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Sample records for fever abdominal pains

  1. An unusual cause of acute abdominal pain in dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Tariq; Latif, Hina; Shabbir, Bilquis

    2014-07-01

    Dengue fever is an acute febrile viral disease caused by the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito. It is a major health problem especially in tropical and subtropical areas including South East Asia and Pakistan. In the past few years, dengue fever has been endemic in Northern Punjab. Physicians managing dengue fever come across varied and uncommon complications of dengue fever. We report a case of dengue fever that developed severe right upper quadrant abdominal pain and induration after extreme retching and vomiting for 2 days. A rectus sheath hematoma was confirmed on noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Rectus sheath hematoma as a complication of dengue fever has rarely been reported before and never from this part of the world. Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon and often clinically misdiagnosed cause of abdominal pain. It is the result of bleeding into the rectus sheath from damage to the superior or inferior epigastric artery or their branches or from a direct tear of the rectus muscle. It can mimic almost any abdominal condition (See Fig.) (See Table).

  2. 38-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain, but no fever

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Kentaro; Toma, Tomoko; Yachie, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with 2 days history of left-flank pain. She had similar episodes of abdominal pain as well as chest pain several times, but symptoms disappeared spontaneously. Each time she developed pain, there was no fever. After ruling out common causes of recurrent abdominal pain, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) was considered as a potential diagnosis. Genetic tests revealed multiple heterozygote mutations, which may be associated with FMF. Patients with Mediterranean fever mutations may present with atypical presentations without fever, like in this case. Astute clinical suspicion is required to make an accurate diagnosis. PMID:22505824

  3. A case of familial Mediterranean fever who complained of periodic fever and abdominal pain diagnosed by MEFV gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Chie; Matsui, Kiyoshi; Kisida, Dai; Kakudou, Mariko; Yazaki, Masahide; Nakamura, Akinori; Azuma, Kouta; Tsuboi, Kazuyuki; Abe, Takeo; Yokoyama, Yuichi; Furukawa, Tetsuya; Maruoka, Momo; Tamura, Masao; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Saito, Atsushi; Nishioka, Aki; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto; Kitano, Masayasu; Tsunoda, Shinichiro; Hashimoto-Tamaoki, Tomoko; Sano, Hajime

    2016-01-01

      Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary autoinflammatory disease caused by Mediterranean FeVergene (MEFV) mutations on Chromosome 16, and characterized by periodic fever of and serositis. FMF is the result of gain-of-function mutations in pyrin that lead to interleukin-1β activation. FMF can be classified as "typical" and "atypical" types based on clinical finding and genetic screening. Although MEFV genotyping has enabled FMF to be confirmed in some cases, the diagnosis remains predominantly clinical since genotyping has shown that the disease is characterized by variable manifestations in Japanese. In 1976, the first report performed on the case of Japanese FMF with periodic fever of and serositis. Since 2002, genetic analyses are performed on Japanese FMF patients by K. Shiozaki et al. and N. Tomiyama et al. In our case, she was a 25-year-old Japanese woman with at periodic fever and abdominal pain. MEFV gene analysis demonstrated a heterozygous mutation of variant M694I, leading to a diagnosis of FMF. After the increase dose (up to 3 mg/day) of colchicine, periodic fever and abdominal pain disappeared. It is the important candidate of FMF for differential diagnosis with unexplained periodic fever and serositis, such as our case.

  4. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is does not always reflect the seriousness ...

  5. [Abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Gschossmann, J M; Holtmann, G; Netzer, P; Essig, M; Balsiger, B M; Scheurer, U

    2005-10-01

    Abdominal pain can result from a variety of different intra- and extra-abdominal disorders. Given the wide variety of etiological triggers for this pain, the primary task during the first stage of the diagnostic work-up is to determine as soon as possible the underlying cause and the degree of emergency. The aim of this evaluation is to adapt the therapeutic measures which are necessary for a causal treatment to the individual situation. Contrary to somatic causes of abdominal pain, the availability of such a causal therapy for functional bowel disorders is still very limited. Given this dilemma, the therapeutic focus of abdominal pain associated with these functional syndromes has to be placed on symptom-oriented treatment.

  6. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Acupuncture Therapy by Verbal Pain Scale in Patients with Abdominal Pain of Familial Mediterranean Fever.

    PubMed

    Becel, Sinan; Sezgin, Yılmaz; Akçay, Fatih

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy based on Verbal Pain Scale (VPS) scores in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients admitted to the emergency department with attacks of abdominal pain. This observational study was conducted in Erzurum Regional Training and Research Hospital between August 2014 and December 2014. Twenty patients admitted to the emergency department with FMF attacks were included in the study. Acupuncture therapy was applied to three points including LI4 (Hegu), ST25 (Tianshu), and Ren12 (Zhongwan). The VPS test was applied to the patients before and after the treatment. Average VPS scores were found to be 8.45±0.75 before the treatment and 2.10±0.85 after the treatment. The difference of the VPS scores before and after treatment was statistically significant (p=0.001). To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy in the treatment of FMF attacks. Our results suggest that acupuncture therapy can be used as an effective treatment method in patients with FMF attacks. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... and your health care provider may not feel pain medication is the safest option. In this case, distraction techniques such as guided imagery may help your child cope. You could also try progressive ...

  8. Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Koop, Herbert; Koprdova, Simona; Schürmann, Christine

    2016-01-29

    Chronic abdominal wall pain is a poorly recognized clinical problem despite being an important element in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. This review is based on pertinent articles that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and EMBASE employing the terms "abdominal wall pain" and "cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. In 2% to 3% of patients with chronic abdominal pain, the pain arises from the abdominal wall; in patients with previously diagnosed chronic abdominal pain who have no demonstrable pathological abnormality, this likelihood can rise as high as 30% . There have only been a small number of clinical trials of treatment for this condition. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, with the aid of Carnett's test. The characteristic clinical feature is strictly localized pain in the anterior abdominal wall, which is often mischaracterized as a "functional" complaint. In one study, injection of local anesthesia combined with steroids into the painful area was found to relieve pain for 4 weeks in 95% of patients. The injection of lidocaine alone brought about improvement in 83-91% of patients. Long-term pain relief ensued after a single lidocaine injection in 20-30% of patients, after repeated injections in 40-50% , and after combined lidocaine and steroid injections in up to 80% . Pain that persists despite these treatments can be treated with surgery (neurectomy). Chronic abdominal wall pain is easily diagnosed on physical examination and can often be rapidly treated. Any physician treating patients with abdominal pain should be aware of this condition. Further comparative treatment trials will be needed before a validated treatment algorithm can be established.

  9. Pepper Mild Mottle Virus, a Plant Virus Associated with Specific Immune Responses, Fever, Abdominal Pains, and Pruritus in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Philippe; Richet, Hervé; Desnues, Christelle; Balique, Fanny; Moal, Valérie; Grob, Jean-Jacques; Berbis, Philippe; Lecoq, Hervé; Harlé, Jean-Robert; Berland, Yvon; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Background Recently, metagenomic studies have identified viable Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), a plant virus, in the stool of healthy subjects. However, its source and role as pathogen have not been determined. Methods and Findings 21 commercialized food products containing peppers, 357 stool samples from 304 adults and 208 stool samples from 137 children were tested for PMMoV using real-time PCR, sequencing, and electron microscopy. Anti-PMMoV IgM antibody testing was concurrently performed. A case-control study tested the association of biological and clinical symptoms with the presence of PMMoV in the stool. Twelve (57%) food products were positive for PMMoV RNA sequencing. Stool samples from twenty-two (7.2%) adults and one child (0.7%) were positive for PMMoV by real-time PCR. Positive cases were significantly more likely to have been sampled in Dermatology Units (p<10−6), to be seropositive for anti-PMMoV IgM antibodies (p = 0.026) and to be patients who exhibited fever, abdominal pains, and pruritus (p = 0.045, 0.038 and 0.046, respectively). Conclusions Our study identified a local source of PMMoV and linked the presence of PMMoV RNA in stool with a specific immune response and clinical symptoms. Although clinical symptoms may be imputable to another cofactor, including spicy food, our data suggest the possibility of a direct or indirect pathogenic role of plant viruses in humans. PMID:20386604

  10. Acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Stone, R

    1998-01-01

    Abdominal pain is among the most frequent ailments reported in the office setting and can account for up to 40% of ailments in the ambulatory practice. Also, it is in the top three symptoms of patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) and accounts for 5-10% of all ED primary presenting ailments. There are several common sources for acute abdominal pain and many for subacute and chronic abdominal pain. This article explores the history-taking, initial evaluation, and examination of the patient presenting with acute abdominal pain. The goal of this article is to help differentiate one source of pain from another. Discussion of acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis, appendicitis, ectopic pregnancy, diverticulitis, gastritis, and gastroenteritis are undertaken. Additionally, there is discussion of common laboratory studies, diagnostic studies, and treatment of the patient with the above entities.

  11. Acute Abdominal Pain in Children.

    PubMed

    Reust, Carin E; Williams, Amy

    2016-05-15

    Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound tenderness. The age of the child can help focus the differential diagnosis. In infants and toddlers, clinicians should consider congenital anomalies and other causes, including malrotation, hernias, Meckel diverticulum, or intussusception. In school-aged children, constipation and infectious causes of pain, such as gastroenteritis, colitis, respiratory infections, and urinary tract infections, are more common. In female adolescents, clinicians should consider pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy, ruptured ovarian cysts, or ovarian torsion. Initial laboratory tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, urinalysis, and a pregnancy test. Abdominal radiography can be used to diagnose constipation or obstruction. Ultrasonography is the initial choice in children for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, pancreatitis, ovarian cyst, ovarian or testicular torsion, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy-related pathology, and appendicitis. Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgery, with a peak incidence during adolescence. When the appendix is not clearly visible on ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to confirm the diagnosis.

  12. Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-Term

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-termJust about everyone has had a " ... time or another. But sudden severe abdominal pain (stomach pain), also called acute pain, shouldn't be ...

  13. Functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, P; Aziz, Q

    2005-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain or functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is an uncommon functional gut disorder characterised by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain attributed to the gut but poorly related to gut function. It is associated with abnormal illness behaviour and patients show psychological morbidity that is often minimised or denied in an attempt to discover an organic cause for symptoms. Thus the conventional biomedical approach to the management of such patients is unhelpful and a person's symptom experience is more usefully investigated using a biopsychosocial evaluation, which necessarily entails a multidisciplinary system of healthcare provision. Currently the pathophysiology of the disorder is poorly understood but is most likely to involve a dysfunction of central pain mechanisms either in terms of attentional bias, for example, hypervigilance or a failure of central pain modulation/inhibition. Although modern neurophysiological investigation of patients is promising and may provide important insights into the pathophysiology of FAPS, current clinical management relies on an effective physician-patient relationship in which limits on clinical investigation are set and achievable treatment goals tailored to the patient's needs are pursued. PMID:15998821

  14. Lower Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Carlberg, David J; Lee, Stephen D; Dubin, Jeffrey S

    2016-05-01

    Although most frequently presenting with lower abdominal pain, appendicitis, colitis, and diverticulitis can cause pain throughout the abdomen and can cause peritoneal and retroperitoneal symptoms. Evaluation and management of lower intestinal disease requires a nuanced approach by the emergency physician, sometimes requiring computed tomography, ultrasonography, MRI, layered imaging, shared decision making, serial examination, and/or close follow-up. Once a presumed or confirmed diagnosis is made, appropriate treatment is initiated, and may include surgery, antibiotics, and/or steroids. Appendicitis patients should be admitted. Diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease can frequently be managed on an outpatient basis, but may require admission and surgical consultation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Abdominal Pain Caused by a Potentially Fatal Attraction.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Danielle Claire; Scace, Candace; Shah, Bhairav; Weiner, Evan; Prasad, Rajeev

    2016-11-19

    Abdominal pain is a challenging presentation in children. Examination findings and etiology vary greatly, spanning a vast spectrum from flatulence to frank peritonitis with septic shock. Here, we discuss a 10-year-old boy with 24 hours of progressively worsening lower abdominal pain, nausea, and subjective fevers. History and physical examination findings were consistent with appendicitis. However, physicians were surprised when the single-view abdominal radiograph showed an unanticipated, somewhat perplexing discovery.

  16. Abdominal epilepsy as an unusual cause of abdominal pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Yilmaz; Sefer, Ustebay; Dondu, Ulker Ustebay; Ismail, Ozanli; Yusuf, Ehi

    2016-09-01

    Abdominal pain, in etiology sometimes difficult to be defined, is a frequent complaint in childhood. Abdominal epilepsy is a rare cause of abdominal pain. In this article, we report on 5 year old girl patient with abdominal epilepsy. Some investigations (stool investigation, routine blood tests, ultrasonography (USG), electrocardiogram (ECHO) and electrocardiograpy (ECG), holter for 24hr.) were done to understand the origin of these complaints; but no abnormalities were found. Finally an EEG was done during an episode of abdominal pain and it was shown that there were generalized spikes especially precipitated by hyperventilation. The patient did well on valproic acid therapy and EEG was normal 1 month after beginning of the treatment. The cause of chronic recurrent paroxymal abdominal pain is difficult for the clinicians to diagnose in childhood. A lot of disease may lead to paroxysmal gastrointestinal symptoms like familial mediterranean fever and porfiria. Abdominal epilepsy is one of the rare but easily treatable cause of abdominal pain. In conclusion, abdominal epilepsy should be suspected in children with recurrent abdominal pain.

  17. Maintenance of Pain in Children With Functional Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Czyzewski, Danita I; Self, Mariella M; Williams, Amy E; Weidler, Erica M; Blatz, Allison M; Shulman, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    A significant proportion of children with functional abdominal pain develop chronic pain. Identifying clinical characteristics predicting pain persistence is important in targeting interventions. We examined whether child anxiety and/or pain-stooling relations were related to maintenance of abdominal pain frequency and compared the predictive value of 3 methods for assessing pain-stooling relations (ie, diary, parent report, child report). Seventy-six children (7-10 years old at baseline) who presented for medical treatment of functional abdominal pain were followed up 18 to 24 months later. Baseline anxiety and abdominal pain-stooling relations based on pain and stooling diaries and child- and parent questionnaires were examined in relationship to the persistence of abdominal pain frequency. Children's baseline anxiety was not related to persistence of pain frequency. Children who, however, displayed irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms at baseline maintained pain frequency at follow-up, whereas in children in whom there was no relationship between pain and stooling, pain frequency decreased. Pain and stool diaries and parent report of pain-stooling relations were predictive of pain persistence but child-report questionnaires were not. The presence of IBS symptoms in school-age children with functional abdominal pain appears to predict persistence of abdominal pain over time, whereas anxiety does not. Prospective pain and stooling diaries and parent report of IBS symptoms were predictors of pain maintenance, but child report of symptoms was not.

  18. Maintenance of Pain in Children with Functional Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Czyzewski, Danita I.; Self, Mariella M.; Williams, Amy E.; Weidler, Erica M.; Blatz, Allison M.; Shulman, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A significant proportion of children with functional abdominal pain develop chronic pain. Identifying clinical characteristics predicting pain persistence is important in targeting interventions. We examined whether child anxiety and/or pain-stooling relations were related to maintenance of abdominal pain frequency and compared the predictive value of three methods for assessing pain-stooling relations (i.e., diary, parent report, child report). Methods Seventy-six children (7–10-years-old at baseline) who presented for medical treatment of functional abdominal pain were followed up 18–24 months later. Baseline anxiety and abdominal pain-stooling relations based on pain and stooling diaries and child- and parent-questionnaires were examined in relationship to the persistence of abdominal pain frequency. Results Children’s baseline anxiety was not related to persistence of pain frequency. However, children who displayed irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms at baseline maintained pain frequency at follow-up, whereas in children in whom there was no relationship between pain and stooling, pain frequency decreased. Pain and stool diaries and parent report of pain-stooling relations were predictive of pain persistence but child-report questionnaires were not. Conclusions The presence of IBS symptoms in school age children with functional abdominal pain appears to predict persistence of abdominal pain over time, while anxiety does not. Prospective pain and stooling diaries and parent report of IBS symptoms were predictors of pain maintenance, but child report of symptoms was not. PMID:26301615

  19. [Abdominal acute pain as initial symptom of invasive meningococcus serogroup A illness].

    PubMed

    Sanz Álvarez, Débora; Blázquez Gamero, Daniel; Ruiz Contreras, Jesús

    2011-04-01

    The abdominal acute pain as an initial symptom of meningococcemia is an infrequent entity rarely described in the literature. We present a 10 month-old infant with fever and acute abdominal pain, who was admitted in Emergency Care. Later, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A was isolated from blood cultures.

  20. Hepatosplenic cat-scratch disease and abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Dunn, M W; Berkowitz, F E; Miller, J J; Snitzer, J A

    1997-03-01

    There have been several recent reports that cat-scratch disease (CSD) causes a multiplicity of atypical clinical syndromes. We recently diagnosed hepatosplenic CSD in a child who was seen with fever and abdominal pain. We report this case and 10 other patients with hepatosplenic CSD and highlight the importance of abdominal pain in this clinical entity. This was a retrospective review of charts of patients with a diagnosis of cat-scratch disease at Egleston Children's Hospital between January, 1985, and June, 1996. From these cases patients with hepatosplenic CSD were selected for study. Seven children (64%) had significant abdominal pain, and in three children abdominal pain was their chief complaint. All children in the study had pathologic evidence of CSD or elevated titers of antibodies to Bartonella henselae. Ultrasound examination showed that all children had microabscesses in the spleen, and eight had abscesses in the liver. One of the most remarkable findings in this large series of cases of hepatosplenic CSD was that 64% of the patients complained of abdominal pain. All children in this study received antibiotics. It was our clinical impression that once antibiotics had been started, the patients appeared to improve very quickly. With an increased index of suspicion, the use of B. henselae serology and an abdominal ultrasound examination, the diagnosis of this underrecognized disease might be more readily made.

  1. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... belly Has had a recent injury to the abdomen Is having trouble breathing Call your provider if ...

  2. Abdominal Pain following Gastric Bypass: Suspects & Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Greenstein, Alexander J.; O’Rourke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Gastric bypass remains the mainstay of surgical therapy for obesity. Abdominal pain after gastric bypass is common, and accounts for up to half of all postoperative complaints and emergency room visits. This manuscript reviews the most important causes of abdominal pain specific to gastric bypass and discusses management considerations. Data Sources The current surgical literature was reviewed using PubMed, with a focus on abdominal pain after gastric bypass and the known pathologies that underlie its pathogenesis. Conclusions The differential diagnosis for abdominal pain after gastric bypass is large and includes benign and life-threatening entities. Its diverse causes require a broad evaluation that should be directed by history and clinical presentation. In the absence of a clear diagnosis, the threshold for surgical exploration in patients with abdominal pain after gastric bypass should be low. PMID:21333269

  3. [Diagnostic imaging and acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-19

    Acute abdominal pain is a common clinical condition. Clinical signs and symptoms can be difficult to interpret, and diagnostic imaging may help to identify intra-abdominal disease. Conventional X-ray, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen vary in usability between common surgical causes of acute abdominal pain. Overall, conventional X-ray cannot confidently diagnose or rule out disease. US and CT are equally trustworthy for most diseases. US with subsequent CT may enhance diagnostic precision. Magnetic resonance seems promising for future use in acute abdominal imaging.

  4. Immigrant with stomach pain, distension, nausea, and fever · Dx?

    PubMed

    Tessier, Joshua; Waller, Callie

    2017-09-01

    A 34-year-old Eritrean man presented to the emergency department with complaints of diffuse abdominal pain and distention. He had emigrated to the United States 3 months earlier, following 5 years in a refugee camp in Ethiopia. Two weeks earlier, the patient sought care at his primary care clinic and was diagnosed with post-operative urinary retention and constipation following a recent hemorrhoidectomy. A Foley catheter was inserted and provided a short period of relief. Following the visit, however, his abdominal pain worsened. He also experienced increasing abdominal distention, a declining appetite, and persistent nausea. The patient said that he was unable to urinate and had not had a bowel movement in 6 days. He also described fevers, drenching night sweats, chills, and a 4-kg weight loss over 2 months.

  5. Functional Abdominal Pain: "Get" the Function, Loose the Pain.

    PubMed

    Draeger-Muenke, Reinhild

    2015-07-01

    Functional abdominal pain is a mind-body, psychosocial, and self-reinforcing experience with significant consequences for the sufferer and the surrounding support network. The occurrence of unpredictable symptoms and their severity add an element of dread and feeling out-of-control to daily life and often reduce overall functioning in a downward spiral. Two clinical presentations of functional abdominal pain are offered in this article (composites to protect confidentiality) dealing with abdominal pain syndrome and abdominal migraines. The treatment demonstrates the use of hypnotic principles for self-regulation, exploration, and meaning-making. Hypnosis treatment is conducted in combination with mindfulness-based interventions and Traditional Chinese Medicine's (TCM) teachings regarding abdominal health and illness. The clinical examples illustrate medical findings that suggest children with early life stress and an early onset of gastrointestinal somatization may not simply outgrow their functional abdominal pain but may suffer into adulthood.

  6. Maintenance of pain in children with functional abdominal pain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A significant proportion of children with functional abdominal pain develop chronic pain. Identifying clinical characteristics predicting pain persistence is important in targeting interventions. We examined whether child anxiety and/or pain-stooling relations were related to maintenance of abdomina...

  7. An Unusual Case of Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Bobby; De Portu, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Renal calyceal rupture is a usual etiology of abdominal pain in the emergency department. We present a case of unexpected renal calyx rupture in a patient with symptomatology of renal colic. A discussion and review are provided. PMID:23326726

  8. Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, W; Longstreth, G; Drossman, D; Heaton, K; Irvine, E; Muller-Lissner, S

    1999-01-01

    The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised. A functional bowel disorder (FBD) is diagnosed by characteristic symptoms for at least 12 weeks during the preceding 12 months in the absence of a structural or biochemical explanation. The irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal bloating, functional constipation, and functional diarrhea are distinguished by symptom-based diagnostic criteria. Unspecified FBD lacks criteria for the other FBDs. Diagnostic testing is individualized, depending on patient age, primary symptom characteristics, and other clinical and laboratory features. Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is defined as either the FAP syndrome, which requires at least six months of pain with poor relation to gut function and loss of daily activities, or unspecified FAP, which lacks criteria for the FAP syndrome. An organic cause for the pain must be excluded, but aspects of the patient's pain behavior are of primary importance. Treatment of the FBDs relies upon confident diagnosis, explanation, and reassurance. Diet alteration, drug treatment, and psychotherapy may be beneficial, depending on the symptoms and psychological features.


Keywords: functional bowel disorder; functional constipation; functional diarrhea; irritable bowel syndrome; functional abdominal pain; functional abdominal bloating; Rome II PMID:10457044

  9. Imaging for chronic abdominal pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Diagnostic imaging is often not indicated in chronic abdominal pain. In particular, undifferentiated abdominal pain is rarely an indication for a CT scan. CT scanning is overused even when imaging is required. Other modalities may be preferable. A normal CT scan does not rule out cancer. Alarm symptoms, including anaemia, blood in the stool, waking at night with gastrointestinal symptoms, and weight loss, should be investigated. The most appropriate modality depends on the symptoms. Clinical information on request forms for CT scans should be specific and include the suspected condition as this helps the radiologist to determine an appropriate imaging protocol.

  10. Management of pain after abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Patel, C. V.; Koppikar, M. G.; Patel, M. S.; Parulkar, G. B.; Pereira, L. M. Pinto

    1980-01-01

    1 Dipyrone 2.5 g was compared with pethidine 100 mg in a double-blind parallel group study. 2 Patients with moderate or severe postoperative pain following abdominal surgery received one of the two drugs intramuscularly. 3 The two treatment groups were homogeneous when analyzed by age, weight, height, sex, and initial severity of pain. 4 The onset degree and duration of pain relief afforded by both drugs was similar when the groups were compared as a whole or according to initial pain level. 5 No side-effects were attributed to either drug in this study. PMID:7437276

  11. [Gynaecological abdominal pain in adolescent females].

    PubMed

    Fernández Avalos, S; Muñoz-Santanach, D; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, V; Luaces Cubells, C

    2010-05-01

    To determine the prevalence, the presentation, the evaluation and the evolution of abdominal pain of gynaecological cause in adolescents who came to a Paediatric Emergency Department. An observational and descriptive study was performed. All adolescent female aged 12 to 18 years who came to Emergency Service during 2008 with abdominal pain were included. The patients diagnosed with gynaecological disorders were studied. Six hundred and ninety-nine adolescents with abdominal pain were evaluated and 54 (7,7%) of them were of gynaecological cause. Their mean age was 15,2 (SD 1,7) years. Fifty-one (94,4%) had had the menarche. Thirteen (59,3%) of the 32 adolescents, who were asked, said that they had had sex. The median evolution of pain was 2 days (p25-75: 6hours-4days). The most frequent associated symptoms were micturition syndrome (11; 20,4%) and vomiting (9; 16,7%). Thirty-one (57,4%) adolescents were evaluated by two or more specialists. Forty-two (77,7%) patients were subjected to complementary examinations; abdominal ultrasound (29; 53,7%) and urinary sediment (26; 48,1%) were the two most common. The main diagnoses were peri-ovular pain (16; 29,6%) and dysmenorrhoea (14; 25,9%). Six (9,3%) patients were admitted to the hospital and 4 (7,4%) needed surgery. Although the main causes of abdominal pain in adolescent females are physiological, an accurate anamnesis and physical examination is essential to rule out other more serious causes. A multidisciplinary evaluation is often necessary to make a correct diagnosis. Copyright 2009 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of the patient with acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Cole, Elaine; Lynch, Antonia; Cugnoni, Helen

    Abdominal pain has many causes, from simple to complex presentations. Patients with abdominal pain may have a number of physiological and psychological needs. Nurses have a key role to play in patient assessment, history talking and management.

  13. Diagnostic yield of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in children with abdominal pain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Abdominal pain is the most common indication for OGD in children. However, existing studies examining the diagnostic outcomes of OGD in children with abdominal pain are limited. We conducted the current study to examine the diagnostic yield of OGD with biopsy in the evaluation of abdominal pain and ...

  14. Red Flags of Organic Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Children: Study on 100 Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Motamed, Farzaneh; Mohsenipour, Reihaneh; Seifirad, Soroush; Yusefi, Azizolah; Farahmand, Fatemeh; Khodadad, Ahmad; Falahi, Gholamhosein; Najafi, Mehri

    2012-01-01

    Objective A variety of sign, symptoms and laboratory findings are more common in children with organic abdominal pains. This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of organic and functional abdominal pains and relation of red flags to organic pains in 100 children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP). Methods One hundred consecutive patients with RAP were enrolled in the study. A complete interview and physical examination was made for each patient, accompanied by a series of laboratory, clinical and para-clinical examinations. The data were recorded and analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used to model and formulize correlations between sign, symptoms, and laboratory findings with organic and functional abdominal pain. Findings Among 100 patients (52% male, 48% female, Age: 9.29±3.17) diagnostic works up revealed organic pain for 57 patients. The most common symptoms of the patients included constipation, diarrhea, chest pain, cough, headache, vomiting, hematuria, and dysuria. Fecal incontinence, delayed puberty, organomegaly, jaundice, and family history of inflammatory bowel disease were reported in none of the patients with RAP. Fever, pain not located in periumbilical area, nocturnal pain, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, weight loss, growth disorder, and abdominal tenderness were among the red flags which revealed diagnosis of organic pain in this study. Conclusion A series of red flags could increase likelihood of finding organic pain in children with RAP. PMID:23429658

  15. Refractory Abdominal Pain in a Hemodialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Ying; Chen, Xiao-nong; Shi, Hao; Xie, Jingyuan; Chen, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) is a rare disorder. Failure of an early diagnosis may cause progressive intestinal ischemia, leading to abdominal pain, sepsis, and death. Patients with end-stage renal disease are among the highest risk populations for developing this lethal complication. The key to a correct diagnosis at an early stage is a high index of suspicion in predisposed patients. In our case, we present a 62-year-old female undergoing maintenance hemodialysis for 8 years; she complained of abdominal pain after hemodialysis in the last 3 months; NOMI was suspected after a CT angiography. She partially recovered after multiple clinical interventions such as decreased ultrafiltration, an increased dose of low molecular-weight heparin and the use of vasoactive drugs. In conclusion, NOMI can be reversible if it is diagnosed as early as possible and after the necessary diagnostic measurements are initiated. PMID:26266246

  16. Plain abdominal radiographs and abdominal CT scans for nontraumatic abdominal pain--added value?

    PubMed

    Nagurney, J T; Brown, D F; Novelline, R A; Kim, J; Fischer, R H

    1999-11-01

    We conducted a retrospective descriptive study to determine the value of plain abdominal radiographs in emergency department (ED) patients also receiving abdominal computed tomography scans (CT) for the evaluation of nontraumatic abdominal, back and flank pain (NTAP). Cases were identified through radiology log books. Medical records and radiology reports were reviewed to determine whether the CT confirmed the findings of the plain abdominal radiographs, and whether the clinical course confirmed the results of either. Test characteristics for the plain abdominal radiograph and for the CT, using the clinical course including subsequent invasive procedures as the gold standard, were calculated. Of 177 patients who received CTs, 97 (55%) also received plain abdominal radiographs. Among the 74 patients who were admitted to the hospital and had complete data, the sensitivity and specificity for the plain abdominal radiographs were .43 and .75 respectively, compared to .91 and .94 for the CT scan (P(sens.) < .05, P(spec.) < .05). In 4 patients (5%), both studies failed to identify pathology shown in a subsequent procedure. In ED patients with NTAP, the plain abdominal radiograph may have some value as a screening tool; however, in patients in whom a CT is likely to be ordered anyway, a plain abdominal radiograph is unhelpful and often misleading.

  17. Persistence of an infected urachus presenting as acute abdominal pain. Case report.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Diana Martin; Matos, Pablo Prieto; Hernandez, Juan Carlos Diez; Muñoz, Jorge Liras; Villasana, Luis de Celis

    2009-09-01

    We report a case of urachal remnant disease and review the literature. We present the case of an urachal cyst in a 13-year-old patient who was admitted to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain. Differential diagnosis of his symptoms was made with other diseases such as appendicitis and inflammatory bowel disease. Urachal remnant diseases are rare and they usually present during the neonatal period with fever and wet navel, lower abdominal pain around the middle line, palpable mass and urination symptoms with or without urinary infections. The presentation as acute abdominal pain in an older child is less common, and its differential diagnosis must be performed with other abdominal or pelvic acute diseases. The most appropriate imaging technique is an ultrasound exam.

  18. Microlaparoscopy for recurrent abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Turial, S; Enders, J; Schwind, M; Schier, F

    2010-05-01

    This prospective study evaluated the diagnostic and therapeutic feasibility and safety of microlaparoscopy for the management of chronic abdominal pain in children. The study included 45 children (13 boys and 32 girls; age range from 6 to 16 years, average 9.5 years) undergoing diagnostic microlaparoscopy for chronic abdominal pain. Microlaparoscopy (the exclusive use of 2 mm instrument sets and small diameter scopes, i. e. 1.7 mm, 1.9 mm and 2.4 mm) was performed after common organic diseases were ruled out by careful baseline investigations. No complications occurred which were related to the exclusive use of 2 mm instruments and small scopes. CT scans were avoided in all patients. No intraoperative pathological findings were found in 18 children. In another 18 children, the intraoperative findings indicated the need for further surgical intervention. At follow-up, 26 patients reported that they were totally pain-free; 10 children had partial resolution after surgery, and 8 children reported only minimal resolution. In 20 cases, the procedures were accomplished as an outpatient surgery. Microlaparoscopy seems to be a safe and effective diagnostic tool with a favorable diagnostic accuracy, minimal access trauma and superior cosmesis in children.

  19. Isolated omental panniculitis in a child with abdominal pain: case report.

    PubMed

    Oztan, Mustafa O; Ozdemir, Tunc; Uncel, Melek; Diniz, Gulden; Koyluoglu, Gokhan

    2016-12-01

    Isolated omental panniculitis is a rare entity mostly seen in adults. It presents with the inflammation of the fatty tissue of the omentum. The symptoms may vary from local (e.g. abdominal tenderness or palpable mass) to systemic manifestations including abdominal pain, back pain, fever, weight loss and bowel disturbances. We presented this case as a first awareness of omental panniculitis in a child which must be kept in mind at the differential diagnosis of ileus so that unnecessary surgeries might be avoided.

  20. Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency presenting as recurrent abdominal pain in childhood.

    PubMed

    Mhanni, Aizeddin A; Prasad, Chitra; Rockman-Greenberg, Cheryl

    2011-09-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain remains one of the most common symptoms in pediatrics. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who had recurrent episodes of abdominal pain requiring more than 13 visits to the emergency department. A diagnosis of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency was eventually made. Urea cycle disorders often present beyond the neonatal period with frequent vomiting episodes; however, recurrent abdominal pain as a presenting symptom is unusual. Unnecessary invasive investigations of recurrent abdominal pain in childhood can be avoided by considering inborn errors of metabolism earlier in the differential diagnosis.

  1. [Recurrent abdominal pain and "chronic appendicitis"].

    PubMed

    Leardi, S; Delmonaco, S; Ventura, T; Chiominto, A; De Rubeis, G; Simi, M

    2000-01-01

    Chronic appendicitis may be the cause of recurrent abdominal pain. This hypothesis is the subject of controversy. The aim is to clarify the possible existence of a chronic inflammation of the appendix by a clinical and histopathologic study. The case history and the preoperative symptoms and serum findings of 269 patients with appendectomy have been studied. All the appendices have been histologically examined. Chronic appendicitis was diagnosed when at least two typical histological factors of chronic inflammation were present. The histological findings of the appendices have been correlated with preoperative clinical and serum findings of the patients. 14-46 months after the appendectomy, the patients have been examined. Histological examination revealed 187 cases (69.5%) with acute appendicitis, 44 cases (16.3%) with non disease of appendix and 38 cases (14.2%) with chronic appendicitis. Recurrent abdominal pain and normal leukocyte count were closely correlated (chi 2 = 18.3, p < 0.001; chi 2 = 21.3, p < 0.001 respectively) with diagnosis of chronic appendicitis. 81.8% of 33 patients with chronic appendicitis who underwent follow-up had relief of all the symptoms after appendectomy. Therefore, the study seems to confirm the existence of a clinico-pathological condition that can be defined as chronic appendicitis, resolvable with appendectomy.

  2. Spinal extradural arachnoid cyst presenting as recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Kerr, John M; Ukpeh, Henry; Steinbok, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Spinal arachnoid cysts are an infrequently reported cause of abdominal pain in children. In this report, we describe the unusual case of an extradural arachnoid cyst presenting as recurrent abdominal pain in a pediatric patient without any signs of cord or nerve root compression. A 14-year-old girl with recurrent abdominal pain as the only symptom of a spinal extradural arachnoid cyst is reported. The patient was incidentally diagnosed with an intraspinal mass on abdominal computed tomography (CT) during the course of investigating her abdominal pain. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging confirmed the diagnosis of a T11-L2 extradural arachnoid cyst. After resection of the T11-L2 arachnoid cyst, the patient's abdominal pain resolved. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing abdominal pain as the sole presenting feature of a spinal arachnoid cyst in the pediatric population. This case illustrates that abdominal pain may be the first and only presentation of spinal arachnoid cysts in children. Spinal pathology should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained abdominal pain, even when there are no other symptoms of spinal disease.

  3. [Psychological diagnostics of functional abdominal pain in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Schlarb, Angelika A; Bock, Inga; Gulewitsch, Marco D; Hautzinger, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Given the high prevalence and possible psychosocial consequences of functional abdominal pain in children and adolescents, appropriate instruments for early diagnostics are required to work effectively against long-term chronic courses of this disorder. This report describes several self-report scales and reviews their applicability. In addition, questionnaires and interviews which assess pain intensity and associated factors as well as specific instruments for assessing functional abdominal pain in children and adolescents are introduced. It can be declared that none of the examined instruments grasps all relevant factors of pain. Especially in German there are only few appropriate diagnostic instruments for functional abdominal pain in children.

  4. Establishment and Application of Early Risk Stratification Method for Acute Abdominal Pain in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Zhao, Hong; Zhou, Zhen; Tian, Ci; Xiao, Hong-Li; Wang, Bao-En

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute abdominal pain is a common symptom of emergency patients. The severity was always evaluated based on physicians’ clinical experience. The aim of this study was to establish an early risk stratification method (ERSM) for addressing adults with acute abdominal pain, which would guide physicians to take appropriate and timely measures following the established health-care policies. Methods: In Cohort 1, the records of 490 patients with acute abdominal pain that developed within the past 72 h were enrolled in this study. Measurement data and numeration data were compared with analysis of variance and Chi-square test, respectively. Multiple regression analysis calculated odd ratio (OR) value. P and OR values showed the impacts of factors. ERSM was established by clinical experts and statistical experts according to Youden index. In Cohort 2, data from 305 patients with acute abdominal pain were enrolled to validate the accuracy of the ERSM. Then, ERSM was prospectively used in clinical practice. Results: The ERSM was established based on the scores of the patient's clinical characteristics: right lower abdominal pain + 3 × diffuse abdominal pain + 3 × cutting abdominal pain + 3 × pain frequency + 3 × pain duration + fever + 2 × vomiting + 5 × stop defecation + 3 × history of abdominal surgery + hypertension history + diabetes history + hyperlipidemia history + pulse + 2 × skin yellowing + 2 × sclera yellowing + 2 × double lung rale + 10 × unconsciousness + 2 × right lower abdominal tenderness + 5 × diffuse abdominal tenderness + 4 × peritoneal irritation + 4 × bowel sounds abnormal + 10 × suspicious diagnosis + white blood cell count + hematocrit + glucose + 2 × blood urea nitrogen + 3 × creatine + 4 × serum albumin + alanine aminotransferase + total bilirubin + 3 × conjugated bilirubin + amylase. When the score was <18, the patient did not need hospitalization. A score of ≥18 and <38 indicated that the patient should be under

  5. [Surgical management of acute abdominal pain in children].

    PubMed

    Scheye, T

    1999-01-01

    Acute abdominal pain is one of the most frequent causes of admission to an emergency department of a children's hospital. It continues to be a clinical challenge and the diagnosis viewed with the most apprehension is acute appendicitis. The clinical examination must be meticulous and repeated in order to assess the evolution of the abdominal syndrome and to adapt the paraclinic examinations. All the abdominal pains are not surgical but justify an admission for observation in pediatric surgical department.

  6. Early Postoperative Pain After Keyless Abdominal Rope-Lifting Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hüseyınoğlu, Ürfettin; Çıçek, Melek

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery is a novel, gasless, single-incision laparoscopic surgical technique. In this study we aimed to compare the postoperative pain from keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery with carbon dioxide laparoscopy performed for benign ovarian cysts. Methods: During a 20-month period, 77 women underwent surgery for a benign ovarian cyst. Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery and conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy techniques were used for the operations in 32 women and 45 women, respectively. The 2 operative techniques were compared with regard to demographic characteristics; preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data including early postoperative pain scores; and frequency of shoulder pain and analgesic requirements. Results: Data regarding demographic characteristics, preoperative findings, cyst diameters and rupture rates, intra-abdominal adhesions, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative hospital stay did not differ between groups (P > .05). However, the mean operative and abdominal access times were significantly longer in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Visual analog scale pain scores at initially and at the second, fourth, and 24th hours of the postoperative period were significantly lower in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Similarly, keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery caused significantly less shoulder pain and additional analgesic use (P < .05). Conclusion: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery seems to cause less pain in the management of benign ovarian cysts in comparison with conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy. PMID:25848177

  7. Menarche? A Case of Abdominal Pain and Vaginal Bleeding in a Preadolescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Riney, Lauren C; Reed, Jennifer L; Kruger, Laura L; Brody, Alan J; Pomerantz, Wendy J

    2015-11-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints in the pediatric ED. Because of the broad range of potential diagnoses, it can pose challenges in diagnosis and therapy in the preadolescent girl. An 11-year-old previously healthy girl presented to our pediatric ED with fever, decreased appetite, vaginal bleeding, and abdominal pain. Initial evaluation yielded elevated creatinine levels, leukocytosis with bandemia, elevated inflammatory markers, and urine concerning for a urinary tract infection. She began receiving antibiotics for presumed pyelonephritis and was admitted to the hospital. After worsening respiratory status and continued abdominal pain, a computed tomography scan was obtained and a pelvic foreign body and abscess were identified. Adolescent gynecology was consulted for examination under anesthesia for abscess drainage and foreign body removal. A foreign body in the vagina or uterus can present as vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, dysuria, or hematuria. Because symptoms can be diverse, an intravaginal or uterine foreign body should be considered in the preteen female patient presenting to the ED with abdominal pain.

  8. Abdominal pain in physical therapy practice: 3 patient cases.

    PubMed

    Rodeghero, Jason R; Denninger, Thomas R; Ross, Michael D

    2013-02-01

    Resident's case problem. Abdominal pain is a common symptom, but not a common diagnosis, of patients referred to physical therapists for examination and intervention. For patients with primary symptoms of abdominal pain, a thorough evaluation must be performed to determine if symptoms are musculoskeletal in nature or of a nonmusculoskeletal origin that would warrant a referral to a different healthcare provider. This report describes the management of 3 adults with primary complaints of abdominal pain who were referred for physical therapy evaluation and treatment. Two of the patients had secondary symptoms of hip and/or low back pain and had previously undergone extensive medical testing for their chronic abdominal pain, without a definitive diagnosis having been determined. A physical therapy evaluation was conducted, and treatment, including manual physical therapy and exercise, was administered to address all relative impairments, once the physical therapist had determined that the patients' symptoms were of musculoskeletal origin. The third patient included in this series was referred to a physical therapist with a diagnosis of greater trochanteric versus iliopsoas bursitis. However, the patient had abdominal pain that was more acute in nature and a history and physical examination findings that were concerning for abdominal pain of nonmusculoskeletal origin. Both patients with abdominal pain of musculoskeletal origin showed marked improvement in pain and disability after 7 treatment sessions. The third patient was referred to her primary care physician, and ultrasound examination of the abdomen revealed several intrauterine masses that were consistent with uterine fibroids. Following uterine fibroid embolization, the patient was symptom free. Although not routinely managed by physical therapists, abdominal pain is a relatively common patient symptom that can have several causes, both musculoskeletal and nonmusculoskeletal. This paper emphasizes the importance

  9. Management of abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    El-Radhi, A Sahib

    Abdominal pain (AP) is a very common complaint caused by a variety of conditions. Mild or moderate AP affects practically all children of all ages. The pain usually settles spontaneously without medical intervention. AP severe enough to require medical intervention has both surgical and non-surgical causes. It is responsible for considerable morbidity, missed school days, and significant use of health resources. Children usually present either with an acute or recurrent AP. In comparison, chronic AP with persistent symptoms, lasting days or weeks, is rare in children. Surgical conditions may be the underlying causes in acute AP, but non-surgical conditions are diagnosed more commonly in children with recurrent AP. Management can be difficult, time-consuming and often clinically challenging to diagnose and treat. In most instances, the cause of AP can be diagnosed through the history and physical examination. The main objective in managing an affected child is to differentiate between benign, self-limited conditions such as constipation or gastroenteritis, and more life-threatening surgical conditions such as intussusception or appendicitis. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and Crohn's disease should be considered in any child presenting with recurrent AP.

  10. Abdominal pain and nausea in the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis in boys.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Hiroshi; Nago, Naoki; Kiyokawa, Hiromichi; Fukushi, Motoharu

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the accuracy of gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting, in the diagnosis of Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis in children and to determine differences in diagnostic accuracy in boys versus girls. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 5,755 consecutive patients aged <15 years with fever in the electronic database at a primary care practice. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded in the database according to the International Classification of Primary Care codes, and the data were extracted electronically. The reference standard was GAS pharyngitis diagnosed with a rapid test. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable GAS pharyngitis were excluded from the primary analysis. Among the 5,755 children with fever, 331 (5.8%) were coded as having GAS pharyngitis, including 218 (65.9%) diagnosed with rapid tests and 113 (34.1%) clinically diagnosed with probable GAS pharyngitis. Among patients with fever and abdominal pain, rapid-test-confirmed GAS pharyngitis was significantly more common in boys (11/120, 9.2%) than in girls (3/128, 2.3%; p=0.026). The positive likelihood ratio of abdominal pain was 1.49 (95% CI =0.88-2.51): 2.41 (95% CI =1.33-4.36) in boys and 0.63 (95% CI =0.20-1.94) in girls. The positive likelihood ratio of nausea was 2.05 (95% CI =1.06-4.00): 2.74 (95% CI =1.28-5.86) in boys and 1.09 (95% CI =0.27-4.42) in girls. The association between abdominal pain and GAS pharyngitis was stronger in boys aged <6 years than in boys aged 6-15 years. Abdominal pain and nausea were associated with GAS pharyngitis in boys, but not in girls. Abdominal pain and nausea may help determine the suitability of rapid tests in younger boys with fever and other clinical findings consistent with GAS pharyngitis, even in the absence of sore throat.

  11. Pulmonary Embolism Presenting as Abdominal Pain: An Atypical Presentation of a Common Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    John, Elizabeth; Parikh, Payal

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a frequent diagnosis made in the emergency department and can present in many different ways. Abdominal pain is an unusual presenting symptom for PE. It is essential to maintain a high degree of suspicion in these patients, as a delay in diagnosis can be devastating for the patient and confers a high risk of mortality if left untreated. Here, we report the case of a 53-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with worsening right upper quadrant abdominal pain with fevers. Initial imaging was benign, although lab work showed worsening leukocytosis and bilirubin. Abdominal pathology seemed most likely, but the team kept PE on the differential. Further imaging revealed acute pulmonary embolus in the segmental branch of the right lower lobe extending distally into subsegmental branches. The patient was started on anticoagulation and improved drastically. This case highlights the necessity of keeping a broad differential and maintaining a systematic approach when dealing with nonspecific complaints. Furthermore, a discussion on the pathophysiology on why PE can present atypically as abdominal pain, as well as fevers, is reviewed. Using this information can hopefully lead to a subtle diagnosis of PE in the future and lead to a life-saving diagnosis. PMID:27642528

  12. [Perioperative pain management for abdominal and thoracic surgery].

    PubMed

    Englbrecht, J S; Pogatzki-Zahn, E M

    2014-06-01

    Abdominal and thoracic surgical procedures can result in significant acute postoperative pain. Present evidence shows that postoperative pain management remains inadequate especially after "minor" surgical procedures. Various therapeutic options including regional anesthesia techniques and systemic pharmacotherapy are available for effective treatment of postoperative pain. This work summarizes the pathophysiological background of postoperative pain after abdominal and thoracic surgery and discusses the indication, effectiveness, risks, and benefits of the different therapeutic options. Special focus is given to the controversial debate about the indication for epidural analgesia, as well as various alternative therapeutic options, including transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block, paravertebral block (PVB), wound infiltration with local anesthetics, and intravenous lidocaine. In additional, indications and contraindications of nonopioid analgesics after abdominal and thoracic surgery are discussed and recommendations based on scientific evidence and individual risk and benefit analysis are made. All therapeutic options discussed are eligible for clinical use and may contribute to improve postoperative pain outcome after abdominal and thoracic surgical procedures.

  13. Abdominal pain – learning when not to intervene!

    PubMed Central

    Tachamo, Niranjan; Timilsina, Bidhya; Nazir, Salik; Lohani, Saroj

    2016-01-01

    Epiploic appendagitis (EA) is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain. It is a benign condition but may mimic other serious causes of acute abdomen such as appendicitis, diverticulitis, and gynecological emergency in severe cases. Knowledge of this condition in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain can save unnecessary hospital admission, antibiotics, and surgery. In this article, we present the case of a 43-year-old female who presented to our hospital with a 2-day history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain and diarrhea. She was diagnosed with EA with computed tomography of abdomen with contrast and was managed conservatively with good outcome. PMID:27987280

  14. Common Functional Gastroenterologic Disorders Associated With Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Sletten, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Although abdominal pain is a symptom of several structural gastrointestinal disorders (eg, peptic ulcer disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 4 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with abdominal pain: functional dyspepsia, constipation-predominant and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, and functional abdominal pain syndrome. Together, these conditions affect approximately 1 in 4 people in the United States. They are associated with comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia, depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Symptoms are explained by disordered gastrointestinal motility and sensation, which are implicated in a variety of peripheral (eg, postinfectious inflammation, luminal irritants) and/or central (eg, stress and anxiety) factors. These disorders are defined and can generally be diagnosed by symptoms alone. Often prompted by alarm features, selected testing is useful to exclude structural disease. Identifying the specific diagnosis (eg, differentiating between functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome) and establishing an effective patient-physician relationship are the cornerstones of therapy. Many patients with mild symptoms can be effectively managed with limited tests, sensible dietary modifications, and over-the-counter medications tailored to symptoms. If these measures are not sufficient, pharmacotherapy should be considered for bowel symptoms (constipation or diarrhea) and/or abdominal pain; opioids should not be used. Behavioral and psychological approaches (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy) can be very helpful, particularly in patients with chronic abdominal pain who require a multidisciplinary pain management program without opioids. PMID:27492916

  15. Recurrent abdominal pain in children: a clinical approach

    PubMed Central

    Quak, Seng Hock

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘recurrent abdominal pain’, or RAP, refers mainly to the duration of painful period and frequency of pain. The commonly accepted duration is at least three months in the preceding period, and over this three-month period, there are at least three episodes of pain that are severe enough to affect the daily activities of the affected patients. Over the years, with advances in medical technology and better understanding of the pathophysiology of abdominal pain, more and more organic causes have been identified. However, the most common cause of RAP in children is still functional in origin. PMID:25820843

  16. Imperforate hymen: cause of lower abdominal pain in teenage girls.

    PubMed

    Mou, J W C; Tang, P M Y; Chan, K W; Tam, Y H; Lee, K H

    2009-11-01

    Imperforate hymen is a relatively rare congenital anomaly. However, it is not an uncommon cause of lower abdominal pain presenting in teenage girls. Without careful history taking and thorough examination, the condition can be missed easily. We report an imperforate hymen presenting as abdominal pain in three teenage girls aged 12, 12 and 13 years, respectively, within a six-month period. The presentation was reviewed and the various types of hymenotomy were discussed.

  17. Severe Abdominal Pain as the First Manifestation of Rabies

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Jamshid; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Rabies is an acute fatal viral disease that is generally transmitted from animals to humans following wild and domestic animal bites. The rabies virus enters the body from the area where the individual is bitten, and then the virus moves towards the brain and involves the nerves. Case Presentation: During the years 2001-2011, there have been 73 reported rabies cases. About 50,000 reported human deaths are annually due to rabies. The actual number of human deaths due to rabies in Asia especially India, Pakistan and Bangladesh are more than these numbers, since there is no advanced surveillance system for disease control to determine the actual number of infected and fatal human cases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) reports, more than 10 million people who are bitten by animals are annually treated by prophylactic treatment regimens for rabies, worldwide. Conclusions: This paper reports on a case of human rabies with the first disease manifestation (severe abdominal pain). The patient reported extensive biting on his left leg by a dog. He had a slight fever of 38.1°C. It has been recommended that a careful history should be taken from patients for diagnosis of rabies disease. A complete history should be taken from patients for diagnosis of disease, because rabies could be wrong with various diseases with atypical symptoms. because various diseases with atypical symptoms or long incubation periods can visit. PMID:25485053

  18. Supraspinal TRPV1 modulates the emotional expression of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Jurik, Angela; Ressle, Andrea; Schmid, Roland M; Wotjak, Carsten T; Thoeringer, Christoph K

    2014-10-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor type-1 (TRPV1) is critically involved in peripheral nociceptive processes of somatic and visceral pain. However, the role of the capsaicin receptor in the brain regarding visceral pain remains elusive. Here, we studied the contribution of TRPV1 to abdominal pain transmission at different nociceptive pathway levels using TRPV1 knock-out mice, resiniferatoxin-mediated deletion of TRPV1-positive primary sensory neurons, and intracerebral TRPV1 antagonism. We found that constitutive genetic TRPV1 deletion or peripheral TRPV1 deletion reduced acetic acid-evoked abdominal constrictions, without affecting referred abdominal hyperalgesia or allodynia in an acute pancreatitis model of visceral pain. Notably, intracerebral TRPV1 antagonism by SB 366791 significantly reduced chemical and inflammatory spontaneous abdominal nocifensive responses, as observed by reduced expressions of nociceptive facial grimacing, illustrating the affective component of pain. In addition to the established role of cerebral TRPV1 in anxiety, fear, or emotional stress, we demonstrate here for the first time that TRPV1 in the brain modulates visceral nociception by interfering with the affective component of abdominal pain. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Histological characteristics of the abdominal aortic wall in patients with vascular chronic Q fever

    PubMed Central

    Hagenaars, Julia C J P; Koning, Olivier H J; van den Haak, Ronald F F; Verhoeven, Bart A N; Renders, Nicole H M; Hermans, Mirjam H A; Wever, Peter C; van Suylen, Robert Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe specific histological findings of the Coxiella burnetii-infected aneurysmal abdominal aortic wall. Tissue samples of the aneurysmal abdominal aortic wall from seven patients with chronic Q fever and 15 patients without evidence of Q fever infection were analysed and compared. Chronic Q fever was diagnosed using serology and tissue PCR analysis. Histological sections were stained using haematoxylin and eosin staining, Elastica van Gieson staining and immunohistochemical staining for macrophages (CD68), T lymphocytes (CD3), T lymphocyte subsets (CD4 and CD8) and B lymphocytes (CD20). Samples were scored by one pathologist, blinded for Q fever status, using a standard score form. Seven tissue samples from patients with chronic Q fever and 15 tissue samples from patients without Q fever were collected. Four of seven chronic Q fever samples showed a necrotizing granulomatous response of the vascular wall, which was characterized by necrotic core of the arteriosclerotic plaque (P = 0.005) and a presence of high numbers of macrophages in the adventitia (P = 0.007) distributed in typical palisading formation (P = 0.005) and surrounded by the presence of high numbers of T lymphocytes located diffusely in media and adventitia. Necrotizing granulomas are a histological finding in the C. burnetii-infected aneurysmal abdominal aortic wall. Chronic Q fever should be included in the list of infectious diseases with necrotizing granulomatous response, such as tuberculosis, cat scratch disease and syphilis. PMID:24953727

  20. Imaging and laboratory testing in acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Panebianco, Nova L; Jahnes, Katherine; Mills, Angela M

    2011-05-01

    When discussing which laboratory tests or imaging to order in the setting of acute abdominal pain, it is practical to organize information by disease process (eg, acute appendicitis, cholecystitis). Because studies on the accuracy of diagnostic tests are of necessity related to the presence or absence of specific diagnoses, and because clinicians frequently look to tests to help them rule in or rule out specific conditions, this article is organized by region of pain and common abdominal diagnoses. It focuses on the contributions that laboratory testing and imaging make in the emergency management of abdominal complaints. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Idiopathic postpartum intussusception: a rare cause of acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Kocakoc, Ercan; Bozgeyik, Zulkif; Koc, Mustafa; Balaban, Mehtap

    2010-01-01

    To present a case with acute abdominal pain due to idiopathic intestinal intussusception diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) during the early postpartum period. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain, nausea and emesis after a normal vaginal delivery. Laboratory tests done at admission were within normal limits except for leukocytosis. Physical examination revealed abdominal distention, guarding and rebound tenderness. Abdominal ultrasound and oral contrast-enhanced CT showed a complex mass in the hypogastrium, with a typical configuration of intussusception. Emergent laparotomy revealed ileoileal invagination approximately 70 cm to the ileocecal valve but no lead point. A partial ileal resection was performed. This case shows that when intussusception is suspected, an abdominal ultrasound should be performed even in patients with atypical symptoms. CT may be used to confirm the diagnosis. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. [Diagnostic difficulties in pediatric abdominal pain with potential appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Iwańczak, Barbara; Stawarski, Andrzej; Czernik, Jerzy; Bronowickip, Krzysztof; Iwańczak, Franciszek; Pytrus, Tomasz; Klempous, Jan; Godziński, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Pediatric abdominal pain is one of the most common symptom of children brought to attention of primary care physicians and pediatric surgeons. In many children clinical symptoms may be uncharacteristic and may lead to diagnostic difficulties. Clinical analysis of children with right lower quadrant abdominal pain suspected of appendicitis or children with periappendicular mass. The histories of 14 children aged from 18 months to 17 years treated in Pediatric Clinic were analysed. All children were operated because of right lower quadrant abdominal pain or abdominal mass before admission to the Pediatric Clinic or during hospitalization in Pediatric Clinic. Intraoperatively in all children pathologies other than appendicitis were the cause of symptoms. The most often Crohn's disease were recognized (9 children), in 2 cases with concomitant other pathologies (fecal tumor of appendix in one case and with peritoneal abscess after perforation of intestinal wall). Sporadically the inflammation of the mesenterial lymph nodes caused by Yersinia infection suggested appendicitis. In one boy with ulcerative colitis, during exacerbation of the disease appendicitis complicated by rupture and peritonitis was observed. In 18-month old child with right lower quadrant abdominal mass invagination complicated by perforation of the ileum was recognized. In the case of 14-years old boy 6 months after appendectomy we observed mechanical intestinal obstruction complicated by perforation and peritonitis. Carcinoid of the appendix was the cause of abdominal pain in one child. 1. Appendicitis is the most frequent surgical etiology of the right lower quadrant pediatric abdominal pain. 2. Despite new diagnostic imagines there are no definite criteria to recognize appendicitis, in most cases physical examination and very carefull evaluation of abdominal pain are the most important. 3. All children with periappendipected of Crohn's disease. 4. All children with equivocal presentations of

  3. Diagnostic imaging of acute abdominal pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Sarah L; Knudson, Mark P

    2015-04-01

    Acute abdominal pain is a common presentation in the outpatient setting and can represent conditions ranging from benign to life-threatening. If the patient history, physical examination, and laboratory testing do not identify an underlying cause of pain and if serious pathology remains a clinical concern, diagnostic imaging is indicated. The American College of Radiology has developed clinical guidelines, the Appropriateness Criteria, based on the location of abdominal pain to help physicians choose the most appropriate imaging study. Ultrasonography is the initial imaging test of choice for patients presenting with right upper quadrant pain. Computed tomography (CT) is recommended for evaluating right or left lower quadrant pain. Conventional radiography has limited diagnostic value in the assessment of most patients with abdominal pain. The widespread use of CT raises concerns about patient exposure to ionizing radiation. Strategies to reduce exposure are currently being studied, such as using ultrasonography as an initial study for suspected appendicitis before obtaining CT and using low-dose CT rather than standard-dose CT. Magnetic resonance imaging is another emerging technique for the evaluation of abdominal pain that avoids ionizing radiation.

  4. Dietary issues in recurrent abdominal pain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many children and adults suffer from belly pain that comes and goes. This article reviews the scientific evidence that in some people, the type of diet they eat can cause pain. In some children, not having enough fiber in the diet can cause belly pain. Adding specific types of fiber can improve the ...

  5. [Children's abdominal pain--from symptoms to diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Mielczarek, Jadwiga; Małecka-Panas, Ewa; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia

    2009-05-01

    Abdominal pain is an ambiguous symptom and for this reason it is a common cause of clinic visits. Abdominal pain might have various etiology--it could be organic, environmental, as well as psychological factors. To analyze the ailments character as well as factors connected with children's abdominal pain from their manifestation to diagnosis. 226 children (143 girls and 83 boys) at the age of 3-18 years (an average age--12.5 +/- 3.9) admitted to ICZMP with the abdominal pain as a preliminary diagnosis were examined. The examination was based on the questionnaire prepared for this purpose as well as patients' medical documentation. Ailments of the 47.3% of children lasted few months. 65.9% of patients felt the pain everyday or few times a week, in 59.3% of cases it had variable character. Localization of the pain was intra-abdomen in 77.7% of cases, however 61.5% of patients described it as changeably located. Pain attack predominating (35% of patients) lasted more than 1 h and usually had medium intensity. It was the stress that provoked abdominal pain in 35% of cases. Character logical features that might have influence on child's mental reactions were noted in 47.4% of patients. The pain connected with food intake occurred in 20.8% of cases. Food that might cause abdominal pain was eaten by 96% of children, the most popular were consumed everyday: sweets (42%), chips (23.9%) and sweetened fizzy drinks (20.8%). On the basis of examination and observation four groups of diseases were diagnosed: I--44.7%--inflammatory diseases of alimentary tract (predominating--25.7% of children suffered from gastritis, 12.4% of them had H. pylori infection), II group--32.3%--functional disorders (children with dyspepsia--22.1%), III--11.5%--parasitic diseases (ascariasis--8.8%) and IV group--11.5%--other disorders. 52.2% of children suffered from one disease, 38.1% from two, 9.3% from three. Children directed to hospital diagnostics predominating complained of lingering, lasting

  6. "Abdominal crunch"-induced rhabdomyolysis presenting as right upper quadrant pain.

    PubMed

    Haas, D C; Bohnker, B K

    1999-02-01

    A young, active duty sailor presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. History, physical, and laboratory findings initially suggested cholecystitis or related disease. Further evaluation found myoglobinuria and a recently increased exercise program, leading to the diagnosis of exercise-induced right upper abdominal wall rhabdomyolysis. Although not a common cause of abdominal pain, this diagnosis should be considered in the patient with abdominal pain and a recently increased exercise program, particularly exercises of the abdominal wall such as "abdominal crunches."

  7. Common Functional Gastroenterological Disorders Associated With Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Sletten, Christopher D

    2016-08-01

    Although abdominal pain is a symptom of several structural gastrointestinal disorders (eg, peptic ulcer disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 4 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with abdominal pain: functional dyspepsia, constipation-predominant and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, and functional abdominal pain syndrome. Together, these conditions affect approximately 1 in 4 people in the United States. They are associated with comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia and depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Symptoms are explained by disordered gastrointestinal motility and sensation, which are implicated in various peripheral (eg, postinfectious inflammation and luminal irritants) and/or central (eg, stress and anxiety) factors. These disorders are defined and can generally be diagnosed by symptoms alone. Often prompted by alarm features, selected testing is useful to exclude structural disease. Identifying the specific diagnosis (eg, differentiating between functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome) and establishing an effective patient-physician relationship are the cornerstones of therapy. Many patients with mild symptoms can be effectively managed with limited tests, sensible dietary modifications, and over-the-counter medications tailored to symptoms. If these measures are not sufficient, pharmacotherapy should be considered for bowel symptoms (constipation or diarrhea) and/or abdominal pain; opioids should not be used. Behavioral and psychological approaches (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy) can be helpful, particularly in patients with chronic abdominal pain who require a multidisciplinary pain management program without opioids. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm: a persistent painful hip

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Dinnish; Ashraf, Nadeem; Ahmad, Adil; Menon, Jay

    2013-01-01

    The presentation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with isolated hip pain is a rare phenomenon. We present an atypical case of a 58-year-old previously fit man who presented with a 6-month history of progressively worsening left hip pain associated with unintentional weight loss, tender bilateral testicular swellings and a large non-tender palpable mass on abdominal examination. Urgent abdominal CT scan findings revealed a 15 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm extending to the aortic bifurcation associated with an extensive left hydronephrosis. In theatre, the diagnosis of inflammatory AAA (IAAA) was confirmed following the presence of pyuria and a successful repair with an open approach using a bifurcated dacron graft was performed. PMID:24038286

  9. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm: a persistent painful hip.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Dinnish; Ashraf, Nadeem; Ahmad, Adil; Menon, Jay

    2013-09-13

    The presentation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with isolated hip pain is a rare phenomenon. We present an atypical case of a 58-year-old previously fit man who presented with a 6-month history of progressively worsening left hip pain associated with unintentional weight loss, tender bilateral testicular swellings and a large non-tender palpable mass on abdominal examination. Urgent abdominal CT scan findings revealed a 15 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm extending to the aortic bifurcation associated with an extensive left hydronephrosis. In theatre, the diagnosis of inflammatory AAA (IAAA) was confirmed following the presence of pyuria and a successful repair with an open approach using a bifurcated dacron graft was performed.

  10. Imperforate hymen: a cause of abdominal pain in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lardenoije, Céline; Aardenburg, Robert; Mertens, Helen

    2009-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with primary amenorrhea and had had cyclical abdominal pain for almost a year. At examination we observed a painful mass in the lower abdomen and normal secondary sex characteristics. Perineal examination showed a bluish bulging hymen. Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed a dense mass in the pelvis measuring about 12×11 cm. We diagnosed an imperforate hymen with haematocolpos and haematometra. The hymen was opened surgically and a large quantity of menstrual blood was drained from the vagina and uterus. Postoperative recovery was normal without any pain. The patient now menstruates regularly. An imperforate hymen occurs in 0.05% of women. It is important to be aware of this while examining a female adolescent presenting with cyclical abdominal pain and primary amenorrhea. Late discovery of an imperforate hymen may lead to pain, infections, hydronephrosis and endometriosis with subfertility as a possible consequence. PMID:21686660

  11. Self-report assessment of recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Guariso, G; Mozrzymas, R; Gobber, D; Benini, F; Zancan, L; Zacchello, F

    1999-01-01

    Pain is the principal, and often the only symptom in cases of recurrent abdominal pain (RAP). The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical background behind the pain symptom and the pain's capacity for differentiation in the diagnostic assessment of a group of 86 children suffering from RAP and observed at a pediatric gastroenterology service. The self-rating methods applied to the children included a verbal scale and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for scoring the pain, and the Eland method, which is based on a graphic representation of the pain to enable its quantification and localization. Regardless of the pain assessment emerging from this study, the children were divided into 3 groups on the basis of a standardized diagnostic procedure, i.e. G1--upper gastrointestinal tract disease; G2--RAP with no apparent organic cause; G3--intestinal disease. The intensity of the pain fails to distinguish between the three groups, while other features seem more useful, e.g. variability in the pain's intensity, the number and location of painful sites, and the how the pain is graphically represented. Drawings typical of RAP with no apparent organic cause characteristically represent the pain more accurately and in greater detail, using more colors and a certain refinement in the performance of the drawing, with varying types of pain in subsequent episodes, and involving several abdominal and even extra-abdominal sites. In our experience, this method might contribute towards the completion and standardization of the child's clinical history and clinical evaluation. Such methods would have to be validated by further clinical studies, however.

  12. Sudden onset abdominal pain and distension: an imaging sparkler.

    PubMed

    Klair, Jagpal Singh; Girotra, M; Medarametla, S; Shah, H R

    2014-11-01

    We present a case of a middle-aged patient presenting with acute onset abdominal pain and distension who had signs of bowel obstruction on physical exam. He was afebrile, hemodynamically stable with no peritoneal signs. Abdominal radiograph and CT scan were pathognomic for sigmoid volvulus. Through this case report we want to discuss the presentation, diagnosis, management options for sigmoid volvulus and importance of features suggestive of ischemic bowel that necessitates different management options.

  13. Acute abdominal pain and constipation due to lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mongolu, S; Sharp, P

    2013-01-01

    Although uncommon, lead poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of unexplained acute abdominal pain in both adults and children. We present the case of a 35-year-old Asian male who presented with abdominal pain and constipation secondary to lead poisoning. Initially, the source of lead exposure was not apparent; this was later found to be due to ingestion of an Ayurvedic herbal medicine for the treatment of infertility. Lead poisoning due to the ingestion of Ayurvedic remedies is well described. We discuss the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of lead poisoning. This case illustrates one of the rarer medical causes of acute abdominal pain and emphasizes the need to take a thorough history (including specific questioning regarding the use of over-the-counter and traditional/ herbal remedies) in cases of suspected poisoning or drug toxicity.

  14. Diet and functional abdominal pain in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    van Tilburg, Miranda A L; Felix, Christopher T

    2013-08-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is a common complaint among children and adolescents. For many patients, symptoms exacerbate with eating. This review discusses findings concerning the role of diet in FAP. The foods that are discussed are divided into 2 major groups: food allergies or intolerances, which focus on milk, gluten, and fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols; and functional foods, which hone in on foods that reduce abdominal pain in adolescents such as fiber, peppermint oil, and probiotics. Lastly, we discuss the role of eating habits in FAP and how the physiology of eating may be the real culprit of symptoms associated with eating.

  15. Is abdominal wall tenderness a useful sign in the diagnosis of non-specific abdominal pain?

    PubMed Central

    Gray, D. W.; Dixon, J. M.; Seabrook, G.; Collin, J.

    1988-01-01

    Pain arising from the abdominal wall has been implicated as a cause of non-specific abdominal pain (NSAP), and the presence of abdominal wall tenderness (AWT) has been proposed as an accurate diagnostic test for NSAP. One hundred and fifty eight patients admitted to hospital with abdominal pain were tested for the presence of positive AWT. In 53 patients the final diagnosis was appendicitis and positive AWT was found in five. Thirty eight patients were found to have a variety of other recognised pathological diagnoses, none of whom had a positive AWT. In 67 patients a diagnosis of NSAP was made in the absence of other pathological diagnosis, 19 of whom had positive AWT, which was significantly different from the other diagnostic groups. This study confirms the presence of AWT in up to 28% of patients with NSAP, and suggests that testing for AWT is of value in patients with abdominal pain, although a positive AWT is not as accurate a predictor of NSAP as previously reported. PMID:2970820

  16. Fewer postoperative fevers: an unexpected benefit of multimodal pain management?

    PubMed

    Karam, Joseph A; Zmistowski, Benjamin; Restrepo, Camilo; Hozack, William J; Parvizi, Javad

    2014-05-01

    Elevated temperatures after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) are common and can be a source of anxiety both for the patient and the surgical team. Although such fevers rarely are caused by acute infection, many patients are subjected to extensive testing for elevated body temperature after surgery. We recently implemented a multimodal pain management regimen for TJA, which includes acetaminophen, pregabalin, and celecoxib or toradol, and because some of these medications have antipyrexic properties, it was speculated that this protocol might influence the frequency of postoperative pyrexia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients treated under this protocol were less likely to exhibit postoperative fever after primary TJA, compared with a historical control group, and whether they were less likely to receive postoperative testing as part of a fever workup. We compared 1484 primary TJAs in which pain was controlled primarily with opioid-based relief from July 2004 to December 2006 with 2417 procedures from July 2009 to December 2011 during which time multimodal agents were used. The same three surgeons were responsible for care in both of these cohorts. Oral temperature readings in the first 5 postoperative days (POD) were drawn from a review of medical records, which also were evaluated for fever workup tests, including urinalysis, urine culture, chest radiograph, and blood culture. Fever was defined by the presence of a temperature measurement over 38.5 °C. Patients having preoperative fever or postoperative fever starting later than POD 5 were excluded. Before surgery, there were no differences between the groups' temperature measurements. Fewer patients developed fever in the multimodal analgesia group than in the control group (5% versus 25%, p < 0.001). Furthermore, fewer patients underwent workup for fever in the multimodal analgesia cohort (1.8% of patients undergoing 155 individual tests) compared with the control cohort (9.8% of

  17. [13-Year old boy with abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Irene; Klinkhamer, Paul J J M; van de Poll, Marcel C G

    2012-01-01

    A 13-year old boy presents with pain in the lower right abdomen, showing clinical signs of appendicitis. During McBurney' incision an appendix sana was seen. Histologic examination showed penetrating enterobiasis. This was treated with mebendazol.

  18. [Hereditary angioedema: strange cause of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Salas-Lozano, Nereo Guillermo; Meza-Cardona, Javier; González-Fernández, Coty; Pineda-Figueroa, Laura; de Ariño-Suárez, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el angioedema hereditario es un trastorno inflamatorio episódico, que se hereda de manera autosómica dominante y se caracteriza por episodios de edema periférico. Los pacientes pueden tener edema de la pared de cualquier víscera hueca, incluido el intestino. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de un paciente masculino de 33 años de edad, sin antecedentes de importancia, con dolor abdominal, localizado en el epigastrio, irradiado al cuadrante inferior derecho, acompañado de 5 vómitos. La tomografía abdominal mostró engrosamiento de la pared de la segunda y tercera porción del duodeno, con infiltración de grasa y líquido libre. Los exámenes de laboratorio mostraron: concentraciones bajas del complemento C4 (5.5 mg/dL) y actividad del inhibidor de C1 del complemento de 30%. Conclusiones: el angioedema hereditario es consecuencia de la deficiencia (tipo I) o disfunción (tipo II) del inhibidor C1 del complemento. El dolor abdominal asociado con angioedema es de inicio súbito, como dolor cólico, recurrente y de intensidad moderada. En la actualidad existen dos medicamentos aprobados por la Food and Drug Administration para el tratamiento de pacientes con esta afección.

  19. Slipping Rib Syndrome as Persistent Abdominal and Chest Pain.

    PubMed

    Bolaños-Vergaray, Juan Javier; de la Gala García, Francisco; Obaya Rebollar, Juan Carlos; Bové Alvarez, Maria

    2015-11-01

    Slipping rib syndrome is an overlooked cause of persistent abdominal or chest pain. The etiology of this syndrome is not well understood, but the characteristic pain is from hypermobility of the false ribs. Although it is a diagnosis of exclusion, misdiagnosis may lead to an excessive workup. A simple clinical examination via the hooking maneuver is the most significant feature of its diagnosis. We describe the case of a 41-year-old woman with slipping rib syndrome.

  20. Treatment of abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vanuytsel, Tim; Tack, Jan F; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2014-08-01

    Functional abdominal pain in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a challenging problem for primary care physicians, gastroenterologists and pain specialists. We review the evidence for the current and future non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options targeting the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Cognitive interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy and hypnotherapy have demonstrated excellent results in IBS patients, but the limited availability and labor-intensive nature limit their routine use in daily practice. In patients who are refractory to first-line therapy, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are both effective to obtain symptomatic relief, but only TCAs have been shown to improve abdominal pain in meta-analyses. A diet low in fermentable carbohydrates and polyols (FODMAP) seems effective in subgroups of patients to reduce abdominal pain, bloating, and to improve the stool pattern. The evidence for fiber is limited and only isphagula may be somewhat beneficial. The efficacy of probiotics is difficult to interpret since several strains in different quantities have been used across studies. Antispasmodics, including peppermint oil, are still considered the first-line treatment for abdominal pain in IBS. Second-line therapies for diarrhea-predominant IBS include the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5HT3 antagonists alosetron and ramosetron, although the use of the former is restricted because of the rare risk of ischemic colitis. In laxative-resistant, constipation-predominant IBS, the chloride-secretion stimulating drugs lubiprostone and linaclotide, a guanylate cyclase C agonist that also has direct analgesic effects, reduce abdominal pain and improve the stool pattern.

  1. [Epiploic appendagitis: a rare cause of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    García-Marín, Andrés; Nofuentes-Riera, Carmen; Mella-Laborde, Mario; Pérez-López, Mercedes; Pérez-Bru, Susana; Rubio-Cerdido, José María

    2014-01-01

    Epiploic appendagitis is an atypical cause of abdominal pain whose knowledge could avoid diagnostic or treatment errors. Diagnosis has been performed with abdominal ultrasound or tomography with the only treatment being nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. To analyze patients diagnosed in our hospital. We performed a 4-year retrospective and descriptive study (March 2009-March 2013) of patients diagnosed with epiploic appendagitis in our hospital. Seventeen patients were included, 14 females and three males with a median age of 57 years. Symptom delay was 72 h. Abdominal pains were located in the left lower quadrant in 64.7% and right lower quadrant in 35.3% of patients. Blood test demonstrated leukocytes 6,300 (5,000-9,500), neutrophils 61.6% (57-65.8), and C reactive protein 1.5 (0.85-2.92). Diagnosis was confirmed with abdominal ultrasound or tomography in 88.2% and intraoperatively in 11.8%. Epiploic appendagitis was more frequent in women. Abdominal pain was located in the lower quadrant, more predominant in left than right. Blood tests were normal except for increased levels of C-reactive protein. Diagnosis was made mostly preoperatively due to imaging tests, avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention.

  2. Recurrent abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recurrent abdominal pain continues to be one of the most ubiquitous conditions faced by the healthcare team, and has a significant emotional and economic impact. We have moved from considering it a psychological condition to recognizing the physiological and environmental contributions, and consider...

  3. Assessment of Abdominal Pain in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Polly Gerber

    2003-01-01

    Pediatric abdominal pain can be a difficult condition to accurately assess for the nurse to determine whether the child's need is for teaching, treating, or transferring. This article describes the process as well as practical tips to be used by the nurse in the school setting. Distinguishing characteristics and findings, including key physical…

  4. Assessment of Abdominal Pain in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Polly Gerber

    2003-01-01

    Pediatric abdominal pain can be a difficult condition to accurately assess for the nurse to determine whether the child's need is for teaching, treating, or transferring. This article describes the process as well as practical tips to be used by the nurse in the school setting. Distinguishing characteristics and findings, including key physical…

  5. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Lino; Heinz, Nicole; Ludwick, Allison; Rasooly, Tali; Wu, Rina; Johnson, Adriana; Schechter, Neil L.; Borsook, David; Nurko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC), whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease-specific measures in

  6. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Catherine S; Becerra, Lino; Heinz, Nicole; Ludwick, Allison; Rasooly, Tali; Wu, Rina; Johnson, Adriana; Schechter, Neil L; Borsook, David; Nurko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC), whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease-specific measures in

  7. [Cyriax's syndrome. A cause of diagnostic error in abdominal pains].

    PubMed

    Monnin, J L; Pierrugues, R; Bories, P; Michel, H

    The slipping rib syndrome is characterized by upper abdominal pain due to irritation of the intercostal nerve by incomplete dislocation of the costal cartilage of the 8th, 9th, or 10th ribs. Twenty-three new cases are reported and the literature is reviewed. Diagnosis is only clinical. The pain is precipitated by movement and certain postures; it is faithfully reproduced by pressure on one particular point of the costal margin and is relieved by local injection of an anaesthetic. Pain from a slipping rib is usually attributed to visceral causes, which is a source of diagnostic errors.

  8. Abdominal pain of spinal origin. Value of intercostal block.

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    A prospective study was made of 73 patients presenting in one year with abdominal pain provisionally diagnosed as of spinal origin. The criteria for audit of diagnosis and treatment are defined. The diagnosis was confirmed in 53 patients, 49 of whom had been treated with a lignocaine intercostal block in the relevant segment. Thirty-three of these (67.3%) had both complete and prolonged relief. It is suggested that the block causes interruption of a vicious circle of pain and muscle spasm in a 'spinal reflex pain syndrome'. PMID:860866

  9. Chronic postsurgical pain and neuropathic symptoms after abdominal hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Özocak, Hande; Ergönenç, Tolga; Palabıyık, Onur; Tuna, Ayça Taş; Kaya, Burak; Erkorkmaz, Ünal; Akdemir, Nermin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is an important clinic problem. It is assessed that prevalence of chronic pain extends to 30% but it is contended that there are various risk factors. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of chronic pain after hysterectomy, risk factors of chronicity, neuropathic features of pain, and sensorial alterations at surgery area. Between years 2012 and 2015, 16 to 65 ages old patients that electively undergone total abdominal hysterectomy bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and passed minimum 3 months after surgery were included to study. Visual analog scale (VAS) and Douleur Neuropathique 4-questionnaire (DN-4) surveys were used to evaluate pain symptoms, algometry device was used for evaluating abdominal pressure threshold and Von Frey Filament was used for sensorial alterations. Ninety-three of 165 eligible patients were included to study. As the groups were compared by demographic data, no difference was obtained (P > 0.05). There was no difference between groups regarding patient and surgery attributes (P > 0.05). Most frequently performed incision type was Pfannenstiel. Neuropathic symptoms were observed in 90 patients (96.8%). Sensorial alterations as hypoesthesia and hyperesthesia were detected around abdominal scar in 18 patients (19.4%) with pinprick test. Neuropathic symptoms should not be ignored in studies evaluating CPSP and a standard methodology should be designed for studies in this topic. PMID:27537570

  10. Abdominal and lower back pain in pediatric idiopathic stabbing headache.

    PubMed

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Ohara, Tomoichiro; Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Kure, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic stabbing headache (ISH) is a primary headache syndrome characterized by transient, sharp, stabbing pains located in the first division of the trigeminal nerve. Reports of pediatric ISH are rare, and extracephalic pain in pediatric ISH is extremely rare. Here we report the case of a 7-year-old male patient suffering from frequent, short, stabbing headache, which was occasionally associated with abdominal and lower back pain. Various investigations were normal. He was diagnosed with ISH, and valproic acid was administered to relieve his headache and accompanying symptoms. Our case demonstrates that abdominal and lower back pain may occur in pediatric ISH. This case may provide new evidence linking ISH and migraine by showing that extracephalic symptoms accompanying ISH are similar to those of migraine. We hypothesize that the mechanism underlying the headache and abdominal and lower back pain associated with ISH may be similar to that of a migraine headache. Accumulating additional cases by asking specific questions regarding the presence of the unusual symptoms presented in our case may help to establish a detailed clinical profile of these unfamiliar and peculiar symptoms in the pediatric ISH population.

  11. Managing nonmalignant chronic abdominal pain and malignant bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Bicanovsky, Lesley K; Lagman, Ruth L; Davis, Mellar P; Walsh, Declan

    2006-03-01

    Evaluation of abdominal pain requires an understanding of the possible causes(benign or malignant) and recognition of typical patterns and clinical presentation. Abdominal pain has multiple causes; associated signs and symptoms may aid in the diagnosis. Remember that some patients will not have a textbook presentation, and unusual causes for pain must be considered. Those with chronic pancreatitis with structural complications should be operated on early, whereas those with other types of chronic pancreatitis should receive medical therapy focusing on alleviating symptoms. Control of the most troublesome symptoms will provide the best management for IBS. Pharmacologic success in bowel obstruction depends on the level and degree of obstruction. Decision making is based on reasonable expectations of survival, treatment-related success, performance status, and goals of care. Quality of life will be enhanced by appropriate symptom management.

  12. [Food allergy in pathogenesis of chronic abdominal pain in children].

    PubMed

    Ignyś, I; Bartkowiak, M; Baczyk, I; Targońska, B; Krawczyński, M

    1995-04-01

    Food allergy has been implicated lately in the etiopathogenesis of abdominal pain in children, with particular attention pain to gastritis and/or duodenitis. The aim of the study was to analyse the cause-and-effect relationship between chronic abdominal pain in children, endoscopic and histopatological picture, and food allergy, as well as to evaluate the applied elimination diet and/or antiallergic treatment on the improvement of both the clinical status and endoscopic picture. In 71 children gastrofiberoscopic examinations, food skin tests, and specific and total IgE allergen serum tests were performed. In the majority of examined children one could observe an improvement of clinical status and of the endoscopic-histopatological picture of the stomach mucous membrane after application an elimination diet and/or treatment with sodium cromoglycate.

  13. An uncommon cause of abdominal pain: Mesenteric cyst

    PubMed Central

    Ünlüer, Erden Erol; Ünlüer, Seran; Şahı̇n, Yusuf; Kamer, Kemal Erdı̇nç; Karagöz, Arı̇f; Tan, Gözde Canan

    2016-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are benign cystic lesions. Here, we present the case of a patient with abdominal pain, which was diagnosed as mesenteric cyst. A 28-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain and distention. Abdominal palpation revealed a smooth-surfaced mass palpable in the left upper quadrant. Ultrasonography depicted a hypoechoic heterogeneous mass-like structure with a size of 15 × 12 cm. Computerized tomography (CT) showed a well-defined cystic structure with a size of 12 × 12.5 cm near to the duodenum and pancreas. The patient was admitted, and the cystic structure was drained with a percutaneous drainage catheter; then, sclerotherapy was performed using ethyl alcohol with the aid of ultrasonography. The material was sent to the pathology lab and revealed negative results for malignant cell and mucin. The patient underwent a control CT with contrast, which revealed the catheter at the site of the operation and no cystic lesion after procedure. He was discharged 1 week after the procedure. Mesenteric cysts are extremely rare benign lesions of the abdomen, and emergency physicians must consider this disease in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. The percutaneous drainage technique performed on our patient is a safe technique for the treatment of selected patients. PMID:28250978

  14. An uncommon cause of abdominal pain: Mesenteric cyst.

    PubMed

    Ünlüer, Erden Erol; Ünlüer, Seran; Şahı N, Yusuf; Kamer, Kemal Erdı Nç; Karagöz, Arı F; Tan, Gözde Canan

    2016-03-01

    Mesenteric cysts are benign cystic lesions. Here, we present the case of a patient with abdominal pain, which was diagnosed as mesenteric cyst. A 28-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain and distention. Abdominal palpation revealed a smooth-surfaced mass palpable in the left upper quadrant. Ultrasonography depicted a hypoechoic heterogeneous mass-like structure with a size of 15 × 12 cm. Computerized tomography (CT) showed a well-defined cystic structure with a size of 12 × 12.5 cm near to the duodenum and pancreas. The patient was admitted, and the cystic structure was drained with a percutaneous drainage catheter; then, sclerotherapy was performed using ethyl alcohol with the aid of ultrasonography. The material was sent to the pathology lab and revealed negative results for malignant cell and mucin. The patient underwent a control CT with contrast, which revealed the catheter at the site of the operation and no cystic lesion after procedure. He was discharged 1 week after the procedure. Mesenteric cysts are extremely rare benign lesions of the abdomen, and emergency physicians must consider this disease in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. The percutaneous drainage technique performed on our patient is a safe technique for the treatment of selected patients.

  15. Spinal cord stimulation for chronic visceral abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Kapural, Leonardo; Nagem, Hassan; Tlucek, Heather; Sessler, Daniel I

    2010-03-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) may reduce pain scores and improve function in patients with chronic visceral abdominal pain. We thus present our large clinical experience in SCS for visceral abdominal pain. We trialed spinal cord stimulation in 35 patients, each of whom was shown by retrograde differential epidural block to have either visceral pain (n = 32) or mixed visceral and central pain (n = 3). SCS trials lasted 4 to 14 days (median 9 days). SCS lead tips were mostly positioned at T5 (n = 11) or T6 (n = 10). Thirty patients (86%) reported at least 50% pain relief upon completion of the trial. Among these, pretrial visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores averaged 8.2 +/- 1.6 (SD) and opioid use averaged 110 +/- 119 mg morphine sulfate equivalents. During the trial, VAS pain scores decreased to 3.1 +/- 1.6 cm (P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test) and opioid use decreased to 70 +/- 68 mg morphine equivalent a day (P = 0.212). Five patients failed the trial, one was lost to follow-up, and 19 were followed for the whole year. Seven patients were either followed for less than a year (n = 3) or the SCS system was removed due to infection or lead migration (n = 4). One patient despite the successful trial felt no improvements at 6 months after the implant and requested an explant of the SCS device. Among the 28 patients who received permanent implant, 19 were followed at least a year. Their VAS pain scores remained low (3.8 +/- 1.9 cm; P < 0.001) at 1 year, as did opioid use (38 +/- 48 mg morphine equivalents; P = 0.089). Spinal cord stimulation may be a useful therapeutic option for patients with severe visceral pain.

  16. Protozoa as a cause of recurrent abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, Carolien F M; Schweizer, Joachim J; Büller, Hans A

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether protozoa can be identified as a cause of recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), and whether protozoan infections can be recognized by a specific clinical presentation. For 2 years, all patients (ages 4-16 years) fulfilling the Apley criteria of RAP referred to secondary care were prospectively evaluated for protozoa (Giardia lamblia, Dientamoeba fragilis, Blastocystis hominis) and treated if positive. Re-examination followed at least 10 days after treatment. Disappearance of pain with eradication and a pain-free follow-up of at least 6 months were considered to be indicative of a causal relation with RAP. The predictive value of the characteristics of the pain for protozoan infections was calculated. Of 220 included patients (92 boys, mean age 8.8 years), 215 brought a stool sample; 73 (34%) carried parasites, 10 of whom had 2 parasites, 2 had 3 parasites. Sixty-five patients were treated. Twenty-five (11%) were pain-free after eradication (21 had D fragilis, 8 B hominis, 4 G lamblia), of whom 11 had another infection (2) or constipation (9) as second diagnosis for the pain. Five had recurrence of infection with D fragilis and were again pain-free with eradication. Patients with protozoa as cause of their pain did not show differences with respect to their presentation when compared with patients with an asymptomatic infection and patients without protozoa. Protozoa were found as the cause of pain in 6% to 11% of children with RAP. These patients did not show a characteristic presentation when compared with patients with other causes of abdominal pain.

  17. Plain abdominal radiography in acute abdominal pain--is it really necessary?

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Sadhishaan; Fiorentino, Mark; Sinha, Sankar

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study are to audit the ordering of abdominal radiographs (AXR) in the emergency department (ED) and evaluate the current practices, knowledge and attitudes of emergency physicians with regard to ordering AXRs in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain. A retrospective study was undertaken at an ED of a tertiary hospital in Tasmania using clinical notes on patient presenting with acute abdominal pain who underwent an AXR. The study also included a short questionnaire, which assessed emergency physicians' knowledge of current imaging guidelines and clinical practice when ordering an AXR. During the study period, 108 patients satisfied the selection criteria, and the AXR was reported as normal in 76 % (n = 82; p value <0.05), non-specific in 12 % (n = 13; p value <0.05) and abnormal in 12 % (n = 13; p value <0.05) of patients. Of those patients, 25 % (n = 27) of the AXRs did not meet indications listed in the Diagnostic Imaging Pathways published by the Western Australia Department of Health and were found not to benefit patient care. Of the 19 doctors who completed the survey, only 16 % (n = 3) were aware of any clinical guidelines for imaging in this setting. Current guidelines should be followed when ordering imaging for patients with acute abdominal pain to minimise unnecessary patient radiation exposure, avoid delays in diagnosis and definitive patient management, reduce costs and therefore increase efficiency in ED.

  18. Managing childhood fever and pain--the comfort loop.

    PubMed

    Clinch, Jacqui; Dale, Stephen

    2007-08-02

    Parents can transmit their anxiety to their child, and just as children can pick up on parental anxiety, they can also respond to a parent's ability to stay calm in stressful situations. Therefore, when treating children, it is important to address parental anxiety and to improve their understanding of their child's ailment. Parental understanding and management of both pain and fever - common occurrences in childhood - is of utmost importance, not just in terms of children's health and welfare, but also in terms of reducing the economic burden of unnecessary visits to paediatric emergency departments. Allaying parental anxiety reduces the child's anxiety and creates a positive feedback loop, which ultimately affects both the child and parentIn this review, the integral role of parental perception of the child's condition and the efficacy of treatment in the management of childhood fever and pain will be discussed.

  19. [Helicobacter pylori diagnosis in children with recurrent abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Méndez Nieto, C M; Ramírez Mayans, J; Cervantes Bustamente, R; Mata Rivera, N; Cuevas Schatz, F; Martínez, C; Gómez Suárez, R; Navarrete, N

    1994-01-01

    We studied 40 children with recurrent abdominal pain during a period of six months (january to june 1993) entered at the gastroenterology service of the Instituto Nacional de Pediatria in México City. In all of then we performed in all of them an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with 3 biopsies from gastric mucosa (antrum) for histological examination and urease tests. We also did an ELISA test looking for an H. Pylori specific serum IgG response. Our control group were 40 healthy children in whom we did only the ELISA test. We did not find any statistics differences between the histologic findings (gold standard) and the urease and ELISA tests. With IgG antibodies prevalence for H. Pylori in children with recurrent abdominal pain were 57% in contrast with our control group in whom the prevalence was 5%.

  20. Chronic abdominal pain in a patient with escobar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ural, Ülkü Mete; Tekın, Yeşim Bayoğlu; Kir Şahın, Figen; Erdıvanli, Başar; Kazdal, Hızır

    2015-01-01

    Escobar syndrome is characterized with multiple pterygia or webs of the skin and multiple congenital anomalies. We present a 15-year-old patient with Escobar syndrome who complained of persistent blunt abdominal pain for 1 year. Preoperative evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of imperforate hymen, and the patient underwent hymenectomy under intravenous sedation. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and her complaints resolved completely. After a 3-month follow-up, she reported having normal menstrual bleeding intervals each month without any complications. Patients with Escobar syndrome may suffer from abdominal pain due to imperforate hymen. Careful evaluation of these patients must include a complete gynaecological assessment and, if indicated, surgical treatment must be performed without delay. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. A multivariate analysis of childhood abdominal pain in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Anatol, T I; Holder, Y

    1995-04-01

    This is a multivariate analysis of the data recorded in assessing 1158 consecutive admissions presenting to a children's surgical ward with acute abdominal pain. There were 56 binary variables available for entry into the analysis. A statistical software package was used to perform a stepwise discriminant analysis on the data. The program selected 18 variables as having discriminating power in assigning patients to the six diagnostic groups. In order of discriminating power these were, mainly, a positive urine culture, the bowel history, the findings on rectal examination, the location of abdominal tenderness, the presence of a mass, and the white cell count. Lesser discriminating potential was assigned to the presence of dehydration; fluid levels on erect abdominal films, a rise in temperature, an increased pulse rate, the presence of urinary symptoms, and the general appearance of the child. Use of these data led to an overall correct classification of 80.7% of cases. It is concluded that these variables should be included in the assessment of children with acute abdominal pain.

  2. [Imperforate hymen can cause abdominal pain and primary amenorrhoea].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vibeke; Vyrdal, Christian

    2013-05-20

    Imperforate hymen (HI) is a rare condition caused by the hymen covering the entire opening of the vagina. This prevents the menstruation blood from being drained and the blood fills up the vagina and later the uterus and Fallopian tubes. The produced strain on these organs causes cyclic pain in the lower abdomen. We present two cases where two adolescent girls were diagnosed with HI. It is important to remember HI as a differential diagnosis in young girls with amenorrhoea and lower abdominal pain. In both cases a hymenectomy was performed and the patients recovered afterwards.

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound for chronic abdominal pain and gallbladder disease.

    PubMed

    Dill, B; Dill, J E; Berkhouse, L; Palmer, S T

    1999-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a major advance in gastrointestinal endoscopy. EUS, which is invaluable in the diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal cancer, is now being used in the diagnosis of chronic upper abdominal pain. EUS combined with stimulated biliary drainage (EUS/SBD) aids in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis, cholecystitis, microlithiasis, and various conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract. This article describes the EUS/SBD procedure and nursing care. Two case histories illustrating potential benefits to patients are presented.

  4. Systematic review of treatments for recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Weydert, Joy A; Ball, Thomas M; Davis, Melinda F

    2003-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review of evaluated treatments for recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in children. Online bibliographic databases were searched for the terms "recurrent abdominal pain," "functional abdominal pain," "children," or "alternative therapies" in articles classified as randomized controlled trials. The abstracts or full text of 57 relevant articles were examined; 10 of these met inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria required that the study involve children aged 5 to 18 years, subjects have a diagnosis of RAP, and that subjects were allocated randomly to treatment or control groups. The methodology and findings of these articles were evaluated critically, and data were extracted from each article regarding study methods, specific interventions, outcomes measured, and results. Studies that evaluated famotidine, pizotifen, cognitive-behavioral therapy, biofeedback, and peppermint oil enteric-coated capsules showed a decrease in measured pain outcomes for those who received the interventions when compared with others in control groups. The studies that evaluated dietary interventions had conflicting results, in the case of fiber, or showed no efficacy, in the case of lactose avoidance. Evidence for efficacy of treatment of RAP in children was found for therapies that used famotidine, pizotifen, cognitive-behavioral therapy, biofeedback, and peppermint oil enteric-coated capsules. The effects of dietary fiber were less conclusive, and the use of a lactose-free diet showed no improvement. There seemed to be greater improvement when therapy (famotidine, pizotifen, peppermint oil) was targeted to the specific functional gastrointestinal disorder (dyspepsia, abdominal migraine, irritable bowel syndrome). The behavioral interventions seemed to have a general positive effect on children with nonspecific RAP. Many of these therapies have not been used widely as standard treatment for children with RAP. Although the mechanism of action for each effective therapy

  5. Incidental discovery of radiopaque pills on abdominal CT in a patient with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Judge, Bryan S; Hoyle, John D

    2008-07-01

    We present a case in which a young female ingested several tablets of an over-the-counter cough and cold remedy over the course of a week. Pill fragments were identifiable and incidentally discovered when a CT scan of the abdomen was performed to evaluate the cause of her abdominal pain. Discovery of radiopaque pills on diagnostic imaging studies warrants further history and appropriate testing to rule out a life-threatening ingestion.

  6. The role of abdominal ultrasound in the diagnosis of typhoid fever: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Younis, Saeed Nadhim

    2014-01-01

    To study the usefulness of abdominal ultrasound in the diagnosis of typhoid fever and to determine the common ultrasound findings early in the course of the disease. Abdominal ultrasound examination was performed within the first week of initiation of symptoms in 350 cases with clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever. Subsequent ultrasound follow-up examination was done 15 days later (beginning of the third week). All the patients proved to have positive Widal test and Sallmonella culture. The study was performed in Erbil-Iraq from the period January 1993 to October 2010. The following ultrasound findings were reported: hepatomegaly (31.4%), prominent intrahepatic bile ducts (64.85%), splenomegaly (100%), mesenteric lymphadenopathy (42.85%), bowel wall thickening (35.71%), acalculous cholecystitis (16.28%), perforations (1.14%), and ascites in (3.4%). The current study showed that the findings are typical enough to justify initiation of treatment for typhoid fever when serology is equivocal and culture is negative, and is fairly safe to say that normal ultrasound examination early in the course of febrile illness rules out typhoid fever. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of ambulance dispatch protocols for nontraumatic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Lammers, R L; Roth, B A; Utecht, T

    1995-11-01

    To compare rates of undertriage and overtriage of six ambulance dispatch protocols for the presenting complaint of nontraumatic abdominal pain, and to identify the optimal protocol. Retrospective prehospital and emergency department chart review to classify patients' conditions as "emergency" or "nonemergency." Utility analysis was used to identify the preferred protocol and monetary cost-effectiveness analysis to identify the least expensive protocol. County emergency medical services (EMS) system with five receiving hospitals serving a mainly urban population of approximately 350,000. Records of 902 patients who called 911 for nontraumatic abdominal pain were reviewed; patients not transported were excluded. Twenty-seven county EMS medical directors completed questionnaires. Six ambulance dispatch protocols for nontraumatic abdominal pain were developed: indiscriminate-dispatch, four selective protocols, and no-dispatch. A dichotomous classification system was derived prospectively from the prehospital and medical records of patients who had activated the EMS system before the study period to define "emergency" and "nonemergency" conditions associated with nontraumatic abdominal pain. Emergency criteria identified patients with conditions requiring medical treatment within 1 hour. Reviewers determined, for each patient, whether an ambulance would have been dispatched by each of the protocols. Undertriage and overtriage rates were calculated for each protocol. County EMS medical directors assigned utility values to four potential outcomes of ambulance dispatch by the direct scaling method. The outcomes comprised correct and incorrect decisions to dispatch ambulances to patients with and without emergencies. The protocols were compared by decision analysis. A cost analysis was also performed, using an estimated marginal cost per transport of $302. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated the effect of varying the cost of an undertriage error and the cost per response. Of

  8. Medic - Abdominal Pain: A Decision Support Program for the Management of Acute Abdominal Pain. (User’s Manual)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-11

    the program helps you to diagnose five serious causes of abdominal pain in males aged 17 to 70: acute apperKlicitis (APPEND), renal colic (RO)LIC...section is for quick referenc). Analgesia : Demerol 50-150 mg IM q 3-4 hours Hydration: D5NS at 150-200 ml/hour 2. DSCUSSIC Renal colic is caused by the...five additional categories for female patients. They are: Acute Appendicttis; Renal Colic ; Cholecystitis; Perforated Duodenal Ulcer; Small Bowel

  9. [Cultural and migration aspects in functional abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Buri, Caroline; Laederach, Kurt

    2011-08-01

    Compared to Europe's mean immigrant contingent of 7.3 to 8.6 % Switzerland holds the highest contingent of foreign population with 23.5 %. Therefore it is of utmost importance that physicians have a knowledge of the specific characteristics of immigrant patients. The influence of personality factors (experience, behavior) is not independent from the influence of culturally-related environmental factors (regional differences in diet, pollutants, meanings, etc.). In addition, different cultural groups rate their quality of life differently. Psychological reasons for recurrent abdominal pain are stress (life events), effects of self-medication (laxatives, cocaine) and sexual abuse but also rare infectious diseases are more common among immigrants (e.g. tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, etc.). Migration-specific characteristics are mainly to find in the semiotics of the symptoms: not every abdominal pain is real pain in the abdomen. Finally, it is crucial to make the distinction between organic, functional and psychological-related pain. This can, however, usually only be accomplished in the context of the entire situation of a patient and, depending on the situation, with the support of a colleague from the appropriate cultural group or an experienced interpreter. In this review we limit ourselves to the presentation of the working population of the migrants, because these represent the largest group of all migrants. The specific situation of asylum seekers will also be refrained to where appropriate.

  10. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: aid of abdominal ultrasonography in prediction of severity.

    PubMed

    Ziraman, Ipek; Celikbas, Aysel; Ergonul, Onder; Degirmenci, Tulin; Uyanik, Sadik Ahmet; Koparal, Suha; Dokuzoguz, Basak

    2014-11-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a fatal viral infection that involves multiple organs, and endothelium. We described abdominal sonographic findings of the patients infected with the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in relation to the severity of the disease. This is a prospective study performed among hospitalized patients infected with CCHF between 2005 and 2011. A total of 210 hospitalized patients with confirmed CCHF infection were included in the study. The mean age was 47 and 49.5% of the patients were female. Patients were classified as mild, moderate, or severe disease according to their clinical and laboratory findings. The relationship between the clinical severity of CCHF and the abdominal sonographic findings was analyzed. Sonographic findings of abdomen included gallbladder wall thickening (GBWT) in 44 (21%), splenomegaly in 39 (19%), hepatomegaly in 52 (25%), decrease in echo of liver parenchyma in nine (4%), increase in echo liver parenchyma in 13 (6%), intra-abdominal fluid collection/ascites in 23 (11%), and enlarged periportal lymph nodes in seven (3%) cases. GBWT was detected in 3% of mild patients, 23% of moderate patients, and 61% of severe patients (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis to predict the severity, GBWT (odds ratio [OR] 5.4, confidence interval [CI] 1.76-16.49, p=0.003) and intra-abdominal fluid collection/ascites (OR 3.5, CI 1.07-12.61, p=0.049) were found to be significantly associated with disease severity. In conclusion, ultrasonography is a reliable, useful, and noninvasive diagnostic tool for evaluation of the abdominal findings of the patients with CCHFV infection. GBWT and intra-abdominal fluid collection/ascites were found to be predictors of severity.

  11. Fructose intolerance/malabsorption and recurrent abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Mauricio A; Lustig, Daniel; Pflugeisen, Bethann M; Amoroso, Paul J; Sherif, Dalia; Saeed, Rasha; Shamdeen, Shaza; Tuider, Judith; Abdullah, Bisher

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to ascertain whether pediatric patients with chronic abdominal pain had concurrent fructose intolerance as determined by a standardized dose breath hydrogen test (BHT), and whether symptoms would improve with a low-fructose diet. The fructose BHT test was administered to patients evaluated in clinic with unexplained chronic abdominal pain alone or associated with constipation, gas or bloating, and/or diarrhea. The patients were given a standard dose of 1 g/kg fructose to maximum of 25 g. Hydrogen and methane were measured at 8 time points. The test was presumed positive if breath hydrogen exceeded 20 ppm above baseline. If positive, patients were given a dietitian-prescribed low-fructose diet. A total of 222 patients were part of the study. Ages ranged from 2 to 19 years with a mean of 10.5. BHT for fructose was performed in all of the patients and it was positive for fructose intolerance in 121 of 222 patients (54.5%). A total of 101 of 222 (45.5%) patients had negative BHT for fructose intolerance. All BHT-positive patients had a nutrition consult with a registered dietitian and were placed on a low-fructose diet. Using a standard pain scale for children, 93 of 121 patients (76.9%) reported resolution of symptoms on a low-fructose diet (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, 55 of 101 patients (54.4%) with negative BHT for fructose reported resolution of symptoms without a low-fructose diet (P = 0.37). Fructose intolerance/malabsorption is common in children with recurrent/functional abdominal pain and a low-fructose diet is an effective treatment.

  12. Laparoscopic appendectomy for chronic right lower quadrant abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    van Rossem, Charles C; Treskes, Kaij; Loeza, David L; van Geloven, Anna A W

    2014-10-01

    The appendix can be a rare cause for chronic right lower quadrant abdominal pain (RLQAP), even though no objective disorder can be determined to the appendix. This condition can be described as chronic appendicitis or (neurogenic) appendicopathy. After careful selection, elective appendectomy is performed in our centre for this group of patients. All patients that underwent an elective appendectomy between 2006 and 2013 were prospectively analysed. Inclusion criterion was chronic RLQAP without abnormalities seen on imaging. Exclusion criterion was pain after conservative treatment of (complicated) appendicitis or an abnormal appendix on imaging like a mass, mucocoele or faecolith. Primary outcome was the effect on the pain postoperatively. In the period of the study, ten patients met the inclusion criteria and underwent an appendectomy for chronic RLQAP. Average preoperative pain score assessed with visual analogue scale (VAS) was 8.6. Preoperative work-up showed no abnormalities. No macroscopic abnormalities were seen during surgery in any of the patients. Histopathological analysis was obtained and showed limited abnormalities in eight of ten patients, mostly suspicion of previous inflammation. Postoperatively, no complications occurred, and at revision after 3 weeks, average VAS was 1.0. Long-term follow-up showed that patients remained free of symptoms; average VAS after a median of 33 months was 1.0. A significant reduction of pain was achieved after an appendectomy in all patients suffering from chronic RLQAP in this series. Seven out of ten patients were completely free of pain.

  13. Chronic pelvic pain reveals sacral osteomyelitis three years after abdominal hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Akhaddar, Ali; Mahi, Mohammed; Elouennass, Mostapha; Niamane, Redouane; Elmoustarchid, Brahim; Boucetta, Mohammed

    2009-12-01

    Deep pelvic abscess is a well-known infective complication in gynecologic practice. However, sacral osteomyelitis has been reported rarely. We describe sacral infection presenting three years after abdominal hysterectomy and point out the difficulty in management. Case report and review of the pertinent literature. A 46-year-old woman who had undergone abdominal hysterectomy three years before presented with an 8-month history of abdominopelvic pain recently intensifying in the sitting position without fever. Gynecologic, urinary, and rectal examination did not yield positive findings. An abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan was normal except for sacral osteolysis. A neoplasm was suspected, but magnetic resonance imaging revealed an S2-S4 cystic collection with presacral extension. Neurologic examination did not show any focal deficits. A posterior CT-guided biopsy-aspiration yielded purulent fluid. Pathologic examination revealed inflammatory granulations without any malignant tumor. Abscess cultures grew three microorganisms. The patient's symptoms resolved completely after 3 months of antibiotic therapy. Sacral osteomyelitis has not been reported previously after abdominal hysterectomy. Early diagnosis was made difficult by the absence of neurologic findings. Such postoperative infection should be considered after pelvic surgery. Minimally invasive needle aspiration may confirm the diagnosis and reduce the necessary extent of surgical intervention.

  14. Familial mediterranean fever in an Iranian patient with behcet disease.

    PubMed

    Mobini, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most prevalent disorder among the hereditary autoinflammatory syndromes. This disorder is characterized by fever and some painful attacks such as abdominal, chest or joint pain and potentially development of AA amyloidosis. Several vasculitis are more common in FMF than general population. There are some reports about association of FMF with Behcet Disease (BD). In this study, we describe a 27 year old patient with BD who suffered from attacks of fever, arthralgia, abdominal pain and genetic study confirmed the diagnosis of FMF. FMF should be considered in a patient with Behcet disease who is suffering from attacks of fever, arthralgia and abdominal pain.

  15. Hereditary angioedema (HAE): a cause for recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Soni, Parita; Kumar, Vivek; Alliu, Samson; Shetty, Vijay

    2016-11-14

    A 44-year-old Hispanic woman presented to the emergency room with a 2-day history of sudden onset of severe cramping left lower quadrant abdominal pain associated with ∼20 episodes diarrhoea. Abdominal CT scan exhibited bowel wall oedema and acute extensive colitis. On the basis of the preliminary diagnosis of acute abdomen, the patient was admitted under the surgical team and treated for acute colitis. Since her family history was significant for hereditary angioedema (HAE), complement studies were performed which revealed low complement C4 levels and abnormally low values of C1q esterase inhibitor. Thus, the diagnosis of HAE type I was established. This case report summarises that the symptoms of HAE are often non-specific, hence making the underlying cause difficult to diagnose.

  16. [Abdominal pain syndrome recurring after 40 years: critical revision].

    PubMed

    Zancan, L; Guariso, G; Gobber, D

    1996-01-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) syndrome is described by Apley 40 years ago. The definition of condition, still generally accepted, is at least three episodes of abdominal pain over a period of three months, with pain of intensity which affects the behaviour of the child. The prevalence of condition among school children is 10-15%. Apley's classic studies demonstrated organic disease in only 10% of the children. Apley's conclusions have dominated pediatric writing through present era. In recent years, however, a number of reports have appeared in the medical literature that have suggested that careful investigation of children with RAP may reveal previously unsuspected functional or morphologic abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. These have included reports of peptic disease and Helicobacter Pylori infection, abnormal antro-duodenal motility, lactase malabsorption, gastro-esophageal reflux. Nevertheless these abnormalities cannot be correlated always with specific complaints. Therefore pathogenetic background is not clarified. Despite greater understanding of these disorders the enigme remains. There is a need for controlled studies in non selected patients.

  17. Hepatic toxocariasis: a rare cause of right upper abdominal pain in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Coşkun, Figen; Akıncı, Emine

    2013-01-01

    Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are common helminths that reside in the intestinal tract of cats and dogs. Toxocariasis and, commonly, T. canis, is a disease commonly seen in children, which is characterised by hypereosinophilia, hepatomegaly, fever, transient pulmonary infiltration, and hypergammaglobulinaemia. Humans, who are not the actual host for these parasitic worms, are infected following oral intake of the infective eggs. Radiological differentiation of hepatic toxocariasis can be difficult, as liver lesions, which present as multiple hypoechoic lesions with regular borders, can look like a tumour, an infarction or an infection. We report on a case that presented to our emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain. During the initial review, the pathology in the liver was thought to be an infarction or an infection; however, the patient was diagnosed with hepatic toxocariasis following further evaluation.

  18. Abdominal Pain in the Presence of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: If in Doubt, Cut It Out!

    PubMed

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Schoretsanitis, Nikolaos; Koufopoulos, Georgios; Paulou, Konstantinos; Lazarides, Miltos K

    2017-02-03

    Although small (<5 cm) abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) have been associated with symptoms and indication for intervention scarcely, the clinicians should never exclude such potential association especially in the absence of other overt pathological findings. In such cases, a surgical exploration with consequent intervention, if feasible, should be justified to prevent a detrimental evolution in a dubious scenario. In this article, we present 2 cases of patients with small AAA presenting with severe abdominal pain. In the absence of other solid clinical and radiological pathological findings, both patients underwent laparotomy where an inflammatory small AAA was identified and subjected either to resection and restoration with a tube graft or secondary endovascular repair because the periaortic fibrosis precluded the open repair. The characteristics and rationale of treatment modalities are exemplified and discussed.

  19. Helicobacter pylori gastritis in a child with sickle cell anemia and recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, L; Mahoney, D H; Redel, C A

    1997-01-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain is a common complaint in children with sickle cell disease. Helicobacter pylori gastritis has recently been described in association with recurrent abdominal pain in children. A case report is given of a 16-year-old black male with hemoglobin SS disease presenting with recurrent abdominal pain and hematemesis. Endoscopic exam of the upper gastrointestinal tract revealed gastritis, and biopsy confirmed H. pylori infection. Serology studies demonstrated increased anti-H. pylori antibody titers. The young man responded well to treatment, with resolution of his symptoms. Helicobacter pylori infection is a new diagnostic consideration for children with recurrent abdominal pain and should be included in the differential diagnosis of children with sickle cell disease, especially when abdominal pain is recurrent and accompanied by vomiting. Larger case studies will be necessary to determine the true incidence of H. pylori in children with sickle cell disease and recurrent abdominal pain.

  20. Abdominal ultrasound in patients with acute right upper quadrant pain.

    PubMed

    Philbrick, T H; Kaude, J V; McInnis, A N; Wright, P G

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonography was performed as the first imaging procedure in 100 patients who presented with acute right upper quadrant pain suggestive of cholecystitis or cholelithiasis. In the final analysis 46 patients were found to have gallbladder disease (40 patients with cholelithiasis, 5 with acalculous cholecystitis, and 1 with a cholesterol polyp in the gallbladder). In 22 of 54 patients with a normal gallbladder, other abdominal disease was found. The error rate for ultrasound was 5%, and in 4 patients ultrasound was not the suitable procedure for the diagnosis. In 91 patients the ultrasonographic diagnosis was correct.

  1. Rectus sheath haematoma: a rare masquerader for abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Changal, Khalid Hamid; Saleem, Saad; Ghous, Ghulam

    2017-04-13

    Rectus sheath haematoma is a rare cause of abdominal pain. It can be easily confused for other causes of acute abdomen and may even lead to unnecessary laparotomies. Our patient has the rectus sheath haematoma because of violent coughing and on presentation had no obvious clinical sign pointing to the same. Diagnosis was made by a CT scan of the abdomen, and patient was treated conservatively. Rectus sheath haematomas are usually present on the posterior aspect of the rectus muscles and thus may not be clinically appreciable.

  2. Acute Abdominal Pain: Bayesian Analysis in the Emergency Room

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, A. C.; Moodie, P. F.

    1982-01-01

    A non-sequential Bayesian analysis was deemed a suitable approach to the important clinical problem of analysis of acute abdominal pain in the Emergency Room. Using series reported in the literature as a data source complemented by expert clinical estimates of probabilities of clinical data a program has been established in St. Boniface, Canada. Prior to implementing the program as an online, quickly available diagnostic aid, a prospective preliminary study has shown that the performance of computer plus clinician is significantly better than either clinician or computer alone. A major emphasis has been developing the acceptability of the program in real-life diagnoses in the Emergency Room.

  3. Diphyllobothrium latum infection in a child with recurrent abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Park, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Diphyllobothrium latum infection in humans is not common in Republic of Korea. We report a case of fish tapeworm infection in a 10-year-old boy after ingestion of raw perch about 8 months ago. The patient complained of recurrent abdominal pain and watery diarrhea. A tapeworm, 85 cm in length, without scolex and neck, was spontaneously discharged in the feces of the patient. The patient was treated with 15-mg/kg single dose praziquantel, and follow-up stool examination was negative after one month. There was no evidence of relapse during the next six months. PMID:26692882

  4. A Curious Case of Right Upper Quadrant Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Grock, Andrew; Chan, Wendy; deSouza, Ian S.

    2016-01-01

    An otherwise healthy 36-year-old man presented with sudden-onset right upper quadrant abdominal pain and vomiting. A bedside ultrasound, performed to evaluate hepatobiliary pathology, revealed a normal gallbladder but free intraperitoneal fluid. After an expedited CT and emergent explorative laparotomy, the patient was diagnosed with a small bowel obstruction with ischemia secondary to midgut volvulus. Though midgut volvulus is rare in adults, delays in definitive diagnosis and management can result in bowel necrosis. Importantly, an emergency physician must be able to recognize bedside ultrasound findings associated with acutely dangerous intrabdominal pathology. PMID:27625732

  5. Imperforate hymen-a rare cause of abdominal pain: two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dane, Cem; Dane, Banu; Erginbas, Murat; Cetin, Ahmet

    2007-08-01

    To document an unusual cause of abdominal pain in premenarcheal adolescent girls. Case report. A training and research hospital in Istanbul. Two cases of hematocolpos in two adolescent girls due to imperforate hymen were reported. Both of them manifested lower abdominal pain and urinary retention. Hymenotomy was performed in both the cases. Imperforate hymen is a rare diagnosis, but should be considered when dealing with premenarcheal adolescent girls with lower abdominal symptoms or back pain.

  6. [Mesenteric cyst is a rare origin for abdominal pain in children].

    PubMed

    Dawar, Mirwais; Madsen, Mogens Rørbæk

    2015-02-16

    A ten-year-old boy with known episodes of moderate abdominal pain during 18 months suddenly developed severe abdominal pain, and a CT scan showed a 25 × 15 cm cystic process. The patient was operated and a mesenteric cyst was removed along with 15 cm of small bowel. Post-operative course was uneventful. Mesenteric cysts are rare, but should be considered as an origin for abdominal pain in children, particularly after exclusion of more common diagnoses.

  7. Abdominal Pain: A Comparison between Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction and Chronic Idiopathic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Finnerup, Nanna Brix; Christensen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Most spinal-cord-injured patients have constipation. One-third develop chronic abdominal pain 10 years or more after injury. Nevertheless, very little is known about the nature of abdominal pain after spinal cord injury (SCI). It may be neuropathic or caused by constipation. Aim. To compare characteristics of abdominal pain in SCI with able-bodied with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC). Subjects and Methods. 21 SCI and 15 CIC patients were referred for treatment of bowel symptoms. Constipation-related symptoms were assessed with the Cleveland Constipation Scoring System and the International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Bowel Function Data Set. Characteristics of abdominal pain were described using the Brief Danish Pain Questionnaire. Total gastrointestinal transit times (GITT) were measured by radiopaque markers. Results. Seventeen (81%) SCI and 14 (93%) CIC patients reported abdominal pain or discomfort within the last month (P = 0.38). Pain was considered more intense by CIC than by SCI patients (P < 0.05). Only minor differences were found in patient's qualitative description of abdominal pain or in the location of pain. In neither SCI nor CIC was pain associated with GITT. Conclusion. Most characteristics of abdominal pain among SCI patients resemble those of CIC. This indicates that constipation is a major cause of pain after SCI. PMID:24159329

  8. Lycopene, Lutein and Zeaxanthin May Reduce Faecal Blood, Mucus and Pus but not Abdominal Pain in Individuals with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Zakrzewska, Paulina; Włodarek, Dariusz; Lech, Gustaw

    2016-01-01

    Background: The main symptom of ulcerative colitis is diarrhoea, which is often accompanied by painful tenesmus and faecal blood and mucus. It sometimes co-occurs with abdominal pain, fever, feeling of fatigue, loss of appetite and weight loss. Some dietary factors have been indicated as important in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The aim of the study was to analyse the association between retinoid intake (total vitamin A, retinol, β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin) and ulcerative colitis symptoms (abdominal pain, faecal blood, faecal mucus, faecal pus) in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission. Methods: Assessment of diet was based on self-reported data from each patient’s dietary records taken over a period of three typical, random days (2 weekdays and 1 day of the weekend). Results: A total of 56 individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission (19 males and 37 females) were recruited for the study. One in every four individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission was characterised as having inadequate vitamin A intake. Higher lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin intakes in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission were associated with lower faecal blood, mucus and pus but not with lower incidence of abdominal pain. Higher carotene intake in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission may contribute to higher incidence of faecal mucus. Conclusions: Optimising intake of specific retinoids may enhance disease control in individuals with ulcerative colitis. Prospective studies, including patient reported and objective outcomes, are required to confirm this. PMID:27706028

  9. 'Tell me about your pain': abdominal pain and a history of bullying.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Paola; Jenkner, Alessandro; De Vito, Rita; Boldrini, Renata; Chiodi, Patrizia; Celesti, Lucia; Giampaolo, Rosaria

    2011-03-24

    A 7-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic to investigate recurrent abdominal pain. She was unwilling to attend the school. Her mother reported bullying at school and nosebleeds. The girl rated her pain 9 on a visual analogue score card ranging from 1 to 10. Physical examination disclosed painful bruising and haematomas. Emergency laboratory blood tests indicated by the history, physical examination and the pain intensity showed reduced numbers of white blood cells and platelets. A bone marrow smear on admission disclosed 100% blasts and suggested an initial diagnosis of leukaemia but also disclosed the pseudo-rosettes typically seen in neuro-ectodermic tumours. The diagnosis of stage IV primary neuroblastoma was confirmed by trephine biopsies and high urinary catecholamines. The girl died 10 months later. This unusual case underlines the need for outpatient paediatricians to involve children in their initial diagnostic work-up by asking them about their pain thus expediting the diagnosis.

  10. Sixteen-year-old Female With Acute Abdominal Pain: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kara

    2015-12-01

    A 16-y-old girl presented with abdominal pain in the lower right quadrant, ranging in intensity from 2 to 10 on a visual analog scale (VAS) that prevented her from attending school. The pain was not associated with reflux, a fever, or blood in her stools. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) had been previously diagnosed, but treatment with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) was not successful. The patient's medical history was significant for allergies to fruit; trees, including birch; weeds; and pollen. She had also suffered an anaphylactic reaction to a raw apple. The treatment approach commonly used for EE is suppression of inflammation with steroid therapy with short-term removal of offending foods. However, an attempt to reduce allergic bias and inflammation and treat intestinal permeability is not a part of the standard approach and may explain the high rate of relapse with the condition. Treatment included an elimination diet paired with a supplement regimen designed to reduce inflammation, support healing of the gut and reduce type 2 helper T (Th2) bias of her allergic response. As a result of treatment, the patient's severe pain episodes abated and she was thereafter able to resume attendance at school.

  11. A rare case of febrile abdominal pain revealing Horton's disease.

    PubMed

    Chaudet, Arnaud; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Ghazali, Aiham Daniel

    2017-07-08

    Horton's disease is a systemic inflammatory vasculitis, usually found in persons over 50years old. It affects medium and large-sized arteries stemming from the external carotid, especially the superficial temporal arteries. It can affect extracranial large vessels but only rarely the aorta. Diagnosis of aortitis is difficult and its incidence is probably underestimated. A 68-year-old Caucasian woman consulted in an emergency department for febrile abdominal pain with inflammatory syndrome. Abdomen was soft with right-side flank sensitivity. A contrast-enhanced CT scan showed aortitis from the descending aorta to the iliac arteries without complication. Because of age, clinical presentation and aortitis, Horton disease was suspected. The temporal artery biopsy showed a histological aspect of degenerative endarteritis with intimal thickening and luminal stenosis. High-dose corticosteroid therapy was introduced which improved clinical conditions and resulted in the amendment of the pain. In the present case, this patient had Horton's disease, based on 3 criteria of The American College of Rheumatology (age, temporal artery abnormalities and inflammatory syndrome) associated with aortitis. However, aortitis is a rare complication of Horton disease and is a major cause of mortality inasmuch as it can be complicated by aneurysm and dissection. It is unusual to diagnose Horton's disease from aortitis symptoms without complications. The aorta represents the most severe localization of Horton's disease. It should not be ignored in etiological hypotheses regarding febrile abdominal pain in the elderly. Corticosteroids should be started rapidly at high doses and temporal artery biopsy should be planned. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Pain Outcomes in Patients Undergoing CT-Guided Celiac Plexus Neurolysis for Intractable Abdominal Visceral Pain.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Mark R; Gabriel, Ryan T; Elbich, Jeffrey D; Wolfe, Luke G; Sydnor, Malcolm K

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess outcomes in patients who have undergone celiac plexus neurolysis (CPN) as treatment for refractory abdominal visceral pain at a tertiary care medical center. This study involved retrospective analysis of all patients who had undergone computed tomography (CT)-guided CPN over a 7-year period, as identified in the medical record. Cases were categorized into 1 of 3 groups-group 1: patients getting at least moderate improvement in pain but with improvements subsiding within 2 days; group 2: patients with some sustained pain relief but still requiring heavy doses of narcotics; group 3: patients with major or complete sustained reduction in pain where the narcotic dose was able to be reduced. One hundred thirty-eight cases were identified, 51 of which had no or insufficient follow-up, leaving 87 cases for analysis. Of the 87 cases, 31 (36%) were categorized as group 1, 21 (24%) as group 2, and 35 (40%) as group 3. There were no statistical differences in outcomes based on patient age, gender, time since diagnosis, or type of cancer. Documented postoperative complications were diarrhea (11 cases) and 1 case each of obtundation, hypotension, and presyncopal event. We conclude that patients undergoing CT-guided CPN for abdominal visceral pain achieve moderate or major short-term pain relief in a majority of cases. The procedure is safe with minimal complications.

  13. [A group fever: safari's fever].

    PubMed

    Cantiniaux, S; Serratrice, J; De Roux-Serratrice, C; Disdier, P; Perez, L; Bricaire, F; Caumes, E; Mary, C; Weiller, P J

    2004-12-01

    Acute schistosomiasis, called safari's fever in Africa and Katayama fever in Japan, is an immunoallergic reaction due to transcutaneous penetration of infective cercaria. We report the collective case of seven young adults spending holidays in Mali. An eighteen years-old girl presents fever, headache, diarrhoea and abdominal pains at return from Dogon country (south of Mali). After turned down malaria and with the notion of bathing in fresh water followed by pruritus, we think to safari's fever. So we alarm all other members of the group. All can be treated to avoid chronic schistosomiasis. These observations recall that acute schistosomiasis is a real danger for tourists when bathing in fresh water in endemic areas of Africa. Education of travellers is necessary. Occurrence of safari's fever should alert physicians to prevent chronic schistosomiasis.

  14. Abdominal pain and nausea in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Walters, Randall; Bowen, Denise J

    2016-04-01

    Girls presenting with lower abdominal pain have a broad differential diagnosis. Transabdominal ultrasound should be performed in all girls presenting in the ED with lower abdominal pain. If ovarian torsion is suspected, surgical intervention should be initiated quickly to preserve the viability of the ovary.

  15. Citalopram Treatment of Pediatric Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Comorbid Internalizing Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campo, John V.; Perel, James; Lucas, Amanda; Bridge, Jeff; Ehmann, Mary; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Brent, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the potential efficacy, tolerability, and safety of citalopram in the treatment of functional pediatric recurrent abdominal pain and comorbid internalizing disorders. Method: Twenty-five clinically referred children and adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain aged 7 to 18 years, inclusive, participated in a 12-week,…

  16. Abdominal pain and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion as clinical presentation of acute intermittent porphyria.

    PubMed

    Valle Feijóo, M L; Bermúdez Sanjurjo, J R; González Vázquez, L; Rey Martínez, M; de la Fuente Aguado, J

    2015-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a rare condition characterized by abdominal pain and a wide range of nonspecific symptoms. We report the case of a woman with abdominal pain and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) as clinical presentation of AIP. The diagnosis was achieved through the etiologic study of the SIADH.

  17. Acute abdominal pain following fracture of a heterotopically formed bone incorporating a prolene mesh.

    PubMed

    Nageswaran, H; Dunkley, A

    2010-09-01

    A case is presented of severe abdominal pain around a healed scar following fracture of a heterotopically formed bone. This should be considered an unusual differential diagnosis in patients with acute pain of unknown origin who had open abdominal surgery in the past. To our knowledge, we have also reported the first case of hetertopic bone formation incorporating a prolene mesh.

  18. Citalopram Treatment of Pediatric Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Comorbid Internalizing Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campo, John V.; Perel, James; Lucas, Amanda; Bridge, Jeff; Ehmann, Mary; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Brent, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the potential efficacy, tolerability, and safety of citalopram in the treatment of functional pediatric recurrent abdominal pain and comorbid internalizing disorders. Method: Twenty-five clinically referred children and adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain aged 7 to 18 years, inclusive, participated in a 12-week,…

  19. [Abdominal pain as a presentation by lead poisoning. Case report].

    PubMed

    Mottiera, Daniel M; Cargnel, Elda

    2017-04-01

    Acute lead poisoning is not a common pathology seen in the pediatrician's office. Lead poisoning symptoms can be digestive or neurological, and they can be confused with other pathologies. That is the reason why it should be considered and, in case of doubt, complementary studies to confirm lead poisoning should be requested. This is the case of a nine-year-old child that comes to the office with a strong abdominal pain and vomiting, and after a close physical examination and a detailed anamnesis, a suspicious diagnosis of "acute" lead poisoning is obtained. Therefore, the infant is hospitalized, and after taking a venous sampling to confirm the lead level, a chelation therapy is performed under the toxicology expert's supervision.

  20. Masturbation mimicking abdominal pain or seizures in young girls.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, D R; Morrison, A

    1990-05-01

    Five girls, 7 to 27 months of age, had masturbatory posturing that did not involve rubbing of the genitalia or copulatory movements. This activity was mistakenly attributed to abdominal pain or seizures, and prompted unnecessary diagnostic tests. The posturing began at 3 to 14 months and consisted of "leaning episodes" in which the suprapubic region was applied to a firm edge or the parent's knee in one patient, stiffening of the lower extremities in a standing or sitting position in the second patient, and stiffening of the lower extremities while lying on their sides or supine in three infant patients. The posturing was often accompanied by irregular breathing, facial flushing, and diaphoresis, and lasted less than a minute to hours at a time. Management consisted of convincing the parents of the harmless nature of the activity, which then lessened the reinforcing effect of their responses. The posturing subsided, in time, without medical or surgical treatment.

  1. Atypical abdominal pain: post-traumatic transverse colon stricture.

    PubMed

    Rotar, Raluca; Uwechue, Raphael; Sasapu, Kishore Kumar

    2013-08-23

    A driver presented to the emergency department 1 day after an accident driving his excavator with abdominal pain and vomiting. He was admitted to the surgical ward 2 days later, after reattending. A CT scan revealed wall thickening and oedema in the transverse colon. This was supported by a subsequent CT virtual colonoscopy which raised the suspicion of neoplasia. A follow-up colonoscopy was not carried further than the transverse colon due to an indurated, tight stricture. Biopsies from that area showed ulceration and inflammatory changes non-specific for ischaemia, drug-induced changes or inflammatory bowel disease. As a consequence of the subocclusive symptoms and the possibility of a neoplastic diagnosis, a laparoscopic-assisted transverse colectomy was performed. The histology of the resected segment revealed post-traumatic inflammation and fibrosis with no evidence of neoplasia.

  2. Abdominal Pain and Ascites: Not Always Related to Portal Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kisang, Gilbert; Green, Michael; Tofteland, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract with an estimated prevalence of one in 100,000. The typical presentation consists of vague gastrointestinal symptoms with the mucosal involvement of the digestive system. Rarely, it presents as eosinophilic ascites. We report the case of a 22-year-old female who presented with acute onset abdominal pain and ascites. The laboratory studies were remarkable for eosinophilia and the ascitic fluid demonstrated high eosinophilic counts. Push enteroscopy with biopsy supported the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, with likely serosal involvement. Other differential diagnoses were excluded. A prednisone taper along with dietary treatment was initiated. We report complete resolution of symptoms two weeks following the initiation of therapy. Nine months later, she remains asymptomatic without recurrence of ascites. PMID:27843730

  3. Laparoscopic Treatment of Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: A Rare Cause of Chronic Severe Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Divarci, Emre; Celtik, Ulgen; Dokumcu, Zafer; Celik, Ahmet; Ergun, Orkan

    2017-01-01

    Median arcuate ligament syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by chronic postprandial abdominal pain and weight loss caused by compression on celiac artery. A 17-year-old girl with chronic severe abdominal pain and weight loss was referred to our clinic. Other causes of chronic abdominal pain were investigated and excluded. The compression on celiac artery was detected on Doppler ultrasound and diagnosis was confirmed by computed tomography angiography. The patient underwent laparoscopic release of median arcuate ligament. There were no intraoperative complications; however, partial pain response was observed postoperatively that necessitated para-spinal ganglion blockage. The patient is symptom-free in 1-year follow-up period. PMID:28082779

  4. Imperforate Hymen - a rare cause of acute abdominal pain and tenesmus: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mwenda, Aruyaru Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Imperforate hymen is a rare condition that presents with amenorrhea, cyclical abdominal pains and urine retention among pubertal girls. A 14 year old girl with imperforate hymen underwent hymenotomy for hematocolpometra, having presented with abdominal pains and tenesmus.

  5. Imperforate Hymen - a rare cause of acute abdominal pain and tenesmus: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mwenda, Aruyaru Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Imperforate hymen is a rare condition that presents with amenorrhea, cyclical abdominal pains and urine retention among pubertal girls. A 14 year old girl with imperforate hymen underwent hymenotomy for hematocolpometra, having presented with abdominal pains and tenesmus. PMID:24009804

  6. Pharmacological interventions for recurrent abdominal pain in childhood.

    PubMed

    Martin, Alice E; Newlove-Delgado, Tamsin V; Abbott, Rebecca A; Bethel, Alison; Thompson-Coon, Joanna; Whear, Rebecca; Logan, Stuart

    2017-03-06

    Between 4% and 25% of school-aged children at some stage complain of recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) of sufficient severity to interfere with their daily lives. When no clear organic cause is found, the children are managed with reassurance and simple measures; a large range of pharmacological interventions have been recommended for use in these children. To determine the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions for RAP in children of school age. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and eight other electronic databases up to June 2016. We also searched two trials registers and contacted researchers of published studies. Randomised controlled trials involving children aged five to 18 years old with RAP or an abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder, as defined by the Rome III criteria (Rasquin 2006). The interventions were any pharmacological intervention compared to placebo, no treatment, waiting list, or standard care. The primary outcome measures were pain intensity, pain duration or pain frequency, and improvement in pain. The secondary outcome measures were school performance, social or psychological functioning, and quality of daily life. Two review authors independently screened titles, abstracts, and potentially relevant full-text reports for eligible studies. Two review authors extracted data and performed a 'Risk of bias' assessment. We used the GRADE approach to rate the overall quality of the evidence. We deemed a meta-analysis to be not appropriate as the studies were significantly heterogeneous. We have consequently provided a narrative summary of the results. This review included 16 studies with a total of 1024 participants aged between five and 18 years, all of whom were recruited from paediatric outpatient clinics. Studies were conducted in seven countries: seven in the USA, four in Iran, and one each in the UK, Switzerland, Turkey, Sri Lanka, and India. Follow

  7. Multidetector computed tomography in the evaluation of pediatric acute abdominal pain in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Ching; Lin, Chien-Heng

    2016-06-01

    The accurate diagnosis of pediatric acute abdominal pain is one of the most challenging tasks in the emergency department (ED) due to its unclear clinical presentation and non-specific findings in physical examinations, laboratory data, and plain radiographs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) performed in the ED on pediatric patients presenting with acute abdominal pain. A retrospective chart review of children aged <18 years with acute abdominal pain who visited the emergency department and underwent MDCT between September 2004 and June 2007 was conducted. Patients with a history of trauma were excluded. A total of 156 patients with acute abdominal pain (85 males and 71 females, age 1-17 years; mean age 10.9 ± 4.6 years) who underwent abdominal MDCT in the pediatric ED during this 3-year period were enrolled in the study. One hundred and eighteen patients with suspected appendicitis underwent abdominal MDCT. Sixty four (54.2%) of them had appendicitis, which was proven by histopathology. The sensitivity of abdominal MDCT for appendicitis was found to be 98.5% and the specificity was 84.9%. In this study, the other two common causes of nontraumatic abdominal emergencies were gastrointestinal tract (GI) infections and ovarian cysts. The most common etiology of abdominal pain in children that requires imaging with abdominal MDCT is appendicitis. MDCT has become a preferred and invaluable imaging modality in evaluating uncertain cases of pediatric acute abdominal pain in ED, in particular for suspected appendicitis, neoplasms, and gastrointestinal abnormalities.

  8. Anaemia and abdominal pain due to occupational lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fonte, Rodolfo; Agosti, Antonio; Scafa, Fabrizio; Candura, Stefano M

    2007-02-01

    We describe a 47-year-old patient with chronic anaemia with basophilic stippling of erythrocytes, recurrent abdominal colics, discoloration of gums, sensitive polyneuropathy to the four limbs, hyperuricaemia, hepatosteatosis with raised transaminases, and a long ignored history of lead exposure in a battery recycling plant. The diagnosis of poisoning was confirmed by high lead levels in the blood and urine, decreased erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D), raised erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZP), and elevated urinary excretion of porphyrins. Chelation with EDTA resulted in increased urinary lead excretion, gradual improvement of the clinical picture, and progressive normalization of lead biomarkers. The case highlights the importance of occupational anamnesis for the diagnosis of lead poisoning, an uncommon condition which may mimic a variety of internal and surgical diseases. Since antiquity, lead has been extensively mined, produced, and utilized in a variety of industrial settings, such as metallurgy, construction, production of plastics, ceramics, paints and pigments. Lead and its compounds are systemic toxicants, and a wide range of adverse health effects (including haematological, gastrointestinal, neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular, renal, endocrine, and reproductive disorders) has been observed in exposed workers. The general population (particularly children) may also be exposed to toxic lead levels due to air, soil, food and water contamination. Thanks to the improvement of workplace hygienic conditions, the pathological picture of occupational lead poisoning (plumbism, saturnism) has gradually become less serious, at least in the most industrialized countries, and has progressively changed into aspecific, subclinical manifestations. We describe here an unusual case (nowadays) of anaemia and recurrent abdominal pain due to lead poisoning from battery recycling.

  9. Psychosocial interventions for recurrent abdominal pain in childhood.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Rebecca A; Martin, Alice E; Newlove-Delgado, Tamsin V; Bethel, Alison; Thompson-Coon, Joanna; Whear, Rebecca; Logan, Stuart

    2017-01-10

    This review supersedes the original Cochrane review first published in 2008 (Huertas-Ceballos 2008).Between 4% and 25% of school-aged children complain of recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) severe enough to interfere with their daily activities. No organic cause for this pain can be found on physical examination or investigation for the majority of such children. Although many children are managed by reassurance and simple measures, a large range of psychosocial interventions involving cognitive and behavioural components have been recommended. To determine the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for reducing pain in school-aged children with RAP. In June 2016 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, eight other databases, and two trials registers. We also searched the references of identified studies and relevant reviews. Randomised controlled trials comparing psychosocial therapies with usual care, active control, or wait-list control for children and adolescents (aged 5 to 18 years) with RAP or an abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder defined by the Rome III criteria were eligible for inclusion. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Five review authors independently selected studies, assessed them for risk of bias, and extracted relevant data. We also assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. This review includes 18 randomised controlled trials (14 new to this version), reported in 26 papers, involving 928 children and adolescents with RAP between the ages of 6 and 18 years. The interventions were classified into four types of psychosocial therapy: cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), hypnotherapy (including guided imagery), yoga, and written self-disclosure. The studies were carried out in the USA, Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, Germany, and Brazil. The majority of the studies were small and short term; only two studies included more than 100 participants, and only five studies had

  10. Fishbone perforation through a Meckel's diverticulum: a rare laparoscopic diagnosis in acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Christensen, H

    1999-08-01

    The use of diagnostic laparoscopy in acute abdominal pain, especially when patients have been admitted for acute pain in the lower abdominal quadrants, improves the accuracy of diagnosis and leads to improvements in treatment procedures. A case is reported of a 24-year-old woman admitted under suspicion of appendicitis. The appendix was found to be normal, and a perforation caused by a fishbone was discovered in a Meckel's diverticulum. The diverticulum was resected by a combined laparoscopic and open procedure. Diagnostic laparoscopy should be performed routinely in cases of acute abdominal pain in the lower quadrants of suspected appendiceal origin to avoid overlooking other causes of the symptoms.

  11. Predictors of Abdominal Pain in Depressed Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Srinath, Arvind I.; Goyal, Alka; Zimmerman, Lori A.; Newara, Melissa C.; Kirshner, Margaret A.; McCarthy, F. Nicole; Keljo, David; Binion, David; Bousvaros, Athos; DeMaso, David R.; Youk, Ada; Szigethy, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have high rates of abdominal pain. The study aims were to (1) Evaluate biological and psychological correlates of abdominal pain in depressed youth with IBD, (2) Determine predictors of abdominal pain in Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods 765 patients ages 9–17 with IBD seen over 3 years at two sites were screened for depression. Depressed youth completed comprehensive assessments for abdominal pain, psychological (depression and anxiety), and biological (IBD-related, through disease activity indices and laboratory values) realms. Results 217 patients with IBD (161 CD, 56 UC) were depressed. 163 (120 CD, 43 UC) patients had complete API scores. In CD, abdominal pain was associated with depression (r=0.33; p<0.001), diarrhea (r=0.34; p=0.001), ESR (r=0.22; p=0.02), low albumin (r=0.24; p=.01), weight loss (r=0.33; p=0.001), and abdominal tenderness (r=0.38, p=0.002). A multivariate model with these significant correlates represented 32% of the variance in pain. Only depression (p=0.03), weight loss (p=0.04), and abdominal tenderness (p=0.01) predicted pain for CD patients. In UC, pain was associated with depression (r=0.46; p=0.002) and nocturnal stools (r=.32; p=.046). In the multivariate model with these significant correlates 23% of the variance was explained, and only depression (p=0.02) predicted pain. Conclusions The psychological state of pediatric patients with IBD may increase the sensitivity to abdominal pain. Thus, screening for and treating comorbid depression may prevent excessive medical testing and unnecessary escalation of IBD medications. PMID:24983975

  12. FACTORS RELATED TO ABDOMINAL PAIN IN GASTROPARESIS: CONTRAST TO PATIENTS WITH PREDOMINANT NAUSEA AND VOMITING

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Factors associated with abdominal pain in gastroparesis are incompletely evaluated and comparisons of pain versus other symptoms are limited. This study related pain to clinical factors in gastroparesis and contrasted pain/discomfort- with nausea/vomiting-predominant disease. Methods Clinical and scintigraphy data were compared in 393 patients from 7 centers of the NIDDK Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium with moderate-severe (Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Disorders Symptoms [PAGI-SYM] score ≥3) vs. none-mild (PAGI-SYM <3) upper abdominal pain and predominant pain/discomfort vs. nausea/vomiting. Key Results Upper abdominal pain was moderate-severe in 261 (66%). Pain/discomfort was predominant in 81 (21%); nausea/vomiting was predominant in 172 (44%). Moderate-severe pain was more prevalent with idiopathic gastroparesis and with lack of infectious prodrome (P≤0.05) and correlated with scores for nausea/vomiting, bloating, lower abdominal pain/discomfort, bowel disturbances, and opiate and antiemetic use (P<0.05) but not gastric emptying or diabetic neuropathy or control. Gastroparesis severity, quality of life, and depression and anxiety were worse with moderate-severe pain (P≤0.008). Factors associated with moderate-severe pain were similar in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. Compared to predominant nausea/vomiting, predominant pain/discomfort was associated with impaired quality of life, greater opiate, and less antiemetic use (P<0.01), but similar severity and gastric retention. Conclusions & Inferences Moderate-severe abdominal pain is prevalent in gastroparesis, impairs quality of life, and is associated with idiopathic etiology, lack of infectious prodrome, and opiate use. Pain is predominant in one fifth of gastroparetics. Predominant pain has at least as great an impact on disease severity and quality of life as predominant nausea/vomiting. PMID:23414452

  13. Dietary interventions for recurrent abdominal pain in childhood.

    PubMed

    Newlove-Delgado, Tamsin V; Martin, Alice E; Abbott, Rebecca A; Bethel, Alison; Thompson-Coon, Joanna; Whear, Rebecca; Logan, Stuart

    2017-03-23

    This is an update of the original Cochrane review, last published in 2009 (Huertas-Ceballos 2009). Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), including children with irritable bowel syndrome, is a common problem affecting between 4% and 25% of school-aged children. For the majority of such children, no organic cause for their pain can be found on physical examination or investigation. Many dietary inventions have been suggested to improve the symptoms of RAP. These may involve either excluding ingredients from the diet or adding supplements such as fibre or probiotics. To examine the effectiveness of dietary interventions in improving pain in children of school age with RAP. We searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, eight other databases, and two trials registers, together with reference checking, citation searching and contact with study authors, in June 2016. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing dietary interventions with placebo or no treatment in children aged five to 18 years with RAP or an abdominal pain-related, functional gastrointestinal disorder, as defined by the Rome III criteria (Rasquin 2006). We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We grouped dietary interventions together by category for analysis. We contacted study authors to ask for missing information and clarification, when needed. We assessed the quality of the evidence for each outcome using the GRADE approach. We included 19 RCTs, reported in 27 papers with a total of 1453 participants. Fifteen of these studies were not included in the previous review. All 19 RCTs had follow-up ranging from one to five months. Participants were aged between four and 18 years from eight different countries and were recruited largely from paediatric gastroenterology clinics. The mean age at recruitment ranged from 6.3 years to 13.1 years. Girls outnumbered boys in most trials. Fourteen trials recruited children with a diagnosis under the broad umbrella of RAP or functional

  14. [Gallbladder contractility in children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Iwańczak, Franciszek; Siedlecka-Dawidko, Jolanta; Iwanczak, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    III Rome Criteria of functional gastrointestinal disorders in children, distinguished the disturbances with abdominal pain, to which irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal pains, functional dyspepsia and abdominal migraine were included. THE AIM OF THE STUDY was sonographic assessment of the gallbladder and its contractility in functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children. The study comprised 96 children aged 6 to 18 years, 59 girls and 37 boys. Depending on diagnosis, the children were divided into three groups. 38 children with functional abdominal pain constituted the first group, 26 children with irritable bowel syndrome were included to the second group, the third group consisted of 32 healthy children (control group). Diagnosis of functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome was made based on the III Rome Criteria. In irritable bowel syndrome both forms with diarrhea (13) and with constipation (13) were observed. Anatomy and contractility of the gallbladder were assessed by ultrasound examination. The presence of septum, wall thickness, thick bile, vesicle volume in fasting state and 30th and 60th minute after test meal were taken into consideration. Test meal comprised about 15% of caloric requirement of moderate metabolism. Children with bile stones and organic diseases were excluded from the study. Thickened vesicle wall and thick bile were present more frequently in children with irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain than in control group (p < 0.02). Fasting vesicle volume was significantly greater in children with functional abdominal pain than in irritable bowel syndrome and control group (p = 0.003, p = 0.05). Vesicle contractility after test meal was greatest in children with functional abdominal pain. Evaluation of diminished (smaller than 30%) and enlarged (greater then 80%) gallbladder contractility at 30th and 60th minute after test meal demonstrated disturbances of contractility in children

  15. Effects of perineural capsaicin treatment of the abdominal vagus on endotoxin fever and on a non-febrile thermoregulatory event.

    PubMed

    Pétervári, Erika; Garami, András; Pákai, Eszter; Székely, Miklós

    2005-01-01

    Following perineural capsaicin pretreatment of the main trunks of the abdominal vagus of rats, the first and the second phases of the polyphasic febrile response to intravenous lipopolysaccharide were unaltered, while the third phase of fever course (peak at 5 h) was attenuated. In rats desensitized by intraperitoneal (i.p.) capsaicin (i.e. abdominal non-systemic desensitization), mainly the first but not the later fever phases were reduced. The postprandial hyperthermia to intragastric injection of BaSO4 suspension was attenuated by either i.p. or perineural capsaicin treatment. It is concluded that, in contrast to the accepted model of postprandial hyperthermia, which is mediated by capsaicin-sensitive fibers of the abdominal vagus, in the early phase of polyphasic fever the vagal afferent nerves appear to play no role. The influence of i.p. capsaicin-desensitization on this initiating fever phase is independent of the vagus, and a capsaicin-induced alteration of endotoxin action in the liver, prior to vagal nerve endings, is more likely. The late febrile phase is probably influenced by efferent vagal fibers, which might be damaged more easily by perineural than i.p. capsaicin treatment.

  16. Abdominal pain and asthenia as common clinical features in hospitalized children for giardiasis.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Pedro; Núñez, Fidel A; Bello, Janet; González, Odalys M; Fernández, Raquel; Escobedo, Angel A

    2013-09-01

    Giardiasis is a disease with worldwide distribution, although its prevalence differs from country to country. In order to investigate the clinical pattern of giardiasis in in-patient children, a case-control study was carried out. In-patient children who had Giardia lamblia infection were compared with non Giardia-infected children, focusing only on 4 clinical manifestations: diarrhoea, abdominal pain, asthenia and vomiting. In multivariable analysis, abdominal pain (odds ratio [OR] 4.71, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.66-8.32) and asthenia (OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.16-9.37) had positive and independent associations with Giardia infection. The present study supports the potential role of G. lamblia in abdominal pain in children who attend- and are admitted- to a hospital in Havana City, and highlights the importance to keep abdominal pain and asthenia in mind in hospital admitted children in the event of an association with an evocative epidemiological context.

  17. The complaints and dietary habits of the patients with gastritis and undefined abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Harju, E

    1985-02-01

    The complaints and dietary habits of sixteen patients with gastritis and fourteen with undefined abdominal pain were studied by recording method. The results showed that the symptoms of the patients with gastritis and undefined abdominal pain were similar and mostly postprandial and they can be regarded as local (abdominal pain, meteorism, discomfort and heartburn) and/or general (sweating, nausea and faintness). The patients have variations of the symptomatic and asymptomatic periods. The symptomatic patients with gastritis have significantly higher number of daily meals than the asymptomatic patients with gastritis. The daily intake of food, energy and nutrients are low especially in the symptomatic patients with gastritis. It is concluded that the symptoms experienced by the patients with gastritis or undefined abdominal pain are related to the eating so that the daily dietary habits are disturbed. The produced a low intake of food, energy and nutrients especially in the patients with symptomatic gastritis.

  18. Clinical features and associated factors of abdominal pain in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shiwen; Lian, Fan; Chen, Dongying; Li, Hao; Qiu, Qian; Zhan, Zhongping; Ye, Yujin; Xu, Hanshi; Liang, Liuqin; Yang, Xiuyan

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical characteristics of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-induced abdominal pain in a cohort in South China and identify the risk factors for SLE-induced abdominal pain. This is a retrospective cohort study of SLE patients with complaint of abdominal pain admitted to the first affiliated university hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between 2002 and 2011. Demographic information, clinical features, laboratory findings, SLE Disease Activity Index, and imaging characteristics were documented. Of the 3823 SLE patients reviewed, 213 patients complained of abdominal pain and 132 cases were considered SLE-induced. The most common causes were lupus mesenteric vasculitis (LMV; 73.5%, 97/132) and lupus pancreatitis (LP; 17.4%, 23/132). Other causes included appendicitis, acute gastroenteritis, and peritonitis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated the European Consensus Lupus Activity Measurement (ECLAM) score was significantly associated with lupus-induced abdominal pain (OR = 1.858, 95% CI: 1.441-2.394, p < 0.001), LMV (OR = 1.713, 95% CI: 1.308-2.244, p < 0.001), and LP (OR = 2.153, 95% CI: 1.282, 3.617, p = 0.004). The serum D-dimer level (OR = 1.004, 95% CI: 1.002-1.005, p < 0.001) was a strongly associated factor for lupus-induced abdominal pain. Moderate and large amounts of ascetic fluid was significantly associated with lupus-induced abdominal pain and LMV. Elevated liver enzymes was a risk factor for LP (OR = 34.605, 95% CI: 3.591-333.472, p = 0.002). LMV and LP were the leading causes of SLE-induced abdominal pain. The serum D-dimer was a strongly associated factor for lupus-induced abdominal pain. ECLAM score was a reliable index in assessment of SLE-associated abdominal pain. Elevated liver enzymes, and moderate or large amounts of ascites, were positively associated with lupus-induced abdominal pain.

  19. Wandering spleen torsion causing acute abdominal pain in a child: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Llorens Marina, Carlos I; Cedeño, Alex; Lugo-Vicente, Humberto; Chapel, Cristel; Rivera, Glorimar; Diaz, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare occurrence where the spleen normal fixation to the abdominal wall is lost and thus allowed to change in position. We report a case of a child who presented with acute abdominal pain secondary to a wandering spleen complicated by torsion of its vascular pedicle. The diagnosis was promptly made using computed tomography and managed with splenectomy.

  20. Sonography of Abdominal Pain in Children: Appendicitis and Its Common Mimics.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Thomas Ray; Corwin, Michael T; Davoodian, Andrew; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal pain is very common in the pediatric population (<18 years of age). Sonography is a safe modality that can often differentiate the frequently encountered causes of abdominal pain in children. This pictorial essay will discuss the sonographic findings of acute appendicitis, including the imaging appearance of a perforated appendicitis. It will also present the sonographic features of the relatively common mimics of appendicitis, such as mesenteric adenitis/gastroenteritis, intussusception, Meckel diverticulum, and ovarian torsion.

  1. Blastocystis Hominis and Chronic Abdominal Pain in Children: Is there an Association between Them?

    PubMed

    Toro Monjaraz, Erick Manuel; Vichido Luna, Miguel Angel; Montijo Barrios, Ericka; Cervantes Bustamante, Roberto; Zárate Mondragón, Flora; Huante Anaya, Alfonso; Cadena León, José; Mendez, Monserrat Cazares; López Ugalde, Martha; Ramirez Mayans, Jaime A

    2017-08-03

    Chronic abdominal pain has many etiologies, one of them being parasites. The aim of this study was to find an association between chronic abdominal pain in children and Blastocystis hominis (Bh). Clinical files of patients with Bh and functional abdominal pain were reviewed. A comparison was made between patients who showed an improvement of their symptoms and those who did not. Out of the 138 patients who had functional abdominal pain and Bh, 37 patients did not receive any treatment (26.8%), while 101 received it and were treated with different antimicrobial agents (73.2%); regarding the improvement of symptoms, a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was observed. Chronic abdominal pain in children has different etiologies; however, we have documented through this work that it is appropriate to provide antimicrobial treatment for patients with Bh and chronic abdominal pain. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection, serum pepsinogens, and pediatric abdominal pain: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Eias; Naamna, Medhat; Mawassy, Kadri; Beer-Davidson, Gany; Muhsen, Khitam

    2017-08-01

    The significance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in pediatric abdominal pain remains poorly recognized. We examined associations of H. pylori infection and serum pepsinogens (PGs), as non-invasive markers of gastritis, with pediatric abdominal pain. A case-control study was conducted among 99 children aged 5-17 years admitted to one hospital for abdominal pain (cases) without an apparent organic reason. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, sera were tested and compared with 179 controls for anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and PGI and PGII levels. Multivariable analysis was performed to adjust for potential confounders. H. pylori IgG sero-positivity was 34.3 and 36.3% in cases and controls, respectively, P = 0.7. H. pylori-infected children had higher median PGI and PGII levels and a lower PGI/PGII ratio than uninfected children. Cases infected with H. pylori had a higher median PGII level (P < 0.001) and lower PGI/PGII ratio (P = 0.036) than controls infected with H. pylori. The percentage of cases with PGII ≥7.5 μg/L, as indication for antral inflammation, was higher than in controls: 58.6 versus 44.7%, P = 0.027. Children with PGII levels ≥7.5 μg/L had increased risk for abdominal pain: adjusted prevalence ratio 1.73 [95% confidence intervals 1.02, 2.93], P = 0.039. Children with increased serum PGII levels, as an indication of gastritis, are more likely to have abdominal pain. Serum PGs can be a useful non-invasive marker for gastritis, in evaluating children with severe abdominal pain with no apparent organic reason. What is Known: • The significance of Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatric abdominal pain remains debated. • Serum pepsinogens (PGs), non-invasive markers of gastric inflammation, were rarely utilized in assessing the association between H. pylori in pediatric abdominal pain of unknown origin. What is New: • High serum PGII level, as an indication of gastritis, rather than H. pylori

  3. Multidetector CT in emergency radiology: acute and generalized non-traumatic abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Paolantonio, Pasquale; Rengo, Marco; Ferrari, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Multidetector CT (MDCT) is an imaging technique that provides otherwise unobtainable information in the diagnostic work-up of patients presenting with acute abdominal pain. A correct working diagnosis depends essentially on understanding the individual patient's clinical data and laboratory findings. In haemodynamically stable patients with acute severe and generalized abdominal pain, MDCT is now the preferred imaging test and gives invaluable diagnostic information, also in unstable patients after stabilization. In this descriptive review, we focus our attention on acute, severe and generalized or undifferentiated non-traumatic abdominal pain. The main differential diagnoses are acute pancreatitis, gastrointestinal perforation, ruptured abdominal aneurysm and acute mesenteric ischaemia. We will provide radiologist readers with a technical guide to optimize MDCT imaging protocols and list the major CT signs essential to reach a correct diagnosis and guide the best treatment. PMID:26689097

  4. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children and Adolescents with Abdominal Pain: Comparison with EoE-Dysphagia and Functional Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gorla, Kiranmai; Gupta, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Compare EoE-AP with EoE-D for clinical, endoscopy (EGD), histology and outcomes and also with FAP-N. Method. Symptoms, physical findings, EGD, histology, symptom scores, and treatments were recorded for the three groups. Cluster analysis was done. Results. Dysphagia and abdominal pain were different in numbers but not statistically significant between EoE-AP and EoE-D. EGD, linear furrows, white exudates were more in the EoE-D and both combined were significant (p < 0.05). EoE-D, peak and mean eosinophils (p  0.06) and eosinophilic micro abscesses (p  0.001) were higher. Follow-Up. Based on single symptom, EoE-AP had 30% (p  0.25) improvement, EoE-D 86% (p < 0.001) and similar with composite score (p  0.57 and <0.001, resp.). Patients who had follow-up, EGD: 42.8% with EoE-AP and 77.8% with EoE-D, showed single symptom improvement and the eosinophil count fell from 38.5/34.6 (peak and mean) to 31.2/30.4 (p  0.70) and from 43.6/40.8 to 25.2/22.8 (p < 0.001), respectively. FAP-N patients had similar symptom improvement like EoE-D. Cluster Analysis. EoE-AP and FAP-N were similar in clinical features and response to treatment, but EoE-D was distinctly different from EoE-AP and FAP-N. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that EoE-AP and EoE-D have different histology and outcomes. In addition, EoE-AP has clinical features similar to the FAP-N group. PMID:27610357

  5. The overlap of functional abdominal pain in pediatric Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Lori A.; Srinath, Arvind I.; Goyal, Alka; Bousvaros, Athos; Ducharme, Peter; Szigethy, Eva; Nurko, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background Children with Crohn’s disease (CD) may report abdominal pain despite clinical remission, suggesting that functional abdominal pain (FAP) may be playing a role. Aim This study aims to explore the presence and impact of FAP in children with CD in remission. Methods Children, aged 9–17, with CD were enrolled. Demographic information, the Pediatric Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (PCDAI), and the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) were obtained. Disease remission was defined by physician global assessment, normal labs, and absence of 3 or more stools a day, nocturnal stooling, bloody diarrhea, concurrent steroid therapy, strictures, or disease flare within 6 months. FAP was defined as patients with abdominal pain and CD remission. Rates of depression (CDI >9) were compared. Results 139/307 children reported abdominal pain. Of this group, 18/139 (13%) met criteria for FAP. Despite clinical remission, 8/18 CD FAP patients were classified with active disease by PCDAI. CD FAP patients had a higher rate of depression than CD patients in remission with no abdominal pain (55.6% vs. 29.9%; p=0.03), similar to patients with abdominal pain from active CD (55.6% vs. 44.8%; p=0.62). Conclusions A proportion of children with CD in remission have FAP. These children are at significant risk for depression. Future studies are needed to determine whether depression contributes to functional pain development or if pain itself leads to depression. Especially given that functional pain may exaggerate disease activity, clinicians caring for children with CD and FAP should consider evaluating for depressive disorders before escalating therapy. PMID:23407043

  6. Increased gastrointestinal permeability and gut inflammation in children with functional abdominal pain and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine gastrointestinal (GI) permeability and fecal calprotectin concentration in children 7 to 10 years of age with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome (FAP/IBS) versus control subjects and ascertain potential relationships with pain symptoms and stooling, GI permeability a...

  7. Increasing frequency of opioid prescriptions for chronic abdominal pain in US outpatient clinics.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Spencer D; Meek, Patrick D; Shah, Nilay D

    2011-12-01

    Opioids are sometimes used to treat chronic abdominal pain. However, opioid analgesics have not been proven to be an effective treatment for chronic abdominal pain and have been associated with drug misuse, constipation, and worsening abdominal pain. We sought to estimate the national prescribing trends and factors associated with opioid prescribing for chronic abdominal pain. Chronic abdominal pain-related visits by adults to US outpatient clinics were identified using reason-for-visit codes from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (1997-2008). Data were weighted to produce national estimates of opioid prescriptions over time. Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for complex survey design, were performed to identify factors associated with opioid use. The number of outpatient visits for chronic abdominal pain consistently decreased over time from 14.8 million visits (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.6-18.0 visits) in 1997 through 1999 to 12.2 million visits (95% CI, 9.0-15.6 visits) or 1863 visits per 100,000 population in 2006 through 2008 (P for trend = 0.04). Conversely, the adjusted prevalence of visits for which an opioid was prescribed increased from 5.9% (95% CI, 3.5%-8.3%) in 1997 through 1999 to 12.2% (95% CI, 7.5%-17.0%) in 2006 through 2008 (P = 0.03 for trend). Opioid prescriptions were most common among patients aged 25 to 40 years old (odds ratio [OR] 4.6; 95% CI, 1.2-18.4). Opioid prescriptions were less common among uninsured (OR 0.1; 95% CI, 0.04-0.40) and African American (OR 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9) patients. From 1997 to 2008 opioid prescriptions for chronic abdominal pain more than doubled. Further studies are needed to better understand the reasons for and consequences of this trend. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of Abdominal Segmental Hernia, Constipation, and Pain Following Herpes Zoster with Paravertebral Block.

    PubMed

    Kim, Saeyoung; Jeon, Younghoon

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) most commonly occurs in elderly patients and involves sensory neurons resulting in pain and sensory changes. Clinically significant motor deficits and visceral neuropathies are thought to be relatively rare. A 72-year-old man presented with abdominal segmental hernia, constipation, and pain following HZ in the left T9-10 dermatome. Sixteen days before presentation, he had developed a painful herpetic rash in the left upper abdominal quadrant. Approximately 10 days after the onset of the rash, constipation occurred and was managed with daily oral medication with bisacodyl 5 mg. In addition, 14 days after the onset of HZ, the patient noticed a protrusion of the left upper abdominal wall. Abdominal x-ray, ultrasound of the abdomen, and electrolyte analysis showed no abnormalities. General physical examination revealed a reducible bulge in his left upper quadrant and superficial abdominal reflexes were diminished in the affected region. Electromyographic testing revealed denervational changes limited to the left thoracic paraspinal muscles and supraumbilical muscles, corresponding to the affected dermatomes. He was prescribed with 500 mg of famciclovir 3 times a day for 7 days, and pregabalin 75 mg twice a day and acetaminophen 650 mg 3 times a day for 14 days. However, his pain was rated at an intensity of 5 on the numerical analogue scale from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable). A paravertebral block was performed at T9-10 with a mixture of 0.5% lidocaine 3 mL and triamcinolone 40 mg. One day after the procedure, the abdominal pain disappeared. In addition, 5 days after the intervention, the abdominal protrusion and constipation were resolved. He currently remains symptom free at a 6 month follow-up.

  9. Nonaneurysmal abdominal aortitis in an 82-year-old woman presenting with pyrexia and back pain: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Infective aortitis has become uncommon since the advent of antibiotic therapy. Aortitis, presenting as a localised perforation in a non-aneurysmal aorta, is extremely rare. We report the case of an 82-year-old woman who was diagnosed with localised perforation of a non-aneurysmal abdominal aorta secondary to staphylococcus aortitis. Case presentation An 82-year-old woman presented with a history of a sudden onset of back pain and pyrexia. A clinical examination did not reveal any significant findings attributable to her sepsis. As her clinical condition deteriorated rapidly, adequate resuscitation was commenced. Appropriate serology and radiological investigations, including a computed tomography scan, were performed. The computed tomography scan revealed a diagnosis of a non-aneurysmal infective abdominal aortitis with evidence of localised perforation. This was successfully treated under local anaesthetic with endovascular aortic repair and appropriate antibiotics. She recovered fully and was completely asymptomatic a year later. Conclusion A detailed assessment is essential in the diagnosis of this condition as it can frequently be missed on initial evaluation of the affected patient. Clinical features are often nonspecific and can include fever, leucocytosis and bacteremia in the absence of a pulsatile or expansile mass. The patient may also complain of back pain, as in this case report. Thorough assessment, timely investigation and endovascular intervention prevented a potentially fatal condition in our patient. PMID:19918282

  10. Small bowel diverticulitis with severe anemia and abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    De Minicis, Samuele; Antonini, Filippo; Belfiori, Valerio; Lo Cascio, Massimiliano; Marraccini, Barbara; Piergallini, Simona; Mosca, Piergiorgio; Macarri, Giampiero

    2015-01-01

    The current case report is related to a male patient with diabetes, obesity [body mass index (BMI) 33], hypertension and recurrence of anemia associated to melena and deep asthenia. M.P., a 60-year-old obese individual, was referred to our department by the primary care unit (PCU) of our hospital for severe anemia (Hemoglobin 6.5 g/dL) associated to episodes of melena and abdominal pain. In the past 5 mo the patient referred to the local hospital 3 times for episodes of melena (hemoglobin levels showed anemia 9.8 g/dL) but the main gastroenterological exams were completely negative (colonoscopy and gastroscopy). The PCU of our Hospital, after stabilization of the main parameters and blood transfusion for the low levels of hemoglobin, referred the patient to gastroenterologists: the patient was subjected to both colonoscopy and gastroscopy that were negative. Due to the condition of acute severe hemorrhage the patient, during the first 3 h from the access to the PCU, was subjected to arteriography that did not reveal any hemorrhagic foci or vascular alterations. The video capsule for the study of the small bowel showed the presence of blood beginning from the third portion of duodenum but deep gastroscopy did not reveal it. The patient was then subjected to double balloon endoscopy that revealed a severe diverticulosis of the small bowel with blood from the diverticula. The entero-tomografia computerizzata confirmed the diagnosis and revealed an extension of the diverticula for almost the entire small bowel (no diverticula in the colon). The patient was subjected to wide spectrum antibiotic therapy with resolution of the symptoms and stabilization of hemoglobin levels. The surgeon suggests no indication to surgery for the wide area involved from the disease and potential high risk of complication due to the high BMI. At home, the patient started a monthly therapy with rifaximin and probiotics associated to mesalazine. At present, after 12 mo from the last episode of

  11. Effect of systematic relaxation techniques on anxiety and pain in older patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Rejeh, Nahid; Heravi-Karimooi, Majideh; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Jasper, Melanie

    2013-10-01

    Inadequate pain control in older patients who have undergone abdominal surgery can lead to many complications. This study investigates the effect of systematic relaxation techniques on pain and anxiety in older patients undergoing abdominal surgery. One hundred twenty-four patients were randomly assigned into the experimental and control groups. The systematic relaxation techniques consisted of older patients in the experimental group slowly reading relaxing sentences during recovery in ambulation after the surgery. Patients' satisfaction with pain and anxiety relief was recorded, as was their use of opioid analgesia. Statistically significant differences in pain and anxiety, and in analgesic use, were reported between the patients in experimental and control groups after the intervention. These relaxation techniques can be incorporated into the care plan to reduce pain and anxiety after surgery as well as offering a measure for increasing the patients' independence in pain management control. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Unexplained lower abdominal pain associated with sacroiliac joint dysfunction: report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Daijiro; Isu, Toyohiko; Kim, Kyongsong; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Isobe, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman and a 31-year-old man presented with chronic lower back pain and unexplained lower abdominal pain. Both patients had groin tenderness at the medial border of the anterior superior iliac spine. The results of radiographical and physical examinations suggested sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Sacroiliac joint injection relieved their symptoms, including groin tenderness. In our experience, groin tenderness is highly specific for sacroiliac joint dysfunction. We speculate that spasm of the iliac muscle can cause groin pain and tenderness. Groin pain and a history of unexplained abdominal pain, with lower back pain, are symptoms that suggest sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Additionally, compression of the iliac muscle is a simple and useful maneuver; therefore, it can be used as a screening test for sacroiliac joint dysfunction, alongside other provocation tests.

  13. Evaluation of plain abdominal radiographs in the diagnosis of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, R L; Heineken, P; Hedgcock, M W; Federle, M; Goldberg, H I

    1982-08-01

    In an effort to develop referral criteria for the ordering of abdominal radiographs for patients presenting with abdominal symptoms, we prospectively studied the relation between clinical data and radiographic abnormalities. Of 1780 examinations, 179 (10.0%) showed some radiographic abnormality. If abdominal radiographs would have been limited to those patients who had moderate or severe abdominal tenderness, or to patients with a high clinical suspicion of bowel obstruction, renal or ureteral calculi, trauma, ischemia, or gallbladder disease, regardless of the degree of tenderness, 956 (53.7%) examinations would not have been done. All radiographic abnormalities reflecting a serious pathologic process would have been identified. Only 33 (3.5) abnormalities of limited significance, almost all localized or generalized ileus, would have been undetected. The adoption of these referral criteria would result in minimal loss of clinicall useful information, large financial savings, and a reduction in radiation exposure.

  14. Evaluation of plain abdominal radiographs in the diagnosis of abdominal pain.

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, R L; Heineken, P; Hedgcock, M W; Federle, M; Goldberg, H I

    1983-01-01

    In an effort to develop referral criteria for the ordering of abdominal radiographs for patients presenting with abdominal symptoms, we prospectively studied the relation between clinical data and radiographic abnormalities. Of 1780 examinations, 179 (10.0%) showed some radiographic abnormality. If abdominal radiographs would have been limited to those patients who had moderate or severe abdominal tenderness, or to patients with a high clinical suspicion of bowel obstruction, renal or ureteral calculi, trauma, ischemia, or gallbladder disease, regardless of the degree of tenderness, 956 (53.7%) examinations would not have been done. All radiographic abnormalities reflecting a serious pathologic process would have been identified. Only 33 (3.5%) abnormalities of limited significance, almost all localized or generalized ileus, would have been undetected. The adoption of these referral criteria would result in minimal loss of clinically useful information, large financial savings, and a reduction in radiation exposure. PMID:6830353

  15. Evaluation of plain abdominal radiographs in the diagnosis of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, R L; Heineken, P; Hedgcock, M W; Federle, M; Goldberg, H I

    1983-04-01

    In an effort to develop referral criteria for the ordering of abdominal radiographs for patients presenting with abdominal symptoms, we prospectively studied the relation between clinical data and radiographic abnormalities. Of 1780 examinations, 179 (10.0%) showed some radiographic abnormality. If abdominal radiographs would have been limited to those patients who had moderate or severe abdominal tenderness, or to patients with a high clinical suspicion of bowel obstruction, renal or ureteral calculi, trauma, ischemia, or gallbladder disease, regardless of the degree of tenderness, 956 (53.7%) examinations would not have been done. All radiographic abnormalities reflecting a serious pathologic process would have been identified. Only 33 (3.5%) abnormalities of limited significance, almost all localized or generalized ileus, would have been undetected. The adoption of these referral criteria would result in minimal loss of clinically useful information, large financial savings, and a reduction in radiation exposure.

  16. Uncommon causes of acute abdominal pain: multidetector computed tomography pearls and pitfalls for the radiologist on call.

    PubMed

    Mellado, José María; Martín, Joaquín; Solanas, Susana; Yanguas, Nerea; Salceda, Javier; Cozcolluela, María Rosa

    2012-01-01

    We review uncommon causes of acute abdominal pain in which inconclusive multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) studies were followed by emergency surgery and unexpected diagnoses. Despite dedicated protocols and technical advances, MDCT of uncommon causes of acute abdominal pain still represents a significant challenge for the radiologist on call. We emphasize diagnostic pearls and pitfalls that may help the radiologist on call identify or suspect these uncommon causes of acute abdominal pain on MDCT. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. ABDX A Decision Support System for the Management of Acute Abdominal Pain. Version 3.0. Programmer’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-31

    Abdominal Pain. 8.3 TX3.DKT This is the encrypted treatment protocol for Renal Colic . 8.4 TX4.DAT This is the encrypted treatment protocol for...resplength% - 7 menuheading$ - "Your Diagnosis" ELSE "APPENDICITIS "NON-SPECIFIC ABDOMINAL PAIN" " RENAL COLIC "PERFORATED DUODENAL ULCER...5) 6) "APPENDICITIS " -NON-SPECIFIC ABDOMINAL PAIN" " RENAL COLIC "PERFORATED DUODENAL ULCER " "CHOLECYSTITIS "SMALL BOWEL OBSTRUCTION Choices

  18. Pain reported during prolonged standing is associated with reduced anticipatory postural adjustments of the deep abdominals.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Paul W M; Romero, Rick; Brooks, Cristy

    2014-11-01

    Within the context of low back pain, the measurement of deep abdominal anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during rapid limb movement has received much interest. There is dispute about the association between APAs and back pain. Moreover, there is limited evidence examining compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs) in back pain. This study examined the relationship between APAs and CPAs with pain reported in the low back during 2 h of prolonged standing. Twenty-six participants with no history of severe back pain performed 2-h prolonged standing. APAs and CPAs of the deep abdominal muscles (transverse abdominis/internal obliques) were measured by surface electromyography during rapid shoulder flexion and extension. APAs and CPAs measured pre-standing revealed symmetrical anticipatory activity, but an asymmetry between the different sides of the abdominal wall for CPAs. APAs and CPAs measured pre-standing were not associated with pain reported during standing. For the whole group, APA amplitudes were reduced post-standing during shoulder flexion (p = 0.005). Pain reported during standing was associated with the changes in APA amplitudes post-standing (rs = 0.43, p = 0.002). These findings support previous research using hypertonic saline injections to induce back pain that showed reduced APA amplitudes, and extends findings to suggest pain does not effect compensatory postural adjustments.

  19. Chronic pancreatitis pain pattern and severity are independent of abdominal imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, C Mel; Yadav, Dhiraj; Ye, Tian; Gardner, Timothy B; Gelrud, Andres; Sandhu, Bimaljit S; Lewis, Michele D; Al-Kaade, Samer; Cote, Gregory A; Forsmark, Christopher E; Guda, Nalini M; Conwell, Darwin L; Banks, Peter A; Muniraj, Thiruvengadam; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Brand, Randall E; Slivka, Adam; Sherman, Stuart; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Whitcomb, David C; Anderson, Michelle A

    2015-03-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by inflammation, atrophy, fibrosis with progressive ductal changes, and functional changes that include variable exocrine and endocrine insufficiency and multiple patterns of pain. We investigated whether abdominal imaging features accurately predict patterns of pain. We collected data from participants in the North American Pancreatitis Study 2 Continuation and Validation, a prospective multicenter study of patients with chronic pancreatitis performed at 13 expert centers in the United States from July 2008 through March 2012. Chronic pancreatitis was defined based on the detection of characteristic changes by cross-sectional abdominal imaging, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic ultrasonography, or histology analyses. Patients were asked by a physician or trained clinical research coordinator if they had any abdominal pain during the year before enrollment, those who responded "yes" were asked to select from a list of 5 pain patterns. By using these patterns, we classified patients' pain based on timing and severity. Abnormal pancreatitis-associated features on abdominal imaging were recorded using standardized case report forms. Data were collected from 518 patients (mean age, 52 ± 14.6 y; 55% male; and 87.6% white). The most common physician-identified etiologies were alcohol (45.8%) and idiopathic (24.3%); 15.6% of patients reported no abdominal pain in the year before enrollment. The most common individual pain pattern was described as constant mild pain with episodes of severe pain and was reported in 45% of patients. The most common imaging findings included pancreatic ductal dilatation (68%), atrophy (57%), and calcifications (55%). Imaging findings were categorized as obstructive for 20% and as inflammatory for 25% of cases. The distribution of individual imaging findings was similar among patients with different patterns of pain. The distribution of pain patterns did not differ among

  20. Chronic Pancreatitis Pain Pattern and Severity are Independent of Abdominal Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, C. Mel; Yadav, Dhiraj; Tian, Ye; Gardner, Timothy B.; Gelrud, Andres; Sandhu, Bimaljit S.; Lewis, Michele D.; Al-Kaade, Samer; Cote, Gregory A.; Forsmark, Christopher E.; Guda, Nalini; Conwell, Darwin L.; Banks, Peter A.; Muniraj, Thiruvengadam; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Brand, Randall E; Slivka, Adam; Sherman, Stuart; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, David C.; Anderson, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by inflammation, atrophy, fibrosis with progressive ductal changes, and functional changes that include variable exocrine and endocrine insufficiency and multiple patterns of pain. We investigated whether abdominal imaging features accurately predict patterns of pain. Methods We collected data from participants in North American Pancreatitis Study 2 Continuation and Validation, a prospective multicenter study of patients with chronic pancreatitis performed at 13 expert centers in the United States from July 2008 through March 2012. Chronic pancreatitis was defined based on detection of characteristic changes by cross-sectional abdominal imaging, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic ultrasonography, or histology analyses. Patients were asked by a physician or trained clinical research coordinator if they had any abdominal pain in the year before enrollment; those that responded “yes” were asked to select from a list of 5 pain patterns. Using these patterns, we classified patients’ pain based on timing and severity. Abnormal pancreatitis-associated features on abdominal imaging were recorded using standardized case report forms. Results Data were collected from 518 patients (mean age, 52±14.6 years; 55% male; and 87.6% white). The most common physician-identified etiologies were alcohol (45.8%) and idiopathic (24.3%); 15.6% of patients reported no abdominal pain in the year before enrollment. The most common individual pain pattern was described as constant mild pain with episodes of severe pain, reported in 45% of patients. The most common imaging findings included pancreatic ductal dilatation (68%), atrophy (57%), and calcifications (55%). Imaging findings were categorized as obstructive for 20% and inflammatory for 25% of cases. The distribution of individual imaging findings was similar among patients with different patterns of pain. The distribution of pain patterns did not

  1. Guideline for the diagnostic pathway in patients with acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Gans, Sarah L; Pols, Margreet A; Stoker, Jaap; Boermeester, Marja A

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic practice for acute abdominal pain at the Emergency Department varies widely and is mostly based on doctor's preferences. We aimed at developing an evidence-based guideline for the diagnostic pathway of patients with abdominal pain of non-traumatic origin. All available international literature on patients with acute abdominal pain was identified and graded according to their methodological quality by members of the multidisciplinary steering group. A guideline was synthetized, providing evidence-based recommendations together with considerations based on expertise of group members, patient preferences, costs, availability of facilities, and organizational aspects. Uniform terminology is needed in patients with acute abdominal pain to avoid difficulty in interpretation and ease comparison of findings between studies. We propose the use of the following definition for acute abdominal pain: pain of nontraumatic origin with a maximum duration of 5 days. Clinical diagnosis: Clinical evaluation is advised to differentiate between urgent and nonurgent causes. The diagnostic accuracy of clinical assessment is insufficient to identify the correct diagnosis but can discriminate between urgent and nonurgent causes. Patients suspected of nonurgent diagnoses can safely be reevaluated the next day. Based on current literature, no conclusions can be drawn on the differences in accuracy between residents and specialists. No conclusions can be drawn on the influence of a gynecological consultation. In patients suspected of an urgent condition, additional imaging is justified. CRP and WBC count alone are insufficient to discriminate urgent from nonurgent diagnoses. Diagnostic imaging: There is no place for conventional radiography in the work-up of patients with acute abdominal pain due to the lack of added value on top of clinical assessment. Computed tomography leads to the highest sensitivity and specificity in patients with acute abdominal pain. Positive predictive

  2. Can C-reactive protein and white blood cell count alone rule out an urgent condition in acute abdominal pain?

    PubMed

    Paolillo, Ciro; Spallino, Ilenia

    2016-02-01

    Up to 10% of all patients at the Emergency Department present for acute abdominal pain. The C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are routinely determined as part of the workup of patients with abdominal pain. Three large prospective cohort studies comprising a total of 2961 adult patients with acute abdominal pain were selected. CRP levels and WBC counts were compared between patients with urgent and nonurgent final diagnoses. These studies conclude that the laboratory values individually are weak discriminators and cannot be used as a triage instrument in the selection of patients with acute abdominal pain requiring additional diagnostic tests.

  3. Right upper quadrant abdominal pain as the initial presentation of polyarteritis nodosa.

    PubMed

    Gago, Ricardo; Shum, Lee Ming; Vilá, Luis M

    2017-02-22

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a necrotising vasculitis that involves medium and small vessels. PAN generally presents with constitutional, cutaneous, neurological, renal and gastrointestinal manifestations. However, PAN initially involving a single organ/system is uncommon. Here, we present a 42-year-old man who was hospitalised because of severe right upper quadrant abdominal pain that started 2 months before. Physical examination was remarkable for right upper quadrant abdominal tenderness. Abdominopelvic CT showed lymphadenopathy but no hepatic, gallbladder, pancreatic, intestinal or renal abnormalities. Abdominal angiography showed multiple small aneurysms located in the jejunal and hepatic arteries characteristic of PAN. He had a prompt and remarkable response to high-dose corticosteroids and oral cyclophosphamide. Our case, together with other reports, suggests that PAN should be considered in patients presenting with right upper abdominal pain. Timely diagnosis and treatment reduce the overall morbidity and mortality of the disease.

  4. Intravenous phentolamine infusion alleviates the pain of abdominal visceral cancer, including pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Masako; Yasukawa, Ken'ichi; Kamiizumi, You; Yokoyama, Ryouji

    2007-01-01

    This case report series describes eight patients (four patients with pancreatic carcinoma, one patient with hepatocellular carcinoma, one patient with gastric and rectal carcinoma, one with sigmoid colon cancer, and one with rectal cancer), whose abdominal cancer pain was treated with intravenous phentolamine infusion at 80 mg x day(-1) for 2 days. All but one of the patients had already been treated with opioids. All eight patients complained of severe abdominal pain; in five patients the pain radiated to the back, and there was associated anal pain in two patients. Analgesia was achieved in three patients; pain alleviation was obtained in four patients, but was not sustained in two of these four patients; and the treatment in one patient could not be judged for efficacy because epidural morphine was used together with the phentolamine. Adverse effects of phentolamine were tachycardia and/or hypotension.

  5. Antinociceptive effect of botulinum toxin type A on experimental abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Drinovac, Višnja; Bach-Rojecky, Lidija; Babić, Ana; Lacković, Zdravko

    2014-12-15

    Visceral pain, especially in the abdominal region, represents one of the most common types of pain. Its chronic form is usually very hard to treat by conventional analgesic agents and adjuvants. We investigated the antinociceptive effect of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in male Wistar rats in two models of visceral pain: peritonitis induced by intraperitoneal injection of 1% acetic acid and colitis induced by intracolonic instillation of 0.1% capsaicin. Pain was measured as the number of abdominal writhes. Additionally, referred mechanical sensitivity in the ventral abdominal area was evaluated by von Frey test and the extent of spinal c-Fos expression was immunohistochemically examined. BTX-A significantly reduced the number of abdominal writhes in both models of visceral pain after intrathecal application in a dose of 2 U/kg. In the experimental colitis model, BTX-A (2 U/kg) reduced both referred mechanical allodynia and c-Fos expression in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (S2/S3 segments). In contrast to intrathecal administration, BTX-A (2 U/kg) administered into the cisterna magna had no effect on pain suggesting that the primary site of its action is a spinal cord.

  6. Outcomes of Ultrasound-Guided Trigger Point Injection for Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Alnahhas, Mhd Firas; Oxentenko, Shawn C; Locke, G Richard; Hansel, Stephanie; Schleck, Cathy D; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Farrugia, Gianrico; Grover, Madhusudan

    2016-02-01

    Abdominal wall pain (AWP) is an important cause of chronic abdominal pain. History and physical examination are critical to the diagnosis of AWP. Trigger point injection (TPI) using either a steroid or a local anesthetic or a combination of both is often used to treat AWP. To determine the efficacy of ultrasound-guided TPI and to determine the predictors of a successful response. Patients who received ultrasound-guided TPI between July 2010 and June 2011 were surveyed. The primary outcome was determined using the Treatment Efficacy Questionnaire (TEQ). Electronic medical records were reviewed to determine patient, pain and TPI characteristics. Linear regression was used to determine the predictors of a successful response on the TEQ. Right upper quadrant was the most common site of AWP, and the median pain duration was 12 months. Pain was rated as >8 (1-10 scale) by 57 % and 30 % described it as an ache. Narcotic use was reported in 38 %, and 73 % had a history of at least one abdominal surgery. Forty-four of the 120 (37 %) patients met the criteria for responder on the TEQ. Compared to before treatment, 36 % reported being "significantly better" and 22 % "slightly better." Multiple linear regression analysis showed that higher somatization negatively predicted response. None of the other historical, examination or TPI characteristics were associated with response to the TPI. TPI can provide significant, long-term symptom relief in a third of patients with chronic abdominal pain attributed to AWP. Somatization was inversely related to the treatment success.

  7. [Intussusception of the appendix. A rare cause of acute abdominal pain in childhood].

    PubMed

    Eckert, K; Radeloff, E; Liedgens, P

    2012-02-01

    Intussusception of the appendix is a rare clinical entity and the preoperative diagnosis is challenging. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with right-sided abdominal pain and concomitant peranal bleeding. Preoperative abdominal ultrasound showed partial appendicular intussusception which was confirmed by laparotomy. Appendectomy was carried out including a wide peripheral cecal ring. Peranal bleeding restarted 7 weeks after discharge and colonoscopy revealed ulcerative colitis. The etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for appendicular intussusception are discussed.

  8. ROLE OF DIAGNOSTIC LAPAROSCOPY IN EVALUATION AND TREATMENT OF CHRONIC ABDOMINAL PAIN IN CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Talat, Nabila; Afzal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Rasool, Naima; Wasti, Arsalan Raza; Saleem, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Chronic abdominal Pain in children is a very common cause of hospital admission. Many of them are discharged without a diagnosis even after battery of investigations. Laparoscopy plays a significant role in diagnosis and management of many causes of acute and chronic abdominal pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of laparoscopy as an efficient diagnostic and management tool in children with chronic abdominal pain. A descriptive, prospective case series was collected in the department of Paediatric surgery Mayo's Hospital Lahore, over the period of 5 years between Jan 2007-Dec 2013. The data of consecutive 50 patients, who were admitted in the department with the diagnosis of chronic abdominal pain, was recorded. All patients who had 2-3 admissions in hospital for last 2 months and failed to establish a definitive diagnosis after clinical examination and base line investigations underwent laparoscopy. The details of associated symptoms, finding of laparoscopy, laparoscopic procedures done, definitive diagnosis, histopathology, complications and relief of symptoms were collected and analysed and results were evaluated using SPSS-17. Out of 50 patients studies, 27/50 (54%) were male, 23/50 (46%) were female. Age ranged from 2-12 years, with the mean age of 7.24 year. Tuberculosis abdomen, adhesions, mesenteric lymphadenitis, appendicitis and cholecystitis were the final diagnosis. Five abdomens were found normal on laparoscopy. Complete pain relief was achieved in 30/50 (60%), reduced intensity of pain was gained in 12/50 (24%) cases while 16% (8/50) still complained of pain. Laparoscopy is an efficient diagnostic and treatment tool in children with chronic unexplained abdominal pain. It avoids serial examinations; prolong admission, battery of investigations and unnecessary surgeries.

  9. Colonoscopic diagnosis of appendiceal intussusception in a patient with intermittent abdominal pain: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli, Hamid; Sadrkabir, Sayed Mohammad; Mahzouni, Parvin

    2007-01-01

    Intussusception of the appendix is a rare condition. Most cases are diagnosed during operation of the patients suspected to have appendicitis. In this report we present a seventy one year-old man with a history of periumbilical intermittent abdominal pain for several months. None of the paraclinical tests were useful for determining the diagnosis. Colonoscopy performed during the last episode of abdominal pain revealed the prolapsed appendix in the cecum and the patient was sent to the operating room. Macroscopic appearance of the appendix was normal and microscopic examination revealed follicular hyperplasia and acute focal appendicitis. Appendiceal intussusception should be considered in differential diagnosis of intermittent abdominal pain and colonoscopic diagnosis could be very important to avoid dangerous or unnecessary decision making. PMID:17696262

  10. [Eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with recurrent abdominal pain using a triple drug treatment].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Mayans, J; Zamora Dávila, E; Cervantes Bustamante, R; Mata Rivera, N; Oyervides García, C I; Cuevas Schacht, F; Sosa de Martínez, M C

    1996-01-01

    Different antibiotics, antagonist H2 and others have been used for elimination and/or eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Evaluate elimination of Helicobacter pylori with amoxicillin, bismuth subsalicylate and ranitidine; and the improvement of recurrent abdominal pain. 20 children with recurrent abdominal pain associated to gastritis and histologic identification of Helicobacter pylori were studied under a period of 18 months (January 1992 to June 1993), at Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, México, D.F. All children were treated simultaneously with: Amoxicillin, 15 days, plus ranitidine and bismuth subsalicylate for one month. Helicobacter pylori was eliminated in 14 of 20 children studied. All these children had an important improvement of recurrent abdominal pain. Elimination of Helicobacter pylori and clinical improvement was present in 14 of 20 children studied (70%).

  11. [Intra-abdominal pressure as a surgery predictor in patients with acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Campos-Muñoz, Manuel Alejandro; Villarreal-Ríos, Enrique; Chimal-Torres, Mariano; Pozas-Medina, Josué Atila

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la presión intraabdominal es el estado de equilibrio de la presión de la cavidad abdominal en reposo y puede presentar cambios durante la ventilación mecánica o espontánea. El objetivo fue determinar la presión intraabdominal como predictor de cirugía en el paciente con dolor abdominal agudo. Métodos: se llevó a cabo un estudio de casos y controles anidado en una cohorte de pacientes con dolor abdominal agudo en el servicio de urgencias de un hospital de segundo nivel, en el periodo comprendido entre abril y diciembre de 2013. Se incluyeron 37 pacientes, todos fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente con previa toma de la presión intraabdominal. Se formaron los grupos con el resultado del estudio anatomopatológico: con evidencia de proceso inflamatorio abdominal agudo (n = 28) y sin evidencia de proceso inflamatorio abdominal agudo (n = 9). Resultados: en los casos el 100 % presentó presión intraabdominal alta con una p = 0.01, RM: 5 (IC 95 %: 2.578-9.699). En los casos la media de la presión intraabdominal fue de 11.46 y en los controles de 9.2 (p = 0.183). Conclusiones: el dolor abdominal que requiere cirugía para su resolución tiene relación directa con una presión intraabdominal > 5 mmHg.

  12. Laparoscopic treatment of lower abdominal pain related to chronic appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Pandza, Haris; Custović, Samir; Cović, Ranko; Delibegovic, Samir

    2008-01-01

    The appendicitis is one of the most common entities that could be met at surgical department. Chronic pelvic pain of right iliac fossa is common and it causes disability and distress and results in significant costs to health services. Often, investigation by laparoscopy reveals no obvious cause for pain. There are several possible explanations for chronic pelvic pain including undetected irritable bowel syndrome, the vascular hypothesis where pain is thought to arise from dilated pelvic veins in which blood flow is markedly reduced and altered spinal cord and brain processing of stimuli in women with chronic pelvic pain. As the pathophysiology of chronic pelvic pain is not well understood, its treatment is often unsatisfactory and limited to symptom relief. We aimed to identify and review treatments for chronic pelvic pain related to appendicitis. Frequently ultrasound and CT scan cannot confirm the diagnosis of chronic appendicitis due to non significant swelling of vermiform appendix. The study excludes patients with a diagnosis of pelvic congestion syndrome, those with pain known to be caused by gynecological disorders or irritable bowel syndrome. Detailed history, clinical examination, and serological and radiological investigations failed to reveal the cause of the pain in all cases. We presumed that pain is caused by chronic appendicitis with appendicolithiasis and that removal of appendix will result in symptom relief. We performed study with 75 patients treated by laparoscopic appendectomy. Duration of symptoms ranged from 3 to 48 months, with a mean of 13.1 months. All patients included in this study had right iliac fossa pain lasting more than three months. We performed radiological contrast studies to verify appendicolithiasis of irregularity of appendicular wall. Patient with mild symptoms were excluded, only patients that have symptoms that cause disability were operated. We compared pain according to localization, duration and character. We evaluated

  13. Influence of Hamstring and Abdominal Muscle Activation on a Positive Ober's Test in People with Lumbopelvic Pain.

    PubMed

    Tenney, H Rich; Boyle, Kyndall L; Debord, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    To assess the immediate effect of hamstring and abdominal activation on pain levels as measured by the Numeric Pain Scale (NPS) and hip range of motion as measured by Ober's Test in people with lumbopelvic pain. Thirteen participants with lumbopelvic pain and positive Ober's Tests completed an exercise developed by the Postural Restoration Institute™ to recruit hamstrings and abdominal muscles. There was a significant increase in passive hip-adduction angles (p<0.01) and decrease in pain (p<0.01) immediately after the intervention. Specific exercises that activate hamstrings and abdominal muscles appear to immediately improve Ober's Test measurements and reduce pain as measured by the NPS in people with lumbo-pelvic pain. Hamstring/abdominal activation, rather than iliotibial band stretching, may be an effective intervention for addressing lumbopelvic pain and a positive Ober's Test.

  14. Influence of Hamstring and Abdominal Muscle Activation on a Positive Ober's Test in People with Lumbopelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Tenney, H. Rich; DeBord, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the immediate effect of hamstring and abdominal activation on pain levels as measured by the Numeric Pain Scale (NPS) and hip range of motion as measured by Ober's Test in people with lumbopelvic pain. Methods: Thirteen participants with lumbopelvic pain and positive Ober's Tests completed an exercise developed by the Postural Restoration Institute™ to recruit hamstrings and abdominal muscles. Results: There was a significant increase in passive hip-adduction angles (p<0.01) and decrease in pain (p<0.01) immediately after the intervention. Conclusion: Specific exercises that activate hamstrings and abdominal muscles appear to immediately improve Ober's Test measurements and reduce pain as measured by the NPS in people with lumbo-pelvic pain. Hamstring/abdominal activation, rather than iliotibial band stretching, may be an effective intervention for addressing lumbopelvic pain and a positive Ober's Test. PMID:24381375

  15. Widespread pressure pain hypersensitivity and ultrasound imaging evaluation of abdominal area after colon cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Jiménez, Antonio; Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene; Molina-Barea, Rocio; Fernández-Lao, Carolina; Galiano-Castillo, Noelia; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the presence of widespread pressure pain sensitivity in cancer patients following partial colorectal resection in the abdominal and lower back area and to describe the presence of abnormalities in abdominal and lower back muscle morphology. Twenty colon cancer survivors (eight females, mean age 56.60 ± 7.76 years) and 20 matched healthy controls (10 females, mean age 54.22 ± 8.12 years) participated. Abdominal and lower back pain was assessed after undergoing surgery using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were bilaterally assessed over the supraumbilical, infraumbilical, and lower back areas and the second metacarpal. Ultrasound imaging was used to measure the depth of the abdominal muscles, the width of the midline abdominal fascia and the width of the lumbar multifidus. Ten months after finishing oncological treatments, patients who underwent partial colorectal resection reported significantly higher pain levels in the low-back area (P = 0.003) but not in the abdominal area (P = 0.426) compared with the matched controls. After surgery, the colon patients reported significantly higher BPI-intensity (P < 0.001) and BPI-interference scores (P = 0.009) compared with the matched controls. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant between-groups difference in dominant-side lumbar, supraumbilical and infraumbilical (P ≥ 0.01), and second-metacarpal (P < 0.05) PPT levels. A significant between-groups difference was found by the ANOVA in ultrasound imaging of the depth of the internal oblique muscle (F = 4.887, P = 0.035) but not in the other ultrasound imaging measurements. Ten months after oncology treatment, colon cancer survivors show widespread pressure pain muscle hyperalgesia and reduced depths of dominant-side internal oblique muscles compared with matched controls. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Pain Perception in Abdominal Surgery Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    in blood pressure , pulse pressure , heart rate , cardiac stroke volume, and peripheral vascular...studied 60 healthy adults, measuring heart rate while the subjects performed fist, chest, and abdominal tensing and relaxation . Valsalva ratio was...action. The heart rate increases , lung airways expand, the pupils enlarge, blood is shunted from the digestive and excretory organs and sent to

  17. Abdominal wall Type-I complex regional pain syndrome treated effectively with peripheral nerve field stimulation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Linqiu; Chou, Henry; Holder, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Chronic abdominal wall pain is a well-documented complication of abdominal surgery. However, abdominal wall complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare medical condition. We present a case of abdominal wall CRPS and its treatment with peripheral nerve field stimulation (PNfS). A 34-year-old female presented with right periumbilical pain for 2 years. She developed burning, sharp and stabbing pain with allodynia (extremely sensitive to wind and light touch) and erythema or pallor 2 weeks after an exploratory appendectomy. The extensive evaluation ruled out the underlining pathology. After she failed conservative therapies, she underwent a 7-day trial of thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) and abdominal wall PNfS. Thoracic SCS failed to provide pain relief; however, PNfS provided significant relief (>90%) of burning sensation. It has now been 5 years since the PNfS was implanted and she continues to demonstrate substantial pain relief. PMID:28044002

  18. Characterizing abdominal pain in IBS: guidance for study inclusion criteria, outcome measurement and clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, B. M. R.; Bolus, R.; Harris, L. A.; Lucak, S.; Chey, W. D.; Sayuk, G.; Esrailian, E.; Lembo, A.; Karsan, H.; Tillisch, K.; Talley, J.; Chang, L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Although irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multisymptom disorder, abdominal pain drives illness severity more than other symptoms. Despite consensus that IBS trials should measure pain to define study entry and determine efficacy, the optimal method of measuring pain remains uncertain. Aim To determine whether combining information from multiple pain dimensions may capture the IBS illness experience more effectively than the approach of measuring `pain predominance' or pain intensity alone. Methods Irritable bowel syndrome patients rated dimensions of pain, including intensity, frequency, constancy, predominance, predictability, duration, speed of onset and relationship to bowel movements. We evaluated the impact of each dimension on illness severity using multivariable regression techniques. Results Among the pain dimensions, intensity, frequency, constancy and predictability were strongly and independently associated with illness severity; the other dimensions had weaker associations. The clinical definition of `pain predominance', in which patients define pain as their most bothersome symptom, was insufficient to categorize patients by illness severity. Conclusions Irritable bowel disease pain is multifaceted; some pain dimensions drive illness more than others. IBS trials should measure various pain dimensions, including intensity, constancy, frequency and predictability; this may improve upon the customary use of measuring pain as a unidimensional symptom in IBS. PMID:20807217

  19. [Imperforate hymen as a cause of abdominal pain in adolescents: a case report].

    PubMed

    Ibarrola Vidaurre, María; Arribas García, Sara; Gimeno Ballester, Juan; Gil Sáenz, Francisco José; Fonseca Pérez, Marta; Durán Urdániz, Gabriel

    2014-02-01

    The imperforate hymen is a congenital anomaly of the female genital development. This is a rare pathology with an estimated incidence of 0.1% in female newborns. In many cases, the diagnosis goes unnoticed until puberty, debuting with cyclical abdominal pain in adolescents who have not submitted menarche. Diagnosis is based on history and physical examination, although additional tests, especially the ultrasound that allows to confirm clinical diagnosis and to exclude other genital malformations. We report a case of a 13-year-old that was diagnosed after consulting several times for recurrent abdominal pain.

  20. [A 35-year-old woman with fever, dyspnea, and pain in the left thigh].

    PubMed

    Picardi, A; Navajas, F; De Iorio, F; Amicarelli, M; Spoto, S; De Galasso, L; Vespaciani Gentilucci, U; Scarlata, S; Zardi, E; Di Cuonzo, G

    2001-01-01

    A thirty-five years old woman during her twelfth pregnancy presented fever and pain at the left thigh. After cesarean delivery dyspnea added to the first two symptoms and pulmonary embolism was suspected. A clinical history revaluation suggested a diagnosis of infectious endocarditis and femoural osteomielitis due to a septic embolus.

  1. Intravenous ibuprofen: the first injectable product for the treatment of pain and fever

    PubMed Central

    Bookstaver, P Brandon; Miller, April D; Rudisill, Celeste N; Norris, LeAnn B

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the current data on the use of the first approved intravenous ibuprofen product for the management of post-operative pain and fever in the United States. The management of acute and post-operative pain and fever with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) is well documented. A search in Medline and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts of articles until the end of November 2009 and references of all citations were conducted. Available manufacturer data on file were also analyzed for this report. Several randomized controlled studies have demonstrated the opioid-sparing and analgesic effects of 400 and 800 mg doses of intravenous ibuprofen in a series of post-operative patient populations. Two recent studies have also noted the improvement in fever curves in critically ill and burn patients. These data, along with pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic properties, are explored in this review, which addresses the clinical utility of a parenteral NSAID in a hospitalized patient for post-operative pain management and fever reduction. Further data on intravenous ibuprofen are needed to define long-term utilization, management of acute pain, and use in special populations. PMID:21197311

  2. Intravenous ibuprofen: the first injectable product for the treatment of pain and fever.

    PubMed

    Bookstaver, P Brandon; Miller, April D; Rudisill, Celeste N; Norris, Leann B

    2010-05-25

    This paper reviews the current data on the use of the first approved intravenous ibuprofen product for the management of post-operative pain and fever in the United States. The management of acute and post-operative pain and fever with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) is well documented. A search in Medline and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts of articles until the end of November 2009 and references of all citations were conducted. Available manufacturer data on file were also analyzed for this report. Several randomized controlled studies have demonstrated the opioid-sparing and analgesic effects of 400 and 800 mg doses of intravenous ibuprofen in a series of post-operative patient populations. Two recent studies have also noted the improvement in fever curves in critically ill and burn patients. These data, along with pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic properties, are explored in this review, which addresses the clinical utility of a parenteral NSAID in a hospitalized patient for post-operative pain management and fever reduction. Further data on intravenous ibuprofen are needed to define long-term utilization, management of acute pain, and use in special populations.

  3. Evaluation of a Computer-Assisted Diagnosis Program for Acute Abdominal Pain with Physician-Collected Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-26

    Appendicitis Nonspecific Abdominal Pain Renal Colic Perforated Duodenal Ulcer Cholecystitis Small Bowel Obstruction APPY NONSAP* RCOLIC PERFDU CHOLE...Diagnostic Category Males Females Appendicitis Nonspecific Abdominal Pain Renal Colic Perforated Duodenal Ulcer Cholecystitis Small Bowel ... Obstruction .18 • TO ■ .03 .001** .05 .03 .12 • 75 .01 .001** .11 .02 *Rounded to nearest hundredth, except for PERFDU. **This is an

  4. Abdominal Pain in the Female Patient: A Case of Concurrent Acute Appendicitis and Ruptured Endometrioma

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Martine A.; Lin, Elizabeth; Baek, Ji Yoon; Andoni, Alda; Wang, Xiao Hui

    2016-01-01

    General surgeons are often asked to evaluate acute abdominal pain which has an expanded differential diagnosis in women of childbearing age. Acute appendicitis accounts for many surgical emergencies as a common cause of nongynecologic pelvic pain. In some rare instances, acute appendicitis has been shown to occur simultaneously with a variety of gynecologic diseases. We report a case of concurrent acute appendicitis and ruptured ovarian endometrioma. PMID:28097032

  5. Non-Specific Abdominal Pain and Air Pollution: A Novel Association

    PubMed Central

    Fichna, Jakub; Rowe, Brian H.; Porada, Eugeniusz; Vincent, Renaud; Madsen, Karen; Ghosh, Subrata; Storr, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background We studied whether short-term exposure to air pollution was associated with non-specific abdominal pain in epidemiologic and animal studies. Methods Patients visiting the emergency department with non-specific abdominal pain were identified in Edmonton (1992 to 2002, n = 95,173) and Montreal (1997 to 2002, n = 25,852). We calculated the daily concentrations for ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particles <10 (PM10) or <2.5 (PM2.5) µm. A case crossover study design was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) associated with an increase in the interquartile range of the air pollutants. We investigated differential effects by age and sex. Mice were gavaged with urban particle extracts. In animal models, colonic motility was tested, and visceral abdominal pain was measured using a writhing test, and behavioral response to oil of mustard and neostigmine. Motility and pain was measured acutely (1.5 hours after gavage) and chronically (7-days and 21-days after gavage). Results Emergency department visits for non-specific abdominal pain were primarily by women between the ages of 15–24 years. Individuals aged 15 to 24 years were at increased risk of non-specific abdominal pain in Edmonton (same day CO: OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02–1.06; and NO2: OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.03–1.09). The risk of air pollution among 15–24 year olds in Montreal was significantly positive (same day CO: OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.05–1.17; NO2: OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.01–1.16; SO2: OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.10–1.25; PM2.5: OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.04–1.15). Abdominal pain was increased by an acute gavage of pollution extract but not to chronic exposure to pollutants. Colonic transit was delayed following chronic but not acute exposure with the pollutants. Conclusions Epidemiological and animal data suggest that short-term exposure to air pollution may

  6. Factors contributing to poor post-operative abdominal pain management in adult patients: a review.

    PubMed

    Al Samaraee, Ahmad; Rhind, Gill; Saleh, Usama; Bhattacharya, Vish

    2010-06-01

    Post-operative abdominal pain management can be a major issue facing medical and nursing staff in daily clinical practice. Effective pain control reduces post-operative morbidity as well as facilitates rehabilitation and accelerates recovery from surgery. In turn, poor pain control has been shown to alter body metabolic response that can lead to delayed recovery, with subsequent prolonged hospital stay and increased morbidity, and can lead to the development of a chronic pain state. Despite the significant developments in anaesthesia, delivery techniques and analgesia, post-operative abdominal pain management in adult patients remains suboptimal. Achieving effective pain management needs the implementation of an active approach in practice. This approach includes the provision of information and appropriate education tailored to the patients' needs and level of understanding, with the aim of reducing patient anxiety and avoiding unrealistic expectations. In addition, medical and nursing staff should continuously use the appropriate pain assessment tools to evaluate of post-operative pain in the surgical wards. Pain assessment needs to be regarded as the fifth vital sign and recorded on the patients observation chart. Analgesia should be used in a multimodal fashion and "by the clock" according to the patients needs. Moreover, governmental and professional guidelines need to be implemented to establish continuity of care, improve the quality of decision making and reduce unnecessary variations in practice Overall, there is a need for improved post-operative abdominal pain management in adults to enhance recovery, patient safety and reduce morbidity. This can be achieved with the appropriate education backed up with robust policies and guidelines, supported by up to date evidence. Copyright (c) 2009 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transdermal Buprenorphine Patches for Postoperative Pain Control in Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Prithvi Kumar; Verma, Reetu; Chandra, Girish; Bhatia, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Dinesh; Bogra, Jaishri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic derivative of thebaine; its low concentration is sufficient to provide effective pain relief. Aim To evaluate the efficacy of transdermal buprenorphine patch in postoperative pain management. Materials and Methods After ethical approval and taking informed consent from the patients, they were randomized into three groups (n=30 in each group) using a computer generated random number table. Group A: placebo patch; Group B: buprenorphine (10mg) patch and Group C: buprenorphine (20mg) patch. Haemodynamic and analgesic effects were compared by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey’s post hoc test. The proportion of side effects was compared using the Chi-square test. Results Haemodynamic changes were not statistically different in all the three groups A, B and C, whereas at the end of surgery VAS score of Group A subjects was significantly higher (4.93±0.98) as compared to Group B (1.73±0.64) and Group C (1.40±0.50). On 2nd postoperative day, no pain was reported by the Group C patients and on 4th day after surgery, no pain was reported by Group B patients. Conclusion The transdermal buprenorphine patch (20mg) was effective in attenuating postoperative pain, maintaining haemodynamic stability requiring no rescue analgesia, with fewer postoperative rescue analgesic requirements in low dose of buprenorphine patch (10mg) group. PMID:27504383

  8. Venezuelan haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Salas, R; de Manzione, N; Tesh, R B; Rico-Hesse, R; Shope, R E; Betancourt, A; Godoy, O; Bruzual, R; Pacheco, M E; Ramos, B

    1991-10-26

    An outbreak of severe haemorrhagic illness began in the municipality of Guanarito, Portuguesa State, Venezuela, in September, 1989. Subsequent detailed study of 15 cases confirmed the presence of a new viral disease, designated Venezuelan haemorrhagic fever. Characteristic features are fever, toxicity, headache, arthralgia, diarrhoea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, and haemorrhagic manifestations. Other features include facial oedema, cervical lymphadenopathy, nausea/vomiting, cough, chest or abdominal pain, and convulsions. The patients ranged in age from 6 to 54 years; all were residents of rural areas in central Venezuela, and 9 died. Infection with Guanarito virus, a newly recognised arenavirus, was shown by direct culture or by serological confirmation in all cases. Epidemiological studies suggest that the disease is endemic in some rural areas of central Venezuela and that it is rodent-borne. Venezuelan haemorrhagic fever has many similarities to Lassa fever and to the arenavirus haemorrhagic fevers that occur in Argentina and Bolivia.

  9. Pulsatile Mass Sensation with Intense Abdominal Pain; Atypical Presentation of the Nutcracker Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Ahmet; Barutca, Hakan; Kocaaslan, Cemal; Orman, Süleyman; Şahin, Sinan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Patients with Nutcracker syndrome generally present with nonspecific abdominal pain, with the left renal vein (LRV) lodged between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. In rare cases this can result in atypical gastrointestinal symptoms, making the diagnosis of Nutcracker syndrome challenging. Case Report A 28-year-old female patient presented with complaints of severe abdominal pain and palpable pulsatile abdominal mass located in the left epigastric area. Computed tomography angiography revealed that the LRV was lodged in the aortomesenteric region with a dilated left ovarian vein and pelvic varicose veins. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy were normal. The patient was diagnosed as Nutcracker syndrome and discharged to be treated with analgesics. Conclusions Nutcracker syndrome can be seen with atypical gastrointestinal and vascular symptoms. Computed tomography angiography is a reliable and robust technique to prove the diagnosis of nutcracker syndrome. PMID:28058069

  10. Diagnostic value of a peroral sucrose permeability test in children with recurrent upper abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Pinotić, Ljerka; Zecić-Fijacko, Mirjana; Vcev, Aleksandar; Paulini, Dubravko; Mihaljević, Silvije; Horvat, Darko; Mandić, Zlatko; Votava-Raić, Ana; Boranić, Milivoj

    2004-12-01

    The access of ingested sucrose into blood and urine indicates the presence of mucosal lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The study involved 42 children, aged 5-15, having recurrent upper abdominal pain and 43 peers with minor extra-abdominal complaints. Sucrose in urine was determined by thin layer chromatography. The test was positive in 27 out of 42 children having recurrent abdominal pain (64.3%) and in none of the control children (chi2 = 37.6, p < 0.0001). When correlated with endoscopic findings it was falsely negative in 12 out of 38 patients with endoscopically verified lesions of the stomach or duodenum and falsely positive in 1 out of 4 without lesions. Sensitivity of the test was 68.4%, specificity 97.9%, positive predictive value 96.3%. The test cannot be used as an alternative to endoscopy, but may serve for screening of candidates for it.

  11. Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... MoreBMI Calculator FeverA fever is defined as a temperature 1° or more above the normal 98.6°. Minor infections may cause mild or short-term temperature elevations. Temperatures of 103° and above are considered ...

  12. Fever

    MedlinePlus

    A fever is a body temperature that is higher than normal. It is not an illness. It is part of your body's defense against infection. Most bacteria ... cause infections do well at the body's normal temperature (98.6 F). A slight fever can make ...

  13. Efficacy of a Brief Relaxation Training Intervention for Pediatric Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Katrina M.; Meadows, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    This study is a preliminary investigation of the efficacy of a brief intervention for recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) via a multiple baseline across subjects design. The intervention consisted of a single 1-hour session including psychoeducation and coaching of breathing retraining; the length, duration, and content of the intervention were…

  14. Efficacy of a Brief Relaxation Training Intervention for Pediatric Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Katrina M.; Meadows, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    This study is a preliminary investigation of the efficacy of a brief intervention for recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) via a multiple baseline across subjects design. The intervention consisted of a single 1-hour session including psychoeducation and coaching of breathing retraining; the length, duration, and content of the intervention were…

  15. Imaging patterns with 99mTc-PIPIDA in evaluating abdominal pain

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, R.F.; Gordon, L.; Selby, J.B. Sr.

    1983-11-01

    A random retrospective review of hepatobiliary scans on 86 adult patients with abdominal pain revealed four distinct imaging patterns: normal, cystic duct obstruction, obstructive, and sick liver pattern. A normal pattern was found to exclude acute cholecystitis and was the pattern most frequently observed.

  16. The role of emergency MRI in the setting of acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Ditkofsky, Noah G; Singh, Ajay; Avery, Laura; Novelline, Robert A

    2014-12-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common reasons for patients to present to the emergency department (ED) in the USA, with an estimated seven million visits in 2007-2008, a figure which represents 8 % (±0.2 %) [2] of all ED visits and a 31.8 % increase from 1999-2000. Abdominal pain has a broad differential diagnosis that encompasses multiple organ systems and can provide a significant diagnostic challenge to the ED physician. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) currently plays a limited role in the assessment of abdominal pain presenting to the ED in the nongravid population, its utility in the pregnant and pediatric population has already been proven. A proven diagnostic track record, lack of ionizing radiation and the ability to provide excellent tissue contrast without the use of nephrotoxic iodinated contrast, makes MRI an attractive imaging modality. As physicians and patients become more aware of the potential risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation, ED MRI utilization is likely to increase. In this article, we discuss the MRI appearance of some of the most common diagnoses, which present as abdominal pain to the ED.

  17. Transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation at Jiaji points reduce abdominal pain after colonoscopy: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanqing; Wu, Weilan; Yao, Yusheng; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Qiuyan; Qiu, Liangcheng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) at Jiaji acupuncture points has therapeutic potential for relieving viscera pain and opioid-related side effects. This prospective, randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of TEAS on abdominal pain after colonoscopy. Methods: Consecutive outpatients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II underwent selective colonoscopy were randomly assigned into two groups for either TEAS or sham pretreatment. The primary outcomes were the incidence of abdominal pain after colonoscopy. The secondary outcomes included the incidence of abdominal distension, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), duration of PACU stay, and patient’s satisfaction and acceptance. Results: Among the 229 patients analyzed, fewer occurrence of post-procedural abdominal pain (11.4% vs 25.2%, P = 0.007) and distension (1.8% vs 7.8%, P = 0.032) were observed in TEAS group, when compared with the sham group. The duration of PACU stay was significant shortened in TEAS group (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, patients’ satisfaction score to medical service was higher (P < 0.001), and their acceptance to colonoscopy was improved (P = 0.011). Conclusion: Pretreatment with TEAS can reduce post-procedural discomfort, provide more efficient medical resources utilization, and improved patient’s satisfaction and colonoscopy acceptance. PMID:26131193

  18. Spinal cord stimulation for intractable chronic upper abdominal pain: a case report of the first patient in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Al-Mahrouqi, Haitham; Munro, Zea; Acland, Richard H; MacFarlane, Martin R

    2012-12-14

    We present the first patient in New Zealand to undergo Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) for intractable upper abdominal pain. The patient was a 53-year-old man with a 20-year history of debilitating upper abdominal pain associated with chronic pancreatitis secondary to pancreatic divisum. Prior to the SCS, he was prescribed 680 mg of morphine sulphate equi-analgesia a day. Despite the intense analgesia, he still suffered monthly attacks of upper abdominal pain requiring hospitalisation. Nine months after implanting a Spinal Cord Stimulator, the monthly attacks ceased, his background pain was effectively controlled and the need for opioids decreased to 510 mg of morphine sulphate equi-analgesia a day.

  19. Low yield of routine duodenal biopsies for evaluation of abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Sterling M; Kwong, Wilson T; Kalmaz, Denise; Savides, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the yield of biopsying normal duodenal mucosa for investigation of abdominal pain. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with duodenal biopsies of normal appearing duodenal mucosa for an indication that included abdominal pain. All the patients in this study were identified from an electronic endoscopy database at a single academic medical center and had an EGD with duodenal biopsies performed over a 4-year period. New diagnoses that were made as a direct result of duodenal biopsies were identified. All duodenal pathology reports and endoscopy records were reviewed for indications to perform the examination as well as the findings; all the medical records were reviewed. Exclusion criteria included age less than 18 years, duodenal mass, nodule, or polyp, endoscopic duodenitis, duodenal scalloping, known celiac disease, positive celiac serology, Crohns disease, or history of bone marrow transplant. Information was collected in a de-identified database with pertinent demographic information including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and descriptive statistics were performed. RESULTS: About 300 patients underwent EGD with biopsies of benign appearing or normal appearing duodenal mucosa. The mean age of patients was 44.1 ± 16.8 years; 189 of 300 (63%) were female. A mean of 4.3 duodenal biopsies were performed in each patient. In the subgroup of patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss the mean age was 43.4 ± 16.3 years. Duodenal biopsies performed for an indication that included abdominal pain resulting in 4 new diagnoses (3 celiac disease and 1 giardiasis) for an overall yield of 1.3%. 183 patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss (out of the total 300 patients) underwent duodenal biopsy of duodenal mucosa resulting in three new diagnoses (two cases of celiac disease and one giardiasis) for a yield of 1

  20. Low yield of routine duodenal biopsies for evaluation of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Dubin, Sterling M; Kwong, Wilson T; Kalmaz, Denise; Savides, Thomas J

    2015-06-28

    To determine the yield of biopsying normal duodenal mucosa for investigation of abdominal pain. This is a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with duodenal biopsies of normal appearing duodenal mucosa for an indication that included abdominal pain. All the patients in this study were identified from an electronic endoscopy database at a single academic medical center and had an EGD with duodenal biopsies performed over a 4-year period. New diagnoses that were made as a direct result of duodenal biopsies were identified. All duodenal pathology reports and endoscopy records were reviewed for indications to perform the examination as well as the findings; all the medical records were reviewed. Exclusion criteria included age less than 18 years, duodenal mass, nodule, or polyp, endoscopic duodenitis, duodenal scalloping, known celiac disease, positive celiac serology, Crohns disease, or history of bone marrow transplant. Information was collected in a de-identified database with pertinent demographic information including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and descriptive statistics were performed. About 300 patients underwent EGD with biopsies of benign appearing or normal appearing duodenal mucosa. The mean age of patients was 44.1 ± 16.8 years; 189 of 300 (63%) were female. A mean of 4.3 duodenal biopsies were performed in each patient. In the subgroup of patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss the mean age was 43.4 ± 16.3 years. Duodenal biopsies performed for an indication that included abdominal pain resulting in 4 new diagnoses (3 celiac disease and 1 giardiasis) for an overall yield of 1.3%. 183 patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss (out of the total 300 patients) underwent duodenal biopsy of duodenal mucosa resulting in three new diagnoses (two cases of celiac disease and one giardiasis) for a yield of 1.6%. Duodenal biopsies of

  1. Analgesia for Older Adults with Abdominal or Back Pain in Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Angela M.; Edwards, J. Matthew; Shofer, Frances S.; Holena, Daniel N.; Abbuhl, Stephanie B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between age and analgesia for emergency department (ED) patients with abdominal or back pain. Methods: Using a fully electronic medical record, we performed a retrospective cohort study of adults presenting with abdominal or back pain to two urban EDs. To assess differences in analgesia administration and time to analgesia between age groups, we used chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis test respectively. To adjust for potential confounders, we used a generalized linear model with log link and Gaussian error. Results: Of 24,752 subjects (mean age 42 years, 65% female, 69% black, mean triage pain score 7.5), the majority (76%) had abdominal pain and 61% received analgesia. The ≥80 years group (n=722; 3%), compared to the 65–79 years group (n=2,080; 8%) and to the <65 years group (n=21,950; 89%), was more often female (71 vs. 61 vs. 65%), black (72 vs. 65 vs. 69%), and had a lower mean pain score (6.6 vs. 7.1 vs. 7.6). Both older groups were less likely to receive any analgesia (48 vs. 59 vs. 62%, p<0.0001) and the oldest group less likely to receive opiates (35 vs. 47 vs. 44%, p<0.0001). Of those who received analgesia, both older groups waited longer for their medication (123 vs. 113 vs. 94 minutes; p<0.0001). After controlling for potential confounders, patients ≥80 years were 17% less likely than the <65 years group to receive analgesia (95% CI 14–20%). Conclusion: Older adults who present to the ED for abdominal or back pain are less likely to receive analgesia and wait significantly longer for pain medication compared to younger adults. PMID:21691471

  2. Validity and reliability of a pain location tool for pediatric abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Hamill, James K; Cole, Alana M; Liley, Andrew; Hill, Andrew G

    2015-06-01

    For children with surgical problems, pain location conveys important clinical information. We developed a Location and Level of Intensity of Postoperative Pain (Lolipops) tool consisting of a body outline with a seven-sector abdominal grid, the International Association for the Study of Pain Revised Faces Pain Scale, and a recording chart. The aim of the study was to assess the validity and reliability of Lolipops. Children aged 5-14 years who had undergone laparoscopic appendectomy took both nurse- and investigator-administered Lolipops, and an investigator administered Varni Thompson Pediatric Pain Questionnaires, within 24 hours of surgery. The average age of the 42 participants was 10.7 years; 64% were boys; 24 (57.1%) had acute appendicitis, 13 (31%) had perforated appendicitis, and 5 (11.9%) were uninflamed. Pain scores were higher at the laparoscopic port incision sites than in upper abdominal sites distant from incisions or expected inflammation, mean (SD) 3.3 (2.3) and 1.1 (1.8), respectively (p < .0001). In children with acute appendicitis, pain scores were higher in the right iliac fossa than in upper abdominal sites, mean (SD) 3.3 (2.5) and 0.4 (0.7), respectively (p = .001). In children with perforated appendicitis, Lolipops demonstrated a more widespread pain pattern. Correlations between nurse and investigator were fair to moderate with an overall intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.597. This study presents a new tool to measure the location of pain in pediatric surgical patients and shows it to be valid and reliable.

  3. Differential epidural block predicts the success of visceral block in patients with chronic visceral abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Maged K; Tolba, Reda; Kapural, Leonardo; Mitchell, Justin; Lopez, Rocio; Mahboobi, Ramatia; Vrooman, Bruce; Mekhail, Nagy

    2012-11-01

    Differential thoracic epidural regional block, also known as a differential neural block (DNB), involves the placement of an epidural catheter placed in the thoracic epidural space to achieve appropriate anesthesia in a dermatomal distribution. This is a retrospective case series evaluating how well a DNB may predict success of subsequent visceral blockade in patients with chronic abdominal pain of visceral origin. Of 402 patients who had a DNB performed for unexplained abdominal pain from January 2000 to January 2009, 81 patients were found to have results consistent with visceral pain and thus underwent subsequent visceral blockade. Basic demographic data, years of chronic pain, history of psychosocial issues, initial visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, pain location, and medication usage were documented in our electronic medical record database. Parameters regarding DNB and visceral blocks also were documented. Descriptive statistics were computed for all variables. The positive predictive value (PPV) for DNB for whom visceral block was successful (at least a 50% reduction in VAS) was calculated. Additionally, subjects with successful visceral blocks were compared to those with unsuccessful visceral blocks. All patients with chronic abdominal pain with normal gastrointestinal studies who underwent DNB. Tertiary Outpatient Pain Management Clinic.   Retrospective Cohort Study. Mean age of patients was 46 (± 15) years, 73% were female, and median duration of pain was 5 years. 67% of subjects were taking opioid analgesics. PPV of DNB was 70.4%. Only factor found to be statistically significant with visceral block success was baseline VAS with higher scores associated with DNB predictive success (6.8 ± 1.7 vs. 5.5, 1.8; P = 0.004). Use of membrane stabilizing medications was significantly more common in subjects for whom visceral block was not successful (46% vs. 25%; P = 0.058). Area underneath curve (AUC) for VAS was found to be 0.70 (95% CI: 0.57, 0

  4. Chronic appendicitis "syndrome" manifested by an appendicolith and thickened appendix presenting as chronic right lower abdominal pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Vincenzo; Giuliano, Concetta; Pinto, Fabio; Scaglione, Mariano

    2006-03-01

    In this short report, we describe a small series of adult patients with chronic appendicitis presenting with chronic right lower quadrant abdominal pain. The clinical presentation was unusual and atypical for classic appendicitis because of the absence of fever, peritoneal tenderness on focused graded compression of the abdomen, and leukocytosis. Computed tomography (CT) findings included the presence of an appendicolith and appendiceal thickening, without mesenteric infiltration, abscess, or collection. In this series, the appendicolith appeared to represent a marker rather than an actual cause of appendicitis. Focused CT scans with additional lung and bone windows proved optimal in detecting appendicoliths, which were not visible on the scout localizer scans, despite windowing modifications. Our findings suggest that chronic appendicitis may be a phenomenon unique to adults and should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic right lower quadrant pain in patients seen in the emergency room setting. Surgery is curative in such patients, although expectant management is an alternative when tolerated by the patient.

  5. Triage of the child with abdominal pain: A clinical algorithm for emergency patient management

    PubMed Central

    Michalowski, Wojtek; Rubin, Steven; Slowinski, Roman; Wilk, Szymon

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To create a simplified clinical algorithm for the triage of children with abdominal pain. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Emergency room at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Ontario. METHODS: A data mining methodology (rough sets analysis) was applied to a randomized data set obtained from 175 emergency room admission charts of patients. Patients were placed into two diagnostic decision classes: appendicitis confirmed by a pathological report, and resolution (this classification implied the resolution of all clinical complaints and physical findings, with no pathological diagnosis and no operative procedure). RESULTS: Nine clinical symptoms and signs were identified as being important in the management of children with abdominal pain. A clinically based algorithm for the triage of such children was developed. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to develop a clinical algorithm for the triage of children with abdominal pain that can also be used by nonmedical professionals. A template for such an algorithm can be used as the basis for diagnosing other paediatric emergencies, such as chest pain, headaches and joint pain. PMID:20084204

  6. Recurrent abdominal pain as the presentation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) in an Asian girl: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Ju; Yu, Hsin-Hui; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lau, Yu-Lung; Lee, Wen-I; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is characterized by periodic fever, cutaneous rash, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, myalgia, and arthralgia. It is a rare autosomal dominant disease and strongly associated with heterozygous mutations in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor super family 1A (TNFRSF1A) gene. It is believed to be more common in Western countries than in Asian countries. Here, we present the case of a 14-year-old girl with periodic fever and abdominal pain with elevation of inflammatory markers for 2 years. After extensive work-up of infectious etiology with negative results, the diagnosis of TRAPS was made although no gene mutations were identified in the TNFRSF1A gene, MVK gene, and NALP3/CIAS1 gene. She had partial clinical response to corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents. However, the treatment response to TNF-α inhibitor etanercept was dramatic. She has remained symptom free under regular weekly to biweekly etanercept treatment for 2 years. We also reviewed the related literature and summarized the data of 10 Asian cases of TRAPS.

  7. Clinical Presentation of Acute Gastroenteritis in Children With Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders.

    PubMed

    Saps, Miguel; Mintjens, Stijn; Pusatcioglu, Cenk K; Cohen, Daniel M; Sternberg, Petra

    2017-08-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity and abnormal coping are common in children with functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs). Thus, it would be expected that children with visceral hypersensitivity would report more pain if their gut is acutely inflamed. The aim of the study was to compare clinical symptoms and somatization of children with and without FAPDs at time of an episode of acute gastroenteritis. Seventy children with acute gastroenteritis and their parents completed the Rome III Diagnostic Questionnaire for Pediatric Functional GI Disorders and the Children's Somatization Inventory. Twenty-one percent of children were diagnosed with an FAPD. Children with FAPDs showed significantly more nongastrointestinal somatic symptoms than children without FAPDs. There were no significant differences in abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, or school absenteeism between both groups at time of consultation.

  8. Could kinesiology taping help mitigate pain, breathlessness and abdominal-related symptoms in cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Gourav; Rose, Alison; Briggs, Michelle; Johnson, Mark I

    2017-01-01

    We present the case of a woman who was an amateur athlete diagnosed with primary breast cancer, and 10 years later with terminal metastatic cancer. This case report was prepared posthumously in co-operation with her next of kin (husband). The patient first presented to a sports physiotherapist (AR) for her pain-management and to help maintain physical fitness so that she could continue with sports and an active lifestyle. The patient continued with physiotherapy for several months to enable her to be active. However, when her health deteriorated significantly due to advancing cancer, the treatment was modified and aimed at improving the patient's general well-being. The physiotherapist applied kinesiology tape over the patient's lower rib cage, diaphragm and abdomen in an attempt to manage pain, breathlessness and abdominal bloating. The patient reported alleviation of pain, breathlessness, abdominal discomfort and nausea, accompanied by improvements in eating, drinking, energy levels and physical function. PMID:28237944

  9. Could kinesiology taping help mitigate pain, breathlessness and abdominal-related symptoms in cancer?

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Gourav; Rose, Alison; Briggs, Michelle; Johnson, Mark I

    2017-02-24

    We present the case of a woman who was an amateur athlete diagnosed with primary breast cancer, and 10 years later with terminal metastatic cancer. This case report was prepared posthumously in co-operation with her next of kin (husband). The patient first presented to a sports physiotherapist (AR) for her pain-management and to help maintain physical fitness so that she could continue with sports and an active lifestyle. The patient continued with physiotherapy for several months to enable her to be active. However, when her health deteriorated significantly due to advancing cancer, the treatment was modified and aimed at improving the patient's general well-being. The physiotherapist applied kinesiology tape over the patient's lower rib cage, diaphragm and abdomen in an attempt to manage pain, breathlessness and abdominal bloating. The patient reported alleviation of pain, breathlessness, abdominal discomfort and nausea, accompanied by improvements in eating, drinking, energy levels and physical function. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Present state and future challenges in pediatric abdominal pain therapeutics research: Looking beyond the forest

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Craig A; Schurman, Jennifer V; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    At the present time, it is nearly impossible to treat pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders associated with pain in an evidence based fashion. This is due to the overall lack of controlled studies and, even more importantly, the complexity of the contributors to disease phenotype which are not controlled or accounted for in most therapeutic trials. In this manuscript, we review the challenges of defining entry criteria, controlling for the large number of biopsychosocial factors which may effect outcomes, and understanding pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors when designing therapeutic trials for abdominal pain in children. We also review the current state of pediatric abdominal pain therapeutics and discuss trial design considerations as we move forward. PMID:26558142

  11. [Professor WU Xu's clinical experiences on acupuncture for acute upper abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Liang; Lu, Bin; Sun, Jian-Hua; Ai, Bing-Wei; Bao, Chao; Wu, Wen-Zhong; Li, Jian-Bing; Liu, Lan-Ying; Wu, Wen-Yun; Pei, Li-Xia; Zhou, Jun-Ling; Li, Yan-Cai; Qin, Shan

    2014-03-01

    The clinical experiences and proven cases of distinguished doctor of TCM, professor WU Xu, on acupuncture for acute upper abdominal pain is introduced. Professor WU's manipulation characteristics of acupuncture for acute upper abdominal pain, including acute cholecystitis, kidney stone, acute stomach pain, are one-hand shape but both hands in nature, moving like Tai Chi, force on the tip of needle, movement of qi mainly. The main technique posture is one-hand holding needle with middle finger for pressing, the needle is hold by thumb and index finger, and is assisted by middle finger. The special acupuncture experience of emergency is treatment according to syndrome differentiation, combination of acupuncture and moxibustion, selecting acupoint based on experience, blood-letting acupuncture therapy and so on.

  12. First Clinical Judgment by Primary Care Physicians Distinguishes Well Between Nonorganic and Organic Causes of Abdominal or Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Benedict; Bucheli, Bruno; Stotz, Martin; Battegay, Edouard; Gyr, Niklaus

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the accuracy of a preliminary diagnosis based solely on patient history and physical examination in medical outpatients with abdominal or chest pain. DESIGN Prospective observational study. setting General medical outpatient clinic in a university teaching hospital. participants One hundred ninety new, consecutive patients with a mean age of 44 years (SD = 14 years, range 30–58 years) with a main complaint of abdominal or chest pain. measurements and main results The preliminary diagnosis, established on the basis of patient history and physical examination, was compared with a final diagnosis, obtained after workup at completion of the chart. A nonorganic cause was established in 66 (59%) of 112 patients with abdominal pain and in 65 (83%) of 78 with chest pain. The preliminary diagnosis of “nonorganic” versus “organic” causes was correct in 79% of patients with abdominal pain and in 88% of patients with chest pain. An “undoubted” preliminary diagnosis predicted a correct assessment in all patients with abdominal pain and in all but one patient with chest pain. Overall, only 4 patients (3%) were initially incorrectly diagnosed as having a nonorganic cause of pain rather than an organic cause. In addition, final nonorganic diagnosis (n = 131) was compared with long-term follow-up by obtaining information from patients and, if necessary, from treating physicians. Follow-up information, obtained for 71% of these patients after a mean of 29 months (range 18–56 months) identified three other patients that had been misdiagnosed as having abdominal pain of nonorganic causes. Compared with follow-up, the diagnostic accuracy for nonorganic abdominal and chest pain at chart completion was 93% and 98%, respectively. conclusions A preliminary diagnosis of nonorganic versus organic abdominal or chest pain based on patient history and physical examination proved remarkably reliable. Accuracy was almost complete in patients with an

  13. Abdominal pain and a raised amylase? It's not always pancreatitis. . .

    PubMed

    Oluwatowoju, I O; Abu, O E; Lawson, G

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 72 year old man with a history of COPD and heavy alcohol consumption who was initially diagnosed with acute pancreatitis based on a presentation with epigastric pain and elevated serum amylase. Review of his notes revealed several previous similar admissions and extensive normal investigations apart from persistently elevated amylase. Further analysis showed evidence of macroamylasaemia which accounted for the apparently high serum amylase level.

  14. [Heterozygote forms of familial Mediterranean fever can be manifested in adults as myofacial pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Meilinger, A; Burger, M; Peter, H-H

    2015-08-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a disease characterized by recurrent fever, serositis, arthritis and unspecific myalgia. It is prevalent among Mediterranean people and has been shown to be associated with mutations in the Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene which, encodes pyrin a regulatory protein of the inflammasome. As heterozygous mutations in MEFV can be associated with only mild inflammatory symptoms, such as arthralgia or chronic fibromyalgic pain, FMF may be underdiagnosed in the current diagnostic work-up of musculoskeletal diseases. The selection of patients was carried out according to the following criteria: myofacial pain syndrome, seronegative oligoarthralgia, a slight inflammatory constellation and ethnic origin from the Mediterranean area. When these criteria were fulfilled a molecular genetic investigation was carried out This article presents evidence that 9 out of 12 Mediterranean patients with recurrent myofascial pain syndrome and mild inflammation revealed heterozygote mutations in the MEFV gene and 7 of these patients benefitted from treatment with colchicine. As colchicine treatment not only improved the myofascial pain but also prevented FMF-associated amyloidosis and nephropathy, differential diagnosis of fibromyalgia in patients of Mediterranean origin should include FMF and a genetic screening of the MEFV locus.

  15. Importance of parental conceptual model of illness in severe recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Crushell, Ellen; Rowland, Marion; Doherty, Mairin; Gormally, Siobhan; Harty, Sinead; Bourke, Billy; Drumm, Brendan

    2003-12-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) affects up to 15% of children. A biopsychosocial approach to the treatment of children with RAP has been proposed as an alternative to the traditional medical model. The aim of this study was to examine whether the parental conceptual model of illness is a factor in the long-term outcome of children with severe RAP. The study was undertaken in 2 parts: 1) a review of the medical and psychiatric records (including Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL]) of all children with RAP of sufficient severity to necessitate hospitalization during a 5-year period and 2) a structured telephone interview to collect information on ongoing abdominal pain, other somatic symptoms, school attendance, and the parents' opinion as to the cause of the child's pain. Twenty-eight of 30 children who were identified were available for follow-up. Twenty-three (82%) were tertiary referrals from other pediatric services, and 20 had pain for >6 months. On admission 7 (25%) of 28 had a depressive disorder, and 8 (29%) had an anxiety/depressive disorder. Twenty-one of 28 parents completed the CBCL, and on analysis of the CBCL, 11 (52%) children had scores in the clinical range (>65). At follow-up (mean: 3.56 years; standard deviation: 1.59), 14 (50%) of 28 continued to complain of pain. These children also complained of multiple other somatic complaints and had repeated school absences. Only 1 (7%) of 14 parents of children with ongoing pain believed that there was a psychological cause for their child's pain, whereas 11 (78%) of 14 parents of the children who had recovered believed that the cause was attributable to psychological factors (odds ratio: 47.67; 95% confidence interval: 3.56-1511.6). The acceptance by parents of a biopsychosocial model of illness is important for the resolution of recurrent abdominal pain in children.

  16. Gastric Electrical Stimulation for Abdominal Pain in Patients with Symptoms of Gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    Lahr, Christopher J.; Griffith, James; Subramony, Charu; Halley, Lindsey; Adams, Kristen; Paine, Elizabeth R.; Schmieg, Robert; Islam, Saleem; Salameh, Jay; Spree, Danielle; Kothari, Truptesh; Kedar, Archana; Nikitina, Yana; Abell, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal pain physiology may be better understood studying electrophysiology, histology, and symptom scores in patients with the symptoms of gastroparesis (Gp) treated with gastric electrical stimulation (GES). Ninety-five Gp patients’ symptoms were recorded at baseline and during temporary and permanent GES. Gastric-emptying times and cutaneous, mucosal, and serosal electrogastrograms were obtained. S100-stained, full-thickness gastric biopsies were compared with autopsy controls. Sixty-eight patients reported severe pain at baseline. Severe pain patients’ mean pain scores decreased with temporary GES from 3.62 to 1.29 (P < 0.001) and nonsevere pain from 1.26 to 0.67 (P = 0.01). With permanent GES, severe mean pain scores fell to 2.30 (P < 0.001); nonsevere pain changed to 1.60 (P = 0.221). Mean follow-up was 275 days. Mean cutaneous, mucosal, and serosal frequencies and frequency-to-amplitude ratios were markedly higher than literature controls. For patients with Gp overall and subdivided by etiology and severity of pain, S-100 neuronal fibers were significantly reduced in both muscularis propria layers. GES improved severe pain associated with symptoms of Gp. This severe pain is associated with abnormal electrogastrographic activity and loss of S100 neuronal fibers in the stomach’s inner and outer muscularis propria and, therefore, could be the result of gastric neuropathy. PMID:23635579

  17. Differential diagnosis of a patient referred to physical therapy with low back pain: abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Mechelli, Filippo; Preboski, Zachary; Probaski, Zachory; Boissonnault, William G

    2008-09-01

    Resident's case problem. A 38-year-old man with a history of chronic episodic low back pain (LBP) was referred to physical therapy by his physician. Concerns ascertained from the patient's history included an insidious onset of unrelenting, deep, boring pain that was constant, irrespective of movements or posture changes, or time of day. In addition, the patient reported night pain and the inability to find relief in recumbent positions. The primary warning signs associated with the physical examination were unremarkable examination of the lumbar spine, pelvis, and hip regions (symptoms not altered and minimal impairments detected), and a strong nontender, palpable pulse noted over the left lateral lumbar region, with the patient prone, and over the midline and left upper/lower abdominal quadrants, with the patient supine. Suspicion of the presence of an abdominal aortic aneurysm led the therapist to immediately refer the patient to an allopathic physician. The subsequent abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography scanning revealed a 10-cm-diameter abdominal aortic aneurysm. The patient was immediately hospitalized and underwent surgical repair within two days. LBP is the most frequent condition for patients seeking care from physical therapists in outpatient settings. The challenge for clinicians is to recognize patients in whom LBP may be related to underlying pathological conditions. A prompt referral of patients presenting with suspicious findings to the appropriate physician may lead to a more timely diagnosis, with the goal of minimizing or preventing morbidity and mortality.

  18. Paraspinal and Extensive Epidural Abscess: The Great Masqueraders of Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Andrew; Aung, Thu Thu; Shankar, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Paraspinal and epidural abscesses are rare conditions often diagnosed later in the disease process that can have significant morbidity and mortality. Predisposing risk factors include diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus, intravenous drug abuse, and previous history of spinal surgery or injection. They can threaten the spinal cord by compressive effect, leading to sensory motor deficits and ultimately paralysis and death. Diagnosis may be a challenge due to the delayed presentation of nonspecific back pain or radicular pain such as chest pain or abdominal pain. We present a rare case on a patient with periumbilical pain, constipation, and urinary retention who was ultimately diagnosed with a paraspinal abscess extending into the epidural space from T1 to S2. He underwent decompressive laminectomy with incision and drainage of the abscesses. The patient made an excellent recovery postoperatively, and repeat magnetic resonance imaging at six weeks showed resolution of the abscess. PMID:26770847

  19. ‘Tell me about your pain’: abdominal pain and a history of bullying

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Paola; Jenkner, Alessandro; De Vito, Rita; Boldrini, Renata; Chiodi, Patrizia; Celesti, Lucia; Giampaolo, Rosaria

    2011-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic to investigate recurrent abdominal pain. She was unwilling to attend the school. Her mother reported bullying at school and nosebleeds. The girl rated her pain 9 on a visual analogue score card ranging from 1 to 10. Physical examination disclosed painful bruising and haematomas. Emergency laboratory blood tests indicated by the history, physical examination and the pain intensity showed reduced numbers of white blood cells and platelets. A bone marrow smear on admission disclosed 100% blasts and suggested an initial diagnosis of leukaemia but also disclosed the pseudo-rosettes typically seen in neuro-ectodermic tumours. The diagnosis of stage IV primary neuroblastoma was confirmed by trephine biopsies and high urinary catecholamines. The girl died 10 months later. This unusual case underlines the need for outpatient paediatricians to involve children in their initial diagnostic work-up by asking them about their pain thus expediting the diagnosis. PMID:22699481

  20. Evaluation of guided imagery as treatment for recurrent abdominal pain in children: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Weydert, Joy A; Shapiro, Daniel E; Acra, Sari A; Monheim, Cynthia J; Chambers, Andrea S; Ball, Thomas M

    2006-01-01

    Background Because of the paucity of effective evidence-based therapies for children with recurrent abdominal pain, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of guided imagery, a well-studied self-regulation technique. Methods 22 children, aged 5 – 18 years, were randomized to learn either breathing exercises alone or guided imagery with progressive muscle relaxation. Both groups had 4-weekly sessions with a therapist. Children reported the numbers of days with pain, the pain intensity, and missed activities due to abdominal pain using a daily pain diary collected at baseline and during the intervention. Monthly phone calls to the children reported the number of days with pain and the number of days of missed activities experienced during the month of and month following the intervention. Children with ≤ 4 days of pain/month and no missed activities due to pain were defined as being healed. Depression, anxiety, and somatization were measured in both children and parents at baseline. Results At baseline the children who received guided imagery had more days of pain during the preceding month (23 vs. 14 days, P = 0.04). There were no differences in the intensity of painful episodes or any baseline psychological factors between the two groups. Children who learned guided imagery with progressive muscle relaxation had significantly greater decrease in the number of days with pain than those learning breathing exercises alone after one (67% vs. 21%, P = 0.05), and two (82% vs. 45%, P < 0.01) months and significantly greater decrease in days with missed activities at one (85% vs. 15%, P = 0.02) and two (95% vs. 77%. P = 0.05) months. During the two months of follow-up, more children who had learned guided imagery met the threshold of ≤ 4 day of pain each month and no missed activities (RR = 7.3, 95%CI [1.1,48.6]) than children who learned only the breathing exercises. Conclusion The therapeutic efficacy of guided imagery with progressive muscle relaxation found in this

  1. Neurolytic transversus abdominal plane block with alcohol for long-term malignancy related pain control.

    PubMed

    Hung, Joseph C; Azam, Nyla; Puttanniah, Vinay; Malhotra, Vivek; Gulati, Amitabh

    2014-01-01

    There have been several case reports in the literature of neurolytic transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks being used for malignant abdominal wall pain. However, most used phenol as a neurolytic agent. We found only a single case report by Sakamoto using alcohol for TAP neurolysis. Unfortunately this patient passed away only 5 days after performance of the block. We attempt to extend upon the existing literature by describing neurolytic TAP blockade outcomes using alcohol on 3 cancer patients with metastatic disease to the abdominal wall. Two of our 3 patients had colorectal cancer invading the abdominal musculature. The third patient had a metastatic neuroendocrine nodule in the left rectus muscle. In our case series, all 3 patients had sustained and significant (greater than 50%) relief of abdominal wall pain after performing TAP neurolysis using alcohol. Ultrasound guidance was used for all blocks. The concentration of alcohol used varied from 33% to 77% between patients. Duration of relief lasted between 17 days and 6 months. Opioid use either decreased or remained relatively stable for prolonged periods of time after neurolysis. Other than one patient with transient post-procedure pain related to alcohol injection, there were no significant complications. Addition of a depo steroid for diagnostic TAP blockade prior to neurolysis did not appear to extend or provide additional analgesia. Based on our observations, TAP neurolysis using alcohol also offers a feasible option for long-term control of malignant abdominal wall pain. Further investigation is needed to determine if alcohol offers any significant advantage compared with phenol.

  2. Jejunal choristoma: a very rare cause of abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Olajide, T A; Agodirin, S O; Ojewola, R W; Akanbi, O O; Solaja, T O; Odesanya, Johnson Oluremi; Ariyibi, O O

    2014-01-01

    Choristoma is development of a normal tissue in an aberrant location. This report describes jejunal salivary choristoma (JSC) causing recurring episodes of abdominal discomfort in a 5-year-old girl. Exploratory laporatomy revealed a pale yellow subserosal jejunal lesion. Wedge resection of the lesion and repair of the bowel were performed. The child did well postoperatively and has since that time been free of pain at follow-up. Histopathological examination of the resected lesion revealed salivary gland choriostoma. Literature review (PUBMED search engine) revealed no previous report of this rare clinicopathologic entity. We conclude that choriostoma should be considered a possible differential when evaluating abdominal complaint in children.

  3. Dietary and pharmacological treatment of abdominal pain in IBS.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael; Boeckxstaens, Guy

    2017-05-01

    This review introduces the principles of visceral sensation and appraises the current approaches to management of visceral pain in functional GI diseases, principally IBS. These approaches include dietary measures including fibre supplementation, low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols diet, and pharmacological approaches such as antispasmodics, peppermint oil, antidepressants (tricyclic agents, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (alosetron, ondansetron, ramosetron), non-absorbed antibiotic (rifaximin), secretagogues (lubiprostone, linaclotide), μ-opioid receptor (OR) and κ-OR agonist, δ-OR antagonist (eluxadoline), histamine H1 receptor antagonist (ebastine), neurokinin-2 receptor antagonist (ibodutant) and GABAergic agents (gabapentin and pregabalin). Efficacy and safety are discussed based on pivotal trials or published systematic reviews and meta-analysis, expressing ORs or relative risks and their 95% CIs. Potential new approaches may be based on recent insights on mucosal expression of genes, and microRNA and epigenetic markers in human biopsies and in animal models of visceral hypersensitivity.The objectives of this review are to appraise the physiology and anatomy of gut sensation and the efficacy in the relief of visceral pain (typically in IBS) of several classes of therapies. These include fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and different classes of medications (box 1). Box 1Classes of pharmacological agents for visceral painAntidepressants (tricyclic agents, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)Peppermint oil5-HT3 receptor antagonists (alosetron, ondansetron, ramosetron)Non-absorbed antibiotic (rifaximin)Secretagogues (lubiprostone, linaclotide)μ-Opioid receptor (OR) and κ-OR agonist and δ-OR antagonist (eluxadoline)Histamine H1 receptor antagonist (ebastine)Neurokinin-2 receptor antagonist (ibodutant)GABAergic agents

  4. [Case of tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus) presenting with fever and pain indistinguishable from trigeminal neuralgia].

    PubMed

    Arai, Motomi; Nakamura, Asuka; Shichi, Daisuke

    2007-06-01

    A 64-year-old man visited our clinic with a 9-day history of headache and fever. He had frequent, severe, electric shock-like pain in his left eye, forehead, and scalp. The body temperature was 37.1 degrees. Cranial nerve functions were intact. Limb weakness and stiff neck were absent. There were injection of the conjunctiva, a red rash on the trunk, and an eschar in the axilla. Abnormal laboratory findings included AST 40 IU, ALT 44 IU, CRP 16.0 mg/dl, WBC 11,090/microl, and proteinuria. CT scan was unremarkable. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed 2 polymorphs/microl, 6 lymphocytes/microl, 65 mg/dl of glucose, and 42 mg/dl of protein. A diagnosis of scrub typhus was made. Treatment with minocycline brought about prompt disappearance of the fever and dramatic clinical improvement. Increased antibody titers confirmed the diagnosis. Although almost all patients present with high fever and severe headache, only a small number of patients have CSF pleocytosis. The present case illustrates that pain in scrub typhus is, on rare occasions, indistinguishable from trigeminal neuralgia. Neurologists should have a high index of suspicion in patients with fever and headache during the epidemic season and should be familiar with the systemic symptoms and signs.

  5. Lead intoxication due to ayurvedic medications as a cause of abdominal pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Varun; Midha, Vandana; Mahajan, Ramit; Narang, Vikram; Wander, Praneet; Sood, Ridhi; Sood, Ajit

    2017-02-01

    Though a majority of cases of lead intoxication come from occupational exposures, traditional and folk remedies have also been reported to contain toxic amounts of lead. We present a large series of patients with lead poisoning due to intake of Ayurvedic medicines, all of whom presented with unexplained abdominal pain. This was a retrospective, observational case series from a tertiary care center in India. The charts of patients who underwent blood lead level (BLL) testing as a part of workup for unexplained abdominal pain between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. The patients with lead intoxication (BLLs >25 μg/dl) were identified and demographics, history, possible risk factors, clinical presentation and investigations were reviewed. Treatment details, duration, time to symptomatic recovery, laboratory follow-up and adverse events during therapy were recorded. BLLs were tested in 786 patients with unexplained abdominal pain and high levels were identified in 75 (9.5%) patients, of which a majority (73 patients, 9.3%) had history of Ayurvedic medication intake and only two had occupational exposure. Five randomly chosen Ayurvedic medications were analyzed and lead levels were impermissibly high (14-34,950 ppm) in all of them. Besides pain in abdomen, other presenting complaints were constipation, hypertension, neurological symptoms and acute kidney injury. Anemia and abnormal liver biochemical tests were observed in all the 73 patients. Discontinuing the Ayurvedic medicines and chelation with d-penicillamine led to improvement in symptoms and reduction in BLLs in all patients within 3-4 months. The patients presenting with severe recurrent abdominal pain, anemia and history of use of Ayurvedic medicines should be evaluated for lead toxicity. Early diagnosis in such cases can prevent unnecessary investigations and interventions, and permits early commencement of the treatment.

  6. Emotion awareness and coping in children with functional abdominal pain: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    van der Veek, Shelley M C; Derkx, H H F; de Haan, Else; Benninga, Marc A; Boer, Frits

    2012-01-01

    Literature on somatization suggests that patients suffering from medically unexplained symptoms are less aware of their emotions and use maladaptive coping strategies when coping with everyday problems. In addition, coping is hypothesized to mediate between emotion awareness and medically unexplained symptoms. Scientific evidence for the relevance of this hypothesis for children with functional abdominal pain (FAP) is, however, lacking. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate this hypothesis in Dutch children with functional abdominal pain (FAP), aged 7-18 years. Between April 2007 and April 2010, a total of 114 referred children with FAP, 235 schoolchildren without abdominal pain and 407 schoolchildren with some abdominal pain (AP) of diverse etiology filled out questionnaires concerning their pain, emotion awareness and coping. MANOVA was used to investigate group differences in emotional awareness and coping. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the mediational role of coping. The results showed that children with FAP scored significantly lower on most aspects of emotion awareness than children without AP, although these differences were small. Contrary to expectations, children with FAP were more aware of a link between emotions and bodily sensations than children without AP. As for coping, we found that children with FAP used avoidant coping more often than children without AP. Overall, children with FAP mostly did not differ in their emotional awareness and coping compared to children with some AP. Problem focused coping had a small mediating effect for two aspects of emotion awareness. We conclude that children with FAP show only small differences in emotion awareness and coping compared to children without AP, and are practically no different from children with some AP. Contrary to common belief, it can be questioned whether emotion awareness and general coping are useful targets for psychological treatments of FAP to

  7. [Appendicitis versus non-specific acute abdominal pain: Paediatric Appendicitis Score evaluation].

    PubMed

    Prada Arias, Marcos; Salgado Barreira, Angel; Montero Sánchez, Margarita; Fernández Eire, Pilar; García Saavedra, Silvia; Gómez Veiras, Javier; Fernández Lorenzo, José Ramón

    2017-02-18

    Non-specific acute abdominal pain is the most common process requiring differential diagnosis with appendicitis in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the Paediatric Appendicitis Score in differentiating between these two entities. All patients admitted due to suspicion of appendicitis were prospectively evaluated in our hospital over a two-year period. Cases of non-specific acute abdominal pain and appendicitis were enrolled in the study. Several variables were collected, including Score variables and C-reactive protein levels. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses and diagnostic accuracy studies (ROC curves) were performed. A total of 275 patients were studied, in which there were 143 cases of non-specific acute abdominal pain and 132 cases of appendicitis. Temperature and right iliac fossa tenderness on palpation were the variables without statistically significant differences, and with no discrimination power between groups. Pain on coughing, hopping, and/or percussion tenderness in the right lower quadrant was the variable with greater association with appendicitis. The Score correctly stratified the patients into risk groups. Substitution of temperature for C-reactive protein in the Score increased diagnostic accuracy, although with no statistically significant differences. The Paediatric Appendicitis Score helps in differential diagnosis between appendicitis and non-specific acute abdominal pain. It would be advisable to replace the temperature in the Score, since it has no discrimination power between these groups. C-reactive protein at a cut-off value of 25.5mg/L value could be used instead. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  8. Uncommon Causes of Acute Abdominal Pain – A Pictorial Essay

    PubMed Central

    Hariharan, Mahesh; Balasubramaniam, Rajan; Shetty, Sharath Kumar; Yadavalli, Shanthala; Ahetasham, Mohammed; Devarapalli, Sravya

    2016-01-01

    Acute abdomen is one of the most common clinical conditions requiring a radiological investigation. Ultrasound is the primary modality of choice which can diagnose some of the common causes of acute abdomen. However, sometimes the underlying cause for the pain is far more complicated than expected mandating a high degree of suspicion to suggest further investigation with contrast enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we have compiled a comprehensive series of selected cases to highlight the conditions which can be easily overlooked unless carefully sought for. This article also emphasizes the importance of multimodality approach to arrive at the final diagnosis with an increased overall diagnostic accuracy which in turn improves patient management and prognosis. PMID:27014500

  9. Diaphoresis and abdominal pain caused by extra-adrenal paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lennard; Sung, Wei Lin; Akhtar, Mohammed Majid; Whyte, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A 63-year-old lady presented with suprapelvic pain, weight loss and night sweats. On examination, she was noted to be hypertensive with a distended abdomen. Imaging (CT) revealed a 9.5 cm retroperitoneal mass with a high degree of vascularity and necrotic centre. The patient’s urinary and plasma catecholamines were significantly raised and subsequent radio-isotope scan suggested the tumour was likely to be of a neuroendocrine nature. A diagnosis of a malignant paraganglioma was made. Malignant paragangliomas derive from sympathetic tissue and secrete catecholamines. Diagnostic uncertainty might lead to biopsy of tumour but this carries a high-risk of catecholamine-induced complications such as hypertensive crisis, cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac ischaemia and must be avoided. PMID:22761199

  10. Functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Eric; Nurko, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are both associated with recurrent abdominal pain and are among the most commonly diagnosed medical problems in pediatrics. The majority of patients with mild complaints improve with reassurance and time. For a distinct subset of patients with more severe and disabling illness, finding effective treatment for these disorders remains a challenge. Based on the biopsychosocial model of functional disease, the Rome III criteria have helped frame FAP and IBS in terms of being a positive diagnosis and not a diagnosis of exclusion. However, the lack of a single, proven intervention highlights the complex interplay of pathologic mechanisms likely involved in the development of childhood FAP and IBS and the need for a multidisciplinary, integrated approach. This article discusses the epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, clinical approach and therapeutic options for the management of FAP and IBS in children and adolescents. PMID:21731470

  11. Acute Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis in an Immunocompetent Host as a Reason for Upper Right Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kai Oliver; Angst, Eliane; Hetzer, Franc Heinrich; Gingert, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus infections are widely distributed with a seroprevalence of up to 100%. The majority of the cases take a silent course or deal with unspecific clinical symptoms. Complications in immunocompetent patients are rare but may affect the liver and lead up to an acute organ failure. In this case report, we describe a 35-year-old immunocompetent female with an acute cytomegalovirus infection presenting as acute hepatitis with ongoing upper right abdominal pain after cholecystectomy. Upper right abdominal pain is a common symptom with a wide range of differential diagnoses. If common reasons can be excluded, we want to sensitize for cytomegalovirus infection as a minor differential diagnosis even in immunocompetent patients. PMID:27403100

  12. Chronic abdominal pain in children: what to do following the medical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Banez, Gerard A

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented review of conventional, alternative, and rehabilitation therapies for chronic or recurrent abdominal pain in children. Cognitive-behavioral procedures, including contingency management training for parents and self-regulation training for children, emerge as a probably efficacious treatment. Symptom-based pharmacological therapies can be helpful, but may be best reserved for children with severe symptoms that have not responded to simple management. Biofeedback therapy, hypnotherapy, and peppermint oil are among the most promising alternative therapies. For patients with severe functional disability, an interdisciplinary rehabilitation approach may be warranted. As more is learned about different therapies for recurrent abdominal pain, an integrative approach that blends these interventions may become increasingly common.

  13. Sacral neuromodulation as a treatment for neuropathic clitoral pain after abdominal hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Marcelissen, Tom; Van Kerrebroeck, Philip; de Wachter, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) may be beneficial in the treatment of patients with chronic pelvic pain, although it is not an FDA-approved indication. We present a case of a 51-year-old patient that presented with symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction and clitoral pain after an abdominal hysterectomy. Electrophysiological evaluation suggested a pudendal nerve lesion. After failure of conservative treatment, she was offered SNM as a treatment for her voiding symptoms. During test stimulation, she experienced only moderate improvement in voiding symptoms, but a striking improvement in pain symptoms. She underwent a two-stage implantation of a neurostimulator with a successful outcome after 6 months' follow-up. The results of this report suggest that SNM may be effective in patients with neuropathic pelvic pain.

  14. An Unusual Cause of Abdominal Pain: Three Lead Pellets within the Appendix Vermiformis

    PubMed Central

    Muderris, Vecdi; Yagmurkaya, Orhan; Yalkin, Omer; Celebi, Fehmi

    2015-01-01

    Most ingested foreign bodies usually pass out in the feces uneventfully. Complications such as intestinal perforation and bleeding usually occur with sharp, thin, stiff, long, and pointed objects. This case describes the management of three lead pellets within the appendix vermiformis. A 45-year-old male visited our clinic complaining of a 4-month history of abdominal pain. The patient inquiry revealed that he had eaten hunted rabbit meat on numerous occasions and had unintentionally ingested three lead pellets. Plain abdominal films and a barium enema showed foreign bodies in the right lower abdominal quadrant. Since the lead pellets were thought to have migrated extraluminally, they were removed through laparotomy under fluoroscopic guidance. An appendectomy was performed. Pathologically, three lead pellets were embedded in the appendix, which showed signs of intramucosal inflammation. Foreign bodies causing appendicitis are rare. However, if stiff or pointed objects enter the appendicular lumen, there is a high risk of appendicitis, perforation, or abdominal pain. An appendectomy was required to remove the ingested lead pellets in the appendix. PMID:26106500

  15. Lead Poisoning From a Ceramic Jug Presenting as Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Ugarte-Torres, Alejandra; Groshaus, Horacio; Rioux, Kevin; Yarema, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Lead poisoning may present with non-specific symptoms that may result in unnecessary investigations. We report a case of acute lead poisoning in a previously healthy 28-year-old man who presented with recurrent abdominal pain, jaundice, constipation, and weight loss. An extensive diagnostic work-up was completed with inconclusive results. A detailed history revealed an unusual source of lead exposure. Chelation therapy resulted in substantial clinical and biochemical improvement. PMID:26958573

  16. Kaempferol, a dietary flavonoid, ameliorates acute inflammatory and nociceptive symptoms in gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shi Hyoung; Park, Jae Gwang; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yang, Sungjae; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Jun Ho; Ha, Van Thai; Kim, Han Gyung; Yi, Young-Su; Kim, Ji Hye; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Sung, Nak Yoon; Lee, Mi-nam; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-07-01

    Kaempferol (KF) is the most abundant polyphenol in tea, fruits, vegetables, and beans. However, little is known about its in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy and mechanisms of action. To study these, several acute mouse inflammatory and nociceptive models, including gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain were employed. Kaempferol was shown to attenuate the expansion of inflammatory lesions seen in ethanol (EtOH)/HCl- and aspirin-induced gastritis, LPS/caerulein (CA) triggered pancreatitis, and acetic acid-induced writhing.

  17. Acute Abdominal Pain Caused by an Infected Mesenteric Cyst in a 24-Year-Old Female

    PubMed Central

    Ponten, Joep B.; Zijta, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    A mesenteric cyst is a rare cause for abdominal pain. This umbrella term includes cystic entities which reside in the mesentery. We present a case of an infected false mesenteric cyst in a 24-year-old female patient without prior surgery or known trauma. Mainstay of treatment involves surgical resection, although less invasive treatments have been described. Prognosis depends on the origin of the cyst. PMID:27190668

  18. Acute Abdominal Pain Caused by an Infected Mesenteric Cyst in a 24-Year-Old Female.

    PubMed

    Sudiono, Davy R; Ponten, Joep B; Zijta, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    A mesenteric cyst is a rare cause for abdominal pain. This umbrella term includes cystic entities which reside in the mesentery. We present a case of an infected false mesenteric cyst in a 24-year-old female patient without prior surgery or known trauma. Mainstay of treatment involves surgical resection, although less invasive treatments have been described. Prognosis depends on the origin of the cyst.

  19. An unusual cause of abdominal pain in an HIV-positive man

    PubMed Central

    Saing, Chit; Yoganathan, Kathir G

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of an HIV-positive man on antiretroviral therapy (ART) who developed abdominal pain due to acute-on-chronic intestinal ischaemia secondary to superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (SMVT) requiring emergency surgery. He was found to have persistently low levels of protein C on thrombophilia screening. To the best of our knowledge, the association linking SMVT to protein C deficiency in an HIV-infected patient has never been reported in the literature. PMID:25819818

  20. Abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea in the United States: prevalence and impact.

    PubMed

    Sandler, R S; Stewart, W F; Liberman, J N; Ricci, J A; Zorich, N L

    2000-06-01

    The prevalence and impact of abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea in the adult US population are largely unknown. We conducted a national, cross-sectional, telephone survey of US households to provide estimates of the frequency, duration, severity, and impact of specific digestive symptoms during the previous month. A total of 2510 subjects completed interviews (70.7% response rate). Among the respondents, 1017 (40.5%) reported one or more digestive symptoms within the month before the interview, including abdominal pain or discomfort 21.8%, bloating or distension 15.9%, and diarrhea or loose stools 26.9%. Women were more likely than men to report abdominal pain or discomfort (24.4% vs 17.5%) and bloating or distension (19.2% vs 10.5%), but not diarrhea or loose stools (27.1% vs 26.7%). Symptoms were less common among those > or =60 years of age. More than 65% of respondents rated symptoms as moderate or severe in intensity, and the majority reported limitations in daily activities. We conclude that digestive symptoms are more common than previously recognized and have a significant impact.

  1. Soap Suds Enemas Are Efficacious and Safe for Treating Fecal Impaction in Children With Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Chumpitazi, Corrie E; Henkel, Erin B; Valdez, Karina L; Chumpitazi, Bruno P

    2016-07-01

    Constipation is a common cause of pediatric abdominal pain and emergency department (ED) presentation. Despite the high prevalence, there is a dearth of clinical information and wide practice variation in childhood constipation management in the ED. The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of soap suds enema (SSE) in the therapy for fecal impaction in children with abdominal pain within the pediatric ED setting. The primary outcome was stool output following SSE. Secondary outcomes were adverse events, admissions, and return visits within 72 hours. The present study is a retrospective cross-sectional study performed in the ED at a quaternary care children's hospital of patients seen during a 12-month period who received an SSE for fecal impaction. Five hundred twelve patients (53% girls, median age 7.8 years, range: 8 months-23 years) received SSE therapy during a 1-year period. Successful therapy (bowel movement) following SSE occurred in 419 (82%). Adverse events included abdominal pain in 24 (5%) and nausea/vomiting in 18 (4%). No SSE-related serious adverse events were identified. Following SSE, 405 (79%) were subsequently discharged, of which 15 (3.7%) returned to the ED for re-evaluation within 72 hours. SSE is an efficacious and safe therapeutic option for the acute treatment of childhood fecal impaction in the ED setting.

  2. Soap Suds Enema are Efficacious and Safe for Treating Fecal Impaction in Children with Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Chumpitazi, Corrie E.; Henkel, Erin B.; Valdez, Karina L.; Chumpitazi, Bruno P.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Constipation is a common cause of pediatric abdominal pain and emergency department (ED) presentation. Despite the high prevalence, there is a dearth of clinical information and wide practice variation in childhood constipation management in the ED. Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of soap suds enema (SSE) in the treatment of fecal impaction in children with abdominal pain within the pediatric emergency department (ED) setting. The primary outcome was stool output following SSE. Secondary outcomes were adverse events, admissions, and return visits within 72 hours. Methods This is a retrospective cross-sectional study performed in the ED at a quaternary care children’s hospital of patients seen over a 12-month period who received a SSE for fecal impaction. Results Five hundred twelve patients (53% female, median age 7.8 years, range: 8 months-23 years) received SSE therapy over a 1-year period. Successful therapy (bowel movement) following SSE occurred in 419 (82%). Adverse events included abdominal pain in 24 (5%) and nausea/vomiting in 18 (4%). No SSE-related serious adverse events were identified. Following SSE, 405 (79%) were subsequently discharged, of which 15 (3.7%) returned to the ED for re-evaluation within 72 hours. Conclusions and Relevance SSE is an efficacious and safe therapeutic option for the acute treatment of childhood fecal impaction in the ED setting. PMID:26655947

  3. An unusual cause of paediatric abdominal pain: Mesenteric masses accompanied with volvulus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Shan; Zhang, Jun; Kong, Xiang Ru; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Li, Chang Chun

    2016-07-01

    Volvulus caused by mesenteric masses is rare and may result in serious consequences. This study aimed to better characterize volvulus caused by mesenteric masses in children. A retrospective study was conducted in 24 patients who underwent surgical treatment between January 1994 and January 2014 in one single institution. There were 10 boys and 14 girls. The most frequent findings were abdominal pain (100%), emesis (91.7%) and nausea (83.3%). Physical examination showed positive ileus signs in majority cases, and palpable mass was found in half of the patients. Ultrasound and CT scans revealed mesenteric masses in 21 and 24 patients, and 'whirlpool sign' was observed in 19 and 22 patients, respectively. Emergency laparotomy was performed in all patients. Histological examination revealed that 18 cystic masses were lymphangioma, 5 solid cases were lipoma and the remaining one was lipoblastoma. The postoperative course was uneventful in 22 patients, and postoperative obstruction and incision infection occurred in 2 patients. There was no evidence of recurrence at follow-up. Volvulus caused by mesenteric masses is a rare but potentially life-threatening cause of abdominal pain, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of paediatric acute abdominal pain.

  4. Perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion on postoperative pain relief in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Baral, B K; Bhattarai, B K; Rahman, T R; Singh, S N; Regmi, R

    2010-12-01

    Due to unpleasant nature and physiological consequences of postoperative pain, search of safe and effective modalities for its management has remained a subject of interest to clinical researchers. Analgesic action of lidocaine infusion in patients with chronic neuropathic pain is well known but its place in relieving postoperative pain is yet to be established. The study aimed to assess the effectiveness of perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion on postoperative pain intensity and analgesic requirement. Sixty patients undergoing major upper abdominal surgery were recruited in this randomized double blinded study. Thirty patients received lidocaine 2.0% (intravenous bolus 1.5 mg/kg followed by an infusion of 1.5 mg/kg/h), and 30 patients received normal saline according to randomization. The infusion started 30 min before skin incision and stopped 1 h after the end of surgery. Postoperative pain intensity and analgesic (diclofenac) requirement were assessed at the interval 15 minutes for 1 hour then 4 hourly up to 24 hours. The pain intensity at rest and movement as well as the total postoperative analgesic (diclofenac) requirement were significantly lower (142.50 +/- 37.80 mg vs.185.00 +/- 41.31 mg, P<0.001) in lidocaine group. The extubation time was significantly longer in lidocaine group (14.43 +/- 3.50 minutes vs. 6.73 +/- 1.76 minutes, P<0.001). The time for the first dose of analgesic requirement was longer in lidocaine group (60.97 +/- 18.05 minutes vs.15.73 +/- 7.46 minutes, P<0.001). It can be concluded that perioperative infusion of low dose of lidocaine decreases the intensity of postoperative pain, reduces the postoperative analgesic consumption, without causing significant adverse effects in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery.

  5. Yoga Therapy for Abdominal Pain-Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Korterink, Judith J; Ockeloen, Lize E; Hilbink, Mirrian; Benninga, Marc A; Deckers-Kocken, Judith M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare effects of 10 weeks of yoga therapy (YT) and standard medical care (SMC) on abdominal pain and quality of life (QoL) in children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs). Sixty-nine patients, ages 8 to 18 years, with AP-FGIDs, were randomized to SMC complemented with YT or SMC alone. YT is a mixture of yoga poses, meditation, and relaxation exercises and was given once a week in group sessions. SMC consisted of education, reassurance, dietary advice, and fibers/mebeverine, if necessary. Pain intensity (pain intensity score [PIS] 0-5) and frequency (pain frequency score [PFS] 0-4) were scored in a pain diary, and QoL was measured with KIDSCREEN-27. Follow-up was 12 months. Treatment response was defined as ≥50% reduction of weekly pain scores. At 1-year follow-up, treatment response was accomplished in 58% of the YT group and in 29% of the control group (P = 0.01); no significant differences for other time points were found. YT, and not SMC, resulted in a significant reduction of PIS (P < 0.01) and PFS (P < 0.01) after 12 months. During the study, however, YT was not significantly superior compared with SMC. Subanalyses for time points demonstrated a significant greater reduction of PIS at 12 months in favor of YT. No differences were found for QoL. YT was more effective in the reduction of reported monthly school absence (P = 0.03). At 1-year follow-up, YT in addition to standard care was superior compared with SMC according to treatment success, PIS, and reduction of school absence. YT, however, was not significantly more effective in improving PFS or QoL, compared with SMC.

  6. Acceptance-based interoceptive exposure for young children with functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Nancy; Mauro, Christian; Craske, Michelle; Wagner, H Ryan; Datta, Nandini; Hopkins, Hannah; Caldwell, Kristen; Kiridly, Adam; Marsan, Samuel; Maslow, Gary; Mayer, Emeran; Egger, Helen

    2017-10-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is a common childhood somatic complaint that contributes to impairment in daily functioning (e.g., school absences) and increases risk for chronic pain and psychiatric illness. Cognitive behavioral treatments for FAP target primarily older children (9 + years) and employ strategies to reduce a focus on pain. The experience of pain may be an opportunity to teach viscerally hypersensitive children to interpret the function of a variety of bodily signals (including those of hunger, emotions) thereby reducing fear of bodily sensations and facilitating emotion awareness and self-regulation. We designed and tested an interoceptive exposure treatment for younger children (5-9 years) with FAP. Assessments included diagnostic interviews, 14 days of daily pain monitoring, and questionnaires. Treatment involved 10 weekly appointments. Using cartoon characters to represent bodily sensations (e.g., Gassy Gus), children were trained to be "FBI agents" - Feeling and Body Investigators - who investigated sensations through exercises that provoked somatic experience. 24 parent-child dyads are reported. Pain (experience, distress, and interference) and negative affect demonstrated clinically meaningful and statistically significant change with effect sizes ranging from 0.48 to 71 for pain and from 0.38 to 0.61 for pain distress, total pain: X(2) (1, n = 24) = 13.14, p < 0.0003. An intervention that helps children adopt a curious stance and focus on somatic symptoms reduces pain and may help lessen somatic fear generally. NCT02075437. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Abdominal pain in an adult with Type 2 diabetes: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Panagoulias, George; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Ladas, Spiros S

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Chronic abdominal pain (CAP) may be a manifestation of diseases involving many intra-abdominal organs. Beside diseases affecting subjects without diabetes mellitus, diabetic patients may have CAP due to diabetes-related complications like neuritis, motor diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and autonomic dysfunction. Atherosclerosis is 2–4 times more common in patients with diabetes and affects mainly carotid, coronary, iliac and lower limb arteries as well as aorta. Another less common complication is chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI, intestinal angina), caused by atherosclerotic obstruction of the celiac artery and its branches and results in episodic or constant intestinal hypoperfusion. Case presentation We present a case of a diabetic patient with CMI in whom the diagnosis was delayed by almost 5 years. The dominant symptoms were crampy abdominal postprandial pain, anorexia, changes in bowel habits and cachexia. Conventional angiography revealed significant stenosis of the celiac artery and complete obstruction of the inferior mesenteric artery. Noteworthy, no significant stenoses in carotids or limbs' arteries were found. Revascularization resulted in clinical improvement 1 week post-intervention. Conclusion CAP in patients with diabetes may be due to CMI. The typical presentation is crampy postprandial abdominal pain in a heavy smoker male patient with long-standing diabetes, accompanied by anorexia, changes in bowel habits and mild to moderate weight loss. At least two of the three main splanchnic arteries must be significantly occluded in order CMI to be symptomatic. The diagnostic procedure of choice is conventional angiography and revascularization of the occluded arteries is the radical treatment. PMID:18798976

  8. Continuous wound infusion of local anesthetic for the control of pain after elective abdominal colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Polglase, Adrian L; McMurrick, Paul J; Simpson, Paul J B; Wale, Roger J; Carne, Peter W G; Johnson, William; Chee, Justin; Ooi, Corrine W; Chong, Jennifer W D; Kingsland, Sally R; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2007-12-01

    Local anesthetic wound infusion has been investigated in recent years as a potential alternative to standard analgesic regimens after major surgery. This study investigates the efficacy of a continuous wound infusion of ropivacaine in conjunction with best practice postoperative analgesia after midline laparotomy for abdominal colorectal surgery. We performed a randomized, participant and outcome assessor-blinded, placebo-controlled trial on patients presenting for major abdominal colorectal surgery at our institution between December 2003 and February 2006. Patients were allocated to receive ropivacaine 0.54 percent or normal saline via a dual catheter Painbuster Soaker (I-Flow Corporation, OH, USA) continuous infusion device into their midline laparotomy wound for 72 hours postoperatively. A total of 310 patients were included in this study. The continuous wound infusion of ropivacaine after abdominal colorectal surgery conveys minimal benefit compared with saline wound infusion. No statistically significant difference could be shown for: pain at rest, morphine usage, length of stay, mobility, nausea, or return of bowel function. There was a small, statistically significant difference in mean pain on movement on Day 1 for the ropivacaine group (adjusted mean difference -0.6 (range, -1.08 to -0.13)). Although this trend continued on Days 2 and 3, the differences between groups were no longer statistically significant. Management of pain after major abdominal colorectal surgery is best achieved through adopting a multimodal approach to analgesia. Delivery of ropivacaine to midline laparotomy wounds via a Painbuster Soaker device is safe, but we have not demonstrated any significant clinical advantage over current best practice.

  9. Dengue fever mimicking acute appendicitis: A case report.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, M E C; Plummer, J M; Leake, P A; Powell, L; Chand, V; Chung, S; Tulloch, K

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever is an acute viral disease, which usually presents as a mild febrile illness. Patients with severe disease present with dengue haemorrhagic fever or dengue toxic shock syndrome. Rarely, it presents with abdominal symptoms mimicking acute appendicitis. We present a case of a male patient presenting with right iliac fossa pain and suspected acute appendicitis that was later diagnosed with dengue fever following a negative appendicectomy. A 13-year old male patient presented with fever, localized right-sided abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound was not helpful and appendicectomy was performed due to worsening abdominal signs and an elevated temperature. A normal appendix with enlarged mesenteric nodes was found at surgery. Complete blood count showed thrombocytopenia with leucopenia. Dengue fever was now suspected and confirmed by IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against dengue virus. This unusual presentation of dengue fever mimicking acute appendicitis should be suspected during viral outbreaks and in patients with atypical symptoms and cytopenias on blood evaluation in order to prevent unnecessary surgery. This case highlights the occurrence of abdominal symptoms and complications that may accompany dengue fever. Early recognition of dengue fever mimicking acute appendicitis will avoid non-therapeutic operation and the diagnosis may be aided by blood investigations indicating a leucopenia, which is uncommon in patients with suppurative acute appendicitis. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T

    2000-01-01

    The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  11. Diagnostic laparoscopy and adhesiolysis: does it help with complex abdominal and pelvic pain syndrome (CAPPS) in general surgery?

    PubMed

    McClain, Gregory D; Redan, Jay A; McCarus, Steven D; Caceres, Aileen; Kim, John

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal pains secondary to adhesions are a common complaint, but most surgeons do not perform surgery for this complaint unless the patient suffers from a bowel obstruction. The purpose of this evaluation was to determine if lysis of bowel adhesions has a role in the surgical management of adhesions for helping treat abdominal pain. The database of our patients with complex abdominal and pelvic pain syndrome (CAPPS) was reviewed to identify patients who underwent a laparoscopic lysis of adhesion without any organ removal and observe if they had a decrease in the amount of abdominal pain after this procedure. Thirty-one patients completed follow-up at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. At 6, 9, and 12 months postoperation, there were statistically significant decreases in patients' analog pain scores. We concluded that laparoscopic lysis of adhesions can help decrease adhesion-related pain. The pain from adhesions may involve a more complex pathway toward pain resolution than a simple cutting of scar tissue, such as "phantom pain" following amputation, which takes time to resolve after this type of surgery.

  12. A Case of Chronic Abdominal Neuropathic Pain and Burning after Female Genital Cutting.

    PubMed

    Hadid, Vicky; Dahan, Michael Haim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Female genital cutting is prevalent in the Middle Eastern and African countries. This ritual entails not only immediate complications such as infection, pain, and haemorrhage, but also chronic ones including dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia. However, there is limited data on neuropathic pain secondary to female genital mutilation when searching the literature. Case. This case discusses a 38-year-old female with a history of infibulation who presented with a chronic burning abdominal and anterior vulvar pain including the related investigations and treatment. Discussion. This case brings to light the additional delayed complication of this ritual: sensory neuropathy. Our goal is to educate health professionals to be aware of these complications and to appropriately investigate and treat them in order to find a solution to relieve the patients' symptoms.

  13. NMOSD triggered by yellow fever vaccination - An unusual clinical presentation with segmental painful erythema.

    PubMed

    Schöberl, F; Csanadi, E; Eren, O; Dieterich, M; Kümpfel, T

    2017-01-01

    Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system with the presence of aquaporin 4-antibodies (AQP4-abs) in most cases. We describe a patient who developed NMOSD after a yellow fever vaccination. He presented to us with an unusual painful erythema Th7-9 triggered by touch in the respective skin area due to a cervical spinal cord lesion affecting the dorsolateral parts of C6/7. To our knowledge, this is the first case of NMOSD with such a clinical presentation expanding the clinical spectrum of NMOSD. It is important to be aware of that a yellow fever vaccination can trigger NMOSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional abdominal pain patient subtypes in childhood predict functional gastrointestinal disorders with chronic pain and psychiatric comorbidities in adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lynn S; Sherman, Amanda L; Bruehl, Stephen; Garber, Judy; Smith, Craig A

    2012-09-01

    Although pediatric functional abdominal pain (FAP) has been linked to abdominal pain later in life, childhood predictors of long-term outcomes have not been identified. This study evaluated whether distinct FAP profiles based on patterns of pain and adaptation in childhood could be identified and whether these profiles predicted differences in clinical outcomes and central sensitization (wind-up) on average 9years later. In 843 pediatric FAP patients, cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups at initial FAP evaluation based on profiles of pain severity, gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI symptoms, pain threat appraisal, pain coping efficacy, catastrophizing, negative affect, and activity impairment. Three profiles were identified: high pain dysfunctional, high pain adaptive, and low pain adaptive. Logistic regression analyses controlling for age and sex showed that, compared with pediatric patients with the low pain adaptive profile, those with the high pain dysfunctional profile were significantly more likely at long-term follow-up to meet criteria for pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) (odds ratio: 3.45, confidence interval: 1.95 to 6.11), FGID with comorbid nonabdominal chronic pain (odds ratio: 2.6, confidence interval: 1.45 to 4.66), and FGID with comorbid anxiety or depressive psychiatric disorder (odds ratio: 2.84, confidence interval: 1.35 to 6.00). Pediatric patients with the high pain adaptive profile had baseline pain severity comparable to that of the high pain dysfunctional profile, but had outcomes as favorable as the low pain adaptive profile. In laboratory pain testing at follow-up, high pain dysfunctional patients showed significantly greater thermal wind-up than low pain adaptive patients, suggesting that a subgroup of FAP patients has outcomes consistent with widespread effects of heightened central sensitization. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  15. Pain-related bias in the classification of emotionally ambiguous facial expressions in mothers of children with chronic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Liossi, Christina; White, Paul; Croome, Natasha; Hatira, Popi

    2012-03-01

    This study sought to determine whether mothers of young people with chronic abdominal pain (CAP) compared to mothers of pain-free children show a pain recognition bias when they classify facial emotional expressions. One hundred demographically matched mothers of children with CAP (n=50) and control mothers (n=50) were asked to identify different emotions expressed by adults in 2 experiments. In experiment 1, participants were required to identify the emotion in a series of facial images that depicted 100% intensity of the following emotions: Pain, Sadness, Anger, Fear, Happiness, and Neutral. In experiment 2, mothers were required to identify the predominant emotion in a series of computer-interpolated ("morphed") facial images. In this experiment, pain was combined with Sad, Angry, Fearful, Happy, and Neutral facial expressions in different proportions-that is, 90%:10%, 70%:30%, 50%:50%, 30%:70%, 10%:90%. All participants completed measures of state and trait anxiety, depression, and anxiety sensitivity. In experiment 1, there was no difference in the performance of the 2 groups of mothers. In experiment 2, it was found that overall mothers of children with CAP were classifying ambiguous emotional expressions predominantly as pain. Mean response times for CAP and control groups did not differ significantly. Mothers of children with CAP did not report more anxiety, depression, and anxiety sensitivity compared to control mothers. It is concluded that mothers of children with CAP show a pain bias when interpreting ambiguous emotional expressions, which possibly contributes to the maintenance of this condition in children via specific parenting behaviours.

  16. Comparison of Contraction Rates of Abdominal Muscles of Chronic Low Back Pain Patients in Different Postures

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Hak; Kim, Kang Hoon; Baek, Il-Hun; Goo, Bong-Oh

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the contraction rates of abdominal muscles in relation to the posture of chronic lumbar pain patients and normal subjects. [Subjects] The subjects were 17 chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients and 17 normal people between the ages of 20 and 59. [Methods] Experimental postures included a supine position, a sitting position, and a standing position. Measurements were taken at rest and during abdominal contraction. The measurement at rest was taken during expiration with comfortable breathing, and the measurement during contraction was taken at maximum expiration of forced expiration. Muscle contraction rates (on contraction and at relaxation) were calculated. [Results] There were significant differences between CLBP patients and normal subjects in the transversus abdominis (TrA) in the standing position. [Conclusion] Changes in contraction rates of the abdominal muscles of normal subjects and CLBP patients were examined in different postures at maximum expiration. It was found that the contraction rate of TrA in CLBP patients in a standing position, is significantly lower than that of normal subjects. PMID:24259882

  17. Preliminary study on attitudes, opinions and knowledge of Italian veterinarians with regard to abdominal visceral pain in dogs.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Alice; Di Salvo, Alessandra; Steagall, Paulo V; Zampini, Danilo; Polisca, Angela; Della Rocca, Giorgia

    2016-07-01

    To determine the attitudes, opinions and knowledge of Italian veterinarians regarding abdominal visceral pain in canine practice. Prospective online survey. An online questionnaire was created on a Google Form spreadsheet and the weblink was circulated to Italian veterinarians on several mailing lists. The questionnaire, which was available between November 2012 and July 2013, comprised 18 closed, semi-closed and open questions divided into five sections (aetiology, recognition and assessment, drug choices for canine visceral pain, general knowledge about pain management and desire for further education, and demographic information). A total of 527 responses to the questionnaire were completed. Pancreatitis (19%), gastroenteritis (17%) and gastrointestinal obstructions or foreign bodies (9%) were highlighted as the most frequent causes of abdominal visceral pain. Posture, gait and movement changes (32%) and physiological changes (31%) were commonly quoted for pain recognition and assessment. Most respondents (74%) did not use pain scoring systems. Pancreatitis and peritonitis were considered the most painful abdominal conditions. Opioids (40%), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (21%) and tramadol (20%) were cited as drugs for the management of visceral pain. A large percentage of respondents (97%) believed that their knowledge regarding pain management required improvement. There is practitioner interest for more continuing education in the subject. Most respondents were women (66%), aged between 25 and 40 years (57%). Internal medicine (56%), surgery (34%) and anaesthesiology (29%) were the main three speciality areas of interest in this study. This online survey represents the opinion of a small number of Italian veterinarians regarding the assessment and treatment of canine abdominal visceral pain. The results show that Italian veterinarians are aware of the main causes and clinical signs of canine visceral pain. Pain-scoring systems are not often used for

  18. Antinociceptive effects of novel melatonin receptor agonists in mouse models of abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chunqiu; Fichna, Jakub; Laudon, Moshe; Storr, Martin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the antinociceptive action of the novel melatonin receptor (MT) agonists, Neu-P11 and Neu-P12 in animal models of visceral pain. METHODS: Visceral pain was induced by intracolonic (ic) application of mustard oil or capsaicin solution or by intraperitoneal (ip) administration of acetic acid. Neu-P11, Neu-P12, or melatonin were given ip or orally and their effects on pain-induced behavioral responses were evaluated. To identify the receptors involved, the non-selective MT1/MT2 receptor antagonist luzindole, the MT2 receptor antagonist 4-P-PDOT, or the μ-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone were injected ip or intracerebroventricularly (icv) prior to the induction of pain. RESULTS: Orally and ip administered melatonin, Neu-P11, and Neu-P12 reduced pain responses in a dose-dependent manner. Neu-P12 was more effective and displayed longer duration of action compared to melatonin. The antinociceptive effects of Neu-P11 or Neu-P12 were antagonized by ip or icv. administered naloxone. Intracerebroventricularly, but not ip administration of luzindole or 4-P-PDOT blocked the antinociceptive actions of Neu-P11 or Neu-P12. CONCLUSION: Neu-P12 produced the most potent and long-lasting antinociceptive effect. Further development of Neu-P12 for future treatment of abdominal pain seems promising. PMID:24574803

  19. Attentional bias to pain and social threat in pediatric patients with functional abdominal pain and pain-free youth before and after performance evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Joy E.; Lipani, Tricia A.; Baber, Kari F.; Dufton, Lynette; Garber, Judy; Smith, Craig A.; Walker, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated attentional biases for pain and social threat versus neutral stimuli in 54 youth with functional abdominal pain (FAP) and 53 healthy control subjects (ages 10 to 16 years). We assessed attentional bias using a visual probe detection task (PDT) that presented pain and social threat words in comparison to neutral words at conscious (1250 ms) and preconscious (20 ms) presentation rates. We administered the PDT before and after random assignment of participants to a laboratory stressor—failure versus success feedback regarding their performance on a challenging computer game. All analyses controlled for trait anxiety. At the conscious rate of stimulus presentation, FAP patients exhibited preferential attention toward pain compared with neutral stimuli and compared with the control group. FAP patients maintained preferential attention toward conscious pain stimuli after performance feedback in both failure and success conditions. At the preconscious rate of stimulus presentation, FAP patients’ attention was neutral at baseline but increased significantly toward pain stimuli after performance feedback in both failure and success conditions. FAP patients’ somatic symptoms increased in both failure and success conditions; control youth’s somatic symptoms only increased after failure. Regarding social threat, neither FAP nor control youth exhibited attentional bias toward social threat compared with neutral stimuli at baseline, but both FAP and control youth in the failure condition significantly increased attention away from social threat after failure feedback. Results suggest that FAP patients preferentially attend to pain stimuli in conscious awareness. Moreover, performance evaluation may activate their preconscious attention to pain stimuli. PMID:21420789

  20. Delayed abdominal muscle onsets and self-report measures of pain and disability in chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Paul; Murphy, Bernadette

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was the measure the onset time of the transverse abdominis (TA) muscle during rapid unilateral shoulder movements in individuals with chronic low back pain (LBP), and to evaluate the relationship between latency times and self-report measures of pain and disability. Descriptive cross-sectional study. University laboratory. Eighty individuals with chronic LBP of a non-specific origin (males n=44, females n=36). Responses of the right and left surface TA/internal obliques were measured using surface electromyography (EMG) during rapid unilateral shoulder flexion, abduction, and extension. Pain intensity was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS), and disability with the Oswestry disability index (ODI). Seventy-five percent of individuals were identified as lacking feedforward activation. A significant sidexdirection main effect was identified, with the ipsilateral latency more delayed in flexion and abduction (F(2316)=58.2, p<0.001). Individuals without feedforward activation had lower ODI scores (23.2+/-6.9% vs 31.0+/-9.2%, mean difference 7.8%, 95% CI 3.9 to 11.6%, p<0.001). Regression analysis found that 17% of the variance in VAS scores for the entire sample (n=80) were explained by the latency times measured. This relationship was stronger when the sample was separated into individuals who did (n=20), and did not (n=60) have feedforward activation. Deep abdominal muscle onsets during rapid limb movement were significantly associated with self-rated pain scores. Seventy-five percent of individuals with chronic non-specific LBP exhibited delayed activation. No evidence has been provided in this study to support, or refute the use of specific localized deep abdominal contractions for exercise rehabilitation programs. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Physician's Nightmare: Fever of Unknown Origin

    PubMed Central

    Anwer, Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains to be a challenge despite advancement in diagnostic technologies and procedures. FUO is considered when fever presents intermittently without an explanation. It has been linked to various etiologies, which makes it difficult to diagnose. We present the case of 18-month-old female with recurrent fever, splenomegaly, abdominal pain, and constipation. The workup for her symptoms revealed wandering spleen. Wandering spleen is a result from excessive laxity or absence of splenic ligaments. The patient underwent splenectomy and was advised to continue on Senna, Miralax, and high fiber diet. Her mother reported that the fever is no longer present and there is marked improvement in her constipation and abdominal pain after splenectomy. PMID:27433363

  2. A Physician's Nightmare: Fever of Unknown Origin.

    PubMed

    Din, Sana; Anwer, Farrukh; Beg, Mirza

    2016-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains to be a challenge despite advancement in diagnostic technologies and procedures. FUO is considered when fever presents intermittently without an explanation. It has been linked to various etiologies, which makes it difficult to diagnose. We present the case of 18-month-old female with recurrent fever, splenomegaly, abdominal pain, and constipation. The workup for her symptoms revealed wandering spleen. Wandering spleen is a result from excessive laxity or absence of splenic ligaments. The patient underwent splenectomy and was advised to continue on Senna, Miralax, and high fiber diet. Her mother reported that the fever is no longer present and there is marked improvement in her constipation and abdominal pain after splenectomy.

  3. Emergency assessment of patients with acute abdominal pain using low-dose CT with iterative reconstruction: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Becker, Minerva; Becker, Christoph D; Halfon Poletti, Alice; Rutschmann, Olivier T; Zaidi, Habib; Perneger, Thomas; Platon, Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    To determine if radiation dose delivered by contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) for acute abdominal pain can be reduced to the dose administered in abdominal radiography (<2.5 mSv) using low-dose CT (LDCT) with iterative reconstruction algorithms. One hundred and fifty-one consecutive patients requiring CECT for acute abdominal pain were included, and their body mass index (BMI) was calculated. CECT was immediately followed by LDCT. LDCT series was processed using 1) 40% iterative reconstruction algorithm blended with filtered back projection (LDCT-IR-FBP) and 2) model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm (LDCT-MBIR). LDCT-IR-FBP and LDCT-MBIR images were reviewed independently by two board-certified radiologists (Raters 1 and 2). Abdominal pathology was revealed on CECT in 120 (79%) patients. In those with BMI <30, accuracies for correct diagnosis by Rater 1 with LDCT-IR-FBP and LDCT-MBIR, when compared to CECT, were 95.4% (104/109) and 99% (108/109), respectively, and 92.7% (101/109) and 100% (109/109) for Rater 2. In patients with BMI ≥30, accuracies with LDCT-IR-FBP and LDCT-MBIR were 88.1% (37/42) and 90.5% (38/42) for Rater 1 and 78.6% (33/42) and 92.9% (39/42) for Rater 2. The radiation dose delivered by CT to non-obese patients with acute abdominal pain can be safely reduced to levels close to standard radiography using LDCT-MBIR. • LDCT-MBIR (<2.5 mSv) can be used to assess acute abdominal pain. • LDCT-MBIR (<2.5 mSv) cannot safely assess acute abdominal pain in obese patients. • LDCT-IR-FBP (<2.5 mSv) cannot safely assess patients with acute abdominal pain.

  4. The effect of abdominal bracing in combination with low extremity movements on changes in thickness of abdominal muscles and lumbar strength for low back pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Hee; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Byoung Hee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abdominal bracing with low extremity movement on changes in thickness of abdominal muscles and lumbar strength. [Subjects] Sixteen patients with chronic low back pain were randomly assigned to two groups: an abdominal bracing with active straight leg raise (ABSLR) group and abdominal bracing with ankle dorsiflexion (ABDF) group. [Methods] All subjects were evaluated for their abdominal muscle strength using a MedX Lumbar Extension Machine and thickness of external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transverse abdominis (TrA) muscles using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging. Subjects in both groups were instructed to perform Abdominal bracing (AB). Simultaneously, those in the ABSLR group performed active SLR, and those in the ABDF group performed ankle dorsiflexion. [Results] In comparison between the ABSLR and ABDF groups, significant differences in the thickness of the IO and TrA muscles were observed after the intervention in the ABSLR group. Also, lumbar strength was showed a significant increase in both groups after interventions. [Conclusion] The results of this study demonstrated that ABSLR is a more effective method than ABDF for improvement of abdominal stabilization by increasing the thicknesses of the TrA and IO.

  5. The Effect of Abdominal Bracing in Combination with Low Extremity Movements on Changes in Thickness of Abdominal Muscles and Lumbar Strength for Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So Hee; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Byoung Hee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abdominal bracing with low extremity movement on changes in thickness of abdominal muscles and lumbar strength. [Subjects] Sixteen patients with chronic low back pain were randomly assigned to two groups: an abdominal bracing with active straight leg raise (ABSLR) group and abdominal bracing with ankle dorsiflexion (ABDF) group. [Methods] All subjects were evaluated for their abdominal muscle strength using a MedX Lumbar Extension Machine and thickness of external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transverse abdominis (TrA) muscles using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging. Subjects in both groups were instructed to perform Abdominal bracing (AB). Simultaneously, those in the ABSLR group performed active SLR, and those in the ABDF group performed ankle dorsiflexion. [Results] In comparison between the ABSLR and ABDF groups, significant differences in the thickness of the IO and TrA muscles were observed after the intervention in the ABSLR group. Also, lumbar strength was showed a significant increase in both groups after interventions. [Conclusion] The results of this study demonstrated that ABSLR is a more effective method than ABDF for improvement of abdominal stabilization by increasing the thicknesses of the TrA and IO. PMID:24567697

  6. Abdominal CT scanning in reproductive-age women with right lower quadrant abdominal pain: does its use reduce negative appendectomy rates and healthcare costs?

    PubMed

    Morse, Bryan C; Roettger, Richard H; Kalbaugh, Corey A; Blackhurst, Dawn W; Hines, William B

    2007-06-01

    Although acute appendicitis is the most frequent cause of the acute abdomen in the United States, its accurate diagnosis in reproductive-age women remains difficult. Problems in making the diagnosis are evidenced by negative appendectomy rates in this group of 20 per cent to 45 per cent. Abdominal CT scanning has been used in diagnosing acute appendicitis, but its reliability and usefulness remains controversial. There is concern that the use of CT scanning to make this diagnosis leads to increased and unwarranted healthcare charges and costs. The purpose of our study is to determine if abdominal CT scanning is an effective test in making the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in reproductive-age women (age, 16-49 years) with right lower quadrant abdominal pain and to determine if its use is cost-effective. From January 2003 to December 2006, 439 patients were identified from our academic surgical database and confirmed by chart review as undergoing an appendectomy with a pre- or postoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Data, including age, presence and results of preoperative abdominal CT scans, operative findings, and pathology reports were reviewed. Comparison of patients receiving a preoperative CT scan with those who did not was performed using chi-squared analysis. In the subgroup of reproductive-age women, there was a significant difference in negative appendectomy rates of 17 per cent in the group that received abdominal CT scans versus 42 per cent in the group that did not (P < 0.038). After accounting for the patient and insurance company costs, abdominal CT scan savings averaged $1412 per patient. Abdominal CT scanning is a reliable, useful, and cost-effective test for evaluating right lower quadrant abdominal pain and making the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in reproductive-age women.

  7. Dengue Fever with rectus sheath hematoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anurag; Bhatia, Sonia; Singh, Rajendra Pratap; Malik, Gaurav

    2014-04-01

    Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the Dengue virus. It is associated with a number of complications, which are well documented. However, Dengue fever associated with rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is a very rare complication. Only one case report has been published prior supporting the association of Dengue fever with RSH. We report a case of Dengue fever who presented with RSH and was successfully treated conservatively. RSH is also an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. It is accumulation of blood in the sheath of the rectus abdominis, secondary to rupture of an epigastric vessel or muscle tear.

  8. [Abdominal pain and flatulence. Intestinal and pulmonary tuberculosis. IgG kappa paraproteinemia].

    PubMed

    Schulthess, G; Osterwalder, P; Valentini, T; Bicik, I; Widmer, U

    1998-03-04

    A 21-year-old woman suffered from cramplike abdominal pain, flatulence and occasional diarrhoea for about one year. Over the past few weeks the abdominal symptoms exacerbated, besides productive cough and subfebrile temperatures developed. Coloscopy revealed two isolated, short ulcers in the proximal colon. The histological examination of the biopsies taken from these ulcers indicated granulomatous inflammation. Moreover small acinar infiltrates in both pulmonary apices were visualized. The findings in this patient originating from Turkey were suspicious for intestinal and pulmonary tuberculosis. Though sensitive methods were used (Ziehl-Neelson stam, amplified M. tuberculosis direct test, a polymerase chain reaction) direct tests allowed no detection of mycobacteria. Antituberculous therapy was initiated on a probatory basis to which the patient responded well and promptly. The diagnosis was confirmed by culture results: M. tuberculosis was grown from colonic biopsies, morning sputa and bronchioalveolar lavage.

  9. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... powered by a computer program that performs symptom triage. The goal of symptom triage is to decide when, and where, you should seek care when you have symptoms. Symptom triage does not replace a physician evaluation or make ...

  10. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does not ...

  11. [Sacroiliitis in familial Mediterranean fever].

    PubMed

    Connemann, B J; Steinhoff, J; Benstein, R; Sack, K

    1991-11-22

    A 15-year-old girl of Turkish descent had for one year complained of severe recurrent fever-associated deep back pains. Since she was three years of age she had suffered from repeated attacks of fever and severe abdominal pain which ceased spontaneously in 1-3 days. On physical examination the sacrum and iliosacral joints were very painful to percussion, and she limped. Radiography revealed symmetric destructive sacroiliitis. Despite the unusual location of the arthritis, the triad of fever, abdominal pain and arthritis, as well as her belonging to an ethnic "at risk" group, pointed to the diagnosis of familial mediterranean fever (FML) or recurrent hereditary polyserositis. This diagnosis was confirmed by a positive metaraminol provocation test in that infusion of metaraminol reproduced the typical pains. Collagen diseases, rheumatic disease, acute porphyria and chronic infectious processes were excluded. The sacroiliitis quickly responded to long-term administration of colchicine, 0.5 mg twice daily. The patient also has Hageman factor deficiency whose significance remains unclear.

  12. Activation of lumbar paraspinal and abdominal muscles during therapeutic exercises in chronic low back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Arokoski, Jari P; Valta, Taru; Kankaanpää, Markku; Airaksinen, Olavi

    2004-05-01

    To assess the activities of paraspinal and abdominal muscles during therapeutic exercises for the treatment of patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain (CLBP), and to study the effects of active physical rehabilitation on these activities. A cross-sectional study comparing muscle activities during 18 stabilization exercises, and a prospective follow-up of patients with CLBP during rehabilitation. Rehabilitation clinic in university hospital in Finland. Nine volunteers (5 men, 4 women) aged 27 to 58 years. Three months of active outpatient rehabilitation (4 to 6 times in a rehabilitation clinic, supplemented with self-motivated exercise at home) supervised by a physiotherapist. Surface electromyography was recorded bilaterally from L5 level paraspinal, rectus abdominis, and obliquus externus abdominis muscles. The recorded signal was averaged and normalized to the maximal electromyographic amplitude obtained during the maximal voluntary contraction. The measurements were taken before and after the exercise treatment period. CLBP patients showed variable trunk muscle activity patterns during the different therapeutic exercises, similar to those that we reported earlier in healthy subjects. The maximal trunk isometric extension (pre, 147.3+/-75.9Nm; post, 170.1+/-72.3Nm) and flexion (pre, 72.0+/-37.9Nm; post, 93.5+/-42.5Nm) torques did not show a significant changes during the exercise period. However, trunk rotation-flexion torque (pre, 52.9+/-26.5Nm; post, 82.4+/-65.8Nm) increased significantly (35.8%) after the exercise period (P<.05). The corresponding maximal electromyographic amplitudes of back and abdominal muscles remained unchanged. Disability, as assessed by visual analog scale and Oswestry Disability Index, did not change. The CLBP patients performed therapeutic exercises with similar abdominal and back extensor muscle activities in the same way as the healthy subjects in our earlier studies. In this study, active physical rehabilitation had no

  13. Health Outcomes in US Children with Abdominal Pain at Major Emergency Departments Associated with Race and Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Louise; Haberland, Corinna; Thurm, Cary; Bhattacharya, Jay; Park, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Over 9.6 million ED visits occur annually for abdominal pain in the US, but little is known about the medical outcomes of these patients based on demographics. We aimed to identify disparities in outcomes among children presenting to the ED with abdominal pain linked to race and SES. Methods Data from 4.2 million pediatric encounters of abdominal pain were analyzed from 43 tertiary US children’s hospitals, including 2.0 million encounters in the emergency department during 2004-2011. Abdominal pain was categorized as functional or organic abdominal pain. Appendicitis (with and without perforation) was used as a surrogate for abdominal pain requiring emergent care. Multivariate analysis estimated likelihood of hospitalizations, radiologic imaging, ICU admissions, appendicitis, appendicitis with perforation, and time to surgery and hospital discharge. Results Black and low income children had increased odds of perforated appendicitis (aOR, 1.42, 95% CI, 1.32- 1.53; aOR, 1.20, 95% CI 1.14 – 1.25). Blacks had increased odds of an ICU admission (aOR, 1.92, 95% CI 1.53 - 2.42) and longer lengths of stay (aHR, 0.91, 95% CI 0.86 – 0.96) than Whites. Minorities and low income also had lower rates of imaging for their appendicitis, including CT scans. The combined effect of race and income on perforated appendicitis, hospitalization, and time to surgery was greater than either separately. Conclusions Based on race and SES, disparity of health outcomes exists in the acute ED setting among children presenting with abdominal pain, with differences in appendicitis with perforation, length of stay, and time until surgery. PMID:26267816

  14. Health outcomes in US children with abdominal pain at major emergency departments associated with race and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Wang, Louise; Haberland, Corinna; Thurm, Cary; Bhattacharya, Jay; Park, K T

    2015-01-01

    Over 9.6 million ED visits occur annually for abdominal pain in the US, but little is known about the medical outcomes of these patients based on demographics. We aimed to identify disparities in outcomes among children presenting to the ED with abdominal pain linked to race and SES. Data from 4.2 million pediatric encounters of abdominal pain were analyzed from 43 tertiary US children's hospitals, including 2.0 million encounters in the emergency department during 2004-2011. Abdominal pain was categorized as functional or organic abdominal pain. Appendicitis (with and without perforation) was used as a surrogate for abdominal pain requiring emergent care. Multivariate analysis estimated likelihood of hospitalizations, radiologic imaging, ICU admissions, appendicitis, appendicitis with perforation, and time to surgery and hospital discharge. Black and low income children had increased odds of perforated appendicitis (aOR, 1.42, 95% CI, 1.32- 1.53; aOR, 1.20, 95% CI 1.14 - 1.25). Blacks had increased odds of an ICU admission (aOR, 1.92, 95% CI 1.53 - 2.42) and longer lengths of stay (aHR, 0.91, 95% CI 0.86 - 0.96) than Whites. Minorities and low income also had lower rates of imaging for their appendicitis, including CT scans. The combined effect of race and income on perforated appendicitis, hospitalization, and time to surgery was greater than either separately. Based on race and SES, disparity of health outcomes exists in the acute ED setting among children presenting with abdominal pain, with differences in appendicitis with perforation, length of stay, and time until surgery.

  15. Screening for psychiatric comorbidity in children with recurrent headache or recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Machnes-Maayan, Ditti; Elazar, Maya; Apter, Alan; Zeharia, Avraham; Krispin, Orit; Eidlitz-Markus, Tal

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent pain symptoms in children are associated with psychiatric comorbidities that could complicate treatment. We investigated the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in children with recurrent headache or recurrent abdominal pain and evaluated the screening potential of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire compared with the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). Eighty-three outpatients aged 5-17 years attending a tertiary medical center for a primary diagnosis of migraine (n = 32), tension-type headache (n = 32), or recurrent abdominal pain (n = 19), and 33 healthy matched controls completed the brief self-reporting Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire followed by the Development and Well-Being Assessment. Findings were compared among groups and between instruments. The pain groups were characterized by a significantly higher number of Development and Well-Being Assessment diagnoses (range 0-11) than controls and a significantly greater prevalence (by category) of Development and Well-Being Assessment diagnoses (P < 0.001 for both). Anxiety and depression were the most prevalent Development and Well-Being Assessment diagnoses. Comorbidities were more severe in the headache groups than the controls (P < 0.001). In general, any diagnosis by the Development and Well-Being Assessment was associated with a significantly higher Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire score (P < 0.001). Abnormal scores on the emotional, conduct, and hyperactivity Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire scales were significantly predictive of a Development and Well-Being Assessment diagnosis (P < 0.003). Children referred to specialized outpatient pediatric units for evaluation of recurrent pain are at high risk of psychopathology. The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire may serve as a rapid cost-effective tool for initial screening of these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multimodal pain control is associated with reduced hospital stay following open abdominal hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Santoso, Joseph T; Ulm, Michael A; Jennings, Patrick W; Wan, Jim Y

    2014-12-01

    To study the association of a multimodal pain protocol (MMPC) and reduced hospital stay after open abdominal hysterectomy. The study design was a comparison of a prospective cohort with a retrospective historical control. We enrolled endometrial cancer patients undergoing open abdominal hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy by the same surgeon. Control patients from 2008 to 2010 who received morphine PCA alone were compared with a similar demographic group of patients from 2011 to 2013 who received MMPC. MMPC consisted of gabapentin (900mg PO) and acetaminophen (1g IV) administered 45-60min preoperatively. The surgical site was injected with bupivacaine with 0.5% epinephrine prior to incision. The postoperative pain control regimen consisted of gabapentin (300mg PO every 6h), acetaminophen (1g IV every 8h for 24h postoperatively), ketorolac (15mg IV every 6h for 48h postoperatively), morphine PCA (2mg IV every 10min, no basal rate) and oxycodone/acetaminophen (10/325mg PO every 6h as needed). Length of hospital stay (LOH) of the study cohort (N=105 with MMPC) was compared with the historical with postoperative morphine alone (N=113 without MMPC). There were no differences in demographic, uterine cancer stage, or comorbidities between the two arms. The LOH was 1.6 days for patients receiving MMPC and 3.3 days for patients who received morphine alone (P<0.001). Multimodal pain control is associated with significantly reduced hospital stay after open abdominal hysterectomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Are fear avoidance beliefs associated with abdominal muscle activation outcome for patients with low back pain?

    PubMed

    Unsgaard-Tøndel, Monica; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund; Magnussen, Jon; Vasseljen, Ottar

    2013-09-01

    Activation of transversus abdominis and fear avoidance beliefs have both been related to low back pain (LBP). This exploratory study aims to investigate associations between fear avoidance beliefs at baseline and deep abdominal muscle activation after an 8-week period of supervised exercises for chronic LBP. A cohort of patients with chronic non-specific LBP (N = 108) enrolled in a clinical trial was studied longitudinally. Fear avoidance beliefs for physical activity and work were measured before intervention. Activation in transversus abdominis and obliquus internus abdominis during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre and rapid arm flexion was measured by ultrasound before and after intervention. Associations between baseline fear avoidance beliefs and deep abdominal muscle activation after exercises were analysed with multiple linear regression methods. High fear avoidance beliefs for physical activity (≥16 on the subscale) were negatively associated with transversus abdominis slide after the intervention period, β = -4.92 (-8.40 to -1.45). There were no associations between fear avoidance beliefs for physical activity and abdominal muscle onset, transversus abdominis or obliquus internus contraction ratio. Fear avoidance beliefs for work were not associated with any of the muscle activation parameters. This study suggests that there is some negative association between fear avoidance beliefs for physical activity before intervention and transversus abdominis recruitment measured by lateral slide after intervention. No other significant associations between fear avoidance beliefs and abdominal muscle activation were found. We cannot exclude random findings, meaning that the results should be considered hypothesis generating for further investigations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Soft Tissue Mobilization to Resolve Chronic Pain and Dysfunction Associated With Postoperative Abdominal and Pelvic Adhesions: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yui Y; Smith, Ryan W; Koppenhaver, Shane

    2015-12-01

    Case report. Common complications from abdominal and pelvic surgery include adhesions and chronic pain. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis is sometimes used to reduce adhesions and related pain. Physical therapy interventions, such as soft tissue mobilization (STM), may be used for this condition; however, evidence to support its effectiveness is lacking. A 28-year-old woman with a history of 5 abdominal/pelvic surgeries presented with right-sided lower abdominal and anterior hip pain, which had been present since she had undergone a laparoscopic appendectomy with a right ovarian cystectomy surgery 1 year earlier. As an active-duty member in the US Navy, due to pain and weakness, she was unable to perform required curl-ups for her fitness test. Though she had been previously treated both surgically with laparoscopic adhesiolysis and nonsurgically with physical therapy consisting of stretching and strengthening exercises, her pain and function did not improve. She was again evaluated and treated with physical therapy and, based on the examination findings, STM was used to address her pain and dysfunction, which were thought to be related to intra-abdominal adhesions. Following 5 sessions of physical therapy over a 3-week period that included STM and therapeutic exercises, followed by 5 additional sessions over a 4-week period that focused on therapeutic exercises, the patient reported substantially decreased pain, improved function, and a full return to previous level of activity, including unrestricted physical training in a military setting. The outcomes for this patient suggest that STM may be effective as a conservative treatment option for pain and dysfunction related to intra-abdominal adhesions from abdominal/pelvic surgery. Studies with a higher level of evidence, including potential comparison between STM and traditional laparoscopic adhesiolysis, are needed to further determine benefits of nonsurgical care for this condition.

  19. Multicystic benign mesothelioma of the pelvic peritoneum presenting as acute abdominal pain in a young woman.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jung-Hee; Jeon, Seob; Lee, Ji-Hye; Nam, Kye-Hyun; Bae, Dong-Han

    2013-03-01

    Multicystic benign mesothelioma (MBM) of the peritoneum is a very rare condition. Since the first description of MBM in 1979, approximately 100 cases have been reported. This is a case report of MBM of the pelvic peritoneum presenting as acute abdominal pain in a young woman. Laparoscopy confirmed multiple grapelike clusters of cysts that originated in the peritoneum of the rectouterine pouch and histopathologic diagnosis was confirmed as MBM of the pelvic peritoneum. We hope to alert gynaecologists of the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to MBM which can be accomplished by laparoscopy.

  20. Multicystic benign mesothelioma of the pelvic peritoneum presenting as acute abdominal pain in a young woman

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jung-Hee; Lee, Ji-Hye; Nam, Kye-Hyun; Bae, Dong-Han

    2013-01-01

    Multicystic benign mesothelioma (MBM) of the peritoneum is a very rare condition. Since the first description of MBM in 1979, approximately 100 cases have been reported. This is a case report of MBM of the pelvic peritoneum presenting as acute abdominal pain in a young woman. Laparoscopy confirmed multiple grapelike clusters of cysts that originated in the peritoneum of the rectouterine pouch and histopathologic diagnosis was confirmed as MBM of the pelvic peritoneum. We hope to alert gynaecologists of the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to MBM which can be accomplished by laparoscopy. PMID:24327991

  1. 73-year-old woman with abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, J.R.

    1987-03-20

    A 73-year-old woman presented with a six-day history of abdominal pain that had started in the epigastrium, but recently had become more intense in the right lower quadrant. Peptic ulcer had been diagnosed three years prior to presentation and had been managed medically. On physical examination, epigastric tenderness as well as guarding and rebound tenderness in the right lower quandrant were present. Mild leukocytosis was reported. Computed tomography demonstrated a 5-cm retrocecal mass with low attenuation (fluid content) surrounded by an irregularly thickened uncalcified wall. Multiple areas of tissue debris were seen extending into the mass, but no true separation was present.

  2. A case of abdominal pain with dyslipidemia: difficulties diagnosing cholesterol ester storage disease.

    PubMed

    Cameron, S J; Daimee, U; Block, R C

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol ester storage disease is an exceptionally rare dyslipidemia with less than 150 cases reported in the medical literature. The diagnosis of Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease is often missed by virtue of the fact that the symptoms mimic both inborn metabolic defects and hepatic steatosis. Patients with Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease usually present with atypical complaints including abdominal pain from altered gut motility. Blood analysis typically reveals abnormal liver function tests with coincident dyslipidemia. We present a case of a young woman with Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease who was followed over two decades. We discuss issues common to her initial protracted diagnosis with management options over time.

  3. A 23-year-old Man with Leptospirosis and Acute Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mazhar, Momal; Kao, Janet J

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by the spirochete Leptospira interrogans. Most cases of leptospirosis are mild to moderate, and self-limited. The course of disease, however, may be complicated by multiorgan dysfunction such as in Weil's disease. We present a case of Weil's disease with pancreatitis in a young Caucasian man residing in Hawai‘i. Although leptospirosis is common in Hawai‘i, few patients present with pancreatitis. This report of leptospirosis-induced pancreatitis should help raise awareness of clinicians to assess for pancreatitis when evaluating a patient with leptospirosis and acute abdominal pain. PMID:27738562

  4. Internet-based decision-support server for acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Eich, H P; Ohmann, C

    2000-08-01

    The paper describes conception and prototypical design of a decision-support server for acute abdominal pain. Existing formal methods to develop and exchange scores, guidelines and algorithms are used for integration. For scoring systems a work-up to separate terminological information from structure is described. The terminology is separately stored in a data dictionary and the structure in a knowledge base. This procedure enables a reuse of terminology for documentation and decision-support. The whole system covers a decision-support server written in C++ with underlying data dictionary and knowledge base, a documentation module written in Java and a CORBA middleware that establishes a connection via Internet.

  5. Jejunojejunal intussusception secondary to submucosal lipoma resulting in a 5-year history of intermittent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Seow-En, Isaac; Foo, Fung Joon; Tang, Choong Leong

    2014-10-29

    Jejunal lipomata are an unusual cause of adult intussusception. We report a case of a 44-year-old Chinese woman who presented with a 3-day history of abdominal pain and nausea; she had a 5-year history of similar episodic symptoms after meals. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed a fat-density lead point in the jejunum resulting in intussusception. Single port laparoscopic surgery was performed with reduction of the intussusception, bowel resection and primary anastamosis. Histology confirmed a benign submucosal lipoma. We discuss the recent published literature on this rare entity and show CT images and intraoperative pictures. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. [Hypnotherapeutic treatment approaches in children and adolescents suffering from functional abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Gulewitsch, Marco D; Schlarb, Angelika A

    2011-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain significantly impairs day-to-day function. It is one of the most frequent somatic complaints among children and adolescents. For most of those affected, despite some indication of their possible presence, physiological factors fail to explain the symptoms adequately. The increased level of psychological symptoms suggests that the focus should be on behavioural and psychological aspects. Brief hypnotherapeutic treatment methods show encouraging results. A review of the current literature; potential mechanisms of effective intervention and their practical applicability are discussed.

  7. Validation of a Symptom Provocation Test for Laboratory Studies of Abdominal Pain and Discomfort in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lynn S.; Williams, Sara E.; Smith, Craig A.; Garber, Judy; Van Slyke, Deborah A.; Lipani, Tricia; Greene, John W.; Mertz, Howard; Naliboff, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Assessed the convergent and discriminant validity of a water load symptom provocation test (WL-SPT) in creating visceral sensations similar to the naturally occurring sensations experienced by children with functional abdominal pain. Methods Participants were pediatric patients with functional abdominal pain (N = 110) and healthy school children (N = 120) between the ages of 8 and 16 years. Pain patients completed questionnaires describing gastrointestinal (GI) and nongastrointestinal (non-GI) symptoms associated with their typical abdominal pain episodes. Weeks later, the WL-SPT was administered to pain patients and well children. Before and immediately following the WL-SPT, children rated their symptoms. Results The WL-SPT produced (a) significant increases in children’s GI symptoms that were reliably predicted by the children’s naturally occurring GI symptoms, and (b) significantly greater increases in GI symptoms in pain patients than in well children. Conclusions The WL-SPT produces clinically relevant symptoms for laboratory studies of children with functional abdominal pain. PMID:16861396

  8. The effect of abdominal drawing-in exercise and myofascial release on pain, flexibility, and balance of elderly females

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Seong Hun; Sim, Yong Hyeon; Kim, Myung Hoon; Bang, Ju Hee; Son, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Jae Woong; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study is designed to compare the effects of abdominal drawing-in exercise and myofascial release on pain, flexibility, and balance of elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Forty elderly females aged 65 or older who had complained of low back pain for three months or longer were selected as the subjects. They were randomly and equally assigned to either an abdominal drawing-in group or a myofascial release group. The subjects conducted exercise three times per week, 40 minutes each time, for eight weeks. As evaluation tools, visual analogue scale for pain, remodified schober test for flexibility, and upright posture with eye opening on hard platform, upright posture with eye closing on hard platform, upright posture with eye opening on soft platform, upright posture with eye closing on soft platform using tetrax for balance were used. [Results] The abdominal drawing-in exercise group saw significant difference in pain and balance after the exercise compared to before the exercise. The myofascial release group saw significant difference in pain and flexibility after exercise compared to before the exercise. [Conclusion] The above study showed that abdominal drawing-in exercise affected elderly females regarding pain and balance and myofascial release influenced their pain and flexibility. PMID:27821941

  9. The effect of abdominal drawing-in exercise and myofascial release on pain, flexibility, and balance of elderly females.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seong Hun; Sim, Yong Hyeon; Kim, Myung Hoon; Bang, Ju Hee; Son, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Jae Woong; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] This study is designed to compare the effects of abdominal drawing-in exercise and myofascial release on pain, flexibility, and balance of elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Forty elderly females aged 65 or older who had complained of low back pain for three months or longer were selected as the subjects. They were randomly and equally assigned to either an abdominal drawing-in group or a myofascial release group. The subjects conducted exercise three times per week, 40 minutes each time, for eight weeks. As evaluation tools, visual analogue scale for pain, remodified schober test for flexibility, and upright posture with eye opening on hard platform, upright posture with eye closing on hard platform, upright posture with eye opening on soft platform, upright posture with eye closing on soft platform using tetrax for balance were used. [Results] The abdominal drawing-in exercise group saw significant difference in pain and balance after the exercise compared to before the exercise. The myofascial release group saw significant difference in pain and flexibility after exercise compared to before the exercise. [Conclusion] The above study showed that abdominal drawing-in exercise affected elderly females regarding pain and balance and myofascial release influenced their pain and flexibility.

  10. Renal infarction versus pyelonephritis in a woman presenting with fever and flank pain.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Giorgina B; Priola, Adriano M; Vigotti, Federica N; Guzzo, Gabriella; Veltri, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    Patients with fever, flank pain, and dysuria frequently are encountered in the emergency department. Acute pyelonephritis is the most likely diagnosis; however, its clinical and radiologic presentation consistently overlap with that of acute renal infarction. Ultrasound is unable to distinguish early infarction from nonabscessed acute pyelonephritis. Hence, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are needed. We report the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with fever, flank pain, and dysuria, along with respiratory distress and tachycardia. Elevated values for inflammatory indexes suggested a diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis, and subsequent contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed hypodense wedge-shaped areas in both kidneys. However, the presence of a thin rim of capsular enhancement (cortical rim sign), the absence of perirenal inflammatory changes, and the location of the lesions apart from defined calyces suggested the alternative diagnosis of renal infarction. The underlying cause was not identified until an episode of acute dyspnea revealed paroxysmal arrhythmia. Our case demonstrates that a thorough knowledge of the imaging findings of renal infarction and acute pyelonephritis is essential to correctly making the diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Importance of Addressing Anxiety in Youth With Functional Abdominal Pain: Suggested Guidelines for Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Natoshia R.; Lynch-Jordan, Anne; Mezoff, Adam G.; Farrell, Michael K.; Cohen, Mitchell B.; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2015-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is a common pediatric disorder associated with impairment in functioning that may persist for the long term. Anxiety is common in youth with FAP, and may be an important factor in predicting youth who are at greatest risk for increased impairment because of pain symptoms. In this article, we examine the relation between anxiety and impairment in youth with FAP. Furthermore, we explore various biopsychosocial factors (eg, neurobiological substrates, coping strategies, social factors) that may be implicated in the relation among FAP, anxiety, and increased impairment. Finally, we propose physician guidelines for screening and treatment of youth with FAP and co-occurring anxiety. Youth with FAP and co-occurring anxiety may benefit from cognitive-behavioral therapy in the context of multidisciplinary care. PMID:23412539

  12. Benefit of follow-up CT in emergency department patients with persistent non-traumatic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Asrani, Ashwin V; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari F; Novelline, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    To determine the benefit of a short-term follow-up abdominopelvic computed tomography (APCT) examination among emergency department (ED) patients with persistent abdominal pain and an initially negative CT. During a 5-year period from January 2004 to December 2008, our institution's radiology department performed approximately 56,000 APCTs examinations in the ED. Sixty-eight percent of the APCT examinations used intravenous contrast. Nine hundred fifty-seven patients received two APCTs within 1 week for non-traumatic abdominal pain in the ED. Sixty-four patients with initially negative APCTs presented to the ED within 1 week with persistent abdominal pain and received follow-up APCT imaging. The mean follow-up period was 2.6 days. The mean interval period in which the second APCT yielded a positive result was 2.0 days. Seventy-five percent of follow-up examinations were performed with intravenous contrast. Twenty-three percent of patients had positive findings on the follow-up examination. Seventy-three percent of the follow-up positive findings were referable to bowel pathology. The cause of abdominal pain remained elusive at 1 week in 23% of patients. Short-term follow-up APCT examinations in patients with persistent, unexplained abdominal pain may be of benefit if the second APCT is performed with intravenous contrast in patients suspected of having bowel pathology.

  13. Management of postoperative pain in abdominal surgery in Spain. A multicentre drug utilization study

    PubMed Central

    Vallano, Antonio; Aguilera, Cristina; Arnau, Josep Maria; Baños, Josep-Eladi; Laporte, Joan-Ramon

    1999-01-01

    Participating centres: Hospital Universitario San Juan, Alicante: Maria Jesús Olaso, Javier Agulló, Clara Faura. Hospital Torrecárdenas, Almería: Carmen Fernández Sánchez, Miguel Lorenzo Campos, Juan Manuel Rodríguez Alonso. Hospital Quirúrgic Adriano, Barcelona: Carmen Alerany Pardo, Paquita Alvarez González, Teresa Martín Benito. Hospital Universitari del Mar-IMIM, Barcelona: Magí Farré, Maite Terán. Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí, Sabadell: Montserrat Cañellas, Sergio Zavala, Josep Planell. Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau: Gonzalo Calvo, Rosa Morros, Silvia Mateo. Hospital General Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona: Carmen Bosch, María José Martínez. Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Málaga: Maribel Lucena, José Antonio González, Gabriel Carranque. Hospital Clínico Universitario San Carlos, Madrid: Emilio Vargas, Amparo Gil López-Oliva, Míriam García Mateos. Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander: Mario González, Antonio Cuadrado. Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Macarena, Sevilla: Juan Antonio Durán, Pilar Máyquez, María Isabel Serrano. Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla: Jaume Torelló, Juan Ramón Castillo, María de las Nieves Merino. Aims Postoperative pain is common in hospital-admitted patients. Its management is determined by different therapeutic traditions and by the attitudes of health professionals in each hospital. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of prescription and administration of analgesic drugs used for postoperative pain after abdominal surgery in Spanish hospitals, to know the prevalence and the severity of postoperative pain, and to determine the extent of variability in the management of postoperative pain among the participating centres. Methods The study was a multicentre descriptive cross-sectional drug utilization study in 12 Spanish hospitals. The subjects were an unselected sample of consecutive patients undergoing abdominal

  14. The effect of using an abdominal binder on postoperative gastrointestinal function, mobilization, pulmonary function, and pain in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Arici, Emine; Tastan, Sevinc; Can, Mehmet Fatih

    2016-10-01

    Evidence on the effectiveness of using a binder following abdominal surgery and its effect on gastrointestinal function, mobilization, pulmonary function, and pain is currently unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of abdominal binder usage on gastrointestinal function, mobilization, pulmonary function, and postoperative pain in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. This research was conducted as a randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted at the Department of General Surgery at a military education and research hospital in Ankara, Turkey, between September 2013 and April 2014. 104 patients were assessed for eligibility. The study was conducted on 84 eligible patients. The study sample consisted of 84 patients who underwent effective major abdominal surgery. The patients were randomized into two groups, the intervention group, which used an abdominal binder and the control group, which did not. Gastrointestinal function, mobilization, pulmonary function, and the pain status of both groups were evaluated on the first, fourth, and seventh days before and after surgery, and the intergroup results were compared. No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of gastrointestinal and pulmonary function on the first, fourth, and seventh days following surgery (p>0.05). A comparative assessment of mobility by walking distance showed that patients in the intervention group were able to walk further on the fourth [mean (SD); 221.19 (69.08) m] and seventh [227.85 (60.02) m] days after surgery (p=0.003, p<0.001). There were differences in the acute pain status between patients in both groups (p<0.05). On the first [mean (SD); 8.80 (5.03)], fourth [4.83 (2.78)], and seventh [3.09 (3.17)] days after surgery, the sensory sub-scale pain scores were higher in the control group (p<0.001). On the first [mean (SD); 10.16 (6.14)], fourth [5.28 (3.52)], and seventh [3.30 (3.51)] days after surgery the total pain scores were

  15. [New abdominal wall reconstruction technique with a plastic-rehabilitative intent (back pain improvement)].

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Beniamino; Grappolini, Simone; Blandini, Daniele; De-Anna, Dino; Savio, Stefano; Ferrari, Paolo; Ferrari, Giovanni; William, Pillosu; Campanini, Isabella; Guido, Vezzosi; Tenchini, Paolo; Benuzzi, Giorgia; Palmieri, Lucia

    2004-01-01

    Many abdominal wall reconstruction techniques have generally failed to pay attention to a number of anatomical considerations concerning the continuity of the thoraco-lumboabdominal fascia that envelops the dorsal and ventral muscles. We have introduced a new surgical technique (round mesh) developed to improve the abdominal wall weakness or pathology (hernia, laparocele) with the aim of restoring the muscular synergy between the anterior and posterior trunk compartments, thus improving sacroiliac stability, posture, and standing effort endurance. One hundred patients of both sexes were enrolled in this investigation. All were affected by abdominal wall impairment, frank hernia or laparocele, and had been complaining of lumbar and sciatic pain for long periods without any definite intervertebral disk pathology. They underwent pre- and postoperative subjective and objective evaluation and insertion of a prefascial polypropylene mesh with a posterior martingale that passes across the spine and paravertebral muscles, ending in two wider rectangles that are criss-crossed ventrally and finally sutured to the iliopubic brim. All the patients improved either subjectively or objectively with the round mesh procedure. This new technique is particularly useful in cases of reduction or impairment of the recti abdominis, transverse and oblique muscles, because simple suture and plication of these muscles is no guarantee of long-term functional restoration.

  16. Isolated superior mesenteric artery thrombosis: a rare cause for recurrent abdominal pain in a child.

    PubMed

    Dahshan, Ahmed; Donovan, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    A 4-year-old boy was evaluated for recurrent abdominal pain and failure to thrive over a 1-year period in a pediatric subspecialty clinic. Results of the extensive workup mostly were unremarkable. Eventually, imaging studies of the abdominal aorta revealed an isolated thrombosis of the superior mesenteric artery trunk and compensatory hypertrophy of the inferior mesenteric artery. He had been having abdominal angina symptoms and fear of eating. A detailed family history suggested a possible hypercoagulable state. However, an extensive hematologic evaluation did not reveal a recognizable defect that could produce thrombotic events. He was treated by arterial graft bypass surgery and started on conventional anticoagulants. Several months later, he developed repeat, near-total thrombosis of the graft with recurrence of his symptoms. After balloon dilation of the graft and starting him on appropriate anticoagulant maintenance regimen, he had good symptom relief, and the graft remained patent. This presentation was unusually prolonged for the type of vascular problem identified. The possibility of vascular problems in children, therefore, should be considered. Unidentified cause of hereditary clotting tendency is another challenging aspect of this case.

  17. Association of Helicobacter pylori and giardiasis in children with recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Zeyrek, Dost; Zeyrek, Fadile; Cakmak, Alpay; Cekin, Abdurrahim

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the frequency and the relationship of H. pylori infection and giardiasis in children with recurrent abdominal pain. The study group included 98 patients and 88 healthy controls. Patients' sera were examined for anti-H. pylori specific IgG antibodies using H. pylori IgG ELISA. Analysis of stool samples was carried out by the H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) enzyme immunoassay. For the diagnosis of giardiasis, all stool samples were examined by saline-Lugol and formalin-ethyl-acetate sedimentation methods. H. pylori was detected in 40 (49.0%) patients and 40 (45.5%) controls. G. intestinalis was detected in 30 (30.6%) patients and 18 (20.4%) controls. There was no significant difference in frequency between the groups in the distribution of H. pylori (p=0.6) and giardiasis (p=0.4). The frequency of the combination of H. pylori infection and giardiasis in the patient groups was 22.4% compared to 6.8% in the control groups and this result was statistically significant (p=0.002). It seems that the relationship of H. pylori infection and giardiasis represent an important ethiologic factor in children with recurrent abdominal pain.

  18. Ascending retrocecal appendicitis presenting with right upper abdominal pain: Utility of computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Eugene Mun Wai; Venkatesh, Sudhakar Kundapur

    2009-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is a common surgical condition that is usually managed with early surgery, and is associated with low morbidity and mortality. However, some patients may have atypical symptoms and physical findings that may lead to a delay in diagnosis and increased complications. Atypical presentation may be related to the position of the appendix. Ascending retrocecal appendicitis presenting with right upper abdominal pain may be clinically indistinguishable from acute pathology in the gallbladder, liver, biliary tree, right kidney and right urinary tract. We report a series of four patients with retrocecal appendicitis who presented with acute right upper abdominal pain. The clinical diagnoses at presentation were acute cholecystitis in two patients, pyelonephritis in one, and ureteric colic in one. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen at presentation showed subhepatic collections in two patients and normal findings in the other two. Computed tomography (CT) identified correctly retrocecal appendicitis and inflammation in the retroperitoneum in all cases. In addition, abscesses in the retrocecal space (n = 2) and subhepatic collections (n = 2) were also demonstrated. Emergency appendectomy was performed in two patients, interval appendectomy in one, and hemicolectomy in another. Surgical findings confirmed the presence of appendicitis and its retroperitoneal extensions. Our case series illustrates the usefulness of CT in diagnosing ascending retrocecal appendicitis and its extension, and excluding other inflammatory conditions that mimic appendicitis. PMID:19630119

  19. Strongyloides appendicitis: unusual etiology in two siblings with chronic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Komenaka, Ian K; Wu, George C H; Lazar, Eric L; Cohen, Jason A

    2003-09-01

    Appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute surgical disease in children and young adults. Parasites, however, are one of the uncommon etiologies. An 8-year-old girl and her 7-year-old sister presented with more than 2 months of chronic abdominal pain that became worse over a 1-week period before presentation. The 2 sisters presented 1 month apart. Both had similar symptomatology and physical examination findings. At operation, the surgical findings included an inflamed appendix with a cross section of the parasite Strongyloides. Strongyloides appendicitis has occurred almost exclusively in areas endemic to the parasite. Its environment is more common outside the United States but occasionally is seen in the Southeast region and in institutionalized individuals. The presentation of acute exacerbation of chronic abdominal pain coupled with the pathologic finding of Strongyloides in an acutely inflamed appendix, should alert the clinician of other possible cases. This increased index of suspicion will allow more prompt diagnosis and help avoid the morbidity of delayed operation.

  20. Carcinoid tumor of the minor papilla in complete pancreas divisum presenting as recurrent abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tumors of the minor papilla of the duodenum are extremely rare, and they are mostly neuroendocrine tumors, such as somatostatinomas and carcinoid tumors. However, true incidence of carcinoid tumors in minor papilla might be much higher, because patients with minor papillary tumors usually remain asymptomatic. We report a very unusual case of carcinoid tumor in a patient with complete pancreas divisum with a review of the literature. Case presentation A 56-year-old female patient was referred for evaluation of pancreatic duct dilatation noted on abdominal ultrasonography and computerized tomography. She complained of intermittent epigastric pain for 6 months. A MRCP and ERCP revealed complete pancreas divisum with dilatation of the main pancreatic duct. On duodenoscopy, a small, yellows, subepithelial nodule was visualized at the minor papilla; biopsy of this lesion revealed a carcinoid tumor. She underwent a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. The histologic evaluation showed a single nodule, 1 cm in diameter, in the submucosa with duodenal and vascular invasion and metastasis to the regional lymph nodes. Conclusion Although the size of the carcinoid tumor was small and the tumor was hormonally inactive, the concomitant pancreas divisum led to an early diagnosis, the tumor had aggressive behavior. Carcinoid tumors of the minor papilla should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent abdominal pain or pancreatitis of unknown cause. PMID:20149263

  1. Carcinoid tumor of the minor papilla in complete pancreas divisum presenting as recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Gil; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Kim, Kyeong Ok

    2010-02-12

    Tumors of the minor papilla of the duodenum are extremely rare, and they are mostly neuroendocrine tumors, such as somatostatinomas and carcinoid tumors. However, true incidence of carcinoid tumors in minor papilla might be much higher, because patients with minor papillary tumors usually remain asymptomatic. We report a very unusual case of carcinoid tumor in a patient with complete pancreas divisum with a review of the literature. A 56-year-old female patient was referred for evaluation of pancreatic duct dilatation noted on abdominal ultrasonography and computerized tomography. She complained of intermittent epigastric pain for 6 months. A MRCP and ERCP revealed complete pancreas divisum with dilatation of the main pancreatic duct. On duodenoscopy, a small, yellows, subepithelial nodule was visualized at the minor papilla; biopsy of this lesion revealed a carcinoid tumor. She underwent a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. The histologic evaluation showed a single nodule, 1 cm in diameter, in the submucosa with duodenal and vascular invasion and metastasis to the regional lymph nodes. Although the size of the carcinoid tumor was small and the tumor was hormonally inactive, the concomitant pancreas divisum led to an early diagnosis, the tumor had aggressive behavior. Carcinoid tumors of the minor papilla should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent abdominal pain or pancreatitis of unknown cause.

  2. Cognitive behavior therapy for pediatric functional abdominal pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van der Veek, Shelley M C; Derkx, Bert H F; Benninga, Marc A; Boer, Frits; de Haan, Else

    2013-11-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the effectiveness of a 6-session protocolized cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) compared with 6 visits to a pediatrician (intensive medical care; IMC) for the treatment of pediatric functional abdominal pain (FAP). One hundred four children aged 7 to 18 were randomized to CBT or IMC. CBT was delivered primarily by trained master's degree students in psychology; IMC was delivered by pediatricians or pediatric gastroenterologists. Assessments were performed pretreatment, posttreatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Primary outcomes were level of abdominal pain (AP) as reported on questionnaires and diaries. Secondary outcomes were other gastrointestinal complaints, functional disability, other somatic complaints, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Both CBT and IMC resulted in a significant decrease in AP (P < .001), but no significant difference was found between the treatments in their effectiveness (P > .05 for all end points). According to the questionnaire-derived data, 1 year after treatment, 60% of children that received CBT had significantly improved or recovered, versus 56.4% of children receiving IMC, which did not significantly differ (P = .47). These percentages were 65.8% versus 62.8% according to the diary-derived data, which also did not significantly differ (P = .14). Additionally, nearly all secondary outcomes improved after treatment. CBT was equally effective as IMC in reducing AP in children with FAP. More research into the specific working mechanisms of CBT for pediatric FAP is needed.

  3. Tongue piercing and chronic abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting--two cases.

    PubMed

    Chung, Myung Kyu; Chung, Danielle; LaRiccia, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Chronic upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of unclear etiology are frustrating to patients and physicians alike. The integrative medicine procedures of acupuncture and neural therapy may provide treatment options. Tongue piercing, which is prevalent in 5.6% of the adolescent population, may be a contributing factor in upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) To demonstrate the usefulness of an integrative medicine treatment approach in two cases of patients with chronic abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting of unclear etiology who had failed standard medical management. (2) To identify scars from tongue piercings as a possible contributing factor in chronic upper GI symptoms of unclear etiology. Two retrospective case studies are presented of young adult females who were seen in a private multi-physician integrative medicine practice in the US. The patients were treated with neural therapy and acupuncture. The desired outcome was the cessation or reduction of the frequency of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Both patients had resolution of their symptoms. From this study, we have concluded the following: (1) Tongue scars from tongue rings may be causes of chronic upper gastrointestinal symptoms. (2) Neural therapy and acupuncture may be helpful in the treatment of chronic upper GI symptoms related to tongue scars.

  4. Recurrent abdominal pain in children and adolescents – a survey among paediatricians

    PubMed Central

    Schlarb, Angelika A.; Gulewitsch, Marco D.; Bock genannt Kasten, Inga; Enck, Paul; Hautzinger, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about prevalence and usual treatment of childhood and adolescent recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in outpatient paediatricians’ practice. This study’s primary objective was to acquire insights into the usual paediatricians’ treatment and their estimation of prevalence, age and gender of RAP patients. Further objectives were to assess to which extent family members of patients report similar symptoms, how paediatricians rate the strain of parents of affected children and adolescents and how paediatricians estimate the demand for psychological support. Methods: Provided by a medical register, 437 outpatient paediatricians received a questionnaire to assess their perception of several psychosomatic problems and disorders including recurrent abdominal pain. Results: According to paediatricians’ estimation, 15% of all visits are caused by patients with RAP. In 22% of these cases of RAP, at least one family member has similar problems. In about 15% of all RAP cases, parents ask for professional psychological support concerning their children’s issues, whereas 40% of paediatricians wish for psychological support considering this group of patients. Conclusions: Estimated frequencies and paediatricians’ demands show the need for evidence-based psychological interventions in RAP to support usual medical treatment. PMID:21468324

  5. A Randomised Controlled Trial of Written Self-Disclosure for Functional Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Wallander, Jan L.; Madan-Swain, Avi; Klapow, Josh; Saeed, Shehzad

    2009-01-01

    Written self-disclosure (WSD) has rarely been evaluated as an intervention for paediatric diseases. To test the efficacy of WSD for youth ages 11–18 with a diagnosis of functional recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), 63 were randomly assigned to receive standard medical care (SMC) alone or WSD in addition to SMC. WSD was administered in three 20-minute sessions, one in the clinic and two by phone in the home. Measures of self-reported pain frequency, somatisation severity, and quality of life were completed at baseline and three-month and six-month follow-up points. Blind review of electronic medical records provided data on clinic visit and phone consultation utilization for the six months prior to and following baseline. Practice of WSD in addition to SMC was associated with significantly fewer activity-limiting GI pain experiences (d = .61) and reduced health care utilization (d = .59) six-months later compared to SMC alone. There were no significant effects for somatisation severity or quality of life at six months. WSD may be a useful treatment adjunct for reducing pain frequency and resulting health care utilization in a portion of youth with functional RAP. PMID:20419562

  6. A randomised controlled trial of written self-disclosure for functional recurrent abdominal pain in youth.

    PubMed

    Wallander, Jan L; Madan-Swain, Avi; Klapow, Josh; Saeed, Shehzad

    2011-04-01

    Written self-disclosure (WSD) has rarely been evaluated as an intervention for paediatric diseases. To test the efficacy of WSD for youths aged 11-18 years with a diagnosis of functional recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), 63 were randomly assigned to receive standard medical care (SMC) alone or WSD in addition to SMC. WSD was administered in three 20-min sessions, one in the clinic and two by phone in the home. Measures of self-reported pain frequency, somatisation severity and quality of life (QOL) were completed at baseline and 3- and 6-month follow-up points. Blind review of electronic medical records provided data on clinic visit and phone consultation utilisation for the 6 months prior to and following baseline. Practice of WSD in addition to SMC was associated with significantly fewer activity-limiting gastrointestinal pain experiences (d = 0.61) and reduced health care utilisation (d = 0.59) 6 months later compared to SMC alone. There were no significant effects for somatisation severity or QOL in 6 months. WSD may be a useful treatment adjunct for reducing pain frequency and resulting health care utilisation in a portion of youths with functional RAP.

  7. [Evaluation of diagnostic scales for appendicitis in patients with lower abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Alvaro; Domínguez, Luis Carlos; Bermúdez, Charles; Serna, Adriana

    2007-09-01

    Diagnosis of apendicitis is difficult; however several clinical scales have been developed that attempt to improve diagnostic accuracy. The operational characteristics of Alvarado and Fenyö scales were defined in patients with abdominal pain suggestive of appendicitis and were compare with clinical and pathological diagnoses. A prospective trial assessed the diagnostic tests. Sign, symptoms, and laboratory tests were included in scales selected. Surgeon decision was maintained independent from the results of the scales. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and positive and negative likelihood ratio for each scale was compared with the surgeon evaluation. The sample included 374 patients with approximately equal sexes. Of these 269 patients underwent surgery. Howeve, 16.9% of the male and 31.4% of female patients did not have appendicitis. For men, a diagnosis made by the surgeon had better sensitivity than scales (86.2% vs. 73% for Alvarado and 67.2% for Fenyö) without significant differences in specificity. For women, surgeon and Alvarado scale diagnoses were similar, and better than Fenyö scale (77.1% vs. 79.5% for Alvarado and 47% for Fenyö), but specificity was higher for Fenyö scale (92.9% vs. 71.4% for Alvarado and 75.9% for surgeon). Accuracy in diagnosis of appendicitis increases with a higher Alvarado score. For men with abdominal pain on right lower quadrant, surgeon diagnosis is more accurate than scales. For women, Fenyö scale offers a better sensitivity. Alvarado score can facilitate decision-making in patients with these abdominal symptoms.

  8. Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block for postoperative pain management: a review.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Jan; Wickerts, Liselott; Forsberg, Sune; Ledin, Gustaf

    2015-01-01

    Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block has a long history and there is currently extensive clinical experience around TAP blocks. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the present evidence on the effects of TAP block and to provide suggestions for further studies. There are several approaches to performing abdominal wall blocks, with the rapid implementation of ultrasound-guided technique facilitating a major difference in TAP block performance. During surgery, an abdominal wall block may also be applied by the surgeon from inside the abdominal cavity. Today, there are more than 11 meta-analyses providing a compiled evidence base around the effects of TAP block. These analyses include different procedures, different techniques of TAP block administration and, importantly, they compare the TAP block with a variety of alternative analgesic regimes. The effects of TAP block during laparoscopic cholecystectomy seem to be equivalent to local infiltration analgesia and also seem to be beneficial during laparoscopic colon resection. The effects of TAP are more pronounced when it is provided prior to surgery and these effects are local anaesthesia dose-dependent. TAP block seems an interesting alternative in patients with, for example, severe obesity where epidural or spinal anaesthesia/analgesia is technically difficult and/or poses a risk. There is an obvious need for further high-quality studies comparing TAP block prior to surgery with local infiltration analgesia, single-shot spinal analgesia, and epidural analgesia. These studies should be procedure-specific and the effects should be evaluated, both regarding short-term pain and analgesic requirement and also including the effects on postoperative nausea and vomiting, recovery of bowel function, ambulation, discharge, and protracted recovery outcomes (assessed by e.g., postoperative quality of recovery scale).

  9. [Elimination of Helicobacter pylori in patients with recurrent abdominal pain with simultaneous administration of ranitidine, bismuth subsalicylate and clarithromycin].

    PubMed

    Ramirez Mayans, J A; Zamora Davila, E; Cervantes Bustamante, R; Mata Rivera, N; Oyervides Garcia, I; Cuevas, S; Zarate Mondragón, F E

    1996-01-01

    Elimination of Helicobacter pylori with Chlaritromicin, Bismuth subsalicylate and Ranitidine; and improvement of recurrent abdominal pain. ANTECEDENT: Different antibiotics, antagonist H2 and others has been used for elimination and, or eradication of Helicobacter pylori. 22 children with recurrent abdominal pain associated to gastritis and histologic identification of Helicobacter pylori were studied under a period of 18 months (january 1992 to june 1993), at Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, México, D:F: All children were treated simultaneously with: Chlaritromicin, 15 days, Plus ranitidine and bismuth subsalicylate for one month. Helicobacter pylori was eliminate in 14 of 22 children studied. All these children had an important improvement of recurrent abdominal pain. Elimination of Helicobacter pylori and clinical improvement was present in 14 of 22 children studied (63.7%).

  10. Pharmacological interventions for recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in childhood.

    PubMed

    Huertas-Ceballos, A; Logan, S; Bennett, C; Macarthur, C

    2008-01-23

    Between 4% and 25% of school-age children complain of recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) of sufficient severity to interfere with daily activities. For the majority no organic cause for their pain can be found on physical examination or investigation and although most children are likely managed by reassurance and simple measures, a large range of interventions have been recommended. To determine the effectiveness of medication for recurrent abdominal pain in school-age children. The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) 2006 (Issue 4), MEDLINE (1966 to Dec 2006), EMBASE (1980 to Dec 2006), CINAHL (1982 to Dec 2007), ERIC (1966 to Dec 2006), PsycINFO (1872 to Dec 2006), LILACS (1982 to Dec 2006), SIGLE (1980 to March 2005), and JICST (1985 to 06/2000) were searched with appropriate filters Studies on school age children with RAP (Apley or the Rome II criteria for gastrointestinal diseases) allocated by random or quasi-random methods to a drug treatment vs. placebo/ no treatment were included. References identified by the searches were screened against the inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers. Data was extracted and analysed using RevMan 4.2.10. Three trials met the inclusion criteria. Symon et al report a cross-over trial comparing pizotifen and placebo in 16 children with "abdominal migraine". Data before cross-over was not available. Results for 14 children showed Mean fewer days in pain of 8.21 (95% CI 2.93, 13.48) while taking the active drug. Kline et al compared peppermint oil capsules with placebo in a randomised trial in 50 children with RAP and IBS. 42 children completed the study. OR for improvement was 3.33 (95% CI 0.93-12.1)See et al compared famotidine with placebo in a randomised cross-over trial in 25 children with RAP and dyspepsia. OR for improvement before cross-over was 11 (95%CI 1.6, 75.5). This review provides weak evidence of benefit on medication in children with RAP. The lack of clear evidence of effectiveness for any of the recommended drugs

  11. Comparative evaluation of serum fluoride levels in patients with and without chronic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Ashok; Bala, Manju; Dahiya, R S; Ghalaut, Veena Singh

    2014-02-15

    Fluorosis ranks high among the major environmental health problems in India. Non-ulcer dyspeptic complaints are common in humans and it is a known fact that fluoride in drinking water, food and other items can cause these symptoms. Fifty adult outpatients (mean age: 35.2±12.7 y) with chronic abdominal pain of unexplained origin were tested for their serum, urinary, and drinking water fluoride (F) concentrations. These concentrations were compared with those of 50 asymptomatic outpatients (mean age: 37.4±11.5 y) and analysed statistically. Serum F concentrations were higher than normal in 62% of the study group I and in 42% of the control group II with a mean of 0.065±0.03 ppm (range: 0.010-0.421) in the former and 0.023±0.028 ppm in the latter. Statistical analysis of the data by Student's t-test (unpaired) revealed a significant correlation (p<0.05) between chronic abdominal pain and elevated serum F. Urinary fluoride concentrations in group I were 0.87±1.67 (0.01-3.7) ppm. Seventy-three percent of the patients examined for urinary fluoride concentrations were having higher values than normal, whereas 27% patients had normal range urinary fluoride concentrations despite raised serum fluoride concentrations. In the cases of chronic pain abdomen, chronic fluoride ingestion from drinking water and other sources can be the cause and should be evaluated in patients in which other parameters are normal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Roentgenographic observation of gas-fluid levels in the colon of children with abdominal pain and malabsorption of lactose

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Ronald G.; Kushner, David C.

    1985-01-01

    Gas-fluid levels in the colon observed in radiographs are abnormal and usually indicate serious gastrointestinal disease. Colonic gas-fluid levels associated with concurrent abdominal pain and malabsorption of lactose, documented by lactose breath hydrogen testing, were observed in five children. Incomplete lactose absorption is a relatively benign condition that can be added to the differential diagnosis of gas-fluid levels in the colon and may account for some cases of spontaneous resolution of clinical and radiologic signs in children presenting with acute recurrent abdominal pain. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:3995435

  13. Medical diagnosis aboard submarines. Use of a computer-based Bayesian method of analysis in an abdominal pain diagnostic program.

    PubMed

    Osborne, S F

    1984-02-01

    The medical issues that arise in the isolated environment of a submarine can occasionally be grave. While crewmembers are carefully screened for health problems, they are still susceptible to serious acute illness. Currently, the submarine medical department representative, the hospital corpsman, utilizes a history and physical examination, clinical acumen, and limited laboratory testing in diagnosis. The application of a Bayesian method of analysis to an abdominal pain diagnostic system utilizing an onboard microcomputer is described herein. Early results from sea trials show an appropriate diagnosis in eight of 10 cases of abdominal pain, but the program should still be viewed as an extended "laboratory test" until proved effective at sea.

  14. Parent attention versus distraction: impact on symptom complaints by children with and without chronic functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lynn S; Williams, Sara E; Smith, Craig A; Garber, Judy; Van Slyke, Deborah A; Lipani, Tricia A

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of parent attention and distraction on symptom complaints by children with and without chronic functional abdominal pain. The water load symptom provocation task was used to induce visceral discomfort in pediatric patients with abdominal pain (N=104) and well children (N=119), ages 8-16 years. Parents were randomly assigned and trained to interact with their children according to one of three conditions: Attention, Distraction, or No Instruction. Children's symptom complaints and parents' responses were audiotaped and coded. Children completed a self-report measure of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms before and after interacting with their parents. Parents' and children's perceptions of their interaction were assessed. Compared to the No Instruction condition, symptom complaints by pain patients and well children nearly doubled in the Attention condition and were reduced by half in the Distraction condition. The effect of attention on symptom complaints was greater for female pain patients than for male patients or well children. Findings for self-report GI symptoms were similar to those for audiotaped symptom complaints. Both pain patients and well children in the Distraction condition rated parents as making them feel better compared to ratings for the Attention condition. Parents of pain patients rated distraction as having greater potential negative impact on their children than attention. Parents' responses to children's symptom complaints can significantly increase or decrease those complaints. Girls with functional abdominal pain are particularly vulnerable to the symptom-reinforcing effects of parental attention.

  15. Parent attention versus distraction: Impact on symptom complaints by children with and without chronic functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lynn S.; Williams, Sara E.; Smith, Craig A.; Garber, Judy; Van Slyke, Deborah A.; Lipani, Tricia A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of parent attention and distraction on symptom complaints by children with and without chronic functional abdominal pain. The water load symptom provocation task was used to induce visceral discomfort in pediatric patients with abdominal pain (N = 104) and well children (N = 119), ages 8–16 years. Parents were randomly assigned and trained to interact with their children according to one of three conditions: Attention, Distraction, or No Instruction. Children's symptom complaints and parents’ responses were audiotaped and coded. Children completed a self-report measure of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms before and after interacting with their parents. Parents’ and children's perceptions of their interaction were assessed. Compared to the No Instruction condition, symptom complaints by pain patients and well children nearly doubled in the Attention condition and were reduced by half in the Distraction condition. The effect of attention on symptom complaints was greater for female pain patients than for male patients or well children. Findings for self-report GI symptoms were similar to those for audiotaped symptom complaints. Both pain patients and well children in the Distraction condition rated parents as making them feel better compared to ratings for the Attention condition. Parents of pain patients rated distraction as having greater potential negative impact on their children than attention. Parents’ responses to children's symptom complaints can significantly increase or decrease those complaints. Girls with functional abdominal pain are particularly vulnerable to the symptom-reinforcing effects of parental attention. PMID:16495006

  16. Morphology of the abdominal muscles in ballet dancers with and without low back pain: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Gildea, Jan E; Hides, Julie A; Hodges, Paul W

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the morphology of transversus abdominis and obliquus internus abdominis muscles and the ability to "draw in" the abdominal wall, in professional ballet dancers without low back pain, with low back pain or both hip region and low back pain. Observational study. Magnetic resonance images of 31 dancers were taken at rest and during voluntary abdominal muscle contraction. Measurements included the thickness of transversus abdominis and obliquus internus abdominis muscles, lateral slide of the anterior extent of the transversus abdominis muscles (transversus abdominis slide) and reduction in total cross sectional area of the trunk. The transversus abdominis and obliquus internus abdominis muscles were thicker in male dancers and the right side was thicker than the left in both genders. There was no difference in muscle thickness as a proportion of the total thickness, between dancers with and without pain, although there was a trend for female dancers with low back pain only to have a smaller change in transversus abdominis muscle thickness with contraction than those without pain. Transversus abdominis slide was less in female dancers than in male dancers. When gender was ignored, the extent of transversus abdominis slide was less in dancers with low back pain only. Reduction in trunk cross sectional area with contraction was not different between genders or groups. This study provides evidence that the abdominal muscles (transversus abdominis and obliquus internus abdominis) are asymmetrical in dancers and although the abdominal muscles are not different in structure (resting thickness) in dancers with LBP, there is preliminary evidence for the behavioural change of reduced slide of transversus abdominis during the 'draw in' of the abdominal wall. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Citalopram for pediatric functional abdominal pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Roohafza, H; Pourmoghaddas, Z; Saneian, H; Gholamrezaei, A

    2014-11-01

    Antidepressants are effective in adults with pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders. We investigated the effectiveness of citalopram in the treatment of childhood functional abdominal pain (FAP). Children with FAP, based on the Rome III criteria (n = 115, aged 6-18 years), were randomized to receive either citalopram 20 mg/day or placebo for 4 weeks. Treatment response was defined as ≥ 2 point reduction in the 6-point Faces pain rating scale or 'no pain'. Depression, anxiety, somatization, and physician-rated global severity and improvement were also evaluated. Patients were followed up for 8 weeks after medication period. Eighty-six patients completed the medication (43 in each group). Response rate in the citalopram and placebo groups based on per-protocol (intention-to-treat) analysis was 55.8% (40.6%) and 39.5% (30.3%) at week 4 (p = 0.097 [0.169]) and 72.0% (52.5%) and 53.4% (41.0%) at week 12 (p = 0.059 [0.148]), respectively. In per-protocol analysis, more reduction was observed in pain (F = 3.84, p = 0.024) and global severity scores (F = 4.12, p = 0.021) in the citalopram group compared with the placebo group over the study period. Such differences were not present in the intention-to-treat analysis. No difference was found between the two groups regarding change in depression, anxiety, or somatization score over the study. Overall, we found a trend toward the effectiveness of citalopram in the treatment of children with FAP. Trials with longer treatment duration in larger samples of patients are required in this regard. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Pharmacologic treatment in pediatric functional abdominal pain disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Korterink, Judith J; Rutten, Juliette M T M; Venmans, Leonie; Benninga, Marc A; Tabbers, Merit M

    2015-02-01

    To systematically review literature assessing efficacy and safety of pharmacologic treatments in children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs). MEDLINE and Cochrane Database were searched for systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials investigating efficacy and safety of pharmacologic agents in children aged 4-18 years with AP-FGIDs. Quality of evidence was assessed using Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. We included 6 studies with 275 children (aged 4.5-18 years) evaluating antispasmodic, antidepressant, antireflux, antihistaminic, and laxative agents. Overall quality of evidence was very low. Compared with placebo, some evidence was found for peppermint oil in improving symptoms (OR 3.3 (95% CI 0.9-12.0) and for cyproheptadine in reducing pain frequency (relative risk [RR] 2.43, 95% CI 1.17-5.04) and pain intensity (RR 3.03, 95% CI 1.29-7.11). Compared with placebo, amitriptyline showed 15% improvement in overall quality of life score (P = .007) and famotidine only provides benefit in global symptom improvement (OR 11.0; 95% CI 1.6-75.5; P = .02). Polyethylene glycol with tegaserod significantly decreased pain intensity compared with polyethylene glycol only (RR 3.60, 95% CI 1.54-8.40). No serious adverse effects were reported. No studies were found concerning antidiarrheal agents, antibiotics, pain medication, anti-emetics, or antimigraine agents. Because of the lack of high-quality, placebo-controlled trials of pharmacologic treatment for pediatric AP-FGIDs, there is no evidence to support routine use of any pharmacologic therapy. Peppermint oil, cyproheptadine, and famotidine might be potential interventions, but well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between changes in electromyographic signal amplitude and abdominal muscle thickness in individuals with and without lumbopelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Jackie L; McLean, Linda; Hodder, Joanne; Warner, Martin B; Stokes, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Validation study. To investigate the association between changes in electromyographic (EMG) signal amplitude and sonographic measures of muscle thickness of 4 abdominal muscles, during 2 clinical tests, in adults with and without lumbopelvic pain. There is a trend in rehabilitation to use ultrasound imaging (USI) to determine the extent of abdominal muscle contraction. However, the literature investigating the relationship between abdominal muscle thickness change and level of activation is inconclusive and has not included clinically relevant tasks. Simultaneous recording from fine-wire EMG and USI was performed for 4 abdominal muscles, in 7 adults with lumbopelvic pain (mean ± SD age, 29.7 ± 12.0 years) and 7 adults without lumbopelvic pain (32.0 ± 10.6 years), during an active straight leg raise (ASLR) test and an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM). Cross-correlation functions and linear regression analyses were used to describe the relationship between the 2 measures. Analyses of variance were used to compare individuals with and without lumbopelvic pain, with an alpha set at .05. Across all muscles, peak cross-correlation values were low (ASLR, r = 0.28 ± 0.09; ADIM, r = 0.35 ± 0.11), and there was large variability in associated time lags (ASLR, τ = 0.69 ± 2.56 seconds; ADIM, τ = 0.53 ± 3.75 seconds). Regression analyses did not detect a systematic pattern of association between EMG signal amplitude and USI measurements, and analyses of variance revealed no differences between cohorts. These results suggest a weak relationship between EMG amplitude and abdominal muscle thickness change measured with USI during the ADIM and ASLR, and raise questions about thickness change derived from USI as a measure of muscular activity for the abdominal musculature.

  20. Diagnosis and disposition are changed when board-certified emergency physicians use CT for non-traumatic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Barksdale, Aaron Nathan; Hackman, Jeff Lee; Gaddis, Monica; Gratton, Matt Christopher

    2015-11-01

    To determine the effect of abdominal computed tomographic (CT) scan results on diagnosis and disposition of patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain who were evaluated by board-certified emergency physicians (EPs). Prospective, observational study conducted at a safety-net facility with an emergency medicine residency and 65000 annual adult visits. Patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain who underwent an abdominal CT from 3/2011 through 8/2011 were included. Decision to obtain CT was made by the EP. The computer order entry system required the EP to report the most likely diagnosis, and the management and disposition plan. After CT results, the same EP electronically again entered the most likely diagnosis and the planned management and disposition. CTs were interpreted by an attending radiologist. Descriptive statistics and χ(2) tests were used. Six hundred twenty-nine patients were entered and 547 remained after exclusions; 298 (54%) subjects had a change in diagnosis. In 6 categories, there was a statistically significant change, with non-specific abdominal pain the most common(P < .001); followed by renal colic (P < .001), appendicitis (P < .001), diverticulitis (P < .001), small bowel obstruction (P < .029), and gynecologic process (P < .001). The most common disposition plan was "admit for observation," which was reported in 262 patients and remained in only 122 post CT (47%); 301 (54%) patients whose initial plan was admission were ultimately managed otherwise. Abdominal CT use by board certified EPs for nontraumatic abdominal pain changed diagnosis and disposition, with more sent home in lieu of admission. Diagnostic accuracy did not appear to be related to years of clinical experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mebeverine for Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saneian, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of an antispasmodic, mebeverine, in the treatment of childhood functional abdominal pain (FAP). Children with FAP (n = 115, aged 6–18 years) received mebeverine (135 mg, twice daily) or placebo for 4 weeks. Response was defined as ≥2 point reduction in the 6-point pain scale or “no pain.” Physician-rated global severity was also evaluated. Patients were followed up for 12 weeks. Eighty-seven patients completed the trial (44 with mebeverine). Per-protocol and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were conducted. Treatment response rate in the mebeverine and placebo groups based on per-protocol [ITT] analysis was 54.5% [40.6%] and 39.5% [30.3%] at week 4 (P = 0.117 [0.469]) and 72.7% [54.2%] and 53.4% [41.0] at week 12, respectively (P = 0.0503 [0.416]). There was no significant difference between the two groups in change of the physician-rated global severity score after 4 weeks (P = 0.723) or after 12 weeks (P = 0.870) in per-protocol analysis; the same results were obtained in ITT analysis. Mebeverine seems to be effective in the treatment of childhood FAP, but our study was not able to show its statistically significant effect over placebo. Further trials with larger sample of patients are warranted. PMID:25089264

  2. Concordant parent-child reports of anxiety predict impairment in youth with functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Natoshia R; Cohen, Mitchell B; Farrell, Michael K; Mezoff, Adam G; Lynch-Jordan, Anne; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2015-03-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is associated with significant anxiety and impairment. Prior investigations of child anxiety in youth with FAP are generally limited by small sample sizes, based on child report, and use lengthy diagnostic tools. It is unknown whether a brief anxiety-screening tool is feasible, whether parent and child reports of anxiety are congruent, and whether parent and child agreement of child anxiety corresponds to increased impairment. The purpose of this investigation was to examine anxiety characteristics in youth with FAP using parent and child reports. Parent-child agreement of child anxiety symptoms was examined in relation to pain and disability. One hundred patients with FAP (8-18 years of age) recruited from pediatric gastroenterology clinics completed measures of pain intensity (Numeric Rating Scale) and disability (Functional Disability Inventory). Patients and caregivers both completed a measure of child anxiety characteristics (Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Disorders). Clinically significant anxiety symptoms were more commonly reported by youth (54%) than their parents (30%). Panic/somatic symptoms, generalized anxiety, and separation anxiety were most commonly endorsed by patients, whereas generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and school avoidance were most commonly reported by parents. The majority (65%) of parents and children agreed on the presence (26%) or absence (39%) of clinically significant anxiety. Parent-child agreement of clinically significant anxiety was related to increased impairment. A brief screening instrument of parent and child reports of anxiety can provide clinically relevant information for comprehensive treatment planning in children with FAP.

  3. Severe Abdominal Pain Caused by Lead Toxicity without Response to Oral Chelators: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vossoughinia, Hassan; Pourakbar, Ali; Esfandiari, Samaneh; Sharifianrazavi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    A 19-year-old woman was referred to the Emergency Surgery Department with severe abdominal pain, icterus, and anemia. The patient's clinical and paraclinical findings in addition to her occupational and social history, convinced us to assay blood lead level (BLL), which was 41/5 μg/dL. Therefore toxicology consult was performed to treat lead toxicity. Recheck of the BLL showed the level as 53/7 μg/dL. So oral chelator with succimer was started. Despite consumption of oral chelator, there was no response and the pain continued. Because our repeated evaluations were negative, we decided to re-treat lead poisoning by intravenous and intramuscular chelators. Dimercaprol (BAL) + calcium EDTA was started, and after 5 days, the pain relieved dramatically and the patient was discharged. We recommend more liberal lead poisoning therapy in symptomatic patients, and also suggest parenteral chelator therapy, which is more potent, instead of oral chelators in patients with severe symptoms.

  4. Severe Abdominal Pain Caused by Lead Toxicity without Response to Oral Chelators: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Vossoughinia, Hassan; Pourakbar, Ali; Esfandiari, Samaneh; Sharifianrazavi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    A 19-year-old woman was referred to the Emergency Surgery Department with severe abdominal pain, icterus, and anemia. The patient’s clinical and paraclinical findings in addition to her occupational and social history, convinced us to assay blood lead level (BLL), which was 41/5 μg/dL. Therefore toxicology consult was performed to treat lead toxicity. Recheck of the BLL showed the level as 53/7 μg/dL. So oral chelator with succimer was started. Despite consumption of oral chelator, there was no response and the pain continued. Because our repeated evaluations were negative, we decided to re-treat lead poisoning by intravenous and intramuscular chelators. Dimercaprol (BAL) + calcium EDTA was started, and after 5 days, the pain relieved dramatically and the patient was discharged. We recommend more liberal lead poisoning therapy in symptomatic patients, and also suggest parenteral chelator therapy, which is more potent, instead of oral chelators in patients with severe symptoms. PMID:26933485

  5. Therapeutic Response for Functional Abdominal Pain in Children with Occult Constipation: Laxatives versus Prokinetic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between functional abdominal pain (FAP) and occult constipation (OC) in children who did not meet the Rome III criteria for constipation has rarely been reported. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of OC in patients with FAP and to compare the effectiveness of prokinetic drugs and laxatives for FAP and OC. Pediatric outpatients (n = 212; aged 4–15 years) who satisfied the Rome III criteria for childhood FAP were divided into 2 groups based on Leech scores: group 1 < 8; group 2 ≥ 8. Group 2 received either prokinetic drugs or laxatives and pain severity was assessed after 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months. A total 52.4% (111/212) of patients had OC in this study. More patients who received laxatives had reduced pain scores compared with those who received prokinetic drugs. Those treated with laxatives in group 2 had a better response than those treated with prokinetic drugs throughout the study period (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.002 after 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months, respectively). OC was frequently encountered in children with FAP. Laxatives can be more effective than prokinetic drugs for relieving symptoms of FAP in children with a Leech score ≥ 8 and suspected OC. PMID:27914138

  6. Do headache and abdominal pain in childhood predict suicides and severe suicide attempts? Finnish nationwide 1981 birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Luntamo, Terhi; Sourander, Andre; Gyllenberg, David; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Aromaa, Minna; Tamminen, Tuula; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Piha, Jorma

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated associations between pain symptoms in mid-childhood and severe suicidality in adolescence and early adulthood. Severe suicidality was defined as completed suicide or suicidal attempt requiring hospital admission. In a nationwide prospective population-based study (n = 6,017), parents and children were asked about the child's headache and abdominal pain at age eight. The outcome was register-based data on suicide or suicidal attempt requiring hospital treatment by age 24. Family composition, parental educational level, and the child's psychiatric symptoms reported by the child, parents and teacher at baseline were included as covariates in statistical analyses. Boys' abdominal pain reported by the parents was associated with later severe suicidality after adjusting for family composition, parental educational level, and childhood psychiatric symptoms at baseline. In addition, the association between boys' own report of headache and later severe suicidality reached borderline significance in unadjusted analysis. Girls' pain symptoms did not predict later severe suicidality.

  7. A Novel Rapidly Growing Mycobacterium Species Causing an Abdominal Cerebrospinal Fluid Pseudocyst Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Cory K.; de Man, Tom J. B.; Toney, Nadege C.; Kamboj, Kamal; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Wang, Shu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a rare cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections. We describe the isolation and identification of a novel, rapidly growing, nonpigmented NTM from an abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst. The patient presented with fevers, nausea, and abdominal pain and clinically improved after shunt removal. NTM identification was performed by amplicon and whole-genome sequencing. PMID:27704004

  8. Lassa fever presenting as acute abdomen: a case series.

    PubMed

    Dongo, Andrew E; Kesieme, Emeka B; Iyamu, Christopher E; Okokhere, Peter O; Akhuemokhan, Odigie C; Akpede, George O

    2013-04-19

    Lassa fever, an endemic zoonotic viral infection in West Africa, presents with varied symptoms including fever, vomiting, retrosternal pain, abdominal pain, sore-throat, mucosal bleeding, seizures and coma. When fever and abdominal pain are the main presenting symptoms, and a diagnosis of acute abdomen is entertained, Lassa fever is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis, even in endemic areas. Rather the diagnosis of Lassa fever is suspected only after surgical intervention. Therefore, such patients often undergo unnecessary surgery with resultant delay in the commencement of ribavirin therapy. This increases morbidity and mortality and the risk of nosocomial transmission to hospital staff. We report 7 patients aged between 17 months and 40 years who had operative intervention for suspected appendicitis, perforated typhoid ileitis, intussuception and ruptured ectopic pregnancy after routine investigations. All seven were post-operatively confirmed as Lassa fever cases. Four patients died postoperatively, most before commencement of ribavirin, while the other three patients eventually recovered with appropriate antibiotic treatment including intravenous ribavirin. Surgeons working in West Africa should include Lassa fever in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially appendicitis. The presence of high grade fever, proteinuria and thrombocytopenia in patients with acute abdomen should heighten the suspicion of Lassa fever. Prolonged intra-operative bleeding should not only raise suspicion of the disease but also serve to initiate precautions to prevent nosocomial transmission.

  9. Lassa fever presenting as acute abdomen: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lassa fever, an endemic zoonotic viral infection in West Africa, presents with varied symptoms including fever, vomiting, retrosternal pain, abdominal pain, sore-throat, mucosal bleeding, seizures and coma. When fever and abdominal pain are the main presenting symptoms, and a diagnosis of acute abdomen is entertained, Lassa fever is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis, even in endemic areas. Rather the diagnosis of Lassa fever is suspected only after surgical intervention. Therefore, such patients often undergo unnecessary surgery with resultant delay in the commencement of ribavirin therapy. This increases morbidity and mortality and the risk of nosocomial transmission to hospital staff. We report 7 patients aged between 17 months and 40 years who had operative intervention for suspected appendicitis, perforated typhoid ileitis, intussuception and ruptured ectopic pregnancy after routine investigations. All seven were post-operatively confirmed as Lassa fever cases. Four patients died postoperatively, most before commencement of ribavirin, while the other three patients eventually recovered with appropriate antibiotic treatment including intravenous ribavirin. Surgeons working in West Africa should include Lassa fever in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially appendicitis. The presence of high grade fever, proteinuria and thrombocytopenia in patients with acute abdomen should heighten the suspicion of Lassa fever. Prolonged intra-operative bleeding should not only raise suspicion of the disease but also serve to initiate precautions to prevent nosocomial transmission. PMID:23597024

  10. Fever and Pain Management in Childhood: Healthcare Providers’ and Parents’ Adherence to Current Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Raffaeli, Genny; Orenti, Annalisa; Gambino, Monia; Peves Rios, Walter; Bosis, Samantha; Bianchini, Sonia; Tagliabue, Claudia; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the adherence of healthcare providers and parents to the current recommendations concerning fever and pain management, randomized samples of 500 healthcare providers caring for children and 500 families were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire. The 378 health care providers (HCPs) responding to the survey (75.6%) included 144 primary care pediatricians (38.1%), 98 hospital pediatricians (25.9%), 62 pediatric residents (16.4%), and 71 pediatric nurses (19.6%); the 464 responding parents (92.8%) included 175 whose youngest (or only) child was ≤5 years old (37.7%), 175 whose youngest (or only) child was aged 6–10 years (37.7%), and 114 whose youngest (or only) child was aged 11–14 years (24.6%). There were gaps in the knowledge of both healthcare providers and parents. Global adherence to the guidelines was lower among the pediatric nurses than the other healthcare providers (odds ratio 0.875; 95% confidence interval 0.795–0.964). Among the parents, those of children aged 6–10 and 11–14 years old, those who were older, and those without a degree answered the questions correctly significantly less frequently than the others. These findings suggest that there is an urgent need to improve the dissemination of the current recommendations concerning fever and pain management among healthcare providers and parents in order to avoid mistaken and sometimes risky attitudes, common therapeutic errors, and the unnecessary overloading of emergency department resources. Pediatric nurses and parents with older children, those who are older, and those with a lower educational level should be the priority targets of educational programmes. PMID:27187436

  11. Fever and Pain Management in Childhood: Healthcare Providers' and Parents' Adherence to Current Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Raffaeli, Genny; Orenti, Annalisa; Gambino, Monia; Peves Rios, Walter; Bosis, Samantha; Bianchini, Sonia; Tagliabue, Claudia; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-05-13

    In order to evaluate the adherence of healthcare providers and parents to the current recommendations concerning fever and pain management, randomized samples of 500 healthcare providers caring for children and 500 families were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire. The 378 health care providers (HCPs) responding to the survey (75.6%) included 144 primary care pediatricians (38.1%), 98 hospital pediatricians (25.9%), 62 pediatric residents (16.4%), and 71 pediatric nurses (19.6%); the 464 responding parents (92.8%) included 175 whose youngest (or only) child was ≤5 years old (37.7%), 175 whose youngest (or only) child was aged 6-10 years (37.7%), and 114 whose youngest (or only) child was aged 11-14 years (24.6%). There were gaps in the knowledge of both healthcare providers and parents. Global adherence to the guidelines was lower among the pediatric nurses than the other healthcare providers (odds ratio 0.875; 95% confidence interval 0.795-0.964). Among the parents, those of children aged 6-10 and 11-14 years old, those who were older, and those without a degree answered the questions correctly significantly less frequently than the others. These findings suggest that there is an urgent need to improve the dissemination of the current recommendations concerning fever and pain management among healthcare providers and parents in order to avoid mistaken and sometimes risky attitudes, common therapeutic errors, and the unnecessary overloading of emergency department resources. Pediatric nurses and parents with older children, those who are older, and those with a lower educational level should be the priority targets of educational programmes.

  12. Role of quantitative cholescintigraphy for planning laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with gallbladder dyskinesia and chronic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Paajanen, Hannu; Miilunpohja, Sami; Joukainen, Sarianna; Heikkinen, Jari

    2009-02-01

    Our aim was to examine the diagnostic role and therapeutic guide of quantitative cholescintigraphy in 122 patients with a biliary-type chronic abdominal pain and normal abdominal ultrasound. The patients with severe symptoms and an impaired ejection fraction (EF35%, n=38) EF. An impaired gallbladder emptying was found in 84/122 of patients (69%) and LC was performed in 32/122 (26%) of the patients, that is, 2.2% of all cholecystectomies in our hospital. After the mean follow-up of 4 years, chronic abdominal pain was totally improved or diminished in 92% in the LC group, 45% in the nonoperative group with EF35%, respectively (P=0.0003). Quantitative cholescintigraphy is a useful aid when considering the treatment options in patients with chronic biliary-type abdominal pain and a negative abdominal ultrasound.

  13. [Lead poisoning. A surprising cause of constipation, abdominal pain and anemia].

    PubMed

    Hoffmanová, Iva; Kačírková, Petra; Kučerová, Irena; Ševčík, Rudolf; Sánchez, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    This article reports on patient that has been presented with sudden onset of constipation, abdominal pain and normocytic anemia. Gastroscopy and colonoscopy ruled out an organic diseases. In peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirates mears, coarse basophilic stippling of erythrocyte (and erythroblasts) point out a possibility of heavy metal poisoning. The level of plumbemia exceeded 8.4 times the maximal permitted value for common (non-professional) population. A source of poisoning was indentified from a glaze on a ceramic jug, from which the patient had drank tea with lemon for three months. A lead concentration in the tea extract was 227 mg/kg. In developed countries, lead poisoning is a rare diagnosis. As the symptoms are nonspecific, missed diagnoses could occur, especially in sporadic, non-occupational exposure. However, a microscopic evaluation of the peripheral bloods mear with finding of predominantly coarse basophilic stippling of erythrocyte mayle ad to suspicion of lead poisoning.

  14. Water Load Test in Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain: No Relation to Food Intake and Nutritional Status.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Roberto Koity Fujihara; Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; Speridião, Patricia da Graça Leite; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the relations between the water load test in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders with food intake and nutritional status. Patients with functional dyspepsia required a lower maximum water intake to produce fullness (n = 11, median = 380 mL) than patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n = 10, median = 695 mL) or functional abdominal pain (n = 10, median = 670 mL) (P < 0.05). Among patients who ingested ≤560 mL (n = 17) or >560 mL (n = 14) in the water load test, there was no relation between the maximum drinking capacity and food intake, body mass index, or height.

  15. Water Load Test In Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain: No Relationship With Food Intake And Nutritional Status.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Roberto Koity Fujihara; Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; da Graça Leite Speridião, Patricia; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2015-04-02

    This cross-sectional study evaluate the relationships between the water load test in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders with food intake and nutritional status. Patients with functional dyspepsia required a lower maximum water intake to produce fullness (n = 11, median = 380 mL) than patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n = 10, median = 695 mL) or functional abdominal pain (n = 10, median = 670 mL) (p < 0.05). Among patients who ingested ≤560 mL (n = 17) or >560 mL (n = 14) in the water load test, there was no relationship between the maximum drinking capacity and food intake, body mass index or height.

  16. Management of functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Eric; Nurko, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are among the most commonly diagnosed medical problems in pediatrics. Symptom-based Rome III criteria for FAP and IBS have been validated and help the clinician in making a positive diagnosis. The majority of patients with mild complaints improve with reassurance and time. For a distinct subset of patients with more severe and disabling illness, finding effective treatment for these disorders remains a challenge. Over the years, a wide range of therapies have been proposed and studied. The lack of a single, proven intervention highlights the complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors probably involved in the development of childhood FAP and IBS, and the need for a multidisciplinary, integrated approach. This article reviews the current literature on the efficacy of pharmacologic, dietary and psychosocial interventions for FAP and IBS in children and adolescents. PMID:20528117

  17. Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma Presenting as Abdominal Pain with a Pulsatile Mass

    PubMed Central

    Afsharfard, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a rare tumor that mostly involves adults aged 50 to 70. The most common anatomic location is the lower extremities. MFH of the retroperitoneum usually manifests late in its course and may be initially mistaken with other more common diagnosis. Here, the authors describe a 60-year-old man that was brought to the emergency department with a chief complaint of periumbilical abdominal pain. Our patient presented with symptoms consistent with a symptomatic aortic aneurysm, but a mass was encountered during surgery. In such circumstances the diagnosis of malignant sarcoma must be kept in mind and attempts at full resection with tumor-free margins are necessary. PMID:27563479

  18. Appendicitis by Enterobius vermicularis presenting with recurrent abdominal pain and eosinophilia A case report.

    PubMed

    Risio, Domenico; Rendine, Anna; Napolitano, Luca; Schiavone, Cosima

    2016-02-29

    Enterobius vermicularis (EV) is the most common parasitic infection in developed countries. Enterobius vermicularis infestation of the appendix can cause symptoms of appendiceal pain, independent of microscopic evidence of acute inflammation. The diagnosis of a parasitic infestation is generally achieved only after the pathologic examination of the resected appendices. We present a case of a 23 year old female with enterobiasis of appendix presented with clinical features of acute appendicitis. The appendix was surgically removed and the specimen was pathologically. We highlight that the symptoms of appendicitis can be due to Enterobius vermicularis infestation also without any histological evidence of acute inflammation. High index of suspicion and including parasitic origin in differential diagnosis of abdominal disturbances might hopefully Appencitis, Elminth, Enterobius vermicularis (EV).

  19. Hereditary Angioedema with Recurrent Abdominal Pain in a Patient with a Novel Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Yakushiji, Hiromasa; Kaji, Arito; Suzuki, Keitarou; Yamada, Motohiro; Horiuchi, Takahiko; Sinozaki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    We describe a patient with hereditary angioedema type I. The patient had experienced recurrent abdominal pain around the time of her menstrual period for 13 years. A laboratory examination showed reduced functional and antigenic levels of C4 and C1 inhibitor (C1-INH). To establish a diagnosis, we carried out a DNA analysis of the patient's C1-INH gene. We determined that the patient was heterozygous for a single base pair transposition of T to C at nucleotide 4429 in exon 4, which had not been reported in the literature. As the patient had no family history of hereditary diseases, it was considered to be a de novo mutation. PMID:27725554

  20. Diffuse abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting due to retroperitoneal fibrosis: a rare but often missed diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Netzer, P; Binek, J; Hammer, B

    1997-10-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a rare chronic inflammatory disease usually involving the ureters, retroperitoneal vessels and nerves; however, any intestinal organ may also be involved. In recent years, a few successful immunosuppressive treatments of this disease have been described and surgery can, therefore, probably be avoided in most cases. We report here on a case of secondary retroperitoneal fibrosis with compression and midline deviation of the ureters and impaired renal function which was probably caused by ergotamine abuse because of migraine. The patient complained of diffuse abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. After immunosuppressive treatment with azathioprine and prednisone for a year, we observed a complete resolution of the retroperitoneal mass on computed tomography, although renal function remained impaired. Eleven months after the cessation of treatment, the patient had not relapsed.

  1. [Clinical reasoning and decision making in clinical practice: a boy with fatigue and abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    van Os, Erim; Noordam, Cees; Hart, W Peter; Draaisma, Jos M T

    2009-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with fatigue and abdominal pain. Laboratory tests revealed a primary hypothyroidism with circulating auto-antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPO), anaemia and an elevated level of creatine kinase (CK). A diagnosis of auto-immune hypothyroidism with associated anaemia and myopathy was made. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy was started. However, six months later, he still complained of fatigue. He had unexpectedly varying thyroid function tests and the anaemia and the elevated level of CK persisted. Analysis of the other hormonal axes demonstrated a secondary adrenal insufficiency which was treated with hydrocortisone suppletion therapy. If a patient suffering from hypothyroidism does not respond appropriately to therapy or even deteriorates, adrenal insufficiency should always be considered. Patients with one type of auto-immune endocrinopathy have a greater risk at developing other types of auto-immune endocrinopathies.

  2. Perforation of the gallbladder: a rare cause of acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Ponten, Joep B; Selten, Jasmijn; Puylaert, Julien B C M; Bronkhorst, Maarten W G A

    2015-02-08

    An 82-year-old woman without any previous medical history arrived in the emergency department with severe pain in the entire abdomen since 5 h. Blood tests showed, apart from a CRP of 28 mg/l, no abnormalities. We decided to perform an abdominal ultrasound, which showed an easily compressible gallbladder, containing a small, mobile gallstone and free fluid in the abdomen. During ultrasound-guided punction of this fluid, bile is aspirated. We performed laparoscopy and confirmed a large amount of intraperitoneal bile. Upon inspecting the gallbladder a perforation is seen in the anti-hepatic side of the gallbladder. After performing a cholecystectomy, we opened the gallbladder and detected a dissection-like lesion, which provided access to the peritoneal cavity. The confirmed diagnosis was acute onset free perforation of the gallbladder. The perforation was probably caused by the small obstructing gallstone seen on ultrasound or by another small stone, which could not be visualized.

  3. Abdominal pain and hemoperitoneum: sole presenting symptoms for "leaking AAA" after endovascular repair.

    PubMed

    White, R A; Donayre, C E; Walot, I; Kopchok, G; Woody, J

    2001-04-01

    To describe an unusual presentation of impending aortic endograft rupture and successful endovascular rescue. A 77-year-old man with an enlarging aortic aneurysm was treated with a Talent bifurcated endoprosthesis; a moderate endoleak that appeared to be related to either proximal or distal fixation sites was noted in the body of the aneurysm. The patient was observed for 1 month, and repeat imaging demonstrated persistent endoleak without major increase in the aneurysm diameter. Another examination was scheduled for 3 months hence, but, 2 months later, the patient presented with abdominal pain and a hemoperitoneum. A proximal extension cuff resolved the leak and led to resolution of the hemoperitoneum. A leaking aneurysm can be repaired using endovascular techniques in patients with an existing endograft. The need for frequent imaging surveillance of patients with endoleak is underscored.

  4. Retraining motor control of abdominal muscles among elite cricketers with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Hides, J A; Stanton, W R; Wilson, S J; Freke, M; McMahon, S; Sims, K

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the effect of a staged stabilization training program on the motor control of the anterolateral abdominal muscles in elite cricketers with and without low back pain (LBP). Changes in the cross-sectional area of the trunk, the thickness of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles and the shortening of the TrA muscle in response to an abdominal drawing-in task were measured at the start and completion of a 13-week cricket training camp. Measures were performed using ultrasound imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. Participants from the group with LBP underwent a stabilization training program that involved performing voluntary contractions of the multifidus, TrA and pelvic floor muscles, while receiving feedback from ultrasound imaging. By the end of the training camp, the motor control of cricketers with LBP who received the stabilization training improved and was similar to that of the cricketers without LBP. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Clinical effect of traditional Chinese spinal orthopedic manipulation in treatment of Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Xing, Liyang; Qu, Liuxin; Chen, Hong; Gao, Song

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical effect of Traditional Chinese Spinal Orthopedic Manipulation (TCSOM) in treating Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome (FAPS) in comparison with Pinaverium Bromide (Dicetel, PBD), and to assess a possible cause for FAPS. 60 cases of FAPS patients were randomly assigned to the TCSOM group and PBD group according to the random number table method. The TCSOM group was treated with thumb pressing manipulation, every other day in the first week, and once every three days in the second week, for 5 times treatments. Patients in the PBD group were instructed to take 50mg 3 times a day, consistently for 2 weeks. The symptoms of pre-treatment and post-treatment were assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS) pain score. A symptom improvement rating (SIR) was implemented in order to evaluate the effects of the treatments, and to statistically compare the two groups. The symptoms of 21 patients of the TCSOM group were resolved soon after the first spinal manipulation treatment and 4 cases were significantly improved. The VAS pain scores in the TCSOM group were significantly lower than those in the PBD group after 2 weeks treatment. According to the SIR based on VAS, the TCSOM research group included 20 cases with excellent results, 8 cases with good, and 2 cases with poor. There were no side effects in the TCSOM group after treatment. Based on VAS, the PBD research group reported 6 cases with excellent results, 8 cases with good and 16 cases with poor. All cases were statistically analyzed, revealing a significant difference (P<0.001) between the two groups. TCSOM group performed much better than PBD group for relief of the symptoms of FAPS. Thumb pressing manipulation on the thoracic and/or lumbar region can correct the displacement of inter-vertebral discs and/or vertebra, resolving the stimuli caused by pressure exerting on the nerves and vessels around the spine. with thumb pressing manipulation on the Back-Shu acupoints, the Jiaji (EX-B2) and the

  6. Dientamoeba fragilis and chronic abdominal pain in children: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Marin J; Korterink, Judith J; Benninga, Marc A; Hilbink, Mirrian; Widdershoven, J; Deckers-Kocken, Judith M

    2014-12-01

    The association between Dientamoeba (D.) fragilis and the aetiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) in children is unclear. The aim of this retrospective case-control study is to clarify the clinical relevance of D. fragilis in children with chronic abdominal pain. From April 2011 until April 2013, a total of 132 patients with chronic abdominal pain (AP), aged 8-18 years, referred to a non-academic hospital, and 77 control patients, aged 8-18 years without gastrointestinal symptoms referred to a psychiatric hospital, were included in the study. D. fragilis was diagnosed by real-time PCR in faecal samples. Symptomatic children without a D. fragilis infection fulfilled the ROME III criteria for AP-related FGID (AP-FGID). Clinical data were retrospectively analysed by examining patients' hospital records from the Jeroen Bosch Hospital and Herlaarhof in The Netherlands. D. fragilis was detected in 57 patients with chronic AP (43.2%) and in 39 controls (50.6%) (p=0.255). No significant differences in symptomatology were found between D. fragilis-infected children and children fulfilling the criteria for AP-FGID. Parasitological eradication was achieved in 61.7% of patients after treatment with metronidazole or clioquinol, while clinical improvement occurred in only 40.4% of patients (p=0.435). There were no differences in symptoms comparing children with and without D fragilis infection. Furthermore, no relation was found between clinical and microbiological response after treatment for D. fragilis. This retrospective study suggests that there is no association between chronic AP and D. fragilis infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. A comparison of epidural saline, morphine, and bupivacaine for pain relief after abdominal surgery in goats.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, D A; Kruse-Elliott, K T; Broadstone, R V

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the analgesic efficacy of bupivacaine, morphine, or saline (control) when injected epidurally into the lumbosacral epidural space in goats after abdominal surgery. Goats received either bupivacaine (0.5%; 1.5 mg/kg in 0.9% sodium chloride solution), 0.9% sodium chloride solution (0.2 mL/kg), or preservative-free morphine (0.1 mg/kg). Total volume injected into the epidural space was 0.2 mL/kg for all groups. The variables evaluated were times to extubation, sternal recumbency, standing, and eating; heart and respiratory rates; and pain score. Only two of the goats in the bupivacaine group were able to stand on their hindlimbs before 6 hours. Time to eating was shorter for the saline group when compared with the bupivacaine group. Heart rate over all time in the saline group (137 +/- 4 beats/min, mean +/- SEM) was higher than the morphine (125 +/- 3 beats/min) and bupivacaine groups (121 +/- 3 beats/min). Respiratory rate over all time was increased in the saline group (26 +/- 1 breaths/min) compared with the bupivacaine (24 +/- 1 breaths/min) or morphine (24 +/- 1 breaths/min) groups. At 50 minutes, the pain score for the saline group was higher than the morphine group. Pain score over all time in the saline group (1.5 +/- 0.10) was higher than the morphine (1.2 +/- 0.07) and bupivacaine (1.2 +/- 0.04) groups. One goat in the saline group required two intravenous injections of flunixin meglumine for pain.

  8. Epidemlology of exercise-related transient abdominal pain at the Sydney City to Surf community run.

    PubMed

    Morton, D P; Richards, D; Callister, R

    2005-06-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 848 participants (76% runners, 24% walkers) at the conclusion of the 14 km City to Surf community run in order to investigate their experience of exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP). Twenty-seven percent of respondents reported experiencing ETAP during the event, with the condition reported more frequently (p< 0.01) by runners (30%) than walkers (16%). ETAP was mostly described as well-localised (88%) and of an aching (25%), sharp (22%) or cramping (22%) sensation. The most commonly-reported sites of the pain were the right (46%) and left lumbar (23%) regions of the abdomen. Forty-two percent of the respondents who experienced ETAP reported that the pain was detrimental to their performance. Reports of ETAP decreased with age (r= -0.23, p< 0.01) but were unrelated to gender, body mass index or the time taken to complete the event. Among respondents who ran, those who consumed a large mass of food relative to body weight in the time interval 1-2 hr before the event were more likely to develop symptoms of ETAP (p < 0.05). The nutritional content of the pre-event meal did not influence the experience of ETAP. Sufferers of ETAP were more likely to experience nausea (r = 0.12, p< 0.01) and report shoulder tip pain (r= 0.14, p< 0.01). The results indicate that ETAP is a commonly experienced problem and provide insights into the cause of the complaint.

  9. Pain symptoms and stooling patterns do not drive diagnostic costs for children with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in primary or tertiary care

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the cost of medical evaluation for children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome brought to a pediatric gastroenterologist versus children who remained in the care of their pediatrician, (2) compare symptom characteristics for th...

  10. A rare but potentially lethal case of tuberculous aortic aneurysm presenting with repeated attacks of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yao-Min; Chang, Yun-Te; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Wang, Paul Yung-Pou; Wann, Shue-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculous aortic aneurysm is an extremely rare disease with a high mortality rate. The clinical features of this condition are highly variable, ranging from asymptomatic with or without constitutional symptoms, abdominal pain to frank rupture, bleeding and shock. We herein report the case of a 56-year-old man with a large tuberculous mycotic aneurysm in the abdominal aorta with an initial presentation of repeated attacks of abdominal pain lasting for several months. Due to the vague nature of the initial symptoms, tuberculous aortic aneurysms may take several months to diagnose. This case highlights the importance of having a high index of suspicion and providing timely surgery for this rare but potentially lethal disease.

  11. Trajectories of Symptoms and Impairment for Pediatric Patients with Functional Abdominal Pain: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvaney, Shelagh; Lambert, E. Warren; Garber, Judy; Walker, Lynn S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This prospective study characterizes trajectories of symptoms and impairment in pediatric patients with abdominal pain not associated with identifiable organic disease. Method: The Children's Somatization Inventory and the Functional Disability Inventory were administered four times over 5 years to 132 patients (6-18 years old) seen in…

  12. Chronic abdominal pain secondary to a mucous cystadenoma of the appendix in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Blecha, Matthew J; Gupta, Anita; Hoover, J David; Madonna, Mary Beth

    2005-11-01

    Mucocele of the appendix is a thin-walled dilated appendix filled with mucus. It occurs secondary to chronic obstruction of the appendiceal lumen because of a range of pathologies. Cystadenomas in children are exceedingly rare and most frequently of ovarian origin. A mucous cystadenoma of the appendix in a 10-year-old boy with chronic abdominal pain is presented.

  13. Early Parental and Child Predictors of Recurrent Abdominal Pain at School Age: Results of a Large Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramchandani, Paul G.; Stein, Alan; Hotopf, Matthew; Wiles, Nicola J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether parental psychological and physical factors and child factors measured in the first year of life were associated with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in children at age 6 3/4 years. Method: A longitudinal cohort study (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children), followed 8,272 children from pregnancy to age 6…

  14. Carbohydrate digestion in congenital sucrase isomaltase deficient and recurrent abdominal pain children assesed by 13C- starch breath test

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starches contribute about half of the food energy needs to the weaned child's diet. Malabsorption of sucrose is associated with abdominal pain, bloating and diarrhea. A genetic disorder called Congenital Sucrase-Isomaltase Deficiency (CSID) is suspected when these symptoms follow sugar ingestion and...

  15. Early Parental and Child Predictors of Recurrent Abdominal Pain at School Age: Results of a Large Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramchandani, Paul G.; Stein, Alan; Hotopf, Matthew; Wiles, Nicola J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether parental psychological and physical factors and child factors measured in the first year of life were associated with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in children at age 6 3/4 years. Method: A longitudinal cohort study (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children), followed 8,272 children from pregnancy to age 6…

  16. Protein-losing enteropathy in a young African-American woman with abdominal pain, diarrhea and hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Gornisiewicz, M; Rodriguez, M; Smith, J K; Saag, K; Alarcón, G S

    2001-01-01

    The case of a 21-year-old African-American woman who presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and hydronephrosis and who proved to have protein-losing enteropathy secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus is discussed. This is an unusual complication of lupus.

  17. A giant adrenal lipoma presenting in a woman with chronic mild postprandial abdominal pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Drygiannakis, Ioannis; Tzortzinis, Anastasios; Papanas, Nikolaos; Fiska, Aliki

    2011-04-05

    Adrenal lipomas are rare, small, benign, non-functioning tumors, which must be histopathologically differentiated from other tumors such as myelolipomas or liposarcomas. They are usually identified incidentally during autopsy, imaging, or laparotomy. Occasionally, they may present acutely due to complications such as abdominal pain from retroperitoneal bleeding, or systemic symptoms of infection. We report a giant adrenal lipoma (to the best of our knowledge, the second largest in the literature) clinically presenting with chronic mild postprandial pain. A 54-year-old Caucasian woman presented several times over a period of 10 years to various emergency departments complaining of long-term mild postprandial abdominal pain. Although clinical examinations were unrevealing, an abdominal computed tomography scan performed at her most recent presentation led to the identification of a large lipoma of the left adrenal gland, which occupied most of the retroperitoneal space. Myelolipoma was ruled out due to the absence of megakaryocytes, immature leukocytes, or erythrocytes. Liposarcoma was ruled out due to the absence of lipoblasts. The size of the lipoma (16 × 14 × 7 cm) is, to the best of our knowledge, the second largest reported to date. After surgical resection, our patient was relieved of her symptoms and remains healthy six years postoperatively. Physicians should be aware that differential diagnosis of mild chronic abdominal pain in patients presenting in emergency rooms may include large adrenal lipomas. When initial diagnostic investigation is not revealing, out-patient specialist evaluation should be planned to enable appropriate further investigations.

  18. Psyllium fiber reduces abdominal pain in children with irritable bowel syndrome in a randomized, double-blind trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We sought to determine the efficacy of psyllium fiber treatment on abdominal pain and stool patterns in children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We evaluated effects on breath hydrogen and methane production, gut permeability, and microbiome composition. We also investigated whether psychologic...

  19. Chronic Abdominal Pain in Children and Adolescents: Parental Threat Perception Plays a Major Role in Seeking Medical Consultations.

    PubMed

    Calvano, Claudia; Warschburger, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Background. Pain symptoms, associated impairment, and parental perception of threat are reported to be predictors of health care utilization (HCU) in childhood chronic abdominal pain (CAP). However, mediating variables and their interrelations have not yet been systematically studied. Objectives. This study aims to identify mediating pathways of influence between child's abdominal pain and the number of pain-related medical visits. Methods. In a multicenter study, we recruited N = 151 parent-child dyads with children aged 6-17 years suffering from CAP. A composite measure of pain symptoms was defined as predictor and the number of pain-related medical visits as outcome variable. This relation was analyzed by serial mediation, including child- and parent-reported impairment and parental threat perception as mediators. Results. Only parental threat perception significantly linked child's pain symptoms to the number of medical visits. Measures of impairment did not have a significant effect. Conclusions. Parental pain-related threat perception is strongly related to health care seeking in childhood CAP. Addressing threat perception might be a fruitful parent-centered approach in clinical practice.

  20. Chronic Abdominal Pain in Children and Adolescents: Parental Threat Perception Plays a Major Role in Seeking Medical Consultations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Pain symptoms, associated impairment, and parental perception of threat are reported to be predictors of health care utilization (HCU) in childhood chronic abdominal pain (CAP). However, mediating variables and their interrelations have not yet been systematically studied. Objectives. This study aims to identify mediating pathways of influence between child's abdominal pain and the number of pain-related medical visits. Methods. In a multicenter study, we recruited N = 151 parent-child dyads with children aged 6–17 years suffering from CAP. A composite measure of pain symptoms was defined as predictor and the number of pain-related medical visits as outcome variable. This relation was analyzed by serial mediation, including child- and parent-reported impairment and parental threat perception as mediators. Results. Only parental threat perception significantly linked child's pain symptoms to the number of medical visits. Measures of impairment did not have a significant effect. Conclusions. Parental pain-related threat perception is strongly related to health care seeking in childhood CAP. Addressing threat perception might be a fruitful parent-centered approach in clinical practice. PMID:28003776

  1. Familial Mediterranean fever without cardinal symptoms and role of genetic screening.

    PubMed

    Ulas, T; Buyukhatipoglu, H; Bes, C; Dal, M S; Hacıbekiroglu, I; Apucu, H G; Borlu, F

    2012-07-19

    Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by paroxysmal episodes of fever and serosal inflammation. The classical presentation is fever and severe recurrent abdominal pain due to serositis that lasts for one to three days and the resolves spontaneously. Between the episodes patients are asymptomatic. Ninety-five percent of patients with familial mediterranean fever have painful episodes localized to the abdomen, which is usually the dominant manifestation of the disease. Herein, we present a case of 34-year-old man with incomplete abdominal pain episode of familial mediterranean fever limited to the epigastrum and had no cardinals symptoms of this disease. The diagnosis was made by genetic screening. Successful treatment response was achieved by colchicine.

  2. A rare cause of massive ascites: familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Mehmet; Demir, Güner; Esen, Ramazan; Dülger, Ahmet Cumhur; Beğenik, Hüseyin; Çelik, Yılmaz; Küçükoğlu, Mehmet Emin; Bahar, Kadir

    2012-06-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurrent fever and peritoneal and pleural inflammation. It is an inherited disorder commonly found in Armenians, Turks, Arabs, Balkans, and Jews originating from North African countries. A small amount of peritoneal fluid collection can be observed during peritoneal attacks in patients with Familial Mediterranean fever, but chronic ascites has been described rarely in these patients. A 42-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic in June 2010 with fever, severe abdominal pain and abdominal distention that had continued for one month. There was no family history of periodic fevers or abdominal pain. We could not find any cause for ascites, including tuberculosis. A diagnosis of Familial Mediterranean fever was suspected based on the clinical findings and her family history. She was screened for mutations causing Familial Mediterranean fever, and when found to be homozygous for M694V, treatment with colchicine was initiated. After treatment, the amount of ascites decreased, and relief of symptoms was confirmed during a follow-up. In conclusion, because Familial Mediterranean fever is common in our country, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with ascites of unknown etiology in populations where hereditary inflammatory disease is endemic.

  3. The Placebo Response in Pediatric Abdominal Pain-Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoekman, Daniël R; Zeevenhooven, Judith; van Etten-Jamaludin, Faridi S; Douwes Dekker, Iuke; Benninga, Marc A; Tabbers, Merit M; Vlieger, Arine M

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the magnitude and determinants of the placebo response in studies with pediatric abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched for systematic reviews and randomized placebo-controlled trials concerning children 4-18 years of age with an abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder. The primary outcome was the pooled proportion of subjects assigned to placebo with improvement as defined by the authors. The effect of trial characteristics on the magnitude of the placebo response was investigated using univariate meta-regression analysis. Twenty-one trials were identified. The pooled proportion of subjects with improvement was 41% (95% CI, 34%-49%; 17 studies) and with no pain was 17% (95% CI, 8%-32%; 7 studies). The pooled standardized mean difference on the Faces Pain Scales compared with baseline was -0.73 (95% CI, -1.04 to -0.42; 8 studies). There was significant heterogeneity across studies with respect to both outcomes. Lower dosing frequency (P = .04), positive study (P = .03), longer duration of treatment (P < .001), and higher placebo dropout (P < .001) were associated with higher report of no pain. Response on Faces Pain Scales was greater in studies conducted in the Middle East (P = .002), in studies that did not report the randomization schedule (P = .02), and in studies with a higher percentage of females (P = .04). Approximately 41% of children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders improve on placebo. Several trial characteristics are correlated significantly with the proportion of patients with no pain on placebo and with the magnitude of the placebo response on Faces Pain Scales. These data could be valuable for the design of future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Right lower quadrant abdominal pain--the usual suspects? Diagnosis and therapy of a symptomatic mesenteric cyst].

    PubMed

    Blanco, A; Sonntag, C; Giese, A

    2013-05-01

    A 17-year-old male sought medical attention for right lower abdominal pain. At clinical examination an abdominal mass in the right lower abdominal quadrant was accompanied by pain and tenderness in this very region. The febrile patient (temperature axillary: 37.5 °C, rectal: 38.6 °C) was in reduced general health. Except for an elevated C-reactive protein (CRP: 14.3 mg/dl, normal: < 0.5) laboratory tests were inconspicuous. Abdominal ultrasound showed a hypoechogenic/anechogenic septated mass measuring 7.2 × 10.4 × 15 cm as well as small amounts of fluid. Abdominal computed tomography confirmed these findings. Radiographically there was evidence for appendicitis. Empiric antibiotic therapy was immediately commenced. Within 48 hours laparotomy was performed showing an abdominal mass which seemed to infiltrate the transverse colon, the ileocolic artery and the mesenteric root. No signs of appendicitis were found. A radical resection of the abdominal mass was performed meeting current standards of oncologic surgery. The postoperative course was favourable. Histopathological investigation showed a mesenteric cyst incorporating a hematoma and tissue with signs of chronic inflammation and granulation. Mesenteric cysts are rare pathologies occurring most frequently during childhood. They may become clinically overt in case of infection, haemorrhage or secondary intestinal obstruction. In the presented case presented hematoma formation and chronic inflammation had presumably induced peritonitis and clinical signs of appendicitis. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography facilitated diagnostic work-up. The patient thereby benefited from a scheduled laparotomy allowing a complete recovery. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Revisiting Russell's Viper (Daboia russelii) Bite in Sri Lanka: Is Abdominal Pain an Early Feature of Systemic Envenoming?

    PubMed Central

    Kularatne, Senanayake A. M.; Silva, Anjana; Weerakoon, Kosala; Maduwage, Kalana; Walathara, Chamara; Paranagama, Ranjith; Mendis, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    The Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) is responsible for 30–40% of all snakebites and the most number of life-threatening bites of any snake in Sri Lanka. The clinical profile of Russell's viper bite includes local swelling, coagulopathy, renal dysfunction and neuromuscular paralysis, based on which the syndromic diagnostic tools have been developed. The currently available Indian polyvalent antivenom is not very effective in treating Russell's viper bite patients in Sri Lanka and the decision regarding antivenom therapy is primarily driven by clinical and laboratory evidence of envenoming. The non-availability of early predictors of Russell's viper systemic envenoming is responsible for considerable delay in commencing antivenom. The objective of this study is to evaluate abdominal pain as an early feature of systemic envenoming following Russell's viper bites. We evaluated the clinical profile of Russell's viper bite patients admitted to a tertiary care centre in Sri Lanka. Fifty-five patients were proven Russell's viper bite victims who produced the biting snake, while one hundred and fifty-four were suspected to have been bitten by the same snake species. Coagulopathy (159, 76.1%), renal dysfunction (39, 18.7%), neuromuscular paralysis (146, 69.9%) and local envenoming (192, 91.9%) were seen in the victims, ranging from mono-systemic involvement to various combinations. Abdominal pain was present in 79.5% of these patients, appearing 5 minutes to 4 hours after the bite. The severity of the abdominal pain, assessed using a scoring system, correlated well with the severity of the coagulopathy (p<0.001) and the neurotoxicity (p<0.001). Its diagnostic validity to predict systemic envenoming is – Sensitivity 81.6%, Specificity 82.4%, Positive predictive value 91.2%. Thus, abdominal pain is an early clinical feature of systemic Russell's viper bite envenoming in Sri Lanka. However, it is best to judge abdominal pain together with other clinical manifestations on

  6. Consumerism in healthcare can be detrimental to child health: lessons from children with functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Lindley, K; Glaser, D; Milla, P

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To determine prognostic indicators in children with severe functional abdominal pain (FAP) and to test the hypothesis that "healthcare consumerism" in these families might be deleterious to the child. Methods: Retrospective analysis of a cohort of 23 children aged <16 years fulfilling the Rome II diagnostic criteria for FAP during the period December 1997 to February 2001. Poor outcome was defined as continued pain and failure to return to normal functioning >12 months after onset. Results: Poor outcome was associated with refusal to engage with psychological services, involvement of more than three consultants, lodging of a manipulative complaint with hospital management by the child's family, and lack of development of insight into psychosocial influences on symptoms. Three of four adverse prognostic indicators reflected healthcare consumerism by the families. Conclusions: Actions of families who lack insight into their child's illness may perpetuate FAP in childhood. A culture of parental consumerism in healthcare, however well intentioned, needs to be accompanied by robust systems to protect the interests of the child. PMID:15781917

  7. [Retroperitoneal liposarcoma as etiology of abdominal pain. Case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ponce, Yisvanth; Castellanos-Alejandre, Raúl; Guerrero-Romero, J Francisco; Estrada-León, Felipe; Torres-Lobatón, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are very uncommon types of tumors, with their embryological origin in the mesoderm and in nerve structures of the neuroectodermic layer. They represent only 1.5% of cases in the National Registry of Malignant Tumors in Mexico. They can be encountered anywhere connective soft tissue is found. Because of their specialized localization, retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas have a propensity to remain asymptomatic for long periods of time and reach a large size before being diagnosed. The only accepted treatment is wide surgical excision with clear margins, without a clear benefit for adjuvant treatment. The very uncommon nature of these tumors and their varied histopathology, site and behavior classify them as a difficult entity in terms of treatment. We present here the case of a 66-year-old female with a left-side retroperitoneal tumor, complaining only of vague abdominal pain as the presenting symptom. A CT-guided needle biopsy reported a sarcoma and the patient was subjected to laparatomy with complete resection of the tumor (30 x 13 x 10 cm). Histopathological report demonstrated a low-grade retroperitoneal sarcoma and free macroscopic and microscopic borders, without obvious invasion except for left kidney and ureter. The patient refused adjuvant treatment, and she is disease-free 7 years after treatment. Retroperitoneal sarcomas can cause pain and reach very large sizes. The best treatment available is wide surgical resection with clear margins. The most important prognostic factors are free margins, type of resection, age of patient and tumor histology.

  8. [A woman in the second trimester of pregnancy with acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Valbø, Annelill; Langeland, John Petter; Lobmaier, Ingvild Victoria Koren

    2008-10-09

    A 42-year-old pregnant (22 weeks) woman with a history of peptic ulcer 20 years earlier, was presented to our gynaecological clinic with acute abdominal pain in 2005. She was para-1, had delivered a healthy child two years earlier and now she had an uncomplicated pregnancy. Upon admittance she was pale, hyperventilating and complained of epigastric pain and nausea. There was no vaginal bleeding and no uterine contractions. Ultrasound examination revealed a single fetus with normal cardiac activity. During the examination blood pressure suddenly dropped and the patient was considered to be in a state of pre-shock. Intraabdominal hemorrhage was suspected and she underwent immediate exploratory laparotomy. Uterine rupture with an intact gestational sac extruding through the laceration in the middle of the fundal region of the uterus was found. A sub-total hysterectomy was performed. The physio-pathology leading to the uterine rupture is discussed. An interstitial pregnancy close to the ostium internum (cornual pregnancy) may have lead to the thinning and rupture of the uterine wall in the fundal part. Alternatively, the placenta's location in the upper uterine cavity (possibly caused by a 3 cm myoma that seemed to divide the uterine cavity into two compartments) may have caused thinning and rupture of the uterine wall in the fundal part. The literature describing uterine rupture in the second trimester is reviewed.

  9. Concordant parent-child reports of anxiety predict impairment in youth with functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Cohen, Mitchell B.; Farrell, Michael K.; Mezoff, Adam G.; Lynch-Jordan, Anne; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is associated with significant anxiety and impairment. Prior investigations of child anxiety in youth with FAP are generally limited by small sample sizes, based on child report, and use lengthy diagnostic tools. It is unknown 1) if a brief anxiety screening tool is feasible, 2) whether parent and child reports of anxiety are congruent, and 3) whether parent and child agreement of child anxiety corresponds to increased impairment. The purpose of this investigation was to examine anxiety characteristics in youth with FAP using parent and child reports. Parent-child agreement of child anxiety symptoms was examined in relation to pain and disability. Materials and Methods One-hundred patients with FAP (8-18 years of age) recruited from pediatric gastroenterology clinics completed measures of pain intensity (Numeric Rating Scale), and disability (Functional Disability Inventory). Patients and caregivers both completed a measure of child anxiety characteristics (Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Disorders). Results Clinically significant anxiety symptoms were more commonly reported by youth (54%) than their parents (30%). Panic/somatic symptoms, generalized anxiety, and separation anxiety were most commonly endorsed by patients whereas generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and school avoidance were most commonly reported by parents. The majority (65%) of parents and children agreed on presence (26%) or absence (39%) of clinically significant anxiety. Parent-child agreement of clinically significant anxiety was related to increased impairment. Discussion A brief screening instrument of parent and child reports of anxiety can provide clinically relevant information for comprehensive treatment planning in children with FAP. PMID:25714575

  10. Chronic pain after lower abdominal surgery: do catechol-O-methyl transferase/opioid receptor μ-1 polymorphisms contribute?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preoperative pain, type of operation and anesthesia, severity of acute postoperative pain, and psychosocial factors have been identified as risk factors for chronic postsurgical pain (CPP). Recently, it has been suggested that genetic factors also contribute to CPP. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and opioid receptor μ-1 (OPRM1) common functional polymorphisms rs4680 and rs1799971 were associated with the incidence, intensity, or duration of CPP in patients after lower abdominal surgery. Methods One hundred and two patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I/II underwent either abdominal radical prostatectomy (n = 45) or hysterectomy (n = 57). The incidences of CPP in the pelvic and scar areas were evaluated in all patients three months after surgery. Results Thirty-five (34.3%) patients experienced CPP after lower abdominal surgery. Within this group, six (17.1%) patients demonstrated symptoms of neuropathic pain. For COMT rs4680, 22 (21.6%) patients had Met158Met, 55 (53.9%) patients had Val158Met, and 25 (24.5%) patients had Val158Val. No association was found between CPP phenotypes (incidence, intensity, and duration) and different rs4680 genotypes. For OPRM1 rs1799971, only CPP patients carrying at least one copy of the G allele had higher pain intensity than A118A carriers (p=0.02). No associations with other phenotypes were found. No combined effect of COMT/OPRM1 polymorphisms on CPP phenotypes was observed. Conclusions OPRM1 genotype influences CPP following lower abdominal surgery. COMT didn’t affect CPP, suggesting its potential modality-specific effects on human pain. PMID:23566343

  11. Imported Lassa fever--New Jersey, 2004.

    PubMed

    2004-10-01

    Lassa fever is an acute viral illness caused by Lassa virus, which is hosted by rodents in the Mastomys natalensis species complex and rarely imported to countries outside of those areas in Africa where the disease is endemic. Lassa fever is characterized by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, and chest and abdominal pain. Approximately 15%-20% of patients hospitalized for Lassa fever die from the illness; however, approximately 80% of human infections with Lassa virus are mild or asymptomatic, and 1% of infections overall result in death. On August 28, 2004, a man aged 38 years residing in New Jersey died from Lassa fever after returning from travel to West Africa. This report summarizes the clinical and epidemiologic investigations conducted by federal, state, and local public health agencies. The findings illustrate the need for clinicians and public health officials to remain alert to emerging infectious diseases and to institute appropriate measures to promptly identify and limit spread of unusual pathogens.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous ibuprofen: implications of time of infusion in the treatment of pain and fever.

    PubMed

    Smith, Howard S; Voss, Bryan

    2012-02-12

    Intravenous NSAIDs are playing an increasingly large role in analgesia, anti-inflammation and antipyresis in the hospitalized setting. For many years, ketorolac was the only intravenous NSAID available in the US, but in 2009 intravenous ibuprofen was approved by the US FDA for the treatment of pain and fever in adults. In developing intravenous ibuprofen, a range of times of infusion and dosing levels have been utilized and compared with the oral route of administration. The earliest studies utilized a 60-minute infusion, and later a 30-minute infusion was used for the pivotal/registration studies demonstrating efficacy and safety. Another recent trial in healthy volunteers demonstrated a safe and tolerable rapid infusion (5-7 minute) of intravenous ibuprofen. The pharmacokinetic data from all of the clinical trials on 400 and 800 mg doses of intravenous ibuprofen were compiled, and pharmacokinetic modelling was utilized to simulate any data not acquired in the clinical studies. The pharmacokinetic profile of the following doses was modelled: 30-minute infusion of 800 mg intravenous ibuprofen, 5- to 7-minute infusion of 400 mg intravenous ibuprofen and 400 mg ibuprofen oral tablet. These pharmacokinetic analyses revealed that, in general, maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) decreases considerably as the length of the infusion increases and that an oral dose is not able to achieve the C(max) level of any intravenous dose. For the rapid infusion, C(max) was twice that of the oral dose and, as expected, time to C(max) (t(max)) was much more rapid than with the oral dose. However, the oral dose still maintained virtually 100% oral bioavailability. The efficacy of intravenous ibuprofen in terms of pain and fever has also been studied and this review found the drug to be efficacious for both indications. Future areas of study should include assessment of the analgesic and antipyretic efficacy of a rapid (5- to 10-minute) infusion and further assessment of pre

  13. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Southern Kordofan.

    PubMed

    Abdelhakam, Haydar Awad Abdelrazig; Taha, Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a disease that poses a great threat to public health owing to its high mortality rate (30-70%), mode of transmission and geographic distribution. Here, we report on a nine years-old Sudanese boy from Southern Kordofan State who presented with Jaundice, high-grade fever, severe headache, abdominal pain and a history of hematemesis. The diagnosis of CCHF was confirmed based on clinical and serological findings.

  14. Reliability and validity of lumbar and abdominal trunk muscle endurance tests in office workers with nonspecific subacute low back pain.

    PubMed

    del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Mocholi, Miguel H; del Pozo-Cruz, Jesus; Parraca, Jose A; Adsuar, Jose C; Gusi, Narcis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of trunk endurance tests, the reliability and validity of these tests in office workers with subacute nonspecific low back pain are unknown. This cross-sectional study involved 190 subjects: 30 men and 42 women without low back pain and 47 men and 71 women with low back pain. All subjects underwent timed prone and supine isometric lumbar and abdominal trunk endurance tests that were performed until subjective fatigue occurred. All subjects also completed the Roland Morris and Oswestry self-reported disability questionnaires. A test-retest study (7 days) was conducted with 31 participants with low back pain from the study. For the abdominal trunk endurance test, males and females with low back pain had mean (SD) values of 62.06 (36.87) and 46.06 (29.28) seconds, respectively, both significantly lower than the asymptomatic workers. For the lumbar test, males and females with low back pain had mean (SD) values of 79.57 (30.66) and 75.49 (28.97) seconds, respectively, again, both significantly lower than the asymptomatic workers. The intraclass correlation coefficients of both tests exceeded 0.90 and the Kappa indices were excellent for both men and women. Receiver-operating curve analyses revealed areas under the curve very close to or exceeding 0.70 for both men and women for both tests. The lumbar and abdominal trunk muscle endurance tests appeared to be reliable and valid measures in office workers with subacute low back pain.

  15. Discriminative Accuracy of Novel and Traditional Biomarkers in Children with Suspected Appendicitis Adjusted for Duration of Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kharbanda, Anupam B.; Cosme, Yohaimi; Liu, Khin; Spitalnik, Steven L.; Dayan, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To assess the accuracy of novel and traditional biomarkers in patients with suspected appendicitis as a function of duration of symptoms. Methods This was a prospective cohort study, conducted in a tertiary care emergency department (ED). The authors enrolled children 3 to 18 years old with acute abdominal pain of less than 96 hours, and measured serum levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), C - reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC), and absolute neutrophil count (ANC). Final diagnosis was determined by histopathology or telephone follow-up. Trends in biomarker levels were examined based on duration of abdominal pain. The accuracy of biomarkers was assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Optimal cut-points and test performance characteristics were calculated for each biomarker. Results Of 280 patients enrolled, the median age was 11.3 years (IQR 8.6 to 14.8), 57% were male, and 33% had appendicitis. Median IL-6, median CRP, mean WBC, and mean ANC differed significantly (p < 0.001) between patients with non-perforated appendicitis and those without appendicitis; median IL-8 levels did not differ between groups. In non-perforated appendicitis, median IL-6, WBC, and ANC levels were maximal at less than 24 hrs of pain, while CRP peaked between 24 and 48 hours. In perforated appendicitis, median IL-8 levels were highest by 24 hours, WBC and IL-6 by 24 to 48 hours, and CRP after 48 hours of pain. The WBC appeared to be the most useful marker to predict appendicitis in those with fewer than 24 or more than 48 hours of pain, while CRP was the most useful in those with 24 to 48 hours of pain. Conclusions In this population, the serum levels and accuracy of novel and traditional biomarkers varies in relation to duration of abdominal pain. IL-6 shows promise as a novel biomarker to identify children with appendicitis. PMID:21676053

  16. Caesarean Section: Could Different Transverse Abdominal Incision Techniques Influence Postpartum Pain and Subsequent Quality of Life? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Andrisani, Alessandra; Noventa, Marco; Di Gangi, Stefania; Quaranta, Michela; Cosmi, Erich; D’Antona, Donato; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista; Ambrosini, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The choice of the type of abdominal incision performed in caesarean delivery is made chiefly on the basis of the individual surgeon’s experience and preference. A general consensus on the most appropriate surgical technique has not yet been reached. The aim of this systematic review of the literature is to compare the two most commonly used transverse abdominal incisions for caesarean delivery, the Pfannenstiel incision and the modified Joel-Cohen incision, in terms of acute and chronic post-surgical pain and their subsequent influence in terms of quality of life. Electronic database searches formed the basis of the literature search and the following databases were searched in the time frame between January 1997 and December 2013: MEDLINE, EMBASE Sciencedirect and the Cochrane Library. Key search terms included: “acute pain”, “chronic pain”, “Pfannenstiel incision”, “Misgav-Ladach”, “Joel Cohen incision”, in combination with “Caesarean Section”, “abdominal incision”, “numbness”, “neuropathic pain” and “nerve entrapment”. Data on 4771 patients who underwent caesarean section (CS) was collected with regards to the relation between surgical techniques and postoperative outcomes defined as acute or chronic pain and future pregnancy desire. The Misgav-Ladach incision was associated with a significant advantage in terms of reduction of post-surgical acute and chronic pain. It was indicated as the optimal technique in view of its characteristic of reducing lower pelvic discomfort and pain, thus improving quality of life and future fertility desire. Further studies which are not subject to important bias like pre-existing chronic pain, non-standardized analgesia administration, variable length of skin incision and previous abdominal surgery are required. PMID:25646621

  17. The Treatment of Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Children: A Controlled Comparison of Cognitive-Behavioral Family Intervention and Standard Pediatric Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Matthew R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Conducted controlled clinical trial involving 44 children with recurrent abdominal pain randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral family intervention (CBFI) or standard pediatric care (SPC). Both treatments resulted in significant improvements on measures of pain intensity and pain behavior. CBFI group had higher rate of complete elimination of…

  18. Chronic Intussusception Caused by Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in a 6-Year-Old Girl Presenting with Abdominal Pain and Constipation for 2 Months.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-Hee; Han, Sang-Ah; Won, Kyu Yeoun

    2016-02-01

    The classical triad of abdominal pain, vomiting, and bloody stool is absent in chronic intussusception for more than 2 weeks. Here, we report a 6-year-old female with recurrent abdominal pain for 2 months. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed an ileocolic-type intussusception. The lesion accompanying the tight fibrous adhesion was treated by resection and ileocolic anastomosis. It was diagnosed as intussusception with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A high index of suspicion for abdominal pain in children should result in the correct diagnosis and appropriate management.

  19. Reduction of chronic abdominal pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease through transcranial direct current stimulation: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Volz, Magdalena S; Farmer, Annabelle; Siegmund, Britta

    2016-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is frequently associated with chronic abdominal pain (CAP). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been proven to reduce chronic pain. This study aimed to investigate the effects of tDCS in patients with CAP due to IBD. This randomized, sham-controlled, double blind, parallel-designed study included 20 patients with either Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis with CAP (≥3/10 on the visual analog scale (VAS) in 3/6 months). Anodal or sham tDCS was applied over the primary motor cortex for 5 consecutive days (2 mA, 20 minutes). Assessments included VAS, pressure pain threshold, inflammatory markers, and questionnaires on quality of life, functional and disease specific symptoms (Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Severity Scoring System [IBS-SSS]), disease activity, and pain catastrophizing. Follow-up data were collected 1 week after the end of the stimulation. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance and t tests. There was a significant reduction of abdominal pain in the anodal tDCS group compared with sham tDCS. This effect was evident in changes in VAS and pressure pain threshold on the left and right sides of the abdomen. In addition, 1 week after stimulation, pain reduction remained significantly decreased in the right side of the abdomen. There was also a significant reduction in scores on pain catastrophizing and on IBS-SSS when comparing both groups. Inflammatory markers and disease activity did not differ significantly between groups throughout the experiment. Transcranial direct current stimulation proved to be an effective and clinically relevant therapeutic strategy for CAP in IBD. The analgesic effects observed are unrelated to inflammation and disease activity, which emphasizes central pain mechanisms in CAP.

  20. Brief telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy targeted to parents of children with functional abdominal pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Levy, Rona L; Langer, Shelby L; van Tilburg, Miranda A L; Romano, Joan M; Murphy, Tasha B; Walker, Lynn S; Mancl, Lloyd A; Claar, Robyn L; DuPen, Melissa M; Whitehead, William E; Abdullah, Bisher; Swanson, Kimberly S; Baker, Melissa D; Stoner, Susan A; Christie, Dennis L; Feld, Andrew D

    2017-04-01

    Pediatric functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs) are associated with increased health care utilization, school absences, and poor quality of life (QoL). Cost-effective and accessible interventions are needed. This multisite study tested the effects of a 3-session cognitive behavioral intervention delivered to parents, in-person or remotely, on the primary outcome of pain severity and secondary outcomes (process measures) of parental solicitousness, pain beliefs, catastrophizing, and child-reported coping. Additional outcomes hypothesized a priori and assessed included functional disability, QoL, pain behavior, school absences, health care utilization, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The study was prospective and longitudinal (baseline and 3 and 6 months' follow-up) with 3 randomized conditions: social learning and cognitive behavioral therapy in-person (SLCBT) or by phone (SLCBT-R) and education and support condition by phone (ES-R). Participants were children aged 7 to 12 years with FAPD and their parents (N = 316 dyads). Although no significant treatment effect for pain severity was found, the SLCBT groups showed significantly greater improvements compared with controls on process measures of parental solicitousness, pain beliefs, and catastrophizing, and additional outcomes of parent-reported functional disability, pain behaviors, child health care visits for abdominal pain, and (remote condition only) QoL and missed school days. No effects were found for parent and child-reported gastrointestinal symptoms, or child-reported QoL or coping. These findings suggest that for children with FAPD, a brief phone SLCBT for parents can be similarly effective as in-person SLCBT in changing parent responses and improving outcomes, if not reported pain and symptom report, compared with a control condition.

  1. Protracted febrile myalgia in a patient with Familial Mediterranean Fever and Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Ekşioğlu, Emel; Kesikburun, Bilge; Çakçı, Aytül

    2016-06-03

    Protracted Febrile Myalgia is a rare form of vasculitis that is diagnosed in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever. To present a case with Familial Mediterranean and Anklosing Spondylitis on anti-TNF therapy for three years, who developed protracted febrile myalgia syndrome. Case report. A 35-year-old woman with known Familial Mediterranean Fever and Anklosing Spondylitis for 3 years presented with fever, diarrhea, intermittent abdominal pain and severe diffuse muscular pain lasting for two weeks. The patient was investigated for any infection focus. The patient was diagnosed as having Protracted Febrile Myalgia four weeks after the onset of the symptoms. Prednisolone 1 mg/kg per day was applied. Her fever and muscle pain resolved within 48 hours. The coexisting Ankylosing Spondylitis disease and the use of anti-TNF treatment in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever could be a confounding factor for the investigation of fever. Steroid therapy has a dramatic response.

  2. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome: From Clinical Findings to Basic Understandings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Li; Zhong, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is one of the less common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional therapy has unsatisfactory response to it so people turn to Chinese medicine for help. Currently, we reviewed the whole picture of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) clinical and basic application in the treatment of FAPS, especially the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, the single herb, and Chinese medicine formulae, thus to provide a solid base to further develop evidence-based study for this common gastrointestinal complaint in the future. We developed the search strategy and set the inclusion and exclusion criteria for article search. From the included articles, we totally retrieved 586 records according to our searching criteria, of which 16 were duplicate records and 291 were excluded for reasons of irrelevance. The full text of 279 articles was retrieved for detailed assessment, of which 123 were excluded for various reasons. The number one used single herb is Radix Ginseng. The most common syndrome was liver qi depression. The most frequently used classic formula was Si-Mo-Tang. This reflected the true situation of clinical practice of Chinese medicine practitioners and could be further systematically synthesized as key points of the therapeutic research for FAPS.

  3. Impact of Helicobacter pylori-giardiasis coinfection on children with recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Eldash, Hanaa H; Bekhit, Osama E M; Algameel, Alkassem A

    2013-08-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) affects 10-20% of school-aged children. Helicobacter pylori and Giardia intestinalis were reported among organic causes of RAP, with different prevalence particularly in developing countries as common association diseases causing agents. This study evaluated the incidence of H. pylori and G. intestinalis co-infection in RAP Egyptian among 90 children and 90 crossmatched healthy controls. H. pylori (HP) infection was diagnosed by detection of HP stool antigen (HPSA), ELISA and/or HP antibody (IgG), ELISA in serum, while G. intestinalis by stained stool smears. The HP infection was detected in 60 (66.7%) patients and 37 (41%) controls with a statistically significant difference p=0.001. Giardiasis was found in 47 (52.2%) patients and 30 (33.3%) controls with a statistically significant difference p= 0.02. The incidence of HP infection among cases was higher among age group above 5 years (p=0.001), as a significant predictor for RAP. The association of H. pylori and G. intestinalis was among 36 (40.0%) patients and 11 (12.2%) controls with a significant difference (p<0.001).

  4. Frequent Abdominal Pain in Childhood and Youth: A Systematic Review of Psychophysiological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Judith; Schwille-Kiuntke, Juliane; Schlarb, Angelika Anita

    2014-01-01

    Background. Frequent abdominal pain (AP) in children and adolescents is often designated as functional gastrointestinal disorder. In contrast to research on psychological and social influences on the experience of AP in this population, psychophysiological features such as function of the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, or the endocrine system have rarely been studied. Methods. We conducted a systematic literature search for peer-reviewed journal articles referring to children with AP between 4 and 18 years. Studies on experimental baseline characteristics or reactivity of psychophysiological outcome parameters (autonomous nervous system, central nervous system, and endocrine parameters) were included. Key Results. Twelve of 18 included studies found psychophysiological differences between children with AP and healthy ones. These studies indicate a possible autonomic dysregulation and hypersensitivity of the central nervous system in children with AP following stimulation with stress or other intense stimuli. Mainly conflicting results were found regarding baseline comparisons of autonomic and endocrine parameters. Conclusions and Inferences. Frequent AP in children may be associated with an altered psychophysiological reaction on intense stimuli. It has to be considered that the current literature on psychophysiological characteristics of childhood AP is small and heterogeneous. In particular, multiparameter studies using validated experimental paradigms are lacking. PMID:24744777

  5. Persistent Afebrile Abdominal Pain: An Unusual Case of Segmental Colitis in an Immunocompromised Host

    PubMed Central

    Andreadis, Emmanuel A

    2017-01-01

    In this report we describe a case of a 66-year-old woman who presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. A workup revealed immunodeficiency, an immunologic profile with low complement levels resembling systemic lupus erythematosus, and a circumferential colonic wall lesion located in the ascending colon. After endoscopy and biopsy, the mass lesion was attributed to “double hit” diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, categorized as high grade large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma according to the most recent revised 2016 World Health Organisation classification and considered to be a rare and highly aggressive tumor. The diagnosis of colonic lymphoma can be challenging due to a diversity of clinical presentation and requires a high index of suspicion. As the literature of such documented reports is limited, this case suggests further investigations. Abbreviations: GI: gastrointestinal tract, DLBCL: diffuse large B cell lymphoma, DH: double hit lymphoma, SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus, ANA: antinuclear antibodies, anti-ssDNA: anti-single-stranded DNA, BCL: B-cell lymphoma protein, MUM-1/IRF4: multiple myeloma oncogene 1/interferon regulatory factor 4, HGBL: high grade B-cell lymphoma, anti-dsDNA: anti-double-stranded DNA. PMID:28357165

  6. Disproportionate fat stranding: a helpful CT sign in patients with acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Jose M; Sirlin, Claude B; Pinto, Pedro S; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Stella, Damien L; Casola, Giovanna

    2004-01-01

    Fat stranding adjacent to thickened bowel wall seen at computed tomography (CT) in patients with acute abdominal pain suggests an acute process of the gastrointestinal tract, but the differential diagnosis is wide. The authors observed "disproportionate" fat stranding (ie, stranding more severe than expected for the degree of bowel wall thickening present) and explored how this finding suggests a narrower differential diagnosis, one that is centered in the mesentery: diverticulitis, epiploic appendagitis, omental infarction, and appendicitis. The characteristic CT findings (in addition to fat stranding) of each of these entities often lead to a final diagnosis. Diverticulitis manifests with mild, smooth bowel wall thickening and no lymphadenopathy. Epiploic appendagitis manifests with central areas of high attenuation and a hyperattenuated rim, in addition to its characteristic location adjacent to the colon. In contrast, omental infarction is always centered in the omentum. The most specific finding of appendicitis is a dilated, fluid-filled appendix. Correct noninvasive diagnosis is important because treatment approaches for these conditions range from monitoring to surgery.

  7. A rare cause of acute abdominal pain in children: Isolated tubal torsion; a case series.

    PubMed

    Gunal, Yasemin Dere; Bahadir, Gokhan Berktug; Boybeyı, Ozlem; Cıl, Aylin Pelin; Aslan, Mustafa Kemal

    2017-06-01

    Isolated tubal torsion -a rare cause of acute abdomen in children-is usually difficult to diagnose because of non-specific findings. Surgical salphingectomy is required in delayed diagnosis in most cases. Three sexual inactive adolescents diagnosed in isolated tubal torsion (ITT) were discussed for its diagnostic features and surgical management. Laboratory tests and radiological studies including ultrasonography (US), color doppler ultrasound were performed in all patients after evaluation for acute lower abdominal pain in emergency department and they underwent surgical intervention with laparotomy (n:2) and laparoscopy (n:1). One of the patients in this study had salpingectomy. Detorsion of the fallopian tube and cyst excision were performed in the remaining two patients who also had paratubal cysts. There was no recurrence in these patients during the follow-up for 3 and 2 years. The isolated tubal torsion should be kept in mind and early surgical management is essential in order to preserve fallopian tube because of its importance in fertility.

  8. A Perplexing Case of Abdominal Pain That Led to the Diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Meighani, Alireza; Sadiq, Omar; Siddiqui, Yousuf

    2017-01-01

    Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is a rare clinical disorder, characterized by hypersecretion of gastric acid and multiple ulcers distal to the duodenal bulb. This occurs via the release of gastrin by neuroendocrine tumors known as gastrinomas. Patients with ZES present with nonspecific GI symptoms, which often leads to a delay in diagnosis. Our patient is a 55-year-old female with chronic abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea. She underwent EGD, EUS, MRCP, CT scans, and cholecystectomy, which did not reveal the cause of her symptoms. Repeat EGD showed a cratered ulcer in the second portion of the duodenum, suspicious for ZES. Serum gastrin was initially only moderately elevated while on PPI therapy, but chromogranin A was also elevated. Repeat gastrin level after stopping PPI therapy was 1639 pg/mL. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy was obtained, which showed two small lesions in the gastrinoma triangle. She subsequently underwent a Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy and pathology was positive for four microscopic foci of a neuroendocrine tumor. She reported improvement in her symptoms after surgery. This case highlights the need for increased awareness of ZES in patients with unexplained GI complaints and emphasizes the use of multiple modalities in the diagnosis of ZES. PMID:28321346

  9. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome: From Clinical Findings to Basic Understandings

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is one of the less common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional therapy has unsatisfactory response to it so people turn to Chinese medicine for help. Currently, we reviewed the whole picture of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) clinical and basic application in the treatment of FAPS, especially the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, the single herb, and Chinese medicine formulae, thus to provide a solid base to further develop evidence-based study for this common gastrointestinal complaint in the future. We developed the search strategy and set the inclusion and exclusion criteria for article search. From the included articles, we totally retrieved 586 records according to our searching criteria, of which 16 were duplicate records and 291 were excluded for reasons of irrelevance. The full text of 279 articles was retrieved for detailed assessment, of which 123 were excluded for various reasons. The number one used single herb is Radix Ginseng. The most common syndrome was liver qi depression. The most frequently used classic formula was Si-Mo-Tang. This reflected the true situation of clinical practice of Chinese medicine practitioners and could be further systematically synthesized as key points of the therapeutic research for FAPS. PMID:27366194

  10. Childhood recurrent abdominal pain and Helicobacter pylori infection, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Alimohammadi, H; Fouladi, N; Salehzadeh, F; Alipour, S A; Javadi, M S

    2017-02-01

    We examined the role of Helicobacter pylori infection as a cause of recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) among Iranian children in a population-based case-control study to determine the association between H. pylori infection and RAP among schoolchildren. A total of 1558 children aged 6-13 years were examined. Children with RAP confirmed by the Apley and Naish criteria were selected; 145 cases were selected for inclusion and were compared with 145 healthy children recruited from the same area. Both groups underwent stool antigen testing. The prevalence of RAP in the children tested was 9.3%. Children with RAP had a higher H. pylori infection rate than the control group (58.6% vs 44.8%) (OR = 1.744; 95% CI: 1.095-2.776). There was no significant difference between the RAP symptoms in children with positive stool test, i.e. infected with H. pylori, and those whose tests were negative. We identified H. pylori infection in more than 55% of the case group. Therefore, H. pylori infection can be considered an important factor for RAP in children.

  11. Frequent abdominal pain in childhood and youth: a systematic review of psychophysiological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gulewitsch, Marco Daniel; Müller, Judith; Enck, Paul; Weimer, Katja; Schwille-Kiuntke, Juliane; Schlarb, Angelika Anita

    2014-01-01

    Background. Frequent abdominal pain (AP) in children and adolescents is often designated as functional gastrointestinal disorder. In contrast to research on psychological and social influences on the experience of AP in this population, psychophysiological features such as function of the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, or the endocrine system have rarely been studied. Methods. We conducted a systematic literature search for peer-reviewed journal articles referring to children with AP between 4 and 18 years. Studies on experimental baseline characteristics or reactivity of psychophysiological outcome parameters (autonomous nervous system, central nervous system, and endocrine parameters) were included. Key Results. Twelve of 18 included studies found psychophysiological differences between children with AP and healthy ones. These studies indicate a possible autonomic dysregulation and hypersensitivity of the central nervous system in children with AP following stimulation with stress or other intense stimuli. Mainly conflicting results were found regarding baseline comparisons of autonomic and endocrine parameters. Conclusions and Inferences. Frequent AP in children may be associated with an altered psychophysiological reaction on intense stimuli. It has to be considered that the current literature on psychophysiological characteristics of childhood AP is small and heterogeneous. In particular, multiparameter studies using validated experimental paradigms are lacking.

  12. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of renal pelvis presenting with iterative hematuria and abdominal pain: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WU, SHUIQING; XU, RAN; ZHAO, HUASHENG; ZHU, XUAN; ZHANG, LEI; ZHAO, XIAOKUN

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare type of mesenchymal tumor, which may affect various organs. The preferential site for IMT in the genitourinary system is the urinary bladder, while the presence of IMT in the kidney, and particularly in the renal pelvis, is rare. In the present report, the case of a 43-year-old man who was admitted to the Department of Urology of The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University (Changsha, China) in July 2012, with complaints of iterative gross hematuria and abdominal pain unresponsive to antibiotics is described. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated a slightly enhanced mass in the left renal pelvis of 1.5 cm in diameter. On request of the patient, a left nephrectomy was then performed, based on a suspected diagnosis of renal pelvic carcinoma. However, analysis of the intraoperative fast-frozen section exhibited proliferation of compact spindle cells, suggesting IMT. Therefore, further ureterectomy was avoided, and the patient remained in healthy condition thereafter. PMID:26788220

  13. Coexistence of Helicobacter pylori and Intestinal Parasitosis in Children with Chronic Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Gökşen, Bülent; Appak, Yeliz Çağan; Girginkardeşler, Nogay; Ecemiş, Talat; Kasırga, Erhun

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of coinfection with Helicobacter pylori and intestinal parasitosis in children with chronic abdominal pain (CAP) and to investigate the common risk factors in the development of both infections. Ninety patients with CAP were enrolled in this study. Blood samples of each case were screened for human preformed IgG (HpIgG) antibodies, and stool samples were tested for HpSA and also examined for intestinal parasites by direct wet-mount, formalin-ethyl-acetate concentration, and Trichrome staining procedures. Cellophane tape test was used for Enterobius vermicularis. Children tested positive for HpIgG and/or HpSA were accepted as H. pylori positive. The risk factors were compared with a questionnaire. The incidence of Giardia intestinalis was 14.8% in the H. pylori-positive group and was found to be statistically higher than that in the H. pylori-negative group (1.6%). The positivity rates of H. pylori were found to be statistically higher in children attending school and using drinking water from taps. The incidences of parasitosis were significantly higher in children with a low maternal education level and with a history of parasitosis treatment in the family. The most common etiologies of CAP in children are H. pylori infection and intestinal parasitosis. İmprovement of hygienic conditions would be beneficial in preventing both infections.

  14. Investigation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Greece

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-19

    64. SUPPIAMINTA01T1 NOTATION 𔄁 COWA’ COW1 S $IAjCT TERMS XConinWO *A ?*,*fit I nocessary #md Voriti, by biwit flume..,FIELD I GRoi .’f ;Irra:c ee...vomiting, and abdominal pain , while flushing of the face, conjunctival injection, pulmonary edema, shock and hemorrhagic manifestations were only common...signs in 20 HFRS Greek Patients. Symptoms and signs No. of Patients Fever 20 Rigors 20 Headache 20 Abdominal pain 20 Myalgia 18 Arthralgia 18

  15. Negative correlation of cortical thickness with the severity and duration of abdominal pain in Asian women with irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chua, Chian Sem; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Shiao, Chen-Yu; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Cheng, Chiao-Wen; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Hsu, Jung-Lung

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) manifests as chronic abdominal pain. One pathophysiological theory states that the brain-gut axis is responsible for pain control in the intestine. Although several studies have discussed the structural changes in the brain of IBS patients, most of these studies have been conducted in Western populations. Different cultures and sexes experience different pain sensations and have different pain responses. Accordingly, we aimed to identify the specific changes in the cortical thickness of Asian women with IBS and to compare these data to those of non-Asian women with IBS. Thirty Asian female IBS patients (IBS group) and 39 healthy individuals (control group) were included in this study. Brain structural magnetic resonance imaging was performed. We used FreeSurfer to analyze the differences in the cortical thickness and their correlations with patient characteristics. The left cuneus, left rostral middle frontal cortex, left supramarginal cortex, right caudal anterior cingulate cortex, and bilateral insula exhibited cortical thinning in the IBS group compared with those in the controls. Furthermore, the brain cortical thickness correlated negatively the severity as well as duration of abdominal pain. Some of our findings differ from those of Western studies. In our study, all of the significant brain regions in the IBS group exhibited cortical thinning compared with those in the controls. The differences in cortical thickness between the IBS patients and controls may provide useful information to facilitate regulating abdominal pain in IBS patients. These findings offer insights into the association of different cultures and sexes with differences in cortical thinning in patients with IBS.

  16. Chronic abdominal pain as the initial manifestation of pancreatic injury due to remote blunt trauma of the abdomen.

    PubMed

    Gholson, C F; Sittig, K; Favrot, D; McDonald, J C

    1994-09-01

    Three patients were admitted with severe abdominal pain that began after an asymptomatic latent period following blunt trauma to the abdomen. During initial medical evaluation 3 months to 1 year after the trauma, serum amylase levels were normal or minimally elevated, and computed tomography scanning revealed edema and/or pseudocyst formation in the tail of the pancreas. Pancreatography showed ductal stenosis or obstruction in the midbody of the pancreas in each patient. At surgery, chronic pancreatitis in the tail was clearly demarcated from the normal head of the gland. Distal pancreatectomy was curative. Blunt traumatic pancreatic ductal injury may occur without typical immediate posttraumatic acute pancreatitis. Chronic distal pancreatitis following an asymptomatic latent period may culminate in delayed admission months to years after the initial injury. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography should be considered for evaluation of patients with chronic abdominal pain and prior blunt trauma to the abdomen.

  17. Risperidone-induced polydipsia and polyphagia associated with galactorrhea, abdominal pain, and rapid weight gain in an adolescent Hispanic female.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Khalid I; Briones, David F; DeVargas, Cecilia

    2007-11-01

    A 15-year-old Hispanic female was started on risperidone for new-onset psychosis. The patient responded well to the gradual dose increase but developed rapid weight gain secondary to polydipsia and polyphagia. She also began complaining of nipple discharge and griping abdominal pain on the left lower quadrant by the third week of treatment. Her prolactin level escalated to three times normal with a weight gain of 12 pounds in 16 days. Risperidone was switched to another antipsychotic. Her prolactin level then dropped to a normal level within 7 days and she lost 7 pounds in the next 2 weeks. Her abdominal pain, galactorrhea, polydipsia, and polyphagia subsided within the first few days of the cessation of risperdione.

  18. A rare case of typhoid presenting with fever, ascites, hyponatremia, thrombocytopenia, mesenteric lymphadenitis, and multi-drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Margaret, A. Priya; Solomon, P. John; Lohith, Harita

    2015-01-01

    A rare case of typhoid presenting with thrombocytopenia, hyponatremia, ascites mesenteric adenitis, and multi-drug resistance is being presented in this article. An 8-year-old girl was admitted with a history of fever, vomiting, abdominal pain and loose stools. Clinical examination revealed fever and hepatosplenomegaly. Investigations showed leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and hyponatremia. Blood Widal was positive, and blood culture grew Salmonella typhi. Ultrasound abdomen revealed ascites, hepatosplenomegaly, mesenteric lymphadenopathy and thickening of the gall bladder. She was treated with ciprofloxacin intravenously for 6 days and when the fever persisted injection ceftriaxone was added. Ciprofloxacin was given intravenously for a total of 15 days and injection ceftriaxone was given for 12 days. Even then, the fever persisted and hence oral azithromycin was added. Fever subsided completely in 3 days with azithromycin and she became asymptomatic without fever, loose stools, abdominal pain or anything on follow-up after 3 months. PMID:26015752

  19. Cases in Space Medicine: Right Lower Quadrant Abdominal Pain in a Female Crewmember on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Scheuring, Richard; Jones, Jeffery

    2007-01-01

    A case study of a medical emergency aboard the International Space Station is reviewed. The case involves a female crewmember who is experiencing acute abdominal pain. The interplay of the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) and the NASA Flight Surgeon is given. Possible diagnoses, and advised medical actions are reviewed. Along the case study questions are posed to the reader, and at the end answers are given.

  20. Celiac axis compression syndrome: laparoscopic approach in a strange case of chronic abdominal pain in 71 years old man

    PubMed Central

    Eretta, Costantino; Olcese, Sonja; Imperatore, Mikaela; Francone, Elisa; Bianchi, Claudio; Bruno, Maria Santina; Sagnelli, Carlo; Di Martino, Maria; Ranghetti, Savina; Martino, Valter; Falco, Emilio; Berti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Celiac Axis Compression Syndrome by the Median Arcuate Ligament is a very rare condition characterized by chronic postprandial abdominal pain (angina abdominis), nausea, vomiting, which occurs mostly in young patients. The main treatment is a surgical procedure that consists of the division of the arcuate ligament combined with the section of the close diaphragmatic crus and the excision of the celiac plexus. Actually laparoscopic management is feasible and safe.

  1. Comparing the diagnostic performance of MRI versus CT in the evaluation of acute nontraumatic abdominal pain during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baron, Keren Tuvia; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan; Robinson, Christopher; Sanelli, Pina C

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to document the utilization of MRI compared with CT in pregnant patients presenting with acute nontraumatic abdominal pain at our institution and to compare the diagnostic performance of the two modalities. A retrospective review identified all pregnant patients at our institution who had MRI or CT exams of the abdomen and/or pelvis for acute nontraumatic abdominal pain over a 3-year period from January 2008 through December 2010. The imaging diagnoses were compared with pathologic data or operative findings as the primary reference standard or with clinical follow-up and laboratory data as the secondary reference standard. Patients without surgically proven diagnoses were followed clinically until delivery, when possible. Ninety-four pregnant patients were included in this study: 61 MRI exams were performed in 57 patients, 44 CT exams were performed in 43 patients (including six patients who had both), and 72 patients (77 %) had ultrasound prior to cross-sectional imaging, with the appendix specifically assessed in 25 patients but visualized in only two of them. Of 61 MRI exams, 24 were considered positive for imaging diagnoses, 33 were negative, and 4 were equivocal. Of 44 CT exams, 24 were positive and 20 were negative. The test characteristics for MRI and CT in the diagnosis of acute abdominal pain were as follows: sensitivity 91 and 88 %, specificity 85 and 90 %, positive predictive value 81 and 91 %, negative predictive value 94 and 8 5 %, and diagnostic accuracy 88 and 88 %, respectively. Differences were not statistically significant (p value = 1). The majority of MRIs (34/61 = 56 %) were read by emergency radiologists. MRI and CT performed equally well in the evaluation of acute nontraumatic abdominal pain during pregnancy. Given its lack of ionizing radiation, MRI may be preferable. Given that the majority of MRIs were read by radiologists specializing in emergency imaging, this is a technique that emergency

  2. Study of H. pylori infection in children with recurrent abdominal pain attending the pediatrics outpatient clinic of Zagazig University Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Badr, M A; El-Saadany, Hosam F; Ali, Adel S A; Abdelrahman, D

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of H. pylori infection in children with recurrent abdominal pain attending the Outpatient Pediatric Clinic of Zagazig University Hospitals. The study was conducted on 100 children suffering from different GIT symptoms mainly recurrent abdominal pain, they were categorized into 3 categories according to their ages. First category below 5 years, second category between 5 and 10 years and last category above 10 years. All subjects underwent full history taking, clinical examination and laboratory investigations. Protozoa infection was in 29% of patients, helminthes 10%, chronic constipation 4% and UTI 4%. The patients with apparent etiology were excluded. The data do not support the hypothesis that there is a direct role for H. pylori infection as a causative agent for Recurrent Abdominal Pain (RAP) in children. The mean +/- SD of age of patients were 5.7 +/- 3.7, with range of 1:18 years. Male to female ratio was 1:1.1. H. pylori serum IgG antibodies were in 26 patients (43.3%) and 24 controls (p = 0.71), and H. pylori stool Ag in stool of 22 cases and 20 controls (p = 0.7).

  3. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  4. Current trends in typhoid Fever.

    PubMed

    Crum, Nancy F

    2003-08-01

    Typhoid fever, a systemic infection caused by Salmonella enterica serotype typhi, remains an important worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality. Endemic cases in the United States are unusual, with most following foreign travel to the Indian subcontinent, Africa, Asia, or Latin America. The classic findings of typhoid fever include rose spots, relative bradycardia, and stepwise fevers, but unfortunately these signs are frequently absent. Gastrointestinal manifestations may include diffuse abdominal pain, bleeding, perforation, cholecystitis, and cholangitis. The diagnosis should be suspected after collection of the appropriate clinical and travel history with confirmation by blood or bone marrow culture. Novel methods are in development to establish the diagnosis when cultures are negative or unavailable. Multidrug resistance has increased worldwide, and decisions on antimicrobial therapy must take such resistance into account. The empiric treatment of choice is a fluoroquinolone drug; ceftriaxone and azithromycin are alternatives. Preventive strategies include good sanitation and food handling practices along with vaccination of selected groups.

  5. Effects of postoperative background PCA morphine infusion on pain management and related side effects in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hung; Liu, Kang; Tan, Peng-Heng; Chia, Yuan-Yi

    2011-03-01

    To examine the effects of background morphine infusion via patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCA) device. Randomized, controlled, double-blinded study. University-affiliated hospital. 60 ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy. Patients were randomly allocated to either the PCA group without continuous background morphine infusion (Group 1; n = 30) or the PCA group with continuous background morphine infusion (Group 2; n = 30). Pain intensity during movement and at rest, morphine consumption at indicated time intervals, and related side effects were evaluated and recorded for three postoperative days at 12-hour intervals. The degree of patient satisfaction with PCA pain management was elicited and recorded. Pain intensity during movement (VASC) at 12 and 36 hours postoperatively and pain intensity at rest from 12 to 60 hours were significantly higher in Group 2 than Group 1. PCA morphine consumption for three days postoperatively in Group 2 was significantly higher. The frequency of vomiting, nausea, and dizziness were higher in Group 2. The frequency of pruritus, urinary retention, and allodynia was similar for both groups. The degree of patient satisfaction with pain management was generally equivalent between the groups. A continuous background morphine infusion of 0.5 mg/hr did not lower pain intensity during movement or at rest, but induced higher pain intensity, higher opioid usage, and more complications such as vomiting, nausea, and dizziness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of surgical transversus abdominis plane block for postoperative pain relief following abdominal surgery in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Lapmahapaisan, Saowaphak; Tantemsapya, Niramol; Aroonpruksakul, Naiyana; Maisat, Wiriya; Suraseranivongse, Suwannee

    2015-06-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a promising effective method for postoperative pain control after major abdominal surgery. Using a landmark technique, it is easily performed, but its popularity has decreased because of less efficacy due to inaccurate injection and the potential for intraperitoneal organ damage. Ultrasound-guided TAP block provides better results and less complications, but it requires experienced operators. Surgically administered TAP (sTAP) block is a simple technique and may cause less complications. This study was aimed to determine the efficacy of sTAP on postoperative pain control in pediatric patients following a major abdominal surgery, compared with local anesthetic infiltration and no block. This stratified, randomized controlled trial was conducted in pediatric patients, below the age of 15 years, who underwent non-laparoscopic major abdominal surgery. Patients were allocated into three groups. The control group received no block; the LA group received 0.25% bupivacaine for local wound infiltration; and the sTAP group received 0.25% bupivacaine for TAP block performed by a surgeon before abdominal wall closure. Parameter records included the incidence of inadequate pain control, time to first analgesic, opioid requirement within 24 h, and complications of these techniques. Fifty-four patients were recruited. There was no significant difference in the incidence of inadequate pain control (P = 0.589). The median time to first analgesic was 380 min in the sTAP group compared with 370 and 420 min in the LA and control groups, respectively (95%CI = 193-567, 121-619, and 0-1012; P = 0.632). The median dose of total opioid requirement (calculated as fentanyl-equivalent dose) was 1.95, 2.05, and 2.04 μg·kg(-1) ·24 h(-1) in the sTAP, LA, and control groups, respectively (IQR = 0.65, 2.20; 0.59, 3.32; 0.38, 2.60; P = 0.723). No complications of sTAP block were detected. There was no significant advantage of the s

  7. Changes in recruitment of the abdominal muscles in people with low back pain: ultrasound measurement of muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Ferreira, Manuela L; Hodges, Paul W

    2004-11-15

    Ultrasound and electromyographic (EMG) measures of trunk muscle activity were compared between low back pain (LBP) and control subjects in a cross-sectional study. To compare the recruitment of the abdominal muscles (measured as a change in thickness with ultrasound imaging) between people with and without low back pain and to compare these measurements with EMG recordings made with intramuscular electrodes. Although ultrasonography has been advocated as a noninvasive measure of abdominal muscle activity, it is not known whether it can provide a valid measure of changes in motor control of the abdominal muscles in LBP. Ten subjects with recurrent LBP and 10 matched controls were tested during isometric low load tasks with their limbs suspended. Changes in thickness from resting baseline values were obtained for transversus abdominis (TrA), obliquus internus (OI), and obliquus externus (OE) using ultrasonography. Fine wire EMG was measured concurrently. Study participants with LBP had a significantly smaller increase in TrA thickness with isometric leg tasks compared with controls. No difference was found between groups for OI or OE. Similar results were found for EMG. People with LBP had less TrA EMG activity with leg tasks, and there was no difference between groups for EMG activity for OI or OE. This study reinforces evidence for changes in automatic control of TrA in people with LBP. Furthermore, the data establish a new test of recruitment of the abdominal muscles in people with LBP. This test presents a feasible noninvasive test of automatic recruitment of the abdominal muscles.

  8. Symmetry, not asymmetry, of abdominal muscle morphology is associated with low back pain in cricket fast bowlers.

    PubMed

    Gray, Janine; Aginsky, Kerith D; Derman, Wayne; Vaughan, Christopher L; Hodges, Paul W

    2016-03-01

    Although abdominal muscle morphology is symmetrical in the general population, asymmetry has been identified in rotation sports. This asymmetry includes greater thickness of obliquus internus abdominis (OI) on the non-dominant side in cricketers. Cricket fast bowlers commonly experience low back pain (LBP) related to bowling action, and this depends on trunk muscle control. This study aimed to compare abdominal muscle thickness between fast bowlers with and without LBP. Cross sectional descriptive study. Twenty-five adolescent provincial league specialist fast bowlers (16 with and 9 without LBP) participated. Static ultrasound images (US) of OI, and obliquus externus (OE) and transversus abdominis (TrA) were captured on the dominant and non-dominant side in supine. Total combined thickness of OE, OI and TrA muscles was greater on the non-dominant than dominant side (p=0.02) for fast bowlers without LBP, but symmetrical for those with pain. Total thickness was less on the non-dominant side for bowlers with pain than those without (p=0.03). When individual muscles were compared, only the thickness of OI was less in bowlers with LBP than those without (p=0.02). All abdominal muscles were thicker on the non-dominant side in controls (p<0.001) but symmetrical in LBP. Asymmetry of abdominal muscle thickness in fast bowlers is explained by the asymmetrical biomechanics of fast bowling. Lesser OI muscle thickness in fast bowlers with LBP suggests modified trunk control in the transverse/frontal plane and may underpin the incidence of lumbar pathology. The implications for rehabilitation following LBP in fast bowlers require further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spontaneous splenic rupture and Anisakis appendicitis presenting as abdominal pain: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Anisakidosis, human infection with nematodes of the family Anisakidae, is caused most commonly by Anisakis simplex. Acquired by the consumption of raw or undercooked marine fish or squid, anisakidosis occurs where such dietary customs are practiced, including Japan, the coastal regions of Europe and the United States. Rupture of the spleen is a relatively common complication of trauma and many systemic disorders affecting the reticuloendothelial system, including infections and neoplasias. A rare subtype of rupture occurring spontaneously and arising from a normal spleen has been recognized as a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Herein we discuss the case of a woman who presented to our institution with appendicitis secondary to Anisakis and spontaneous spleen rupture. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with hemorrhagic shock and abdominal pain and was subsequently found to have spontaneous spleen rupture and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. She underwent open surgical resection of the splenic rupture and the appendicitis without any significant postoperative complications. Histopathologic examination revealed appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex and splenic rupture of undetermined etiology. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first of a woman with the diagnosis of spontaneous spleen rupture and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. Digestive anisakiasis may present as an acute abdomen. Emergency physicians should know and consider this diagnosis in patients with ileitis or colitis, especially if an antecedent of raw or undercooked fish ingestion is present. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen is an extremely rare event. Increased awareness of this condition will enhance early diagnosis and effective treatment. Further research is required to identify the possible risk factors associated with spontaneous rupture of the spleen. PMID:22524971

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of fibrinogen to differentiate appendicitis from nonspecific abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Prada-Arias, Marcos; Vázquez, José Luis; Salgado-Barreira, Ángel; Gómez-Veiras, Javier; Montero-Sánchez, Margarita; Fernández-Lorenzo, José Ramón

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the biomarker fibrinogen (FB), along with the more traditional markers white blood cell count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), and C-reactive protein (CRP), to discriminate appendicitis from nonspecific abdominal pain (NSAP) in children. We prospectively evaluated all children aged 5 to 15 years admitted for suspected appendicitis at an academic pediatric emergency department during 2 years. Diagnostic accuracy of FB (prothrombin time-derived method), WBC, ANC, and CRP was assessed by the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curve. A total of 275 patients were enrolled in the study (143 NSAP, 100 uncomplicated appendicitis, and 32 complicated appendicitis). WBC and ANC had a moderate diagnostic accuracy for appendicitis vs NSAP (WBC: AUC 0.79, ANC: AUC 0.79). FB and CPR had a poor diagnostic accuracy for appendicitis vs NSAP (FB: AUC 0.63, CRP: AUC 0.64) and a good diagnostic accuracy for complicated vs uncomplicated appendicitis (FB: AUC 0.86, CRP: AUC 0.90). All inflammatory markers had a good diagnostic accuracy for complicated appendicitis vs NSAP. WBC and ANC are useful inflammatory markers to discriminate appendicitis from NSAP. FB and CRP are not very useful to discriminate appendicitis from NSAP, but they discriminate properly complicated from uncomplicated appendicitis and NSAP, with a similar diagnostic accuracy. In a child with suspected appendicitis, a plasma FB level (prothrombin time-derived method) >520 mg/dL is associated to an increased likelihood of complicated appendicitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Emergency department visits related to functional abdominal pain in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Pant, Chaitanya; Deshpande, Abhishek; Sferra, Thomas J; Olyaee, Mojtaba

    2017-01-10

    To analyze visits to and admissions from the emergency department (ED) in children with a primary diagnosis of functional abdominal pain (FAP). This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (HCUP-NEDS 2008-2012). FAP-related ED visits were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. The most frequent secondary diagnoses associated with FAP-related ED visits were also extracted. In 2012, a total of 796,665 children presented to the ED with a primary diagnosis of FAP. This correlated to a rate of 11.5 ED visits/1000 population. The highest incidence of ED visits was observed for children in the 10-14-year age group; median (IQR) age of 11 (8) years. In analyzing the temporal trends associated with FAP-related ED visits, we observed an increase in both the overall number of visits (14.0%) as well as the population-adjusted incidence (16.0%) during the period 2008-2012. This coincided with a decreasing trend in hospital admissions from the ED; from 1.4% in 2008 to 1.0% in 2012 (-28.5%). The overwhelming majority (96.7%) of patients with FAP who presented to the ED were treated and released. On multivariate analysis, the leading factor associated with an increased likelihood of admission from the ED was teaching hospital status (aOR 2.07; 95% CI 1.97 to 2.18). The secondary diagnosis most commonly associated with FAP-related ED visits was nausea and/or emesis (19.8%). Pediatric FAP-related ED visits increased significantly from the period 2008 to 2012. However, the incidence of hospital admissions from the ED declined during the same period.

  12. [Efficacy of two Helicobacter pylori eradication treatments in children with recurrent abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Larrosa-Haro, Alfredo; Martínez-Puente, Elsa Ofelia; Coello-Ramírez, Pedro; Castillo de León, Yolanda Alicia; Bojórquez-Ramos, María del Carmen; Macías-Rosales, Rocío; García-Salazar, Osvaldo; Vázquez-Camacho, Gonzalo; Flores Márquez, María Rosa

    2004-01-01

    To compare clinical and bacteriologic efficacy of two therapeutic trials to eradicate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in two series of pediatric patients with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP). n = 36 children with RAP-associated H. pylori infection. Age 9.8 +/- 3.1 years, 19 boys and 17 girls. Clinical and bacteriologic efficacy of two therapeutic trials was compared: Group A (1996-1997), n = 9, amoxicillin, bismuth subsalicilate, and metronidazol, and group B (1991-1993), n = 27, omeprazol, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin. Initially and post-treatment, H. pylori evaluation was carried out with upper endoscopy and gastric biopsies. For statistics, we used Student t test, chi2, Fisher test, and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (alpha = 0.05). We found that 33/36 cases had gastritis at endoscopy, two with duodenal ulcer; nodular gastritis was observed in more than one half of total cases. All cases fulfilled histologic criteria of gastritis according to Sydney Score. In group A eradication was achieved in 28.6%, while in group B eradication rose to 77.8% (p < 0.05). In group A, 8/9 and in group B 15/27 persisted with RAP (p = 0.113). High frequency of abnormal and histologic findings was observed in the series presented on children with RAP and H. pylori. Eradication efficacy in the omeprazol/amoxicillin/clarithromycin group was higher when compared with bismuth subsalicilate/amoxicillin/metronidazol trial. This efficacy is comparable to pediatric series treated with the same therapeutic trial.

  13. A case of eosinophilic cystitis in patients with abdominal pain, dysuria, genital skin hyperemia and slight toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Cerruto, Maria Angela; D'Elia, Carolina; Artibani, Walter

    2013-06-24

    Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare inflammatory disease with controversial aetiology and treatment. We report the case of a 61-year-old man presented with lower quadrant abdominal pain and lower urinary tract symptoms, non responsive to antibiotics and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Physical examination was substantially negative, such as laboratory parameters, microscopic, bacteriological and serological evaluations. Cystoscopy revealed red areas involving the mucosa of the bladder and transurethral biopsies revealed infiltrating eosinophils. The patient was treated with corticosteroids and montelukast sodium with improving of the symptoms, and at 5 weeks postoperative pain score was reduced. After discontinuing corticosteroids dysuria recurred with the development of hyperemia at the genital skin; the specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against several parasites was slightly positive for Toxocara species. Montelukast sodium was discontinued and corticosteroid therapy was started together with albendazole, with improving of patient’s symptoms and pain decreasing after one week.

  14. Children with co-morbid recurrent abdominal pain and anxiety disorders: results from a multiple-baseline intervention study.

    PubMed

    Sieberg, Christine B; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Plante, Wendy

    2011-06-01

    Recurrent Abdominal Pain (RAP), one of the most common complaints of childhood, is associated with many adverse outcomes. However, few treatment studies have been conducted, especially for children with co-morbid RAP and anxiety disorders. The primary aim of the present study was to explore the utility of a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and a treatment that combined both CBT and family-based approaches in a community sample of children with co-morbid anxiety and RAP. A multiple-baseline across participants design utilizing repeated measures of anxiety and pain was implemented (n = 8 families). An examination of the clinical significance of both treatment approaches is suggestive of their utility in the treatment of anxiety and pain symptoms in children with RAP. More research is warranted in RAP treatment outcome research, particularly with family-based approaches to treatment.

  15. The Significance of Prolonged and Saddleback Fever in Hospitalised Adult Dengue

    PubMed Central

    Thein, Tun-Linn; Leo, Yee-Sin; Lye, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is gaining importance in Singapore with an increase in the number of cases and mortality in recent years. Although prolonged and saddleback fever have been reported in dengue fever, there are no specific studies on their significance in dengue. This study aims to examine the prevalence of prolonged and saddleback fever in dengue as well as their associations with dengue severity. A total of 2843 polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) confirmed dengue patients admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital from 2004 to 2008 were included in the study. Sixty-nine percent of them were male with a median age of 34 years. Prolonged fever (fever > 7 days duration) was present in 572 (20.1%) of patients. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), dengue shock syndrome (DSS) and severe dengue (SD) were significantly more likely to occur in patients with prolonged fever. Mucosal bleeding, anorexia, diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, lethargy, rash, clinical fluid accumulation, hepatomegaly, nosocomial infection, leukopenia, higher neutrophil count, higher hematocrit, higher alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), higher creatinine, lower protein and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were significantly associated with prolonged fever but not platelet count or prothrombin time (PT). Saddleback fever was present in 165 (5.8%). Although DHF and SD were more likely to occur in patients in those with saddleback fever, DSS was not. Compared with prolonged fever, saddleback fever did not show many significant associations except for diarrhea, abdominal pain, clinical fluid accumulation, hematocrit and platelet change, and lower systolic blood pressure. This study demonstrates that prolonged fever may be associated with various warning signs and more severe forms of dengue (SD, DSS, DHF), while saddleback fever showed associations with DHF and SD but not DSS. The presence of prolonged or saddleback fever in dengue patients should therefore prompt

  16. The Significance of Prolonged and Saddleback Fever in Hospitalised Adult Dengue.

    PubMed

    Ng, Deborah Hl; Wong, Joshua Gx; Thein, Tun-Linn; Leo, Yee-Sin; Lye, David C

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is gaining importance in Singapore with an increase in the number of cases and mortality in recent years. Although prolonged and saddleback fever have been reported in dengue fever, there are no specific studies on their significance in dengue. This study aims to examine the prevalence of prolonged and saddleback fever in dengue as well as their associations with dengue severity. A total of 2843 polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) confirmed dengue patients admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital from 2004 to 2008 were included in the study. Sixty-nine percent of them were male with a median age of 34 years. Prolonged fever (fever > 7 days duration) was present in 572 (20.1%) of patients. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), dengue shock syndrome (DSS) and severe dengue (SD) were significantly more likely to occur in patients with prolonged fever. Mucosal bleeding, anorexia, diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, lethargy, rash, clinical fluid accumulation, hepatomegaly, nosocomial infection, leukopenia, higher neutrophil count, higher hematocrit, higher alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), higher creatinine, lower protein and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were significantly associated with prolonged fever but not platelet count or prothrombin time (PT). Saddleback fever was present in 165 (5.8%). Although DHF and SD were more likely to occur in patients in those with saddleback fever, DSS was not. Compared with prolonged fever, saddleback fever did not show many significant associations except for diarrhea, abdominal pain, clinical fluid accumulation, hematocrit and platelet change, and lower systolic blood pressure. This study demonstrates that prolonged fever may be associated with various warning signs and more severe forms of dengue (SD, DSS, DHF), while saddleback fever showed associations with DHF and SD but not DSS. The presence of prolonged or saddleback fever in dengue patients should therefore prompt

  17. Pain symptoms and stooling patterns do not drive diagnostic costs for children with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in primary or tertiary care.

    PubMed

    Lane, Mariella M; Weidler, Erica M; Czyzewski, Danita I; Shulman, Robert J

    2009-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the cost of medical evaluation for children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome brought to a pediatric gastroenterologist versus children who remained in the care of their pediatrician, (2) compare symptom characteristics for the children in primary versus tertiary care, and (3) examine if symptom characteristics predicted the cost of medical evaluation. Eighty-nine children aged 7 to 10 years with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome seen by a gastroenterologist (n = 46) or seen only by a pediatrician (n = 43) completed daily pain and stool diaries for 2 weeks. Mothers provided retrospective reports of their children's symptoms in the previous year. Cost of medical evaluation was calculated via chart review of diagnostic tests and application of prices as if the patients were self-pay. Child-reported diary data reflected no significant group differences with respect to pain, interference with activities, or stool characteristics. In contrast, mothers of children evaluated by a gastroenterologist viewed their children as having higher maximum pain intensity in the previous year. Excluding endoscopy costs, cost of medical evaluation was fivefold higher for children evaluated by a gastroenterologist, with higher cost across blood work, stool studies, breath testing, and diagnostic imaging. Symptom characteristics did not predict cost of care for either group. Despite the lack of difference in symptom characteristics between children in primary and tertiary care, a notable differential in cost of evaluation exists in accordance with level of care. Symptom characteristics do not seem to drive diagnostic evaluation in either primary or tertiary care. Given the lack of differences in child-reported symptoms and the maternal perspective that children evaluated by a gastroenterologist had more severe pain, we speculate that parent perception of child symptoms may be a primary factor in

  18. The effect of a preoperative single-dose methylprednisolone on postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Aabakke, Anna J M; Holst, Lars B; Jørgensen, Jørgen C; Secher, Niels J

    2014-09-01

    Methylprednisolone has been shown to have analgesic effects after orthopedic surgery. The objective of this trial was to compare the effect of 125 mg methylprednisolone with placebo on postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy. In this randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial women scheduled for elective abdominal hysterectomy (n=59) were randomized to preoperatively receive either 125 mg methylprednisolone or saline intravenously. Primary outcome was postoperative pain measured on a 0.0-10.0 visual analog scale and assessed at rest and during mobilization repeatedly the first 24h and daily on the 2nd to 7th postoperative day. Secondary outcomes were postoperative use of opioids and antiemetics, vomiting, C-reactive protein levels, and time to mobilization and discharge. Repeated measures including the primary outcome were analyzed with linear mixed models. Forty-nine cases were analyzed (methylprednisolone n=25, placebo n=24). Pain scores were significantly higher in the methylprednisolone group compared to the placebo group during mobilization (0.79 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.07-1.50] P=0.03) but not at rest (0.55 [95% CI: -0.06 to 1.16] P=0.08). There was no difference between the methylprednisolone and placebo group regarding use of opioids (P=0.24) and antiemetics (P=0.14), number of vomits (P=0.26), and time to mobilization (P=0.24) and discharge (P=0.28). C-reactive protein levels were significantly higher in the placebo group (P=0.01). This trial showed no beneficial effect of methylprednisolone on postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Methylprednisolone significantly lowered postoperative CRP levels. ClinicalTrial.gov: www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01106547. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rift Valley fever: the Nigerian story.

    PubMed

    Adeyeye, Adewale A; Ekong, Pius S; Pilau, Nicholas N

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arthropod-borne zoonotic disease of livestock. It is characterised by fever, salivation, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, mucopurulent to bloody nasal discharge, abortion, rapid decrease in milk production and death in animals. Infected humans experience an influenza-like illness that is characterised by fever, malaise, headaches, nausea and epigastric pain followed by recovery, although mortality can occur. RVF was thought to be a disease of sub-Saharan Africa but with the outbreaks in Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula, it may be extending its range further afield. Virological and serological evidence indicates that the virus exists in Nigeria and, with the warning signal sent by international organisations to countries in Africa about an impending outbreak, co-ordinated research between veterinarians and physicians in Nigeria is advocated.

  20. Incidental detection of ascariasis worms on USG in a protein energy malnourished (PEM) child with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Pokhraj Prakashchandra; Doshi, Rajkumar Prakashbhai; Mehta, Chetan; Vadera, Khyati P

    2015-03-12

    A 10-year-old child presented with dull aching periumbilical abdominal pain for 15 days. The child was not gaining weight despite a good appetite. Physical examination of the child revealed grade-I protein energy malnourishment (PEM) according to IAP (Indian Academic of Paediatrics) classification. The rest of the systemic examination was normal. Routine blood investigation revealed anaemia with eosinophilia. Abdominal ultrasonography did not show any abnormality with curvilinear transducer (3.5-5 MHz), however, linear ultrasound transducer (7.5-12 MHz) with harmonic tissue imaging showed worms in the lumen of the small intestine with curling movement on real time scanning. Stool examination for the eggs of ascariasis was positive. The patient was treated with antihelminthic drugs. Dietary modification for the PEM was advised. After 3 months of treatment, the patient improved and stool examination for Ascaris was negative on follow-up.

  1. A Case of Eosinophilic Esophagitis Accompanying Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Rohani, Pejman; Najafi Sani, Mehri; Ahmadi, Mitra

    2017-01-01

    Background. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory condition where there is a dense infiltration of eosinophils typically exceeding fifteen cells per high power field. Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brief, acute, and self-limited episodes of fever and polyserositis that recur at irregular intervals. Case Presentation. A three-year-and-nine-month-old Iranian girl was admitted to our center. The patient's parents complained of a history of abdominal pain, poor appetite, and poor weight gain from 1.5 years ago and episodes of food impaction after starting solid foods. Eosinophilic esophagitis was diagnosed based on histology. Because of continuing abdominal pain after treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis, the episodic nature of disease, and the presence of fever with pain, screening for familial Mediterranean fever mutation was performed and the patient was found to be heterozygote for Mediterranean fever. Conclusion. We have reported a case of eosinophilic esophagitis coexisting with familial Mediterranean fever which has not been described previously. PMID:28255474

  2. A Case of Eosinophilic Esophagitis Accompanying Familial Mediterranean Fever.

    PubMed

    Rohani, Pejman; Najafi Sani, Mehri; Ahmadi, Mitra; Ziaee, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    Background. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory condition where there is a dense infiltration of eosinophils typically exceeding fifteen cells per high power field. Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brief, acute, and self-limited episodes of fever and polyserositis that recur at irregular intervals. Case Presentation. A three-year-and-nine-month-old Iranian girl was admitted to our center. The patient's parents complained of a history of abdominal pain, poor appetite, and poor weight gain from 1.5 years ago and episodes of food impaction after starting solid foods. Eosinophilic esophagitis was diagnosed based on histology. Because of continuing abdominal pain after treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis, the episodic nature of disease, and the presence of fever with pain, screening for familial Mediterranean fever mutation was performed and the patient was found to be heterozygote for Mediterranean fever. Conclusion. We have reported a case of eosinophilic esophagitis coexisting with familial Mediterranean fever which has not been described previously.

  3. Serum, Saliva, and Urine Irisin with and Without Acute Appendicitis and Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bakal, Unal; Aydin, Suleyman; Sarac, Mehmet; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Kalayci, Mehmet; Artas, Gokhan; Yardim, Meltem; Kazez, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    A 112-amino-acid protein irisin (IRI) is widely expressed in many organs, but we currently do not know whether appendix tissue and blood cells express it. If appendix tissue and neutrophil cells express IRI, measuring its concentration in biological fluids might be helpful in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA), since neutrophil cells are the currently gold-standard laboratory parameters for the diagnosis of AA. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based measurements of the proposed myokine IRI for the discrimination of patients with AA from those with acute abdominal pain (AP) and healthy controls. Moreover, immunoreactivity to IRI was investigated in appendix tissues and blood cells. Samples were collected on admission (T1), 24 hours (T2), and 72 hours (T3) postoperatively from patients with suspected AA and from patients with AP corresponding to T1–T3, whereas control subject blood was once corresponding to T1. IRI was measured in serum, saliva, and urine by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas in appendix tissue and blood cells, IRI was detected by immunohistohcemistry. Appendix tissue and blood cells (except for erythrocytes) are new sources of IRI. Basal saliva, urine, and serum levels were higher in children with AA compared with postoperative levels (T2) that start to decline after surgery. This is in line with the finding that IRI levels are higher in children with AA when compared with those with AP or control subject levels, most likely due to a large infiltration of neutrophil cells in AA that release its IRI into body fluids. Measurement of IRI in children with AA parallels the increase or decrease in the neutrophil count. This new finding shows that the measurement of IRI and neutrophil count can together improve the diagnosis of AA, and it can distinguish it from AP. IRI can be a candidate marker for the diagnosis of AA and offers an additional parameter to

  4. Reliability of ultrasound measurement of automatic activity of the abdominal muscle in participants with and without chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ultrasound (US) imaging has been considered as a non-invasive technique to measure thickness and estimate relative abdominal muscle activity. Although some studies have assessed the reliability of US imaging, no study has assessed the reliability of US measurement of automatic activity of abdominal muscles in positions with different levels of stability in participants with chronic low back pain (cLBP). The purpose of this study was to investigate within-day and between-days reliability of US thickness measurements of automatic activity of the abdominal muscles in asymptomatic participants and within-day reliability in those with cLBP. Methods A total of 20 participants (10 with cLBP, 10 healthy) participated in the study. The reliability of US thickness measurements at supine lying and sitting positions (sitting on a chair, sitting on a gym ball with both feet on the ground or lifting one foot off the floor) were assessed. We evaluated within-day reliability in all participants and between-days reliability in asymptomatic participants. Results We found high ICC scores (0.85-0.95) and also small SEM and MDC scores in both groups. The reliability of the measurements was comparable between participants with and without LBP in each position but the SEMs and MDCs was slightly higher in patient group compared with healthy group. It indicates high intra-tester reliability for the US measurement of the thickness of abdominal muscles in all positions. Conclusion US imaging can be used as a reliable method for assessment of automatic activity of abdominal muscles in positions with low levels of stability in participants with and without LBP. PMID:24479859

  5. Groin pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - groin; Lower abdominal pain; Genital pain; Perineal pain ... Common causes of groin pain include: Pulled muscle, tendon, or ligaments in the leg: This problem often occurs in people who play sports such as ...

  6. Operative correction of abdominal rectus diastasis (ARD) reduces pain and improves abdominal wall muscle strength: A randomized, prospective trial comparing retromuscular mesh repair to double-row, self-retaining sutures.

    PubMed

    Emanuelsson, Peter; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Dahlstrand, Ursula; Strigård, Karin; Stark, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    The primary aim of this prospective, randomized, clinical, 2-armed trial was to evaluate the risk for recurrence using 2 different operative techniques for repair of abdominal rectus diastasis. Secondary aims were comparison of pain, abdominal muscle strength, and quality of life and to compare those outcomes to a control group receiving physical training only. Eighty-six patients were enrolled. Twenty-nine patients were allocated to retromuscular polypropylene mesh and 27 to double-row plication with Quill technology. Thirty-two patients participated in a 3-month training program. Diastasis was evaluated with computed tomography scan and clinically. Pain was assessed using the ventral hernia pain questionnaire, a quality-of-life survey, SF-36, and abdominal muscle strength using the Biodex System-4. One early recurrence occurred in the Quill group, 2 encapsulated seromas in the mesh group, and 3 in the suture group. Significant improvements in perceived pain, the ventral hernia pain questionnaire, and quality of life appeared at the 1-year follow-up with no difference between the 2 operative groups. Significant muscular improvement was obtained in all groups (Biodex System-4). Patient perceived gain in muscle strength assessed with a visual analog scale improved similarly in both operative groups. This improvement was significantly greater than that seen in the training group. Patients in the training group still experienced bodily pain at follow-up. There was no difference between the Quill technique and retromuscular mesh in the effect on abdominal wall stability, with a similar complication rate 1 year after operation. An operation improves functional ability and quality of life. Training strengthens the abdominal muscles, but patients still experience discomfort and pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of Physician-in-Triage Model in the Management of Abdominal Pain in an Emergency Department Observation Unit

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, John R.; Katzer, Robert; Lotfipour, Shahram; Chakravarthy, Bharath; Shastry, Siri; Andrusaitis, Jessica; Anderson, Craig L.; Barton, Erik D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Given the nationwide increase in emergency department (ED) visits it is of paramount importance for hospitals to find efficient ways to manage patient flow. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a significant difference in success rates, length of stay (LOS), and other demographic factors in two cohorts of patients admitted directly to an ED observation unit (EDOU) under an abdominal pain protocol by a physician in triage (bypassing the main ED) versus those admitted via the traditional pathway (evaluated and treated in the main ED prior to EDOU admission). Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a protocol-driven EDOU with a diagnosis of abdominal pain in a single university hospital center ED. We obtained compiled data for all patients admitted to the EDOU with a diagnosis of abdominal pain that met EDOU protocol admission criteria. We divided data for each cohort into age, gender, payer status, and LOS. The data were then analyzed to assess any significant differences between the cohorts. Results A total of 327 patients were eligible for this study (85 triage group, 242 main ED group). The total success rate was 90.8% (n=297) and failure rate was 9.2% (n=30). We observed no significant differences in success rates between those dispositioned to the EDOU by triage physicians (90.6%) and those via the traditional route (90.5 % p) = 0.98. However, we found a significant difference between the two groups regarding total LOS with significantly shorter main ED times and EDOU times among patients sent to the EDOU by the physician-in-triage group (p< .001). Conclusion There were no significant differences in EDOU disposition outcomes in patients admitted to an EDOU by a physician-in-triage or via the traditional route. However, there were statistically significant shorter LOSs in patients admitted to the EDOU by triage physicians. The data from this study support the implementation of a physician

  8. Punctate midline myelotomy: a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of pain in inextirpable abdominal and pelvic cancer.

    PubMed

    Hong, Dun; Andrén-Sandberg, Ake

    2007-01-01

    The midline of the dorsal column contains a pathway that may be more important for transmitting visceral nociceptive signals than the spinothalamic tract. Punctate midline myelotomy, a neuroablative operation with the intent of interrupting the midline of the dorsal column, has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of otherwise intractable abdominal and pelvic cancer pain. The indications, technical procedure, outcomes, and complications of all published clinical studies of punctate midline myelotomy are reviewed. The lesion level of the spinal cord and the depth of the incision are discussed, with the focus on the feasibility of this technique.

  9. A rare cause of right upper quadrant pain in a 17-year-old female.

    PubMed

    Nwankwo, Nwabundo; Barbaryan, Aram; Ali, Alaa M; Mirrakhimov, Aibek E

    2013-01-01

    A 17-year-old Hispanic female presented to our hospital with complaints of right upper quadrant abdominal pain, vomiting, and fever. Physical exam was positive for hepatomegaly. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple hypoechoic liver masses. Liver biopsy was done, which was diagnostic for hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma.

  10. Parental Approach to the Prevention and Management of Fever and Pain Following Childhood Immunizations: A Survey Study.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ezzeldin; Swamy, Geeta K; Moody, M Anthony; Walter, Emmanuel B

    2017-05-01

    Antipyretic analgesics are commonly used to prevent and treat adverse events following immunizations. Current practice discourages routine use due to possible blunting of vaccine immune responses. We surveyed 150 parents/caregivers of recently vaccinated 6- and 15-month-old children to determine the prevalence of and beliefs regarding antipyretic analgesics use around vaccinations. 11% used them prophylactically, before vaccination. Use in the first 48 hours after vaccination was 64%, primarily to prevent and/or treat fever and pain. Acetaminophen was administered 2.6 times more frequently than ibuprofen. Ibuprofen was used more in the 15-month compared with the 6-month-old children (28% vs 7.4%, respectively, P = .001). The majority of caregivers disagreed with their use for fever (53%) or pain (59%). Antipyretic analgesic use, including prophylaxis, around vaccinations was common in our study population. Effective interventions are needed to target parents/caregivers to eliminate unnecessary antipyretic analgesic use around vaccination time and foster nonmedication alternatives.

  11. Efficacy of scheduled time ketorolac administration compared to continuous infusion for post-operative pain after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Russo, A; Di Stasio, E; Bevilacqua, F; Cafarotti, S; Scarano, A; Marana, E

    2012-11-01

    Ketorolac tromethanime is a non steroidal anti inflammatory drug and its efficacy on acute pain control after abdominal surgery has been well documented. It has a rapid onset and it can be given both for intra operative and for post operative pain management. In this study we aimed to evaluate if there were any differences in relieving post operative pain when Ketorolac was administered with continuous infusion or if it was given at prearranged times. 80 ASA I patients, scheduled for major gynecological surgery, were randomly assigned to 2 groups: group A patients were connected after surgical incision with a 24h analgesic infusor (2 ml/h) containing morphine (0.02 mg/kg/h) and Ketorolac (90 mg). Group B patients were connected after surgical incision with a 24h analgesic infusor (2 ml/h) containing morphine (0.02 mg/kg/h) at first and Ketorolac was then given in bolus after surgical incision and then every 8 hours for the first 24 hours. Post-operative pain scores were assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) every 8 hours for 24 h. For a VAS value greater than 6, patients received Tramadol 100 mg. Post-operative pain scores showed a better pain relief for patients in the group B. Furthermore, the requirements of rescue analgesic were less in the group B [Tramadol was used for only 8 patients] than in the group A [Tramadol was used for 31 patients]. No adverse effects were registered in both groups. For post-operative pain Ketorolac administration at prearranged times, every 8 hours, offers greater benefits in respect to its continuous infusion.

  12. The effect of Reiki on pain and anxiety in women with abdominal hysterectomies: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Anne T; O'Connor, Priscilla C

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to compare reports of pain and levels of state anxiety in 2 groups of women after abdominal hysterectomy. A quasi-experimental design was used in which the experimental group (n = 10) received traditional nursing care plus three 30-minute sessions of Reiki, while the control group (n = 12) received traditional nursing care. The results indicated that the experimental group reported less pain and requested fewer analgesics than the control group. Also, the experimental group reported less state anxiety than the control group on discharge at 72 hours postoperation. The authors recommend replication of this study with a similar population, such as women who require nonemergency cesarian section deliveries.

  13. Bilateral Continuous Quadratus Lumborum Block for Acute Postoperative Abdominal Pain as a Rescue After Opioid-Induced Respiratory Depression.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Mohamed; Esa, Wael Ali Sakr; Maheshwari, Kamal; Elsharkawy, Hesham; Soliman, Loran Mounir

    2015-10-01

    We present a case of acute postoperative abdominal pain after proctosigmoidectomy and colorectal anastomosis that was treated by bilateral continuous quadratus lumborum block. The block was performed in the lateral position under ultrasound guidance with a 15-mL bolus of 0.5% bupivacaine injected anterior to the quadratus lumborum muscle followed by bilateral catheter placement. Each catheter received a continuous infusion of 0.1% bupivacaine at 8 mL/h and an on-demand bolus 5 mL every 30 minutes. Sensory level was confirmed by insensitivity to cold from T7 through T12. The block was devoid of hemodynamic side effects or motor weakness. This case demonstrates that bilateral continuous quadratus lumborum catheters can provide extended postoperative pain control.

  14. Renal infarction due to spontaneous dissection of the renal artery: an unusual cause of non-visceral type abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Kang, James H-E; Kang, Jin-Yong; Morgan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with very severe right upper quadrant pain of sudden onset. This was exacerbated by movement but unaffected by food or defaecation. It was continuous—day and night —but resolved over a 1-week period. The physical examination was normal at presentation, by which time the pain had resolved. His white cell count, alanine transaminase and C reactive protein were elevated but normalised after 10 days. An abdominal CT showed low density lesions in the right kidney consistent with segmental infarcts. CT angiogram showed a dissection of the right renal artery. The patient remained asymptomatic and normotensive when reviewed 1 month later. PMID:24049091

  15. Comparison of the Effects of pH-Dependent Peppermint Oil and Synbiotic Lactol (Bacillus coagulans + Fructooligosaccharides) on Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Asgarshirazi, Masoumeh; Shariat, Mamak; Dalili, Hosein

    2015-04-01

    Still there is no consensus on the best treatment for abdominal pain-related functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGIDs). The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a synbiotic Lactol (Bacillus coagulans + fructooligosaccharide (FOS)), peppermint oil (Colpermin) and placebo (folic acid) on abdominal pain-related FGIDs except for abdominal migraine. This placebo-controlled study was conducted on 120 children aged 4 - 13 years to compare the efficacy of pH-dependent peppermint oil (Colpermin) versus synbiotic Lactol (Bacillus coagulans + fructooligosaccharids (FOS)) in decreasing duration, severity and frequency of functional abdominal pain. The patients were randomly allocated into three equal groups (n = 40 in each group) and each group received Colpermin or Lactol or placebo. Eighty-eight out of 120 enrolled patients completed a one-month protocol and analyses were performed on 88 patients' data. Analyses showed that improvement in pain duration, frequency and severity in the Colpermin group was better than the placebo group (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Moreover, pain duration and frequency were decreased in the Lactol group more than the placebo (P = 0.012 and P = 0.0001, respectively), but changes in pain severity were not significant (P = 0.373). Colpermin was superior to Lactol in decreasing pain duration and severity (P = 0.040 and P = 0.013, respectively). No known side effects or intolerance were seen with Colpermin or Lactol. The pH-dependent peppermint oil capsule and Lactol tablet (Bacillus coagulans+ FOS) as synbiotics seem to be superior to placebo in decreasing the severity, duration and frequency of pain in abdominal pain-related functional GI disorders.

  16. Development of a multidimensional measure for recurrent abdominal pain in children: population-based studies in three settings.

    PubMed

    Malaty, Hoda M; Abudayyeh, Suhaib; O'Malley, Kimberly J; Wilsey, Michael J; Fraley, Ken; Gilger, Mark A; Hollier, David; Graham, David Y; Rabeneck, Linda

    2005-02-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common problem in children and adolescents. Evaluation and treatment of children with RAP continue to challenge physicians because of the lack of a psychometrically sound measure for RAP. A major obstacle to progress in research on RAP has been the lack of a biological marker for RAP and the lack of a reliable and valid clinical measure for RAP. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop and test a multidimensional measure for RAP (MM-RAP) in children to serve as a primary outcome measure for clinical trials, (2) to evaluate the reliability of the measure and compare its responses across different populations, and (3) to examine the reliabilities of the measure scales in relation to the demographic variables of the studied population. We conducted 3 cross-sectional studies. Two studies were clinic-based studies that enrolled children with RAP from 1 pediatric gastroenterology clinic and 6 primary care clinics. The third study was a community-based study in which children from 1 elementary and 2 middle schools were screened for frequent episodes of abdominal pain. The 3 studies were conducted in Houston, Texas. Inclusion criteria for the clinic-based studies were (1) age of 4 to 18 years; (2) abdominal pain that had persisted for 3 or more months; (3) abdominal pain that was moderate to severe and interfered with some or all regular activities; (4) abdominal pain that may or may not be accompanied by upper-gastrointestinal symptoms; and (5) children were accompanied by a parent or guardian who was capable of giving informed consent, and children over the age of 10 years were capable of giving informed assent. The community-based study used standardized questionnaires that were offered to 1080 children/parents from the 3 participating schools; 700 completed and returned the questionnaires (65% response rate). The questionnaire was designed to elicit data concerning the history of abdominal pain or discomfort. A total of 160

  17. Pain related to robotic cholecystectomy with lower abdominal ports: effect of the bilateral ultrasound-guided split injection technique of rectus sheath block in female patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Soo; Choi, Jong Bum; Lee, Sook Young; Kim, Wook Hwan; Baek, Nam Hyun; Kim, Jayoun; Park, Chu Kyung; Lee, Yeon Ju; Park, Sung Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Robotic cholecystectomy (RC) using port sites in the lower abdominal area (T12-L1) rather than the upper abdomen has recently been introduced as an alternative procedure for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Therefore, we investigated the time course of different components of pain and the analgesic effect of the bilateral ultrasound-guided split injection technique for rectus sheath block (sRSB) after RC in female patients. Methods: We randomly assigned 40 patients to undergo ultrasound-guided sRSB (RSB group, n = 20) or to not undergo any block (control group, n = 20). Pain was subdivided into 3 components: superficial wound pain, deep abdominal pain, and referred shoulder pain, which were evaluated with a numeric rating scale (from 0 to 10) at baseline (time of awakening) and at 1, 6, 9, and 24 hours postoperatively. Consumption of fentanyl and general satisfaction were also evaluated 1 hour (before discharge from the postanesthesia care unit) and 24 hours postoperatively (end of study). Results: Superficial wound pain was predominant only at awakening, and after postoperative 1 hour in the control group. Bilateral ultrasound-guided sRSB significantly decreased superficial pain after RC (P < 0.01) and resulted in a better satisfaction score (P < 0.05) 1 hour after RC in the RSB group compared with the control group. The cumulative postoperative consumption of fentanyl at 6, 9, and 24 hours was not significantly different between groups. Conclusions: After RC with lower abdominal ports, superficial wound pain predominates over deep intra-abdominal pain and shoulder pain only at the time of awakening. Afterwards, superficial and deep pain decreased to insignificant levels in 6 hours. Bilateral ultrasound-guided sRSB was effective only during the first hour. This limited benefit should be balanced against the time and risks entailed in performing RSB. PMID:27495072

  18. Lassa fever or lassa hemorrhagic fever risk to humans from rodent-borne zoonoses.

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Megahed, Laila Abdel-Mawla; Abdalla Saleh, Hala Ahmed; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-04-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) typically manifest as rapidly progressing acute febrile syndromes with profound hemorrhagic manifestations and very high fatality rates. Lassa fever, an acute hemorrhagic fever characterized by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and chest and abdominal pain. Rodents are important reservoirs of rodent-borne zoonosis worldwide. Transmission rodents to humans occur by aerosol spread, either from the genus Mastomys rodents' excreta (multimammate rat) or through the close contact with infected patients (nosocomial infection). Other rodents of the genera Rattus, Mus, Lemniscomys, and Praomys are incriminated rodents hosts. Now one may ask do the rodents' ectoparasites play a role in Lassa virus zoonotic transmission. This paper summarized the update knowledge on LHV; hopping it might be useful to the clinicians, nursing staff, laboratories' personals as well as those concerned zoonoses from rodents and rodent control.

  19. Comparison of the thickness of lateral abdominal muscles between pregnant women with and without low back pain.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Mohsen; Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Hantoushzadeh, Sedigheh; Farahbakhsh, Farzin; Nourian, Ruhollah; Kordi, Ramin

    2015-05-01

    To compare the thickness of the external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles in pregnant subjects with and without low back pain (LBP) by the use of ultrasound to measure thickness. A case-control study. An academic and tertiary care referral spine and sports medicine center. Fifty pregnant women with LBP during pregnancy and 54 pregnant control subjects. Case and control subjects were matched for body mass index, gestational age, and number of previous pregnancies. A multiple linear regression model with adjustment for the gestational age of the subjects, as the potential confounder of the primary outcomes, was used to evaluate the association between LBP appearance and abdominal muscles thickness of the subjects. The thickness of lateral abdominal muscles was measured by ultrasound with the subject in a hook-lying position on the examination table. We found that there was no significant difference between pregnant subjects with and without LBP in terms of the thickness of external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles. These findings suggest that other factors rather than the thickness of core stabilizing muscles are influential in the etiology of LBP during pregnancy. We hypothesize that enlargement of uterus during pregnancy might influence the thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of intraoperative intravenous lidocaine on postoperative pain and return of bowel function after laparoscopic abdominal gynecologic procedures.

    PubMed

    Grady, Philip; Clark, Nathaniel; Lenahan, John; Oudekerk, Christopher; Hawkins, Robert; Nezat, Greg; Pellegrini, Joseph E

    2012-08-01

    Abdominal surgery has a high incidence of postoperative pain and dysfunctional gastrointestinal motility. This study investigated the effect of a continuous intraoperative infusion of lidocaine on patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation, 50 subjects were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. Both groups received an intravenous lidocaine bolus of 1 mg/kg on induction. The experimental group received a continuous lidocaine infusion of 2 mg/kg/h, initiated following induction and discontinued 15 to 30 minutes before skin closure. Controls received a placebo infusion. Patients in the experimental group had lower postoperative day 3 pain scores using a verbal analog scale (P = .02). Morphine equivalent dose at second request for pain treatment in the postoperative anesthesia care unit was lower in the experimental group (P = .02). There was a statistically significant difference in time interval from surgical start to return of first flatus between the groups (P = .02). Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. A P value less than .05 was considered significant. These study results are consistent with previous research suggesting that intraoperative lidocaine infusion may improve postoperative pain levels and may shorten the time to return of bowel function.

  1. The Effect of Aromatherapy Abdominal Massage on Alleviating Menstrual Pain in Nursing Students: A Prospective Randomized Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Marzouk, Tyseer M. F.; El-Nemer, Amina M. R.; Baraka, Hany N.

    2013-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a common cause of sickness absenteeism from both classes and work. This study investigated the effect of aromatherapy massage on a group of nursing students who are suffering of primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized blind clinical trial of crossover design was used. In the first treatment phase, group 1 (n = 48) received aromatherapy abdominal massage once daily for seven days prior to menstruation using the essential oils (cinnamon, clove, rose, and lavender in a base of almond oil). Group 2 (n = 47) received the same intervention but with placebo oil (almond oil). In the second treatment phase, the two groups switched to alternate regimen. Level and duration of pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were evaluated at the baseline and after each treatment phase. During both treatment phases, the level and duration of menstrual pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group than in the placebo group. These results suggests that aromatherapy is effective in alleviating menstrual pain, its duration and excessive menstrual bleeding. Aromatherapy can be provided as a nonpharmacological pain relief measure and as a part of nursing care given to girls suffering of dysmenorrhea, or excessive menstrual bleeding. PMID:23662151

  2. [The effect of pre-warming for patients under abdominal surgery on body temperature, anxiety, pain, and thermal comfort].

    PubMed

    Park, Ok Bun; Choi, Heejung

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of pre-warming on body temperature, anxiety, pain, and thermal comfort. Forty patients who were scheduled for abdominal surgery were recruited as study participants and were assigned to the experimental or control group. For the experimental group, a forced air warmer was applied for 45-90 min (M=68.25, SD=15.50) before surgery. Body temperature and anxiety were measured before and after the experiment, but pain and thermal comfort were assessed only after the surgery. Hypotheses were tested using t-test and repeated measured ANOVA. The experimental group showed higher body temperature than the control group from right before induction to two hours after surgery. Post-operative anxiety and pain in the experimental group were less than those of the control group. In addition, the score of thermal comfort was significantly higher in the experiment group. Pre-warming is effective in maintaining body temperature, lowering sensitivity to pain and anxiety, and promoting thermal comfort. Therefore, pre-warming can be recommended as a preoperative nursing intervention.

  3. The effect of aromatherapy abdominal massage on alleviating menstrual pain in nursing students: a prospective randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Tyseer M F; El-Nemer, Amina M R; Baraka, Hany N

    2013-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a common cause of sickness absenteeism from both classes and work. This study investigated the effect of aromatherapy massage on a group of nursing students who are suffering of primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized blind clinical trial of crossover design was used. In the first treatment phase, group 1 (n = 48) received aromatherapy abdominal massage once daily for seven days prior to menstruation using the essential oils (cinnamon, clove, rose, and lavender in a base of almond oil). Group 2 (n = 47) received the same intervention but with placebo oil (almond oil). In the second treatment phase, the two groups switched to alternate regimen. Level and duration of pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were evaluated at the baseline and after each treatment phase. During both treatment phases, the level and duration of menstrual pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group than in the placebo group. These results suggests that aromatherapy is effective in alleviating menstrual pain, its duration and excessive menstrual bleeding. Aromatherapy can be provided as a nonpharmacological pain relief measure and as a part of nursing care given to girls suffering of dysmenorrhea, or excessive menstrual bleeding.

  4. [Abdominal pain syndrome and quality of life in patients with cholelithiasis after cholecystectomy during a 10-year follow-up].

    PubMed

    Makarova, Yu V; Litvinova, N V; Osipenko, M F; Voloshina, N B

    To estimate the incidence of abdominal pain syndrome (APS) and to assess quality of life (QOL) in patients within 10 years after cholecystectomy (CE). This investigation is part of a long-term prospective follow-up study of patients after CE for cholelithiasis (CL). It enrolled 145 people: 30 (21.5%) patients with baseline asymptomatic CL and 115 (80.7%) with its clinical manifestations. The time course of changes in APS and QOL were analyzed. Over 10 years, all the patients showed a decrease in the incidence of APS from 84.1% (n=95) to 66.4% (n=75; p=0.004). In Group 1 (n=89), APS was at baseline detected in all the patients; 10 years later, its incidence declined to 67.4% (n=60; p < 0.001). Biliary pains were predominant; these had been identified significantly less frequently over the 10-year period in 47 (52.8%) patients; p<0.001). In Group 2 (n=24), pre-CE APS was generally detected in 6 (25%) patients; following 10 years, the incidence rates of pain significantly increased to 62.5% (n=15; p=0.035), among which there were predominant biliary pains (in 54.2%; p<0.001) and dyspepsia from 33.3% (n=8) up to 66.7% (n=16; p=0.039). QOL in the physical and mental health domains was found to decrease in both groups. Ten years after CE, the group with the baseline clinical manifestations of CL and poorer QOL showed a lower incidence of APS mainly due to the reduced incidence of biliary pains and the baseline asymptomatic group exhibited a rise in the incidence of APS due to the appearance of biliary pains and dyspepsia.

  5. Flank pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - side; Side pain ... Flank pain can be a sign of a kidney problem. But, since many organs are in this area, other causes are possible. If you have flank pain and fever , chills, blood in the urine, or ...

  6. Splenorenal Collaterals as Hallmark for a Twisted Wandering Spleen in a 14-Year-Old Girl with Abdominal Pain: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rellum, Rashidi; Risseeuw, Gerard; Blaauw, Ivo de; Lequin, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare cause of acute or chronic recurrent abdominal pain with a risk of splenic torsion and infarction. We describe a case of a 14-year-old girl with chronic recurrent abdominal pain with a palpable spleen in normal position on the initial physical examination. Laboratory findings were normal. A normal blood flow was seen on the initial (color Doppler) sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an enlarged spleen in the pelvic region with torsion of hilar pedicle and splenorenal collaterals. Semielective, a laparoscopic splenopexy was performed without complications. A twisted wandering spleen should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent abdominal pain despite possible normal positioning of the spleen. The presence of splenorenal collaterals on imaging techniques can be used as a diagnostic hallmark. PMID:25755964

  7. Splenorenal collaterals as hallmark for a twisted wandering spleen in a 14-year-old girl with abdominal pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rellum, Rashidi; Risseeuw, Gerard; Blaauw, Ivo de; Lequin, Maarten

    2014-06-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare cause of acute or chronic recurrent abdominal pain with a risk of splenic torsion and infarction. We describe a case of a 14-year-old girl with chronic recurrent abdominal pain with a palpable spleen in normal position on the initial physical examination. Laboratory findings were normal. A normal blood flow was seen on the initial (color Doppler) sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an enlarged spleen in the pelvic region with torsion of hilar pedicle and splenorenal collaterals. Semielective, a laparoscopic splenopexy was performed without complications. A twisted wandering spleen should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent abdominal pain despite possible normal positioning of the spleen. The presence of splenorenal collaterals on imaging techniques can be used as a diagnostic hallmark.

  8. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Migita, Kiyoshi; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Yazaki, Masahide; Nonaka, Fumiaki; Nakamura, Akinori; Toma, Tomoko; Kishida, Dai; Uehara, Ritei; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Jiuchi, Yuka; Masumoto, Junya; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Ida, Hiroaki; Terai, Chihiro; Nakashima, Yoshikazu; Kawakami, Atsushi; Nakamura, Tadashi; Eguchi, Katsumi; Yasunami, Michio; Yachie, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disease caused by MEditerranean FeVer gene (MEFV) mutations. In Japan, patients with FMF have been previously reported, including a mild or incomplete form. Several factors are presumed to contribute to the variable penetrance and to the phenotypic variability of FMF. We conducted the current study to investigate the correlation of variable clinical presentations and MEFV genotypic distributions in Japanese FMF patients. We analyzed demographic, clinical, and genetic data for 311 FMF patients enrolled in the study. Clinically, we classified FMF into 2 phenotypes: 1) the “typical” form of FMF, and 2) the “atypical” form of FMF according to the Tel Hashomer criteria. Patients with the typical FMF phenotype had a higher frequency of febrile episodes, a shorter duration of febrile attacks, more frequent thoracic pain, abdominal pain, a family history of FMF, and MEFV exon 10 mutations. Conversely, patients with the atypical FMF phenotype had a lower frequency of fever episodes and more frequent arthritis in atypical distribution, myalgia, and MEFV exon 3 mutations. Multivariate analysis showed that the variable associated with typical FMF presentation was the presence of MEFV exon 10 mutations. Typical FMF phenotype frequencies were decreased in patients carrying 2 or a single low-penetrance mutations compared with those carrying 2 or a single high-penetrance mutations (M694I), with an opposite trend for the atypical FMF phenotype. In addition, patients having more than 2 MEFV mutations had a younger disease onset and a higher prevalence of thoracic pain than those carrying a single or no mutations. Thus, MEFV exon 10 mutations are associated with the more typical FMF phenotype. In contrast, more than half of the Japanese FMF patients without MEFV exon 10 mutations presented with an atypical FMF phenotype, indicating that Japanese FMF patients tend to be divided into 2 phenotypes by a variation

  9. The relationship between movement-evoked versus spontaneous pain and peak expiratory flow after abdominal hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Gilron, Ian; Tod, Debbie; Goldstein, David H; Parlow, Joel L; Orr, Elizabeth

    2002-12-01

    The pathogenesis of postoperative lung dysfunction implies a role for movement-evoked pain (e.g., splinting/hypoventilation because of pain avoidance). However, interactions between evoked pain and respiratory physiology are poorly understood. Thus, we examined the relationship between evoked versus spontaneous pain and one index of pulmonary function. In 25 patients having undergone a hysterectomy, visual analog scale ratings (100 mm) for spontaneous pain (REST) and pain during sitting (SIT), forced expiration (BLOW), and coughing (COUGH) were measured together with peak expiratory flow (PEF) at eight time points during postoperative Days 1 and 2. Secondary outcome measures included oxygen saturation and oxygen requirements. Pain was significantly correlated with PEF for COUGH, SIT, BLOW, and REST at eight, seven, four, and two of the eight studied time points, respectively. Mean visual analog scale scores [SE] for COUGH (26.1 mm [1.7]) and SIT (21.5 mm [1.5]) were greater (P < 0.05) than REST (10.5 mm [0.8]), and COUGH was greater (P < 0.05) than BLOW (16.8 mm [1.3]). All pain measures diminished (P < 0.05), and PEF reductions improved (P < 0.05) across the study period. We hypothesize that the consistent negative correlation of COUGH-evoked pain with PEF is, in part, caused by avoidance of coughing, which ultimately limits deep inspiration, lung reexpansion, and clearance of secretions. Movement-evoked pain may be an important contributor to postoperative complications, but its mechanisms are poorly understood. This study provides the first evidence that postoperative evoked pain correlates with lung function and highlights the need for future research on mechanisms and implications of this phenomenon.

  10. A Severity of Illness Index for Evaluation Pre-Hospital Care of Submariners with Abdominal Pain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-15

    admitted to Navy or Army hospitals between January 1983 and September 1985 with the diagnoses of peptic ulcer, acute appendicitis, cholelithiasis ...a number of appendectomies are performed incidental to other abdominal surgery. In cholelithiasis and cholecystitis, the risk of disease changes

  11. [The 454th case: a 29-week pregnant woman with abdominal pain, hyperlipemia and multiorgan dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Xu, J; Peng, J M; Ma, L K; Chen, S; Li, X G; Zhang, T P; Qian, J M

    2017-02-01

    A 32 year-old woman in the third trimester of pregnancy was admitted for severe acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia. During hospitalization she developed multiorgan dysfunction, infected pancreatic necrosis, abdominal compartment syndrome and intrauterine fetal death. She was successfully treated by multidisciplinary team including department of emergency medicine, ICU, gastroenterology, obstetrics, endocrinology, ultrasonography, radiology, infectious disease, nutrition and surgery.

  12. Point-of-care ultrasound identification of pneumatosis intestinalis in pediatric abdominal pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    James, Vigil; Warier, Aswin; Lee, Khai Pin; Ong, Gene Yong-Kwang

    2017-12-01

    We describe a case report of an infant with intussusception who presented to a pediatric emergency department with diarrhea and increased irritability. Pneumatosis intestinalis (intra-mural air) detected on point-of-care ultrasonography (but not apparent on plain abdominal radiographs) alerted the emergency physicians towards the severity of disease process.

  13. Autonomic nervous system function in young children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been reported to have alterations in autonomic nervous system function as measured by vagal activity via heart rate variability. Whether the same is true for children is unknown. We compared young children 7 to 10 years of age with functional abdominal...

  14. Subtypes of irritable bowel syndrome based on abdominal pain/discomfort severity and bowel pattern

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has traditionally been classified by stooling pattern (e.g., diarrhea-predominant). However, other patterns of symptoms have long been recognized, e.g., pain severity. Our objective was to examine the utility of subtyping women with IBS based on pain/discomfort severit...

  15. Erdheim-Chester disease: a rare cause of recurrent fever of unknown origin mimicking lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mariampillai, Anusiyanthan; Sivapiragasam, Abirami; Kumar, Amit; Hindenburg, Alexander; Cunha, Burke A; Zhou, Jianhong

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with recurrent fever of unknown origin (FUO) with prominent back pain, hepatosplenomegaly, and abdominal/pelvic adenopathy suggesting lymphoma. A bone biopsy showed histiocytic infiltration. Studies for lymphoma were negative, but immunohistochemical stains were diagnostic of Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD). ECD should be included as a rare cause of recurrent FUO with bone involvement.

  16. Comparison of the sonographic features of the abdominal wall muscles and connective tissues in individuals with and without lumbopelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Jackie L; Warner, Martin B; Stokes, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional, case-control study. To measure and compare the resting thickness of the 4 abdominal wall muscles, their associated perimuscular connective tissue (PMCT), and interrecti distance (IRD) in persons with and without lumbopelvic pain (LPP), using ultrasound imaging. The muscles and PMCT of the abdominal wall assist in controlling the spine. Functional deficits of the abdominal wall muscles have been detected in populations with LPP. Investigations of the abdominal wall in those with LPP are primarily concerned with muscle, most commonly the transversus abdominis (TrA) and internal oblique (IO). Because the abdominal wall functions as a unit, all 4 abdominal muscles and their associated connective tissues should be considered concurrently. B-mode ultrasound imaging was used to measure the resting thickness of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique, IO, and TrA muscles; the PMCT planes; and IRD in 50 male and female subjects, 25 with and 25 without LPP (mean ± SD age, 36.3 ± 9.4 and 46.6 ± 8.0 years, respectively). Univariate correlation analysis was used to identify covariates. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) and the Kruskal-Wallis test (IRD) were used to compare cohorts (α = .05). The LPP cohort had less total abdominal muscle thickness (LPP mean ± SD, 18.9 ± 3.0 mm; control, 20.3 ± 3.0 mm; ANCOVA adjusted for body mass index, P = .03), thicker PMCT (LPP, 5.5 ± 0.2 mm; control, 4.3 ± 0.2 mm; ANCOVA adjusted for body mass index, P = .007), and wider IRD (LPP, 11.5 ± 2.0 mm; control, 8.4 ± 1.8 mm; Kruskal-Wallis, P = .005). Analysis of individual muscle thickness revealed no difference in the external oblique, IO, and TrA, but a thinner RA in the LPP cohort (LPP mean ± SD, 7.8 ± 1.5 mm; control, 9.1 ± 1.2 mm; ANCOVA adjusted for body mass index, P<.001). To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the morphological characteristics of all 4 abdominal muscles and PMCT in individuals with LPP. The results suggest that there

  17. Modeled Forecasts of Dengue Fever in San Juan, PR Using NASA Satellite Enhanced Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Cory; Quattrochi, Dale; Zavodsky, Bradley; Case, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus is transmitted between humans and mosquitoes of the genus Aedes and causes approximately 96 million cases of disease (dengue fever) each year (Bhatet al. 2013). Symptoms of dengue fever include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and eye, muscle and joint pain (CDC). More sever manifestations such as abdominal pain, bleeding from nose and gums, vomiting of blood, and clammy skin occur in rare cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (CDC). Dengue fever occurs throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide, however, the geographical range and size of epidemics is increasing. Weather and climate are drivers of dengue virus transmission dynamics (Morin et al. 2013) by affecting mosquito proliferation and the virus extrinsic incubation period (i.e. required time for the virus to replicate and disseminate within the mosquito before it can retransmit the virus).

  18. Fever during anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Chiharu; Lenhardt, Rainer

    2003-12-01

    Fever occurs when pyrogenic stimulation activates thermal control centres. Fever is common during the perioperative period, but rare during anaesthesia. Although only a limited number of studies are available to explain how anaesthesia affects fever, general anaesthesia seems to inhibit fever by decreasing the thermoregulatory-response thresholds to cold. Opioids also inhibit fever; however, the effect is slightly less than that of general anaesthesia. In contrast, epidural anaesthesia does not affect fever. This suggests that hyperthermia, which is often associated with epidural infusions during labour or in the post-operative period, may be a true fever caused by inflammatory activation. Accordingly, this fever might be diminished in patients who receive opioids for pain treatment. Post-operative fever is a normal thermoregulatory response usually of non-infectious aetiology. Fever may be important in the host defence mechanisms and should not be routinely treated lest the associated risks exceed the benefits.

  19. Altered response of the anterolateral abdominal muscles to simulated weight-bearing in subjects with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Hides, Julie A; Belavý, Daniel L; Cassar, Lana; Williams, Michelle; Wilson, Stephen J; Richardson, Carolyn A

    2009-03-01

    An important aspect of neuromuscular control at the lumbo-pelvic region is stabilization. Subjects with low back pain (LBP) have been shown to exhibit impairments in motor control of key muscles which contribute to stabilization of the lumbo-pelvic region. However, a test of automatic recruitment that relates to function has been lacking. A previous study used ultrasound imaging to show that healthy subjects automatically recruited the transversus abdominis (TrA) and internal oblique (IO) muscles in response to a simulated weight-bearing task. This task has not been investigated in subjects with LBP. The aim of this study was to compare the automatic recruitment of the abdominal muscles among subjects with and without LBP in response to the simulated weight-bearing task. Twenty subjects with and without LBP were tested. Real-time ultrasound imaging was used to assess changes in thickness of the TrA and internal oblique IO muscles as well as lateral movement ("slide") of the anterior fascial insertion of the TrA muscle. Results showed that subjects with LBP showed significantly less shortening of the TrA muscle (P < 0.0001) and greater increases in thickness of the IO muscle (P = 0.002) with the simulated weight-bearing task. There was no significant difference between groups for changes in TrA muscle thickness (P = 0.055). This study provides evidence of changes in motor control of the abdominal muscles in subjects with LBP. This test may provide a functionally relevant and non-invasive method to investigate the automatic recruitment of the abdominal muscles in people with and without LBP.

  20. Altered response of the anterolateral abdominal muscles to simulated weight-bearing in subjects with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Belavý, Daniel L.; Cassar, Lana; Williams, Michelle; Wilson, Stephen J.; Richardson, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    An important aspect of neuromuscular control at the lumbo-pelvic region is stabilization. Subjects with low back pain (LBP) have been shown to exhibit impairments in motor control of key muscles which contribute to stabilization of the lumbo-pelvic region. However, a test of automatic recruitment that relates to function has been lacking. A previous study used ultrasound imaging to show that healthy subjects automatically recruited the transversus abdominis (TrA) and internal oblique (IO) muscles in response to a simulated weight-bearing task. This task has not been investigated in subjects with LBP. The aim of this study was to compare the automatic recruitment of the abdominal muscles among subjects with and without LBP in response to the simulated weight-bearing task. Twenty subjects with and without LBP were tested. Real-time ultrasound imaging was used to assess changes in thickness of the TrA and internal oblique IO muscles as well as lateral movement (“slide”) of the anterior fascial insertion of the TrA muscle. Results showed that subjects with LBP showed significantly less shortening of the TrA muscle (P < 0.0001) and greater increases in thickness of the IO muscle (P = 0.002) with the simulated weight-bearing task. There was no significant difference between groups for changes in TrA muscle thickness (P = 0.055). This study provides evidence of changes in motor control of the abdominal muscles in subjects with LBP. This test may provide a functionally relevant and non-invasive method to investigate the automatic recruitment of the abdominal muscles in people with and without LBP. PMID:19015895

  1. Just another abdominal pain? Psoas abscess-like metastasis in large cell lung cancer with adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Bernardino, Vera; Val-Flores, Luis Silva; Dias, João Lopes; Bento, Luís

    2015-06-10

    The authors report the case of a 69-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and previous pulmonary tuberculosis, who presented to the emergency department with abdominal and low back pain, anorexia and weight loss, rapidly evolving into shock. An initial CT scan revealed pulmonary condensation with associated cavitation and an iliopsoas mass suggestive of a psoas abscess. He was admitted in an intensive care unit unit; after a careful examination and laboratory assessment, the aetiology was yet undisclosed. MRI showed multiple retroperitoneal lymphadenopathies, bulky nodular adrenal lesions and bilateral iliac lytic lesions. Hypocortisolism was detected and treated with steroids. A CT-guided biopsy to the psoas mass and lytic lesions identified infiltration of non-small lung carcinoma. The patient died within days. Psoas metastases and adrenal insufficiency as initial manifestations of malignancy are rare and can be misdiagnosed, particularly in the absence of a known primary tumour.

  2. Indacaterol-induced severe constipation and abdominal pain: is there a role for colonic β3-adrenoceptors?

    PubMed Central

    Carrascosa, Miguel F; Lucena, M Isabel; Bellido, Inmaculada; Salcines-Caviedes, José Ramón

    2013-01-01

    Indacaterol is an ultra-long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist that is indicated for the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We present a patient with severe chronic constipation and abdominal pain most probably induced by this medicament. Symptoms rapidly disappeared within 2 days after the drug withdrawal. As far as we know, no reports describing severe chronic constipation associated with indacaterol have been published. The Naranjo algorithm score and the Edwards and Aronson scale for causality assessment of suspected adverse drug reactions indicated a probable relationship between indacaterol use and constipation. Indacaterol-induced constipation is an unusual event that could be accounted for the high intrinsic activity of the drug on colonic β3-adrenoreceptors, resulting in an inhibitory control of smooth muscle function and intestinal secretion. Clinicians should monitor such a possibility when prescribing this drug and maybe avoid its use in patients with a history of difficult bowel evacuation. PMID:23667224

  3. Parasitic Infection of the Gallbladder: Cystoisospora belli Infection as a Cause of Chronic Abdominal Pain and Acalculous Cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Matthew G; Lee, Johnathan Y

    2016-06-01

    Herein we describe two cases of Cystoisospora belli infection of the gallbladder in patients with chronic abdominal pain and review the published literature to date. C. belli is an intracellular protozoan parasite that typically infects the small bowel of immunocompromised hosts. Little is known of the significance of C. belli infection of the gallbladder at this point as only four cases have been reported as yet, only one of which occurred in an immunocompetent patient. It is often treatable with antibiotics, and the patient's immune status, including HIV testing, should be investigated. Neither of the patients at our institution was found to be immunocompromised, and HIV-1/2 antibody testing was non-reactive in both.

  4. An uncommon cause of visceral arterial embolism in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Ulenaers, M; Buchel, O C; Van Olmen, A; Moons, V; D'Haens, G; Christiaens, P

    2010-01-01

    We report on 2 cases of visceral arterial embolism presenting with acute abdominal pain. In neither patient a cause could be established on initial clinical, laboratory, echographic or radiological investigation. Both patients were subsequently found to have a mural thrombus in the thoracic aorta, with visceral arterial embolism. Each underwent a successful operative thrombectomy. Both patients had a normal underlying aortic intima at inspection. The first patient was a young male with no known diseases. He regularly used cannabis and tested positive on admission, an association not yet reported with aortic mural thrombus. He was found to have a slightly reduced protein C. The second patient was a middle aged man with non-insulin dependent diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, arterial hypertension and hyperthyroidism. He was found to have an underlying adenocarcinoma of the lung and received chemotherapy. He died due to his cancer, 4 months after first presentation.

  5. A levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system embedded in the omentum in a woman with abdominal pain: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The Mirena intrauterine system has been licensed as a contraceptive in the United Kingdom since May 1995. The use of an intrauterine system as a primary method of contraception among women has been slowly increasing over the last few years and they now account for about 3% of contraceptive use in England. The Mirena intrauterine system now also has a license for the management of idiopathic menorrhagia. Women may be informed that the rate of uterine perforation associated with intrauterine contraceptive use is low (0-2.3 per 1000 insertions). The rate of perforation reported with the Mirena intrauterine system in a large observational cohort study was 0.9 per 1000 insertions. Case presentation In this case report, the diagnosis of an intraperitoneal Mirena intrauterine system was noted nearly four years after its insertion, despite the patient having had a vaginal hysterectomy and admissions to hospital in the interim with complaints of abdominal pain. Conclusion This case report demonstrates clearly that whenever there is a question of a intrauterine system having fallen out following an ultrasound scan report showing an empty uterus, clinicians should also perform an abdominal X-ray. PMID:20062790

  6. Visceral scalloping on abdominal computed tomography due to abdominal tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishal; Bhatia, Anmol; Malik, Sarthak; Singh, Navjeet; Rana, Surinder S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Scalloping of visceral organs is described in pseudomyxoma peritonei, malignant ascites, among other conditions, but not tuberculosis. Methods: We report findings from a retrospective study of patients with abdominal tuberculosis who had visceral scalloping on abdominal computed tomography (CT). Diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis was made on the basis of combination of clinical, biochemical, radiological and microbiological criteria. The clinical data, hematological and biochemical parameters, and findings of chest X-ray, CT, Mantoux test, and HIV serology were recorded. Results: Of 72 patients with abdominal tuberculosis whose CT scans were included, seven patients had visceral scalloping. The mean age of these patients was 32.14 ± 8.43 years and four were men. While six patients had scalloping of liver, one had splenic scalloping. The patients presented with abdominal pain (all), abdominal distension (five patients), loss of weight or appetite (all), and fever (four patients). Mantoux test was positive in five, while none had HIV infection. The diagnosis was based on fluid (ascitic or collections) evaluation in four patients, ileo-cecal biopsy in one patient, fine needle aspiration from omental thickening in one patient, and sputum positivity for acid fast bacilli (AFB) in one patient. On CT examination, four patients had ascites, five had collections, one had lymphadenopathy, four had peritoneal involvement, three had pleural effusion, and two had ileo-cecal thickening. All except one patient received standard ATT for 6 months or 9 months (one patient). Pigtail drainage for collections was needed for two patients. Discussion: This report is the first description of visceral scalloping of liver and spleen in patients with abdominal tuberculosis. Previously, this finding has been reported primarily with pseudomyxoma peritonei and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Conclusion: Visceral scalloping may not conclusively distinguish peritoneal

  7. Sprue-like histology in patients with abdominal pain taking olmesartan compared with other angiotensin receptor blockers.

    PubMed

    Lagana, Stephen M; Braunstein, Eric D; Arguelles-Grande, Carolina; Bhagat, Govind; Green, Peter H R; Lebwohl, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A severe syndrome characterised by life-threatening diarrhoea and severe sprue-like histology has been described in patients taking the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) olmesartan. It is unknown whether there are any histopathological changes in patients without severe diarrhoea exposed to this medication. It is also unknown whether other ARBs cause sprue-like histology. Retrospective cohort study of patients with abdominal pain undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with duodenal biopsy who were taking ARBs. Patients taking olmesartan (n=20) and a non-olmesartan ARB (n=20) were compared with age and sex-matched controls. Histological features (classic sprue-like and other inflammatory changes) were analysed. No single histopathological finding was significantly more common in olmesartan-using patients than controls. However, 10 of 20 olmesartan patients had one or more sprue-like histological features compared with 4 of 20 age-matched and sex-matched controls not taking ARBs (p=0.10). Patients taking ARBs other than olmesartan were not more likely than controls to have one or more of these sprue-like histological features (9/20 vs. 12/20, p=0.34). There were no statistically significant differences between olmesartan users with abdominal pain and controls for any single histopathological abnormality. However, there were trends towards significance for individual abnormalities as well as for a composite outcome of sprue-like changes. This raises the possibility that there is a spectrum of histological changes associated with olmesartan use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Vomiting and Hyponatremia Are Risk Factors for Worse Clinical Outcomes Among Patients Hospitalized Due to Nonsurgical Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Goren, Idan; Israel, Ariel; Carmel-neiderman, Narin n.; Kliers, Iris; Gringauz, Irina; Dagan, Amir; Lavi, Bruno; Segal, Omer; Segal, Gad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract After initial evaluation in the Emergency Department (ED), many patients complaining of abdominal pain are classified as suffering from nonsurgical abdominal pain (NSAP). Clinical characteristics and risk factors for worse prognosis were not published elsewhere. Characterizing the clinical profile of patients hospitalized due to NSAP and identifying predictor variables for worse clinical outcomes. We made a retrospective cohort analysis of patients hospitalized due to NSAP compared to matched control patients (for age, gender, and Charlson comorbidity index) hospitalized due to other, nonsurgical reasons in a ratio of 1 to 10. We further performed in-group analysis of patients admitted due to NSAP in order to appreciate variables (clinical and laboratory parameters) potentially associated with worse clinical outcomes. Overall 23,584 patients were included, of which 2144 were admitted due to NSAP and 21,440 were matched controls. Patients admitted due to NSAP had overall better clinical outcomes: they had lower rates of in-hospital and 30-days mortality (2.8% vs 5.5% and 7.9% vs 10.4% respectively, P < 0.001 for both comparisons). They also had a significantly shorter length of hospital stay (3.9 vs 6.2 days, P < 0.001). Rates of re-hospitalization within 30-days were not significantly different between study groups. Among patients hospitalized due to NSAP, we found that vomiting or hyponatremia at presentation or during hospital stay were associated with worse clinical outcomes. Compared to patients hospitalized due to other, nonsurgical reasons, the overall prognosis of patients admitted due to NSAP is favorable. The combination of NSAP with vomiting and hyponatremia is associated with worse clinical outcomes. PMID:27057886

  9. Discharge from an emergency department observation unit and a surgical assessme