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Sample records for fetal intracranial hemorrhage

  1. Fetal intracranial hemorrhage: sonographic criteria and merits of prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Mohamed Ali; Ramadan, Wafaa; Gabr, Amir A; Kamel, Ahmed; Abdelrahman, Rasha W

    2017-09-01

    To determine the sonographic criteria for diagnosis of fetal intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), using both gray scale ultrasound, and tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI). A prospective multicenter study, recruiting patients at risk of fetal ICH over four years. All cases with fetal ICH had serial ultrasound assessments, including TUI, fetal and postnatal MRIs. Twenty-one patients were diagnosed with fetal ICH, two cases had extracerebral (subdural) hemorrhage, 16 cases had intracerebral (intraventricular) hemorrhage and three cases had combined hemorrhage. The mean gestational age at which they were diagnosed was 29.8 ± 5.2 weeks. Seventy-six percent of cases had no identifiable risk factors. IUGR was associated with 57.9% of cases. Using grey scale ultrasound, we demonstrated clear cut sonographic criteria for diagnosis of fetal ICH. TUI enabled us to detect some midline cerebral lesions not detected by grey scale 2D ultrasound alone. Fetal and postnatal MRI confirmed those findings. Ultrasonography can be used in the detection, classification and monitoring the progression of various types of ICH. TUI is an additional diagnostic tool that might help to detect the exact size, and extent of those lesions. Fetal MRI is not superior, but might aid in the diagnosis.

  2. Intracranial Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage is a life-threatening condition, the outcome of which can be improved by intensive care. Intracranial hemorrhage may be spontaneous, precipitated by an underlying vascular malformation, induced by trauma, or related to therapeutic anticoagulation. The goals of critical care are to assess the proximate cause, minimize the risks of hemorrhage expansion through blood pressure control and correction of coagulopathy, and obliterate vascular lesions with a high risk of acute rebleeding. Simple bedside scales and interpretation of computed tomography scans assess the severity of neurological injury. Myocardial stunning and pulmonary edema related to neurological injury should be anticipated, and can usually be managed. Fever (often not from infection) is common and can be effectively treated, although therapeutic cooling has not been shown to improve outcomes after intracranial hemorrhage. Most functional and cognitive recovery takes place weeks to months after discharge; expected levels of functional independence (no disability, disability but independence with a device, dependence) may guide conversations with patient representatives. Goals of care impact mortality, with do-not-resuscitate status increasing the predicted mortality for any level of severity of intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Future directions include refining the use of bedside neuromonitoring (electroencephalogram, invasive monitors), novel approaches to reduce intracranial hemorrhage expansion, minimizing vasospasm, and refining the assessment of quality of life to guide rehabilitation and therapy. PMID:22167847

  3. Color Doppler energy imaging in the diagnosis of fetal intracranial hemorrhage in the second trimester.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, S; Ajossa, S; Mais, V; Risalvato, A; Angiolucci, M; Labate, F; Lai, M P; Melis, G B

    1997-09-01

    Unlike conventional color Doppler imaging; color Doppler energy (or power Doppler) displays the intensity of the returning Doppler signal, is less dependent on the orientation of the blood vessel, and is therefore better able to detect low blood velocities. For these reasons it could be useful in some investigations which are difficult to perform, such as transvaginal evaluation of fetal brain vessels. We report a case of a fetal intracranial hyperechoic lesion detected at 26 weeks by transabdominal sonography in a severely growth-retarded fetus. There was absence of diastolic flow in the umbilical artery and low impedance to diastolic flow in the middle cerebral arteries. The fetus was further investigated by transvaginal sonography for the evaluation of the nature and localization of the lesion and an intraventricular hemorrhage in the right brain parenchyma with disorganized supratentorial brain structure was observed. As color Doppler energy imaging is more sensitive to slow flow, it was more reliable than conventional Doppler imaging in confirming the absence of flow within and around the hyperechoic lesion in contrast to the normal vascularity of the contralateral ventricular system. After informed parental counselling, the mother, for psychological reasons, asked to be delivered by Cesarean section. The fetus died 24 h after birth. The autopsy corroborated the ultrasonographic diagnosis. This case report confirms the accuracy of transvaginal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage and suggests a specific role for color Doppler energy imaging.

  4. Nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Fischbein, Nancy J; Wijman, Christine A C

    2010-11-01

    Nontraumatic (or spontaneous) intracranial hemorrhage most commonly involves the brain parenchyma and subarachnoid space. This entity accounts for at least 10% of strokes and is a leading cause of death and disability in adults. Important causes of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage include hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, aneurysms, vascular malformations, and hemorrhagic infarcts (both venous and arterial). Imaging findings in common and less common causes of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage are reviewed.

  5. Imaging of Intracranial Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Heit, Jeremy J.; Iv, Michael; Wintermark, Max

    2017-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage is common and is caused by diverse pathology, including trauma, hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, hemorrhagic conversion of ischemic infarction, cerebral aneurysms, cerebral arteriovenous malformations, dural arteriovenous fistula, vasculitis, and venous sinus thrombosis, among other causes. Neuroimaging is essential for the treating physician to identify the cause of hemorrhage and to understand the location and severity of hemorrhage, the risk of impending cerebral injury, and to guide often emergent patient treatment. We review CT and MRI evaluation of intracranial hemorrhage with the goal of providing a broad overview of the diverse causes and varied appearances of intracranial hemorrhage. PMID:28030895

  6. Hemostasis in Intracranial Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Deepak; Dua, Dharti; Torbey, Michel T.

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with high morbidity and mortality throughout the world with no proven effective treatment. Majority of hematoma expansion occur within 4 h after symptom onset and is associated with early deterioration and poor clinical outcome. There is a vital role of ultra-early hemostatic therapy in ICH to limit hematoma expansion. Patients at risk for hematoma expansion are with underlying hemostatic abnormalities. Treatment strategy should include appropriate intervention based on the history of use of antithrombotic use or an underlying coagulopathy in patients with ICH. For antiplatelet-associated ICH, recommendation is to discontinue antiplatelet agent and transfuse platelets to those who will undergo neurosurgical procedure with moderate quality of evidence. For vitamin K antagonist-associated ICH, administration of 3-factor or 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) rather than fresh frozen plasma to patients with INR >1.4 is strongly recommended. For patients with novel oral anticoagulant-associated ICH, administering activated charcoal to those who present within 2 h of ingestion is recommended. Idarucizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody fragment against dabigatran (direct thrombin inhibitor) is approved by FDA for emergency situations. Administer activated PCC (50 U/kg) or 4-factor PCC (50 U/kg) to patients with ICH associated with direct thrombin inhibitors (DTI) if idarucizumab is not available or if the hemorrhage is associated with a DTI other than dabigatran. For factor Xa inhibitor-associated ICH, administration of 4-factor PCC or aPCC is preferred over recombinant FVIIa because of the lower risk of adverse thrombotic events. PMID:28360881

  7. Hypophosphatemia after nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Junttila, E; Koskenkari, J; Ala-Kokko, T

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and contributing factors of hypophosphatemia and the association with poor long-term outcome after nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage. This was a prospective, observational study of patients with nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage (i.e., aneurysmal or perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage, or spontaneous intracerebral or intraventricular hemorrhage) treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) at our university hospital. Plasma phosphate concentrations were measured serially in 2-day sections during the 6 day study period. The ICU mortality was recorded, 3-month and 1-year outcomes were assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. One hundred patients were enrolled. The frequency of hypophosphatemia (Pi ≤ 0.65 mmol/l) was 70%. Chronic hypertension, acute hydrocephalus, and diffuse brain edema were more common in patients with hypophosphatemia compared with normophosphatemics (44% vs. 21%, P = 0.021; 59% vs. 33%, P = 0.021; and 43% vs. 13%, P = 0.004, respectively). Hypophosphatemic patients had higher maximum SOFA scores [10 (7-11) vs. 7.5 (5.75-10), P = 0.024]. Initial phosphate concentration correlated inversely with APACHE II score on admission (ρ = -0.304, P = 0.002) and SOFA score on the first ICU day (ρ = -0.269, P = 0.008). There was no difference in outcome between hypophosphatemic and normophosphatemic patients. In all five patients with severe hypophosphatemia (Pi < 0.32 mmol/l) the functional outcome was good. Hypophosphatemia was common in this patient population. The outcome was similar between hypophosphatemic and normophosphatemic patients. Chronic hypertension, acute hydrocephalus, diffuse brain edema and higher SOFA scores were more common in patients with hypophosphatemia. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Fetal intracranial teratoma. A review.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Hart

    2014-01-01

    A literature and institutional review of fetal intracranial teratomas yielded 90 tumors. The mean age at ultrasound diagnosis was 32 weeks, ranging from 21 to 41 weeks. Males and females were equally affected. The average, maximum tumor size was 10 cm, varying between 3.5 and 23 cm. Forty-two percent of patients died within the first week of life. Death rate was exceptionally high before 30 weeks gestation where almost half the affected fetuses expired. The overall survival rate for 90 fetuses with intracranial teratoma was only 7.8%.

  9. Spinal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Migrated from Traumatic Intracranial Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Jin; Koh, Eun Jung

    2016-01-01

    Very rarely, spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SSAH) can occur without any direct spinal injury in patients with traumatic intracranial SAH. A-59-year-old male with traumatic intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) presented with pain and numbness in his buttock and thigh two days after trauma. Pain and numbness rapidly worsened and perianal numbness and voiding difficulty began on the next day. Magnetic resonance imaging showed intraspinal hemorrhage in the lumbosacral region. The cauda equina was displaced and compressed. Emergent laminectomy and drainage of hemorrhage were performed and SSAH was found intraoperatively. The symptoms were relieved immediately after the surgery. Patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage who present with delayed pain or neurological deficits should be evaluated for intraspinal hemorrhage promptly, even when the patients had no history of direct spinal injury and had no apparent symptoms related to the spinal injury in the initial period of trauma. PMID:27857928

  10. Fetal intracranial injuries following motor vehicle accidents with airbag deployment.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Hiroshi; Harada, Atsuko; Sato, Takashi; Kurabayashi, Takumi

    2014-02-01

    The effects of airbag deployment in motor vehicle accidents (MVA) on the fetus are poorly understood. A 22-year-old woman at 24 weeks of gestation collided with a telephone pole while driving. She was restrained and an airbag deployed. Although she had no major injuries, she experienced decreased fetal movements. Fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring revealed loss of variability without any evidence of abruptio placentae, and 4 days later, the variability spontaneously recovered. Two weeks after the MVA, ultrasonography showed unilateral ventricular dilatation suggestive of fetal brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed subdural hematoma, intraventricular hemorrhage and cystic lesions, interpreted as indirect (hypoxic-ischemic) and direct (hemorrhagic) intracranial injuries. After MVA with airbag deployment, FHR monitoring can show a transient loss of variability, which may precede the appearance of fetal brain injury.

  11. Intracranial drug delivery for subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Robert Loch; Leung, Ming; Tice, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Tice and colleagues pioneered site-specific, sustained-release drug delivery to the brain almost 30 years ago. Currently there is one drug approved for use in this manner. Clinical trials in subarachnoid hemorrhage have led to approval of nimodipine for oral and intravenous use, but other drugs, such as clazosentan, hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and magnesium, have not shown consistent clinical efficacy. We propose that intracranial delivery of drugs such as nimodipine, formulated in sustained-release preparations, are good candidates for improving outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage because they can be administered to patients that are already undergoing surgery and who have a self-limited condition from which full recovery is possible.

  12. Rapid growth of an infectious intracranial aneurysm with catastrophic intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Koffie, Robert M; Stapleton, Christopher J; Torok, Collin M; Yoo, Albert J; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Codd, Patrick J

    2015-03-01

    Infectious intracranial aneurysms are rare vascular lesions that classically occur in patients with infective endocarditis. We present a 49-year-old man with altered mental status and headache with rapid growth and rupture of an infectious intracranial aneurysm with catastrophic intracranial hemorrhage, and review issues related to open neurosurgical and endovascular interventions.

  13. Atypical causes of nontraumatic intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Carvi y Nievas, Mario Nazareno; Archavlis, Eleftherios

    2009-05-01

    To analyze the management and outcome of patients presenting with atypical causes of intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We performed a review of our last 820 nontraumatic-SAH patients and analyzed the management and outcome of patients where the SAH origin was not a ruptured aneurysm. The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was used to assess outcome 3 months after event. Thirty-two patients had atypical causes of SAH. In 15 patients with Hunt and Hess (H&H) scores from 1 to 3 without focal neurological deficit (FND), 8 perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal SAH, 4 blood coagulation disorders, 1 sinus thrombosis, 1 vasculitis, and 1 unknown-origin-SAH (UOS) were diagnosed. Fourteen (93%) of these 15 patients were conservatively treated. In 17 patients with H&H scores from 3 to 5 and FND, 8 tumors, 1 cavernoma, 1 sinus thrombosis, 1 arteriovenous malformation, 1 blood coagulation disorders, 2 UOS, and 3 dural fistulas were diagnosed. Fifteen (88%) of these 17 patients were interventionally treated. The neurological condition 3 months later was good (GOS 4 and 5) in 12 of the 15 cases (80%) admitted with low-H&H scores, as well as in 13 of the 17 cases (76%) admitted with high-H&H scores. Three patients died and four developed a severe disability. Patients presenting with atypical causes of SAH and high-H&H scores at admission are likely to harbor an intracranial organic process producing the bleeding. Despite this poor initial condition, their 3-month outcome can be similar to those of patients with low-H&H scores if the origin of the bleeding is properly treated.

  14. Intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage following lumbar myelography in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Packer, Rebecca A; Bergman, Robert L; Coates, Joan R; Essman, Stephanie C; Weis, Kevin; O'Brien, Dennis P; Johnson, Gayle C

    2007-01-01

    Intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage is a rare but serious complication of lumbar puncture in humans. Possible sequelae include increased intracranial pressure, cerebral vasospasm, or mass effect, which can result in dysfunction or brain herniation. We describe two dogs that developed intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage following lumbar myelography. In both dogs, myelography was performed by lumbar injection of iohexol (Omnipaque). Both the dogs underwent uneventful ventral decompressive surgery for disk herniation; however, the dogs failed to recover consciousness or spontaneous respiration following anesthesia. Neurologic assessment in both dogs postoperatively suggested loss of brain stem function, and the dogs were euthanized. There was diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage and leptomeningeal hemorrhage throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, brain stem, and ventrum of brain. No evidence of infectious or inflammatory etiology was identified. The diagnosis for cause of brain death was acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. Our findings suggest that fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a potential complication of lumbar myelography in dogs. The cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage is not known, but may be due to traumatic lumbar tap or idiosyncratic response to contrast medium. Subsequent brain death may be a result of mass effect and increased intracranial pressure, cerebral vasospasm, or interaction between subarachnoid hemorrhage and contrast medium.

  15. Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and multiple intracranial aneurysms in a patient with Roberts/SC phocomelia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anthony C; Gemmete, Joseph J; Keegan, Catherine E; Witt, Cordelie E; Muraszko, Karin M; Than, Khoi D; Maher, Cormac O

    2011-11-01

    Roberts/SC phocomelia syndrome (RBS) is a rare but distinct genetic disorder with an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. It has been associated with microcephaly, craniofacial malformation, cavernous hemangioma, encephalocele, and hydrocephalus. There are no previously reported cases of RBS with intracranial aneurysms. The authors report on a patient with a history of RBS who presented with a spontaneous posterior fossa hemorrhage. Multiple small intracranial aneurysms were noted on a preoperative CT angiogram. The patient underwent emergency craniotomy for evacuation of the hemorrhage. A postoperative angiogram confirmed the presence of multiple, distal small intracranial aneurysms.

  16. Fetal hydrocephalus caused by cryptic intraventricular hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lategan, Belinda; Chodirker, Bernard N; Del Bigio, Marc R

    2010-03-01

    Cryptic intracerebral hemorrhage as an etiological factor in fetal hydrocephalus has been postulated but not described at autopsy. Four fetuses with overt hydrocephalus diagnosed by in utero ultrasound examination were examined at autopsy at 19-22 weeks gestation. Although a hemorrhagic etiology was not evident on ultrasound, hemosiderin-containing macrophages and associated reactive changes were found to obstruct the otherwise well-formed cerebral aqueduct in all four. Coagulopathy due to thrombocytopenia was implicated in one case. Anomalies involving other parts of the body were identified in two cases, although a direct link to the hydrocephalus was not obvious. The abnormality was isolated in one case. In three cases, possible sites of hemorrhage in the ventricles were identified. This abnormality represents a significant proportion of the fetuses examined for hydrocephalus in our referral center. We discuss the importance of careful autopsy examination in the diagnosis of cryptic intracerebral hemorrhage and the implications for counseling.

  17. Umbilical Cord Segmental Hemorrhage and Fetal Distress

    PubMed Central

    Larciprete, Giovanni; Romanini, Maria Elisabetta; Arduini, Domenico; Cirese, Elio; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Kula, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    We describe an unexplained case of umbilical cord segmental hemorrhage linked with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. A severely asphyxiated infant was delivered at term by Caesarean section. There were poor prognostic signs on fetal cardiotocography with rupture of membranes with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. The pathophysiologic mechanism in this case is still unknown, even if we argued a possible role of the umbilical cord shortness. PMID:23674981

  18. Intracranial hemorrhage during administration of a novel oral anticoagulant

    PubMed Central

    Tempaku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oral anticoagulants are widely administered to patients with atrial fibrillation in order to prevent the onset of cardiogenic embolisms. However, intracranial bleeding during anticoagulant therapy often leads to fatal outcomes. Accordingly, the use of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs), which less frequently have intracranial bleeding as a complication, is expanding. A nationwide survey of intracranial bleeding and its prognosis in Japan reported that intracranial bleeding of advanced severity was not common after NOAC administration. In this report, two cases from our institute are presented. Patients: Case 1 was an 85-year-old man with a right frontal lobe hemorrhage while under dabigatran therapy. Case 2 was an 81-year-old man who had cerebellar hemorrhage while under rivaroxaban therapy. Result: In both patients, the clinical course progressed without aggravation of bleeding or neurological abnormalities once anticoagulant therapy was discontinued. Conclusion: These observations suggest that intracranial hemorrhage during NOAC therapy is easily controlled by discontinuation of the drug. NOAC administration may therefore be appropriate despite the risk of such severe complications. Further case studies that include a subgroup analysis with respect to each NOAC or patient background will be required to establish appropriate guidelines for the prevention of cardiogenic embolisms in patients with atrial fibrillation. PMID:27928459

  19. Neurofibromatosis type 1 with intracranial hemorrhage and horseshoe kidney.

    PubMed

    Jat, Kana Ram; Marwaha, Ram Kumar; Panigrahi, Inusha; Gupta, Vivek

    2008-10-01

    A 12-year-old boy presented with a history of sudden-onset vomiting, headache, and giddiness. Two members of his family manifested neurofibromatosis type 1. On examination, the child had multiple café-au-lait spots, bilateral axillary freckles, and Lisch nodules in both eyes. A central nervous system examination revealed raised intracranial pressure. Computed tomography of the cranium revealed an intracranial hemorrhage in the right parietal region, without a midline shift. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a hemorrhage and a neurofibromatosis bright object. Magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography revealed no evidence of arteriovenous malformation or aneurysm. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed a horseshoe kidney, as confirmed by a 99m technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid renal cortical scan. He responded to treatment for the raised intracranial pressure, and remained asymptomatic during follow-up.

  20. Intracranial hemorrhage revealing pseudohypoparathyroidism as a cause of fahr syndrome.

    PubMed

    Swami, Abhijit; Kar, Giridhari

    2011-01-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism is an infrequently encountered disease. It is one of the causes of Fahr syndrome which also is a rare clinical entity caused by multiple diseases. A 4-year-old man hospitalized for sudden onset left hemiparesis and hypertension was diagnosed to have right thalamic and midbrain hemorrhage on plain CT scan of the head which also revealed co-existent extensive intracranial calcifications involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum bilaterally. General physical examination revealed features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, goitre, hypertension, left hemiparesis, and signs of cerebellar dysfunction. Laboratory findings suggested hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia along with high TSH, low FT(4), low FT(3), and high anti-TPO antibody. Though bilateral intracranial calcifications are usually encountered as an incidental radiological finding in the CT scan of brain, in this case, the patient admitted for thalamic and midbrain hemorrhage was on investigation for associated intracranial calcification, and goitre was also found to have coexisting pseudohypoparathyroidism and autoimmune hypothyroidism.

  1. Intracranial Hemorrhage Revealing Pseudohypoparathyroidism as a Cause of Fahr Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Swami, Abhijit; Kar, Giridhari

    2011-01-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism is an infrequently encountered disease. It is one of the causes of Fahr syndrome which also is a rare clinical entity caused by multiple diseases. A 4-year-old man hospitalized for sudden onset left hemiparesis and hypertension was diagnosed to have right thalamic and midbrain hemorrhage on plain CT scan of the head which also revealed co-existent extensive intracranial calcifications involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum bilaterally. General physical examination revealed features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, goitre, hypertension, left hemiparesis, and signs of cerebellar dysfunction. Laboratory findings suggested hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia along with high TSH, low FT4, low FT3, and high anti-TPO antibody. Though bilateral intracranial calcifications are usually encountered as an incidental radiological finding in the CT scan of brain, in this case, the patient admitted for thalamic and midbrain hemorrhage was on investigation for associated intracranial calcification, and goitre was also found to have coexisting pseudohypoparathyroidism and autoimmune hypothyroidism. PMID:22937338

  2. Detection of intracranial hemorrhage with susceptibility-weighted MR sequences.

    PubMed

    Liang, L; Korogi, Y; Sugahara, T; Shigematsu, Y; Okuda, T; Ikushima, I; Takahashi, M

    1999-09-01

    Detection of hemorrhage is important in the diagnosis and management of a variety of intracranial diseases. We evaluated the sensitivity of the following sequences for depicting chronic hemorrhagic foci associated with susceptibility dephasing: gradient-recalled echo (GRE) imaging, GRE-type single-shot echo-planar imaging (GRE-EPI), spin-echo-type single-shot echo-planar imaging (SE-EPI), turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging, half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) imaging, and segmented HASTE (s-HASTE) imaging. To our knowledge, no previous comparison has been made with these techniques in the same patient. Fifty patients with suspected chronic hemorrhage were examined prospectively with the above six sequences. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), sensitivity to detection of lesions, conspicuity of internal architecture, and sensitivity to small hemorrhagic foci were evaluated. Hemorrhagic foci were found in 35 patients. The CNR of the GRE, GRE-EPI, SE-EPI, TSE, s-HASTE, and HASTE sequences was 30.9, 23.7, 3.6, 6.1, -29.3, and -13.1, respectively; the number of small hemorrhagic foci detected was 85, 96, 44, 22, two, and one, respectively, for the supratentorial white matter; 70, 40, 19, four, zero, and zero, respectively, for the supratentorial cortical/subcortical region; and 73, 50, 26, 37, zero, and zero, respectively, for the infratentorial/skull-base region. The GRE sequence was best for detecting susceptibility dephasing associated with chronic intracranial hemorrhage. GRE-EPI, while comparable to GRE in the supratentorial compartment, was reduced in its sensitivity near the skull base, and may be used as an alternative to GRE in uncooperative, unsedated, pediatric, or claustrophobic patients. SE-EPI should not be used in screening for intracranial hemorrhage.

  3. Visuoperceptual sequelae in children with hemophilia and intracranial hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Matute, Esmeralda; O’Callaghan, Erin T.; Murray, Joan; Tlacuilo-Parra, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to examine the impact of focal brain injuries on the outcomes of visual perception and visuospatial abilities in Mexican children with hemophilia who have experienced intracranial hemorrhages. Methods We assessed ten boys who had hemophilia with intracranial hemorrhage (HIC), six boys who had hemophilia without intracranial hemorrhage (HH), and ten boys without hemophilia (CTL). The Verbal (VIQ), Performance IQs (PIQ), and Full Scale IQs (FSIQ) from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Mexican Revision, Visual Perception, and Visuospatial Abilities domains, which are from a neuropsychological assessment battery for Spanish-speaking children (ENI), were employed for our analysis. Results The results showed that the HIC group performed in the low-average range on the PIQ and FSIQ, which was lower than the HH group. The HIC group showed low performance on visual perception tests, such as line orientation, fragmented objects, and overlapping figures, compared with their matched controls. Conclusions The results suggest that it is not the ability to recognize objects that is impaired in the HIC group, but the ability to identify objects under less favorable conditions. Our findings may have therapeutic and rehabilitative implications for the management of children with hemophilia and early focal brain lesions. PMID:26835360

  4. The Role of the Iron Stain in Assessing Intracranial Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Rudy J; Mojica, Gruschenka; Perry, George

    2016-01-01

    The timing of the breakdown of red blood cells and organization of hemorrhage has significance in the catabolism of heme and the processing of iron, but also has a practical application in terms of assigning, or attempting to assign, a time course with respect to traumatic events (e.g. contusions and hemorrhages). Attempts to date contusions, however, have generally been unsuccessful by macroscopic observation, whereas the microscopic observations provide broad data but are also anatomically imprecise as a function of time. Intracranial lesions are of particular significance with respect to the timing of organizing hemorrhage given the acute, and often life-threatening nature of the hemorrhages, and the medicolegal investigation into potential crimes. Of concern is that the Prussian Blue reaction for iron, a relatively straightforward histochemical reaction that has been in use for over 150 years, is sometimes suggested as a diagnostic test for chronicity. Therefore, this study examined the utility of the Prussian Blue iron stain in living patients with intracranial hemorrhages and well-defined symptom onset, to test whether the presence of Prussian Blue reactivity could be correlated with chronicity. It was found that out of 12 cases with intracranial hemorrhage, eight cases showed at least focal iron reactivity. The duration from symptom onset to surgery in those eight cases ranged from < 24 hours to more than 3 days. Of those cases with no iron reactivity, the duration from symptom onset to surgery ranged from < 24 hours to six days. In conclusion, the Prussian Blue reaction was unreliable as an indicator of timing in intracranial hemorrhage. The use of the Prussian blue reaction as an independent indicator of chronicity is therefore not valid and can be misleading. Caution is indicated when employing iron staining for timing purposes, as its only use is to highlight, as opposed to identify, pre-existing lesions. With respect to brain lesions, the Prussian blue

  5. The Role of the Iron Stain in Assessing Intracranial Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Castellani, Rudy J.; Mojica, Gruschenka; Perry, George

    2016-01-01

    The timing of the breakdown of red blood cells and organization of hemorrhage has significance in the catabolism of heme and the processing of iron, but also has a practical application in terms of assigning, or attempting to assign, a time course with respect to traumatic events (e.g. contusions and hemorrhages). Attempts to date contusions, however, have generally been unsuccessful by macroscopic observation, whereas the microscopic observations provide broad data but are also anatomically imprecise as a function of time. Intracranial lesions are of particular significance with respect to the timing of organizing hemorrhage given the acute, and often life-threatening nature of the hemorrhages, and the medicolegal investigation into potential crimes. Of concern is that the Prussian Blue reaction for iron, a relatively straightforward histochemical reaction that has been in use for over 150 years, is sometimes suggested as a diagnostic test for chronicity. Therefore, this study examined the utility of the Prussian Blue iron stain in living patients with intracranial hemorrhages and well-defined symptom onset, to test whether the presence of Prussian Blue reactivity could be correlated with chronicity. It was found that out of 12 cases with intracranial hemorrhage, eight cases showed at least focal iron reactivity. The duration from symptom onset to surgery in those eight cases ranged from < 24 hours to more than 3 days. Of those cases with no iron reactivity, the duration from symptom onset to surgery ranged from < 24 hours to six days. In conclusion, the Prussian Blue reaction was unreliable as an indicator of timing in intracranial hemorrhage. The use of the Prussian blue reaction as an independent indicator of chronicity is therefore not valid and can be misleading. Caution is indicated when employing iron staining for timing purposes, as its only use is to highlight, as opposed to identify, pre-existing lesions. With respect to brain lesions, the Prussian blue

  6. Hemorrhage Near Fetal Rat Bone: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Timothy A.; Miller, Rita J.; Blue, James P.; O'Brien, William D.

    2006-05-01

    High-intensity ultrasound has shown potential in treating many ailments requiring noninvasive tissue necrosis. However, little work has been done on using ultrasound to ablate pathologies on or near the developing fetus. For example, Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation (cyst on lungs), Sacrococcygeal Teratoma (benign tumor on tail bone), and Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (one twin pumps blood to other twin) are selected problems that will potentially benefit from noninvasive ultrasound treatments. Before these applications can be explored, potential ultrasound-induced bioeffects should be understood. Specifically, ultrasound-induced hemorrhage near the fetal rat skull was investigated. An f/1 spherically focused transducer (5.1-cm focal length) was used to expose the skull of 18- to 19-day-gestation exteriorized rat fetuses. The ultrasound pulse had a center frequency of 0.92 MHz and pulse duration of 9.6 μs. The fetuses were exposed to 1 of 4 exposure conditions (denoted A, B, C, and D) in addition to a sham exposure. Three of the exposures consisted of a peak compressional pressure of 10 MPa, a peak rarefactional pressure of 6.7 MPa, and pulse repetition frequencies of 100 Hz (A), 250 Hz (B), and 500 Hz (C), corresponding to time-average intensities of 1.9 W/cm2, 4.7 W/cm2, and 9.4 W/cm2, respectively. Exposure D consisted of a peak compressional pressure of 6.7 MPa, a peak rarefactional pressure of 5.0 MPa, and a PRF of 500 Hz corresponding to a time-average intensity of 4.6 W/cm2. Hemorrhage occurrence increased slightly with increasing time-average intensity (i.e., 11% for A, 28% for B, 31% for C, and 19% for D with a 9% occurrence when the fetuses were not exposed). The low overall occurrence of hemorrhaging may be attributed to fetal motion (observed in over half of the fetuses from the backscattered echo during the exposure). The mean hemorrhage sizes were 3.1 mm2 for A, 2.5 mm2 for B, 2.7 mm2 for C, and 5.1 mm2 for D. The larger lesions at D may

  7. Different information by MRI compare to ultrasound in fetal intracranial space occupying lesions.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Kasprian, Gregor; Hu, Daoyu; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Wenzhong; Chen, Xinlin

    2017-07-10

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in characterizing fetal intracranial space occupying lesions in comparison to prenatal ultrasound. This retrospective study included 50 fetuses (mean age 26 years, mean gestational weeks 31 + 1 GW) with intracranial space occupying lesions, suspected by prenatal screening ultrasound. T2-weighted, T1-weighted, SSFP, and diffusion-weighted sequences of the fetal brain were obtained on a 1.5 T unit. Pathology (n = 5), postmortem MRI (n = 3), or postnatal US (n = 42) was available as standard of reference. The fetal MRI provided correct diagnosis in 49 cases (98%), while 35 (70%) by ultrasound, and MRI failed in 1 case (2%), while ultrasound failed in 15 cases (30%). Fetal MR and ultrasound were concordant in 35 of 50 cases (70%), completely discordant in 4 (8%), and partially discordant in 11 (22%) cases. MRI could provide detailed information about the minor lesions, such as focal hemorrhage and periventricular nodules. Meanwhile, it could provide whole view of the lesion in order to delineate the surrounding anatomical structure. But there are still some limitations of its soft-tissue resolution in a case with teratoma; more effort is needed to improve the sequences.

  8. [Neurologic complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to intracranial aneurysm rupture].

    PubMed

    Rama-Maceiras, P; Fàbregas Julià, N; Ingelmo Ingelmo, I; Hernández-Palazón, J

    2010-12-01

    The high rates of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage due to spontaneous rupture of an intracranial aneurysm are mainly the result of neurologic complications. Sixty years after cerebral vasospasm was first described, this problem remains unsolved in spite of its highly adverse effect on prognosis after aneurysmatic rupture. Treatment is somewhat empirical, given that uncertainties remain in our understanding of the pathophysiology of this vascular complication, which involves structural and biochemical changes in the endothelium and smooth muscle of vessels. Vasospasm that is refractory to treatment leads to cerebral infarction. Prophylaxis, early diagnosis, and adequate treatment of neurologic complications are key elements in the management of vasospasm if neurologic damage, lengthy hospital stays, and increased use of health care resources are to be avoided. New approaches to early treatment of cerebral lesions and cortical ischemia in cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysm rupture should lead to more effective, specific management.

  9. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in the ALIAS Multicenter Trial: relationship to endovascular thrombolytic therapy.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Myron D; Hill, Michael D

    2015-06-01

    In the ALIAS (Albumin in Acute Stroke) Part 2 Multicenter Trial, 85% of subjects received standard-of-care intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, and 21% received some form of endovascular thrombolysis. The overall rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was within the expected range but was higher in albumin-treated subjects than in saline-treated subjects. Using the trial's Public Use Dataset, we analyzed factors contributing to symptomatic and asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in the 'safety sample' of 830 subjects. Four hundred sixteen subjects received albumin therapy, and 414 received saline. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator was given to 68.2%; intravenous tissue plasminogen activator plus endovascular intervention in 16.4%; and endovascular therapy alone in 43%. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 41 subjects - within the first 12 h in one-third of cases, and within the first day in ∼60%. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator had been used in 78% of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage subjects - no higher than in the overall cohort. In contrast, 48.8% of subjects with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage had received endovascular therapy - a rate markedly higher than the 20.7% rate for the entire cohort (P = 0.0001). Sixty-eight point three percent of subjects with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage had received albumin, and 31.7% saline (risk ratio 2.14, P = 0.025). Other factors associated with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage were baseline NIHSS and ASPECTS scores and the SEDAN score. Forty-one point four percent of subjects with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage died. The odds ratio for symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was 3.89 (95% confidence interval 2.04-7.41) with endovascular therapy and 2.15 (confidence interval 1.08-4.25) with albumin. Endovascular thrombolysis was the major factor predisposing to symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and albumin contributed to this predisposition. The latter may

  10. Traumatic intracranial hemorrhages in facial fracture patients: review of 2,195 patients.

    PubMed

    Hohlrieder, Matthias; Hinterhoelzl, Josef; Ulmer, Hanno; Lang, Christiane; Hackl, Wolfgang; Kampfl, Andreas; Benzer, Arnulf; Schmutzhard, Erich; Gassner, Robert

    2003-07-01

    Patients sustaining facial fractures are at risk for accompanying traumatic intracranial hematomas, which are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Prompt recognition is crucial in improving patient survival and recovery. This study examined which simple clinical signs identify facial fracture patients at risk for intracranial hemorrhage before the performance of computed tomography. Retrospective study of 2,195 patients with facial fractures during a period of 7 years. By means of univariate and multivariate analysis clinical features potentially predictive for (a) intracranial hemorrhage and (b) surgery for intracranial hemorrhage were identified. Critical care units of anesthesiology and neurology, general traumatology, and oral and maxillofacial surgery in a level I trauma university hospital. Seizures (OR 22.1) and vomiting/nausea (OR 20.2) were the strongest independent predictors of intracranial bleeding in facial fracture patients. For intracranial hemorrhages requiring surgical intervention closed head injuries (OR 9.75) and cranial vault fractures (OR 5.0) were the most significant risk factors. However, among those patients without vomiting/nausea and without seizures and without closed head injury ( n=1,628), 20 patients (1.2%) suffered intracranial hemorrhage, and six (0.37%) of them required surgical intervention. Simple clinical symptoms, such as seizures, vomiting/nausea, history of a closed head injury or cranial vault fractures are strong predictors for intracranial hemorrhage in facial fracture patients. The early consideration of such important indicators allows us to detect patients at elevated risk of an intracranial hematoma requiring surgical intervention.

  11. A Case Report of Decreased Fetal Movement During Fetomaternal Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Place, Janet C; Plano, Lisa R W

    2015-01-01

    Fetomaternal hemorrhage is a rare, potentially catastrophic event for a fetus.  Leakage of the fetus's blood into the mother's circulation can cause fetal anemia, hydrops, and even death.  The prevailing symptom is decreased fetal movement, and signs can include a sinusoidal electronic fetal monitor pattern, a positive Kleihauer-Betke test, or changes in fetal Doppler blood flow.  A mother's report or perception of decreased fetal movement coupled with a nonreactive nonstress test or abnormal ultrasound findings should prompt an investigation into underlying causes. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  12. Risk of Ischemic Stroke after Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Lerario, Michael P.; Gialdini, Gino; Lapidus, Daniel M.; Shaw, Mesha M.; Navi, Babak B.; Merkler, Alexander E.; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Healey, Jeff S.; Kamel, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to estimate the risk of ischemic stroke after intracranial hemorrhage in patients with atrial fibrillation. Materials and Methods Using discharge data from all nonfederal acute care hospitals and emergency departments in California, Florida, and New York from 2005 to 2012, we identified patients at the time of a first-recorded encounter with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage were identified using validated diagnosis codes. Kaplan-Meier survival statistics and Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to evaluate cumulative rates of ischemic stroke and the relationship between incident intracranial hemorrhage and subsequent stroke. Results Among 2,084,735 patients with atrial fibrillation, 50,468 (2.4%) developed intracranial hemorrhage and 89,594 (4.3%) developed ischemic stroke during a mean follow-up period of 3.2 years. The 1-year cumulative rate of stroke was 8.1% (95% CI, 7.5–8.7%) after intracerebral hemorrhage, 3.9% (95% CI, 3.5–4.3%) after subdural hemorrhage, and 2.0% (95% CI, 2.0–2.1%) in those without intracranial hemorrhage. After adjustment for the CHA2DS2-VASc score, stroke risk was elevated after both intracerebral hemorrhage (hazard ratio [HR], 2.8; 95% CI, 2.6–2.9) and subdural hemorrhage (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.5–1.7). Cumulative 1-year rates of stroke ranged from 0.9% in those with subdural hemorrhage and a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 0, to 33.3% in those with intracerebral hemorrhage and a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 9. Conclusions In a large, heterogeneous cohort, patients with atrial fibrillation faced a substantially heightened risk of ischemic stroke after intracranial hemorrhage. The risk was most marked in those with intracerebral hemorrhage and high CHA2DS2-VASc scores. PMID:26701759

  13. An autopsy case of methanol induced intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jeong; Na, Joo-Young; Lee, Young-Jik; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Hyung-Seok

    2015-01-01

    The major component of car washer fluid is a methanol. Intracranial hemorrhage is a rare but lethal complication in methanol poisoning. We report a case of massive bilateral basal ganglia hematoma in a 32-year-old man with methanol poisoning. He drank car washer solution twice time (about 500 ml), and was admitted to a territorial hospital 10 hours post-ingestion for depressed mental status, lower blood pressure, and high anion gap metabolic acidosis. Computed tomographic (CT) scan showed lesions in both putamen and cerebral deep white matter. Twenty-one days after methanol exposure, he suddenly developed cardiorespiratory arrest. In autopsy, external examination revealed moderate cerebral edema, but no evidence of herniation. Coronal sections of the brain showed softening and about 34 g hematoma in the bilateral putamen and 3rd ventricles. The toxic effect of methanol on the visual system has been noted in the absence of neurologic manifestations; however, there have also been a report of concomitant brain in Korea.

  14. Diabetes mitigates the recovery following intracranial hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhenzeng; Yuan, Yunchao; Wang, Feng; Qi, Yuepeng; Han, Haie; Wu, Jianliang; Zhang, Gengshen; Yang, Lijun

    2017-03-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a common subtype of stroke with high morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have examined the effects of diabetes on the recovery from ICH-induced brain injury. Therefore, we examined the effects of diabetes on protein levels of aquaporins, neuronal loss, angiogenesis, blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity, and neurological deficits following intra-DH collagenase-induced ICH in the hippocampus. We found that diabetic rats exhibited enhanced AQP9 expression in the hippocampus relative to non-diabetic rats, which was associated with increased behavioral deficits. Additionally, ICH induced neovascularization, proliferation of brain microvascular endothelial cells, and hippocampal neuronal loss. However, ICH-induced neovascularization and proliferation of brain microvascular endothelial cells was severely impaired in diabetic rats. Furthermore, ICH-induced hippocampal neuronal loss was exaggerated in diabetic rats. Finally, ICH impaired BBB integrity in the ipsilateral hemisphere, which was increased in diabetic rats. Taken together, the attenuated brain angiogenesis, increased hippocampal neuronal loss, and impaired BBB integrity in diabetic rats after ICH were associated with enhanced AQP9 expression. This may suggest that AQP9 is one of the underlying mechanisms that can mitigate the recovery from ICH in diabetic populations.

  15. (18)F-positron-emitting/fluorescent labeled erythrocytes allow imaging of internal hemorrhage in a murine intracranial hemorrhage model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; An, Fei-Fei; Chan, Mark; Friedman, Beth; Rodriguez, Erik A; Tsien, Roger Y; Aras, Omer; Ting, Richard

    2017-03-01

    An agent for visualizing cells by positron emission tomography is described and used to label red blood cells. The labeled red blood cells are injected systemically so that intracranial hemorrhage can be visualized by positron emission tomography (PET). Red blood cells are labeled with 0.3 µg of a positron-emitting, fluorescent multimodal imaging probe, and used to non-invasively image cryolesion induced intracranial hemorrhage in a murine model (BALB/c, 2.36 × 10(8) cells, 100 µCi, <4 mm hemorrhage). Intracranial hemorrhage is confirmed by histology, fluorescence, bright-field, and PET ex vivo imaging. The low required activity, minimal mass, and high resolution of this technique make this strategy an attractive alternative for imaging intracranial hemorrhage. PET is one solution to a spectrum of issues that complicate single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). For this reason, this application serves as a PET alternative to [(99m)Tc]-agents, and SPECT technology that is used in 2 million annual medical procedures. PET contrast is also superior to gadolinium and iodide contrast angiography for its lack of clinical contraindications.

  16. Hemorrhagic infarction following open fenestration of a large intracranial arachnoid cyst in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Auschwitz, Tyler; DeCuypere, Michael; Khan, Nickalus; Einhaus, Stephanie

    2015-02-01

    Intracranial arachnoid cysts are a rare condition thought to be congenital in nature. Treatment of intracranial arachnoid cysts remains controversial based on their variable presentation. Treatment options include CSF shunting, endoscopic fenestration, or craniotomy and open fenestration for larger cysts. The complications of these procedures can include hydrocephalus, subdural hematomas, hygromas, and--more rarely--intraparenchymal hemorrhage. The authors found very few reports of hemorrhagic infarction as a complication of arachnoid cyst fenestration in the literature. The authors report a case of an 18-year-old female patient who suffered an ipsilateral hemorrhagic infarction after craniotomy for open fenestration of an arachnoid cyst.

  17. Thoracolumbar Arteriovenous Malformations Presenting with Intracranial Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Case Series and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Cerejo, Russell; John, Seby; Grabowski, Matthew; Bauer, Andrew; Chaudhry, Burhan; Toth, Gabor; Hui, Ferdinand; Bain, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Cryptogenic intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage accounts for approximately 15% of all subarachnoid hemorrhage cases. Diagnostic workup after negative cerebral digital subtraction angiogram typically includes magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and cervical spine for arteriovenous malformations, tumors, and fistulae. Only a few cases of thoracolumbar spinal vascular malformations have been associated with intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage. Case series and review of the literature. We found 3 patients at our institution who had nontraumatic, nonaneurysmal intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage with isolated spinal vascular malformation in the thoracolumbar region. Including our 3 cases, we found a total of 15 similar cases in the literature. Most of the patients were younger, most having concurrent spinal cord symptoms of radiculopathy (27%), myelopathy (20%), or bladder bowel involvement (20%). Most of the spinal vascular malformations were intramedullary or conus medullaris type. Locations of intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage were mostly isolated to the perimesencephalic area and posterior fossa. In younger populations presenting with nonaneurysmal intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage and symptoms related to the spinal cord, evaluation for thoracolumbar spinal vascular malformations must be included in the initial workup. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intracranial chordoma presenting as acute hemorrhage in a child: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kenneth A.; Bohnstedt, Bradley N.; Shah, Sanket U.; Abdulkader, Marwah M.; Bonnin, Jose M.; Ackerman, Laurie L.; Shaikh, Kashif A.; Kralik, Stephen F.; Shah, Mitesh V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chordomas are rare, slow-growing malignant neoplasms derived from remnants of the embryological notochord. Pediatric cases comprise only 5% of all chordomas, but more than half of the reported pediatric chordomas are intracranial. For patients of all ages, intracranial chordomas typically present with symptoms such as headaches and progressive neurological deficits occurring over several weeks to many years as they compress or invade local structures. There are only reports of these tumors presenting acutely with intracranial hemorrhage in adult patients. Case Description: A 10-year-old boy presented with acute onset of headache, emesis, and diplopia. Head computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of brain were suspicious for a hemorrhagic mass located in the left petroclival region, compressing the ventral pons. The mass was surgically resected and demonstrated acute intratumoral hemorrhage. Pathologic examination was consistent with chordoma. Conclusion: There are few previous reports of petroclival chordomas causing acute intracranial hemorrhage. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of a petroclival chordoma presenting as acute intracranial hemorrhage in a pediatric patient. Although uncommon, it is important to consider chordoma when evaluating a patient of any age presenting with a hemorrhagic lesion of the clivus. PMID:25949851

  19. Rapid MRI evaluation of acute intracranial hemorrhage in pediatric head trauma.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Maura E; Jaju, Alok; Ciolino, Jody D; Alden, Tord

    2016-08-01

    Rapid MRI with ultrafast T2 sequences can be performed without sedation and is often used in place of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate pediatric patients for indications such as hydrocephalus. This study investigated the sensitivity of rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection and follow-up of acute intracranial hemorrhage in comparison to CT, which is commonly the first-line imaging. Patients presenting to a pediatric hospital with acute intracranial hemorrhage on CT and follow-up rapid MRI within 48 h were included. Rapid MRI studies consisted of three plane ultrafast T2 sequences either with or without axial gradient echo (GRE) sequences. Identification of hemorrhage on rapid MRI was assessed by readers both blinded and unblinded to prior CT results. One hundred two acute hemorrhages in 61 patients were identified by CT. Rapid MRI detection of subdural and epidural hemorrhages was modest in the absence of prior CT for comparison (sensitivity 61-74 %), but increased with review of the prior CT (sensitivity 80-86 %). Hemorrhage size was a significant predictor of detection (p < 0.0001). Three plane fast T2 images alone without GRE sequences were poor at detecting subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 10-25 %); rapid MRI with GRE sequences identified the majority of subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 71-93 %). GRE modestly increased detection of other extra-axial hemorrhages. Rapid MRI with GRE sequences is sensitive for most acute intracranial hemorrhages only when a prior CT is available for review. Rapid MRI is not adequate to replace CT in initial evaluation of intracranial hemorrhages but may be helpful in follow-up of known hemorrhages.

  20. [Two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia with Bacillus cereus bacteremia resulting in fatal intracranial hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, H; Moriyama, Y; Tatekawa, T; Tominaga, N; Teshima, H; Hiraoka, A; Masaoka, T; Yoshinaga, T

    1993-12-01

    This manuscript reports Bacillus cereus sepsis in two cases with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who suffered complications of fatal intracranial hemorrhage during remission induction therapy. The first case was 43-year-old male with AML (M0) receiving first consolidation chemotherapy who developed sudden diarrhea, abdominal pain and spiking fever. Two days later, he died of intracranial hemorrhage. The second case was 15-year-old male with AML (M5b) who was receiving first induction chemotherapy. He developed headache and vomiting following spiking fever and diarrhea. He died of subarachnoid hemorrhage the next day. In both cases, Bacillus cereus was isolated from blood culture. Fatal intracranial hemorrhage due to severe bleeding tendency caused rapid to death in both cases. These bleeding tendencies might have been induced by B. cereus sepsis. In addition, we should not overlook B. cereus as contamination, but rather consider it as a potential pathogen, when isolated from blood culture.

  1. Prevalence of Intracranial Hemorrhage after Blunt Head Trauma in Patients on Pre-injury Dabigatran

    PubMed Central

    Chenoweth, James A.; Johnson, M. Austin; Shook, Laura; Sutter, Mark E.; Nishijima, Daniel K.; Holmes, James F.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dabigatran etexilate was the first direct-acting oral anticoagulant approved in the United States. The prevalence of intracranial hemorrhage after blunt head trauma in patients on dabigatran is currently unknown, complicating adequate ability to accurately compare the risks and benefits of dabigatran to alternative anticoagulants. We aimed to determine the prevalence of intracranial hemorrhage for patients on dabigatran presenting to a Level I trauma center. Methods This is a retrospective observational study of adult patients on dabigatran who presented to a Level I trauma center and received cranial computed tomography (CT) following blunt head trauma. Patients who met inclusion criteria underwent manual chart abstraction. Our primary outcome was intracranial hemorrhage on initial cranial CT. Results We included a total of 33 eligible patient visits for analysis. Mean age was 74.8 years (SD 11.2, range 55–91). The most common cause of injury was ground-level fall (n = 22, 66.7%). One patient (3.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.[1–15.8%]) had intracranial hemorrhage on cranial CT. No patients (0%, 95% CI [0–8.7%]) required neurosurgical intervention. One in-hospital death occurred from infection. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the prevalence of intracranial hemorrhage after blunt head trauma for patients on dabigatran presenting to the emergency department, including those not admitted. The intracranial hemorrhage prevalence in our study is similar to previous reports for patients on warfarin. Further studies are needed to determine if the prevalence of intracranial hemorrhage seen in our patient population is true for a larger patient population in more diverse clinical settings.

  2. Intracranial hemorrhage in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving anticoagulation therapy.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Renato D; Guimarães, Patricia O; Kolls, Bradley J; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Bushnell, Cheryl D; Hanna, Michael; Easton, J Donald; Thomas, Laine; Wallentin, Lars; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Held, Claes; de Barros E Silva, Pedro Gabriel Melo; Alexander, John H; Granger, Christopher B; Diener, Hans-Christoph

    2017-03-29

    We investigated the frequency and characteristics of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), factors associated with risk of ICH, and outcomes post-ICH overall and by randomized treatment. We identified patients in ARISTOTLE with ICH who received ≥1 dose of study drug (n=18,140). ICH was adjudicated by a central committee. Cox regression models were used to identify factors associated with ICH. ICH occurred in 174 patients; most ICH events were spontaneous (71.2%) versus traumatic (28.8%). Apixaban resulted in significantly less ICH (0.33%/year), regardless of type and location, than warfarin (0.80%/year). Independent factors associated with increased risk of ICH were enrollment in Asia or Latin America, older age, prior stroke/transient ischemic attack, and aspirin use at baseline. Among warfarin-treated patients, the median (25th, 75th) time from most recent international normalized ratio (INR) to ICH was 13 (6, 21) days. Median INR prior to ICH was 2.6 (2.1, 3.0); 78.5% of patients had a pre-ICH INR <3.0. After ICH, the modified Rankin scale at discharge was ≥4 in 55.7%, and mortality at 30 days was 43.3%. No difference was observed in the rates of all-cause death post-ICH, regardless of treatment. ICH occurred at a rate of 0.80%/year with warfarin regardless of INR control and 0.33%/year with apixaban, and was associated with high short-term morbidity and mortality. This highlights the clinical relevance of reducing ICH by using apixaban rather than warfarin and avoiding concomitant aspirin, especially in patients with older age.

  3. Risk of postoperative hemorrhage after intracranial surgery after early nadroparin administration: results of a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Rüdiger; Scheuer, Timm; Beck, Jürgen; Woszczyk, Alina; Seifert, Volker; Raabe, Andreas

    2003-11-01

    Early postoperative pharmacological prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis after intracranial surgery is still a matter of debate because of concerns regarding the formation of postoperative hematoma. The objective of this study was to prospectively analyze the rate of postoperative hemorrhage during a 3-year period of early postoperative administration of the low molecular weight heparin nadroparin (Fraxiparin) plus compression stockings in a large cohort of patients undergoing intracranial surgery. A total of 2823 intracranial neurosurgical procedures, performed between June 1999 and 2002, were studied. Of these operations, 1319 (46.7%) were major intracranial surgical procedures (Group 1). Group 2 comprised 1504 operations (53.3%) considered to be minor surgical procedures (e.g., shunt procedures, biopsies). All patients except those with transnasal transsphenoidal removal of pituitary tumors underwent early postoperative imaging (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) to determine postoperative hemorrhage. All significant postoperative hematomas (defined as those requiring surgical evacuation because of relevant space occupation and/or neurological deterioration) were treated surgically. Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolic events included early (<24 h) postoperative administration of 0.3 ml nadroparin subcutaneously plus intra- and postoperative compression stockings until discharge. Forty-three major postoperative hemorrhages (1.5%) were observed after 2823 intracranial procedures (95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.05). Forty-two (3.2%) of 1319 postoperative hematomas occurred in patients undergoing major intracranial procedures (Group 1). There was only 1 (0.07%) significant hemorrhage after 1504 minor intracranial procedures (Group 2). A subgroup analysis of patients who needed preoperative anticoagulation because of medical comorbidity did not reveal an increased frequency of postoperative hematoma when anticoagulation was stopped 24 hours before

  4. Intracranial Migration of Silicone Delaying Life Saving Surgical Management: A Mimicker of Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sarohia, Dani; Javan, Ramin; Aziz, Salim

    2016-01-01

    We present a case in which intraocular silicone injection for complex retinal detachment resulted in migration and distribution of silicone along the intracranial visual pathway, and ultimately throughout the ventricular system. Misinterpretation of this material as intracranial hemorrhage on outside computed tomography imaging delayed emergent repair of a Type A aortic dissection until the diagnosis was made on repeat imaging. A discussion of this case and salient computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of silicone is provided. PMID:27761189

  5. Treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and unruptured intracranial aneurysms by neurosurgeons in Colombia: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Gutiérrez Paternina, Juan J.; Buendía de Ávila, María E.; Preciado Mesa, Edgar I.; Barrios, Rubén Sabogal; Niño-Hernández, Lucía M.; Jaramillo, Keith Suárez

    2011-01-01

    Background: Trends in management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and unruptured intracranial aneurysms among neurosurgeons is very variable and had not been previously described in any Latin American country. This study was conducted to determine the preferences of Colombian neurosurgeons in pharmacologic, surgical, and endovascular management of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Methods: A survey-based descriptive study was performed in a sample of members from the Colombian Association of Neurosurgery. Questions about pharmacologic, surgical, and endovascular management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and unruptured intracranial aneurysm were carried out. We calculated the mean and the standard deviation of the results obtained from the continuous variables. The results of the categorical variables are presented as percentages. Results: The preference of medication with poor clinical evidence, such as magnesium sulfate, aspirin, statins, and anti-fibrinolytics was lower than 10%. The use of intravenous nimodipine and systemic glucocorticoids was as high as 31%. The availability of endovascular therapy was 69%. The indication for treatment of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms that required intervention was less than 13.8%. In patients with ruptured or unruptured intracranial aneurysms, coiling was the preferred method for exclusion. Conclusions: Reported compliance of evidence-based clinical guidelines was similar to that described in developed countries, and even better. However, there is little agreement in treating patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms. For other issues, the conducts reported by Colombian neurosurgeons are in accordance with the current guidelines. PMID:22059120

  6. Intraspinal hemorrhage in spontaneous intracranial hypotension: link to superficial siderosis? Report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Schievink, Wouter I; Wasserstein, Philip; Maya, M Marcel

    2016-03-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension due to a spinal CSF leak has become a well-recognized cause of headaches, but such spinal CSF leaks also are found in approximately half of patients with superficial siderosis of the CNS. It has been hypothesized that friable vessels at the site of the spinal CSF leak are the likely source of chronic bleeding in these patients, but such an intraspinal hemorrhage has never been visualized. The authors report on 2 patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension and intraspinal hemorrhage, offering support for this hypothesis. A 33-year-old man and a 62-year-old woman with spontaneous intracranial hypotension were found to have a hemorrhage within the ventral spinal CSF collection and within the thecal sac, respectively. Treatment consisted of microsurgical repair of a ventral dural tear in the first patient and epidural blood patching in the second patient. The authors suggest that spontaneous intracranial hypotension should be included in the differential diagnosis of spontaneous intraspinal hemorrhage, and that the intraspinal hemorrhage can account for the finding of superficial siderosis when the CSF leak remains untreated.

  7. Ventricular Tract Hemorrhage Following Intracranial Nail Removal: Utility of Real-time Endovascular Assistance

    PubMed Central

    Rennert, Robert C.; Steinberg, Jeffrey A.; Sack, Jayson; Pannell, J. Scott; Khalessi, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Penetrating brain trauma commonly results in occult neurovascular injury. Detailed cerebrovascular imaging can evaluate the relationship of intracranial foreign bodies to major vascular structures, assess for traumatic pseudoaneurysms, and ensure hemostasis during surgical removal. We report a case of a self-inflicted intracranial nail gun injury causing a communicating ventricular tract hemorrhage upon removal, as well as a delayed pseudoaneurysm. Pre- and post-operative vascular imaging, as well as intra-operative endovascular assistance, was critical to successful foreign body removal in this patient. This report demonstrates the utility of endovascular techniques for the assessment and treatment of occult cerebrovascular injuries from intracranial foreign bodies. PMID:27471490

  8. An unusual case of repeated intracranial hemorrhage in vestibular schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Banaama, Saeed; van Overbeeke, Jacobus; Temel, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Symptomatic intratumoral hemorrhage (ITH) in vestibular schwannoma (VS) is rare. A repeated hemorrhage is, therefore, even more exceptional. Repeated ITH has been reported in four cases thus far in English literature. Here, we describe a patient with a Koos grade D VS who presented to our Skull Base team with repeated ITH and an unexpected disease course. Case Description: A 76-year-old woman presented with hearing loss due to polycystic VS on the left side. Five years later, the patient was presented with facial palsy caused by hemorrhage in the VS. The patient had an eventful medical history that necessitated the use of anti-coagulants. The patient suffered from three subsequent hemorrhages preoperatively and one hemorrhage 36 h postoperatively. Conclusion: We have experienced multiple repeated hemorrhages in a patient with a polycystic VS, and despite surgical intervention, the outcome was unfavorable. PMID:27999710

  9. Intracranial hypotension in the setting of concurrent perineural cyst rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Walavan; Ravindra, Vijay M; Cutler, Aaron; Couldwell, William T

    2014-06-01

    Although most patients with intracranial hypotension typically present with headaches, the rest of the clinical spectrum is characteristically non-specific and often quite variable. In a patient with concurrent pathologies that can produce a similar clinical picture, a high index of suspicion must be maintained to achieve the correct diagnosis. The authors report a patient with intracranial hypotension in the setting of concurrent perineural cyst rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 63-year-old woman with a family history of ruptured intracranial aneurysms presented after a sudden thunderclap headache and was found to have diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Imaging revealed anterior communicating and superior hypophyseal artery aneurysms. Following the uneventful clipping of both aneurysms, the patient experienced a delayed return to her neurological baseline. After it was noted that the patient had an improved neurological examination when she was placed supine, further investigation confirmed intracranial hypotension from perineural cyst rupture. The patient improved and returned to her neurological baseline after undergoing a high-volume blood patch and remained neurologically intact at postoperative follow-up. Although intracranial hypotension is known to be commonly associated with cerebrospinal fluid leak, its causal and temporal relationship with subarachnoid hemorrhage has yet to be elucidated.

  10. Headache in subarachnoid hemorrhage and headache attributed to intracranial endovascular procedures.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, E; Zagaria, M; Longoni, M

    2015-05-01

    Headache is a critical problem in the emergency setting. In this paper we briefly review the epidemiological data regarding headache in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH), considering the role of headache as a warning symptom and the other clinical manifestation of SAH. We have also introduced a recent clinical entity, represented by headache associated to intracranial endovascular procedures (IEPs).

  11. Derivation and Validation of a Serum Biomarker Panel to Identify Infants With Acute Intracranial Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Berger, Rachel Pardes; Pak, Brian J; Kolesnikova, Mariya D; Fromkin, Janet; Saladino, Richard; Herman, Bruce E; Pierce, Mary Clyde; Englert, David; Smith, Paul T; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2017-06-05

    Abusive head trauma is the leading cause of death from physical abuse. Missing the diagnosis of abusive head trauma, particularly in its mild form, is common and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Serum biomarkers may have potential as quantitative point-of-care screening tools to alert physicians to the possibility of intracranial hemorrhage. To identify and validate a set of biomarkers that could be the basis of a multivariable model to identify intracranial hemorrhage in well-appearing infants using the Ziplex System. Binary logistic regression was used to develop a multivariable model incorporating 3 serum biomarkers (matrix metallopeptidase-9, neuron-specific enolase, and vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1) and 1 clinical variable (total hemoglobin). The model was then prospectively validated. Multiplex biomarker measurements were performed using Flow-Thru microarray technology on the Ziplex System, which has potential as a point-of-care system. The model was tested at 3 pediatric emergency departments in level I pediatric trauma centers (Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Primary Children's Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah; and Lurie Children's Hospital, Chicago, Illinois) among well-appearing infants who presented for care owing to symptoms that placed them at increased risk of abusive head trauma. The study took place from November 2006 to April 2014 at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, June 2010 to August 2013 at Primary Children's Hospital, and January 2011 to August 2013 at Lurie Children's Hospital. A mathematical model that can predict acute intracranial hemorrhage in infants at increased risk of abusive head trauma. The multivariable model, Biomarkers for Infant Brain Injury Score, was applied prospectively to 599 patients. The mean (SD) age was 4.7 (3.1) months. Fifty-two percent were boys, 78% were white, and 8% were Hispanic. At a cutoff of 0.182, the model was 89

  12. The effect of furosemide on intracranial pressure and hemorrhage in preterm rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, A V; Greene, C S; Hornig, G W; Zavala, L M; Welch, K

    1989-05-01

    The hypothesis that intracranial hypotension due to excessive postnatal fluid loss places the premature infant at risk for germinal matrix and intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) was tested in preterm rabbits delivered at 28 and 29 days of gestation (term 32 days). Furosemide administered to newborn pups induced a diuresis that resulted in a 11% to 22% loss in body weight and a concomitant decline in muscle water (13% to 16%) and sodium (18% to 21%). Paradoxically, no change occurred in the water or electrolyte content of the brain even though cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue pressure, but not blood pressure, declined. These changes were absent in littermates treated with saline. Microscopic examination of brain sections revealed a greater incidence of intracranial hemorrhage, particularly in the germinal matrix and choroid plexus, in furosemide-treated than in saline-treated preterm rabbit pups. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that intracranial hypotension promotes the incidence of GH-IVH in preterm animals.

  13. [Management of intracranial hemorrhage during anticoagulant therapy with warfarin or novel anticoagulants].

    PubMed

    Yasaka, Masahiro; Okada, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    Novel anticoagulants including dabigatran and rivaroxaban have lower incidence of intracranial hemorrhage compared to warfarin. Therefore, in patients with high risks for intracranial hemorrhage, such as past history of brain infarction, brain hemorrhage, microbleeds on MRI, or concomitant use of antiplatelet, novel anticoagulant may be appropriate. Irrespective of any anticoagulants, it is essential to manage controllable risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking habit, and excessive alcohol drinking. Combination therapy of other antithrombotic agents had better be avoided as long as possible. In emergency of hemorrhage complications, discontinuation of anticoagulants, procedure to stop bleeding, and appropriate intravenous infusion is quite important and lowering blood pressure is also important when intracranial hemorrhage happens. There is no antidote to novel anticoagulants. However, oral activated charcoal may be effective if early after taking medicine. The dabigatran can be dialysed. Some experimental evidences support the role of prothrombin complex concentrate to stop bleeding. However, their usefulness in clinical setting has not been established. Collecting and analyzing data regarding immediate reversal of novel anticoagulants is required in near future.

  14. Association between Venous Angioarchitectural Features of Sporadic Brain Arteriovenous Malformations and Intracranial Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Alexander, M D; Cooke, D L; Nelson, J; Guo, D E; Dowd, C F; Higashida, R T; Halbach, V V; Lawton, M T; Kim, H; Hetts, S W

    2015-05-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage is the most serious outcome for brain arteriovenous malformations. This study examines associations between venous characteristics of these lesions and intracranial hemorrhage. Statistical analysis was performed on a prospectively maintained data base of brain AVMs evaluated at an academic medical center. DSA, CT, and MR imaging studies were evaluated to classify lesion side, drainage pattern, venous stenosis, number of draining veins, venous ectasia, and venous reflux. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the association of these angiographic features with intracranial hemorrhage of any age at initial presentation. Exclusively deep drainage (OR, 3.42; 95% CI, 1.87-6.26; P < .001) and a single draining vein (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.26-3.08; P = .002) were associated with hemorrhage, whereas venous ectasia (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.34-0.78; P = .002) was inversely associated with hemorrhage. Analysis of venous characteristics of brain AVMs may help determine their prognosis and thereby identify lesions most appropriate for treatment. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  15. Association Between Venous Angioarchitectural Features of Sporadic Brain Arteriovenous Malformations and Intracranial Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Matthew D.; Cooke, Daniel L.; Nelson, Jeffrey; Guo, Diana E.; Dowd, Christopher F.; Higashida, Randall T.; Halbach, Van V.; Lawton, Michael T.; Kim, Helen; Hetts, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Intracranial hemorrhage is the most serious outcome for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM). This study examines associations between venous characteristics of these lesions and intracranial hemorrhage. Materials and Methods Statistical analysis was performed on a prospectively maintained database of brain AVMs evaluated at an academic medical center. DSA, CT, and MRI studies were evaluated to classify lesion side, drainage pattern, venous stenosis, number of draining veins, venous ectasia, and venous reflux. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify association of these angiographic features with intracranial hemorrhage of any age at initial presentation. Results Exclusively deep drainage (OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.87–6.26, p<0.001) and a single draining vein (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.26–3.08, p=0.002) were associated with hemorrhage, whereas venous ectasia (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.34–0.78, p=0.002) was inversely associated with hemorrhage. Conclusion Analysis of venous characteristics of brain AVMs may help determine their prognosis and thereby identify lesions most appropriate for treatment. PMID:25634722

  16. Mild traumatic brain injury presenting with delayed intracranial hemorrhage in warfarin therapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pearl; Khan, Fary

    2015-08-18

    Current literature estimates the risk of delayed intracranial hemorrhage as between 0.6 and 6% after mild head injury for patients on warfarin. Due to resource allocation issues, the need to actually diagnose delayed intracranial haemorrhage has been questioned, especially if it does not require surgery. The purpose of our case report is to consider the functional implications during the six months following a mild traumatic brain injury complicated by delayed intracranial hemorrhage in a patient undergoing warfarin therapy. To the best of our knowledge, the rehabilitative and functional considerations of delayed intracranial haemorrhage in head injury have not been previously described in the literature. A previously independent 74-year-old Lebanese man living in Australia sustained mild traumatic brain injury following an unwitnessed fall from the height of two meters while on warfarin therapy, with an international normalized ratio of 4.2. He was found to have amnesia of the event and extensive facial bruising. His Glasgow Coma Scale score was 14 to 15 throughout observation. Following a non-diagnostic initial computerised tomography scan, a repeat scan at 24 hours from the injury identified large intracerebral, subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhages. A detailed examination demonstrated visuospatial and cognitive impairments. He required inpatient rehabilitation for three weeks, and outpatient rehabilitation for two months. By six months, he had returned to his pre-injury level of functioning, but was unable to resume driving. We describe rehabilitation outcomes of delayed intracranial haemorrhage and mild traumatic brain injury, with diminishing disability over six months. In our case report, the complication of the delayed intracranial haemorrhage resulted in significant activity limitations and participation restrictions, which affected the clinical management, including the need for multidisciplinary rehabilitation. The risk of delayed intracranial

  17. Spontaneous extra-axial intracranial hemorrhage followed by thrombosis in congenital afibrinogenemia: perioperative management of this rare combination.

    PubMed

    Pati, Sandipan; Kombogiorgas, Dimitris; Anwar, Ahmad; Price, Rupert F

    2009-06-01

    Although congenital afibrinogenemia can commonly present with hemorrhage from the umbilical cord at birth, or with spontaneous mucosal or intracranial hemorrhage in the neonatal period, life-threatening intracerebral hemorrhage in adults is infrequent. We report a 32-year-old woman with congenital afibrinogenemia. Postoperatively, she developed bilateral pulmonary emboli despite the fact that her INR was elevated to 2.3. Highly purified fibrinogen concentrate infusion may have partly contributed to this complication. An inferior vena caval filter was used successfully to prevent further pulmonary emboli. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage must be included in the differential diagnosis in patients with known afibrinogenemia presenting with symptoms suggesting raised intracranial pressure. Immediately after surgery, intracranial pressure monitoring of patients is mandatory to pick up further intracranial bleeding early. Fibrinogen replacement therapy is recommended before surgery, but its use as a long-term prophylaxis against hemorrhage should be weighed against the risk of thrombosis.

  18. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in a case of segmental arterial mediolysis with coexisting intracranial and intraabdominal aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ryosuke; Hironaka, Yasuo; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Park, Young-Su; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2012-05-01

    The authors report the rare case of a 58-year-old man with segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) with associated intracranial and intraabdominal aneurysms, who suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. This disease primarily involves the intraabdominal arterial system, resulting in intraabdominal and retroperitoneal hemorrhage in most cases. The patient presented with severe headache and vomiting. The CT scans of the head revealed SAH. Cerebral angiography revealed 3 aneurysms: 1 in the right distal anterior cerebral artery (ACA), 1 in the distal portion of the A(1) segment of the right ACA, and 1 in the left vertebral artery. The patient had a history of multiple intraabdominal aneurysms involving the splenic, gastroepiploic, gastroduodenal, and bilateral renal arteries. He underwent a right frontotemporal craniotomy and fibrin coating of the dissecting aneurysm in the distal portion of the A(1) segment of the right ACA, which was the cause of the hemorrhage. Follow-up revealed no significant changes in the residual intracranial and intraabdominal aneurysms. An SAH due to SAM with associated multiple intraabdominal aneurysms is extremely rare. The authors describe their particular case and review the literature pertaining to SAM with associated intracranial and intraabdominal aneurysms.

  19. Treatments for reversing warfarin anticoagulation in patients with acute intracranial hemorrhage: a structured literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Study objective The acute management of patients on warfarin with spontaneous or traumatic intracranial hemorrhage continues to be debated in the medical literature. The objective of this paper was to conduct a structured review of the medical literature and summarize the advantages and risks of the available treatment options for reversing warfarin anticoagulation in patients who present to the emergency department with acute intracranial hemorrhage. Methods A structured literature search and review of articles relevant to intracranial hemorrhage and warfarin and treatment in the emergency department was performed. Databases for PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane EBM Reviews were electronically searched using keywords covering the concepts of anticoagulation drugs, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and treatment. The results generated by the search were limited to English- language articles and reviewed for relevance to our topic. The multiple database searches revealed 586 papers for review for possible inclusion. The final consensus of our comprehensive search strategy was a total of 23 original studies for inclusion in our review. Results Warfarin not only increases the risk of but also the severity of ICH by causing hematoma expansion. Prothrombin complex concentrate is statistically significantly faster at correcting the INR compared to fresh frozen plasma transfusions. Recombinant factor VIIa appears to rapidly reverse warfarin's effect on INR; however, this treatment is not FDA-approved and is associated with a 5% thromboembolic event rate. Slow intravenous dosing of vitamin K is recommended in patients with ICH. The 30-day risk for ischemic stroke after discontinuation of warfarin therapy was 3-5%. The risks of not reversing the anticoagulation in ICH generally outweigh the risk of thrombosis in the acute setting. Conclusions Increasing numbers of patients are on anticoagulation including warfarin. There is no uniform standard for reversing warfarin in intracranial

  20. Abnormalities of the neonatal brain: MR imaging. Part I. Intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    McArdle, C B; Richardson, C J; Hayden, C K; Nicholas, D A; Crofford, M J; Amparo, E G

    1987-05-01

    The authors prospectively evaluated 82 neonates, ranging in gestational age from 29 to 44 weeks postconception, with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 0.6 T. Twenty-two cases of hemorrhage in 15 infants were identified. Ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) were superior to MR in the first few days after parenchymal hemorrhage, since at this time lesions were apparent on only T2-weighted images. After the first 3 days, MR was the single best modality because (a) hemorrhage on CT became imperceptible in the 2d week, whereas the high signal of hemorrhage on MR persisted for 2-11 weeks; (b) MR permitted rough dating of hemorrhage according to changes in signal intensity; and (c) MR was superior in identifying subdural or epidural hemorrhage. Because of the nonspecificity and restricted field of view of US and the inability of CT to depict hemorrhage after 7-10 days, the authors conclude that MR significantly improves the detection of intracranial hemorrhage in neonates.

  1. Thrombocytopenia induces multiple intracranial hemorrhages in patients with severe burns: A review of 16 cases

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, JIANDA; LIU, JINYAN; LUO, CHENGQUN; HU, FENG; LIU, RUI; CHEN, ZIZI; CHEN, YAO; XIONG, WU; XIE, JIANFEI; HE, QUANYONG; YIN, CHAOQI; WANG, SHAOHUA; ZHANG, YANWEN; ZENG, SAINAN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the etiology and diagnosis of multiple intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs) following severe burns, with a retrospective review of 16 cases of severe burns further complicated by multiple ICHs. Using cranial CT scans of the brains, we identified that all patients presented with low platelet counts and coagulation abnormalities prior to intracranial hemorrhaging. Following conventional treatment and various supporting treatments, five cases succumbed following a progressive reduction in blood platelet levels and the ICHs were cured in 11 cases following the restoration of normal platelet levels. We conclude that low platelet counts and coagulation abnormalities may cause multiple ICHs following severe burns and early diagnosis and treatment is the key to successful treatment. PMID:23935750

  2. [Intracranial hemorrhage in hemophiliacs. Study of 10 episodes].

    PubMed

    Bentancor, N; Lavalle, E; Vila, V M; Johnston, E; Borovich, B

    1992-02-01

    The intracranial haemorrhages presented within a group of 64 haemophiliacs along 25 years were revised. During this period, 10 such episodes were seen in 8 patients with haemophilia A; six of them appeared in children under 10 years of age. In five instances there were traumatic antecedents, whereas in the remaining five the haemorrhage was spontaneous, no vascular abnormalities being demonstrated in these last. The lesions observed were: intracerebral haematoma in three instances, subdural haematoma in four, subarachnoid haemorrhage in two cases and cerebellar haematoma in one case. Only one of the episodes was lethal, death being related with infectious complications. Recurrences were observed in two patients. Two patients had sequelae with seizures, plus mental retardation and motor deficit in one of them. Substitutive therapy shows capable of controlling this severe complication of haemophilia, provided it is started promptly and fair rates of factor VIII are maintained. Such therapy must be kept for longer periods in these patients with traumatic antecedents.

  3. ECG pattern in reverse takotsubo cardiomyopathy demonstrated in 5 cases with intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Elikowski, Waldemar; Małek-Elikowska, Małgorzata; Kudliński, Bartosz; Skrzywanek, Paweł; Smól, Sławomir; Rzymski, Stanisław

    2016-09-29

    In typical takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) apical transient left ventricular dysfunction with concomitant ECG changes mimicking acute anterior myocardial infarction can be observed. Reverse TC (RTC) characterized by contractile disturbances in all basal and often simultaneous mid-ventricular segments is definitely less frequent. ECG pattern of RTC is less known. The authors present ECG findings in 5 cases of RTC in course of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH); 3 patients were diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and the other two with intracerebral hemorrhage or subdural posttraumatic hematoma. In all patients, initial ECG appearance was dominated by ST segment depression in inferior leads (II, III, avF) and/or lateral leads (V4-6). In 4 patients, concurrent ST segment elevation in avR and avL leads was seen, additionally 4 patients had low QRS voltage in high lateral leads (I, avL). Potential normalization of these changes did not influence the patient`s survival. In one woman, immediately before death, early repolarization was recorded. In subjects with an increased risk of TC, for example in intracranial hemorrhage, particularly in SAH, the ECG abnormalities presented may indicate a need for further search of its atypical echocardiographic variants.

  4. Retrieval of intracranial hemorrhages in computed tomography brain images using binary coherent vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, W. Mimi Diyana W.; Fauzi, M. Faizal A.; Besar, Rosli

    2010-10-01

    We investigate the use of a new binary coherent vector approach, integrated in a proposed content-based medical retrieval (CBMIR) system, to retrieve computed tomography (CT) brain images. Five types of hemorrhages consisting of 150 plain axial CT brain images are queried from a database of 2500 normal and abnormal CT brain images. Possible combinations of shape features are portrayed as feature vectors and are evaluated based on precision-recall plots. Solidity, form factor, equivalent circular diameter (ECD), and Hu moment are proposed as identifying features of intracranial hemorrhages in CT brain images. In addition to identifying hemorrhages, the proposed approach significantly improves the CBMIR system performance. This retrieval system can be widely useful due to rapid development in computer vision and computer database management, both of which motivated this application of CBMIR.

  5. The Effects of Vasospasm and Re-Bleeding on the Outcome of Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage from Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Filipce, Venko; Caparoski, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Vasospasm and re-bleeding after subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysm are devastating complication that can severely affect the outcome of the patients. We are presenting a series of total number of 224 patients treated and operated at our Department due to subarachnoid hemorrhage, out of which certain number developed vasospasm and re-bleeding. We are evaluating the effect of these complications on the outcome of the patients according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale at the day of discharge. In our experience both vasospasm and ReSAH can significantly influence the outcome of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

  6. Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage Correlates with Preinjury Brain Atrophy, but Not with Antithrombotic Agent Use: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, C. Michael; Hoffman, David A.; Huang, Gregory S.; Omert, Laurel A.; Gemmel, David J.; Merrell, Renee

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of antithrombotic agents (warfarin, clopidogrel, ASA) on traumatic brain injury outcomes is highly controversial. Although cerebral atrophy is speculated as a risk for acute intracranial hemorrhage, there is no objective literature evidence. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective, consecutive investigation of patients with signs of external head trauma and age ≥60 years. Outcomes were correlated with antithrombotic-agent status, coagulation test results, admission neurologic function, and CT-based cerebral atrophy dimensions. Results Of 198 consecutive patients, 36% were antithrombotic-negative and 64% antithrombotic-positive. ASA patients had higher arachidonic acid inhibition (p = 0.04) and warfarin patients had higher INR (p<0.001), compared to antithrombotic-negative patients. Antithrombotic-positive intracranial hemorrhage rate (38.9%) was similar to the antithrombotic-negative rate (31.9%; p = 0.3285). Coagulopathy was not present on the ten standard coagulation, thromboelastography, and platelet mapping tests with intracranial hemorrhage and results were similar to those without hemorrhage (p≥0.1354). Hemorrhagic-neurologic complication (intracranial hemorrhage progression, need for craniotomy, neurologic deterioration, or death) rates were similar for antithrombotic-negative (6.9%) and antithrombotic-positive (8.7%; p = 0.6574) patients. The hemorrhagic-neurologic complication rate was increased when admission major neurologic dysfunction was present (63.2% versus 2.2%; RR = 28.3; p<0.001). Age correlated inversely with brain parenchymal width (p<0.001) and positively with lateral ventricular width (p = 0.047) and cortical atrophy (p<0.001). Intracranial hemorrhage correlated with cortical atrophy (p<0.001) and ventricular width (p<0.001). Conclusions Intracranial hemorrhage is not associated with antithrombotic agent use. Intracranial hemorrhage patients have no demonstrable coagulopathy. The association

  7. Brain Ischemia in Patients with Intracranial Hemorrhage: Pathophysiological Reasoning for Aggressive Diagnostic Management

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, Daniel; Arkuszewski, Michal; Rudzinski, Wojciech; Melhem, Elias R.; Krejza, Jaroslaw

    2013-01-01

    Summary Patients with intracranial hemorrhage have to be managed aggressively to avoid or minimize secondary brain damage due to ischemia, which contributes to high morbidity and mortality. The risk of brain ischemia, however, is not the same in every patient. The risk of complications associated with an aggressive prophylactic therapy in patients with a low risk of brain ischemia can outweigh the benefits of therapy. Accurate and timely identification of patients at highest risk is a diagnostic challenge. Despite the availability of many diagnostic tools, stroke is common in this population, mostly because the pathogenesis of stroke is frequently multifactorial whereas diagnosticians tend to focus on one or two risk factors. The pathophysiological mechanisms of brain ischemia in patients with intracranial hemorrhage are not yet fully elucidated and there are several important areas of ongoing research. Therefore, this review describes physiological and pathophysiological aspects associated with the development of brain ischemia such as the mechanism of oxygen and carbon dioxide effects on the cerebrovascular system, neurovascular coupling and respiratory and cardiovascular factors influencing cerebral hemodynamics. Consequently, we review investigations of cerebral blood flow disturbances relevant to various hemodynamic states associated with high intracranial pressure, cerebral embolism, and cerebral vasospasm along with current treatment options. PMID:24355179

  8. The 100 most influential publications pertaining to intracranial aneurysms and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zhou, James; Agarwal, Nitin; Hamilton, D Kojo; Koltz, Michael T

    2017-03-25

    The study of intracranial aneurysms has grown at an astounding rate since Sir Charles Symond's association of hemorrhage within the subarachnoid space to intracranial aneurysms in 1923. These associations led to the first surgical treatment of an intracranial aneurysm with wrapping by Norman Dott in 1931, and shortly thereafter, clip ligation by Walter Dandy in 1938. Surgical outcomes were improved by the introduction of the operative microscope in the 1960s and perioperative care utilizing induced hypertension, hypovolemia, and hemodilution ("HHH therapy"). Recent monumental advancements, such as coil embolization in 1990 by Guglielmi, have continued to advance the field forward. The authors hope to highlight some of the most seminal and influential works. Herein, we utilize the technique of citation analysis to assemble a list of the 100 most influential works pertaining to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage published between the years 1900 and 2015 to honor these individuals and to provide guidance to current and future researchers in the field. We additionally calculate the effects of author, journal, topic, and study design on the overall influence of publications in this field.

  9. Risk factors for 1-year mortality in patients with nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage requiring intensive care.

    PubMed

    Junttila, E K; Koskenkari, J; Romppainen, N; Ohtonen, P P; Karttunen, A; Ala-Kokko, T I

    2011-10-01

    Mortality in patients with intracranial hemorrhage remains high. The aim of this study was to determine the 1-year survival and potential risk factors for 1-year mortality in patients with nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage requiring intensive care. This was a 3-year (2005-2007) retrospective study in a university-level intensive care unit (ICU). Patient characteristics, level of consciousness, and radiological findings of the primary head computed tomography were recorded on admission. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores were recorded during the ICU stay. Patients were divided into two groups: subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) group and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) group. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed, and independent risk factors were determined using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Two hundred twenty-nine patients were analyzed. The 1-year mortality rate was 32% in patients with SAH and 44% in patients with ICH. The risk factors for 1-year mortality in both groups were unconsciousness on admission [SAH: hazard ratio (HR) 6.2, P = 0.017 and ICH: HR 3.0, P = 0.004] and renal failure during the ICU stay (SAH: HR 2.5, P = 0.021 and ICH: HR 3.6, P = 0.021). Risk factors specific to the type of hemorrhage were the presence of ICH (HR 2.0, P = 0.033) and diffuse cerebral edema (HR 2.3, P = 0.017) in the SAH group and a prior use of warfarin (HR 5.1, P = 0.016) in the ICH group. In addition to decreased level of consciousness on admission, renal failure during the ICU stay is an independent risk factor for 1-year mortality in nontraumatic SAH as well as ICH. 2011 The Authors Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 2011 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  10. Reversible coma and Duret hemorrhage after intracranial hypotension from remote lumbar spine surgery: case report.

    PubMed

    Bonow, Robert H; Bales, James W; Morton, Ryan P; Levitt, Michael R; Zhang, Fangyi

    2016-03-01

    Intracranial hypotension is a rare condition caused by spontaneous or iatrogenic CSF leaks that alter normal CSF dynamics. Symptoms range from mild headaches to transtentorial herniation, coma, and death. Duret hemorrhages have been reported to occur in some patients with this condition and are traditionally believed to be associated with a poor neurological outcome. A 73-year-old man with a remote history of spinal fusion presented with syncope and was found to have small subdural hematomas on head CT studies. He was managed nonoperatively and discharged with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15, only to return 3 days later with obtundation, fixed downward gaze, anisocoria, and absent cranial nerve reflexes. A CT scan showed Duret hemorrhages and subtle enlargement of the subdural hematomas, though the hematomas remained too small to account for his poor clinical condition. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed a large lumbar pseudomeningocele in the area of prior fusion. His condition dramatically improved when he was placed in the Trendelenburg position and underwent repair of the pseudomeningocele. He was kept flat for 7 days and was ultimately discharged in good condition. On long-term follow-up, his only identifiable deficit was diplopia due to an internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Intracranial hypotension is a rare condition that can cause profound morbidity, including tonsillar herniation and brainstem hemorrhage. With proper identification and treatment of the CSF leak, patients can make functional recoveries.

  11. Helmet use is associated with a decrease in intracranial hemorrhage following all-terrain vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Rostas, Jack W; Donnellan, Kimberly A; Gonzalez, Richard P; Brevard, Sidney B; Ahmed, Naveed; Rogers, Emily A; Stinson, Joey; Porter, John M; Replogle, William H; Simmons, Jon D

    2014-01-01

    With the recent increase in size and horsepower of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), it is imperative that preventable injuries be identified to protect the large population using ATVs. Currently, many states have no laws regulating ATV or helmet use. By identifying preventable injuries, the legislature can design appropriate laws to protect both children and adults. A retrospective review of all patients with ATV injuries presenting between the years 2005 and 2010 was conducted. The data were grouped in several ways for analysis. This included age less than 9 years, weight less than 30 kg, crash at night, substance abuse, and presence of a helmet. There were 481 patients included in the study. Only 28 (8%) were using a helmet at the time of the crash. Helmet use was associated with less intracranial hemorrhage (3% vs. 22%, p = 0.01) and a decreased incidence of loss of consciousness (14% vs. 35%, p = 0.01). Patients testing positive for alcohol intoxication with or without drugs were significantly more likely to have intracranial hemorrhage, to crash at night, to have facial fracture, to have rib fracture, to arrive intubated, and to have a higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) (p < 0.01 for all). With the recent increase in size and horsepower of ATVs, it is imperative that preventable injuries be identified to help protect a growing population of ATV operators. This study reveals a high rate of intracranial hemorrhage following an ATV crash in operators who do not use a helmet. Legislative efforts to implement strict helmet laws for ATV operators may be warranted. Prognostic study, level III.

  12. Remote intracranial hemorrhage following surgery for giant orbitofrontal growing skull fracture: A lesson learnt.

    PubMed

    Baldawa, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Growing skull fracture is an extremely rare complication of pediatric head injury, especially in infants. Repair of the dural tear early in the course of development of growing skull fracture has been suggested for a better outcome. Surgical repair of large, tense growing skull fractures, especially those in the communication of the ventricles can lead to potentially life-threatening complications. The author reports a rare case of remote intracranial hemorrhage following surgery for large, tense growing skull fracture in a 12-year-old girl and discusses the likely pathogenesis and possible ways to avoid this life-threatening complication.

  13. Anosognosia for hemiplegia with preserved awareness of complete cortical blindness following intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Prigatano, George P; Matthes, Jessica; Hill, Stacy W; Wolf, Thomas R; Heiserman, Joseph E

    2011-01-01

    A 51-year-old woman presented with anosognosia for hemiplegia (AHP), neglect, and a complete loss of vision, for which she was almost immediately aware. Neuroimaging studies revealed intracranial hemorrhages in the medial temporal lobes bilaterally, extending back to the occipital cortex, but sparing the calcarine cortex. A large right frontal-parietal hemorrhage which extended to the posterior body of the corpus callosum was also observed. The patient's vision slowly improved, and by 11 months post onset, formal visual fields revealed improvement primarily in the left upper quadrants only. In contrast, resolution of her AHP occurred between the 26th and 31st day post onset. Awareness of motor impairment was correlated with her ability to initiate finger tapping in her left hemiplegic/paretic hand. During the time she was unaware of her motor deficits but aware of her visual impairments, her dreams did not reflect concerns over visual or motor limitations. The findings support a "modular" theory of anosognosia.

  14. Risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage and nonhemorrhagic stroke after fibrinolytic therapy (from the GUSTO-i trial).

    PubMed

    Kandzari, David E; Granger, Christopher B; Simoons, Maarten L; White, Harvey D; Simes, John; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Gore, Joel; Weaver, W Douglas; Longstreth, William T; Stebbins, Amanda; Lee, Kerry L; Califf, Robert M; Topol, Eric J

    2004-02-15

    Of 592 patients in the Global Utilization of Streptokinase and tPA for Occluded Arteries-I trial who had a stroke during initial hospitalization, the risk for intracranial hemorrhage was significantly greater in those with recent facial or head trauma (odds ratio 13.0, 95% confidence interval 3.4 to 85.5); dementia was additionally associated with an increased risk for intracranial hemorrhage (odds ratio 3.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 10.2). Because facial or head trauma may greatly influence treatment decisions, this risk factor should be incorporated into models designed to estimate the risks and benefits of fibrinolytic therapy.

  15. Fetal-Maternal Hemorrhage Detected by Sudden Disappearance of Rh Immune Globulin-Related Anti-D.

    PubMed

    King, Jennifer R; Zeger, Gary D; Plaza, Natalie; Lee, Richard H; Shulman, Ira A

    2015-12-01

    Fetal-maternal hemorrhage is usually spontaneous and goes undetected but can be associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. We describe the detection of a fetal-maternal hemorrhage by abrupt disappearance of prophylactic anti-D on antibody screen in an Rh-negative mother with dichorionic twins admitted for atrial flutter of one twin. Both rosette and Kleihauer-Betke tests were positive. The diagnosis was confirmed by anemia in one twin at birth. Fetal-maternal hemorrhage requires a high index of suspicion for diagnosis. An unexpected sudden decline in Rh immune globulin-related anti-D may be an indication of fetal-maternal hemorrhage.

  16. Fetal Allostimulation of Maternal Cells: A Potential Mechanism for Perinatal HIV Transmission following Obstetrical Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangwu; Izadpanah, Nazanin; Kitchen, Christina M.R.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Our aim was to elucidate the mechanism by which HIV transmission is increased following obstetrical hemorrhage. We investigated whether fetal allostimulation of maternal cells, which could occur following fetal-to-maternal hemorrhage, increases proliferation, HIV replication, and cellular activation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from HIV-infected mothers and their infants to assess maternal-fetal allostimulation. Responses were compared to allostimulation with unrelated donors. Maternal and fetal cells were cocultured to assess allogeneic stimulation. Cell proliferation was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation and cell activation was assessed via fluorochrome-labeled antibody staining and flow cytometric analysis. Virus production from HIV-infected maternal cells was quantitated by p24 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or by branched chain DNA assay. Allostimulation with fetal cells led to maternal cell proliferation. In women with unsuppressed viral loads, virus release was also enhanced following allostimulation of maternal cells with fetal cells. Fetal cells are capable of allogeneically stimulating maternal cells, with responses comparable to those seen following allostimulation with unrelated donors. Allostimulation of maternal cells by fetal cells results in statistically significant increases in proliferation and enhanced HIV replication, suggesting a possible physiological mechanism for mother-to-child transmission of HIV in women with obstetrical hemorrhage. PMID:19102686

  17. Intracranial vertebral artery dissection resulting in fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage: clinical and histopathological investigations from a medicolegal perspective.

    PubMed

    Ro, Ayako; Kageyama, Norimasa; Abe, Nobuyuki; Takatsu, Akihiro; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2009-05-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to a ruptured intracranial vertebral artery (VA) dissection sometimes results in a sudden fatal outcome. The authors analyzed the relationship between clinical features and histopathological characteristics among fatal cases to establish valuable information for clinical diagnostics and prophylaxis. This study included 58 medicolegal autopsy cases of ruptured intracranial VA dissection among 553 fatal nontraumatic cases of SAH that occurred between January 2000 and December 2007. Their clinical features were obtained from autopsy records. Histopathological investigations were performed on cross-sections obtained from all 4-mm segments of whole bilateral intracranial VAs and prepared with H & E and elastica van Gieson staining. The autopsy cases included 47 males and 11 females, showing a marked predilection for males. The mean age was 46.8 +/- 7.7 years, with 78% of the patients in their 40s or 50s. Hypertension was the most frequently encountered history; it was found in 36% of cases from clinical history and in 55% of cases based on autopsy findings. Prodromal symptoms related to intracranial VA dissections were detected in 43% of patients. Headache or neck pain lasting hours to weeks was a frequent complaint. Of patients with prodromal symptoms, 44% had consulted doctors; however, in none of these was SAH or intracranial VA dissection diagnosed at a preventable stage. Autopsy revealed fusiform aneurysms with medial dissecting hematomas. Apart from ruptured intracranial VA dissection, previous intracranial VA dissection was detected in 25 cases (43%); among them, 10 showed previous dissection of the bilateral intracranial VAs. The incidence of prodromal symptoms (60%) among the patients with previous intracranial VA dissection was significantly higher than that (30%) among cases without previous dissection (chi-square test; p = 0.023). Most previous intracranial VA dissections formed a single lumen resembling nonspecific

  18. Intracranial hemorrhage due to vitamin K deficiency in infants: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, C; Yuca, S A; Yilmaz, N; Bektaş, M S; Caksen, H

    2009-01-01

    The hospital records of 30 infants with a diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) due to late onset of vitamin K deficiency, seen during a 5-year period (2001-2005) were retrospectively evaluated. Signs and symptoms of the patients were convulsions (80%), poor sucking (50%), irritability (40%), vomiting (47%), acute diarrhea (33%), and fever (40%). On physical examination there were bulging or full fontanel in 19 patients (63%), collapsed fontanel in one (3%), diminished or absent neonatal reflexes in 11 (37%), pallor in 14 (47%), and cyanosis in one (3%) patient. Gastrointestinal disorder, skin hemorrhagic findings, and epistaxis each were noted in two (7%) patients. All the infants had prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and seven had prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), both of which were corrected by the administration of vitamin K. All the infants had ICH, with the most common being intraparenchymal hemorrhage, followed by multiple type ICH (27%). Neurosurgical intervention was performed in five patients (17%). The overall case fatality rate was 33%. In conclusion, we would like to stress that ICH due to vitamin K deficiency in infants is still an important health problem in Turkey resulting in high mortality rate.

  19. Incidental intracranial hemorrhage after uncomplicated birth: MRI before and after neonatal heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Tavani, F; Zimmerman, R A; Clancy, R R; Licht, D J; Mahle, W T

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the prevalence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) before and after neonatal heart surgery. We carried out pre- and postoperative MRI looking for brain lesions in 24 full-term newborns with known congenital heart disease. They underwent heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), usually with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). The first MRI was 1-22 days after birth. There were 21 children born after uncomplicated vaginal delivery and three delivered by cesarean section (CS). ICH was seen in 13 (62%) of the vaginal delivery group but in none of the CS group. We saw subdural bleeding along the inferior surface of the tentorium in 11 (52%) and supratentorially in six (29%) of the 21 children with ICH. Small hemorrhages were present in the choroid plexus in seven (33%), in the parenchyma in one (5%) and in the occipital horn in one (5%). There were 26 foci of bleeding in these 21 patients (1.2 per patient). None was judged by formal neurologic examination to be symptomatic from the hemorrhage. Follow-up MRI after cardiac surgery was obtained in 23 children, showing 37 foci of ICH (1.6 per patient), but all appeared asymptomatic. Postoperatively, ICH had increased in 10 children (43%), was unchanged in seven (30%) and was less extensive in six (26%).

  20. Effect of inter-tissue inductive coupling on multi-frequency imaging of intracranial hemorrhage by magnetic induction tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhili; Tan, Chao; Dong, Feng

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is a promising technique for continuous monitoring of intracranial hemorrhage due to its contactless nature, low cost and capacity to penetrate the high-resistivity skull. The inter-tissue inductive coupling increases with frequency, which may lead to errors in multi-frequency imaging at high frequency. The effect of inter-tissue inductive coupling was investigated to improve the multi-frequency imaging of hemorrhage. An analytical model of inter-tissue inductive coupling based on the equivalent circuit was established. A set of new multi-frequency decomposition equations separating the phase shift of hemorrhage from other brain tissues was derived by employing the coupling information to improve the multi-frequency imaging of intracranial hemorrhage. The decomposition error and imaging error are both decreased after considering the inter-tissue inductive coupling information. The study reveals that the introduction of inter-tissue inductive coupling can reduce the errors of multi-frequency imaging, promoting the development of intracranial hemorrhage monitoring by multi-frequency MIT.

  1. A case of maternal vitamin K deficiency associated with hyperemesis gravidarum: its potential impact on fetal blood coagulability.

    PubMed

    Shigemi, Daisuke; Nakanishi, Kazuho; Miyazaki, Miwa; Shibata, Yoshie; Suzuki, Shunji

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin K deficiency is associated with malnutrition in some complications, such as hyperemesis gravidarum, active gastrointestinal diseases, and psychological disorders. Maternal vitamin K deficiency can cause fetal bleeding, in particular, fetal intracranial hemorrhage. Although fetal hemorrhage is uncommon, severe damage to the fetus may be inevitable. We describe a pregnant woman with vitamin K deficiency possibly due to hyperemesis gravidarum. The patient was treated for the deficiency, and no fetal or neonatal hemorrhagic diseases were manifested.

  2. Optical imaging of intracranial hemorrhages in newborns: modern strategies in diagnostics and direction for future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. N.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Lychagov, V. V.; Bibikova, O. A.; Sindeev, S. S.; Pavlova, O. N.; Shuvalova, E. P.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-05-01

    Using Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) we study stress-related intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs) in newborn rats. We investigate a masked stage of ICH development that corresponds to the first 4 h after the stress. We show that this period is characterized by significant changes in the diameter of the sagittal vein and the velocity of the cerebral venous blood flow (CVBF). We discuss diagnostic abilities of wavelet-based methods and consider an adaptive technique allowing us to reveal clearest distinctions in the dynamics of CVBF between normal and stressed newborn rats. Finally, we conclude that the venous insufficiency in newborns and a reduced response of the sagittal vein to adrenaline are related to important prognostic markers of the risk of ICH development.

  3. Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage in a patient with Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hameed, Fahad M.

    2017-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS-CoV) is a novel positive sense singlestranded ribonucleic acid virus of the genus Beta corona virus. This virus was first isolated from a patient who died from severe respiratory illness in June 2012 in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We describe an unusual case of a 42 year old healthcare worker who was admitted to our Intensive Care Unit (ICU) King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, with MERS-CoV and severe acute respiratory distress Syndrome and developed a sudden-onset diabetes insipidus and spontaneous massive intracranial hemorrhage with intra-ventricular extension and tonsillar herniation. Computed angiogram of the brain did not reveal any aneurysm or structural defects. She never had uncontrolled hypertension, or coagulopathy, nor she received antiplatelets. We are reporting a rare case of structural neurological damage associated with MERS-CoV infection. PMID:28133694

  4. Predictors for Symptomatic Intracranial Hemorrhage After Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yonggang; Yang, Dong; Wang, Huaiming; Zi, Wenjie; Zhang, Meng; Geng, Yu; Zhou, Zhiming; Wang, Wei; Xu, Haowen; Tian, Xiguang; Lv, Penghua; Liu, Yuxiu; Xiong, Yunyun; Liu, Xinfeng; Xu, Gelin

    2017-05-01

    Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) pose a major safety concern for endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke. This study aimed to evaluate the risk and related factors of SICH after endovascular treatment in a real-world practice. Patients with stroke treated with stent-like retrievers for recanalizing a blocked artery in anterior circulation were enrolled from 21 stroke centers in China. Intracranial hemorrhage was classified as symptomatic and asymptomatic ones according to Heidelberg Bleeding Classification. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors for SICH. Of the 632 enrolled patients, 101 (16.0%) were diagnosed with SICH within 72 hours after endovascular treatment. Ninety-day mortality was higher in patients with SICH than in patients without SICH (65.3% versus 18.8%; P<0.001). On multivariate analysis, baseline neutrophil ratio >0.83 (odds ratio [OR], 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-3.46), pretreatment Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score of <6 (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.24-4.14), stroke of cardioembolism type (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.13-3.25), poor collateral circulation (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.16-3.36), delay from symptoms onset to groin puncture >270 minutes (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.03-2.80), >3 passes with retriever (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.40-4.65) were associated with SICH after endovascular treatment. Incidence of SICH after thrombectomy is higher in Asian patients with acute ischemic stroke. Cardioembolic stroke, poor collateral circulation, delayed endovascular treatment, multiple passes with stent retriever device, lower pretreatment Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score, higher baseline neutrophil ratio may increase the risk of SICH. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. External Ventricular Drainage Preceding the Removal of a Nail from the Intracranial Space as a Safe Management Strategy for Predicted Secondary Intraventricular Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Morita, Takumi; Maki, Yoshinori; Yamada, Daisuke; Ishibashi, Ryota; Chin, Masaki; Yamagata, Sen

    2017-10-01

    Intracranial nail gun injury is a rare traumatic event and can result from a suicide attempt. Cerebral angiography is essential in the evaluation of damage to the intracranial vessels, and surgical removal of nails is generally the optimal treatment. Intraventricular hemorrhage can happen after removal of intracranial nails. Endovascular surgery or intraoperative computed tomography has been reported to be useful for detection and treatment of intraventricular hemorrhage. After the surgical removal of nails, attention should be paid for complications such as pseudoaneurysm and infection. A 63-year-old man with a history of depression was transferred to our hospital in an unconscious state. Physical examination showed 2 nails puncturing his left thorax, and computed tomography revealed a nail puncturing the intracranial space. No damage to these intracranial vessels was observed on computed tomography angiography and venography. After drainage for potential intraventricular hemorrhage, the nails were removed. Postoperatively, prophylactic antibiotic therapy was administrated for secondary infection. Computed tomography angiography did not detect any postoperative pseudoaneurysms. The patient also underwent therapy from a psychiatrist and was transferred to another hospital. As for treatment of a case of intracranial nail gun injury, our case shows that preoperative cerebral angiography is not always needed in intracranial nail gun injury when there is no apparent damage to the intracranial vessels and emergent removal of nails is required. External ventricular drainage preceding the removal of a puncture object can be an effective management strategy for secondary intraventricular hemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk of Delayed Intracranial Hemorrhage in Anticoagulated Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chauny, Jean-Marc; Marquis, Martin; Bernard, Francis; Williamson, David; Albert, Martin; Laroche, Mathieu; Daoust, Raoul

    2016-11-01

    Delayed intracranial hemorrhage is a potential complication of head trauma in anticoagulated patients. Our aim was to use a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the risk of delayed intracranial hemorrhage 24 h after head trauma in patients who have a normal initial brain computed tomography (CT) scan but took vitamin K antagonist before injury. EMBASE, Medline, and Cochrane Library were searched using controlled vocabulary and keywords. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. Outcomes included positive CT scan 24 h post-trauma, need for surgical intervention, or death. Pooled risk was estimated with logit proportion in a random effect model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Seven publications were identified encompassing 1,594 patients that were rescanned after a normal first head scan. For these patients, the pooled estimate of the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage on the second CT scan 24 h later was 0.60% (95% CI 0-1.2%) and the resulting risk of neurosurgical intervention or death was 0.13% (95% CI 0.02-0.45%). The present study is the first published meta-analysis estimating the risk of delayed intracranial hemorrhage 24 h after head trauma in patients anticoagulated with vitamin K antagonist and normal initial CT scan. In most situations, a repeat CT scan in the emergency department 24 h later is not necessary if the first CT scan is normal. Special care may be required for patients with serious mechanism of injury, patients showing signs of neurologic deterioration, and patients presenting with excessive anticoagulation or receiving antiplatelet co-medication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Delayed hemorrhagic complications after flow diversion for intracranial aneurysms: a literature overview

    PubMed Central

    Rouchaud, Aymeric; Brinjikji, Waleed; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Cloft, Harry J.; Kadirvel, Ramanthan; Kallmes, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Delayed aneurysm rupture and delayed intraparenchymal hemorrhages (DIPH) are poorly understood and often fatal complications of flow diversion (FD) for intracranial aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for these complications. Materials and Methods We performed a systematic review on post-FD delayed aneurysm rupture and DIPH. For each reported case we collected the following information: aneurysm location, size and rupture status, type of flow-diverter used, timing of the hemorrhage, and neurological outcome. We reported descriptive statistics of patients suffering DIPH and delayed aneurysm rupture to determine if there were any characteristics consistently present among patients with these complications. Results We identified 81 delayed aneurysms ruptures and 101 DIPH. 76.6% (45/58) of the delayed ruptures occurred within one month. The prognosis of delayed ruptures was poor, with 81.3% (61/75) experiencing death or poor neurological outcome. Giant aneurysms accounted for 46.3% of ruptures (31/67). 80.9% (55/68) of these aneurysms were initially unruptured. 17.8% (13/73) of the delayed ruptured aneurysms had prior or concomitant coiling. DIPHs were ipsilateral to the treated aneurysm in 82.2% (60/73) of cases. 86.0% (43/50) of the DIPH occurred within one month after FDS. Combined morbidity/mortality rate was 68.5% (50/73 following DIPH. 23.0% of DIPHs (14/61) occurred in patients with giant aneurysms. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that giant aneurysms represent almost 50% of delayed aneurysm ruptures in the flow-diverter literature. About 20% of delayed ruptures occurred despite associated coiling. A substantial proportion of DIPHs occur early following FDS treatment of giant aneurysms. PMID:26553302

  8. Regularization design for high-quality cone-beam CT of intracranial hemorrhage using statistical reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, H.; Stayman, J. W.; Xu, J.; Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Wang, X.; Foos, D. H.; Aygun, N.; Koliatsos, V. E.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with pathologies such as hemorrhagic stroke and traumatic brain injury. Multi-detector CT is the current front-line imaging modality for detecting ICH (fresh blood contrast 40-80 HU, down to 1 mm). Flat-panel detector (FPD) cone-beam CT (CBCT) offers a potential alternative with a smaller scanner footprint, greater portability, and lower cost potentially well suited to deployment at the point of care outside standard diagnostic radiology and emergency room settings. Previous studies have suggested reliable detection of ICH down to 3 mm in CBCT using high-fidelity artifact correction and penalized weighted least-squared (PWLS) image reconstruction with a post-artifact-correction noise model. However, ICH reconstructed by traditional image regularization exhibits nonuniform spatial resolution and noise due to interaction between the statistical weights and regularization, which potentially degrades the detectability of ICH. In this work, we propose three regularization methods designed to overcome these challenges. The first two compute spatially varying certainty for uniform spatial resolution and noise, respectively. The third computes spatially varying regularization strength to achieve uniform "detectability," combining both spatial resolution and noise in a manner analogous to a delta-function detection task. Experiments were conducted on a CBCT test-bench, and image quality was evaluated for simulated ICH in different regions of an anthropomorphic head. The first two methods improved the uniformity in spatial resolution and noise compared to traditional regularization. The third exhibited the highest uniformity in detectability among all methods and best overall image quality. The proposed regularization provides a valuable means to achieve uniform image quality in CBCT of ICH and is being incorporated in a CBCT prototype for ICH imaging.

  9. Risk of Intracranial Hemorrhage From Statin Use in Asians: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hsuin; Lin, Chin-Hsien; Caffrey, James L; Lee, Yen-Chieh; Liu, Ying-Chun; Lin, Jou-Wei; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2015-06-09

    Reports of statin usage and increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) have been inconsistent. This study examined potential associations between statin usage and the risk of ICH in subjects without a previous history of stroke. Patients initiating statin therapy between 2005 and 2009 without a previous history of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke were identified from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database. Participants were stratified by advanced age (≥70 years), sex, and diagnosed hypertension. The outcome of interest was hospital admission for ICH (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 430, 431, 432). Cox regression models were applied to estimate the hazard ratio of ICH. The cumulative statin dosage stratified by quartile and adjusted for baseline disease risk score served as the primary variable using the lowest quartile of cumulative dosage as a reference. There were 1 096 547 statin initiators with an average follow-up of 3.3 years. The adjusted hazard ratio for ICH between the highest and the lowest quartile was nonsignificant at 1.06 with a 95% confidence interval spanning 1.00 (0.94-1.19). Similar nonsignificant results were found in sensitivity analyses using different outcome definitions or model adjustments, reinforcing the robustness of the study findings. Subgroup analysis identified an excess of ICH frequency in patients without diagnosed hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio 1.36 [1.11-1.67]). In general, no association was observed between cumulative statin use and the risk of ICH among subjects without a previous history of stroke. An increased risk was identified among the nonhypertensive cohort, but this finding should be interpreted with caution. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Influence of gestational age on death and neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants with severe intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, R F; Cotten, C M; Shankaran, S; Gantz, M G; Poole, W K

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether death and/or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) after severe intracranial hemorrhage (ICH; grade 3 or 4) differs by gestational age (GA) at birth in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Demographic, perinatal and neonatal factors potentially contributing to NDI for ELBW infants (23 to 28 weeks gestation) were obtained retrospectively; outcome data came from the ELBW Follow-up Study. NDI was defined at 18 to 22 months corrected age as moderate/severe cerebral palsy, Bayley Scales of Infant Development II cognitive or motor score <70, and/or blindness or deafness. Characteristics of younger versus older infants with no versus severe ICH associated with death or NDI were compared. Generalized linear mixed models predicted death or NDI in each GA cohort. Of the 6638 infants, 61.8% had no ICH and 13.6% had severe ICH; 39% of survivors had NDI. Risk-adjusted odds of death or NDI and death were higher in the lower GA group. Lower GA increased the odds of death before 30 days for infants with severe ICH. Necrotizing enterocolitis (particularly surgical NEC), late onset infection, cystic periventricular leukomalacia and post-natal steroids contributed to mortality risk. NDI differed by GA in infants without ICH and grade 3, but not grade 4 ICH. Contributors to NDI in infants with severe ICH included male gender, surgical NEC and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus requiring a shunt. GA contributes to the risk of death in ELBW infants, but not NDI among survivors with severe ICH. Male gender, surgical NEC and need for a shunt add additional risk for NDI.

  11. Intracranial hemorrhage induced uncontrolled seizure in a deceased donor liver transplant patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seung-Young; Lee, Hannah; Park, Yang-Hyo

    2016-01-01

    Seizure is the second most common neurologic complication after liver transplantation and may be caused by metabolic abnormalities, electrolyte imbalance, infection, and immunosuppressant toxicity. A 61-year-old male patient underwent liver transplantation due to hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis with portal systemic encephalopathy. The immediate postoperative course of the patient was uncomplicated. However, on postoperative day (POD) 6, weakness developed in both lower extremities. No abnormal findings were detected on a brain computed tomography (CT) scan on POD 8, but a generalized tonic clonic seizure developed which was difficult to control even with multiple antiepileptic drugs. A follow-up brain CT scan on POD 15 showed a 2.7 cm sized acute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in the left parietal lobe. The patient's mental status improved after 2 months and he was able to communicate through eye blinking or head shaking. Our case reports an acute ICH that manifested into a refractory seizure in a patient who underwent a liver transplant. PMID:27703637

  12. Intracranial hemorrhage and novel anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation: what have we learned?

    PubMed

    Hankey, Graeme J

    2014-05-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) affects 0.2-0.5 % of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients taking a novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC) each year. About two thirds of ICHs are intracerebral and one quarter subdural. The 30-day case fatality of NOAC-associated ICH was similar to that of warfarin-associated ICH in two trials. Consistent predictors of ICH are increasing age, a history of prior stroke or TIA, and concomitant use of an antiplatelet drug. Compared to warfarin, the NOACs significantly reduce the risk of ICH by half (risk ratio = 0.44; 95 % CI: 0.37 to 0.51). Compared to aspirin, apixaban has a similar risk of ICH (risk ratio = 0.84; 95 % CI, 0.38 to 1.87). Current treatments for NOAC-associated ICH include nonactivated and activated prothrombin complex concentrate, which reverse the anticoagulant effects of the NOACs, but their effects on bleeding and patient outcome are not known. Future treatments for NOAC-associated ICH promise to include specific antidotes to dabigatran (e.g., aDabi-Fab, PER977) and factor Xa inhibitors (e.g., r-Antidote PRT064445, PER977).

  13. Task-Based Regularization Design for Detection of Intracranial Hemorrhage in Cone-Beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Dang, H.; Stayman, J. W.; Xu, J.; Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Wang, X.; Foos, D. H.; Aygun, N.; Koliatsos, V. E.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Prompt and reliable detection of acute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is critical to treatment of a number of neurological disorders. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) systems are potentially suitable for detecting ICH (contrast 40-80 HU, size down to 1 mm) at the point of care but face major challenges in image quality requirements. Statistical reconstruction demonstrates improved noise-resolution tradeoffs in CBCT head imaging, but its capability in improving image quality with respect to the task of ICH detection remains to be fully investigated. Moreover, statistical reconstruction typically exhibits nonuniform spatial resolution and noise characteristics, leading to spatially varying detectability of ICH for a conventional penalty. In this work, we propose a spatially varying penalty design that maximizes detectability of ICH at each location throughout the image. We leverage theoretical analysis of spatial resolution and noise for a penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) estimator, and employ a task-based imaging performance descriptor in terms of detectability index using a nonprewhitening observer model. Performance prediction was validated using a 3D anthropomorphic head phantom. The proposed penalty achieved superior detectability throughout the head and improved detectability in regions adjacent to the skull base by ~10% compared to a conventional uniform penalty. PWLS reconstruction with the proposed penalty demonstrated excellent visualization of simulated ICH in different regions of the head and provides further support for development of dedicated CBCT head scanning at the point-of-care in the neuro ICU and OR.

  14. The Role of Circulating Tight Junction Proteins in Evaluating Blood Brain Barrier Disruption following Intracranial Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xiaoyang; He, Ping; Li, Yazhen; Fan, Zhicheng; Si, Mengya; Xie, Qingdong; Chang, Xiaolan; Huang, Dongyang

    2015-01-01

    Brain injury after intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) results in significant morbidity and mortality. Blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption is a hallmark of ICH-induced brain injury; however, data mirroring BBB disruption in human ICH are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of circulating biomarkers in evaluating BBB disruption after ICH. Twenty-two patients with ICH were recruited in this study. Concentrations of the tight junction proteins (TJs) Claudin-5 (CLDN5), Occludin (OCLN), and zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from patients with ICH. The white blood cell (WBC) count in blood and CSF, albumin (ALB) levels in the CSF (ALBCSF), and the BBB ratio were significantly higher in the ICH than in controls (p < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of CLDN5, OCLN, ZO-1, MMP-9, and VEGF in CSF were observed in the ICH group; these biomarkers were also positively associated with BBB ratio (p < 0.05). Our data revealed that circulating TJs could be considered the potential biomarkers reflecting the integrity of the BBB in ICH.

  15. The Role of Circulating Tight Junction Proteins in Evaluating Blood Brain Barrier Disruption following Intracranial Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Xiaoyang; He, Ping; Li, Yazhen; Fan, Zhicheng; Si, Mengya; Xie, Qingdong; Chang, Xiaolan; Huang, Dongyang

    2015-01-01

    Brain injury after intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) results in significant morbidity and mortality. Blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption is a hallmark of ICH-induced brain injury; however, data mirroring BBB disruption in human ICH are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of circulating biomarkers in evaluating BBB disruption after ICH. Twenty-two patients with ICH were recruited in this study. Concentrations of the tight junction proteins (TJs) Claudin-5 (CLDN5), Occludin (OCLN), and zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from patients with ICH. The white blood cell (WBC) count in blood and CSF, albumin (ALB) levels in the CSF (ALBCSF), and the BBB ratio were significantly higher in the ICH than in controls (p < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of CLDN5, OCLN, ZO-1, MMP-9, and VEGF in CSF were observed in the ICH group; these biomarkers were also positively associated with BBB ratio (p < 0.05). Our data revealed that circulating TJs could be considered the potential biomarkers reflecting the integrity of the BBB in ICH. PMID:26586924

  16. [Acute hypertensive intracranial hemorrhage: MR imaging at 1.5T].

    PubMed

    Uchino, A; Ohnari, N; Ohno, M

    1989-10-25

    Twelve patients with acute hypertensive intracranial hemorrhage underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging within 7 days after the ictus. T1-weighted (TR = 400 msec; TE = 20 msec) and T2-weighted (TR = 2000 msec; TE = 80 msec) images were obtained on a 1.5 Tesla MR system. Signal intensities of hematomas were carefully evaluated and were compared with white matter intensity. A 9-hour-old hematoma was mildly hypointense on T1-weighted images, and was mildly hyperintense on T2-weighted images, suggesting a reflection of the high water content. On T2-weighted images, thin peripheral hypointense rim, probably due to deoxyhemoglobin, was also observed. Both of 15-hour-old hematoma and 21-hour-old hematoma had peripheral hypointensity on T2-weighted images. Both of 39-hour-old hematoma and 43-hour-old hematoma had central hyper-intensity on T1-weighted images and iso-to-mild central hypointensity on T2-weighted images, suggesting a reflection of decreased water content. A 3-day-old hematoma had thin peripheral iso-to-mild hyperintense rim on T1-weighted images, presumably due to intracellular methomoglobin. A 5-day-old hematoma had thin peripheral hyperintense rim on T2-weighted images, probably due to free methemoglobin. A 7-day-old hematoma was hyperintense on T1-weighted images and was mildly hypointense to hyperintense on T2-weighted images, presumably due to mixed intracellular methemoglobin and free methemoglobin.

  17. A prospective evaluation of platelet function in patients on antiplatelet therapy with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Bellal; Pandit, Viraj; Sadoun, Moutamn; Larkins, Christopher G; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Tang, Andrew; Mino, Matthew; Friese, Randall S; Rhee, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Platelet transfusion is increasingly used in patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) on aspirin therapy to minimize the progression of ICH. We hypothesized (null) that platelet transfusion in this cohort of patients does not improve platelet function. We performed a prospective interventional trail on patients with traumatic ICH on daily high-dose (325 mg) aspirin therapy. All patients received one pack of apheresis platelets. Blood samples were collected before and 1 hour after platelet transfusion. Platelet function was assessed using Verify Now Platelet Function Assay, and a cutoff of greater than 550 aspirin reaction units was used to define functioning platelets (FP). Twenty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. On presentation, 79% (22 of 28) of the patients had nonfunctioning platelets (NFPs), and transfusion of platelets did not improve platelet function as 81% (18 of 22) still had NFP. Of the 22 patients, 4 converted from NFP to FP after transfusion. There was no difference in the progression of ICH (37.5% vs. 30%, p = 0.7) or neurosurgical intervention (12.5% vs. 15%, p = 0.86) between patients with FP and NFP after platelet transfusion. Administration of one pack of apheresis platelet did not improve platelet function. In our study, progression of ICH and the need for neurosurgical intervention were independent of platelet function. Further randomized clinical trials are required to assess both the dose dependence effect and role of platelet transfusion in patients on antiplatelet therapy with traumatic ICH. Therapeutic study, level III.

  18. [A case of fetal death resulting from a massive fetomaternal hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Denef, M; Capelle, X; Vanlinthout, C; Lepage, S; Emonts, P

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a late stillbirth which unexpectedly occurred in a patient without any medical history and after a meticulous obstetrical follow up. Stillbirth is unfortunately not unusual and implies a complete etiological work up. In the present observation, the Kleihauer test and anatomoclinical examination concluded that the death was due to an acute cerebral anoxy resulting from a massive fetomaternal hemorrhage (HFM). HFM is rarely considered as the cause of a late stillbirth, but its occurrence is certainly underestimated. Yet, if HFM is identified before fetal death, an .adequate management could considerably improve the fetal prognosis and, sometines, save the child's life.

  19. Perinatal Arterial Ischemic Stroke Is Associated to Materno-Fetal Immune Activation and Intracranial Arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Guiraut, Clémence; Cauchon, Nicole; Lepage, Martin; Sébire, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    The medium-size intra-cranial arteries arising from the carotid bifurcation are prone to perinatal arterial ischemic strokes (PAIS). PAIS’ physiopathology needs to be better understood to develop preventive and therapeutic interventions that are currently missing. We hypothesized that materno-fetal inflammation leads to a vasculitis affecting selectively the carotidian tree and promoting a focal thrombosis and subsequent stroke. Dams were injected with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli. A prothrombotic stress was applied on LPS-exposed vs. saline (S)-exposed middle cerebral arteries (MCA). Immunolabeling detected the inflammatory markers of interest. In S-exposed newborn pups, a constitutive higher density of macrophages combined to higher expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) was observed within the wall of intra- vs. extra-cranial cervicocephalic arteries. LPS-induced maternal and placental inflammatory responses mediated by IL-1β, TNF-α and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) were associated with: (i) increased density of pro-inflammatory macrophages (M1 phenotype); and (ii) pro-inflammatory orientation of the IL-1 system (IL-1β/IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) ratio) within the wall of LPS-, vs. S-exposed, intra-cranial arteries susceptible to PAIS. LPS plus photothrombosis, but not sole photothrombosis, triggered ischemic strokes and subsequent motor impairments. Based on these preclinical results, the combination of pro-thrombotic stress and selective intra-cranial arteritis arising from end gestational maternal immune activation seem to play a role in the pathophysiology of human PAIS. PMID:27898024

  20. Obstetric hemorrhage survey: Attitudes and practices of maternal-fetal medicine fellows.

    PubMed

    Ahmadzia, H K; Thomas, S M; Murtha, A P; Heine, R P; Brancazio, L R

    2016-05-17

    To evaluate experiences related to obstetric hemorrhage and suspected abnormal placentation among first year maternal-fetal medicine fellows. A cross-sectional anonymous survey was administered at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine fellow retreat in March 2013. Fellows were asked about management strategies that reflected both their individual and institutional practices. There was a 56% response rate (55/98). In cases of postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony, there was variable use of the uterine tamponade device. The median incremental time for balloon deflation was every 5 hours (IQR = 2-12). Compared to the east coast, fellows from the west coast performed more hysterectomies (mean±SD; 2.9±2.4 vs. 1.2±1.2, p = 0.004). During a peripartum hysterectomy, 29% of fellows used a handheld cautery device such as Ligasure® or Gyrus®. Fifty-six percent responded that their institution never recommend planned delayed hysterectomies for abnormal placental implantation. There is wide variation in practice among first year maternal-fetal medicine fellows in management of peripartum hysterectomy and postpartum hemorrhage.

  1. Left Atrial Appendage Closure for Atrial Fibrillation Is Safe and Effective After Intracranial or Intraocular Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Peter; Spencer, Ryan; Tsang, Michael; Gooderham, Peter; Saw, Jacqueline

    2016-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects 1%-2% of the general population and 13% of individuals older than 80 years of age. Anticoagulation has been the mainstay therapy to reduce stroke risk. Patients with previous intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) or intraocular hemorrhage (IOH) are at increased risk of recurrence if anticoagulation is continued or initiated. Left atrial appendage (LAA) closure may obviate the need for long-term anticoagulation in these patients. We report our consecutive series of patients with nonvalvular AF with previous ICH or IOH who underwent LAA closure with the AMPLATZER Cardiac Plug (ACP; St Jude Medical, St Paul, MN), AMPLATZER Amulet, or WATCHMAN (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA) device. Demographics, clinical status, procedural outcomes, and complications were collected at baseline, during the procedure, at 3 months, at 1 year, and annually thereafter. Twenty-six patients with previous ICH (n = 24) or IOH (n = 2) underwent LAA closure (9 with the ACP, 3 with the Amulet, and 7 with the WATCHMAN). The mean age was 76 ± 7 years, and 61.5% were men with a mean CHADS2 (Congestive Heart Failure, Hypertension, Age, Diabetes, Stroke/Transient Ischemic Attack) score of 3.2 ± 1.4 and CHA2DS2-VASc (Congestive Heart Failure, Hypertension, Age [≥ 75 years], Diabetes, Stroke/Transient Ischemic Attack, Vascular Disease, Age [65-74 years], Sex [Female] score) of 4.9 ± 1.7. No procedure-related complications occurred. Mean follow-up was 11.9 ± 13.3 months. One patient died at 13 months (this death was not related to the procedure), and 1 patient had a transient ischemic attack at 20.6 months after the procedure. No ischemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, or bleeding problems occurred during follow-up. In our consecutive series, LAA closure was found to be safe and effective in patients with AF and a history of ICH or IOH. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of MRA in the detection of intracranial aneurysm in the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Pierot, Laurent; Portefaix, Christophe; Rodriguez-Régent, Christine; Gallas, Sophie; Meder, Jean-François; Oppenheim, Catherine

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has been evaluated for the detection of unruptured intracranial aneurysms with favorable results at 3 Tesla (3T) and with similar diagnostic accuracy as both 3D time-of-flight (3D-TOF) and contrast-enhanced (CE-MRA) MRA. However, the diagnostic value and place of MRA in the detection of ruptured aneurysms has been little evaluated. Thus, the goal of this prospective single-center series was to assess the feasibility and diagnostic value of 3T 3D-TOF MRA and CE-MRA for aneurysm detection in acute non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). From March 2006 to December 2007, all consecutive patients admitted to our hospital with acute non-traumatic SAH (≤10 days) were prospectively included in this study evaluating MRA in the diagnostic workup of SAH. Feasibility of MRA and sensitivity/specificity of 3D-TOF and CE-MRA were assessed compared with gold standard DSA. In all, 84 consecutive patients (45 women, 39 men; age 23-86 years) were included. The feasibility of MRA was low (43/84, 51.2%). The reasons given for patients not undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination were clinical status (27 patients), potential delay in aneurysm treatment (11 patients) and contraindications to MRI (three patients). In patients explored by MRA, the sensitivity of CE-MRA (95%) was higher compared with 3D-TOF (86%) with similar specificity (80%). Also, 3D-TOF missed five aneurysms while CE-MRA missed two. The value of MRA in the diagnostic workup of ruptured aneurysms is limited due to its low feasibility during the acute phase of bleeding. Sensitivity for aneurysm detection was good for both MRA techniques, but tended to be better with CE-MRA. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Characteristics of Symptomatic Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patients Receiving Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The first non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) introduced to the market in Japan was dabigatran in March 2011, and three more NOACs, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, have since become available. Randomized controlled trials of NOACs have revealed that intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) occurs less frequently with NOACs compared with warfarin. However, the absolute incidence of ICH associated with NOACs has increased with greater use of these anticoagulants, and we wanted to explore the incidence, clinical characteristics, and treatment course of patients with NOACs-associated ICH. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the characteristics of symptomatic ICH patients receiving NOACs between March 2011 and September 2014. Results ICH occurred in 6 patients (5 men, 1 woman; mean ± SD age, 72.8 ± 3.2 years). Mean time to onset was 146.2 ± 111.5 days after starting NOACs. Five patients received rivaroxaban and 1 patient received apixaban. None received dabigatran or edoxaban. Notably, no hematoma expansion was observed within 24 h of onset in the absence of infusion of fresh frozen plasma, activated prothrombin complex concentrate, recombinant activated factor VIIa or hemodialysis. When NOAC therapy was initiated, mean HAS-BLED and PANWARDS scores were 1.5 ± 0.5 and 39.5 ± 7.7, respectively. Mean systolic blood pressure was 137.8 ± 15.9 mmHg within 1 month before spontaneous ICH onset. Conclusion Six symptomatic ICHs occurred early in NOAC therapy but hematoma volume was small and did not expand in the absence of infusion of reversal agents or hemodialysis. The occurrence of ICH during NOAC therapy is possible even when there is acceptable mean systolic blood pressure control (137.8 ± 15.9 mmHg) and HAS-BLED score ≤ 2. Even stricter blood pressure lowering and control within the acceptable range may be advisable to prevent ICH during NOAC therapy. PMID:26171862

  4. Prestroke Antiplatelet Effect on Symptomatic Intracranial Hemorrhage and Functional Outcome in Intravenous Thrombolysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jay Chol; Lee, Ji Sung; Park, Tai Hwan; Cho, Yong-Jin; Park, Jong-Moo; Kang, Kyusik; Lee, Kyung Bok; Lee, Soo Joo; Kim, Jae Guk; Lee, Jun; Park, Man-Seok; Choi, Kang-Ho; Kim, Joon-Tae; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Byung-Chul; Oh, Mi-Sun; Cha, Jae-Kwan; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Nah, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Dong-Eog; Ryu, Wi-Sun; Kim, Beom Joon; Bae, Hee-Joon; Kim, Wook-Joo; Shin, Dong-Ick; Yeo, Min-Ju; Sohn, Sung Il; Hong, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Juneyoung; Hong, Keun-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose About 30%-40% of stroke patients are taking antiplatelet at the time of their strokes, which might increase the risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-TPA) therapy. We aimed to assess the effect of prestroke antiplatelet on the SICH risk and functional outcome in Koreans treated with IV-TPA. Methods From a prospective stroke registry, we identified patients treated with IV-TPA between October 2009 and November 2014. Prestroke antiplatelet use was defined as taking antiplatelet within 7 days before the stroke onset. The primary outcome was SICH. Secondary outcomes were discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score and in-hospital mortality. Results Of 1,715 patients treated with IV-TPA, 441 (25.7%) were on prestroke antiplatelet. Prestroke antiplatelet users versus non-users were more likely to be older, to have multiple vascular risk factors. Prestroke antiplatelet use was associated with an increased risk of SICH (5.9% vs. 3.0%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.79 [1.05-3.04]). However, at discharge, the two groups did not differ in mRS distribution (adjusted OR 0.90 [0.72-1.14]), mRS 0-1 outcome (34.2% vs. 33.7%; adjusted OR 1.27 [0.94-1.72), mRS 0-2 outcome (52.4% vs. 52.9%; adjusted OR 1.21 [0.90-1.63]), and in-hospital mortality (6.1% vs. 4.2%; adjusted OR 1.19 [0.71-2.01]). Conclusions Despite an increased risk of SICH, prestroke antiplatelet users compared to non-users had comparable functional outcomes and in-hospital mortality with IV-TPA therapy. Our results support the use of IV-TPA in eligible patients taking antiplatelet therapy before their stroke onset. PMID:27733024

  5. INTRACRANIAL AND BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY AND LONG-TERM OUTCOME AFTER ANEURYSMAL SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE

    PubMed Central

    Kirkness, Catherine J.; Burr, Robert L.; Mitchell, Pamela H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Care of individuals in the intensive care unit (ICU) with brain injury traditionally focuses on maintaining ABP and ICP within prescribed ranges. However research suggests that the dynamic variability of these pressure signals provides additional information about physiologic functioning and may reflect adaptive capacity. Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the ability to predict long-term outcome from arterial blood pressure (ABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) variability in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods ABP and ICP were monitored continuously for four days in 90 patients (74% female; mean age 53 years) in an ICU following SAH. Variability of ABP and ICP signals was calculated at four time scales (24-hour, hourly, 5-minute, and difference of sequential 5second averages). Long-term functional outcome was assessed 6 months post-SAH using the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale. Results Pressure (ABP, ICP) variability indices were better predictors of 6-month functional outcome than mean pressure levels. Indices reflecting faster variability (particularly 5-second) were positively associated with better long-term outcome (typical p<0.001), while greater 24-hour variability was related to poorer outcomes (typical p <0.001), controlling for initial neurologic condition. Conclusions Beyond the measurement of ABP and ICP levels in acutely ill patients with SAH, simple measures of variability of these signals provide prognostic information regarding long-term functional outcome. The relationship between outcome and ICP and ABP variability in SAH 2 variability was dependent on the time scale at which the variability was measured. Given its positive association with better outcome, greater faster variability may reflect better physiologic adaptive capacity. PMID:19411584

  6. Influences of developmental age on the resolution of diffuse traumatic intracranial hemorrhage and axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Dianne; Sullivan, Sarah; Kilbaugh, Todd; Smith, Colin; Margulies, Susan S

    2014-01-15

    This study investigated the age-dependent injury response of diffuse traumatic axonal injury (TAI) and regional subdural and subarachnoid intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in two pediatric age groups using a porcine head injury model. Fifty-five 5-day-old and 40 four-week-old piglets-which developmentally correspond to infants and toddlers, respectively-underwent either a sham injury or a single rapid non-impact rotational injury in the sagittal plane and were grouped by post-TBI survival time (sham, 3-8 h, one day, 3-4 days, and 5-6 days). Both age groups exhibited similar initial levels of ICH and a significant reduction of ICH over time (p<0.0001). However, ICH took longer to resolve in the five-day-old age group. At 5-6 days post-injury, ICH in the cerebrum had returned to sham levels in the four-week-old piglets, while the five-day-olds still had significantly elevated cerebral ICH (p=0.012). Both ages also exhibited similar resolution of axonal injury with a peak in TAI at one day post-injury (p<0.03) and significantly elevated levels even at 5-6 days after the injury (p<0.008), which suggests a window of vulnerability to a second insult at one day post-injury that may extend for a prolonged period of time. However, five-day-old piglets had significantly more TAI than four-week-olds overall (p=0.016), which presents some evidence for an increased vulnerability to brain injury in this age group. These results provide insight into an optimal window for clinical intervention, the period of increased susceptibility to a second injury, and an age dependency in brain injury tolerance within the pediatric population.

  7. Minor head injury in warfarinized patients: indicators of risk for intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Claudia, Casula; Claudia, Ranalli; Agostino, Ognibene; Simone, Magazzini; Stefano, Grifoni

    2011-04-01

    Head injury represents one of the most important and frequent traumatic pathology in the emergency department. Among the different risk factors, preinjury use of warfarin has received considerable attention in trauma literature. The aim of this study was to identify further risk indicators of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) to improve risk stratification of warfarinized patients with minor head injuries. Medical records of 1,554 adult patients with minor head injuries evaluated by the Emergency Department of Azienda Ospedaliera, Universitaria Careggi from January 2007 to February 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. All the patients included in the study were subjected to blood tests. The international normalized ratio (INR) measured on admission was correlated with the results of head computed tomography scan. Of the 1,410 patients included in the study, 75 (5.2%) were warfarin anticoagulated at the time of trauma. The INR measured on admission was 2.37 ± 1.04 (mean ± standard deviation), and this value was significantly associated with occurrence of ICH after head trauma (r = 0.37; p < 0.005). For 12 (of 75) patients of this group, the findings of the computed tomography scans were positive. The receiver operating characteristic curve show that the most effective INR cutoff value was 2.43, with a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 66%, and positive and negative predictive values of 33% and 97%, respectively. This study highlights the strong relationship between INR values and the probability of ICH, as shown in previous studies. The high negative predictive value of the identified cutoff, if confirmed, could be used to exclude ICH.

  8. Racial/ethnic differences in the risk of intracranial hemorrhage among patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Albert Yuh-Jer; Yao, Janis F; Brar, Somjot S; Jorgensen, Michael B; Chen, Wansu

    2007-07-24

    This study was designed to study racial/ethnic differences in the risk for intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and the effect of warfarin on ICH risk among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Nonwhites are at greater risk for ICH than whites in the general population. Whether this applies to patients with AF and whether warfarin therapy is associated with comparable risk of ICH in nonwhites are unknown. We retrospectively identified a multiethnic stroke-free cohort hospitalized with nonrheumatic AF. Warfarin use and anticoagulation intensity were assessed by searching pharmacy and laboratory records. Crude ICH event rates were calculated by Poisson regression. Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to assess the independent effect of race/ethnicity on ICH after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, and warfarin exposure. Between 1995 and 2000, we identified 18,867 qualifying AF hospitalizations (78.5% white, 8% black, 9.5% Hispanic, and 3.9% Asian) and 173 qualifying ICH events over 3.3 years follow-up. Achieved anticoagulation intensity was lower among blacks but not different between the other groups. Warfarin was associated with increased ICH risk in all races, but the magnitude of risk was greater among nonwhites. There were no gender differences. The hazard ratio for ICH with whites as referent was 4.06 for Asians (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.47 to 6.65), 2.06 for Hispanics (95% CI 1.31 to 3.24), and 2.04 (95% CI 1.25 to 3.35) for blacks. Nonwhites with AF were at greater risk for warfarin-related ICH. Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians were at successively greater ICH risk than whites.

  9. [The use of extra-intracranial microanastomosis in the treatment of cerebral ischemia in patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Krylov, V V; Dash'yan, V G; Luk'yanchikov, V A; Tokarev, A S; Polunina, N A; Sytnik, A V; Solodov, A A; Grigor'eva, E V; Kudryashova, N E; Guseinova, G K

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the use of extra-intracranial microanastomosis (EICMA) in the treatment of brain ischemia in patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In the period from 01.01.14 to 01.07.15, there were 229 surgeries for ruptured intracranial aneurysms performed in the urgent surgery unit. Nine patients with marked and widespread angiospasm, subcompensated and decompensated cerebral ischemia underwent the simultaneous clipping of ruptured intracranial aneurysms and EICMA. The age of patients varied from 32 to 52 years (mean 36 years). The severity of patient's state was assessed as III-IV grades on the Hunt and Hess scale before operation. The surgery was performed 1-2 days after admission to the hospital, 1-8 days after the development of SAH. Excellent and good outcome was recorded in 4 patients, severe disability in 3 patients, fatal outcome in 2 patients. The fatal outcome was due to decompensated cerebral ischemia and progressive angiospasm with the high linear blood flow rate and the following reduction in perfusion in the affected hemisphere. The simultaneous clipping of ruptured intracranial aneurysms and EICMA in the acute stage of SAH of patients with subcompensated cerebral ischemia allow to improve treatment This technique is most applicable for patients with proximal angiospasm of M1- and M2-segments of the middle cerebral artery in the first 24 h of the development of a focal neurological deficit supported by the reduction in perfusion in the corresponding vascular area.

  10. Long-term cognitive, emotional, and functional outcomes in trauma intensive care unit survivors without intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Jackson, James C; Obremskey, William; Bauer, Rebecca; Greevy, Robert; Cotton, Bryan A; Anderson, Venice; Song, Yanna; Ely, E Wesley

    2007-01-01

    Trauma patients without intracranial hemorrhage or focal neurologic deficits are typically considered low risk for lasting neuropsychological and emotional deficits, and such sequela may be overlooked, especially in those with skull fractures and concussions. We undertook this study to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for persistent cognitive impairment and emotional and functional difficulties in a sample of adult trauma intensive care unit survivors without intracranial hemorrhage. We queried the Vanderbilt University Trauma Registry for all patients admitted during 2003 with an Injury Severity Score >25 and a head computed tomography scan showing no intracranial hemorrhage. Of the 97 patients identified, 58 were evaluated, in person between 12 to 24 months after hospital discharge, with a comprehensive battery of cognitive, emotional, and functional instruments. The Informant Questionnaire of Cognitive Decline in the Elderly-Short Form (IQCODE-SF) was used to evaluate for pre-existing cognitive deficits in patients suspected of having cognitive impairment before their trauma. A total of 33 (57%) patients were determined to have cognitive impairment, which was most pronounced in the domains of attention and executive functioning/verbal fluency. Of these patients, one (3%) was determined by the IQCODE-SF to be cognitively impaired before trauma intensive care unit hospitalization. Of the 58 patients studied, 21 (36.2%) had a concussion or skull fracture and 37 (63.8%) had neither. Cognitive impairment was significantly more likely to occur in patients who sustained a concussion or skull fracture than in trauma patients who did not (81% versus 43%; p = 0.006). Patients reported significant depressive symptoms (56%), significant symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (38%), and significant symptoms of anxiety (29%). Quality of life scores were lower than in the general United States population and employment difficulties were widespread. A total of 34

  11. Differentiation of low-attenuation intracranial hemorrhage and calcification using dual-energy computed tomography in a phantom system

    PubMed Central

    Nute, Jessica L.; Roux, Lucia Le; Chandler, Adam G.; Baladandayuthapani, Veera; Schellingerhout, Dawid; Cody, Dianna D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Calcific and hemorrhagic intracranial lesions with attenuation levels of <100 Hounsfield Units (HU) cannot currently be reliably differentiated by single-energy computed tomography (SECT). The proper differentiation of these lesion types would have a multitude of clinical applications. A phantom model was used to test the ability of dual-energy CT (DECT) to differentiate such lesions. Materials and Methods Agar gel-bound ferric oxide and hydroxyapatite were used to model hemorrhage and calcification, respectively. Gel models were scanned using SECT and DECT and organized into SECT attenuation-matched pairs at 16 attenuation levels between 0 and 100 HU. DECT data were analyzed using 3D Gaussian mixture models (GMMs), as well as a simplified threshold plane metric derived from the 3D GMM, to assign voxels to hemorrhagic or calcific categories. Accuracy was calculated by comparing predicted voxel assignments with actual voxel identities. Results We measured 6,032 voxels from each gel model, for a total of 193,024 data points (16 matched model pairs). Both the 3D GMM and its more clinically implementable threshold plane derivative yielded similar results, with >90% accuracy at matched SECT attenuation levels ≥50 HU. Conclusions Hemorrhagic and calcific lesions with attenuation levels between 50 and 100 HU were differentiable using DECT in a clinically relevant phantom system with >90% accuracy. This method warrants further testing for potential clinical applications. PMID:25162534

  12. Risk of stroke and intracranial hemorrhage in 9727 Chinese with atrial fibrillation in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Siu, Chung-Wah; Lip, Gregory Y H; Lam, Kwok-Fai; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2014-08-01

    Current risk schemes to predict ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in atrial fibrillation (AF) are derived primarily using a Caucasian population. The purpose of this study was to describe the risk of ischemic stroke and ICH in a large contemporary "real world" cohort of Chinese AF patients in Hong Kong with detailed long-term follow-up. This observational study used a hospital-based cohort of Chinese patients with nonvalvular AF. Among 9727 patients with nonvalvular AF (age 76.9 ± 12.5 years, 52.1% female), 3881 patients (39.9%) did not receive antithrombotic therapy, 3934 patients (40.4%) were taking aspirin, and 1912 (19.7%) were taking warfarin. After mean follow-up of 3.19 years, 847 patients (21.8%) without antithrombotic therapy developed ischemic strokes (annual risk 9.28%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.89%-9.70%). There was a progressively increase in annual risk of ischemic stroke with increasing CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scores. The c-statistics revealed that CHA2DS2-VASc scores (0.525, 95% CI 0.509-0.541, P = .017) was better than CHADS2 scores (0.506, 95% CI 0.490-0.522, P = .584) in predicting ischemic stroke. Use of aspirin and of warfarin were associated with reduced annual risk of ischemic stroke by 18.7% and 52.7%, respectively (P <.05). The annual incidence of ICH in patients taking aspirin and warfarin was 0.77% per year and 0.80% per year, respectively. The adjusted net clinical benefit favored warfarin over aspirin or no therapy for almost all Chinese AF patients CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥1. Chinese AF patients are at high risk for ischemic stroke. Analysis of the net clinical benefit favors the use of warfarin over aspirin or no therapy for stroke prevention in a broad range of Chinese AF patients. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Racial/Ethnic differences in longitudinal risk of intracranial hemorrhage in brain arteriovenous malformation patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Helen; Sidney, Stephen; McCulloch, Charles E; Poon, K Y Trudy; Singh, Vineeta; Johnston, S Claiborne; Ko, Nerissa U; Achrol, Achal S; Lawton, Michael T; Higashida, Randall T; Young, William L

    2007-09-01

    Race/ethnicity is associated with overall incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), but its impact in patients with brain arteriovenous malformation is unknown. We evaluated whether race/ethnicity was a risk factor for ICH in the natural course in a large, multiethnic cohort of patients with brain arteriovenous malformation followed longitudinally. Data were collected prospectively for patients with brain arteriovenous malformation evaluated at the University of California, San Francisco (n=436) and retrospectively through databases and chart review in the 20 hospitals of the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program (n=1028). Multivariate Cox regression was performed to assess the influence of race/ethnicity on subsequent ICH, adjusting for risk factors. Cases were censored at first treatment, loss to follow-up, or death. Average follow up was 4.7+/-8.0 years for Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program patients and 2.8+/-7.3 years for University of California, San Francisco patients with no difference in time to ICH between cohorts (log rank P=0.57). The annualized 5-year ICH rate was 2.1% (3.7% for ruptured at presentation; 1.4% for unruptured). Initial ICH presentation (hazard ratio: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.9 to 4.9, P<0.001) and Hispanic race/ethnicity (hazard ratio: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1 to 3.3, P=0.02) were independent predictors of ICH, adjusting for age, gender, cohort, and a cohort-age interaction. The ICH risk for Hispanics versus whites increased to 3.1 (95% CI: 1.3 to 7.4, P=0.013) after further adjusting for arteriovenous malformation size and deep venous drainage in a subset of cases with complete data. Similar trends were observed for blacks (hazard ratio: 2.1, 95% CI: 0.9 to 4.8, P=0.09) and Asians (hazard ratio: 2.4, 95% CI: 0.8 to 7.1, P=0.11), although nonsignificant. This study reports the first description of race/ethnic differences in brain arteriovenous malformation, with Hispanics at an increased risk of subsequent ICH compared with whites.

  14. The Role of ABO Blood Group in Cerebral Vasospasm, Associated Intracranial Hemorrhage, and Delayed Cerebral Ischemia in 470 Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Dubinski, Daniel; Won, Sae-Yeon; Konczalla, Jürgen; Mersmann, Jan; Geisen, Christof; Herrmann, Eva; Seifert, Volker; Senft, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm usually presents with an acute onset and requires multidisciplinary intensive care treatment and the overall death and disability rates are high. The ABO blood type is known to play an important role in hemostasis, thrombosis, and vascular NO response. The aspect of ABO blood type in onset, clinical progress, and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is largely unexplored. We conducted this study to elucidate the association of ABO blood type with the occurrence and outcome of aneurysmal SAH. In our retrospective study, 470 patients with aneurysmal SAH treated at our institution were included. We performed a χ(2) test for comparison between blood types and World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies admission status, cerebral vasospasm, delayed infarction, associated intracerebral hemorrhage and Fisher grade for analysis for their association with SAH. No significant difference between blood type and the reviewed variables for SAH outcome were identified: World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies admission status (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-1.6; P = 0.56); SAH-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.5-1.3; P = 0.36); cerebral vasospasm (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.7-1.6; P = 0.71); DCI (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.8-1.8; P = 0.30); Fisher grade (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.7-1.6; P = 0.19). Although a possible relationship between the ABO blood group and the clinical course of patients with SAH was hypothesized, our study showed no significant influence of patient's ABO blood type on cerebral vasospasm onset, SAH-associated intracerebral hemorrhage, or delayed infarction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adjuvant enoxaparin therapy may decrease the incidence of postoperative thrombotic events though does not increase the incidence of postoperative intracranial hemorrhage in patients with meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Cage, Tene A; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Ware, Marcus L; Frankfurt, Anna; Chakalian, Lenna; Berger, Mitchell S; McDermott, Michael W

    2009-05-01

    Patients with brain tumors including intracranial meningiomas are at increased risk for developing deep vein thrombosis (DVTs) and suffering thromboembolic events (VTEs). Many surgeons are concerned that early use of low dose enoxaparin may increase the risk of intracranial hemorrhage which outweighs the benefit of DVT/VTE reduction. We aimed to address concerns around the use of enoxaparin after meningioma resection in the development of postoperative intracranial hemorrhages and DVT/VTEs. This is a retrospective review of 86 patients with intracranial meningiomas who underwent craniectomy and surgical resection of the mass, treated by one attending surgeon at UCSF Medical Center between 2000 and 2005. Within 48 h after surgery patients treated 2003-2005 routinely received enoxaparin therapy unless there was documented intracranial hemorrhage, lumbar subarachnoid drain, enoxaparin hypersensitivity, or thrombocytopenia (n = 24). These were compared to a cohort treated 2000-2002 who did not receive the drug (n = 62). Exclusion criteria were prior VTEs or coagulopathies. The groups were similar in tumor and surgical characteristics. Enoxaparin therapy did not increase the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage following surgical meningioma resection and the incidence of DVTs/VTEs was 0% (n = 0) versus 4.8% (n = 3) in the non-enoxaparin group. Results did not reach statistical significance. In this retrospective study, postoperative administration of enoxaparin following meningioma resection does not increase the risk of intracranial hematoma though enoxaparin administration may slightly decrease the incidence of post-surgical thromboembolic events. Due to study design and power, we were not able to demonstrate DVT/VTE reduction with statistical significance.

  16. Prediction models for intracranial hemorrhage or major bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy: a systematic review and external validation study.

    PubMed

    Hilkens, N A; Algra, A; Greving, J P

    2016-01-01

    ESSENTIALS: Prediction models may help to identify patients at high risk of bleeding on antiplatelet therapy. We identified existing prediction models for bleeding and validated them in patients with cerebral ischemia. Five prediction models were identified, all of which had some methodological shortcomings. Performance in patients with cerebral ischemia was poor. Background Antiplatelet therapy is widely used in secondary prevention after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke. Bleeding is the main adverse effect of antiplatelet therapy and is potentially life threatening. Identification of patients at increased risk of bleeding may help target antiplatelet therapy. This study sought to identify existing prediction models for intracranial hemorrhage or major bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy and evaluate their performance in patients with cerebral ischemia. We systematically searched PubMed and Embase for existing prediction models up to December 2014. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed with the CHARMS checklist. Prediction models were externally validated in the European Stroke Prevention Study 2, comprising 6602 patients with a TIA or ischemic stroke. We assessed discrimination and calibration of included prediction models. Five prediction models were identified, of which two were developed in patients with previous cerebral ischemia. Three studies assessed major bleeding, one studied intracerebral hemorrhage and one gastrointestinal bleeding. None of the studies met all criteria of good quality. External validation showed poor discriminative performance, with c-statistics ranging from 0.53 to 0.64 and poor calibration. A limited number of prediction models is available that predict intracranial hemorrhage or major bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy. The methodological quality of the models varied, but was generally low. Predictive performance in patients with cerebral ischemia was poor. In order to

  17. Diagnosis of subdural and intraparenchymal intracranial hemorrhage using a microwave-based detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; Riechers, Ronald G., Sr.; Pasala, Krishna M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Rosner, Michael; Day, Keith; Garcia-Pinto, Patricia; Song, Ki-Il; Yun, Catherine; Rawie, Eric; Davis, Jessica; Scott, Joshua; Loh, Yince; Crommett, John W.; Zeidman, Seth M.; Rhee, Peter; Ecklund, James M.; Lockhart, Stephen

    2000-08-01

    A novel method for identifying and localizing brain hemorrhage is presented. The method uses electromagnetic waves in the microwave and RF region and a modified algorithm previously used for the estimation of the angle of arrival of radar signals. Results are presented applying this device for detecting subdural and intraparenchymal hemorrhages in anesthetized pig.

  18. In-vivo validation of a novel intracranial hemorrhage detector using microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; Riechers, Ronald G., Sr.; Riechers, Ronald G., Jr.; Pasala, Krishna M.; Zeidman, Seth M.; Rhee, Peter; Wiesmann, William P.

    1999-07-01

    A novel method for identifying and localizing brain hemorrhage is presented. This method uses electromagnetic waves in the microwave and RF region and a modified algorithm previously used for the estimation of the angle of arrival of radar signals. Results are presented applying this device for detecting epidural and intracerebroventricular hemorrhages in anesthetized pig.

  19. Voxel-Based Sensitivity of Flat-Panel CT for the Detection of Intracranial Hemorrhage: Comparison to Multi-Detector CT

    PubMed Central

    Frölich, Andreas M.; Buhk, Jan-Hendrik; Fiehler, Jens; Kemmling, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Flat-panel CT (FPCT) allows cross-sectional parenchymal, vascular and perfusion imaging within the angiography suite, which could greatly facilitate acute stroke management. We hypothesized that FPCT offers equal diagnostic accuracy compared to multi-detector CT (MDCT) as a primary tool to exclude intracranial hemorrhage. Methods 22 patients with intracranial hematomas who had both MDCT and FPCT performed within 24 hours were retrospectively identified. Patients with visible change in hematoma size or configuration were excluded. Two raters independently segmented hemorrhagic lesions. Data sets and corresponding binary lesion maps were co-registered to compare hematoma volume. Diagnostic accuracy of FPCT to detect hemorrhage was calculated from voxel-wise analysis of lesion overlap compared to reference MDCT. Results Mean hematoma size was similar between MDCT (16.2±8.9 ml) and FPCT (16.1±8.6 ml), with near perfect correlation of hematoma sizes between modalities (ρ = 0.95, p<0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of FPCT to detect hemorrhagic voxels was 61.6% and 99.8% for intraventricular hematomas and 67.7% and 99.5% for all other intracranial hematomas. Conclusions In this small sample containing predominantly cases with subarachnoid hemorrhage, FPCT based assessment of hemorrhagic volume in brain yields acceptable accuracy compared to reference MDCT, albeit with a limited sensitivity on a voxel level. Further assessment and improvement of FPCT is necessary before it can be applied as a primary imaging modality to exclude intracranial hemorrhage in acute stroke patients. PMID:27806106

  20. Increased Risk of Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patients With Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li-Te; Tsui, Kuan-Hao; Cheng, Jiin-Tsuey; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Huang, Wei-Chun; Liou, Wen-Shiung; Tang, Pei-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) may be a major predictor of pregnancy-associated intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). However, the relationship between PIH and long-term ICH risk is unknown. The objective of the study was to determine the association between PIH and ICH and to identify the predictive risk factors. Patients with newly diagnosed PIH were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. PIH patients were divided into gestational hypertension (GH) and preeclampsia groups. The 2 groups were separately compared with matched cohorts of patients without PIH based on age and date of delivery. The occurrence of ICH was evaluated in both cohorts. The overall observational period was from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2013. Among the 23.3 million individuals registered in the National Health Insurance Research Database, 28,346 PIH patients, including 7390 with GH and 20,956 with preeclampsia, were identified. The incidences of ICH were increased in both groups (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 3.72 in the GH group, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.63–3.81, P < 0.0001 and IRR = 8.21 in the preeclampsia group, 95% CI 8.12–8.31, P < 0.0001, respectively). In addition, according to the results of stratification of follow-up years, both groups were associated with a highest risk of ICH at 1 to 5 years of follow-up (IRR = 11.99, 95% CI 11.16–12.88, P < 0.0001 and IRR = 21.83, 95% CI 21.24–22.44, P < 0.0001, respectively). After adjusting for age, parity, severity of PIH, number of PIH occurrences, gestational age, and comorbidities in the multivariate survival analysis using Cox regression model, age ≥30 years (hazard ratio [HR] 1.99, 95% CI 1.27–3.10, P = 0.0026), patients with preeclampsia (HR 2.18, 95% CI 1.22–3.90, P = 0.0089), multiple PIH occurrences (HR 4.08, 95% CI 1.85–9.01, P = 0.0005), hypertension (HR 4.51, 95% CI 1.89–10.74, P = 0.0007), and obesity (HR 7.21, 95

  1. Acute intracranial hemorrhage secondary to thrombocytopenia: CT appearances unaffected by absence of clot retraction

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, J.N.; Taber, K.H.; Hayman, L.A. )

    1994-02-01

    To describe the in vivo CT appearance of acute intracerebral blood clots formed from anemic platelet-depleted blood. Three patients with intracerebral hemorrhage secondary only to thrombocytopenia were examined with CT within 2 1/2 hours after the onset of clinical symptoms. There were no unusual CT features found in the intracerebral hemorrhages of patients with only thrombocytopenia. Specifically, a hyperdense zone(s) surrounded by areas of decreased density was identified. Clot retraction (which cannot occur in patients with severe thrombocytopenia) is not necessary for the CT appearance of acute intracerebral hemorrhage. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Evaluation of a stand-alone computer-aided detection system for acute intra-cranial hemorrhage in emergency environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, James; Deshpande, Ruchi; Wang, Ximing; Liu, Brent; Brazaitis, Michael; Munter, Fletcher; Liu, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Acute intra-cranial hemorrhage (AIH) may result from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Successful management of AIH depends heavily on the speed and accuracy of diagnosis. Timely diagnosis in emergency environments in both civilian and military settings is difficult primarily due to severe time restraints and lack of resources. Often, diagnosis is performed by emergency physicians rather than trained radiologists. As a result, added support in the form of computer-aided detection (CAD) would greatly enhance the decision-making process and help in providing faster and more accurate diagnosis of AIH. This paper discusses the implementation of a CAD system in an emergency environment, and its efficacy in aiding in the detection of AIH.

  3. Use of Risk Assessment Tool for Inpatient Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage after Falls in Acute Care Hospital Setting

    PubMed Central

    Toyabe, Shin-ichi

    2012-01-01

    Severe injuries such as intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) are the most serious problem after falls in hospital, but they have not been considered in risk assessment scores for falls. We tried to determine the risk factors for ICH after falls in 20,320 inpatients (696,364 patient-days) aged from 40 to 90 years who were admitted to a tertiary-care university hospital. Possible risk factors including STRATIFY risk score for falls and FRAX™ risk score for fractures were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Fallers accounted for 3.2% of the patients, and 5.0% of the fallers suffered major injuries, including peripheral bone fracture (59.6%) and ICH (23.4%). In addition to STRATIFY, FRAX™ was significantly associated not only with bone fractures but also ICH. Concomitant use of risk score for falls and risk score for fractures might be useful for the prediction of major injuries such as ICH after falls. PMID:22980233

  4. Multiple intracranial hemorrhages in a normotensive demented patient: A probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    PubMed

    Chitsaz, Ahmad; Norouzi, Rasul; Marashi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Salimianfard, Marzieh; Fard, Salman Abbasi

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is the most common cause of lobar intracerebral hemorrhage. Repeated bleeding may be presented with vascular dementia. We have reported a 68-year-old normotensive demented patient with probable CAA presented with hemiparesia, headache and vomiting. According to the experience of this case, it is recommended to consider CAA for normotensive elderly patients presented with multiple and superficial intracerebral hemorrhage.

  5. Multiple intracranial hemorrhages in a normotensive demented patient: A probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chitsaz, Ahmad; Norouzi, Rasul; Marashi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Salimianfard, Marzieh; Fard, Salman Abbasi

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is the most common cause of lobar intracerebral hemorrhage. Repeated bleeding may be presented with vascular dementia. We have reported a 68-year-old normotensive demented patient with probable CAA presented with hemiparesia, headache and vomiting. According to the experience of this case, it is recommended to consider CAA for normotensive elderly patients presented with multiple and superficial intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:23248664

  6. Placement of a subdural evacuating port system for management of iatrogenic hyperacute subdural hemorrhage following intracranial monitor placement.

    PubMed

    Ivan, Michael E; Nathan, Jay K; Manley, Geoffery T; Huang, Michael C

    2013-12-01

    A 22-year-old man was admitted with a severe traumatic brain injury developed a hyperacute subdural hematoma (SDH) following attempted brain tissue oxygen monitor placement. This patient was successfully treated by placement of a subdural evacuation portal system (SEPS). The patient presented to a Level I trauma center after a severe bike versus auto accident. On admission, he was found to have a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 3. The patient had small areas of intraparechymal hemorrhage as well as suspicion for diffuse axonal injury in the midbrain. Based on the patient's GCS score, neurological monitoring was indicated as a part of his intensive care unit treatment, however a SDH occurred during an attempted placement of a brain tissue oxygen monitor. This iatrogenic hyperacute SDH after burr hole monitoring device placement was treated with a SEPS drain. The SEPS drain has been shown to provide complete and/or temporary decompression of liquefied SDH. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using the SEPS to treat iatrogenic SDH associated with an intracranial monitoring device. This technique should be added to the armament of treatment options for a neurosurgeon to treat or temporize a hyperacute SDH with increased intracranial pressure in specific patients.

  7. Repeat neuroimaging of mild traumatic brain-injured patients with acute traumatic intracranial hemorrhage: clinical outcomes and radiographic features.

    PubMed

    Kreitzer, Natalie; Lyons, Michael S; Hart, Kim; Lindsell, Cristopher J; Chung, Sora; Yick, Andrew; Bonomo, Jordan

    2014-10-01

    Emergency department (ED) management of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with any form of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is variable. Since 2000, our center's standard practice has been to obtain a repeat head computed tomography (CT) at least 6 hours after initial imaging. Patients are eligible for discharge if clinical and CT findings are stable. Whether this practice is safe is unknown. This study characterized clinical outcomes in mild TBI patients with acute traumatic ICH seen on initial ED neuroimaging. This retrospective cohort study included patients presenting to the ED with blunt mild TBI with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 14 or 15 and stable vital signs, during the period from January 2001 to January 2010. Patients with any ICH on initial head CT and repeat head CT within 24 hours were eligible. Cases were excluded for initial GCS < 14, injury > 24 hours old, pregnancy, concomitant nonminor injuries, and coagulopathy. A single investigator abstracted data from records using a standardized case report form and data dictionary. Primary endpoints included death, neurosurgical procedures, and for discharged patients, return to the ED within 7 days. Differences in proportions were computed with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Of 1,011 patients who presented to the ED and had two head CTs within 24 hours, 323 (32%) met inclusion criteria. The median time between CT scans was 6 hours (interquartile range = 5 to 7 hours). A total of 153 (47%) patients had subarachnoid hemorrhage, 132 (41%) patients had subdural hemorrhage, 11 (3%) patients had epidural hemorrhage, 78 (24%) patients had cerebral contusions, and 59 (18%) patients had intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Four of 323 (1.2%, 95% CI = 0.3% to 3.2%) patients died within 2 weeks of injury. Three of the patients who died had been admitted from the ED on their initial visits, and one had been discharged home. There were 206 patients (64%) discharged from the ED, 28 (13.6%) of whom returned

  8. Pretreatment Blood Brain Barrier Damage and Post Treatment Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patients Receiving IV tPA

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Richard; Jen, Shyian S.; Hillis, Argye E.; Krakauer, John W.; Barker, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Early blood brain barrier (BBB) damage after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) has previously been qualitatively linked to subsequent intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). In this quantitative study, it was investigated whether the amount of BBB damage evident on pre-tPA MRI scans was related to the degree of post-tPA ICH in patients with AIS. Methods Analysis was performed on a database of patients with AIS provided by the STIR and VISTA Imaging Investigators. Patients with perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) lesions >10mL and negative gradient-recalled echo (GRE) imaging prior to IV tPA were included. Post processing of the PWI source images was performed to estimate changes in BBB permeability within the perfusion deficit relative to the unaffected hemisphere. Follow-up GRE images were reviewed for evidence of ICH and divided into three groups according to ECASS criteria: no hemorrhage (NH), hemorrhagic infarction (HI), and parenchymal hematoma (PH). Results 75 patients from the database met the inclusion criteria, 28 of whom experienced ICH, of which 19 were classified as HI, and nine were classified as PH. The mean permeability (±standard deviations), expressed as an index of contrast leakage, was 17.0%±8.8 in the NH group, 19.4%±4.0 in the HI group, and 24.6%±4.5 in the PH group. Permeability was significantly correlated with ICH grade in univariate (p=0.007) and multivariate (p=0.008) linear regression modeling. Conclusions A PWI-derived index of BBB damage measured prior to IV tPA is associated with the severity of ICH after treatment in patients with AIS. PMID:24876245

  9. [Repeat bypass surgery for intracranial hemorrhage 30 years after indirect bypass for moyamoya disease].

    PubMed

    Hori, Satoshi; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Akioka, Naoki; Hamada, Hideo; Kuwayama, Naoya; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    A 39-year-old man had been diagnosed with moyamoya disease and underwent a bilateral encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis(EDAS)intervention at the age of 9 years. During the 30 years after his bilateral EDAS, he experienced no cerebrovascular events. However, at age 39, he suddenly presented with mild consciousness disturbance and vomiting and was transferred to a local hospital. Brain CT showed an intracerebral hemorrhage associated with ventricular hematoma. He was referred to our hospital for further investigation and treatment. Cerebral angiography showed faint collaterals through the site of the bilateral EDAS and development of basal moyamoya vessels. SPECT showed decreased cerebral blood flow(CBF)and cerebrovascular reactivity(CVR)in the right frontal lobe. We diagnosed him with delayed cerebral hemorrhage due to delayed rupturing of fragile moyamoya vessels after indirect bypass. The patient underwent a repeat bypass surgery(STA-MCA anastomosis and encephalo-duro-myo-arterio-pericranial synangiosis;EDMAPS)on the right side. He showed improvement in cerebral hemodynamics after surgery, and has since remained free from cerebrovascular events. Hemorrhagic events occurring a very long time after indirect bypass surgery in pediatric-onset moyamoya disease are rare. In such cases, a lifelong follow-up strategy may be necessary. Repeat bypass surgery may be a powerful tool to prevent such hemorrhagic events.

  10. Increased intracranial pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain. Many conditions can increase intracranial pressure. Common causes include: Aneurysm rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage Brain tumor Encephalitis Head injury Hydrocephalus (increased fluid around ...

  11. Diagnosis of intracranial calcification and hemorrhage in pediatric patients: Comparison of quantitative susceptibility mapping and phase images of susceptibility-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Ciraci, S; Gumus, K; Doganay, S; Dundar, M S; Kaya Ozcora, G D; Gorkem, S B; Per, H; Coskun, A

    2017-10-01

    To prospectively compare the diagnostic capabilities of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) with those of phase images of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in the detection and differentiation of intracranial calcification and hemorrhage in pediatric patients. Sixteen pediatric patients (9 girls, 7 boys) with a mean age of 9.4±6.3 (SD) years (range, 6 days-15 years) were included. Fifty-nine calcifications and 31 hemorrhages were detected. Sensitivities and specificities of the two magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques were calculated and compared using McNemar test. QSM had a sensitivity of 84.7% and specificity of 100% for the detection of calcification. SWI phase images had a sensitivity of 49.1% and specificity of 100%. For the detection of hemorrhage, QSM had a sensitivity of 90.3% and a specificity of 98.3% whereas SWI phase images yielded a sensitivity of 64.5% and specificity of 96.6%. Overall, QSM displayed significantly better sensitivity than SWI phase images in identification of calcification and hemorrhage (P<0.05). QSM is more reliable than SWI phase images in the identification of intracranial calcification and hemorrhage in pediatric patients using MR imaging. Copyright © 2017 Editions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Valproic acid-associated low fibrinogen and delayed intracranial hemorrhage: case report and mini literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hai-Fei; Xu, Li-Ping; Luo, Zhi-Yong; Yu, Zi-Qiang; Li, Zheng-Yang; Cui, Qing-Ya; Qin, Long-Mei; Ren, Yong-Ya; Shen, Hong-Shi; Tang, Jie-Qing; Jin, Ling-Juan; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ke-Yuan; Wu, Tian-Qin; Wang, Zhao-Yue

    2013-01-01

    A 41-year-old male had suffered from gradual hearing loss in his right ear for 2 years. Head computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans showed a neoplasm in the cerebellopontine angle region, which was confirmed by the diagnosis of acoustic neurilemmoma by pathological findings after surgery. Following surgery, he routinely received valproic acid (VPA) to prevent seizures. However, the patient presented with hypofibrinogenemia and cerebral hemorrhage after taking VPA for 12 days. The hypofibrinogenemia recurred when VPA was re-administered. After withdrawal of VPA, his fibrinogen concentration rose to normal within several days. As far as we are aware, this is the first case of cerebral hemorrhage due to VPA to have been reported. Herein, as well as reporting on this case, a mini review of the relevant literature is also presented. PMID:23976844

  13. Intracranial hemorrhage requiring surgery in neurosurgical patients given ketorolac: a case-control study within a cohort (2001-2010).

    PubMed

    Magni, Giuseppina; La Rosa, Italia; Melillo, Guido; Abeni, Damiano; Hernandez, Helssy; Rosa, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    Ketorolac tromethamine (ketorolac) is a nonsedating drug with potent analgesic and moderate anti-inflammatory activity, which does not increase the sedation level. The safety of ketorolac with respect to risk of bleeding has been demonstrated in large numbers of patients undergoing general surgery, yet comparable safety data for neurosurgical patients are lacking. We studied the risk of symptomatic bleeding requiring surgery in patients undergoing elective neurosurgical procedures who received ketorolac as analgesic therapy. We established a cohort of patients who had elective intracranial procedures from January 2001 to August 2010 (excluding patients with urgent surgery, coagulopathy, history of anticoagulant or nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drug therapy) and verified the occurrence of postcraniotomy intracranial hemorrhage (ICH; detected by computed tomography and requiring surgery) in patients who received or did not receive ketorolac. Then, to control for potential confounders, we conducted a "nested" case-control study within the cohort: cases were defined as patients with ICH; controls were patients without ICH matched in a 2:1 ratio. The cohort included 4086 craniotomy patients (mean age, 52.4±14.3 years, 2124 male, 52%). Of the 1571 patients who received ketorolac (mean dosage, 50±15 mg/d), 8 (0.5%) suffered ICH; of the 2515 patients who did not receive ketorolac, 35 (1.3%) had ICH (relative risk, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.79; P=0.007). In the nested case-control study, the adjusted odds ratio for ketorolac administration between the 2 groups was 1.09 (95% confidence interval, 0.35-3.44; P=0.88). Although the adjusted estimate for risk of symptomatic bleeding requiring surgery and ketorolac use is very close to the null effect, it may be not reproducible, and the width of the confidence interval is not conclusive evidence of the safety of ketorolac after elective neurosurgical procedures.

  14. The role of bone subtraction computed tomographic angiography in determining intracranial aneurysms in non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kayhan, Aysegul; Koc, Osman; Keskin, Suat; Keskin, Fatih

    2014-05-01

    The presence of blood in the subarachnoid space is an acute pathology with a serious risk of death and complications. The most common etiology (approximately 80%) is intracranial aneurysm. The aim of this study was to assess the role of bone subtracted computed tomographic angiography (BSCTA), a novel and noninvasive method for determining and characterizing intracranial aneurysms. Sixty consecutive patients with clinically suspected non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were considered to enter the study. The subtraction quality was inadequate in ten patients; thus, they were excluded, leaving 50 patients (84.4%) in the study. Bone subtracted and non-subtracted 3D images were obtained from the BSCTA raw data sets. All images obtained by digital subtraction angiography (DSA), BSCTA, and computed tomographic angiography (CTA) were evaluated for the presence or absence of an aneurysm and the location, minimal sac diameter, and neck size ratio of the aneurysm. DSA was considered as the gold standard during the evaluation of the data. Of the 50 patients who participated in this study, 11 had no aneurysms as determined by both CTA and DSA. Examination of the remaining 39 patients revealed the presence of 51 aneurysms. While 3D-CTA could not detect six aneurysms that were located in the base of the skull, 3D-BSCTA easily detected them. Moreover, five aneurysms were only partially detected by 3D-CTA. According to this data, the sensitivity of 3D-BSCTA and 3D-CTA was calculated as 98% and 86.3%, respectively; the specificity was calculated as 100% and 90.9%, respectively, per aneurysm; and the sensitivity of 100% for 3D-BSCTA and 98% for 3D-CTA was achieved by using combined images with multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP). BSCTA detected and characterized the aneurysms as well as DSA, and BSCTA and DSA gave concordant results in detecting aneurysms. BSCTA is easily accessible, less time consuming, and most importantly, a non

  15. Guideline for Reversal of Antithrombotics in Intracranial Hemorrhage: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals from the Neurocritical Care Society and Society of Critical Care Medicine.

    PubMed

    Frontera, Jennifer A; Lewin, John J; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Aisiku, Imo P; Alexandrov, Anne W; Cook, Aaron M; del Zoppo, Gregory J; Kumar, Monisha A; Peerschke, Ellinor I B; Stiefel, Michael F; Teitelbaum, Jeanne S; Wartenberg, Katja E; Zerfoss, Cindy L

    2016-02-01

    The use of antithrombotic agents, including anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and thrombolytics has increased over the last decade and is expected to continue to rise. Although antithrombotic-associated intracranial hemorrhage can be devastating, rapid reversal of coagulopathy may help limit hematoma expansion and improve outcomes. The Neurocritical Care Society, in conjunction with the Society of Critical Care Medicine, organized an international, multi-institutional committee with expertise in neurocritical care, neurology, neurosurgery, stroke, hematology, hemato-pathology, emergency medicine, pharmacy, nursing, and guideline development to evaluate the literature and develop an evidence-based practice guideline. Formalized literature searches were conducted, and studies meeting the criteria established by the committee were evaluated. Utilizing the GRADE methodology, the committee developed recommendations for reversal of vitamin K antagonists, direct factor Xa antagonists, direct thrombin inhibitors, unfractionated heparin, low-molecular weight heparin, heparinoids, pentasaccharides, thrombolytics, and antiplatelet agents in the setting of intracranial hemorrhage. This guideline provides timely, evidence-based reversal strategies to assist practitioners in the care of patients with antithrombotic-associated intracranial hemorrhage.

  16. Identifying patients with mild traumatic intracranial hemorrhage at low risk of decompensation who are safe for ED observation.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Peter; Penn, Joshua; Peak, David; Borczuk, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage and mild traumatic brain injury (mTIH) receive broadly variable care which often includes transfer to a trauma center, neurosurgery consultation and ICU admission. However, there may be a low risk cohort of patients who can be managed without utilizing such significant resources. Describe mTIH patients who are at low risk of clinical or radiographic decompensation and can be safely managed in an ED observation unit (EDOU). Retrospective evaluation of patients age≥16, GCS≥13 with ICH on CT. Primary outcomes included clinical/neurologic deterioration, CT worsening or need for neurosurgery. 1185 consecutive patients were studied. 814 were admitted and 371 observed patients (OP) were monitored in the EDOU or discharged from the ED after a period of observation. None of the OP deteriorated clinically. 299 OP (81%) had a single lesion on CT; 72 had mixed lesions. 120 patients had isolated subarachnoid hemorrhage (iSAH) and they did uniformly well. Of the 119 OP who had subdural hematoma (SDH), 6 had worsening CT scans and 3 underwent burr hole drainage procedures as inpatients due to persistent SDH without new deficit. Of the 39 OP who had cerebral contusions, 3 had worsening CT scans and one required NSG admission. No patient returned to the ED with a complication. Follow-up was obtained on 81% of OP. 2 patients with SDH required burr hole procedure >2weeks after discharge. Patients with mTIH, particularly those with iSAH, have very low rates of clinical or radiographic deterioration and may be safe for monitoring in an emergency department observation unit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intracranial subarachnoid fat and hemorrhage secondary to sacral fracture with spondylopelvic dissociation.

    PubMed

    Carreres Polo, J; Álvarez Martínez, M V; Sánchez Mateos, D

    2017-06-10

    We describe a case of fat droplets and blood in the cerebral subarachnoid space secondary in a patient with a complex sacral fracture without associated cranial trauma, a few days after admission. To our knowledge, there is only one published case with similar findings and without any other underlying lesion as cause. We explain the differences in the mechanism of production between this direct fat embolism and brain fat embolism syndrome, which is an intravascular embolism with different radiological appearance. The most important features of sacral fracture with spondylopelvic dissociation are described. Finally, this entity should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of the few causes of fat in the subarachnoid space. In the context of high-energy trauma fractures of the sacrum or spine must be ruled out as a potential cause of this uncommon intracranial finding. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. PItcHPERFeCT: Primary Intracranial Hemorrhage Probability Estimation using Random Forests on CT.

    PubMed

    Muschelli, John; Sweeney, Elizabeth M; Ullman, Natalie L; Vespa, Paul; Hanley, Daniel F; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M

    2017-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), where a blood vessel ruptures into areas of the brain, accounts for approximately 10-15% of all strokes. X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning is largely used to assess the location and volume of these hemorrhages. Manual segmentation of the CT scan using planimetry by an expert reader is the gold standard for volume estimation, but is time-consuming and has within- and across-reader variability. We propose a fully automated segmentation approach using a random forest algorithm with features extracted from X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans. The Minimally Invasive Surgery plus rt-PA in ICH Evacuation (MISTIE) trial was a multi-site Phase II clinical trial that tested the safety of hemorrhage removal using recombinant-tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). For this analysis, we use 112 baseline CT scans from patients enrolled in the MISTE trial, one CT scan per patient. ICH was manually segmented on these CT scans by expert readers. We derived a set of imaging predictors from each scan. Using 10 randomly-selected scans, we used a first-pass voxel selection procedure based on quantiles of a set of predictors and then built 4 models estimating the voxel-level probability of ICH. The models used were: 1) logistic regression, 2) logistic regression with a penalty on the model parameters using LASSO, 3) a generalized additive model (GAM) and 4) a random forest classifier. The remaining 102 scans were used for model validation.For each validation scan, the model predicted the probability of ICH at each voxel. These voxel-level probabilities were then thresholded to produce binary segmentations of the hemorrhage. These masks were compared to the manual segmentations using the Dice Similarity Index (DSI) and the correlation of hemorrhage volume of between the two segmentations. We tested equality of median DSI using the Kruskal-Wallis test across the 4 models. We tested equality of the median DSI from sets of 2 models using a Wilcoxon

  19. Amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging in detecting intracranial hemorrhage at different stages: a comparative study with susceptibility weighted imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoyue; Bai, Yan; Lin, Yusong; Hong, Xiaohua; Liu, Taiyuan; Ma, Lun; Haacke, E Mark; Zhou, Jinyuan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Meiyun

    2017-01-01

    Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is a noninvasive molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique based on the chemical exchange-dependent saturation transfer mechanism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of APT MRI in detecting intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) at hyperacute, acute and subacute stages by comparing with susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI). APT MRI and SWI were performed on 33 included patients with ICH by using a 3-T MRI unit. A two-sided Mann-Whitney U test was used to detect differences in APT-weighted (APTw) and SWI signal intensities of ICH at hyperacute, acute and subacute stages. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the diagnostic utilities of APT MRI and SWI. Our results showed that APT MRI could detect ICH at hyperacute, acute and subacute stages. Therefore, APTw signal intensity may serve as a reliable, noninvasive imaging biomarker for detecting ICH at hyperacute, acute and subacute stages. Moreover, APT MRI could provide additional information for the ICH compared with SWI. PMID:28374764

  20. MO-AB-BRA-04: Correct Identification of Low-Attenuation Intracranial Hemorrhage and Calcification Using Dual-Energy Computed Tomography in a Phantom System

    SciTech Connect

    Nute, J; Jacobsen, M; Popnoe, D; Wei, W; Baiu, C; Schellingerhout, D; Cody, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Intracranial hemorrhage and calcification with Single-Energy CT (SECT) attenuation below 100HU cannot be reliably identified using currently clinically available means. Calcification is typically benign but hemorrhage can carry a risk of intracranial bleeding and contraindicate use of anticoagulant therapies. A biologically-relevant phantom was used to investigate identification of unknown intracranial lesions using dual-energy CT (DECT) as a verification of prior lesion differentiation results. Methods: Prior phantom work investigating calcification and hemorrhage differentiation resulted in 3D-DECT raw data (water density, calcium density, 68keV) for a range of DECT protocol variations: image thicknesses (1.25, 2.5, 3.75, 5mm), CTDIvol (36.7 to 132.6mGy) and reconstruction algorithms (Soft, Standard, Detail). Acquisition-specific raw data were used to create a plane of optimal differentiation based on the geometric bisector of 3D-linear regression of the two lesion distributions. Verification hemorrhage and calcification lesions, ranging in size from 0.5 to 1.5cm, were created at varying attenuation from 50 to 100HU. Lesions were inserted into a biologically-relevant brain phantom and scanned using SECT (3.75mm images, Standard, 67mGy) and a range of DECT protocols (3.75mm images, Standard, [67, 105.6, 132.6mGy]). 3D-DECT data were collected and blinded for analysis. The 3D-DECT distribution of the lesion was then compared to the acquisition-matched geometric bisector plane and the mean lesion value’s position relative to the plane, indicating lesion identity, and the percentage of voxels on the identified side of the plane, indicating identification confidence, were derived. Results: 98% of the 120 lesions investigated were identified correctly as hemorrhage or calcification. 74% were identified with greater than 80% confidence. Increases in CTDIvol and lesion diameter were associated with increased identification confidence. Conclusion: Intracranial

  1. Carotid rete mirabile associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage from intracranial aneurysm: A case report and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Júnior, Fernando Mendes Paschoal; Piske, Ronie Leo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2015-01-01

    Carotid rete mirabile (CRM) is a rare physiological vascular network in humans that is most often found in Eastern populations. This paper describes a CRM associated with an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and discusses the details of the patient’s treatment. A 28-year-old woman was admitted to our service with clinical signs and symptoms of a spontaneous aSAH. Computed tomography revealed a diffuse and extensive SAH (Fisher group IV), while an angiogram showed an abnormal collateral network in the right carotid system and a hypoplastic aspect to the internal carotid artery (ICA) on the same side. In addition, a saccular aneurysm with a diameter of 9.5 mm was present in the ophthalmic segment of the left ICA. This case is extremely uncommon. To avoid rebleeding in the patient, we successfully treated the patient by clipping the aneurysmal lesion. No procedure was performed for the CRM. PMID:25934776

  2. Changes in echogenicity of spinal subarachnoid space associated with intracranial hemorrhage: new observations.

    PubMed

    Rudas, G; Varga, E; Méder, U; Pataki, M; Taylor, G A

    2000-11-01

    The role of subarachnoid blood and secondary, sterile inflammation in the pathogenesis of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) is not well understood. The aims of this study were to study the frequency and rate of spread of blood into the spinal subarachnoid space (SSS) and to evaluate the relationship of this finding and PHH. Nine premature babies with major intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, grade 3 or higher), and ten premature infants with minor ICH (grade 1) or no evidence of ICH (control group) were identified and underwent serial cranial and spinal sonography at the time of initial diagnosis, 12-24 h after the ICH and weekly thereafter for at least 9 weeks. Sagittal and axial scans of the thoracolumbar spine were obtained and evaluated for the presence of echogenic debris in the dorsal SSS. Six additional patients who had cranial and spinal sonography died within the 1st week of life and underwent post-mortem examinations. The SSS was echo-free (normal) in all cases at the time of initial sonographic diagnosis of ICH. Within 24 h, all babies with major ICH had developed increased echogenicity of the cervical and thoracic SSS. Echogenicity of the SSS decreased gradually over several weeks. Although transient ventricular dilatation was present in every patient, only one patient had rapidly progressive PHH requiring shunt placement. Transient cysts of the cervicothoracic subarachnoid space were identified in two patients 6-7 weeks after ICH. The subarachnoid space remained echo-free in all control infants At autopsy, all four infants with echogenic spinal debris had blood or blood products in the spinal subarachnoid space, whereas two infants with echo-free spinal images did not. Spread of blood from the ventricular system into the spinal subarachnoid space after ICH is common and can be seen within 24 h of initial ICH. Subarachnoid blood is associated with post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation and transient spinal subarachnoid cyst formation.

  3. The critical care management of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage: a contemporary review.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Manoel, Airton Leonardo; Goffi, Alberto; Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Turkel-Parrella, David; Duggal, Abhijit; Marotta, Thomas R; Macdonald, R Loch; Abrahamson, Simon

    2016-09-18

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), defined as nontraumatic bleeding into the brain parenchyma, is the second most common subtype of stroke, with 5.3 million cases and over 3 million deaths reported worldwide in 2010. Case fatality is extremely high (reaching approximately 60 % at 1 year post event). Only 20 % of patients who survive are independent within 6 months. Factors such as chronic hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and anticoagulation are commonly associated with ICH. Chronic arterial hypertension represents the major risk factor for bleeding. The incidence of hypertension-related ICH is decreasing in some regions due to improvements in the treatment of chronic hypertension. Anticoagulant-related ICH (vitamin K antagonists and the newer oral anticoagulant drugs) represents an increasing cause of ICH, currently accounting for more than 15 % of all cases. Although questions regarding the optimal medical and surgical management of ICH still remain, recent clinical trials examining hemostatic therapy, blood pressure control, and hematoma evacuation have advanced our understanding of ICH management. Timely and aggressive management in the acute phase may mitigate secondary brain injury. The initial management should include: initial medical stabilization; rapid, accurate neuroimaging to establish the diagnosis and elucidate an etiology; standardized neurologic assessment to determine baseline severity; prevention of hematoma expansion (blood pressure management and reversal of coagulopathy); consideration of early surgical intervention; and prevention of secondary brain injury. This review aims to provide a clinical approach for the practicing clinician.

  4. [Angiographical extravasation in the intracranial hemorrhage due to cerebrovascular moyamoya disease--autopsy study].

    PubMed

    Sayama, I; Fukasawa, H; Yasui, N; Suzuki, A

    1984-04-01

    A 53-year-old, non-hypertensive farmer, who had sudden attack of severe headache, was transferred to our clinic. He presented comatous state and tetraparesis without extraocular movements nor reactive pupils to light. CT scan, 7 hours after the ictus showed intracerebral hematoma in the right temporo-parietal region with ventricular extension. The following bilateral carotid angiograms established the diagnosis of the intracerebral hemorrhage due to cerebrovascular moyamoya disease. In angiograms of the affected side, irregular spotty stains spread from the periphei of the right posterior choroidal artery was delineated. The repeated CT scan after that indicated increment of hematoma. Fifty-three hours from the ictus, the patient died and an autopsy study was performed. After the fixation, the coronal brain section was made, and the careful observation of them elucidated the formation of an organized dissecting aneurysm in the angiographically extravasated vessel. About seven hundreds of serial specimen, 4 micron in thickness, was then investigated adjacent to the aneurysm. The organized dissecting aneurysm seemed to initiate from the branch of it, where marked fraying and undulation of the fibroelastic intima and internal elastic laminae were observed. The concavity toward the true lumen was completely disrupted and communicated to the extravascular space. As a result, the continuous part of it obstructed the lumen of the branch. These findings suggested the newly-developed dissection and it seemed to correspond to the angiographical extravasated points.

  5. Elevated Cerebral Pressure Passivity Is Associated With Prematurity-Related Intracranial Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Heather; Gregas, Matthew C.; Limperopoulos, Catherine; Zaretskaya, Irina; Bassan, Haim; Soul, Janet S.; Di Salvo, Donald N.; du Plessis, Adré J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Cerebral pressure passivity is common in sick premature infants and may predispose to germinal matrix/intraventricular hemorrhage (GM/IVH), a lesion with potentially serious consequences. We studied the association between the magnitude of cerebral pressure passivity and GM/IVH. PATIENTS AND METHODS We enrolled infants <32 weeks’ gestational age with indwelling mean arterial pressure (MAP) monitoring and excluded infants with known congenital syndromes or antenatal brain injury. We recorded continuous MAP and cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy hemoglobin difference (HbD) signals at 2 Hz for up to 12 hours/day and up to 5 days. Coherence and transfer function analysis between MAP and HbD signals was performed in 3 frequency bands (0.05–0.25, 0.25–0.5, and 0.5–1.0 Hz). Using MAP-HbD gain and clinical variables (including chorioamnionitis, Apgar scores, gestational age, birth weight, neonatal sepsis, and Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology II), we built a logistic regression model that best predicts cranial ultrasound abnormalities. RESULTS In 88 infants (median gestational age: 26 weeks [range 23–30 weeks]), early cranial ultrasound showed GM/IVH in 31 (37%) and parenchymal echodensities in 10 (12%) infants; late cranial ultrasound showed parenchymal abnormalities in 19 (30%) infants. Low-frequency MAP-HbD gain (highest quartile mean) was significantly associated with early GM/IVH but not other ultrasound findings. The most parsimonious model associated with early GM/IVH included only gestational age and MAP-HbD gain. CONCLUSIONS This novel cerebrovascular monitoring technique allows quantification of cerebral pressure passivity as MAP-HbD gain in premature infants. We show that high MAP-HbD gain is significantly associated with GM/IVH. The precise temporal and causal relationship between MAP-HbD gain and GM/IVH awaits further study. PMID:19564313

  6. Prothrombin complex concentrate accelerates international normalized ratio reversal and diminishes the extension of intracranial hemorrhage in geriatric trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Edavettal, Mathew; Rogers, Amelia; Rogers, Frederick; Horst, Michael; Leng, Wichitah

    2014-04-01

    Warfarin therapy increases the incidence intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), especially in the geriatric population. Timely reversal of international normalized ratio (INR) is integral in the management of these patients for whom fresh frozen plasma (FFP) with vitamin K is the standard of treatment. We hypothesized that implementing a protocol that used prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) would reverse INR values more swiftly and decrease the amount of FFP administered. In November 2011, a protocol was implemented for administering PCC to the geriatric population on warfarin admitted for life-threatening bleeds. These patients received 25 IU/kg ideal body weight of a three-factor PCC (Profilnine SD) if their INR was over 1.5 or greater. FFP was given if follow-up INR revealed an INR of 1.5 or greater. Retrospectively the data from 29 patients who received PCC were compared with a historical control group of 34 patients. Protocol use resulted in a significantly faster INR reversal (PCC: 151.6 ± 84.3 minutes vs control: 485.0 ± 321 minutes; P < 0.001), time to achieve an INR less than 1.5 (PCC: 484 ± 242 minutes vs control: 971 ± 1208 minutes; P = 0.036), and less FFP administered (PCC: 1.3 ± 1.0 vs control:3.3 ± 1.5; P < 0.001). PCC patients had a decreased incidence of progression of their ICH (PCC: 17.2% vs control: 44.2%; P = 0.031). Rapid reversal of coagulopathy in geriatric patients on warfarin is vital to limit the extent of ICH. PCC allows a much more rapid reversal than standard treatment with only FFP and vitamin K. Adopting such a protocol is associated not only with a more rapid reversal and less FFP use, but also less patients went on to extend their head bleeds.

  7. Design and characterization of a dedicated cone-beam CT scanner for detection of acute intracranial hemorrhage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Dang, H.; Stayman, J. W.; Wang, X.; Foos, D. H.; Aygun, N.; Koliatsos, V. E.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Prompt and reliable detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) has substantial clinical impact in diagnosis and treatment of stroke and traumatic brain injury. This paper describes the design, development, and preliminary performance characterization of a dedicated cone-beam CT (CBCT) head scanner prototype for imaging of acute ICH. Methods: A task-based image quality model was used to analyze the detectability index as a function of system configuration, and hardware design was guided by the results of this model-based optimization. A robust artifact correction pipeline was developed using GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo (MC) scatter simulation, beam hardening corrections, detector veiling glare, and lag deconvolution. An iterative penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) reconstruction framework with weights adjusted for artifact-corrected projections was developed. Various bowtie filters were investigated for potential dose and image quality benefits, with a MC-based tool providing estimates of spatial dose distribution. Results: The initial prototype will feature a source-detector distance of 1000 mm and source-axis distance of 550 mm, a 43x43 cm2 flat panel detector, and a 15° rotating anode x-ray source with 15 kW power and 0.6 focal spot size. Artifact correction reduced image nonuniformity by ~250 HU, and PWLS reconstruction with modified weights improved the contrast to noise ratio by 20%. Inclusion of a bowtie filter can potentially reduce dose by 50% and improve CNR by 25%. Conclusions: A dedicated CBCT system capable of imaging millimeter-scale acute ICH was designed. Preliminary findings support feasibility of point-of-care applications in TBI and stroke imaging, with clinical studies beginning on a prototype.

  8. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: Is Pre-Injury Antiplatelet Therapy Associated with Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage?

    PubMed

    van den Brand, Crispijn L; Tolido, Tanya; Rambach, Anna H; Hunink, Myriam G M; Patka, Peter; Jellema, Korné

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate whether the pre-injury use of antiplatelet therapy (APT) is associated with increased risk of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (tICH) on CT scan. PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central, reference lists, and national guidelines on traumatic brain injury were used as data sources. Eligible studies were cohort studies and case-control studies that assessed the relationship between APT and tICH. Studies without control group were not included. The primary outcome of interest was tICH on CT. Two reviewers independently selected studies, assessed methodological quality, and extracted outcome data. This search resulted in 10 eligible studies with 20,247 patients with head injury that were included in the meta-analysis. The use of APT in patients with head injury was associated with significant increased risk of tICH compared with control (odds ratio [OR] 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]1.27-2.74). There was significant heterogeneity in the studies (I(2) 84%), although almost all showed an association between APT use and tICH. This association could not be established for patients receiving aspirin monotherapy. When considering only patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), the OR is 2.72 (95% CI 1.92-3.85). The results were robust to sensitivity analysis on study quality. In summary, APT in patients with head injury is associated with increased risk of tICH; this association is most relevant in patients with mTBI. Whether this association is the result of a causal relationship and whether this relationship also exists for patients receiving aspirin monotherapy cannot be established with the current review and meta-analysis.

  9. EPH Receptor B4 (EPHB4) Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patients with Brain Arteriovenous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Weinsheimer, Shantel; Kim, Helen; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Chen, Yongmei; Lawton, Michael T.; Sidney, Stephen; Kwok, Pui-Yan; McCulloch, Charles E.; Young, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) are a tangle of abnormal vessels directly shunting blood from the arterial to venous circulation and an important cause of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). EphB4 is involved in arterial-venous determination during embryogenesis; altered signaling could lead to vascular instability resulting in ICH. We investigated the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in EPHB4 with risk of ICH at clinical presentation in BAVM patients. Methods and Results Eight haplotype-tagging SNPs spanning ∼29 kb were tested for association with ICH presentation in 146 Caucasian BAVM patients (phase I: 56 ICH, 90 non-ICH) using allelic, haplotypic, and principal components analysis. Associated SNPs were then genotyped in 102 additional cases (phase II: 37 ICH, 65 non-ICH) and data combined for multivariable logistic regression. Minor alleles of 2 SNPs were associated with reduced risk of ICH presentation (rs314313 C, P=0.005; rs314308 T, P=0.0004). Overall, haplotypes were also significantly associated with ICH presentation (χ2=17.24, 6 df, P=0.008); 2 haplotypes containing the rs314308 T allele (GCCTGGGT, P=0.003; GTCTGGGC, P=0.036) were associated with reduced risk. In principal components analysis, 2 components explained 91% of the variance, and complemented haplotype results by implicating 4 SNPs at the 5′ end, including rs314308 and rs314313. These 2 SNPs were replicated in the phase II cohort, and combined data resulted in greater significance (rs314313, P=0.0007; rs314308, P=0.00008). SNP association with ICH presentation persisted after adjusting for age, sex, BAVM size, and deep venous drainage. Conclusions EPHB4 polymorphisms are associated with risk of ICH presentation in BAVM patients, warranting further study. PMID:20031623

  10. Portable Wideband Microwave Imaging System for Intracranial Hemorrhage Detection Using Improved Back-projection Algorithm with Model of Effective Head Permittivity.

    PubMed

    Mobashsher, Ahmed Toaha; Mahmoud, A; Abbosh, A M

    2016-02-04

    Intracranial hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires rapid detection and medication to restrict any brain damage to minimal. Here, an effective wideband microwave head imaging system for on-the-spot detection of intracranial hemorrhage is presented. The operation of the system relies on the dielectric contrast between healthy brain tissues and a hemorrhage that causes a strong microwave scattering. The system uses a compact sensing antenna, which has an ultra-wideband operation with directional radiation, and a portable, compact microwave transceiver for signal transmission and data acquisition. The collected data is processed to create a clear image of the brain using an improved back projection algorithm, which is based on a novel effective head permittivity model. The system is verified in realistic simulation and experimental environments using anatomically and electrically realistic human head phantoms. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons between the images from the proposed and existing algorithms demonstrate significant improvements in detection and localization accuracy. The radiation and thermal safety of the system are examined and verified. Initial human tests are conducted on healthy subjects with different head sizes. The reconstructed images are statistically analyzed and absence of false positive results indicate the efficacy of the proposed system in future preclinical trials.

  11. Portable Wideband Microwave Imaging System for Intracranial Hemorrhage Detection Using Improved Back-projection Algorithm with Model of Effective Head Permittivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobashsher, Ahmed Toaha; Mahmoud, A.; Abbosh, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires rapid detection and medication to restrict any brain damage to minimal. Here, an effective wideband microwave head imaging system for on-the-spot detection of intracranial hemorrhage is presented. The operation of the system relies on the dielectric contrast between healthy brain tissues and a hemorrhage that causes a strong microwave scattering. The system uses a compact sensing antenna, which has an ultra-wideband operation with directional radiation, and a portable, compact microwave transceiver for signal transmission and data acquisition. The collected data is processed to create a clear image of the brain using an improved back projection algorithm, which is based on a novel effective head permittivity model. The system is verified in realistic simulation and experimental environments using anatomically and electrically realistic human head phantoms. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons between the images from the proposed and existing algorithms demonstrate significant improvements in detection and localization accuracy. The radiation and thermal safety of the system are examined and verified. Initial human tests are conducted on healthy subjects with different head sizes. The reconstructed images are statistically analyzed and absence of false positive results indicate the efficacy of the proposed system in future preclinical trials.

  12. Portable Wideband Microwave Imaging System for Intracranial Hemorrhage Detection Using Improved Back-projection Algorithm with Model of Effective Head Permittivity

    PubMed Central

    Mobashsher, Ahmed Toaha; Mahmoud, A.; Abbosh, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires rapid detection and medication to restrict any brain damage to minimal. Here, an effective wideband microwave head imaging system for on-the-spot detection of intracranial hemorrhage is presented. The operation of the system relies on the dielectric contrast between healthy brain tissues and a hemorrhage that causes a strong microwave scattering. The system uses a compact sensing antenna, which has an ultra-wideband operation with directional radiation, and a portable, compact microwave transceiver for signal transmission and data acquisition. The collected data is processed to create a clear image of the brain using an improved back projection algorithm, which is based on a novel effective head permittivity model. The system is verified in realistic simulation and experimental environments using anatomically and electrically realistic human head phantoms. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons between the images from the proposed and existing algorithms demonstrate significant improvements in detection and localization accuracy. The radiation and thermal safety of the system are examined and verified. Initial human tests are conducted on healthy subjects with different head sizes. The reconstructed images are statistically analyzed and absence of false positive results indicate the efficacy of the proposed system in future preclinical trials. PMID:26842761

  13. Vaginal LPS changed gene transcriptional regulation response to ischemic reperfusion and increased vulnerability of fetal brain hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yupeng; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Ito, Takuya; Velayo, Clarissa; Sato, Takafumi; Sugibayashi, Rika; Funamoto, Kiyoe; Hitomi, Kudo; Iida, Keita; Endo, Miyuki; Sato, Naoaki; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    During pregnancy, both ischemic reperfusion and bacterial agent LPS are known risk factors for fetal brain damage. However, there is a lack of evidence to explain whether vaginal LPS affects the fetus response to ischemic reperfusion. Here we reported that there was more than 2 folds higher vulnerability of fetal brain hemorrhage response to ischemic reperfusion when mother mouse was treated with vaginal LPS. As our previously reported, ischemic reperfusion induces P53-dependent fetal brain damage was based on a molecular mechanism: the transcriptional pattern was changed from HIF-1alpha-dependent to P53-dependent immediately. In the present work, only with vaginal LPS precondition, phosphorylation of activated transcriptional factor (ATF) 2 at Thr71 appeared in response to ischemic reperfusion. Moreover, this phosphorylation was completely blocked by pre-treatment with a P53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α. We concluded that vaginal LPS precondition trigged the p53-dependent phosphorylation of ATF2 in response to ischemic reperfusion, which played an important role of increasing vulnerability to hemorrhage in fetus.

  14. [Effects of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection in treatment of acute intracranial hypertension complicated by hemorrhagic shock in dogs].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hua-ping; Gu, Miao-ning; Xiao, Jin-fang; Xu, Xiang; Zhao, Zhen-long

    2008-03-01

    To observe the effect of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection (HSH) in treatment of acute intracranial hypertension complicated by hemorrhagic shock in dogs, and explore the mechanism of the effects of HSH. Twenty dogs were randomized into 4 equal groups, namely the 7.5% NaCl (HS) group, Ringer-Lactates solution (RL) group, hydroxyethyl strarch (HES) group, and HSH group. Canine models of acute intracranial hypertension complicated by hemorrhagic shock were established by epidural balloon inflation with saline and rapid discharge of the arterial blood. One hour after the induced shock, the dogs were given HS (6 ml/kg), RL of 3-fold volume of blood loss, HES of equivalent volume of blood loss, and HSH 8 ml/kg in the 4 groups, respectively. During the shock and resuscitationperiod, the intracranial pressure (ICP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) of the dogs were monitored, and the serum sodium level and plasma osmolality were measured at 30 min, 1 h and 4 h after the resuscitation. All dogs had similar MAP, CPP, and ICP before resuscitation (P>0.05). After resuscitation, the MAP was significantly improved (P<0.01), but the dogs in HSH group exhibited the fastest response; with the exception of the dogs in HS group to have significantly decreased MAP 2 h after resuscitation (P<0.01), all the other dogs maintained the MAP for 4 h. The CPP was also significantly increased after resuscitation (P<0.01), and in HS group, CPP decreased significantly after 2 h (P<0.01), and HSH group maintained the high CPP after 4 h. The ICP was increased significantly in RL and HES groups after resuscitation (P<0.01), reaching the peak level at 1 and 3 h, respectively, but in HS and HSH groups, the ICP decreased significantly to the lowest level at 1 h (P<0.01) which was maintained for 4 h. After resuscitation, the plasma sodium and plasma osmolality were significantly increased in HSH and HS groups. In dogs with acute intracranial

  15. Failure of Flow Diverter Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms Related to the Fetal-type Posterior Communicating Artery

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Arthur Man Yuen; Tsang, Frederick Chun Pong; Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit; Lee, Raymand; Lui, Wai Man

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The pipeline embolization device (PED) is a flow diverter that has shown promise in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Close to one-fifth of aneurysms, however, fail to occlude after PED placement. This study aims to identify anatomical features and clinicopathologic factors that may predispose failed aneurysm occlusion with the PED. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed all anterior circulation unruptured saccular aneurysms treated with the PED in a single-center. The primary outcome measure was angiographic occlusion. Anatomical features and potential predictors, including gender, aneurysm location, size, height, aspect ratio, neck width, prior treatment and the number of PED, were studied using binary logistic regression. Results 29 anterior circulation unruptured saccular aneurysms with a mean size of 6.99 mm treated with the PED in a single center were retrospectively studied. The overall occlusion rate was 79.3% after a mean follow-up of 9.2 months. Four aneurysms were related to the fetal-type posterior communicating artery (PComA), and all were refractory to flow diverter treatment. Female gender was significantly associated with a higher occlusion rate. We present the anatomical features and propose possible pathophysiological mechanisms of these PComA aneurysms that failed flow diverter treatment. Conclusion A PComA aneurysm with persistent fetal-type circulation appears to be particularly refractory to flow diverter treatment, especially when the aneurysm incorporates a significant portion of the PComA. Our experience suggested that flow diverting stents alone may not be the ideal treatment for this subgroup of aneurysms, and alternative modalities should be considered. Female patients were found to have a significantly higher rate of treatment success. PMID:26389008

  16. “REBOA” – Is it Really Safe? A Case with Massive Intracranial Hemorrhage Possibly due to Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA)

    PubMed Central

    Uchino, Hayaki; Tamura, Nobuichiro; Echigoya, Ryosuke; Ikegami, Tetsunori; Fukuoka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 86 Final Diagnosis: Polytrauma Symptoms: Shock Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta Specialty: Orthopedics and Traumatology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: Non-compressible torso hemorrhage continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in trauma patients. Recent case series report that resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) in the trauma population is a technically feasible method to manage the patients with exsanguinating hemorrhage. On the other hand, it seems that REBOA is being widely promoted prematurely. Complications due to REBOA haven’t been reported much in the literature, and they could have been underestimated. Case Report: An 86-year-old female presented to our emergency department following a pedestrian-vehicle accident. On admission, she was hemodynamically unstable with systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 78 mm Hg. She responded to fluid administration, and computed tomography (CT) scan showed cerebral contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, pelvic fracture with contrast extravasation, and thoracic spine fracture. Her condition deteriorated after the CT scan, and she became hemodynamically unstable. REBOA was inserted and inflated. Her blood pressure recovered and even became as high as SBP of 180 mm Hg. Transarterial embolization for pelvic fracture was successfully performed. A subsequent head CT scan showed massive intracranial hemorrhage with penetration to the ventricle, which was fatal. She died on the same day due to cerebral herniation. Conclusions: REBOA is now considered as an alternative to resuscitative thoracotomy or even widely indicated to control hemorrhage. We should be more cautious about using REBOA for polytrauma patients since it could make hemorrhage worse. Further research, assessing its potential complications and safety, will be required to elucidate clear indications for REBOA in trauma

  17. The safety of vasopressor-induced hypertension in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with coexisting unruptured, unprotected intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Buckley, Robert T; Indrakanti, Santoshi S; Turkmani, Ali H; Oh, Gerald; Crobeddu, Emanuela; Fargen, Kyle M; El Ahmadieh, Tarek Y; Naidech, Andrew M; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Hoh, Brian L; Bendok, Bernard R; Zipfel, Gregory J

    2015-10-01

    Vasopressor-induced hypertension (VIH) is an established treatment for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who develop vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). However, the safety of VIH in patients with coincident, unruptured, unprotected intracranial aneurysms is uncertain. This retrospective multiinstitutional study identified 1) patients with aneurysmal SAH and 1 or more unruptured, unprotected aneurysms who required VIH therapy (VIH group), and 2) patients with aneurysmal SAH and 1 or more unruptured, unprotected aneurysms who did not require VIH therapy (non-VIH group). All patients had previously undergone surgical or endovascular treatment for the presumed ruptured aneurysm. Comparisons between the VIH and non-VIH patients were made in terms of the patient characteristics, clinical and radiographic severity of SAH, total number of aneurysms, number of ruptured/unruptured aneurysms, aneurysm location/size, number of unruptured and unprotected aneurysms during VIH, severity of vasospasm, degree of hypervolemia, and degree and duration of VIH therapy. For the VIH group (n = 176), 484 aneurysms were diagnosed, 231 aneurysms were treated, and 253 unruptured aneurysms were left unprotected during 1293 total days of VIH therapy (5.12 total years of VIH therapy for unruptured, unprotected aneurysms). For the non-VIH group (n = 73), 207 aneurysms were diagnosed, 93 aneurysms were treated, and 114 unruptured aneurysms were left unprotected. For the VIH and non-VIH groups, the mean sizes of the ruptured (7.2 ± 0.3 vs 7.8 ± 0.6 mm, respectively; p = 0.27) and unruptured (3.4 ± 0.2 vs 3.2 ± 0.2 mm, respectively; p = 0.40) aneurysms did not differ. The authors observed 1 new SAH from a previously unruptured, unprotected aneurysm in each group (1 of 176 vs 1 of 73 patients; p = 0.50). Baseline patient characteristics and comorbidities were similar between groups. While the degree of hypervolemia was similar between the VIH and non-VIH patients

  18. Development and clinical translation of a cone-beam CT scanner for high-quality imaging of intracranial hemorrhage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisniega, A.; Xu, J.; Dang, H.; Zbijewski, W.; Stayman, J. W.; Mow, M.; Koliatsos, V. E.; Aygun, N.; Wang, X.; Foos, D. H.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: Prompt, reliable detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is essential for treatment of stroke and traumatic brain injury, and would benefit from availability of imaging directly at the point-of-care. This work reports the performance evaluation of a clinical prototype of a cone-beam CT (CBCT) system for ICH imaging and introduces novel algorithms for model-based reconstruction with compensation for data truncation and patient motion. Methods: The tradeoffs in dose and image quality were investigated as a function of analytical (FBP) and model-based iterative reconstruction (PWLS) algorithm parameters using phantoms with ICH-mimicking inserts. Image quality in clinical applications was evaluated in a human cadaver imaged with simulated ICH. Objects outside of the field of view (FOV), such as the head-holder, were found to introduce challenging truncation artifacts in PWLS that were mitigated with a novel multi-resolution reconstruction strategy. Following phantom and cadaver studies, the scanner was translated to a clinical pilot study. Initial clinical experience indicates the presence of motion in some patient scans, and an image-based motion estimation method that does not require fiducial tracking or prior patient information was implemented and evaluated. Results: The weighted CTDI for a nominal scan technique was 22.8 mGy. The high-resolution FBP reconstruction protocol achieved < 0.9 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the point spread function (PSF). The PWLS soft-tissue reconstruction showed <1.2 mm PSF FWHM and lower noise than FBP at the same resolution. Effects of truncation in PWLS were mitigated with the multi-resolution approach, resulting in 60% reduction in root mean squared error compared to conventional PWLS. Cadaver images showed clear visualization of anatomical landmarks (ventricles and sulci), and ICH was conspicuous. The motion compensation method was shown in clinical studies to restore visibility of fine bone structures

  19. Investigation of UCH-L1 levels in ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage and metabolic disorder induced impaired consciousness.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Ihsan; Atescelik, Metin; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Goktekin, Mehmet Cagri; Gurger, Mehtap; Ilhan, Nevin

    2017-06-21

    We aimed to determine the levels of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) in patients admitted to the emergency department with impaired consciousness due to metabolic or neurological reasons. The study included 80 patients with ischemic stroke (IS), 40 patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), 80 patients with metabolic disorder induced impaired consciousness (MDIC) and 40 healthy controls. The levels of UCH-L1 [median (IQR)] were as follows: 5.59ng/mL (3.90-9.37) in IS, 5.44ng/ml (4.01-13.98) in ICH, 3.34ng/ml (2.29-5.88) in MDIC and 3.94ng/ml (3.31-7.95) in healthy volunteers. Significantly higher levels were detected in IS and ICH than in MDIC and healthy volunteers. In ROC curve analysis, we detected 63.75% sensitivity and 62.5% specificity (AUC=0.626, p<0.0199, 95% CI: 0.533-0.713) with a cutoff value of 4.336ng/ml for IS and 75% sensitivity and 55% specificity (AUC=0.664, p<0.0071, 95% CI: 0.549-0.766) with a cut-off value of 4.036ng/ml for ICH. However, the sensitivity and specificity for MDIC was 36.25% and 77.5%, respectively, with a cut-off value of 3.256ng/ml (AUC=0.525, p=0.6521, 95% CI: 0.432-0.617). UCH-L1 levels were found to increase significantly with increasing time between the onset of symptoms and blood sampling (r=0.345, p<0.001). However, no correlation was found between UCH-L1 levels and age (r=0.014, p=0.833), GCS (r=-0.115, p=0.074), mRS (r=0.063, p=0.475) and NIHSS (r=0.056, p=0.520). In this study, we detected significantly higher levels of UCH-L1 in patients with IS and ICH compared to patients with MDIC and healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. WE-EF-207-03: Design and Optimization of a CBCT Head Scanner for Detection of Acute Intracranial Hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J; Sisniega, A; Zbijewski, W; Dang, H; Stayman, J; Aygun, N; Koliatsos, V; Siewerdsen, JH; Wang, X; Foos, DH

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To design a dedicated x-ray cone-beam CT (CBCT) system suitable to deployment at the point-of-care and offering reliable detection of acute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, and other head and neck injuries. Methods: A comprehensive task-based image quality model was developed to guide system design and optimization of a prototype head scanner suitable to imaging of acute TBI and ICH. Previously reported models were expanded to include the effects of x-ray scatter correction necessary for detection of low contrast ICH and the contribution of bit depth (digitization noise) to imaging performance. Task-based detectablity index provided the objective function for optimization of system geometry, x-ray source, detector type, anti-scatter grid, and technique at 10–25 mGy dose. Optimal characteristics were experimentally validated using a custom head phantom with 50 HU contrast ICH inserts imaged on a CBCT imaging bench allowing variation of system geometry, focal spot size, detector, grid selection, and x-ray technique. Results: The model guided selection of system geometry with a nominal source-detector distance 1100 mm and optimal magnification of 1.50. Focal spot size ∼0.6 mm was sufficient for spatial resolution requirements in ICH detection. Imaging at 90 kVp yielded the best tradeoff between noise and contrast. The model provided quantitation of tradeoffs between flat-panel and CMOS detectors with respect to electronic noise, field of view, and readout speed required for imaging of ICH. An anti-scatter grid was shown to provide modest benefit in conjunction with post-acquisition scatter correction. Images of the head phantom demonstrate visualization of millimeter-scale simulated ICH. Conclusions: Performance consistent with acute TBI and ICH detection is feasible with model-based system design and robust artifact correction in a dedicated head CBCT system. Further improvements can be achieved with incorporation of

  1. Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1b fetal infection with extensive hemorrhages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) subtype 1b was isolated from tissues of a term bovine fetus with hemorrhages in multiple tissues. At autopsy, multiple petechial hemorrhages were observed at gross examination throughout the body and placenta. Lung, kidney, thymus, and liver fresh tissues were exam...

  2. Assessment of fetal intracranial pathologies first demonstrated late in pregnancy: cell proliferation disorders

    PubMed Central

    Malinger, Gustavo; Lev, Dorit; Lerman-Sagie, Tally

    2003-01-01

    A considerable number of central nervous system pathologies remain undiagnosed during the first two trimesters of pregnancy. This group of disorders includes anomalies of brain proliferation, migration and cortical organization. Due to the fact that a detailed ultrasound examination of the fetal brain is usually not performed during the third trimester the diagnosis of these disorders is usually only made in families with a previously affected child or in many cases be mere chance. In this article we review the feasibility of prenatal diagnosis of disorders of brain proliferation: microcephaly, macrocephaly, hemimegalencephaly and neoplastic and non-neoplastic abnormal cell types. We discuss the differential diagnosis and offer a stepwise approach to the diagnosis of the more common disorders. PMID:14617366

  3. Intracranial Biodegradable Silica-Based Nimodipine Drug Release Implant for Treating Vasospasm in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in an Experimental Healthy Pig and Dog Model

    PubMed Central

    Koskimäki, Janne; Tarkia, Miikka; Ahtola-Sätilä, Tuula; Saloranta, Lasse; Laakso, Aki; Frantzén, Janek

    2015-01-01

    Nimodipine is a widely used medication for treating delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage. When administrated orally or intravenously, systemic hypotension is an undesirable side effect. Intracranial subarachnoid delivery of nimodipine during aneurysm clipping may be more efficient way of preventing vasospasm and DCI due to higher concentration of nimodipine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The risk of systemic hypotension may also be decreased with intracranial delivery. We used animal models to evaluate the feasibility of surgically implanting a silica-based nimodipine releasing implant into the subarachnoid space through a frontotemporal craniotomy. Concentrations of released nimodipine were measured from plasma samples and CSF samples. Implant degradation was followed using CT imaging. After completing the recovery period, full histological examination was performed on the brain and meninges. The in vitro characteristics of the implant were determined. Our results show that the biodegradable silica-based implant can be used for an intracranial drug delivery system and no major histopathological foreign body reactions were observed. CT imaging is a feasible method for determining the degradation of silica implants in vivo. The sustained release profiles of nimodipine in CSF were achieved. Compared to a traditional treatment, higher nimodipine CSF/plasma ratios can be obtained with the implant. PMID:25685803

  4. Treatment of intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Freidberg, S R

    1979-12-01

    The acute cerebellar hematoma and the subdural hematoma resent urgent surgical problems and treatment early in the clinical course should result in an excellent outcome. The subdural hematoma may be especially difficult to diagnose early, but may be suspected in patients on anticoagulant therapy or with shunze, and surgery, especially in the acute stage, should be avoided if possible. The CT scan supplemented when necessary by angiography is the diagnostic procedure of choice and will clearly demonstrate the lesions.

  5. Clinical evaluation of flat-panel detector compared with multislice computed tomography in 65 patients with acute intracranial hemorrhage: initial results. Clinical article.

    PubMed

    Struffert, Tobias; Eyupoglu, Ilker Y; Huttner, Hagen B; Engelhorn, Tobias; Doelken, Marc; Saake, Marc; Ganslandt, Oliver; Doerfler, Arnd

    2010-10-01

    The goal in this study was to compare flat-panel detector (FD) CT with multislice (MS) CT in the visualization of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), intraventricular hemorrhage, and external ventricular drains (EVDs) to evaluate the diagnostic quality and limitations of the new FD CT imaging modality. Neuroimages obtained in 65 patients, including 24 with EVDs, were reviewed by 2 independent, experienced clinicians. Lesions in all patients were investigated with FD CT and MS CT. The numbers of slices positive for ICH and SAH were counted, and for ICH the diameter and area of the lesion was measured. The positioning of drains was assessed. The presence of ventricular blood was noted. Statistical analysis was performed by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) to evaluate the level of inter- and intraobserver agreement, and linear regression analysis was done to visualize the results of the numbers of ICH- and SAH-positive slices. The authors found high interobserver agreement regarding the number of slices with evidence of ICH (r = 0.89 for MS CT, r = 0.78 for FD CT) and SAH (r = 0.88 for MS CT, r = 0.9 for FD CT). Thin layers of blood in the ventricles were not detected on FD CT in 36.4% of cases. Six of 7 perimesencephalic SAHs were not seen on FD CT scans. The EVDs could be assessed with both modalities in 83.3% of cases, but the position of the drain could not be determined with FD CT in 16.7% (4 of 24 cases). In some respects, FD CT is of limited use for the visualization of intracranial hemorrhage. However, despite limited contrast resolution, ICH and EVDs can be reliably demonstrated. Perimesencephalic SAH and thin layers of blood in the occipital horns may not be detected using FD CT. Further evaluation and improvement of the image quality is necessary before FD CT will provide identical quality in comparison with MS CT.

  6. Administration of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) for the intracranial hemorrhage in two dogs: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kang, M. H.; Park, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Two dogs with generalized seizures were evaluated. The dogs were diagnosed with traumatic intracranial hemorrhages based on the history, neurological examinations, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Treatment was started with oxygen, prednisolone and anticonvulsant agents. No further seizure activity was observed after treatment in both dogs, however cushing reflex was detected in case 1 and a left-sided hemi-paresis was detected in case 2. Further supportive treatment with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) was attempted. No abnormal signs were noted in either of the dogs and no recurrence was noted 16 and 14 months later, in case 1 and 2, respectively. These cases indicate that a combination of rhG-CSF treatment with previous therapy could be used in dogs with traumatic brain injury. PMID:27656233

  7. Risk of intracranial hemorrhage associated with therapeutic anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Hernandez, Cristhiam M; Oo, Thein Hlaing; García-Perdomo, Herney Andrés

    2017-02-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in cancer patients can result from tumor bleeding and from antitumor and anticoagulation therapy. The effect of anticoagulation on the incidence of ICH in cancer patients has not been quantified. Our objective was to determine the risk of intracranial hemorrhage associated with anticoagulation therapy for cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE). Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing the safety of anticoagulation therapy in patients with cancer-associated VTE. The primary endpoint of interest was the incidence of ICH and secondary outcomes included all major bleeding, and the time to ICH and major bleeding. After identifying 595 studies, five studies and 2089 patients were included in the analyses. We found that the relative risk (RR) for ICH was 0.494, 95 % CI (0.105-2.331) when low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) with vitamin K antagonist (VKA) anticoagulants were compared. No statistically significant differences in risk were measured. The risk of major bleeding using any type of anticoagulation therapy in patients with cancer-associated VTE was RR 0.853, 95 % CI (0.549, 1.327). After meta-analytic review of data published through August 2015, we conclude that therapeutic anticoagulation with LMWH given ≤6 months does not increase the risk of ICH in cancer patients compared to VKA. The risk of ICH in cancer patients is also similar to that of non-cancer patients. Available data were insufficient to determine if the ICH risk increase changes when the duration of anticoagulation is >6 months.

  8. Dabigatran attenuates thrombin generation to a lesser extent than warfarin: could this explain their differential effects on intracranial hemorrhage and myocardial infarction?

    PubMed

    Dale, Brian; Eikelboom, John W; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Young, Ed; Paikin, Jeremy S; Coppens, Michiel; Whitlock, Richard P; Connolly, Stuart J; Ginsberg, Jeffrey S; Hirsh, Jack

    2013-02-01

    Compared with warfarin, dabigatran is associated with less intracranial hemorrhage, but an increased risk of myocardial infarction. To explore these phenomena, we compared their effects on thrombin generation. Thrombin generation in plasma from 10 patients taking therapeutic doses of warfarin (mean INR 2.6) was compared with that in plasma containing 250 ng/mL dabigatran. Although lag times were similar when thrombin generation was induced by recalcification or with a range of tissue factor concentrations, there was a greater reduction in peak thrombin generation and endogenous thrombin potential in plasma from warfarin-treated patients than in dabigatran-containing plasma. Similar results were obtained when thrombin generation was determined in plasma samples from 18 warfarin or 36 dabigatran treated patients entered into the RE-LY trial. Warfarin suppresses thrombin generation more efficiently than dabigatran. Greater suppression of normal hemostatic mechanisms in the brain and pathological thrombosis at sites of atherosclerotic plaque disruption may explain the higher rate of intracranial bleeding and lower rate of myocardial infarction with warfarin compared with dabigatran.

  9. Postthrombolysis intracranial hemorrhage risk of cerebral microbleeds in acute stroke patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shoamanesh, Ashkan; Kwok, Chun Shing; Lim, Patricia Annabelle; Benavente, Oscar R.

    2014-01-01

    It has been questioned whether patients with cerebral microbleeds are at a greater risk for the development of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage following thrombolytic therapy in the management of acute ischemic stroke. Thus far, observational studies have not shown a statistically significant increased risk; however, these have been limited by small sample size. The aim is to better quantify the risk of postthrombolysis intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with acute ischemic stroke and cerebral microbleeds on magnetic resonance imaging. A systematic review of controlled studies investigating the presence of microbleeds on magnetic resonance imaging as a risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage following thrombolysis in acute stroke patients was conducted. A random effects model meta-analysis was performed. In pooled analysis of five studies totaling 790 participants, the prevalence of microbleeds was 17%. The presence of microbleeds revealed a trend toward an increased risk of postthrombolysis symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage [odds ratio: 1·98 (95% confidence interval, 0·90 to 4·35; P = 0·09), I2 = 0%]. Adjusted analysis minimizing potential bias resulted in an increased absolute risk of 4·6% for the development of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with cerebral microbleeds [odds ratio: 2·29 (95% confidence interval, 1·01 to 5·17), I2 = 0%] reaching borderline significance (P = 0·05). A significant relationship between increasing microbleed burden and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (P = 0·0015) was observed. Isolated analysis of studies using exclusively intravenous tissue plasminogen activator was insignificant. Our data suggest that patients with cerebral microbleeds are at increased risk for symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage following thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. However, current data are insufficient to justify withholding thrombolytic therapy from acute ischemic stroke patients solely of the basis of

  10. Does traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by diffuse brain injury cause delayed ischemic brain damage? Comparison with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, T; Hasue, M; Ito, H

    1998-11-01

    To examine whether traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (TSAH) caused by severe diffuse brain injury leads to delayed ischemic brain damage and secondary deterioration of outcome, as does aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (ASAH). We examined 99 patients with diffuse brain injury with TSAH and 114 patients with ASAH. Computed tomographic (CT) findings, cerebral blood flow, and neurological outcomes were assessed during the acute and subacute phases and were compared between the two groups. The distribution of subarachnoid hemorrhage on the CT scans differed between the two groups. Unlike ASAH, TSAH was not limited to cisterns surrounding the circle of Willis but extended to supratentorial regions and interhemispheric fissures. Computed tomography-detected subarachnoid hemorrhage disappeared very early with TSAH and gradually with ASAH. In the ASAH group, mean cerebral blood flow decreased to 75% of normal during the acute phase and decreased a further 10% during the subacute phase. In the TSAH group, mean cerebral blood flow decreased to 85% of normal during the acute phase and increased slightly during the subacute phase. Neurological deterioration and in-hospital death peaked on Day 0 in association with TSAH and showed twin peaks in association with ASAH. The incidence of low-density areas on the CT scans was significantly higher with ASAH than with TSAH. All low-density areas on the CT scans of patients with ASAH corresponded to vascular territories, but low-density areas on the CT scans of patients with TSAH were rarely associated with vascular territories and contained deep-seated or gliding contusion types. The findings suggest that the incidence of vasospasm is low in association with TSAH and that the cause is different compared with ASAH. There is no evidence that the presence of TSAH in cases of diffuse brain injury leads to delayed ischemic brain damage and secondary deterioration of outcome.

  11. The Third, Intensive Care Bundle With Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-07-05

    Cerebral Hemorrhage; Stroke; Hypertension; Diabetes; Anticoagulant-induced Bleeding; Cerebral Vascular Disorder; Brain Disorder; Hemorrhage; Intracranial Hemorrhages; Cardiovascular Diseases; Central Nervous System Diseases

  12. The “focus on aneurysm” principle: Classification and surgical principles of management of concurrent arterial aneurysm with arteriovenous malformation causing intracranial hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Vikas; Behari, Sanjay; Jaiswal, Awadhesh K.; Bhaisora, Kamlesh Singh; Shende, Yogesh P.; Phadke, Rajendra V.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Concurrent arterial aneurysms (AAs) occurring in 2.7-16.7% patients harboring an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) aggravate the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Aim: We evaluate the variations of aneurysms simultaneously coexisting with AVMs. A classification-based management strategy and an abbreviated nomenclature that describes their radiological features is also proposed. Setting: Tertiary care academic institute. Statistics: Test of significance applied to determine the factors causing rebleeding in the groups of patients with concurrent AVM and aneurysm and those with only AVMs. Subjects and Methods: Sixteen patients (5 with subarachnoid hemorrhage and 11 with intracerebral/intraventricular hemorrhage; 10 with low flow [LF] and 6 with high flow [HF] AVMs) underwent radiological assessment of Spetzler Martin (SM) grading and flow status of AA + AVM. Their modified Rankin's score (mRS) at admission was compared with their follow-up (F/U) score. Results: Pre-operative mRS was 0 in 5, 2 in 6, 3 in 1, 4 in 3 and 5 in 1; and, SM grade I in 5, II in 3, III in 3, IV in 4 and V in 1 patients, respectively. AA associated AVMs were classified as: (I) Flow-related proximal (n = 2); (II) flow-related distal (n = 3); (III) intranidal (n = 5); (IV) extra-intranidal (n = 2); (V) remote major ipsilateral (n = 1); (VI) remote major contralateral (n = 1); (VII) deep perforator related (n = 1); (VIII) superficial (n = 1); and (IX) distal (n = 0). Their treatment strategy included: Flow related AA, SM I-III LF AVM: aneurysm clipping with AVM excision; nidal-extranidal AA, SM I-III LF AVM: Excision or embolization of both AA + AVM; nidal-extranidal and perforator-related AA, SM IV-V HF AVM: Only endovascular embolization or radiosurgery. Surgical decision-making for remote AA took into account their ipsilateral/contralateral filling status and vessel dominance; and, for AA associated with SM III HF AVM, it varied in each patient based on diffuseness of AVM nidus, flow

  13. The "focus on aneurysm" principle: Classification and surgical principles of management of concurrent arterial aneurysm with arteriovenous malformation causing intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Jha, Vikas; Behari, Sanjay; Jaiswal, Awadhesh K; Bhaisora, Kamlesh Singh; Shende, Yogesh P; Phadke, Rajendra V

    2016-01-01

    Concurrent arterial aneurysms (AAs) occurring in 2.7-16.7% patients harboring an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) aggravate the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. We evaluate the variations of aneurysms simultaneously coexisting with AVMs. A classification-based management strategy and an abbreviated nomenclature that describes their radiological features is also proposed. Tertiary care academic institute. Test of significance applied to determine the factors causing rebleeding in the groups of patients with concurrent AVM and aneurysm and those with only AVMs. Sixteen patients (5 with subarachnoid hemorrhage and 11 with intracerebral/intraventricular hemorrhage; 10 with low flow [LF] and 6 with high flow [HF] AVMs) underwent radiological assessment of Spetzler Martin (SM) grading and flow status of AA + AVM. Their modified Rankin's score (mRS) at admission was compared with their follow-up (F/U) score. Pre-operative mRS was 0 in 5, 2 in 6, 3 in 1, 4 in 3 and 5 in 1; and, SM grade I in 5, II in 3, III in 3, IV in 4 and V in 1 patients, respectively. AA associated AVMs were classified as: (I) Flow-related proximal (n = 2); (II) flow-related distal (n = 3); (III) intranidal (n = 5); (IV) extra-intranidal (n = 2); (V) remote major ipsilateral (n = 1); (VI) remote major contralateral (n = 1); (VII) deep perforator related (n = 1); (VIII) superficial (n = 1); and (IX) distal (n = 0). Their treatment strategy included: Flow related AA, SM I-III LF AVM: aneurysm clipping with AVM excision; nidal-extranidal AA, SM I-III LF AVM: Excision or embolization of both AA + AVM; nidal-extranidal and perforator-related AA, SM IV-V HF AVM: Only endovascular embolization or radiosurgery. Surgical decision-making for remote AA took into account their ipsilateral/contralateral filling status and vessel dominance; and, for AA associated with SM III HF AVM, it varied in each patient based on diffuseness of AVM nidus, flow across arteriovenous fistula and eloquence of cortex. Follow up (F

  14. Screening for Fetal Spina Bifida Aperta by the Ultrasound and Intracranial Translucency Examinations at 11-13(+6) Weeks of Gestation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Liu, Ying; Li, Zhi-Hong; Yu, Ding

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the clinical significance of screening for fetal spina bifida aperta by ultrasound examination and intracranial translucency (IT) measurement at 11-13(+6) weeks of gestation. About 1,479 women at 11-13(+6) weeks of gestation in our hospital in 2012 were included as observation group, and 1,608 women at 11-13(+6) weeks of gestation without IT measurement in 2011 was included as controls. Detection rates of fetal spina bifida aperta in two groups were compared. The translucency thickness between the brain stem and choroid plexus and crown-rump length (CRL) in mid-sagittal view of the fetal face was measured, and translucency thickness and CRL in fetuses with spina bifida and healthy ones were compared. Detection rate of fetal spina bifida aperta in observation group was significantly higher than that in control group (six cases in observation group and one case in control group, p = 0.046). IT thickness was significantly lower in fetuses with spina bifida aperta (0.01 ± 1.25 mm) than that in healthy ones (1.73 ± 0.32 mm) (p < 0.001). There was positive correlation in healthy fetuses between IT thickness and CRL (r = 0.702, p < 0.001), but not in fetuses with spina bifida aperta (r = 0.001, p = 0.081). Ultrasound examination with IT measurement at 11-13(+6) weeks of gestation can be used to screen for fetal spina bifida aperta, and the reduction of IT thickness is an indicator of spina bifida aperta.

  15. Thromboembolic risks of recombinant factor VIIa Use in warfarin-associated intracranial hemorrhage: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    H-Y, Chou Sherry; Xuemei, Cai; G, Konigsberg Rachael; M, Bresette Linda; V, Henderson Galen; A, Sorond Farzaneh; K, Feske Steven

    2012-12-15

    Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) may be used for rapid hemostasis in life-threatening hemorrhage. In warfarin-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (wICH), FVIIa use is controversial and may carry significant thromboembolic risks. We compared incidence of baseline thromboembolic risk factors and thromboembolism rates in wICH patients treated with additional rFVIIa to those treated with standard therapy of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and vitamin K alone. We identified 45 consecutive wICH patients treated with additional rFVIIa over 5-year period, and 34 consecutive wICH patients treated with standard therapy alone as comparison group. We compared the incidence of post-hemorrhage cardiac and extra-cardiac thromboembolic complications between two treatment groups, and used logistic regression to adjust for significant confounders such as baseline thromboembolic risk factors. We performed secondary analysis comparing the quantity of FFP transfused between two treatment cohorts. Both rFVIIa-treated and standard therapy-treated wICH patients had a high prevalence of pre-existing thromboembolic diseases including atrial fibrillation (73% vs 68%), deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) (22% vs 18%), coronary artery disease (CAD) (38% vs 32%), and abnormal electrocardiogram (EKG) (78% vs 85%). Troponin elevation following wICH was prevalent in both groups (47% vs 41%). Clinically significant myocardial infarction (MI), defined as troponin > 1.0 ng/dL, occurred in 13% of rFVIIa-treated and 6% of standard therapy-treated patients (p=0.52). Past history of CAD (p=0.0061) and baseline abnormal EKG (p=0.02) were independently associated with clinically significant MI following wICH while rFVIIa use was not. The incidences of DVT/PE (2% vs 9%; p=0.18) and ischemic stroke (2% vs 0%; p=0.38) were similar between two treatment groups. Recombinant FVIIa-treated patients had lower mean INR at 3 (p=0.0001) and 6 hours (p<0.0001) and received fewer units of FFP transfusion

  16. Thromboembolic risks of recombinant factor VIIa Use in warfarin-associated intracranial hemorrhage: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) may be used for rapid hemostasis in life-threatening hemorrhage. In warfarin-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (wICH), FVIIa use is controversial and may carry significant thromboembolic risks. We compared incidence of baseline thromboembolic risk factors and thromboembolism rates in wICH patients treated with additional rFVIIa to those treated with standard therapy of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and vitamin K alone. Methods We identified 45 consecutive wICH patients treated with additional rFVIIa over 5-year period, and 34 consecutive wICH patients treated with standard therapy alone as comparison group. We compared the incidence of post-hemorrhage cardiac and extra-cardiac thromboembolic complications between two treatment groups, and used logistic regression to adjust for significant confounders such as baseline thromboembolic risk factors. We performed secondary analysis comparing the quantity of FFP transfused between two treatment cohorts. Results Both rFVIIa-treated and standard therapy-treated wICH patients had a high prevalence of pre-existing thromboembolic diseases including atrial fibrillation (73% vs 68%), deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) (22% vs 18%), coronary artery disease (CAD) (38% vs 32%), and abnormal electrocardiogram (EKG) (78% vs 85%). Troponin elevation following wICH was prevalent in both groups (47% vs 41%). Clinically significant myocardial infarction (MI), defined as troponin > 1.0 ng/dL, occurred in 13% of rFVIIa-treated and 6% of standard therapy-treated patients (p=0.52). Past history of CAD (p=0.0061) and baseline abnormal EKG (p=0.02) were independently associated with clinically significant MI following wICH while rFVIIa use was not. The incidences of DVT/PE (2% vs 9%; p=0.18) and ischemic stroke (2% vs 0%; p=0.38) were similar between two treatment groups. Recombinant FVIIa-treated patients had lower mean INR at 3 (p=0.0001) and 6 hours (p<0.0001) and received

  17. Incidence of intracranial hemorrhage and outcomes after ground-level falls in geriatric trauma patients taking preinjury anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Subhash; Sharma, Rohit; Grotts, Jonathan; Ferrigno, Lisa; Kaminski, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Antiplatelet and anticoagulant medication increases the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) after a fall in geriatric patients. We sought to determine whether there were differences in ICH rates and outcomes based on type of anticoagulant or antiplatelet agent after a ground-level fall (GLF). Our institutional trauma registry was used to identify patients 65 years old or older after a GLF while taking warfarin, clopidogrel, or aspirin over a 2-year period. Rates and types of ICH and patient outcomes were evaluated. Of 562 patients who met inclusion and exclusion criteria, 218 (38.8%) were on warfarin, 95 (16.9%) were on clopidogrel, and 249 (44.3%) were on aspirin. Overall ICH frequency was 15 per cent with no difference in ICH rate, type of ICH, need for craniotomy, mortality, or intensive care unit or hospital length of stay between groups. Patients with ICH were more likely to present with abnormal Glasgow Coma Score, history of hypertension, and/or loss of consciousness.

  18. [Effect of normobaric hyperoxia on cerebral oxygenation, metabolism and oxidative stress in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by intracranial aneurysm rupture].

    PubMed

    Solodov, A A; Petrikov, S S; Klychnikova, E V; Tazina, E V; Krylov, V V; Godkov, M A; Khamidova, L T

    2013-01-01

    The development of cerebral vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to cerebral aneurysms rupture results in cerebral circulation disturbances. Application of normobaric hyperoxia can be an effective way for improving of oxygen delivery to injured brain tissues. The purpose of this study was to assess of normobaric hyperoxia influence on intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral oxygenation and metabolism, oxidative stress and endogenous factors of vascular regulation in II critically ill patients with nontraumatic SAH due to cerebral aneurysms rupture. Increase of FiO2 from 0.3 to 0.5 and 1.0 was accompanied with brain oxygen tension (PbrO2) increase and cerebral extraction ratio for oxygen (O2ER) decrease. Application of normobaric hyperoxia had no effect on ICP, cerebral perfusion pressure, arterial blood pressure and cerebral metabolism. The results obtained from patients with nontraumatic SAH showed an evident increase of oxidative stress which had a significant effect on vascular endothelial function, causing an imbalance in the endogenous regulation of vascular tone. Application of normobaric hyperoxia was not accompanied by an increase of free-radical processes in critically ill patients with nontraumatic SAH due to cerebral aneurysms rupture.

  19. [Effects of statin use on intracranial hemorrhage and clinical outcome after intravenous rt-PA for acute ischemic stroke: SAMURAI rt-PA registry].

    PubMed

    Makihara, Noriko; Okada, Yasushi; Koga, Masatoshi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Furui, Eisuke; Kimura, Kazumi; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Kario, Kazuomi; Okuda, Satoshi; Naganuma, Masaki; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2010-04-01

    We evaluated whether pre- and post-stroke statin use was associated with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and clinical outcome at 3 months after intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA) for acute ischemic stroke. This study enrolled 600 consecutive patients (72 +/- 12 years, woman 37.2%) who received IV rt-PA at ten stroke centers that participated in the SAMURAI rt-PA Registry from October 2005 to July 2008. Statins were used prior to stroke in 112% and within 72 h after IV rt-PA in 10.0% of patients. One hundred nineteen patients (19.8%) developed ICH. Pre-stroke statin use was not an independent factor associated with ICH (OR 1.46; 95% CI 0.76-2.81, p = 0.225). Of 535 patients with a premorbid mRS < or = 1, 199 (37.2%) had a favorable clinical outcome at 3 months (mRS < or = 1). Pre-stroke statin use (OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.55-2.01, p = 0.879), as well as post-stroke statin use (OR 1.31; 95% CI 0.66-2.59, p = 0.440), was not an independent predictor of outcome. In patients who received IV rt-PA for acute ischemic stroke, statin use did not increase ICH after thrombolysis, nor was it associated with clinical outcome.

  20. Influence of different surgical timing on outcome of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and the surgical techniques during early surgery for ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guo-Sheng; Song, Lai-Jun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of different surgical timing on outcome of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and to explore the surgical techniques for ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The clinical data were from 327 cases. 304 cases of the surgical group were further assigned to early surgery (89 cases), intermediate surgery(164 cases) and delayed surgery(51 cases) according to the surgical timing. The other 23 cases were the nonsurgical group. The ultimate outcome of all cases was graded according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale. After the cases of the no-surgical group were re-assigned to different surgical subgroups according to the rebleeding time, the ultimate outcome was graded once more. There was no significant difference among the 3 groups' pre-operative clinical data. After re-assigning the cases of no-surgical group to the different surgical subgroups, there was no significant difference among the 3 groups' preooperative clinical data, while the ultimate outcome grades of early surgery (3.6 ± 1.8) and intermediate surgery (3.5 ± 2.2) were superior to that of delayed surgery (2.9 ± 2.8). This retrospective study has demonstrated that early surgery can not only prevent re-rupture of aneurysm to decrease mortality rate but also improve the ultimate outcome.

  1. Mechanisms underlying the perifocal neuroprotective effect of the Nrf2–ARE signaling pathway after intracranial hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiao-ping; Chen, Zhi-ying; Zhou, Jun; Wu, Dan; Bao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been found that nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element (Nrf2–ARE) signaling pathway plays a role in antioxidative response, anti-inflammatory response, and neuron-protection in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The aim of this study is to explore mechanisms underlying the perifocal neuroprotective effect of the Nrf2–ARE signaling pathway after ICH. Methods There were a total of 90 rats with basal ganglia hemorrhage, which were randomly divided into the following four groups: ICH (Sprague–Dawley rats with autologous femoral arterial blood injection into the basal ganglia), sulforaphane (SFN) (SFN was intraperitoneally administered into rats), retinoic acid (RA) (RA was intraperitoneally administered into rats), and dimethyl sulfoxide (the rats were treated with dimethyl sulfoxide). We observed the neurological score of the rats in the different groups, and collected brain tissues for immunofluorescence, Western blot, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to detect expression of Nrf2, heme oxygenase (HO-1), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Results The results indicated that neurological dysfunction of rats was significantly improved in the SFN group, and the expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 in tissues surrounding the hemorrhage were increased. Also, the level of NF-κB and TNF-α were reduced compared to the ICH group. The RA group exhibited more severe neurological dysfunction and lower levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 than the SFN and ICH groups. Compared to the ICH group, the NF-κB and TNF-α expression in the RA groups was increased. In conclusion, RA inhibits Nrf2 dissociation and translocation into nucleus, thereby suppressing the anti-inflammatory effect of Nrf2–ARE signaling pathway. The activation of Nrf2–ARE signaling pathway by SFN can elevate expression of antioxidant enzyme HO-1, reduce perifocal inflammatory response after ICH, and thus may play a

  2. Attenuation of Acute Phase Injury in Rat Intracranial Hemorrhage by Cerebrolysin that Inhibits Brain Edema and Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhaotao; Wang, Shanshan; Gao, Mou; Xu, Ruxiang; Liang, Chunyang; Zhang, Hongtian

    2016-04-01

    The outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is mainly determined by the volume of the hemorrhage core and the secondary brain damage to penumbral tissues due to brain swelling, microcirculation disturbance and inflammation. The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of cerebrolysin on brain edema and inhibition of the inflammation response surrounding the hematoma core in the acute stage after ICH. The ICH model was induced by administration of type VII bacterial collagenase into the stratum of adult rats, which were then randomly divided into three groups: ICH + saline; ICH + Cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) and sham. Cerebrolysin or saline was administered intraperitoneally 1 h post surgery. Neurological scores, extent of brain edema content and Evans blue dye extravasation were recorded. The levels of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) were assayed by Real-time PCR and Elisa kits. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and tight junction proteins (TJPs; claudin-5, occludin and zonula occluden-1) expression were measured at multiple time points. The morphological and intercellular changes were characterized by Electron microscopy. It is found that cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) improved the neurological behavior and reduced the ipsilateral brain water content and Evans blue dye extravasation. After cerebrolysin treated, the levels of pro-inflammatory factors and AQP4 in the peri-hematomal areas were markedly reduced and were accompanied with higher expression of TJPs. Electron microscopy showed the astrocytic swelling and concentrated chromatin in the ICH group and confirmed the cell junction changes. Thus, early cerebrolysin treatment ameliorates secondary injury after ICH and promotes behavioral performance during the acute phase by reducing brain edema, inflammatory response, and blood-brain barrier permeability.

  3. Added value of delayed computed tomography angiography in primary intracranial hemorrhage and hematoma size for predicting spot sign.

    PubMed

    Wu, Te Chang; Chen, Tai Yuan; Shiue, Yow Ling; Chen, Jeon Hor; Hsieh, Tsyh-Jyi; Ko, Ching Chung; Lin, Ching Po

    2017-01-01

    Background The computed tomography angiography (CTA) spot sign represents active contrast extravasation within acute primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and is an independent predictor of hematoma expansion (HE) and poor clinical outcomes. The spot sign could be detected on first-pass CTA (fpCTA) or delayed CTA (dCTA). Purpose To investigate the additional benefits of dCTA spot sign in primary ICH and hematoma size for predicting spot sign. Material and Methods This is a retrospective study of 100 patients who underwent non-contrast CT (NCCT) and CTA within 24 h of onset of primary ICH. The presence of spot sign on fpCTA or dCTA, and hematoma size on NCCT were recorded. The spot sign on fpCTA or dCTA for predicting significant HE, in-hospital mortality, and poor clinical outcomes (mRS ≥ 4) are calculated. The hematoma size for prediction of CTA spot sign was also analyzed. Results Only the spot sign on dCTA could predict high risk of significant HE and poor clinical outcomes as on fpCTA ( P < 0.05). With dCTA, there is increased sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) for predicting significant HE, in-hospital mortality, and poor clinical outcomes. The XY value (product of the two maximum perpendicular axial dimensions) is the best predictor (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.82) for predicting spot sign on fpCTA or dCTA in the absence of intraventricular and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Conclusion This study clarifies that dCTA imaging could improve predictive performance of CTA in primary ICH. Furthermore, the XY value is the best predictor for CTA spot sign.

  4. Clinical relevance of cortical spreading depression in neurological disorders: migraine, malignant stroke, subarachnoid and intracranial hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Martin; Dreier, Jens Peter; Fabricius, Martin; Hartings, Jed A; Graf, Rudolf; Strong, Anthony John

    2011-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) and depolarization waves are associated with dramatic failure of brain ion homeostasis, efflux of excitatory amino acids from nerve cells, increased energy metabolism and changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). There is strong clinical and experimental evidence to suggest that CSD is involved in the mechanism of migraine, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury. The implications of these findings are widespread and suggest that intrinsic brain mechanisms have the potential to worsen the outcome of cerebrovascular episodes or brain trauma. The consequences of these intrinsic mechanisms are intimately linked to the composition of the brain extracellular microenvironment and to the level of brain perfusion and in consequence brain energy supply. This paper summarizes the evidence provided by novel invasive techniques, which implicates CSD as a pathophysiological mechanism for this group of acute neurological disorders. The findings have implications for monitoring and treatment of patients with acute brain disorders in the intensive care unit. Drawing on the large body of experimental findings from animal studies of CSD obtained during decades we suggest treatment strategies, which may be used to prevent or attenuate secondary neuronal damage in acutely injured human brain cortex caused by depolarization waves.

  5. Clinical relevance of cortical spreading depression in neurological disorders: migraine, malignant stroke, subarachnoid and intracranial hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, Martin; Dreier, Jens Peter; Fabricius, Martin; Hartings, Jed A; Graf, Rudolf; Strong, Anthony John

    2011-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) and depolarization waves are associated with dramatic failure of brain ion homeostasis, efflux of excitatory amino acids from nerve cells, increased energy metabolism and changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). There is strong clinical and experimental evidence to suggest that CSD is involved in the mechanism of migraine, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury. The implications of these findings are widespread and suggest that intrinsic brain mechanisms have the potential to worsen the outcome of cerebrovascular episodes or brain trauma. The consequences of these intrinsic mechanisms are intimately linked to the composition of the brain extracellular microenvironment and to the level of brain perfusion and in consequence brain energy supply. This paper summarizes the evidence provided by novel invasive techniques, which implicates CSD as a pathophysiological mechanism for this group of acute neurological disorders. The findings have implications for monitoring and treatment of patients with acute brain disorders in the intensive care unit. Drawing on the large body of experimental findings from animal studies of CSD obtained during decades we suggest treatment strategies, which may be used to prevent or attenuate secondary neuronal damage in acutely injured human brain cortex caused by depolarization waves. PMID:21045864

  6. [Intracranial arteriovenous malformations in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Lin, L S; Shih, C J

    1993-12-01

    This paper analyzes the available literature on intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in Taiwan. The incidence and symptoms of the disease are studied with a view to assisting practitioners in its recognition. The incidence of intracranial AVM in patients who have suffered hemorrhagic stroke in Taiwan is 2.5% to 4.8%, with the male to female ratio being 1.5:1. The peak age at which bleeding from intracranial AVM occurred ranged from 10 to 40 years; bleeding showed no seasonal variation. Sudden headaches, vomiting, and disturbance of consciousness were the commonest presenting symptoms of AVM, similar to the rupture of intracranial aneurysms. However, the possibility of focal neurological deficit among patients with intracranial AVM was higher than in patients with intracranial aneurysms. Risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, smoking and alcohol intake showed no close relationship to bleeding in intracranial AVM. Pregnancy is not a risk factor in female patients with intracranial AVM with no history of hemorrhage. Small intracranial AVM are more likely to bleed. Since 1961 the majority of Taiwan's intracranial AVM patients have been treated surgically, while before that date general medicine was the treatment of choice. In recent years, several developments such as operation microscope, microsurgical instruments and microsurgical techniques have enhanced the efficacy of surgical intervention in the treatment of AVM. When the mortality and morbidity rates resulting from the two forms of treatment are compared, surgical treatment shows a better prognosis for the treatment of intracranial AVM.

  7. Effects of Smoking on Ischemic Stroke, Intracranial Hemorrhage, and Coronary Artery Events in Japanese Patients With Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shinya; Otsuka, Takayuki; Sagara, Koichi; Semba, Hiroaki; Kano, Hiroto; Matsuno, Shunsuke; Takai, Hideaki; Kato, Yuko; Uejima, Tokuhisa; Oikawa, Yuji; Nagashima, Kazuyuki; Kirigaya, Hajime; Yajima, Junji; Kunihara, Takashi; Sawada, Hitoshi; Aizawa, Tadanori; Yamashita, Takeshi

    2017-08-03

    The effects of smoking on the prognosis of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients are unclear.The Shinken Database 2004-11 (n = 17,517) includes all new patients visiting the Cardiovascular Institute between June 2004 and March 2012. Among these cases, 2,102 NVAF patients were identified. The effects of smoking on ischemic stroke (IS), intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and coronary artery events including percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were analyzed. Smokers were younger and had lower risk profiles compared with non-smokers. A similar tendency was observed between current and former smokers. In contrast, patients with high tobacco consumption were older and had higher risk profiles, including uncontrolled hypertension, compared with those with low tobacco consumption. In 8,159 patient-years, IS, ICH, PCI, and ACS occurred at rates of 7.7, 2.7, 12.4, and 3.0 per 1000 patient-years. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, smoking was not significantly associated with any adverse event. However, different effects of smoking were observed when stratified by age. In patients ≥ 65 years old, current smokers were independently associated with PCI. Moreover, current smokers and smokers with a total tobacco amount ≥ 800 were marginally and independently associated with IS. In patients < 65 years, current smokers were independently associated with ICH.Age appears to be one of the contributors to differentiation of the effects of smoking on cardiovascular events in our NVAF patients. In elderly patients who still smoke, smoking was associated with the promotion of atherosclerosis or thromboembolism, whereas in young patients it was associated with bleeding.

  8. Intracranial hemorrhage in infants as a serious, and preventable consequence of late form of vitamin K deficiency: a selfie picture of Turkey, strategies for tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Unal, Ekrem; Ozsoylu, Serkan; Bayram, Ayse; Ozdemir, Mehmet Akif; Yilmaz, Ebru; Canpolat, Mehmet; Tumturk, Abdulfettah; Per, Huseyin

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding is one of the most common causes of acquired hemostatic disorder in early infancy. Although vitamin K is practiced routinely after every birth in Turkey, children with type of vitamin K deficiency bleedings (L-VKDB) can be encountered. We aimed to evaluate the clinical features of the children with L-VKDB reported from Turkey. Between 1995 and 2013, 48 studies reporting 534 children with L-VKDB were evaluated in this study. Of the 534 reported children (178 girls, 356 boys), 486 (91 %) were extremely breastfed. The most common bleeding sites were intracranial hemorrhage, gastrointestinal, and umbilical in 414 (77.4 %), 33 (6.2 %), and 33 (6.2 %) children, respectively, and 35 (6.6 %) children had been diagnosed incidentally without any bleeding. The etiology of 399 (74.7 %) children were classified as idiopathic, whereas 135 (25.3 %) were secondary. Intramuscular vitamin K was administered in 248 (46.4 %), not administered in 228 (42.7 %), and the administration of vitamin K were not determined in 58 (10.9 %) children. The outcomes of Turkish cohort showed that 111 (20.8) children died, 257 (48.1 %) cases developed neurologic deficit (mainly epilepsy and psychomotor retardation), and only 166 (31.1 %) patients recovered without squeal. The compliance of prophylactic measures in Turkey does not seem to be satisfactory. As a further measure of tomorrow, we vigorously emphasize that a national surveillance program may be initiated. An additional intramuscular dose or oral supplementation of vitamin K especially for exclusively breast-fed infants may reduce this catastrophic problem in our country.

  9. Safety and Effectiveness of Factor VIII Inhibitor Bypassing Activity (FEIBA) and Fresh Frozen Plasma in Oral Anticoagulant-Associated Intracranial Hemorrhage: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ellen B; Tan, Benedict; Nguyen, Thuy; Salazar, Miguel; Putney, Kimberly; Gupta, Pramod; Suarez, Jose I; Bershad, Eric M

    2017-08-01

    Oral anticoagulant (OAT)-associated intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a life-threatening emergency for which prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) are considered first-line reversal agents. The only approved PCC in the USA for warfarin-associated ICH is non-activated PCC. Little data are available regarding the safety and effectiveness of factor VIII inhibitor bypassing activity (FEIBA) which is an activated prothrombin complex concentrate (aPCC). The aim of this analysis was to assess the safety and effectiveness of FEIBA compared to fresh frozen plasma (FFP) for reversal of OAT-associated ICH. Data were retrospectively collected to compare coagulation markers and in-hospital clinical outcomes in patients who received aPCC with or without FFP versus FFP alone for the reversal of OAT-associated ICH. Eighty-four patients met inclusion criteria; 50 patients received FFP alone, and 34 patients received FEIBA (mean dose 20 U/kg) with or without FFP for OAT-associated ICH. The proportion of diagnosed thrombotic events during hospitalization was similar in both groups (8% in the FFP group vs. 12% in the FEIBA group; P = 0.56). Median time to INR < 1.5 was achieved faster in the FEIBA group versus the FFP group (0.5 h [IQR 0.5-1.] vs. 10 h [IQR 5-16.3], respectively; P < 0.001) reflecting a trend toward shorter median time to neurosurgical intervention. Hematoma expansion, length of stay, and all-cause mortality were similar between both groups. Administration of FEIBA does not appear to increase the risk of thrombotic events compared with FFP. FEIBA administration resulted in faster INR reversal with a trend toward shorter time to neurosurgical intervention. However, there was no difference in hematoma expansion, mortality or length of stay.

  10. Intracranial hemorrhage recurrence on vitamin K antagonist: severity of the first episode and HASBLED score fail to identify high-risk patients from the CHIRONE study.

    PubMed

    Poli, Daniela; Antonucci, Emilia; Dentali, Francesco; Testa, Sophie; Palareti, Gualtiero

    2017-01-01

    The most feared complication of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) treatment is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The previously published CHIRONE Study fails to identify risk factors associated with ICH recurrence after VKAs resumption. The aim of this secondary analysis of the study is to evaluate if patients who need surgery or with severe neurological sequelae after the first episode show a higher risk of ICH recurrence. The HASBLED score was used to stratify bleeding risk and to evaluate the distribution of recurrence in relation to each class of risk. The study included 267 patients from 27 Italian centers. The treatment of the index ICH, surgical or medical was recorded; modified Rankin Scale score of 3 or more was used to define patients with severe neurological impairment; HASBLED score of 3 or more was used to identify high bleeding risk patients. During follow-up, 20 patients (7.5%) had ICH recurrence (rate of 2.56 × 100 patient-years). No difference in the type of treatment [hazard ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49-4.74] and neurological impairment with modified Rankin Scale 3 or more (hazard ratio = 0.9; 95% CI: 0.31-2.83) were found in relation to ICH recurrence. The mean HASBLED score was similar between the two groups (P = 0.54). In conclusion, the results of our study suggest that neither the severity of the index ICH at presentation nor the HASBLED clinical prediction rule should be used to assess the risk of recurrence in patients who need VKAs resumption after a previous ICH.

  11. A Blown Pupil and Intracranial Hemorrhage in a 4-Week-Old: A Case of Delayed Onset Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding, a Rare "Can't Miss" Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Enz, Ryley; Anderson, Robert S

    2016-08-01

    Infants are at risk for vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) because of limited stores of vitamin K (VK) at birth and a low concentration of VK in human breast milk. Therefore, the administration of intramuscular (IM) VK at birth has been recommended since 1961 in the United States. Infants who do not receive IM VK and who are exclusively breast-fed are at increased risk for VKDB. While VKDB is rare, a common presentation of late onset VKDB is intracranial hemorrhage. We report the case of a 4-week-old infant who presented to the emergency department with lethargy and a grossly dilated right pupil. The parents denied trauma. A computed tomography scan revealed a right-sided subdural hematoma with midline shift. The infant's international normalized ratio was >10.9 and his prothrombin time PT was >120 seconds. VK was administered and the child was transferred to a tertiary care center for emergent neurosurgery. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: The difficult part of making this critical diagnosis is considering it. Any bleeding in a newborn without trauma should prompt inquiry regarding neonatal VK administration and a serum prothrombin time level. Fortunately, once the diagnosis is made, therapy in the emergency department can be lifesaving and is familiar to emergency physicians. Treatment parallels usual care for the adult with excess anticoagulation caused by warfarin. Prompt intravenous VK is universally accepted. Studies to support fresh frozen plasma or prothrombin complex concentrate are lacking but make good clinical sense for life-threatening bleeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage in acute ischemic stroke patients treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 55 studies.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, William N; Slot, Karsten Bruins; Fernandes, Peter; Sandercock, Peter; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2012-11-01

    Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is an effective treatment for acute ischemic stroke but is associated with an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). We sought to identify the risk factors for ICH with a systematic review of the published literature. We searched for studies of rtPA-treated stroke patients that reported an association between a variable measured before rtPA infusion and clinically important ICH (parenchymal ICH or ICH associated with clinical deterioration). We calculated associations between baseline variables and ICH with random-effect meta-analyses. We identified 55 studies that measured 43 baseline variables in 65 264 acute ischemic stroke patients. Post-rtPA ICH was associated with higher age (odds ratio, 1.03 per year; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.04), higher stroke severity (odds ratio, 1.08 per National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale point; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.11), and higher glucose (odds ratio, 1.10 per mmol/L; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.14). There was approximately a doubling of the odds of ICH with the presence of atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, renal impairment, previous antiplatelet agents, leukoaraiosis, and a visible acute cerebral ischemic lesion on pretreatment brain imaging. Little of the variation in the sizes of the associations among different studies was explained by the source of the cohort, definition of ICH, or degree of adjustment for confounding variables. Individual baseline variables were modestly associated with post-rtPA ICH. Prediction of post-rtPA ICH therefore is likely to be difficult if based on single clinical or imaging factors alone. These observational data do not provide a reliable method for the individualization of treatment according to predicted ICH risk.

  13. Detecting Intracranial Hemorrhage Using Automatic Tube Current Modulation With Advanced Modeled Iterative Reconstruction in Unenhanced Head Single- and Dual-Energy Dual-Source CT.

    PubMed

    Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Wichmann, Julian L; Bennett, Dennis W; Leithner, Doris; Bauer, Ralf W; Vogl, Thomas J; Bodelle, Boris

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine diagnostic accuracy, image quality, and radiation dose of low-dose single- and dual-energy unenhanced third-generation dual-source head CT for detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). A total of 123 patients with suspected ICH were examined using a dual-source 192-MDCT scanner. Standard-dose 120-kVp single-energy CT (SECT; n = 36) and 80-kVp and 150-kVp dual-energy CT (DECT; n = 30) images were compared with low-dose SECT (n = 32) and DECT (n = 25) images obtained using automated tube current modulation (ATCM). Advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) was used for all protocols. Detection of ICH was performed by three readers who were blinded to the image acquisition parameters of each image series. Image quality was assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Interobserver agreement was calculated using the Fleiss kappa. Radiation dose was measured as dose-length product (DLP). Detection of ICH was excellent (sensitivity, 94.9-100%; specificity, 94.7-100%) in all protocols (p = 1.00) with perfect interobserver agreement (0.83-0.96). Qualitative ratings showed significantly better ratings for both standard-dose protocols regarding gray matter-to-white matter contrast (p ≤ 0.014), whereas highest gray matter-to-white matter contrast-to-noise ratio was observed with low-dose DECT images (p ≥ 0.057). The lowest posterior fossa artifact index was measured for standard-dose DECT, which showed significantly lower values compared with low-dose protocols (p ≤ 0.034). Delineation of ventricular margins and sharpness of subarachnoidal spaces were rated excellent in all protocols (p ≥ 0.096). Low-dose techniques lowered radiation dose by 26% for SECT images (DLP, 575.0 ± 72.3 mGy · cm vs 771.5 ± 146.8 mGy · cm; p < 0.001) and by 24% in DECT images (DLP, 587.0 ± 103.2 mGy · cm vs 770.6 ± 90.2 mGy · cm; p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed between the low-dose protocols (p = 1.00). Low

  14. Intracranial hemorrhage alters scalp potential distribution in bioimpedance cerebral monitoring: Preliminary results from FEM simulation on a realistic head model and human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Atefi, Seyed Reza; Seoane, Fernando; Kamalian, Shervin; Rosenthal, Eric S.; Lev, Michael H.; Bonmassar, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Current diagnostic neuroimaging for detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is limited to fixed scanners requiring patient transport and extensive infrastructure support. ICH diagnosis would therefore benefit from a portable diagnostic technology, such as electrical bioimpedance (EBI). Through simulations and patient observation, the authors assessed the influence of unilateral ICH hematomas on quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions in order to establish the feasibility of EBI technology as a potential tool for early diagnosis. Methods: Finite element method (FEM) simulations and experimental left–right hemispheric scalp potential differences of healthy and damaged brains were compared with respect to the asymmetry caused by ICH lesions on quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions. In numerical simulations, this asymmetry was measured at 25 kHz and visualized on the scalp as the normalized potential difference between the healthy and ICH damaged models. Proof-of-concept simulations were extended in a pilot study of experimental scalp potential measurements recorded between 0 and 50 kHz with the authors’ custom-made bioimpedance spectrometer. Mean left–right scalp potential differences recorded from the frontal, central, and parietal brain regions of ten healthy control and six patients suffering from acute/subacute ICH were compared. The observed differences were measured at the 5% level of significance using the two-sample Welch t-test. Results: The 3D-anatomically accurate FEM simulations showed that the normalized scalp potential difference between the damaged and healthy brain models is zero everywhere on the head surface, except in the vicinity of the lesion, where it can vary up to 5%. The authors’ preliminary experimental results also confirmed that the left–right scalp potential difference in patients with ICH (e.g., 64 mV) is significantly larger than in healthy subjects (e.g., 20.8 mV; P < 0.05). Conclusions: Realistic

  15. Mouse models of intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yutang; Emeto, Theophilus I; Lee, James; Marshman, Laurence; Moran, Corey; Seto, Sai-wang; Golledge, Jonathan

    2015-05-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is a highly lethal medical condition. Current management strategies for unruptured intracranial aneurysms involve radiological surveillance and neurosurgical or endovascular interventions. There is no pharmacological treatment available to decrease the risk of aneurysm rupture and subsequent subarachnoid hemorrhage. There is growing interest in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysm focused on the development of drug therapies to decrease the incidence of aneurysm rupture. The study of rodent models of intracranial aneurysms has the potential to improve our understanding of intracranial aneurysm development and progression. This review summarizes current mouse models of intact and ruptured intracranial aneurysms and discusses the relevance of these models to human intracranial aneurysms. The article also reviews the importance of these models in investigating the molecular mechanisms involved in the disease. Finally, potential pharmaceutical targets for intracranial aneurysm suggested by previous studies are discussed. Examples of potential drug targets include matrix metalloproteinases, stromal cell-derived factor-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, the renin-angiotensin system and the β-estrogen receptor. An agreed clear, precise and reproducible definition of what constitutes an aneurysm in the models would assist in their use to better understand the pathology of intracranial aneurysm and applying findings to patients.

  16. Neurodevelopment after fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Baschat, Ahmet A

    2014-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) can emerge as a complication of placental dysfunction and increases the risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Marked elevations of umbilical artery (UA) Doppler resistance that set the stage for cardiovascular and biophysical deterioration with subsequent preterm birth characterize early-onset FGR. Minimal, or absent UA Doppler abnormalities and isolated cerebral Doppler changes with subtle deterioration and a high risk for unanticipated term stillbirth are characteristic for late-onset FGR. Nutritional deficiency manifested in lagging head growth is the most powerful predictor of developmental delay in all forms of FGR. Extremes of blood flow resistance and cardiovascular deterioration, prematurity and intracranial hemorrhage increase the risks for psychomotor delay and cerebral palsy. In late-onset FGR, regional cerebral vascular redistribution correlates with abnormal behavioral domains. Irrespective of the phenotype of FGR, prenatal tests that provide precise and independent stratification of risks for adverse neurodevelopment have yet to be determined.

  17. Isolated intraventricular hemorrhage after spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Guryildirim, Melike; Jhaveri, Miral D

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage after spinal surgery is a rare but dreaded complication. The most commonly described form of intracranial hemorrhage after spinal surgery is remote cerebellar hemorrhage (i.e. anatomically distant from the surgical site) (Brockmann MA, Groden C. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage: a review. The Cerebellum 2006;5:64-8); however subdural, subarachnoid, and intraventricular hemorrhage can also occur in combination or isolated (Kaloostian PE, Kim JE, Bydon A, Sciubba DM, Wolinsky JP, Gokaslan ZL, Witham TF. Intracranial hemorrhage after spine surgery. J Neurosurg Spine 2013;19:370-80; Khalatbari MR, Khalatbari J, Moharamzad Y. Intracranial hemorrhage following lumbar spine surgery. Eur Spine J 2012;21:2092-96). Isolated intraventricular hemorrhage after spinal surgery is extremely rare; to our knowledge, there are only two cases reported in the literature (Kaloostian PE, Kim JE, Bydon A, Sciubba DM, Wolinsky JP, Gokaslan ZL, Witham TF. Intracranial hemorrhage after spine surgery. J Neurosurg Spine 2013;19:370-80; Khalatbari MR, Khalatbari J, Moharamzad Y. Intracranial hemorrhage following lumbar spine surgery. Eur Spine J 2012;21:2092-96). Here, we present a 76-year-old female patient who developed isolated intraventricular hemorrhage after spinal surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Fetal stroke.

    PubMed

    Ozduman, Koray; Pober, Barbara R; Barnes, Patrick; Copel, Joshua A; Ogle, Eileen A; Duncan, Charles C; Ment, Laura R

    2004-03-01

    Fetal stroke, or that which occurs between 14 weeks of gestation and the onset of labor resulting in delivery, has been associated with postnatal epilepsy, mental retardation, and cerebral palsy. The entity is caused by antenatal ischemic, thrombotic, or hemorrhagic injury. We present seven new cases of fetal stroke diagnosed in utero and review the 47 cases reported in the literature. Although risk factors could not be assigned to 50% of the fetuses with stroke, the most common maternal conditions associated with fetal stroke were alloimmune thrombocytopenia and trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging was optimal for identifying fetal stroke, and prenatal imaging revealed hemorrhagic lesions in over 90% of studies; porencephalies were identified in just 13%. Seventy-eight percent of cases with reported outcome resulted in either death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcome at ages 3 months to 6 years. Fetal stroke appears to have different risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcomes than other perinatal or childhood stroke syndromes. A better understanding of those risk factors predisposing a fetus to cerebral infarction may provide a basis for future therapeutic intervention trials. Ozduman K, Pober BR, Barnes P, Copel JA, Ogle EA, Duncan CC, Ment LR. Fetal stroke.

  19. Monitoring intracranial pressure based on F-P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ting; Tong, Xinglin; Chen, Guangxi

    2013-09-01

    Intracranial pressure is an important monitoring indicator of neurosurgery. In this paper we adopt all-fiber FP fiber optic sensor, using a minimally invasive operation to realize real-time dynamic monitoring intracranial pressure of the hemorrhage rats, and observe their intracranial pressure regularity of dynamic changes. Preliminary results verify the effectiveness of applications and feasibility, providing some basis for human brain minimally invasive intracranial pressure measurement.

  20. Intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Puskar, G; Ruggieri, P M

    1995-08-01

    MR angiography provides a rapid, accurate, and extremely flexible noninvasive evaluation of intracranial aneurysms without the cost and risk of conventional angiography. TOF and phase contrast techniques each have specific advantages and disadvantages that can be selectively exploited to optimize aneurysm evaluation. Present indications for MR angiography in aneurysm evaluation include: (1) the presence of incidental findings on a CT or MR examination that suggest the possibility of aneurysm (Figs. 7 and 8), (2) when angiography is contraindicated or when the risk is too high, (3) non-invasive follow-up of patients with known aneurysms, (4) patient refusal of contrast angiography, and (5) evaluation of patients with specific clinical symptoms (i.e., third cranial nerve palsy) or patients with non-specific subacute symptoms in whom an aneurysm might explain the clinical presentation. Although MR angiography certainly can detect aneurysms with a high rate of sensitivity and specificity, detailed decision analyses generally have not supported the overall benefit of this type of screening. Future technical advances as well as advances in the overall understanding of aneurysms may one day prove unequivocally the benefit of MR angiography in screening high-risk patient groups. MR angiography has not yet been clinically evaluated as a tool in the evaluation of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. Potential obstacles to such an evaluation include the clinical instability of SAH patients, limited spatial resolution of the MR angiography acquisitions, the potential for subarachnoid blood or focal intraparenchymal hematomas to obscure or mimic small aneurysms, and the unreliability of MR angiography in demonstrating vasospasm. Currently these factors continue to provide an integral role for contrast angiography in aneurysm evaluation.

  1. Effects of minimally invasive puncture and drainage of intracranial hematoma on the blood-brain barrier in patients with cerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaojiang; Guo, Shougang; Wang, Wei

    2007-02-01

    The effects of minimally invasive surgery on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of 30 patients with cerebral hemorrhage were investigated. Difference of the BBB index and serum MBP concentration were assessed in 15 cases of conservative treatment group and 15 cases of minimally invasive surgery group. The BBB index in minimally invasive surgery group was significantly lower than in conservative treatment group (P<0.05), and the BBB index in the two treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group (P<0.01). Serum MBP concentration in minimally invasive surgery group was significantly lower than in conservative treatment group (P<0.05), and that in the two treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group (P<0.01). It was suggested the permeability of BBB in patients with cerebral hemorrhage was increased, and BBB index and serum MBP concentration in patients with cerebral hemorrhage were increased. Minimally invasive surgery can reduce the lesion of cytotoxicity to BBB and cerebral edema.

  2. The TEAM trial: Safety and efficacy of endovascular treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms in the prevention of aneurysmal hemorrhages: A randomized comparison with indefinite deferral of treatment in 2002 patients followed for 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Jean; Molyneux, Andrew J; Fox, Allan J; Johnston, S Claiborne; Collet, Jean-Paul; Rouleau, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    The management of patients with unruptured aneurysms remains controversial. Patients with unruptured aneurysms may suffer intracranial haemorrhage, but the incidence of this event is still debated; endovascular treatment may prevent rupture, but involves immediate risks. Hence, the balance of risks and benefits of endovascular treatment is uncertain. Here, we report the design of the TEAM trial, the first international, randomized, controlled trial comparing conservative management with endovascular treatment. Primary endpoint is mortality and morbidity (modified Rankin Score ≥ 3) from intracranial haemorrhage or treatment. Secondary endpoints include incidence of hemorrhagic events, morbidity related to endovascular coiling, morphological results, overall clinical outcome and quality of life. Statistical tests compare between probabilities at 5- and 10-years of 1/mortality from haemorrhage related to the lesion, excluding per-operative complications; 2/mortality from haemorrhage or from complications of treatment; 3/combined disease or treatment related mortality and morbidity in the absence of other causes of death or disability. The study will be conducted in 60 international centres and will enrol 2,002 patients equally divided between the two groups, a size sufficient to achieve 80% power at a 0.0167 significance to detect differences in 1) disease or treatment-related poor outcomes from 7–9% to 3–5%; 2) overall mortality from 16 to 11%. Duration of the study is 14 years, the first three years being for patient recruitment plus a minimum of 10 years of follow-up. The TEAM trial thus offers a means to reconcile the introduction of a new approach with the necessity to acknowledge uncertainties. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN62758344 PMID:18631395

  3. Endovascular treatment of ruptured tiny (⩽3mm) intracranial aneurysms in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage: A case series of 20 patients and literature review.

    PubMed

    Anokwute, Miracle C; Braca, John A; Bohnstedt, Bradley; DeNardo, Andrew; Scott, John; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron; Sahlein, Daniel H

    2017-03-24

    Successful endovascular coiling of ruptured tiny saccular intracranial aneurysms (⩽3mm) is technically challenging and traditionally has been associated with technical failures, as well as morbidity related to thromboembolic events and high intraoperative rupture rates. This study analyzes the feasibility, technical efficacy, and clinical outcomes of coil embolization of ruptured tiny intracranial aneurysms using current coil and microcatheter technology and techniques. We performed a retrospective review of 20 patients with 20 ruptured tiny aneurysms treated with endovascular coil embolization from 2013 to 2016 at a single high-volume academic tertiary care practice. The mean aneurysm size was 2.4mm (median 2.5mm, 1-3). Complete occlusion was achieved in 12 of 20 patients (60%), the remaining 7 of 20 patients (35%) had a small neck remnant, and there was 1 failure (5%) converted to microsurgical clipping. Two patients had a failed attempted surgical clip reconstruction and were subsequently coiled. There was 1 intraprocedural rupture (5%) and 1 severe parent artery vasospasm (5%) during coiling. At discharge, 60% of patients were living independently. At follow-up three patients were deceased. Mean angiographic follow-up was 139days (SD 120). There were no aneurysm recurrences among occluded patients and there were no retreatments among those with neck remnants. Coiling of ruptured aneurysms ⩽3mm is feasible with high occlusion rates and low complication rates. The availability of softer coils with flexible detachment zones has led to safe and effective endovascular treatment of tiny ruptured aneurysms.

  4. Not only the Sugar, Early infarct sign, hyperDense middle cerebral artery, Age, Neurologic deficit score but also atrial fibrillation is predictive for symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage after intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator

    PubMed Central

    Muengtaweepongsa, Sombat; Prapa-Anantachai, Pornpoj; Dharmasaroja, Pornpat A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) is the most unwanted adverse event in patients with acute ischemic stroke who received intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (i.v. rt-PA). Many tool scores are available to predict the probability of sICH. Among those scores, the Sugar, Early infarct sign, hyperDense middle cerebral artery, Age, Neurologic deficit (SEDAN) gives the highest area under the curve-receiver operating characteristic value. Objective: We aimed to examine any factors other than the SEDAN score to predict the probability of sICH. Methods: Patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with i.v. rt-PA within 4.5 h time window from January 2010 to July 2012 were evaluated. Compiling demographic data, risk factors, and comorbidity (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, atrial fibrillation (AF), ischemic heart disease, valvular heart disease, previous stroke, gout, smoking cigarette, drinking alcoholic beverage, family history of stroke, and family history of ischemic heart disease), computed tomography scan of patients prior to treatment with rt-PA, and assessing the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score for the purpose of calculating SEDAN score were analyzed. Results: Of 314 patients treated with i.v. rt-PA, there were 46 ICH cases (14.6%) with 14 sICH (4.4%) and 32 asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage cases (10.2%). The rate of sICH occurrence was increased in accordance with the increase in the SEDAN score and AF. Age over 75 years, early infarction, hyperdense cerebral artery, baseline blood sugar more than 12 mmol/l, NIHSS as 10 or more, and AF were the risk factors to develop sICH after treated with rt-PA at 1.535, 2.501, 1.093, 1.276, 1.253, and 2.492 times, respectively. Conclusions: Rather than the SEDAN score, AF should be a predictor of sICH in patients with acute ischemic stroke after i.v. rt-PA treatment in Thai population. PMID:28149081

  5. Low Alberta stroke program early computed tomography score within 3 hours of onset predicts subsequent symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients treated with 0.6 mg/kg Alteplase.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Teruyuki; Sasaki, Makoto; Tomura, Noriaki; Ito, Yasunobu; Kobayashi, Shotai

    2012-11-01

    The significance of early ischemic changes (EICs) on computed tomography (CT) in selecting candidates for thrombolysis remains controversial. The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) provides a semiquantitative scale that scores EICs within the middle cerebral artery territory using a 10-point grading system. We examined whether ASPECTS can predict the response to intravenous thrombolysis within 3 hours of stroke onset and incidence of secondary hemorrhage. Data from the Japan Alteplase Clinical Trial (J-ACT), in which 103 patients were included, were evaluated to assess the efficacy and safety of 0.6 mg/kg alteplase within 3 hours. All CT hardcopies were reevaluated retrospectively using the ASPECTS system. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine whether an effect of ASPECTS existed on a defined favorable outcome as 0 or 1 on the modified Rankin Scale at 3 months, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) within 36 hours. The median ASPECTS value was 10 (range 3 to 10), and 56.3% revealed no evidence of EICs. ASPECTS had no effect on the patients' outcome, although a higher age and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score were negatively associated with a favorable outcome. On the other hand, lower ASPECTS was significantly associated with sICH (odds ratio [OR] 2.224; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.227-4.032; P = .0084) and systolic blood pressure (OR 1.090; 95% CI 1.007-1.180; P = .0323) and the pre-ictal use of antiplatelet medications (OR 15.551; 95% CI 1.144-211.374; P = .0393). In J-ACT, patients with low ASPECTS values have an increased risk of thrombolysis-related sICH. Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Taking a wider view on fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Bonstein, Lilach; Haddad, Nuhad

    2017-03-01

    In fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT), platelets are destroyed by maternal antibodies directed against fetal/neonate antigens. Thrombocytopenia can be severe and lead to intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in about 10% of cases. Although three types of antigen groups, presented on platelets [ABO blood group antigens, human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and human platelet antigens (HPA)] are known to be implicated in immune platelet destruction, antibodies against HPA are most commonly involved in FNAIT and hence are the target of extensive research. Awareness of FNAIT by physicians as well as the availability of the most sensitive diagnostic methods capable of detecting a wide range of antibodies are crucial for the diagnosis of FNAIT and the prevention of severe thrombocytopenia and its bleeding risks in subsequent pregnancies. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multi-site evaluation of a computer aided detection (CAD) algorithm for small acute intra-cranial hemorrhage and development of a stand-alone CAD system ready for deployment in a clinical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Ruchi R.; Fernandez, James; Lee, Joon K.; Chan, Tao; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2010-03-01

    Timely detection of Acute Intra-cranial Hemorrhage (AIH) in an emergency environment is essential for the triage of patients suffering from Traumatic Brain Injury. Moreover, the small size of lesions and lack of experience on the reader's part could lead to difficulties in the detection of AIH. A CT based CAD algorithm for the detection of AIH has been developed in order to improve upon the current standard of identification and treatment of AIH. A retrospective analysis of the algorithm has already been carried out with 135 AIH CT studies with 135 matched normal head CT studies from the Los Angeles County General Hospital/ University of Southern California Hospital System (LAC/USC). In the next step, AIH studies have been collected from Walter Reed Army Medical Center, and are currently being processed using the AIH CAD system as part of implementing a multi-site assessment and evaluation of the performance of the algorithm. The sensitivity and specificity numbers from the Walter Reed study will be compared with the numbers from the LAC/USC study to determine if there are differences in the presentation and detection due to the difference in the nature of trauma between the two sites. Simultaneously, a stand-alone system with a user friendly GUI has been developed to facilitate implementation in a clinical setting.

  8. Intracranial Hematoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... one that causes only a brief lapse of consciousness (concussion) — can be minor, an intracranial hematoma is ... Increasing headache Vomiting Drowsiness and progressive loss of consciousness Dizziness Confusion Unequal pupil size Slurred speech As ...

  9. Diagnosis of Intracranial Artery Dissection

    PubMed Central

    KANOTO, Masafumi; HOSOYA, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral arterial dissection is defined as a hematoma in the wall of a cervical or an intracranial artery. Cerebral arterial dissection causes arterial stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysm, resulting in acute infarction and hemorrhage. Image analysis by such methods as conventional angiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and so on plays an important role in diagnosing cerebral arterial dissection. In this study, we explore the methods and findings involved in the diagnosis of cerebral arterial dissection. PMID:27180630

  10. Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome with Intracranial Hypertension: Should Decompressive Craniectomy Be Considered?

    PubMed Central

    Mrozek, Ségolène; Lonjaret, Laurent; Jaffre, Aude; Januel, Anne-Christine; Raposo, Nicolas; Boetto, Sergio; Albucher, Jean-François; Fourcade, Olivier; Geeraerts, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a rare cause of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) causing intracranial hypertension. Methods Case report. Results We report a case of RCVS-related ICH leading to refractory intracranial hypertension. A decompressive craniectomy was performed to control intracranial pressure. We discuss here the management of RCVS with intracranial hypertension. Decompressive craniectomy was preformed to avoid the risky option of high cerebral perfusion pressure management with the risk of bleeding, hemorrhagic complications, and high doses of norepinephrine. Neurological outcome was good. Conclusion RCVS has a complex pathophysiology and can be very difficult to manage in cases of intracranial hypertension. Decompressive craniectomy should probably be considered. PMID:28203185

  11. [Clinical observation and related factors analysis of neonatal asphyxia complicated with retinal hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Pu, Q L; Zhou, Q Y; Liu, J; Li, P; Huang, H F; Jiang, H Q

    2017-05-11

    Objective: To observe and analyze related factors of neonatal asphyxia complicated with retinal hemorrhage. Methods: It was a retrospective case series. Seven hundred and twenty-one cases with neonatal asphyxia after 72 hours of birth were enrolled in this study. Fundus examination was performed on these newborns using the third generation wide-angle digital retina imaging system (RetCamⅢ), and the bleeding level was divided into level I, level Ⅱ and level Ⅲ. The conditions of the newborn and the mother during pregnancy were correlatively analyzed. The other factors were also analyzed including delivery mode, birth weight, gestational age, gender, grade of neonatal asphyxia, scalp hematoma, intracranial hemorrhage, fetal intrauterine distress, mother's age and antenatal complications. Single factor χ(2) test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to screen and judge risk factors causing retinal hemorrhage related to neonatal asphyxia. Results: In 721 cases of neonatal asphyxia, retinal hemorrhage was found in 204 newborns (28.29%). The hemorrhage was at level Ⅰ in 77 cases (37.75%) , at level Ⅱ in 38 cases (18.63%) and at level Ⅲ in 89 cases (43.63%) . Four cases also had vitreous hemorrhage. Asphyxia was mild in 673 infants (93.34%) and severe in 48 infants (6.66%). The difference in the degree of retinal hemorrhage between the patients with mild and severe asphyxia was significant (χ(2)=22.336, P=0.000). When asphyxia was aggravated, the degree of retinal hemorrhage increased. Relative factors analysis showed that delivery mode (χ(2)=158.643, P<0.05), gestational age (χ(2)=24.522, P<0.05), birth weight (χ(2)=11.916, P<0.05) and grade of neonatal asphyxia (χ(2)=19.809, P<0.05) had correlations with retinal hemorrhage. Logistic regression analysis indicated that grade of neonatal asphyxia and delivery mode were risk factors of retinal hemorrhage in neonatal asphyxia (OR=0.304, 0.085). Conclusion: The incidence of retinal

  12. Clinical practice guideline for the management of intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hae Woong; Seo, Jung Hwa; Kim, Sung Tae; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Suh, Sang-Il

    2014-09-01

    An intracranial aneurysm, with or without subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), is a relevant health problem. The rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is a critical concern for individual health; even an unruptured intracranial aneurysm is an anxious condition for the individual. The aim of this guideline is to present current and comprehensive recommendations for the management of intracranial aneurysms, with or without rupture. We performed an extensive literature search, using Medline. We met in person to discuss recommendations. This document is reviewed by the Task Force Team of the Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology (KSIN). We divided the current guideline for ruptured intracranial aneurysms (RIAs) and unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). The guideline for RIAs focuses on diagnosis and treatment. And the guideline for UIAs focuses on the definition of a high-risk patient, screening, principle for treatment and selection of treatment method. This guideline provides practical, evidence-based advice for the management of patients with an intracranial aneurysm, with or without rupture.

  13. Terson syndrome in conjunction with ruptured intracranial aneurysm and penetrating intracranial injury: a review of two cases.

    PubMed

    Rheinboldt, Matt; Francis, Kirenza; Parrish, David; Harper, Derrick; Blase, John

    2014-04-01

    Terson syndrome, the presence of intraocular hemorrhage in the setting of acutely elevated intracranial pressure, was historically described in conjunction with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage; however, more recently, it has been associated with a gamut of intracranial pathophysiology ranging from blunt or penetrating injury to neurosurgical procedures. We describe two cases of profound intracranial injury, secondary to ballistic injury, and a ruptured intracranial aneurysm, in which posterior chamber ocular hemorrhage was noted on CT imaging. Though the outcome in such cases, as with ours, is often poor, the findings are germane to clinical care as the presence of Terson syndrome has been noted to be a negative prognostic factor in multiple clinical reviews. Additionally, clinical recovery can be impacted adversely by lasting visual deficits or retinal degradation in the absence of timely ophthalmologic intervention.

  14. Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: progress and ongoing debates.

    PubMed

    Bussel, James B; Primiani, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (AIT) is a result of a parental incompatibility of platelet-specific antigens and the transplacental passage of maternal alloantibodies against the platelet antigen shared by the father and the fetus. It occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is the most common cause of severe thrombocytopenia in fetuses and term neonates. As screening programs are not routinely performed, most affected fetuses are identified after birth when neonatal thrombocytopenia is recognized. In severe cases, the affected fetus is identified as a result of suffering from an in utero intracranial hemorrhage. Once diagnosed, AIT must be treated antenatally as the disease can be more severe in subsequent pregnancies. While there have been many advances regarding the diagnosis and treatment of AIT, it is still difficult to predict the severity of disease and which therapy will be effective.

  15. Hemorrhagic Colloid Cyst Presenting with Acute Hydrocephaly

    PubMed Central

    Akhavan, Reza; Zandi, Behrouz; Pezeshki-Rad, Masoud; Farrokh, Donya

    2017-01-01

    Colloid cysts are benign slow-growing cystic lesions located on the roof of the third ventricle that usually present with symptoms related to gradual rise of intracranial pressure. They mostly remain asymptomatic and sometimes grow progressively and cause diverse symptoms associated with increased intracranial pressure such as headache, diplopia, and sixth cranial nerve palsy. Here we report a 47-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with acute severe headache and nausea/vomiting. On MRI examination acute hydrocephaly due to hemorrhagic colloid cyst was detected. Acute hemorrhage in colloid cysts is extremely rare and may present with symptoms of acute increase in the intracranial pressure. Intracystic hemorrhage is very rarely reported as a complication of colloid cyst presenting with paroxysmal symptoms of acute hydrocephaly. PMID:28210514

  16. Treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Raya, Amanda K; Diringer, Michael N

    2014-10-01

    Nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage from intracranial aneurysm rupture presents with sudden severe headache. Initial treatment focuses on airway management, blood pressure control, and extraventricular drain for hydrocephalus. After identifying the aneurysm, they may be clipped surgically or endovascularly coiled. Nimodipine is administered to maintain a euvolemic state and prevent delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Patients may receive anticonvulsants. Monitoring includes serial neurologic assessments, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography perfusion, and angiographic studies. Treatment includes augmentation of blood pressure and cardiac output, cerebral angioplasty, and intra-arterial infusions of vasodilators. Although early mortality is high, about one half of survivors recover with little disability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intracranial endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, H W; Gaab, M R

    1999-04-15

    The authors' intention is to reduce the invasiveness of intracranial procedures while avoiding traumatization of brain tissue, to decrease the risk of neurological and mental deficits. Intracranial endoscopy is a minimally invasive technique that provides rapid access to the target via small burr holes without the need for brain retraction. Craniotomy as well as microsurgical brain splitting and dissection can often be avoided. Furthermore, because obstructed cerebrospinal fluid pathways can be physiologically restored, the need for shunt placement is eliminated. The ventricular system and subarachnoid spaces provide ideal conditions for the use of an endoscope. Therefore, a variety of disorders, such as hydrocephalus, small intraventricular lesions, and arachnoid and parenchymal cysts can be effectively treated using endoscopic techniques. With the aid of special instruments, laser fibers, and bipolar diathermy, even highly vascularized lesions such as cavernomas may be treated. Moreover, during standard microsurgical procedures, the endoscopic view may provide valuable additional information ("looking around a corner") about the individual anatomy that is not visible with the microscope. In transsphenoidal pituitary surgery, transseptal dissection can be avoided if an endonasal approach is taken. In the depth of the intrasellar space, the extent of tumor removal can be more accurately controlled, especially in larger tumors with para- and suprasellar growth. The combined use of endoscopes and computerized neuronavigation systems increases the accuracy of the approach and provides real-time control of the endoscope tip position and approach trajectory. In the future, the indications for neuroendoscopy will certainly expand with improved technical equipment.

  18. Management of Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hinson, Holly E.; Ziai, Wendy C.

    2011-01-01

    Brain hemorrhage is the most fatal form of stroke and has the highest morbidity of any stroke subtype. Intraventricular extension of hemorrhage (IVH) is a particularly poor prognostic sign, with expected mortality between 50% and 80%. IVH is a significant and independent contributor to morbidity and mortality, yet therapy directed at ameliorating intraventricular clot has been limited. Conventional therapy centers on managing hypertension and intracranial pressure while correcting coagulopathy and avoiding complications such as rebleeding and hydrocephalus. Surgical therapy alone has not changed the natural history of the disease significantly. However, fibrinolysis in combination with extraventricular drainage shows promise as a technique to reduce intraventricular clot volume and to manage the concomitant complications of IVH. PMID:20425231

  19. [Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Chiriac, A; Poeată, I; Baldauf, J; Schroeder, H W

    2010-01-01

    Nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage is a neurosurgical emergency characterized by the extravasation of blood into the spaces covering the central nervous system that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid. The leading cause of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage is rupture of an intracranial aneurysm, which accounts for about 80 percent of cases and has a high rate of death and complications. The management of aneurysmal SAH has changed significantly over the past few years. This change is mostly due to the demonstration of the superiority of early diagnosis, surgical clipping or endovascular embolization of ruptured aneurysms. This superiority derives from the relative safety of early aneurysm occlusion and the major threat of early rebleeding (approximately 25% in three weeks after SAH).

  20. Intracranial Vertebral Artery Dissections: Evolving Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M.S.; Amenta, P.S.; Starke, R.M.; Jabbour, P.M.; Gonzalez, L.F.; Tjoumakaris, S.I.; Flanders, A.E.; Rosenwasser, R.H.; Dumont, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Intracranial vertebral artery dissection (VAD) represents the underlying etiology in a significant percentage of posterior circulation ischemic strokes and subarachnoid hemorrhages. These lesions are particularly challenging in their diagnosis, management, and in the prediction of long-term outcome. Advances in the understanding of underlying processes leading to dissection, as well as the evolution of modern imaging techniques are discussed. The data pertaining to medical management of intracranial VADs, with emphasis on anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, is reviewed. Surgical intervention is discussed, including, the selection of operative candidates, open and endovascular procedures, and potential complications. The evolution of endovascular technology and techniques is highlighted. PMID:23217643

  1. Hemorrhagic Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    A stroke is a medical emergency. There are two types - ischemic and hemorrhagic. Hemorrhagic stroke is the less common type. It happens when ... an artery wall that breaks open. Symptoms of stroke are Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, ...

  2. Primary cerebral myxopapillary ependymoma presenting with intratumoral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Khalatbari, Mahmoud Reza; Moharamzad, Yashar

    2014-08-01

    Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE), a benign histological variant of ependymoma, is found most commonly in the cauda equina region. Primary intracranial MPE is very rare, and most cases are a metastatic deposit from a spinal lesion. Primary cerebral MPEs are usually well-defined solid or cystic lesions without hemorrhage. We report the first case of primary cerebral MPE with intratumoral hemorrhage.

  3. Acute fatal deterioration in putaminal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wijdicks, E F; Fulgham, J R

    1995-10-01

    Clinical deterioration in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage has rarely been studied. It has been previously thought that intracranial hematomas bleed in a monophasic fashion. Recent studies have demonstrated continuous active bleeding within hours after the event, resulting in enlargement of the hematoma. However, acute sudden and fatal deterioration suggesting a rebleed is rarely reported. An 84-year-old man was admitted with a moderate-size hemorrhage in the putamen and was treated for hypertension during the first day of admission. He acutely demonstrated extensor posturing and light-fixed pupils. Repeat CT scan showed massive enlargement of the intracranial hematoma and extension into the ventricles causing acute hydrocephalus. A 72-year-old man was admitted with a mid-size hemorrhage in the putamen. Acute deterioration with loss of all brain stem reflexes except for cornea reflexes was associated with a large increase in volume of the hematoma, 7 hours after the initial hemorrhage. An 85-year-old woman was admitted with a small hemorrhage in the putamen and recovered to be able to walk unassisted. She suddenly died from a recurrent massive putaminal hemorrhage 2 weeks after the ictus. Patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in the putamen may die acutely from fatal catastrophic enlargement of the initial hematoma hours to days after the ictus. In some patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and clinical deterioration, rebleeding may be a possible mechanism.

  4. Spontaneous intracranial bleeding in a neonate with congenital afibrinogenemia.

    PubMed

    Ataoglu, Emel; Duru, Nilgun S; Celkan, Tiraje; Civilibal, Mahmut; Yavuz, Selda C; Elevli, Murat; Ayta, Semih

    2010-09-01

    Congenital afibrinogenemia, a very rare autosomal recessive coagulation disorder, is characterized by undetectable and extremely low antigen levels of fibrinogen in plasma. We report a male newborn with intracranial bleeding and diagnosed as congenital afibrinogenemia in the neonatal period. All members of the family were asymptomatic. Even though his sister and father showed extremely low fibrinogen levels, they did not have any symptoms. The most important finding of this case was a spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage at a very early stage of life. Another interesting point was the rapid resorption of this hemorrhage.

  5. Subdural Hemorrhage in a Child with Klippel Trenaunay Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thamburaj, Krishnamoorthy; Nguyen, Dan T; Choudhary, Arabinda; Dias, Mark E

    2008-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl with features of Klippel Trenaunay Syndrome developed a large left frontoparietal subdural hemorrhage. CT angiography and cerebral angiography identified prominent subependymal veins and deep venous system predominantly in the left cerebral hemisphere in association with a dilated left vein of Labbe and hypoplastic superior sagittal sinus. No arteriovenous malformation or fistula was identified. Intracranial hemorrhage in Klippel Trenaunay Syndrome is extremely rare and usually traced to an underlying arteriovenous malformation or fistula. To the best of our knowledge neither a venous source of intracranial bleed nor subdural hemorrhage in Klippel Trenaunay Syndrome has been described in the English literature.

  6. Management of Intracranial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Castillo, Leonardo; Gopinath, Shankar; Robertson, Claudia S.

    2008-01-01

    Effective management of intracranial hypertension involves meticulous avoidance of factors that precipitate or aggravate increased intracranial pressure. When intracranial pressure becomes elevated, it is important to rule out new mass lesions that should be surgically evacuated. Medical management of increased intracranial pressure should include sedation, drainage of cerebrospinal fluid, and osmotherapy with either mannitol or hypertonic saline. For intracranial hypertension refractory to initial medical management, barbiturate coma, hypothermia, or decompressive craniectomy should be considered. Steroids are not indicated and may be harmful in the treatment of intracranial hypertension resulting from traumatic brain injury. PMID:18514825

  7. Intracerebral Hemorrhages in Adults with Community Associated Bacterial Meningitis in Adults: Should We Reconsider Anticoagulant Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Mook-Kanamori, Barry B.; Fritz, Daan; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the incidence, clinical presentation and outcome of intracranial hemorrhagic complications in adult patients with community associated bacterial meningitis. Methods Nationwide prospective cohort study from all hospitals in the Netherlands, from 1 March 2006, through 31 December 2010. Results Of the 860 episodes of bacterial meningitis that were included, 24 were diagnosed with intracranial hemorrhagic complications: 8 upon presentation and 16 during clinical course. Clinical presentation between patients with or without intracranial hemorrhage was similar. Causative bacteria were Streptococcus pneumoniae in 16 patients (67%), Staphylococcus aureus in 5 (21%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Listeria monocytogenes both in 1 patient (4%). Occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage was associated with death (63% vs. 15%, P<0.001) and unfavorable outcome (94% vs. 34%, P<0.001). The use of anticoagulants on admission was associated with a higher incidence of intracranial hemorrhages (odds ratio 5.84, 95% confidence interval 2.17–15.76). Conclusion Intracranial hemorrhage is a rare but devastating complication in patients with community-associated bacterial meningitis. Since anticoagulant therapy use is associated with increased risk for intracranial hemorrhage, physicians may consider reversing or temporarily discontinuing anticoagulation in patients with bacterial meningitis. PMID:23028898

  8. Safety of intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke patients with saccular intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Manoj K; Seet, Raymond C S; Zhang, Yi; Brown, Robert D; Rabinstein, Alejandro A

    2013-07-01

    It is not known if the presence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms can increase the risk of hemorrhage after thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. The goal of our study was to evaluate the risk of hemorrhage after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in acute stroke patients with intracranial aneurysms. This is a retrospective analysis of consecutive cases of patients with acute ischemic stroke who were treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator at Mayo Clinic between March 2002 and June 2011 and who were evaluated with invasive or noninvasive intracranial angiography. Univariate analyses were performed with the t, Chi-square, and Fisher exact tests where appropriate. Intracranial angiograms were performed in 105 patients (85 magnetic resonance angiography, 19 computed tomography angiography, and 1 catheter arteriography). The mean age of the patients was 69 ± 14 years. The mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at admission was 8 ± 5. A total of 12 incidental saccular aneurysms were found in 10 (9.5%) patients, and all 10 of these patients were white. There were no subarachnoid hemorrhages during the hospital stay in any patient with or without intracranial aneurysm. The rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and 3-month clinical outcomes were similar in patients with or without intracranial aneurysms. Intravenous thrombolysis was safe among our patients with acute ischemic stroke and incidental intracranial saccular aneurysm. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intracranial Meningioma Diagnosed during Pregnancy Caused Maternal Death

    PubMed Central

    Kurdoglu, Zehra; Cetin, Orkun; Gulsen, Ismail; Bulut, M. Deniz

    2014-01-01

    Brain tumors are rarely diagnosed during pregnancy. Accelerated growth of intracranial meningiomas during pregnancy sometimes requires urgent surgical intervention. We describe a 41-year-old pregnant woman with severe neurological decompensation requiring immediate neurosurgery. Cesarean section resulted in maternal death. Meningioma diagnosed during a viable pregnancy should be managed according to the severity of maternal neurological symptoms and gestational age of pregnancy. Early intervention for intracranial tumors during pregnancy may save maternal and fetal lives. PMID:25295061

  10. Diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhagic lesions: comparison between 3D-SWAN (3D T2*-weighted imaging with multi-echo acquisition) and 2D-T2*-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Yoshiko; Kakeda, Shingo; Hiai, Yasuhiro; Ide, Satoshi; Ogasawara, Atsushi; Ooki, Hodaka; Watanabe, Keita; Nishimura, Joji; Ohnari, Norihiro; Korogi, Yukunori

    2014-03-01

    3D-susceptibility-weighted angiography (SWAN) can produce high-resolution images that yield excellent susceptibility-weighted contrast at a relatively short acquisition time. To compare SWAN- and 2D-T2*-weighted gradient-echo images (T2*-WI) for their sensitivity in the depiction of cerebral hemorrhagic lesions. We subjected 75 patients with suspected cerebral hemorrhagic lesions to SWAN and T2*-WI at 3T. We first measured the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) using an agar phantom that contained different concentrations of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO). The acquisition time for SWAN and T2*-WI was similar (182 vs. 196 s). Neuroradiologists compared the two imaging methods for lesion detectability and conspicuity. The CNR of the phantom was higher on SWAN images. Of the 75 patients, 50 were found to have a total of 278 cerebral hemorrhagic lesions (microbleeds, n = 229 [82.4%]; intracerebral hemorrhage, n = 18 [6.5%]; superficial siderosis, n = 13 [4.7%]; axonal injuries, n = 8 [2.9%]; subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH] or brain contusion, n = 3 each [1.0%]; subdural hematoma, n = 2 [0.7%]; cavernous hemangioma or dural arterteriovenous fistula, n = 1 each [0.4%]). In none of the lesions was the SWAN sequence inferior to T2*-WI with respect to lesion detectability and conspicuity. In fact, SWAN yielded better lesion conspicuity in patients with superficial siderosis and SAH: it detected significantly more lesions than T2*-WI (P < 0.01) and it was particularly useful for the detection of microbleeds and lesions near the skull base. SWAN is equal or superior to standard T2*-WI for the diagnosis of various cerebral hemorrhagic lesions. Because its acquisition time is reasonable it may replace T2*-WI.

  11. [Infratentorial hemorrhage following supratentorial surgery].

    PubMed

    Tomii, M; Nakajima, M; Ikeuchi, S; Ogawa, T; Abe, T

    1999-10-01

    Hemorrhage in regions remote from the site of initial intracranial operations is rare, but does occur. We report three cases of cerebellar hemorrhage that developed after supratentorial surgery, all of which had similar clinical findings and CT images. The first case was a 37-year-old man with a craniopharyngioma in the suprasellar lesion. Partial removal of the tumor was performed through frontal craniotomy and the translaminaterminals approach. A large quantity of cerebospinal fluid (CSF) was suctioned from the third ventricle during the operation, resulting in marked brain shrinkage. The second and third cases were 34- and 51-year-old women with unruptured right middle cerebral aneurysms. Clipping of the aneurysms through the pterional approach was performed in both cases. In the second case, CSF was suctioned in large quantity from the carotid and prechiasmal cistern at the operation, resulting in marked brain shrinkage. In the third case, however, only a small volume of CSF was suctioned from the carotid and prechiasmal cistern during the operation, and no marked brain shrinkage was observed. CT scan showed that the hematomas were located mainly in the subdural or the subarachnoid spaces over the cerebellar hemisphere and partially extending into the cerebellar cortex. The mechanism of cerebellar hemorrhage in these series of patients was thought to be multifactorial. The possible etiology for cerebellar hemorrhage in the three cases presented was examined, including the role of CSF suction during surgery and disturbance of venous circulation in the posterior fossa. Suction of the CSF may cause intracranial hypotension. Further reduction of intracranial pressure leads to an increased transluminal venous pressure. There was no episode of hypertension or disturbed blood coagulation during or after the operation. The preoperative angiogram also revealed no abnormality at the region of the posterior fossa. Neuroimaging of infratentorial hemorrhage after

  12. Frequency of adequate contrast opacification of the major intracranial venous structures with CT angiography in the setting of intracerebral hemorrhage: comparison of 16- and 64-section CT angiography techniques.

    PubMed

    Delgado Almandoz, J E; Su, H S; Schaefer, P W; Goldstein, J N; Pomerantz, S R; Lev, M H; González, R G; Romero, J M

    2011-05-01

    DVST is an important cause of ICH because its treatment may require anticoagulation or mechanical thrombectomy. We aimed to determine the frequency of adequate contrast opacification of the major intracranial venous structures in CTAs performed for ICH evaluation, which is an essential factor in excluding DVST as the ICH etiology. Two readers retrospectively reviewed CTAs performed in 170 consecutive patients with ICH who presented to our emergency department during a 1-year period to determine by consensus whether qualitatively, contrast opacification in each of the major intracranial venous structures was adequate to exclude DVST. "Adequate contrast opacification" was defined as homogeneous opacification of the venous structure examined. "Inadequate contrast opacification" was defined as either inhomogeneous opacification or nonopacification of the venous structure examined. Delayed scans, if obtained, were reviewed by the same readers blinded to the first-pass CTAs to determine the adequacy of contrast opacification in the venous structures according to the same criteria. In patients who did not have an arterial ICH etiology, the same readers determined if thrombosis of an inadequately opacified intracranial venous structure could have potentially explained the ICH by correlating the presumed venous drainage path of the ICH with the presence of inadequate contrast opacification within the venous structure draining the venous territory of the ICH. CTAs were performed in 16- or 64-section CT scanners with bolus-tracking, scanning from C1 to the vertex. Patients with a final diagnosis of DVST were excluded. We used the Pearson χ(2) test to determine the significance of the differences in the frequency of adequate contrast opacification within each of the major intracranial venous structures in scans obtained using either a 16- or 64-section MDCTA technique. Fifty-eight patients were evaluated with a 16-section MDCTA technique (34.1%) and 112 with a 64-section

  13. Intrapartum hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Alexander, James M; Wortman, Alison C

    2013-03-01

    Intrapartum hemorrhage is a serious and sometimes life-threatening event. Several etiologies are known and include placental abruption, uterine atony, placenta accreta, and genital tract lacerations. Prompt recognition of blood loss, identification of the source of the hemorrhage, volume resuscitation, including red blood cells and blood products when required, will result in excellent maternal outcomes.

  14. Intracranial microvascular free flaps.

    PubMed

    Levine, Steven; Garfein, Evan S; Weiner, Howard; Yaremchuk, Michael J; Saadeh, Pierre B; Gurtner, Geoffrey; Levine, Jamie P; Warren, Stephen M

    2009-02-01

    Large acquired intracranial defects can result from trauma or surgery. When reoperation is required because of infection or tumor recurrence, management of the intracranial dead space can be challenging. By providing well-vascularized bulky tissue, intracranial microvascular free flaps offer potential solutions to these life-threatening complications. A multi-institutional retrospective chart and radiographic review was performed of all patients who underwent microvascular free-flap surgery for salvage treatment of postoperative intracranial infections between 1998 and 2006. A total of six patients were identified with large intracranial defects and postoperative intracranial infections. Four patients had parenchymal resections for tumor or seizure and two patients had posttraumatic encephalomalacia. All patients underwent operative debridement and intracranial free-flap reconstruction using the latissimus dorsi muscle (N=2), rectus abdominis muscle (N=2), or omentum (N=2). All patients had titanium (N=4) or Medpor (N=2) cranioplasties. We concluded that surgery or trauma can result in significant intracranial dead space. Treatment of postoperative intracranial infection can be challenging. Vascularized free tissue transfer not only fills the void, but also provides a delivery system for immune cells, antibodies, and systemically administered antibiotics. The early use of this technique when intracranial dead space and infection coexist is beneficial.

  15. Epidemiology and genetics of intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Caranci, F; Briganti, F; Cirillo, L; Leonardi, M; Muto, M

    2013-10-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are acquired lesions (5-10% of the population), a fraction of which rupture leading to subarachnoid hemorrhage with devastating consequences. Until now, the exact etiology of intracranial aneurysms formation remains unclear. The low incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage in comparison with the prevalence of unruptured IAs suggests that the vast majority of intracranial aneurysms do not rupture and that identifying those at highest risk is important in defining the optimal management. The most important factors predicting rupture are aneurysm size and site. In addition to ambiental factors (smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and hypertension), epidemiological studies have demonstrated a familiar influence contributing to the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms, with increased frequency in first- and second-degree relatives of people with subarachnoid hemorrhage. In comparison to sporadic aneurysms, familial aneurysms tend to be larger, more often located at the middle cerebral artery, and more likely to be multiple. Other than familiar occurrence, there are several heritable conditions associated with intracranial aneurysm formation, including autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, neurofibromatosis type I, Marfan syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia type I, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type II and IV. The familial occurrence and the association with heritable conditions indicate that genetic factors may play a role in the development of intracranial aneurysms. Genome-wide linkage studies in families and sib pairs with intracranial aneurysms have identified several loci on chromosomes showing suggestive evidence of linkage, particularly on chromosomes 1p34.3-p36.13, 7q11, 19q13.3, and Xp22. For the loci on 1p34.3-p36.13 and 7q11, a moderate positive association with positional candidate genes has been demonstrated (perlecan gene, elastin gene, collagen type 1 A2 gene

  16. Angioplasty and Stenting for Intracranial Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    IZUMI, Takashi; IMAMURA, Hirotoshi; SAKAI, Nobuyuki; MIYACHI, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Of the patients enrolled in the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy (JR-NET), a surveillance study in Japanese, 1133 patients who underwent intracranial percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA)/stenting for intracranial stenosis during the period from 2005 to 2009 were investigated. A technical success was achieved in 98.3% of the patients, and 70.5% and 7.5% had a residual stenosis of < 30% and ≥ 50%, respectively. The incidence of ischemic complications and hemorrhagic complications was as low as 7.7% and 2.5%, respectively, but tended to increase in patients who underwent stenting. While a significant correlation with ischemic complications was observed in previously untreated patients and patients who underwent stenting followed by post-dilatation, a significant correlation with hemorrhagic complications was observed in patients who received emergency treatment and those treated between 24 hours and 14 days of the onset. Flexible intracranial stents are expected to contribute to improvement in the treatment outcome. PMID:24390191

  17. [Neuro-critical management of glycemia in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Navas-Marrugo, Sandy Zuleica; Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage or intracranial hemorrhage represents between 10 and 15% of all cerebrovascular events. Intracerebral hemorrhage is far less frequent than ischemic stroke, but leads to increased morbidity and mortality, one of the leading causes of severe disability. Several changes have been identified in the field of intracerebral hemorrhage, including endocrine. These stress-mediated mechanisms exacerbate secondary injury. Deep knowledge of the injuries that are directly involved in the alterations of glucose in the context of an intracerebral hemorrhage, offers a vision of how the cytotoxicity, neuronal death and metabolic disturbances alter the prognosis of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

  18. Hemorrhage in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: imaging and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Hefzy, H M; Bartynski, W S; Boardman, J F; Lacomis, D

    2009-08-01

    Hemorrhage is known to occur in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), but the characteristics have not been analyzed in detail. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the imaging and clinical features of hemorrhage in PRES. Retrospective assessment of 151 patients with PRES was performed, and 23 patients were identified who had intracranial hemorrhage at toxicity. Hemorrhage types were identified and tabulated, including minute focal hemorrhages (<5 mm), sulcal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and focal hematoma. Clinical features of hemorrhage and nonhemorrhage PRES groups were evaluated, including toxicity blood pressure, coagulation profile/platelet counts, coagulation-altering medication, and clinical conditions associated with PRES. Toxicity mean arterial pressure (MAP) groups were defined as normal (<106 mm Hg), mildly hypertensive (106-116 mm Hg), or severely hypertensive (>116 mm Hg). The overall incidence of hemorrhage was 15.2%, with borderline statistical significance noted between the observed clinical associations (P = .07). Hemorrhage was significantly more common (P = .02) after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) than after solid-organ transplantation. The 3 hemorrhage types were noted with equal frequency. A single hemorrhage type was found in 16 patients, with multiple types noted in 7. Patients undergoing therapeutic anticoagulation were statistically more likely to develop hemorrhage (P = .04). No difference in hemorrhage incidence was found among the 3 blood pressure subgroups (range, 14.9%-15.9%). Three distinct types of hemorrhage (minute hemorrhage, sulcal subarachnoid hemorrhage, hematoma) were identified in PRES with equal frequency. The greatest hemorrhage frequency was seen after allo-BMT and in patients undergoing therapeutic anticoagulation. Hemorrhage rate was independent of the toxicity blood pressure.

  19. Antenatal management in fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Winkelhorst, Dian; Murphy, Michael F; Greinacher, Andreas; Shehata, Nadine; Bakchoul, Tamam; Massey, Edwin; Baker, Jillian; Lieberman, Lani; Tanael, Susano; Hume, Heather; Arnold, Donald M; Baidya, Shoma; Bertrand, Gerald; Bussel, James; Kjaer, Mette; Kaplan, Cécile; Kjeldsen-Kragh, Jens; Oepkes, Dick; Ryan, Greg

    2017-01-27

    Several strategies can be used to manage fetal or neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) in subsequent pregnancies. Serial fetal blood sampling (FBS) and intrauterine platelet transfusions (IUPT), and weekly maternal intravenous immunoglobulin infusion (IVIG), with or without additional corticosteroid therapy are common options, but the optimal management has not been determined. The aim of this systematic review was to assess antenatal treatment strategies for FNAIT. Four randomized controlled trials and twenty-two non-randomized studies were included. Pooling of results was not possible due to considerable heterogeneity. Most studies found comparable outcomes regarding the occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage, regardless of antenatal management strategy applied; FBS, IUPT or IVIG with/without corticosteroids. There is no consistent evidence for the value of adding steroids to IVIG. Fetal blood sampling or intrauterine platelet transfusion resulted in a relatively high complication rate, consisting mainly of preterm emergency cesarean section, 11% per treated pregnancy in all studies combined. Overall, non-invasive management in pregnant mothers who have had a previous neonate with FNAIT is effective without the relatively high rate of adverse outcomes seen with invasive strategies. This systematic review suggests that first line antenatal management in FNAIT is weekly IVIG administration, with or without the addition of corticosteroids.

  20. Supernova hemorrhage: obliterative hemorrhage of brain arteriovenous malformations following γ knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Matthew D; Hetts, Steven W; Young, William L; Halbach, Van V; Dowd, Christopher F; Higashida, Randall T; English, Joey D

    2012-09-01

    Hemorrhage represents the most feared complication of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in both untreated patients and those treated with gamma knife radiosurgery. Radiosurgery does not immediately lead to obliteration of the malformation, which often does not occur until years following treatment. Post-obliteration hemorrhage is rare, occurring months to years after radiosurgery, and has been associated with residual or recurrent AVM despite prior apparent nidus elimination. Three cases are reported of delayed intracranial hemorrhage in patients with cerebral AVMs treated with radiosurgery in which no residual AVM was found on catheter angiography at the time of delayed post-treatment hemorrhage. That the pathophysiology of these hemorrhages involves progressive venous outflow occlusion is speculated and the possible mechanistic link to subsequent vascular rupture is discussed.

  1. Subarachnoid hemorrhage

    MedlinePlus

    ... snapping feeling in the head. Other symptoms: Decreased consciousness and alertness Eye discomfort in bright light ( photophobia ) ... time, the outlook is much worse. Changes in consciousness and alertness due to a subarachnoid hemorrhage may ...

  2. Fetal Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, John T.; Sladek, John R.

    1989-11-01

    This article reviews some of the significant contributions of fetal research and fetal tissue research over the past 20 years. The benefits of fetal research include the development of vaccines, advances in prenatal diagnosis, detection of malformations, assessment of safe and effective medications, and the development of in utero surgical therapies. Fetal tissue research benefits vaccine development, assessment of risk factors and toxicity levels in drug production, development of cell lines, and provides a source of fetal cells for ongoing transplantation trials. Together, fetal research and fetal tissue research offer tremendous potential for the treatment of the fetus, neonate, and adult.

  3. [Alveolar hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Parrot, A; Fartoukh, M; Cadranel, J

    2015-04-01

    Alveolar hemorrhage occurs relatively rarely and is a therapeutic emergency because it can quickly lead to acute respiratory failure, which can be fatal. Hemoptysis associated with anemia and pulmonary infiltrates suggest the diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage, but may be absent in one third of cases including patients in respiratory distress. The diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage is based on the findings of a bronchoalveolar lavage. The causes are numerous. It is important to identify alveolar hemorrhage due to sepsis, then separate an autoimmune cause (vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, connective tissue disease and Goodpasture's syndrome) with the search for autoantibodies and biopsies from readily accessible organs, from a non-immune cause, performing echocardiography. Lung biopsy should be necessary only in exceptional cases. If the hemorrhage has an immune cause, treatment with steroids and cyclophosphamide may be started. The indications for treatment with rituximab are beginning to be established (forms that are not severe and refractory forms). The benefit of plasma exchange is unquestionable in Goodpasture's syndrome. In patients with an immune disease that can lead to an alveolar hemorrhage, removing any source of infection is the first priority.

  4. [Congenital anomalies of cerebral artery and intracranial aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Nakajima, K; Ito, Z; Hen, R; Uemura, K; Matsuoka, S

    1976-02-01

    It is well known that congenital anomalies such as polycystic kidney, aortic coarctation, Marfan syndrome, Ehler-Danlos syndrome are apt to be complicated by intracranial aneurysms. In this report we attempt to reveal the relation and incidence between cerebrovascular anomalies and intracranial aneurysms. The etiology of aneurysms has been discussed, too. 12 cases of persistent trigeminl artery, 2 cases of persistent hypoglossal artery and 11 cases of fenestration were obtained from 3841 patients who were angiographically examined in our clinic for 5 years. The incidence is 0.31%, 0.05% and 0.29%, respectively. Persistent trigeminal arteries were complicated by 2 cases of intracranial aneurysms and one case of arterivenous malformations (AVM), persistent hypoglossal arteries were complicated by one case of aneurysm, and fenestrations were complicated by 2 cases of aneurysms and one case of AVM. One case of congenital agenesis of right internal carotid artery was obtained which was complicated by aneurysm of anterior communicating artery. Totally, 8 cases of aneurysms and AVM were obtained from 26 cases of cerebrovascular anomalies (incidence 30.8%). On the other hand, thalamic or caudate hemorrhage revealed the highest incidence of complication of intracranial aneurysms among intracerebral hematomas (10.7%). Compared with the incidence of aneurysms between cerebro vascular anomalies (30.8%) and thalamic or caudate hemorrhage (10.7%), the difference is statistically signigicant (P less than 0.05). The cause of intracranial aneurysm has not yet been clarified. But it is well accepted that the defect of tunica media vasorum is most responsible factor as to the occurrence of intracranial aneurysms. We concluded that the genetic error of cerebral vessels including defect of media caused intracranial aneurysms, and this result was supported from the evidence that cerebrovascular anomalies showed statistically high incidence of complication of intracranial aneurysms.

  5. Fatal intracerebral hemorrhage during dental treatment.

    PubMed

    Massalha, R; Valdman, S; Farkash, P; Merkin, L; Herishanu, Y

    1996-09-01

    Although chronic arterial hypertension is the leading cause of intracranial hemorrhage, an abrupt rise in systemic arterial pressure in normotensive people may sometimes induce a hemorrhagic stroke. Dental treatment is rarely associated with such an event. We report here on two middle-aged women, apparently healthy, who suffered from a fatal intracerebral hemorrhage following a dental treatment. On admission, high levels of arterial hypertension were found. It seems that trigeminal manipulation during dental treatment as well as increased serum levels of induced epinephrine mainly by stress and pain, and the small amounts absorbed from the site of local anesthesia might produce abrupt elevation of blood pressure, subsequent increase in cerebral blood flow and severe, even fatal intracerebral hemorrhage. The addition of catecholamines to local anesthetics should be considered. We recommend the use of benzodiazepin as a premedication drug to reduce stress during dental treatment.

  6. Molecular basis and genetic predisposition to intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Tromp, Gerard; Weinsheimer, Shantel; Ronkainen, Antti; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2014-12-01

    Intracranial aneurysms, also called cerebral aneurysms, are dilatations in the arteries that supply blood to the brain. Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm leads to a subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is fatal in about 50% of the cases. Intracranial aneurysms can be repaired surgically or endovascularly, or by combining these two treatment modalities. They are relatively common with an estimated prevalence of unruptured aneurysms of 2%-6% in the adult population, and are considered a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Known risk factors include smoking, hypertension, increasing age, and positive family history for intracranial aneurysms. Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms is complex. Genome-wide approaches such as DNA linkage and genetic association studies, as well as microarray-based mRNA expression studies, provide unbiased approaches to identify genetic risk factors and dissecting the molecular pathobiology of intracranial aneurysms. The ultimate goal of these studies is to use the information in clinical practice to predict an individual's risk for developing an aneurysm or monitor its growth or rupture risk. Another important goal is to design new therapies based on the information on mechanisms of disease processes to prevent the development or halt the progression of intracranial aneurysms.

  7. The natural history of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage-related intraocular hemorrhages.

    PubMed

    Stiebel-Kalish, Hadas; Turtel, Lawrence S; Kupersmith, Mark J

    2004-02-01

    To describe the natural history of intraocular hemorrhages related to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) as a result of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Retrospective review of patients with cerebral aneurysms examined by a referral neuro-ophthalmology service between 1980 and 1998. Patients with intraocular hemorrhages associated with SAH as a result of ruptured aneurysms were followed up without vitrectomy, unless bilateral vitreous hemorrhage occurred. Seventy of 450 patients with cerebral aneurysms had an SAH. Of these, 30 eyes of 19 patients had intraocular hemorrhages. Fourteen eyes had a vitreous hemorrhage; 12 had subhyaloid blood without a vitreous hemorrhage; and four had retinal hemorrhages alone. Two patients died shortly after presentation. Twenty-eight eyes were followed up for a mean of 4.8 years. Initial visual acuity was 20/100 to light perception in eyes with a vitreous hemorrhage, 20/20 to 20/400 in eyes with subhyaloid blood, and 20/20 to 20/40 in eyes with retinal hemorrhages. Three of the 12 eyes with a vitreous hemorrhage underwent vitrectomy. Of the nonoperated eyes, final visual acuity was at least 20/30 in 19 (76%) eyes, 20/40 to 20/60 in four (16%) eyes, and 20/100 in both eyes of one patient with premacular subhyaloid blood. None of the nonoperated eyes developed cataract formation or progression, retinal tears, or retinal detachment. Epiretinal membrane developed in one eye and pigmentary maculopathy developed in five. Except for patients with bilateral vitreous hemorrhages, early vitrectomy may not be necessary in most cases of intraocular hemorrhages associated with nontraumatic SAH.

  8. Intracranial Non-traumatic Aneurysms in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sorteberg, Angelika; Dahlberg, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    An intracranial aneurysm in a child or adolescent is a rare, but potentially devastating condition. As little as approximately 1200 cases are reported between 1939 and 2011, with many of the reports presenting diverting results. There is consensus, though, in that pediatric aneurysms represent a pathophysiological entity different from their adult counterparts. In children, there is a male predominance. About two-thirds of pediatric intracranial aneurysms become symptomatic with hemorrhage and the rate of re-hemorrhage is higher than in adults. The rate of hemorrhage from an intracranial aneurysm peaks in girls around menarche. The most common aneurysm site in children is the internal carotid artery, in particular at its terminal ending. Aneurysms in the posterior circulation are more common in children than adults. Children more often develop giant aneurysms, and may become symptomatic from the mass effect of the aneurysm (tumorlike symptoms). The more complex nature of pediatric aneurysms poses a larger challenge to treatment alongside with higher demands to the durability of treatment. Outcome and mortality are similar in children and adults, but long-term outcome in the pediatric population is influenced by the high rate of aneurysm recurrences and de novo formation of intracranial aneurysms. This urges the need for life-long follow-up and screening protocols. PMID:24696670

  9. Characteristics of Hemorrhagic Stroke following Spine and Joint Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke can occur after spine and joint surgeries such as laminectomy, lumbar spinal fusion, tumor resection, and total joint arthroplasty. Although this kind of stroke rarely happens, it may cause severe consequences and high mortality rates. Typical clinical symptoms of hemorrhagic stroke after spine and joint surgeries include headache, vomiting, consciousness disturbance, and mental disorders. It can happen several hours after surgeries. Most bleeding sites are located in cerebellar hemisphere and temporal lobe. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage caused by surgeries may be the key to intracranial hemorrhages happening. Early diagnosis and treatments are very important for patients to prevent the further progression of intracranial hemorrhages. Several patients need a hematoma evacuation and their prognosis is not optimistic. PMID:28164124

  10. Characteristics of Hemorrhagic Stroke following Spine and Joint Surgeries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Zhao, Jianning; Xu, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke can occur after spine and joint surgeries such as laminectomy, lumbar spinal fusion, tumor resection, and total joint arthroplasty. Although this kind of stroke rarely happens, it may cause severe consequences and high mortality rates. Typical clinical symptoms of hemorrhagic stroke after spine and joint surgeries include headache, vomiting, consciousness disturbance, and mental disorders. It can happen several hours after surgeries. Most bleeding sites are located in cerebellar hemisphere and temporal lobe. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage caused by surgeries may be the key to intracranial hemorrhages happening. Early diagnosis and treatments are very important for patients to prevent the further progression of intracranial hemorrhages. Several patients need a hematoma evacuation and their prognosis is not optimistic.

  11. Intracranial blister aneurysms: clip reconstruction techniques.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Daniel L; Pradilla, Gustavo; McCracken, D Jay

    2015-07-01

    Intracranial blister aneurysms are difficult to treat cerebrovascular lesions that typically affect the anterior circulation. These rare aneurysms can lead to acute rupture which usually cannot be treated via endovascular methods, but still require urgent surgical intervention. Surgical options are limited given their unique pathology and often require a combination of wrapping and clip reconstruction. In this video we present two patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to ruptured blister aneurysms. We demonstrate several surgical techniques for repairing the vascular defect with and without intraoperative rupture. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/nz-JM45uKQU.

  12. Fetal akinesia.

    PubMed

    Hammond, E; Donnenfeld, A E

    1995-03-01

    Normal fetal growth and development during pregnancy is highly dependent upon adequate fetal movement. Limitation of movement, regardless of the underlying cause, can result in a particular pattern of abnormal fetal morphogenesis. This phenotype is termed the fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS). The etiology of fetal akinesia may be generally classified into one of five categories: neuropathy, myopathy, restrictive dermopathy, teratogen exposure, or restricted movement due to intrauterine constraint. In this article, the differential diagnosis of fetal akinesia is systematically reviewed and information regarding prenatal diagnosis, prognosis, perinatal management, and recurrence risks are discussed.

  13. Amniocentesis for Fetal Lung Maturity: Will It Become Obsolete?

    PubMed Central

    Varner, Stephen; Sherman, Craig; Lewis, David; Owens, Sheri; Bodie, Frankie; McCathran, C Eric; Holliday, Nicolette

    2013-01-01

    Amniocentesis for fetal lung maturity has historically been performed for many reasons: uterine and placental complications, maternal comorbidities, fetal issues, and even obstetric problems. Even though the risks associated with third trimester amniocentesis are extremely low, complications have been documented, including preterm labor, placental abruptions, intrauterine rupture, maternal sepsis, fetal heart rate abnormalities, and fetal-maternal hemorrhage. This review presents the types of tests for fetal lung maturity, presents the indications and tests utilized, and discusses recommendations for when amniocentesis for fetal lung maturity may be appropriate. PMID:24826202

  14. SUBPERITONEAL HEMORRHAGE

    PubMed Central

    Cushman, Glenn F.

    1953-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of subperitoneal hemorrhage can be made in a substantial percentage of cases by recognition of a quite constant syndrome—provided the possibility of bleeding is considered. Progressive anemia, as indicated by repeated counts of erythrocytes in the blood or by hematocrit determinations, is confirmation of the diagnosis. The majority of patients recover spontaneously under conservative management. Surgical intervention is indicated if repeated episodes of hemorrhage occur or if the volume of circulating blood cannot be maintained by repeated transfusions of whole blood. PMID:13009511

  15. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity in hemispheric intraparenchymal hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Billy; Pollock, Jeffrey A; Hinson, Holly E

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a hyperadrenergic syndrome that may follow acute brain injury characterized by episodic, hyperadrenergic alterations in vital signs. Identifying commonality in lesion localization in patients with PSH is challenging, but intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) represents a focal injury that might provide insight. We describe a series of patients with IPH that developed PSH, and review the literature. Methods Patients with IPH who developed PSH were identified from OHSU hospital records. A literature review was conducted to identify similar cases through PUBMED, OVID, and Google Scholar. Results Three cases meeting criteria for PSH were identified. Hemorrhage volume ranged from 70 to 128 mL, and intracranial hemorrhage score ranged from 2 to 3. The laterality of the hemorrhage and significant volume of hemorrhage was similar in each of the patients, specifically all hemorrhages were large, subcortical, and right-sided. A literature search identified six additional cases, half of whom reported a right hemisphere hemorrhage and the majority also had subcortical localization. Conclusions Our literature review identified six cases of IPH associated with PSH with five cases having subcortical lesion locations, echoing the areas of disruption in our three cases. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesize that injuries along the pathway from the insular cortex to downstream sympathetic centers may remove tonic inhibition leading to unchecked sympathetic outflow. Prospective investigations of lesion location in patients with IPH and PSH are warranted to test this hypothesis, especially with advanced neuroimaging techniques. PMID:24904923

  16. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity in hemispheric intraparenchymal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Gao, Billy; Pollock, Jeffrey A; Hinson, Holly E

    2014-03-01

    Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a hyperadrenergic syndrome that may follow acute brain injury characterized by episodic, hyperadrenergic alterations in vital signs. Identifying commonality in lesion localization in patients with PSH is challenging, but intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) represents a focal injury that might provide insight. We describe a series of patients with IPH that developed PSH, and review the literature. Patients with IPH who developed PSH were identified from OHSU hospital records. A literature review was conducted to identify similar cases through PUBMED, OVID, and Google Scholar. Three cases meeting criteria for PSH were identified. Hemorrhage volume ranged from 70 to 128 mL, and intracranial hemorrhage score ranged from 2 to 3. The laterality of the hemorrhage and significant volume of hemorrhage was similar in each of the patients, specifically all hemorrhages were large, subcortical, and right-sided. A literature search identified six additional cases, half of whom reported a right hemisphere hemorrhage and the majority also had subcortical localization. Our literature review identified six cases of IPH associated with PSH with five cases having subcortical lesion locations, echoing the areas of disruption in our three cases. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesize that injuries along the pathway from the insular cortex to downstream sympathetic centers may remove tonic inhibition leading to unchecked sympathetic outflow. Prospective investigations of lesion location in patients with IPH and PSH are warranted to test this hypothesis, especially with advanced neuroimaging techniques.

  17. Two cases of asymptomatic massive fetomaternal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Peedin, Alexis R; Mazepa, Marshall A; Park, Yara A; Weimer, Eric T; Schmitz, John L; Raval, Jay S

    2015-04-01

    Evaluation of fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) in the immediate postpartum period is critical for the timely administration of Rh immunoglobulin (RhIG) prophylaxis to minimize the risk of alloimmunization in D-negative mothers of D-positive newborns. We report a series of two clinically-unsuspected cases of massive FMHs identified at our university medical center. Retrospective records of two cases of massive FMH were investigated using the electronic medical record. After positive fetal bleed screens, flow cytometric analysis for hemoglobin F was performed to quantify the volume of the hemorrhages in both cases. Flow cytometric enumeration with anti-D was also performed in one case. The two patients had 209.5 and 75 mL of fetal blood in circulation, resulting in 8 and 4 doses of RhIG administered, respectively. For the former patient, flow cytometric analysis with anti-D ruled out hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin and supported the fetal origin of the red cells. Due to the clinically-silent nature of both hemorrhages, further evaluation of the newborns' blood was not performed. These cases highlight the importance of rapidly obtaining accurate measurements of fetal blood loss via flow cytometric analysis in cases of FMH, particularly in clinically-unsuspected cases, to ensure timely administration of adequate immunoprophylaxis to D-negative mothers.

  18. [Idiopathic intracranial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Bäuerle, J; Egger, K; Harloff, A

    2017-02-01

    This review describes the clinical findings as well as thes diagnostic and therapeutic options for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri). Furthermore, the pathophysiological concepts are discussed. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is characterized by signs and symptoms of raised intracranial pressure with no established pathogenesis. Common symptoms include headaches, visual loss and pulsatile tinnitus. Treatment has two major goals: the alleviation of headaches and the preservation of vision. Weight loss and acetazolamide are the cornerstones in the treatment of the disorder. Drainage of cerebrospinal fluid, optic nerve sheath fenestration and stent angioplasty of a sinus stenosis can be employed in severe cases.

  19. Intracranial dural based chondroma.

    PubMed

    Reinshagen, Clemens; Redjal, Navid; Sajed, Dipti P; Nahed, Brian V; Walcott, Brian P

    2016-03-01

    Intracranial chondromas are benign, slow-growing, cartilaginous tumors, which comprise only about 0.2% of all intracranial tumors. The majority of these lesions occur at the base of the skull, where they are thought to arise from residual embryonic chondrogenic cells along the basal synchondrosis. Very rarely, they may also originate from the convexity dura, falx cerebri, or the brain parenchyma. We present a patient with a dural based chondroma to highlight the technical considerations of surgical resection. The recent literature on intracranial chondromas regarding incidence, pathophysiologic origin, clinical symptoms, imaging, histopathology and prognosis is reviewed.

  20. Fetal and Maternal Outcomes in Pregnancies Complicated with Fetal Macrosomia

    PubMed Central

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkahatim; Ahmed, Salah Roshdy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fetal macrosomia remains a considerable challenge in current obstetrics due to the fetal and maternal complications associated with this condition. Aim: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of fetal macrosomia and associated fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality in the Al Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This register-based study was conducted from January 1, 2011 through December 30, 2011 at the Maternity and Child Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Macrosomia was defined as birth weight of 4 kg or greater. Malformed babies and those born dead were excluded. Results: The total number of babies delivered was 9241; of these, 418 were macrosomic. Thus, the prevalence of fetal macrosomia was 4.5%. The most common maternal complications were postpartum hemorrhage (5 cases, 1.2%), perineal tear (7 cases, 1.7%), cervical lacerations (3 cases, 0.7%), and shoulder dystocia (40 cases, 9.6%) that resulted in 4 cases of Erb's palsy (0.96%), and 6 cases of bone fractures (1.4%). The rate of cesarean section among women delivering macrosomic babies was 47.6% (199), while 52.4% (219) delivered vaginally. Conclusion: Despite extensive efforts to reduce fetal and maternal complications associated with macrosomia, considerable fetal and maternal morbidity remain associated with this condition. PMID:22754881

  1. Occult intracranial injury in infants.

    PubMed

    Greenes, D S; Schutzman, S A

    1998-12-01

    The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to determine whether clinical symptoms and signs of brain injury are sensitive indicators of intracranial injury (ICI) in infants admitted with head trauma, (2) to describe the clinical characteristics of infants who have ICI in the absence of symptoms and signs of brain injury, and (3) to determine the clinical significance of those ICIs diagnosed in asymptomatic infants. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all infants younger than 2 years of age admitted to a tertiary care pediatric hospital with acute ICI during a 6(1/2)-year period. Infants were considered symptomatic if they had loss of consciousness, history of behavior change, seizures, vomiting, bulging fontanel, retinal hemorrhages, abnormal neurologic examination, depressed mental status, or irritability. All others were considered to have occult ICI. Of 101 infants studied, 19 (19%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 12%, 28%) had occult ICI. Fourteen of 52 (27%) infants younger than 6 months of age had occult ICI, compared with 5 of 34 (15%) infants 6 months to 1 year, and none of 15 (0%) infants older than 1 year. Eighteen (95%) infants with occult ICI had scalp contusion or hematoma, and 18 (95%) had skull fracture. Nine (47%) infants with occult ICI received therapy for the ICI. No infants with occult ICI (0%) (95% CI 0, 14%) required surgery or medical management for increased intracranial pressure. Only 1 subject (5%) with occult ICI had any late symptoms or complications: a brief, self-limited convulsion. We found that 19 of 101 ICIs in infants admitted with head trauma were clinically occult. All 19 occult ICIs occurred in infants younger than 12 months of age, and 18 of 19 had skull fractures. None experienced serious neurologic deterioration or required surgical intervention. Physicians cannot depend on the absence of clinical signs of brain injury to exclude ICI in infants younger than 1 year of age.

  2. MR imaging of intracranial hemangiopericytomas.

    PubMed

    Mama, N; Ben Abdallah, A; Hasni, I; Kadri, K; Arifa, N; Ladib, M; Tlili-Graiess, K

    2014-12-01

    To describe the MR features of primary intracranial hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) on conventional imaging, diffusion and MR spectroscopy and aim to determinate distinguishing features from meningiomas. From 2006 to 2012, seven patients with pathologically confirmed primary intracranial HPCs were included. The clinical data, conventional MR findings (n=7), DWI features (n=7) and MR spectroscopy (n=5) were retrospectively analyzed. ADC values of the HPCs (n=7) were measured on ADC map and were compared with that of contralateral normal white matter. Of the seven HPCs, four were anaplastic HPCs (WHO grade III) and three were HPCs (WHO grade II). MR pattern consisted in lobulated or irregular margin tumors in all cases with cross-leaf growth on both side of the falx in two cases. The lesions showed mainly iso signal (n=4) on T1 WI and heterogeneous high signal (n=5) on T2 WI. Heterogenity was mainly related to intra tumoral hemorrhage (n=4), and proeminent intratumoral flow voids (n=3). Marked heterogeneous enhancement (n=5) with dural tail (n=4) was noted. All tumours showed significant peritumoral edema. ADC values of the tumor tissue component range between 0.638 and 1.50×10(-3)mm/s(2) (average = 1,02). Three grade II HPCs showed higher values compared to normal parenchyma ADC (range between 0.772 and 0.930×10(-3)mm/s(2) with average of 0.830), whereas grade III HPCs showed either equal (three cases) or decreased ADC values (one case). MRS showed in all cases markedly increased Cho with lip/lac peak, decreased Cr and almost absent NAA. High mI peak with large glutamine/glutamate were noted in the three grade II HPCs. Conventional MR pattern when combined with DWI and MRS findings are highly suggestive of HPC and appear valuable data to differentiate HPCs from meningiomas. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Intracranial segmental arterial mediolysis: report of 2 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Alturkustani, Murad; Ang, Lee-Cyn

    2013-06-01

    Extensive nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage is an important cause of unexpected death in young adults. Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) represents an uncommon pathologic finding in the intracranial blood vessels associated with this type of hemorrhage. Segmental arterial mediolysis is a pathologic entity with putative vasospastic etiology, which recently has been reported to be associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type 4. We describe 2 additional cases of ruptured intracranial vertebral artery with features of SAM that resulted in fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We also review the literature on vessels with features of SAM that are either intracranial or affecting the internal carotid artery with major direct effects (ie, stroke or transient ischemic attack) on the central nervous system.

  4. Fetal endocrinology

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Sunil Kumar; Gayatri, Kotni; Jammula, Sruti; Meher, Lalit Kumar; Kota, Siva Krishna; Krishna, S. V. S.; Modi, Kirtikumar D.

    2013-01-01

    Successful outcome of pregnancy depends upon genetic, cellular, and hormonal interactions, which lead to implantation, placentation, embryonic, and fetal development, parturition and fetal adaptation to extrauterine life. The fetal endocrine system commences development early in gestation and plays a modulating role on the various physiological organ systems and prepares the fetus for life after birth. Our current article provides an overview of the current knowledge of several aspects of this vast field of fetal endocrinology and the role of endocrine system on transition to extrauterine life. We also provide an insight into fetal endocrine adaptations pertinent to various clinically important situations like placental insufficiency and maternal malnutrition. PMID:23961471

  5. Fetal endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Kota, Sunil Kumar; Gayatri, Kotni; Jammula, Sruti; Meher, Lalit Kumar; Kota, Siva Krishna; Krishna, S V S; Modi, Kirtikumar D

    2013-07-01

    Successful outcome of pregnancy depends upon genetic, cellular, and hormonal interactions, which lead to implantation, placentation, embryonic, and fetal development, parturition and fetal adaptation to extrauterine life. The fetal endocrine system commences development early in gestation and plays a modulating role on the various physiological organ systems and prepares the fetus for life after birth. Our current article provides an overview of the current knowledge of several aspects of this vast field of fetal endocrinology and the role of endocrine system on transition to extrauterine life. We also provide an insight into fetal endocrine adaptations pertinent to various clinically important situations like placental insufficiency and maternal malnutrition.

  6. Placenta previa and maternal hemorrhagic morbidity.

    PubMed

    Gibbins, Karen J; Einerson, Brett D; Varner, Michael W; Silver, Robert M

    2017-02-21

    Placenta previa is associated with maternal hemorrhage, but most literature focuses on morbidity in the setting of placenta accreta. We aim to characterize maternal morbidity associated with previa and to define risk factors for hemorrhage. This is a secondary cohort analysis of the NICHD Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network Cesarean Section Registry. This analysis included all women undergoing primary Cesarean delivery without placenta accreta. About 496 women with previa were compared with 24,201 women without previa. Primary outcome was composite maternal hemorrhagic morbidity. Non-hemorrhagic morbidities and risk factors for hemorrhage were also evaluated. Maternal hemorrhagic morbidity was more common in women with previa (19 versus 7%, aRR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9-3.5). Atony requiring uterotonics (aRR 3.1, 95% CI 2.0-4.9), red blood cell transfusion (aRR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5-5.7), and hysterectomy (aRR 5.1, 95% CI 1.5-17.3) were also more common with previa. For women with previa, factors associated with maternal hemorrhage were pre-delivery anemia, thrombocytopenia, diabetes, magnesium use, and general anesthesia. Placenta previa is an independent risk factor for maternal hemorrhagic morbidity. Some risk factors are modifiable, but many are intrinsic to the clinical scenario.

  7. [Intracranial Pressure Evaluation by Ophthalmologist].

    PubMed

    Čmelo, J; Illéš, R; Šteňo, J

    2017-01-01

    The value of ICT is important in diagnosis of the diseases of the eye and orbit Methods for direct measurement of intracranial pressure (ICT) are exact, but they are invasive and there is some risk of infection and damage of the tissue. Currently there are 2 valid indirect methods of mesurement of IKT. Digital Ophthalmodynamometry (D-ODM) and Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TDU). D-ODM is a non-invasive method for measuring of the Pulsating Venous Pressure (VPT). We can measure VPT by the pulse phenomena. Physiologically (to be maintained blood flow) VPT not be less than the ICT and intraorbital pressure (IorbitT). If we raise the VPT to compensate the current IKT (or IorbitT) - there is a pulsation VCR. We can calculate aproxymative IKT with the formula: IKT = 0.903 - (VPT) - 8.87, or IKT = 0.29 + 0.74 (VOT / PI (AO)). [VOT = intraocular pressure. PI - pulsatility index arteriae ophthalmic from Color Doppler ultrasonography.] IKT can be approximate calculate with mathematical formulas: IKT = 0:55 × BMI (kg / m2) + 0.16 × KTD (mmHg) - 0:18 x age (years) - 1.91. [KTD - diastolic blood pressure, BMI - Body master index] or: IKT = 16.95 x 0.39 x OSASW09 + BMI + 0.14 + TKS - 20.90. [OSASW095: width of the orbital arachnoid space at a distance of 9 mm behind the eyeball (nuclear magnetic resonance). BMI: Body Mass Index. TKS: mean arterial pressure]. Normal values of VPT are under 15 torr. The risk of increased intracranial pressure is above 20 torr. Under physiological conditions, there is intraocular pressure lower in about 5 torr than VPT. D-ODM is a useful screening method in the evaluation of IKT for hydrocephalus, brain tumors, cerebral hemorrhage after brain trauma and also in ocular diseases: Glaucoma, Ocular hypertension, orbitopathy (endocrine orbitopathy), ischemic / non-ischemic occlusion of blood vessels of the eye, indirect detection ICT carotid artery-cavernous fistula, amaurosis fugax, optic neuropathy. D-ODM is suitable for immediate evaluation

  8. Feasibility and methodology of optical coherence tomography imaging of human intracranial aneurysms: ex vivo pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuong, Barry; Sun, Cuiru; Khiel, Tim-Rasmus; Gardecki, Joseph A.; Standish, Beau A.; da Costa, Leodante; de Morais, Josaphat; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2012-02-01

    Rupture of intracranial aneurysm is a common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. An aneurysm may undergo microscopic morphological changes or remodeling of the vessel wall prior to rupture, which could potentially be imaged. In this study we present methods of tissue sample preparation of intracranial aneurysms and correlation between optical coherence tomography imaging and routine histology. OCT has a potential future in the assessment of microscopic features of aneurysms, which may correlate to the risk of rupture.

  9. Intracranial pressure monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ... head. The monitor senses the pressure inside the skull and sends measurements to a recording device. ... are 3 ways to monitor pressure in the skull (intracranial pressure). INTRAVENTRICULAR CATHETER The intraventricular catheter is ...

  10. Hidradenoma with intracranial involvement.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, P G; Diengdoh, J V; Crockard, H A; Stern, G M

    1984-06-01

    A case of recurrent hidradenoma of the external ear with intracranial spread is described. The presentation, classification and management of this rare tumour are discussed and the importance of adequate long term review is stressed.

  11. Massive Intracerebral Hemorrhage Caused by a Cavernous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Soo; Lee, Jae Il; Choi, Chang Hwa

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of massive intracerebral hemorrhage resulting from a small, superficially-located supratentorial cavernous malformation, or cavernoma. These lesions rarely lead to massive, life-threatening intracerebral hemorrhages. A 17-year-old female presented with a 3-week history of declining mental status. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sizable intracranial hemorrhage, within the right occipital region, associated with a small nodule at the hematoma's posterior margin. An emergency operation removed the entire hematoma and nodule. Histological examination of the nodule was compatible with a diagnosis of cavernous malformation. The patient's post-operative course was uneventful. PMID:22396841

  12. Multimodal endovascular treatment of a vertebrovertebral fistula presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Brian P; Berkhemer, Olvert A; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Chandra, Ronil V; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Yoo, Albert J

    2013-09-01

    Vertebrovertebral fistulae are rare vascular malformations that uncommonly can rupture to present clinically as intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage. We report a 69-year-old man presenting following spontaneous apoplectic collapse. Initial workup revealed diffuse, intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus. However, the etiology was not apparent on CT angiography of the head. Catheter-based angiography was performed, demonstrating a single-hole, high-flow vertebrovertebral fistula, arising from the V2 segment and decompressing into both cervical and skull base venous structures. Definitive treatment consisted of endovascular fistula obliteration with a combination of coil and liquid embolic material. The patient made a full neurological recovery. High cervical and skull base fistulae are rare causes of intracranial hemorrhage; endovascular treatment is effective at disconnection of the arteriovenous shunt.

  13. Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms: Endovascular Treatment and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xun; Xu, Tao; Ding, Xuan; Wang, Wenlei; Liu, Zhi; Qin, Huaihai

    2014-01-01

    Summary This study evaluated the results of endovascular embolization of multiple intracranial aneurysms. A retrospective hospital chart and radiograph review were made of all patients with multiple intracranial aneurysms seen between March 2010 and January 2011. Ten patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, four with mass effect, two with brain ischemia and twenty were incidental. These 36 patients harbored 84 aneurysms, 63 of which were treated with endovascular techniques, two by surgical clipping, and 19 were left untreated. Of the coil-treated lesions, a complete endovascular occlusion was achieved in 54 aneurysms (85.7%), and eight (12.7%) presented neck remnants with one (1.6%) stented only. Twenty-six patients (72.2%) underwent coil embolization of more than one aneurysm in the first session. Follow-up angiographic studies in 31 patients demonstrated an unchanged or improved result in 93.0% of the aneurysms (53 lesions) and coil compaction in 7.0% (four lesions). The overall clinical outcome was excellent in 33 patients (91.7%), good in one (2.8%) and fair in two (5.5%). Endovascular techniques may be a particularly suitable method for treating multiple intracranial aneurysms. PMID:25207907

  14. Fetal/Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia: Pathogenesis, Diagnostics and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Brojer, Ewa; Husebekk, Anne; Dębska, Marzena; Uhrynowska, Małgorzata; Guz, Katarzyna; Orzińska, Agnieszka; Dębski, Romuald; Maślanka, Krystyna

    2016-08-01

    Fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a relatively rare condition (1/1000-1/2000) that was granted orphan status by the European Medicines Agency in 2011. Clinical consequences of FNAIT, however, may be severe. A thrombocytopenic fetus or new-born is at risk of intracranial hemorrhage that may result in lifelong disability or death. Preventing such bleeding is thus vital and requires a solution. Anti-HPA1a antibodies are the most frequent cause of FNAIT in Caucasians. Its pathogenesis is similar to hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) due to anti-RhD antibodies, but is characterized by platelet destruction and is more often observed in the first pregnancy. In 75 % of these women, alloimmunization by HPA-1a antigens, however, occurs at delivery, which enables development of antibody-mediated immune suppression to prevent maternal immunization. As for HDN, the recurrence rate of FNAIT is high. For advancing diagnostic efforts and treatment, it is thereby crucial to understand the pathogenesis of FNAIT, including cellular immunity involvement. This review presents the current knowledge on FNAIT. Also described is a program for HPA-1a screening in identifying HPA-1a negative pregnant women at risk of immunization. This program is now performed at the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine in cooperation with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education in Warsaw as well as the UiT The Arctic University of Norway.

  15. Ocular findings in raised intracranial pressure: a case of Terson syndrome in a 7-month-old infant.

    PubMed

    Mena, Othon J; Paul, Ian; Reichard, R Ross

    2011-03-01

    We present the case of a 7-month-old female infant who was found crying and limp. She was transported to a hospital where a possible subarachnoid hemorrhage was diagnosed radiologically. Before further studies could be pursued, her condition worsened and she died. The autopsy demonstrated diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage of the brain and along the spinal cord. The brain, spinal cord, and eyes were retained and examined postfixation. An aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery was identified. Examination of the eyes demonstrated bilateral optic nerve sheath hemorrhage and extensive retinal hemorrhages extending to the ora serrata. A rapid increase in intracranial pressure secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage following rupture of an aneurysm can result in sequelae similar to those found in inflicted traumatic brain injury. In this case, the rise in intracranial pressure resulted in marked hemorrhage within the optic nerve sheaths as well as intra- and preretinal hemorrhages. Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, or other causes of rapidly increased intracranial pressure, may develop ocular hemorrhage (Terson syndrome). This case illustrates the importance of ruling out natural disease before attributing the autopsy findings to trauma, as well as the importance of postmortem fixation of pediatric brains and eyes prior to examination.

  16. Traumatic Hemorrhage within a Cerebellar Dermoid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Yongxin; Wang, Haifeng; Zhong, Yanping; Bian, Xinchao; Luo, Yinan; Ge, Pengfei

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial dermoid cysts with hemorrhage are fairly rare. Herein, we reported a 28-year-old female patient with a cerebellar dermoid cyst, which was found accidently on neuro-imaging after head trauma. MR scanning revealed that the lesion was located within the cerebellar vermis and was measured 3.5cm×3.9cm×3.0cm, with hyper-intensity on T1WI and hypo-intensity on T2WI. However, on CT imaging, it showed hyper-dense signals. It was removed completely via midline sub-occipital approach under surgical microscope. Histological examination proved it was a dermoid cyst with internal hemorrhage. In combination with literature review, we discussed the factors that might be responsible for the hemorrhage within dermoid cysts. PMID:22211083

  17. Traumatic hemorrhage within a cerebellar dermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Luan, Yongxin; Wang, Haifeng; Zhong, Yanping; Bian, Xinchao; Luo, Yinan; Ge, Pengfei

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial dermoid cysts with hemorrhage are fairly rare. Herein, we reported a 28-year-old female patient with a cerebellar dermoid cyst, which was found accidently on neuro-imaging after head trauma. MR scanning revealed that the lesion was located within the cerebellar vermis and was measured 3.5cm×3.9cm×3.0cm, with hyper-intensity on T1WI and hypo-intensity on T2WI. However, on CT imaging, it showed hyper-dense signals. It was removed completely via midline sub-occipital approach under surgical microscope. Histological examination proved it was a dermoid cyst with internal hemorrhage. In combination with literature review, we discussed the factors that might be responsible for the hemorrhage within dermoid cysts.

  18. Management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Diringer, Michael N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a complex multifaceted disorder that plays out over days to weeks. Many SAH patients are seriously ill and require a prolonged ICU stay. Cardiopulmonary complications are common. The management of SAH patients focuses on the anticipation, prevention and management of these secondary complications. Data Sources Source data were obtained from a PubMed search of the medical literature. Data Synthesis and Conclusion The rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is a sudden devastating event with immediate neurologic and cardiac consequences that require stabilization to allow for early diagnostic angiography. Early complications include rebleeding, hydrocephalus, and seizures. Early repair of the aneurysm (within 1-3 days) should take place by surgical or endovascular means. Over the first 1-2 weeks after hemorrhage, patients are at risk for delayed ischemic deficits due to vasospasm, autoregulatory failure and intravascular volume contraction. Delayed ischemia is treated with combinations of volume expansion, induced hypertension, augmentation of cardiac output, angioplasty and intra-arterial vasodilators. Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a complex disease with a prolonged course that can be particularly challenging and rewarding to the intensivist. PMID:19114880

  19. Monitoring of Intracranial Pressure in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hawthorne, Christopher; Piper, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Since Monro published his observations on the nature of the contents of the intracranial space in 1783, there has been investigation of the unique relationship between the contents of the skull and the intracranial pressure (ICP). This is particularly true following traumatic brain injury (TBI), where it is clear that elevated ICP due to the underlying pathological processes is associated with a poorer clinical outcome. Consequently, there is considerable interest in monitoring and manipulating ICP in patients with TBI. The two techniques most commonly used in clinical practice to monitor ICP are via an intraventricular or intraparenchymal catheter with a microtransducer system. Both of these techniques are invasive and are thus associated with complications such as hemorrhage and infection. For this reason, significant research effort has been directed toward development of a non-invasive method to measure ICP. The principle aims of ICP monitoring in TBI are to allow early detection of secondary hemorrhage and to guide therapies that limit intracranial hypertension (ICH) and optimize cerebral perfusion. However, information from the ICP value and the ICP waveform can also be used to assess the intracranial volume–pressure relationship, estimate cerebrovascular pressure reactivity, and attempt to forecast future episodes of ICH. PMID:25076934

  20. Treatment of Giant Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Lv, X.; Jiang, C.; Li, Y.; Yang, X.; Zhang, J.; Wu, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We report on report the clinical outcome obtained in treatment of giant intracranial aneurysms (GAs). Between 2005 and 2007, 51 patients with 51 GAs presented at our hospital. Twentynine were treated with primary parent vessel occlusion without distal bypass and ten underwent treatment preserving the parent artery. Twelve patients could not be treated endovascularly. Selective embolization (including two remodeling techniques and two stent-coil embolizations) resulted in only one cure. Two patients died as a result of subarachnoid hemorrhage periprocedurely. Twenty-nine patients treated primarily with parent vessel occlusion and three patients treated with covered stent were considered cured after their treatments. Only one patient treated with parent vessel occlusion experienced ischemia during follow-up, which resulted in a mild neurological deficit. Of the twelve patients who could not be treated endovascularly, one succumbed to surgery, four died while being treated conservatively, and three were lost to follow-up. Parent artery occlusion, covered stent and coil occlusion provide effective protection against bleeding. In treatment of paraclinoid GAs of the internal carotid artery, the use of a stent, and stent-assisted coil embolization may be a pitfall. PMID:20465907

  1. [Genetic dissection of intracranial aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Onda, Hideaki; Yoneyama, Taku; Akagawa, Hiroyuki; Kasuya, Hidetoshi

    2008-11-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to rupture of an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a devastating condition with high mortality and morbidity. Genetic as well as environment factors play important roles in the pathogenesis of SAH and IAs. We review the present knowledge on the genetic factors responsible for SAH or IAs. Linkage analysis and association study are used for genetic dissection. Genome-wide linkage analyses have specified several genetic loci for IAs and 6 loci (1p34-36, 7q11, 11q24-25, 14q22-31, 19q13, and Xp22) have been replicated in different populations. Numerous functional and/or positional candidate genes for IAs have been investigated by case-control association studies. The results of genetic association studies are modest because of small sample sizes. To date, no specific genes have been identified as responsible for IA development or rupture. Recent, large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) studies have revealed consistent and replicable genetic markers of several complex diseases such as coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes. Although, thus far, no GWA studies have been performed for IAs, such a study may accomplish the breakthrough of genetic dissection of IAs. The identification of susceptible genes might lead to the understanding of the mechanism of IA formation or rupture and to novel therapeutic strategies.

  2. Severe intracranial haemorrhage in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Francisco; Morais, Sofia; Sevivas, Teresa; Veiga, Ricardo; Salvado, Ramon; Taborda, Adelaide

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia is a rare (1/1000–5000 births) life-threatening disorder, caused by fetomaternal incompatibility for a fetal human platelet alloantigen inherited from the father, with production of maternal alloantibodies against fetal platelets, leading to severe thrombocytopenia and potential bleeding. Intracranial haemorrhage is the most feared complication. This report presents the case of a term newborn infant, born from caesarean section after a normal pregnancy, presenting signs of skin bleeding with different ages. Obstetric history included a previous spontaneous abortion after amniocentesis. Severe thrombocytopenia (4×109/l platelets) was found and brain ultrasound showed multiple intracranial haemorrhages. Human platelet antigen (HPA) phenotyping showed maternal negative HPA-1a and paternal positive HPA-1a platelets. Strongly positive anti-HPA-1a and weakly positive anti-human leukocyte antigen class I alloantibodies were found in the mother. Multiple platelet transfusions, intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroid were given but favourable response was accomplished only after a compatible platelet transfusion. Brain MRI showed multiple subacute and chronic haemorrhages. PMID:22679192

  3. A Case of Fetal Intestinal Volvulus Without Malrotation Causing Severe Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Tomoko; Tachibana, Daisuke; Kitada, Kohei; Kurihara, Yasushi; Terada, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Masayasu; Sakae, Yukari; Morotomi, Yoshiki; Nomura, Shiho; Saito, Mika

    2015-01-01

    Fetal intestinal volvulus without malrotation is a rare, life-threatening disease. Left untreated, hemorrhage from necrotic bowel tissue will lead to severe fetal anemia and even intrauterine death. We encountered a case of fetal intestinal volvulus causing severe anemia, which was diagnosed postnatally and successfully treated with surgical intervention. PMID:25628516

  4. [Fetal magnetocardiography].

    PubMed

    Hosono, Takayoshi

    2006-05-01

    The electrical activities of the heart causes weak changes of the magnetic field, which can be recorded as magnetocardiogram (MCG). Fetal cardiac magnetic activity is measured in the order of less than 10 pT. An advance of the novel technology of a superconducting quantum interference device enabled the first recording of fetal MCG (FMCG) in 1974. In Japan, FMCG instrument (MC6400, Hitachi High-Technologies Ltd) was approved as a diagnostic tool by Japanese Government in 2003 owing to the cooperative studies of Tsukuba University, National Cardiovascular Center and Hitachi Ltd. FMCG offers similar information to a fetal electrocardiogram, which is difficult to be recorded because the fetal skin is covered with fatty caseous vernix of weak electrical conductivity in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Magnetic flux can pass through the fat layer, and thus FMCG can measure the electrical activity of the fetal heart. Besides FMCG has far higher resolutions in time domain than echocardiography does. The amplitude of FMCG signals depends on the size of fetal heart and the distance between the sensors and the fetal heart. The amplitudes of the QRS, P and T waves increases with gestational age. Since the amplitudes of P and T waves are often weak, averaging of FMCG signals is needed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Current-arrow map is a useful mapping technique even in FMCG. FMCG has been applied in the prenatal diagnosis of fetal arrhythmias such as bradyarrhythmia (atrioventricular block, long QT syndrome, etc), tachyarrhythmia (supraventricular tachycardia, atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation and WPW syndrome, etc) and extrasystoles. Fetal cardiomegaly with myocardial abnormalities can be also diagnosed by FMCG. Applications of FMCG for fetal heart rate monitoring using beat-to-beat variability have been also studied to obtain better information on fetal well-beings.

  5. Postpartum hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Su, Cindy W

    2012-03-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a very common obstetric emergency with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Understanding its etiology is fundamental to effectively managing PPH in an acute setting. Active management of the third stage of labor is also a key component in its prevention. Management strategies include conservative measures (medications, uterine tamponade, and arterial embolization) as well as surgical interventions (arterial ligations, compression sutures, and hysterectomy). Creating a standardized PPH protocol and running simulation-based drills with a multidisciplinary team may also help decrease maternal morbidity and improve perinatal outcomes, although further studies are needed.

  6. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  7. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  8. Coil Embolization for Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    , resulting in a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the mortality rate can be 40% to 50%, with severe morbidity of 10% to 20%. The reported overall risk of rupture is 1.9% per year and is higher for women, cigarette smokers, and cocaine users, and in aneurysms that are symptomatic, greater than 10 mm in diameter, or located in the posterior circulation. If left untreated, there is a considerable risk of repeat hemorrhage in a ruptured aneurysm that results in increased mortality. In Ontario, intracranial aneurysms occur in about 1% to 4% of the population, and the annual incidence of SAH is about 10 cases per 100,000 people. In 2004-2005, about 660 intracranial aneurysm repairs were performed in Ontario. Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms Treatment of an unruptured aneurysm attempts to prevent the aneurysm from rupturing. The treatment of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm aims to prevent further hemorrhage. There are 3 approaches to treating an intracranial aneurysm. Small, asymptomatic aneurysms less than 10 mm in diameter may be monitored without any intervention other than treatment for underlying risk factors such as hypertension. Open surgical clipping, involves craniotomy, brain retraction, and placement of a silver clip across the neck of the aneurysm while a patient is under general anesthesia. This procedure is associated with surgical risks and neurological deficits. Endovascular coil embolization, introduced in the 1990s, is the health technology under review. Literature Review Methods The Medical Advisory Secretariat searched the International Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) Database and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify relevant systematic reviews. OVID Medline, Medline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Embase were searched for English-language journal articles that reported primary data on the effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of treatments for intracranial aneurysms, obtained in a clinical setting or analyses of primary

  9. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C; Kasprian, Gregor; Witzani, Linde; Helmer, Hanns; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Eppel, Wolfgang; Langer, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  10. Delayed Hemorrhage After Treatment of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs).

    PubMed

    Yang, Wuyang; Hung, Alice L; Caplan, Justin M; Braileanu, Maria; Wang, Joanna Y; Colby, Geoffrey P; Coon, Alexander L; Tamargo, Rafael J; Huang, Judy

    2016-03-01

    The risk of delayed hemorrhage occurring greater than 2 years after treatment in brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) rarely is reported. In this study, we compare the risk of delayed hemorrhage across different treatment modalities. We performed a retrospective chart review of treated patients with a single intracranial AVM seen at our institution from 1990 to 2013. Delayed hemorrhage was defined as hemorrhage occurring at least 2 years after last treatment. Survival analysis was used to assess risk of delayed hemorrhage by treatment modalities. Our study included 420 patients. Spetzler-Martin grades were as follows: I (12.6%), II (36.2%), III (32.6%), IV (15.0%), and V (3.6%). Average follow-up time is 5.1 years. Twenty-two patients (5.2%) were found to have 28 delayed hemorrhages. Average interval between last treatment and delayed hemorrhage was 7.6 years, with the longest being 24.2 years. Proportions of delayed hemorrhages by treatment modalities were as follows: surgery ± embolization (group I, 9.1%), radiosurgery ± embolization (group II, 63.6%), embolization only (group III, 22.7%), and surgery + radiosurgery ± embolization (group IV, 4.5%). Annualized hemorrhage risk after 2 years for each treatment group was as follows: group I (0.4%), group II (1.2%), group III (3.7%), and group IV (1.7%). Survival analysis demonstrated lowest risk of delayed hemorrhage for group 1 (P < 0.01). This study is the first to compare the risk of delayed hemorrhage across different treatment modalities. Surgical resection is associated with the lowest risk for delayed hemorrhage compared with other treatment modalities. Patients with partially embolized AVMs should seek timely definitive treatment to decrease the risk of delayed hemorrhage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Large pure intracranial vagal schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Gazzeri, Roberto; Galarza, Marcelo; Costanzo, De Bonis; Carotenuto, Vincenzo; D'Angelo, Vincenzo

    2009-04-01

    We report a patient with a large, pure intracranial vagal schwannoma, compressing the medulla who presented with essential hypertension. Based on this and on previous cases, we suggest that a differentiation of pure intracranial schwannomas (subtype A1) from intracranial schwannomas with some extension in the jugular foramen (type A) should be used.

  12. Mycotic Intracranial Aneurysm Secondary to Left Ventricular Assist Device Infection

    PubMed Central

    Remirez, Juan M.; Sabet, Yasmin; Baca, Marshall; Maud, Alberto; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Rodriguez, Gustavo J.; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Abbas, Aamer

    2017-01-01

    Background Mycotic aneurysms are a complication of infective endocarditis. Infection of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) may lead to bacteremia and fever causing complications similar to those seen in patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis. Intracranial mycotic aneurysms are rare, and their presence is signaled by the development of subarachnoid hemorrhage in the setting of bacteremia and aneurysms located distal to the circle of Willis. Case Presentation We present the case of a patient with a LVAD presenting with headache who is found to have an intracranial mycotic aneurysm through computed tomography angiography of the head. The patient was successfully treated with endovascular intervention. Conclusion In patients with LVADs, mycotic aneurysms have been reported, however not intracranially. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first intracranial mycotic aneurysm secondary to LVAD infection that was successfully treated with endovascular repair. Intracranial mycotic aneurysms associated with LVADs are a rare phenomenon. The diagnosis of mycotic aneurysms requires a high index of suspicion in patients who present with bacteremia with or without headache and other neurological symptoms. Disclosure None. PMID:28243347

  13. The clinical features and treatment of pediatric intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiantao; Bao, Yuhai; Zhang, Hongqi; Wrede, Karsten Henning; Zhi, Xinglong; Li, Meng; Ling, Feng

    2009-03-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are relatively rare in the pediatric population. The objective of this study was to highlight the clinical and radiological features and the therapeutic outcome and clarify the choice of therapeutic strategies for pediatric intracranial aneurysms. Twenty-four consecutive children (age intracranial aneurysms in our institute in the last 23 years were included in this study. There were nine (36%) patients with posterior circulation aneurysms and eight (32%) with giant aneurysms. Eleven (46%) patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Fifteen patients underwent endovascular treatment, and four received microsurgical therapy. Five patients were treated conservatively. Ninety-two percent (n=22) of the patients showed favorable outcomes. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms differ in many ways from those in adults: male predominance; high incidence of giant, dissecting, and fusiform aneurysms; high incidence of aneurysms in the posterior circulation; high incidence of spontaneous thrombosis; better Hunt-Hess grades at presentation; and better therapeutic outcome. For children with intracranial aneurysms, both microsurgical approaches and endovascular treatment were effective. For many complex aneurysms, endovascular therapy was the best choice.

  14. Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Hemorrhagic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Neeraj; Pandey, Aditya S; Gemmete, Joseph J; Hua, Ya; Huang, Yining; Gu, Yuxiang; Xi, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) has evolved considerably over the last decade to now be knocking on the doors of wider clinical applications. There have been several efforts over the last decade to seek valuable and reliable application of DTI in different neurological disorders. The role of DTI in predicting outcomes in patients with brain tumors has been extensively studied and has become a fairly established clinical tool in this scenario. More recently DTI has been applied in mild traumatic brain injury to predict clinical outcomes based on DTI of the white matter tracts. The resolution of white matter fiber tractography based on DTI has improved over the years with increased magnet strength and better tractography post processing. The role of DTI in hemorrhagic stroke has been studied preliminarily in the scientific literature. There is some evidence that DTI may be efficacious in predicting outcomes of motor function in animal models of intracranial hemorrhage. Only a handful of studies of DTI have been performed in subarachnoid hemorrhage or intraventricular hemorrhage scenarios. In this manuscript we will review the evolution of DTI, the existing evidence for its role in hemorrhagic stroke and discuss possible application of this non-invasive evaluation technique of human cerebral white matter tracts in the future. PMID:26015333

  15. Advances in intracranial monitoring.

    PubMed

    Blount, Jeffrey P; Cormier, Jason; Kim, Hyunmi; Kankirawatana, Pongkiat; Riley, Kristen O; Knowlton, Robert C

    2008-09-01

    Intracranial monitoring using electroencephalography (IC-EEG) continues to play a critical role in the assessment of patients with medically intractable localization-related epilepsy. There has been minimal change in grid or electrode design in the last 15-20 years, and the surgical approaches for implantation are unchanged. Intracranial monitoring using EEG allows detailed definition of the region of ictal onset and defines the epileptogenic zone, particularly with regard to adjacent potentially eloquent tissue. Recent developments of IC-EEG include the coregistration of functional imaging data such as magnetoencephalography to the frameless navigation systems. Despite significant inherent limitations that are often overlooked, IC-EEG remains the gold standard for localization of the epileptogenic cortex. Intracranial electrodes take a variety of different forms and may be placed either in the subdural (subdural strips and grids, depth electrodes) or extradural spaces (sphenoidal, peg, and epidural electrodes). Each form has its own advantages and shortcomings but extensive subdural implantation of electrodes is most common and is most comprehensively discussed. The indications for intracranial electrodes are reviewed.

  16. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    PubMed Central

    Renowden, S A; Gregory, R; Hyman, N; Hilton-Jones, D

    1995-01-01

    The clinical features and radiological appearances of spontaneous intracranial hypotension are described in three patients and the medical literature is reviewed. Awareness of this condition and its differentiation from more sinister meningitic processes is important to avoid unnecessary invasive investigations and to allow prompt diagnosis and effective treatment. Images PMID:8530936

  17. Single Phase Dual-energy CT Angiography: One-stop-shop Tool for Evaluating Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qian Qian; Tang, Chun Xiang; Zhao, Yan E; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Chen, Guo Zhong; Lu, Guang Ming; Zhang, Long Jiang

    2016-05-25

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages have extremely high case fatality in clinic. Early and rapid identifications of ruptured intracranial aneurysms seem to be especially important. Here we evaluate clinical value of single phase contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT angiograph (DE-CTA) as a one-stop-shop tool in detecting aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. One hundred and five patients who underwent true non-enhanced CT (TNCT), contrast-enhanced DE-CTA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were included. Image quality and detectability of intracranial hemorrhage were evaluated and compared between virtual non-enhanced CT (VNCT) images reconstructed from DE-CTA and TNCT. There was no statistical difference in image quality (P > 0.05) between VNCT and TNCT. The agreement of VNCT and TNCT in detecting intracranial hemorrhage reached 98.1% on a per-patient basis. With DSA as reference standard, sensitivity and specificity on a per-patient were 98.3% and 97.9% for DE-CTA in intracranial aneurysm detection. Effective dose of DE-CTA was reduced by 75.0% compared to conventional digital subtraction CTA. Thus, single phase contrast-enhanced DE-CTA is optimal reliable one-stop-shop tool for detecting intracranial hemorrhage with VNCT and intracranial aneurysms with DE-CTA with substantial radiation dose reduction compared with conventional digital subtraction CTA.

  18. Intracranial arterial vasospasm associated with pituitary apoplexy after head trauma--case report.

    PubMed

    Itoyama, Y; Goto, S; Miura, M; Kuratsu, J; Ushio, Y; Matsumoto, T

    1990-05-01

    A case of intracranial arterial vasospasm caused by pituitary apoplexy after head trauma is reported. In this case, pituitary apoplexy was secondary to head trauma, and the vasospasm was thought to be due to subarachnoid hemorrhage from a pituitary tumor. No such case has previously been reported in the literature.

  19. Open surgical management of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm in Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber (KTW) syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Smitherman, Adam Derik; Woodall, Michael Neil; Alleyne, Cargill H; Rahimi, Scott Y

    2013-01-01

    A 24-year-old man with a history of Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome presented with severe headache and neck pain. Work-up revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage and evidence of multiple intracranial aneurysms. The patient was treated with open surgical clipping of his ruptured aneurysm and is currently doing well. PMID:23314873

  20. Fetal Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... needle placement during certain prenatal tests, such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Determine fetal position before ... home. Accessed Aug. 11, 2015. Ghidini A. Diagnostic amniocentesis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 11, ...

  1. Fetal echocardiography

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. Fetal echocardiography is a test that uses sound waves ( ultrasound ) to evaluate the baby's heart for ... moved over the area. The probe sends out sound waves, which bounce off the baby's heart and ...

  2. Sudden Death From Ruptured Intracranial Vascular Malformations During Mechanical Asphyxia: A Domestic Violence Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Yun, Li-Bing; Liu, Min; Yi, Xu-Fu

    2017-03-01

    Smothering and manual strangulation are not uncommon in domestic violence against women; however, no report on the combination of mechanical asphyxia and intracranial vascular malformations has been previously published. We report a middle-aged woman who was smothered and manually strangled by her husband and subsequently died from subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial vascular malformations, rather than direct mechanical asphyxiation. Smothering and manual strangulation are considered provocative conditions for rupture and contributory causes of death. In this case study, we underline the importance of meticulous autopsy in cases of mechanical asphyxia and intracranial hemorrhage. Exclusion of underlying diseases that may have caused or contributed to death is also required, despite serious asphyxiation signs and neck injuries. Postmortem angiography is a valuable complement to autopsy to detect vascular pathology, with good prospects for further development in China.

  3. Primary intracranial choriocarcinoma: MR imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Lv, X-F; Qiu, Y-W; Zhang, X-L; Han, L-J; Qiu, S-J; Xiong, W; Wen, G; Zhang, Y-Z; Zhang, J

    2010-11-01

    PICCC is the rarest, most malignant primary intracranial GCT. The purpose of this study was to describe and characterize the MR imaging findings in a series of 7 patients (6 males and 1 female; mean age, 11.9 years) with pathologically proved PICCC in our institution from 2004 to 2009. All tumors were located within the pineal (n = 6) or suprasellar (n = 1) regions. On T2-weighted MR imaging, the lesions appeared markedly heterogeneous with areas of both hypointensity and hyperintensity reflecting the histologic heterogeneity, including hemorrhage, fibrosis, cysts, or necrosis. Heterogeneous (n = 7), ringlike (n = 4), and/or intratumoral nodular (n = 3) enhancement was noted on T1-weighted images with gadolinium. These MR imaging findings, combined with patient age and serum β-HCG levels, may prove helpful in distinguishing PICCC from the more common primary brain tumors, thereby avoiding biopsy of this highly vascular tumor.

  4. [Fetal magnetocardiography].

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, P

    1997-09-01

    Fetal magnetocardiography is a new, alternative method for prenatal surveillance. The fetal magnetocardiogram (FMCG) registers the magnetic field produced by conduction currents in the fetal heart. Compared to the fetal electrocardiogram, the propagation of magnetic fields is relatively undisturbed by surrounding tissue. The FMCG thus has the advantage of a higher signal-to-noise ratio and can be acquired earlier pregnancy. Also, the high temporal resolution of the signal permits a significantly more precise determination of fetal heart rate parameters than fetal ultrasound. FMCG registration using a biomagnetometer is noninvasive and can be performed as of the second trimeter. It can be used to examine signal morphology, cardiac time intervals, heart rate variability as well as cardiac magnetic fields. To date, arrhythmic activity has been observed in the form of supraventricular and ventricular ectopies as well as atrial flutter, atrio-ventricular block, atrial tachycardia and Torsades de Pointes tachycardia. We also report here on the presence of short episodes of bradycardia in the second trimester of normal pregnancy. Measurement of the magnetic field strength at various locations above the abdomen has allowed the reconstruction of the fetal cardiac magnetic field and the determination of its relation to the position of the fetus. Signal averaging has permitted the precise examination of signal amplitude and cardiac time intervals and has shown that they increase in the course of pregnancy. Heart rate variability could be quantified in the time and frequency domain as well as using parameters of nonlinear dynamics. The results demonstrated an increase of variability and complexity over gestational age. Furthermore spectral analysis of fetal heart arte data could be associated with sympathetic and parasympathetic activity as well as, with respiration. Although the studies presenting these results have involved only limited numbers of observations, they

  5. Fatal Intraventricular Hemorrhage After the Extracranial Carotid Artery Angioplasty and Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Krajickova, Dagmar Krajina, Antonin; Nova, Marketa; Raupach, Jan

    2005-05-15

    We report on a 72-year-old female with an unusual intracranial bleeding complication after an extracranial carotid artery stenting procedure performed for a tight left ICA stenosis associated with contralateral carotid occlusion. Two hours after the procedure, the initial signs of intracranial bleeding appeared that led to the patient's demise 5 days later. A brain CT showed and autopsy proved massive intraventricular bleeding. To our knowledge, our case is only the second report of isolated reperfusion intraventricular hemorrhage post-CAS.

  6. Biosurgical Hemostatic Agents in Neurosurgical Intracranial Procedures.

    PubMed

    Gazzeri, Roberto; Galarza, Marcelo; Callovini, Giorgio; Alfieri, Alex

    2017-02-07

    Intraoperative hemostasis during neurosurgical procedures is one of the most important aspects of intracranial surgery. Hemostasis is mandatory to keep a clean operative field and to prevent blood loss and postoperative hemorrhage. In neurosurgical practice, biosurgical hemostatic agents have proved to be extremely useful to complete the more classic use of electrocoagulation. During recent years, many biosurgical topical hemostatic agents were created. Although routinely used during neurosurgical procedures, there is still a great deal of confusion concerning optimal use of these products, because of the wide range of products, as absorbable topical agents, antifibrinolytics agents, fibrin sealants and hemostatic matrix, which perform their hemostatic action in different ways. The choice of the hemostatic agent and the strategy for local hemostasis are correlated with the neurosurgical approach, the source of bleeding, and the neurosurgeon's practice. In this study, the authors review all the different sources of bleeding during intracranial surgical approaches and analyze how to best choose the right topical hemostatic agent to stop bleeding, from the beginning of the surgical approach to the end of the extradural hemostasis after dural closure, along all the steps of the neurosurgical procedure.

  7. [Computerized transverse axial tomography in intracerebral, intracerebellar and intraventricular hemorrhage (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Imanaga, H; Jimbo, M; Kitamura, K

    1977-04-01

    Computerized transverse axial tomography (CT) of the brain is a recently developed method which allows non-invasive roentgenologic evaluation of intracranial diseases. The advent of CT represents a great advance in the diagnosis of a very wide variety of intracranial lesions, including cerebrovascular diseases. Especially, CT was found to be extremely informative in evaluating intracerebral, intracerebellar and intraventricular hemorrhage. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of CT in the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage. From the seven hundreds cases of various intracranial diseases hitherto examined by the EMI-scanner (160 X 160 matrix), twenty-three cases of nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage were selected for the present study. Fifteen cases of fresh hemorrhage consisted of hypertensive cerebrovascular disease, arterio-venous malformation, aneurysm and unknown etiology, number of cases being six, three, four and two, respectively. All cases were examined within fifteen days after the ictus and the positive findings were obtained in all cases. The characteristic feature of the hematoma is the circumscribed and increased density area surrounded by the decreased density zone probably representing the accompanied brain edema. The sequential CT studies revealed that the hematoma area was gradually decreased in its density and finally transformed into the rather low density one in four weeks or so after the ictus. The smallest hematoma detected by CT was the cerebellar hematoma about five grams in weight, which was failed to be recognized by the angiography. In cases of the old hemorrhage, besides the decreased density area of the hematoma, such findings were obtained as cerebral atrophy, ventricular dilatation and porencephalic change. It would be concluded that CT study is the most useful aid at present available in the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage. The precise anatomic extent of the hematoma, associated brain edema

  8. Management of infectious intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Flores, Bruno C; Patel, Ankur R; Braga, Bruno P; Weprin, Bradley E; Batjer, H Hunt

    2016-07-01

    Infectious intracranial aneurysms (IIAs) account for approximately 15 % of all pediatric intracranial aneurysms. Histologically, they are pseudoaneurysms that develop in response to an inflammatory reaction within the adventitia and muscularis layers, ultimately resulting in disruption of both the internal elastic membrane and the intima. The majority of pediatric IIAs are located within the anterior circulation, and they can be multiple in 15-25 % of cases. The most common presentation for an IIA is intracerebral and/or subarachnoid hemorrhage. In children with a known diagnosis of infective endocarditis who develop new neurological manifestations, it is imperative to exclude the existence of an IIA. The natural history of untreated infectious aneurysms is ominous; they demonstrate a high incidence of spontaneous rupture. High clinical suspicion, prompt diagnosis, and adequate treatment are of paramount importance to prevent devastating neurological consequences. The prompt initiation of intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics represents the mainstay of treatment. Three questions should guide the management of pediatric patients with IIAs: (a) aneurysm rupture status, (b) the presence of intraparenchymal hemorrhage or elevated intracranial pressure, and (c) relationship of the parent vessel to eloquent brain tissue. Those three questions should orient the treating physician into either antibiotic therapy alone or in combination with microsurgical or endovascular interventions. This review discusses important aspects of the epidemiology, the diagnosis, and the management of IIAs in the pediatric population.

  9. Platelets and platelet alloantigens: Lessons from human patients and animal models of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Vadasz, Brian; Chen, Pingguo; Yougbaré, Issaka; Zdravic, Darko; Li, June; Li, Conglei; Carrim, Naadiya; Ni, Heyu

    2017-01-01

    Platelets play critical roles in hemostasis and thrombosis. Emerging evidence indicates that they are versatile cells and also involved in many other physiological processes and disease states. Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a life threatening bleeding disorder caused by fetal platelet destruction by maternal alloantibodies developed during pregnancy. Gene polymorphisms cause platelet surface protein incompatibilities between mother and fetus, and ultimately lead to maternal alloimmunization. FNAIT is the most common cause of intracranial hemorrhage in full-term infants and can also lead to intrauterine growth retardation and miscarriage. Proper diagnosis, prevention and treatment of FNAIT is challenging due to insufficient knowledge of the disease and a lack of routine screening as well as its frequent occurrence in first pregnancies. Given the ethical difficulties in performing basic research on human fetuses and neonates, animal models are essential to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of FNAIT. The aim of this review is to provide an overview on platelets, hemostasis and thrombocytopenia with a focus on the advancements made in FNAIT by utilizing animal models.

  10. Intracranial Trigeminal Schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial trigeminal schwannomas are rare tumors. Patients usually present with symptoms of trigeminal nerve dysfunction, the most common symptom being facial pain. MRI is the imaging modality of choice and is usually diagnostic in the appropriate clinical setting. The thin T2-weighted CISS 3D axial sequence is important for proper assessment of the cisternal segment of the nerve. They are usually hypointense on T1, hyperintense on T2 with avid enhancement post gadolinium. CT scan is supplementary to MRI, particularly for tumors located in the skull base. Imaging plays a role in diagnosis and surgical planning. In this pictorial essay, we retrospectively reviewed imaging findings in nine patients with pathologically proven trigeminal schwannoma. Familiarity with the imaging findings of intracranial trigeminal schwannoma may help to diagnose this entity. PMID:25924170

  11. Non-invasive detection of intracranial hypertension using a simplified intracranial hemo- and hydro-dynamics model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Jin; Park, Chanki; Oh, Jooyoung; Lee, Boreom

    2015-05-30

    Monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) is highly important for detecting abnormal brain conditions such as intracranial hemorrhage, cerebral edema, or brain tumor. Until now, the monitoring of ICP requires an invasive method which has many disadvantages including the risk of infections, hemorrhage, or brain herniation. Therefore, many non-invasive methods have been proposed for estimating ICP. However, these methods are still insufficient to estimate sudden increases in ICP. We proposed a simplified intracranial hemo- and hydro-dynamics model that consisted of two simple resistance circuits. From this proposed model, we designed an ICP estimation algorithm to trace ICP changes. First, we performed a simulation based on the original Ursino model with the real arterial blood pressure to investigate our proposed approach. We subsequently applied it to experimental data that were measured during the Valsalva maneuver (VM) and resting state, respectively. Simulation result revealed a small root mean square error (RMSE) between the estimated ICP by our approach and the reference ICP derived from the original Ursino model. Compared to the pulsatility index (PI) based approach and Kashif's model, our proposed method showed more statistically significant difference between VM and resting state. Our proposed method successfully tracked sudden ICP increases. Therefore, our method may serve as a suitable tool for non-invasive ICP monitoring.

  12. Intracranial pial arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yeoun; Son, Young-Je; Kim, Jeong Eun

    2008-08-01

    Intracranial pial arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a rare cerebrovascular lesion that has only recently been recognized as a distinct pathological entity. A 41-year-old woman (Patient 1) presented with the sudden development of an altered mental state. Brain CT showed an acute subdural hematoma. A red sylvian vein was found intraoperatively. A pial AVF was revealed on postoperative angiography, and surgical disconnection of the AVF was performed. A 10-year-old boy (Patient 2) presented with a 10-day history of paraparesis and urinary incontinence. Brain, spinal MRI and angiography revealed an intracranial pial AVF and a spinal perimedullary AVF. Endovascular embolization was performed for both lesions. The AVFs were completely obliterated in both patients. On follow-up, patient 1 reported having no difficulty in performing activities of daily living. Patient 2 is currently able to walk without assistance and voids into a diaper. Intracranial pial AVF is a rare disease entity that can be treated with surgical disconnection or endovascular embolization. It is important for the appropriate treatment strategy to be selected on the basis of patientspecific and lesion-specific factors in order to achieve good outcomes.

  13. Progressive versus Nonprogressive Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Characteristics and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hetts, S W; Tsai, T; Cooke, D L; Amans, M R; Settecase, F; Moftakhar, P; Dowd, C F; Higashida, R T; Lawton, M T; Halbach, V V

    2015-10-01

    A minority of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas progress with time. We sought to determine features that predict progression and define outcomes of patients with progressive dural arteriovenous fistulas. We performed a retrospective imaging and clinical record review of patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula evaluated at our hospital. Of 579 patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas, 545 had 1 fistula (mean age, 45 ± 23 years) and 34 (5.9%) had enlarging, de novo, multiple, or recurrent fistulas (mean age, 53 ± 20 years; P = .11). Among these 34 patients, 19 had progressive dural arteriovenous fistulas with de novo fistulas or fistula enlargement with time (mean age, 36 ± 25 years; progressive group) and 15 had multiple or recurrent but nonprogressive fistulas (mean age, 57 ± 13 years; P = .0059, nonprogressive group). Whereas all 6 children had fistula progression, only 13/28 adults (P = .020) progressed. Angioarchitectural correlates to chronically elevated intracranial venous pressures, including venous sinus dilation (41% versus 7%, P = .045) and pseudophlebitic cortical venous pattern (P = .048), were more common in patients with progressive disease than in those without progression. Patients with progressive disease received more treatments than those without progression (median, 5 versus 3; P = .0068), but as a group, they did not demonstrate worse clinical outcomes (median mRS, 1 and 1; P = .39). However, 3 young patients died from intracranial venous hypertension and intracranial hemorrhage related to progression of their fistulas despite extensive endovascular, surgical, and radiosurgical treatments. Few patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas follow an aggressive, progressive clinical course despite treatment. Younger age at initial presentation and angioarchitectural correlates to venous hypertension may help identify these patients prospectively. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  14. Intracranial chondroma: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Veena; Mehdi, Ghazala; Varshney, Manoranjan; Jain, Anshu; Vashishtha, Sonal; Gaur, Kavita; Srivastava, Vinod Kumar

    2011-05-12

    Intracranial chondroma is a rare benign cartilaginous tumour with an incidence of less than 1% of all primary intracranial tumours. The authors are reporting here a case of intracranial chondroma in a 40-year-old man who presented with 5-month history of headache and gradual diminution of vision. A tentative diagnosis of chondroma was made on imprint cytology which was confirmed on histopathological examination.

  15. Early Support of Intracranial Perfusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    associated with intractable intracranial hypertension and cerebral hypoperfusion At the close of Year 3  Recruitment of targeted 50 subjects...Determination of serum and CSF biomarkers that predict worsening of cerebral hypoperfusion, intracranial hypertension , and cerebral hypoxia. At the close of Year...rate variation is associated with intractable intracranial hypertension and cerebral hypoperfusion. Kahraman S, Dutton R, Hu P, Stansbury L, Xiao Y

  16. Fatal hemorrhage from AVM after DBS surgery: case report.

    PubMed

    Fukaya, Chikashi; Shimoda, Kentaro; Watanabe, Mitsuru; Morishita, Takashi; Sumi, Koichiro; Otaka, Toshiharu; Obuchi, Toshiki; Toshikazu, Kano; Kobayashi, Kazutaka; Oshima, Hideki; Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Katayama, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage is a crucial complication of deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. The bleeding caused by mechanical tissue injury due to microelectrode and/or DBS electrode lead insertion has been well studied. However, hemorrhage caused by a congenital underlying disease such as vascular malformation has not been examined carefully. We encountered a case of intracerebral hemorrhage from arteriovenous malformation (AVM) after DBS surgery. Preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging did not show any abnormality in the patient. Computed tomography (CT) images taken immediately after the surgery did not show any intracranial hematoma and other abnormal findings. However, the patient did not recover from the general anesthesia, and hemorrhage in the left occipital lobe was detected by CT performed a day after the surgery. The location of the hematoma was markedly distant from the trajectory of DBS leads. Evacuation of the hematoma under general anesthesia was immediately performed. As an intraoperative finding, we noted the presence of abnormal vessels inside the hematoma in the occipital lobe. Tissue specimens including the abnormal vessels were obtained for histopathological analysis, results of which led to the diagnosis was AVM. Despite its low incidence, we would like to advise that such a type of hemorrhage could occur and measures should be taken to prevent its occurrence as much as possible. Preoperative detection of abnormal vessels by MR angiography and/or CT angiography might be helpful. Moreover, paying close attention to the possible leakage of cerebrospinal fluid during surgery might be important. © 2012 International Neuromodulation Society.

  17. [Intracranial blood flow velocities evaluated by color Doppler (duplex) in preterm infants].

    PubMed

    de Assis, Marcelo Cardoso; Machado, Helio Rubens

    2004-03-01

    In order to ascertain the blood flow velocities in the intracranial arteries we evaluated 73 preterm neonates during a period ranging from June 1994 to March 1999. These preterm infants were divided in two separate groups, 18 healthy and 55 with intracranial hemorrhage. They were subjected to sequential measurements of blood flow velocities in the intracranial arteries. The gestational age of the whole group varied from 28 to 36 weeks and birth weights between 720 and 2530 g. The diagnosis of the intracerebral hemorrhages in these preterm neonates were done using high resolution gray and color scale transfontanellar ultrasonography brain scans. The ultrasound evaluations were performed in the initial 3rd, 7th and 14th day of life. The 73 preterm infants were evaluated with sequential measurements of blood flow velocity in the intracranial arteries using the Doppler technique through the anterior fontanelle. Doppler evaluation of the cerebral vessels were performed on days 3, 7, 30 and 90 of life. These evaluations were performed in the six intracranial arteries, meaning: right and left anterior and middle cerebral arteries and right and left internal carotid arteries. Doppler recordings were made using Duplex Color-Doppler system, pulse echo probe of 3,5; 5,0 and 7,5 MHz. Measuring the blood flow velocity in the cerebral arteries we obtained a maximum systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity with a rate in meters per second (m/s) for each cardiac cycle. After obtaining these numerical values for these velocities we obtained the resistance index (RI) or Pourcelot index. In a progressive way as the resistance index (RI) values were being obtained in each stage of this study they were also being checked in the cerebral arteries of healthy preterm infants and infants with intracranial hemorrhages. We also analyzed in a comparative method the values of the resistive index between the two groups of preterm infants observing their behaviour. The results obtained when

  18. Management of intracranial aneurysms associated with arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Flores, Bruno C; Klinger, Daniel R; Rickert, Kim L; Barnett, Samuel L; Welch, Babu G; White, Jonathan A; Batjer, H Hunt; Samson, Duke S

    2014-09-01

    Intracranial or brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) are some of the most interesting and challenging lesions treated by the cerebrovascular neurosurgeon. It is generally believed that the combination of BAVMs and intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is associated with higher hemorrhage rates at presentation and higher rehemorrhage rates and thus with a more aggressive course and natural history. There is wide variation in the literature on the prevalence of BAVM-associated aneurysms (range 2.7%-58%), with 10%-20% being most often cited in the largest case series. The risk of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with unruptured BAVMs and coexisting IAs has been reported to be 7% annually, compared with 2%-4% annually for those with BAVM alone. Several different classification systems have been applied in an attempt to better understand the natural history of this combination of lesions and implications for treatment. Independent of the classification used, it is clear that a few subtypes of aneurysms have a direct hemodynamic correlation with the BAVM itself. This is exemplified by the fact that the presence of a distal flow-related or an intranidal aneurysm appears to be associated with an increased hemorrhage risk, when compared with an aneurysm located on a vessel with no direct supply to the BAVM nidus. Debate still exists regarding the etiology of the association between those two vascular lesions, the subsequent implications for patients' risk of hemorrhagic stroke, and finally the determination of which patients warrant treatment and when. The ultimate goals of the treatment of a BAVM associated with an IA are to prevent hemorrhage, avoid stepwise neurological deterioration, and eliminate the mortality risk associated with recurrent hemorrhagic events. The treatment is only justifiable if the risks associated with an intervention are lower than or equivalent to the long-term risks of disability or mortality caused by the lesion itself. When faced with this

  19. Post-operative hematoma after surgery for intracranial meningiomas: causes, avoidable risk factors and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Rüdiger; Raabe, Andreas; Scharrer, Inge; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Seifert, Volker

    2004-01-01

    Intracranial meningiomas are mainly benign lesions amenable for surgical resection. However, removal of an intracranial meningioma carries a higher risk of post-operative hemorrhage compared to surgery for other intracranial neoplasms. Because avoidance of post-operative hematoma is of vital interest for neurosurgical patients, the aim of this retrospective study was to analyze risk factors of post-operative hematoma associated with meningioma surgery. Two hundred and ninety six patients with intracranial meningiomas, operated between June 1998 and June 2002, were included in this study. Patients who developed a space-occupying post-operative intracranial hemorrhage and were treated surgically were identified. Data of patients with and without hematoma were retrospectively analyzed to identify risk factors associated with post-operative hematoma. Variables analyzed included patients' age, invasion of venous sinus by the meningioma, tumor vascularization, arachnoidal infiltration, pre-operative prophylaxis of thromboembolic events, peri-operative coagulation abnormalities, residual tumor, location and histology of the tumor. Outcome of patients with post-operative hematoma was assessed according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at discharge and at three months. 21 patients (7.1 %) of 296 patients developed a post-operative intracranial hematoma requiring surgical evacuation. Age was significantly higher in the hematoma group 62.4 +/- 14.0 years compared to patients without post-operative hematoma 56.1 +/- 12.0 (p < 0.05; t-test). Patients older than 70 years had a six-fold increased risk to develop a post-operative hematoma (Chi2 test, 95% CI 1.949-13.224). Patients with post-operative hemorrhage had significant lower post-operative prothrombin time, fibrinogen and platelets immediately after surgery and lower platelets at day 1. None of the other parameters, including pre-operative routine coagulation values, differed significantly between patients with and

  20. The clinical significance of small subarachnoid hemorrhages.

    PubMed

    Albertine, Paul; Borofsky, Samuel; Brown, Derek; Patel, Smita; Lee, Woojin; Caputy, Anthony; Taheri, M Reza

    2016-06-01

    With advancing technology, the sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) for the detection of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) continues to improve. Increased resolution has allowed for the detection of hemorrhage that is limited to one or two images of the CT exam. At our institution, all patients with a SAH require intensive care unit (ICU) admission, regardless of size. It was our hypothesis that patients with small subarachnoid hemorrhage experience favorable outcomes, and may not require the intensive monitoring offered in the ICU. This retrospective study evaluated 62 patients between 2011 and 2014 who presented to our Level I trauma center emergency room for acute traumatic injuries, and found to have subarachnoid hemorrhages on CT examination. The grade of subarachnoid hemorrhage was determined using previously utilized scoring systems, such as the Fisher, Modified Fisher, and Claassen grading systems. Electronic medical records were used to evaluate for medical decline, neurological decline, neurosurgical intervention, and overall hospital course. Admitting co-morbidities were noted, as were the presence of patient intoxication and use of anticoagulants. Patient outcomes were based on discharge summaries upon which the neurological status of the patient was assessed. Each patient was given a score based on the Glasgow outcome scale. The clinical and imaging profile of 62 patients with traumatic SAH were studied. Of the 62 patients, 0 % underwent neurosurgical intervention, 6.5 % had calvarial fractures, 25.8 % had additional intracranial hemorrhages, 27.4 % of the patients had significant co-morbidities, and 1.6 % of the patients expired. Patients with low-grade tSAH spent less time in the ICU, demonstrated neurological and medical stability during hospitalization. None of the patients with low-grade SAH experienced seizure during their admission. In our study, patients with low-grade tSAH demonstrated favorable clinical outcomes. This suggests

  1. Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with von Willebrand's disease--case report.

    PubMed

    Nakau, Reiko; Nomura, Motohiro; Kida, Shinya; Yamashita, Junkoh; Kinoshita, Akira; Nitta, Hisashi; Muramatsu, Naoki

    2005-12-01

    A 59-year-old woman with type IIA von Willebrand's disease (VWD) presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Computed tomography showed SAH in the right sylvian fissure and intracranial hemorrhage in the right temporal lobe. Angiography demonstrated an aneurysm at the bifurcation of the right middle cerebral artery. Neck clipping was performed on the 3rd day after the onset with intra- and postoperative administration of factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrate. No excessive bleeding occurred. Patients with prolonged bleeding time should be screened for VWD before surgery. This is a rare case of VWD presenting with SAH secondary to ruptured intracranial aneurysm. The clinical characteristics and the management of SAH in a patient with VWD are discussed.

  2. Rebound intracranial hypertension: a complication of epidural blood patching for intracranial hypotension.

    PubMed

    Kranz, P G; Amrhein, T J; Gray, L

    2014-06-01

    Rebound intracranial hypertension is a complication of epidural blood patching for treatment of intracranial hypotension characterized by increased intracranial pressure, resulting in potentially severe headache, nausea, and vomiting. Because the symptoms of rebound intracranial hypertension may bear some similarity to those of intracranial hypotension and literature reports of rebound intracranial hypertension are limited, it may be mistaken for refractory intracranial hypotension, leading to inappropriate management. This clinical report of 9 patients with confirmed rebound intracranial hypertension reviews the clinical characteristics of patients with this condition, emphasizing factors that can be helpful in discriminating rebound intracranial hypertension from refractory spontaneous intracranial hypotension, and discusses treatment.

  3. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs) Virus Families Arenaviruses Old World/New World ...

  4. Fetal Macrosomia

    MedlinePlus

    ... previously been diagnosed with diabetes, after childbirth your health care provider will test you for the condition. During future pregnancies, you'll be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of gestational diabetes — a type ... health care provider suspects fetal macrosomia during your pregnancy, you ...

  5. Multiple intracranial enterogenous cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Walls, T J; Purohit, D P; Aji, W S; Schofield, I S; Barwick, D D

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 40-year-old woman with increasing ataxia is described. Although the clinical presentation and evoked response studies raised the possibility of multiple sclerosis, further investigation revealed multiple cystic intracranial lesions. Surgical excision of one of the lesions relieved the patient's symptoms. Histological examination revealed that this was an enterogenous cyst. Although single cysts of this type have rarely been reported occurring in the posterior cranial fossa, the occurrence of multiple lesions, some in the supratentorial compartment, appears to be unique. Images PMID:3701354

  6. Ruptured intracranial dermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Oursin, C; Wetzel, S G; Lyrer, P; Bächli, H; Stock, K W

    1999-09-01

    Intradural dermoids are rare congenital tumors representing approximately 0.05% of all intracranial lesions. These benign tumors have a typical appearance on CT and MR due to their lipid components. The complication caused by rupture are the spillage of the fatty material into the cerebrospinal fluid. We report a case of a ruptured dermoid cyst showing fat/fluid levels in both side ventricles and fatty material in the subarachnoid space on CT and MR-imaging and the follow-up over four years after incomplete resection of the tumor.

  7. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, L N; Singh, S N

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage from intracranial aneurysms in the paediatric age group is extremely rare. Interestingly, occurrence of vasospasm has been reported to be less in comparison to the adults. Both coiling and clipping have been advocated in selected cases. Because of the thinness of the wall of the arteries, utmost care should be taken while handling these arteries during surgery. The overall results of surgery in children have been reported to be better than their adult counterparts. We present four such cases from our own experience. All these children were operated upon, where the solitary aneurysm in each case was clipped and all of them made a good recovery.

  8. Intracranial abscess in Ectopia Cordis.

    PubMed

    Merola, Joseph; Tipper, Geoffrey Adrian; Hussain, Zakier; Balakrishnan, Venkataraman; Gan, Peter

    2014-08-25

    We present a case of intracranial abscess in a young female with Ectopia Cordis, an exceptionally rare cardiac condition. The neurosurgical implication is the predisposition to intracranial abscess formation. A heightened awareness of this association will aid diagnosis in similar clinical scenarios.

  9. Infantile intracranial aneurysm of the superior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Del Santo, Molly Ann; Cordina, Steve Mario

    2016-03-03

    Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare. We report a case of a 3-month-old infant who presented with inconsolable crying, vomiting, and sunset eye sign. CT revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage, with CT angiogram revealing a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. An external ventricular drain was placed for acute management of hydrocephalus, with definitive treatment by endovascular technique with a total of six microcoils to embolize the aneurysm. Serial transcranial Dopplers revealed no subsequent vasospasm. Although aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare, once the diagnosis is established, early treatment results in better outcomes.

  10. Infantile intracranial aneurysm of the superior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Del Santo, Molly Ann; Cordina, Steve Mario

    2016-02-29

    Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare. We report a case of a 3-month-old infant who presented with inconsolable crying, vomiting, and sunset eye sign. CT revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage, with CT angiogram revealing a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. An external ventricular drain was placed for acute management of hydrocephalus, with definitive treatment by endovascular technique with a total of six microcoils to embolize the aneurysm. Serial transcranial Dopplers revealed no subsequent vasospasm. Although aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare, once the diagnosis is established, early treatment results in better outcomes. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Pediatric Intracranial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Aylward, Shawn C; Reem, Rachel E

    2017-01-01

    Primary (idiopathic) intracranial hypertension has been considered to be a rare entity, but with no precise estimates of the pediatric incidence in the United States. There have been attempts to revise the criteria over the years and adapt the adult criteria for use in pediatrics. The clinical presentation varies with age, and symptoms tending to be less obvious in younger individuals. In the prepubertal population, incidentally discovered optic disc edema is relatively common. By far the most consistent symptom is headache; other symptoms include nausea, vomiting tinnitus, and diplopia. Treatment mainstays include weight loss when appropriate and acetazolamide. Furosemide may exhibit a synergistic benefit when used in conjunction with acetazolamide. Surgical interventions are required relatively infrequently, but include optic nerve sheath fenestration and cerebrospinal fluid shunting. Pain and permanent vision loss are the two major complications of this disorder and these manifestations justify aggressive treatment. Once intracranial hypertension has resolved, up to two thirds of patients develop a new or chronic headache type that is different from their initial presenting headache.

  12. Intracranial Hypertension Is Painless!

    PubMed

    Manet, R; Fabre, N; Moyse, E; Laurent, B; Schmidt, E A

    2016-01-01

    Headache is usually considered a key symptom of intracranial hypertension (ICHT). However, there are no published experimental data to support the concept that increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is painful in humans. This prospective study was performed in 16 patients with suspected normal-pressure hydrocephalus, necessitating a lumbar infusion test with measurement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamics. During the test, ICP was increased from baseline to a plateau. Headache was scored on a visual analog scale (VAS) (0 = no pain, 10 = very severe pain) at baseline ICP and when ICP plateaued. At baseline, mean ICP was 11 ± 3.6 mmHg and VAS was 0. At plateau, mean ICP was 28 ± 9.5 mmHg and VAS was 0. There was a significant increase in ICP (p <0.001), but no increase in headache intensity (VAS). An acute (20-min) moderate increase in ICP was not accompanied by a headache. We demonstrate that an acute, isolated increase in CSF pressure does not produce a headache. To occur, a headache needs activation of the pain-sensitive structures (dura and venous sinuses) or central activation of the cerebral nociceptive structures. This peripheral or central activation does not occur with an isolated increase in CSF pressure.

  13. Pathological Findings in Feto-maternal Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Carles, Dominique; André, Gwenaëlle; Pelluard, Fanny; Martin, Olivia; Sauvestre, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    Feto-maternal hemorrhage (FMH) is the cause of late fetal death in 1.6%-11% of cases. In spite of this high frequency, its pathological features have received little attention. The definitive diagnosis of lethal FMH requires confirmation of sufficient fetal blood volume loss. This is determined by tests such as the Kleihauer-Betke test, which may not have been obtained or not have been available before the autopsy. The pathologist may offer a tentative diagnosis of FMH from the autopsy findings. The objective of this study was to better characterize the placental and fetal autopsy findings in lethal FMH. This was a retrospective study of 17 cases of FMH proven by a positive Kleihauer-Betke test. The cases were selected from the autopsy files of the Department of Pathology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux. The pathological reports as well as the placental and fetal photographs and the microscopic slides of each case were systematically reviewed. The fetal autopsy findings in FMH are characterized by a eutrophic pale macerated fetus, low liver weight, absent intrathoracic petechiae, increased extramedullary hematopoiesis in the liver and kidney, and increased circulating nucleated red blood cells. The placenta shows an increased frequency of intervillous thrombi. Although nonpathognomonic, some of the pathological features are strongly suggestive of FMH. When the latter is present, a Kleihauer-Betke test should be performed, even some days after the delivery.

  14. Noninvasive intracranial pressure assessment based on a data-mining approach using a nonlinear mapping function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghan; Scalzo, Fabien; Bergsneider, Marvin; Vespa, Paul; Martin, Neil; Hu, Xiao

    2012-03-01

    The current gold standard to determine intracranial pressure (ICP) involves an invasive procedure for direct access to the intracranial compartment. The risks associated with this invasive procedure include intracerebral hemorrhage, infection, and discomfort. We previously proposed an innovative data-mining framework of noninvasive ICP (NICP) assessment. The performance of the proposed framework relies on designing a good mapping function. We attempt to achieve performance gain by adopting various linear and nonlinear mapping functions. Our results demonstrate that a nonlinear mapping function based on the kernel spectral regression technique significantly improves the performance of the proposed data-mining framework for NICP assessment in comparison to other linear mapping functions.

  15. [A case of successful treatment of concomitant ruptured intracranial aneurysm and visceral aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Diogo, Cláudia; Baltazar, José; Fernandes, Mário

    2012-01-01

    The association between intracranial and visceral aneurysms is very rare, with a bad prognosis. The rupture usually appears in the Emergency Room, and it implies an immediate treatment. We describe the case of a woman with rupture of an anterior communicant artery aneurysm and rupture of a pancreatic duodenal artery aneurysm. The actuation of all specialties allowed the direct surgical treatment of the visceral aneurysm, without the aggravation of the cerebral hemorrhage that the eventual Aorta Artery clamping could provoke. The maintenance of the hemodynamic stability was essential for the posterior treatment of the intracranial aneurysm.

  16. Traumatic occlusion of one limb of an intracranial arterial fenestration: an uncommon cause of stroke.

    PubMed

    Schievink, W I; Hunter, S F; Marsh, W R; Aksamit, A J; Jack, C R

    1996-07-01

    Three weeks after an automobile accident, a 35-year-old man experienced left throat and neck pain, numbness of the left face and tongue, dysphagia, left arm pain and weakness, and left miosis. At age 27, he had suffered an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography at that time had also demonstrated a fenestration of the left intracranial vertebral artery. At the time of the second presentation, angiography showed that one of the limbs of the fenestration had become occluded. Although the vast majority of intracranial arterial fenestrations are asymptomatic, occlusion of one of the limbs of a fenestration may be the cause of stroke.

  17. Is acute reperfusion therapy safe in acute ischemic stroke patients who harbor unruptured intracranial aneurysm?

    PubMed

    Mowla, Ashkan; Singh, Karanbir; Mehla, Sandhya; Ahmed, Mohammad K; Shirani, Peyman; Kamal, Haris; Krishna, Chandan; Sawyer, Robert N; Ching, Marilou; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I; Snyder, Kenneth V; Crumlish, Annemarie; Hopkins, L N

    2015-10-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are currently considered as contraindication for intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke, very likely due to a possible increase in the risk of bleeding from aneurysm rupture; however, there is limited data available on whether intravenous thrombolysis is safe for acute ischemic stroke patients with pre-existing intracranial aneurysms. To find out the safety of intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke patients who harbor unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and cerebrovascular images of all the patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke in our center from the beginning of 2006 till the end of April 2014. Those with unruptured intracranial aneurysm present on cerebrovascular images prior to acute reperfusion therapy were identified. Post-thrombolysis brain imaging was reviewed to evaluate for any intraparenchymal or subarachnoid hemorrhage related or unrelated to the aneurysm. A total of 637 patients received intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke in our center during an 8·3-year period. Thirty-three (5·2%) were found to have at least one intracranial aneurysms. Twenty-three (70%) of those received only intravenous thrombolysis, and 10 patients received combination of intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis. The size of the largest aneurysm was 10 mm in maximum diameter (range: 2-10 mm). The mean size of aneurysms was 4·8 mm. No symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred among the 23 patients receiving only intravenous thrombolysis. Out of those who received a combination of intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis, one developed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in the location of acute infarct, distant to the aneurysm location. Our findings suggest that neither intravenous thrombolysis nor combination of intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis increases the risk of aneurysmal hemorrhage in acute ischemic stroke

  18. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms--our experience and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Garg, Kanwaljeet; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar; Chandra, Poodipedi Sarat; Suri, Ashish; Singh, Manmohanjit; Kumar, Rajinder; Kale, Shashank Sarad; Mishra, Nalin Kumar; Gaikwad, Shailesh K; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Intracranial aneurysms in children are not as common as in adults and there are many differences in the etiology, demographic variables, aneurysm location, aneurysm morphological characteristics, clinical presentation, and outcome in pediatric and adult intracranial aneurysms. All children (≤18 years) suffering from intracranial aneurysm managed at our center from July 2001 through June 2013 were included in the study, and the details of these patients were retrieved from the computerized database of our hospital. A total of 62 pediatric patients were treated for 74 aneurysms during the study period and constituted 2.3% of all intracranial aneurysms treated during the same period. The mean age at presentation was 13.5 years. Headache (82%) was the commonest presenting feature; other symptoms included seizures (21%), ictal loss of consciousness (27%), and motor/cranial nerve deficits (22.6%). Computed tomogram revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage in 58% of patients. Eighty-two percent of aneurysms were in anterior circulation. Sixty-seven percent of aneurysms were complex aneurysms. Fifty-eight percent of patients underwent surgical intervention while 30% underwent endovascular procedures. Twenty-one percent of the patients developed vasospasm. There was no postoperative mortality. Favorable outcome was seen in 72% of the patients. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are uncommon as compared to in adult patients. Seizures and cranial nerve involvement are seen more often as the presenting features in children. Posterior circulation aneurysms are more common in children, as are the internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysms. There is high incidence of giant, posttraumatic, and mycotic aneurysms in children.

  19. Incidence and risk factors of intracranial aneurysm: A national cohort study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tackeun; Lee, Heeyoung; Ahn, Soyeon; Kwon, O-Ki; Bang, Jae Seung; Hwang, Gyojun; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Son, Young-Je; Cho, Won-Sang; Oh, Chang Wan

    2016-10-01

    Background Estimations of the intracranial aneurysm incidence require long-term follow-up of a relatively large at-risk population; as a result, the incidence remains largely unknown. Aims To investigate the national incidence of intracranial aneurysm in a Korean population. Methods After excluding 18,604 potential subjects with a previous history of stroke (I6x.x), 998,216 subjects were included in this observational cohort. The primary endpoint was the earliest date of diagnosis of either unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA; I67.1) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH; I60.x). We collected anthropometric data, blood pressure measurements, laboratory data, and smoking, drinking, and physical exercise habits of 132,355 subjects for whom healthcare screening data were available. Factors influencing intracranial aneurysm were evaluated via multivariate Cox regression. Results The overall observation size was 8,792,214 person-years. During follow-up, 4346 subjects were diagnosed with intracranial aneurysm (SAH, 1960; UIA, 2386). The crude incidence of intracranial aneurysm was 49.4/100,000 person-years. The hazard ratio for women was 1.56 ( p < 0.01), and older subjects had an increased hazard ratio. Subjects with hypertension had an approximately 1.5-fold higher risk of intracranial aneurysm. A history of heart disease and family history of stroke were associated with respective hazard ratios of 2.08 and 1.77. Conclusions In this Korean population study, the standardized incidence of intracranial aneurysm was 52.2/100,000 person-years. Older age, female sex, hypertension, history of heart disease, and family history of stroke were independent risk factors for intracranial aneurysm.

  20. Fetal electrocardiograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, Heriberto; Andrade, Armando; Puente, Ernestina; Lizana, Pablo R.; Mendoza, Diego

    2002-11-01

    The high intra-uterine death rate is due to failure in appropriately diagnosing some problems in the cardiobreathing system of the fetus during pregnancy. The electrocardiograph is one apparatus which might detect problems at an early stage. With electrodes located near the womb and uterus, in a way similar to the normal technique, the detection of so-called biopotential differences, caused by concentrations of ions, can be achieved. The fetal electrocardiograph is based on an ultrasound technique aimed at detecting intrauterine problems in pregnant women, because it is a noninvasive technique due to the very low level of ultrasound power used. With this system, the following tests can be done: Heart movements from the ninth week onwards; Rapid and safe diagnosis of intrauterine fetal death; Location and size of the placenta. The construction of the fetal electrocardiograph requires instrument level components directly mounted on the printed circuit board, in order to avoid stray capacitance in the cabling which prevents the detection of the E.C.G. activity. The low cost of the system makes it affordable to low budget institutions; in contrast, available commercial systems are priced in U.S. Dollars. (To be presented in Spanish.)

  1. Fetal carotid blood flow during videofetoscopy.

    PubMed

    Fauza, D O; Fishman, S J

    1998-12-01

    Intracranial bleeding has been reported as one of the complications of both open and minimally invasive fetal surgery and putatively attributed to intraoperative fluctuations of carotid blood flow. The aim of this study was to look at fetal carotid blood flow and its relationship with umbilical blood flow, blood pressure, oxygen delivery, and acid-base status in the fetus at various intraamniotic pressures with both liquid and gas media during fetoscopic surgery. Six 115- to 130-day-gestation ewes underwent continuous invasive systemic blood pressure monitoring in the descending aorta. A hysterotomy was performed. A 6-mm ultrasonic blood flow probe was placed around the common umbilical artery at its origin from the fetal aorta. This was followed by placement of a double-lumen, 4F catheter in the fetal descending aorta through a femoral artery. A 4-mm ultrasonic blood flow probe was then placed around the fetal left common carotid artery. A pressure-monitoring, multiperforated catheter was placed inside the amniotic cavity. The fetus was repositioned inside the uterus, which was then closed. The abdominal wall was closed loosely. No further manipulation was performed for 1 hour. Intraamniotic pressure was raised from 0 to 30 mm Hg at 5-mm Hg intervals by infusing either warmed saline or medical air. Common umbilical artery and left carotid artery blood flows, blood pressure, blood gases, bicarbonate, sodium, and hematocrit were recorded in all fetuses at each 5-mm Hg interval. Maternal systemic blood pressure, O2 saturation, and temperature were kept constant. Carotid blood flow remained stable within the intra-amniotic pressure range studied (0 to 30 mm Hg), despite the significant drop in common umbilical artery blood flow uniformly observed above 20 mm Hg when saline was infused and above 15 mm Hg when air was infused. There was fetal hypoxemia and hypercarbia concomitant with decreased common umbilical artery blood flow (however, without fetal acidosis, because

  2. Clinical review: Critical care management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Rincon, Fred; Mayer, Stephan A

    2008-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage is by far the most destructive form of stroke. The clinical presentation is characterized by a rapidly deteriorating neurological exam coupled with signs and symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure. The diagnosis is easily established by the use of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Ventilatory support, blood pressure control, reversal of any preexisting coagulopathy, intracranial pressure monitoring, osmotherapy, fever control, seizure prophylaxis, treatment of hyerglycemia, and nutritional supplementation are the cornerstones of supportive care in the intensive care unit. Dexamethasone and other glucocorticoids should be avoided. Ventricular drainage should be performed urgently in all stuporous or comatose patients with intraventricular blood and acute hydrocephalus. Emergent surgical evacuation or hemicraniectomy should be considered for patients with large (>3 cm) cerebellar hemorrhages, and in those with large lobar hemorrhages, significant mass effect, and a deteriorating neurological exam. Apart from management in a specialized stroke or neurological intensive care unit, no specific medical therapies have been shown to consistently improve outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:19108704

  3. Prostaglandin E2-EP2-NF-κB signaling in macrophages as a potential therapeutic target for intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Tomohiro; Frȍsen, Juhana; Fukuda, Miyuki; Bando, Kana; Shioi, Go; Tsuji, Keiichi; Ollikainen, Eliisa; Nozaki, Kazuhiko; Laakkonen, Johanna; Narumiya, Shuh

    2017-02-07

    Intracranial aneurysms are common but are generally untreated, and their rupture can lead to subarachnoid hemorrhage. Because of the poor prognosis associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage, preventing the progression of intracranial aneurysms is critically important. Intracranial aneurysms are caused by chronic inflammation of the arterial wall due to macrophage infiltration triggered by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage activation mediated by the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and inflammatory signaling involving prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin E receptor subtype 2 (EP2). We correlated EP2 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with macrophage infiltration in human intracranial aneurysm lesions. Monitoring the spatiotemporal pattern of NF-κB activation during intracranial aneurysm development in mice showed that NF-κB was first activated in macrophages in the adventitia and in endothelial cells and, subsequently, in the entire arterial wall. Mice with a macrophage-specific deletion of Ptger2 (which encodes EP2) or macrophage-specific expression of an IκBα mutant that restricts NF-κB activation had fewer intracranial aneurysms with reduced macrophage infiltration and NF-κB activation. In cultured cells, EP2 signaling cooperated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) to activate NF-κB and synergistically induce the expression of proinflammatory genes, including Ptgs2 (encoding COX-2). EP2 signaling also stabilized Ccl2 (encoding MCP-1) by activating the RNA-stabilizing protein HuR. Rats administered an EP2 antagonist had reduced macrophage infiltration and intracranial aneurysm formation and progression. This signaling pathway in macrophages thus facilitates intracranial aneurysm development by amplifying inflammation in intracranial arteries. These results indicate that EP2 antagonists may therefore be a therapeutic alternative to surgery. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Endoscope-assisted microsurgery for intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Kalavakonda, Chandrasekar; Sekhar, Laligam N; Ramachandran, Pranatartiharan; Hechl, Peter

    2002-11-01

    We discuss the role of the endoscope in the microsurgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms, analyzing its benefits, risks, and disadvantages. This was a prospective study of 55 patients with 79 aneurysms, treated between July 1998 and June 2001, for whom the endoscope was used as an adjunct in the microsurgical treatment of their lesions. Seventy-one aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation, and eight were located in the posterior circulation. Thirty-seven patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Eighteen patients had unruptured aneurysms, of whom 5 presented with mass effect, 2 presented with transient ischemic attacks, and 11 were without symptoms. In all cases, the endoscope was used in addition to microsurgical dissection and clipping (sometimes before clipping, sometimes during clipping, and always after clipping), for observation of the neck anatomic features and perforators and verification of the optimal clip position. Intraoperative angiography was performed for all patients after aneurysm clipping. In the majority of cases, the endoscope was very useful for the assessment of regional anatomic features. It allowed better observation of anatomic features, compared with the microscope, for 26 aneurysms; in 15 cases, pertinent anatomic information could be obtained only with the endoscope. The duration of temporary clipping of the parent artery was significantly reduced for two patients. The clip was repositioned because of a residual neck or inclusion of the parent vessel during aneurysm clipping in six cases, and the clip position was readjusted because of compression of the optic nerve in one case. One patient experienced a small aneurysm rupture that was directly related to use of the endoscope, but this was easily controlled, with no sequelae. For many patients, the combination of the neuro-endoscope and the micro-Doppler probe made intraoperative angiography redundant. "Endoscope-assisted microsurgery" is a major advance in the

  5. Telemetry of intracranial pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.; Corbin, S. D.; Silverberg, G. D.; Schmidt, E. V.; Ream, A. K.

    1978-01-01

    A completely implantable epidural pressure telemetry system designed for accurate measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) is described. The implant device is batteryless, providing unlimited operating life. The described system uses a capacitive pressure transducer with excellent long-term stability. Once detected with the transducer and converted to a frequency with the oscillator electronics, the pressure signal is digitized. It is then telemetered without the possibility of further degradation. After detection with the small external module, the data can be retransmitted by a radio link for complete patient mobility or the energizer signal pickup module can be wired to a bedside readout unit. Continuous data are available from the system so that the dynamic ICP changes reflecting arterial blood pressure can be observed and used for diagnosis.

  6. Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, J.; Guillemin, F.; Proust, F.; Molyneux, A.J.; Fox, A.J.; Claiborne, J.S.; Meder, J.-F.; Rouleau, I.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The preventive treatment of unruptured aneur­ysms has been performed for decades despite the lack of evidence of a clinical benefit. Reports of observational studies such as the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA) suggest that preventive treatments are rarely justified. Are these reports compelling enough to guide clinical practice? The ISUIA methods and data are reviewed and analysed in a more conventional manner. The design of the appropriate clinical research program is approached by steps, reviewing potential problems, from the formulation of the precise research question to the interpretation of subgroup analyses, including sample size, representativity, duration of observation period, blin­ding, definition of outcome events, analysis of cross-overs, losses to follow-up, and data reporting. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms observed in ISUIA ruptured at a minimal annual rate of 0.8% (0.5-1%), despite multiple methodological difficulties biased in favour of a benign natural history. Available registries do not have the power or the design capable of providing normative guidelines for clinical decisions. The appropriate method to solve the clinical dilemma is a multicentric trial comparing the incidence of a hard clinical outcome events in approximately 2000 patients randomly allocated to a treatment group and a deferred treatment group, all followed for ten years or more. Observational studies have failed to provide reliable evidence in favour or against the preventive treatment of unruptured aneurysms. A randomized trial is in order to clarify what is the role of prevention in this common clinical problem. PMID:20557790

  7. Unusual Finding of Vertebral Artery Fenestration in Spontaneous Deep Nuclear Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Binod; Munakomi, Sunil; Chaudhary, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral artery fenestration is accidentally detected during angiography or autopsy. Spontaneous deep nuclear hemorrhage in association with vertebral artery fenestration is a very unusual finding in angiography. Such an unusual finding has not been reported in the English literature. Here, we report two cases of spontaneous deep nuclear hemorrhage that presented with features of raised intracranial pressure. Computed tomography revealed a deep nuclear acute bleed in both cases. Digital subtraction angiographic findings were normal other than the presence of a long segment vertebral artery fenestration. Both extracranial and intracranial variations were detected. Although the existence of vascular fenestration in the vertebrobasilar system produces less clinical importance, it may influence the management of cervical and intracranial pathologies to avoid iatrogenic injury.  PMID:26918218

  8. Flow Conditions in the Intracranial Aneurysm Lumen Are Associated with Inflammation and Degenerative Changes of the Aneurysm Wall.

    PubMed

    Cebral, J; Ollikainen, E; Chung, B J; Mut, F; Sippola, V; Jahromi, B R; Tulamo, R; Hernesniemi, J; Niemelä, M; Robertson, A; Frösen, J

    2017-01-01

    Saccular intracranial aneurysm is a common disease that may cause devastating intracranial hemorrhage. Hemodynamics, wall remodeling, and wall inflammation have been associated with saccular intracranial aneurysm rupture. We investigated how saccular intracranial aneurysm hemodynamics is associated with wall remodeling and inflammation of the saccular intracranial aneurysm wall. Tissue samples resected during a saccular intracranial aneurysm operation (11 unruptured, 9 ruptured) were studied with histology and immunohistochemistry. Patient-specific computational models of hemodynamics were created from preoperative CT angiographies. More stable and less complex flows were associated with thick, hyperplastic saccular intracranial aneurysm walls, while slower flows with more diffuse inflow were associated with degenerated and decellularized saccular intracranial aneurysm walls. Wall degeneration (P = .041) and rupture were associated with increased inflammation (CD45+, P = .031). High wall shear stress (P = .018), higher vorticity (P = .046), higher viscous dissipation (P = .046), and high shear rate (P = .046) were associated with increased inflammation. Inflammation was also associated with lack of an intact endothelium (P = .034) and the presence of organized luminal thrombosis (P = .018), though overall organized thrombosis was associated with low minimum wall shear stress (P = .034) and not with the flow conditions associated with inflammation. Flow conditions in the saccular intracranial aneurysm are associated with wall remodeling. Inflammation, which is associated with degenerative wall remodeling and rupture, is related to high flow activity, including elevated wall shear stress. Endothelial injury may be a mechanism by which flow induces inflammation in the saccular intracranial aneurysm wall. Hemodynamic simulations might prove useful in identifying saccular intracranial aneurysms at risk of developing inflammation, a potential biomarker for rupture.

  9. Hemorrhage Rates From Brain Arteriovenous Malformation in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Helen; Nelson, Jeffrey; Krings, Timo; terBrugge, Karel G.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Lawton, Michael T.; Young, William L.; Faughnan, Marie E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a systemic disease characterized by mucocutaneous telangiectasias, epistaxis, and arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) rates in this population are not well described. We report ICH rates and characteristics in HHT patients with brain arteriovenous malformations (HHT-BAVM). Methods We studied the first 153 HHT-BAVM patients with follow-up data enrolled in the Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium HHT Project. We estimated ICH rates after BAVM diagnosis. Results The majority of patients were female (58%) and Caucasian (98%). The mean age at BAVM diagnosis was 31±19 years (range: 0–70), with 61% of cases diagnosed upon asymptomatic screening. Overall, 14% presented with ICH; among symptomatic cases, 37% presented ruptured. During 493 patient-years of follow-up, 5 ICH events occurred yielding a rate of 1.02% per-year (95% CI: 0.42–2.44%). ICH-free survival differed significantly by ICH presentation (P=0.003); ruptured cases had a higher ICH rate (10.07%, 95% CI: 3.25–31.21%) than unruptured cases (0.43%, 95% CI: 0.11–1.73%). Conclusions HHT-BAVM patients who present with hemorrhage are at a higher risk for re-hemorrhage compared to BAVMs detected pre-symptomatically. PMID:25858236

  10. Repeated Dosing of 23.4% Hypertonic Saline for Refractory Intracranial Hypertension. A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Alden K; Nau, Karen M; Miller, David A; Hanel, Ricardo A; Freeman, WD

    2008-01-01

    Background: Hypertonic saline (HTS) at a concentration of 23.4% is an emerging therapy for intracranial hypertension. Compared to mannitol which can be given as a single bolus or as repeated bolus dosing, little data exists regarding safety or efficacy of repeated dosing of 23.4% HTS. We report the first case of 16 doses of 23.4% HTS over a 5 day period in a patient with refractory intracranial hypertension. Case Report: A 43-year-old woman with Fisher 3 subarachnoid hemorrhage and hydrocephalus requiring an external ventricular drain developed global cerebral edema on computed tomography. Medically refractory intracranial hypertension ensued which required repeated dosing of 23.4% HTS. Reductions in intracranial pressure (ICP) occurred after each dose of 23.4% HTS. No central nervous system complications occurred. Anasarca was the only observed complication, which responded to furosemide diuresis. Conclusion: Repeated dosing of 23.4% HTS was effective in reducing ICP in a case of medically refractory intracranial hypertension without major systemic complications. Prospective studies should address the safety and efficacy of repeat dose 23.4% HTS on serum sodium, intracranial pressure, and complications. PMID:22518235

  11. [Critical care management of intracerebral hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Huge, V

    2016-05-24

    Intracerebral hemorrhage accounts for up to 20 % percent of all ischemic strokes. In addition to a higher mortality, they are often associated with severe neurological impairment for those affected. Review of the current literature and guidelines addressing the critical care management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, including treatments to reduce primary and secondary neurological damage. Acute blood pressure lowering to less than 140 mmHg should be aspired immediately after intensive care admission. During the following days blood pressure variability should be minimized. Preexisting oral anticoagulation should be immediately reversed, while hemostatic therapy not associated with reversal of antithrombotic therapy should not be applied. Surgery for patients with impaired consciousness should be discussed. Use of pneumatic compression in immobile patients is recommended. Developing intracranial hypertension should be treated with combined physical and pharmacological measures in a stepwise approach. Administration of glucocorticoids is currently not recommended. Critical care management of spontaneous hemorrhage demands a multimodal, graded approach for reduction of both primary and secondary neurological damage.

  12. Hemorrhagic Stroke in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hillis M.D., Argye E.

    2007-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately half of stroke in childhood. Unlike arterial ischemic stroke, there are no consensus guidelines to assist in the evaluation and treatment of these children. We review the literature on the evaluation, treatment, etiology and neurologic outcome of hemorrhagic stroke in children. Important differences between pediatric and adult hemorrhage are highlighted, as treatment guidelines for adults may not be applicable in all cases. Needed future research and potential therapies are also discussed. PMID:17275656

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of fetal developmental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Girard, Nadine J

    2011-02-01

    Fetal developmental anomalies consist of central nervous system malformations, brain injury, and tumors. Overlap is often seen especially between malformation and injury because malformation may be genetically determined or related to external causative agent, whereas brain injury may be, on one hand, caused by malformation as with intracranial vascular malformation and, on another, can cause brain malformation when cerebral insult occurs during organogenesis and histogenesis. The goal of this review was not to describe by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) all fetal developmental anomalies encountered in utero; it is most likely to focus on fetal brain anomalies that either are most commonly seen in fetal tertiary care facility or are extremely challenging for MRI. Consequently, the potential of advanced MR techniques such as proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging is also described especially when a challenge is highlighted. This review is therefore organized in subchapters as follows. The first section gives the place of MRI in prenatal development and cites the standard protocol and the advanced techniques. The rules of fetal brain MRI, the challenge and pitfalls, and the selection of MRI cases follow as 3 subchapters. Also, abnormalities are described as 3 separate subchapters entitled ventriculomegalies (hydrocephalus), malformations, and brain injury.

  14. Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms: Clipping Versus Coiling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ann; Huang, Judy

    2015-09-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) have an estimated incidence of up to 10 % and can lead to serious morbidity and mortality. Because of this, the natural history of IAs has been studied extensively, with rupture rates ranging from 0.5 to 7 %, depending on aneurysm characteristics. The spectrum of presentation of IAs ranges from incidental detection to devastating subarachnoid hemorrhage. Although the gold standard imaging technique is intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography, other modalities such as computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) are being increasingly used for screening and treatment planning. Management of these patients depends upon a number of factors including aneurysmal, patient, institutional, and operator factors. The ultimate goal of treating patients with IAs is complete and permanent occlusion of the aneurysm sac in order to eliminate future hemorrhagic risk, while preserving or restoring the patient's neurological function. The most common treatment approaches include microsurgical clipping and endovascular coiling, and multiple studies have compared these two techniques. To date, three large prospective, randomized studies have been done: a study from Finland, International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT), and the Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial (BRAT). Despite differences in methodology, the results were similar: in patients undergoing coiling, although rates of rebleeding and retreatment are higher, the overall rate of poor outcomes at 12 months was significantly lower. As minimally invasive procedures and devices continue to be refined, endovascular strategies are likely to increase in popularity. However, as long-term outcome studies become available, it is increasingly apparent that they are complementary treatment strategies, with patient selection of critical importance.

  15. Fetal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Rosa, F W; Turshen, M

    1970-01-01

    The extensive literature on nutrition in pregnancy is reviewed with special reference to international experience, including observations on nutritional trials in pregnancy, pregnancy during famines caused by war, and studies of birth-weight in relation to pregnancy interval, parity and multiple pregnancies. Recent research on the significance of fetal nutrition suggests that "small-for-dates" infants, i.e., those that are developmentally retarded in utero, suffer long-term developmental sequelae. A high world-wide incidence of small-for-dates births was reported by the World Health Organization in 1960.Although a definite correlation has been found between socio-economic status and birth-weight, it is not known to what extent the smaller birth-weights observed in the lower socio-economic groups can be improved by specific nutritional measures. In addition to the general advice given on maternal nutrition and family-planning, further studies are needed to determine the precise means of achieving improvement in fetal nutrition and a better outcome of pregnancy.

  16. Fetal nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Franz W.; Turshen, Meredeth

    1970-01-01

    The extensive literature on nutrition in pregnancy is reviewed with special reference to international experience, including observations on nutritional trials in pregnancy, pregnancy during famines caused by war, and studies of birth-weight in relation to pregnancy interval, parity and multiple pregnancies. Recent research on the significance of fetal nutrition suggests that ”small-for-dates” infants, i.e., those that are developmentally retarded in utero, suffer long-term developmental sequelae. A high world-wide incidence of small-for-dates births was reported by the World Health Organization in 1960. Although a definite correlation has been found between socio-economic status and birth-weight, it is not known to what extent the smaller birth-weights observed in the lower socio-economic groups can be improved by specific nutritional measures. In addition to the general advice given on maternal nutrition and family-planning, further studies are needed to determine the precise means of achieving improvement in fetal nutrition and a better outcome of pregnancy. PMID:5314013

  17. Fetal yawning.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Fetal neurobehavioral patterns have been considered as indicators of nervous system development. Moreover, the capacity of 4-dimensional sonography to evaluate complex facial expressions allows recognition of common behaviors with which one can appreciate the prenatal functional development of the central nervous system. Using yawning as an example, we review this interpretation on the basis of knowledge derived from phylogeny and ontogeny. As a flip-flop switch, the reciprocal interactions between sleep- and wake-promoting brain regions allow the emergence of distinct states of arousal. By its ontogenic links with REM sleep, yawning appears to be a behavior which causes arousal reinforcement through the powerful stretching and the neuromuscular connections induced. Yawning indicates a harmonious progress in the development of both the brainstem and the peripheral neuromuscular function, testifying to the induction of an ultradian rhythm of vigilance. The lack of fetal yawn, frequently associated with lack of swallowing (associated or not with retrognathia), may be a key to predicting brainstem dysfunction after birth. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Flow diverters for treatment of intracranial aneurysms: current status and ongoing clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Wong, George K C; Kwan, Marco C L; Ng, Rebecca Y T; Yu, Simon C H; Poon, W S

    2011-06-01

    The ultimate treatment goal for intracranial aneurysms is to reconstruct the vessel wall and correct the hemodynamic disturbance. A flow diverter is a stent placed in the parent artery to reduce blood flow in the aneurysm sac to the point of stagnation, gradual thrombosis, and neointimal remodeling to maintain outflow in the side branches and perforators. Here, we review the two commercially available flow diverters, the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) and the SILK flow diverter (SFD). The rates of severe hemorrhagic complications have been reported to be 2% for the PED and 0.8% for the SFD. The results of studies completed thus far show that endovascular reconstruction with flow diverters is an effective treatment of wide-necked, fusiform, large, and giant unruptured intracranial aneurysms, with 5% to 10% of patients experiencing permanent major morbidity and mortality. The results of ongoing studies may resolve whether flow diverters can replace coil embolization for the treatment of all, or selected, intracranial aneurysms.

  19. [Evolution of angiographic signs of venous hypertension and clinical signs of intracranial hypertension in intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas].

    PubMed

    Biondi, A; Casasco, A; Houdart, E; Gioino, C; Sourour, N; Vivas, E; Dormont, D; Marsault, C

    1999-03-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) can cause cerebral venous hypertension (VHT). The most common mechanism is due to the fact that some dAVFs can drain retrogradelly in cortical (better defined as leptomeningeal) veins (directly or after drainage in a dural sinus) causing venous engorgement and consequently an impairment of the cerebral venous drainage. However, more rarely, dAVFs without a cortical venous drainage can also be responsible for VHT probably due to dAVF shunts causing insufficient antegrade cerebral venous drainage. In addition, dAVFs are often associated with stenosis and/or thrombosis of dural sinus(es) which can worsen the VHT. Raised pressure within the superior sagittal sinus causes impeded cerebrospinal reabsorption in the arachnoid villi allowing increased intracranial pressure. The venous engorgement in the cortical veins can cause a venous congestive encephalopathy analogous to the venous congestive myelopathy of the spinal dural AVFs. Clinically VHT can cause not only symptoms related to increased intracranial pressure but also seizures, neurological deficits, impairment of the cognitive functions and dementia. An important aspect is the risk of hemorrhage in dAVFs with a leptomeningeal venous drainage leading to VHT. Although the term VHT sensu strictu should be used if venous pressure measurements are performed, angiographic criteria for VHT such as delayed circulation time, venous engorgement and abnormal visualization of the cerebral veins are well established. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the angiographic signs of VHT in patients with dAVF and to study the course of the VHT and of the clinical signs of increased intracranial pressure before and after dAVF endovascular treatment. A retrospective chart analysis of 22 patients (13 males, 9 females) ranging in age from 20 to 87 years (mean: 53 ys.) with a dAVF associated with angiographic signs of VHT was performed. Ten dAVFs were located on the transverse/sigmoid sinus(es), 6

  20. Symptomatic intracystic hemorrhage in pineal cysts. Report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Sarikaya-Seiwert, Sevgi; Turowski, Bernd; Hänggi, Daniel; Janssen, Giesela; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Stummer, Walter

    2009-08-01

    Pineal cysts are benign and often asymptomatic intracranial entities. Occasionally they can lead to neurological symptoms through growth or due to intracystic hemorrhage. The purpose of the current report is to describe their clinical characteristics and treatment options. In the current study, the authors illustrate the course of disease in 3 patients who developed neurological symptoms due to hemorrhage into a pineal cyst. Two of their patients had additional cerebral disease, and regular MR imaging examinations were conducted. This circumstance allowed documentation of growth and intracystic hemorrhage. After the occurrence of new neurological symptoms with severe headache, MR images showed a fluid-fluid interface due to intracystic hemorrhage. The third patient presented with acute triventricular hydrocephalus and papilledema due to aqueductal stenosis caused by intracystic hemorrhage. In all 3 cases, excision of the pineal cysts via an infratentorial/supracerebellar approach was performed. Histological examination revealed the characteristic structure of pineal cyst in all cases, with hemorrhagic residues in the form of hemosiderin deposits. All patients recovered fully after surgical removal of the cysts. Furthermore, resolution of occlusive hydrocephalus could be demonstrated in those cases with ventricular enlargement. Pineal cysts without neurological symptoms are often discovered as incidental findings on cranial MR images. In contrast, neurological symptoms such as severe headache, diplopia, or Parinaud syndrome, may occur as a result of pineal apoplexy due to intracystic hemorrhage. The authors' cases confirm that MR imaging can identify intracystic hemorrhage by a characteristic fluid-fluid interface. Their experience suggests that microsurgical resection of cysts may be an effective and curative treatment option.

  1. Intracranial pial arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kentaro; Ohe, Naoyuki; Yoshimura, Shin-ichi; Iwama, Toru

    2007-12-01

    A 33-year-old woman presented with a rare intracranial pial arteriovenous fistula manifesting as monoparesis and hypesthesia of the right lower extremity. Computed tomography demonstrated an approximately 10-mm diameter subcortical hematoma in the left postcentral gyrus. Two months after suffering the ictus, angiography demonstrated a pial arteriovenous fistula in the late arterial phase fed by the left paracentral artery and drained into the left precentral vein. No nidus or dural arteriovenous fistula was detected. Left parietal craniotomy was performed and the pial arteriovenous fistula was extirpated by electrocoagulation. Intraoperative angiography demonstrated disappearance of the fistula. She experienced no postoperative neurological deterioration, but hypesthesia of the right leg persisted. Obliteration of the pial arteriovenous fistula was reconfirmed by postoperative angiography. She suffered no rebleeding episodes during the 36-month follow-up period. Pial arteriovenous fistula causing mild symptoms should be treated by flow disconnection because the direct arteriovenous shunt and attendant high blood flow usually results in huge venous varices. To determine whether direct surgery or endovascular treatment is appropriate, the position and shape of the lesion must be known.

  2. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  3. Mechanisms of Stroke after Intracranial Angioplasty and Stenting in the SAMMPRIS Trial

    PubMed Central

    Derdeyn, Colin P; Fiorella, David; Lynn, Michael J; Rumboldt, Zoran; Cloft, Harry J.; Gibson, Daniel; Turan, Tanya N.; Lane, Bethany F.; Janis, L. Scott; Chimowitz, Marc I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Enrollment in the Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for the Prevention of stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) trial was halted owing to higher than expected 30-day stroke rates in the stenting arm. Improvement in peri-procedural stroke rates from angioplasty and stenting for intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) requires an understanding of the mechanisms of these events. Objective To identify the types and mechanisms of peri-procedural stroke after angioplasty and stenting for ICAD. Methods Patients that suffered a hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke or a cerebral infarct with temporary signs (CITS) within 30 days of attempted angioplasty and stenting in SAMMPRIS were identified. Study records, including case report forms, procedure notes, and imaging were reviewed. Strokes were categorized as ischemic or hemorrhagic. Ischemic strokes were categorized as perforator territory, distal embolic, or delayed stent thrombosis. Hemorrhagic strokes were categorized as subarachnoid or intraparenchymal. Causes of hemorrhage (wire perforation, vessel rupture) were recorded. Results Three patients suffered an ischemic stroke after diagnostic angiography. Two were unrelated to the procedure. Twenty-one patients suffered an ischemic stroke (n= 19) or CITS (n=2) within 30 days of angioplasty and stenting. Most (n=15) were perforator territory and many of these occurred after angiographically successful angioplasty and stenting of the basilar artery (n = 8). Six patients suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage (three from wire perforation) and seven a delayed intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Conclusion Efforts at reducing complications from angioplasty and stenting for ICAD must focus on reducing the risks of regional perforator infarction, delayed intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and wire perforation. PMID:23328689

  4. Sudden Unexpected Deaths Due to Intracranial Meningioma: Presentation of Six Fatal Cases, Review of the Literature, and A Discussion of the Mechanisms of Death.

    PubMed

    Gitto, Lorenzo; Bolino, Giorgio; Cina, Stephen J

    2017-08-23

    Deaths due to meningiomas are routinely diagnosed in clinical practice because this neoplasm tends to present with the typical progression of neurological deficits. On the other hand, sudden unexpected deaths due to meningiomas are rarely described in the literature. The study presents six fatal cases of previously undiagnosed intracranial meningiomas from the Cook County Medical Examiner's Office from 1998 to 2014. The most common explanation of the mechanism of sudden death due to intracranial neoplasms is a rapid increase in intracranial pressure produced by the mass effect of the neoplasm. Other mechanisms of death include acute intracranial and intratumoral hemorrhage, and benign neoplasms that grow in the vicinity of vital centers altering neural discharge in autonomic pathways leading to cardiac suppression or lethal arrhythmia. Forensic pathologists must keep in mind that sudden unexpected death caused by intracranial meningiomas, although extremely rare, may be encountered in the forensic setting. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Cerebral infarction associated with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J Michael; Rincon, Fred; Fernandez, Andres; Resor, Charles; Kowalski, Robert G; Claassen, Jan; Connolly, E Sander; Fitzsimmons, Brian-Fred M; Mayer, Stephan A

    2007-01-01

    Cerebral infarction is a common complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but usually occurs several days after onset as a complication of vasospasm or aneurysm repair. The frequency, causes, and clinical impact of acute infarction associated with the primary hemorrhage are poorly understood. We evaluated the presence of cerebral infarction on admission CT in 487 patients admitted within 3 days of SAH onset to our center between July 1996 and September 2002. Infarctions due to angiography or treatment complications were rigorously excluded. Outcome at 3 months was assessed with the modified Rankin Scale. A total of 17 patients (3%) had acute infarction on admission CT; eight had solitary and nine had multiple infarcts. Solitary infarcts usually appeared in the vascular territory distal to the ruptured aneurysm, whereas multiple infarcts tended to be territorial and symmetric. Global cerebral edema (P < 0.001), coma on presentation (P = 0.001), intraventricular hemorrhage (P = 0.002), elevated APACHE-II physiological subscores (P = 0.026) and loss of consciousness at onset (P = 0.029) were associated with early cerebral infarction. Mortality (P = 0.003) and death or moderate-to-severe disability (mRS 4-6, P = 0.01) occurred more frequently in the early cerebral infarction group. Early cerebral infarction on CT is a rare but devastating complication of acute SAH. The observed associations with coma, global cerebral edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and loss of consciousness at onset suggest that intracranial circulatory arrest may play a role in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

  6. Fetal pain.

    PubMed

    Rokyta, Richard

    2008-12-01

    The fetus reacts to nociceptive stimulations through different motor, autonomic, vegetative, hormonal, and metabolic changes relatively early in the gestation period. With respect to the fact that the modulatory system does not yet exist, the first reactions are purely reflexive and without connection to the type of stimulus. While the fetal nervous system is able to react through protective reflexes to potentially harmful stimuli, there is no accurate evidence concerning pain sensations in this early period. Cortical processes occur only after thalamocortical connections and pathways have been completed at the 26th gestational week. Harmful (painful) stimuli, especially in fetuses have an adverse effect on the development of humans regardless of the processes in brain. Moreover, pain activates a number of subcortical mechanisms and a wide spectrum of stress responses influence the maturation of thalamocortical pathways and other cortical activation which are very important in pain processing.

  7. Transient Acute Hydrocephalus After Spontaneous Intracranial Bleeding in Adults.

    PubMed

    Hou, Kun; Zhu, Xiaobo; Sun, Yang; Gao, Xianfeng; Zhao, Jinchuan; Zhang, Yang; Li, Guichen

    2017-04-01

    Acute hydrocephalus (AH) is commonly encountered after spontaneous or traumatic intracranial bleeding in adults. In the setting of AH, external ventricular drainage is usually proposed as the urgent management. But in rare occasions, AH could be transient and resolve spontaneously without invasive management. Although its actual incidence might be higher, only a few case reports on transient AH (TAH) after spontaneous intracranial bleeding in adults have been reported. A retrospective review of the medical records of the patients admitted for spontaneous intracranial bleeding was performed at the neurosurgical department of our institution. We also performed a systematic PubMed search of the published studies written in English for patients developing TAH after spontaneous intracranial bleeding. In all there were 10 patients (5 women) including 5 cases in our case series. The time interval from hemorrhagic ictus to AH ranged from 7 hours to 9 days; although the time interval from AH to evident resolution ranged from 50 minutes to 9 days. No patient experienced recurrence of AH or shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in the long term. The osmotic and hydrostatic state in the microvessels, lymphatic pathways for the drainage of the interstitial fluid and cerebrospinal fluid, and aquaporins on the astrocytes of the patients might have important roles in the genesis and resolution of TAH. The difficulty at present is to differentiate the patients who would experience TAH from those needing surgical interventions. If surgical intervention could not be carried out temporarily, vigilant monitoring and osmotic diuretics are proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intraventricular hemorrhage: severity factor and treatment target in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel F

    2009-04-01

    This review focuses on the emerging principles of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) management, emphasizing the natural history and treatment of intraventricular hemorrhage. The translational and clinical findings from recent randomized clinical trials are defined and discussed. Summary of Review- Brain hemorrhage is the most severe of the major stroke subtypes. Extension of the hemorrhage into the ventricles (a 40% occurrence) can happen early or late in the sequence of events. Epidemiological data demonstrate the amount of blood in the ventricles relates directly to the degree of injury and likelihood of survival. Secondary tissue injury processes related to intraventricular bleeding can be reversed by removal of clot in animals. Specific benefits of removal include limitation of inflammation, edema, and cell death, as well as restoration of cerebral spinal fluid flow, intracranial pressure homeostasis, improved consciousness, and shortening of intensive care unit stay. Limited clinical knowledge exists about the benefits of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) removal in humans, because organized attempts to remove blood have not been undertaken in large clinical trials on a generalized scale. New tools to evaluate the volume and location of IVH and to test the benefits/risks of removal have been used in the clinical domain. Initial efforts are encouraging that increased survival and functional improvement can be achieved. Little controversy exists regarding the need to scientifically investigate treatment of this severity factor. Animal models demonstrate clot removal can improve the acute and long-term consequences of intraventricular extension from intracerebral hemorrhage by using minimally invasive techniques coupled to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator-mediated clot lysis. The most recent human clinical trials show that severity of initial injury and the long-term consequences of blood extending into the ventricles are clearly related to the amount of

  9. Aquaporins in Fetal Development.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Nora; Damiano, Alicia E

    2017-01-01

    Water homeostasis during fetal development is of crucial physiologic importance. The successful formation and development of the placenta is critical to maintain normal fetal growth and homeostasis. The expression of several aquaporins (AQPs ) was found from blastocyst stages to term placenta and fetal membranes. Therefore, AQPs are proposed to play important roles in normal pregnancy, fetal growth, and homeostasis of amniotic fluid volume, and water handling in other organs. However, the functional importance of AQPs in fetal development remains to be elucidated.

  10. Ruptured intracranial aneurysm in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta: 2 familial cases and a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gaberel, T; Rochey, A; di Palma, C; Lucas, F; Touze, E; Emery, E

    2016-12-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is an inherited connective tissue disorder that causes bone fragility. Vascular complications have been described, but only few cases of ruptured intracranial aneurysm have been reported. We first described 2 familial cases of ruptured intracranial aneurysm and then conducted a systematic review of the literature. A mother and her daughter with a typical history of osteogenesis imperfecta presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, which was related to a posterior communicating artery aneurysm in both cases. The mother had early rebleeding and died. The aneurysm was excluded by coiling in the daughter. Despite occurrence of hydrocephalus and delayed cerebral ischemia, she had an excellent functional outcome. A systematic review of the literature identified seven additional cases. None of the cases were in fact familial. All patients had a previous medical history of multiple fractures. Seven aneurysms were resolved, three by surgical clipping and four by endovascular procedure. No periprocedural complication was reported. One patient died prematurely and 6 experienced good functional outcome. We report the first familial cases of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in osteogenesis imperfecta patients. Intracranial aneurysms are probably linked to a collagen pathology, which is at the origin of osteogenesis imperfecta. In cases of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in an osteogenesis imperfecta family, intracranial aneurysm screenings in the relatives showing osteogenesis imperfecta should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus: Recent advances and new therapeutic insights.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qianwei; Feng, Zhou; Tan, Qiang; Guo, Jing; Tang, Jun; Tan, Liang; Feng, Hua; Chen, Zhi

    2017-04-15

    Post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), also referred to as progressive ventricular dilatation, is caused by disturbances in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow or absorption following hemorrhage in the brain. As one of the most serious complications of neonatal/adult intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and traumatic brain injury (TBI), PHH is associated with increased morbidity and disability of these events. Common sequelae of PHH include neurocognitive impairment, motor dysfunction, and growth impairment. Non-surgical measures to reduce increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in PHH have shown little success and most patients will ultimately require surgical management, such as external ventricular drainage and shunting which mostly by inserting a CSF drainage shunt. Unfortunately, shunt complications are common and the optimum time for intervention is unclear. To date, there remains no comprehensive strategy for PHH management and it becomes imperative that to explore new therapeutic targets and methods for PHH. Over past decades, increasing evidence have indicated that hemorrhage-derived blood and subsequent metabolic products may play a key role in the development of IVH-, SAH- and TBI-associated PHH. Several intervention strategies have recently been evaluated and cross-referenced. In this review, we summarized and discussed the common aspects of hydrocephalus following IVH, SAH and TBI, relevant experimental animal models, clinical translation of in vivo experiments, and potential preventive and therapeutic targets for PHH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hemorrhagic fever viruses.

    PubMed

    Pigott, David C

    2005-10-01

    This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical management of patients with suspected or confirmed viral hemorrhagic fever infection. The focus is on clinical management based on case series from naturally occuring outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever infection as well as imported cases of viral hemorrhagic fever encountered in industrialized nations. The potential risk of bioterrorism involving these agents is discussed as well as emergency department and critical care management of isolated cases or larger outbreaks. Important aspects of management, including recognition of infected patients, isolation and decontamination procedures, as well as available vaccines and therapies are emphasized.

  13. Intracranial calcification in central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Al-Kandari, Salwa Ramadan; Pandey, Tarun; Badawi, Mona H

    2008-01-01

    Intracranial calcification is a known but extremely rare complication of diabetes insipidus. To date, only 16 patients have been reported and all had the peripheral (nephrogenic) type of diabetes insipidus. We report a child with intracranial calcification complicating central diabetes insipidus. We also report a child with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and compare the patterns of intracranial calcification.

  14. Alternating Skew Deviation from Traumatic Intracranial Hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Moster, Stephen J.; Moster, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A 56-year-old woman developed progressive headache, mental status changes, and diplopia after trauma. She was diagnosed with alternating skew deviation caused by intracranial hypotension. This is the first case of alternating skew deviation reported from intracranial hypotension and perhaps a differential pressure between intracranial and intraspinal spaces plays a role in the development of these findings. PMID:27928294

  15. Intracranial, intradural aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Afnan, Jalil; Snuderl, Matija; Small, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign, expansile, blood-filled, osteolytic lesions with internal septations that may be intraosseous or extraosseous. The cysts may cause local mass effect, and changes in the regional vascular supply necessitating intervention. A case of an intracranial, intradural ABC in a young male patient with progressively severe headaches is presented. This is only the third recorded intradural case, the majority of these rare lesions being extracranial and only a minute fraction intracranial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A systematic review of pipeline embolization device for giant intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xianli; Ge, Huijian; He, Hongwei; Jiang, Chuhan; Li, Youxiang

    2017-01-01

    The experience with respect to the treatment of giant intracranial aneurysms with flow-diversion devices is limited. The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the effect of the pipeline embolization device (PED) on giant intracranial aneurysms. Eligible related articles were identified by searching the PubMed, Web of Science, Springer, ScienceDirect, and OVID databases using "giant aneurysm" and "pipeline" as the search items. The date of the last search was November 20, 2015. This systematic review adopted the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. In a total of 9 eligible studies with 200 patients and 215 aneurysms, 40 (18.6%) giant (aneurysm diameter >25mm) intracranial aneurysms treated with PED were analyzed. During a 6 to 34 month follow-up, complete occlusion was achieved in 23 (57.5%) cases. Seven patients (17.5%) developed intracranial hemorrhage, 5 developed ischemic attack (12.5%), and 13 (32.5%) developed a mass effect after PED treatment. The complication rate was 77.8% in PED for giant vertebrobasilar artery aneurysms. The cumulative mortality rate for giant paraclinoid carotid artery and middle cerebral artery aneurysms was 13.3% and increased up to 50% for giant vertebrobasilar artery aneurysms. The complete obliteration rate of PED for giant intracranial aneurysms was approximately 60%. Mass effect is the most mechanism of complications. Complication and mortality rates associated with PED for giant vertebrobasilar artery aneurysms are still extremely high.

  17. [The role of nitric oxide and NO-synthase in the pathogenesis of cerebral damage after subarachnoid hemorrhage; laboratory models of subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Kolár, M; Nohejlová, K

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) of CNS is acute life-threating condition. In addition to its well understood sequential increase in intracranial pressure and decreased cerebral perfusion pressure, there is also early and late vasoconstriction. Mechanism of vasoconstriction is complex and one of important roles play changes in the amount of nitric oxide (NO). Present work overviews known pathogenesis of non-traumatic SAH, with stress on NO regulation of cerebral blood flow and its changes during SAH. It also describes mechanisms of early and late brain damage following subarachnoid hemorrhage. We discuss possible pharmacological prevention of the damage and laboratory models of nontraumatic SAH.

  18. [Progress in diagnosis and treatment of intracranial hypertension and hydrocephalus in children with intracranial infections].

    PubMed

    He, Fang; Peng, Jing; Yin, Fei

    2015-06-01

    Intracranial infections are one of the most common neurological diseases in children and are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Intracranial hypertension and hydrocephalus are the common, fatal complications of intracranial infections, so early diagnosis and timely treatment are the keys to saving patients' lives and reducing neurological sequelae. This paper introduces the progress in the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of intracranial hypertension and hydrocephalus in children with intracranial infections.

  19. Fetal pain?

    PubMed

    Vanhatalo, S; van Nieuwenhuizen, O

    2000-05-01

    During the last few years a vivid debate, both scientifically and emotionally, has risen in the medical literature as to whether a fetus is able to feel pain during abortion or intrauterine surgery. This debate has mainly been inspired by the demonstration of various hormonal or motor reactions to noxious stimuli at very early stages of fetal development. The aims of this paper are to review the literature on development of the pain system in the fetus, and to speculate about the relationship between "sensing" as opposed to "feeling" pain and the number of reactions associated with painful stimuli. While a cortical processing of pain theoretically becomes possible after development of the thalamo-cortical connections in the 26th week of gestation, noxious stimuli may trigger complex reflex reactions much earlier. However, more important than possible painfulness is the fact that the noxious stimuli, by triggering stress responses, most likely affect the development of an individual at very early stages. Hence, it is not reasonable to speculate on the possible emotional experiences of pain in fetuses or premature babies. A clinically relevant aim is rather to avoid and/or treat any possibly noxious stimuli, and thereby prevent their potential adverse effects on the subsequent development.

  20. Antenatal hemorrhage of a cervical lymphatic malformation presenting as a draining neck mass: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Haricharan, R N; Nawaz, M; Bettolli, M; Ferretti, E

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic malformations in the neck can present as large fetal neck masses causing airway obstructions with potential perinatal demise and can pose a therapeutic challenge. We present a rare case of prenatally diagnosed large fetal neck mass with features of lymphatic malformation with intralesional hemorrhage of uncertain origin. Postnatal evaluation showed a complex cystic-solid lesion eroding through the skin with an open wound that made it clinically hard to differentiate from a teratoma. Given that malignancy could not be completely ruled out, surgery was favored. Final pathology showed a complex lymphatic malformation with intralesional hemorrhage, despite having no associated capillary, venous or arterial malformations.

  1. Intracranial hypotension producing reversible coma: a systematic review, including three new cases.

    PubMed

    Loya, Joshua J; Mindea, Stefan A; Yu, Hong; Venkatasubramanian, Chitra; Chang, Steven D; Burns, Terry C

    2012-09-01

    Intracranial hypotension is a disorder of CSF hypovolemia due to iatrogenic or spontaneous spinal CSF leakage. Rarely, positional headaches may progress to coma, with frequent misdiagnosis. The authors review reported cases of verified intracranial hypotension-associated coma, including 3 previously unpublished cases, totaling 29. Most patients presented with headache prior to neurological deterioration, with positional symptoms elicited in almost half. Eight patients had recently undergone a spinal procedure such as lumbar drainage. Diagnostic workup almost always began with a head CT scan. Subdural collections were present in 86%; however, intracranial hypotension was frequently unrecognized as the underlying cause. Twelve patients underwent one or more procedures to evacuate the collections, sometimes with transiently improved mental status. However, no patient experienced lasting neurological improvement after subdural fluid evacuation alone, and some deteriorated further. Intracranial hypotension was diagnosed in most patients via MRI studies, which were often obtained due to failure to improve after subdural hematoma (SDH) evacuation. Once the diagnosis of intracranial hypotension was made, placement of epidural blood patches was curative in 85% of patients. Twenty-seven patients (93%) experienced favorable outcomes after diagnosis and treatment; 1 patient died, and 1 patient had a morbid outcome secondary to duret hemorrhages. The literature review revealed that numerous additional patients with clinical histories consistent with intracranial hypotension but no radiological confirmation developed SDH following a spinal procedure. Several such patients experienced poor outcomes, and there were multiple deaths. To facilitate recognition of this treatable but potentially life-threatening condition, the authors propose criteria that should prompt intracranial hypotension workup in the comatose patient and present a stepwise management algorithm to guide the

  2. Simian hemorrhagic fever virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biological pro...

  3. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  4. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2007-06-05

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  5. Natural course of intracranial arterial dissections.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Tohru

    2011-04-01

    Noninvasive neuroimaging techniques are increasingly identifying unruptured intracranial arterial dissections (IADs) at examination for headache or ischemic symptoms. Approximately 3% of cases of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are caused by IADs in Japan, but the natural history of unruptured IADs is not known. Clinical data obtained in 190 patients with 206 IADs were retrospectively analyzed on the basis of long-time follow-up of geometry and clinical event. The IADs were divided into an unruptured group and SAH group depending on the patient's clinical status at the initial diagnosis. Day 0 was defined as the day preceding diagnosis of IAD-that is, the day of symptom onset. This was retrospectively determined from the clinical history. The 206 IADs included 98 unruptured lesions and 108 SAH. In both groups, the vertebral artery was the most frequent site. In the unruptured group, 93 IADs were followed for a mean of 3.44 years. The mean interval between symptom onset (Day 0) and neuroimaging diagnosis was 9.8 days. Subsequent geometry change was seen in 78 (83.9%) of 93 IADs. Major change was almost completed within 2 months, and complete normalization was seen on neuroimaging in 17 (18.3%) of 93 IADs, with the earliest on Day 15. Rupture of the IAD in the unruptured group occurred in only 1 patient on Day 11. In the SAH group, 84 of the 108 patients complained of preceding headache before onset of SAH. In 81 (96.4%) of the 84 patients, SAH occurred on Day 0-3 with the latest on Day 11. In all patients in the unruptured and SAH groups, the latest day of SAH from the onset of preceding headache was Day 11. Most IADs causing SAH bleed within a few days of occurrence. Most IADs that are unruptured already have little risk for bleeding at diagnosis because of the repair process. Intracranial arterial dissections may be much more common than previously thought, and the majority may occur and heal without symptom manifestation.

  6. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an often-fatal disease caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family, genus Ebolavirus. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease are nonspecific, often progressing on to a severe hemorrhagic illness. Special Operations Forces Medical Providers should be aware of this disease, which occurs in sporadic outbreaks throughout Africa. Treatment at the present time is mainly supportive. Special care should be taken to prevent contact with bodily fluids of those infected, which can transmit the virus to caregivers.

  7. Assessment of fetal neurodevelopment via fetal magnetocardiography.

    PubMed

    Wakai, Ronald T

    2004-11-01

    Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) offers unique capabilities for assessment of fetal heart rate (FHR) and fetal behavior, which are fundamental aspects of neurodevelopment. The most important attribute of fMCG for FHR monitoring is its high precision, which allows accurate assessment of beat-to-beat fetal heart rate variability (FHRV), including respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Using mathematical indices to assess FHRV, we find that short- and long-term FHRV both increase during gestation but not in the same manner. The largest increases in short-term FHRV occur during the last trimester, while the largest increases in long-term FHRV occur early on, with smaller changes occurring during the last trimester. The fMCG also allows assessment of fetal activity. This results from the high sensitivity of the signal to the position and orientation of the fetal heart. FMCG actograms are therefore specific for fetal trunk movement, which are thought to be more important than isolated extremity movements and other small fetal movements. The ability to assess FHR, FHRV, and fetal trunk movement simultaneously makes fMCG a valuable tool for neurodevelopment research.

  8. Intracranial Arteries - Anatomy and Collaterals.

    PubMed

    Liebeskind, David S; Caplan, Louis R

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology are inextricably linked in patients with intracranial atherosclerosis. Knowledge of abnormal or pathological conditions such as intracranial atherosclerosis stems from detailed recognition of the normal pattern of vascular anatomy. The vascular anatomy of the intracranial arteries, both at the level of the vessel wall and as a larger structure or conduit, is a reflection of physiology over time, from in utero stages through adult life. The unique characteristics of arteries at the base of the brain may help our understanding of atherosclerotic lesions that tend to afflict specific arterial segments. Although much of the knowledge regarding intracranial arteries originates from pathology and angiography series over several centuries, evolving noninvasive techniques have rapidly expanded our perspective. As each imaging modality provides a depiction that combines anatomy and flow physiology, it is important to interpret each image with a solid understanding of typical arterial anatomy and corresponding collateral routes. Compensatory collateral perfusion and downstream flow status have recently emerged as pivotal variables in the clinical management of patients with atherosclerosis. Ongoing studies that illustrate the anatomy and pathophysiology of these proximal arterial segments across modalities will help refine our knowledge of the interplay between vascular anatomy and cerebral blood flow. Future studies may help elucidate pivotal arterial factors far beyond the degree of stenosis, examining downstream influences on cerebral perfusion, artery-to-artery thromboembolic potential, amenability to endovascular therapies and stent conformation, and the propensity for restenosis due to biophysical factors. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Amphetamine abuse and intracranial haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, N; McConachie, N S

    2000-01-01

    Amphetamines taken by any route can cause cerebral vasculitis and intracranial haemorrhage. 8 cases were seen in a neurosurgical unit over 3.5 years. The published work indicates that those who experience these complications, mainly young adults, have poor outcomes. PMID:11089483

  10. [Multiple intracranial tuberculomas in infancy].

    PubMed

    Serrano, M; Campistol, J; Chávez, B; Caritg, J; Fortuny, C; Costa, J M

    Tuberculous involvement of the CNS is most frequent in children aged between 6 months and 6 years, although it may occur at any age. It may present as meningoencephalitis, basal arachnoiditis or intracranial tuberculomas. Whilst meningitis is typical of infancy, tuberculomas and arachnoiditis are commoner in adults. It has been estimated that tuberculomas make up 3% of the cases of neurotuberculosis. The increasing use of CAT and MR has been a great help for diagnosis of this serious complication of tuberculosis. A 5 month old patient presented with tuberculous meningitis which had been treated with streptomycin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and rifampicin at the usual dosage. One month later, after good initial progress, triventricular hydrocephaly was diagnosed and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt inserted. Three months after this, there was an episode of intracranial hypertension. Cranial CAT showed considerable zones of hypodense parenchyma without ventricle dilatation. On MR there were multiple, disseminated, rounded areas which were hyperintense on T2 and compatible with intracranial tuberculomas. After fresh insertion of a ventricular shunt, the patient progressed but still had a residual right hemiparesia and retarded development. Although intracranial tuberculomas usually occur in adults, they may be seen in children following meningoencephalitis. Occasionally, following a good initial response to tuberculostatic drugs, tuberculomas appear, although not present before, as happened in our patient. This usually occurs within the first three months, and although the mechanism is unknown, it is believed to be due to the accumulation of lymphocytes and macrophages at preexisting microscopic foci when treatment is started.

  11. Intracranial tuberculoma mimicking brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Salaskar, Abhijit L; Hassaneen, Wael; Keenan, Cheryl H; Suki, Dima

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first report of an intracranial tuberculoma in an immunocompetent patient with a solid primary tumor outside the central nervous system. This case is important because the patient underwent treatment for a presumed brain metastasis, based on the knowledge that a solid extracranial primary tumor was present, but before the brain lesion pathology was determined.

  12. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to retained lumbar drain.

    PubMed

    Guppy, Kern H; Silverthorn, James W; Akins, Paul T

    2011-12-01

    Intrathecal spinal catheters (lumbar drains) are indicated for several medical and surgical conditions. In neurosurgical procedures, they are used to reduce intracranial and intrathecal pressures by diverting CSF. They have also been placed for therapeutic access to administer drugs, and more recently, vascular surgeons have used them to improve spinal cord perfusion during the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Insertion of these lumbar drains is not without attendant complications. One complication is the shearing of the distal end of the catheter with a resultant retained fragment. The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to the migration of a retained lumbar drain that sheared off during its removal. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of rostral migration of a retained intrathecal catheter causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. The authors review the literature on retained intrathecal spinal catheters, and their findings support either early removal of easily accessible catheters or close monitoring with serial imaging.

  13. Ehrlichia Meningitis Mimicking Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Dredla, Brynn

    2015-01-01

    Thunderclap headache is a sudden and severe headache that can occur after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires prompt attention and hospitalization. Patients with thunderclap headache often undergo a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) scan to ascertain SAH bleeding and, if the scan is negative, then undergo a lumbar puncture to look for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) red blood cells (RBCs), which would be consistent with an aneurysmal leak. If the initial CT is negative and CSF is positive for RBCs, patients are usually admitted to the hospital for evaluation of intracranial aneurysm. We encountered a patient with thunderclap headache whose initial head CT was negative for SAH and whose CSF tested positive for RBCs. The patient was referred to our center for evaluation and management of aneurysmal SAH. However, on careful review of the patient’s medical history, serum laboratory values, and spinal fluid values, the patient was diagnosed with Ehrlichia chaffeensis meningitis. While Ehrlichia meningitis is rare, it is important to recognize the clinical clues that could help avoid formal cerebral angiography, a costly and potentially unnecessary procedure. We present how this case represented a cognitive framing bias and anchoring heuristic as well as steps that medical providers can use to prevent such cognitive errors in diagnosis. PMID:27053985

  14. A case of embolic stroke imitating atherothrombotic brain infarction before massive hemorrhage from an infectious aneurysm caused by Streptococci.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Ryuichi; Shinoda, Jun; Irie, Seiichiro; Inoue, Koji; Sato, Teiko; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2012-11-01

    Early detection followed by treatment with antibiotics in conjunction with direct or endovascular surgery is integral in the management of patients with intracranial infectious aneurysms. These aneurysms often manifest as massive intracranial hemorrhages, which severely deteriorate the outcome. It is very important to detect infectious aneurysms before they rupture. Although usually associated with infective endocarditis, these aneurysms can occur in a variety of clinical settings. We present a case of α-Streptococcus-provoked infectious aneurysm in a patient without infective endocarditis, initially presenting as atherothrombotic-like brain infarction, before massive intracranial hemorrhage. The present case alerts clinicians to keep in mind possible development of infectious aneurysms, even in patients who appear to be suffering from atherothrombotic stoke, especially in patients presenting with signs of infection.

  15. Perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by transverse sinus thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Fang-Wang; Rao, Jie; Zheng, Yuan-Yuan; Song, Liang; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Qi-Hui; Yang, Jian-Guang; Ke, Jiang-Qiong; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (PNSAH) is characterized by a pattern of extravasated blood restricted to the perimesencephalic cisterns, normal angiographic findings, and an excellent prognosis with an uneventful course and low risks of complication. The precise etiology of bleeding in patients with PNSAH has not yet been established. The most common hypothesis is that PNSAH is venous in origin. Intracranial venous hypertension has been considered as the pivotal factor in the pathogenesis of PNSAH. The underlying venous pathology such as straight sinus stenosis, jugular vein occlusion may contribute to PNSAH. We describe a patient in whom transverse sinus thrombosis preceded intracranial venous hypertension and PNSAH. These findings supported that the source of the subarachnoid hemorrhage is venous in origin. Patient concerns and diagnoses: A 45-year-old right-handed man was admitted to the hospital with a sudden onset of severe headache associated with nausea, vomiting, and mild photophobia for 6 hours. The patient was fully conscious and totally alert. An emergency brain computed tomography (CT) revealed an acute subarachnoid hemorrhage restricted to the perimesencephalic cisterns. CT angiography revealed no evidence of an intracranial aneurysm or underlying vascular malformation. Digital subtraction angiography of arterial and capillary phases confirmed the CT angiographic findings. Assessment of the venous phase demonstrated right transverse sinus thrombosis. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). Lumbar puncture revealed an opening pressure of 360 mmH2O, suggestive of intracranial venous hypertension. Grave disease was diagnosed by endocrinological investigation. Interventions: Low-molecular-weight heparin, followed by oral warfarin, was initiated immediately as the treatment for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and PNSAH. Outcomes: The patient discharged

  16. Placental pathologies in fetal MRI with pathohistological correlation.

    PubMed

    Linduska, N; Dekan, S; Messerschmidt, A; Kasprian, G; Brugger, P C; Chalubinski, K; Weber, M; Prayer, D

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether currently available fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI/MR) techniques are sufficient for the assessment of placental pathologies. We hypothesized that placental pathologies as detected and evaluated by MRI, would correlate with histological findings. In a retrospective study, 45 singleton pregnancies from 19 to 35 gestational weeks, with placental pathologies on MR scans, were included. MRI was performed on a 1.5T unit using T2-, T1-, and diffusion-weighted and echo-planar sequences. Pathologies were categorized into infarction with/without hemorrhagic components, subchorionic/intervillous thrombi/hemorrhages, retroplacental hematoma, massive perivillous fibrin deposition, and chorioamnionitis. Pathohistological examination was performed postnatally within a median of seven days between MR examination and delivery. Pathologically, 26 placentas showed infarctions (96.2% on MR scans), two retroplacental hematomas were detected by MRI and confirmed by pathology, and 9 of 14 subchorionic hematomas were confirmed. Six of eight intervillous hemorrhages were seen on MRI, and three of six cases of severe chorioamnionitis were diagnosed prenatally. Placental hemorrhages (retroplacental hematoma, intervillous thrombi, subchorionic hematoma), and ischemic lesions could be detected with fetal MRI, while chorioamnionitis and even massive perivillous fibrin deposition showed few signal changes, probably reflecting small macroscopic changes in the placenta. Fetal MRI, therefore, seems to be a promising tool for the assessment of placental insufficiency.

  17. Intracranial hypertension: classification and patterns of evolution

    PubMed Central

    Iencean, SM

    2008-01-01

    Intracranial hypertension (ICH) was systematized in four categories according to its aetiology and pathogenic mechanisms: parenchymatous ICH with an intrinsic cerebral cause; vascular ICH, which has its aetiology in disorders of cerebral blood circulation; ICH caused by disorders of cerebro–spinal fluid dynamics and idiopathic ICH. The increase of intracranial pressure is the first to happen and then intracranial hypertension develops from this initial effect becoming symptomatic; it then acquires its individuality, surpassing the initial disease. The intracranial hypertension syndrome corresponds to the stage at which the increased intracranial pressure can be compensated and the acute form of intracranial hypertension is equivalent to a decompensated ICH syndrome. The decompensation of intracranial hypertension is a condition of instability and appears when the normal intrinsic ratio of intracranial pressure – time fluctuation is changed. The essential conditions for decompensation of intracranial hypertension are: the speed of intracranial pressure increase over normal values, the highest value of abnormal intracranial pressure and the duration of high ICP values. Medical objectives are preventing ICP from exceeding 20 mm Hg and maintaining a normal cerebral blood flow. The emergency therapy is the same for the acute form but each of the four forms of ICH has a specific therapy, according to the pathogenic mechanism and if possible to aetiology. PMID:20108456

  18. Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: clinical characteristics and management based on location and hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jung Tae; Chung, Seung Young; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Park, Ki Seok; Kim, Seong Min; Park, Moon Sun; Kim, Han Kyu

    2012-09-01

    A dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) generally refers to a vascular malformation of the wall of a major venous sinus. These lesions have diverse symptoms according to the location and venous drainage, and require multidisciplinary treatment. We report on our experience and analyze the treatment outcome of intracranial DAVFs for a nine-year period. Between January 2000 and December 2008, 95 patients with intracranial DAVFs were enrolled in this study. A retrospective review of clinical records and imaging studies of all patients was conducted. Endovascular embolization, surgical interruption, gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKS), or combinations of these treatments were performed based on clinical symptoms, lesion location, and venous drainage pattern. Borden type I, II, and III were 34, 48, and 13 patients, respectively. Aggressive presentation was reported in 6% of Borden type I, 31% of Borden type II, and 77% of Borden type III DAVFs, respectively, and DAVFs involving transverse, sigmoid, and superior sagittal sinus. Overall, the rate of complete obliteration was 68%. The complete occlusion rates with a combination treatment of endovascular embolization and surgery, surgery alone, and endovascular embolization were 89%, 86%, and 80%, respectively. When GKS was used with embolization, the obliteration rate was 83%, although it was only 54% in GKS alone. Spontaneous obliteration of the DAVF occurred in three patients. There were a few complications, including hemiparesis (in microsurgery), intracranial hemorrhage (in endovascular embolization), and facial palsy (in GKS). The hemorrhagic risk of DAVFs is dependent on the location and hemodynamics of the lesions. Strategies for treatment of intracranial DAVFs should be decided according to the characteristic of the DAVFs, based on the location and drainage pattern. GKS can be used as an optional treatment for intracranial DAVFs.

  19. Intracranial epidermoid tumor; microneurosurgical management: An experience of 23 cases

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Forhad Hossain; Haque, Mohammod Raziul; Sarker, Mainul Haque

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: An intracranial epidermoid tumor is relatively a rare tumor, accounting for approximately 0.1% of all intracranial space occupying lesions. These are also known as pearly tumor due to their pearl like appearance. In this series, the localization of the tumor, presenting age and symptoms, imaging criteria for diagnosis, surgical management strategy with completeness of excision and overall outcome were studied prospectively. Here, we report our short experience of intracranial epidermoid as a whole. Materials and Methods: Between January 2006 to December 2010, 23 cases of intracranial epidermoid were diagnosed preoperatively with almost certainty by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain in plain, contrast and other relevant studies. All of them underwent operation in Dhaka Medical College Hospital and in some Private Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. All patients were followed-up routinely by clinical examination and neuroimaging. Average follow-up was 39 (range-71-11months) months. Patients of the series were prospectively studied. Results: Supratentorial epidermoids were 04 cases and infratemporal epidermoids were 19 cases. Clinical features and surgical strategy varies according to the location and extension of the tumors. Age range was 19-71 years (37.46 years). Common clinical features were headache, cerebellar features, seizure, vertigo, hearing impairment and features of raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Investigation was CT scan or/+ MRI of brain in all cases. Pre-operative complete excision was 20 cases, but post-operative images showed complete excision in 17 cases. Content of tumor was pearly white/white material in all cases except one, where content was putty material. Re-operation for residual/recurrent tumor was nil. Complications included pre-operative mortality one case, persisted sixth nerve palsy in one case, transient memory disturbance one case, and extra dural hematoma one case. One senior patient

  20. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders with similar signs and symptoms. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders The range of consequences from drinking alcohol during pregnancy are collectively called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, as not all signs and symptoms are ...

  2. Fetal behavioral teratology.

    PubMed

    Visser, Gerard H A; Mulder, Eduard J H; Tessa Ververs, F F

    2010-10-01

    Ultrasound studies of fetal motor behavior provide direct – in vivo – insight in the functioning of the motor component of the fetal central nervous system. In this article, studies are reviewed showing changes in the first timetable of appearance of fetal movements, changes in quality and/or quantity of movements and disturbances in the development of fetal behavioral states in case of endogenous malfunctions, maternal diseases and exogenous behavioral teratogens.

  3. Birth-related retinal hemorrhages in healthy full-term newborns and their relationship to maternal, obstetric, and neonatal risk factors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Yanli; Yang, Yu; Li, Zijing; Lin, Yu; Liu, Ran; Wei, Chunyi; Ding, Xiaoyan

    2015-07-01

    The purpose was to explore underlying maternal, obstetric, and neonatal risk factors of retinal hemorrhages (RH) in healthy full-term newborns. A total of 1199 full-term infants, with gestational age more than 37 weeks and Apgar score of 7 or above, were included in this study. Infants with severe systemic diseases or any other eye diseases were excluded. Eye examinations with RetCamIII within 1 week of birth were performed in all infants. Maternal, obstetric, and neonatal parameters were analyzed and compared between newborns with RH and those without RH. RH was seen in 294 of the 1199 infants (24.5 %) in this study. Among factors examined in the study, spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) (odds ratio [OR] =3.811 [95 % CI2.649-5.483], P < 0.001) and cephalhematoma (OR = 1.823 [95 % CI1.009-3.296], P = 0.047) correlated positively with RH occurrence in newborns, while a history of cesarean delivery correlated negatively with RH occurrence (OR = 0.296 [95 % CI0.139-0.630], P = 0.002). There was no statistical correlation found between RH and the other risk factors examined in this study. These factors included gender, gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, volume, and turbidity of amniotic fluid, duration of the first or second stage of labor, anemia, hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy (HDCP), fetal distress, intracranial hemorrhage, and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. RH is common in full-term newborns. A lower prevalence of newborn RH was found in infants delivered by mothers with a history of cesarean delivery. In contrast, SVD and cephalhematoma were found to be potential risk factors for the development of newborn RH in full-term infants. Infants with these risk factors may, therefore, require greater attention in regard to RH development.

  4. Advances in fetal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pedreira, Denise Araujo Lapa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper discusses the main advances in fetal surgical therapy aiming to inform health care professionals about the state-of-the-art techniques and future challenges in this field. We discuss the necessary steps of technical evolution from the initial open fetal surgery approach until the development of minimally invasive techniques of fetal endoscopic surgery (fetoscopy). PMID:27074241

  5. Clinical implication of hemorrhagic transformation in ischemic stroke patients treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Ho, Bo-Lin; Chen, Chien-Fu; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Chao, A-Ching

    2016-11-01

    To determine the clinical implications of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after thrombolysis, 241 eligible patients receiving alteplase for acute ischemic stroke were studied. HT was classified, according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study criteria, as hemorrhagic infarction (HI) or parenchymal hemorrhage (PH). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) was defined according to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke study. A novel classification, clinically significant intracranial hemorrhage (CSICH) was defined as HTs associated with an unfavorable clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale 5-6) at 3 months. For all subtypes of HT, we found that patients receiving alteplase were more often in the standard-dose group (0.90 ± 0.02 mg/kg) than in the lower dose group (0.72 ± 0.07 mg/kg). PH and SICH were related to an unfavorable clinical outcome, while HI was not. There was a positive trend between age and CSICH in patients receiving the standard dose (P = 0.0101), and between alteplase dose and CSICH in patients ≥70 years old (P = 0.0228). All PHs (including asymptomatic PHs) and symptomatic HIs have been found to be associated with unfavorable outcome, and for this reason defined as CSICH. Independent predictors of CSICH were age ≥70 years and the standard dose of alteplase. Further studies of thrombolysis for ischemic stroke with different doses of alteplase are warranted.

  6. Raised intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, I. H.; Rowan, J. O.

    1974-01-01

    Pressure changes within the venous outflow tract from the brain were studied in anaesthetized baboons. Segmental vascular resistance changes were also calculated and the results correlated with the changes in cerebral blood flow, measured by the 133Xenon clearance method. Three different methods were used to raise intracranial pressure: cisterna magna infusion, a supratentorial subdural balloon, and an infratentorial subdural balloon. A close correlation was found between the cortical vein pressure and intracranial pressure with all methods of raising intracranial pressure: the overall correlation coefficient was 0·98. In the majority of animals sagittal sinus pressure showed little change through a wide range of intracranial pressure. In three of the six animals in the cisterna magna infusion group, however, sagittal sinus pressure increased to levels approaching the intracranial pressure during the later stages of intracranial hypertension. Jugular venous pressure showed little change with increasing intracranial pressure. The relationship between cerebral prefusion pressure and cerebral blood flow differed according to the method of increasing intracranial pressure. This was due to differing patterns of change in prevenous vascular resistance as venous resistance increased progressively with increasing pressure in all three groups. The present results confirm, therefore, the validity of the current definition of cerebral perfusion pressure—that is, cerebral perfusion pressure is equal to mean arterial pressure minus mean intracranial pressure—by demonstrating that intracranial pressure does represent the effective cerebral venous outflow pressure. Images PMID:4209160

  7. Surgical outcomes of Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism Type II with intracranial vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Teo, Mario; Johnson, Jeremiah N; Bell-Stephens, Teresa E; Marks, Michael P; Do, Huy M; Dodd, Robert L; Bober, Michael B; Steinberg, Gary K

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism Type II (MOPD II) is a rare genetic disorder. Features of it include extremely small stature, severe microcephaly, and normal or near-normal intelligence. Previous studies have found that more than 50% of patients with MOPD II have intracranial vascular anomalies, but few successful surgical revascularization or aneurysm-clipping cases have been reported because of the diminutive arteries and narrow surgical corridors in these patients. Here, the authors report on a large series of patients with MOPD II who underwent surgery for an intracranial vascular anomaly. METHODS In conjunction with an approved prospective registry of patients with MOPD II, a prospectively collected institutional surgical database of children with MOPD II and intracranial vascular anomalies who underwent surgery was analyzed retrospectively to establish long-term outcomes. RESULTS Ten patients with MOPD II underwent surgery between 2005 and 2012; 5 patients had moyamoya disease (MMD), 2 had intracranial aneurysms, and 3 had both MMD and aneurysms. Patients presented with transient ischemic attack (TIA) (n = 2), ischemic stroke (n = 2), intraparenchymal hemorrhage from MMD (n = 1), and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 1), and 4 were diagnosed on screening. The mean age of the 8 patients with MMD, all of whom underwent extracranial-intracranial revascularization (14 indirect, 1 direct) was 9 years (range 1-17 years). The mean age of the 5 patients with aneurysms was 15.5 years (range 9-18 years). Two patients experienced postoperative complications (1 transient weakness after clipping, 1 femoral thrombosis that required surgical repair). During a mean follow-up of 5.9 years (range 3-10 years), 3 patients died (1 of subarachnoid hemorrhage, 1 of myocardial infarct, and 1 of respiratory failure), and 1 patient had continued TIAs. All of the surviving patients recovered to their neurological baseline. CONCLUSIONS Patients with MMD

  8. CT angiography of intracranial aneurysms: a focus on postprocessing.

    PubMed

    Tomandl, Bernd F; Köstner, Niels C; Schempershofe, Miriam; Huk, Walter J; Strauss, Christian; Anker, Lars; Hastreiter, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) angiography is a well-known tool for detection of intracranial aneurysms and the planning of therapeutic intervention. Despite a wealth of existing studies and an increase in image quality due to use of multisection CT and increasingly sophisticated postprocessing tools such as direct volume rendering, CT angiography has still not replaced digital subtraction angiography as the standard of reference for detection of intracranial aneurysms. One reason may be that CT angiography is still not a uniformly standardized method, particularly with regard to image postprocessing. Several methods for two- and three-dimensional visualization can be used: multiplanar reformation, maximum intensity projection, shaded surface display, and direct volume rendering. Pitfalls of CT angiography include lack of visibility of small arteries, difficulty differentiating the infundibular dilatation at the origin of an artery from an aneurysm, the kissing vessel artifact, demonstration of venous structures that can simulate aneurysms, inability to identify thrombosis and calcification on three-dimensional images, and beam hardening artifacts produced by aneurysm clips. Finally, an algorithm for the safe and useful application of CT angiography in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage has been developed, which takes into account the varying quality of equipment and software at different imaging centers. Copyright RSNA, 2004

  9. Intracranial arterial stenoses: current viewpoints, novel approaches, and surgical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Nestor R; Liebeskind, David S; Dusick, Joshua R; Mayor, Fernando; Saver, Jeffrey

    2013-04-01

    Ten percent of all strokes occurring in the USA are caused by intracranial arterial stenosis (IAS). Symptomatic IAS carries one of the highest rates of recurrent stroke despite intensive medical therapy (25 % in high-risk groups). Clinical results for endovascular angioplasty and stenting have been disappointing. The objectives of this study were to review the contemporary understanding of symptomatic IAS and present potential alternative treatments to resolve factors not addressed by current therapies. We performed a literature review on IAS pathophysiology, natural history, and current treatment. We present an evaluation of the currently deficient aspects in its treatment and explore the role of alternative surgical approaches. There is a well-documented interrelation between hemodynamic and embolic factors in cerebral ischemia caused by IAS. Despite the effectiveness of medical therapy, hemodynamic factors are not addressed satisfactorily by medications alone. Collateral circulation and severity of stenosis are the strongest predictors of risk for stroke and death. Indirect revascularization techniques, such as encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis, offer an alternative treatment to enhance collateral circulation while minimizing risk of hemorrhage associated with hyperemia and endovascular manipulation, with promising results in preliminary studies on chronic cerebrovascular occlusive disease. Despite improvements in medical management for IAS, relevant aspects of its pathophysiology are not resolved by medical treatment alone, such as poor collateral circulation. Surgical indirect revascularization can improve collateral circulation and play a role in the treatment of this condition. Further formal evaluation of indirect revascularization for IAS is a logical and worthy step in the development of intracranial atherosclerosis treatment strategies.

  10. Angioplasty or Stenting of Extra- and Intracranial Vertebral Artery Stenoses

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, Elke A.M.; Gissler, H. Martin; Drescher, Robert; Jansen, Christian; Jaeger, Horst J.; Mathias, Klaus D.

    2004-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility and safety of angioplasty or angioplasty and stenting of extra- and intracranial vertebral artery (VA) stenosis. Methods: In 16 consecutive patients (9 men, 7 women; mean age 61 years, range 49-74 years) 16 stenotic VAs were treated with angioplasty orangioplasty and stenting. Eleven stenoses were localized in V1 segment,1 stenosis in V2 segment and 4 stenoses in V4 segment of VA. Fourteen VA stenoses were symptomatic, 2 asymptomatic. The etiology of the stenoses was atherosclerotic in all cases. Results:Angioplasty was performed in 8 of 11 V1 and 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA. In 3 of 11 V1 segments and 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA we combined angioplasty with stenting. The procedures were successfully performed in 14 of 16 VAs (87%). Complications were asymptomatic vessel dissection resulting in vessel occlusion in 1 of 11 V1 segments and asymptomatic vessel dissection in 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA. One patient died in the 24-hr period after the procedure because of subarachnoid hemorrhage as a complication following vessel perforation of the treated V4 segment. Conclusion: Angioplasty orangioplasty and stenting of extracranial VA stenoses can be performed with a high technical success rate and a low complication rate. In intracranial VA stenosis the procedure is technically feasible but complications can be life-threatening. The durability and procedural complication rates of primary stenting without using predilation in extra- and intracranial VA stenosis should be defined in the future.

  11. Streptococcus Mutans: A Potential Risk Factor in Recurrent Hemorrhagic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Yasaman; Dahbour, Layth; Alnemari, Ahmed; Jumaa, Mouhammad; Schroeder, Jason L

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death and is responsible for approximately nine percent of all deaths worldwide. Cases of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans)-induced intracerebral hemorrhage as a result of bloodstream infections have seldom been reported. New reports show that bacteria with specific collagen binding proteins (CBPs), such as the Cnm type produced by S. mutans, may inhibit platelet aggregation and cause bleeding. In this article, we report on a 62-year-old man with a recent history of left frontal intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) who presented to the emergency department after a fall due to suspected seizure while in rehabilitation. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain showed a right cerebellar hemorrhage with surrounding edema and mass effect on the fourth ventricle. A suboccipital craniotomy to evacuate the cerebellar ICH was completed without complication. Radiologic and angiographic assessments regarding the etiology of this patient’s stroke did not reveal any evidence of vascular pathology or mycotic aneurysms to explain his recurrent intracranial hemorrhages. Through persistent patient and family interviews, it came to light that a few weeks prior to the patient’s first ICH, he was diagnosed with a bloodstream infection by S. mutans. Bacteremia is known to be associated with embolic stroke, but only recently has it been shown that bacteremia can also be implicated in hemorrhagic stroke. S. mutans of the k serotype have specific CBPs that are attracted to exposed collagen in previously damaged small vessel walls. These bacterial proteins can interrupt the blood clotting cascade through the prevention of platelet aggregation, increasing the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:28652948

  12. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is one of the most important viral diseases of finfish worldwide. In the past, VHS was thought to affect mainly rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared at freshwater facilities in Western Europe where it was known by various names including Egtved disease and infectious kidney swelling and liver degeneration (Wolf 1988). Today, VHS is known as an important source of mortality for cultured and wild fish in freshwater and marine environments in several regions of the northern hemisphere (Dixon 1999; Gagné et al. 2007; Kim and Faisal 2011; Lumsden et al. 2007; Marty et al. 1998, 2003; Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005b; Smail 1999; Takano et al. 2001). Viral hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by the fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae

  13. Acral Hemorrhagic Darier Disease.

    PubMed

    Flores-Terry, M Á; García-Arpa, M; Llamas-Velasco, M; Mendoza-Chaparro, C; Ramos-Rodríguez, C

    2017-09-01

    Darier disease is an autosomal-dominant inherited condition caused by mutation of a gene, which produces a protein involved in calcium channel regulation. The disease has a variety of manifestations and lacks consistent genotype-phenotype correlations. Acral hemorrhagic Darier disease causes macules, papules, vesicles and/or hemorrhagic blisters on the extremities. Other classic signs of the disease may be present in the same patient or relatives. Histopathology reveals dyskeratosis and suprabasal acantholysis with hemorrhagic lacunae. We report 3 new cases of this type of Darier disease triggered by injuries. Response to retinoid therapy was good. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Fetal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Turner, Christopher G B; Fauza, Dario O

    2009-06-01

    Attempts at harnessing the prospective benefits of the therapeutic use of fetal cells or tissues date many decades before the modern era of transplantation. The first reported transplantation of human fetal tissue took place in 1922. Fetal cells or tissues also have been used as helpful investigational tools since the 1930s. Still, it was only in the last three decades that fetal tissue transplantation in people has started to lead to favorable outcomes, yet by and large anecdotally. This article offers an outlook on a relatively new dimension in fetal cell-based therapies, namely the engineering of tissues in the laboratory, along with its prospective applications.

  15. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: pseudotumor cerebri.

    PubMed

    Kosmorsky, Gregory S

    2014-02-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is most often diagnosed in young obese females of childbearing years. The diagnosis is made based on the modified Dandy criteria and the exclusion of alternate causes of raised intracranial pressure. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the diagnosis and treatment options for patients with IIH. There are long-term consequences for patients experiencing IIH, with visual loss being the most serious. We conclude that the diagnosis of IIH is not usually difficult. An ophthalmologic examination is essential in patients with IIH to monitor visual function. A neurologist or neurosurgeon may be needed at some point for medical and/or surgical intervention. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  16. The fetal dandy walker complex: associated anomalies, perinatal outcome and postnatal imaging.

    PubMed

    Harper, Terry; Fordham, Lynn Ansley; Wolfe, Honor M

    2007-01-01

    This study compares the diagnostic accuracy of prenatal ultrasound with postnatal imaging and evaluates for associated fetal anomalies and their impact on immediate neonatal outcome in fetal Dandy Walker complex (DWC). Cases of fetal DWC diagnosed in a single ultrasound unit from January 2000 through July 2004 were reviewed for associated fetal anomalies, fetal karyotype, immediate neonatal outcome and postnatal head imaging. A total of 55 fetuses with DWC were identified. Of liveborn cases, postnatal imaging confirmed prenatal intracranial findings in 50% of Dandy Walker variant (DWV) and 100% of Dandy Walker malformation (DWM), with additional central nervous system findings noted in 21% of all cases. Additional fetal anomalies were seen in 26/40 (65%) cases of DWV and 15/15 (100%) cases of DWM. Immediate neonatal survival was predicted by karyotype and associated fetal anomalies. The sonographic diagnosis of fetal DWM is accurate. Significant discrepancies exist in prenatal and postnatal diagnosis of DWV. Comprehensive fetal ultrasound and karyotype should be offered for all fetuses with DWC. Postnatal imaging should be performed on all fetal DWC. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... was first recognized in 1967, when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred simultaneously in laboratories in Marburg and Frankfurt, ...

  18. Endotoxin has acute and chronic effects on the cerebral circulation of fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Feng, Susan Y S; Phillips, David J; Stockx, Elaine M; Yu, Victor Y H; Walker, Adrian M

    2009-03-01

    We studied the impact of endotoxemia on cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral vascular resistance (CVR), and cerebral oxygen transport (O(2) transport) in fetal sheep. We hypothesized that endotoxemia impairs CBF regulation and O(2) transport, exposing the brain to hypoxic-ischemic injury. Responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 microg/kg iv on 3 consecutive days, n = 9) or normal saline (n = 5) were studied. Of LPS-treated fetuses, five survived and four died; in surviving fetuses, transient cerebral vasoconstriction at 0.5 h (DeltaCVR approximately +50%) was followed by vasodilatation maximal at 5-6 h (DeltaCVR approximately -50%) when CBF had increased (approximately +60%) despite reduced ABP (approximately -20%). Decreased CVR and increased CBF persisted 24 h post-LPS and the two subsequent LPS infusions. Cerebral O(2) transport was sustained, although arterial O(2) saturation was reduced (P < 0.05). Histological evidence of neuronal injury was found in all surviving LPS-treated fetuses; one experienced grade IV intracranial hemorrhage. Bradykinin-induced cerebral vasodilatation (DeltaCVR approximately -20%, P < 0.05) was abolished after LPS. Fetuses that died post-LPS (n = 4) differed from survivors in three respects: CVR did not fall, CBF did not rise, and O(2) transport fell progressively. In conclusion, endotoxin disrupts the cerebral circulation in two phases: 1) acute vasoconstriction (1 h) and 2) prolonged vasodilatation despite impaired endothelial dilatation (24 h). In surviving fetuses, LPS causes brain injury despite cerebral O(2) transport being maintained by elevated cerebral perfusion; thus sustained O(2) transport does not prevent brain injury in endotoxemia. In contrast, cerebral hypoperfusion and reduced O(2) transport occur in fetuses destined to die, emphasizing the importance of sustaining O(2) transport for survival.

  19. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: beyond aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Marder, Carrie P; Narla, Vinod; Fink, James R; Tozer Fink, Kathleen R

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) typically prompts a search for an underlying ruptured saccular aneurysm, which is the most common nontraumatic cause. Depending on the clinical presentation and pattern of SAH, the differential diagnosis may include a diverse group of causes other than aneurysm rupture. For the purposes of this review, we classify SAH into three main patterns, defined by the distribution of blood on unenhanced CT: diffuse, perimesencephalic, and convexal. The epicenter of the hemorrhage further refines the differential diagnosis and guides subsequent imaging. Additionally, we review multiple clinical conditions that can simulate the appearance of SAH on CT or MRI, an imaging artifact known as pseudo-SAH.

  20. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    AD-A<m 761 KOREA UNIV SEOUL COLL OF MEDICINE KOREAN HEM0RRHA6IC FEVER.(U) MAR 80 H W LEE UNCLASSIFIED ICFI F/6 6/5 DAM017-79-6-9<*55 NL...I» > I,,iu. •Uli ••-. SUMMARY There were 364 hospitalized cases of Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) in 1979 in Korea . Lee et al...STANDARDS-1963-A ?H "LEVEtf® AD <o KOREAN HEMORRHAGIC F EVER A D A 09 47 Final Report HO WANG LEE, M. D. March 1980 i MIL. IIB«I . Mm k iw

  1. Frameless single-isocenter intensity modulated stereotactic radiosurgery for simultaneous treatment of multiple intracranial metastases.

    PubMed

    Lau, Steven K M; Zhao, Xiao; Carmona, Ruben; Knipprath, Erik; Simpson, Daniel R; Nath, Sameer K; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Hattangadi, Jona A; Chen, Clark C; Murphy, Kevin T

    2014-08-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is well accepted treatment for patients with intracranial metastases, but the role of frameless radiosurgery is not well defined. Here, we describe our clinical experience applying a novel single-isocenter technique to frameless intensity modulated stereotactic radiosurgery (IMRS) for simultaneous treatment of multiple intracranial metastases. Between 2006 and 2012, 100 consecutive patients received frameless IMRS for multiple intracranial metastases using a single, centrally-located isocenter. Among these, 29 patients were treated for progressive or recurrent intracranial disease. A total of 465 metastases (median, 4 per patient, range, 2-18) were treated to a median dose of 20 Gy (range, 15-50 Gy). Follow-up including clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) occurred every 3 months. Median follow-up for all patients was 4.3 months (range, 0.2-58.3 months), with 83 patients (83.0%) followed until their death. For the remaining 17 patients alive at the time of analysis, median follow-up was 9.2 months (range, 2.2-58.3 months). Overall survival at 6 months was 49.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 35.3-63.6%]. Local control at 6 and 12 months was 88.9% (95% CI, 79.1-98.6%) and 81.5% (95% CI, 65.2-97.7%), respectively. Regional failure was observed in 39 patients (39%), and 25 patients (25%) received salvage therapy. Grade 3 or greater treatment-related toxicity was observed in 4 patients (4%) and included intracranial hemorrhage, seizure, and radionecrosis. Median total treatment time was 17.2 minutes (range, 2.8-55.3 minutes). Single-isocenter IMRS for multiple intracranial metastases can produce clinical outcomes comparable to those of conventional radiosurgery techniques.

  2. Frameless single-isocenter intensity modulated stereotactic radiosurgery for simultaneous treatment of multiple intracranial metastases

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Steven K. M.; Zhao, Xiao; Carmona, Ruben; Knipprath, Erik; Simpson, Daniel R.; Nath, Sameer K.; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Hattangadi, Jona A.; Chen, Clark C.; Murphy, Kevin T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is well accepted treatment for patients with intracranial metastases, but the role of frameless radiosurgery is not well defined. Here, we describe our clinical experience applying a novel single-isocenter technique to frameless intensity modulated stereotactic radiosurgery (IMRS) for simultaneous treatment of multiple intracranial metastases. Methods and materials Between 2006 and 2012, 100 consecutive patients received frameless IMRS for multiple intracranial metastases using a single, centrally-located isocenter. Among these, 29 patients were treated for progressive or recurrent intracranial disease. A total of 465 metastases (median, 4 per patient, range, 2–18) were treated to a median dose of 20 Gy (range, 15–50 Gy). Follow-up including clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) occurred every 3 months. Results Median follow-up for all patients was 4.3 months (range, 0.2–58.3 months), with 83 patients (83.0%) followed until their death. For the remaining 17 patients alive at the time of analysis, median follow-up was 9.2 months (range, 2.2–58.3 months). Overall survival at 6 months was 49.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 35.3–63.6%]. Local control at 6 and 12 months was 88.9% (95% CI, 79.1–98.6%) and 81.5% (95% CI, 65.2–97.7%), respectively. Regional failure was observed in 39 patients (39%), and 25 patients (25%) received salvage therapy. Grade 3 or greater treatment-related toxicity was observed in 4 patients (4%) and included intracranial hemorrhage, seizure, and radionecrosis. Median total treatment time was 17.2 minutes (range, 2.8–55.3 minutes). Conclusions Single-isocenter IMRS for multiple intracranial metastases can produce clinical outcomes comparable to those of conventional radiosurgery techniques. PMID:25821723

  3. Early posttraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage due to dissecting aneurysms in three children.

    PubMed

    Kneyber, M C J; Rinkel, G J E; Ramos, L M P; Tulleken, C A F; Braun, K P J

    2005-11-22

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to a ruptured saccular aneurysm is uncommon in children. Pediatric traumatic aneurysms have been reported relatively frequently, tending to bleed after an interval of weeks after head injury. The authors describe three children with acute SAH after head injury caused by intracranial dissecting aneurysms. When head trauma in children is complicated by SAH in basal cisterns, dissecting aneurysms should be considered and treated, because rebleeding may occur.

  4. Trends in postpartum hemorrhage from 2000 to 2009: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Postpartum hemorrhage, a major cause of maternal death and severe maternal morbidity, increased in frequency in Canada between 1991 and 2004. We carried out a study to describe the epidemiology of postpartum hemorrhage in British Columbia, Canada, between 2000 and 2009. Methods The study population included all women residents of British Columbia who delivered between 2000 and 2009. Data on postpartum hemorrhage by subtypes and severity were obtained from the British Columbia Perinatal Data Registry. Among women with postpartum hemorrhage, severe cases were identified by the use of blood transfusions or procedures to control bleeding. Rates of postpartum hemorrhage and changes over time were assessed using rates, rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The rate of postpartum hemorrhage increased by 27% (95% CI 21-34%) between 2000 and 2009 (from 6.3% to 8.0%), while atonic postpartum hemorrhage rates increased by 33% (95% CI 26-41%) from 4.8% to 6.4%. Atonic postpartum hemorrhage with blood transfusion increased from 17.8 to 25.5 per 10,000 deliveries from 2000 to 2009 and atonic postpartum hemorrhage with either suturing of the uterus, ligation of pelvic vessels or embolization increased from 1.8 to 5.6 per 10,000 deliveries from 2001 to 2009. The increase in atonic postpartum hemorrhage was most evident between 2006 and 2009 and occurred across regions, hospitals and various maternal, fetal and obstetric characteristics. Conclusions Atonic postpartum hemorrhage and severe atonic postpartum hemorrhage increased in British Columbia between 2000 and 2009. Further research is required to identify the cause of the increase. PMID:23057683

  5. Intraoperative rupture in the surgical treatment of patients with intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Chen, S F; Kato, Y; Kumar, A; Tan, G W; Oguri, D; Oda, J; Watabe, T; Imizu, S; Sano, H; Wang, Z X

    2016-12-01

    Intraoperative rerupture (IOR) during clipping of cerebral aneurysms is a difficult complication of microneurosurgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of IOR and analyze the strategies for controlling profound hemorrhage. A total of 165 patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms and 46 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) treated surgically between April 2010 and March 2011, were reviewed. The data were collected with regard to age, sex, presence of symptoms, confounding factors and strategy for controlling intraoperative hemorrhage was analyzed in terms of location of aneurysms, timing of rupture and severity of IOR. 211 patients with 228 aneurysms were treated in this series. There were a total of six IORs which represented an IOR rate of 2.84% per patient and 2.63% per aneurysm. The highest ruptures rates occurred in patients with internal carotid artery aneurysms (25%). Surgeries in the group with ruptured aneurysms had a much higher rate of IOR compared with surgeries in the group with unruptured aneurysms. Of the six IOR aneurysms, one occurred during predissection, four during microdissection and one during clipping. One was major IOR, three were moderate and two were minor. Intraoperative rupture of an intracranial aneurysm can be potentially devastating in vascular neurosurgery. Aneurysm location, presence of SAH and surgical experience of the operating surgeon seem to be important factors affecting the incidence of IOR.

  6. Hemorrhagic Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chris Y; Riangwiwat, Tanawan; Nakamoto, Beau K

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) may be associated with viral triggers, including both infections and vaccinations. We present a case of a healthy immunocompetent 33-year-old woman who developed a hemorrhagic LETM 2 weeks after seasonal influenza vaccination. Hemorrhagic LETM has not to our knowledge been reported after influenza vaccination. It may represent a forme fruste variant of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis.

  7. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever (Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    RD-RI55 255 KOREAN HEMORRHAGIC FEVER (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL 11 SYNDROME (HFRS))(U) KOREA UNIV SEOUL DEPT OF MICROBIOLOGY H U LEE RUG 83 DRMDi...the first time in Korea (4,13). WHO has recently adapted to call Korean hemorrhagic fever and clinically similar diseases with a different name, HFRS...AD_______ I •. KOREAN HEMORRHAGIC FEVER • (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME (HFRS)) I Final Report 0 In HO WANG LEE, M.D. August 1983 Supported by U.S

  8. Ten-year clinical epidemiological trends of intracerebral hemorrhage in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Pengcheng; Eckermann, Jan M; Qin, Xinyue; Zhang, John H

    2010-10-01

    The combination of an increase in aged population and adaptation of Western lifestyle is modifying the epidemiological status of intracerebral hemorrhage in China. The purpose of this study is to analyse and characterize the changing trends of intracerebral hemorrhage in Chongqing, the largest city in Southwest China, over the past 10 years. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients diagnosed with intracerebral hemorrhage who visited the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from 1 January 1998 to 31 December 1998 and from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2008, respectively. Relevant variable information of these two populations for the two time periods was compared and discussed. There were a total of 404 intracerebral hemorrhage patients who met the study criteria and registered in the First Affiliated Hospital in 1998 (128 cases) and 2008 (276 cases). The highest incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage was noted in the 1960s and 1970s age groups. The mean onset age of intracerebral hemorrhage was 2·65 years older in 2008 compared to 1998, specifically 2·10 years older for men and 3·38 years for women. In 1998, male intracerebral hemorrhage patients outnumbered female patients (1·42:1). This gender disproportion became higher in 2008 (1·63:1). Hypertension accounts for the highest proportion of all risk factors. The number of patients had minimally invasive interventions (intracranial hematoma drainage) was increased, and the in-hospital mortality rate decreased to 14·13% in 2008 from 19·53% in 1998. We identified changes in population characteristics of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage during a period of economic development in China. These changes in patterns of intracerebral hemorrhage have raised new challenges and the needs for priority adjustment in the campaign for intracerebral hemorrhage prevention in China and other developing countries.

  9. The Safety and Efficacy of Triple Antiplatelet Therapy after Intracranial Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Iko, Minoru; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Mitsutake, Takahumi; Eto, Ayumu; Nii, Kouhei; Nakai, Kanji; Oishi, Hiromichi; Aikawa, Hiroshi; Kazekawa, Kiyoshi

    2015-07-01

    Stent-assisted coil embolization is effective for intracranial aneurysms, especially for wide-necked aneurysms; however, the optimal antiplatelet regimens for postoperative ischemic events have not yet been established. We aimed at determining the efficacy and safety of a triple antiplatelet therapy regimen after intracranial stent-assisted coil embolization. We retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent stent-assisted coil embolization for unruptured intracranial aneurysms or during the chronic phase of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm (≥ 4 weeks after subarachnoid hemorrhage onset). We recorded the incidence of ischemic and bleeding events 140 days postoperatively. We assessed 79 cases in patients who received either dual (n = 51) or triple (n = 28) antiplatelet therapy. The duration of triple antiplatelet therapy was 49 ± 29 days. Seven patients in the dual group experienced postoperative ischemic events. Compared to the dual group, the triple group had a similar incidence of postoperative bleeding events but a significantly lower incidence of postoperative ischemic events (P < .05). Triple antiplatelet therapy had a significantly lower incidence of postoperative ischemic events and a similar incidence of postoperative bleeding events 140 days postoperatively. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prognosis and safety of anticoagulation in intracranial artery dissections in adults.

    PubMed

    Metso, Tiina M; Metso, Antti J; Helenius, Johanna; Haapaniemi, Elena; Salonen, Oili; Porras, Matti; Hernesniemi, Juha; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2007-06-01

    To characterize different forms of intracranial artery dissections (IADs), and to test the assumption that IADs are frequently associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and poor outcome, and that anticoagulant therapy is contraindicated in these patients. We studied 81 consecutive non-SAH IAD patients and 22 IAD patients with SAH, diagnosed between 1994 and 2004 and 1998 and 2004, respectively, and treated the former patients immediately with heparin, followed with at least 3 months of warfarin. Outcomes were recorded at 3 months. Approximately one-third of all cervicocephalic artery dissections were identifiably either completely located intracranially or extended into the intracranial space. At 3 months, 64 of the 81 non-SAH patients (79%) had a favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale, 0 to 2); 1 patient died of brain infarction in the acute stage. Only 1 aneurysm developed during follow-up in the non-SAH group, and no intracranial bleeding was observed during anticoagulant treatment. Those presenting with SAH formed approximately 25% of all IADs, and 21 cases out of 22 (95%) were associated with ruptured fusiform dissecting aneurysm. This latter group displayed significantly worse outcomes: 7 died, and only 7 had modified Rankin Scale 0 to 2 at 3 months. Our results provide important information for clinical practice. IADs appear to polarize into 2 groups: (1) nonaneurysmatic IADs presenting without SAH that are associated with favorable outcomes and safe anticoagulant therapy; and (2) aneurysmatic IADs, characterized by SAH and poorer prognosis. Literature on IADs may have been biased toward group 2.

  11. Periprocedural management of patients with endovascular treatment of intracranial atherosclerotic disease.

    PubMed

    Zaidat, Osama O

    2009-10-01

    Clinical outcome in endovascular therapy of intracranial atherosclerosis with stenting and angioplasty or angioplasty alone is dependent on multiple other factors beside the procedure itself. Preprocedure combined antiplatelet administration of aspirin and clopidogrel and its duration is critical. Preferably, this should be administered 5-7 days prior to the intended procedure and 90 days after the stent placement is preferred. Anticoagulation during the procedure is implemented routinely in the neurointerventional labs during intracranial intervention, with a goal of activated clotting time between 250 to 300 seconds. The preferred agent is unfractionated heparin as an intravenous bolus of 70-80 units/kg, without postprocedure reversal in most cases. Control of blood pressure intraprocedure and in the neurointensive care unit to avoid intracranial hemorrhage and hyperperfusion injury is of paramount significance. The preferred blood pressure is not well known, but lowering the blood pressure below the baseline after luminal gain with stenting would be recommended to prevent secondary injury. The use of general anesthesia versus local and monitored awake anesthesia is controversial and there are no data to support one method over another in cases of intracranial atherosclerosis interventional and endovascular therapy. If the patient is cooperative and would be able to tolerate the procedure under awake anesthesia, the latter would provide an immediate assessment of the neurological outcome and feedback from the patient. However, general anesthesia would provide the interventionalist with less movement artifact and less road mapping need and immediate and accurate assessment of the location of the microwire, catheter, and stent.

  12. Diffuse non-aneurysmal SAH in spontaneous intracranial hypotension: Sequela of ventral CSF leak?

    PubMed

    Schievink, Wouter I; Maya, M Marcel

    2016-05-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension due to a spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak has become a well-recognized cause of headaches. Recently, various unusual neurological syndromes have been described in such patients with chronic ventral CSF leaks, including superficial siderosis and an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like syndrome. The authors now report two patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension due to a chronic ventral CSF leak who suffered a diffuse non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A 62-year-old woman underwent uneventful microsurgical repair of a ventral thoracic CSF leak that had been present for 13 years. Seventeen months after surgery, she was found unresponsive and CT showed a diffuse intracranial SAH. Cerebral angiography and spine and brain MRI did not reveal a source of the SAH. A 73-year-old woman was found unresponsive and CT showed a diffuse intracranial SAH. Cerebral angiography and brain MRI did not reveal a source of the SAH, although superficial siderosis was detected. Spine MRI showed a ventral thoracic CSF leak that by history had been present for 41 years. She underwent uneventful microsurgical repair of the CSF leak. The authors suggest that patients with a ventral spinal CSF leak of long duration may be at risk of diffuse non-aneurysmal SAH. © International Headache Society 2015.

  13. Clinical review: Hemorrhagic shock

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Reines, H David; Wulf-Gutierrez, Marian E

    2004-01-01

    This review addresses the pathophysiology and treatment of hemorrhagic shock – a condition produced by rapid and significant loss of intravascular volume, which may lead sequentially to hemodynamic instability, decreases in oxygen delivery, decreased tissue perfusion, cellular hypoxia, organ damage, and death. Hemorrhagic shock can be rapidly fatal. The primary goals are to stop the bleeding and to restore circulating blood volume. Resuscitation may well depend on the estimated severity of hemorrhage. It now appears that patients with moderate hypotension from bleeding may benefit by delaying massive fluid resuscitation until they reach a definitive care facility. On the other hand, the use of intravenous fluids, crystalloids or colloids, and blood products can be life saving in those patients who are in severe hemorrhagic shock. The optimal method of resuscitation has not been clearly established. A hemoglobin level of 7–8 g/dl appears to be an appropriate threshold for transfusion in critically ill patients with no evidence of tissue hypoxia. However, maintaining a higher hemoglobin level of 10 g/dl is a reasonable goal in actively bleeding patients, the elderly, or individuals who are at risk for myocardial infarction. Moreover, hemoglobin concentration should not be the only therapeutic guide in actively bleeding patients. Instead, therapy should be aimed at restoring intravascular volume and adequate hemodynamic parameters. PMID:15469601

  14. Major obstetric hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Frederic J; Van de Velde, Marc

    2008-03-01

    Major obstetric hemorrhage remains the leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide, and is associated with a high rate of substandard care. A well-defined and multidisciplinary approach that aims to act quickly and avoid omissions or conflicting strategies is key. The most common etiologies of hemorrhage are abruptio placenta, placenta previa/accreta, uterine rupture in the antepartum period and retained placenta, uterine atony, and genital-tract trauma in the postpartum period. Basic treatment of postpartum hemorrhage relies on manual removal of the placenta or manual exploration of the uterus plus bladder emptying and oxytocin administration. If this does not arrest bleeding, or if there is any suspicion of genital-tract trauma, examination of the vagina and cervix with appropriate valves and analgesia/anesthesia must follow quickly. Postpartum uterine atony resistant to oxytocin must be treated with prostaglandin within 15 to 30 minutes; uterine balloon tamponade can be also useful at this stage. Aggressive transfusion therapy and resuscitation are mandatory in major obstetric hemorrhage. Specific invasive treatment must be considered within no more than 30 to 60 minutes, if previous measures have failed -- and even earlier in some particular etiologies. The two main options are radiologic embolization and surgical artery ligations. Recombinant factor VIIa may also be considered, but should not delay the performance of a life-saving procedure such as embolization or surgery. Hysterectomy must be implemented when all other interventions have failed.

  15. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) occurred for the first time in Korea , 1951, although it had previously been known to both the Japanese and Russians...After Korean war, the disease has been fixed in the areas of DMZ as an endemic one, and from 100 to 400 cases have been being reportee every year

  16. Delayed Intraparenchymal and Intraventricular Hemorrhage Requiring Surgical Evacuation after MRI-Guided Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy for Lesional Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sean M; Tomycz, Luke; George, Timothy; Clarke, Dave F; Lee, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage is a rare complication of laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT). To present a unique case of delayed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurring after a LITT procedure for epilepsy in a high-volume center (68 LITT procedures for pediatric epilepsy have been performed). An 18-year-old male with epilepsy underwent LITT to an area of heterotopia near the right lateral ventricle. He did well initially and was discharged home on postoperative day 1 but returned on postoperative day 9 with headache and left hemiparesis. He was found to have intraparenchymal and intraventricular hemorrhage in the region of the LITT catheter tract. CT angiography on admission revealed a small vascular abnormality near the focus of hemorrhage suspicious for pseudoaneurysm, although conventional angiography was negative. The patient declined neurologically and underwent craniotomy and hemorrhage evacuation. He eventually convalesced and was discharged to inpatient rehabilitation with persistent left hemiparesis. He has been seizure free since the intervention but remains on antiepileptic drugs. Evidence from the literature suggests that the pathophysiology of symptomatic hemorrhage after LITT may be related to vascular injury and pseudoaneurysm formation from LITT catheter placement and/or thermal injury from the ablation itself. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. [Dolichoectatic intracranial arteries. Advances in images and therapeutics].

    PubMed

    Casas Parera, I; Abruzzi, M; Lehkuniec, E; Schuster, G; Muchnik, S

    1995-01-01

    Dolichoectasia of intracranial arteries is an infrequent disease with an incidence less than 0.05% in general population. It represents 7% of all intracranial aneurysms. Commonly seen in middle age patients with severe atherosclerosis and hypertension, the affected arteries include the basilar artery, supraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery, middle, anterior and posterior cerebral arteries; males are more frequently affected. The clinical features of these fusiform aneurysms are divided in three categories: ische-mic, cranial nerve compression and signs from mass effect. Hemorrhage may also occur. Nine patients with symptomatic cerebral blood vessel dolichoectasias are presented. Six of them were males with moderate or severe hypertension. Lesions were confined to the basilar artery in 3 cases, carotid arteries and the middle cerebral artery in 1 case, and both systems were affected in 4 patients. Middle cerebral arteries were affected in 5 cases and the anterior cerebral artery in one. An isolated fusiform aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery is also presented (case 8) (Table 3). Motor or sensory deficits, ataxia, dementia, hemifacial spasm and parkinsonism were observed. One patient died from cerebro-meningeal hemorrhage (Table 2). All patients were studied with computerized axial tomography of the brain, 5 cases with four vessel cerebral angiography, 4 cases with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and case 5 with MRI angiography. Clinical symptoms depend on the affected vascular territory, size of the aneurysm and compression of adjacent structures. The histopathologic findings are atheromatous lesions, disruption of the internal elastic membrane and fibrosis of the muscular wall. The resultant is a diffuse deficiency of the muscular wall and the internal elastic membrane. Recent advances in neuroimaging such as better resolution of CT scan, magnetic resonance images (MRI) and MRI angiography increased the diagnosis of this pathology showing

  18. Multiple intracranial aneurysms and moyamoya disease associated with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II: surgical considerations.

    PubMed

    Waldron, James S; Hetts, Steven W; Armstrong-Wells, Jennifer; Dowd, Christopher F; Fullerton, Heather J; Gupta, Nalin; Lawton, Michael T

    2009-11-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is a rare genetic syndrome characterized by extremely small stature and microcephaly, and is associated in 25% of patients with intracranial aneurysms and moyamoya disease. Although aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and stroke are leading causes of morbidity and death in these patients, MOPD II is rarely examined in the neurosurgical literature. The authors report their experience with 3 patients who presented with MOPD II, which includes a patient with 8 aneurysms (the most aneurysms reported in the literature), and the first report of a patient with both moyamoya disease and multiple aneurysms. The poor natural history of these lesions indicates aggressive microsurgical and/or endovascular therapy. Microsurgery, whether for aneurysm clip placement or extracranial-intracranial bypass, is challenging due to tight surgical corridors and diminutive arteries in these patients, but is technically feasible and strongly indicated when multiple aneurysms must be treated or cerebral revascularization is needed.

  19. Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after intracranial stenting of the middle cerebral artery

    PubMed Central

    Maramattom, Boby Varkey

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is a rare complication following cerebral revascularization. It presents with ipsilateral headache, seizures, and intracerebral hemorrhage. It has mostly been described following extracranial carotid endarterectomy and stenting and it is very unusual after intracranial stenting. A 71-year-old man with a stuttering stroke was taken up for a cerebral angiogram (digital subtraction angiography), which showed a dissection of the distal left middle cerebral artery. This was recanalized with a solitaire AB stent. After 12 h, the patient developed a right hemiplegia and aphasia. Computed tomography brain showed two discrete intracerebral hematomas in the left hemisphere. This is the first reported case of CHS following intracranial stenting from India. PMID:27829722

  20. Clinical results of stereotactic heavy-charged-particle radiosurgery for intracranial angiographically occult vascular malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Phillips, M.H.; Frankel, K.A.; Steinberg, G.K.; Marks, M.P.; DeLaPaz, R.L.; Chuang, F.Y.S.; Lyman, J.T.

    1989-12-01

    Angiographically occult vascular malformations (AOVMs) of the brain have been recognized for many years to cause neurologic morbidity and mortality. They generally become symptomatic due to intracranial hemorrhage, focal mass effect, seizures or headaches. The true incidence of AOVMs is unknown, but autopsy studies suggest that they are more common than high-flow angiographically demonstrable arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We have developed stereotactic heavy-charged-particle Bragg peak radiosurgery for the treatment of inoperable intracranial vascular malformations, using the helium ion beams at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 184-inch Synchrocyclotron and Bevatron. This report describes the protocol for patient selection, radiosurgical treatment planning method, clinical and neuroradiologic results and complications encountered, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the method. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Mild intraoperative hypothermia during surgery for intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Todd, Michael M; Hindman, Bradley J; Clarke, William R; Torner, James C

    2005-01-13

    Surgery for intracranial aneurysm often results in postoperative neurologic deficits. We conducted a randomized trial at 30 centers to determine whether intraoperative cooling during open craniotomy would improve the outcome among patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A total of 1001 patients with a preoperative World Federation of Neurological Surgeons score of I, II, or III ("good-grade patients"), who had had a subarachnoid hemorrhage no more than 14 days before planned surgical aneurysm clipping, were randomly assigned to intraoperative hypothermia (target temperature, 33 degrees C, with the use of surface cooling techniques) or normothermia (target temperature, 36.5 degrees C). Patients were followed closely postoperatively and examined approximately 90 days after surgery, at which time a Glasgow Outcome Score was assigned. There were no significant differences between the group assigned to intraoperative hypothermia and the group assigned to normothermia in the duration of stay in the intensive care unit, the total length of hospitalization, the rates of death at follow-up (6 percent in both groups), or the destination at discharge (home or another hospital, among surviving patients). At the final follow-up, 329 of 499 patients in the hypothermia group had a Glasgow Outcome Score of 1 (good outcome), as compared with 314 of 501 patients in the normothermia group (66 percent vs. 63 percent; odds ratio, 1.14; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.48; P=0.32). Postoperative bacteremia was more common in the hypothermia group than in the normothermia group (5 percent vs. 3 percent, P=0.05). Intraoperative hypothermia did not improve the neurologic outcome after craniotomy among good-grade patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  2. Intracranial stents in the endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Delgado Acosta, F; Jiménez Gómez, E; Bravo Rey, I; Bravo Rodríguez, F A; Ochoa Sepúlveda, J J; Oteros Fernández, R

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intracranial stenting as a rescue therapy after failed mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We retrospectively studied 42 patients treated with intracranial stenting after failed mechanical thrombectomy between December 2008 and January 2016. We compared outcomes before and after the incorporation of stentrievers. We assessed the degree of recanalization in the carotid and basilar territories (modified TIMI score), prognostic factors, and outcome (modified Rankin Score at 3 months). Safety was evaluated in function of the appearance of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH). Median NIHSS was 17 in patients with carotid territory strokes and 26 in those with vertebrobasilar territory strokes. Median time from onset of symptoms to treatment was 225minutes in carotid territory strokes and 390minutes in vertebrobasilar territory strokes. A total of 10 patients underwent intravenous fibrinolytic therapy before treatment with stentrievers. Two patients developed SICH; both had undergone intravenous fibrinolytic therapy (p=0.0523). Recanalization was effective in 30 (71.4%) in the entire series: in 7 (50%) of 14 patients treated before the incorporation of stentrievers and in 23 (82.1%) of 28 treated after the incorporation of stentrievers (p=0.0666). Outcome at 3 months was good in 2 (14.3%) patients in the earlier group and in 14 (50%) patients in the later group (p=0.042). We found significant associations between recanalization and outcome (p=0.0415) and between shorter time to treatment and outcome (p=0.002). Outcome was good in 14 (48.3%) of the 29 patients with carotid territory strokes and in 2 (15.4%) of the 13 patients with vertebrobasilar territory strokes (p=0.078). Intracranial stenting is the rescue treatment when the usual treatment fails. Stentrievers must be used to eliminate the clot burden before stenting. In our study, antiplatelet treatment did not seem to increase the risk of SICH

  3. Raised intracranial pressure in Apert syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marucci, Damian D; Dunaway, David J; Jones, Barry M; Hayward, Richard D

    2008-10-01

    Raised intracranial pressure is a well-known complication of Apert syndrome. The current policy in the authors' unit is to monitor these patients and only perform surgery when raised intracranial pressure has been diagnosed. The authors present their experience with this protocol, as it allows a more accurate picture of the natural history of raised intracranial pressure in Apert syndrome. The records of 24 patients, aged between 7 and 14 years, with Apert syndrome who had been managed expectantly (i.e., with no routine "automatic" early surgery) were reviewed. Data were collected on the incidence, timing, and management of raised intracranial pressure. Twenty of 24 patients (83 percent) developed raised intracranial pressure. The average age of the first episode was 18 months (range, 1 month to 4 years 5 months). Raised intracranial pressure was managed with surgery in 18 patients, including two patients who underwent shunt procedures for hydrocephalus. Two patients had their raised intracranial pressure treated successfully by correcting coexisting upper airway obstruction alone. Seven of the 20 patients (35 percent) developed a second episode of raised intracranial pressure, on average 3 years 4 months later (range, 1 year 11 months to 5 years 9 months). In Apert syndrome, there is a high incidence of raised intracranial pressure, which can first occur at any age up to 5 years and may recur despite initial successful treatment. Causes of raised intracranial pressure include craniocerebral disproportion, venous hypertension, upper airway obstruction, and hydrocephalus. Careful clinical, ophthalmologic, respiratory, and radiologic monitoring will allow raised intracranial pressure to be diagnosed accurately when it occurs and then treated most appropriately.

  4. Long-term follow-up of incidental intracranial aneurysms in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yoon-Sang; Shon, Young-Min; Kim, Beum Saeng; Cho, A-Hyun

    2013-05-01

    The natural history of incidental intracranial aneurysms in patients with acute ischemic stroke is not well known. Therefore, we performed a 2-year follow-up of clinical outcomes and computed tomographic angiography (CTA) findings of incidentally found aneurysm in acute ischemic stroke patients. We included acute ischemic stroke patients who presented within 7 days of stroke onset. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging and CTA. Demographics, clinical outcome, presence of aneurysm, aneurysm type, location, and diameter of aneurysm were identified. CTA was performed at least 2 years after the initial examination. The development of all cases of hemorrhage related to aneurysmal rupture and long-term clinical outcome were checked. Incidental intracranial aneurysms were found in 19 (6.1%) of the 314 patients. The sex (female) and old age were associated with the presence of incidental intracranial aneurysms. Favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale score 0-2) at 3 months showed no difference between the patients with aneurysm and those without (72.2% v 75.2%; P = .78). No aneurysm rupture or subarachnoid hemorrhage has occurred during the 2-year follow-up period. Follow-up CTA could be performed in 10 out of the 19 patients with aneurysm. Nine of them showed no change regarding to aneurysm shape and size, and the aneurysm disappeared in 1 patient. In our study, the prevalence of incidental aneurysm among acute ischemic stroke patients was 6.1%. After 2 years of follow-up, there was no aneurysm rupture or subarachnoid hemorrhage, and the diameter and shape of aneurysms did not change except for 1 patient in whom the aneurysm disappeared. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intracranial complications of transnasal ethmoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Freije, J E; Donegan, J O

    1991-06-01

    The transnasal approach to the ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses is a well-established technique for treating nasal polyposis and chronic sinusitis. The literature supports the effectiveness and safety of this procedure when performed by experienced surgeons. Although various authors allude to catastrophic complications of intranasal ethmoidectomy, there are few case reports of complications involving significant morbidity or mortality. The potential for serious intracranial trauma is present during ethmoid surgery, especially during an intranasal approach due to limited exposure and difficulty in identifying surgical landmarks, but with renewed interest in this approach utilizing endoscopic instrumentation, the risks may be reduced.

  6. [Penetrating transorbital intracranial foreign body].

    PubMed

    Civelek, Erdinç; Bilgiç, Salih; Kabataş, Serdar; Hepgül, Kemal Tanju

    2006-07-01

    We report a seven year-old boy who suffered left orbital penetration of an industrial sewing machine needle. The needle passing through the left orbit and sphenoid bone at the posterior was extending into the layers of the dura of the left temporal lobe. In this patient, we preferred surgical approach and there was no complication after surgery. Penetrating intraorbital foreign materials with intracranial extension may lead to complications such as intracerebral hematoma, brain abscess, CSF fistula, proptosis of the eye, diplopia, orbital cellulitis and periorbital abscess. They have to be removed by surgical approach to prevent potential complications.

  7. Multifocal fibrosclerosis with intracranial pachymeningitis.

    PubMed

    Kitano, A; Shimomura, T; Okada, A; Takahashi, K

    1995-04-01

    A 29-year-old woman with a 4-year history of multifocal fibrosclerosis showed unique neurologic complications. Episcleritis, orbital pseudotumor, and eosinophilic phlegmon preceded intracranial inflammatory pachymeningitis. The pachymeningitis was associated with disturbance of the visual field, incomplete Gerstmann's syndrome, and pseudotumor cerebri. T2-weighted magnetic resonance images revealed a high signal intensity lesion in the left temporal and occipital lobes, and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images revealed the enhancement of the thickened left tentorial leaf. The laboratory data suggested that the etiology might be autoimmunological. The disease and MRI abnormalities improved following administration of corticosteroids.

  8. Effect of short-term exposure to five industrial metals on the embryonic and fetal development of the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Wide, M.

    1984-02-01

    An increase is expected in the world's industrial use of several metals, Al, Co, Mo, V, and W, among others. Very little is known about their possible effects on early mammalian development. Groups of mice were injected with compounds of these metals either before implantation or at early organogenesis. None of the metal compounds showed any interference with implantation, but all of them significantly affected fetal development: Al caused an increased frequency of fetal internal hemorrhage, Mo inhibited fetal normal weight gain, W increased the frequency of resorptions, and Al, Co, Mo, and V all interfered with fetal skeletal ossification.

  9. Benign intracranial hypertension: diagnosis and conservative management.

    PubMed

    Theisler, C W

    1986-03-01

    The clinical features of benign intracranial hypertension are described. Pathological components are discussed and are contrasted against the current theoretical model of pain production in benign intracranial hypertension. Diagnosis and associated conditions are discussed from a review of the literature, and conservative management is outlined.

  10. Relation between Birth Weight and Intraoperative Hemorrhage during Cesarean Section in Pregnancy with Placenta Previa.

    PubMed

    Soyama, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Morikazu; Ishibashi, Hiroki; Takano, Masashi; Sasa, Hidenori; Furuya, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    fetal weight estimated by ultrasonography can predict hemorrhage during cesarean section in patients with placental previa.

  11. Cerebral CT perfusion in patients with perimesencephalic and those with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Cremers, Charlotte H P; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Rinkel, Gabriel J E

    2014-02-01

    The cause of perimesencephalic hemorrhage is unknown, but a venous source is suggested. If perimesencephalic hemorrhage is of venous origin, less elevation of the intracranial pressure and less perfusion deficits are expected than after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We compared perfusion in the acute stage after perimesencephalic hemorrhage and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We included 45 perimesencephalic hemorrhage patients and 45 aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, who were matched on clinical condition at admission and underwent computerized tomographic scanning <72 h after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral blood flow was assessed in 12 predefined regions of interest. Differences in cerebral blood flow values with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Sub-group analyses were performed stratified on comparable amounts of blood and location of blood (posterior circulation aneurysms and additionally in infratentorial and supratentorial aneurysms). Cerebral blood flow was higher in perimesencephalic hemorrhage patients (mean: 63·8) than in aneurysmal sub-arachnoid hemorrhage patients (mean: 55·9; difference of means: -7·9 [95% confidence interval: -10·7 to -5·2]) and also in the sub-group with comparable amounts of blood (mean cerebral blood flow: 56·4; difference of means: -7·4 [95% confidence interval: -10·4 to -4·3]). Cerebral blood flow was comparable with perimesencephalic hemorrhage patients for the sub-group with posterior circulation aneurysms (difference of means: -0·7 [95% confidence interval: -5·2 to 3·8]); however, differences diverged after stratifying posterior circulation aneurysms into supratentorial (difference of means -3·9 [95% confidence interval: -9·3 to 1·4]) and infratentorial aneurysms (difference of means 3·0 [95% confidence interval: -2·8 to 8·8]). Perimesencephalic hemorrhage patients have a higher cerebral blood flow than aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. The findings

  12. Safety and efficacy of a new prophylactic tirofiban protocol without oral intraoperative antiplatelet therapy for endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Zi-Liang; Li, Tian-Xiao; He, Ying-Kun; Bai, Wei-Xing; Wang, Yang-Yang; Zhou, Guo-Yu

    2016-11-01

    Coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms is being increasingly used; however, thromboembolic events have become a major periprocedural complication. To determine the safety and efficacy of prophylactic tirofiban in patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Tirofiban was administered as an intravenous bolus (8.0 μg/kg over 3 min) followed by a maintenance infusion (0.10 μg/kg/min) before stent deployment or after completion of single coiling. Dual oral antiplatelet therapy (loading doses) was overlapped with half the tirofiban dose 2 h before cessation of the tirofiban infusion. Cases of intracranial hemorrhage or thromboembolism were recorded. Tirofiban was prophylactically used in 221 patients, including 175 (79.19%) who underwent stent-assisted coiling and 46 (20.81%) who underwent single coiling, all in the setting of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Six (2.71%) cases of intracranial hemorrhage occurred, including four (1.81%) tirofiban-related cases and two (0.90%) antiplatelet therapy-related cases. There were two (0.90%) cases of fatal hemorrhage, one related to tirofiban and the other related to dual antiplatelet therapy. Thromboembolic events occurred in seven (3.17%) patients (6 stent-assisted embolization, 1 single coiling), of which one (0.45%) event occurred during stenting and six (2.72%) occurred during intravenous tirofiban maintenance. No thromboembolic events related to dual antiplatelet therapy were found. Tirofiban bolus over 3 min followed by maintenance infusion appears to be a safe and efficient prophylactic protocol for the endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms and may be an alternative to intraoperative oral antiplatelet therapy, especially in the case of stent-assisted embolization. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Screening for intracranial aneurysms? Prevalence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms in Hong Kong Chinese.

    PubMed

    Chan, David Y C; Abrigo, Jill M; Cheung, Tom C Y; Siu, Deyond Y W; Poon, Wai S; Ahuja, Anil T; Wong, George K C

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT The objective of this study was to generate data on the local prevalence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) in asymptomatic Hong Kong Chinese individuals. First-degree relatives of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) were recruited as surrogates of the general population and to explore the potential role of screening in this locality. METHODS The authors identified first-degree relatives of consecutive patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured aneurysm who were admitted to a university hospital in Hong Kong from June 2008 to December 2010. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was the imaging modality used to screen the cerebral vasculature of these asymptomatic individuals. If MRA showed abnormal findings, CT angiography was performed to confirm the MRA findings. RESULTS In total, 7 UIAs were identified from the 305 MR angiograms obtained. The prevalence of UIAs in first-degree relatives of patients with aSAH in the Hong Kong Chinese population was 2.30% (95% CI1.02%-4.76%). This percentage was lower than the prevalence rate of 3.2% from a meta-analysis of the literature. The sizes of the UIAs detected ranged from 1.4 mm to 7.5 mm; 85.7% of the UIAs detected in this study were < 5 mm, in contrast to 66% noted in the literature. One of the UIAs identified underwent endovascular stent placement with a flow diverter. None of the UIAs identified ruptured or became symptomatic during a median follow-up period of 3.5 years. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of UIAs in first-degree relatives of patients with aSAH in the Hong Kong Chinese population was lower than that in Caucasians. At the same time, most of the UIAs detected in this study were small (85.7% were < 5 mm, vs 66% in a meta-analysis). With a similar incidence of aSAH in Hong Kong (7.5 per 100,000 person-years) as compared with data cited in the literature, the hypothesis that UIA rupture risk size threshold is different in Chinese patients should be further

  14. Neurocysticercosis in pregnancy: maternal and fetal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    D'Cruz, Rebecca F.; Ng, Sher M.; Dassan, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection with the larvae of Taenia solium from contaminated pork. It is a leading cause of seizures in the developing world. Symptoms may be secondary to live or degenerating cysts, or previous infection causing calcification or gliosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, radiological confirmation of intracranial lesions and immunological testing. Management involves symptom control with antiepileptics and antiparasitic agents. Few cases have been described of maternal NCC during pregnancy. We describe a 25-year-old female presenting to a London hospital with secondary generalized seizures. MRI of the brain confirmed a calcified lesion in the right parietal lobe, and she gave a corroborative history of NCC during her childhood in India. She was stabilized initially on antiepileptics, but during her pregnancy presented with breakthrough seizures and radiological evidence of NCC reactivation. She was managed symptomatically with antiepileptics and completed the pregnancy to term with no fetal complications. PMID:27471595

  15. Intracranial arteriopathy in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Boronat, Susana; Shaaya, Elias A; Auladell, Maria; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Caruso, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Arterial aneurysms, mostly aortic and intracranial, have been occasionally reported in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. Brain magnetic resonance imaging reports of 404 patients with definite and 16 patients with either probable or possible tuberous sclerosis complex were revised for intracranial aneurysms. Among these patients, brain images of 220 patients with definite and 16 with probable or possible tuberous sclerosis complex were reviewed. Intracranial aneurysms were reported in 3 of 404 patients with a definite diagnosis (0.74%) (general population: 0.35%), including 2 children. A fourth intracranial aneurysm was found in a patient with probable tuberous sclerosis complex, who did not have tubers or subependymal nodules but had clinical manifestations related to neural crest derivatives, including lymphangioleiomyomatosis and extrarenal angiomyolipomas. The authors hypothesize that neural crest dysfunction can have a major role in intracranial arteriopathy in tuberous sclerosis complex, as smooth muscle cells in the forebrain vessels are of neural crest origin. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Ethics of fetal tissue transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sanders, L M; Giudice, L; Raffin, T A

    1993-09-01

    Now that the Clinton Administration has overturned the ban on federal funding for fetal tissue transplantation, old ethical issues renew their relevance and new ethical issues arise. Is fetal tissue transplantation necessary and beneficial? Are fetal rights violated by the use of fetal tissue in research? Is there a moral danger that the potential of fetal tissue donation will encourage elective abortions? Should pregnant women be allowed to designate specific fetal transplant recipients? What criteria should be used to select fetal tissue transplants? Whose consent should be required for the use of fetal tissue for transplantation? We review the current state of clinical research with fetal tissue transplantation, the legal history of fetal tissue research, the major arguments against the use of fetal tissue for transplantation, and the new postmoratorium ethical dilemmas. We include recommendations for guidelines to govern the medical treatment of fetal tissue in transplantation.

  17. Spontaneous acute subdural hematoma: A rare presentation of a dural intracranial fistula.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, Guilherme Brasileiro; Veiga, José Carlos Esteves; Silva, João Miguel de Almeida; Conti, Mario Luiz Marques

    2016-03-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistulas are acquired lesions between the meningeal arteries and their associated draining veins. They may have highly variable clinical presentations and evolution, from severe neurological deficit to no or trivial symptoms. Intracranial hemorrhage occurs in less than 24% of all dural fistulas, and the bleeding is usually subarachnoid, more infrequently intracerebral, and rarely in the subdural space. Here, we present a rare case of a patient who presented with a subdural spontaneous hemorrhage. After investigation by cerebral angiography, the diagnosis of a dural arteriovenous fistula was made. The patient underwent uneventful endovascular treatment. As there are with only a few reports in the literature of such a presentation, we present this patient and perform a brief review of the literature.

  18. Management of gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Hilsden, R. J.; Shaffer, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a common problem that requires prompt recognition and management to prevent serious morbidity and mortality. Management goals are stabilization of the patient with vigorous fluid resuscitation followed by investigation and definitive treatment of the bleeding source. Endoscopy is often the initial diagnostic test and allows therapeutic measures to be performed at the same time. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8563510

  19. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Medicine Seoul, Korea * S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SUM ARY Urban rats captured in Seoul and four nearby Korean cities were found to have...rattus, urban Korean cities, 1980. . . . 15 Table 2. Isolation of Hantaan virus from antigen-positive wild house rats, Korea , 1980 .... ........... .. 16...Figures Figure 1. Map of Seoul City, South Korea and metropolitan area showing locations of urban Korean hemorrhagic fever cases, andRattu s positive

  20. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (Korean Hemorrhagic Fever)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-30

    53 INTRODUCTION During the Korean War more than 3,200 United Nations troops in Korea devel6ped a rare hemorrhagic fever which attracted...patients in the Republic of Korea . Year Korean Korean US Total civilian soldiers soldiers 1951 ...... 627 827 1952 .... 833 833 1953 ... ... 455 455...0 RI m HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME ( KOREAN HEMORRHAGIC FEVER) ANNUAL SUMMARY REPORT HO WANG LEE, M.D. June 30, 1988 Door., Supported by U.S

  1. Start or STop Anticoagulants Randomised Trial (SoSTART)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-12

    Intracranial Hemorrhages; Intracranial Hemorrhage, Hypertensive; Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; Subdural Hematoma; Intraventricular Hemorrhage; Atrial Fibrillation; Atrial Flutter; Small Vessel Cerebrovascular Disease; Microhaemorrhage

  2. Age-dependent neonatal intracerebral hemorrhage in plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Philippe; Omouendze, Priscilla L; Roy, Vincent; Dourmap, Nathalie; Gonzalez, Bruno J; Brasse-Lagnel, Carole; Carmeliet, Peter; Leroux-Nicollet, Isabelle; Marret, Stéphane

    2014-05-01

    Intracerebral-intraventricular hemorrhages (ICH/IVH) in very preterm neonates are responsible for high mortality and subsequent disabilities. In humans, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) initiates fibrinolysis and activates endoluminal-endothelial receptors; dysfunction of the t-PA inhibitor (PAI-1) results in recurrent hemorrhages. We used PAI-1 knockout (PAI-1) mice to examine the role of t-PA in age-dependent intracranial hemorrhages as a possible model of preterm ICH/IVH. Intracortical injection of 2 μL of phosphate-buffered saline produced a small traumatic injury and a high rate of hemorrhage in PAI-1 pups at postnatal day 3 (P3) or P5, whereas it had no effect in wild-type neonates. This resulted in white matter and cortical lesions, ventricle enlargement, hyperlocomotion, and altered cortical levels of serotonin and dopamine in the adult PAI mice. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockers, plasmin- and matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors reduced hemorrhage and tissue lesions. In contrast to P3 to P5, no significant hemorrhages were induced in P10 PAI-1 pups and there were no behavioral or neurochemical alterations in adulthood. These data suggest that microvascular immaturity up to P5 in mice is a determinant factor required for t-PA-dependent vascular rupture. Neonatal PAI-1 mice could be a useful ICH/IVH model for studying the ontogenic window of vascular immaturity and vascular protection against later neurodisabilities.

  3. Multiple hemorrhages in brain after spine surgery supra- and infra-tentorial components together

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Baran; Işık, Semra; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Ekşi, Emel Ece Özcan; Akakın, Akın; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Konya, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after cranial and spinal surgeries is a well-documented entity, so far concomitant supra- and infra-tentorial hemorrhage after spine surgery has rarely been reported in the literature. A 57-year-old woman presented with intractable low back pain and severely impaired mobility. One year ago, she underwent lumbar laminectomy and fusion with posterior spinal instrumentation between L2 and S1. She developed adjacent segment disease at the upper level of the instrumented vertebra. She had a revision surgery and underwent posterior laminectomy and fusion with bilateral transpedicular instrumentation between T10 and S1. She had severe headache, somnolence, and left hemiparesia 48 h after the surgery. Her emergent head computed tomography depicted intra-parenchymal hemorrhage in the right parietal lobe accompanying with subarachnoid hemorrhage, bilateral symmetrical cerebellar hemorrhages and pneumocephalus. She was treated nonsurgically and she got better despite some residual deficits. Symptoms including constant headache, nausea, vomiting, impaired consciousness, new onset seizure, and focal neurological deficit after spine surgeries should raise suspicion for intracranial intra-parenchymal hemorrhage. PMID:26692705

  4. Multiple hemorrhages in brain after spine surgery supra- and infra-tentorial components together.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Baran; Işık, Semra; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Ekşi, Emel Ece Özcan; Akakın, Akın; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Konya, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after cranial and spinal surgeries is a well-documented entity, so far concomitant supra- and infra-tentorial hemorrhage after spine surgery has rarely been reported in the literature. A 57-year-old woman presented with intractable low back pain and severely impaired mobility. One year ago, she underwent lumbar laminectomy and fusion with posterior spinal instrumentation between L2 and S1. She developed adjacent segment disease at the upper level of the instrumented vertebra. She had a revision surgery and underwent posterior laminectomy and fusion with bilateral transpedicular instrumentation between T10 and S1. She had severe headache, somnolence, and left hemiparesia 48 h after the surgery. Her emergent head computed tomography depicted intra-parenchymal hemorrhage in the right parietal lobe accompanying with subarachnoid hemorrhage, bilateral symmetrical cerebellar hemorrhages and pneumocephalus. She was treated nonsurgically and she got better despite some residual deficits. Symptoms including constant headache, nausea, vomiting, impaired consciousness, new onset seizure, and focal neurological deficit after spine surgeries should raise suspicion for intracranial intra-parenchymal hemorrhage.

  5. Duret hemorrhage: demonstration of ruptured paramedian pontine branches of the basilar artery on minimally invasive, whole body postmortem CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Chew, Ka Lip; Baber, Yeliena; Iles, Linda; O'Donnell, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    A 25 year old male died suddenly and unexpectedly. Postmortem CT scanning revealed marked raised intracranial pressure with brainstem compression due to subarachnoid, subdural and parenchymal hemorrhage. A hyperdense mass at the termination of the right internal carotid artery was thought to represent an aneurysm. Postmortem, whole body CT angiography failed to fill the aneurysm but did demonstrate multiple central pontine linear enhancing structures in continuity with the mid basilar artery and small foci of contrast leak into the adjacent mid pontine parenchyma. Autopsy confirmed subarachnoid hemorrhage, a thrombosed and ruptured proximal right middle cerebral artery aneurysm and Duret hemorrhages in the mid pons. This finding supports the theory that Duret hemorrhages occur as a result of perforating pontine branch of the basilar arterial rupture but does not exclude the contribution of venous congestion.

  6. Overview of fetal arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Shardha; Strasburger, Janette

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Though fetal arrhythmias account for a small proportion of referrals to a fetal cardiologist, they may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The present review outlines the current literature with regard to the diagnosis and, in brief, some management strategies in fetal arrhythmias. Recent findings Advances in echocardiography have resulted in significant improvements in our ability to elucidate the mechanism of arrhythmia at the bedside. At the same time, fetal magnetocardiography is broadening our understanding of mechanisms of arrhythmia especially as it pertains to ventricular arrhythmias and congenital heart block. It provides a unique window to study electrical properties of the fetal heart, unlike what has been available to date. Recent reports of bedside use of fetal ECG make it a promising new technology. The underlying mechanisms resulting in immune-mediated complete heart block in a small subset of ‘at-risk’ fetuses is under investigation. Summary There have been great strides in noninvasive diagnosis of fetal arrhythmias. However, we still need to improve our knowledge of the electromechanical properties of the fetal heart as well as the mechanisms of arrhythmia to further improve outcomes. Multiinstitutional collaborative studies are needed to help answer some of the questions regarding patient, drug selection and management algorithms. PMID:18781114

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  8. Fetal Neurobehavioral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigated the ontogeny of fetal autonomic, motoric, state, and interactive functioning in 31 healthy fetuses from 20 weeks through term. Found that male fetuses were more active than female fetuses, and that greater maternal stress appraisal was associated with reduced fetal heart rate variability. Found that an apparent period of…

  9. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  10. Solitaire AB stent-assisted coiling embolization for the treatment of ruptured very small intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jifang; Wang, Donghai; Li, Xingang

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in neuroradiological techniques have increasingly improved the diagnosis rate for very small aneurysms, particularly with the widespread use of three-dimensional cerebral angiography. However, the treatment of very small aneurysms remains a considerable challenge for neurosurgeons. Endovascular coiling has emerged as a potential treatment option for intracranial aneurysms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Solitaire AB stent-assisted coiling embolization for the treatment of ruptured very small intracranial aneurysms. This retrospective study included nine consecutive patients with ruptured very small intracranial aneurysms (≤3 mm) that underwent Solitaire AB stent-assisted coiling embolization. The aneurysms were located in the ophthalmic branch of the internal carotid artery (n=2), the posterior communicating branch of the internal carotid artery (n=4), the top of the basilar artery (n=1) and the middle cerebral artery (n=2). Solitaire AB stents were successfully implanted in all nine patients. Of the nice individuals, six patients exhibited complete occlusion at Raymond grade I and three patients exhibited occlusion at Raymond grade II. No aneurysm rupture was observed during the surgery. During the follow-up period of 8-13 months, no intracranial hemorrhage occurred. A total of seven patients underwent follow-up digital subtraction angiography at 5-10 months post-intervention. No recurrence of the aneurysms and no stenosis or occlusion of the parent arteries was observed. Therefore, Solitaire AB stent-assisted coil embolization was demonstrated to be a safe and effective treatment for ruptured very small intracranial aneurysms. The long-term efficacy of this technique may be improved by increasing the packing density around the aneurysmal neck and improving the hemodynamics.

  11. An experimental study of the acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, K; Kuyama, H; Symon, L

    1983-12-01

    A baboon model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has been developed to study the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral edema associated with the acute stage of SAH. In this model, hemorrhage was caused by avulsion of the posterior communicating artery via a periorbital approach, with the orbit sealed and ICP restored to normal before SAH was produced. Local CBF was measured in six sites in the two hemispheres, and ICP monitored by an implanted extradural transducer. Following sacrifice of the animal, the effect of the induced SAH on ICP, CBF, autoregulation, and CO2 reactivity in the two hemispheres was assessed. Brain water measurements were also made in areas of gray and white matter corresponding to areas of blood flow measurements, and also in the deep nuclei. Two principal patterns of ICP change were found following SAH; one group of animals showed a return to baseline ICP quite quickly and the other maintained high ICP for over an hour. The CBF was reduced after SAH to nearly 20% of control values in all areas, and all areas showed impaired autoregulation. Variable changes in CO2 reactivity were evident, but on the side of the hemorrhage CO2 reactivity was predominantly reduced. Differential increase in pressure lasting for over 7 minutes was evident soon after SAH on the side of the ruptured vessel. There was a significant increase of water in all areas, and in cortex and deep nuclei as compared to control animals.

  12. Prolonged paroxysmal sympathetic storming associated with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Jolly, Suneil; Pokala, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Paroxysmal sympathetic storming (PSS) is a rare disorder characterized by acute onset of nonstimulated tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnea, hyperthermia, external posturing, and diaphoresis. It is most frequently associated with severe traumatic brain injuries and has been reported in intracranial tumors, hydrocephalous, severe hypoxic brain injury, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Although excessive release of catecholamine and therefore increased sympathetic activities have been reported in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), there is no descriptive report of PSS primarily caused by spontaneous SAH up to date. Here, we report a case of prolonged PSS in a patient with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and consequent vasospasm. The sympathetic storming started shortly after patient was rewarmed from hypothermia protocol and symptoms responded to Labetalol, but intermittent recurrence did not resolve until 3 weeks later with treatment involving Midazolam, Fentanyl, Dexmedetomidine, Propofol, Bromocriptine, and minimizing frequency of neurological and vital checks. In conclusion, prolonged sympathetic storming can also be caused by spontaneous SAH. In this case, vasospasm might be a precipitating factor. Paralytics and hypothermia could mask the manifestations of PSS. The treatment of the refractory case will need both timely adjustment of medications and minimization of exogenous stressors or stimuli.

  13. Prenatal diagnosis and genetic discoveries of an intracranial mixed neuronal-glial tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lijuan; Wu, Qingqing; Pei, Yan; Li, Jinghua; Ye, Jintang; Zhi, Wenxue; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Puqing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Congenital intracranial tumors as a group are quite rare, representing only 0.5% to 1.5% of all pediatric brain neoplasms. Case report: We reported a case of congenital mixed neuronal-glial tumor detected by ultrasound at 30 weeks of gestation. It showed that the tumor was 2.5 × 2.3 × 2.1 cm3 in size, located in the sellar region, regular shape, and slightly heterogeneous solid mass with a little cystic component. No color flow was present inside the tumor, but the peripheral encirclement by arterial circle of Willis. No other associated malformations were detected. Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which was taken subsequently confirmed the result of ultrasound and provided more detailed information such as fetal brain dysplasia. The fetal chromosomal karyotype analysis is normal. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) detected a 0.72-Mb duplication at 4q35.2 in fetus which was associated with epilepsy and cardiac anomalies. It also revealed a 0.13-Mb deletion at 6q26 located in PARK2 gene, and the mutation of the gene is known to be related to autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson disease. The parents chose termination of pregnancy (TOP). The histological examination showed a mixed neuronal-glial tumor. Conclusion: Prenatal detection of mixed neuronal-glial tumor is very rare. Ultrasound is of critical importance to detect the intracranial tumors, and MRI can give us some detailed information about the tumors. However, the precise histologic type was depended on the pathological examination. CMA should be necessary for the fetuses with congenital intracranial tumors, especially when the fetal chromosomal karyotype analysis is normal. PMID:27828868

  14. Hemorrhagic Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chris Y.; Riangwiwat, Tanawan

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) may be associated with viral triggers, including both infections and vaccinations. We present a case of a healthy immunocompetent 33-year-old woman who developed a hemorrhagic LETM 2 weeks after seasonal influenza vaccination. Hemorrhagic LETM has not to our knowledge been reported after influenza vaccination. It may represent a forme fruste variant of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis. PMID:27847660

  15. Effect of a balloon-expandable intracranial stent vs medical therapy on risk of stroke in patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis: the VISSIT randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Zaidat, Osama O; Fitzsimmons, Brian-Fred; Woodward, Britton Keith; Wang, Zhigang; Killer-Oberpfalzer, Monika; Wakhloo, Ajay; Gupta, Rishi; Kirshner, Howard; Megerian, J Thomas; Lesko, James; Pitzer, Pamela; Ramos, Jandira; Castonguay, Alicia C; Barnwell, Stanley; Smith, Wade S; Gress, Daryl R

    Intracranial stenosis is one of the most common etiologies of stroke. To our knowledge, no randomized clinical trials have compared balloon-expandable stent treatment with medical therapy in symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the balloon-expandable stent plus medical therapy vs medical therapy alone in patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis (≥70%). VISSIT (the Vitesse Intracranial Stent Study for Ischemic Stroke Therapy) trial is an international, multicenter, 1:1 randomized, parallel group trial that enrolled patients from 27 sites (January 2009-June 2012) with last follow-up in May 2013. Patients (N = 112) were randomized to receive balloon-expandable stent plus medical therapy (stent group; n = 59) or medical therapy alone (medical group; n = 53). a composite of stroke in the same territory within 12 months of randomization or hard transient ischemic attack (TIA) in the same territory day 2 through month 12 postrandomization. A hard TIA was defined as a transient episode of neurological dysfunction caused by focal brain or retinal ischemia lasting at least 10 minutes but resolving within 24 hours. Primary safety measure: a composite of any stroke, death, or intracranial hemorrhage within 30 days of randomization and any hard TIA between days 2 and 30 of randomization. Disability was measured with the modified Rankin Scale and general health status with the EuroQol-5D, both through month 12. Enrollment was halted by the sponsor after negative results from another trial prompted an early analysis of outcomes, which suggested futility after 112 patients of a planned sample size of 250 were enrolled. The 30-day primary safety end point occurred in more patients in the stent group (14/58; 24.1% [95% CI, 13.9%-37.2%]) vs the medical group (5/53; 9.4% [95% CI, 3.1%-20.7%]) (P = .05). Intracranial hemorrhage within 30 days occurred in more patients in the stent group (5/58; 8.6% [95% CI, 2

  16. Intracranial stenosis in cognitive impairment and dementia.

    PubMed

    Hilal, Saima; Xu, Xin; Ikram, M Kamran; Vrooman, Henri; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Chen, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    Intracranial stenosis is a common vascular lesion observed in Asian and other non-Caucasian stroke populations. However, its role in cognitive impairment and dementia has been under-studied. We, therefore, examined the association of intracranial stenosis with cognitive impairment, dementia and their subtypes in a memory clinic case-control study, where all subjects underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment and 3 T neuroimaging including three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography. Intracranial stenosis was defined as ≥50% narrowing in any of the intracranial arteries. A total of 424 subjects were recruited of whom 97 were classified as no cognitive impairment, 107 as cognitive impairment no dementia, 70 vascular cognitive impairment no dementia, 121 Alzheimer's Disease, and 30 vascular dementia. Intracranial stenosis was associated with dementia (age/gender/education - adjusted odds ratios (OR): 4.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93-11.60) and vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.59-9.93). These associations were independent of cardiovascular risk factors and MRI markers. However, the association with Alzheimer's Disease and vascular dementia became attenuated in the presence of white matter hyperintensities. Intracranial stenosis is associated with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia independent of MRI markers. In Alzheimer's Disease and vascular dementia, this association is mediated by cerebrovascular disease. Future studies focusing on perfusion and functional markers are needed to determine the pathophysiological mechanism(s) linking intracranial stenosis and cognition so as to identify treatment strategies.

  17. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage Associated with Edoxaban Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Hiroshi; Yashio, Akihiro; Kashima, Satoko; Mochizuki, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The main adverse effect of anticoagulant therapy is bleeding, and major bleeding, including intracranial, gastrointestinal, and retroperitoneal bleeding, has been reported as an adverse effect of edoxaban, a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC). Bleeding during systemic anticoagulation with edoxaban presents a therapeutic conundrum, because there is currently no safe or efficacious reversal agent to stop major bleeding. Case Report. A 51-year-old woman had multiple traumatic injuries, including lower limb fractures. On day 8, she developed deep venous thrombosis, and edoxaban was administered orally. On day 38, she developed fungemia, which was treated with an antifungal drug. On day 43, she presented with dyspnea. Chest computed tomography scan showed bilateral diffuse ground-glass opacities in the whole lung fields. The results of the subsequent workup (i.e., serum levels of the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, antinuclear antibody, and antiglomerular basement membrane antibody) and microbiological study were unremarkable. Based on these findings, her condition was diagnosed as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) associated with edoxaban therapy. The lung opacities disappeared spontaneously after edoxaban therapy was discontinued. Conclusion. DAH is a dangerous complication associated with edoxaban therapy. DOACs, including edoxaban, should be prescribed with caution, especially for patients in a critical condition. PMID:27872767

  18. Massive intracranial immature teratoma with extracranial extension into oral cavity, nose, and neck.

    PubMed

    Alagappan, A; Shattuck, K E; Rowe, T; Hawkins, H

    1998-01-01

    We present a case of congenital massive intracranial teratoma with extracranial extension into oral cavity, nose, and neck diagnosed by antenatal ultrasonography at 25 weeks of gestation. The fetus was delivered by cesarean section because of massive fetal head size and severe maternal pregnancy-induced hypertension. At necropsy the tumor was found to be an immature teratoma, with no recognizable normal brain tissue. An additional finding was hepatomegaly secondary to extensive extramedullary hematopoiesis. Karyotyping of both the fetus and the teratoma revealed a normal female chromosomal composition: 46,XX.

  19. Cerebral venous etiology of intracranial hypertension and differentiation from idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Iencean, Stefan Mircea; Poeata, Ion; Iencean, Andrei Stefan; Tascu, Alexandru

    2015-03-01

    This study presents the characteristics that distinguish between idiopathic intracranial hypertension (ICH) and ICH caused by intracranial vascular damage. Twenty-one patients with ICH were included in this study. The analysis of the symptomatology correlated with the values of intracranial pressure, and the imaging findings revealed significant differences between these two types of ICH. ICH caused by intracranial venous vascular damage is named vascular ICH. Vascular ICH has a known etiology, such as cerebral vascular illness, and a relatively rapid increase in intracranial pressure of approximately 21 cmH2O and imaging findings show characteristic images of thrombosis or stenosis of the intracranial venous system, while all brain images (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, angio-magnetic resonance imaging) are normal in idiopathic ICH. The treatment of vascular ICH is etiologic, pathogenic, and symptomatic, but that of idiopathic ICH is only symptomatic. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  20. Intracranial recordings and human memory.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Elizabeth L; Knight, Robert T

    2015-04-01

    Recent work involving intracranial recording during human memory performance provides superb spatiotemporal resolution on mnem