height as a predictor of sickness absence to assess the validity of self-reported BMI. The participants were 5750 employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years, who were followed up on average for 4.8 years using the employer's register. Sickness absence spells were classified as self-certified short (1-3 days), medically certified medium length (4-14 days), and long (>14 days) absence spells. All measures of body weight predicted sickness absence. The relative rates of long sickness absence in the highest quintile as compared to the lowest quintile varied in women from 1.62 (95% CI 1.35-1.94) to 1.89 (95% CI 1.62-2.23) and in men from 1.40 (95% CI 0.76-2.59) to 2.33 (95% CI 1.32-4.11). Differences in the predictive power of BMI and WC were small: both were more strongly associated with sickness absence than WHR. Self-reported BMI performed equally well as measured BMI. BMI - measured or self-reported - is a valid anthropometric indicator of body weight and predictor of obesity-associated health-risks. Its use is feasible for research purposes as well as for the assessment of weight-related risks to work ability.

  14. Does smoking affect body weight and obesity in China?

    PubMed

    Fang, Hai; Ali, Mir M; Rizzo, John A

    2009-12-01

    An inverse relationship between smoking and body weight has been documented in the medical literature, but the effect of cigarette smoking on obesity remains inconclusive. In addition, the evidence is mixed on whether rising obesity rates are an unintended consequence of successful anti-smoking policies. This study re-examines these relationships using data from China, the largest consumer and manufacturer of tobacco in the world that is also experiencing a steady rise in obesity rates. We focus on the impact of the total number of cigarettes smoked per day on individuals' body mass index (BMI) and on the likelihood of being overweight and obese. Instrumental variables estimation is used to correct for the endogeneity of cigarette smoking. We find a moderate negative and significant relationship between cigarette smoking and BMI. Smoking is also negatively related to being overweight and obese, but the marginal effects are small and statistically insignificant for being obese. Quantile regression analyses reveal that the association between smoking and BMI is quite weak among subjects whose BMIs are at the high end of the distribution but are considerably stronger among subjects in the healthy weight range. Ordered probit regression analyses also confirm these findings. Our results thus reconcile an inverse average effect of smoking on body weight with the absence of any significant effect on obesity. From a policy perspective these findings suggest that, while smoking cessation may lead to moderate weight gain among subjects of healthy weight, the effects on obese subjects are modest and should not be expected to lead to a large increase in obesity prevalence rates.

  15. Expression of epigenetic machinery genes is sensitive to maternal obesity and weight loss in relation to fetal growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Panchenko, Polina E; Voisin, Sarah; Jouin, Mélanie; Jouneau, Luc; Prézelin, Audrey; Lecoutre, Simon; Breton, Christophe; Jammes, Hélène; Junien, Claudine; Gabory, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity impacts fetal growth and pregnancy outcomes. To counteract the deleterious effects of obesity on fertility and pregnancy issue, preconceptional weight loss is recommended to obese women. Whether this weight loss is beneficial/detrimental for offspring remains poorly explored. Epigenetic mechanisms could be affected by maternal weight changes, perturbing expression of key developmental genes in the placenta or fetus. Our aim was to investigate the effects of chronic maternal obesity on feto-placental growth along with the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. We also tested whether preconceptional weight loss could alleviate these effects. Female mice were fed either a control diet (CTRL group), a high-fat diet (obese (OB) group), or a high-fat diet switched to a control diet 2 months before conception (weight loss (WL) group). At mating, OB females presented an obese phenotype while WL females normalized metabolic parameters. At embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5), fetuses from OB females presented fetal growth restriction (FGR; -13 %) and 28 % of the fetuses were small for gestational age (SGA). Fetuses from WL females normalized this phenotype. The expression of 60 epigenetic machinery genes and 32 metabolic genes was measured in the fetal liver, placental labyrinth, and junctional zone. We revealed 23 genes altered by maternal weight trajectories in at least one of three tissues. The fetal liver and placental labyrinth were more responsive to maternal obesity than junctional zone. One third (18/60) of the epigenetic machinery genes were differentially expressed between at least two maternal groups. Interestingly, genes involved in the histone acetylation pathway were particularly altered (13/18). In OB group, lysine acetyltransferases and Bromodomain-containing protein 2 were upregulated, while most histone deacetylases were downregulated. In WL group, the expression of only a subset of these genes was normalized. This study highlights the high

  16. A treasure trove of hypothalamic neurocircuitries governing body weight homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Claudia R; Coppari, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Changes in physical activities and feeding habits have transformed the historically rare disease of obesity into a modern metabolic pandemic. Obesity occurs when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over time. This energy imbalance significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and as such represents an enormous socioeconomic burden and health threat. To combat obesity, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms and neurocircuitries underlying normal body weight homeostasis is required. In the 1940s, pioneering lesion experiments unveiled the importance of medial and lateral hypothalamic structures. In the 1980s and 1990s, several neuropeptides and peripheral hormones critical for appropriate feeding behavior, energy expenditure, and hence body weight homeostasis were identified. In the 2000s, results from metabolic analyses of genetically engineered mice bearing mutations only in selected neuronal groups greatly advanced our knowledge of the peripheral/brain feedback-loop modalities by which central neurons control energy balance. In this review, we will summarize these recent progresses with particular emphasis on the biochemical identities of hypothalamic neurons and molecular components underlying normal appetite, energy expenditure, and body weight homeostasis. We will also parse which of those neurons and molecules are critical components of homeostatic adaptive pathways against obesity induced by hypercaloric feeding.

  17. Body weight after stroke: lessons from the obesity paradox.

    PubMed

    Scherbakov, Nadja; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Doehner, Wolfram

    2011-12-01

    Outcome after acute stroke is determined to a large extent by poststroke complications. Nutritional status and metabolic balance may substantially contribute to outcome after stroke. Key mechanisms of stroke pathophysiology can induce systemic catabolic imbalance with impaired metabolic efficiency and degradation of body tissues. Tissue wasting, sarcopenia, and cachexia may impair and delay poststroke rehabilitation and worsen the prognosis. Although current guidelines for secondary prevention after stroke recommend weight reduction, increasing evidence suggests that patients who are overweight and mildly obese may actually have a better outcome. An "obesity paradox" has been identified to describe the contrasting impact of being overweight in patients with chronic illness compared with healthy populations. We present an overview on the metabolic regulation in patients with stroke and evaluate current data on the impact of body weight and weight change after stroke. The emerging picture suggests that being overweight and obese may impact patients with stroke differently than it does healthy subjects. We propose that current knowledge on obesity and its management in primary prevention cannot be transferred to patients with established stroke. Systematic studies on changes in body composition after stroke and on treatment options are warranted to establish the pathophysiology and evidence-driven management of nutritional status in these patients.

  18. The liver: Key in regulating appetite and body weight.

    PubMed

    Fam, Barbara C; Joannides, Christos N; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos

    2012-10-01

    Liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is a regulatory enzyme in gluconeogenesis that is elevated by obesity and dietary fat intake. Whether FBPase functions only in glucose metabolism or has other metabolic roles is currently unclear. In our recently published study, we examined the importance of liver FBPase in body weight regulation by performing a series of comprehensive physiological and biochemical assessments of energy balance and specific intervention studies in our transgenic mouse line that overexpresses FBPase specifically in the liver. Compared with negative littermates, these FBPase transgenic mice weighed 10% less, had 50% less adiposity, ate 15% less food but did not have altered energy expenditure. Increased circulating leptin and cholecystokinin levels, elevated fatty acid oxidation and reduced appetite stimulating neuropeptides, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AGRP), underpinned this phenotype. Blocking the action of FBPase returned food intake and body weight to those of the negative littermates. Our study is the first to identify liver FBPase as a previously unknown regulator of appetite and adiposity. Importantly, this work recognizes the liver as an important organ in appetite and body weight regulation. This commentary will provide further insight and expand on this novel concept that the liver does in fact play an important role in adiposity.

  19. Human growth and body weight dynamics: an integrative systems model.

    PubMed

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%-24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations.

  20. A Treasure Trove of Hypothalamic Neurocircuitries Governing Body Weight Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Vianna, Claudia R.; Coppari, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Changes in physical activities and feeding habits have transformed the historically rare disease of obesity into a modern metabolic pandemic. Obesity occurs when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over time. This energy imbalance significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and as such represents an enormous socioeconomic burden and health threat. To combat obesity, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms and neurocircuitries underlying normal body weight homeostasis is required. In the 1940s, pioneering lesion experiments unveiled the importance of medial and lateral hypothalamic structures. In the 1980s and 1990s, several neuropeptides and peripheral hormones critical for appropriate feeding behavior, energy expenditure, and hence body weight homeostasis were identified. In the 2000s, results from metabolic analyses of genetically engineered mice bearing mutations only in selected neuronal groups greatly advanced our knowledge of the peripheral/brain feedback-loop modalities by which central neurons control energy balance. In this review, we will summarize these recent progresses with particular emphasis on the biochemical identities of hypothalamic neurons and molecular components underlying normal appetite, energy expenditure, and body weight homeostasis. We will also parse which of those neurons and molecules are critical components of homeostatic adaptive pathways against obesity induced by hypercaloric feeding. PMID:21068159

  1. Human Growth and Body Weight Dynamics: An Integrative Systems Model

    PubMed Central

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%–24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations. PMID:25479101

  2. Wheel running, food intake, and body weight in male rats.

    PubMed

    Looy, H; Eikelboom, R

    1989-02-01

    The acquisition of wheel running, its effects on food intake and body weight, and the effects of wheel deprivation, were examined in male rats. Running increased during the first 15 days of access, then plateaued. When wheels were unlocked after 10 days of deprivation, running was reduced, but quickly recovered to original levels. Animals first given wheel access 49 days into the study ran little, with no increase over days. Food intake dropped each time with wheel access, but recovered to control levels over 10-14 days. Wheel deprivation resulted in a temporary hyperphagia. With wheel access, weight initially dropped and was then maintained at a reduced percentage of homecage-housed animals. In male rats wheel access appears to have temporary effects on food intake, and long term effects on weight. Marked differences in the activity of same-age rats suggest that wheel running is in part a function of housing history.

  3. Spontaneous physical activity: relationship between fidgeting and body weight control.

    PubMed

    Johannsen, Darcy L; Ravussin, Eric

    2008-10-01

    To discuss the potential importance of spontaneous physical activity in regulating body weight and outline possible reasons for the large interindividual variance in spontaneous physical activity. Spontaneous physical activity is highly variable among people, with some having high levels and some low, and can contribute significantly to interindividual differences in total daily energy expenditure. Cross-sectionally, spontaneous physical activity is inversely related to body weight; however, more importantly, spontaneous physical activity is inversely associated with weight gain in prospective studies, and experimental weight perturbations do not appear to change spontaneous physical activity behavior. Spontaneous physical activity is a familial trait and is biologically influenced, although the environment exerts a significant impact. Although spontaneous physical activity is a biologically driven behavior, interventions to increase nonexercise activity within the workplace and school hold promise in increasing daily energy expenditure for the average sedentary American. However, many large-scale efforts will need to take place within our sedentary-promoting environment to encourage more daily spontaneous physical activity-related activity.

  4. Ideal Body Weight Calculation in the Bariatric Surgical Population.

    PubMed

    Kammerer, Michael R; Porter, Michelle M; Beekley, Alec C; Tichansky, David S

    2015-10-01

    In bariatric surgery, ideal body weight (IBW) is used to calculate excess body weight (EBW) and percent excess weight lost (%EWL). Bariatric literature typically uses the midpoint of the medium frame from older Metropolitan Life Insurance (MetLife) tables to estimate IBW. This is neither universal nor always clinically accurate. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of standard IBW formulas compared to MetLife data. Weight loss data from 200 bariatric surgical patients between 2009 and 2011 was used to assess the accuracy of IBW formulas. IBWs assigned from the midpoint of the medium frame and reassigned using different gender targets were compared to standard formulas and a new formula to assess the accuracy of all formulas to both targets. Using standard MetLife data, the mean IBW was 136 lb, the mean EBW was 153.6 lb, and the mean %EWL was 43.8 %. Using the new target baseline, the mean IBW was 137.1 lb, the mean EBW was 152.6 lb, and the mean %EWL was 44 %. Deitel and Greenstein's formula was accurate to 0.3 % of EBW using the standard method, while our new formula was accurate to 0.03 % of EBW. Deitel and Greenstein's formula is most accurate using standard target IBW. The most accurate is our formula using the new MetLife target IBW.

  5. Cardiometabolic risk markers of normal weight and excess body weight in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mastroeni, Silmara Salete de Barros Silva; Mastroeni, Marco Fabio; Gonçalves, Muryel de Carvalho; Debortoli, Guilherme; da Silva, Nilza Nunes; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Adamovski, Maristela; Veugelers, Paul J; Rondó, Patrícia Helen de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Excess body weight leads to a variety of metabolic changes and increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of risk markers for CVD among Brazilian adolescents of normal weight and with excess body weight. The markers included blood pressure, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, fibrinogen, fasting insulin and glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides. We calculated odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders such as age, sex, physical activity, and socioeconomic background. Compared with normal weight subjects, overweight/obese adolescents were more likely to have higher systolic blood pressure (OR = 3.49, p < 0.001), fasting insulin (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), HOMA-IR (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), leptin (OR = 5.55, p < 0.001), and LDL-c (OR = 5.50, p < 0.001) and lower serum HDL-c concentrations (OR = 2.76, p = 0.004). After adjustment for confounders, the estimates did not change substantially, except for leptin for which the risk associated with overweight increased to 11.09 (95% CI: 4.05-30.35). In conclusion, excess body weight in adolescents exhibits strong associations with several markers that are established as causes of CVD in adults. This observation stresses the importance of primary prevention and of maintaining a healthy body weight throughout adolescence to reduce the global burden of CVD.

  6. Challenging body weight: evidence from a community-based intervention on weight, behaviour and motivation.

    PubMed

    Blais, Louise T; Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Blanchard, Chris M

    2016-12-21

    The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a 12 week weight loss intervention within a commercial fitness centre on body weight, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), dietary intake, and behavioural regulations for exercise and healthy eating. Using a quasi-experimental design, the intervention group received weekly coaching sessions and bi-weekly seminars designed to increase MVPA and improve dietary intake. Outcome variables were assessed at three time points over a six month period. Results showed a significant interaction for body weight (p = .04) and dietary changes (p < .05) following the weight loss challenge but were not maintained across the six month period. Changes in behavioural regulations favoured the intervention condition. Results imply that a 12 week weight loss challenge within a commercial fitness centre may be effective at prompting short-term weight loss and support the internalization of behavioural regulations specific to healthy eating and exercise.

  7. Estimation of total body weight in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Cameron S; Gardner, Stephanie; Braude, Darren A

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of accurate patient weight is vital to safe air medical transport and critical care. Patient weight is often unknown in emergency settings, and visual estimations have been shown to be inaccurate, especially in obese patients. We hypothesized that a simple formula based on anthropometric measurements could accurately predict patient weight for obese adult men and women. Data from cross-sectional anthropometric measurements from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988-1994)-height, leg length, thigh circumference, and mid-arm circumference-were used to estimate patient weight among adult (18 years and older) men and nonpregnant women who weighed at least 100 kg (N = 1,471). Linear modeling was used to develop simple sex-specific linear models to estimate patient weight. Models were derived on a random 67% subset of the original sample and then validated against the remaining 33% to assess the model's predictive capacity. The combination of arm circumference and height yielded the best model: Women: weight (WT) = -64.6 + 2.15 x arm circumference (ARM) + 0.54 x height (HT) (adjusted R(2): 0.55); men: WT = -93.2 + 3.29 x ARM + 0.43 x HT (adjusted R(2): 0.59). Approximately 90% of patient weights were accurately estimated within a 15% error tolerance. We have derived and validated simple equations with easy-to-use tables to accurately predict total body weight of obese men and women using only height and arm circumference. These tables may assist air medical transport pilots and medical crews make decisions about which patients may be safely transported, how far they may be transported, how much fuel is required, and how many crewmembers and family members may accompany them.

  8. Placental weight mediates the effects of prenatal factors on fetal growth: the extent differs by preterm status.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Fengxiu; Parker, Margaret; Cerda, Sandra; Pearson, Colleen; Fu, Lingling; Gillman, Matthew W; Zuckerman, Barry; Wang, Xiaobin

    2013-03-01

    Elevated pre-pregnancy BMI, excessive gestational weight gain (GWG), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are known determinants of fetal growth. The role of placental weight is unclear. We aimed to examine the extent to which placental weight mediates the associations of pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG, and GDM with birth weight-for-gestational age, and whether the relationships differ by preterm status. We examined 1,035 mother-infant pairs at birth from the Boston Birth Cohort. Data were collected by questionnaire and clinical measures. Placentas were weighed without membranes or umbilical cords. We performed sequential models excluding and including placental weight, stratified by preterm status. We found that 21% of mothers were obese, 42% had excessive GWG, and 5% had GDM. Forty-one percent were preterm. Among term births, after adjustment for sex, gestational age, maternal age, race, parity, education, smoking, and stress during pregnancy, birth weight-for-gestational age z-score was 0.55 (0.30, 0.80) units higher for pre-pregnancy obesity vs. normal weight. It was 0.34 (0.13, 0.55) higher for excessive vs. adequate GWG, 0.67 (0.24, 1.10) for GDM vs. no DM, with additional adjustment for pre-pregnancy BMI. Adding placental weight to the models attenuated the estimates for pre-pregnancy obesity by 20%, excessive GWG by 32%, and GDM by 21%. Among preterm infants, GDM was associated with 0.67 (0.34, 1.00) higher birth weight-for-gestational age z-score, but pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive GWG were not. Attenuation by placental weight was 36% for GDM. These results suggest that placental weight partially mediates the effects of pre-pregnancy obesity, GDM, and excessive GWG on fetal growth among term infants. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  9. Effects of rapid weight loss and regain on body composition and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Ichikawa, Mamiko; Ebine, Naoyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Weight-classified athletes need an energy intake plan to accomplish target weight reduction. They have to consider body composition and energy metabolism during rapid weight loss followed by rapid weight regain to achieve their energy intake plan. We investigated the effects of rapid weight loss, followed by weight regain, on body composition and energy expenditure. Ten weight-classified athletes were instructed to reduce their body weight by 5% in 7 days. Following the weight loss, they were asked to try to regain all of their lost weight with an ad libitum diet for 12 h. Food intake was recorded during the baseline, weight loss, and regain periods. Fat mass, total body water, and fat-free dry solids were estimated by underwater weighing and stable isotope dilution methods. A three-component model was calculated using Siri's equation. Basal and sleeping metabolic rates were measured by indirect calorimetry. Body composition and energy expenditure were measured before and after weight loss and after weight regain. Body weight, total body water, and fat-free dry solids were decreased after the weight loss period but recovered after weight regain (p < 0.05). Basal metabolic rate did not change throughout the study. Sleeping metabolic rate decreased significantly during weight loss but recovered after weight regain. Changes in total body water greatly affect body weight during rapid weight loss and regain. In addition, rapid weight loss and regain did not greatly affect the basal metabolic rate in weight-classified athletes.

  10. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its

  11. The weight of a guilty conscience: subjective body weight as an embodiment of guilt.

    PubMed

    Day, Martin V; Bobocel, D Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a "weight on one's conscience." Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i) unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii) feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii) whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1-3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks.

  12. The Weight of a Guilty Conscience: Subjective Body Weight as an Embodiment of Guilt

    PubMed Central

    Day, Martin V.; Bobocel, D. Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a “weight on one's conscience.” Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i) unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii) feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii) whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1–3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks. PMID:23936041

  13. Perinatal programming and functional teratogenesis: impact on body weight regulation and obesity.

    PubMed

    Plagemann, Andreas

    2005-12-15

    It is increasingly accepted that alterations of the intrauterine and early postnatal nutritional, metabolic, and hormonal environment may cause predispositions for the development of diseases in later life. Studies in the offspring of diabetic mothers have decisively contributed to this perception. Alterations of the fetal and neonatal environment which offspring of diabetic mothers 'experience' seem to program a disposition to develop obesity, diabetes mellitus and Syndrome X-like alterations throughout later life. Underweight at birth is also suggested to lead to an increased risk of Syndrome X in later life ('Barker hypothesis'). Pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. Hormones are important environment-dependent organizers of the developing neuro-endocrine-immune network, which finally regulates all fundamental processes of life. When present in non-physiological concentrations during 'critical periods' of perinatal life, induced by alterations in the intrauterine or neonatal environment, hormones can act as 'endogenous functional teratogens'. Perinatal hyperinsulinism is pathognomonic in the offspring of diabetic mothers. Early hyperinsulinism also occurs as a result of early postnatal overfeeding. In rats, endogenous hyperinsulinism, as well as peripheral or only intrahypothalamic insulin treatment during perinatal development, may lead to 'malprogramming' of neuroendocrine systems regulating body weight, food intake and metabolism. This results in an increased disposition to become obese and to develop diabetes throughout life. In conclusion, a complex malprogramming of the central regulation of body weight and metabolism may provide a general etiopathogenetic concept, explaining perinatally acquired dispositions, thereby opening a wide field of primary prevention.

  14. Parental motivation to change body weight in young overweight children.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Dawson, Anna M; Haszard, Jillian J; Brown, Deirdre A

    2015-07-01

    To determine what factors are associated with parental motivation to change body weight in overweight children. Cross-sectional study. Dunedin, New Zealand. Two hundred and seventy-one children aged 4-8 years, recruited in primary and secondary care, were identified as overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) after screening. Parents completed questionnaires on demographics; motivation to improve diet, physical activity and weight; perception and concern about weight; parenting; and social desirability, prior to being informed that their child was overweight. Additional measures of physical activity (accelerometry), dietary intake and child behaviour (questionnaire) were obtained after feedback. Although all children were overweight, only 42% of parents perceived their child to be so, with 36% indicating any concern. Very few parents (n 25, 8%) were actively trying to change the child's weight. Greater motivation to change weight was observed for girls compared with boys (P = 0.001), despite no sex difference in BMI Z-score (P = 0.374). Motivation was not associated with most demographic variables, social desirability, dietary intake, parenting or child behaviour. Increased motivation to change the child's weight was observed for heavier children (P < 0.001), those who were less physically active (P = 0.002) and more sedentary (P < 0.001), and in parents who were more concerned about their child's weight (P < 0.001) or who used greater food restriction (P < 0.001). Low levels of parental motivation to change overweight in young children highlight the urgent need to determine how best to improve motivation to initiate change.

  15. Link Between Perceived Body Weight and Smoking Behavior Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie L

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates a relationship between overweight perception and smoking among adolescents. Data were retrieved from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a biennial survey of a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9 through 12 in the United States. We analyze five waves of repeated cross-sections (N = 73 376) for the years 2005-2013. We estimate a recursive simultaneous-equations system in which body weight perception, which is a function of actual weight, influences smoking status. Outcome measures are binary indicators for current smoking and frequent current smoking. Perceived weight is categorized into very overweight perception, slightly overweight perception, and about the right weight/underweight perception. In comparison to adolescents who perceive themselves to be the right weight or underweight, adolescents who perceive themselves to be very overweight are 6.1 percentage points (pp) (standard error [SE] = 1.6pp) more likely to currently smoking and 3.3pp (SE = 1.2pp) more likely to frequently smoke. Adolescents with slightly overweight perception are 7.9pp (SE = 1.0pp) and 2.5pp (SE = 0.6pp) more likely to currently smoke and frequently smoke, respectively, as compared to those with the right weight/underweight perception. The relationships are larger for females, and appear to be mediated by weight-loss activity. In an era of tight budgets, it is crucial to address both obesity and smoking in manners that do not work at cross purposes. Strategies to combat youth smoking may be more effective if the perception of being overweight is considered an important risk factor, especially among female adolescents. We find that perception of being overweight is an important causal risk factor for adolescent smoking. Main findings of this study imply that even a slight change in the perception of body weight may lead to a significant change in smoking behavior among adolescents, especially among females and that the perception of being

  16. A new formula for estimating fetal weight: The impression of biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, mid-thigh soft tissue thickness and femoral length on birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Mojgan; Negahdari, Arezou; Roknsharifi, Shima; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Abdominal circumference (AC), biparietal diameters (BPD) and femoral length (FL) are now the main parameters used to obtain estimated fetal weight (EFW). Although the role of soft tissue parameters in determining fetal weight was proved but clinical attention to mid-thigh soft tissue thickness (STT) is limited. Objective: To find the impression of STT on birth weight (BW) and represent a new predictive formula. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fourteen normal singleton term (36-42w) pregnancies with delivery within 72 hours were randomly selected to participate in this prospective cohort study. Variables measured by ultrasonography before birth included: AC, BPD, FL and STT. The actual neonatal BW was also measured after birth. Linear regression model was used and R square and p-value were reported. Results: The mean (SD) of BW was 3406 (405) gr. R square was best fit for the model that STT was added to AC, BPD, FL (r2: 0.77). R square for the model using BPD, AC, FL and model using BPD, STT, FL was the same (r2: 0.7). Best fit formula was Log (BW)= 2.461+0.003BPD+0.001AC+0.007STT+0.005FL. AC (R: 0.67, p<0.001), STT (R: 0.50, p<0.001), BPD (R: 0.59, p<0.001), FL (R: 0.66, p<0.001) were significantly correlated with birth weight. AC had also significant correlation with STT (p=0.001) Conclusion: This study showed adding STT to other variables in predictive models of fetal weight would provide a nice estimation (r2=0.77) and in cases that measuring AC is suboptimal STT may be a good replacement. PMID:24639719

  17. A new formula for estimating fetal weight: The impression of biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, mid-thigh soft tissue thickness and femoral length on birth weight.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Mojgan; Negahdari, Arezou; Roknsharifi, Shima; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2013-11-01

    Abdominal circumference (AC), biparietal diameters (BPD) and femoral length (FL) are now the main parameters used to obtain estimated fetal weight (EFW). Although the role of soft tissue parameters in determining fetal weight was proved but clinical attention to mid-thigh soft tissue thickness (STT) is limited. To find the impression of STT on birth weight (BW) and represent a new predictive formula. One hundred and fourteen normal singleton term (36-42w) pregnancies with delivery within 72 hours were randomly selected to participate in this prospective cohort study. Variables measured by ultrasonography before birth included: AC, BPD, FL and STT. The actual neonatal BW was also measured after birth. Linear regression model was used and R square and p-value were reported. The mean (SD) of BW was 3406 (405) gr. R square was best fit for the model that STT was added to AC, BPD, FL (r(2): 0.77). R square for the model using BPD, AC, FL and model using BPD, STT, FL was the same (r(2): 0.7). Best fit formula was Log (BW)= 2.461+0.003BPD+0.001AC+0.007STT+0.005FL. 0.67, p<0.001), STT (R: 0.50, p<0.001), BPD (R: 0.59, p<0.001), FL (R: 0.66, p<0.001) were significantly correlated with birth weight. AC had also significant correlation with STT (p=0.001) CONCLUSION: This study showed adding STT to other variables in predictive models of fetal weight would provide a nice estimation (r(2)=0.77) and in cases that measuring AC is suboptimal STT may be a good replacement.

  18. Body fluid retention and body weight change in anorexia nervosa patients during refeeding.

    PubMed

    Rigaud, Daniel; Boulier, Alain; Tallonneau, Isabelle; Brindisi, Marie Claude; Rozen, Raymond

    2010-12-01

    Body weight gain is an important goal in anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, but inflation in body fluids could artificially increase body weight during refeeding. 42 malnourished adult AN patients were refed using a normal-sodium diet, then 176 other malnourished adult AN patients received a refeeding low-sodium diet (BMI of the 218 patients: 13.4 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)). Sodium balance, body composition by a 2-electrode impedance method (BIA, for assessment of total and extracellular water, fat-free mass, FFM), resting energy expenditure and energy intake were calculated. In the patients on normal-sodium diet, body weight, and total and extracellular water gains were higher than those of the low-sodium diet patients (P<0.01). Edema occurred more often in the former group (21% vs 6%; P<0.05). In almost all patients, BMI reached a plateau around 15-16 kg/m(2), then increased again. During this plateau, an increase in intracellular water and in "active FFM" was observed with BIA, together with a similar decrease in extracellular water. In AN patients, who are always afraid of gaining too much weight, in regard to their food intake, it will be useful to give a low-sodium diet until a 15-16 kg/m(2) BMI. This should be integrated into the cognitive behavioral therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptoms and Body Weight Concerns in Patients Seeking Abdominoplasty

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Maria José Azevedo; Nahas, Fábio Xerfan; Cordás, Táki Athanássios; Gama, Maria Gabriela; Sucupira, Eduardo Rodrigues; Ramos, Tatiana Dalpasquale; Felix, Gabriel de Almeida Arruda; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2016-01-01

    Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is one of the most common psychiatric conditions found in patients seeking cosmetic surgery, and body contouring surgery is most frequently sought by patients with BDD. Objectives To estimate the prevalence and severity of BDD symptoms in patients seeking abdominoplasty. Methods Ninety patients of both sexes were preoperatively divided into two groups: patients with BDD symptoms (n = 51) and those without BDD symptoms (n = 39) based both on the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination (BDDE) and clinical assessment. Patients in the BDD group were classified as having mild to moderate or severe symptoms, according to the BDDE. Body weight and shape concerns were assessed using the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Results The prevalence of BDD symptoms was 57%. There were significant associations between BDD symptoms and degree of body dissatisfaction, level of preoccupation with physical appearance, and avoidance behaviors. Mild to moderate and severe symptoms of BDD were present in 41% and 59% of patients, respectively, in the BDD group. It was found that the more severe the symptoms of BDD, the higher the level of concern with body weight and shape (P < .001). Patients having distorted self-perception of body shape, or distorted comparative perception of body image were respectively 3.67 or 5.93 times more likely to show more severe symptoms of BDD than those with a more accurate perception. Conclusions Candidates for abdominoplasty had a high prevalence of BDD symptoms, and body weight and shape concerns were associated with increased symptom severity. Level of Evidence: 3 Diagnostic PMID:26851144

  20. Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptoms and Body Weight Concerns in Patients Seeking Abdominoplasty.

    PubMed

    Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Nahas, Fábio Xerfan; Cordás, Táki Athanássios; Gama, Maria Gabriela; Sucupira, Eduardo Rodrigues; Ramos, Tatiana Dalpasquale; Felix, Gabriel de Almeida Arruda; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2016-03-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is one of the most common psychiatric conditions found in patients seeking cosmetic surgery, and body contouring surgery is most frequently sought by patients with BDD. To estimate the prevalence and severity of BDD symptoms in patients seeking abdominoplasty. Ninety patients of both sexes were preoperatively divided into two groups: patients with BDD symptoms (n = 51) and those without BDD symptoms (n = 39) based both on the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination (BDDE) and clinical assessment. Patients in the BDD group were classified as having mild to moderate or severe symptoms, according to the BDDE. Body weight and shape concerns were assessed using the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). The prevalence of BDD symptoms was 57%. There were significant associations between BDD symptoms and degree of body dissatisfaction, level of preoccupation with physical appearance, and avoidance behaviors. Mild to moderate and severe symptoms of BDD were present in 41% and 59% of patients, respectively, in the BDD group. It was found that the more severe the symptoms of BDD, the higher the level of concern with body weight and shape (P < .001). Patients having distorted self-perception of body shape, or distorted comparative perception of body image were respectively 3.67 or 5.93 times more likely to show more severe symptoms of BDD than those with a more accurate perception. Candidates for abdominoplasty had a high prevalence of BDD symptoms, and body weight and shape concerns were associated with increased symptom severity. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation. Reconciling Conflicting Results from Intervention and Observational Studies?

    PubMed Central

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.; Ängquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Overvad, Kim; Halkjær, Jytte; Saris, Wim H. M.; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas observational cohort studies suggest an association between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals into clinical trials. Subjects/Methods Data were available from the European Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) post-weight-loss weight-maintenance trial and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) cohort. Participants of the DCH cohort were matched with participants from the DiOGenes trial on gender, diet, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. Results Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger waist circumference and larger fat mass than the participants in the entire DCH cohort. A better weight maintenance in the high-protein group compared to the low protein group was observed in the subgroups of the DCH cohort matching body characteristics of the trial participants. Conclusion This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals with greater body mass index and waist circumference were analyzed. Selecting subsets of large-scale observational cohort studies with similar characteristics as participants in clinical trials

  2. Association between eating out of home and body weight.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Ilana N; Curioni, Cintia; Sichieri, Rosely

    2012-02-01

    Eating outside of the home environment on a frequent basis has been associated with weight gain. Food choices when eating out are usually high in energy content, which contributes to excessive energy intake; however, the available data on out-of-home eating and obesity are far from conclusive. This systematic review assesses the association between out-of-home eating and body weight in adults over 18 years of age. The literature databases searched included Medline, Embase, Lilacs, The Cochrane Library, and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The review includes a comprehensive quality assessment of all included observational studies, 20 cross-sectional studies, and 8 prospective cohort studies. All but one of the prospective cohort studies and about half of the cross-sectional analyses found a positive association between out-of-home eating and body weight. However, many methodological differences among the studies were found, such as the definition of out-of-home eating and its assessment, which limits comparisons. The results of the present analysis suggest that in future studies fast-food restaurants and other out-of-home dining venues should be analyzed separately, assessments based on a single 24-h recall should be avoided, and controls for at-home choices (which were not included in any of the studies reviewed) are necessary to evaluate this association.

  3. Phytochemicals in the Control of Human Appetite and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tucci, Sonia A.

    2010-01-01

    Since obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, its effective management is a very important clinical issue. Despite the great amount of scientific effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms that lead to overconsumption and overweight, at the moment very few approaches to weight management are effective in the long term. On the other hand, modern society is also affected by the growing incidence of eating disorders on the other side of the spectrum such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa which are equally difficult to treat. This review will try to summarise the main findings available in the literature regarding the effect of plants or plant extracts (phytochemicals) on human appetite and body weight. The majority of plant extracts are not single compounds but rather a mixture of different molecules, therefore their mechanism of action usually targets several systems. In addition, since some cellular receptors tend to be widely distributed, sometimes a single molecule can have a widespread effect. This review will attempt to describe the main phytochemicals that have been suggested to affect the homeostatic mechanisms that influence intake and body weight. Clinical data will be summarised and scientific evidence will be reviewed. PMID:27713277

  4. New insights into the genetics of body weight.

    PubMed

    Dina, Christian

    2008-07-01

    These last months, the wave of genome-wide association scans finally reached the shores of body weight and obesity complex trait. In parallel, thanks to the increasing sequencing and genotyping capacities, large studies on rare mutations can now be carried out. In this review, I tried to cover the most recent findings in genome-wide association analyses, the outcome of conclusions subsequently not replicated, and the weight of rare mutations with strong effects on common obesity. The strongest predictor of obesity, FTO, is responsible for 1% of the total heritability, and results from other genome-wide scans do not provide, so far, any clue of other variants of this effect size. Thus, monogenic obesity studies might well reinstall the importance of rare nonsynonymous mutations of already known genes, especially melanocortin-4 receptor gene, in the general population. Nevertheless, additional genome-wide association analyses and replication are expected to confirm these first intuitions. Initial results both support the common variant-common disease hypothesis because at least one such variant exists in FTO, and also tone down its importance because such variants may be fewer than expected. Moreover, having a polymorphism associated with body weight is clearly not the end but rather the beginning of a long search for the gene function and pathway.

  5. The Relationship of Body Image Perception and Weight Status to Recent Change in Weight Status of the Adolescent Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Barbara Ann

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship of body image perception and weight status to recent change in weight status of adolescent females. Nonobese, overweight, and obese girls (N=90) aged 13 through 17 completed Body-Cathexis Scale and self-report recent change in weight status and demographic questionnaire. Results revealed significant positive correlation…

  6. Nurses' misperceptions of weight status associated with their body weight, demographics and health status.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Daqiau; Norman, Ian J; While, Alison E

    2014-03-01

    To assess the agreement between self-perceived weight status and BMI status, calculated from self-reported height and weight, in nurses and to evaluate the relationship between weight status misperceptions and personal body weight, demographics and health status. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. A large university in London, UK. Four hundred and fifty-six student nurses and 588 qualified nurses attending university were surveyed; 355 student nurses and 409 qualified nurses completed questionnaires representing a response rate of 78 % and 70 %, respectively. The respondents were mainly female (90·0 %), 66·5 % were white and their mean age was 31 years. Sixty-eight per cent of qualified nurses and 77 % of student nurses correctly perceived their weight status. In logistic regression, (mixed) black ethnicity (OR = 2·53, 95 % CI 1·01, 6·32), overweight by BMI (OR = 3·10, 95 % CI 1·31, 7·33) and ≥3 family histories of obesity co-morbidities (OR = 2·51, 95 % CI 1·04, 6·08) were significantly associated with misperceptions in the sample of student nurses, whereas overweight by BMI (OR = 5·32, 95 % CI 2·66, 10·67) was the only significant variable in the sample of qualified nurses. A substantial proportion of nurses misclassified their weight status. Nurses' misperception of weight status was related to their own BMI status, ethnic background and obesity-related family histories. Being aware of this may help nurses not only promote their own healthy weight, but also fulfil their public health role to practise weight management successfully with both patients and the public. While limitations of the sample mean that the study findings cannot be generalized, they do provide grounds for future larger-scale research.

  7. Ribose Accelerates Gut Motility and Suppresses Mouse Body Weight Gaining

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Li, Tong-Ruei R; Xu, Cong; Xu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is closely related to excessive energy consumption. Clinical intervention of energy intake is an attractive strategy to fight obesity. However, the current FDA-approved weight-loss drugs all have significant side effects. Here we show that ribose upregulates gut motility and suppresses mice body weight gain. Ribokinase, which is encoded by Rbks gene, is the first enzyme for ribose metabolism in vivo. Rbks mutation resulted in ribose accumulation in the small intestine, which accelerated gut movement. Ribose oral treatment in wild type mice also enhanced bowel motility and rendered mice resistance to high fat diets. The suppressed weight gain was resulted from enhanced ingested food excretion. In addition, the effective dose of ribose didn't cause any known side effects (i.e. diarrhea and hypoglycemia). Overall, our results show that ribose can regulate gut motility and energy homeostasis in mice, and suggest that administration of ribose and its analogs could regulate gastrointestinal motility, providing a novel therapeutic approach for gastrointestinal dysfunction and weight control. PMID:27194947

  8. Monocarboxylate transporters: new players in body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, L; Pellerin, L

    2015-02-01

    Over the last two decades, several genes have been identified that appear to play a role in the regulation of energy homeostasis and body weight. For a small subset of them, a reduction or an absence of expression confers a resistance to the development of obesity. Recently, a knockin mouse for a member of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family, MCT1, was demonstrated to exhibit a typical phenotype of resistance to diet-induced obesity and a protection from its associated metabolic perturbations. Such findings point out at MCTs as putatively new therapeutic targets in the context of obesity. Here, we will review what is known about MCTs and their possible metabolic roles in different organs and tissues. Based on the description of the phenotype of the MCT1 knockin mouse, we will also provide some insights about their putative roles in weight gain regulation.

  9. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  10. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  11. Adolescent-parent interactions and communication preferences regarding body weight and weight management: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and then a qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Results Nine focus groups were conducted; two were held with girls (n = 13), three with boys (n = 18), and four with parents (20 mothers, 12 fathers). Adolescent and parent descriptions of weight-related interactions could be classified into three distinct approaches: indirect/cautious (i.e. focus on eating or physical activity behaviors without discussing weight specifically); direct/open (i.e. body weight was discussed); and never/rarely discussing the subject. Indirect approaches were described most frequently by both adolescents and parents and were generally preferred over direct approaches. Parents and adolescents were circumspect but generally supportive of the potential role for family doctors to monitor and discuss adolescent weight status. Conclusions These findings have implications for developing acceptable messages for adolescent and family overweight prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:20205918

  12. Effect of 7-minute workout on weight and body composition.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Lama; Farran, Natali; Bakhour, Dalal

    2017-10-01

    The 7-minute workout composed of aerobic and resistance exercises is becoming a very popular workout. It targets individuals with time constrains and low motivation to commit to lengthy and extensive workout programs. The objective of the study is to investigate if the 7-minute workout has a 6 week effect on body weight and composition. The training group (N.=29, age 18-30) did the 7-minute workout 7 days a week during 6 weeks while the control group (N.=29) did not perform the workout. Measurements such as height, weight, body mass index, circumferences (middle upper arm, hip, and waist), blood pressure, heart rate, hand grip, and bioelectrical impedance were collected and recorded at week 1, 3 and 6. Mean BMI was 24.4kg/m2 at week 1, 24.01kg/m2 at week 3 (P=0.003). Waist circumference decreased between week 1 and 3 (P=0.003) and week 6 (P=0.01) by 4 cm on average. Hip circumference followed the same trend between week 1 and week 3 (P=-0.001). There was a decrease in fat mass and % fat mass between week 1, 3, and 6 (P=0.001). No changes were noted for mid-upper arm circumference or hand grip. The findings of this research show that even a very short duration workout affect the nutritional status in normal weight individuals who did not change any of their eating habits. This implies that even in normal weight individuals who perform the 7-minute workout, improvement through a decrease in waist circumference can be achieved thus leading to a better cardio-protective nutritional status. The 7 minutes workout can be a great solution for people to get started and to plan on continuing exercising, as it is simple and of minimal constraints.

  13. Fetal lung apparent diffusion coefficient measurement using diffusion-weighted MRI at 3 Tesla: Correlation with gestational age.

    PubMed

    Afacan, Onur; Gholipour, Ali; Mulkern, Robert V; Barnewolt, Carol E; Estroff, Judy A; Connolly, Susan A; Parad, Richard B; Bairdain, Sigrid; Warfield, Simon K

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) to assess the fetal lung apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) at 3 Tesla (T). Seventy-one pregnant women (32 second trimester, 39 third trimester) were scanned with a twice-refocused Echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging sequence with 6 different b-values in 3 orthogonal diffusion orientations at 3T. After each scan, a region-of-interest (ROI) mask was drawn to select a region in the fetal lung and an automated robust maximum likelihood estimation algorithm was used to compute the ADC parameter. The amount of motion in each scan was visually rated. When scans with unacceptable levels of motion were eliminated, the lung ADC values showed a strong association with gestational age (P < 0.01), increasing dramatically between 16 and 27 weeks and then achieving a plateau around 27 weeks. We show that to get reliable estimates of ADC values of fetal lungs, a multiple b-value acquisition, where motion is either corrected or considered, can be performed. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1650-1655. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Genetic strategies to understand physiological pathways regulating body weight.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Sadaf

    2014-10-01

    Body weight is a highly heritable trait across species. In humans, genetic variation plays a major role in determining the inter-individual differences in susceptibility or resistance to environmental factors which influence energy intake and expenditure. In this review, I discuss how genetic studies have contributed to our understanding of the central pathways that govern energy homeostasis. The study of individuals harboring highly penetrant genetic variants that disrupt the leptin-melanocortin pathway has informed our understanding of the physiological pathways involved in mammalian energy homeostasis.

  15. Roles of orexins in the regulation of body weight homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Lateral hypothalamic neuropeptides, orexins, have been recognized as one of the most important regulators of sleep/wakefulness states. Besides, these peptides are also regarded as an important factor that regulates feeding behavior, owing to their localization within the lateral hypothalamic area, the classic "feeding center", pharmacological activities, and the fact that prepro-orexin mRNA is upregulated when animals are fasted. This review summarizes the role of orexins in the regulation of feeding behavior and body weight homeostasis in relation to other systems that involve orexinergic neurotransmission.

  16. Aging and partial body weight support affects gait variability

    PubMed Central

    Kyvelidou, Anastasia; Kurz, Max J; Ehlers, Julie L; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Background Aging leads to increases in gait variability which may explain the large incidence of falls in the elderly. Body weight support training may be utilized to improve gait in the elderly and minimize falls. However, before initiating rehabilitation protocols, baseline studies are needed to identify the effect of body weight support on elderly gait variability. Our purpose was to determine the kinematic variability of the lower extremities in young and elderly healthy females at changing levels of body weight support during walking. Methods Ten young and ten elderly females walked on a treadmill for two minutes with a body weight support (BWS) system under four different conditions: 1 g, 0.9 g, 0.8 g, and 0.7 g. Three-dimensional kinematics was captured at 60 Hz with a Peak Performance high speed video system. Magnitude and structure of variability of the sagittal plane angular kinematics of the right lower extremity was analyzed using both linear (magnitude; standard deviations and coefficient of variations) and nonlinear (structure; Lyapunov exponents) measures. A two way mixed ANOVA was used to evaluate the effect of age and BWS on variability. Results Linear analysis showed that the elderly presented significantly more variability at the hip and knee joint than the young females. Moreover, higher levels of BWS presented increased variability at all joints as found in both the linear and nonlinear measures utilized. Conclusion Increased levels of BWS increased lower extremity kinematic variability. If the intent of BWS training is to decrease variability in gait patterns, this did not occur based on our results. However, we did not perform a training study. Thus, it is possible that after several weeks of training and increased habituation, these initial increased variability values will decrease. This assumption needs to be addressed in future investigation with both "healthy" elderly and elderly fallers. In addition, it is possible that BWS training can

  17. CART peptides: regulators of body weight, reward and other functions

    PubMed Central

    Rogge, G.; Jones, D.; Hubert, G. W.; Lin, Y.; Kuhar, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade or so, CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptides have emerged as major neurotransmitters and hormones. CART peptides are widely distributed in the CNS and are involved in regulating many processes, including food intake and the maintenance of body weight, reward and endocrine functions. Recent studies have produced a wealth of information about the location, regulation, processing and functions of CART peptides, but additional studies aimed at elucidating the physiological effects of the peptides and at characterizing the CART receptor(s) are needed to take advantage of possible therapeutic applications. PMID:18802445

  18. Lipids and leukocytes in newborn umbilical vein blood, birth weight and maternal body mass index.

    PubMed

    Brittos, T; de Souza, W B; Anschau, F; Pellanda, L

    2016-12-01

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy may influence fetal development and possibly predispose offspring to cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy, and newborn birth weight, with lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and leukocyte in newborns. We performed a cross-sectional study of 245 mothers and their children. Blood was collected from the umbilical vein and assayed for lipid profile, hs-CRP and leukocyte count. Newborns average weight was 3241 g, total cholesterol 53.9 mg/dl, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) 21.9 mg/dl, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) 26.2 mg/dl, triglyceride 29.5 mg/dl and leukocytes 13,777/mm3. There was a direct correlation of pre-pregnancy BMI of overweight mothers with total cholesterol (r=0.220, P=0.037) and LDL-c (r=0.268, P=0.011) of newborns. Total cholesterol, LDL-c and HDL-c were higher in pre-term newborns (66.3±19.7, 35.9±14.6 and 25.2±7.7 mg/dl, respectively) that in full-term (52.4±13.1, 25.0±8.7 and 21.5±6.0 mg/dl), with P=0.001, 0.001 and 0.003, respectively. Leukocyte counts were higher in full-term newborns (14,268±3982/mm3) compared with pre-term (9792±2836/mm3, P<0.0001). There was a direct correlation between birth weight and leukocyte counts of newborns (r=0.282, P<0.0001). These results suggest the possible interaction of maternal weight and fetal growth with lipid metabolism and leukocyte count in the newborn, which may be linked to programming of the immune system.

  19. Gestation length, metabolic rate, and body and brain weights in primates: epigenetic effects.

    PubMed

    Little, B B

    1989-10-01

    The relationship of brain and body weights can be expressed in log-log regression: log (brain weight) = log (A) + B log (body weight). To investigate further the weights' similarity, gestation length and brain and body weights were determined from the literature for 46 primate genera. The results of allometric and path regression analyses suggest that the relationship between brain and body weights may not be mainly pleiotropic in the order Primates. The correlation between brain and body weights appears to be due to epigenetic factors in hyperplastic growth related to time constraint by gestation length and to energy utilization limitations imposed by metabolic rate.

  20. Dietary supplements for improving body composition and reducing body weight: where is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Manore, Melinda M

    2012-04-01

    Weight-loss supplements typically fall into 1 of 4 categories depending on their hypothesized mechanism of action: products that block the absorption of fat or carbohydrate, stimulants that increase thermogenesis, products that change metabolism and improve body composition, and products that suppress appetite or give a sense of fullness. Each category is reviewed, and an overview of the current science related to their effectiveness is presented. While some weight-loss supplements produce modest effects (<2 kg weight loss), many have either no or few randomized clinical trials examining their effectiveness. A number of factors confound research results associated with the efficacy of weight-loss supplements, such as small sample sizes, short intervention periods, little or no follow-up, and whether the supplement is given in combination with an energy-restricted diet or increased exercise expenditure. There is no strong research evidence indicating that a specific supplement will produce significant weight loss (>2 kg), especially in the long term. Some foods or supplements such as green tea, fiber, and calcium supplements or dairy products may complement a healthy lifestyle to produce small weight losses or prevent weight gain over time. Weight-loss supplements containing metabolic stimulants (e.g., caffeine, ephedra, synephrine) are most likely to produce adverse side effects and should be avoided.

  1. [Investigating into whether systematic fetal weight estimation by ultrasound in the delivery room increases the risk of cesarean delivery].

    PubMed

    Dimassi, Kaouther; Ajroudi, Meryam; Saidi, Olfa; Salem, Safa; Robbana, Monia; Triki, Amel; Gara, Mohammed Faouzi

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is a valuable tool commonly used in the delivery room. It has multiple applications. The objective of this study was to investigate whether systematic fetal weight estimation by ultrasound in the delivery room increases the risk of cesarean delivery. Monocentric cohort study. All parturients with singleton pregnancies who gave birth full-term at = 39 weeks were enrolled in the study. We excluded all patients with a contraindication to vaginal birth as well as those in whom fetal weight estimation (FWE) by ultrasound on day of delivery was deemed necessary in making obstetric decision. Parturients enrolled in the study were divided into two groups: - G1: parturients who systematically underwent FWE - G2: parturients who never underwent FWE. We compared cesarean delivery rate with adjustment for potentially confounding factors according to logistic regression. 838 parturients were enrolled in the study. Prematurity, FWE and weight at birth were risk factors for cesarean delivery. After adjustment for confounding factors, FWE by ultrasound systematically performed in G1 proved to be an independent risk factor for cesarean delivery with OR = 3.8 (CI 95% = [2.67 to 5.48]). This risk increased significantly with estimated fetal weight (EFW): OR=2,27(CI 95;1,15-4,47; p=0.018) for 3500 < EFW < 4000g and OR = 10.64 (CI 95; 4.28 to 26.41; p < 0.001 ) for EFW > 4000 g. FWE by ultrasound systematically performed in the delivery room represents an independent and potentially modifiable risk factor for cesarean delivery.

  2. Mechanisms of Body Weight Reduction by Black Tea Polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haibo; Gao, Ying; Tu, Youying

    2016-12-07

    Obesity is one of the most common nutritional diseases worldwide. This disease causes health problems, such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension and inflammation. There are drugs used to inhibit obesity. However, they have serious side effects outweighing their beneficial effects. Black tea, commonly referred to as "fermented tea", has shown a positive effect on reducing body weight in animal models. Black tea polyphenols are the major components in black tea which reduce body weight. Black tea polyphenols are more effective than green tea polyphenols. Black tea polyphenols exert a positive effect on inhibiting obesity involving in two major mechanisms: (i) inhibiting lipid and saccharide digestion, absorption and intake, thus reducing calorie intake; and (ii) promoting lipid metabolism by activating AMP-activated protein kinase to attenuate lipogenesis and enhance lipolysis, and decreasing lipid accumulation by inhibiting the differentiation and proliferation of preadipocytes; (iii) blocking the pathological processes of obesity and comorbidities of obesity by reducing oxidative stress. Epidemiological studies of the health relevance between anti-obesity and black tea polyphenols consumption remain to be further investigated.

  3. Increased body weight affects academic performance in university students.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Angela S; Good, Deborah J

    2017-03-01

    For K-12 students, obesity has been linked to student educational achievements. The study objective was to determine whether academic performance in university students is correlated with BMI. Students from two consecutive academic years (Jan-May 2013 and Jan-May 2014) were given an optional class survey in May, as extra credit. Of the 452 students that completed the survey, 204 females and 75 males (N = 279; 73% female and 27% male) consented to participate in the study. The number of correct answers to problem-solving questions (PSQs) and the overall final grade for the class were compared to the calculated BMI using linear regression with a Pearson's R correlation and unpaired t-tests. BMI was significantly negatively correlated with student's final grades (P = 0.001 Pearson's r = - 0.190) and PSQs were positively correlated with final grades (P < 0.001; Pearson's r = 0.357). Our findings show a correlation between healthy body weight and improved academic performance. Further, the data suggest that future research in the area of body weight, diet, and exercise and any correlations of these with academic performance in college students are warranted.

  4. Central transthyretin acts to decrease food intake and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fenping; Kim, Yonwook J.; Moran, Timothy H.; Li, Hong; Bi, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is a blood and cerebrospinal fluid transporter of thyroxine and retinol. Gene expression profiling revealed an elevation of Ttr expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of rats with exercise-induced anorexia, implying that central TTR may also play a functional role in modulating food intake and energy balance. To test this hypothesis, we have examined the effects of brain TTR on food intake and body weight and have further determined hypothalamic signaling that may underlie its feeding effect in rats. We found that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of TTR in normal growing rats decreased food intake and body weight. This effect was not due to sickness as icv TTR did not cause a conditioned taste aversion. ICV TTR decreased neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels in the DMH and the paraventricular nucleus (P < 0.05). Chronic icv infusion of TTR in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats reversed hyperphagia and obesity and reduced DMH NPY levels. Overall, these results demonstrate a previously unknown anorectic action of central TTR in the control of energy balance, providing a potential novel target for treating obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:27053000

  5. Maternal Genistein Intake Can Reduce Body Weight in Male Offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun Bo; Yan, Jing Dong; Yang, Su Qing; Guo, Ji Peng; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Xiao Xi; Na, Xiao Lin; Dai, Shao Chun

    2015-10-01

    The study objectives were to investigate the relationship between early exposure to genistein and obesity in young adulthood and to evaluate changes in reproductive health during puberty and adulthood following in utero exposure to genistein. Thirty-two female rats were randomized into four groups; low dose 400 mg genistein/kg diet group (LG), mid-dose 1200 mg genistein/kg diet group (MG), high dose 3600 mg genistein/kg diet group (HG), and control group without genistein diet (CON). Rats were fed genistein at the beginning of pregnancy along with a high-fat diet. Pups were sacrificed at week 4 and week 8 after birth. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results showed a correlation between maternal genistein intake and genistein concentration in pups' plasma. Compared to CON, body weight reduced significantly in male HG group at week 8. No statistical differences were found in plasma estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), interleukin (IL)-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels with early genistein exposure. Furthermore, uterine histopathology showed notable changes in groups HG and MG compared with CON at week 4 and week 8. In conclusion, maternal genistein supplement could reduce body weight in male pups and alter uterine histopathology in female pups. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain regulation of energy balance and body weight.

    PubMed

    Rui, Liangyou

    2013-12-01

    Body weight is determined by a balance between food intake and energy expenditure. Multiple neural circuits in the brain have evolved to process information about food, food-related cues and food consumption to control feeding behavior. Numerous gastrointestinal endocrine cells produce and secrete satiety hormones in response to food consumption and digestion. These hormones suppress hunger and promote satiation and satiety mainly through hindbrain circuits, thus governing meal-by-meal eating behavior. In contrast, the hypothalamus integrates adiposity signals to regulate long-term energy balance and body weight. Distinct hypothalamic areas and various orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons have been identified to homeostatically regulate food intake. The hypothalamic circuits regulate food intake in part by modulating the sensitivity of the hindbrain to short-term satiety hormones. The hedonic and incentive properties of foods and food-related cues are processed by the corticolimbic reward circuits. The mesolimbic dopamine system encodes subjective "liking" and "wanting" of palatable foods, which is subjected to modulation by the hindbrain and the hypothalamic homeostatic circuits and by satiety and adiposity hormones. Satiety and adiposity hormones also promote energy expenditure by stimulating brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity. They stimulate BAT thermogenesis mainly by increasing the sympathetic outflow to BAT. Many defects in satiety and/or adiposity hormone signaling and in the hindbrain and the hypothalamic circuits have been described and are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of energy imbalance and obesity.

  7. Sleep, circadian rhythm and body weight: parallel developments.

    PubMed

    Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-11-01

    Circadian alignment is crucial for body-weight management, and for metabolic health. In this context, circadian alignment consists of alignment of sleep, meal patterns and physical activity. During puberty a significant reduction in sleep duration occurs, and pubertal status is inversely associated with sleep duration. A consistent inverse association between habitual sleep duration and body-weight development occurs, independent of possible confounders. Research on misalignment reveals that circadian misalignment affects sleep-architecture and subsequently disturbs glucose-insulin metabolism, substrate oxidation, leptin- and ghrelin concentrations, appetite, food reward, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity and gut-peptide concentrations enhancing positive energy balance and metabolic disturbance. Not only aligning meals and sleep in a circadian way is crucial, also regular physical activity during the day strongly promotes the stability and amplitude of circadian rhythm, and thus may serve as an instrument to restore poor circadian rhythms. Endogenicity may play a role in interaction of these environmental variables with a genetic predisposition. In conclusion, notwithstanding the separate favourable effects of sufficient daily physical activity, regular meal patterns, sufficient sleep duration and quality sleep on energy balance, the overall effect of the amplitude and stability of the circadian rhythm, perhaps including genetic predisposition, may integrate the separate effects in an additive way.

  8. Development of a Fetal Weight Chart Using Serial Trans-Abdominal Ultrasound in an East African Population: A Longitudinal Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Schmiegelow, Christentze; Scheike, Thomas; Oesterholt, Mayke; Minja, Daniel; Pehrson, Caroline; Magistrado, Pamela; Lemnge, Martha; Rasch, Vibeke; Lusingu, John; Theander, Thor G.; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun

    2012-01-01

    Objective To produce a fetal weight chart representative of a Tanzanian population, and compare it to weight charts from Sub-Saharan Africa and the developed world. Methods A longitudinal observational study in Northeastern Tanzania. Pregnant women were followed throughout pregnancy with serial trans-abdominal ultrasound. All pregnancies with pathology were excluded and a chart representing the optimal growth potential was developed using fetal weights and birth weights. The weight chart was compared to a chart from Congo, a chart representing a white population, and a chart representing a white population but adapted to the study population. The prevalence of SGA was assessed using all four charts. Results A total of 2193 weight measurements from 583 fetuses/newborns were included in the fetal weight chart. Our chart had lower percentiles than all the other charts. Most importantly, in the end of pregnancy, the 10th percentiles deviated substantially causing an overestimation of the true prevalence of SGA newborns if our chart had not been used. Conclusions We developed a weight chart representative for a Tanzanian population and provide evidence for the necessity of developing regional specific weight charts for correct identification of SGA. Our weight chart is an important tool that can be used for clinical risk assessments of newborns and for evaluating the effect of intrauterine exposures on fetal and newborn weight. PMID:23028617

  9. Sugar intake and body weight in Cambodian and Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Shikanai, Saiko; Koung Ry, Ly; Takeichi, Hitomi; Emiko, Suzuki; San, Pann; Sarukura, Nobuko; Kamoshita, Sumiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Because of the tastiness of sugars, it is easy to consume more than an adequate amount. There are many research reports that excess sugar intake contributes to dental decay, obesity, diabetes etc. Continuing economic development in Cambodia has made it easier than before for people to consume sugars in their daily life. Currently, isomerized sugar (a mixture of glucose and fructose) made from starches is commonly used in commercial beverages because of its low price. However, in Cambodia and Japan, sugar composition tables that include not only sucrose but also glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose have not been available. Prior to the present nutrition surveys, we made sugar composition tables for both countries. In this study we tried to estimate the intakes of various sugars by children in Cambodia and Japan and to determine the relationship between intake and body weight. Nutrition surveys of children aged 7, 10 and 13 years old were conducted for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method in 89 Cambodian children living in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, and 151 Japanese children living in 3 prefectures from north to south. Height and weight of children in Cambodia and Japan were similar until 10 years old but at 13 years old, the Cambodians were shorter and lighter than the Japanese. We could not observe any differences in BMI in either country. The sugar intakes from beverages and snacks were not different among the different gender and age. Thus we combined the mean total sugar intake for Cambodian and Japanese, 28.42 ± 25.28 g and 25.69 ± 16.16 g respectively. These were within the range of WHO recommendations (less than 10% of energy intakes). Cambodian children consumed about 46% of sugars from commercial beverages and snacks and Japanese children 26%. This means that for Cambodians half of the sugars came from isomerized sugar made from starches. Relationships between sugar intake and body weight were not observed in both countries. In

  10. Effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on neonatal birth weight.

    PubMed

    Du, Meng-Kai; Ge, Li-Ya; Zhou, Meng-Lin; Ying, Jun; Qu, Fan; Dong, Min-Yue; Chen, Dan-Qing

    To evaluate the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (pre-BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on neonatal birth weight (NBW) in the population of Chinese healthy pregnant women, attempting to guide weight control in pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study of 3772 Chinese women was conducted. The population was stratified by maternal pre-BMI categories as underweight (<18.5 kg/m(2)), normal weight (18.5-23.9 kg/m(2)), overweight (24.0-27.9 kg/m(2)), and obesity (≥28.0 kg/m(2)). The NBW differences were tested among the four groups, and then deeper associations among maternal pre-BMI, GWG, and NBW were investigated by multivariate analysis. NBW increased significantly with the increase of maternal pre-BMI level (P<0.05), except overweight to obesity (P>0.05). The multivariate analysis showed that both pre-BMI and GWG were positively correlated with NBW (P<0.05). Compared with normal pre-BMI, underweight predicted an increased odds ratio of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and decreased odds ratio for macrosomia and large-for-gestational-age (LGA), and the results were opposite for overweight. With the increase of GWG, the risk of SGA decreased and the risks of macrosomia and LGA increased. In addition, in different pre-BMI categories, the effects of weight gain in the first trimester on NBW were different (P<0.05). NBW is positively affected by both maternal pre-BMI and GWG, extreme pre-BMI and GWG are both associated with increased risks of abnormal birth weight, and maternal pre-BMI may modify the effect of weight gain in each trimester on NBW. A valid GWG guideline for Chinese women is an urgent requirement, whereas existing recommendations seem to be not very suitable for the Chinese.

  11. Effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on neonatal birth weight* #

    PubMed Central

    Du, Meng-kai; Ge, Li-ya; Zhou, Meng-lin; Ying, Jun; Qu, Fan; Dong, Min-yue; Chen, Dan-qing

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (pre-BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on neonatal birth weight (NBW) in the population of Chinese healthy pregnant women, attempting to guide weight control in pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study of 3772 Chinese women was conducted. The population was stratified by maternal pre-BMI categories as underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5–23.9 kg/m2), overweight (24.0–27.9 kg/m2), and obesity (≥28.0 kg/m2). The NBW differences were tested among the four groups, and then deeper associations among maternal pre-BMI, GWG, and NBW were investigated by multivariate analysis. NBW increased significantly with the increase of maternal pre-BMI level (P<0.05), except overweight to obesity (P>0.05). The multivariate analysis showed that both pre-BMI and GWG were positively correlated with NBW (P<0.05). Compared with normal pre-BMI, underweight predicted an increased odds ratio of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and decreased odds ratio for macrosomia and large-for-gestational-age (LGA), and the results were opposite for overweight. With the increase of GWG, the risk of SGA decreased and the risks of macrosomia and LGA increased. In addition, in different pre-BMI categories, the effects of weight gain in the first trimester on NBW were different (P<0.05). NBW is positively affected by both maternal pre-BMI and GWG, extreme pre-BMI and GWG are both associated with increased risks of abnormal birth weight, and maternal pre-BMI may modify the effect of weight gain in each trimester on NBW. A valid GWG guideline for Chinese women is an urgent requirement, whereas existing recommendations seem to be not very suitable for the Chinese. PMID:28271662

  12. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2011-08-28

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  13. [Promoting sustainable behavior change in body weight control].

    PubMed

    Camolas, José; Santos, Osvaldo; Moreira, Pedro; do Carmo, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    There is a wide acknowledgement of obesity as a relevant clinical entity. Such relevance can be inferred by the huge worldwide amount of research and related health promotion and clinical efforts. Though the evidence sustains some cues for the therapeutic success, the overall long-term effectiveness of obesity treatment tends to be not so satisfactory. Scientific literature is not unequivocal in key areas of nutritional intervention, such as the magnitude of caloric restriction, proportion of macronutrients, meal frequency, among others. The same applies to the area of physical activity recommendation for weight control. As a correlate of this scenario of incertitude, there is a proliferation of interventions and there is a clear need to integrate the scientific and clinical evidence. This paper presents a narrative literature review of key issues of clinical practice in obesity, regarding a set of actions that, in the overall, have as main purpose the promotion of reduction and/or control of body weight. The role of the health professional is highlighted as a facilitator of acquisition of habits that favor weight control, by integrating the professional's scientific knowledge with the patient's readiness for and capacity to change.

  14. Selected eating behaviours and excess body weight: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mesas, A E; Muñoz-Pareja, M; López-García, E; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

    2012-02-01

    The relationship between obesity and the intake of macronutrients and specific foods is uncertain. Thus, there is growing interest in some eating behaviours because they may reflect the joint effect of several foods and nutrients and, thus, increase the likelihood of finding a link to obesity. This study examined the association between selected eating behaviours and excess weight in the general population throughout a systematic review of publications written in English, Spanish or Portuguese identified in a PubMed search up to 31 December 2010. We included 153 articles, 73 of which have been published since 2008. Only 30 studies had a prospective design; of these, 15 adjusted for sociodemographic variables, physical activity and energy or food intake. Moreover, definitions of eating behaviours varied substantially across studies. We found only small or inconsistent evidence of a relationship between excess weight and skipping breakfast, daily eating frequency, snacking, irregular meals, eating away from home, consumption of fast food, takeaway food intake, consumption of large food portions, eating until full and eating quickly. In conclusion, this review highlights the difficulty in measuring human behaviour, and suggests that a more systematic approach is needed for capturing the effects of eating behaviours on body weight. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  15. Weight Gain in Pregnancy, Maternal Age and Gestational Age in Relation to Fetal Macrosomia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Liu, Qi-Fei; Zhang, Dan; Shen, Ying; Ye, Kui; Lai, Han-Lin; Wang, Hai-Qing; Hu, Chuan-Lai; Zhao, Qi-Hong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the possible risk factors related to macrosomia. Pregnant women and their newborns (n = 1041) were recruited from a cohort study in Maternal and Child Care Center of Hefei from January 2011 to July 2012. Questionnaires were applied to collect the demographic data besides the medical records. Detailed health records of the entire pregnancy were obtained using retrospective study. Meanwhile the data of neonatal outcomes was prospectively tracked. Associations between exposure risk factors and macrosomia were analyzed using Pearson's chi squared test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the independent association between these potential predictors and macrosomia. The incidence of macrosomia of this cohort was 11.24% of which male: female = 2.55:1. Male incidence (8.07%) of macrosomia was higher than female (3.17%), p < 0.001. Body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy (pre-BMI), maternal height, parity were not independently associated with macrosomia; multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that macrosomia was mainly independently associated with weight gain in pregnancy (OR=1.14, 95% CI [1.10-1.19]), maternal age (OR = 1.09, 95% CI [1.03-1.15]) and gestational age (OR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.31-1.99]), respectively. Our findings indicate that weight gain in pregnancy, maternal age and gestational age should be considered as independent risk factors for macrosomia. PMID:25954731

  16. Weight gain in pregnancy, maternal age and gestational age in relation to fetal macrosomia.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Liu, Qi-Fei; Zhang, Dan; Shen, Ying; Ye, Kui; Lai, Han-Lin; Wang, Hai-Qing; Hu, Chuan-Lai; Zhao, Qi-Hong; Li, Li

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the possible risk factors related to macrosomia. Pregnant women and their newborns (n = 1041) were recruited from a cohort study in Maternal and Child Care Center of Hefei from January 2011 to July 2012. Questionnaires were applied to collect the demographic data besides the medical records. Detailed health records of the entire pregnancy were obtained using retrospective study. Meanwhile the data of neonatal outcomes was prospectively tracked. Associations between exposure risk factors and macrosomia were analyzed using Pearson's chi squared test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the independent association between these potential predictors and macrosomia. The incidence of macrosomia of this cohort was 11.24% of which male: female = 2.55:1. Male incidence (8.07%) of macrosomia was higher than female (3.17%), p < 0.001. Body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy (pre-BMI), maternal height, parity were not independently associated with macrosomia; multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that macrosomia was mainly independently associated with weight gain in pregnancy (OR=1.14, 95% CI [1.10-1.19]), maternal age (OR = 1.09, 95% CI [1.03-1.15]) and gestational age (OR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.31-1.99]), respectively. Our findings indicate that weight gain in pregnancy, maternal age and gestational age should be considered as independent risk factors for macrosomia.

  17. Technical note: Estimating body weight and body composition of beef cattle trough digital image analysis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, R A; Monteiro, G R; Assis, G J F; Busato, K C; Ladeira, M M; Chizzotti, M L

    2016-12-01

    The use of digital images could be a faster and cheaper alternative technique to assess BW, HCW, and body composition of beef cattle. The objective of this study was to develop equations to predict body and carcass weight and body fat content of young bulls using digital images obtained through a Microsoft Kinect device. Thirty-five bulls with an initial BW of 383 (±5.38) kg (20 Black Angus, 390 [±7.48] kg initial BW, and 15 Nellore, 377 [±8.66] kg initial BW) were used. The Kinect sensor, installed on the top of a cattle chute, was used to take infrared light-based depth videos, recorded before the slaughter. For each animal, a quality control was made, running and pausing the video at the moment that the animal was standing with its body and head in line. One frame from recorded videos was selected and used to analyze the following body measurements: chest width, thorax width, abdomen width, body length, dorsal height, and dorsal area. From these body measurements, 23 indexes were generated and tested as potential predictors. The BW and HCW were assessed with a digital scale, whereas empty body fat (EBF) was estimated through ground samples of all tissues. To better understand the relationship among the measurements, the correlations between final BW (488 [±10.4] kg), HCW (287 [±12.5] kg), EBF (14 [±0.610] % empty BW) content, body measurements (taken through digital images), and developed indexes were evaluated. The REG procedure was used to develop the regressions, and the important independent variables were identified using the options STEPWISE and Mallow's Cp in the SELECTION statement. Chest width was the trait most related to weights and the correlations between this measurement and BW and HCW were above 0.85. The analysis of linear regressions between observed and predicted values showed that all models pass through the origin and have a slope of unity (null hypothesis [H]: = 0 and = 1; ≥ 0.993). The models to estimate BW and HCW of Angus and

  18. Relatively high-protein or 'low-carb' energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance?

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Bonomi, Alberto G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Scholte, Jolande; Thijssen, Myriam A M A; van Berkum, Frank; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2012-10-10

    'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50 ± 12 yr; BW=107 ± 20 kg; BMI=37 ± 6 kg/m(2); FM=47.5 ± 11.9 kg) were compared after 3 and 12 months between four energy-restricted diets with 33% of energy requirement for the first 3 months, and 67% for the last 9 months: normal-protein normal-carbohydrate (NPNC), normal-protein low-carbohydrate (NPLC); high-protein normal-carbohydrate (HPNC), high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC); 24h N-analyses confirmed daily protein intakes for the normal-protein diets of 0.7 ± 0.1 and for the high-protein diets of 1.1 ± 0.2g/kg BW (p<0.01). BW and FM decreased over 3 months (p<0.001): HP (-14.1 ± 4 kg; -11.9 ± 1.7 kg) vs. NP (-11.5 ± 4 kg; -9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (p<0.001); LC (-13.5 ± 4 kg; -11.0 ± 1.2 kg) vs. NC (-12.3 ± 3 kg; -10.3 ± 1.1 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-14.7 ± 5 kg; -11.9 ± 1.6 kg) vs. HPNC (-13.8 ± 3 kg; -11.9 ± 1.8 kg) (ns); NPLC (-12.2 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.8 kg) vs. NPNC (-10.7 ± 4 kg; -8.6 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (p<0.001); HPNC vs. NPNC (p<0.001). Decreases over 12 months (p<0.001) showed HP (-12.8 ± 4 kg; -9.1 ± 0.8 kg) vs. NP (-8.9 ± 3 kg; -7.7 ± 0.6 kg) (p<0.001); LC (-10.6 ± 4 kg; -8.3 ± 0.7 kg) vs. NC (11.1 ± 3 kg; 9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-11.6 ± 5 kg ; -8.2 ± 0.7 kg) vs. HPNC (-14.1 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.9 kg) (ns); NPNC (-8.2 ± 3 kg; -6.7 ± 0.6 kg) vs. NPLC (-9.7 ± 3 kg; -8.5 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (p<0.01); HPNC vs. NPNC (p<0.01). HPNC vs. all other diets reduced diastolic blood pressure more. Relationships between changes in BW, FM, FFM or metabolic parameters and energy percentage of fat in the diet

  19. Jerk analysis of active body-weight-transfer.

    PubMed

    Baldinotti, Ivan; Timmann, Dagmar; Kolb, Florian P; Kutz, Dieter F

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that whole-body vibration improves posture and gait control in stroke patients. Patients with degenerative cerebellar disease suffer from ataxic gait also which is characterised by the variation of gait pattern. Our interest is to test whole-body vibration as a method for rehabilitation treatment in cerebellar patients and to assess the success of the treatment using dynamic tests. The aim of this study was to introduce a method for quantifying movement dynamics during an active voluntary sidestep that results in a body-weight-transfer. Subjects had to perform a step from a feet-apart-position to a feet-together-position and back again. The algorithms presented in this study allow automatic identification of the timing of the dynamic phases by analysing the centre of pressure trajectory. For this study the time flow of averaged speed, acceleration, and jerk was calculated for the active movement only. This study demonstrates that jerk provides a sensitive measure for the improvement in gait in rehabilitation and during training. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Eucommia leaf extracts on autonomic nerves, body temperature, lipolysis, food intake, and body weight.

    PubMed

    Horii, Yuko; Tanida, Mamoru; Shen, Jiao; Hirata, Tetsuya; Kawamura, Naomi; Wada, Atsunori; Nagai, Katsuya

    2010-08-02

    Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf extracts (ELE) have been shown to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Therefore, it was hypothesized that ELE might affect lipid metabolism via changes in autonomic nerve activities and causes changes in thermogenesis and body weight. We examined this hypothesis, and found that intraduodenal (ID) injection of ELE elevated epididymal white adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (WAT-SNA) and interscapular brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats and elevated the plasma concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) (a marker of lipolysis) and body temperature (BT) (a marker of thermogenesis) in conscious rats. Furthermore, it was observed that ID administration of ELE decreased gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats, and that ELE given as food reduced food intake, body and abdominal adipose tissue weights and decreased plasma triglyceride level. These findings suggest that ELE stimulates lipolysis and thermogenesis through elevations in WAT-SNA and BAT-SNA, respectively, suppresses appetite by inhibiting the activities of the parasympathetic nerves innervating the gastrointestinal tract, including GVNA, and decreases the amount of abdominal fat and body weight via these changes.

  1. Influence of maternal pregravid weight, height and body mass index on birth weight of male and female newborns.

    PubMed

    Miletić, Tomislav; Stoini, Eugenio

    2005-06-01

    The study included 2300 healthy couples and their healthy newborns delivered vaginally from singleton, normal term (37-42 weeks) pregnancies in Sibenik, Zadar and Split (Croatia). Both fathers and mothers of male newborns were older and had a higher weight than those of female newborns (p < 0.05). Gestational age and birth weight were higher in male than female newborns (p < 0.001). Increasing maternal pregravid weight led to increasing birth weight of both male and female newborns (p < 0.001). Furthermore, increasing maternal height and body mass index resulted in increasing birth weight of male and female newborns (p < 0.001). Thus, the fathers and mothers of male infants were older than those of female infants (p < 0.05), and increasing pre-gravid body weight, body height and body mass index were associated with a higher birth weight in both male and female newborns.

  2. Holding fat stereotypes is associated with lower body dissatisfaction in normal weight Caucasian women who engage in body surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determinants of Body Fat in Infants of Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Differ With Fetal Sex

    PubMed Central

    Lingwood, Barbara E.; Henry, Alexandra M.; d’Emden, Michael C.; Fullerton, Amanda-Mei; Mortimer, Robin H.; Colditz, Paul B.; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Callaway, Leonie K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Neonatal adiposity is a well-recognized complication of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study aimed to identify factors influencing adiposity in male and female infants of women treated for GDM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a prospective study of 84 women with GDM. Daily blood glucose levels (BGLs) were retrieved from glucose meters, and overall mean fasting and mean 2-h postprandial BGLs were calculated for each woman. Infant body composition was measured at birth, and regression analysis was used to identify significant predictors of infant body fat separately in male and female infants. RESULTS Maternal fasting BGL was the major predictor of adiposity in male infants but had little relationship to adiposity in female infants. In male infants, percent fat was increased by 0.44% for each 0.1 mmol/L increase in mean maternal fasting BGL. Maternal BMI was the primary predictor in female infants but had little effect in males. In female infants, percent fat was increased by 0.11% for each 1 kg/m2 increase in maternal prepregnancy BMI. CONCLUSIONS Fetal sex may influence the impact that treatment strategies for GDM have on infant adiposity. PMID:21994428

  4. Maternal Body Weight and Gestational Diabetes Differentially Influence Placental and Pregnancy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Martino, J; Sebert, S; Segura, M T; García-Valdés, L; Florido, J; Padilla, M C; Marcos, A; Rueda, R; McArdle, H J; Budge, H; Symonds, M E; Campoy, C

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can both contribute to adverse neonatal outcomes. The extent to which this may be mediated by differences in placental metabolism and nutrient transport remains to be determined. Our objective was to examine whether raised maternal body mass index (BMI) and/or GDM contributed to a resetting of the expression of genes within the placenta that are involved in energy sensing, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic pathways. Pregnant women from Spain were recruited as part of the "Study of Maternal Nutrition and Genetics on the Foetal Adiposity Programming" survey at the first antenatal visit (12-20 weeks of gestation) and stratified according to prepregnancy BMI and the incidence of GDM. At delivery, placenta and cord blood were sampled and newborn anthropometry measured. Obese women with GDM had higher estimated fetal weight at 34 gestational weeks and a greater risk of preterm deliveries and cesarean section. Birth weight was unaffected by BMI or GDM; however, women who were obese with normal glucose tolerance had increased placental weight and higher plasma glucose and leptin at term. Gene expression for markers of placental energy sensing and oxidative stress, were primarily affected by maternal obesity as mTOR was reduced, whereas SIRT-1 and UCP2 were both upregulated. In placenta from obese women with GDM, gene expression for AMPK was also reduced, whereas the downstream regulator of mTOR, p70S6KB1 was raised. Placental gene expression is sensitive to both maternal obesity and GDM which both impact on energy sensing and could modulate the effect of either raised maternal BMI or GDM on birth weight.

  5. Maternal Body Weight and Gestational Diabetes Differentially Influence Placental and Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Martino, J.; Sebert, S.; Segura, M. T.; García-Valdés, L.; Florido, J.; Padilla, M. C.; Marcos, A.; Rueda, R.; McArdle, H. J.; Budge, H.; Campoy, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can both contribute to adverse neonatal outcomes. The extent to which this may be mediated by differences in placental metabolism and nutrient transport remains to be determined. Objective: Our objective was to examine whether raised maternal body mass index (BMI) and/or GDM contributed to a resetting of the expression of genes within the placenta that are involved in energy sensing, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic pathways. Methods: Pregnant women from Spain were recruited as part of the “Study of Maternal Nutrition and Genetics on the Foetal Adiposity Programming” survey at the first antenatal visit (12–20 weeks of gestation) and stratified according to prepregnancy BMI and the incidence of GDM. At delivery, placenta and cord blood were sampled and newborn anthropometry measured. Results: Obese women with GDM had higher estimated fetal weight at 34 gestational weeks and a greater risk of preterm deliveries and cesarean section. Birth weight was unaffected by BMI or GDM; however, women who were obese with normal glucose tolerance had increased placental weight and higher plasma glucose and leptin at term. Gene expression for markers of placental energy sensing and oxidative stress, were primarily affected by maternal obesity as mTOR was reduced, whereas SIRT-1 and UCP2 were both upregulated. In placenta from obese women with GDM, gene expression for AMPK was also reduced, whereas the downstream regulator of mTOR, p70S6KB1 was raised. Conclusions: Placental gene expression is sensitive to both maternal obesity and GDM which both impact on energy sensing and could modulate the effect of either raised maternal BMI or GDM on birth weight. PMID:26513002

  6. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise, or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Methods Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 minutes. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise, and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. Results The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups following moderate exercise. Following vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72%, and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P<0.05). OW-noWL also significantly overestimated exercise energy expenditure compared to all other groups (P<0.05), and significantly overestimated calories in food compared to both WL groups (P<0.05). However, among all groups there was a considerable range of over and underestimation (−280 kcal to +702 kcal), as reflected by the large and statistically significant absolute error in calorie estimation of exercise and food. Conclusion There was a wide range of under and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss. PMID:26469988

  7. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 min. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups after moderate exercise. After vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72% and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P < 0.05). OW-noWL also significantly overestimated exercise energy expenditure compared with all other groups (P < 0.05) and significantly overestimated calories in food compared with both WL groups (P < 0.05). However, among all groups, there was a considerable range of overestimation and underestimation (-280 to +702 kcal), as reflected by the large and statistically significant absolute error in calorie estimation of exercise and food. There was a wide range of underestimation and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss.

  8. Evaluation of body weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage changes in early stages of fixed orthodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, K. Sai; Singaraju, Gowri Sankar; Reddy, V. Karunakar; Mandava, Prasad; Bhavikati, Venkata N.; Reddy, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage (BFP) during the initial stages of fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample for this observational prospective study included 68 individuals with fixed orthodontic appliance in the age group of 18–25 years of both the sexes (25 males and 43 females). The control group consisted of 60 individuals (24 males and 36 females). The weight, BMI, and BFP were measured using a Body Composition Monitor at three points of time “T1” initial; “T2” after 1 month; and “T2” after 3 months. The results were tabulated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The mean changes between different parameters in both the study and control groups and between males and females in the study group was compared by using two-tailed unpaired student's t-test. The statistical significance is set atP ≤ 0.05. Results: There was an overall decrease in the body weight, BMI, and BFP after 1 month in the study cohort, which was statistically significant compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). This was followed by an increase in the parameters after the end of the 3rd month. Comparison of the parameters between the study and control group at the start of the treatment and at the end of the 3rd month had no statistical significance. There was a marked variation in the changes of these parameters between males and females of the study group, which is statistically significant (<0.0001). Conclusion: There is a definite reduction in the weight, BMP, and BMI at the end of the first month followed by a gain of weight, but not at the initial point by the end of the 3rd month. PMID:27583224

  9. Body weight, diet and water intake in preventing stone disease.

    PubMed

    Meschi, Tiziana; Schianchi, Tania; Ridolo, Erminia; Adorni, Giuditta; Allegri, Franca; Guerra, Angela; Novarini, Almerico; Borghi, Loris

    2004-01-01

    Nutrition plays a major role in the pathogenesis of the most widespread forms of nephrolithiasis, i.e. calcium (calcium oxalate and phosphate) and uric acid stone disease. For this reason, dietary measures are the first level of intervention in primary prevention, as well as in secondary prevention of recurrences. An unbalanced diet or particular sensitivity to various foods in stone formers can lead to urinary alterations such as hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hypocitraturia and an excessively acid urinary pH. Over the course of time, these conditions contribute to the formation or recurrence of kidney stones, due to the effect they exert on the lithogenous salt profile. The fundamental aspects of the nutritional approach to the treatment of idiopathic nephrolithiasis are body weight, diet and water intake. This paper will present data resulting from our own investigations and the most significant evidence in literature.

  10. WHOLE BODY NONRIGID CT-PET REGISTRATION USING WEIGHTED DEMONS

    PubMed Central

    Suh, J.W.; Kwon, Oh -K.; Scheinost, D.; Sinusas, A.J.; Cline, Gary W.; Papademetris, X.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new registration method for whole-body rat computed tomography (CT) image and positron emission tomography (PET) images using a weighted demons algorithm. The CT and PET images are acquired in separate scanners at different times and the inherent differences in the imaging protocols produced significant nonrigid changes between the two acquisitions in addition to heterogeneous image characteristics. In this situation, we utilized both the transmission-PET and the emission-PET images in the deformable registration process emphasizing particular regions of the moving transmission-PET image using the emission-PET image. We validated our results with nine rat image sets using M-Hausdorff distance similarity measure. We demonstrate improved performance compared to standard methods such as Demons and normalized mutual information-based non-rigid FFD registration. PMID:23377533

  11. WHOLE BODY NONRIGID CT-PET REGISTRATION USING WEIGHTED DEMONS.

    PubMed

    Suh, J W; Kwon, Oh-K; Scheinost, D; Sinusas, A J; Cline, Gary W; Papademetris, X

    2011-03-30

    We present a new registration method for whole-body rat computed tomography (CT) image and positron emission tomography (PET) images using a weighted demons algorithm. The CT and PET images are acquired in separate scanners at different times and the inherent differences in the imaging protocols produced significant nonrigid changes between the two acquisitions in addition to heterogeneous image characteristics. In this situation, we utilized both the transmission-PET and the emission-PET images in the deformable registration process emphasizing particular regions of the moving transmission-PET image using the emission-PET image. We validated our results with nine rat image sets using M-Hausdorff distance similarity measure. We demonstrate improved performance compared to standard methods such as Demons and normalized mutual information-based non-rigid FFD registration.

  12. Micronutrients and fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Fall, Caroline H D; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Rao, Shobha; Davies, Anna A; Brown, Nick; Farrant, Hannah J W

    2003-05-01

    Fetal undernutrition affects large numbers of infants in developing countries, with adverse consequences for their immediate survival and lifelong health. It manifests as intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), defined as birth weight <10th percentile, which probably underestimates the number failing to achieve full growth potential. Birth weight is a crude measure of the dynamic process of fetal growth and does not capture effects of fetal undernutrition on body composition and the development of specific tissues. The link between maternal nutrition and fetal nutrition is indirect. The fetus is nourished by a complex supply line that includes the mother's diet and absorption, endocrine status and metabolism, cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy and placental function. Micronutrients are essential for growth, and maternal micronutrient deficiency, frequently multiple in developing countries, may be an important cause of IUGR. Supplementation of undernourished mothers with micronutrients has several benefits but there is little hard evidence of improved fetal growth. However, this has been inadequately tested. Most trials have only used single micronutrients and many were inconclusive because of methodological problems. Several food-based studies (some uncontrolled) suggest benefits from improving maternal dietary quality with micronutrient-dense foods. One trial of a multivitamin supplement (HIV-positive mothers, Tanzania) showed increased birth weight and fewer fetal deaths. Well-conducted randomized controlled trials of adequate sample size and including measures of effectiveness are needed in populations at high risk of micronutrient deficiency and IUGR and should include food-based interventions and better measurements of fetal growth, maternal metabolism, and long-term outcomes in the offspring.

  13. Pregnant rats treated with a serotonin precursor have reduced fetal weight and lower plasma volume and kallikrein levels.

    PubMed

    Salas, Sofía P; Giacaman, Andrea; Romero, William; Downey, Patricio; Aranda, Eduardo; Mezzano, Diego; Vío, Carlos P

    2007-10-01

    Pregnant women with preeclampsia have increased serotonin levels, suggesting a possible role of this amine in abnormal pregnancy. With the hypothesis that an increase in serotonin would reduce volume expansion and cause fetal growth restriction, we evaluated the maternal and fetal effects of the administration of the serotonin precursor 5-hidroxytryptophan (5-HTP) to Sprague-Dawley rats. At pregnancy day 13 (n=19) or in random cycle nonpregnant rats (n=10), animals were assigned to a single injection of 5-HTP (100 mg/kg IP) or to a control group. Animals were studied at day 21, after overnight urinary collection. Additional pregnant rats received ketanserin (1 mg/kg), a 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist, 1 hour before 5-HTP injection. In pregnant rats, 5-HTP lowered plasma volume (control: 22+/-1.1; 5-HTP: 17+/-0.7 mL; P<0.001) and creatinine clearance, whereas serum creatinine and urinary protein excretion were increased; no changes were observed in nonpregnant rats. Systolic blood pressure did not change significantly. Urinary kallikrein activity and plasma aldosterone levels decreased only in pregnant animals. Fetal (control: 5.5+/-0.1; 5-HTP: 4.2+/-0.2 g; P<0.001) and placental weights were reduced. In nonpregnant and pregnant animals, 5-HTP caused profound renal morphological alterations and decreased kallikrein immunostaining. Preadministration of ketanserin abolished all of the changes associated with the use of 5-HTP. These data indicate that the administration of a serotonin precursor to pregnant rats limits plasma volume expansion and fetal growth via 5-HT(2) receptors, suggesting a possible role for serotonin in abnormal pregnancy. We postulate that an increased vascular resistance, both at the placental and renal levels, mediates these effects.

  14. Olfactory and gustatory functions and its relation to body weight.

    PubMed

    Skrandies, Wolfgang; Zschieschang, Romy

    2015-04-01

    In the present study we investigated the influence of body weight as defined by BMI on gustatory and olfactory perception. A total of 66 healthy adults (41 females; 25 males) participated in psychophysical measurements using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test and "Taste Strips" test. Odor thresholds as well as discrimination and identification performance were determined. Tests of gustatory function involved the identification and thresholds of sweet, sour, salty, or bitter taste. In this study, all subjects were healthy participants in a middle age range (between 20 and 56 years of age). Persons with an extreme BMI value were excluded. Subjects were classified according to their BMI in four groups: (1) 15-19.9 kg/m, (2) 20-24.9 kg/m, (3) 25-29.9 kg/m, and (4) >30 kg/m. We did not observe an overall effect of BMI on general sensory sensitivity. There was a significant influence of BMI on olfactory thresholds (F(3,62)=2.79; p<0.047) which increased with increasing BMI. In a similar line, the gustatory thresholds for "salty" were significantly higher with higher BMI (F(3,62)=3.06; p<0.035). Olfactory discrimination and identification was not affected by BMI. Thresholds for odor and sweet or salty taste were also correlated. Our data show that body weight influences gustatory and olfactory perception in healthy adults. Increasing BMI is associated with a decrease in olfactory and taste sensitivity. These findings may have implications for the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in patients.

  15. Enoxaparin dosing in the elderly using adjusted body weight.

    PubMed

    Leri, Frederick; Voyce, Stephen J; Scialla, Salvatore; Glavich, William; Dzielak, Edward; Smego, Raymond A; Guzek, John

    2009-10-01

    We prospectively compared anti-Xa activity in 61 elderly (>65 years) subjects receiving enoxaparin according to standard or adjusted body weight (ABW) dosing. In the ABW dosing group, mean patient age was 76 years, mean weight 80 kg, mean serum creatinine 1.0 mg/dl, and mean CrCl 48 ml/min. ABW dosing resulted in 57% of elderly study subjects achieving anti-Xa activity of 0.5-1.0 IU/ml, and 80% achieving anti-Xa activity of 0.5-1.2 IU/ml. Compared to standard dosing, for all subjects ABW dosing of enoxaparin was associated with a more favorable mean anti-Xa activity (0.98 IU/ml vs. 1.28 IU/ml, P = 0.001), fewer highest-risk (>1.5 IU/ml) supratherapeutic anti-Xa levels (0% vs. 28%, P = 0.001), and more frequent therapeutic levels among women (64% vs. 25%, P = 0.001). ABW dosing of enoxaparin may be beneficial in elderly patients aged 65 and older, and its benefit appears to be more pronounced in female patients.

  16. Thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and metabolic parameters in response to weight loss diets: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, G; Liang, L; Bray, G A; Qi, L; Hu, F B; Rood, J; Sacks, F M; Sun, Q

    2017-06-01

    The role of thyroid hormones in diet-induced weight loss and subsequent weight regain is largely unknown. To examine the associations between thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight loss setting. Data analysis was conducted among 569 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years with normal thyroid function participating in the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST randomized clinical trial. Changes in body weight and RMR were assessed during the 2-year intervention. Thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), total T3, total T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)), anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.6 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight over the remaining period from 6 to 24 months. Baseline free T3 and total T3 were positively associated, whereas free T4 was inversely associated, with baseline body weight, body mass index and RMR. Total T4 and TSH were not associated with these parameters. Higher baseline free T3 and free T4 levels were significantly associated with a greater weight loss during the first 6 months (P<0.05) after multivariate adjustments including dietary intervention groups and baseline body weight. Comparing extreme tertiles, the multivariate-adjusted weight loss±s.e. was -3.87±0.9 vs -5.39±0.9 kg for free T3 (Ptrend=0.02) and -4.09±0.9 vs -5.88±0.9 kg for free T4 (Ptrend=0.004). The thyroid hormones did not predict weight regain in 6-24 months. A similar pattern of associations was also observed between baseline thyroid hormones and changes in RMR. In addition, changes in free T3 and total T3 levels were positively associated with changes in body weight, RMR, body fat mass, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin at

  17. Weight loss from maximum body weight and mortality: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality File.

    PubMed

    Ingram, D D; Mussolino, M E

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the relationship between weight loss from maximum body weight, body mass index (BMI), and mortality in a nationally representative sample of men and women. Longitudinal cohort study. In all, 6117 whites, blacks, and Mexican-Americans 50 years and over at baseline who survived at least 3 years of follow-up, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality Files (1988-1994 with passive mortality follow-up through 2000), were included. Measured body weight and self-reported maximum body weight obtained at baseline. Weight loss (maximum body weight minus baseline weight) was categorized as <5%, 5-<15%, and >or=15%. Maximum BMI (reported maximum weight (kg)/measured baseline height (m)(2)) was categorized as healthy weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese (>or=30.0). In all, 1602 deaths were identified. After adjusting for age, race, smoking, health status, and preexisting illness, overweight men with weight loss of 15% or more, overweight women with weight loss of 5-<15%, and women in all BMI categories with weight loss of 15% or more were at increased risk of death from all causes compared with those in the same BMI category who lost <5%; hazard ratios ranged from 1.46 to 2.70. Weight loss of 5-<15% reduced risk of death from cardiovascular diseases among obese men. Weight loss of 15% or more from maximum body weight is associated with increased risk of death from all causes among overweight men and among women regardless of maximum BMI.

  18. Height, age at menarche, body weight and body mass index in life-long vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Magdalena; Appleby, Paul; Key, Tim

    2005-10-01

    We investigated whether life-long adherence to a vegetarian diet is associated with adult height, age at menarche, adult body weight and body mass index (BMI), used as indicators of growth, development and obesity, in a large sample of adults. This was a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data and information on age, ethnicity, education, age at menarche and age at becoming a vegetarian were obtained through a questionnaire. Self-reported height and weight were calibrated using predictive equations derived from a previous validation study. United Kingdom. The study includes 45 962 British men and women aged > or = 20 years of whom 16,083 were vegetarians (not eating fish or meat). In men and women, there were no significant differences in height, weight or BMI between life-long vegetarians (n = 125 (men) and n = 265 (women)) and people who became vegetarian at age > or = 20 years (n = 3122 (men) and n = 8137 (women)). Nor was there a significant difference in age at menarche between life-long vegetarian women and women who became vegetarian at age > or = 20 years. This study suggests that, compared with people who become vegetarian when adult, life-long vegetarians do not differ in adult height, weight, BMI or age at menarche in women.

  19. Body image satisfaction and weight concerns among a Mediterranean adult population.

    PubMed

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Coll, Josep Ll; Pich, Jordi; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2017-01-06

    People tend to underestimate their current weight and overestimate their height minimizing health risk factors. The aim of this study was to assess body weight satisfaction, acceptance of body image, weight concern and dieting habits among a Mediterranean adult population. Cross-sectional survey was carried out (2009-2010) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. A random sample (n = 1081) of young (18-35 y.o.) and middle-aged adults (36-55 y.o.) was interviewed and anthropometrically measured. Women were more dissatisfied being overweight, less dissatisfied being underweight, and more worried about weight gain than men. Middle-aged participants were more dissatisfied with body shape and underestimated body weight than young's. Employed women defined better current weight than unemployed, but unemployed were more worried about body weight gain. Overweight adults were more likely to underestimate their body weight but were also very worried about weight gain and more likely to report current dieting than their leaner counterparts. Active participants self-reported better body weight and were more satisfied with body image than sedentary. Most of studied population reported body image dissatisfaction, but half of them are not worried about it. Women were more concerned about their body weight status. Practice of physical activity is a positive factor in self-perception. Holistic strategies are needed to avoid promoting unreal bodies, as well as the acceptance of the real body image.

  20. Feed intake, body weight, body condition score, musculation, and immunocompetence in aged mares given equine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, K; Christensen, R A; Konopka, A; Scanes, C G; Hafs, H D

    1997-03-01

    Sixteen 20- to 26-yr-old mares were given 0, 6.25, or 12.5 mg/d equine somatotropin (eST) to determine whether aged mares respond to ST with changes in feed intake, body weight, body condition score (based mostly on fat cover), or immunocompetence. Neither dry matter intake, body weight, nor body condition scores were altered during the 6 wk of eST injection. However, based on photographs taken to evaluate musculation before and after treatment (scores 0 to 4), mares given eST developed greater (P < .07) muscle definition (1.8 +/- .6 and 2.5 +/- .6 for 6.25 and 12.5 mg eST/d, respectively) than control mares (.7 +/- .4). Total circulating leukocytes increased (P < .05) in both of the eST-treated groups during the 6-wk injection period, caused by an increase (P < .05) in granulocytes. Lymphocyte numbers were not altered. Granulocyte oxidative burst activity was not altered by eST treatment. Although lymphocyte proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, or lipopolysaccharide were not altered during the treatment period, lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen increased twofold in eST-treated horses at 2 wk after eST treatment. In overview, the increased musculation and the increase in granulocyte numbers in mares given eST suggest that eST supplementation may improve the health and well-being of aged mares.

  1. Excess Body Weight and Colorectal Cancer Survival: The Multiethnic Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Harmon, Brook E.; Little, Melissa A.; Ollberding, Nicholas J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Wilkens, Lynne R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Excess body weight is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) and may also adversely affect survival in CRC patients. Methods This study examined the relation of body mass index (BMI), which was self-reported at cohort entry and after 5.7±0.8 years, with CRC-specific and all-cause survival among 4,204 incident cases of invasive CRC in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). Cox regression analysis with age as time metric and BMI as time-varying exposure was applied to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) while adjusting for relevant covariates. Results Over 6.0±4.7 years of follow-up, 1,976 all-cause and 1,095 CRC-specific deaths were recorded. The mean time interval between cohort entry and diagnosis was 7.6±4.7 years. No association with CRC-specific survival was detected in men (HR5units=0.94; 95%CI 0.84–1.04) or women (HR5units=0.98; 95%CI 0.89–1.08). In men, all-cause survival also showed no relation with BMI (HR5unit=0.97; 95%CI 0.90–1.06), whereas it was reduced in women (HR5units=1.10; 95%CI 1.03–1.18). Interactions of BMI with ethnicity were only significant for obesity. Obese Latino and overweight Native Hawaiian men as well as overweight African American women, experienced significantly better CRC-specific survival than whites. Overweight Japanese men and African American women had better all-cause survival and obese Latino women had the lowest all-cause survival (HRobese=1.74; 95%CI 1.08–2.80). Conclusions This analysis detected little evidence for an adverse effect of excess body weight on CRC-specific survival, but all-cause survival was reduced in women. These findings suggest that adiposity may be less important for CRC survival than as an etiologic factor. PMID:26358830

  2. Prediction of fetal growth restriction using estimated fetal weight versus a combined screening model at 32-36 weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Jezid; Rodriguez-Lopez, Merida; Triunfo, Stefania; Sairanen, Mikko; Kouru, Heikki; Parra-Saavedra, Miguel; Crovetto, Francesca; Figueras, Francesc; Crispi, Fatima; Gratacos, Eduard

    2016-12-22

    To compare the performance of a third trimester screening based on estimated fetal weight (EFW) versus a combined model composed by maternal baseline characteristics, mean arterial pressure (MAP), ultrasound and biochemical markers for the prediction of smallness for gestational age (SGA) and late-onset fetal growth restriction (FGR). Nested case-control study within a prospective cohort of 1,590 singleton gestations referred for third-trimester evaluation (32-36 weeks of gestation). Maternal baseline characteristics, MAP, feto-placental ultrasound and circulating biochemical markers [placental growth factor (PlGF), lipocalin-2, unconjugated estriol, and inhibin A] were assessed in all women who subsequently delivered a SGA neonate defined as a birth weight (BW) <10(th) centile by customized standards (n = 175) and in a control group (n = 875). Among SGA cases, those with a BW <3rd centile and/or abnormal uterine artery (UtA) Doppler and/or abnormal cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) were classified as FGR. Logistic regression predictive models were developed for SGA and FGR, and their performance was compared to that obtained using EFWc alone. EFW, CPR and maternal serum concentrations of unconjugated estriol and PlGF were significantly lower in SGA cases than in controls, while mean UtA-PI values and lipocalin-2 concentrations were significantly higher. Using EFWc alone, 52% (AUC 0.82, 95% CI 0.77-0.85) and 64% (AUC 0.86, 95% CI 0.81-0.91) of SGA and FGR cases were predicted at a 10% false positive rate, respectively. A combined screening model including a priori risk (maternal characteristics), EFW, UtA Doppler, PlGF, and unconjugated estriol, achieves a detection rate of 61% (AUC 0.86, 95% CI 0.83-0.89) for SGA cases and 77% (AUC 0.92, 95% CI 0.88-0.95) for FGR. The detection rate of a combined model for the prediction of SGA and FGR performs significantly better than that obtained using EFW alone (p < 0.01 and p = 0.002, respectively). A

  3. The accuracy of gestation-adjusted projection method in estimating birth weight by sonographic fetal measurements in the third trimester.

    PubMed

    Sritippayawan, Sukit; Anansakunwat, Wisude; Suthantikorn, Chotima

    2007-06-01

    1. To assess the accuracy of the gestation-adjusted projection method in estimating birth weight in Thai pregnant women. 2. To determine the efficiency of the gestation-adjusted projection method for the detection of low actual birth weight, normal birth weight, and large fetus groups. Diagnostic clinical trial. The present study was conducted on 328 uncomplicated pregnancies that were monitored at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Charoenkrung Pracharuk Hospital during the period of August I to November 30, 2006. The fetal biometry was measured by ultrasound at 34 weeks' gestation or after Fetal weight was calculated according to Hadlock's formula. The extrapolation technique is based on the gestation-adjusted projection (GAP) method. The accuracy of the method was assessed by analyzing the weight predictions in relation to the actual birth weight (ABW). Main outcome measurements were simple error absolute error absolute percentage error and accuracy within 10% of ABW. The accuracy within 10% of ABW was 76.5% (95% CI 71.9, 81.1). The estimation tended to be underestimated (-134.5 +/- 235.2 grams). The mean of absolute error and of absolute percentage error were 226.2 +/- 148.8 grams and 7.2 +/- 4.5% respectively. The smallest observed mean difference was obtained in the large fetus group (birth weight > 4,000 grams) and the largest one was obtained in the normal birth weight group (birth weight 2,500-4,000 grams). The accuracy amongst possible contributing factors were compared and analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity for prediction of birth weight (BW) lower than 2,500 grams (g); 2,500-4,000 g and more than 4,000 g were 60% and 93.8%; 92.5% and 56.5%; 33.3% and 98.8%, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of each BW group were 38.7% and 97.3%; 96.6% and 36.1%; 20% and 99.4%, respectively. The post-test likelihood when the test is negative of each BW group was 2.7%, 63.9%, and 0.6%, respectively. The

  4. Restricted selection index in mice designed to change body fat without changing body weight: correlated responses.

    PubMed

    Eisen, E J

    1992-07-01

    Correlated responses were studied in lines of mice selected for eight generations based on the criterion of a restricted selection index. Two replicate lines were selected in each treatment as follows: HE, high epididymal fat pad weight (EF) with zero change in body weight (BW) at 12 weeks of age; LE; low EF with zero change in BW; and RS, randomly. Correlated responses showed considerable variation between replicates, suggesting that genetic drift was important. Further, correlated responses for most traits were relatively small, probably because of low selection intensity. The HE line responded as expected in component traits of the restricted index. Associated compositional traits in HE responded as predicted since traits correlated with adiposity increased and hind carcass weight did not change significantly. Feed intake increased and feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) decreased in HE, as predicted. In contrast, the LE line did not respond in component traits as predicted since EF did not decrease and BW increased. Consequently, LE exhibited little change in traits associated with adiposity, but hind carcass weight, feed intake and feed efficiency increased. Of the correlated responses scored for fitness traits (littering rate, number of days from pairing of mate to littering, litter size and preweaning pup survival rate), significant effects were found for decreased littering rate in LE and increased prenatal survival rate in HE. In summary, correlated responses to restricted index selection generally agreed with expectation when responses in component traits of the index were considered.

  5. Relationship between body satisfaction with self esteemand unhealthy body weight management

    PubMed Central

    Daniali, Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship between body satisfaction, self esteem and unhealthy weight control behaviors between women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 408 women employees in Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 1390. They were chosen according to the stratified random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were 1) willing to participate in the study and 2) lack of serious physical defect 3) not being in pregnancy or breastfeeding course. Exclusion criteria was filling out questionnaires incompletely. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised of 4 sections as following: demographic (5items), A self-administrative questionnaire for body Satisfaction (7 items), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (10 items) and a standard Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Cranach's alpha was 0.9 or higher for the different sections. Finally, collected data was analyzed with SPSS18 using the independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, regression, Spearman correlation. Results: Frequencies of participants by weight category were 14.1% for obese, 35.3% for overweight, 47.6% for normal weight. The mean body satisfaction score in the studied women was 63.26 ± 16.27 (from 100). Mean score of self esteem was 76.70 ± 10.45. 51.5% of women had medium self esteem, 47.5% had high self esteem. Pearson correlation showed that the variables of body Satisfaction (r = 0.3, P = 0.02), BMI (r = - 0.14, P < 0.003), education level (r = 0

  6. Developmental charts for children with osteogenesis imperfecta, type I (body height, body weight and BMI).

    PubMed

    Graff, Krzysztof; Syczewska, Malgorzata

    2017-03-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of type I collagen. Type I is the most common, which is called a non-deforming type of OI, as in this condition, there are no major bone deformities. This type is characterised by blue sclera and vertebral fractures, leading to mild scoliosis. The body height of these patients is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but there are no data proving this in the literature. The aim of this study is the preparation of the developmental charts of children with OI type I. The anthropometric data of 117 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta were used in this study (61 boys and 56 girls). All measurements were pooled together into one database (823 measurements in total). To overcome the problem of the limited number of data being available in certain age classes and gender groups, the method called reverse transformation was used. The body height of the youngest children, aged 2 and 3 years, is less than that of their healthy peers. Children between 4 and 7 years old catch up slightly, but at later ages, development slows down, and in adults, the median body height shows an SDS of -2.7. These results show that children with type I OI are smaller from the beginning than their healthy counterparts, their development slows down from 8 years old, and, ultimately, their body height is impaired. What is Known: • The body height of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type I is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but in the known literature, there is no measurement data supporting this opinion. What is New: • Children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta are smaller from the beginning than their healthy counterparts, their development slows down from 8 years old and, ultimately, their final body height is impaired. • The developmental charts for the body height, body weight and BMI of children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta are shown.

  7. Body weight divided by squared knee height as an alternative to body mass index.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Akiko; Ogawa-Shimokawa, Yoko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2011-03-01

    Weight/height(2) (Quetelet's index) is the basis for defining both underweight and obesity. Height, however, is often not precisely measurable in the elderly due to involutional changes such as spinal deformity. Body volume or body surface area are not proportionately decreased even with height loss. Previous reports have shown that Quetelet's index is overestimated in the elderly with height loss. Then we have made a hypothesis described below. Maximal height or height at youth would better represent the subjects' nutritional or clinical status. The distinction of these two heights has not been mentioned before. There have been many publications showing the equations to estimate height from the surrogate parameter(s) such as knee height (KH). Most equations published so far are expressed as estimated height=a + b × KH-c × age, where a, b, and c are constants. Negative correction by age is unexceptionally far greater in women than in men. Apparently, previous researchers have estimated current height by their equations. Maximal height cannot be measurable. It, however, is unaffected by age by its definition. Therefore, maximal height does not have to be corrected by age, and would be almost proportional to KH. Then weight/KH(2) could be a better alternative to the most commonly used weight-height ratio; weight/height(2); the Quetelet's index. Height is the basis for various clinically important indices such as body surface area (BSA) and energy requirement. Employing current height could lead to the underestimation of BSA or energy requirement in the elderly with height loss. Our hypothesis described here would yield a novel and better indices for the clinical assessment of the elderly.

  8. Nutrigenomics of body weight regulation: a rationale for careful dissection of individual contributors.

    PubMed

    Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P M; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M

    2014-10-21

    Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual's genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available.

  9. Nutrigenomics of Body Weight Regulation: A Rationale for Careful Dissection of Individual Contributors

    PubMed Central

    Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P. M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M.

    2014-01-01

    Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available. PMID:25338273

  10. Treadmill training and body weight support for walking after stroke.

    PubMed

    Mehrholz, Jan; Thomas, Simone; Elsner, Bernhard

    2017-08-17

    Treadmill training, with or without body weight support using a harness, is used in rehabilitation and might help to improve walking after stroke. This is an update of the Cochrane review first published in 2003 and updated in 2005 and 2014. To determine if treadmill training and body weight support, individually or in combination, improve walking ability, quality of life, activities of daily living, dependency or death, and institutionalisation or death, compared with other physiotherapy gait-training interventions after stroke. The secondary objective was to determine the safety and acceptability of this method of gait training. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 14 February 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Database of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (the Cochrane Library 2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to 14 February 2017), Embase (1980 to 14 February 2017), CINAHL (1982 to 14 February 2017), AMED (1985 to 14 February 2017) and SPORTDiscus (1949 to 14 February 2017). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings and ongoing trials and research registers, screened reference lists, and contacted trialists to identify further trials. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled and cross-over trials of treadmill training and body weight support, individually or in combination, for the treatment of walking after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias and methodological quality. The primary outcomes investigated were walking speed, endurance, and dependency. We included 56 trials with 3105 participants in this updated review. The average age of the participants was 60 years, and the studies were carried out in both inpatient and outpatient settings. All participants had at least some walking difficulties and many could not walk without assistance. Overall, the use of treadmill training did not increase the chances of walking

  11. Low Fetal Weight is Directly Caused by Sequestration of Parasites and Indirectly by IL-17 and IL-10 Imbalance in the Placenta of Pregnant Mice with Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Fitri, Loeki Enggar; Sardjono, Teguh Wahju; Rahmah, Zainabur; Siswanto, Budi; Handono, Kusworini; Dachlan, Yoes Prijatna

    2015-01-01

    The sequestration of infected erythrocytes in the placenta can activate the syncytiotrophoblast to release cytokines that affect the micro-environment and influence the delivery of nutrients and oxygen to fetus. The high level of IL-10 has been reported in the intervillous space and could prevent the pathological effects. There is still no data of Th17 involvement in the pathogenesis of placental malaria. This study was conducted to reveal the influence of placental IL-17 and IL-10 levels on fetal weights in malaria placenta. Seventeen pregnant BALB/C mice were divided into control (8 pregnant mice) and treatment group (9 pregnant mice infected by Plasmodium berghei). Placental specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin were examined to determine the level of cytoadherence by counting the infected erythrocytes in the intervillous space of placenta. Levels of IL-17 and IL-10 in the placenta were measured using ELISA. All fetuses were weighed by analytical balance. Statistical analysis using Structural Equation Modeling showed that cytoadherence caused an increased level of placental IL-17 and a decreased level of placental IL-10. Cytoadherence also caused low fetal weight. The increased level of placental IL-17 caused low fetal weight, and interestingly low fetal weight was caused by a decrease of placental IL-10. It can be concluded that low fetal weight in placental malaria is directly caused by sequestration of the parasites and indirectly by the local imbalance of IL-17 and IL-10 levels. PMID:25925177

  12. Modeling the relationship between body weight and energy intake: A molecular diffusion-based approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Body weight is at least partly controlled by the choices made by a human in response to external stimuli. Changes in body weight are mainly caused by energy intake. By analyzing the mechanisms involved in food intake, we considered that molecular diffusion plays an important role in body weight changes. We propose a model based on Fick's second law of diffusion to simulate the relationship between energy intake and body weight. Results This model was applied to food intake and body weight data recorded in humans; the model showed a good fit to the experimental data. This model was also effective in predicting future body weight. Conclusions In conclusion, this model based on molecular diffusion provides a new insight into the body weight mechanisms. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Cabral Balreira (nominated by Dr. Peter Olofsson), Prof. Yang Kuang and Dr. Chao Chen. PMID:22742862

  13. Body mass index self-perception and weight management behaviors during late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T; Allison, Virginia L; James, Khara A; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and health-related behaviors (N = 642) from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) were included. Sociodemographic variables, body mass index percentile, weight perception, weight-loss efforts, and health-related behaviors were examined using Wald chi-square, Student's t test, analysis of variance, and logistic regression. Approximately 15% were overweight, and 20% were obese; 26% inaccurately perceived their weight. Ethnic minority groups displayed higher rates of overweight and obesity. Overweight adolescents had a higher rate of inaccurate weight perception than obese adolescents. More girls correctly perceived their weight status than boys. Nearly 25% had tried to lose weight during the past year. Among overweight and obese adolescents, accurate weight perception was significantly and positively related to weight-loss efforts after controlling for sociodemographic variables and actual weight. Accurate body weight perception is a significant factor in adolescents' weight-loss efforts. Targeting counseling for body weight perception and weight management toward boys and overweight adolescents may impact obesity in this age group. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  14. [Placental weight percentiles and its relationship with fetal weight according to gestational age in an urban area of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Grandi, Carlos; Roman, Estela; Dipierri, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: El peso placentario (PP) y los índices de su relación con el peso al nacer (PN) (PN/PP, PP/PN) predicen morbi-mortalidad perinatal y resultados alejados de la salud. Objetivos: Calcular percentilos del PP e índices por sexo y edad gestacional correspondientes a 867 RNV de la Maternidad Sardá de Buenos Aires, Argentina y compararlos con referencias internacionales. Material y métodos: Se excluyeron feto muerto, embarazo múltiple, edad gestacional <22 y >42 semanas y PP<100g y >2500g. Características maternas y fetales: edad, educación, tabaco, paridad, diabetes, preeclampsia, corioamnionitis, restricción del crecimiento, malformación congénita y prematurez. Se calcularon estadísticos de resumen y percentilos con el método LMS. Las comparaciones se realizaron con test t-Student, ANOVA y referencias internacionales. Resultados: Edad materna media 24 años, educación 10.1 años, 24.5% primíparas, 12.6% fumadoras, 4.9% presentaron diabetes, 8.7% preeclampsia, 7.9% corioamnionitis y 13.0% restricción del crecimiento fetal. El 55.3% de los RN fueron varones, 51.6% prematuros, 18.9% PEG y 7.1% malformados. El PN y EG promedio fue de 2581g y 35.6 semanas respectivamente. Elevada correlación positiva de la EG con PP y PN/PP y negativa con PP/PN (p%lt;0.001); el peso de la placenta e índices fueron mayores en varones. Se presentan los percentiles de PP, PN/PP y PP/PN. Las diferencias con las referencias oscilaron de 0.46% -13%, 4.91% -12.1% y 5.81% -14% para el PP, PN/PP y PP/PN respectivamente. Conclusiones: los percentilos generados son aplicables en investigaciones sobre la relación de la placenta con resultados perinatales y la salud durante el ciclo vital.

  15. Impact of Restricted Maternal Weight Gain on Fetal Growth and Perinatal Morbidity in Obese Women With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ásbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Rasmussen, Signe S.; Kelstrup, Louise; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Since January 2008, obese women with type 2 diabetes were advised to gain 0–5 kg during pregnancy. The aim with this study was to evaluate fetal growth and perinatal morbidity in relation to gestational weight gain in these women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A retrospective cohort comprised the records of 58 singleton pregnancies in obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) with type 2 diabetes giving birth between 2008 and 2011. Birth weight was evaluated by SD z score to adjust for gestational age and sex. RESULTS Seventeen women (29%) gained ≤5 kg, and the remaining 41 gained >5 kg. The median (range) gestational weight gains were 3.7 kg (−4.7 to 5 kg) and 12.1 kg (5.5–25.5 kg), respectively. Prepregnancy BMI was 33.5 kg/m2 (30–53 kg/m2) vs. 36.8 kg/m2 (30–48 kg/m2), P = 0.037, and median HbA1c was 6.7% at first visit in both groups and decreased to 5.7 and 6.0%, P = 0.620, in late pregnancy, respectively. Gestational weight gain ≤5 kg was associated with lower birth weight z score (P = 0.008), lower rates of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants (12 vs. 39%, P = 0.041), delivery closer to term (268 vs. 262 days, P = 0.039), and less perinatal morbidity (35 vs. 71%, P = 0.024) compared with pregnancies with maternal weight gain >5 kg. CONCLUSIONS In this pilot study in obese women with type 2 diabetes, maternal gestational weight gain ≤5 kg was associated with a more proportionate birth weight and less perinatal morbidity. PMID:23248191

  16. Changes in bone mineral status and bone size during pregnancy and the influences of body weight and calcium intake.

    PubMed

    Olausson, Hanna; Laskey, M Ann; Goldberg, Gail R; Prentice, Ann

    2008-10-01

    Calcium may be mobilized from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy, which may be influenced by several factors. The objective was to investigate changes in bone mineral status and size during pregnancy and to consider the influences of body weight and calcium intake. Thirty-four British women were studied before pregnancy and 2 wk postpartum (Preg). Eighty-four nonpregnant, nonlactating (NPNL) women were studied over a corresponding time. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA), areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and BA-adjusted BMC of the whole-body, lumbar spine, radius, and hip were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The Preg group experienced significant decreases in BMC, aBMD, and BA-adjusted BMC at the whole-body, spine, and total hip of between 1% and 4%. Whole-body BMC increased in the NPNL group, and aBMD and BA-adjusted BMC decreased at the spine and hip by 0.5% to 1%. Whole-body BMC decreased in the Preg group by -2.16 +/- 0.46%, equivalent to -2.71 +/- 0.43% relative to the NPNL group (P < or = 0.001). Weight change was a positive predictor of skeletal change at the spine, hip, and radius in both groups. Differences between the Preg and NPNL groups in change in BA-adjusted BMC, after correction for weight change and other influences, were as follows (P < or = 0.01): whole-body, -1.70 +/- 0.25%; spine, -3.03 +/- 0.72%; and total hip, -1.87 +/- 0.60%. Calcium intake was not a significant predictor of skeletal change in either group. Pregnancy is associated with decreases in whole-body and regional bone mineral status sufficient to make a sizeable contribution to maternal and fetal calcium economy. Calcium intake is not a significant predictor of the skeletal response to pregnancy in well-nourished women.

  17. Measured body mass index, body weight perception, dissatisfaction and control practices in urban, low-income African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youfa; Liang, Huifang; Chen, Xiaoli

    2009-06-12

    Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited. The knowledge can help direct future intervention efforts. Cross-sectional data including measured weight and height and self-reported weight status collected from 448 adolescents in four Chicago Public Schools were used. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI > or = 85th percentile) was 39.8%, but only 27.2% considered themselves as obese, although 43.4% reported trying to lose weight. Girls were more likely to express weight dissatisfaction than boys, especially those with BMI > or = 95th percentile (62.9% vs. 25.9%). BMI > or = 85th percentile girls were more likely to try to lose weight than boys (84.6% vs. 66.7%). Among all adolescents, 27.2% underestimated and 67.2% correctly judged their own weight status. Multinomial logistic models show that those with BMI > or = 85th percentile, self-perceived as obese, or expressed body dissatisfaction were more likely to try to lose weight; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 4.52 (2.53-8.08), 18.04 (7.19-45.30), 4.12 (1.64-10.37), respectively. No significant differences were found in diet and physical activity between those trying to lose weight and those not trying, but boys who reported trying to lose weight still spent more television time (P < 0.05). Gender differences in weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices exist among African American adolescents. One-third did not appropriately classify their weight status. Weight perception and body dissatisfaction are correlates of weight control practices. Adolescents attempting to lose weight need be empowered to make adequate desirable behavioral changes.

  18. Effects of rapid or slow body weight reduction on intramuscular protein degradation pathways during equivalent weight loss on rats.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Y; Urashima, S; Inai, M; Nishimura, S; Higashida, K; Terada, S

    2017-07-18

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term fasting-induced rapid weight loss with those of slower but equivalent body weight loss induced by daily calorie restriction on muscle protein degradation pathways and muscle protein content. Male Fischer rats were subjected to either 30 % calorie restriction for 2 weeks to slowly decrease body weight (Slow) or 3-day fasting to rapidly decrease body weight by a comparable level of that of the Slow group (Rapid). The final body weights were about 15 % lower in both the Slow and Rapid groups than in the Con group (p<0.001). The total protein content and wet weight of fast-twitch plantaris muscle, but not slow-twitch soleus muscle, were significantly lower in the Rapid group compared with the control rats fed ad libitum. Substantial increases in the expression ratio of autophagosomal membrane proteins (LC3-II/-I ratio) and polyubiquitinated protein concentration, used as biomarkers of autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome activities, respectively, were observed in the plantaris muscle of the Rapid group. Moreover, the LC3-II/-I ratio and polyubiquitinated protein concentration were negatively correlated with the total protein content and wet weight of plantaris muscle. These results suggest that short-term fasting-induced rapid body weight loss activates autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome systems more strongly than calorie restriction-induced slower weight reduction, resulting in muscular atrophy in fast-twitch muscle.

  19. Weight cycling is associated with body weight excess and abdominal fat accumulation: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Emanuele; Malavazos, Alexis Elias; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Fatati, Giuseppe; Barichella, Michela

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the association between history of multiple weight loss diets followed by weight regain, namely weight cycling (WCy), and both body weight excess and abdominal fat accumulation. A one-day cross-sectional survey ("Obesity-Day") including 914 participants (605F:309M). Anthropometric variables (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC] and waist-to-height ratio [WtHR]), covariates and WCy (≥ 5 intentional weight loss episodes of ≥ 5 kg followed by rapid return to pre-diet or higher body weight) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire, interview and physical examination. Data on central fat accumulation (by WC and WtHR) were available in a representative sub-group (n = 600). WCy was reported by 119 participants (13.0%) of total population and by 79 (13.2%) of those with available data on central fat accumulation. At multivariable linear regressions WCy was independently associated with higher BMI (P = .004), WC (P = .011) and WtHR (P = .008). Sensitivity analyses, performed after excluding those being on a diet at the time of assessment, confirmed these findings. A history of WCy appears related to body weight excess and abdominal fat accumulation. These findings support the importance of designing adequate weight loss programs to achieve long-term weight maintenance and to prevent undesirable and unhealthy weight accumulation. 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Determinants of body weight status in Malaysia: an ethnic comparison.

    PubMed

    Tan, Andrew K G; Yen, Steven T; Feisul, Mustapha I

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the roles of sociodemographic and health lifestyle factors in affecting body mass index (BMI) across ethnic groups in Malaysia. Data are obtained from 2,436 observations from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1. The multi-ethnic sample is segmented into Malay, Chinese, and Indian/other ethnicities. Ordered probit analysis is conducted and marginal effects of sociodemographic and health lifestyle variables on BMI calculated. Malays between 41 and 58 years are more likely to be overweight or obese than their 31-40 years counterparts, while the opposite is true among Chinese. Retirees of Chinese and Indian/other ethnicities are less likely to be obese and more likely to have normal BMI than those between 31 and 40 years. Primary educated Chinese are more likely to be overweight or obese, while tertiary-educated Malays are less likely to suffer from similar weight issues as compared to those with only junior high school education. Affluent Malays and Chinese are more likely to be overweight than their low-middle income cohorts. Family illness history is likely to cause overweightness or obesity, irrespective of ethnicity. Malay cigarette smokers have lower overweight and obesity probabilities than non-cigarette smokers. There exists a need for flexible policies to address cross-ethnic differences in the sociodemographic and health-lifestyle covariates of BMI.

  1. The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws on Body Weight.

    PubMed

    Sabia, Joseph J; Swigert, Jeffrey; Young, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    This study is the first to examine the effects of medical marijuana laws (MMLs) on body weight, physical wellness, and exercise. Using data from the 1990 to 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and a difference-in-difference approach, we find that the enforcement of MMLs is associated with a 2% to 6% decline in the probability of obesity. We find some evidence of age-specific heterogeneity in mechanisms. For older individuals, MML-induced increases in physical mobility may be a relatively important channel, while for younger individuals, a reduction in consumption of alcohol, a substitute for marijuana, appears more important. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that MMLs may be more likely to induce marijuana use for health-related reasons among older individuals, and cause substitution toward lower-calorie recreational 'highs' among younger individuals. Our estimates suggest that MMLs induce a $58 to $115 per-person annual reduction in obesity-related medical costs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Body weight, self-perception and mental health outcomes among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Fang, Hai; Rizzo, John A

    2010-06-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has increased three-fold over the last thirty years. During the same period, the prevalence of depressive symptoms in children also rose significantly. Previous literature suggests an association between actual body weight and mental health, but there is little evidence on self-perception of weight and mental health status. To examine the relationship between actual body weight, self-perception of body weight and mental health outcomes among adolescents. Using data for a nationally-representative sample of adolescents in the United States, we ascertain the effect of body weight status on depressive symptoms by estimating endogeneity-corrected models including school-level fixed effects to account for bi-directionality and unobserved confounders. Actual body weight status was calculated using interviewer-measured height and weight. We also used a measure of self-perceived weight status to compare how actual versus self-perceived weight status affects mental health. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and a dichotomous version of self-reported indicator for depression were utilized as mental health indicators. Potential mediators between mental health and weight status such as levels of physical activity, participation in risky health behaviors and parental characteristics were also controlled for in the analysis. The analytical sample consisted of 13,454 adolescents aged 11 to 18. After accounting for a wide array of relevant characteristics, we did not find a direct and significant association between actual weight status and mental health outcomes. Instead, our analysis revealed a strongly negative and significant relationship between self-perceived weight status and mental health. The negative relationship between self-perceived weight and depressive symptoms was more pronounced among females. The RSE scale was particularly correlated with body

  3. The Pattern of Gestational Weight Gain is Associated with Changes in Maternal Body Composition and Neonatal Size.

    PubMed

    Widen, Elizabeth M; Factor-Litvak, Pam R; Gallagher, Dympna; Paxton, Anne; Pierson, Richard N; Heymsfield, Steven B; Lederman, Sally A

    2015-10-01

    The pattern of gestational weight gain (GWG) reflects general nutrient availability to support growing fetal and maternal compartments and may contribute to later health, but how it relates to changes in maternal body composition is unknown. We evaluated how the pattern of GWG related to changes in maternal body composition during pregnancy and infant size at birth. A prospective, multi-ethnic cohort of 156 pregnant women and their infants was studied in New York City. Prenatal weights were used to estimate total and rate (kg/week) of GWG by trimester. Linear regression models evaluated the association between trimester-specific GWG group (low, medium, high GWG) [total (low ≤25, high ≥75 percentile) or rate (defined by tertiles)] and infant weight, length and maternal body composition changes from 14 to 37 weeks, adjusting for covariates. Compared to the low gain group, medium/high rate of GWG in the second trimester and high rate of GWG in the third trimester were associated with larger gains in maternal fat mass (β range for fat Δ = 2.86-5.29 kg, all p < 0.01). For infant outcomes, high rate of GWG in the second trimester was associated with higher birth weight (β = 356 g, p = 0.001) and length (β = 0.85 cm, p = 0.002). First and third trimester GWG were not associated with neonatal size. The trimester specific pattern and rate of GWG reflect changes in maternal body fat and body water, and are associated with neonatal size, which supports the importance of monitoring trimester-specific GWG.

  4. Effects of Metformin on Body Weight and Body Composition in Obese Insulin-Resistant Children

    PubMed Central

    Yanovski, Jack A.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Salaita, Christine G.; McDuffie, Jennifer R.; Kozlosky, Merel; Sebring, Nancy G.; Reynolds, James C.; Brady, Sheila M.; Calis, Karim A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Metformin can decrease adiposity and ameliorate obesity-related comorbid conditions, including abnormalities in glucose homeostasis in adolescents, but there are few data evaluating the efficacy of metformin among younger children. Our objective was to determine whether metformin treatment causes weight loss and improves obesity-related comorbidities in obese children, who are insulin-resistant. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial consisting of 100 severely obese (mean BMI 34.6 ± 6.6 kg/m2) insulin-resistant children aged 6–12 years, randomized to 1,000 mg metformin (n = 53) or placebo (n = 47) twice daily for 6 months, followed by open-label metformin treatment for 6 months. All children and their parents participated in a monthly dietitian-administered weight-reduction program. RESULTS Eighty-five percent completed the 6-month randomized phase. Children prescribed metformin had significantly greater decreases in BMI (difference −1.09 kg/m2, CI −1.87 to −0.31, P = 0.006), body weight (difference −3.38 kg, CI −5.2 to −1.57, P < 0.001), BMI Z score (difference between metformin and placebo groups −0.07, CI −0.12 to −0.01, P = 0.02), and fat mass (difference −1.40 kg, CI −2.74 to −0.06, P = 0.04). Fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.007) and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) insulin resistance index (P = 0.006) also improved more in metformin-treated children than in placebo-treated children. Gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly more prevalent in metformin-treated children, which limited maximal tolerated dosage in 17%. During the 6-month open-label phase, children treated previously with placebo decreased their BMI Z score; those treated continuously with metformin did not significantly change BMI Z score further. CONCLUSIONS Metformin had modest but favorable effects on body weight, body composition, and glucose homeostasis in obese insulin-resistant children

  5. Expected body weight in adolescents: comparison between weight-for-stature and BMI methods.

    PubMed

    Golden, Neville H; Yang, Wei; Jacobson, Marc S; Robinson, Thomas N; Shaw, Gary M

    2012-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that the weight-for-stature (WFS) and BMI methods are not equivalent in determining expected body weight (EBW) in adolescents with eating disorders and to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of each method to detect those <75% EBW. We hypothesized that differences in EBW would be greatest at the extremes of height. EBW was determined for 12 047 individual adolescents aged 12 to 19 years by the WFS and BMI methods by utilizing the same National Center for Health Statistics data sets. Absolute difference between the 2 methods for each individual was calculated and plotted against height by using a generalized additive model. The number of individuals whose weights were <75% EBW was determined by each method. For girls, EBW was 3.52 ± 3.13% higher when using the WFS method compared with the BMI method. For boys, EBW(WFS) was 3.45 ± 2.72% higher than EBW(BMI). Among adolescent girls, 65% had EBW(WFS) higher than EBW(BMI). By using the EBW(WFS) method as the gold standard, specificity of the EBW(BMI) method to detect those <75% EBW was 0.999, but sensitivity was only 0.329. Absolute differences in EBW were most pronounced at the extremes of height. The WFS and BMI methods are not equivalent in determining EBW in adolescents and are not interchangeable. EBW(WFS) was ~3.5% higher than EBW(BMI). In adolescents with eating disorders, use of the BMI method will underestimate the degree of malnutrition compared with the WFS method. Which method better predicts meaningful clinical outcomes remains to be determined.

  6. Effects of chronic leptin infusion on subsequent body weight and composition in mice: Can body weight set point be reset?aa

    PubMed Central

    Ravussin, Y.; LeDuc, C.A.; Watanabe, K.; Mueller, B.R.; Skowronski, A.; Rosenbaum, M.; Leibel, R.L.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating leptin concentrations correlate with fat mass and signal the status of somatic energy stores to the brain. Previous studies suggest that diet-induced elevations of body weight increase body weight “set-point”. To assess whether chronic hyperleptinemia is responsible for this shift in defended body weight, we elevated circulating leptin concentrations in lean mice to those comparable to diet-induced obese mice for eighteen weeks. We hypothesized that following cessation of leptin infusion, a higher body weight would be defended. Compared to saline-infused controls, leptin-infused mice had elevated circulating leptin concentrations, gained less weight, yet had similar metabolic rates. Following cessation of leptin administration, leptin-infused mice gained some weight yet plateaued at 5–10% below controls. These results suggest that, unlike mice rendered hyperleptinemic by diet-induced weight gain, leptin-infused mice do not subsequently “defend” a higher body weight, suggesting that hyperleptinemia per se does not mimic the CNS consequences of chronic weight gain. PMID:24944902

  7. Perceiving the Black female body: Race and gender in police constructions of body weight.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Threadcraft, Shatema

    2015-09-01

    Representations of Black women in United States popular culture and public discourse frequently depict them stereotypically as fat and in need of policing for moral failures. As well, research has shown that Black women are perceived and constructed as non-prototypical for their gender. Taken together, observers within a White dominant social frame could be said to have difficulty correctly seeing Black women's bodies and gender presentations. In this study we examined how Black women are seen in the context of New York City Police Department (NYPD) stops and searches (known as Stop & Frisk). We examined how officers categorized Black women's body weight; investigated whether stops took place in public or private space; and assessed the extent to which body weight brought additional sanctions (i.e., being frisked). We used publicly available datasets from the NYPD's Stop & Frisk program, in which stops numbering in the hundreds of thousands were recorded in yearly databases from 2003 to 2012. For each stop, officers record a number of attributes about the potential suspect and context, including race, gender, physique, date, and precinct. We conducted logistic regressions to model the odds of being categorized as heavy by race and gender, controlling for age, calculated BMI, location in a Black precinct, and season of the year. Results showed that across 10 years of data, Black women were more likely than White women to be labeled heavy. Black women were also much more likely than all other subgroups to be stopped inside rather than outside. Body size showed little association with stop locations or frisks. We interpret these findings as a reflection of Black women's positioning with regard to racial and gender representations and the disciplinary projects of the state.

  8. Perceiving the Black female body: Race and gender in police constructions of body weight

    PubMed Central

    Threadcraft, Shatema

    2015-01-01

    Representations of Black women in United States popular culture and public discourse frequently depict them stereotypically as fat and in need of policing for moral failures. As well, research has shown that Black women are perceived and constructed as non-prototypical for their gender. Taken together, observers within a White dominant social frame could be said to have difficulty correctly seeing Black women’s bodies and gender presentations. In this study we examined how Black women are seen in the context of New York City Police Department (NYPD) stops and searches (known as Stop & Frisk). We examined how officers categorized Black women’s body weight; investigated whether stops took place in public or private space; and assessed the extent to which body weight brought additional sanctions (i.e., being frisked). We used publicly available datasets from the NYPD’s Stop & Frisk program, in which stops numbering in the hundreds of thousands were recorded in yearly databases from 2003 to 2012. For each stop, officers record a number of attributes about the potential suspect and context, including race, gender, physique, date, and precinct. We conducted logistic regressions to model the odds of being categorized as heavy by race and gender, controlling for age, calculated BMI, location in a Black precinct, and season of the year. Results showed that across 10 years of data, Black women were more likely than White women to be labeled heavy. Black women were also much more likely than all other subgroups to be stopped inside rather than outside. Body size showed little association with stop locations or frisks. We interpret these findings as a reflection of Black women’s positioning with regard to racial and gender representations and the disciplinary projects of the state. PMID:26478750

  9. Gender differences in body composition, physical activity, eating behavior and body image among normal weight adolescents--an evolutionary approach.

    PubMed

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Marosi, Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Body composition but also physical activity patterns underlie gender typical differences throughout human life. In the present study the body composition of 354 girls and 280 boys ageing between 11 and 18 years originating from Eastern Austria were analyzed using bioelectrical impedance method. Normal weight according to body mass index categories was a strict inclusion criterion. Information regarding physical activity during school and leisure time, daily nutritional habits, subjective body satisfaction and weight control practices were collected by means of a structured and standardized questionnaire. Results of the analyses reveal that--as to be expected--adolescent boys and girls differed significantly in body composition, but also in physical activity patterns. Even normal weight girls exhibited a significantly higher amount of absolute and relative fat mass, whereas normal weight boys showed a significantly higher amount of fat free body mass. Furthermore male adolescents were significantly more physically active than their female counterparts. According to the results of multiple regression analyses physical activity patterns had beside sex an independent influence on body composition parameters during adolescence. In contrast, girls and boys showed only minor differences in nutritional habits and weight control practices. Nutritional habits, body satisfaction and weight control practices were not significantly related to body composition parameters. The observed gender differences in body composition as well as in physical activity patterns are interpreted in an evolutionary sense.

  10. Shuttle-food consumption, body composition and body weight in women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Frye, Sherrie; Kloeris, Vickie; Rice, Barbara; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Spector, Elisabeth; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to determine whether the NASA Space Shuttle food system can provide the food and fluid required to mitigate weight loss and physical decomposition in 12 female subjects for 28 days. Subjects receive only foods from the Space Shuttle system for four weeks within an 11-wk monitoring period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is employed throughout the trial period to study lean body mass, percent body fat, and energy-intake levels with attention given to differences the experimental diet and the subjects' typical diet. Percent body fat is found to change significantly with losses of less than 0.05 percent, whereas energy intake based on autonomous diet choices by the participants does not vary significantly. Lean body mass remains unchanged throughout the study in which the subjects receive a relatively low-fat and low-protein menu. The 100 items on the space shuttle list of approved food items are shown to provide a palatable dietary framework for maintaining the health of female astronauts.

  11. Shuttle-food consumption, body composition and body weight in women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Frye, Sherrie; Kloeris, Vickie; Rice, Barbara; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Spector, Elisabeth; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to determine whether the NASA Space Shuttle food system can provide the food and fluid required to mitigate weight loss and physical decomposition in 12 female subjects for 28 days. Subjects receive only foods from the Space Shuttle system for four weeks within an 11-wk monitoring period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is employed throughout the trial period to study lean body mass, percent body fat, and energy-intake levels with attention given to differences the experimental diet and the subjects' typical diet. Percent body fat is found to change significantly with losses of less than 0.05 percent, whereas energy intake based on autonomous diet choices by the participants does not vary significantly. Lean body mass remains unchanged throughout the study in which the subjects receive a relatively low-fat and low-protein menu. The 100 items on the space shuttle list of approved food items are shown to provide a palatable dietary framework for maintaining the health of female astronauts.

  12. Metabolomics reveals relationship between plasma inositols and birth weight: possible markers for fetal programming of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Pia Marlene; Nebel, Caroline; Oksbjerg, Niels; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies in man and with experimental animal models have shown that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) resulting in low birth weight is associated with higher risk of programming welfare diseases in later life. In the pig, severe IUGR occurs naturally and contribute substantially to a large intralitter variation in birth weight and may therefore be a good model for man. In the present paper the natural form of IUGR in pigs was studied close to term by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-)based metabolomics. The NMR-based investigations revealed different metabolic profiles of plasma samples from low-birth weight (LW) and high-birth weight (HW) piglets, respectively, and differences were assigned to levels of glucose and myo-inositol. Further studies by GC-MS revealed that LW piglets had a significant higher concentration of myoinositol and D-chiro-inositol in plasma compared to larger littermates. Myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol have been coupled with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in adults, and the present paper therefore suggests that IUGR is related to impaired glucose metabolism during fetal development, which may cause type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  13. The Effect of Weight Reduction on Body Composition and Strength in High School Wrestlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hejna, William F.; And Others

    A study assessed the relationship of weight reduction to the strength of various muscle groups in conjunction with a pre-season and in-season training and conditioning program. Twenty-nine high school wrestlers, with an average age of 16 years 4 months, significantly reduced their body weight. In the process, there were losses in lean body weight.…

  14. Dose-response trend tests for tumorigenesis, adjusted for body weight.

    PubMed

    Gaylor, D W; Kodell, R L

    1999-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a relationship between rodent body weight and tumor incidence for some tissue/organ sites. It is not uncommon for a chemical tested for carcinogenicity to also affect body weight. In such cases, comparisons of tumor incidence may be biased by body-weight differences across dose groups. A simple procedure was investigated for reducing this bias. This procedure divides the animals into a few groups based on body weight. Body weight at 12 months was used, before the appearance of a tumor was likely to affect body weight. Statistics for dose-response trend tests are calculated within body weight strata and pooled to obtain an overall dose-response trend test. This procedure is analogous to that currently used, of stratifying animals, based on their age at the time of removal from a study. Age stratification is used to account for differences in animal age across dose groups, which can affect comparisons of tumor incidence. Several examples were investigated where the high-dose group had reduced body weights and associated reductions in tumor incidence. When the data were analyzed by body-weight strata, some positive dose-response trends for tumor incidence were demonstrated. In one case, the weight-adjusted analysis indicated that a negative dose-response trend in tumor incidence was a real effect, in addition to a body weight reduction. These examples indicate that it is important to consider the effects of body weight changes as low as 10%, and perhaps below, that were caused by chemicals in 2-year bioassays for carcinogenesis. The simple procedure of analyzing tumor incidence within body-weight strata can reduce the bias introduced by weight differences across dose groups.

  15. Association of Smoking with Body Weight in US High School Students, 1999-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…

  16. Association of Smoking with Body Weight in US High School Students, 1999-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…

  17. Prevalence and magnitude of body weight and shape dissatisfaction among university students.

    PubMed

    Neighbors, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2007-12-01

    Although prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing, prevailing sociocultural influences lead females to desire a thin body and males a muscular body, often resulting in body dissatisfaction (BD) because many cannot achieve the cultural ideal. This study examined the magnitude of BD in university undergraduates (n=310). Body weight dissatisfaction (BWD) was measured as the difference between current and idealized body weight; body shape dissatisfaction (BSD) as the difference between and current and idealized body shape. Overall, females expressed greater BD than males. Overweight individuals expressed the greatest BWD and BSD, yet half desired a weight that would maintain their overweight body mass index (BMI) classification. Normal weight females desired a slightly thinner, lighter body, while desires among normal weight males were mixed. Underweight females and normal weight males expressed little BWD and BSD, commonly idealizing a body weight maintaining their BMI classification. However, results may suggest a shift in body size ideals in an era of prevalent obesity, with overweight males and females expressing less BD and few normal weight individuals, particularly females, idealizing a very thin body.

  18. [Estimating weight accurately for safe treatment: body weight estimation in patients with acute ischaemic stroke is frequently inaccurate].

    PubMed

    van de Stadt, Stephanie I W; van Schaik, Sander M; van den Berg-Vos, Renske M

    2015-01-01

    Patients with acute ischaemic stroke should receive intravenous thrombolysis with 0.9 mg/kg of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator as quickly as possible. In order to reduce the door-to-needle time, many physicians estimate the patient's body weight. However, these estimates are frequently inaccurate and inaccuracy can lead to dosage errors. According to a meta-analysis in a Cochrane study, the risk of developing intracranial haemorrhage is almost tripled for patients treated with higher thrombolytic doses, compared with patients receiving a dosage based on accurate weight measurements (odds ratio: 2.71). Only 28% of physicians estimate to within 5 kilograms of actual body weight. In order to reduce the risk of complications, patients arriving at the emergency room should be weighted with a scale. Alternatively, the body weight can be estimated using a validated nomogram.

  19. Health and sociodemographic factors associated with body weight and weight objectives for women: 2000 behavioral risk factor surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Mack, Karin A; Anderson, Lynda; Galuska, Deborah; Zablotsky, Diane; Holtzman, Deborah; Ahluwalia, Indu

    2004-11-01

    The increasing body mass index (BMI) of women in the United States gives rise to concerns about associated comorbid conditions and decreases in life expectancy. Also of concern are underweight women, especially as the result of an eating disorder or undernutrition. Data from a national sample of women aged > or =18 years (n = 98,387) are used to examine the relationship between health and sociodemographic factors (diabetes, physical activity, self-rated health, smoking status, weight loss attempts, age, and education) and body weight (BMI, desired weight). Models are stratified by race. Roughly 70% of the women in each race/ethnic group (72.0% white women, 68.3% black women, 69.4% Hispanic women) wanted to weigh less, and just under one half of the women were actively trying to lose weight. A notable percentage of women who were classified as obese indicated that they were at their ideal weight and desired no weight change. Most women had not received advice from a health professional in the past year regarding their weight, and most were not engaging in the optimally recommended level of physical activity. Results document the range of satisfaction with current weight among adult women and capture low levels of health practitioner involvement in issues of weight. Perception of weight, combined with BMI, will need to be assessed to determine how best to proceed toward an ideal weight and satisfaction with that weight.

  20. Drug dosing based on weight and body surface area: mathematical assumptions and limitations in obese adults.

    PubMed

    Pai, Manjunath P

    2012-09-01

    The average weight of adults in the United States has increased by 25 pounds (11 kg) over the past 50 years, with a marginal change in height. Drugs are generally dosed according to one of three approaches: fixed dosing, weight-based dosing, or body surface area-based dosing. Dosing based on body weight or body surface area assumes that drug pharmacokinetic parameters increase in proportion with increasing body size. In contrast, dosing drugs on a fixed basis assumes that drug pharmacokinetic parameters do not increase with body size. Unfortunately, early stages of clinical drug development tend to include adults within a narrow range of body size. This study population does not reflect the current U.S. population distribution and does not permit evaluation of the correct relationship between body size and drug clearance. As a consequence, a weight-based or body surface area-based dosing regimen defined during drug development may not be applicable to U.S. patient populations. These dosing strategies are more likely to result in drug overexposure (weight-based approach) or underexposure (body surface area-based approach) among obese patients. Alternate weight descriptors such as ideal body weight, adjusted body weight, fat-free weight, and lean body weight are used to prevent drug overexposure with weight-based dosing, but their benefits and limitations must be understood. Reappraisal of the drug dosing paradigm is needed in this era of rising obesity; however, until drug-specific reviews can be performed, clinical studies must include patients at the extremes of the weight continuum to ensure applicable dose extrapolation for body size. © 2012 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations between dairy protein intake and body weight and risk markers of diabetes and CVD during weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, Line Q; Lorenzen, Janne K; Larsen, Thomas M; van Baak, Marleen; Papadaki, Angeliki; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Jebb, Susan A; Kunešová, Marie; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2014-03-14

    Dairy products have previously been reported to be associated with beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic risk markers. Moreover, primary data from the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study indicate a weight-maintaining effect of a high-protein-low-glycaemic index diet. The objective of the present study was to examine putative associations between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers after weight loss in obese and overweight adults. Results were based on secondary analyses of data obtained from overweight and obese adults who completed the DiOGenes study. The study consisted of an 8-week weight-loss phase and a 6-month weight-maintenance (WM) phase, where the subjects were given five different diets varying in protein content and glycaemic index. In the present study, data obtained from all the subjects were pooled. Dairy protein intake was estimated from 3 d dietary records at two time points (week 4 and week 26) during the WM phase. Body weight and metabolic risk markers were determined at baseline (week -9 to -11) and before and at the end of the WM phase (week 0 and week 26). Overall, no significant associations were found between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers. However, dairy protein intake tended to be negatively associated with body weight gain (P=0·08; β=-0·17), but this was not persistent when controlled for total protein intake, which indicates that dairy protein adds no additional effect to the effect of total protein. Therefore, the present study does not report that dairy proteins are more favourable than other proteins for body weight regulation.

  2. Associations between body weight perception and weight control behaviour in South Indian children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Sumathi; Selvam, Sumithra; Pauline, Maria; Vaz, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the patterns of weight loss behaviour and the association between weight loss attempts with actual weight status and children's and parental perceptions of weight status. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Karnataka, South India. Participants 1874 girls and boys aged 8–14 years from seven schools in Karnataka, South India. Main outcome measures The association between weight loss attempts and sociodemographic factors, weight status and the child's or the parent's perception of weight status. Results Approximately 73% of overweight and obese, 35% of normal weight and 22% of underweight children attempted to lose weight. Children of lower socioeconomic groups studying in schools in the local vernacular and overweight/obese children were more likely to attempt to lose weight (adjusted OR ie, AOR=1.57, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.25; AOR=4.38, 95% CI 2.64 to 7.28, respectively). Perception of weight status was associated with weight loss attempts. Thus, children who were of normal weight but perceived themselves to be overweight/obese were three times more likely to attempt weight loss compared with those who accurately perceived themselves as being of normal weight, while the odds of attempting weight loss were the highest for those who were overweight and perceived themselves to be so (AOR∼18). Conclusions Children are likely to attempt weight loss in India irrespective of their weight status, age and gender. Children who were actually overweight as well as those who were perceived by themselves or by their parents to be overweight or obese were highly likely to try to lose weight. It is necessary to understand body weight perceptions in communities with a dual burden of being overweight and undernourished, if intervention programmes for either are to be successful. PMID:23474789

  3. Relationships between body dimensions, body weight, age, gender, breed and echocardiographic dimensions in young endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Trachsel, D S; Giraudet, A; Maso, D; Hervé, G; Hauri, D D; Barrey, E; Robert, C

    2016-10-10

    The heart's physiological adaptation to aerobic training leads to an increase in heart chamber size, and is referred to as the Athlete's heart. However, heart dimensions are also related to body weight (BWT), body size, growth and (in some species) breed. There are few published data on the relationships between heart dimensions and growth or aerobic training in Arabian and Arabian-related endurance horses. Therefore the objective of the present study was to describe the influence of body dimensions (body length (BL), thoracic circumference (TC), withers height (WH)), BWT, age, gender, breed (purebred Arabians, part-bred Arabians, Anglo-Arabians, and Others) and the initiation of endurance training on echocardiographic measurements in competition-fit endurance horses aged 4 to 6 years. Most left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) dimensions increased with age, whereas LA and LV functional indices did not. Although there was no gender difference for LV dimensions, females had larger LA dimensions. In terms of breed, Anglo-Arabians had the largest LV dimensions. Regression models indicated that the included explanatory factors had a weak influence on heart dimensions. Age, body dimensions, breed and gender showed the most consistent influence on LA dimensions, whereas BWT, breed and kilometres covered in competition showed the most consistent influence on LV dimensions. The increase in echocardiographic dimensions with age indicates on-going growth in our population of 4 to 6 year-old horses. We also observed small changes associated with the initiation of endurance training. Morphometric dimensions had a greater influence on LA dimensions, whereas LV dimensions were also influenced (albeit weakly) by parameters associated with exercise intensity. These results may therefore reflect early adaptations linked to the initiation of endurance training.

  4. Effect of body image on gestational weight gain in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Sui, Zhixian; Turnbull, Deborah; Dodd, Jodie

    2013-12-01

    There is little information available describing how women who are overweight or obese in pregnancy perceive their bodies, and in particular the effect of body image dissatisfaction on gestational weight gain. To describe how women who are overweight or obese in pregnancy perceive their body, and the effect of body image on gestational weight gain. This prospective nested cohort study evaluated self estimation of body weight, preferred body shape, dieting behavior, satisfaction with body weight and shape, and gestational weight gain in pregnant women who were overweight or obese, through self-completed questionnaire in early pregnancy in South Australia from October 2010 to February 2012. Of the 442 women who completed the questionnaire, 25.8% correctly identified their BMI, with 70.1% under-estimating and 4.1% over-estimating their BMI. Women who were obese were significantly less likely to correctly identify their BMI, as were younger women. Women who incorrectly identified their BMI were significantly more likely to have higher gestational weight gain (P<0.001). Approximately 45% of women indicated dissatisfaction with their weight or body shape, with this being more common in women of higher parity and higher BMI. Dissatisfaction was significantly related to gestational weight gain. Women who report increasing dissatisfaction with their body size and shape are more likely to gain excessive weight during pregnancy. Further research should explore insights about maternal body image and diet related behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Body weight and mortality among adults who never smoked.

    PubMed

    Singh, P N; Lindsted, K D; Fraser, G E

    1999-12-01

    In a 12-year prospective study, the authors examined the relation between body mass index (BMI) and mortality among the 20,346 middle-aged (25-54 years) and older (55-84 years) non-Hispanic white cohort members of the Adventist Health Study (California, 1976-1988) who had never smoked cigarettes and had no history of coronary heart disease, cancer, or stroke. In analyses that accounted for putative indicators (weight change relative to 17 years before baseline, death during early follow-up) of pre-existing illness, the authors found a direct positive relation between BMI and all-cause mortality among middle-aged men (minimum risk at BMI (kg/m2) 15-22.3, older men (minimum risk at BMI 13.5-22.3), middle-aged women (minimum risk at BMI 13.9-20.6), and older women who had undergone postmenopausal hormone replacement (minimum risk at BMI 13.4-20.6). Among older women who had not undergone postmenopausal hormone replacement, the authors found a J-shaped relation (minimum risk at BMI 20.7-27.4) in which BMI <20.7 was associated with a twofold increase in mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3, 3.5) that was primarily due to cardiovascular and respiratory disease. These findings not only identify adiposity as a risk factor among adults, but also raise the possibility that very lean older women can experience an increased mortality risk that may be due to their lower levels of adipose tissue-derived estrogen.

  6. Reduced protein availability by albumen removal during chicken embryogenesis decreases body weight and induces hormonal changes.

    PubMed

    Willems, Els; Wang, Yufeng; Koppenol, Astrid; Lesuisse, Jens; Franssens, Lies; Decuypere, Eddy; Buyse, Johan; Everaert, Nadia

    2015-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? Prenatal protein undernutrition by albumen removal in an avian model of fetal programming leads to long-term programming effects, but when do these effects first appear and are these programming effects regulated by the same candidate genes as in mammals? What is the main finding and its importance? The present results indicate that prenatal protein undernutrition by albumen removal induces phenotypical and hormonal changes in the early posthatch period, when the mismatch between the prenatal and postnatal environment first arises, but these changes are not accompanied by an altered gene expression of the selected candidate genes. Studies of the chicken offer a unique model for investigation of the direct effects of reduced prenatal protein availability by the partial replacement of albumen with saline in eggs at embryonic day 1 (albumen-deprived group). The results were compared with mock-treated sham chicks and non-treated control chicks. Although no differences in hatch weight were found, body weight and growth were reduced in the albumen-deprived chicks until 3 weeks of age. The feed intake of the albumen-deprived chicks, however, was increased compared with the control (day 13-21) and the sham chicks (day 16-18). In the albumen-deprived chicks, the ratio of thyroxine to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in the plasma was increased compared with the control chicks, whereas the plasma corticosterone level was increased only at day 7 compared with both other groups. The plasma glucose concentration and glucose tolerance were not affected by treatment. Several candidate genes previously associated with effects of prenatal protein deprivation in mammals were examined in the liver of newly hatched chicks. Gene expression of glycogen synthase 2, glycogen phosphorylase 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and γ and glucocorticoid receptor was not affected by the treatment. In conclusion, reduction of prenatal

  7. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices. PMID:25852628

  8. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  9. Body checking and avoidance in low weight and weight restored individuals with anorexia nervosa and non-clinical females.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Bryony H; Attoe, Chris; Mountford, Victoria A; Morgan, John F; Sly, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction (BD) is central to the development, maintenance and relapse of anorexia nervosa (AN). BD has been conceptualized as a multi-dimensional construct incorporating behaviours, cognitions and affect, yet little is known about the impact of weight and disordered eating on these aspects. 56 'below DSM-IV weight criteria for AN' (weight criteria for AN' (>BMI 17.5 kg/m(2)) individuals currently receiving treatment for an eating disorder, and 60 non-eating disordered females completed the Body Checking Scale, Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Image Anxiety Questionnaire. As expected, females diagnosed with AN showed significantly more behavioural and affective body dissatisfaction than the control group. Patients at lower weights showed significantly more avoidance behaviours and less body image anxiety than those with anorexia at higher weights. No difference was seen in checking behaviours between these groups. Weight based differences in avoidance behaviours continued to exist even when the effects of anxiety were controlled for. Affective and behavioural aspects of BD should be considered in clinical practice at all stages of treatment.

  10. Alternate-day fasting in nonobese subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Heilbronn, Leonie K; Smith, Steven R; Martin, Corby K; Anton, Stephen D; Ravussin, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Prolonged dietary restriction increases the life span in rodents. Some evidence suggests that alternate-day fasting may also prolong the life span. Our goal was to determine whether alternate-day fasting is a feasible method of dietary restriction in nonobese humans and whether it improves known biomarkers of longevity. Nonobese subjects (8 men and 8 women) fasted every other day for 22 d. Body weight, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory quotient (RQ), temperature, fasting serum glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, and ghrelin were assessed at baseline and after 21 d (12-h fast) and 22 d (36-h fast) of alternate-day fasting. Visual analogue scales were used to assess hunger weekly. Subjects lost 2.5 +/- 0.5% of their initial body weight (P < 0.001) and 4 +/- 1% of their initial fat mass (P < 0.001). Hunger increased on the first day of fasting and remained elevated (P < 0.001). RMR and RQ did not change significantly from baseline to day 21, but RQ decreased on day 22 (P < 0.001), which resulted in an average daily increase in fat oxidation of > or =15 g. Glucose and ghrelin did not change significantly from baseline with alternate-day fasting, whereas fasting insulin decreased 57 +/- 4% (P < 0.001). Alternate-day fasting was feasible in nonobese subjects, and fat oxidation increased. However, hunger on fasting days did not decrease, perhaps indicating the unlikelihood of continuing this diet for extended periods of time. Adding one small meal on a fasting day may make this approach to dietary restriction more acceptable.

  11. Use of starting condition score to estimate changes in body weight and composition during weight loss in obese dogs.

    PubMed

    German, A J; Holden, S L; Bissot, T; Morris, P J; Biourge, V

    2009-10-01

    Prior to starting a weight loss programme, target weight (TW) is often estimated, using starting body condition score (BCS). The current study assessed how well such estimates perform in clinical practice. Information on body weight, BCS and body composition was assessed before and after weight loss in 28 obese, client-owned dogs. Median decrease in starting weight per BCS unit was 10% (5-15%), with no significant difference between dogs losing moderate (1-2 BCS points) or marked (3-4 BCS points) amounts of weight (P=0.627). Mean decrease in body fat per BCS unit change was 5%