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Sample records for fever spirochete borrelia

  1. Borrelia miyamotoi: a widespread tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete.

    PubMed

    Wagemakers, Alex; Staarink, Pieter J; Sprong, Hein; Hovius, Joppe W R

    2015-06-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a relapsing fever spirochete that has only recently been identified as a human pathogen. Borrelia miyamotoi is genetically and ecologically distinct from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, while both are present in Ixodes ticks. Over 50 patients with an acute febrile illness have been described with a B. miyamotoi infection, and two infected immunocompromised patients developed a meningoencephalitis. Seroprevalence studies indicate exposure in the general population and in specific risk groups, such as patients initially suspected of having human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Here, we review the available literature on B. miyamotoi, describing its presence in ticks, reservoir hosts, and humans, and discussing its potential impact on public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Borrelia miyamotoi: a recently identified human pathogenic tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete].

    PubMed

    Szekeres, Sándor; Lakos, András; Földvári, Gábor

    2017-07-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a recently described relapsing fever spirochete transmitted by ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex. This pathogen is different from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the Lyme borreliosis spirochetes) in its epidemiology, ecology and also genetics. Over 50 patients have been described worldwide with Borrelia miyamotoi disease, and three immunocompromised patients were reported with neurological symptoms. Our knowledge about Borrelia miyamotoi infection in ticks and its distribution in different habitats and also the mechanism of the infection is limited. The most common symptom is fever; thus it can be easily confused with other tick-borne diseases. Due to the intensive research in recent years, Borrelia miyamotoi infection in ticks and hosts has been reported from different regions and also the number of patients is increasing, thus this bacterium is considered as an emerging pathogen. In this literature review we would like to summarize the available knowledge about this spirochete. Orv Hetil. 2017, 158(29): 1124-1130.

  3. Pathophysiology of Relapsing Fever: Interaction of Borrelia Spirochetes with Blood Mononuclear Leukocytes Causes Production of Leukocytic Pyrogen and Tissue Thromboplastin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-10

    AD-A093 BN6 CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIV CLEVELAND OH DEPT OF MEDICINE FIG 6/5 PAT1OPHYSIOLOGY OF RELAPSING FEVERS INTERACTION OF BORRELtA SPI-ETC(U...NUMBER 4 Pathophysiology of Relapsing Fever : Interaction of Borrelia Spirochetes 0 with Blood Mononuclear Leukocytes Causes Production of Leukocytic...Relapsing fever caused by Borrelia spirochetes is characterized by episodes of spirochetemia, fever , and disseminated intravascular coagu- lation (DIC

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of the spirochete Borrelia microti, a potential agent of relapsing fever in Iran.

    PubMed

    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Ghazinezhad, Behnaz; Bahramali, Golnaz; Cutler, Sally Jane

    2012-09-01

    We report a role for Borrelia microti as a cause of relapsing fever in Iran supported by robust epidemiological evidence. The molecular identity of this spirochete and its relation with other relapsing fever borreliae have, until now, been poorly delineated. We analyzed an isolate of B. microti, obtained from Ornithodoros erraticus ticks, by sequencing four loci (16S rRNA, flaB, glpQ, intragenic spacer [IGS]) and comparing these sequences with those of other relapsing fever borreliae. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated sequences of 16S rRNA, flaB, and glpQ grouped B. microti alongside three members of the African group, B. duttonii, B. recurrentis, and B. crocidurae, which are distinct from B. persica, the most prevalent established cause of tick-borne relapsing fever in Iran. The similarity values for 10 concatenated sequences totaling 2,437 nucleotides ranged from 92.11% to 99.84%, with the highest homologies being between B. duttonii and B. microti and between B. duttonii and B. recurrentis. Furthermore, the more discriminatory IGS sequence analysis corroborated the close similarity (97.76% to 99.56%) between B. microti and B. duttonii. These findings raise the possibility that both species may indeed be the same and further dispel the one-species, one-vector theory that has been the basis for classification of relapsing fever Borrelia for the last 100 years.

  5. In Vitro Susceptibility of the Relapsing-Fever Spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi to Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Draga, Ronald O. P.; Wagemakers, Alex; Manger, Annemijn; Oei, Anneke; Visser, Caroline E.; Hovius, Joppe W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hard-tick-borne relapsing fever (HTBRF) is an emerging infectious disease throughout the temperate zone caused by the relapsing-fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi. Antibiotic treatment of HTBRF is empirically based on the treatment of Lyme borreliosis; however, the antibiotic susceptibility of B. miyamotoi has not been studied to date. Thus, we set out to determine the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of B. miyamotoi. A microdilution method with 96-well microtiter plates was used to determine the antibiotic susceptibilities of two B. miyamotoi strains isolated on two different continents (Asia and North America), two Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains, and one Borrelia hermsii isolate for purposes of comparison. The MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by both microscopy and colorimetric assays. We were able to show that relative to the B. burgdorferi sensu lato isolates, both B. miyamotoi strains and B. hermsii demonstrated greater susceptibility to doxycycline and azithromycin, equal susceptibility to ceftriaxone, and resistance to amoxicillin in vitro. The MIC and MBC of amoxicillin for B. miyamotoi evaluated by microscopy were 16 to 32 mg/liter and 32 to 128 mg/liter, respectively. Since B. miyamotoi is susceptible to doxycycline, azithromycin, and ceftriaxone in vitro, our data suggest that these antibiotics can be used for the treatment of HTBRF. Oral amoxicillin is currently used as an alternative for the treatment of HTBRF; however, since we found that the B. miyamotoi strains tested were resistant to amoxicillin in vitro, this issue warrants further study. PMID:28674060

  6. In Vitro Susceptibility of the Relapsing-Fever Spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi to Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Koetsveld, Joris; Draga, Ronald O P; Wagemakers, Alex; Manger, Annemijn; Oei, Anneke; Visser, Caroline E; Hovius, Joppe W

    2017-09-01

    Hard-tick-borne relapsing fever (HTBRF) is an emerging infectious disease throughout the temperate zone caused by the relapsing-fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi Antibiotic treatment of HTBRF is empirically based on the treatment of Lyme borreliosis; however, the antibiotic susceptibility of B. miyamotoi has not been studied to date. Thus, we set out to determine the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of B. miyamotoi A microdilution method with 96-well microtiter plates was used to determine the antibiotic susceptibilities of two B. miyamotoi strains isolated on two different continents (Asia and North America), two Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains, and one Borrelia hermsii isolate for purposes of comparison. The MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by both microscopy and colorimetric assays. We were able to show that relative to the B. burgdorferi sensu lato isolates, both B. miyamotoi strains and B. hermsii demonstrated greater susceptibility to doxycycline and azithromycin, equal susceptibility to ceftriaxone, and resistance to amoxicillin in vitro The MIC and MBC of amoxicillin for B. miyamotoi evaluated by microscopy were 16 to 32 mg/liter and 32 to 128 mg/liter, respectively. Since B. miyamotoi is susceptible to doxycycline, azithromycin, and ceftriaxone in vitro , our data suggest that these antibiotics can be used for the treatment of HTBRF. Oral amoxicillin is currently used as an alternative for the treatment of HTBRF; however, since we found that the B. miyamotoi strains tested were resistant to amoxicillin in vitro , this issue warrants further study. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Genetic characterization of the human relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in vectors and animal reservoirs of Lyme disease spirochetes in France.

    PubMed

    Cosson, Jean-François; Michelet, Lorraine; Chotte, Julien; Le Naour, Evelyne; Cote, Martine; Devillers, Elodie; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Huet, Dominique; Galan, Maxime; Geller, Julia; Moutailler, Sara; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2014-05-20

    In France as elsewhere in Europe the most prevalent TBD in humans is Lyme borreliosis, caused by different bacterial species belonging to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex and transmitted by the most important tick species in France, Ixodes ricinus. However, the diagnosis of Lyme disease is not always confirmed and unexplained syndromes occurring after tick bites have become an important issue. Recently, B. miyamotoi belonging to the relapsing fever group and transmitted by the same Ixodes species has been involved in human disease in Russia, the USA and the Netherlands. In the present study, we investigate the presence of B. miyamotoi along with other Lyme Borreliosis spirochetes, in ticks and possible animal reservoirs collected in France. We analyzed 268 ticks (Ixodes ricinus) and 72 bank voles (Myodes glareolus) collected and trapped in France for the presence of DNA from B. miyamotoi as well as from Lyme spirochetes using q-PCR and specific primers and probes. We then compared the French genotypes with those found in other European countries. We found that 3% of ticks and 5.55% of bank voles were found infected by the same B. miyamotoi genotype, while co-infection with other Lyme spirochetes (B. garinii) was identified in 12% of B. miyamotoi infected ticks. Sequencing showed that ticks and rodents carried the same genotype as those recently characterized in a sick person in the Netherlands. The genotype of B. miyamotoi circulating in ticks and bank voles in France is identical to those already described in ticks from Western Europe and to the genotype isolated from a sick person in The Netherlands. This results suggests that even though no human cases have been reported in France, surveillance has to be improved. Moreover, we showed that ticks could simultaneously carry B. miyamotoi and Lyme disease spirochetes, increasing the problem of co-infection in humans.

  8. Perpetuation of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia lusitaniae by lizards.

    PubMed

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer

    2006-07-01

    To determine whether the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia lusitaniae is associated with lizards, we compared the prevalence and genospecies of spirochetes present in rodent- and lizard-associated ticks at a site where this spirochete frequently infects questing ticks. Whereas questing nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected mainly by Borrelia afzelii, one-half of the infected adult ticks harbored B. lusitaniae at our study site. Lyme disease spirochetes were more prevalent in sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) and common wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) than in small rodents. Although subadult ticks feeding on rodents acquired mainly B. afzelii, subadult ticks feeding on lizards became infected by B. lusitaniae. Genetic analysis confirmed that the spirochetes isolated from ticks feeding on lizards are members of the B. lusitaniae genospecies and resemble type strain PotiB2. At our central European study site, lizards, which were previously considered zooprophylactic for the agent of Lyme disease, appear to perpetuate B. lusitaniae.

  9. Perpetuation of the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia lusitaniae by Lizards

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia lusitaniae is associated with lizards, we compared the prevalence and genospecies of spirochetes present in rodent- and lizard-associated ticks at a site where this spirochete frequently infects questing ticks. Whereas questing nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected mainly by Borrelia afzelii, one-half of the infected adult ticks harbored B. lusitaniae at our study site. Lyme disease spirochetes were more prevalent in sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) and common wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) than in small rodents. Although subadult ticks feeding on rodents acquired mainly B. afzelii, subadult ticks feeding on lizards became infected by B. lusitaniae. Genetic analysis confirmed that the spirochetes isolated from ticks feeding on lizards are members of the B. lusitaniae genospecies and resemble type strain PotiB2. At our central European study site, lizards, which were previously considered zooprophylactic for the agent of Lyme disease, appear to perpetuate B. lusitaniae. PMID:16820453

  10. Crystal Structure of Borrelia turicatae protein, BTA121, a differentially regulated  gene in the tick-mammalian transmission cycle of relapsing fever spirochetes

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Zhipu; Kelleher, Alan J.; Darwiche, Rabih

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (RF) borreliosis is a neglected disease that is often misdiagnosed. RF species circulating in the United States include Borrelia turicatae, which is transmitted by argasid ticks. Environmental adaptation by RF Borrelia is poorly understood, however our previous studies indicated differential regulation of B. turicatae genes localized on the 150 kb linear megaplasmid during the tick-mammalian transmission cycle, including bta121. This gene is up-regulated by B. turicatae in the tick versus the mammal, and the encoded protein (BTA121) is predicted to be surface localized. The structure of BTA121 was solved by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) using selenomethionine-derivative protein.more » The topology of BTA121 is unique with four helical domains organized into two helical bundles. Due to the sequence similarity of several genes on the megaplasmid, BTA121 can serve as a model for their tertiary structures. BTA121 has large interconnected tunnels and cavities that can accommodate ligands, notably long parallel helices, which have a large hydrophobic central pocket. Preliminary in-vitro studies suggest that BTA121 binds lipids, notably palmitate with a similar order of binding affinity as tablysin-15, a known palmitate-binding protein. The reported data will guide mechanistic studies to determine the role of BTA121 in the tick-mammalian transmission cycle of B. turicatae.« less

  11. Borrelia spirochetes in Russia: Genospecies differentiation by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Mukhacheva, T A; Kovalev, S Y

    2014-10-01

    Spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex are the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis which is widespread in Russia. Nowadays, three clinically important B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies, B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. bavariensis sp. nov., can be found in Russia, as well as B. miyamotoi, which belongs to the tick-borne relapsing fever group of spirochetes. Several techniques have been developed to differentiate Borrelia genospecies. However, most of them do not allow detection of all of these genospecies simultaneously. Also, no method based on the RT-PCR TaqMan approach has been proposed to differentiate the genetically closely related species B. bavariensis and B. garinii. In the present paper, we investigated two species of ticks, I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi (1343 and 92 adults, respectively). Two sets of primers and probes for RT-PCR, with uvrA, glpQ and nifS genes as targets, were designed to detect four Borrelia genospecies in positive samples. The average prevalence of Borrelia sp. was about 40%, with B. afzelii as the most prevalent genospecies. Mixed infections of B. bavariensis and B. garinii were found to be extremely rare. While B. bavariensis was predominant in I. persulcatus, I. pavlovskyi ticks were infected exclusively by B. garinii. The proposed technique proved to be efficient in selection of individual Borrelia species for further genetic analysis, in particular, for multilocus sequence typing. Also, it could be applied for the differentiation of Borrelia genospecies in clinical material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Host Immune Evasion by Lyme and Relapsing Fever Borreliae: Findings to Lead Future Studies for Borrelia miyamotoi

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Brandee L.; Brissette, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    The emerging pathogen, Borrelia miyamotoi, is a relapsing fever spirochete vectored by the same species of Ixodes ticks that carry the causative agents of Lyme disease in the US, Europe, and Asia. Symptoms caused by infection with B. miyamotoi are similar to a relapsing fever infection. However, B. miyamotoi has adapted to different vectors and reservoirs, which could result in unique physiology, including immune evasion mechanisms. Lyme Borrelia utilize a combination of Ixodes-produced inhibitors and native proteins [i.e., factor H-binding proteins (FHBPs)/complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins, p43, BBK32, BGA66, BGA71, CD59-like protein] to inhibit complement, while some relapsing fever spirochetes use C4b-binding protein and likely Ornithodoros-produced inhibitors. To evade the humoral response, Borrelia utilize antigenic variation of either outer surface proteins (Osps) and the Vmp-like sequences (Vls) system (Lyme borreliae) or variable membrane proteins (Vmps, relapsing fever borreliae). B. miyamotoi possesses putative FHBPs and antigenic variation of Vmps has been demonstrated. This review summarizes and compares the common mechanisms utilized by Lyme and relapsing fever spirochetes, as well as the current state of understanding immune evasion by B. miyamotoi. PMID:28154563

  13. Host Immune Evasion by Lyme and Relapsing Fever Borreliae: Findings to Lead Future Studies for Borrelia miyamotoi.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brandee L; Brissette, Catherine A

    2017-01-01

    The emerging pathogen, Borrelia miyamotoi , is a relapsing fever spirochete vectored by the same species of Ixodes ticks that carry the causative agents of Lyme disease in the US, Europe, and Asia. Symptoms caused by infection with B. miyamotoi are similar to a relapsing fever infection. However, B. miyamotoi has adapted to different vectors and reservoirs, which could result in unique physiology, including immune evasion mechanisms. Lyme Borrelia utilize a combination of Ixodes -produced inhibitors and native proteins [i.e., factor H-binding proteins (FHBPs)/complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins, p43, BBK32, BGA66, BGA71, CD59-like protein] to inhibit complement, while some relapsing fever spirochetes use C4b-binding protein and likely Ornithodoros -produced inhibitors. To evade the humoral response, Borrelia utilize antigenic variation of either outer surface proteins (Osps) and the Vmp-like sequences (Vls) system (Lyme borreliae) or variable membrane proteins (Vmps, relapsing fever borreliae). B. miyamotoi possesses putative FHBPs and antigenic variation of Vmps has been demonstrated. This review summarizes and compares the common mechanisms utilized by Lyme and relapsing fever spirochetes, as well as the current state of understanding immune evasion by B. miyamotoi .

  14. There Is a Method to the Madness: Strategies to Study Host Complement Evasion by Lyme Disease and Relapsing Fever Spirochetes.

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Ashley L; Kraiczy, Peter; Lin, Yi-Pin

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease and relapsing fever are caused by various Borrelia species. Lyme disease borreliae , the most common vector-borne pathogens in both the U.S. and Europe, are transmitted by Ixodes ticks and disseminate from the site of tick bites to tissues leading to erythema migrans skin rash, arthritis, carditis, and neuroborreliosis. Relapsing fever borreliae , carried by ticks and lice, trigger reoccurring fever episodes. Following transmission, spirochetes survive in the blood to induce bacteremia at the early stages of infection, which is thought to promote evasion of the host complement system. The complement system acts as an important innate immune defense mechanism in humans and vertebrates. Upon activation, the cleaved complement components form complexes on the pathogen surface to eventually promote bacteriolysis. The complement system is negatively modulated by a number of functionally diverse regulators to avoid tissue damage. To evade and inhibit the complement system, spirochetes are capable of binding complement components and regulators. Complement inhibition results in bacterial survival in serum (serum resistance) and is thought to promote bloodstream survival, which facilitates spirochete dissemination and disease manifestations. In this review, we discuss current methodologies to elucidate the mechanisms of Borrelia spp. that promote serum resistance and bloodstream survival, as well as novel methods to study factors responsible for bloodstream survival of Lyme disease borreliae that can be applied to relapsing fever borreliae . Understanding the mechanisms these pathogens utilize to evade the complement system will ultimately aid in the development of novel therapeutic strategies and disease prevention to improve human health.

  15. Molecular identification of Borrelia spirochetes in questing Ixodes ricinus from northwestern Spain.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pablo; Arnal, Jose Luis; Remesar, Susana; Pérez-Creo, Ana; Venzal, José Manuel; Vázquez-López, María Esther; Prieto, Alberto; Fernández, Gonzalo; López, Ceferino Manuel; Panadero, Rosario; Benito, Alfredo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2017-12-20

    Ixodes ricinus, the predominant tick species in Europe, can transmit the causative agents of important human diseases such as Lyme borreliosis (LB), caused by Borrelia spirochetes. In northern Spain, LB is considered endemic; recently, a significant increase of the annual incidence of LB was reported in the northwestern (NW) region. In order to provide information on the prevalence of Borrelia spp., pooled and individually free-living I. ricinus from NW Spain were molecularly analyzed. Positive samples were characterized at the fla and Glpq genes and the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer region to identify Borrelia species/genospecies. Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) (s.l.) individual prevalence and MIR were significantly higher in adult females (32.3 and 16%) than in nymphs (18.8 and 6.2%) and adult males (15.6 and 8.4%). Five Borrelia genospecies belonging to the B. burgdorferi (s.l.) group were identified: B. garinii was predominant, followed by B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae, B. afzelii and B. burgdorferi (sensu stricto) (s.s.). One species belonging to the tick-borne relapsing fever group (B. miyamotoi) was also found, showing low individual prevalence (1%), positive pool (0.7%) and MIR (0.1%) values. To our knowledge, this is the first citation of B. miyamotoi in free-living ticks from Spain. The significant prevalences of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) genospecies detected in questing ticks from NW Spain are similar to those detected in northern and central European countries and higher to those previously found in Spain. These results together with the high incidence of LB in humans and the high seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) in roe deer shown in other studies reveal that the northwest area is one of the most risky regions for acquiring LB in Spain.

  16. Cotransmission of Divergent Relapsing Fever Spirochetes by Artificially Infected Ornithodoros hermsi▿†

    PubMed Central

    Policastro, Paul F.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2011-01-01

    The soft tick Ornithodoros hermsi, which ranges in specific arboreal zones of western North America, acts as a vector for the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii. Two genomic groups (genomic group I [GGI] and GGII) of B. hermsii are differentiated by multilocus sequence typing yet are codistributed in much of the vector's range. To test whether the tick vector can be infected via immersion, noninfected, colony-derived O. hermsi larvae were exposed to reduced-humidity conditions before immersion in culture suspensions of several GGI and GGII isolates. We tested for spirochetes in ticks by immunofluorescence microscopy and in mouse blood by quantitative PCR of the vtp locus to differentiate spirochete genotypes. The immersed larval ticks were capable of spirochete transmission to mice at the first nymphal feeding. Tick infection with mixed cultures of isolates DAH (vtp-6) (GGI) and MTW-2 (vtp-5) (GGII) resulted in ticks that caused spirochetemias in mice consisting of MTW-2 or both DAH and MTW-2. These findings show that this soft tick species can acquire B. hermsii by immersion in spirochete suspensions, that GGI and GGII isolates can coinfect the tick vector by this method, and that these spirochetes can be cotransmitted to a rodent host. PMID:21965393

  17. Culture and identification of Borrelia spirochetes in human vaginal and seminal secretions

    PubMed Central

    Middelveen, Marianne J.; Burke, Jennie; Sapi, Eva; Bandoski, Cheryl; Filush, Katherine R.; Wang, Yean; Franco, Agustin; Timmaraju, Arun; Schlinger, Hilary A.; Mayne, Peter J.; Stricker, Raphael B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent reports indicate that more than 300,000 cases of Lyme disease are diagnosed yearly in the USA. Preliminary clinical, epidemiological and immunological studies suggest that infection with the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) could be transferred from person to person via intimate human contact without a tick vector. Failure to detect viable Borrelia spirochetes in vaginal and seminal secretions would argue against this hypothesis. Methods: Patients with and without a history of Lyme disease were selected for the study after informed consent was obtained. Serological testing for Bb was performed on all subjects. Semen or vaginal secretions were inoculated into BSK-H medium and cultured for four weeks. Examination of genital cultures and culture concentrates for the presence of spirochetes was performed using light and darkfield microscopy, and spirochete concentrates were subjected to Dieterle silver staining, anti-Bb immunohistochemical staining, molecular hybridization and PCR analysis for further characterization. Immunohistochemical and molecular testing was performed in three independent laboratories in a blinded fashion. Positive and negative controls were included in all experiments. Results: Control subjects who were asymptomatic and seronegative for Bb had no detectable spirochetes in genital secretions by PCR analysis. In contrast, spirochetes were observed in cultures of genital secretions from 11 of 13 subjects diagnosed with Lyme disease, and motile spirochetes were detected in genital culture concentrates from 12 of 13 Lyme disease patients using light and darkfield microscopy. Morphological features of spirochetes were confirmed by Dieterle silver staining and immunohistochemical staining of culture concentrates. Molecular hybridization and PCR testing confirmed that the spirochetes isolated from semen and vaginal secretions were strains of Borrelia, and all cultures were negative for treponemal spirochetes. PCR

  18. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Spirochetes in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Job E.; Krishnavahjala, Aparna; Garcia, Melissa N.; Bermudez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Relapsing fever spirochetes are tick- and louse-borne pathogens that primarily afflict those in impoverished countries. Historically the pathogens have had a significant impact on public health, yet currently they are often overlooked because of the nonspecific display of disease. In this review, we discuss aspects of relapsing fever (RF) spirochete pathogenesis including the: (1) clinical manifestation of disease; (2) ability to diagnose pathogen exposure; (3) the pathogen’s life cycle in the tick and mammal; and (4) ecological factors contributing to the maintenance of RF spirochetes in nature. PMID:28959690

  19. Destruction of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi round-body propagules (RBs) by the antibiotic tigecycline.

    PubMed

    Brorson, Øystein; Brorson, Sverre-Henning; Scythes, John; MacAllister, James; Wier, Andrew; Margulis, Lynn

    2009-11-03

    Persistence of tissue spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi as helices and round bodies (RBs) explains many erythema-Lyme disease symptoms. Spirochete RBs (reproductive propagules also called coccoid bodies, globular bodies, spherical bodies, granules, cysts, L-forms, sphaeroplasts, or vesicles) are induced by environmental conditions unfavorable for growth. Viable, they grow, move and reversibly convert into motile helices. Reversible pleiomorphy was recorded in at least six spirochete genera (>12 species). Penicillin solution is one unfavorable condition that induces RBs. This antibiotic that inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis cures neither the second "Great Imitator" (Lyme borreliosis) nor the first: syphilis. Molecular-microscopic techniques, in principle, can detect in animals (insects, ticks, and mammals, including patients) helices and RBs of live spirochetes. Genome sequences of B. burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum spirochetes show absence of >75% of genes in comparison with their free-living relatives. Irreversible integration of spirochetes at behavioral, metabolic, gene product and genetic levels into animal tissue has been documented. Irreversible integration of spirochetes may severely impair immunological response such that they persist undetected in tissue. We report in vitro inhibition and destruction of B. burgdorferi (helices, RBs = "cysts") by the antibiotic Tigecycline (TG; Wyeth), a glycylcycline protein-synthesis inhibitor (of both 30S and 70S ribosome subunits). Studies of the pleiomorphic life history stages in response to TG of both B. burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum in vivo and in vitro are strongly encouraged.

  20. Beta-Amyloid Deposition and Alzheimer's Type Changes Induced by Borrelia Spirochetes

    SciTech Connect

    Miklossy,J.; Kis, A.; Radenovic, A.

    2006-01-01

    The pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) consist of {beta}-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in affected brain areas. The processes, which drive this host reaction are unknown. To determine whether an analogous host reaction to that occurring in AD could be induced by infectious agents, we exposed mammalian glial and neuronal cells in vitro to Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes and to the inflammatory bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Morphological changes analogous to the amyloid deposits of AD brain were observed following 2-8 weeks of exposure to the spirochetes. Increased levels of {beta}-amyloid presursor protein (A{beta}PP) and hyperphosphorylated tau were also detected by Westernmore » blots of extracts of cultured cells that had been treated with spirochetes or LPS. These observations indicate that, by exposure to bacteria or to their toxic products, host responses similar in nature to those observed in AD may be induced.« less

  1. Detecting the Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia Burgdorferi, in Ticks Using Nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Wills, Melanie K B; Kirby, Andrea M; Lloyd, Vett K

    2018-02-04

    Lyme disease is a serious vector-borne infection that is caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato family of spirochetes, which are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes ticks. The primary etiological agent in North America is Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. As geographic risk regions expand, it is prudent to support robust surveillance programs that can measure tick infection rates, and communicate findings to clinicians, veterinarians, and the general public. The molecular technique of nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) has long been used for this purpose, and it remains a central, inexpensive, and robust approach in the detection of Borrelia in both ticks and wildlife. This article demonstrates the application of nPCR to tick DNA extracts to identify infected specimens. Two independent B. burgdorferi targets, genes encoding Flagellin B (FlaB) and Outer surface protein A (OspA), have been used extensively with this technique. The protocol involves tick collection, DNA extraction, and then an initial round of PCR to detect each of the two Borrelia-specific loci. Subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) uses the product of the first reaction as a new template to generate smaller, internal amplification fragments. The nested approach improves upon both the specificity and sensitivity of conventional PCR. A tick is considered positive for the pathogen when inner amplicons from both Borrelia genes can be detected by agarose gel electrophoresis.

  2. Isolation of the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia mayonii From Naturally Infected Rodents in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tammi L; Graham, Christine B; Hojgaard, Andrias; Breuner, Nicole E; Maes, Sarah E; Boegler, Karen A; Replogle, Adam J; Kingry, Luke C; Petersen, Jeannine M; Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2017-07-01

    Borrelia mayonii is a newly described member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex that is vectored by the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say) and a cause of Lyme disease in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Vertebrate reservoir hosts involved in the enzootic maintenance of B. mayonii have not yet been identified. Here, we describe the first isolation of B. mayonii from naturally infected white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque) and an American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Erxleben) from Minnesota, thus implicating these species as potential reservoir hosts for this newly described spirochete. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Population bottlenecks during the infectious cycle of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Rego, Ryan O M; Bestor, Aaron; Stefka, Jan; Rosa, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is a zoonotic pathogen whose maintenance in nature depends upon an infectious cycle that alternates between a tick vector and mammalian hosts. Lyme disease in humans results from transmission of B. burgdorferi by the bite of an infected tick. The population dynamics of B. burgdorferi throughout its natural infectious cycle are not well understood. We addressed this topic by assessing the colonization, dissemination and persistence of B. burgdorferi within and between the disparate mammalian and tick environments. To follow bacterial populations during infection, we generated seven isogenic but distinguishable B. burgdorferi clones, each with a unique sequence tag. These tags resulted in no phenotypic changes relative to wild type organisms, yet permitted highly sensitive and specific detection of individual clones by PCR. We followed the composition of the spirochete population throughout an experimental infectious cycle that was initiated with a mixed inoculum of all clones. We observed heterogeneity in the spirochete population disseminating within mice at very early time points, but all clones displayed the ability to colonize most mouse tissues by 3 weeks of infection. The complexity of clones subsequently declined as murine infection persisted. Larval ticks typically acquired a reduced and variable number of clones relative to what was present in infected mice at the time of tick feeding, and maintained the same spirochete population through the molt to nymphs. However, only a random subset of infectious spirochetes was transmitted to naïve mice when these ticks next fed. Our results clearly demonstrate that the spirochete population experiences stochastic bottlenecks during both acquisition and transmission by the tick vector, as well as during persistent infection of its murine host. The experimental system that we have developed can be used to further explore the forces that shape the population of this vector-borne bacterial pathogen

  4. Bactericidal Activity of Octenidine to Various Genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi, Sensu Lato Spirochetes in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Stanisława; Rogulska, Urszula; Lewandowska, Grażyna; Chmielewski, Tomasz

    2017-07-06

    The aim of our studies was to invent a reliable method for detection of the bactericidal activity of disinfectants against Borrelia burgdorferi in suspension (in vitro) and in cell line cultures (in vivo). In the suspension method, 0.01% octenidine at 20°C and 35°C was bactericidal to Borrelia afzeli; Borrelia garini, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto after 5 minutes treatment. Increase of the temperature to 35°C speed up the bactericidal effect to 1 minute. The bactericidal action of octenidine towards B. burgdorferi spirochetes growing in fibroblasts was less effective and needed a longer time to kill them than in the suspension.

  5. Reservoir competence of Microtus pennsylvanicus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markowski, D.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Hyland, K.E.; Hu, R.

    1998-01-01

    The reservoir competence of the meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus Ord, for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner was established on Patience Island, RI. Meadow voles were collected from 5 locations throughout Rhode Island. At 4 of the field sites, M. pennsylvanicus represented only 4.0% (n = 141) of the animals captured. However, on Patience Island, M. pennsylvanicus was the sole small mammal collected (n = 48). Of the larval Ixodes scapularis Say obtained from the meadow voles on Patience Island, 62% (n = 78) was infected with B. burgdorferi. Meadow voles from all 5 locations were successfully infected with B. burgdorferi in the laboratory and were capable of passing the infection to xenodiagnostic I. scapularis larvae for 9 wk. We concluded that M. pennsylvanicus was physiologically capable of maintaining B. burgdorferi infection. However, in locations where Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque) is abundant, the role of M. pennsylvanicus as a primary reservoir for B. burgdorferi was reduced.

  6. Use of T7 RNA polymerase to direct expression of outer Surface Protein A (OspA) from the Lyme disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, John J.; Lade, Barbara N.

    1991-01-01

    The OspA gene from a North American strain of the Lyme disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, was cloned under the control of transciption and translation signals from bacteriophage T7. Full-length OspA protein, a 273 amino acid (31kD) lipoprotein, is expressed poorly in Escherichia coli and is associated with the insoluble membrane fraction. In contrast, a truncated form of OspA lacking the amino-terminal signal sequence which normally would direct localization of the protein to the outer membrane is expressed at very high levels (less than or equal to 100 mg/liter) and is soluble. The truncated protein was purified to homogeneity and is being tested to see if it will be useful as an immunogen in a vaccine against Lyme disease. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize the secondary structure and study conformational changes in the protein. Studies underway with other surface proteins from B burgdorferi and a related spirochete, B. hermsii, which causes relapsing fever, leads us to conclude that a strategy similar to that used to express the truncated OspA can provide a facile method for producing variations of Borrelia lipoproteins which are highly expressed in E. coli and soluble without exposure to detergents.

  7. Lyme disease and relapsing fever Borrelia elongate through zones of peptidoglycan synthesis that mark division sites of daughter cells.

    PubMed

    Jutras, Brandon Lyon; Scott, Molly; Parry, Bradley; Biboy, Jacob; Gray, Joe; Vollmer, Waldemar; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2016-08-16

    Agents that cause Lyme disease, relapsing fever, leptospirosis, and syphilis belong to the phylum Spirochaetae-a unique lineage of bacteria most known for their long, spiral morphology. Despite the relevance to human health, little is known about the most fundamental aspects of spirochete growth. Here, using quantitative microscopy to track peptidoglycan cell-wall synthesis, we found that the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi displays a complex pattern of growth. B. burgdorferi elongates from discrete zones that are both spatially and temporally regulated. In addition, some peptidoglycan incorporation occurs along the cell body, with the notable exception of a large region at the poles. Newborn cells inherit a highly active zone of peptidoglycan synthesis at midcell that contributes to elongation for most of the cell cycle. Concomitant with the initiation of nucleoid separation and cell constriction, second and third zones of elongation are established at the 1/4 and 3/4 cellular positions, marking future sites of division for the subsequent generation. Positioning of elongation zones along the cell is robust to cell length variations and is relatively precise over long distances (>30 µm), suggesting that cells ‟sense" relative, as opposed to absolute, cell length to establish zones of peptidoglycan synthesis. The transition from one to three zones of peptidoglycan growth during the cell cycle is also observed in relapsing fever Borrelia. However, this mode of growth does not extend to representative species from other spirochetal genera, suggesting that this distinctive growth mode represents an evolutionary divide in the spirochete phylum.

  8. Serodiagnosis of Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever with Glycerophosphodiester Phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) from Borrelia recurrentis

    PubMed Central

    Porcella, Stephen F.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Schrumpf, Merry E.; Schriefer, Martin E.; Dennis, David T.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2000-01-01

    Human louse-borne relapsing fever occurs in sporadic outbreaks in central and eastern Africa that are characterized by significant morbidity and mortality. Isolates of the causative agent, Borrelia recurrentis, were obtained from the blood of four patients during a recent epidemic of the disease in southern Sudan. The glpQ gene, encoding glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase, from these isolates was sequenced and compared with the glpQ sequences obtained from other relapsing-fever spirochetes. Previously we showed that GlpQ of Borrelia hermsii is an immunogenic protein with utility as a serological test antigen for discriminating tick-borne relapsing fever from Lyme disease. In the present work, we cloned and expressed the glpQ gene from B. recurrentis and used recombinant GlpQ in serological tests. Acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples obtained from 42 patients with louse-borne relapsing fever were tested with an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that used whole cells of B. recurrentis and with immunoblotting to whole-cell lysates of the spirochete and Escherichia coli producing recombinant GlpQ. The geometric mean titers of the acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples measured by IFA were 1:83 and 1:575, respectively. The immunoblot analysis identified a high level of reactivity and seroconversion to GlpQ, and the assay was more sensitive than the whole-cell IFA and ELISA using purified, recombinant histidine-tagged GlpQ. Serum antibodies to GlpQ and other antigens persisted for 27 years in one patient. We conclude that assessment of anti-GlpQ antibodies will allow serological confirmation of louse-borne relapsing fever and determination of disease prevalence. PMID:11015364

  9. Complex Population Structure of Lyme Borreliosis Group Spirochete Borrelia garinii in Subarctic Eurasia

    PubMed Central

    Comstedt, Pär; Asokliene, Loreta; Eliasson, Ingvar; Olsen, Björn; Wallensten, Anders; Bunikis, Jonas; Bergström, Sven

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia garinii, a causative agent of Lyme borreliosis in Europe and Asia, is naturally maintained in marine and terrestrial enzootic cycles, which primarily involve birds, including seabirds and migratory passerines. These bird groups associate with, correspondingly, Ixodes uriae and Ixodes ricinus ticks, of which the latter species may bite and transmit the infection to humans. Studies of the overlap between these two natural cycles of B. garinii have been limited, in part due to the absence of representative collections of this spirochete's samples, as well as of the lack of reliable measure of the genetic heterogeneity of its strains. As a prerequisite for understanding the epidemiological correlates of the complex maintenance of B. garinii, the present study sought to assess the diversity and phylogenetic relationships of this species' strains from its natural hosts and patients with Lyme borreliosis from subarctic Eurasia. We used sequence typing of the partial rrs-rrl intergenic spacer (IGS) of archived and prospective samples of B. garinii from I. uriae ticks collected predominantly on Commander Islands in North Pacific, as well as on the islands in northern Sweden and arctic Norway. We also typed B. garinii samples from patients with Lyme borreliosis and I. ricinus ticks infesting migratory birds in southern Sweden, or found questing in selected sites on the islands in the Baltic Sea and Lithuania. Fifty-two (68%) of 77 B. garinii samples representing wide geographical range and associated with I. ricinus and infection of humans contributed 12 (60%) of total 20 identified IGS variants. In contrast, the remaining 25 (32%) samples recovered from I. uriae ticks from a few islands accounted for as many as 10 (50%) IGS types, suggesting greater local diversity of B. garinii maintained by seabirds and their ticks. Two IGS variants of the spirochete in common for both tick species were found in I. ricinus larvae from migratory birds, an indication that B

  10. Genetic control of the innate immune response to Borrelia hermsii influences the course of relapsing fever in inbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Vivian M; Petrich, Annett; Alugupalli, Kishore R; Marty-Roix, Robin; Moter, Annette; Leong, John M; Boyartchuk, Victor L

    2010-02-01

    Host susceptibility to infection is controlled in large measure by the genetic makeup of the host. Spirochetes of the genus Borrelia include nearly 40 species of vector-borne spirochetes that are capable of infecting a wide range of mammalian hosts, causing Lyme disease and relapsing fever. Relapsing fever is associated with high-level bacteremia, as well as hematologic manifestations, such as thrombocytopenia (i.e., low platelet numbers) and anemia. To facilitate studies of genetic control of susceptibility to Borrelia hermsii infection, we performed a systematic analysis of the course of infection using immunocompetent and immunocompromised inbred strains of mice. Our analysis revealed that sensitivity to B. hermsii infections is genetically controlled. In addition, whereas the role of adaptive immunity to relapsing fever-causing spirochetes is well documented, we found that innate immunity contributes significantly to the reduction of bacterial burden. Similar to human infection, the progression of the disease in mice was associated with thrombocytopenia and anemia. Histological and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of infected tissues indicated that red blood cells (RBCs) were removed by tissue-resident macrophages, a process that could lead to anemia. Spirochetes in the spleen and liver were often visualized associated with RBCs, lending support to the hypothesis that direct interaction of B. hermsii spirochetes with RBCs leads to clearance of bacteria from the bloodstream by tissue phagocytes.

  11. The cyclic-di-GMP signaling pathway in the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Elizabeth A.; Sultan, Syed Z.; Motaleb, Md. A.

    2014-01-01

    In nature, the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi cycles between the unrelated environments of the Ixodes tick vector and mammalian host. In order to survive transmission between hosts, B. burgdorferi must be able to not only detect changes in its environment, but also rapidly and appropriately respond to these changes. One manner in which this obligate parasite regulates and adapts to its changing environment is through cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) signaling. c-di-GMP has been shown to be instrumental in orchestrating the adaptation of B. burgdorferi to the tick environment. B. burgdorferi possesses only one set of c-di-GMP-metabolizing genes (one diguanylate cyclase and two distinct phosphodiesterases) and one c-di-GMP-binding PilZ-domain protein designated as PlzA. While studies in the realm of c-di-GMP signaling in B. burgdorferi have exploded in the last few years, there are still many more questions than answers. Elucidation of the importance of c-di-GMP signaling to B. burgdorferi may lead to the identification of mechanisms that are critical for the survival of B. burgdorferi in the tick phase of the enzootic cycle as well as potentially delineate a role (if any) c-di-GMP may play in the transmission and virulence of B. burgdorferi during the enzootic cycle, thereby enabling the development of effective drugs for the prevention and/or treatment of Lyme disease. PMID:24822172

  12. Reservoir competence of native North American birds for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Buckley, P.A.; Balmforth, Maxon G.; Zhioua, Elyes; Mitra, Shaibal; Buckley, Francine G.

    2005-01-01

    Reservoir competence for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, was tested for six species of native North American birds: American robin, gray catbird, brown thrasher, eastern towhee, song sparrow, and northern cardinal. Wild birds collected by mist netting on Fire Island, NY, were held in a field laboratory in cages over water and locally collected larval ticks were placed on the birds, harvested from the water after engorgement, and tested for infection by direct fluorescent-antibody staining after molting to the nymphal stage. American robins were competent reservoirs, infecting 16.1% of larvae applied to wild-caught birds, compared with 0% of control ticks placed on uninfected laboratory mice. Robins that were previously infected in the laboratory by nymphal feeding infected 81.8% of applied larvae. Wild-caught song sparrows infected 4.8% of applied larvae and 21.1% when infected by nymphal feeding. Results suggest moderate levels of reservoir competence for northern cardinals, lower levels for gray catbirds, and little evidence of reservoir competence for eastern towhees or brown thrashers. Lower infection rates in larvae applied to wild-caught birds compared with birds infected in the laboratory suggest that infected birds display temporal variability in infectiousness to larval ticks. Engorged larvae drop from birds abundantly during daylight, so the abundance of these bird species in the peridomestic environment suggests that they might contribute infected ticks to lawns and gardens.

  13. Borrelia sp. phylogenetically different from Lyme disease- and relapsing fever-related Borrelia spp. in Amblyomma varanense from Python reticulatus.

    PubMed

    Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Sudsangiem, Ronnayuth; Lijuan, Wanwisa; Boonkusol, Duangjai; Baimai, Visut; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2016-06-24

    Species of the genus Borrelia are causative agents of Lyme disease and relapsing fever. Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. However, in some parts of the world Lyme borreliosis and relapsing fever may be caused by novel Borrelia genotypes. Herein, we report the presence of a Borrelia sp. in an Amblyomma varanense collected from Python reticulatus. Ticks were collected from snakes, identified to species level and examined by PCR for the presence of Borrelia spp. flaB and 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbour-joining method. Three A. varanense ticks collected from P. reticulatus were positive for a unique Borrelia sp., which was phylogenetically divergent from both Lyme disease- and relapsing fever-associated Borrelia spp. The results of this study suggest for the first time that there is a Borrelia sp. in A. varanense tick in the snake P. reticulatus that might be novel.

  14. Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Spirochetes in Wild Birds in Northwestern California: Associations with Ecological Factors, Bird Behavior and Tick Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Erica A.; Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J.; Fedorova, Natalia; Hasty, Jeomhee M.; Vaughn, Charles; Lane, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Although Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are found in a great diversity of vertebrates, most studies in North America have focused on the role of mammals as spirochete reservoir hosts. We investigated the roles of birds as hosts for subadult Ixodes pacificus ticks and potential reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in northwestern California. Overall, 623 birds representing 53 species yielded 284 I. pacificus larvae and nymphs. We used generalized linear models and zero-inflated negative binomial models to determine associations of bird behaviors, taxonomic relationships and infestation by I. pacificus with borrelial infection in the birds. Infection status in birds was best explained by taxonomic order, number of infesting nymphs, sampling year, and log-transformed average body weight. Presence and counts of larvae and nymphs could be predicted by ground- or bark-foraging behavior and contact with dense oak woodland. Molecular analysis yielded the first reported detection of Borrelia bissettii in birds. Moreover, our data suggest that the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla), a non-resident species, could be an important reservoir for B. burgdorferi s.s. Of 12 individual birds (9 species) that carried B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected larvae, no birds carried the same genospecies of B. burgdorferi s.l. in their blood as were present in the infected larvae removed from them. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Our study is the first to explicitly incorporate both taxonomic relationships and behaviors as predictor variables to identify putative avian reservoirs of B. burgdorferi s.l. Our findings underscore the importance of bird behavior to explain local tick infestation and Borrelia infection in these animals, and suggest the potential for bird-mediated geographic spread of vector ticks and spirochetes in the far-western United States. PMID:25714376

  15. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in wild birds in northwestern California: associations with ecological factors, bird behavior and tick infestation.

    PubMed

    Newman, Erica A; Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J; Fedorova, Natalia; Hasty, Jeomhee M; Vaughn, Charles; Lane, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Although Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are found in a great diversity of vertebrates, most studies in North America have focused on the role of mammals as spirochete reservoir hosts. We investigated the roles of birds as hosts for subadult Ixodes pacificus ticks and potential reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in northwestern California. Overall, 623 birds representing 53 species yielded 284 I. pacificus larvae and nymphs. We used generalized linear models and zero-inflated negative binomial models to determine associations of bird behaviors, taxonomic relationships and infestation by I. pacificus with borrelial infection in the birds. Infection status in birds was best explained by taxonomic order, number of infesting nymphs, sampling year, and log-transformed average body weight. Presence and counts of larvae and nymphs could be predicted by ground- or bark-foraging behavior and contact with dense oak woodland. Molecular analysis yielded the first reported detection of Borrelia bissettii in birds. Moreover, our data suggest that the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla), a non-resident species, could be an important reservoir for B. burgdorferi s.s. Of 12 individual birds (9 species) that carried B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected larvae, no birds carried the same genospecies of B. burgdorferi s.l. in their blood as were present in the infected larvae removed from them. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Our study is the first to explicitly incorporate both taxonomic relationships and behaviors as predictor variables to identify putative avian reservoirs of B. burgdorferi s.l. Our findings underscore the importance of bird behavior to explain local tick infestation and Borrelia infection in these animals, and suggest the potential for bird-mediated geographic spread of vector ticks and spirochetes in the far-western United States.

  16. Transmission of the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia mayonii in Relation to Duration of Attachment by Nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Dolan, Marc C; Breuner, Nicole E; Hojgaard, Andrias; Boegler, Karen A; Hoxmeier, J Charles; Replogle, Adam J; Eisen, Lars

    2017-09-01

    The recently recognized Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia mayonii, has been detected in host-seeking Ixodes scapularis Say ticks and is associated with human disease in the Upper Midwest. Although experimentally shown to be vector competent, studies have been lacking to determine the duration of time from attachment of a single B. mayonii-infected I. scapularis nymph to transmission of spirochetes to a host. If B. mayonii spirochetes were found to be transmitted within the first 24 h after tick attachment, in contrast to Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes (>24 h), then current recommendations for tick checks and prompt tick removal as a way to prevent transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes would need to be amended. We therefore conducted a study to determine the probability of transmission of B. mayonii spirochetes from single infected nymphal I. scapularis ticks to susceptible experimental mouse hosts at three time points postattachment (24, 48, and 72 h) and for a complete feed (>72-96 h). No evidence of infection with or exposure to B. mayonii occurred in mice that were fed upon by a single infected nymph for 24 or 48 h. The probability of transmission by a single infected nymphal tick was 31% after 72 h of attachment and 57% for a complete feed. In addition, due to unintended simultaneous feeding upon some mice by two B. mayonii-infected nymphs, we recorded a single occasion in which feeding for 48 h by two infected nymphs resulted in transmission and viable infection in the mouse. We conclude that the duration of attachment of a single infected nymphal I. scapularis tick required for transmission of B. mayonii appears to be similar to that for B. burgdorferi: transmission is minimal for the first 24 h of attachment, rare up to 48 h, but then increases distinctly by 72 h postattachment. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public

  17. A divergent spirochete strain isolated from a resident of the southeastern United States was identified by multilocus sequence typing as Borrelia bissettii.

    PubMed

    Golovchenko, Maryna; Vancová, Marie; Clark, Kerry; Oliver, James H; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rudenko, Nataliia

    2016-02-04

    Out of 20 spirochete species from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex recognized to date some are considered to have a limited distribution, while others are worldwide dispersed. Among those are Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) and Borrelia bissettii which are distributed both in North America and in Europe. While B. burgdorferi s.s. is recognized as a cause of Lyme borreliosis worldwide, involvement of B. bissettii in human Lyme disease was not so definite yet. Multilocus sequence typing of spirochete isolates originating from residents of Georgia and Florida, USA, revealed the presence of two Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains highly similar to those from endemic Lyme borreliosis regions of the northeastern United States, and an unusual strain that differed from any previously described in Europe or North America. Based on phylogenetic analysis of eight chromosomally located housekeeping genes divergent strain clustered between Borrelia bissettii and Borrelia carolinensis, two species from the B.burgdorferi s.l. complex, widely distributed among the multiple hosts and vector ticks in the southeastern United States. The genetic distance analysis showed a close relationship of the diverged strain to B. bissettii. Here, we present the analysis of the first North American human originated live spirochete strain that revealed close relatedness to B. bissettii. The potential of B. bissettii to cause human disease, even if it is infrequent, is of importance for clinicians due to the extensive range of its geographic distribution.

  18. Blood-Borne Candidatus Borrelia algerica in a Patient with Prolonged Fever in Oran, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Fotso Fotso, Aurélien; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Mouffok, Nadjet; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    To improve the knowledge base of Borrelia in north Africa, we tested 257 blood samples collected from febrile patients in Oran, Algeria, between January and December 2012 for Borrelia species using flagellin gene polymerase chain reaction sequencing. A sequence indicative of a new Borrelia sp. named Candidatus Borrelia algerica was detected in one blood sample. Further multispacer sequence typing indicated this Borrelia sp. had 97% similarity with Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia recurrentis. In silico comparison of Candidatus B. algerica spacer sequences with those of Borrelia hispanica and Borrelia garinii revealed 94% and 89% similarity, respectively. Candidatus B. algerica is a new relapsing fever Borrelia sp. detected in Oran. Further studies may help predict its epidemiological importance. PMID:26416117

  19. Vector competence of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, for the recently recognized Lyme borreliosis spirochete Candidatus Borrelia mayonii.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Marc C; Hojgaard, Andrias; Hoxmeier, J Charles; Replogle, Adam J; Respicio-Kingry, Laurel B; Sexton, Christopher; Williams, Martin A; Pritt, Bobbi S; Schriefer, Martin E; Eisen, Lars

    2016-07-01

    A novel species within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, provisionally named Borrelia mayonii, was recently found to be associated with Lyme borreliosis in the Upper Midwest of the United States. Moreover, B. mayonii was detected from host-seeking Ixodes scapularis, the primary vector of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto in the eastern United States. We therefore conducted a study to confirm the experimental vector competence of I. scapularis for B. mayonii (strain MN14-1420), using colony ticks originating from adults collected in Connecticut and CD-1 white mice. Larvae fed on mice 10 weeks after needle-inoculation with B. mayonii acquired spirochetes and maintained infection through the nymphal stage at an average rate of 12.9%. In a transmission experiment, 40% of naïve mice exposed to a single infected nymph developed viable infections, as compared with 87% of mice fed upon by 2-3 infected nymphs. Transmission of B. mayonii by one or more feeding infected nymphs was uncommon up to 48h after attachment (one of six mice developed viable infection) but occurred frequently when nymphs were allowed to remain attached for 72-96h or feed to completion (11 of 16 mice developed viable infection). Mice infected via tick bite maintained viable infection with B. mayonii, as determined by ear biopsy culture, for at least 28 weeks. Our results demonstrate that I. scapularis is capable of serving as a vector of B. mayonii. This finding, together with data showing that field-collected I. scapularis are infected with B. mayonii, indicate that I. scapularis likely is a primary vector to humans of this recently recognized Lyme borreliosis spirochete. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Genome Stability of Lyme Disease Spirochetes: Comparative Genomics of Borrelia burgdorferi Plasmids

    SciTech Connect

    Casjens S. R.; Dunn J.; Mongodin, E. F.

    2012-03-14

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne human illness in North America. In order to understand the molecular pathogenesis, natural diversity, population structure and epizootic spread of the North American Lyme agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a much better understanding of the natural diversity of its genome will be required. Towards this end we present a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the numerous plasmids of B. burgdorferi isolates B31, N40, JD1 and 297. These strains were chosen because they include the three most commonly studied laboratory strains, and because they represent different major genetic lineages and so aremore » informative regarding the genetic diversity and evolution of this organism. A unique feature of Borrelia genomes is that they carry a large number of linear and circular plasmids, and this work shows that strains N40, JD1, 297 and B31 carry related but non-identical sets of 16, 20, 19 and 21 plasmids, respectively, that comprise 33-40% of their genomes. We deduce that there are at least 28 plasmid compatibility types among the four strains. The B. burgdorferi {approx}900 Kbp linear chromosomes are evolutionarily exceptionally stable, except for a short {le}20 Kbp plasmid-like section at the right end. A few of the plasmids, including the linear lp54 and circular cp26, are also very stable. We show here that the other plasmids, especially the linear ones, are considerably more variable. Nearly all of the linear plasmids have undergone one or more substantial inter-plasmid rearrangements since their last common ancestor. In spite of these rearrangements and differences in plasmid contents, the overall gene complement of the different isolates has remained relatively constant.« less

  1. Genome Stability of Lyme Disease Spirochetes: Comparative Genomics of Borrelia burgdorferi Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Casjens, Sherwood R.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Qiu, Wei-Gang; Luft, Benjamin J.; Schutzer, Steven E.; Gilcrease, Eddie B.; Huang, Wai Mun; Vujadinovic, Marija; Aron, John K.; Vargas, Levy C.; Freeman, Sam; Radune, Diana; Weidman, Janice F.; Dimitrov, George I.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Sosa, Julia E.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Dunn, John J.; Fraser, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne human illness in North America. In order to understand the molecular pathogenesis, natural diversity, population structure and epizootic spread of the North American Lyme agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a much better understanding of the natural diversity of its genome will be required. Towards this end we present a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the numerous plasmids of B. burgdorferi isolates B31, N40, JD1 and 297. These strains were chosen because they include the three most commonly studied laboratory strains, and because they represent different major genetic lineages and so are informative regarding the genetic diversity and evolution of this organism. A unique feature of Borrelia genomes is that they carry a large number of linear and circular plasmids, and this work shows that strains N40, JD1, 297 and B31 carry related but non-identical sets of 16, 20, 19 and 21 plasmids, respectively, that comprise 33–40% of their genomes. We deduce that there are at least 28 plasmid compatibility types among the four strains. The B. burgdorferi ∼900 Kbp linear chromosomes are evolutionarily exceptionally stable, except for a short ≤20 Kbp plasmid-like section at the right end. A few of the plasmids, including the linear lp54 and circular cp26, are also very stable. We show here that the other plasmids, especially the linear ones, are considerably more variable. Nearly all of the linear plasmids have undergone one or more substantial inter-plasmid rearrangements since their last common ancestor. In spite of these rearrangements and differences in plasmid contents, the overall gene complement of the different isolates has remained relatively constant. PMID:22432010

  2. Detection of Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, including three novel genotypes in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from songbirds (Passeriformes) across Canada.

    PubMed

    Scott, John D; Lee, Min-Kuang; Fernando, Keerthi; Durden, Lance A; Jorgensen, Danielle R; Mak, Sunny; Morshed, Muhammad G

    2010-06-01

    Lyme disease is reported across Canada, but pinpointing the source of infection has been problematic. In this three-year, bird-tick-pathogen study (2004-2006), 366 ticks representing 12 species were collected from 151 songbirds (31 passerine species/subspecies) at 16 locations Canada-wide. Of the 167 ticks/pools tested, 19 (11.4%) were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Sequencing of the rrf-rrl intergenic spacer gene revealed four Borrelia genotypes: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) and three novel genotypes (BC genotype 1, BC genotype 2, BC genotype 3). All four genotypes were detected in spirochete-infected Ixodes auritulus (females, nymphs, larvae) suggesting this tick species is a vector for B. burgdorferi s.l. We provide first-time records for: ticks in the Yukon (north of 60 degrees latitude), northernmost collection of Amblyomma americanum in North America, and Amblyomma imitator in Canada. First reports of bird-derived ticks infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. include: live culture of spirochetes from Ixodes pacificus (nymph) plus detection in I. auritulus nymphs, Ixodes scapularis in New Brunswick, and an I. scapularis larva in Canada. We provide the first account of B. burgdorferi s. l. in an Ixodes muris tick collected from a songbird anywhere. Congruent with previous data for the American Robin, we suggest that the Common Yellowthroat, Golden-crowned Sparrow, Song Sparrow, and Swainson's Thrush are reservoir-competent hosts. Song Sparrows, the predominant hosts, were parasitized by I. auritulus harboring all four Borrelia genotypes. Our results show that songbirds import B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected ticks into Canada. Bird-feeding I. scapularis subadults were infected with Lyme spirochetes during both spring and fall migration in eastern Canada. Because songbirds disperse millions of infected ticks across Canada, people and domestic animals contract Lyme disease outside of the known and expected range.

  3. Prevalence of the Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in Blacklegged Ticks, Ixodes scapularis at Hamilton-Wentworth, Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Scott, John D.; Anderson, John F.; Durden, Lance A.; Smith, Morgan L.; Manord, Jodi M.; Clark, Kerry L.

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease has emerged as a major health concern in Canada, where the etiological agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), a spirochetal bacterium, is typically spread by the bite of certain ticks. This study explores the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, collected at Dundas, Ontario (a locality within the region of Hamilton-Wentworth). Using passive surveillance, veterinarians and pet groomers were asked to collect blacklegged ticks from dogs and cats with no history of travel. Additionally, I. scapularis specimens were submitted from local residents and collected by flagging. Overall, 12 (41%) of 29 blacklegged ticks were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing, two borrelial amplicons were characterized as B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), a genospecies pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Notably, three different vertebrate hosts each had two engorged I. scapularis females removed on the same day and, likewise, one cat had three repeat occurrences of this tick species. These multiple infestations suggest that a population of I. scapularis may be established in this area. The local public health unit has been underreporting the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected I. scapularis in the area encompassing Dundas. Our findings raise concerns about the need to erect tick warning signs in parkland areas. Veterinarians, medical professionals, public health officials, and the general public must be vigilant that Lyme disease-carrying blacklegged ticks pose a public health risk in the Dundas area and the surrounding Hamilton-Wentworth region. PMID:27226771

  4. Prevalence of the Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in Blacklegged Ticks, Ixodes scapularis at Hamilton-Wentworth, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Scott, John D; Anderson, John F; Durden, Lance A; Smith, Morgan L; Manord, Jodi M; Clark, Kerry L

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease has emerged as a major health concern in Canada, where the etiological agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), a spirochetal bacterium, is typically spread by the bite of certain ticks. This study explores the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, collected at Dundas, Ontario (a locality within the region of Hamilton-Wentworth). Using passive surveillance, veterinarians and pet groomers were asked to collect blacklegged ticks from dogs and cats with no history of travel. Additionally, I. scapularis specimens were submitted from local residents and collected by flagging. Overall, 12 (41%) of 29 blacklegged ticks were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing, two borrelial amplicons were characterized as B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), a genospecies pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Notably, three different vertebrate hosts each had two engorged I. scapularis females removed on the same day and, likewise, one cat had three repeat occurrences of this tick species. These multiple infestations suggest that a population of I. scapularis may be established in this area. The local public health unit has been underreporting the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected I. scapularis in the area encompassing Dundas. Our findings raise concerns about the need to erect tick warning signs in parkland areas. Veterinarians, medical professionals, public health officials, and the general public must be vigilant that Lyme disease-carrying blacklegged ticks pose a public health risk in the Dundas area and the surrounding Hamilton-Wentworth region.

  5. [Evaluation of occurrence of spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks in selected areas of the Lublin region by polymerase chain reaction method (PCR)].

    PubMed

    Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Cisak, Ewa; Zwoliński, Jacek; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    During the period 2001-2002, 1098 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected at forest sampling sites and the degree of their infection with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes was determined by means of polimerase chain reaction (PCR). The presence of Borrelia burgdorferi genetic material was noted in 69 cases (6.3%). It was confirmed that the frequency of infection of adult forms of ticks (males and females) was nearly twice as high as nymphs. The highest degree of infection was observed in females--9.5%. The degree of infection among males and nymphs was smaller--5.9% and 4.4% respectively in individual provinces. The percentage of infected females ranged from 7.9% in the Zamość Province to 13.6% in the Włodawa Province. In males, the percentage of infected ticks remained within the range from 3.1% in the Lublin Province to 13.3% in the Lubartów Province.

  6. Whole-Genome Sequences of Borrelia bissettii Borrelia valaisiana and Borrelia spielmanii

    SciTech Connect

    Schutzer S. E.; Dunn J.; Fraser-Liggett C. M.

    2012-01-01

    It has been known for decades that human Lyme disease is caused by the three spirochete species Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii. Recently, Borrelia valaisiana, Borrelia spielmanii, and Borrelia bissettii have been associated with Lyme disease. We report the complete genome sequences of B. valaisiana VS116, B. spielmanii A14S, and B. bissettii DN127.

  7. Relapsing fever causative agent in Southern Iran is a closely related species to East African borreliae.

    PubMed

    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Ghazinezhad, Behnaz; Kazemirad, Elham; Cutler, Sally Jane

    2017-10-01

    We obtained two blood samples from relapsing fever patients residing in Jask County, Hormozgan Province, southern Iran in 2013. Sequencing of a partial fragment of glpQ from two samples, and further characterization of one of them by analyzing flaB gene, and 16S-23S spacer (IGS) revealed the greatest sequence identity with East African borreliae, Borrelia recurrentis, and Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia microti from Iran. Phylogenetic analyses of glpQ, flaB, and concatenated sequences (glpQ, flab, and IGS) clustered these sequences amongst East African Relapsing fever borreliae and B. microti from Iran. However, the more discriminatory IGS disclosed a unique 8-bp signature (CAGCCTAA) separating these from B. microti and indeed other relapsing fever borreliae. In southern Iran, relapsing fever cases are mostly from localities in which O. erraticus ticks, the notorious vector of B. microti, prevail. There are chances that this argasid tick serves as a host and vector of several closely related species or ecotypes including the one we identified in the present study. The distribution of this Borrelia species remains to be elucidated, but it is assumed to be endemic to lowland areas of the Hormozgan Province, as well as Sistan va Baluchistan in the southeast and South Khorasan (in Persian: Khorasan-e Jonobi) in the east of Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of nanomechanical properties of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes under the influence of lytic factors in an in vitro model using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tokarska-Rodak, Małgorzata; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria; Skrzypiec, Krzysztof; Chmielewski, Tomasz; Mendyk, Ewaryst; Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Stanisława

    2015-11-12

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an experimental technique which recently has been used in biology, microbiology, and medicine to investigate the topography of surfaces and in the evaluation of mechanical properties of cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the complement system and specific anti-Borrelia antibodies in in vitro conditions on the modification of nanomechanical features of B. burgdorferi B31 cells. In order to assess the influence of the complement system and anti-Borrelia antibodies on B. burgdorferi s.s. B31 spirochetes, the bacteria were incubated together with plasma of identified status. The samples were applied on the surface of mica disks. Young's modulus and adhesive forces were analyzed with a NanoScope V, MultiMode 8 AFM microscope (Bruker) by the PeakForce QNM technique in air using NanoScope Analysis 1.40 software (Bruker). The average value of flexibility of spirochetes' surface expressed by Young's modulus was 10185.32 MPa, whereas the adhesion force was 3.68 nN. AFM is a modern tool with a broad spectrum of observational and measurement abilities. Young's modulus and the adhesion force can be treated as parameters in the evaluation of intensity and changes which take place in pathogenic microorganisms under the influence of various lytic factors. The visualization of the changes in association with nanomechanical features provides a realistic portrayal of the lytic abilities of the elements of the innate and adaptive human immune system.

  9. Comparison of Vector Efficiency of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) From the Northeast and Upper Midwest of the United States for the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia mayonii.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Lars; Breuner, Nicole E; Hojgaard, Andrias; Hoxmeier, J Charles; Pilgard, Mark A; Replogle, Adam J; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Dolan, Marc C

    2017-01-01

    Borrelia mayonii, a recently recognized species within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, has been detected in host-seeking Ixodes scapularis Say ticks and found to be associated with Lyme disease in the Upper Midwest. This spirochete has, to date, not been documented from the Northeast, but we previously demonstrated that I. scapularis ticks originating from Connecticut are capable of serving as a vector of B. mayonii In this follow-up study, we compared the vector efficiency for B. mayonii (strain MN14-1420) of I. scapularis ticks originating from Minnesota in the Upper Midwest and Connecticut in the Northeast. CD-1 outbred white mice previously infected with B. mayonii via tick bite were exposed to simultaneous feeding by Minnesota and Connecticut larvae contained within separate feeding capsules. We found no difference in the ability of Minnesota and Connecticut larvae to acquire B. mayonii from infected mice and pass spirochetes to the nymphal stage (overall nymphal infection rates of 11.6 and 13.3%, respectively). Moreover, the efficiency of transmission of B. mayonii by single infected nymphs was similar for the Minnesota and Connecticut ticks (33 and 44%, respectively). We conclude that the examined I. scapularis ticks from the Upper Midwest and Northeast did not differ in their efficiency as vectors for B. mayonii. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016 This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Molecular Typing of Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guiqing; Liveris, Dionysios; Mukherjee, Priyanka; Jungnick, Sabrina; Margos, Gabriele; Schwartz, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a group of spirochetes belonging to the genus Borrelia in the family of Spirochaetaceae. The spirochete is transmitted between reservoirs and hosts by ticks of the family Ixodidae. Infection with B. burgdorferi in humans causes Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis. Currently, 20 Lyme disease-associated Borrelia species and more than 20 relapsing fever-associated Borrelia species have been described. Identification and differentiation of different Borrelia species and strains is largely dependent on analyses of their genetic characteristics. A variety of molecular techniques have been described for Borrelia isolate speciation, molecular epidemiology, and pathogenicity studies. In this unit, we focus on three basic protocols, PCR-RFLP-based typing of the rrs-rrlA and rrfA-rrlB ribosomal spacer, ospC typing, and MLST. These protocols can be employed alone or in combination for characterization of B. burgdorferi isolates or directly on uncultivated organisms in ticks, mammalian host reservoirs, and human clinical specimens. PMID:25082003

  11. Population structure of the lyme borreliosis spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) in Northern California.

    PubMed

    Girard, Yvette A; Travinsky, Bridgit; Schotthoefer, Anna; Fedorova, Natalia; Eisen, Rebecca J; Eisen, Lars; Barbour, Alan G; Lane, Robert S

    2009-11-01

    Factors potentially contributing to the lower incidence of Lyme borreliosis (LB) in the far-western than in the northeastern United States include tick host-seeking behavior resulting in fewer human tick encounters, lower densities of Borrelia burgdorferi-infected vector ticks in peridomestic environments, and genetic variation among B. burgdorferi spirochetes to which humans are exposed. We determined the population structure of B. burgdorferi in over 200 infected nymphs of the primary bridging vector to humans, Ixodes pacificus, collected in Mendocino County, CA. This was accomplished by sequence typing the spirochete lipoprotein ospC and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (IGS). Thirteen ospC alleles belonging to 12 genotypes were found in California, and the two most abundant, ospC genotypes H3 and E3, have not been detected in ticks in the Northeast. The most prevalent ospC and IGS biallelic profile in the population, found in about 22% of ticks, was a new B. burgdorferi strain defined by ospC genotype H3. Eight of the most common ospC genotypes in the northeastern United States, including genotypes I and K that are associated with disseminated human infections, were absent in Mendocino County nymphs. ospC H3 was associated with hardwood-dominated habitats where western gray squirrels, the reservoir host, are commonly infected with LB spirochetes. The differences in B. burgdorferi population structure in California ticks compared to the Northeast emphasize the need for a greater understanding of the genetic diversity of spirochetes infecting California LB patients.

  12. Borrelia miyamotoi-Associated Neuroborreliosis in Immunocompromised Person.

    PubMed

    Boden, Katharina; Lobenstein, Sabine; Hermann, Beate; Margos, Gabriele; Fingerle, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly recognized human pathogen in the relapsing fever group of spirochetes. We investigated a case of B. miyamotoi infection of the central nervous system resembling B. burgdorferi-induced Lyme neuroborreliosis and determined that this emergent agent of central nervous system infection can be diagnosed with existing methods.

  13. Borrelia miyamotoi–Associated Neuroborreliosis in Immunocompromised Person

    PubMed Central

    Lobenstein, Sabine; Hermann, Beate; Margos, Gabriele; Fingerle, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly recognized human pathogen in the relapsing fever group of spirochetes. We investigated a case of B. miyamotoi infection of the central nervous system resembling B. burgdorferi–induced Lyme neuroborreliosis and determined that this emergent agent of central nervous system infection can be diagnosed with existing methods. PMID:27533748

  14. Occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Ixodes ricinus Ticks with First Identification of Borrelia miyamotoi in Vojvodina, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Kleinerman, Gabriela; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Savić, Sara; Vračar, Vuk; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Jurišić, Aleksandar; Rojas, Alicia; Petrović, Aleksandra; Ivanović, Ivana; Harrus, Shimon; Baneth, Gad

    2016-10-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne infectious disease in Eurasia. Borrelia miyamotoi is the only known relapsing fever Borrelia group spirochete transmitted by Ixodes species. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Lyme Borrelia spp. and relapsing fever Borrelia spp. in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from dogs and the vegetation from different parts of Vojvodina, Serbia. A total of 71 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected and screened for the presence of Lyme Borrelia spp. group and relapsing fever Borrelia spp. by real-time PCR for the Borrelia flagellin B (flaB) gene followed by DNA sequencing of PCR products. Species identification was verified by PCR of the outer surface protein A (ospA) gene for Lyme Disease Borrelia spp. and by PCR of the glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (glpQ) gene for relapsing fever Borrelia spp. Lyme Borrelia spp. were found in 15/71 (21.13%) of the ticks evaluated and included B. luisitaniae (11.3%), B. afzelii (7%), B. valaisiana (1.4%), and B. garinii (1.4%). Borrelia miyamotoi, from the relapsing fever Borrelia complex, was found, for the first time in Serbia, in one (1.4%) nymph collected from the environment. Co-infections between Borrelia species in ticks were not detected. These results suggest that the dominance of species within B. burgdorferi s.l. complex in I. ricinus ticks may vary over time and in different geographic regions. Further systematic studies of Borrelia species in vectors and reservoir hosts are needed to understand eco-epidemiology of these zoonotic infections and how to prevent human infection in the best way.

  15. Two Distinct Mechanisms Govern RpoS-Mediated Repression of Tick-Phase Genes during Mammalian Host Adaptation by Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme Disease Spirochete.

    PubMed

    Grove, Arianna P; Liveris, Dionysios; Iyer, Radha; Petzke, Mary; Rudman, Joseph; Caimano, Melissa J; Radolf, Justin D; Schwartz, Ira

    2017-08-22

    The alternative sigma factor RpoS plays a key role modulating gene expression in Borrelia burgdorferi , the Lyme disease spirochete, by transcribing mammalian host-phase genes and repressing σ 70 -dependent genes required within the arthropod vector. To identify cis regulatory elements involved in RpoS-dependent repression, we analyzed green fluorescent protein (GFP) transcriptional reporters containing portions of the upstream regions of the prototypical tick-phase genes ospAB , the glp operon, and bba74 As RpoS-mediated repression occurs only following mammalian host adaptation, strains containing the reporters were grown in dialysis membrane chambers (DMCs) implanted into the peritoneal cavities of rats. Wild-type spirochetes harboring ospAB - and glp-gfp constructs containing only the minimal (-35/-10) σ 70 promoter elements had significantly lower expression in DMCs relative to growth in vitro at 37°C; no reduction in expression occurred in a DMC-cultivated RpoS mutant harboring these constructs. In contrast, RpoS-mediated repression of bba74 required a stretch of DNA located between -165 and -82 relative to its transcriptional start site. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays employing extracts of DMC-cultivated B. burgdorferi produced a gel shift, whereas extracts from RpoS mutant spirochetes did not. Collectively, these data demonstrate that RpoS-mediated repression of tick-phase borrelial genes occurs by at least two distinct mechanisms. One (e.g., ospAB and the glp operon) involves primarily sequence elements near the core promoter, while the other (e.g., bba74 ) involves an RpoS-induced transacting repressor. Our results provide a genetic framework for further dissection of the essential "gatekeeper" role of RpoS throughout the B. burgdorferi enzootic cycle. IMPORTANCE Borrelia burgdorferi , the Lyme disease spirochete, modulates gene expression to adapt to the distinctive environments of its mammalian host and arthropod vector during its enzootic

  16. Presence of Borrelia spp. DNA in ticks, but absence of Borrelia spp. and of Leptospira spp. DNA in blood of fever patients in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen; Ehlers, Julian; Krüger, Andreas; Margos, Gabriele; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Kalckreuth, Vera von; Im, Justin; Pak, Gi Deok; Jeon, Hyon Jin; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Heriniaina, Jean Noël; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Konings, Frank; May, Jürgen; Hogan, Benedikt; Ganzhorn, Jörg; Panzner, Ursula; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Dekker, Denise; Marks, Florian; Poppert, Sven

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of tick-borne relapsing fever and leptospirosis in humans in Madagascar remains unclear despite the presence of their potential vectors and reservoir hosts. We screened 255 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 148 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Zebu cattle in Madagascar for Borrelia-specific DNA. Borrelia spp. DNA was detected in 21 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 2 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. One Borrelia found in one Rhipicephalus microplus showed close relationship to Borrelia theileri based on genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses on 16S rRNA and flaB sequences. The borreliae from Amblyomma variegatum could not be identified due to very low quantities of present DNA reflected by high cycle threshold values in real-time-PCR. It is uncertain whether these low numbers of Borrelia spp. are sufficient for transmission of infection from ticks to humans. In order to determine whether spirochaete infections are relevant in humans, blood samples of 1009 patients from the highlands of Madagascar with fever of unknown origin were screened for Borrelia spp. - and in addition for Leptospira spp. - by real-time PCR. No target DNA was detected, indicating a limited relevance of these pathogens for humans in the highlands of Madagascar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Bitam, Idir; Leulmi, Hamza; Lalout, Reda; Mediannikov, Oleg; Chergui, Mohamed; Karakellah, Mohamed; Raoult, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Background Argasid ticks (soft ticks) are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks. Methodology/Principal findings Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus. Conclusions The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation. PMID:29145396

  18. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Lafri, Ismail; El Hamzaoui, Basma; Bitam, Idir; Leulmi, Hamza; Lalout, Reda; Mediannikov, Oleg; Chergui, Mohamed; Karakellah, Mohamed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Argasid ticks (soft ticks) are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks. Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus. The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  19. Borrelia burgdorferi CheY2 Is Dispensable for Chemotaxis or Motility but Crucial for the Infectious Life Cycle of the Spirochete

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui; Sultan, Syed; Yerke, Aaron; Moon, Ki Hwan; Wooten, R. Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The requirements for bacterial chemotaxis and motility range from dispensable to crucial for host colonization. Even though more than 50% of all sequenced prokaryotic genomes possess at least one chemotaxis signaling system, many of those genomes contain multiple copies of a chemotaxis gene. However, the functions of most of those additional genes are unknown. Most motile bacteria possess at least one CheY response regulator that is typically dedicated to the control of motility and which is usually essential for virulence. Borrelia burgdorferi appears to be notably different, in that it has three cheY genes, and our current studies on cheY2 suggests that it has varied effects on different aspects of the natural infection cycle. Mutants deficient in this protein exhibit normal motility and chemotaxis in vitro but show reduced virulence in mice. Specifically, the cheY2 mutants were severely attenuated in murine infection and dissemination to distant tissues after needle inoculation. Moreover, while ΔcheY2 spirochetes are able to survive normally in the Ixodes ticks, mice fed upon by the ΔcheY2-infected ticks did not develop a persistent infection in the murine host. Our data suggest that CheY2, despite resembling a typical response regulator, functions distinctively from most other chemotaxis CheY proteins. We propose that CheY2 serves as a regulator for a B. burgdorferi virulence determinant that is required for productive infection within vertebrate, but not tick, hosts. PMID:27799336

  20. Borrelia miyamotoi Disease: Neither Lyme Disease Nor Relapsing Fever.

    PubMed

    Telford, Sam R; Goethert, Heidi K; Molloy, Philip J; Berardi, Victor P; Chowdri, Hanumara Ram; Gugliotta, Joseph L; Lepore, Timothy J

    2015-12-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD) is a newly recognized borreliosis globally transmitted by ticks of the Ixodes persulcatus species complex. Once considered to be a tick symbiont with no public health implications, B miyamotoi is increasingly recognized as the agent of a nonspecific febrile illness often misdiagnosed as acute Lyme disease without rash, or as ehrlichiosis. The frequency of its diagnosis in the northeastern United States is similar to that of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. A diagnosis of BMD is confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis of acute blood samples, or by seroconversion using a recombinant glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase enzyme immunoassay. BMD is successfully treated with oral doxycycline or amoxicillin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) as a host of ixodid ticks, lice, and Lyme disease spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) in California state parks.

    PubMed

    Lane, Robert S; Kucera, Thomas F; Barrett, Reginald H; Mun, Jeomhee; Wu, Chunling; Smith, Vincent S

    2006-10-01

    Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) were evaluated as potential hosts of ixodid ticks, lice, and Lyme disease spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato [s.l.]) in three state parks in Sonoma County, California, USA, during 2003 and 2004. In total, 113 birds were collected, 50 (44.2%) of which were found to be infested by 361 ixodid ticks representing three species: the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus, n=248), the rabbit tick (Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, n=112), and one American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis). Year-round the prevalence of all ticks combined was unrelated to the age or sex of turkeys, and the prevalence of infestation by I. pacificus (35.4%) was significantly higher than it was for either H. leporispalustris (14.2%) or D. variabilis (0.9%). The proportion of the two prevalent tick species differed significantly by life stage with 86.3% of the I. pacificus and 82.1% of the H. leporispalustris enumerated being nymphs and larvae, respectively. Three species of lice were collected, including the chicken body louse Menacanthus stramineus (12.5% of total), Chelopistes meleagridis (37.5% of total), and Oxylipeurus polytrapezius (50% of total). The records for all three ticks are the first ever from wild turkeys, and those for the lice are the first from this host in the far-western United States. Wild turkeys potentially were exposed to the feeding activities of I. pacificus nymphs infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. as 15% of host-seeking nymphs (n=200) collected in woodlands used by turkeys as roosting or foraging areas were infected mainly with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.). However, only one (1%) of 90 turkey blood specimens tested by PCR contained B. burgdorferi s.s., and four in vitro, complement-protein assays demonstrated that domestic turkey serum is moderately bacteriolytic for this spirochete. Taken together, these findings indicate that wild turkeys are important avian hosts of I. pacificus nymphs

  2. Borrelia burgdorferi CheY2 Is Dispensable for Chemotaxis or Motility but Crucial for the Infectious Life Cycle of the Spirochete.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Sultan, Syed; Yerke, Aaron; Moon, Ki Hwan; Wooten, R Mark; Motaleb, M A

    2017-01-01

    The requirements for bacterial chemotaxis and motility range from dispensable to crucial for host colonization. Even though more than 50% of all sequenced prokaryotic genomes possess at least one chemotaxis signaling system, many of those genomes contain multiple copies of a chemotaxis gene. However, the functions of most of those additional genes are unknown. Most motile bacteria possess at least one CheY response regulator that is typically dedicated to the control of motility and which is usually essential for virulence. Borrelia burgdorferi appears to be notably different, in that it has three cheY genes, and our current studies on cheY2 suggests that it has varied effects on different aspects of the natural infection cycle. Mutants deficient in this protein exhibit normal motility and chemotaxis in vitro but show reduced virulence in mice. Specifically, the cheY2 mutants were severely attenuated in murine infection and dissemination to distant tissues after needle inoculation. Moreover, while ΔcheY2 spirochetes are able to survive normally in the Ixodes ticks, mice fed upon by the ΔcheY2-infected ticks did not develop a persistent infection in the murine host. Our data suggest that CheY2, despite resembling a typical response regulator, functions distinctively from most other chemotaxis CheY proteins. We propose that CheY2 serves as a regulator for a B. burgdorferi virulence determinant that is required for productive infection within vertebrate, but not tick, hosts. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Host associations and genomic diversity of Borrelia hermsii in an endemic focus of tick-borne relapsing fever in western North America.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tammi L; Fischer, Robert J; Raffel, Sandra J; Schwan, Tom G

    2016-11-10

    An unrecognized focus of tick-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia hermsii was identified in 2002 when five people became infected on Wild Horse Island in Flathead Lake, Montana. The terrestrial small mammal community on the island is composed primarily of pine squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), neither of which was known as a natural host for the spirochete. Thus a 3-year study was performed to identify small mammals as hosts for B. hermsii. Small mammals were captured alive on two island and three mainland sites, blood samples were collected and examined for spirochetes, and serological tests performed to detect anti-B. hermsii antibodies. Ornithodoros hermsi ticks were collected and fed on laboratory mice to assess infection. Genomic DNA samples from spirochetes isolated from infected mammals and ticks were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing. Eighteen pine squirrels and one deer mouse had detectable spirochetemias when captured, from which 12 isolates of B. hermsii were established. Most pine squirrels were seropositive, and the five species of sciurids combined had a significantly higher prevalence of seropositive animals than did the other six small mammal species captured. The greater diversity of small mammals on the mainland in contrast to the islands demonstrated that other species in addition to pine squirrels were also involved in the maintenance of B. hermsii at Flathead Lake. Ornithodoros hermsi ticks produced an additional 12 isolates of B. hermsii and multilocus sequence typing identified both genomic groups of B. hermsii described previously, and identified a new genomic subdivision. Experimental infections of deer mice with two strains of B. hermsii demonstrated that these animals were susceptible to infection with spirochetes belonging to Genomic Group II but not Genomic Group I. Pine squirrels are the primary hosts for the maintenance of B. hermsii on the islands in Flathead Lake, however

  4. Detection in Malaysia of a Borrelia sp. From Haemaphysalis hystricis (Ixodida: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Khoo, J J; Lim, F S; Tan, K K; Chen, F S; Phoon, W H; Khor, C S; Pike, B L; Chang, L Y; AbuBakar, S

    2017-09-01

    Spirochetes from the Borrelia genus are known to cause diseases in humans, namely Lyme disease and relapsing fever. These organisms are commonly transmitted to humans by arthropod vectors including ticks, mite, and lice. Here, we report the molecular detection of a Borrelia sp. from a Haemaphysalis hystricis Supino tick collected from wildlife in an Orang Asli settlement in Selangor, Malaysia. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 16s rRNA and flaB gene sequences revealed that the Borrelia sp. is closely related to the relapsing fever group borreliae, Borrelia lonestari, Borrelia miyamotoi, and Borrelia theileri, as well as a number of uncharacterized Borrelia sp. from ticks in Portugal and Japan. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Borrelia sp. detected in H. hystricis, and in Malaysia. The zoonotic potential of this Borrelia sp. merits further investigation. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Fatal spirochetosis due to a relapsing fever-like Borrelia sp. in northern spotted owl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, N.J.; Bunikis, J.; Barbour, A.G.; Wolcott, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Acute septicemic spirochetosis was diagnosed in an adult male northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) found dead in Kittitas County, Washington, USA. Gross necropsy findings included marked enlargement of the liver and spleen and serofibrinous deposits on the serous membranes lining the body cavities and the pericardial and perihepatic sacs. Microscopic observations included macrophage infiltration in the liver and spleen with mild thrombosis and multifocal necrosis, as well as hemorrhage and acute inflammation in the choroid plexus of the brain. No viruses or pathogenic bacteria were isolated from brain, liver, or spleen, and no parasites were found in blood smears or impression smears of the liver. Chlamydial culture attempts were unsuccessful and no chlamydial antibodies were detected in serum. In silver-stained microscopic sections and by transmission electron microscopy of liver, numerous long, thin, spiral-shaped bacteria were seen in the liver, spleen, cerebral ventricles, and within blood vessels in many organs. The organism was identified as a member of the Borrelia genus by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. The most closely related species is B. hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever in humans in the western United States. This is the first report of a relapsing fever-related Borrelia in a wild bird.

  6. Human Borrelia miyamotoi infection in California: Serodiagnosis is complicated by multiple endemic Borrelia species

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Madeleine; Fedorova, Natalia; Brancato, Janna; Dumouchel, Cecilia; Akosa, Fredua; Narasimhan, Sukanya; Fikrig, Erol; Lane, Robert S.

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether human Borrelia miyamotoi infection occurs in the far-western United States, we tested archived sera from northwestern California residents for antibodies to this emerging relapsing fever spirochete. These residents frequently were exposed to I. pacificus ticks in a region where B. miyamotoi tick infection has been reported. We used a two-step B. miyamotoi rGlpQ assay and a B. miyamotoi whole-cell lysate (WCL) assay to detect B. miyamotoi antibody. We also employed Borrelia hermsii and Borrelia burgdorferi WCL assays to examine if these Borrelia induce cross reacting antibody to B. miyamotoi. Sera were collected from 101 residents in each of two consecutive years. The sera of 12 and 14 residents in years one and two, respectively, were B. miyamotoi rGlpQ seroreactive. Sufficient sera were available to test 15 of the 26 seropositive samples using B. miyamotoi and B. hermsii WCL assays. Two residents in year one and seven residents in year two were seroreactive to both Borrelia antigens. Although discernible differences in seroreactivity were evident between the B. miyamotoi and B. hermsii WCL assays, infection with one or the other could not be determined with certainty. Sera from two Borrelia burgdorferi /B. miyamotoi seropositive subjects reacted strongly against B. miyamotoi and B. hermsii WCL antigens. Ecological, epidemiological, and clinical data implicated B. miyamotoi as the probable cause of infection among those whose sera reacted against both antigens. Our findings suggest that human B. miyamotoi infection occurs in northern California and that B. hermsii and B. burgdorferi infections produce antibodies that cross-react with B. miyamotoi antigens. Health care professionals in the far-western United States should be aware that B. miyamotoi disease may occur throughout the geographic distribution of I. pacificus and that improved relapsing fever group spirochete antibody assays are urgently needed. PMID:29420552

  7. A relapsing fever group Borrelia sp. similar to Borrelia lonestari found among wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) and Haemaphysalis spp. ticks in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyunglee; Takano, Ai; Taylor, Kyle; Sashika, Mariko; Shimozuru, Michito; Konnai, Satoru; Kawabata, Hiroki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2014-10-01

    A relapsing fever Borrelia sp. similar to Borrelia lonestari (herein referred to as B. lonestari-like) was detected from wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) and Haemaphysalis ticks in the eastern part of Hokkaido, Japan. The total prevalence of this Borrelia sp. in tested deer blood samples was 10.6% using conventional PCR and real-time PCR. The prevalence was significantly higher in deer fawns compared to adults (21.9% and 9.4%, respectively). Additionally, there was significant regional difference between our two sampling areas, Shiretoko and Shibetsu with 17% and 2.8% prevalence, respectively. Regional differences were also found in tick species collected from field and on deer. In the Shiretoko region, Haemaphysalis spp. were more abundant than Ixodes spp., while in Shibetsu, Ixodes spp. were more abundant. Using real-time PCR analysis, B. lonestari-like was detected from 2 out of 290 adult Haemaphysalis spp. ticks and 4 out of 76 pools of nymphs. This is the first report of a B. lonestari-like organism in Haemaphysalis spp. ticks, and the first phylogenetic analysis of this B. lonestari-like organism in Asia. Based on our results, Haemaphysalis spp. are the most likely candidates to act as a vector for B. lonestari-like; furthermore, regional variation of B. lonestari-like prevalence in sika deer may be dependent on the population distribution of these ticks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Insights into Borrelia miyamotoi infection from an untreated case demonstrating relapsing fever, monocytosis and a positive C6 Lyme serology.

    PubMed

    Sudhindra, Praveen; Wang, Guiqing; Schriefer, Martin E; McKenna, Donna; Zhuge, Jian; Krause, Peter J; Marques, Adriana R; Wormser, Gary P

    2016-09-01

    We describe a patient from the United States with PCR- and serology-confirmed Borrelia miyamotoi infection who recovered without antibiotics. Our findings suggest that B. miyamotoi infection may cause relapsing fever, blood monocytosis and antibody reactivity to the C6 peptide. Further studies are required to better define the spectrum of clinical and laboratory findings for this emerging tick-transmitted infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of spirochetal infection with Morgellons disease.

    PubMed

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Burugu, Divya; Poruri, Akhila; Burke, Jennie; Mayne, Peter J; Sapi, Eva; Kahn, Douglas G; Stricker, Raphael B

    2013-01-01

    Morgellons disease (MD) is an emerging multisystem illness characterized by skin lesions with unusual filaments embedded in or projecting from epithelial tissue. Filament formation results from abnormal keratin and collagen expression by epithelial-based keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Recent research comparing MD to bovine digital dermatitis, an animal infectious disease with similar skin features, provided clues that spirochetal infection could play an important role in the human disease as it does in the animal illness. Based on histological staining, immunofluorescent staining, electron microscopic imaging and polymerase chain reaction, we report the detection of Borrelia spirochetes in dermatological tissue of  four randomly-selected MD patients. The association of MD with spirochetal infection provides evidence that this infection may be a significant factor in the illness and refutes claims that MD lesions are self-inflicted and that people suffering from this disorder are delusional. Molecular characterization of the Borrelia spirochetes found in MD patients is warranted.

  10. Association of spirochetal infection with Morgellons disease

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, Raphael B

    2013-01-01

    Morgellons disease (MD) is an emerging multisystem illness characterized by skin lesions with unusual filaments embedded in or projecting from epithelial tissue. Filament formation results from abnormal keratin and collagen expression by epithelial-based keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Recent research comparing MD to bovine digital dermatitis, an animal infectious disease with similar skin features, provided clues that spirochetal infection could play an important role in the human disease as it does in the animal illness. Based on histological staining, immunofluorescent staining, electron microscopic imaging and polymerase chain reaction, we report the detection of Borrelia spirochetes in dermatological tissue of  four randomly-selected MD patients. The association of MD with spirochetal infection provides evidence that this infection may be a significant factor in the illness and refutes claims that MD lesions are self-inflicted and that people suffering from this disorder are delusional. Molecular characterization of the Borrelia spirochetes found in MD patients is warranted. PMID:24715950

  11. Louse-borne relapsing fever in a refugee from Somalia arriving in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Darcis, Gilles; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Bontems, Sebastien; Sauvage, Anne-Sophie; Meuris, Christelle; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Leonard, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in a refugee from Somalia who had arrived in Belgium a few days earlier. He complained of myalgia and secondarily presented fever. Blood smears revealed spirochetes later identified as Borrelia recurrentis. LBRF should be considered in countries hosting refugees, particularly those who transit through endemic regions. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Head Lice of Pygmies Reveal the Presence of Relapsing Fever Borreliae in the Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Amanzougaghene, Nadia; Akiana, Jean; Mongo Ndombe, Géor; Davoust, Bernard; Nsana, Nardiouf Sjelin; Parra, Henri-Joseph; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-12-01

    Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, occur in four divergent mitochondrial clades (A, B, C and D), each having particular geographical distributions. Recent studies suggest that head lice, as is the case of body lice, can act as a vector for louse-borne diseases. Therefore, understanding the genetic diversity of lice worldwide is of critical importance to our understanding of the risk of louse-borne diseases. Here, we report the results of the first molecular screening of pygmies' head lice in the Republic of Congo for seven pathogens and an analysis of lice mitochondrial clades. We developed two duplex clade-specific real-time PCRs and identified three major mitochondrial clades: A, C, and D indicating high diversity among the head lice studied. We identified the presence of a dangerous human pathogen, Borrelia recurrentis, the causative agent of relapsing fever, in ten clade A head lice, which was not reported in the Republic of Congo, and B. theileri in one head louse. The results also show widespread infection among head lice with several species of Acinetobacter. A. junii was the most prevalent, followed by A. ursingii, A. baumannii, A. johnsonii, A. schindleri, A. lwoffii, A. nosocomialis and A. towneri. Our study is the first to show the presence of B. recurrentis in African pygmies' head lice in the Republic of Congo. This study is also the first to report the presence of DNAs of B. theileri and several species of Acinetobacter in human head lice. Further studies are needed to determine whether the head lice can transmit these pathogenic bacteria from person to another.

  13. Head Lice of Pygmies Reveal the Presence of Relapsing Fever Borreliae in the Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Amanzougaghene, Nadia; Akiana, Jean; Mongo Ndombe, Géor; Davoust, Bernard; Nsana, Nardiouf Sjelin; Parra, Henri-Joseph; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Background Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, occur in four divergent mitochondrial clades (A, B, C and D), each having particular geographical distributions. Recent studies suggest that head lice, as is the case of body lice, can act as a vector for louse-borne diseases. Therefore, understanding the genetic diversity of lice worldwide is of critical importance to our understanding of the risk of louse-borne diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report the results of the first molecular screening of pygmies’ head lice in the Republic of Congo for seven pathogens and an analysis of lice mitochondrial clades. We developed two duplex clade-specific real-time PCRs and identified three major mitochondrial clades: A, C, and D indicating high diversity among the head lice studied. We identified the presence of a dangerous human pathogen, Borrelia recurrentis, the causative agent of relapsing fever, in ten clade A head lice, which was not reported in the Republic of Congo, and B. theileri in one head louse. The results also show widespread infection among head lice with several species of Acinetobacter. A. junii was the most prevalent, followed by A. ursingii, A. baumannii, A. johnsonii, A. schindleri, A. lwoffii, A. nosocomialis and A. towneri. Conclusions/Significance Our study is the first to show the presence of B. recurrentis in African pygmies’ head lice in the Republic of Congo. This study is also the first to report the presence of DNAs of B. theileri and several species of Acinetobacter in human head lice. Further studies are needed to determine whether the head lice can transmit these pathogenic bacteria from person to another. PMID:27911894

  14. Differentiated THP-1 Cells Exposed to Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Borrelia Species Demonstrate Minimal Differences in Production of Four Inflammatory Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Stokes, John V; Moraru, Gail M; McIntosh, Chelsea; Kummari, Evangel; Rausch, Keiko; Varela-Stokes, Andrea S

    2016-11-01

    Tick-borne borreliae include Lyme disease and relapsing fever agents, and they are transmitted primarily by ixodid (hard) and argasid (soft) tick vectors, respectively. Tick-host interactions during feeding are complex, with host immune responses influenced by biological differences in tick feeding and individual differences within and between host species. One of the first encounters for spirochetes entering vertebrate host skin is with local antigen-presenting cells, regardless of whether the tick-associated Borrelia sp. is pathogenic. In this study, we performed a basic comparison of cytokine responses in THP-1-derived macrophages after exposure to selected borreliae, including a nonpathogen. By using THP-1 cells, differentiated to macrophages, we eliminated variations in host response and reduced the system to an in vitro model to evaluate the extent to which the Borrelia spp. influence cytokine production. Differentiated THP-1 cells were exposed to four Borrelia spp., Borrelia hermsii (DAH), Borrelia burgdorferi (B31), B. burgdorferi (NC-2), or Borrelia lonestari (LS-1), or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (activated) or media (no treatment) controls. Intracellular and secreted interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured using flow cytometric and Luminex-based assays, respectively, at 6, 24, and 48 h postexposure time points. Using a general linear model ANOVA for each cytokine, treatment (all Borrelia spp. and LPS compared to no treatment) had a significant effect on secreted TNF-α only. Time point had a significant effect on intracellular IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6. However, we did not see significant differences in selected cytokines among Borrelia spp. Thus, in this model, we were unable to distinguish pathogenic from nonpathogenic borreliae using the limited array of selected cytokines. While unique immune profiles may be detectable in an in vitro model and may reveal predictors for pathogenicity in borreliae

  15. Meningoencephalitis from Borrelia miyamotoi in an immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Gugliotta, Joseph L; Goethert, Heidi K; Berardi, Victor P; Telford, Sam R

    2013-01-17

    Ixodes ticks serve as vectors for Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease. Globally, these ticks often concurrently harbor B. miyamotoi, a spirochete that is classified within the relapsing-fever group of spirochetes. Although humans presumably are exposed to B. miyamotoi, there are limited data suggesting disease attributable to it. We report a case of progressive mental deterioration in an older, immunocompromised patient, and even though Koch's postulates were not met, we posit B. miyamotoi as the cause, owing to its direct detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with the use of microscopy and a polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay. It is likely that B. miyamotoi is an underrecognized cause of disease, especially in sites where Lyme disease is endemic.

  16. Mobilifilum chasei: morphology and ecology of a spirochete from an intertidal stratified microbial mat community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Hinkle, G.; Stolz, J.; Craft, F.; Esteve, I.; Guerrero, R.

    1990-01-01

    Spirochetes were found in the lower anoxiphototrophic layer of a stratified microbial mat (North Pond, Laguna Figueroa, Baja California, Mexico). Ultra-structural analysis of thin sections of field samples revealed spirochetes approximately 0.25 micrometer in diameter with 10 or more periplasmic flagella, leading to the interpretation that these spirochetes bear 10 flagellar insertions on each end. Morphometric study showed these free-living spirochetes greatly resemble certain symbiotic ones, i.e., Borrelia and certain termite spirochetes, the transverse sections of which are presented here. The ultrastructure of this spirochete also resembles Hollandina and Diplocalyx (spirochetes symbiotic in arthropods) more than it does Spirochaeta, the well known genus of mud-dwelling spirochetes. The new spirochete was detected in mat material collected both in 1985 and in 1987. Unique morphology (i.e., conspicuous outer coat of inner membrane, large number of periplasmic flagella) and ecology prompt us to name a new free-living spirochete.

  17. Borrelia crocidurae in Ornithodoros ticks from northwestern Morocco: a range extension in relation to climatic change?

    PubMed

    Souidi, Yassine; Boudebouch, Najma; Ezikouri, Sayeh; Belghyti, Driss; Trape, Jean-François; Sarih, M'hammed

    2014-12-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is caused by Borrelia spirochetes transmitted to humans by Argasid soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. We investigated the presence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in nine sites of the Gharb region of northwestern Morocco where we recently documented a high incidence of TBRF in humans. We assessed the Borrelia infection rate by nested PCR and sequencing. All sites investigated were colonized by ticks of the Ornithodoros marocanus complex and a high proportion of burrows (38.4%) were found to be infested. Borrelia infections were observed in 6.8% of the ticks tested. Two Borrelia species were identified by sequencing: B. hispanica and B. crocidurae. The discovery in northwestern Morocco of Ornithodoros ticks infected by B. crocidurae represents a 350 km range extension of this Sahelo-Saharan spirochete in North Africa. The spread of B. crocidurae may be related to the increasing aridity of northwestern Morocco in relation to climate change. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  18. The Presence of Borrelia miyamotoi, A Relapsing Fever Spirochaete, in Questing Ixodes ricinus in Belgium and in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Cochez, C; Heyman, P; Heylen, D; Fonville, M; Hengeveld, P; Takken, W; Simons, L; Sprong, H

    2015-08-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a tick-borne bacterium that may cause relapsing fever in humans. As this pathogen has been discovered in Europe only recently, only little is known about its local impact on human health and its spatial distribution. In this study, we show the results of PCR screenings for B. miyamotoi in flagged Ixodes ricinus from Belgium and the Netherlands. B. miyamotoi was detected in nine of thirteen, and three of five locations from the Netherlands and Belgium, respectively. These outcomes indicate that B. miyamotoi is more spread than previously thought. The mean infection rate B. miyamotoi was 1.14% for Belgium and 3.84% for the Netherlands. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Outer membrane proteins of pathogenic spirochetes

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Paul A.; Haake, David A.; Adler, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Pathogenic spirochetes are the causative agents of several important diseases including syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, swine dysentery, periodontal disease and some forms of relapsing fever. Spirochetal bacteria possess two membranes and the proteins present in the outer membrane are at the site of interaction with host tissue and the immune system. This review describes the current knowledge in the field of spirochetal outer membrane protein (OMP) biology. What is known concerning biogenesis and structure of OMPs, with particular regard to the atypical signal peptide cleavage sites observed amongst the spirochetes, is discussed. We examine the functions that have been determined for several spirochetal OMPs including those that have been demonstrated to function as adhesins, porins or to have roles in complement resistance. A detailed description of the role of spirochetal OMPs in immunity, including those that stimulate protective immunity or that are involved in antigenic variation, is given. A final section is included which covers experimental considerations in spirochetal outer membrane biology. This section covers contentious issues concerning cellular localization of putative OMPs, including determination of surface exposure. A more detailed knowledge of spirochetal OMP biology will hopefully lead to the design of new vaccines and a better understanding of spirochetal pathogenesis. PMID:15449605

  20. Reservoir and vector evolutionary pressures shaped the adaptation of Borrelia.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Álvarez-Jarreta, Jorge; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro

    2018-04-12

    The life cycle of spirochetes of the genus Borrelia includes complex networks of vertebrates and ticks. The tripartite association of Borrelia-vertebrate-tick has proved ecologically successful for these bacteria, which have become some of the most prominent tick-borne pathogens in the northern hemisphere. To keep evolutionary pace with its double-host life history, Borrelia must adapt to the evolutionary pressures exerted by both sets of hosts. In this review, we attempt to reconcile functional, phylogenetic, and ecological perspectives to propose a coherent scenario of Borrelia evolution. Available empirical information supports that the association of Borrelia with ticks is very old. The major split between the tick families Argasidae-Ixodidae (dated some 230-290 Mya) resulted in most relapsing fever (Rf) species being restricted to Argasidae and few associated with Ixodidae. A further key event produced the diversification of the Lyme borreliosis (Lb) species: the radiation of ticks of the genus Ixodes from the primitive stock of Ixodidae (around 217 Mya). The ecological interactions of Borrelia demonstrate that Argasidae-transmitted Rf species remain restricted to small niches of one tick species and few vertebrates. The evolutionary pressures on this group are consequently low, and speciation processes seem to be driven by geographical isolation. In contrast to Rf, Lb species circulate in nested networks of dozens of tick species and hundreds of vertebrate species. This greater variety confers a remarkably variable pool of evolutionary pressures, resulting in large speciation of the Lb group, where different species adapt to circulate through different groups of vertebrates. Available data, based on ospA and multilocus sequence typing (including eight concatenated in-house genes) phylogenetic trees, suggest that ticks could constitute a secondary bottleneck that contributes to Lb specialization. Both sets of adaptive pressures contribute to the resilience of

  1. Spirochete motility and morpholgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charon, Nyles

    2004-03-01

    Spirochetes have a unique structure, and as a result their motility is different from that of other bacteria. These organisms can swim in a highly viscous, gel-like medium, such as that found in connective tissue, that inhibits the motility of most other bacteria. In spirochetes, the organelles for motility, the periplasmic flagella, reside inside the cell within the periplasmic space. A given periplasmic flagellum is attached only at one end of the cell, and depending on the species, may or may not overlap in the center of the cell. The number of periplasmic flagella varies from species to species. These structures have been shown to be directly involved in motility and function by rotating within the periplasmic space (1). The present talk focuses on the spirochete that causes Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. In many bacterial species, cell shape is usually dictated by the peptidoyglycan layer of the cell wall. In the first part of the talk, results will be presented that the morphology of B. burgdorferi is the result of a complex interaction between the cell cylinder and the internal periplasmic flagella resulting in a cell with a flat-wave morphology. Backward moving, propagating waves enable these bacteria to swim and translate in a given direction. Using targeted mutagenesis, we inactivated the gene encoding the major periplasmic flagellar filament protein FlaB. The resulting flaB mutants not only were non-motile, but were rod-shaped (2). Western blot analysis indicated that flaB was no longer synthesized, and electron microscopy revealed that the mutants were completely deficient in periplasmic flagella. Our results indicate that the periplasmic flagella of B. burgdorferi have a skeletal function. These organelles dynamically interact with the rod-shaped cell cylinder to enable the cell to swim, and to confer in part its flat-wave morphology The latter part of the talk concerns the basis for asymmetrical rotation of the periplasmic flagella of B

  2. Serological and molecular evidence for spotted fever group Rickettsia and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato co-infections in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Koetsveld, Joris; Tijsse-Klasen, Ellen; Herremans, Tineke; Hovius, Joppe W R; Sprong, Hein

    2016-03-01

    Only a few reported cases indicate that Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis can cause disease in humans. Exposure to these two spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae occurs through bites of Ixodes ricinus, also the primary vector of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. To date, it is unclear how often exposure to these two microorganisms results in infection or disease. We show that of all the Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.-positive ticks, 25% were co-infected with rickettsiae. Predominantly R. helvetica was detected while R. monacensis was only found in approximately 2% of the ticks. In addition, exposure to tick-borne pathogens was compared by serology in healthy blood donors, erythema migrans (EM)-patients, and patients suspected of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). As could be expected, seroreactivity against B. burgdorferi sensu lato was lower in blood donors (6%) compared to EM patients (34%) and suspected LNB cases (64%). Interestingly, seroreactivity against SFG Rickettsia antigens was not detected in serum samples from blood donors (0%), but 6% of the EM patients and 21% of the LNB suspects showed anti-rickettsial antibodies. Finally, the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. and Rickettsia spp. in cerebrospinal fluid samples of a large cohort of patients suspected of LNB (n=208) was investigated by PCR. DNA of B. burgdorferi s.l., R. helvetica and R. monacensis was detected in seventeen, four and one patient, respectively. In conclusion, our data show that B. burgdorferi s.l. and SFG rickettsiae co-infection occurs in Dutch I. ricinus and that Lyme borreliosis patients, or patients suspected of Lyme borreliosis, are indeed exposed to both tick-borne pathogens. Whether SFG rickettsiae actually cause disease, and whether co-infections alter the clinical course of Lyme borreliosis, is not clear from our data, and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ticks from Kosovo and Albania.

    PubMed

    Sherifi, Kurtesh; Rexhepi, Agim; Berxholi, Kristaq; Mehmedi, Blerta; Gecaj, Rreze M; Hoxha, Zamira; Joachim, Anja; Duscher, Georg G

    2018-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases pose a serious threat to human health in South-Eastern Europe, including Kosovo. While Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a well-known emerging infection in this area, there are no accurate data on Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Therefore, we sampled and tested 795 ticks. Ixodes ricinus ( n  = 218), Dermacentor marginatus ( n  = 98), and Haemaphysalis spp. ( n  = 24) were collected from the environment by flagging (all from Kosovo), while Hyalomma marginatum ( n  = 199 from Kosovo, all from Kosovo) and Rhipicephalus bursa ( n  = 130, 126 from Albania) could be collected only by removal from animal pasture and domestic ruminants. Ticks were collected in the years 2014/2015 and tested for viral RNA of CCHF and TBE viruses, as well as for DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by real-time PCR. In Kosovo, nine ticks were positive for RNA of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and seven for DNA of B. burgdorferi s. l. None of the ticks tested positive for TBEV. CCHF virus was detected in one H. marginatum male specimen collected while feeding on grazing cattle from the Prizren region and in eight R. bursa specimens (five females and three males collected while feeding on grazing sheep and cattle) from the Prishtina region (Kosovo). B. burgdorferi s. l. was detected in seven questing ticks (four male and one female D. marginatus , two I. ricinus one female and one male) from the Mitrovica region (Kosovo). Our study confirmed that CCHF virus is circulating in Kosovo mainly in H. marginatum and R. bursa in the central areas of the country. B. burgdorferi s. l. was found in its major European host tick, I. ricinus , but also in D. marginatus , in the north of the Kosovo. In order to prevent the spread of these diseases and better control of the tick-borne infections, an improved vector surveillance and testing of ticks for the presence of pathogens needs to be established.

  4. Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ticks from Kosovo and Albania

    PubMed Central

    Sherifi, Kurtesh; Rexhepi, Agim; Berxholi, Kristaq; Mehmedi, Blerta; Gecaj, Rreze M.; Hoxha, Zamira; Joachim, Anja; Duscher, Georg G.

    2018-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases pose a serious threat to human health in South-Eastern Europe, including Kosovo. While Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a well-known emerging infection in this area, there are no accurate data on Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Therefore, we sampled and tested 795 ticks. Ixodes ricinus (n = 218), Dermacentor marginatus (n = 98), and Haemaphysalis spp. (n = 24) were collected from the environment by flagging (all from Kosovo), while Hyalomma marginatum (n = 199 from Kosovo, all from Kosovo) and Rhipicephalus bursa (n = 130, 126 from Albania) could be collected only by removal from animal pasture and domestic ruminants. Ticks were collected in the years 2014/2015 and tested for viral RNA of CCHF and TBE viruses, as well as for DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by real-time PCR. In Kosovo, nine ticks were positive for RNA of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and seven for DNA of B. burgdorferi s. l. None of the ticks tested positive for TBEV. CCHF virus was detected in one H. marginatum male specimen collected while feeding on grazing cattle from the Prizren region and in eight R. bursa specimens (five females and three males collected while feeding on grazing sheep and cattle) from the Prishtina region (Kosovo). B. burgdorferi s. l. was detected in seven questing ticks (four male and one female D. marginatus, two I. ricinus one female and one male) from the Mitrovica region (Kosovo). Our study confirmed that CCHF virus is circulating in Kosovo mainly in H. marginatum and R. bursa in the central areas of the country. B. burgdorferi s. l. was found in its major European host tick, I. ricinus, but also in D. marginatus, in the north of the Kosovo. In order to prevent the spread of these diseases and better control of the tick-borne infections, an improved vector surveillance and testing of ticks for the presence of pathogens needs to be established. PMID:29560357

  5. Molecular detection and genetic identification of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii from patients presenting with a rare skin manifestation of prurigo pigmentosa in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, Li-Lian; Lu, Chin-Fang; Shih, Chien-Ming

    2013-12-01

    To determine the genetic identity of Borrelia spirochetes isolated from patients with an unusual skin lesion of prurigo pigmentosa (PP) in Taiwan. The causative agents responsible for human borreliosis were clarified. Serum samples and skin specimens were collected from 14 patients with suspected PP and five controls. Serological testing by Western immunoblot analysis and isolation of Borrelia spirochetes from skin specimens were used to verify the Borrelia infection. Genetic identities of isolated spirochetes were determined by analyzing the gene sequences amplified by PCR assay based on the 5S (rrf)-23S (rrl) intergenic spacer amplicon gene of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Borrelia spirochetes were isolated from skin biopsies of three patients. Serological evidence of Borrelia infection in these patients was also confirmed by elevated IgG and IgM antibodies against the major protein antigens of B. burgdorferi. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these detected spirochetes are genetically affiliated to the genospecies of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii with high sequence homology within the genospecies of B. garinii (91.0-98.7%) and B. afzelii (97%). This study provides the first evidence of B. garinii and B. afzelii isolated and identified in patients with PP. Whether this unusual skin lesion is a new manifestation of Lyme disease needs to be studied further. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and optimization of an in vitro cultivation protocol allows for isolation of Borrelia miyamotoi from patients with hard tick-borne relapsing fever.

    PubMed

    Koetsveld, J; Kolyasnikova, N M; Wagemakers, A; Toporkova, M G; Sarksyan, D S; Oei, A; Platonov, A E; Hovius, J W

    2017-07-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi has been shown to infect humans in Eurasia and North America causing hard tick-borne relapsing fever (HTBRF). In vitro cultivation of B. miyamotoi was described recently; but clinical isolation of relapsing fever Borrelia is cumbersome. Our aim was to develop a straightforward protocol enabling B. miyamotoi isolation directly from the blood of patients. Modified Kelly-Pettenkorfer (MKP-F) medium, with or without anticoagulants, or blood from healthy human volunteers, was spiked with B. miyamotoi spirochaetes in vitro. Subsequently, either media or plasma was used for cultivation directly, or after an additional centrifugation step. This isolation protocol was tested in a clinical setting on patients suspected of HTBRF. Dipotassium-EDTA, trisodium citrate and lithium heparin inhibited growth of B. miyamotoi at concentrations ≥250 μg/mL, 2.5 mM and 1 IU/mL, respectively. However, when plasma originating from human blood containing B. miyamotoi spirochaetes was subjected to an additional centrifugation step at 8000 g, suspended and inoculated into fresh MKP-F media, positive cultures were observed within 2 weeks. Of importance, this straightforward protocol allowed for isolation of B. miyamotoi from six out of nine patients with confirmed HTBRF. Direct culture from K 2 -EDTA, trisodium citrate and lithium heparin plasma containing B. miyamotoi is hampered due to anticoagulants. Using a simple centrifugation protocol we were able to circumvent this detrimental effect, allowing for the first clinical isolation of B. miyamotoi. This will be of value for future research on the pathogenesis, genetics, diagnosis, therapy and epidemiology of HTBRF and other tick-borne relapsing fevers. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Borrelia afzelii and Two Borrelia garinii Lyme Disease Agent Isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Casjens, S.R.; Dunn, J.; Mongodin, E. F.

    2011-12-01

    Human Lyme disease is commonly caused by several species of spirochetes in the Borrelia genus. In Eurasia these species are largely Borrelia afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdorferi, and B. bavariensis sp. nov. Whole-genome sequencing is an excellent tool for investigating and understanding the influence of bacterial diversity on the pathogenesis and etiology of Lyme disease. We report here the whole-genome sequences of four isolates from two of the Borrelia species that cause human Lyme disease, B. afzelii isolates ACA-1 and PKo and B. garinii isolates PBr and Far04.

  8. Borrelia miyamotoi and Co-Infection with Borrelia afzelii in Ixodes ricinus Ticks and Rodents from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Hamšíková, Zuzana; Coipan, Claudia; Mahríková, Lenka; Minichová, Lenka; Sprong, Hein; Kazimírová, Mária

    2017-05-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi causes relapsing fever in humans. The occurrence of this spirochete has been reported in Ixodes ricinus and wildlife, but there are still gaps in the knowledge of its eco-epidemiology and public health impact. In the current study, questing I. ricinus (nymphs and adults) and skin biopsies from rodents captured in Slovakia were screened for the presence of B. miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. DNA. The prevalence of B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi s.l. in questing ticks was 1.7 and 16.9%, respectively. B. miyamotoi was detected in Apodemus flavicollis (9.3%) and Myodes glareolus (4.4%). In contrast, B. burgdorferi s.l. was identified in 11.9% of rodents, with the highest prevalence in Microtus arvalis (68.4%) and a lower prevalence in Apodemus spp. (8.4%) and M. glareolus (12.4%). Borrelia afzelii was the prevailing genospecies infecting questing I. ricinus (37.9%) and rodents (72.2%). Co-infections of B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi s.l. were found in 24.1 and 9.3% of the questing ticks and rodents, respectively, whereas the proportion of ticks and rodents co-infected with B. miyamotoi and B. afzelii was 6.9 and 7.0%, respectively. The results suggest that B. miyamotoi and B. afzelii share amplifying hosts. The sequences of the B. miyamotoi glpQ gene fragment from our study showed a high degree of identity with sequences of the gene amplified from ticks and human patients in Europe. The results seem to suggest that humans in Slovakia are at risk of contracting tick-borne relapsing fever, and in some cases together with Lyme borreliosis.

  9. Flagellar motility of the pathogenic spirochetes

    PubMed Central

    Wolgemuth, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens are often classified by their toxicity and invasiveness. The invasiveness of a given bacterium is determined by how capable the bacterium is at invading a broad range of tissues in its host. Of mammalian pathogens, some of the most invasive come from a group of bacteria known as the spirochetes, which cause diseases such as syphilis, Lyme disease, relapsing fever and leptospirosis. Most of the spirochetes are characterized by their distinct shapes and unique motility. They are long, thin bacteria that can be shaped like flat-waves, helices, or have more irregular morphologies. Like many other bacteria, the spirochetes use long, helical appendages known as flagella to move; however, the spirochetes enclose their flagella in the periplasm, the narrow space between the inner and outer membranes. Rotation of the flagella in the periplasm causes the entire cell body to rotate and/or undulate. These deformations of the bacterium produce the force that drives the motility of these organisms, and it is this unique motility that likely allows these bacteria to be highly invasive in mammals. This review will describe the current state of knowledge on the motility and biophysics of these organisms and provide evidence on how this knowledge can inform our understanding of spirochetal diseases. PMID:26481969

  10. [Tick-borne recurrent fever. Description of 5 cases].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Yebra, W; Díaz, Y; Molina, P; Sedeño; Giner, P; Vitutia, M M; Anda, P

    1997-02-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (FRGT) is a worldwide zoonosis. The disease is caused by spirochetes of the genus Borrelia, and is transmitted to man by ticks of the genus Ornithodoros (O. erraticus in Spain). 5 FRTG cases attended in our hospital in a 2 years period are described. Diagnosis was established in all cases by demonstration of borreliae in peripheral blood. Three Borrelia strains were isolated from blood of 3 of our patients and they are maintained by passages through mice. High fever, tachycardia and headache were noted in all cases accompanied in 2 of them by hepatosplenomegaly. Three of the patients complained of arthromyalgias or lumbar myalgia. Treatment with doxycicline was curative in all of them. FRGT incidence in our country is probably underestimated due to the low suspicion of the disease and the specificity of the clinical symptoms. The isolement of the causative Borrelia strain will allow the development of more specific serological tests necessary to establish the prevalence of this disease as well to assess its implication in chronic diseases, as is observed in other borreliosis (i.e. Lyme disease), that might be missed at this moment.

  11. Spirochetal Lipoproteins and Immune Evasion

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulides, Alexei; Boyadjian, Ani; Kelesidis, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    Spirochetes are a major threat to public health. However, the exact pathogenesis of spirochetal diseases remains unclear. Spirochetes express lipoproteins that often determine the cross talk between the host and spirochetes. Lipoproteins are pro-inflammatory, modulatory of immune responses, and enable the spirochetes to evade the immune system. In this article, we review the modulatory effects of spirochetal lipoproteins related to immune evasion. Understanding lipoprotein-induced immunomodulation will aid in elucidating innate pathogenesis processes and subsequent adaptive mechanisms potentially relevant to spirochetal disease vaccine development and treatment. PMID:28424696

  12. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of phytochemicals and micronutrients against Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii.

    PubMed

    Goc, A; Niedzwiecki, A; Rath, M

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the effects of phytochemicals against Borrelia sp. causing Lyme disease. Current therapeutic approach to this disease is limited to antibiotics. This study examined the anti-borreliae efficacy of several plant-derived compounds and micronutrients. We tested the efficacy of 15 phytochemicals and micronutrients against three morphological forms of Borrelia burgdoferi and Borrelia garinii: spirochetes, latent rounded forms and biofilm. The results showed that the most potent substances against the spirochete and rounded forms of B. burgdorferi and B. garinii were cis-2-decenoic acid, baicalein, monolaurin and kelp (iodine); whereas, only baicalein and monolaurin revealed significant activity against the biofilm. Moreover, cis-2-decenoic acid, baicalein and monolaurin did not cause statistically significant cytotoxicity to human HepG2 cells up to 125 μg ml(-1) and kelp up to 20 μg ml(-1) . The most effective antimicrobial compounds against all morphological forms of the two tested Borrelia sp. were baicalein and monolaurin. This might indicate that the presence of fatty acid and phenyl groups is important for comprehensive antibacterial activity. This study reveals the potential of phytochemicals as an important tool in the fight against the species of Borrelia causing Lyme disease. © 2015 The Authors published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Epidemiological study of relapsing fever borreliae detected in Haemaphysalis ticks and wild animals in the western part of Japan.

    PubMed

    Furuno, Kiwa; Lee, Kyunglee; Itoh, Yukie; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yonemitsu, Kenzo; Kuwata, Ryusei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Watarai, Masahisa; Maeda, Ken; Takano, Ai

    2017-01-01

    The genus Borrelia comprises arthropod-borne bacteria, which are infectious agents in vertebrates. They are mainly transmitted by ixodid or argasid ticks. In Hokkaido, Japan, Borrelia spp. were found in deer and Haemaphysalis ticks between 2011 and 2013; however, the study was limited to a particular area. Therefore, in the present study, we conducted large-scale surveillance of ticks and wild animals in the western part of the main island of Japan. We collected 6,407 host-seeking ticks from two regions and 1,598 larvae obtained from 32 engorged female ticks and examined them to elucidate transovarial transmission. In addition, we examined whole blood samples from 190 wild boars and 276 sika deer, as well as sera from 120 wild raccoons. We detected Borrelia spp. in Haemaphysalis flava, Haemaphysalis megaspinosa, Haemaphysalis kitaokai, Haemaphysalis longicornis, and Haemaphysalis formosensis. In addition, we isolated a strain from H. megaspinosa using Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly medium. The minimum infection rate of ticks was less than 5%. Transovarial transmission was observed in H. kitaokai. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolated strain and DNA fragments amplified from ticks identified at least four bacterial genotypes, which corresponded to the tick species detected. Bacteria were detected in 8.4%, 15%, and 0.8% of wild boars, sika deer, and raccoons, respectively. In this study, we found seasonal differences in the prevalence of bacterial genotypes in sika deer during the winter and summer. The tick activity season corresponds to the season with a high prevalence of animals. The present study suggests that a particular bacterial genotype detected in this study are defined by a particular tick species in which they are present.

  14. Louse-borne relapsing fever in Finland in two asylum seekers from Somalia.

    PubMed

    Hytönen, Jukka; Khawaja, Tamim; Grönroos, Juha O; Jalava, Anna; Meri, Seppo; Oksi, Jarmo

    2017-01-01

    We report two cases of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in young Somali asylum seekers having recently arrived to Finland. They had sought medical attention for a febrile illness. Blood smears were examined for suspected malaria, but instead, spirochete shaped bacteria were observed. The bacteria were confirmed as Borrelia recurrentis by PCR and sequencing. The patients survived, but their treatment was complicated by Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. We conclude that LBRF must be considered as a diagnostic option in febrile refugees also in the northernmost parts of Europe. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Persistent Borrelia Infection in Patients with Ongoing Symptoms of Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Sapi, Eva; Burke, Jennie; Filush, Katherine R; Franco, Agustin; Fesler, Melissa C; Stricker, Raphael B

    2018-04-14

    Lyme disease is a tickborne illness that generates controversy among medical providers and researchers. One of the key topics of debate is the existence of persistent infection with the Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi , in patients who have been treated with recommended doses of antibiotics yet remain symptomatic. Persistent spirochetal infection despite antibiotic therapy has recently been demonstrated in non-human primates. We present evidence of persistent Borrelia infection despite antibiotic therapy in patients with ongoing Lyme disease symptoms. In this pilot study, culture of body fluids and tissues was performed in a randomly selected group of 12 patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms who had been treated or who were being treated with antibiotics. Cultures were also performed on a group of ten control subjects without Lyme disease. The cultures were subjected to corroborative microscopic, histopathological and molecular testing for Borrelia organisms in four independent laboratories in a blinded manner. Motile spirochetes identified histopathologically as Borrelia were detected in culture specimens, and these spirochetes were genetically identified as Borrelia burgdorferi by three distinct polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approaches. Spirochetes identified as Borrelia burgdorferi were cultured from the blood of seven subjects, from the genital secretions of ten subjects, and from a skin lesion of one subject. Cultures from control subjects without Lyme disease were negative for Borrelia using these methods. Using multiple corroborative detection methods, we showed that patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms may have ongoing spirochetal infection despite antibiotic treatment, similar to findings in non-human primates. The optimal treatment for persistent Borrelia infection remains to be determined.

  16. Crystal Structure of Neurotropism-Associated Variable Surface Protein 1 (VSP1) of Borrelia Turicatae

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson,C.; Yung, B.; Barbour, A.

    2006-01-01

    Vsp surface lipoproteins are serotype-defining antigens of relapsing fever spirochetes that undergo multiphasic antigenic variation to allow bacterial persistence in spite of an immune response. Two isogenic serotypes of Borrelia turicatae strain Oz1 differ in their Vsp sequences and in disease manifestations in infected mice: Vsp1 is associated with the selection of a neurological niche, while Vsp2 is associated with blood and skin infection. We report here crystal structures of the Vsp1 dimer at 2.7 and 2.2 Angstroms. The structures confirm that relapsing fever Vsp proteins share a common helical fold with OspCs of Lyme disease-causing Borrelia. The fold featuresmore » an inner stem formed by highly conserved N and C termini and an outer 'dome' formed by the variable central residues. Both Vsp1 and OspC structures possess small water-filled cavities, or pockets, that are lined largely by variable residues and are thus highly variable in shape. These features appear to signify tolerance of the Vsp-OspC fold for imperfect packing of residues at its antigenic surface. Structural comparison of Vsp1 with a homology model for Vsp2 suggests that observed differences in disease manifestation may arise in part from distinct differences in electrostatic surface properties; additional predicted positively charged surface patches on Vsp2 compared to Vsp1 may be sufficient to explain the relative propensity of Vsp2 to bind to acidic glycosaminoglycans.« less

  17. [Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi genostrains among patients with Lyme disease].

    PubMed

    Biesiada, Grazyna; Czepiel, Jacek; Salamon, Dominika; Garlicki, Aleksander; Dziubek, Anna; Maziarz, Barbara; Mach, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a zoonose which can be transmitted to the humans during Ixodes tick bite to the skin. The disease is caused by bacteria--spirochetes of the Borrelia species, classified as Borrelia burgdorferi strain. In Poland Lyme borreliosis is caused by Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. The presence of Borrelia spielmani was recently reported. The study included 249 patients diagnozed in University Hospital in Krakow due to suspicion of Lyme borreliosis in 2005-2008. Results of serologic tests against borreliosis were analized using Elisa tests (Mikrogen), positive tests were confirmed using Western blot tests (Biomedica). It was found the high percentage of the antibodies in class IgM, which are important in acute phase of borreliosis, typical for Borrelia garinii, whereas in class IgG it was found the prevalence of protein typical for Borrelia afzellii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. It was found the high prevalence of the presence VIsE reacting with IgG antibodies. It was noted the presence of Borrelia spielmani genostrain in Poland.

  18. Swimming dynamics of the lyme disease spirochete.

    PubMed

    Vig, Dhruv K; Wolgemuth, Charles W

    2012-11-21

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, swims by undulating its cell body in the form of a traveling flat wave, a process driven by rotating internal flagella. We study B. burgdorferi's swimming by treating the cell body and flagella as linearly elastic filaments. The dynamics of the cell are then determined from the balance between elastic and resistive forces and moments. We find that planar, traveling waves only exist when the flagella are effectively anchored at both ends of the bacterium and that these traveling flat waves rotate as they undulate. The model predicts how the undulation frequency is related to the torque from the flagellar motors and how the stiffness of the cell body and flagella affect the undulations and morphology.

  19. Swimming Dynamics of the Lyme Disease Spirochete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vig, Dhruv K.; Wolgemuth, Charles W.

    2012-11-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, swims by undulating its cell body in the form of a traveling flat wave, a process driven by rotating internal flagella. We study B. burgdorferi’s swimming by treating the cell body and flagella as linearly elastic filaments. The dynamics of the cell are then determined from the balance between elastic and resistive forces and moments. We find that planar, traveling waves only exist when the flagella are effectively anchored at both ends of the bacterium and that these traveling flat waves rotate as they undulate. The model predicts how the undulation frequency is related to the torque from the flagellar motors and how the stiffness of the cell body and flagella affect the undulations and morphology.

  20. The Epidemiology and Geographic Distribution of Relapsing Fever Borreliosis in West and North Africa, with a Review of the Ornithodoros erraticus Complex (Acari: Ixodida)

    PubMed Central

    Trape, Jean-François; Diatta, Georges; Arnathau, Céline; Bitam, Idir; Sarih, M’hammed; Belghyti, Driss; Bouattour, Ali; Elguero, Eric; Vial, Laurence; Mané, Youssouph; Baldé, Cellou; Pugnolle, Franck; Chauvancy, Gilles; Mahé, Gil; Granjon, Laurent; Duplantier, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background Relapsing fever is the most frequent bacterial disease in Africa. Four main vector / pathogen complexes are classically recognized, with the louse Pediculus humanus acting as vector for B. recurrentis and the soft ticks Ornithodoros sonrai, O. erraticus and O. moubata acting as vectors for Borrelia crocidurae, B. hispanica and B. duttonii, respectively. Our aim was to investigate the epidemiology of the disease in West, North and Central Africa. Methods And Findings From 2002 to 2012, we conducted field surveys in 17 African countries and in Spain. We investigated the occurrence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in 282 study sites. We collected 1,629 small mammals that may act as reservoir for Borrelia infections. Using molecular methods we studied genetic diversity among Ornithodoros ticks and Borrelia infections in ticks and small mammals. Of 9,870 burrows investigated, 1,196 (12.1%) were inhabited by Ornithodoros ticks. In West Africa, the southern and eastern limits of the vectors and Borrelia infections in ticks and small mammals were 13°N and 01°E, respectively. Molecular studies revealed the occurrence of nine different Ornithodoros species, including five species new for science, with six of them harboring Borrelia infections. Only B. crocidurae was found in West Africa and three Borrelia species were identified in North Africa: B. crocidurae, B. hispanica, and B. merionesi. Conclusions Borrelia Spirochetes responsible for relapsing fever in humans are highly prevalent both in Ornithodoros ticks and small mammals in North and West Africa but Ornithodoros ticks seem absent south of 13°N and small mammals are not infected in these regions. The number of Ornithodoros species acting as vector of relapsing fever is much higher than previously known. PMID:24223812

  1. Notes from the Field: Tickborne Relapsing Fever Outbreak at an Outdoor Education Camp - Arizona, 2014.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jefferson M; Schumacher, Mare; Peoples, Marie; Souders, Nina; Horn, Kimberly; Fox, Lisa; Scott, Michele; Brady, Shane; Weiss, Joli; Komatsu, Ken; Nieto, Nathan

    2015-06-19

    Tickborne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a bacterial infection characterized by recurring episodes of fever, headache, muscle and joint aches, and nausea. In North America, TBRF primarily is caused by Borrelia hermsii spirochetes transmitted by Ornithodoros hermsii ticks. Once infected, these soft ticks are infectious for life and transmit the spirochete to sleeping humans quickly (possibly within 30 seconds) during short feeds (15-90 minutes). On August 10, 2014, the Coconino County Public Health Services District in Arizona was notified by a local hospital that five high school students who attended the same outdoor education camp had been hospitalized with fever, headache, and myalgias. Hantavirus infection initially was suspected because of reported exposure to rodent droppings, but after detecting spirochetes on peripheral blood smears from all five hospitalized students, TBRF was diagnosed. The camp was instructed to close immediately, and the health department, in collaboration with local university experts, investigated to identify additional cases, determine the cause, and prevent further infections. A total of 11 cases (six confirmed and five probable) were identified.

  2. Differential associations of Borrelia species with European badgers (Meles meles) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in western Poland.

    PubMed

    Wodecka, Beata; Michalik, Jerzy; Lane, Robert S; Nowak-Chmura, Magdalena; Wierzbicka, Anna

    2016-07-01

    European badgers and raccoon dogs and their associated ticks and lice were assayed for the presence of Lyme borreliosis and relapsing fever-group spirochete DNA in western Poland. Analyses of blood, ear-biopsy and liver samples revealed that 25% of 28 raccoon dogs and 12% of 34 badgers were PCR positive for borreliae. Borrelia garinii was the dominant species in raccoon dogs (62.5%), followed by B. afzelii (25%) and B. valaisiana (12.5%). PCR-positive badgers were infected only with B. afzelii. A total of 351 attached ticks was recovered from 23 (82%) of the raccoon dogs and 13 (38%) of the badgers. Using a nested PCR targeting the ITS2 fragments of Ixodes DNA, four Ixodes species were identified: I. ricinus, I. canisuga, I. hexagonus, and one provisionally named I. cf. kaiseri. Ixodes canisuga and I. ricinus prevailed on both host species. The highest infection prevalence was detected in I. ricinus, followed by I. canisuga and I. cf. kaiseri. Borrelia garinii and B. afzelii accounted for 61.6% and 30.1% of the infections detected in all PCR-positive ticks, respectively. Four other Borrelia species (B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae and B. miyamotoi) were detected only in I. ricinus from raccoon dogs. Moreover, Borrelia DNA, mostly B. garinii, was detected in 57 (81.4%) of 70 Trichodectes melis lice derived from 12 badgers. The detection of B. afzelii in one-half of PCR-positive biopsies reconfirms previous associations of this species with mammalian hosts, whereas the high prevalence of B. garinii in feeding lice and I. ricinus ticks (including larvae) demonstrates that both carnivores serve as hosts for B. garinii. The lack of B. garinii DNA in the tissues of badgers versus its prevalence in raccoon-dog biopsies, however, incriminates only the latter carnivore as a potential reservoir host. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Cooperation of Doxycycline with Phytochemicals and Micronutrients Against Active and Persistent Forms of Borrelia sp.

    PubMed

    Goc, Anna; Niedzwiecki, Alexandra; Rath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals and micronutrients represent a growing theme in antimicrobial defense; however, little is known about their anti-borreliae effects of reciprocal cooperation with antibiotics. A better understanding of this aspect could advance our knowledge and help improve the efficacy of current approaches towards Borrelia sp. In this study, phytochemicals and micronutrients such as baicalein, luteolin, 10-HAD, iodine, rosmarinic acid, and monolaurin, as well as, vitamins D3 and C were tested in a combinations with doxycycline for their in vitro effectiveness against vegetative (spirochetes) and latent (rounded bodies, biofilm) forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii. Anti-borreliae effects were evaluated according to checkerboard assays and supported by statistical analysis. The results showed that combination of doxycycline with flavones such as baicalein and luteolin exhibited additive effects against all morphological forms of studied Borrelia sp. Doxycycline combined with iodine demonstrated additive effects against spirochetes and biofilm, whereas with fatty acids such as monolaurin and 10-HAD it produced FICIs of indifference. Additive anti-spirochetal effects were also observed when doxycycline was used with rosmarinic acid and both vitamins D3 and C. Antagonism was not observed in any of the cases. This data revealed the intrinsic anti-borreliae activity of doxycycline with tested phytochemicals and micronutrients indicating that their addition may enhance efficacy of this antibiotic in combating Borrelia sp. Especially the addition of flavones balcalein and luteolin to a doxycycline regimen could be explored further in defining more effective treatments against these bacteria.

  4. Borrelia persica infection in dogs and cats: clinical manifestations, clinicopathological findings and genetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Halperin, Tamar; Hershko, Yizhak; Kleinerman, Gabriela; Anug, Yigal; Abdeen, Ziad; Lavy, Eran; Aroch, Itamar; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2016-05-10

    Relapsing fever (RF) is an acute infectious disease caused by arthropod-borne spirochetes of the genus Borrelia. The disease is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever that concur with spirochetemia. The RF borrelioses include louse-borne RF caused by Borrelia recurrentis and tick-borne endemic RF transmitted by argasid soft ticks and caused by several Borrelia spp. such as B. crocidurae, B. coriaceae, B. duttoni, B. hermsii, B. hispanica and B. persica. Human infection with B. persica is transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros tholozani and has been reported from Iran, Israel, Egypt, India, and Central Asia. During 2003-2015, five cats and five dogs from northern, central and southern Israel were presented for veterinary care and detected with borrelia spirochetemia by blood smear microscopy. The causative infective agent in these animals was identified and characterized by PCR from blood and sequencing of parts of the flagellin (flab), 16S rRNA and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiestrase (GlpQ) genes. All animals were infected with B. persica genetically identical to the causative agent of human RF. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that DNA sequences from these pet carnivores clustered together with B. persica genotypes I and II from humans and O. tholozani ticks and distinctly from other RF Borrelia spp. The main clinical findings in cats included lethargy, anorexia, anemia in 5/5 cats and thrombocytopenia in 4/5. All dogs were lethargic and anorectic, 4/5 were febrile and anemic and 3/5 were thrombocytopenic. Three dogs were co-infected with Babesia spp. The animals were all treated with antibiotics and the survival rate of both dogs and cats was 80 %. The cat and dog that succumbed to disease died one day after the initiation of antibiotic treatment, while survival in the others was followed by the rapid disappearance of spirochetemia. This is the first report of disease due to B. persica infection in cats and the first case series in dogs. Infection was

  5. Shifts in Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) geno-species infections in Ixodes ricinus over a 10-year surveillance period in the city of Hanover (Germany) and Borrelia miyamotoi-specific Reverse Line Blot detection.

    PubMed

    Blazejak, Katrin; Raulf, Marie-Kristin; Janecek, Elisabeth; Jordan, Daniela; Fingerle, Volker; Strube, Christina

    2018-05-18

    Lyme borreliosis caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) complex is still the most common tick-borne disease in Europe, posing a considerable threat to public health. The predominant vector in Europe is the widespread hard tick Ixodes ricinus, which also transmits the relapsing fever spirochete B. miyamotoi as well as pathogenic Rickettsiales (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp.). To assess the public health risk, a long-term monitoring of tick infection rates with the named pathogens is indispensable. The present study is the first German 10-year follow-up monitoring of tick infections with Borrelia spp. and co-infections with Rickettsiales. Furthermore, a specific Reverse Line Blot (RLB) protocol for detection of B. miyamotoi and simultaneous differentiation of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) geno-species was established. Overall, 24.0% (505/2100) of ticks collected in the city of Hanover were infected with Borrelia. In detail, 35.4% (203/573) of adult ticks [38.5% females (111/288) and 32.3% males (92/285)] and 19.8% nymphs (302/1527) were infected, representing consistent infection rates over the 10-year monitoring period. Geno-species differentiation using RLB determined B. miyamotoi in 8.9% (45/505) of positive ticks. Furthermore, a significant decrease in B. afzelii and B. spielmanii infection rates from 2010 to 2015 was observed. Co-infections with Rickettsia spp. and A. phagocytophilum increased between 2010 and 2015 (7.3 vs 10.9% and 0.3 vs 1.1%, respectively). Long-term monitoring is an essential part of public health risk assessment to capture data on pathogen occurrence over time. Such data will reveal shifts in pathogen geno-species distribution and help to answer the question whether or not climate change influences tick-borne pathogens.

  6. Monoclonal Antibodies for the Diagnosis of Borrelia crocidurae.

    PubMed

    Fotso Fotso, Aurélien; Mediannikov, Oleg; Nappez, Claude; Azza, Saïd; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Relapsing fever borreliae, produced by ectoparasite-borne Borrelia species, cause mild to deadly bacteremia and miscarriage. In the perspective of developing inexpensive assays for the rapid detection of relapsing fever borreliae, we produced 12 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Borrelia crocidurae and characterized the two exhibiting the highest titers. P3A10 MAb reacts with the 35.6-kDa flagellin B (flaB) of B. crocidurae while P6D9 MAb recognizes a 35.1-kDa variable-like protein (Vlp) in B. crocidurae and a 35.2-kDa Vlp in Borrelia duttonii. Indirect immunofluorescence assay incorporating relapsing fever and Lyme group borreliae and 11 blood-borne organisms responsible for fever in West Africa confirmed the reactivity of these two MAbs. Combining these two MAbs in indirect immunofluorescence assays detected relapsing fever borreliae including B. crocidurae in ticks and the blood of febrile Senegalese patients. Both antibodies could be incorporated into inexpensive and stable formats suited for the rapid point-of-care diagnosis of relapsing fever. These first-ever MAbs directed against African relapsing fever borreliae are available for the scientific community to promote research in this neglected field. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Sensitivity of Lyme Borreliosis Spirochetes to Serum Complement of Regular Zoo Animals: Potential Reservoir Competence of Some Exotic Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ticha, Lucie; Golovchenko, Maryna; Oliver, James H; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rudenko, Nataliia

    2016-01-01

    Reaction of vertebrate serum complement with different Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species is used as a basis in determining reservoir hosts among domesticated and wild animals. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii were tested for their sensitivity to sera of exotic vertebrate species housed in five zoos located in the Czech Republic. We confirmed that different Borrelia species have different sensitivity to host serum. We found that tolerance to Borrelia infection possessed by hosts might differ among individuals of the same genera or species and is not affected by host age or sex. Of all zoo animals included in our study, carnivores demonstrated the highest apparent reservoir competency for Lyme borreliosis spirochetes. We showed that selected exotic ungulate species are tolerant to Borrelia infection. For the first time we showed the high tolerance of Siamese crocodile to Borrelia as compared to the other studied reptile species. While exotic vertebrates present a limited risk to the European human population as reservoirs for the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis, cases of incidental spillover infection could lead to successful replication of the pathogens in a new host, changing the status of selected exotic species and their role in pathogen emergence or maintenance. The question if being tolerant to pathogen means to be a competent reservoir host still needs an answer, simply because the majority of exotic animals might never be exposed to spirochetes in their natural environment.

  8. Serologic evidence for Borrelia hermsii infection in rodents on federally owned recreational areas in California.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Curtis L; Payne, Jessica R; Schwan, Tom G

    2013-06-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is endemic in mountainous regions of the western United States. In California, the principal agent is the spirochete Borrelia hermsii, which is transmitted by the argasid tick Ornithodoros hermsi. Humans are at risk of TBRF when infected ticks leave an abandoned rodent nest in quest of a blood meal. Rodents are the primary vertebrate hosts for B. hermsii. Sciurid rodents were collected from 23 sites in California between August, 2006, and September, 2008, and tested for serum antibodies to B. hermsii by immunoblot using a whole-cell sonicate and a specific antigen, glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ). Antibodies were detected in 20% of rodents; seroprevalence was highest (36%) in chipmunks (Tamias spp). Seroprevalence in chipmunks was highest in the Sierra Nevada (41%) and Mono (43%) ecoregions and between 1900 and 2300 meters elevation (43%). The serological studies described here are effective in implicating the primary vertebrate hosts involved in the maintenance of the ticks and spirochetes in regions endemic for TBRF.

  9. Lyme borreliosis in dogs and cats: background, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infections with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Krupka, Inke; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2010-11-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB), synonymous with the often-used term Lyme disease, is an infectious disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. LB is the most frequent vector-borne disease in humans in the Northern Hemisphere. In animals, clinically apparent disease is found primarily in dogs. Severe polyarthritis, fever and lameness in dogs are reported from the main endemic areas of North America: the New England States, and eastern parts of the United States; several cases of LB are also seen in California and the Midwest. Because of the difficulties in finding sufficient indicative clinical signs, additional information (detailed case history, laboratory testing for antibodies) is especially important to make the clinical diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. This article reviews the etiology, diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of LB. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The abundance of the Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia afzelii declines over time in the tick vector Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Maxime; Genné, Dolores; Belli, Alessandro; Maluenda, Elodie; Sarr, Anouk; Voordouw, Maarten J

    2017-05-25

    The population dynamics of vector-borne pathogens inside the arthropod vector can have important consequences for vector-to-host transmission. Tick-borne spirochete bacteria of the Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) species complex cause Lyme borreliosis in humans and spend long periods of time (>12 months) in their Ixodes tick vectors. To date, few studies have investigated the dynamics of Borrelia spirochete populations in unfed Ixodes nymphal ticks. Larval ticks from our laboratory colony of I. ricinus were experimentally infected with B. afzelii, and killed at 1 month and 4 months after the larva-to-nymph moult. The spirochete load was also compared between engorged larval ticks and unfed nymphs (from the same cohort) and between unfed nymphs and unfed adult ticks (from the same cohort). The spirochete load of B. afzelii in each tick was estimated using qPCR. The mean spirochete load in the 1-month-old nymphs (~14,000 spirochetes) was seven times higher than the 4-month-old nymphs (~2000 spirochetes). Thus, the nymphal spirochete load declined by 80% over a period of 3 months. An engorged larval tick acquired ~100 spirochetes, and this population was 20 times larger in a young, unfed nymph. The spirochete load also appeared to decline in adult ticks. Comparison between wild and laboratory populations found that lab ticks were more susceptible to acquiring B. afzelii. The spirochete load of B. afzelii declines dramatically over time in domesticated I. ricinus nymphs under laboratory conditions. Future studies should investigate whether temporal declines in spirochete load occur in wild Ixodes ticks under natural conditions and whether these declines influence the tick-to-host transmission of Borrelia.

  11. Seroprevalence of West Nile virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Francisella tularensis and Borrelia burgdorferi in rural population of Manisa, western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gazi, Hörü; Özkütük, Nuri; Ecemis, Özkütük; Atasoylu, Gonca; Köroglu, Galip; Kurutepe, Semra; Horasan, Gönül Dinç

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases are well recognised threat to public health globally. The information of regional prevalence and associated risk factors allow the national programmes to determine and frame better strategies for their control, as they also provide the actual status of zoonosis in the region. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Francisella tularensis and Borrelia burgdorferi among the rural residents of Manisa region, Turkey and to identify the associated risk factors. Cross sectional study was conducted in rural parts of Manisa, Aegean region of western Turkey in 2012. Blood samples from 324 randomly selected subjects were screened for the presence of IgG antibodies to WNV, CCHFV, F. tularensis and B. burgdorferi with commercially available kits. The demographic structure of the rural residents and risk factors related to lifestyle such as outdoor agriculture activities, animal husbandry, hunting and history of tick bite were questioned and their relationships with positive results were analyzed statistically. It was observed that 49 subjects (15%) had IgG antibodies to at least one of the zoonotic agents studied. The seroprevalence of F. tularensis was highest with a percentage of 7.1% (n = 23). Distribution of the positive results for WNV, CCHFV and B. burgdorferi were 4.3% (n = 14), 3.7% (n = 12) and 0.9% (n = 3), respectively. Older age and uncompleted secondary education were the statistically significant risk factors for seropositivity to at least one zoonotic agent investigated. Logistic regression analyses confirmed that older age (over 50) increased the risk of WNV and CCHFV seropositivity. Seropositivity rates were not found to be higher than the expected rates. Further, studies are needed to evaluate the threat of vector borne zoonoses and associated risk factors in the study area.

  12. Large scale spatial risk and comparative prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes pacificus.

    PubMed

    Padgett, Kerry; Bonilla, Denise; Kjemtrup, Anne; Vilcins, Inger-Marie; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Hui, Lucia; Sola, Milagros; Quintana, Miguel; Kramer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly described emerging pathogen transmitted to people by Ixodes species ticks and found in temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. There is limited understanding of large scale entomological risk patterns of B. miyamotoi and of Borreila burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss), the agent of Lyme disease, in western North America. In this study, B. miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, was detected in adult (n=70) and nymphal (n=36) Ixodes pacificus ticks collected from 24 of 48 California counties that were surveyed over a 13 year period. Statewide prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (sl), which includes B. burgdorferi ss, and B. miyamotoi were similar in adult I. pacificus (0.6% and 0.8%, respectively). In contrast, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl was almost 2.5 times higher than B. miyamotoi in nymphal I. pacificus (3.2% versus 1.4%). These results suggest similar risk of exposure to B. burgdorferi sl and B. miyamotoi from adult I. pacificus tick bites in California, but a higher risk of contracting B. burgdorferi sl than B. miyamotoi from nymphal tick bites. While regional risk of exposure to these two spirochetes varies, the highest risk for both species is found in north and central coastal California and the Sierra Nevada foothill region, and the lowest risk is in southern California; nevertheless, tick-bite avoidance measures should be implemented in all regions of California. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate entomologic risk for B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi for both adult and nymphal I. pacificus, an important human biting tick in western North America.

  13. Tick-borne Relapsing Fever in the Pacific Northwest: An Underdiagnosed Illness?

    PubMed Central

    Fihn, Stephan; Larson, Eric B.

    1980-01-01

    Some 30 cases of tick-borne relapsing fever due to Borrelia are known to have occurred between 1965 and 1978 in the Pacific Northwest. This disease was found more frequently in young men with a history of wilderness exposure during the summer months. Recurrent fever was the most common symptom with temperatures reaching higher than 39.5° C (103.1° F) in all cases, and many patients had three or more febrile episodes. Splenomegaly was the second most common finding reported. Diagnosis of relapsing fever was made in 20 cases by identifying spirochetes on peripheral blood smears. In ten remaining cases the diagnosis was made on clinical and epidemiologic grounds. Information regarding therapy was available in 21 cases. Ten patients received a tetracycline drug and all had a prompt response without relapse. Two of the patients died, a 68-year-old woman with possible myocardial involvement and a newborn infant with infection acquired in utero and meningeal involvement. The diagnosis was often delayed in spite of outpatient evaluation and admittance to hospital, probably because borreliosis was not considered in the differential diagnosis. Because tick-borne relapsing fever is eventually a self-limited disease in most patients, it is probably not recognized often enough. Awareness of this disease and examination of the peripheral blood smear for spirochetes will lead to earlier diagnosis. Prompt initiation of tetracycline therapy should reduce morbidity associated with borreliosis. ImagesFigure 3. PMID:7415171

  14. The important and diverse roles of antibodies in the host response to Borrelia infections.

    PubMed

    LaRocca, T J; Benach, J L

    2008-01-01

    Antibodies are of critical importance in the host response to tick-borne Borrelia species that cause relapsing fever and Lyme disease. Recent studies on the role of various B cell subsets in the host response to Borrelia, complement-independent, bactericidal antibodies, and diagnostics led to this review that focuses on the array of functions that antibodies to Borrelia can perform.

  15. Arthritis is developed in Borrelia-primed and -infected mice deficient of interleukin-17.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Joseph; Warner, Thomas F; Munson, Erik L; Nardelli, Dean T; Schell, Ronald F

    2016-10-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) has been shown to participate in the development of Lyme arthritis in experimental mice. For example, neutralization of IL-17 with antibodies inhibits induction of arthritis in Borrelia-primed and -infected C57BL/6 wild-type mice. We hypothesized that mice lacking IL-17 would fail to develop Borrelia-induced arthritis. IL-17-deficient and wild-type C57BL/6 mice were primed with heat-inactivated Borrelia and then infected with viable spirochetes 3 weeks later. No swelling or major histopathological changes of the hind paws were detected in IL-17-deficient or wild-type mice that were primed with Borrelia or infected with viable spirochetes. By contrast, IL-17-deficient and wild-type mice that were primed and subsequently infected with heterologous Borrelia developed severe swelling and histopathological changes of the hind paws. In addition, Borrelia-primed and -infected IL-17-deficient mice exhibited elevated gamma-interferon (IFN-γ) levels in sera and increased frequencies of IFN-γ-expressing lymphocytes in popliteal lymph nodes compared to Borrelia-primed and -infected wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that IL-17 is not required for development of severe pathology in response to infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, but may contribute to disease through an interaction with IFN-γ. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Interaction of the Lyme disease spirochete with its tick vector.

    PubMed

    Caimano, Melissa J; Drecktrah, Dan; Kung, Faith; Samuels, D Scott

    2016-07-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease (along with closely related genospecies), is in the deeply branching spirochete phylum. The bacterium is maintained in nature in an enzootic cycle that involves transmission from a tick vector to a vertebrate host and acquisition from a vertebrate host to a tick vector. During its arthropod sojourn, B. burgdorferi faces a variety of stresses, including nutrient deprivation. Here, we review some of the spirochetal factors that promote persistence, maintenance and dissemination of B. burgdorferi in the tick, and then focus on the utilization of available carbohydrates as well as the exquisite regulatory systems invoked to adapt to the austere environment between blood meals and to signal species transitions as the bacteria traverse their enzootic cycle. The spirochetes shift their source of carbon and energy from glucose in the vertebrate to glycerol in the tick. Regulation of survival under limiting nutrients requires the classic stringent response in which RelBbu controls the levels of the alarmones guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate (collectively termed (p)ppGpp), while regulation at the tick-vertebrate interface as well as regulation of protective responses to the blood meal require the two-component system Hk1/Rrp1 to activate production of the second messenger cyclic-dimeric-GMP (c-di-GMP). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Viscous Dynamics of Lyme Disease and Syphilis Spirochetes Reveal Flagellar Torque and Drag

    PubMed Central

    Harman, Michael; Vig, Dhruv K.; Radolf, Justin D.; Wolgemuth, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    The spirochetes that cause Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) and syphilis (Treponema pallidum) swim through viscous fluids, such as blood and interstitial fluid, by undulating their bodies as traveling, planar waves. These undulations are driven by rotation of the flagella within the periplasmic space, the narrow (∼20–40 nm in width) compartment between the inner and outer membranes. We show here that the swimming speeds of B. burgdorferi and T. pallidum decrease with increases in viscosity of the external aqueous milieu, even though the flagella are entirely intracellular. We then use mathematical modeling to show that the measured changes in speed are consistent with the exertion of constant torque by the spirochetal flagellar motors. Comparison of simulations, experiments, and a simple model for power dissipation allows us to estimate the torque and resistive drag that act on the flagella of these major spirochetal pathogens. PMID:24268139

  18. Measuring Borrelia burgdorferi Motility and Chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Li, Chunhao

    2018-01-01

    Swimming plate, cell motion tracking, and capillary tube assays are very useful tools to quantitatively measure bacterial motility and chemotaxis. These methods were modified and applied to study Borrelia burgdorferi motility and chemotaxis. By using these methods, numerous motility and chemotaxis mutants have been characterized and several chemoattractants were identified. With the assistance of these tools, the role of motility and chemotaxis in the pathogenicity of B. burgdorferi has been established. In addition, these tools also facilitate the study of motility and chemotaxis in other spirochetes.

  19. Infection of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhioua, E.; Bouattour, A.; Hu, C.M.; Gharbi, M.; Aeschliman, A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gern, L.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living adult Ixodes ricinus L. were collected in Amdoun, situated in the Kroumiry mountains in northwestern Tunisia (North Africa). Using direct fluorescence antibody assay, the infection rate of field-collected I. ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 30.5% (n = 72). No difference in infection rate was observed between male and female ticks. Spirochetes that had been isolated from I. ricinus from Ain Drahim (Kroumiry Mountains) in 1988 were identified as Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genospecies PotiB2). This is the first identification of a genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the continent of Africa.

  20. Diagnosis and Management of Borrelia turicatae Infection in Febrile Soldier, Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Pietralczyk, Elizabeth; Lopez, Job E.; Brooks, Christopher; Schriefer, Martin E.; Wozniak, Edward; Stermole, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    In August 2015, a soldier returned from field exercises in Texas, USA, with nonspecific febrile illness. Culture and sequencing of spirochetes from peripheral blood diagnosed Borrelia turicatae infection. The patient recovered after receiving doxycycline. No illness occurred in asymptomatic soldiers potentially exposed to the vector tick and prophylactically given treatment. PMID:28418310

  1. Exploring the association between Morgellons disease and Lyme disease: identification of Borrelia burgdorferi in Morgellons disease patients.

    PubMed

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Bandoski, Cheryl; Burke, Jennie; Sapi, Eva; Filush, Katherine R; Wang, Yean; Franco, Agustin; Mayne, Peter J; Stricker, Raphael B

    2015-02-12

    Morgellons disease (MD) is a complex skin disorder characterized by ulcerating lesions that have protruding or embedded filaments. Many clinicians refer to this condition as delusional parasitosis or delusional infestation and consider the filaments to be introduced textile fibers. In contrast, recent studies indicate that MD is a true somatic illness associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are keratin and collagen in composition and that they result from proliferation and activation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the skin. Previously, spirochetes have been detected in the dermatological specimens from four MD patients, thus providing evidence of an infectious process. Based on culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and molecular testing, we present corroborating evidence of spirochetal infection in a larger group of 25 MD patients. Irrespective of Lyme serological reactivity, all patients in our study group demonstrated histological evidence of epithelial spirochetal infection. Strength of evidence based on other testing varied among patients. Spirochetes identified as Borrelia strains by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or in-situ DNA hybridization were detected in 24/25 of our study patients. Skin cultures containing Borrelia spirochetes were obtained from four patients, thus demonstrating that the organisms present in dermatological specimens were viable. Spirochetes identified by PCR as Borrelia burgdorferi were cultured from blood in seven patients and from vaginal secretions in three patients, demonstrating systemic infection. Based on these observations, a clinical classification system for MD is proposed. Our study using multiple detection methods confirms that MD is a true somatic illness associated with Borrelia spirochetes that cause Lyme disease. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal treatment for this spirochete-associated dermopathy.

  2. Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in rodents in the eastern and southern United States.

    PubMed Central

    Magnarelli, L A; Oliver, J H; Hutcheson, H J; Boone, J L; Anderson, J F

    1992-01-01

    Serologic studies were conducted to determine whether white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus) contained serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays detected antibodies to this spirochete in 35.7 and 27.3% of 56 P. leucopus and 535 P. gossypinus serum samples, respectively, collected in Connecticut, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi. Antibody titers ranged from 1:160 to greater than or equal to 1:40,960. On the basis of adsorption tests, the antibodies detected appeared to be specific to Borrelia spirochetes. Seropositive rodents in the eastern and southern United States, areas where human cases of Lyme borreliosis have been reported, indicate a widespread geographic distribution of B. burgdorferi or a closely related spirochete. PMID:1624561

  3. Borrelia recurrentis in head lice, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Boutellis, Amina; Mediannikov, Oleg; Bilcha, Kassahun Desalegn; Ali, Jemal; Campelo, Dayana; Barker, Stephen C; Raoult, Didier

    2013-05-01

    Since the 1800s, the only known vector of Borrelia recurrentis has been the body louse. In 2011, we found B. recurrentis DNA in 23% of head lice from patients with louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopia. Whether head lice can transmit these bacteria from one person to another remains to be determined.

  4. Regulatory protein BBD18 of the lyme disease spirochete: essential role during tick acquisition?

    PubMed

    Hayes, Beth M; Dulebohn, Daniel P; Sarkar, Amit; Tilly, Kit; Bestor, Aaron; Ambroggio, Xavier; Rosa, Patricia A

    2014-04-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi senses and responds to environmental cues as it transits between the tick vector and vertebrate host. Failure to properly adapt can block transmission of the spirochete and persistence in either vector or host. We previously identified BBD18, a novel plasmid-encoded protein of B. burgdorferi, as a putative repressor of the host-essential factor OspC. In this study, we investigate the in vivo role of BBD18 as a regulatory protein, using an experimental mouse-tick model system that closely resembles the natural infectious cycle of B. burgdorferi. We show that spirochetes that have been engineered to constitutively produce BBD18 can colonize and persist in ticks but do not infect mice when introduced by either tick bite or needle inoculation. Conversely, spirochetes lacking BBD18 can persistently infect mice but are not acquired by feeding ticks. Through site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated that abrogation of spirochete infection in mice by overexpression of BBD18 occurs only with bbd18 alleles that can suppress OspC synthesis. Finally, we demonstrate that BBD18-mediated regulation does not utilize a previously described ospC operator sequence required by B. burgdorferi for persistence in immunocompetent mice. These data lead us to conclude that BBD18 does not represent the putative repressor utilized by B. burgdorferi for the specific downregulation of OspC in the mammalian host. Rather, we suggest that BBD18 exhibits features more consistent with those of a global regulatory protein whose critical role occurs during spirochete acquisition by feeding ticks. IMPORTANCE Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common arthropod-borne disease in North America. B. burgdorferi is transmitted to humans and other vertebrate hosts by ticks as they take a blood meal. Transmission between vectors and hosts requires the bacterium to sense changes in the environment and adapt. However, the mechanisms

  5. Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes of fevers include Medicines, including some antibiotics, blood pressure medicines, and anti-seizure medicines Heat illness Cancers Autoimmune diseases Some childhood immunizations Treatment ...

  6. Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections , sinus infections , mononucleosis , bronchitis , pneumonia , and tuberculosis Urinary tract infections Viral gastroenteritis and bacterial gastroenteritis Children may have a low-grade fever for 1 ...

  7. Periplasmal Physics: The Rotational Dynamics of Spirochetal Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Greg

    2012-02-01

    Spirochetes are distinguished by the location of their flagella, which reside within the periplasm: the tiny space between the bacterial cell wall and the outer membrane. In Borrelia burgdorferi/ (the causative agent of Lyme Disease), rotation of the flagella leads to cellular undulations that drive swimming. Exactly how these shape changes arise due to the forces and torques acting between the flagella and the cell body is unknown. By applying low-Reynolds number hydrodynamic theory to the motion of an elastic flagellum rotating in the periplasm, we show that the flagella are most likely separated from the bacterial cell wall by a lubricating layer of fluid. We obtain analytical solutions for the force and torque on the rotating flagellum through lubrication analysis, as well as through scaling analysis, and find results are in close agreement numerical simulations. (Joint work with J. Yang and C.W. Wolgemuth.)

  8. Fever

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of body temperature remains one of the most common ways to assess health. An increase in temperature above what is considered to be a normal value is inevitably regarded as a sure sign of disease and referred to with one simple word: fever. In this review, we summarize how research on fever allowed the identification of the exogenous and endogenous molecules and pathways mediating the fever response. We also show how temperature elevation is common to different pathologies and how the molecular components of the fever-generation pathway represent drug targets for antipyretics, such as acetylsalicylic acid, the first “blockbuster drug”. We also show how fever research provided new insights into temperature and energy homeostasis, and into treatment of infection and inflammation. PMID:20305990

  9. Excretion of living Borrelia recurrentis in feces of infected human body lice.

    PubMed

    Houhamdi, Linda; Raoult, Didier

    2005-06-01

    Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF), caused by Borrelia recurrentis, is 1 of the most dangerous arthropod-borne diseases. Infection is thought to occur through louse crushing. Lice feces have not been shown to contain living borreliae. We infected 800 body lice by feeding them on a rabbit made spirochetemic by the injection of 2 x 106 borreliae. The life span of infected lice was not shortened. Once infected, lice remained infected for life but did not transmit borreliae to their progeny or to nurse rabbits. B. recurrentis infection was observed throughout lice and spread into hemolymph on day 5 after infection. We describe 2 unprecedented phenomena. In hemolymph, B. recurrentis formed clumps of aggregated borreliae. Using immunofluorescence assay, transmission electron microscopy, and culture, we detected borreliae excreted in lice feces beginning on day 14 after infection. We conclude that, similar to epidemic typhus and trench fever, transmission of LBRF may be caused by lice feces.

  10. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ixodes ricinus ticks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, Cristina M.; Stefan, Razvan; Bindea, Maria; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-06-01

    In this work we present a method for detection of motile and immotile Borrelia burgdorferi genomic DNA, in relation with infectious and noninfectious spirochetes. An FT-IR study of DNA isolated from B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains and from positive and negative Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, is reported. Motile bacterial cells from the species B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii were of interest. Also, FT-IR absorbance spectra of DNA from immotile spirochetes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, in the absence and presence of different antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin V or phenoxymethylpenicillin, tetracycline, respectively) were investigated. FT-IR spectra, providing a high molecular structural information, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm-1. FT-IR signatures, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of these DNAs are reported. Spectral differences between FT-IR absorbances of DNAs from motile bacterial cells and immotile spirochetes, respectively, have been found. Particularly, alterations of the sugar-phosphate B-form chain in the case of DNA from Borrelia immotile cells, as compared with DNA from B. burgdorferi sensu lato motile cells have been observed. Based on this work, specific B. burgdorferi sensu lato and I. ricinus DNA-ligand interactions, respectively, might be further investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  11. Bridging of cryptic Borrelia cycles in European songbirds.

    PubMed

    Heylen, Dieter; Krawczyk, Aleksandra; Lopes de Carvalho, Isabel; Núncio, Maria Sofia; Sprong, Hein; Norte, Ana Cláudia

    2017-05-01

    The principal European vector for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., the causative agents of Lyme disease, is the host-generalist tick Ixodes ricinus. Almost all terrestrial host-specialist ticks have been supposed not to contribute to the terrestrial Borrelia transmission cycles. Through an experiment with blackbirds, we show successful transmission by the widespread I. frontalis, an abundant bird-specialized tick that infests a broad range of songbirds. In the first phase of the experiment, we obtained Borrelia-infected I. frontalis (infection rate: 19%) and I. ricinus (17%) nymphs by exposing larvae to wild blackbirds that carried several genospecies (Borrelia turdi, B. valaisiana, B. burgdorferi s.s.). In the second phase, pathogen-free blackbirds were exposed to these infected nymphs. Both tick species were able to infect the birds, as indicated by the analysis of xenodiagnostic I. ricinus larvae which provided evidence for both co-feeding and systemic transmission (infection rates: 10%-60%). Ixodes frontalis was shown to transmit B. turdi spirochetes, while I. ricinus transmitted both B. turdi and B. valaisiana. Neither species transmitted B. burgdorferi s.s. European enzootic cycles of Borrelia between songbirds and their ornithophilic ticks do exist, with I. ricinus potentially acting as a bridging vector towards mammals, including man. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Molecular detection of Borrelia bissettii DNA in serum samples from patients in the Czech Republic with suspected borreliosis.

    PubMed

    Rudenko, Nataliia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Růzek, Daniel; Piskunova, Natalja; Mallátová, Nadja; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2009-03-01

    Until recently, three spirochete genospecies were considered to be the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis (LB) in Europe: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii. However, the DNA of Borrelia valaisiana, Borrelia lusitaniae, Borrelia spielmanii and Borrelia bissettii has already been detected in samples of human origin, or the spirochetes were isolated from the patients with symptoms of LB. Molecular analysis of 12 selected serum samples collected in the regional hospital confirmed the presence of B. bissettii DNA in cases of single and multiple infection in patients with symptomatic borreliosis or chronic borrelial infection. The presence of B. bissettii as a single strain in patients provides strong support of the fact that B. bissettii might be a causative agent of the disease. After the first isolation of B. bissettii from the samples of human origin in Slovenia, following the detection of this species in cardiac valve tissue of the patient with endocarditis and aortic valve stenosis in the Czech Republic, here we present additional molecular data supporting the involvement of B. bissettii in LB in Europe.

  13. Borrelia miyamotoi infection presenting as human granulocytic anaplasmosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chowdri, Hanumara Ram; Gugliotta, Joseph L; Berardi, Victor P; Goethert, Heidi K; Molloy, Philip J; Sterling, Sherri L; Telford, Sam R

    2013-07-02

    The diverse tickborne infections of the northeastern United States can present as undifferentiated flu-like illnesses. In areas endemic for Lyme and other tickborne diseases, patients presenting with acute febrile illness with myalgia, headache, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated hepatic aminotransferase levels are presumptively diagnosed as having human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). To assign a cause for illness experienced by 2 case patients who were initially diagnosed with HGA but did not rapidly defervesce with doxycycline treatment and had no laboratory evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. Case report. 2 primary care medical centers in Massachusetts and New Jersey. 2 case patients acutely presenting with fever. Identification of the causative agent by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Molecular diagnostic assays detected Borrelia miyamotoi in the peripheral blood of both patients. There was no evidence of infection with other tickborne pathogens commonly diagnosed in the referral areas. One of the case patients may have had concurrent Lyme disease. The presence of B. miyamotoi DNA in the peripheral blood and the patients' eventual therapeutic response to doxycycline are consistent with the hypothesis that their illness was due to this newly recognized spirochete. Samples from tick-exposed patients acutely presenting with signs of HGA but who have a delayed response to doxycycline therapy or negative confirmatory test results for HGA should be analyzed carefully for evidence of B. miyamotoi infection.

  14. Detection of Coxiella Burnetii (Q fever) and Borrelia Burgdorferi (Lyme Disease) in Field-Collected Ticks from the Cayo District of Belize, Central America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-25

    humans is uncommon, a documented case of crushing an infected tick between the fingers resulted in a Q fever infection [14]. Most human 2...fluid [1,43,49,57]. In humans, presentation of Q fever ranges from asymptomatic, to acute disease, to chronic illness. In the majority of cases ...acute disease presents as a self-limiting febrile illness with half of cases suffering severe headaches. In severe cases of acute disease, atypical

  15. Lyme borreliosis spirochetes in questing ticks from mainland Portugal.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Susana; Quaresma, Ana; Aires, Tânia; Kurtenbach, Klaus; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Nicholson, Matthew; Collares-Pereira, Margarida

    2004-04-01

    In Portugal, Ixodes ricinus ticks have been shown to contain DNA of several spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, with major differences in the genetic diversity between ecozones. Some isolates have been obtained since 1999, confirming the circulation of pathogenic strains in these ticks. Ixodes ricinus is considered to be a widespread species, however, in Portugal it is found only in a few habitats. Here we present preliminary results from a nationwide survey of questing I. ricinus (n = 4,001) and other Ixodidae (n = 1,534) in Portugal, initiated in 2001. The sampling points (so far 41) were selected using a Geographic Information System, according to the type of vegetation, accessibility and prevalence of human cases. The spatial and temporal of tick abundance and the infection of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks were determined in selected areas. Ticks were examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato by culturing (719 out of 4,001 I. ricinus), and direct PCR amplification of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer region (1,870 out of 5,535) followed by RFLP analysis, the reverse line blot assay and nucleotide sequencing of PCR amplicons. The most abundant tick genus was Rhipicephalus (53%), followed by Dermacentor (34%), I. ricinus and Hyalomma (7%, each). The Mafra and Grândola sites, where a more intensive study was carried out, were excellent habitats for I. ricinus. However, a clear difference of the prevalence of Borrelia infection and the genetic diversity of circulating spirochetes was observed in these two sites. Genotyping of all I. ricinus isolates revealed 5 B. garinii, 8 B. lusitaniae and 1 B. valaisiana strains, which were obtained for the first time in these regions along with a considerable percentage of tick-derived PCR amplicons. Two hard-tick species other than I. ricinus in Grândola were also B. lusitaniae positive, thus seeming to take part in the transmission cycle of Borrelia. The seasonal dynamics of I

  16. Borrelia infection and risk of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Alaedini, Armin; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Wormser, Gary P; Green, Peter H; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2017-09-15

    Environmental factors, including infectious agents, are speculated to play a role in the rising prevalence and the geographic distribution of celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder. In the USA and Sweden where the regional variation in the frequency of celiac disease has been studied, a similarity with the geographic distribution of Lyme disease, an emerging multisystemic infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, has been found, thus raising the possibility of a link. We aimed to determine if infection with Borrelia contributes to an increased risk of celiac disease. Biopsy reports from all of Sweden's pathology departments were used to identify 15,769 individuals with celiac disease. Through linkage to the nationwide Patient Register, we compared the rate of earlier occurrence of Lyme disease in the patients with celiac disease to that in 78,331 matched controls. To further assess the temporal relationship between Borrelia infection and celiac disease, we also examined the risk of subsequent Lyme disease in patients with a diagnosis of celiac disease. Twenty-five individuals (0.16%) with celiac disease had a prior diagnosis of Lyme disease, whereas 79 (0.5%) had a subsequent diagnosis of Lyme disease. A modest association between Lyme disease and celiac disease was seen both before (odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-2.47) and after the diagnosis of celiac disease (hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.40-2.35), with the risk of disease being highest in the first year of follow-up. Only a minor fraction of the celiac disease patient population had a prior diagnosis of Lyme disease. The similar association between Lyme disease and celiac disease both before and after the diagnosis of celiac disease is strongly suggestive of surveillance bias as a likely contributor. Taken together, the data indicate that Borrelia infection is not a substantive risk factor in the development of celiac disease.

  17. Modeling the effects of variable feeding patterns of larval ticks on the transmission of Borrelia lusitaniae and Borrelia afzelii.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Luca; Perazzo, Silvia; Venturino, Ezio; Giacobini, Mario; Bertolotti, Luigi; Mannelli, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    Spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdoferi sensu lato (sl) group cause Lyme Borreliosis (LB), which is the most commonly reported vector-borne zoonosis in Europe. B. burgdorferi sl is maintained in nature in a complex cycle involving Ixodes ricinus ticks and several species of vertebrate hosts. The transmission dynamics of B. burgdorferi sl is complicated by the varying competence of animals for different genospecies of spirochetes that, in turn, vary in their capability of causing disease. In this study, a set of difference equations simplifying the complex interaction between vectors and their hosts (competent and not for Borrelia) is built to gain insights into conditions underlying the dominance of B. lusitaniae (transmitted by lizards to susceptible ticks) and the maintenance of B. afzelii (transmitted by wild rodents) observed in a study area in Tuscany, Italy. Findings, in agreement with field observations, highlight the existence of a threshold for the fraction of larvae feeding on rodents below which the persistence of B. afzelii is not possible. Furthermore, thresholds change as nonlinear functions of the expected number of nymph bites on mice, and the transmission and recovery probabilities. In conclusion, our model provided an insight into mechanisms underlying the relative frequency of different Borrelia genospecies, as observed in field studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of a new Borrelia species in ticks taken from cattle in Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Abdissa, Alemseged; Socolovschi, Cristina; Diatta, Georges; Trape, Jean-François; Raoult, Didier

    2013-04-01

    We collected 284 ticks in Ethiopia (109 Amblyomma cohaerens, 173 Rhipicephalus decoloratus, and 2 Rhipicephalus praetextatus). We found no rickettsiae and bartonellae. In 7.3% of the A. cohaerens, we found a Borrelia sp. that may represent a new species distant from both relapsing fever group and Lyme borreliae.

  19. Two Photon Intravital Microscopy of Lyme Borrelia in Mice.

    PubMed

    Belperron, Alexia A; Mao, Jialing; Bockenstedt, Linda K

    2018-01-01

    Two-photon intravital microscopy is a powerful tool that allows visualization of cells in intact tissues in a live animal in real time. In recent years, this advanced technology has been applied to understand pathogen-host interactions using fluorescently labeled bacteria. In particular, infectious fluorescent transformants of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, an Ixodes tick-transmitted pathogen, have been imaged by two-photon intravital microscopy to study bacterial motility and interactions of the pathogen with feeding ticks and host tissues. Here, we describe the techniques and equipment used to image mammalian-adapted spirochetes in the skin of living mice in vivo and in joints ex vivo using two-photon intravital microscopy.

  20. Reviewing molecular adaptations of Lyme borreliosis spirochetes in the context of reproductive fitness in natural transmission cycles.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Jean I

    2009-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is caused by a group of pathogenic spirochetes - most often Borrelia burgdorferi, B. afzelii, and B. garinii - that are vectored by hard ticks in the Ixodes ricinus-persulcatus complex, which feed on a variety of mammals, birds, and lizards. Although LB is one of the best-studied vector-borne zoonoses, the annual incidence in North America and Europe leads other vector-borne diseases and continues to increase. What factors make the LB system so successful, and how can researchers hope to reduce disease risk - either through vaccinating humans or reducing the risk of contacting infected ticks in nature? Discoveries of molecular interactions involved in the transmission of LB spirochetes have accelerated recently, revealing complex interactions among the spirochete-tick-vertebrate triad. These interactions involve multiple, and often redundant, pathways that reflect the evolution of general and specific mechanisms by which the spirochetes survive and reproduce. Previous reviews have focused on the molecular interactions or population biology of the system. Here molecular interactions among the LB spirochete, its vector, and vertebrate hosts are reviewed in the context of natural maintenance cycles, which represent the ecological and evolutionary contexts that shape these interactions. This holistic system approach may help researchers develop additional testable hypotheses about transmission processes, interpret laboratory results, and guide development of future LB control measures and management.

  1. Does RecA have a role in Borrelia recurrentis?

    PubMed

    Cutler, S J; Rinky, I J; Bonilla, E M

    2011-02-01

    Genomic sequencing of two relapsing fever spirochaetes showed truncation of recA in Borrelia recurrentis, but not in Borrelia duttonii. RecA has an important role among bacteria; we investigated whether this characteristic was representative of B. recurrentis, or an artefact following in vitro cultivation. We sequenced recA directly from samples of patient with louse-borne relapsing fever (B. recurrentis) or tick-borne relapsing fever (B. duttonii). We confirmed the premature stop codon in seven louse-borne relapsing fever samples, and its absence from three tick-borne relapsing fever samples. Furthermore, specific signature polymorphisms were found that could differentiate between these highly similar spirochaetes. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  2. Louse-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis) diagnosed in 15 refugees from northeast Africa: epidemiology and preventive control measures, Bavaria, Germany, July to October 2015.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Martin; Wieser, Andreas; Löscher, Thomas; Margos, Gabriele; Pürner, Friedrich; Zühl, Jürgen; Seilmaier, Michael; Balzer, Lukas; Guggemos, Wolfgang; Rack-Hoch, Anita; von Both, Ulrich; Hauptvogel, Katja; Schönberger, Katharina; Hautmann, Wolfgang; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker

    2015-01-01

    We report 15 imported louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) cases in refugees in Bavaria, Germany. One patient died. Epidemiological findings confirmed that all were young males from the Horn of Africa (12 from Somalia), who had similar migration routes converging in Sudan continuing through Libya and Italy. The majority likely acquired their infection during migration. Healthcare workers should be aware of LBRF in refugees passing through north Africa to ensure correct treatment and preventive measures.

  3. What ticks do under your skin: two-photon intravital imaging of Ixodes scapularis feeding in the presence of the lyme disease spirochete.

    PubMed

    Bockenstedt, Linda K; Gonzalez, David; Mao, Jialing; Li, Ming; Belperron, Alexia A; Haberman, Ann

    2014-03-01

    Lyme disease, due to infection with the Ixodes-tick transmitted spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common tick-transmitted disease in the northern hemisphere. Our understanding of the tick-pathogen-vertebrate host interactions that sustain an enzootic cycle for B. burgdorferi is incomplete. In this article, we describe a method for imaging the feeding of Ixodes scapularis nymphs in real-time using two-photon intravital microscopy and show how this technology can be applied to view the response of Lyme borrelia in the skin of an infected host to tick feeding.

  4. [Louse-borne-relapsing-fever in refugees from the Horn of Africa; a case series of 25 patients].

    PubMed

    Seilmaier, M; Guggemos, W; Wieser, A; Fingerle, V; Balzer, L; Fenzl, T; Hoch, M; von Both, U; Schmidt, H U; Wendtner, C M; Strobel, E

    2016-07-01

    Background | Relapsing fever is divided into tick borne relapsing fever (TBRF) and louse borne relapsing fever (LBRF). This report describes 25 refugees from East Africa who were diagnosed to suffer from LBRF within a period of 6 month only at a single hospital in Munich / Germany. Material & Methods | The aim was to point out common clinical features as well as laboratory findings and clinical symptoms before and after initiation of treatment in 25 patients with louse borne relapsing fever (LBRF) who were diagnosed and treated at Klinikum München Schwabing from August 2015 to January 2016. To the best of our knowledge this is the largest case series of LBRF in the western world for decades. Main focus of the investigation was put on clinical aspects. Results | All 25 patients suffered from acute onset of high fever with chills, headache and severe prostration. Laboratory analysis showed high CRP and a marked thrombocytopenia. A Giemsa blood stain was procured immediately in order to look for malaria. In the blood smear spirochetes with typical shape and aspect of borrelia species could be detected.The further PCR analysis confirmed infection with Borrelia recurrentis. Treatment with Doxycycline was started forthwith. The condition improved already on the second day after treatment was started and all were restored to health in less than a week. Apart from a mild to moderate Jarisch-Herxheimer-reaction we didn`t see any side effects of the therapy. Conclusion | LBRF has to be taken into account in feverish patients who come as refugees from East-Africa. It seems that our patients belong to a cluster which probably has its origin in Libya and more patients are to be expected in the near future. As LBRF might cause outbreaks in refugee camps it is pivotal to be aware of this emerging infectious disease in refugees from East-Africa. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Allelic variation of the Lyme disease spirochete adhesin DbpA influences spirochetal binding to decorin, dermatan sulfate, and mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Vivian M; Fischer, Joshua R; Lin, Yi-Pin; Parveen, Nikhat; Leong, John M

    2011-09-01

    After transmission by an infected tick, the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, colonizes the mammalian skin and may disseminate systemically. The three major species of Lyme disease spirochete--B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and B. afzelii--are associated with different chronic disease manifestations. Colonization is likely promoted by the ability to bind to target tissues, and Lyme disease spirochetes utilize multiple adhesive molecules to interact with diverse mammalian components. The allelic variable surface lipoprotein decorin binding protein A (DbpA) promotes bacterial binding to the proteoglycan decorin and to the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) dermatan sulfate. To assess allelic variation of DbpA in GAG-, decorin-, and cell-binding activities, we expressed dbpA alleles derived from diverse Lyme disease spirochetes in B. burgdorferi strain B314, a noninfectious and nonadherent strain that lacks dbpA. Each DbpA allele conferred upon B. burgdorferi strain B314 the ability to bind to cultured kidney epithelial (but not glial or endothelial) cells, as well as to purified decorin and dermatan sulfate. Nevertheless, allelic variation of DbpA was associated with dramatic differences in substrate binding activity. In most cases, decorin and dermatan sulfate binding correlated well, but DbpA of B. afzelii strain VS461 promoted differential binding to decorin and dermatan sulfate, indicating that the two activities are separable. DbpA from a clone of B. burgdorferi strain N40 that can cause disseminated infection in mice displayed relatively low adhesive activity, indicating that robust DbpA-mediated adhesive activity is not required for spread in the mammalian host.

  6. Serological detection of Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever in Texan domestic dogs

    PubMed Central

    Snell, Chloe B.; Adetunji, Shakirat A.; Piccione, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF) is caused by spirochetes in the genus Borrelia. Very limited information exists on the incidence of this disease in humans and domestic dogs in the United States. The main objective of this study is to evaluate exposure of dogs to Borrelia turicatae, a causative agent of TBRF, in Texas. To this end, 878 canine serum samples were submitted to Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory from October 2011 to September 2012 for suspected tick-borne illnesses. The recombinant Borrelial antigen glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) was expressed, purified, and used as a diagnostic antigen in both ELISA assays and Immunoblot analysis. Unfortunately, due to significant background reaction, the use of GlpQ as a diagnostic marker in the ELISA assay was not effective in discriminating dogs exposed to B. turicatae. Nevertheless, immunoblot assays showed that 17 out of 853 samples tested were considered to be seropositive, which constitutes 1.99% of all Texas samples tested in this study. The majority of positive samples were from central and southern Texas. Exposure to TBRF spirochetes may be seasonal, with 70.59% (12 out of 17) of the cases detected between June and December. In addition, 2 out of the 17 sero-reactive cases (11.76%) showed reactivity to both B. burgdorferi (causative agent of Lyme disease) and B. turicatae (a causative agent of TBRF). This is the first report of TBRF sero-prevalence in companion animals in an endemic area. Our findings further indicate that B. turicatae is maintained in domestic canids in Texas in regions where human disease also occurs, suggesting that domestic dogs could serve as sentinels for this disease. PMID:29232415

  7. Emerging borreliae - Expanding beyond Lyme borreliosis.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Sally J; Ruzic-Sabljic, Eva; Potkonjak, Aleksandar

    2017-02-01

    Lyme borreliosis (or Lyme disease) has become a virtual household term to the exclusion of other forgotten, emerging or re-emerging borreliae. We review current knowledge regarding these other borreliae, exploring their ecology, epidemiology and pathological potential, for example, for the newly described B. mayonii. These bacteria range from tick-borne, relapsing fever-inducing strains detected in some soft ticks, such as B. mvumii, to those from bat ticks resembling B. turicatae. Some of these emerging pathogens remain unnamed, such as the borrelial strains found in South African penguins and some African cattle ticks. Others, such as B. microti and unnamed Iranian strains, have not been recognised through a lack of discriminatory diagnostic methods. Technical improvements in phylogenetic methods have allowed the differentiation of B. merionesi from other borrelial species that co-circulate in the same region. Furthermore, we discuss members that challenge the existing dogma that Lyme disease-inducing strains are transmitted by hard ticks, whilst the relapsing fever-inducing spirochaetes are transmitted by soft ticks. Controversially, the genus has now been split with Lyme disease-associated members being transferred to Borreliella, whilst the relapsing fever species retain the Borrelia genus name. It took some 60 years for the correlation with clinical presentations now known as Lyme borreliosis to be attributed to their spirochaetal cause. Many of the borreliae discussed here are currently considered exotic curiosities, whilst others, such as B. miyamotoi, are emerging as significant causes of morbidity. To elucidate their role as potential pathogenic agents, we first need to recognise their presence through suitable diagnostic approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CD4+ cell-derived interleukin-17 in a model of dysregulated, Borrelia-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Emily S; Johnson, Megan E; Schell, Ronald F; Nardelli, Dean T

    2016-10-01

    Lyme borreliosis, which is caused in the United States by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, may manifest as different arrays of signs, symptoms and severities between infected individuals. Recent studies have indicated that particularly severe forms of Lyme borreliosis in humans are associated with an increased Th17 response. Here, we hypothesized that a murine model combining the dysregulated immune response of an environment lacking interleukin-10 (IL-10) with a robust T-cell-driven inflammatory response would reflect arthritis associated with the production of IL-17 by CD4+ cells. We demonstrate that IL-10 regulates the production of IL-17 by Borrelia-primed CD4+ cells early after interaction with Lyme spirochetes in vitro and that infection of Borrelia-primed mice with B. burgdorferi leads to significant production of IL-17 that contributes to the development of severe arthritis. These results extend our previous findings by demonstrating that a dysregulated adaptive immune response to Lyme spirochetes can contribute to severe, Th17-associated arthritis. These findings may lead to therapeutic measures for individuals with particularly severe symptoms of Lyme borreliosis. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Sensitive multiplex PCR assay to differentiate Lyme spirochetes and emerging pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kamfai; Marras, Salvatore A E; Parveen, Nikhat

    2013-12-20

    The infection with Borrelia burgdorferi can result in acute to chronic Lyme disease. In addition, coinfection with tick-borne pathogens, Babesia species and Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been increasing in endemic regions of the USA and Europe. The currently used serological diagnostic tests are often difficult to interpret and, moreover, antibodies against the pathogens persist for a long time making it difficult to confirm the cure of the disease. In addition, these tests cannot be used for diagnosis of early disease state before the adaptive immune response is established. Since nucleic acids of the pathogens do not persist after the cure, DNA-based diagnostic tests are becoming highly useful for detecting infectious diseases. In this study, we describe a real-time multiplex PCR assay to detect the presence of B. burgdorferi, B. microti and A. phagocytophilum simultaneously even when they are present in very low copy numbers. Interestingly, this quantitative PCR technique is also able to differentiate all three major Lyme spirochete species, B. burgdorferi, B. afzelii, and B. garinii by utilizing a post-PCR denaturation profile analysis and a single molecular beacon probe. This could be very useful for diagnosis and discrimination of various Lyme spirochetes in European countries where all three Lyme spirochete species are prevalent. As proof of the principle for patient samples, we detected the presence of low number of Lyme spirochetes spiked in the human blood using our assay. Finally, our multiplex assay can detect all three tick-borne pathogens in a sensitive and specific manner irrespective of the level of each pathogen present in the sample. We anticipate that this novel diagnostic method will be able to simultaneously diagnose early to chronic stages of Lyme disease, babesiosis and anaplasmosis using the patients' blood samples. Real-time quantitative PCR using specific primers and molecular beacon probes for the selected amplicon described in this study

  10. Sensitive multiplex PCR assay to differentiate Lyme spirochetes and emerging pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The infection with Borrelia burgdorferi can result in acute to chronic Lyme disease. In addition, coinfection with tick-borne pathogens, Babesia species and Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been increasing in endemic regions of the USA and Europe. The currently used serological diagnostic tests are often difficult to interpret and, moreover, antibodies against the pathogens persist for a long time making it difficult to confirm the cure of the disease. In addition, these tests cannot be used for diagnosis of early disease state before the adaptive immune response is established. Since nucleic acids of the pathogens do not persist after the cure, DNA-based diagnostic tests are becoming highly useful for detecting infectious diseases. Results In this study, we describe a real-time multiplex PCR assay to detect the presence of B. burgdorferi, B. microti and A. phagocytophilum simultaneously even when they are present in very low copy numbers. Interestingly, this quantitative PCR technique is also able to differentiate all three major Lyme spirochete species, B. burgdorferi, B. afzelii, and B. garinii by utilizing a post-PCR denaturation profile analysis and a single molecular beacon probe. This could be very useful for diagnosis and discrimination of various Lyme spirochetes in European countries where all three Lyme spirochete species are prevalent. As proof of the principle for patient samples, we detected the presence of low number of Lyme spirochetes spiked in the human blood using our assay. Finally, our multiplex assay can detect all three tick-borne pathogens in a sensitive and specific manner irrespective of the level of each pathogen present in the sample. We anticipate that this novel diagnostic method will be able to simultaneously diagnose early to chronic stages of Lyme disease, babesiosis and anaplasmosis using the patients’ blood samples. Conclusion Real-time quantitative PCR using specific primers and molecular beacon probes for the selected

  11. Cardiac Tropism of Borrelia burgdorferi: An Autopsy Study of Sudden Cardiac Death Associated with Lyme Carditis.

    PubMed

    Muehlenbachs, Atis; Bollweg, Brigid C; Schulz, Thadeus J; Forrester, Joseph D; DeLeon Carnes, Marlene; Molins, Claudia; Ray, Gregory S; Cummings, Peter M; Ritter, Jana M; Blau, Dianna M; Andrew, Thomas A; Prial, Margaret; Ng, Dianna L; Prahlow, Joseph A; Sanders, Jeanine H; Shieh, Wun Ju; Paddock, Christopher D; Schriefer, Martin E; Mead, Paul; Zaki, Sherif R

    2016-05-01

    Fatal Lyme carditis caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi rarely is identified. Here, we describe the pathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings of five case patients. These sudden cardiac deaths associated with Lyme carditis occurred from late summer to fall, ages ranged from young adult to late 40s, and four patients were men. Autopsy tissue samples were evaluated by light microscopy, Warthin-Starry stain, immunohistochemistry, and PCR for B. burgdorferi, and immunohistochemistry for complement components C4d and C9, CD3, CD79a, and decorin. Post-mortem blood was tested by serology. Interstitial lymphocytic pancarditis in a relatively characteristic road map distribution was present in all cases. Cardiomyocyte necrosis was minimal, T cells outnumbered B cells, plasma cells were prominent, and mild fibrosis was present. Spirochetes in the cardiac interstitium associated with collagen fibers and co-localized with decorin. Rare spirochetes were seen in the leptomeninges of two cases by immunohistochemistry. Spirochetes were not seen in other organs examined, and joint tissue was not available for evaluation. Although rare, sudden cardiac death caused by Lyme disease might be an under-recognized entity and is characterized by pancarditis and marked tropism of spirochetes for cardiac tissues. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. An Enhanced ELISPOT Assay for Sensitive Detection of Antigen-Specific T Cell Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chenggang; Roen, Diana R.; Lehmann, Paul V.; Kellermann, Gottfried H.

    2013-01-01

    Lyme Borreliosis is an infectious disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi that is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks. Both B cell-mediated humoral immunity and T cell immunity develop during natural Borrelia infection. However, compared with humoral immunity, the T cell response to Borrelia infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, a novel T cell-based assay was developed and validated for the sensitive detection of antigen-specific T cell response to B. burgdorferi. Using interferon-γ as a biomarker, we developed a new enzyme-linked immunospot method (iSpot LymeTM) to detect Borrelia antigen-specific effector/memory T cells that were activated in vivo by exposing them to recombinant Borrelia antigens ex vivo. To test this new method as a potential laboratory diagnostic tool, we performed a clinical study with a cohort of Borrelia positive patients and healthy controls. We demonstrated that the iSpot Lyme assay has a significantly higher specificity and sensitivity compared with the Western Blot assay that is currently used as a diagnostic measure. A comprehensive evaluation of the T cell response to Borrelia infection should, therefore, provide new insights into the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of Lyme disease. PMID:24709800

  13. Lyme Borreliosis: is there a preexisting (natural) variation in antimicrobial susceptibility among Borrelia burgdorferi strains?

    PubMed Central

    Hodzic, Emir

    2015-01-01

    The development of antibiotics changed the world of medicine and has saved countless human and animal lives. Bacterial resistance/tolerance to antibiotics have spread silently across the world and has emerged as a major public health concern. The recent emergence of pan-resistant bacteria can overcome virtually any antibiotic and poses a major problem for their successful control. Selection for antibiotic resistance may take place where an antibiotic is present in the skin, gut, and other tissues of humans and animals and in the environment. Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agents of Lyme borreliosis, evades host immunity and establishes persistent infections in its mammalian hosts. The persistent infection poses a challenge to the effective antibiotic treatment, as demonstrated in various animal models. An increasingly heterogeneous subpopulation of replicatively attenuated spirochetes arises following treatment, and these persistent antimicrobial tolerant/resistant spirochetes are non-cultivable. The non-cultivable spirochetes resurge in multiple tissues at 12 months after treatment, with B. burgdorferi-specific DNA copy levels nearly equivalent to those found in shame-treated experimental animals. These attenuated spirochetes remain viable, but divide slowly, thereby being tolerant to antibiotics. Despite the continued non-cultivable state, RNA transcription of multiple B. burgdorferi genes was detected in host tissues, spirochetes were acquired by xenodiagnostic ticks, and spirochetal forms could be visualized within ticks and mouse tissues. A number of host cytokines were up- or down-regulated in tissues of both shame- and antibiotic-treated mice in the absence of histopathology, indicating a lack of host response to the presence of antimicrobial tolerant/resistant spirochetes. PMID:26295288

  14. Lyme Borreliosis: Is there a preexisting (natural) variation in antimicrobial susceptibility among Borrelia burgdorferi strains?

    PubMed

    Hodzic, Emir

    2015-07-08

    The development of antibiotics changed the world of medicine and has saved countless human and animal lives. Bacterial resistance/tolerance to antibiotics have spread silently across the world and has emerged as a major public health concern. The recent emergence of pan-resistant bacteria can overcome virtually any antibiotic and poses a major problem for their successful control. Selection for antibiotic resistance may take place where an antibiotic is present: in the skin, gut, and other tissues of humans and animals and in the environment. Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agents of Lyme borreliosis, evades host immunity and establishes persistent infections in its mammalian hosts. The persistent infection poses a challenge to the effective antibiotic treatment, as demonstrated in various animal models. An increasingly heterogeneous subpopulation of replicatively attenuated spirochetes arises following treatment, and these persistent antimicrobial tolerant/resistant spirochetes are non-cultivable. The non-cultivable spirochetes resurge in multiple tissues at 12 months after treatment, with B. burgdorferi-specific DNA copy levels nearly equivalent to those found in shame-treated experimental animals. These attenuated spirochetes remain viable, but divide slowly, thereby being tolerant to antibiotics. Despite the continued non-cultivable state, RNA transcription of multiple B. burgdorferi genes was detected in host tissues, spirochetes were acquired by xenodiagnostic ticks, and spirochetal forms could be visualized within ticks and mouse tissues. A number of host cytokines were up- or down-regulated in tissues of both shame- and antibiotic-treated mice in the absence of histopathology, indicating a lack of host response to the presence of antimicrobial tolerant/resistant spirochetes.

  15. Reciprocal cooperation of phytochemicals and micronutrients against typical and atypical forms of Borrelia sp.

    PubMed

    Goc, A; Niedzwiecki, A; Rath, M

    2017-09-01

    Borrelia sp., a causative pathogenic factor of Lyme disease (LD), has become a major public health threat. Current treatments based on antibiotics often lead to relapse after their withdrawal. Naturally derived substances that could work synergistically to display higher efficacy compared with the individual components may serve as a resource for the development of novel approaches to combat both active and latent forms of Borrelia sp. Using checkerboard assay, we investigated the anti-borreliae reciprocal cooperation of phytochemicals and micronutrients against two species of Borrelia selected as prevalent causes of LD in the United States and Europe. We tested 28 combinations of phytochemicals such as polyphenols (baicalein, luteolin, rosmarinic acids), fatty acids (monolaurin, cis-2-decenoic acid) and micronutrients (ascorbic acid, cholecalciferol and iodine). The results showed that the combinations of baicalein with luteolin as well as monolaurin with cis-2-decenoic acid expressed synergistic anti-spirochetal effects. Moreover, baicalein and luteolin, when combined with rosmarinic acid or iodine, produced additive bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects against typical corkscrew motile spirochaetes and persistent knob/round-shaped forms, respectively. An additive anti-biofilm effect was noticed between baicalein with luteolin and monolaurin with cis-2-decenoic acid. Finally, application of the combination of baicalein with luteolin increased cytoplasmic permeability of Borrelia sp. but did not cause DNA damage. These results show that a specific combination of flavones might play a supporting role in combating Borrelia sp. through either synergistic or additive anti-borreliae effects. Presented here in vitro results might help advancing our knowledge and improving the approach to target Borrelia sp. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Borrelia lusitaniae and Green Lizards (Lacerta viridis), Karst Region, Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Majláth, Igor; Derdáková, Marketa; Víchová, Bronislava; Peťko, Branislav

    2006-01-01

    In Europe, spirochetes within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks. Specific associations are described between reservoir hosts and individual genospecies. We focused on green lizard (Lacerta viridis) as a host for ticks and potential host for borreliae. In 2004 and 2005, a total of 146 green lizards infested by ticks were captured, and 469 I. ricinus ticks were removed. Borrelial infection was detected in 16.6% of ticks from lizards. Of 102 skin biopsy specimens collected from lizards, 18.6% tested positive. The most frequently detected genospecies was B. lusitaniae (77.9%–94.7%). More than 19% of questing I. ricinus collected in areas where lizards were sampled tested positive for borreliae. B. garinii was the dominant species, and B. lusitaniae represented 11.1%. The presence of B. lusitaniae in skin biopsy specimens and in ticks that had fed on green lizards implicates this species in the transmission cycle of B. lusitaniae. PMID:17326941

  17. Laboratory Cultivation and Maintenance of Borrelia miyamotoi.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brandee L; Brissette, Catherine A

    2016-08-12

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a relapsing fever tick-borne pathogen found in Ixodes spp. (hard) ticks. In vitro culturing has proven difficult despite initial reports of cultures maintained in Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly-II (BSK-II) medium. The ability to culture in vitro opens many avenues for investigating the genetics and physiology of bacterial species. This unit describes methods for the maintenance and cultivation of B. miyamotoi in liquid medium. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Relapsing Fevers: Neglected Tick-Borne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Talagrand-Reboul, Emilie; Boyer, Pierre H.; Bergström, Sven; Vial, Laurence; Boulanger, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    Relapsing fever still remains a neglected disease and little is known on its reservoir, tick vector and physiopathology in the vertebrate host. The disease occurs in temperate as well as tropical countries. Relapsing fever borreliae are spirochaetes, members of the Borreliaceae family which also contain Lyme disease spirochaetes. They are mainly transmitted by Ornithodoros soft ticks, but some species are vectored by ixodid ticks. Traditionally a Borrelia species is associated with a specific vector in a particular geographical area. However, new species are regularly described, and taxonomical uncertainties deserve further investigations to better understand Borrelia vector/host adaptation. The medical importance of Borrelia miyamotoi, transmitted by Ixodes spp., has recently spawned new interest in this bacterial group. In this review, recent data on tick-host-pathogen interactions for tick-borne relapsing fevers is presented, with special focus on B. miyamotoi. PMID:29670860

  19. The role of host immune cells and Borrelia burgdorferi antigens in the etiology of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Verhaegh, Dennis; Joosten, Leo A B; Oosting, Marije

    2017-06-01

    Lyme disease is a zoonosis caused by infection with bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi species after the bite of an infected tick. Even though an infection by this bacterium can be effectively treated with antibiotics, when the infection stays unnoticed B. burgdorferi can persist and chronic post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome is able to develop. Although a cellular and humoral response is observed after an infection with the Borrelia bacteria, these pathogens are still capable to stay alive. Several immune evasive mechanisms have been revealed and explained and much work has been put into the understanding of the contribution of the innate and adaptive immune response. This review provides an overview with the latest findings regarding the cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems, how they recognize contribute and mediate in the killing of the B. burgdorferi spirochete. Moreover, this review also elaborates on the antigens that are expressed by on the spirochete. Since antigens drive the adaptive and, indirectly, the innate response, this review will discuss briefly the most important antigens that are described to date. Finally, there will be a brief elaboration on the escape mechanisms of B. burgdorferi with a focus on tick salivary proteins and spirochete antigens.

  20. Occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in different genera of mosquitoes (Culicidae) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Melaun, Christian; Zotzmann, Sina; Santaella, Vanesa Garcia; Werblow, Antje; Zumkowski-Xylander, Helga; Kraiczy, Peter; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. Some stages of the borrelial transmission cycle in ticks (transstadial, feeding and co-feeding) can potentially occur also in insects, particularly in mosquitoes. In the present study, adult as well as larval mosquitoes were collected at 42 different geographical locations throughout Germany. This is the first study, in which German mosquitoes were analyzed for the presence of Borrelia spp. Targeting two specific borrelial genes, flaB and ospA encoding for the subunit B of flagellin and the outer surface protein A, the results show that DNA of Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia bavariensis and Borrelia garinii could be detected in ten Culicidae species comprising four distinct genera (Aedes, Culiseta, Culex, and Ochlerotatus). Positive samples also include adult specimens raised in the laboratory from wild-caught larvae indicating that transstadial and/or transovarial transmission might occur within a given mosquito population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Misonne, M C; Van Impe, G; Hoet, P P

    1998-11-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), the etiological agent of Lyme disease, is transmitted by the bite of Ixodes ricinus. Four hundred eighty-nine ticks, collected in four locations of a region of southern Belgium where Lyme disease is endemic, were examined for the presence of the spirochete. In a PCR test with primers that recognize a chromosomal gene of all strains, 23% of the ticks were found to be infected. The species B. burgdorferi s.l. comprises at least three pathogenic genomospecies, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii, which could be distinguished in PCR tests with species-specific primers that correspond to distinct plasmid sequences. B. garinii was most prevalent (53% of infected ticks), followed by B. burgdorferi s.s. (38%) and B. afzelii (9%). Of the infected ticks, 40% were infected with a single species, 40% were infected with two species, and 5% were infected with all three species. For 15% of the ticks, the infecting species could not be identified. No difference in rates of prevalence was observed among the four locations, which had similar ground covers, even though they belonged to distinct biogeographic regions. A greater heterogeneity of spirochetal DNA in ticks than in cultured reference DNA was suggested by a comparison of the results of PCRs with two different sets of species-specific primer sequences.

  2. New Borrelia species detected in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about Borrelia species transmitted by hard ticks in Ethiopia. The present study was conducted from November 2011 through March 2014 to address the occurrence and molecular identity of these bacteria in ixodid ticks infesting domestic animals in Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 767 ixodid ticks collected from domestic animals were screened for Borrelia DNA by quantitative (q) real-time PCR followed by standard PCR and sequencing to identify the species. Overall, 3.8% (29/767) of the tested ticks were positive for Borrelia DNA, including 8/119 (6.7%) Amblyomma cohaerens, 1/42 (2.4%) Am. gemma, 3/53 (5.7%) Am. variegatum, 5/22 (22.7%) Amblyomma larvae, 3/60 (5%) Amblyomma nymphs, 2/139 (1.4%) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, 2/31 (6.4%) Rh. decoloratus nymphs, and 5/118 (4.2%) Rh. pulchellus using 16S genus-specific qPCR. The prevalence of Borrelia DNA was significantly higher in genus Amblyomma (20/298, 6.7%) than in the genus Rhipicephalus (9/417, 2.1%) ticks (P=0.001). Sequencing of PCR products from the flaB and 16S rRNA genes of Borrelia spp. from Amblyomma ticks showed the presence of a new species between the relapsing fever and Lyme disease groups. However, Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks clustered with B. theileri/B. lonestari. The human pathogenicity of the Borrelia sp. detected in Amblyomma ticks from Ethiopia has not yet been investigated, whereas the Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks in our study is the causative agent of bovine borreliosis in cattle and may have veterinary importance in different parts of Ethiopia. Furthermore, the detection of previously unrecognized Borrelia species in Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks in Ethiopia generates additional questions concerning the bacterial fauna in hard ticks and will prompt researchers to perform detailed studies for better understanding of ixodid ticks associated bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of in-vitro antibiotic susceptibility of different morphological forms of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Sapi, Eva; Kaur, Navroop; Anyanwu, Samuel; Luecke, David F; Datar, Akshita; Patel, Seema; Rossi, Michael; Stricker, Raphael B

    2011-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Although antibiotic therapy is usually effective early in the disease, relapse may occur when administration of antibiotics is discontinued. Studies have suggested that resistance and recurrence of Lyme disease might be due to formation of different morphological forms of B. burgdorferi, namely round bodies (cysts) and biofilm-like colonies. Better understanding of the effect of antibiotics on all morphological forms of B. burgdorferi is therefore crucial to provide effective therapy for Lyme disease. Three morphological forms of B. burgdorferi (spirochetes, round bodies, and biofilm-like colonies) were generated using novel culture methods. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of five antimicrobial agents (doxycycline, amoxicillin, tigecycline, metronidazole, and tinidazole) against spirochetal forms of B. burgdorferi were evaluated using the standard published microdilution technique. The susceptibility of spirochetal and round body forms to the antibiotics was then tested using fluorescent microscopy (BacLight™ viability staining) and dark field microscopy (direct cell counting), and these results were compared with the microdilution technique. Qualitative and quantitative effects of the antibiotics against biofilm-like colonies were assessed using fluorescent microscopy and dark field microscopy, respectively. Doxycycline reduced spirochetal structures ∼90% but increased the number of round body forms about twofold. Amoxicillin reduced spirochetal forms by ∼85%-90% and round body forms by ∼68%, while treatment with metronidazole led to reduction of spirochetal structures by ∼90% and round body forms by ∼80%. Tigecycline and tinidazole treatment reduced both spirochetal and round body forms by ∼80%-90%. When quantitative effects on biofilm-like colonies were evaluated, the five antibiotics reduced formation of these colonies by

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Lyme Disease: Global Protein Comparison of Three Strains of Borrelia burgdorferi

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Yang, Xiaohua; Luft, Benjamin J.

    2005-04-01

    The Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne disease in the United States. It has been studied extensively to help understand its pathogenicity of infection and how it can persist in different mammalian hosts. We report the proteomic analysis of the archetype B. burgdorferi B31 strain and two other strains (ND40, and JD-1) having different Borrelia pathotypes using strong cation exchange fractionation of proteolytic peptides followed by high-resolution, reversed phase capillary liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Protein identification was facilitated by the availability of the complete B31more » genome sequence. A total of 665 Borrelia proteins were identified representing ~38 % coverage of the theoretical B31 proteome. A significant overlap was observed between the identified proteins in direct comparisons between any two strains (>72%), but distinct differences were observed among identified hypothetical and outer membrane proteins of the three strains. Such a concurrent proteomic overview of three Borrelia strains based upon only the B31 genome sequence is shown to provide significant insights into the presence or absence of specific proteins and a broad overall comparison among strains.« less

  5. Pleomorphism and Viability of the Lyme Disease Pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi Exposed to Physiological Stress Conditions: A Correlative Cryo-Fluorescence and Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Vancová, Marie; Rudenko, Nataliia; Vaněček, Jiří; Golovchenko, Maryna; Strnad, Martin; Rego, Ryan O M; Tichá, Lucie; Grubhoffer, Libor; Nebesářová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    To understand the response of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi exposed to stress conditions and assess the viability of this spirochete, we used a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-scanning microscopy approach. This approach enables simple exposition of bacteria to various experimental conditions that can be stopped at certain time intervals by cryo-immobilization, examination of cell viability without necessity to maintain suitable culture conditions during viability assays, and visualization of structures in their native state at high magnification. We focused on rare and transient events e.g., the formation of round bodies and the presence of membranous blebs in spirochetes exposed to culture medium, host sera either without or with the bacteriolytic effect and water. We described all crucial steps of the workflow, particularly the influence of freeze-etching and accelerating voltage on the visualization of topography. With the help of newly designed cryo-transport device, we achieved greater reproducibility.

  6. Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in questing ticks from a recreational coniferous forest of East Saxony, Germany.

    PubMed

    Szekeres, Sándor; Lügner, Jenny; Fingerle, Volker; Margos, Gabriele; Földvári, Gábor

    2017-10-01

    The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is the most important vector of tick-transmitted pathogens in Europe, frequently occurring in urban parks and greenbelts utilized for recreational activities. This species is the most common vector of the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Similarly, the species spreads Borrelia miyamotoi, causing a relapsing-fever like illness. A total of 1774 Ixodes ricinus (50 females, 68 males, 840 nymphs and 818 larvae) were collected with flagging between March and September 2014 in a coniferous forest patch in Niederkaina near the town of Bautzen in Saxony, Germany. To measure questing tick density a time-based density estimating method was utilized. From each month, a total of 100 adults and nymphal ticks and all larvae (pools of 10 individuals per tube/month) were selected for the molecular analyses. For simultaneous detection of B. burgdorferi s.l. and B. miyamotoi a duplex real-time PCR targeting the flaB locus was performed. Prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. was 9.4% (female: 6%, male: 2.9%, nymph: 12.2%, larva: 0%) and minimum prevalence of B. miyamotoi was 1.2% (female: 0%, male: 4.3%, nymph: 2.8%, larva: 0.1%) in the 714 samples with real-time polymerase chain reaction. A real-time PCR reaction was utilized first to target the histone-like protein gene (hbb) of B. burgdorferi s.l., a hemi-nested outer surface protein (ospA) gene conventional PCR was then performed followed by a restriction enzyme analysis to distinguish B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies. Seven B. afzelii, one B. burgdorferi s.s., one B. bavariensis and four B. miyamotoi infections were confirmed. Prevalence of Lyme borreliosis spirochetes was significantly higher in nymphs than in adults (p<0.01, Fisher exact test) probably due to the diluting effect of the local roe deer population. Our data highlight the potential risk of human infection with the emerging pathogen B. miyamotoi within the study area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. T2 Magnetic Resonance Assay-Based Direct Detection of Three Lyme Disease-Related Borrelia Species in Whole-Blood Samples.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jessica L; Giese, Heidi; Bandoski-Gralinski, Cheryl; Townsend, Jessica; Jacobson, Beck E; Shivers, Robert; Schotthoefer, Anna M; Fritsche, Thomas R; Green, Clayton; Callister, Steven M; Branda, John A; Lowery, Thomas J

    2017-08-01

    In early Lyme disease (LD), serologic testing is insensitive and seroreactivity may reflect active or past infection. In this study, we evaluated a novel assay for the direct detection of three species of Borrelia spirochetes in whole blood. The T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR) assay platform was used to amplify Borrelia DNA released from intact spirochetes and to detect amplicon. Analytical sensitivity was determined from blood spiked with known concentrations of spirochetes, and the assay's limit of detection was found to be in the single-cell-per-milliliter range: 5 cells/ml for B. afzelii and 8 cells/ml for Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii Clinical samples ( n = 66) from confirmed or suspected early LD patients were also analyzed. B. burgdorferi was detected using T2MR in 2/2 (100%) of blood samples from patients with confirmed early LD, based on the presence of erythema migrans and documentation of seroconversion or a positive real-time blood PCR. T2MR detected B. burgdorferi in blood samples from 17/54 (31%) of patients with probable LD, based on the presence of erythema migrans without documented seroconversion or of documented seroconversion in patients with a compatible clinical syndrome but without erythema migrans. Out of 21 clinical samples tested by real-time PCR, only 1 was positive and 13 were negative with agreement with T2MR. An additional 7 samples that were negative by real-time PCR were positive with T2MR. Therefore, T2MR enables a low limit of detection (LoD) for Borrelia spp. in whole blood samples and is able to detect B. burgdorferi in clinical samples. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. T2 Magnetic Resonance Assay-Based Direct Detection of Three Lyme Disease-Related Borrelia Species in Whole-Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Giese, Heidi; Bandoski-Gralinski, Cheryl; Townsend, Jessica; Jacobson, Beck E.; Shivers, Robert; Schotthoefer, Anna M.; Fritsche, Thomas R.; Green, Clayton; Callister, Steven M.; Branda, John A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In early Lyme disease (LD), serologic testing is insensitive and seroreactivity may reflect active or past infection. In this study, we evaluated a novel assay for the direct detection of three species of Borrelia spirochetes in whole blood. The T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR) assay platform was used to amplify Borrelia DNA released from intact spirochetes and to detect amplicon. Analytical sensitivity was determined from blood spiked with known concentrations of spirochetes, and the assay's limit of detection was found to be in the single-cell-per-milliliter range: 5 cells/ml for B. afzelii and 8 cells/ml for Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii. Clinical samples (n = 66) from confirmed or suspected early LD patients were also analyzed. B. burgdorferi was detected using T2MR in 2/2 (100%) of blood samples from patients with confirmed early LD, based on the presence of erythema migrans and documentation of seroconversion or a positive real-time blood PCR. T2MR detected B. burgdorferi in blood samples from 17/54 (31%) of patients with probable LD, based on the presence of erythema migrans without documented seroconversion or of documented seroconversion in patients with a compatible clinical syndrome but without erythema migrans. Out of 21 clinical samples tested by real-time PCR, only 1 was positive and 13 were negative with agreement with T2MR. An additional 7 samples that were negative by real-time PCR were positive with T2MR. Therefore, T2MR enables a low limit of detection (LoD) for Borrelia spp. in whole blood samples and is able to detect B. burgdorferi in clinical samples. PMID:28566314

  9. Cross-reactive acquired immunity influences transmission success of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia afzelii.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Maxime; Durand, Jonas; Rais, Olivier; Voordouw, Maarten J

    2015-12-01

    Cross-reactive acquired immunity in the vertebrate host induces indirect competition between strains of a given pathogen species and is critical for understanding the ecology of mixed infections. In vector-borne diseases, cross-reactive antibodies can reduce pathogen transmission at the vector-to-host and the host-to-vector lifecycle transition. The highly polymorphic, immunodominant, outer surface protein C (OspC) of the tick-borne spirochete bacterium Borrelia afzelii induces a strong antibody response in the vertebrate host. To test how cross-immunity in the vertebrate host influences tick-to-host and host-to-tick transmission, mice were immunized with one of two strain-specific recombinant OspC proteins (A3, A10), challenged via tick bite with one of the two B. afzelii ospC strains (A3, A10), and infested with xenodiagnostic ticks. Immunization with a given rOspC antigen protected mice against homologous strains carrying the same major ospC group allele but provided little or no cross-protection against heterologous strains carrying a different major ospC group allele. There were cross-immunity effects on the tick spirochete load but not on the probability of host-to-tick transmission. The spirochete load in ticks that had fed on mice with cross-immune experience was reduced by a factor of two compared to ticks that had fed on naive control mice. In addition, strain-specific differences in mouse spirochete load, host-to-tick transmission, tick spirochete load, and the OspC-specific IgG response revealed the mechanisms that determine variation in transmission success between strains of B. afzelii. This study shows that cross-immunity in infected vertebrate hosts can reduce pathogen load in the arthropod vector with potential consequences for vector-to-host pathogen transmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular characterization of 'Candidatus Borrelia tachyglossi' (family Spirochaetaceae) in echidna ticks, Bothriocroton concolor.

    PubMed

    Loh, Siew-May; Gillett, Amber; Ryan, Una; Irwin, Peter; Oskam, Charlotte

    2017-04-01

    Recently, a novel species of the genus Borreliawas identified in Bothriocroton concolor and Ixodes holocyclus ticks from echidnas. Analyses of 16S rRNA and flaB genes identified three closely related genotypes of this bacterium (Borrelia sp. Aus A-C) that were unique and distinct from previously described borreliae. Phylogenetic analyses of flaB (763 bp), groEL (1537 bp), gyrB (1702 bp) and glpQ (874 bp) gene sequences and concatenated sequences (3585 bp) of three gene loci (16S rRNA, flaB and gyrB) were consistent with previous findings and confirm that this novel species of the genus Borrelia is more closely related to, yet distinct from, the Reptile-associated (REP) and Relapsing Fever (RF) groups. At the flaB locus, genotypes A, B and C shared the highest percentage sequence similarities (87.9, 88 and 87.9 %, respectively) with B.orrelia turcica (REP), whereas at the groEL and gyrB loci, these genotypes were most similar (88.2-89.4 %) to B.orrelia hermsii (RF). At the glpQ locus, genotypes A and B were most similar (85.7 and 85.4 % respectively) to Borrelia sp. Tortoise14H1 (REP). The presence of the glpQ gene, which is absent in the Lyme Borreliosis group spirochaetes, further emphasises that the novel species of the genus Borrelia characterized in the present study does not belong to this group. Phylogenetic analyses at multiple loci produced consistent topographies revealing the monophyletic grouping of this bacterium, therefore providing strong support for its species status. We propose the name 'CandidatusBorrelia tachyglossi', and hypothesize that this species of the genus Borrelia may be endemic to Australia. The pathogenic potential of this bacterium is not yet known.

  11. Molecular characterization of ‘Candidatus Borrelia tachyglossi’ (family Spirochaetaceae) in echidna ticks, Bothriocroton concolor

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Siew-May; Gillett, Amber; Ryan, Una; Irwin, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a novel species of the genus Borreliawas identified in Bothriocroton concolor and Ixodes holocyclus ticks from echidnas. Analyses of 16S rRNA and flaB genes identified three closely related genotypes of this bacterium (Borrelia sp. Aus A-C) that were unique and distinct from previously described borreliae. Phylogenetic analyses of flaB (763 bp), groEL (1537 bp), gyrB (1702 bp) and glpQ (874 bp) gene sequences and concatenated sequences (3585 bp) of three gene loci (16S rRNA, flaB and gyrB) were consistent with previous findings and confirm that this novel species of the genus Borrelia is more closely related to, yet distinct from, the Reptile-associated (REP) and Relapsing Fever (RF) groups. At the flaB locus, genotypes A, B and C shared the highest percentage sequence similarities (87.9, 88 and 87.9 %, respectively) with B.orrelia turcica (REP), whereas at the groEL and gyrB loci, these genotypes were most similar (88.2–89.4 %) to B.orrelia hermsii (RF). At the glpQ locus, genotypes A and B were most similar (85.7 and 85.4 % respectively) to Borrelia sp. Tortoise14H1 (REP). The presence of the glpQ gene, which is absent in the Lyme Borreliosis group spirochaetes, further emphasises that the novel species of the genus Borrelia characterized in the present study does not belong to this group. Phylogenetic analyses at multiple loci produced consistent topographies revealing the monophyletic grouping of this bacterium, therefore providing strong support for its species status. We propose the name ‘Candidatus Borrelia tachyglossi’, and hypothesize that this species of the genus Borrelia may be endemic to Australia. The pathogenic potential of this bacterium is not yet known. PMID:28475032

  12. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis With OspA-Specific Human Monoclonal Antibodies Protects Mice Against Tick Transmission of Lyme Disease Spirochetes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Kern, Aurélie; Boatright, Naomi K; Schiller, Zachary A; Sadowski, Andrew; Ejemel, Monir; Souders, Colby A; Reimann, Keith A; Hu, Linden; Thomas, William D; Klempner, Mark S

    2016-07-15

    Tick transmission of Borrelia spirochetes to humans results in significant morbidity from Lyme disease worldwide. Serum concentrations of antibodies against outer surface protein A (OspA) were shown to correlate with protection from infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the primary cause of Lyme disease in the United States. Mice transgenic for human immunoglobulin genes were immunized with OspA from B. burgdorferi to generate human monoclonal antibodies (HuMabs) against OspA. HuMabs were generated and tested in in vitro borreliacidal assays and animal protection assays. Nearly 100 unique OspA-specific HuMabs were generated, and 4 HuMabs (221-7, 857-2, 319-44, and 212-55) were selected as lead candidates on the basis of borreliacidal activity. HuMabs 319-44, 857-2, and 212-55 were borreliacidal against 1 or 2 Borrelia genospecies, whereas 221-7 was borreliacidal (half maximal inhibitory concentration, < 1 nM) against B. burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii, the 3 main genospecies endemic in the United States, Europe, and Asia. All 4 HuMabs completely protected mice from infection at 10 mg/kg in a murine model of tick-mediated transmission of B. burgdorferi  Our study indicates that OspA-specific HuMabs can prevent the transmission of Borrelia and that administration of these antibodies could be employed as preexposure prophylaxis for Lyme disease. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. [Antibody titers against Borrelia in horses in serum and in eyes and occurrence of equine recurrent uveitis].

    PubMed

    Gerhards, H; Wollanke, B

    1996-08-01

    In Germany very little is known about antibody titers against Borrelia burgdorferi in the horse. In the USA there exist some studies on the titer levels and symptoms due to borrelia infections. Beside lameness, fever, polyarthritis, pneumonia and dullness there is a study showing a connection between panuveitis and Borrelia infection in the horse. In human medicine the infection with Borrelia burgdorferi becomes more and more important. Uveitis and other eye diseases due to Borrelia burgdorferi are proved and documented. The goal of this study was to find a connection between antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi and cases of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU). The antibody titer against Borrelia burgdorferi was determined by IFT in 153 horses with no sign of disease of the eye and in 79 horses with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU). 48% of all horses were found to be positive (titer 1:64 or higher). In addition 22 sera were tested in western-blot for antibody titers. There was no significant correlation between signs of ERU and increased antibody titers against Borrelia burgdorferi (p > 0.05). No clinical signs were seen in horses with elevated titers. No correlation between the age of the horses and the antibody level could be found. There was a connection between the antibody titer and the month of examination (p < 0.05). Highest titer levels were seen in May and November. This is both one month later than the activity of the transmitting ticks (I. ricinus).

  14. Prevalence, Diversity, and Load of Borrelia species in Ticks That Have Fed on Humans in Regions of Sweden and Åland Islands, Finland with Different Lyme Borreliosis Incidences

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmsson, Peter; Lindblom, Pontus; Fryland, Linda; Ernerudh, Jan; Forsberg, Pia; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of Lyme borreliosis (LB) in a region may reflect the prevalence of Borrelia in the tick population. Our aim was to investigate if regions with different LB incidences can be distinguished by studying the prevalence and diversity of Borrelia species in their respective tick populations. The Borrelia load in a feeding tick increases with the duration of feeding, which may facilitate a transmission of Borrelia Spirochetes from tick to host. Therefore, we also wanted to investigate how the Borrelia load in ticks that have fed on humans varies with the duration of tick feeding. During 2008 and 2009, ticks that had bitten humans were collected from four regions of Sweden and Finland, regions with expected differences in LB incidence. The duration of tick feeding was estimated and Borrelia were detected and quantified by a quantitative PCR assay followed by species determination. Out of the 2,154 Ixodes ricinus ticks analyzed, 26% were infected with Borrelia and seven species were identified. B. spielmanii was detected for the first time in the regions. The tick populations collected from the four regions exhibited only minor differences in both prevalence and diversity of Borrelia species, indicating that these variables alone cannot explain the regions’ different LB incidences. The number of Borrelia cells in the infected ticks ranged from fewer than ten to more than a million. We also found a lower number of Borrelia cells in adult female ticks that had fed for more than 36 hours, compared to the number of Borrelia cells found in adult female ticks that had fed for less than 36 hours. PMID:24278437

  15. Borrelia species in Ixodes affinis and Ixodes scapularis ticks collected from the coastal plain of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Ricardo G; Reichelt, Sara; Toliver, Marcée; Engber, Barry

    2010-12-01

    Ixodes affinis and I. scapularis are tick species that are widely distributed in the coastal plain region of North Carolina. Both tick species are considered enzootic vectors for spirochetal bacteria of the genus Borrelia and specifically for B. burgdorferi s.s., the pathogen most often attributed as the cause of Lyme disease in the USA. Laboratory testing of individual I. affinis and I. scapularis ticks for the presence of Borrelia DNA was accomplished by PCR, targeting 2 regions of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer. In I. affinis, Borrelia DNA was detected in 63.2% of 155 individual ticks. B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. bissettii were identified by DNA sequencing in 33.5% and 27.9% I. affinis, respectively. Statistical differences were found for sex distribution of Borrelia DNA between I. affinis females (76.8%) and I. affinis males (55.6%) where B. burgdorferi s.s. was more prevalent in females (44.6%) than in males (27.3%). In I. scapularis, 298 individually tested ticks yielded no Borrelia PCR-positive results. This study found a higher incidence of Borrelia spp. in I. affinis collected in coastal North Carolina as compared to previous reports for this tick species in other Southern states, highlighting the potential importance of I. affinis in the maintenance of the enzootic transmission cycle of B. burgdorferi s.l. in North Carolina. The lack of Borrelia DNA in I. scapularis highlights the need for additional studies to better define the transmission cycle for B. burgdorferi s.s. in the southeastern USA and specifically in the state of North Carolina. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. A Coding Variant of ANO10, Affecting Volume Regulation of Macrophages, Is Associated with Borrelia Seropositivity

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Christian; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Sirianant, Lalida; Papiol, Sergi; Monnheimer, Mathieu; Faria, Diana; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Schramek, Natalie; Schmitt, Corinna; Margos, Gabriele; Michel, Angelika; Kraiczy, Peter; Pawlita, Michael; Schreiber, Rainer; Schulz, Thomas F; Fingerle, Volker; Tumani, Hayrettin; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2015-01-01

    In a first genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach to anti-Borrelia seropositivity, we identified two significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs17850869, P = 4.17E-09; rs41289586, P = 7.18E-08). Both markers, located on chromosomes 16 and 3, respectively, are within or close to genes previously connected to spinocerebellar ataxia. The risk SNP rs41289586 represents a missense variant (R263H) of anoctamin 10 (ANO10), a member of a protein family encoding Cl− channels and phospholipid scram-blases. ANO10 augments volume-regulated Cl− currents (IHypo) in Xenopus oocytes, HEK293 cells, lymphocytes and macrophages and controls volume regulation by enhancing regulatory volume decrease (RVD). ANO10 supports migration of macrophages and phagocytosis of spirochetes. The R263H variant is inhibitory on IHypo, RVD and intracellular Ca2+ signals, which may delay spirochete clearance, thereby sensitizing adaptive immunity. Our data demonstrate for the first time that ANO10 has a central role in innate immune defense against Borrelia infection. PMID:25730773

  17. First detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus halli).

    PubMed

    Schramm, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Fournier, Jean-Charles; McCoy, Karen D; Barthel, Cathy; Postic, Danièle; Handrich, Yves; Le Maho, Yvon; Jaulhac, Benoît

    2014-10-01

    The hard tick Ixodes uriae parasitises a wide range of seabird species in the circumpolar areas of both Northern and Southern hemispheres and has been shown to be infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the bacterial agents of Lyme borreliosis. Although it is assumed that seabirds represent viable reservoir hosts, direct demonstrations of infection are limited to a single study from the Northern hemisphere. Here, the blood of 50 tick-infested adult king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus halli) breeding in the Crozet Archipelago (Southern Indian Ocean) was examined for B. burgdorferi sl exposure by serology and for spirochetemia by in vitro DNA amplification. Four birds were found positive by serology, whereas B. burgdorferi sl DNA was detected in two other birds. Our data therefore provide the first direct proof of Borrelia burgdorferi sl spirochetes in seabirds of the Southern hemisphere and indicate a possible reservoir role for king penguins in the natural maintenance of this bacterium. Although the bacterial genetic diversity present in these hosts and the infectious period for tick vectors remain to be elucidated, our results add to a growing body of knowledge on the contribution of seabirds to the complex epizootiology of Lyme disease and the global dissemination of B. burgdorferi sl spirochetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Adaptive and Innate Immune Responsiveness to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Exposed Asymptomatic Children and Children with Previous Clinical Lyme Borreliosis

    PubMed Central

    Skogman, Barbro H.; Hellberg, Sandra; Ekerfelt, Christina; Jenmalm, Maria C.; Forsberg, Pia; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Bergström, Sven; Ernerudh, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Why some individuals develop clinical manifestations in Lyme borreliosis (LB) while others remain asymptomatic is largely unknown. Therefore, we wanted to investigate adaptive and innate immune responsiveness to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in exposed Borrelia-antibody-positive asymptomatic children (n = 20), children with previous clinical LB (n = 24), and controls (n = 20). Blood samples were analyzed for Borrelia-specific interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-17 secretion by ELISPOT and Borrelia-induced IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12(p70), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) secretion by Luminex. We found no significant differences in cytokine secretion between groups, but a tendency towards an increased spontaneous secretion of IL-6 was found among children with previous clinical LB. In conclusion, the adaptive or innate immune responsiveness to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was similar in Borrelia-exposed asymptomatic children and children with previous clinical LB. Thus, the immunological mechanisms of importance for eradicating the spirochete effectively without developing clinical manifestations of LB remain unknown. PMID:22190976

  19. Diversity of spirochetes in endodontic infections.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N; Benno, Yoshimi

    2009-05-01

    The diversity of spirochetes in primary endodontic infections of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis or acute apical abscesses was investigated using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. The prevalences of three common cultivable oral Treponema species were also determined using species-specific nested PCR. All detected spirochetes belonged to the genus Treponema. Overall, 28 different taxa were identified from the 431 clones sequenced: 9 cultivable and validly named species, 1 cultivable as-yet-uncharacterized strain, and 18 as-yet-uncultivated phylotypes, 17 of which were novel. The large majority of clones (94%) were from cultivable named species. The numbers of Treponema species/phylotypes per selected positive sample ranged from 2 to 12. Species-specific nested PCR detected T. denticola, T. socranskii, and T. maltophilum in 59 (66%), 33 (37%), and 26 (29%) of the 90 cases of primary endodontic infections, respectively. Clone library analysis revealed diverse Treponema species/phylotypes as part of the microbiota associated with asymptomatic and symptomatic (abscess) endodontic infections. Although several as-yet-uncultivated Treponema phylotypes were disclosed, including novel taxa, cultivable named species were more abundant and frequently detected.

  20. Association of Borrelia garinii and B. valaisiana with Songbirds in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Hanincová, Klára; Taragelová, Veronika; Koci, Juraj; Schäfer, Stefanie M.; Hails, Rosie; Ullmann, Amy J.; Piesman, Joseph; Labuda, Milan; Kurtenbach, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    In Europe, 6 of the 11 genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are prevalent in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. In most parts of Central Europe, B. afzelii, B. garinii, and B. valaisiana are the most frequent species, whereas B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. bissettii, and B. lusitaniae are rare. Previously, it has been shown that B. afzelii is associated with European rodents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify reservoir hosts of B. garinii and B. valaisiana in Slovakia. Songbirds were captured in a woodland near Bratislava and investigated for engorged ticks. Questing I. ricinus ticks were collected in the same region. Both tick pools were analyzed for spirochete infections by PCR, followed by DNA-DNA hybridization and, for a subsample, by nucleotide sequencing. Three of the 17 captured songbird species were infested with spirochete-infected ticks. Spirochetes in ticks that had fed on birds were genotyped as B. garinii and B. valaisiana, whereas questing ticks were infected with B. afzelii, B. garinii, and B. valaisiana. Furthermore, identical ospA alleles of B. garinii were found in ticks that had fed on the birds and in questing ticks. The data show that songbirds are reservoir hosts of B. garinii and B. valaisiana but not of B. afzelii. This and previous studies confirm that B. burgdorferi sensu lato is host associated and that this bacterial species complex contains different ecotypes. PMID:12732554

  1. Borrelia burgdorferi glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins: a potential target for new therapeutics against Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Pin; Li, Lingyun; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2017-12-01

    The spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in Europe and the United States. The spirochetes can be transmitted to humans via ticks, and then spread to different tissues, leading to arthritis, carditis and neuroborreliosis. Although antibiotics have commonly been used to treat infected individuals, some treated patients do not respond to antibiotics and experience persistent, long-term arthritis. Thus, there is a need to investigate alternative therapeutics against Lyme disease. The spirochete bacterium colonization is partly attributed to the binding of the bacterial outer-surface proteins to the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of host proteoglycans. Blocking the binding of these proteins to GAGs is a potential strategy to prevent infection. In this review, we have summarized the recent reports of B. burgdorferi sensu lato GAG-binding proteins and discussed the potential use of synthetic and semi-synthetic compounds, including GAG analogues, to block pathogen interaction with GAGs. Such information should motivate the discovery and development of novel GAG analogues as new therapeutics for Lyme disease. New therapeutic approaches should eventually reduce the burden of Lyme disease and improve human health.

  2. Borrelia burgdorferi glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins: a potential target for new therapeutics against Lyme disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Pin; Li, Lingyun; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    The spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in Europe and the United States. The spirochetes can be transmitted to humans via ticks, and then spread to different tissues, leading to arthritis, carditis and neuroborreliosis. Although antibiotics have commonly been used to treat infected individuals, some treated patients do not respond to antibiotics and experience persistent, long-term arthritis. Thus, there is a need to investigate alternative therapeutics against Lyme disease. The spirochete bacterium colonization is partly attributed to the binding of the bacterial outer-surface proteins to the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of host proteoglycans. Blocking the binding of these proteins to GAGs is a potential strategy to prevent infection. In this review, we have summarized the recent reports of B. burgdorferi sensu lato GAG-binding proteins and discussed the potential use of synthetic and semi-synthetic compounds, including GAG analogues, to block pathogen interaction with GAGs. Such information should motivate the discovery and development of novel GAG analogues as new therapeutics for Lyme disease. New therapeutic approaches should eventually reduce the burden of Lyme disease and improve human health. PMID:29116038

  3. Susceptibility to Ticks and Lyme Disease Spirochetes Is Not Affected in Mice Coinfected with Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Maaz, Denny; Rausch, Sebastian; Richter, Dania; Krücken, Jürgen; Kühl, Anja A; Demeler, Janina; Blümke, Julia; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Hartmann, Susanne

    2016-05-01

    Small rodents serve as reservoir hosts for tick-borne pathogens, such as the spirochetes causing Lyme disease. Whether natural coinfections with other macroparasites alter the success of tick feeding, antitick immunity, and the host's reservoir competence for tick-borne pathogens remains to be determined. In a parasitological survey of wild mice in Berlin, Germany, approximately 40% of Ixodes ricinus-infested animals simultaneously harbored a nematode of the genus Heligmosomoides We therefore aimed to analyze the immunological impact of the nematode/tick coinfection as well as its effect on the tick-borne pathogen Borrelia afzelii Hosts experimentally coinfected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus and larval/nymphal I. ricinus ticks developed substantially stronger systemic type 2 T helper cell (Th2) responses, on the basis of the levels of GATA-3 and interleukin-13 expression, than mice infected with a single pathogen. During repeated larval infestations, however, anti-tick Th2 reactivity and an observed partial immunity to tick feeding were unaffected by concurrent nematode infections. Importantly, the strong systemic Th2 immune response in coinfected mice did not affect susceptibility to tick-borne B. afzelii An observed trend for decreased local and systemic Th1 reactivity against B. afzelii in coinfected mice did not result in a higher spirochete burden, nor did it facilitate bacterial dissemination or induce signs of immunopathology. Hence, this study indicates that strong systemic Th2 responses in nematode/tick-coinfected house mice do not affect the success of tick feeding and the control of the causative agent of Lyme disease. Copyright © 2016 Maaz et al.

  4. Invasion of the lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis: implications for Borrelia burgdorferi endemicity.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Sarah A; Tsao, Jean I; Walker, Edward D; Hickling, Graham J

    2010-08-01

    Lyme disease risk is increasing in the United States due in part to the spread of blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis, the principal vector of the spirochetal pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi. A 5-year study was undertaken to investigate hypothesized coinvasion of I. scapularis and B. burgdorferi in Lower Michigan. We tracked the spatial and temporal dynamics of the tick and spirochete using mammal, bird, and vegetation drag sampling at eight field sites along coastal and inland transects originating in a zone of recent I. scapularis establishment. We document northward invasion of these ticks along Michigan's west coast during the study period; this pattern was most evident in ticks removed from rodents. B. burgdorferi infection prevalences in I. scapularis sampled from vegetation in the invasion zone were 9.3% and 36.6% in nymphs and adults, respectively, with the majority of infection (95.1%) found at the most endemic site. There was no evidence of I. scapularis invasion along the inland transect; however, low-prevalence B. burgdorferi infection was detected in other tick species and in wildlife at inland sites, and at northern coastal sites in years before the arrival of I. scapularis. These infections suggest that cryptic B. burgdorferi transmission by other vector-competent tick species is occurring in the absence of I. scapularis. Other Borrelia spirochetes, including those that group with B. miyamotoi and B. andersonii, were present at a low prevalence within invading ticks and local wildlife. Reports of Lyme disease have increased significantly in the invasion zone in recent years. This rapid blacklegged tick invasion--measurable within 5 years--in combination with cryptic pathogen maintenance suggests a complex ecology of Lyme disease emergence in which wildlife sentinels can provide an early warning of disease emergence.

  5. Identification of Potential Virulence Determinants by Himar1 Transposition of Infectious Borrelia burgdorferi B31▿

    PubMed Central

    Botkin, Douglas J.; Abbott, April N.; Stewart, Philip E.; Rosa, Patricia A.; Kawabata, Hiroki; Watanabe, Haruo; Norris, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    Lyme disease Borrelia organisms are highly invasive spirochetes that alternate between vertebrate and arthropod hosts and that establish chronic infections and elicit inflammatory reactions in mammals. Although progress has been made in the targeted mutagenesis of individual genes in infectious Borrelia burgdorferi, the roles of the vast majority of gene products in pathogenesis remain unresolved. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using transposon mutagenesis to identify infectivity-related factors in B. burgdorferi. The transformable, infectious strain 5A18 NP1 was transformed with the spirochete-adapted Himar1 transposon delivery vector pMarGent to create a small library of 33 insertion mutants. Single mouse inoculations followed by culture of four tissue sites and serology were used to screen the mutants for infectivity phenotypes. Mutants that appeared attenuated (culture positive at some sites) or noninfectious (negative at all sites) and contained the virulence-associated plasmids lp25 and lp28-1 were examined in more extensive animal studies. Three of these mutants (including those with insertions in the putative fliG-1-encoded flagellar motor switch protein and the guaB-encoded IMP dehydrogenase) were noninfectious, whereas four clones appeared to exhibit reduced infectivity. Serological reactivity in VlsE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays correlated with the assignment of mutants to the noninfectious or attenuated-infectivity groups. The results of this study indicate that random transposon mutagenesis of infectious B. burgdorferi is feasible and will be of value in studying the pathogenesis of Lyme disease Borrelia. PMID:17015459

  6. SPIROCHAETA MORSUS MURIS, N.SP., THE CAUSE OF RAT-BITE FEVER : SECOND PAPER.

    PubMed

    Futaki, K; Takaki, I; Taniguchi, T; Osumi, S

    1917-01-01

    1. Since our first report on the discovery of the cause of rat-bite fever, we have been able to prove the existence of the same spirochete in five out of six more cases which have come under our observation. 2. The clinical symptoms of rat-bite fever are inflammation of the bitten parts, paroxysms of fever of the relapsing type, swelling of the lymph glands, and eruption of the skin, all occurring after an incubation period usually of from 10 to 22 days, or longer. 3. Our spirochete is present in the swollen local lesion of the skin and the enlarged lymph glands. But as the spirochetes are so few in number it is exceedingly difficult to discover them directly in material taken from patients. It is therefore better to inoculate the material into a mouse. In some cases the organism is found in the blood of the inoculated animal after a lapse of 5 to 14 days, or at the latest 4 weeks. 4. Generally speaking, the spirochetes present thick and short forms of about 2 to 5 micro and have flagella at both ends. Including the flagella, they measure 6 to 10 micro in length. Some forms in the cultures reach 12 to 19 micro excluding the flagella. The curves are regular, and the majority have one curve in 1 micro. Smaller ones are found in the blood and larger ones in the tissues. 5. The spirochetes stain easily. With Giemsa's stain they take a deep violet-red; they also stain with ordinary aniline dyes. The flagella, too, take Giemsa's stain. 6. The movements of our spirochetes are very rapid, resembling those of a vibrio, and distinguish them from all other kinds of spirochetes. When, however, the movements become a little sluggish, they begin to present movements characteristic of ordinary spirochetes. 7. For experimental purposes, mice, house rats, white rats, and monkeys are the most suitable animals. Monkeys have intermittent fever after infection, and spirochetes can be found in their blood, but they are not so numerous as in the blood of mice. Mice are the most suitable

  7. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Outbreak Among a High School Football Team at an Outdoor Education Camping Trip, Arizona, 2014.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jefferson M; Hranac, Carter R; Schumacher, Mare; Horn, Kim; Lee, Darlene M; Terriquez, Joel; Engelthaler, David M; Peoples, Marie; Corrigan, Jennifer; Replogle, Adam; Souders, Nina; Komatsu, Kenneth K; Nieto, Nathan C

    2016-09-07

    During August 2014, five high school students who had attended an outdoor education camp were hospitalized with a febrile illness, prompting further investigation. Ten total cases of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) were identified-six cases confirmed by culture or visualization of spirochetes on blood smear and four probable cases with compatible symptoms (attack rate: 23%). All patients had slept in the campsite's only cabin. Before the camp, a professional pest control company had rodent proofed the cabin, but no acaricides had been applied. Cabin inspection after the camp found rodents and Ornithodoros ticks, the vector of TBRF. Blood samples from a chipmunk trapped near the cabin and from patients contained Borrelia hermsii with identical gene sequences (100% over 630 base pairs). Health departments in TBRF endemic areas should consider educating cabin owners and pest control companies to apply acaricides during or following rodent proofing, because ticks that lack rodents for a blood meal might feed on humans. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Identification and characterization of a histamine-binding lipocalin-like molecule from the relapsing fever tick Ornithodoros turicata.

    PubMed

    Neelakanta, G; Sultana, H; Sonenshine, D E; Andersen, J F

    2018-04-01

    Lipocalins are low molecular weight membrane transporters that are abundantly expressed in the salivary glands and other tissues of ticks. In this study, we identified a lipocalin-like molecule, designated as otlip, from the soft ticks Ornithodoros turicata, the vector for the relapsing fever causing spirochete Borrelia turicatae. We noted that the expression of otlip was developmentally regulated, with adult ticks expressing significantly higher levels in comparison to the larvae or nymphal ticks. Expression of otlip was evident in both fed and unfed O. turicata ticks, with significantly increased expression in the salivary glands in comparison to the midgut or ovary tissues. High conservation of the biogenic amine-binding motif was evident in the deduced primary amino acid sequence of Otlip. Protein modelling of Otlip revealed conservation of most of the residues involved in binding histamine or serotonin ligand. In vitro assays demonstrated binding of recombinant Otlip with histamine. Furthermore, prediction of post-translational modifications revealed that Otlip contained phosphorylation and myristoylation sites. Taken together, our study not only provides evidence for the presence of a lipocalin-like molecule in O. turicata ticks but also suggests a role for this molecule in the salivary glands of this medically important vector. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  9. Initial characterization of the FlgE hook high molecular weight complex of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kelly A; Motaleb, Md A; Liu, Jun; Hu, Bo; Caimano, Melissa J; Miller, Michael R; Charon, Nyles W

    2014-01-01

    The spirochete periplasmic flagellum has many unique attributes. One unusual characteristic is the flagellar hook. This structure serves as a universal joint coupling rotation of the membrane-bound motor to the flagellar filament. The hook is comprised of about 120 FlgE monomers, and in most bacteria these structures readily dissociate to monomers (∼ 50 kDa) when treated with heat and detergent. However, in spirochetes the FlgE monomers form a large mass of over 250 kDa [referred to as a high molecular weight complex (HMWC)] that is stable to these and other denaturing conditions. In this communication, we examined specific aspects with respect to the formation and structure of this complex. We found that the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi synthesized the HMWC throughout the in vitro growth cycle, and also in vivo when implanted in dialysis membrane chambers in rats. The HMWC was stable to formic acid, which supports the concept that the stability of the HMWC is dependent on covalent cross-linking of individual FlgE subunits. Mass spectrometry analysis of the HMWC from both wild type periplasmic flagella and polyhooks from a newly constructed ΔfliK mutant indicated that other proteins besides FlgE were not covalently joined to the complex, and that FlgE was the sole component of the complex. In addition, mass spectrometry analysis also indicated that the HMWC was composed of a polymer of the FlgE protein with both the N- and C-terminal regions remaining intact. These initial studies set the stage for a detailed characterization of the HMWC. Covalent cross-linking of FlgE with the accompanying formation of the HMWC we propose strengthens the hook structure for optimal spirochete motility.

  10. Initial Characterization of the FlgE Hook High Molecular Weight Complex of Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kelly A.; Motaleb, Md. A.; Liu, Jun; Hu, Bo; Caimano, Melissa J.; Miller, Michael R.; Charon, Nyles W.

    2014-01-01

    The spirochete periplasmic flagellum has many unique attributes. One unusual characteristic is the flagellar hook. This structure serves as a universal joint coupling rotation of the membrane-bound motor to the flagellar filament. The hook is comprised of about 120 FlgE monomers, and in most bacteria these structures readily dissociate to monomers (∼ 50 kDa) when treated with heat and detergent. However, in spirochetes the FlgE monomers form a large mass of over 250 kDa [referred to as a high molecular weight complex (HMWC)] that is stable to these and other denaturing conditions. In this communication, we examined specific aspects with respect to the formation and structure of this complex. We found that the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi synthesized the HMWC throughout the in vitro growth cycle, and also in vivo when implanted in dialysis membrane chambers in rats. The HMWC was stable to formic acid, which supports the concept that the stability of the HMWC is dependent on covalent cross-linking of individual FlgE subunits. Mass spectrometry analysis of the HMWC from both wild type periplasmic flagella and polyhooks from a newly constructed ΔfliK mutant indicated that other proteins besides FlgE were not covalently joined to the complex, and that FlgE was the sole component of the complex. In addition, mass spectrometry analysis also indicated that the HMWC was composed of a polymer of the FlgE protein with both the N- and C-terminal regions remaining intact. These initial studies set the stage for a detailed characterization of the HMWC. Covalent cross-linking of FlgE with the accompanying formation of the HMWC we propose strengthens the hook structure for optimal spirochete motility. PMID:24859001

  11. Borrelia Lymphocytoma Mimicking Butterfly Rash in a Pediatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Llamas-Velasco, Mar; Paredes, Bruno Emilio

    2018-03-01

    A 5-year-old girl presented with a facial butterfly rash that persisted for 5 months without arthralgia, fever, malaise, photosensitivity, or other symptoms. Lupus erythematosus was clinically suspected. All blood tests were negative or within normal values. Skin biopsy showed a dense nodular superficial and deep inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes that reaches subcutaneous tissue. The most striking histopathological finding was plasma cells with some perifollicular accentuation. Borrelia polymerase chain reaction assay of the tissue was positive, and we made the diagnoses of borrelia lymphocytoma mimicking butterfly rash of lupus erythematosus. The lesions disappeared with amoxicillin followed by cefuroxime for 28 days. In children, a variety of diseases including lupus erythematous may lead to a butterfly rash that is usually short lasting and commonly associated with systemic symptoms. Borreliosis may be related with long-lasting facial erythema in children and may mimic lupus and present high titers of antinuclear antibodies. In any case, borrelial lymphocytoma has not been previously reported as a cause of butterfly rash, thus mimicking acute lupus in a child, as in our case. From a histopathological point of view, the presence of plasma cells in a pseudolymphomatous infiltrate is a clue for the right diagnosis. Therefore, we suggest that borrelia serology should be done in children with butterfly rash lasting more than a month and empirical antibiotic treatment should be tried even in cases with negative serology.

  12. Borrelia burgdorferi upregulates the adhesion molecules E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on mouse endothelioma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Böggemeyer, E; Stehle, T; Schaible, U E; Hahne, M; Vestweber, D; Simon, M M

    1994-06-01

    In order to obtain more information on processes leading to Borrelia burgdorferi-induced inflammation in the host, we have developed an in vitro model to study the upregulation of cell surface expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells by spirochetes. A mouse endothelioma cell line, derived from brain capillaries, bEnd3, was used as indicator population. bEnd3 cells were incubated with preparations of viable, inactivated or sonicated spirochetes and the expression of E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was monitored by immunocytochemistry and quantified by cell surface ELISA. We show that all three spirochetal preparations are able to upregulate cell surface expression of E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on bEnd 3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The kinetics of cell surface expression of the individual adhesion molecules in the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi showed maxima at about 50 h of incubation or later; this was distinct from results obtained with sonicated-preparations of Escherichia coli bacteria or with enterobacterial LPS where peak expression was observed between 4 h and 16 h. The fact that Borrelia burgdorferi does not contain conventional LPS suggests that the mode of induction of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells is influenced by the phenotype of bacteria. At the peak of spirochete-induced cell surface expression of adhesion molecules (approximately 50 h), bEnd3 cells were found to bind cells of a VLA-4+ B lymphoma line (L1-2) much more efficiently than untreated control cells. The binding of L1-2 cells to presensitized bEnd3 cells was significantly inhibited (more than 75%) in the presence of monoclonal antibodies to both VLA-4 and its endothelial counterreceptor VCAM-1. These findings demonstrate that Borrelia burgdorferi organisms are able to induce functionally active adhesion molecules on endothelial cells in vitro and suggest that E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 play an important role in the

  13. Validate or falsify: Lessons learned from a microscopy method claimed to be useful for detecting Borrelia and Babesia organisms in human blood.

    PubMed

    Aase, Audun; Hajdusek, Ondrej; Øines, Øivind; Quarsten, Hanne; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Herstad, Tove K; Kjelland, Vivian; Sima, Radek; Jalovecka, Marie; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Aaberge, Ingeborg S

    2016-01-01

    A modified microscopy protocol (the LM-method) was used to demonstrate what was interpreted as Borrelia spirochetes and later also Babesia sp., in peripheral blood from patients. The method gained much publicity, but was not validated prior to publication, which became the purpose of this study using appropriate scientific methodology, including a control group. Blood from 21 patients previously interpreted as positive for Borrelia and/or Babesia infection by the LM-method and 41 healthy controls without known history of tick bite were collected, blinded and analysed for these pathogens by microscopy in two laboratories by the LM-method and conventional method, respectively, by PCR methods in five laboratories and by serology in one laboratory. Microscopy by the LM-method identified structures claimed to be Borrelia- and/or Babesia in 66% of the blood samples of the patient group and in 85% in the healthy control group. Microscopy by the conventional method for Babesia only did not identify Babesia in any samples. PCR analysis detected Borrelia DNA in one sample of the patient group and in eight samples of the control group; whereas Babesia DNA was not detected in any of the blood samples using molecular methods. The structures interpreted as Borrelia and Babesia by the LM-method could not be verified by PCR. The method was, thus, falsified. This study underlines the importance of doing proper test validation before new or modified assays are introduced.

  14. Genome-Wide Mutagenesis in Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Gao, Lihui

    2018-01-01

    Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) is a functional genomics approach to identify bacterial virulence determinants and virulence factors by simultaneously screening multiple mutants in a single host animal, and has been utilized extensively for the study of bacterial pathogenesis, host-pathogen interactions, and spirochete and tick biology. The signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis has been developed to investigate virulence determinants and pathogenesis of Borrelia burgdorferi. Mutants in genes important in virulence are identified by negative selection in which the mutants fail to colonize or disseminate in the animal host and tick vector. STM procedure combined with Luminex Flex ® Map™ technology and next-generation sequencing (e.g., Tn-seq) are the powerful high-throughput tools for the determination of Borrelia burgdorferi virulence determinants. The assessment of multiple tissue sites and two DNA resources at two different time points using Luminex Flex ® Map™ technology provides a robust data set. B. burgdorferi transposon mutant screening indicates that a high proportion of genes are the novel virulence determinants that are required for mouse and tick infection. In this protocol, an effective signature-tagged Himar1-based transposon suicide vector was developed and used to generate a sequence-defined library of nearly 4800 mutants in the infectious B. burgdorferi B31 clone. In STM, signature-tagged suicide vectors are constructed by inserting unique DNA sequences (tags) into the transposable elements. The signature-tagged transposon mutants are generated when transposon suicide vectors are transformed into an infectious B. burgdorferi clone, and the transposable element is transposed into the 5'-TA-3' sequence in the B. burgdorferi genome with the signature tag. The transposon library is created and consists of many sub-libraries, each sub-library has several hundreds of mutants with same tags. A group of mice or ticks are infected with a mixed

  15. Recombinant constructs of Borrelia burgdorferi

    DOEpatents

    Dattwyler, Raymond J.; Gomes-Solecki, Maria J. C.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Dunn, John J.

    2007-02-20

    Novel chimeric nucleic acids, encoding chimeric Borrelia proteins comprising OspC or an antigenic fragment thereof and OspA or an antigenic fragment thereof, are disclosed. Chimeric proteins encoded by the nucleic acid sequences are also disclosed. The chimeric proteins are useful as vaccine immunogens against Lyme borreliosis, as well as for immunodiagnostic reagents.

  16. Effectiveness of Stevia Rebaudiana Whole Leaf Extract Against the Various Morphological Forms of Borrelia Burgdorferi in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Theophilus, P. A. S.; Victoria, M. J.; Socarras, K. M.; Filush, K. R.; Gupta, K.; Luecke, D. F.; Sapi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne multisystemic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Administering antibiotics is the primary treatment for this disease; however, relapse often occurs when antibiotic treatment is discontinued. The reason for relapse remains unknown, but recent studies suggested the possibilities of the presence of antibiotic resistant Borrelia persister cells and biofilms. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of whole leaf Stevia extract against B. burgdorferi spirochetes, persisters, and biofilm forms in vitro. The susceptibility of the different forms was evaluated by various quantitative techniques in addition to different microscopy methods. The effectiveness of Stevia was compared to doxycycline, cefoperazone, daptomycin, and their combinations. Our results demonstrated that Stevia had significant effect in eliminating B. burgdorferi spirochetes and persisters. Subculture experiments with Stevia and antibiotics treated cells were established for 7 and 14 days yielding, no and 10% viable cells, respectively compared to the above-mentioned antibiotics and antibiotic combination. When Stevia and the three antibiotics were tested against attached biofilms, Stevia significantly reduced B. burgdorferi forms. Results from this study suggest that a natural product such as Stevia leaf extract could be considered as an effective agent against B. burgdorferi. PMID:26716015

  17. Proteome Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Response to Environmental Change

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Thomas E.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Yang, Xiaohua

    2010-11-02

    We examined global changes in protein expression in the B31 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, in response to two environmental cues (pH and temperature) chosen for their reported similarity to those encountered at different stages of the organism’s life cycle. Multidimensional nano-liquid chromatographic separations coupled with tandem mass spectrometry were used to examine the array of proteins (i.e., the proteome) of B. burgdorferi for different pH and temperature culture conditions. Changes in pH and temperature elicited in vitro adaptations of this spirochete known to cause Lyme disease and led to alterations in protein expression that are associated with increased microbial pathogenesis.more » We identified 1031 proteins that represent 59% of the annotated genome of B. burgdorferi and elucidated a core proteome of 414 proteins that were present in all environmental conditions investigated. Observed changes in protein abundances indicated varied replicon usage, as well as proteome functional distributions between the in vitro cell culture conditions. Surprisingly, the pH and temperature conditions that mimicked B. burgdorferi residing in the gut of a fed tick showed a marked reduction in protein diversity. Additionally, the results provide us with leading candidates for exploring how B. burgdorferi adapts to and is able to survive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and lay a foundation for planned in situ studies of B. burgdorferi isolated from the tick midgut and infected animals.« less

  18. Neotrombicula autumnalis (Acari, Trombiculidae) as a vector for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato?

    PubMed

    Kampen, H; Schöler, A; Metzen, M; Oehme, R; Hartelt, K; Kimmig, P; Maier, W A

    2004-01-01

    Larvae of the trombiculid mite Neotrombicula autumnalis were collected at 18 sites in and around Bonn, Germany, to be screened for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. by means of PCR. Questing larvae numbering 1380 were derived from the vegetation and 634 feeding ones were removed from 100 trapped micromammals including voles, mice, shrews and hedgehogs. In a laboratory infection experiment, a further 305 host-seeking larvae from the field were transferred onto Borrelia-positive mice and gerbils, and examined for spirochete infection at various intervals after repletion. In three cases borrelial DNA could be amplified from the mites: (1) from a larva feeding on a wild-caught greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula), (2) from a pool of four larvae feeding on a B. garinii-positive laboratory mouse, and (3) from a nymph that had fed on a B. afzelii-positive laboratory gerbil as a larva. In the first case, borrelial species determination by DNA hybridization of the PCR product was only possible with a B. burgdorferi complex-specific probe but not with a species-specific one. In the second case, probing showed the same borrelial genospecies (B. garinii) as the laboratory host had been infected with. In the latter case, however, DNA hybridization demonstrated B. valaisiana while the laboratory host had been infected with B. afzelii. Subsequent DNA sequencing confirmed much higher similarity of the PCR product to B. valaisiana than to B. afzelii indicating an infection of the mite prior to feeding on the laboratory host. The negligible percentage of positive mites found in this study suggests that either the uptake of borrelial cells by feeding trombiculids is an extremely rare event or that ingested spirochetes are rapidly digested. On the other hand, the results imply a possible transstadial and transovarial transmission of borreliae once they are established in their trombiculid host. However, unless the transmission of borreliae to a given host is

  19. The domestic pig as a potential model for Borrelia skin infection.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Michael; Knecht, Christian; Müller, Andreas; Schötta, Anna-Margarita; Leschnik, Michael; Wijnveld, Michiel; Weissenböck, Herbert; Stockinger, Hannes; Stanek, Gerold; Sipos, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    The skin lesion erythema migrans is a characteristic early manifestation of Lyme borreliosis in humans. However, the pathomechanisms leading to development of this erythema are not fully understood. Models that mimic human skin would enhance research in this field. Human and porcine skin structures strongly resemble each other. Therefore, we attempted to induce erythema migrans lesions in experimental Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in the skin of domestic pigs. The formation of erythema migrans-like lesions was observed after intradermal injection of these spirochetes, with the lesions forming very clearly in 2/6 animals when a strain of B. garinii was used. However, no molecular or clinical proof of systemic infection of the pigs with B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, or B. garinii could be achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Increasing RpoS expression causes cell death in Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linxu; Xu, Qilong; Tu, Jiagang; Ge, Yihe; Liu, Jun; Liang, Fang Ting

    2013-01-01

    RpoS, one of the two alternative σ factors in Borrelia burgdorferi, is tightly controlled by multiple regulators and, in turn, determines expression of many critical virulence factors. Here we show that increasing RpoS expression causes cell death. The immediate effect of increasing RpoS expression was to promote bacterial division and as a consequence result in a rapid increase in cell number before causing bacterial death. No DNA fragmentation or degradation was observed during this induced cell death. Cryo-electron microscopy showed induced cells first formed blebs, which were eventually released from dying cells. Apparently blebbing initiated cell disintegration leading to cell death. These findings led us to hypothesize that increasing RpoS expression triggers intracellular programs and/or pathways that cause spirochete death. The potential biological significance of induced cell death may help B. burgdorferi regulate its population to maintain its life cycle in nature.

  1. Competitive advantage of Borrelia burgdorferi with outer surface protein BBA03 during tick-mediated infection of the mammalian host.

    PubMed

    Bestor, Aaron; Rego, Ryan O M; Tilly, Kit; Rosa, Patricia A

    2012-10-01

    Linear plasmid lp54 is one of the most highly conserved and differentially expressed elements of the segmented genome of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. We previously reported that deletion of a 4.1-kb region of lp54 (bba01 to bba07 [bba01-bba07]) led to a slight attenuation of tick-transmitted infection in mice following challenge with a large number of infected ticks. In the current study, we reduced the number of ticks in the challenge to more closely mimic the natural dose and found a profound defect in tick-transmitted infection of the bba01-bba07 mutant relative to wild-type B. burgdorferi. We next focused on deletion of bba03 as the most likely cause of this mutant phenotype, as previous studies have shown that expression of bba03 is increased by culture conditions that simulate tick feeding. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrated increased expression of bba03 by spirochetes in fed relative to unfed ticks. We also observed that a bba03 deletion mutant, although fully competent by itself, did not efficiently infect mice when transmitted by ticks that were simultaneously coinfected with wild-type B. burgdorferi. These results suggest that BBA03 provides a competitive advantage to spirochetes carrying this protein during tick transmission to a mammalian host in the natural infectious cycle.

  2. Minimal role of eastern fence lizards in Borrelia burgdorferi transmission in central New Jersey oak/pine woodlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rulison, Eric L.; Kerr, Kaetlyn T; Dyer, Megan C; Han, Seungeun; Burke, Russell L.; Tsao, Jean I.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, is widely distributed in eastern and central North America, ranging through areas with high levels of Lyme disease, as well as areas where Lyme disease is rare or absent. We studied the potential role of S. undulatus in transmission dynamics of Lyme spirochetes by sampling ticks from a variety of natural hosts at field sites in central New Jersey, and by testing the reservoir competence of S. undulatus for Borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory. The infestation rate of ticks on fence lizards was extremely low (proportion infested = 0.087, n = 23) compared to that on white footed mice and other small mammals (proportion infested = 0.53, n = 140). Of 159 nymphs that had fed as larvae on lizards that had previously been exposed to infected nymphs, none was infected with B. burgdorferi, compared with 79.9% of 209 nymphs that had fed as larvae on infected control mice. Simulations suggest that changes in the numbers of fence lizards in a natural habitat would have little effect on the infection rate of nymphal ticks with Lyme spirochetes. We conclude that in central New Jersey S. undulatus plays a minimal role in the enzootic transmission cycle of Lyme spirochetes.

  3. Competitive Advantage of Borrelia burgdorferi with Outer Surface Protein BBA03 during Tick-Mediated Infection of the Mammalian Host

    PubMed Central

    Rego, Ryan O. M.; Tilly, Kit; Rosa, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Linear plasmid lp54 is one of the most highly conserved and differentially expressed elements of the segmented genome of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. We previously reported that deletion of a 4.1-kb region of lp54 (bba01 to bba07 [bba01-bba07]) led to a slight attenuation of tick-transmitted infection in mice following challenge with a large number of infected ticks. In the current study, we reduced the number of ticks in the challenge to more closely mimic the natural dose and found a profound defect in tick-transmitted infection of the bba01-bba07 mutant relative to wild-type B. burgdorferi. We next focused on deletion of bba03 as the most likely cause of this mutant phenotype, as previous studies have shown that expression of bba03 is increased by culture conditions that simulate tick feeding. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrated increased expression of bba03 by spirochetes in fed relative to unfed ticks. We also observed that a bba03 deletion mutant, although fully competent by itself, did not efficiently infect mice when transmitted by ticks that were simultaneously coinfected with wild-type B. burgdorferi. These results suggest that BBA03 provides a competitive advantage to spirochetes carrying this protein during tick transmission to a mammalian host in the natural infectious cycle. PMID:22851744

  4. Pathogenicity of porcine intestinal spirochetes in gnotobiotic pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Neef, N A; Lysons, R J; Trott, D J; Hampson, D J; Jones, P W; Morgan, J H

    1994-01-01

    Twelve intestinal spirochete strains of porcine origin were characterized on the basis of their phenotypic properties, by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and by pathogenicity testing in gnotobiotic pigs. The spirochetes used included two strains of Serpulina hyodysenteriae (B204 and P18A), two strains of Serpulina innocens (B256 and 4/71), one strain from the proposed new genus and species "Anguillina coli" (P43/6/78), and seven non-S. hyodysenteriae strains recently isolated from United Kingdom pig herds with a history of nonspecific diarrhea and typhlocolitis. By multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, five of these were identified as S. innocens, one was identified as an unspecified Serpulina sp., and one was identified as "A. coli." S. hyodysenteriae B204 and P18A, "A. coli" P43/6/78 and 2/7, and three (22/7, P280/1, and 14/5) of the five S. innocens field isolates induced mucoid feces and typhlocolitis in gnotobiotic pigs. None of the other spirochetes produced clinical signs or large intestinal pathology in this model. The "A. coli" strains induced a more watery diarrhea, with lesions present more proximally in the large intestine, than did the other pathogenic spirochetes. S. innocens 22/7 was also tested for pathogenicity in hysterotomy-derived pigs that had previously been artificially colonized with a spirochete-free intestinal flora and shown to be susceptible to swine dysentery. Despite effective colonization, strain 22/7 did not produce any disease, nor was there any exacerbation of large intestinal pathology or clinical signs when pigs with an experimentally induced existing colitis caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were superinfected with strain 22/7. Certain non-S. hyodysenteriae spirochetes are therefore capable of inducing disease in gnotobiotic pigs, but their role as primary or opportunistic pathogens in conventional pigs remains equivocal. Images PMID:8188364

  5. Pathogenicity of porcine intestinal spirochetes in gnotobiotic pigs.

    PubMed

    Neef, N A; Lysons, R J; Trott, D J; Hampson, D J; Jones, P W; Morgan, J H

    1994-06-01

    Twelve intestinal spirochete strains of porcine origin were characterized on the basis of their phenotypic properties, by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and by pathogenicity testing in gnotobiotic pigs. The spirochetes used included two strains of Serpulina hyodysenteriae (B204 and P18A), two strains of Serpulina innocens (B256 and 4/71), one strain from the proposed new genus and species "Anguillina coli" (P43/6/78), and seven non-S. hyodysenteriae strains recently isolated from United Kingdom pig herds with a history of nonspecific diarrhea and typhlocolitis. By multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, five of these were identified as S. innocens, one was identified as an unspecified Serpulina sp., and one was identified as "A. coli." S. hyodysenteriae B204 and P18A, "A. coli" P43/6/78 and 2/7, and three (22/7, P280/1, and 14/5) of the five S. innocens field isolates induced mucoid feces and typhlocolitis in gnotobiotic pigs. None of the other spirochetes produced clinical signs or large intestinal pathology in this model. The "A. coli" strains induced a more watery diarrhea, with lesions present more proximally in the large intestine, than did the other pathogenic spirochetes. S. innocens 22/7 was also tested for pathogenicity in hysterotomy-derived pigs that had previously been artificially colonized with a spirochete-free intestinal flora and shown to be susceptible to swine dysentery. Despite effective colonization, strain 22/7 did not produce any disease, nor was there any exacerbation of large intestinal pathology or clinical signs when pigs with an experimentally induced existing colitis caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were superinfected with strain 22/7. Certain non-S. hyodysenteriae spirochetes are therefore capable of inducing disease in gnotobiotic pigs, but their role as primary or opportunistic pathogens in conventional pigs remains equivocal.

  6. The Borrelia afzelii outer membrane protein BAPKO_0422 binds human factor-H and is predicted to form a membrane-spanning β-barrel

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Adam; Brown, Gemma; Stejskal, Lenka; Laity, Peter R.; Bingham, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The deep evolutionary history of the Spirochetes places their branch point early in the evolution of the diderms, before the divergence of the present day Proteobacteria. As a spirochete, the morphology of the Borrelia cell envelope shares characteristics of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A thin layer of peptidoglycan, tightly associated with the cytoplasmic membrane, is surrounded by a more labile outer membrane (OM). This OM is rich in lipoproteins but with few known integral membrane proteins. The outer membrane protein A (OmpA) domain is an eight-stranded membrane-spanning β-barrel, highly conserved among the Proteobacteria but so far unknown in the Spirochetes. In the present work, we describe the identification of four novel OmpA-like β-barrels from Borrelia afzelii, the most common cause of erythema migrans (EM) rash in Europe. Structural characterization of one these proteins (BAPKO_0422) by SAXS and CD indicate a compact globular structure rich in β-strand consistent with a monomeric β-barrel. Ab initio molecular envelopes calculated from the scattering profile are consistent with homology models and demonstrate that BAPKO_0422 adopts a peanut shape with dimensions 25×45 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm). Deviations from the standard C-terminal signature sequence are apparent; in particular the C-terminal phenylalanine residue commonly found in Proteobacterial OM proteins is replaced by isoleucine/leucine or asparagine. BAPKO_0422 is demonstrated to bind human factor H (fH) and therefore may contribute to immune evasion by inhibition of the complement response. Encoded by chromosomal genes, these proteins are highly conserved between Borrelia subspecies and may be of diagnostic or therapeutic value. PMID:26181365

  7. A manganese-rich environment supports superoxide dismutase activity in a Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, J Dafhne; Clark, Hillary M; McIlvin, Matthew; Vazquez, Christine; Palmere, Shaina L; Grab, Dennis J; Seshu, J; Hart, P John; Saito, Mak; Culotta, Valeria C

    2013-03-22

    The Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi represents a novel organism in which to study metalloprotein biology in that this spirochete has uniquely evolved with no requirement for iron. Not only is iron low, but we show here that B. burgdorferi has the capacity to accumulate remarkably high levels of manganese. This high manganese is necessary to activate the SodA superoxide dismutase (SOD) essential for virulence. Using a metalloproteomic approach, we demonstrate that a bulk of B. burgdorferi SodA directly associates with manganese, and a smaller pool of inactive enzyme accumulates as apoprotein. Other metalloproteins may have similarly adapted to using manganese as co-factor, including the BB0366 aminopeptidase. Whereas B. burgdorferi SodA has evolved in a manganese-rich, iron-poor environment, the opposite is true for Mn-SODs of organisms such as Escherichia coli and bakers' yeast. These Mn-SODs still capture manganese in an iron-rich cell, and we tested whether the same is true for Borrelia SodA. When expressed in the iron-rich mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, B. burgdorferi SodA was inactive. Activity was only possible when cells accumulated extremely high levels of manganese that exceeded cellular iron. Moreover, there was no evidence for iron inactivation of the SOD. B. burgdorferi SodA shows strong overall homology with other members of the Mn-SOD family, but computer-assisted modeling revealed some unusual features of the hydrogen bonding network near the enzyme's active site. The unique properties of B. burgdorferi SodA may represent adaptation to expression in the manganese-rich and iron-poor environment of the spirochete.

  8. Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever with Meningeal Involvement in an Immigrant from Somalia to Italy, October 2015.

    PubMed

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Antonelli, Alberto; Bartolini, Laura; Pecile, Patrizia; Trotta, Michele; Rogasi, Pier Giorgio; Santini, Maria Grazia; Dilaghi, Beatrice; Grifoni, Stefano; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Borrelia recurrentis, transmitted by Pediculus humanus humanus, is the etiological agent of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF). Currently the main focus of endemicity of LBRF is localized in East African countries. From July 2015 to October 2015, 36 cases of LBRF have been diagnosed in Europe in immigrants from the Horn of Africa. Here we report a case of LBRF with meningitis diagnosed in Florence, Italy, in an immigrant arrived from Somalia. In October 2015, a 19-year-old Somali male presented to the emergency department of the Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy, with a 3-day history of high fever. The patient had disembarked in Sicily 10 days before admission after a long migration trip from his country of origin. On clinical examination, neck stiffness was found. Main laboratory findings were thrombocytopenia, increased procalcitonin, and increased polymorphonucleates in the cerebrospinal fluid. Suspecting a possible meningitis, the patient was treated with ceftriaxone, pending results of laboratory testing for malaria, and developed severe hypotension that was treated with fluid resuscitation and hydrocortisone. Hemoscopic testing revealed the presence of spirochetes and no malaria parasites. The patient rapidly improved with doxycycline for 7 days and ceftriaxone for 11 days, then was lost to follow-up. Total DNA from blood was extracted, and amplification and sequencing with universal 16S rDNA primers D88 and E94 revealed a 100% identity with B. recurrentis A1. LBRF is a rare but emerging infectious disease among vulnerable displaced immigrants from the Horn of Africa. Since immigrants from endemic areas can carry the vector with them, the infection should be suspected even in subjects with compatible clinical features living in the same place where new arrival immigrants are hosted. Healthcare providers should be aware of this condition to implement adequate diagnostic, therapeutic, and public health measures.

  9. Europe-Wide Meta-Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Prevalence in Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks.

    PubMed

    Strnad, Martin; Hönig, Václav; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rego, Ryan O M

    2017-08-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks in Europe and North America. Despite having multiple tick vectors, the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato , is vectored mainly by Ixodes ricinus in Europe. In the present study, we aimed to review and summarize the existing data published from 2010 to 2016 concerning the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in questing I. ricinus ticks. The primary focus was to evaluate the infection rate of these bacteria in ticks, accounting for tick stage, adult tick gender, region, and detection method, as well as to investigate any changes in prevalence over time. The data obtained were compared to the findings of a previous metastudy. The literature search identified data from 23 countries, with 115,028 ticks, in total, inspected for infection with B. burgdorferi sensu lato We showed that the infection rate was significantly higher in adults than in nymphs and in females than in males. We found significant differences between European regions, with the highest infection rates in Central Europe. The most common genospecies were B. afzelii and B. garinii , despite a negative correlation of their prevalence rates. No statistically significant differences were found among the prevalence rates determined by conventional PCR, nested PCR, and real-time PCR. IMPORTANCE Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a pathogenic bacterium whose clinical manifestations are associated with Lyme borreliosis. This vector-borne disease is a major public health concern in Europe and North America and may lead to severe arthritic, cardiovascular, and neurological complications if left untreated. Although pathogen prevalence is considered an important predictor of infection risk, solitary isolated data have only limited value. Here we provide summarized information about the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes among host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks, the principal tick vector of

  10. In vitro susceptibilities of Leptospira spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi isolates to amoxicillin, tilmicosin, and enrofloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Doo; Kordick, Dorsey; Divers, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted with 6 different spirochetal strains (4 strains of Leptospira spp. and 2 strains of Borrelia burgdorferi) against 3 antimicrobial agents, commonly used in equine and bovine practice. The ranges of MIC and MBC of amoxicillin against Leptospira spp. were 0.05-6.25 µg/ml and 6.25-25.0 µg/ml, respectively. And the ranges of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of amoxicillin against B. burgdorferi were 0.05-0.39 µg/ml and 0.20-0.78 µg/ml, respectively. The ranges of MIC and MBC of enrofloxacin against Leptospira spp. were 0.05-0.39 µg/ml and 0.05-0.39 µg/ml, respectively. Two strains of B. burgdorferi were resistant to enrofloxacin at the highest concentration tested for MBC (≥100 µg/ml). Therefore, the potential role of tilmicosin in the treatment of leptospirosis and borreliosis should be further evaluated in animal models to understand whether the in vivo studies will confirm in vitro results. All spirochetal isolates were inhibited (MIC) and were killed (MBC) by tilmicosin at concentrations below the limit of testing (≤0.01 µg/ml). PMID:17106227

  11. In vitro susceptibilities of Leptospira spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi isolates to amoxicillin, tilmicosin, and enrofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Doo; Kordick, Dorsey; Divers, Thomas; Chang, Yung Fu

    2006-12-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted with 6 different spirochetal strains (4 strains of Leptospira spp. and 2 strains of Borrelia burgdorferi) against 3 antimicrobial agents, commonly used in equine and bovine practice. The ranges of MIC and MBC of amoxicillin against Leptospira spp. were 0.05 - 6.25 microgram/ml and 6.25 - 25.0 microgram/ml, respectively. And the ranges of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of amoxicillin against B. burgdorferi were 0.05 - 0.39 microgram/ml and 0.20 - 0.78 microgram/ml, respectively. The ranges of MIC and MBC of enrofloxacin against Leptospira spp. were 0.05 - 0.39 microgram/ml and 0.05 - 0.39 microgram/ml, respectively. Two strains of B. burgdorferi were resistant to enrofloxacin at the highest concentration tested for MBC (>or=100 microgram/ml). Therefore, the potential role of tilmicosin in the treatment of leptospirosis and borreliosis should be further evaluated in animal models to understand whether the in vivo studies will confirm in vitro results. All spirochetal isolates were inhibited (MIC) and were killed (MBC) by tilmicosin at concentrations below the limit of testing (

  12. Inefficient co-feeding transmission of Borrelia afzelii in two common European songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Heylen, Dieter J. A.; Sprong, Hein; Krawczyk, Aleksandra; Van Houtte, Natalie; Genné, Dolores; Gomez-Chamorro, Andrea; van Oers, Kees; Voordouw, Maarten J.

    2017-01-01

    The spirochete bacterium Borrelia afzelii is the most common cause of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. This tick-borne pathogen can establish systemic infections in rodents but not in birds. However, several field studies have recovered larval Ixodes ricinus ticks infected with B. afzelii from songbirds suggesting successful transmission of B. afzelii. We reviewed the literature to determine which songbird species were the most frequent carriers of B. afzelii-infected I. ricinus larvae and nymphs. We tested experimentally whether B. afzelii is capable of co-feeding transmission on two common European bird species, the blackbird (Turdus merula) and the great tit (Parus major). For each bird species, four naïve individuals were infested with B. afzelii-infected I. ricinus nymphal ticks and pathogen-free larval ticks. None of the co-feeding larvae tested positive for B. afzelii in blackbirds, but a low percentage of infected larvae (3.33%) was observed in great tits. Transstadial transmission of B. afzelii DNA from the engorged nymphs to the adult ticks was observed in both bird species. However, BSK culture found that these spirochetes were not viable. Our study suggests that co-feeding transmission of B. afzelii is not efficient in these two songbird species. PMID:28054584

  13. Temperature-dependent sRNA transcriptome of the Lyme disease spirochete.

    PubMed

    Popitsch, Niko; Bilusic, Ivana; Rescheneder, Philipp; Schroeder, Renée; Lybecker, Meghan

    2017-01-05

    Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi from its tick vector to a vertebrate host requires extensive reprogramming of gene expression. Small regulatory RNAs (sRNA) have emerged in the last decade as important regulators of bacterial gene expression. Despite the widespread observation of sRNA-mediated gene regulation, only one sRNA has been characterized in the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi. We employed an sRNA-specific deep-sequencing approach to identify the small RNA transcriptome of B. burgdorferi at both 23 °C and 37 °C, which mimics in vitro the transmission from the tick vector to the mammalian host. We identified over 1000 sRNAs in B. burgdorferi revealing large amounts of antisense and intragenic sRNAs, as well as characteristic intergenic and 5' UTR-associated sRNAs. A large fraction of the novel sRNAs (43%) are temperature-dependent and differentially expressed at the two temperatures, suggesting a role in gene regulation for adaptation during transmission. In addition, many genes important for maintenance of Borrelia during its enzootic cycle are associated with antisense RNAs or 5' UTR sRNAs. RNA-seq data were validated for twenty-two of the sRNAs via Northern blot analyses. Our study demonstrates that sRNAs are abundant and differentially expressed by environmental conditions suggesting that gene regulation via sRNAs is a common mechanism utilized in B. burgdorferi. In addition, the identification of antisense and intragenic sRNAs impacts the broadly used loss-of-function genetic approach used to study gene function and increases the coding potential of a small genome. To facilitate access to the analyzed RNA-seq data we have set-up a website at http://www.cibiv.at/~niko/bbdb/ that includes a UCSC browser track hub. By clicking on the respective link, researchers can interactively inspect the data in the UCSC genome browser (Kent et al., Genome Res 12:996-1006, 2002).

  14. Myocarditis in mice and guinea pigs experimentally infected with a canine-origin Borrelia isolate from Florida.

    PubMed

    Breitschwerdt, E B; Geoly, F J; Meuten, D J; Levine, J F; Howard, P; Hegarty, B C; Stafford, L C

    1996-04-01

    To characterize the pathogenic potential of a unique Borrelia isolate obtained from a dog from Florida (FCB isolate). Prospective experimental infection. 32 preweanling Swiss Webster mice and 12 adult male Hartley guinea pigs were injected intraperitoneally with 10(5) spirochetes. Mice were used as controls and blood recipients, and at 3- to 4-day intervals, 1 control mouse and 2 infected mice were necropsied, tissues were cultured, and a recipient mouse was inoculated with blood. Guinea pigs were randomized to 4 groups and inoculated intradermally with 10(0), 10(2), 10(3), or 10(4) spirochetes. For 48 days, clinical, hematologic, serologic, and microbiologic tests were performed on them, after which they were necropsied. In mice, spirochetemia was detectable between postinoculation days (PID) 3 and 13, and seroreactivity to homologous antigen was detectable during PID 10 through 31. Compared with control mice, infected mouse spleens were 2 to 3 times larger. Histologic lesions included lymphoid hyperplasia, neutrophilic panniculitis, epicarditis, and myocarditis, with intralesional spirochetes detected from PID 3 through 6. During PID 10 through 31, nonsuppurative epicarditis developed. Signs of illness and hematologic abnormalities were not observed in guinea pigs, despite isolating spirochetes from blood during PID 7 to 27. When necropsied on PID 48, histologic lesions included lymphoid hyperplasia and lymphocytic plasmacytic epicarditis. The FCB isolate causes spirochetemia, lymphoid hyperplasia, dermatitis, and myocardial injury in Swiss Webster mice and can be transmitted by blood inoculation. In Hartley guinea pigs, the isolate causes spirochetemia, lymphoid hyperplasia, and epicarditis. Documentation of disease in mice, guinea pigs, and, presumably, dogs raises the level of concern that the FCB isolate might be pathogenic for man and other animal species.

  15. Annular Lichenoid Dermatitis (of Youth) Immunohistochemical and Serological Evidence for Another Clinical Presentation of Borrelia Infection in Patients of Western Austria.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Michael; Zelger, Bettina G; Emberger, Michael; Zelger, Bernhard

    2017-03-01

    Annular lichenoid dermatitis of youth (ALDY) is a more recently described inflammatory disease of the skin of unknown etiology with clinical similarities to morphea. The authors clinically, histopathologically, and immunohistochemically investigated 14 biopsies from 12 patients in western Austria with this disease. There were 6 female and 6 male patients with solitary (n = 7) and multiple lesions (n = 5) affecting the trunk (n = 11), upper arm (n = 2), thigh (n = 1), and calf (n = 1). Clinically, early lesions were erythematous in nature leading to central paleness, scaling, wrinkling, dermal atrophy, slight pigmentation, and telangiectasia later on. Histopathologically, all specimens showed the typical features of ALDY with a superficial lichenoid process with sprinkling of lymphocytes along the basal cell layer and within the epidermis accompanied by mild fibrosis. Pigment incontinence, superficial fibrosis, and dilatation of superficial capillary vessels are prominent features in more advanced stages of disease. Immunohistologically, using a polyclonal antibody against Borrelia, 11/14 specimens revealed spirochetes, either vital (n = 4) or degenerated (n = 7), in close proximity to collagen bundles. Thirteen of 14 specimens in addition showed focal (n = 4) or clustered (n = 9) positivity for CD20 in the papillary dermis. Nine of 12 sera tested for Borrelia with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were positive. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and morphea have previously been reported to be possibly related to Borrelia infection. We postulate that a similar relationship to Borrelia infection may be true for ALDY implying that ALDY may be an early superficial stage of morphea.

  16. Global repression of host-associated genes of the Lyme disease spirochete through post-transcriptional modulation of the alternative sigma factor RpoS.

    PubMed

    Dulebohn, Daniel P; Hayes, Beth M; Rosa, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, is a vector-borne pathogen that transits between Ixodes ticks and vertebrate hosts. During the natural infectious cycle, spirochetes must globally adjust their transcriptome to survive in these dissimilar environments. One way B. burgdorferi accomplishes this is through the use of alternative sigma factors to direct transcription of specific genes. RpoS, one of only three sigma factors in B. burgdorferi, controls expression of genes required during tick-transmission and infection of the mammalian host. How spirochetes switch between different sigma factors during the infectious cycle has remained elusive. Here we establish a role for a novel protein, BBD18, in the regulation of the virulence-associated sigma factor RpoS. Constitutive expression of BBD18 repressed transcription of RpoS-dependent genes to levels equivalent to those observed in an rpoS mutant. Consistent with the global loss of RpoS-dependent transcripts, we were unable to detect RpoS protein. However, constitutive expression of BBD18 did not diminish the amount of rpoS transcript, indicating post-transcriptional regulation of RpoS by BBD18. Interestingly, BBD18-mediated repression of RpoS is independent of both the rpoS promoter and the 5' untranslated region, suggesting a mechanism of protein destabilization rather than translational control. We propose that BBD18 is a novel regulator of RpoS and its activity likely represents a first step in the transition from an RpoS-ON to an RpoS-OFF state, when spirochetes transition from the host to the tick vector.

  17. Borrelia burgdorferi Not Confirmed in Human-Biting Amblyomma americanum Ticks from the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Nadolny, Robyn M.; Gibbons, Jennifer A.; Auckland, Lisa D.; Vince, Mary A.; Elkins, Chad E.; Murphy, Michael P.; Hickling, Graham J.; Eshoo, Mark W.; Carolan, Heather E.; Crowder, Chris D.; Pilgard, Mark A.; Hamer, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    The predominant human-biting tick throughout the southeastern United States is Amblyomma americanum. Its ability to transmit pathogens causing Lyme disease-like illnesses is a subject of ongoing controversy. Results of previous testing by the Department of Defense Human Tick Test Kit Program and other laboratories indicated that it is highly unlikely that A. americanum transmits any pathogen that causes Lyme disease. In contrast, a recent publication by Clark and colleagues (K. L. Clark, B. Leydet, and S. Hartman, Int. J. Med. Sci. 10:915–931, 2013) reported detection of Lyme group Borrelia in A. americanum using a nested-flagellin-gene PCR. We evaluated this assay by using it and other assays to test 1,097 A. americanum ticks collected from humans. Using the Clark assay, in most samples we observed nonspecific amplification and nonrepeatability of results on subsequent testing of samples. Lack of reaction specificity and repeatability is consistent with mispriming, likely due to high primer concentrations and low annealing temperatures in this protocol. In six suspect-positive samples, Borrelia lonestari was identified by sequencing of an independent gene region; this is not a Lyme group spirochete and is not considered zoonotic. B. burgdorferi was weakly amplified from one pool using some assays, but not others, and attempts to sequence the amplicon of this pool failed, as did attempts to amplify and sequence B. burgdorferi from the five individual samples comprising this pool. Therefore, B. burgdorferi was not confirmed in any sample. Our results do not support the hypothesis that A. americanum ticks are a vector for Lyme group Borrelia infections. PMID:25788545

  18. Novel methods for surveying reservoir hosts and vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi in Northern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Veronica Aili

    Lyme disease is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in North America and presents challenges to clinicians, researchers and the public in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, which is a zoonotic pathogen obligate upon hematophagous arthropod vectors and propagates in small mammal reservoir hosts. Identifying factors governing zoonotic diseases within regions of high-risk provides local health and agricultural agencies with necessary information to formulate public policy and implement treatment protocols to abate the rise and expansion of infectious disease outbreaks. In the United States, the documented primary reservoir host of Lyme disease is the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus, and the arthropod vector is the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis. Reducing the impact of Lyme disease will need novel methods for identifying both the reservoir host and the tick vector. The reservoir host, Peromyscus leucopus is difficult to distinguish from the virtually identical Peromyscus maniculatus that also is present in Northern Minnesota, a region where Lyme disease is endemic. Collection of the Ixodes tick, the Lyme disease vector, is difficult as this is season dependent and differs from year to year. This study develops new strategies to assess the extent of Borrelia burgdorferi in the local environment of Northern Minnesota. A selective and precise method to identify Peromyscus species was developed. This assay provides a reliable and definitive method to identify the reservoir host, Peromyscus leucopus from a physically identical and sympatric Peromyscus species, Peromyscus maniculatus. A new strategy to collect ticks for measuring the disbursement of Borrelia was employed. Students from local high schools were recruited to collect ticks. This strategy increased the available manpower to cover greater terrain, provided students with valuable experience in research methodology, and highlighted the

  19. Borrelia burgdorferi adhere to blood vessels in the dura mater and are associated with increased meningeal T cells during murine disseminated borreliosis

    PubMed Central

    Divan, Ali; Casselli, Timothy; Narayanan, S. Anand; Mukherjee, Sanjib; Zawieja, David C.; Watt, John A.

    2018-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is a vector-borne bacterial infection that is transmitted through the bite of an infected tick. If not treated with antibiotics during the early stages of infection, disseminated infection can spread to the central nervous system (CNS). In non-human primates (NHPs) it has been demonstrated that the leptomeninges are among the tissues colonized by B. burgdorferi spirochetes. Although the NHP model parallels aspects of human borreliosis, a small rodent model would be ideal to study the trafficking of spirochetes and immune cells into the CNS. Here we show that during early and late disseminated infection, B. burgdorferi infects the meninges of intradermally infected mice, and is associated with concurrent increases in meningeal T cells. We found that the dura mater was consistently culture positive for spirochetes in transcardially perfused mice, independent of the strain of B. burgdorferi used. Within the dura mater, spirochetes were preferentially located in vascular regions, but were also present in perivascular, and extravascular regions, as late as 75 days post-infection. At the same end-point, we observed significant increases in the number of CD3+ T cells within the pia and dura mater, as compared to controls. Flow cytometric analysis of leukocytes isolated from the dura mater revealed that CD3+ cell populations were comprised of both CD4 and CD8 T cells. Overall, our data demonstrate that similarly to infection in peripheral tissues, spirochetes adhere to the dura mater during disseminated infection, and are associated with increases in the number of meningeal T cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that there are aspects of B. burgdorferi meningeal infection that can be modelled in laboratory mice, suggesting that mice may be useful for elucidating mechanisms of meningeal pathogenesis by B. burgdorferi. PMID:29723263

  20. Yellow Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Testing Vaccine Information Testing for Vaccine Adverse Events Yellow fever Vaccine Continuing Education Course Yellow Fever Home Prevention Vaccine Vaccine Recommendations Reactions to Yellow Fever Vacine Yellow Fever Vaccine, Pregnancy, & ... Transmission Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment Maps Africa ...

  1. Niche partitioning of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia miyamotoi in the same tick vector and mammalian reservoir species.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Alan G; Bunikis, Jonas; Travinsky, Bridgit; Hoen, Anne Gatewood; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A; Fish, Durland; Tsao, Jean I

    2009-12-01

    The Lyme borreliosis agent Borrelia burgdorferi and the relapsing fever group species Borrelia miyamotoi co-occur in the United States. We used species-specific, quantitative polymerase chain reaction to study both species in the blood and skin of Peromyscus leucopus mice and host-seeking Ixodes scapularis nymphs at a Connecticut site. Bacteremias with B. burgdorferi or B. miyamotoi were most prevalent during periods of greatest activity for nymphs or larvae, respectively. Whereas B. burgdorferi was 30-fold more frequent than B. miyamotoi in skin biopsies and mice had higher densities of B. burgdorferi densities in the skin than in the blood, B. miyamotoi densities were higher in blood than skin. In a survey of host-seeking nymphs in 11 northern states, infection prevalences for B. burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi averaged approximately 0.20 and approximately 0.02, respectively. Co-infections of P. leucopus or I. scapularis with both B. burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi were neither more nor less common than random expectations.

  2. "Corkscrew" vs. "tank-treading" propulsion of spirochetes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leshansky, Alexander; Kenneth, Oded

    2010-11-01

    We consider the potential mechanism of spirochete propulsion driven by twirling of the outer cell surface coupled to counter-rotation of the helical body. We construct a proper slender body theory and use particle-based numerical approach allowing for modeling of locomotion in heterogeneous viscous environment. Depending on the helical pitch angle, two distinct propulsion gaits are identified: corkscrew-like locomotion, similar to propulsion powered by rotating helical flagellum, and surface tank-treading mode relying on hydrodynamic self-interaction of curved helical coils. The latter mechanism is closely related to the considered earlier propulsion of Purcell's toroidal swimmer (Kenneth and Leshansky, Phys. Fluids 20, 063104, 2008). Significant augmentation of corkscrew propulsion gait in heterogeneous viscous medium anticipated from the numerical model is in accord with experimental observations of enhanced spirochete propulsion in polymer gels.

  3. Antigenic Variation in the Lyme Spirochete: Insights into Recombinational Switching with a Suggested Role for Error-Prone Repair.

    PubMed

    Verhey, Theodore B; Castellanos, Mildred; Chaconas, George

    2018-05-29

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, uses antigenic variation as a strategy to evade the host's acquired immune response. New variants of surface-localized VlsE are generated efficiently by unidirectional recombination from 15 unexpressed vls cassettes into the vlsE locus. Using algorithms to analyze switching from vlsE sequencing data, we characterize a population of over 45,000 inferred recombination events generated during mouse infection. We present evidence for clustering of these recombination events within the population and along the vlsE gene, a role for the direct repeats flanking the variable region in vlsE, and the importance of sequence homology in determining the location of recombination, despite RecA's dispensability. Finally, we report that non-templated sequence variation is strongly associated with recombinational switching and occurs predominantly at the 5' end of conversion tracts. This likely results from an error-prone repair mechanism operational during recombinational switching that elevates the mutation rate > 5,000-fold in switched regions. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cristispira from oyster styles: complex morphology of large symbiotic spirochetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Nault, L.; Sieburth, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Crystalline styles (digestive organs) of bivalve mollusks provide the habitat for highly motile bacteria. Styles from freshly-collected oysters, Crassostrea virginica, were studied by electron microscopy; Cristispira spirochetes were abundant in these organs. Detailed study reveals these spirochetes to be among the most complex prokaryotic cells known. More than 600 periplasmic flagella and an adhering outer lipoprotein membrane (e.g., a 270 degrees sillon) form the ultrastructural basis for the "crista," first described by light microscopy. Unique rosette structures corresponding to the "chambers" or "ovoid inclusions" of light microscopy were detected at the periphery of all protoplasmic cylinders. Polar organelles and linearly aligned flagellar insertions are conspicuous. In size and complexity, Cristispira more resembles Pillotina, Diplocalyx, Clevelandina and Hollandina (large spirochetes symbiotic in termites) than it does Treponema. Cristispira pectinis (Gross, 1910), the type species; Spirillum ostrea (Noguchi, 1921); and another, less frequent bacterial symbiont are the predominant inhabitants of the dense style matrix. The ultrastructure of the spirillum and an electron micrograph of the third bacterium are shown.

  5. Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato seroreactivity and seroprevalence in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Krause, Peter J; Narasimhan, Sukanya; Wormser, Gary P; Barbour, Alan G; Platonov, Alexander E; Brancato, Janna; Lepore, Timothy; Dardick, Kenneth; Mamula, Mark; Rollend, Lindsay; Steeves, Tanner K; Diuk-Wasser, Maria; Usmani-Brown, Sahar; Williamson, Phillip; Sarksyan, Denis S; Fikrig, Erol; Fish, Durland

    2014-07-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato, a relapsing fever Borrelia sp., is transmitted by the same ticks that transmit B. burgdorferi (the Lyme disease pathogen) and occurs in all Lyme disease-endemic areas of the United States. To determine the seroprevalence of IgG against B. miyamotoi sensu lato in the northeastern United States and assess whether serum from B. miyamotoi sensu lato-infected persons is reactive to B. burgdorferi antigens, we tested archived serum samples from area residents during 1991-2012. Of 639 samples from healthy persons, 25 were positive for B. miyamotoi sensu lato and 60 for B. burgdorferi. Samples from ≈10% of B. miyamotoi sensu lato-seropositive persons without a recent history of Lyme disease were seropositive for B. burgdorferi. Our results suggest that human B. miyamotoi sensu lato infection may be common in southern New England and that B. burgdorferi antibody testing is not an effective surrogate for detecting B. miyamotoi sensu lato infection.

  6. No evidence of Borrelia mayonii in an endemic area for Lyme borreliosis in France.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Pierre H; De Martino, Sylvie J; Hansmann, Yves; Zilliox, Laurence; Boulanger, Nathalie; Jaulhac, Benoît

    2017-06-05

    Borrelia mayonii is currently the latest species belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) complex to be discovered. Interestingly it is involved in human pathology causing a high fever. We looked for its presence in post- tick bite febrile patients as well as in Ixodes ricinus ticks in an endemic area of France. After ensuring that our molecular technics correctly detected B. mayonii, 575 patients and 3,122 Ixodes ricinus nymphs were tested. Neither B. mayonii nor another species of the B. burgdorferi (s.l.) complex previously not reported in Europe has been identified. For now, B. mayonii seems to be an epiphenomenon. However, its discovery broadens the etiology of post-Ixodes bite febrile syndromes.

  7. Concerns regarding a new culture method for Borrelia burgdorferi not approved for the diagnosis of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christina; Hojvat, Sally; Johnson, Barbara; Petersen, Jeannine; Schriefer, Marty; Beard, C Ben; Petersen, Lyle; Mead, Paul

    2014-04-18

    In 2005, CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning regarding the use of Lyme disease tests whose accuracy and clinical usefulness have not been adequately established. Often these are laboratory-developed tests (also known as "home brew" tests) that are manufactured and used within a single laboratory and have not been cleared or approved by FDA. Recently, CDC has received inquiries regarding a laboratory-developed test that uses a novel culture method to identify Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete that causes Lyme disease. Patient specimens reportedly are incubated using a two-step pre-enrichment process, followed by immunostaining with or without polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Specimens that test positive by immunostaining or PCR are deemed "culture positive". Published methods and results for this laboratory-developed test have been reviewed by CDC. The review raised serious concerns about false-positive results caused by laboratory contamination and the potential for misdiagnosis.

  8. Genetic variation of the Borrelia burgdorferi gene vlsE involves cassette-specific, segmental gene conversion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J R; Norris, S J

    1998-08-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi possesses 15 silent vls cassettes and a vls expression site (vlsE) encoding a surface-exposed lipoprotein. Segments of the silent vls cassettes have been shown to recombine with the vlsE cassette region in the mammalian host, resulting in combinatorial antigenic variation. Despite promiscuous recombination within the vlsE cassette region, the 5' and 3' coding sequences of vlsE that flank the cassette region are not subject to sequence variation during these recombination events. The segments of the silent vls cassettes recombine in the vlsE cassette region through a unidirectional process such that the sequence and organization of the silent vls loci are not affected. As a result of recombination, the previously expressed segments are replaced by incoming segments and apparently degraded. These results provide evidence for a gene conversion mechanism in VlsE antigenic variation.

  9. Eliminating Factor H-Binding Activity of Borrelia burgdorferi CspZ Combined with Virus-Like Particle Conjugation Enhances Its Efficacy as a Lyme Disease Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Ashley L; Lieknina, Ilva; Kotelovica, Svetlana; Yang, Xiuli; Kraiczy, Peter; Pal, Utpal; Lin, Yi-Pin; Tars, Kaspars

    2018-01-01

    The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne disease in the US and Europe. No potent human vaccine is currently available. The innate immune complement system is vital to host defense against pathogens, as complement activation on the surface of spirochetes results in bacterial killing. Complement system is inhibited by the complement regulator factor H (FH). To escape killing, B. burgdorferi produces an outer surface protein CspZ that binds FH to inhibit complement activation on the cell surface. Immunization with CspZ alone does not protect mice from infection, which we speculate is because FH-binding cloaks potentially protective epitopes. We modified CspZ by conjugating to virus-like particles (VLP-CspZ) and eliminating FH binding (modified VLP-CspZ) to increase immunogenicity. We observed greater bactericidal antibody titers in mice vaccinated with modified VLP-CspZ: A serum dilution of 1:395 (modified VLP-CspZ) vs 1:143 (VLP-CspZ) yielded 50% borreliacidal activity. Immunizing mice with modified VLP-CspZ cleared spirochete infection, as did passive transfer of elicited antibodies. This work developed a novel Lyme disease vaccine candidate by conjugating CspZ to VLP and eliminating FH-binding ability. Such a strategy of conjugating an antigen to a VLP and eliminating binding to the target ligand can serve as a general model for developing vaccines against other bacterial infectious agents.

  10. Evaluation of the Importance of VlsE Antigenic Variation for the Enzootic Cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Rogovskyy, Artem S; Casselli, Timothy; Tourand, Yvonne; Jones, Cami R; Owen, Jeb P; Mason, Kathleen L; Scoles, Glen A; Bankhead, Troy

    2015-01-01

    Efficient acquisition and transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi by the tick vector, and the ability to persistently infect both vector and host, are important elements for the life cycle of the Lyme disease pathogen. Previous work has provided strong evidence implicating the significance of the vls locus for B. burgdorferi persistence. However, studies involving vls mutant clones have thus far only utilized in vitro-grown or host-adapted spirochetes and laboratory strains of mice. Additionally, the effects of vls mutation on tick acquisition and transmission has not yet been tested. Thus, the importance of VlsE antigenic variation for persistent infection of the natural reservoir host, and for the B. burgdorferi enzootic life cycle in general, has not been examined to date. In the current work, Ixodes scapularis and Peromyscus maniculatus were infected with different vls mutant clones to study the importance of the vls locus for the enzootic cycle of the Lyme disease pathogen. The findings highlight the significance of the vls system for long-term infection of the natural reservoir host, and show that VlsE antigenic variability is advantageous for efficient tick acquisition of B. burgdorferi from the mammalian reservoir. The data also indicate that the adaptation state of infecting spirochetes influences B. burgdorferi avoidance from host antibodies, which may be in part due to its respective VlsE expression levels. Overall, the current findings provide the most direct evidence on the importance of VlsE for the enzootic cycle of Lyme disease spirochetes, and underscore the significance of VlsE antigenic variation for maintaining B. burgdorferi in nature.

  11. Emergence of tick-borne pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ricketsia raoultii and Babesia microti) in the Kyiv urban parks, Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Didyk, Yuliya M; Blaňárová, Lucia; Pogrebnyak, Svyatoslav; Akimov, Igor; Peťko, Branislav; Víchová, Bronislava

    2017-02-01

    To date, only limited data about the presence of ticks and circulation of tick-borne pathogens in urban parks of Kyiv in northern Ukraine are available. In total, 767 ticks (696 Ixodes ricinus and 69 Dermacentor reticulatus) collected in seven urban parks and one suburban oak wood park in Kyiv were individually analyzed by the PCR assays. Tick-borne pathogens, namely spirochetes from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti, were detected in 11.1% of tested I. ricinus ticks. In total, 4% of I. ricinus ticks tested positive for the presence of B. burdorferi s.l. (Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii), 5.2% for A. phagocytophilum, and Ba. microti was confirmed in 1.9% of examined ticks. Mixed infections were recorded in four DNA samples, representing the prevalence of 0.6%. One female and two I. ricinus nymphs were simultaneously infected with B. afzelii and A. phagocytophilum, and one female carried B. afzelii and Ba. microti. In addition, 10.1% of D. reticulatus ticks tested positive for Rickettsia raoultii. Identification of infectious agents and their diversity, assessment of the relative epidemiological importance and determination of the prevalence in questing ticks from central parts of the cities are crucial steps towards the tick-borne diseases surveillance in urban environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from the blood of seven patients with Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Nadelman, R B; Pavia, C S; Magnarelli, L A; Wormser, G P

    1990-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, has rarely been successfully cultured from blood. We report on seven patients from Westchester County, New York, with B. burgdorferi bacteremia diagnosed between April 1987 and August 1987. One hundred thirty-two attempts to isolate spirochetes were made on blood specimens obtained from 104 patients. Twenty-two of these specimens were obtained from nine patients who had recently been bitten by Ixodes ticks but who were asymptomatic. Heparinized blood or serum specimens (0.2 to 0.4 mL) were inoculated onto 6 mL of modified Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly medium. Lyme serology was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent polyvalent, IgM, and IgG assays, fluorescent immunoassay, and microhemagglutination. Four of the seven patients had erythema migrans, two had facial nerve palsy, and one had a flu-like syndrome without rash. These patients represented 21% (four of 19) of all patients with the characteristic skin lesion who had blood cultures for B. burgdorferi, and 40% (two of five) of all those with facial nerve palsy. Serologic testing was frequently nonreactive; two patients had no detectable antibody on multiple sera by five different assays. All patients improved with antibiotic treatment, and had negative subsequent blood cultures, but five of seven had persistent complaints after completion of therapy. Culturing blood for B. burgdorferi may be useful in confirming the diagnosis of Lyme disease in selected patients. Use of spirochete blood cultures may facilitate a better understanding of the pathogenesis and natural history of Lyme disease.

  13. Dengue Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Dengue Fever KidsHealth / For Parents / Dengue Fever What's in ... Print en español Fiebre del dengue What Is Dengue Fever? Dengue (DEN-gee) fever is a tropical ...

  14. New concepts for the old challenge of African relapsing fever borreliosis.

    PubMed

    Cutler, S J; Abdissa, A; Trape, J-F

    2009-05-01

    Relapsing fever, caused by spirochaetes belonging to the genus Borrelia, was once the cause of worldwide epidemic disease. This was largely through infection with the louse-borne form of the disease, caused by Borrelia recurrentis (louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF)). During the last century, we have witnessed the demise of this infection, largely owing to improved standards of living and the introduction of the insecticide DDT, resulting in a reduction in the incidence of the body louse, the vector for relapsing fever. In areas of extreme poverty this disease persists, causing a significant burden of disease. It is now looking probable that this infection is caused by a louse-adapted variant of Borrelia duttonii, transmitted by Ornithodoros moubata 'soft' ticks in East Africa. Like LBRF, infection still causes impact, particularly affecting young children and pregnant women. Over recent years, the true burden of relapsing fever caused by infection with the closely related Borrelia crocidurae, transmitted by Ornithodoros sonrai ticks, has only just begun to emerge. Here, the current state of knowledge concerning relapsing fever in Africa is reviewed.

  15. Borrelia bissettiae sp. nov. and Borrelia californiensis sp. nov. prevail in diverse enzootic transmission cycles.

    PubMed

    Margos, Gabriele; Lane, Robert S; Fedorova, Natalia; Koloczek, Johannes; Piesman, Joseph; Hojgaard, Andrias; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker

    2016-03-01

    Two species of the genus Borrelia , Borrelia bissettiae sp. nov. and Borrelia californiensis sp. nov., were first described by Postic and co-workers on the basis of genetic analyses of several loci. Multilocus sequence analysis of eight housekeeping loci confirmed that these two Borrelia genomospecies are distinct members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. B. bissettiae sp. nov. was initially described in transmission cycles involving Neotoma fuscipes wood rats and Ixodes pacificus ticks in California, and Neotoma mexicana and Ixodes spinipalpis in Colorado. The preferred host of B. californiensis sp. nov. appears to be the California kangaroo rat, Dipodomys californicus ; Ixodes jellisoni , I. spinipalipis and I. pacificus ticks are naturally infected with it. Thus, the ecological associations of the two genomospecies and their genetic distance from all other known Borrelia genomospecies species justify their description as separate genomospecies: B. bissettiae sp. nov. (type strain DN127 T  = DSM 17990 T  =  CIP 109136 T ) and B. californiensis (type strain CA446 T  = DSM 17989 T  = ATCC BAA-2689 T ).

  16. Few vertebrate species dominate the Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeester, T. R.; Coipan, E. C.; van Wieren, S. E.; Prins, H. H. T.; Takken, W.; Sprong, H.

    2016-04-01

    Background. In the northern hemisphere, ticks of the Ixodidae family are vectors of diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tick-borne encephalitis. Most of these ticks are generalists and have a three-host life cycle for which they are dependent on three different hosts for their blood meal. Finding out which host species contribute most in maintaining ticks and the pathogens they transmit, is imperative in understanding the drivers behind the dynamics of a disease. Methods. We performed a systematic review to identify the most important vertebrate host species for Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. as a well-studied model system for tick-borne diseases. We analyzed data from 66 publications and quantified the relative contribution for 15 host species. Review results. We found a positive correlation between host body mass and tick burdens for the different stages of I. ricinus. We show that nymphal burdens of host species are positively correlated with infection prevalence with B. burgdorferi s.l., which is again positively correlated with the realized reservoir competence of a host species for B. burgdorferi s.l. Our quantification method suggests that only a few host species, which are amongst the most widespread species in the environment (rodents, thrushes and deer), feed the majority of I. ricinus individuals and that rodents infect the majority of I. ricinus larvae with B. burgdorferi s.l. Discussion. We argue that small mammal-transmitted Borrelia spp. are maintained due to the high density of their reservoir hosts, while bird-transmitted Borrelia spp. are maintained due to the high infection prevalence of their reservoir hosts. Our findings suggest that Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. populations are maintained by a few widespread host species. The increase in distribution and abundance of these species, could be the cause for the increase in Lyme borreliosis incidence in Europe in recent decades.

  17. Oligoarthritis caused by Borrelia bavariensis, Austria, 2014.

    PubMed

    Markowicz, Mateusz; Ladstatter, Stefan; Schotta, Anna M; Reiter, Michael; Pomberger, Gerhard; Stanek, Gerold

    2015-06-01

    A case of Lyme oligoarthritis occurred in an 11-year-old boy in Vienna, Austria. DNA of Borrelia bavariensis was detected by PCR in 2 aspirates obtained from different joints. Complete recovery was achieved after a 4-week course with amoxicillin. Lyme arthritis must be considered in patients from Europe who have persisting joint effusions.

  18. Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi nov. gen., nov. sp.: variable-diameter composite spirochete from microbial mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerrero, R.; Ashen, J.; Sole, M.; Margulis, L.

    1993-01-01

    Large (up to 100 micrometers long), loosely coiled, free-living spirochetes with variable diameters (from 0.4 to 3 micrometers in the same cell) were seen at least 40 times between August 1990 and January 1993. These spirochetes were observed in mud water and enrichment media from highly specific habitats in intertidal evaporite flats at three disjunct localities, one in Spain and two in Mexico. All three are sites of commercial saltworks. Associated with Microcoleus chthonoplastes the large spirochetes from Spain display phototaxis and a composite organization. Shorter and smaller-diameter spirochetes are seen inside both healthy and spent periplasm of larger ones. Small spirochetes attached to large ones have been observed live. From two to twelve spirochete protoplasmic cylinders were seen inside a single common outer membrane. A distinctive granulated cytoplasm in which the granules are of similar diameter (20-32 nanometers) to that of the flagella (26 nanometers) was present. Granule diameters were measured in thin section and in negatively-stained whole-mount preparations. Based on their ultrastructure, large size, variable diameter, number of flagella (3 to 6), and phototactic behavior these unique spirochetes are formally named Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi. Under anoxic (or low oxygen) conditions they formed blooms in mixed culture in media selective for spirochetes. Cellobiose was the major carbon source in 80% seawater, the antibiotic rifampicin was added, mat from the original field site was present and tubes were incubated in the light at from 18-31 degrees C. Within 1-2 weeks populations of the large spirochete developed at 25 degrees C but they could not be transferred to fresh medium.

  19. Characterization of a DNA Adenine Methyltransferase Gene of Borrelia hermsii and Its Dispensability for Murine Infection and Persistence.

    PubMed

    James, Allison E; Rogovskyy, Artem S; Crowley, Michael A; Bankhead, Troy

    2016-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases have been implicated in the regulation of virulence genes in a number of pathogens. Relapsing fever Borrelia species harbor a conserved, putative DNA methyltransferase gene on their chromosome, while no such ortholog can be found in the annotated genome of the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi. In the relapsing fever species Borrelia hermsii, the locus bh0463A encodes this putative DNA adenine methyltransferase (dam). To verify the function of the BH0463A protein product as a Dam, the gene was cloned into a Dam-deficient strain of Escherichia coli. Restriction fragment analysis subsequently demonstrated that complementation of this E. coli mutant with bh0463A restored adenine methylation, verifying bh0463A as a Dam. The requirement of bh0463A for B. hermsii viability, infectivity, and persistence was then investigated by genetically disrupting the gene. The dam- mutant was capable of infecting immunocompetent mice, and the mean level of spirochetemia in immunocompetent mice was not significantly different from wild type B. hermsii. Collectively, the data indicate that dam is dispensable for B. hermsii viability, infectivity, and persistence.

  20. Role of Endotoxin in the Pathogenesis of Louse-borne Relapsing Fever and in the Mechanism of the Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction Following Treatment of Louse-borne Relapsing Fever

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    therapy and during the Jarisch-Herxheimer-like reaction. Further similarities between relapsing fever and Gram-negative bacteremic diseases were sought by...activated during Gram- negative bacterial infections (11-17). The aims of therapy should be to clear the blood of circulating spirochetes without relapse and...more slowly with more prolonged fever. Single dose therapy with intravenous tetracycline [1,2] and oral doxycycline [18] has been shown effective, but

  1. The search for Ixodes dammini and Borrelia burgdorferi in Nova Scotia

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Colin R; Specht, Harold B; Coombs, B Ann

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four Ixodes dammini ticks (23 adults and one nymph) have been recovered in Nova Scotia since 1984. There has not been a systematic search for larvae and none has been identified. The recovery of the nymph from a road-killed yellow throat bird, Geothypis trichas, in late May 1990 supports the contention that migrating birds are bringing deer ticks into the province every spring. In March and April 1991, four adult deer ticks were identified, suggesting that these ticks had overwintered. These deer tick specimens indicate that it is possible that I dammini is becoming established in Nova Scotia, if it is not already established. There has been no evidence for the existence of Borrelia burgdorferi in the province. The spirochete was not cultured from 650 Dermacentor variabilis ticks, nor were antibodies detected in a small sample of feral rodents using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. A survey of 137 dog sera samples, analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, also proved negative. There has been no confirmed indigenous case of Lyme disease in Nova Scotia to date. PMID:22416195

  2. The search for Ixodes dammini and Borrelia burgdorferi in Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Bell, C R; Specht, H B; Coombs, B A

    1992-09-01

    Twenty-four Ixodes dammini ticks (23 adults and one nymph) have been recovered in Nova Scotia since 1984. There has not been a systematic search for larvae and none has been identified. The recovery of the nymph from a road-killed yellow throat bird, Geothypis trichas, in late May 1990 supports the contention that migrating birds are bringing deer ticks into the province every spring. In March and April 1991, four adult deer ticks were identified, suggesting that these ticks had overwintered. These deer tick specimens indicate that it is possible that I dammini is becoming established in Nova Scotia, if it is not already established. There has been no evidence for the existence of Borrelia burgdorferi in the province. The spirochete was not cultured from 650 Dermacentor variabilis ticks, nor were antibodies detected in a small sample of feral rodents using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. A survey of 137 dog sera samples, analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, also proved negative. There has been no confirmed indigenous case of Lyme disease in Nova Scotia to date.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of the Borrelia burgdorferi antigenically variable VlsE surface protein.

    PubMed

    Bykowski, Tomasz; Babb, Kelly; von Lackum, Kate; Riley, Sean P; Norris, Steven J; Stevenson, Brian

    2006-07-01

    The Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi can persistently infect humans and other animals despite host active immune responses. This is facilitated, in part, by the vls locus, a complex system consisting of the vlsE expression site and an adjacent set of 11 to 15 silent vls cassettes. Segments of nonexpressed cassettes recombine with the vlsE region during infection of mammalian hosts, resulting in combinatorial antigenic variation of the VlsE outer surface protein. We now demonstrate that synthesis of VlsE is regulated during the natural mammal-tick infectious cycle, being activated in mammals but repressed during tick colonization. Examination of cultured B. burgdorferi cells indicated that the spirochete controls vlsE transcription levels in response to environmental cues. Analysis of PvlsE::gfp fusions in B. burgdorferi indicated that VlsE production is controlled at the level of transcriptional initiation, and regions of 5' DNA involved in the regulation were identified. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays detected qualitative and quantitative changes in patterns of protein-DNA complexes formed between the vlsE promoter and cytoplasmic proteins, suggesting the involvement of DNA-binding proteins in the regulation of vlsE, with at least one protein acting as a transcriptional activator.

  4. Eradication of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in primary marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Roggero, E; Zucca, E; Mainetti, C; Bertoni, F; Valsangiacomo, C; Pedrinis, E; Borisch, B; Piffaretti, J C; Cavalli, F; Isaacson, P G

    2000-02-01

    Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas have been associated with Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete responsible for Lyme disease. Recently, cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma has been proposed as a distinct clinical-pathological entity. We report a case of primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma, associated with B burgdorferi infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the third complementarity determining region (CDR3) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene showed the presence of a monoclonal lymphoproliferation, therefore strengthening the histological diagnosis of a malignant process. B burgdorfer-specific hbb gene sequences were detected by PCR in the lymphoma tissue at diagnosis but not after antibiotic treatment. A nearly complete clinical and histological regression was observed after B burgdorferi eradication, with immunohistochemistry studies showing disappearance of plasma cell differentiation and a marked decline in the number of CD3+ T cells and Ki-67+ cells. Our case confirms the link between B burgdorferi and some cutaneous lymphomas. The disappearance of the microorganism accompanied by the unequivocal decrease of most indicators of active T- and B-cell immune response strongly supported a pathogenetic role for B burgdorferi in sustaining an antigen-driven development and growth of this cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma. Antibiotic therapy (analogous to Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric MALT lymphoma) might be helpful with the aim of averting or at least deferring the indication for more aggressive treatment.

  5. Substrate prediction of Ixodes ricinus salivary lipocalins differentially expressed during Borrelia afzelii infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, James J.; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Sima, Radek; Butterill, Philip T.; Růžek, Daniel; Nuttall, Patricia A.

    2016-09-01

    Evolution has provided ticks with an arsenal of bioactive saliva molecules that counteract host defense mechanisms. This salivary pharmacopoeia enables blood-feeding while enabling pathogen transmission. High-throughput sequencing of tick salivary glands has thus become a major focus, revealing large expansion within protein encoding gene families. Among these are lipocalins, ubiquitous barrel-shaped proteins that sequester small, typically hydrophobic molecules. This study was initiated by mining the Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome for specific, uncharacterized lipocalins: three were identified. Differential expression of these I. ricinus lipocalins during feeding at distinct developmental stages and in response to Borrelia afzelii infection suggests a role in transmission of this Lyme disease spirochete. A phylogenetic analysis using 803 sequences places the three I. ricinus lipocalins with tick lipocalins that sequester monoamines, leukotrienes and fatty acids. Both structural analysis and biophysical simulations generated robust predictions showing these I. ricinus lipocalins have the potential to bind monoamines similar to other tick species previously reported. The multidisciplinary approach employed in this study characterized unique lipocalins that play a role in tick blood-feeding and transmission of the most important tick-borne pathogen in North America and Eurasia.

  6. Borrelia burgdorferi has minimal impact on the Lyme disease reservoir host Peromyscus leucopus.

    PubMed

    Schwanz, Lisa E; Voordouw, Maarten J; Brisson, Dustin; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2011-02-01

    The epidemiology of vector-borne zoonotic diseases is determined by encounter rates between vectors and hosts. Alterations to the behavior of reservoir hosts caused by the infectious agent have the potential to dramatically alter disease transmission and human risk. We examined the effect of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, on one of its most important reservoir hosts, the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus. We mimic natural infections in mice using the vector (Black-legged ticks, Ixodes scapularis) and examine the immunological and behavioral responses of mouse hosts. Despite producing antibodies against B. burgdorferi, infected mice did not have elevated white blood cells compared with uninfected mice. In addition, infected and uninfected mice did not differ in their wheel-running activity. Our results suggest that infection with the spirochete B. burgdorferi has little impact on the field activity of white-footed mice. Lyme disease transmission appears to be uncomplicated by pathogen-altered behavior of this reservoir host.

  7. Structural basis for complement evasion by Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Oeemig, Jesper S; Kolodziejczyk, Robert; Meri, Taru; Kajander, Tommi; Lehtinen, Markus J; Iwaï, Hideo; Jokiranta, T Sakari; Goldman, Adrian

    2013-06-28

    Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes that cause Lyme borreliosis survive for a long time in human serum because they successfully evade the complement system, an important arm of innate immunity. The outer surface protein E (OspE) of B. burgdorferi is needed for this because it recruits complement regulator factor H (FH) onto the bacterial surface to evade complement-mediated cell lysis. To understand this process at the molecular level, we used a structural approach. First, we solved the solution structure of OspE by NMR, revealing a fold that has not been seen before in proteins involved in complement regulation. Next, we solved the x-ray structure of the complex between OspE and the FH C-terminal domains 19 and 20 (FH19-20) at 2.83 Å resolution. The structure shows that OspE binds FH19-20 in a way similar to, but not identical with, that used by endothelial cells to bind FH via glycosaminoglycans. The observed interaction of OspE with FH19-20 allows the full function of FH in down-regulation of complement activation on the bacteria. This reveals the molecular basis for how B. burgdorferi evades innate immunity and suggests how OspE could be used as a potential vaccine antigen.

  8. Lyme borreliosis: ten years after discovery of the etiologic agent, Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Burgdorfer, W

    1991-01-01

    Since the recovery of its causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, in 1981, Lyme borreliosis has become the most prevalent tick-borne disease in the United States as well as in Europe. Its steadily increasing clinical spectrum now includes erythema migrans, acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, lymphadenosis beniga cutis, arthritis, myocarditis, progressive meningoencephalitis, myositis, and various ocular and skin disorders. The true incidence of Lyme borreliosis in the world is unknown. In the United States, it has increased from 2,000 cases in 1987, to more than 8,000 in 1989. It occurs now in regions where the tick vectors, Ixodes dammini and Ixodes pacificus, are absent and where other species of ticks may be responsible for maintaining and distributing the spirochete. In Europe, Lyme borreliosis has been reported from 19 countries; its occurrence coincides with the distribution of the vector tick, Ixodes ricinus and possibly Ixodes hexagonus. Specific and dependable serological tests are still not available, but development of probes for specific antigens and the polymerase chain reaction appear promising in detecting ongoing infections and in identifying B. burgdorferi in ticks, animal, and human hosts. Brief reference is made to advances in the preparation of whole cell and genetically engineered vaccines.

  9. GENETIC AND IMMUNOLOGICAL EVIDENCES OF BORRELIA BURGDORFERI IN DOG IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Sthitmatee, Nattawooti; Jinawan, Wanna; Jaisan, Nawaporn; Tangjitjaroen, Weerapongse; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Sodarat, Chollada; Ekgatat, Monaya; Padungtod, Pawin

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. It is transmitted from animals to humans by the bite of infected ticks of the genus Ixodes. Although Lyme disease has been reported in China and Japan, the disease has never been reported in Thailand. Blood samples and ticks were collected from 402 dogs from 7 and 3 animal clinics in Chiang Mai and Phuket Provinces, Thailand, respectively. Blood samples were tested for antibodies against B. burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp, Ehrlichia spp and Dirofilaria immitis using a commercial kit, and positive blood samples were subjected to nested PCR assay for B. burgdorferi fla, ospA and ospC, amplicons of which also were sequenced. Only one dog (from Chiang Mai) was positive for B. burgdorferi, with 97% to 100% genetic identity, depending on the sequences used for comparison, with strains from United State of America. All 376 ticks collected were Rhipicephalus sanguineus, but no tick was found on the infected dog. Further investigations of the infection source and vector are needed to understand potential risks of Lyme disease to dogs and humans in Thailand.

  10. Typhoid fever

    MedlinePlus

    Typhoid fever is an infection that causes diarrhea and a rash . It is most commonly caused due to ... in their stools for years, spreading the disease. Typhoid fever is common in developing countries. Most cases in ...

  11. Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePlus

    ... by four families of viruses. These include the Ebola and Marburg, Lassa fever, and yellow fever viruses. ... Some VHFs cause mild disease, but some, like Ebola or Marburg, cause severe disease and death. VHFs ...

  12. Virulence of recurrent infestations with Borrelia-infected ticks in a Borrelia-amplifying bird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heylen, Dieter J. A.; Müller, Wendt; Vermeulen, Anke; Sprong, Hein; Matthysen, Erik

    2015-11-01

    Lyme disease cases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria is increasing steadily in Europe, in part due to the expansion of the vector, Ixodes ricinus. Wild reservoir hosts are typically recurrently infested. Understanding the impact of these cumulative parasite exposures on the host’s health is, therefore, central to predict the distribution of tick populations and their pathogens. Here, we have experimentally investigated the symptoms of disease caused by recurrent infestations in a common songbird (Parus major). Birds were exposed three times in succession to ticks collected in a Borrelia endemic area. Health and immune measures were analyzed in order to investigate changes in response to tick infestation and Borrelia infection rate. Nitric oxide levels increased with the Borrelia infection rate, but this effect was increasingly counteracted by mounting tick infestation rates. Tick infestations equally reduced haematocrit during each cycle. But birds overcompensated in their response to tick feeding, having higher haematocrit values during tick-free periods depending on the number of ticks they had been previously exposed to. Body condition showed a similar overshooting response in function of the severity of the Borrelia infection. The observed overcompensation increases the bird’s energetic needs, which may result in an increase in transmission events.

  13. Interactions of phagocytes with the Lyme disease spirochete: role of the Fc receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Benach, J.L.; Fleit, H.B.; Habicht, G.S.

    1984-10-01

    The phagocytic capacity of murine and human mononuclear and polymorphonuclear phagocytes (including peripheral blood monocytes and neutrophils), rabbit and murine peritoneal exudate cells, and the murine macrophage cell line P388D1 against the Lyme disease spirochete was studied. All of these cells were capable of phagocytosing the spirochete; phagocytosis was measured by the uptake of radiolabeled spirochetes, the appearance of immunofluorescent bodies in phagocytic cells, and electron microscopy. Both opsonized and nonopsonized organisms were phagocytosed. The uptake of opsonized organisms by neutrophils was blocked by a monoclonal antibody specific for the Fc receptor and by immune complexes; these findings suggested thatmore » most phagocytosis is mediated by the Fc receptor. Similarly, the uptake of opsonized organisms by human monocytes was inhibited by human monomeric IgG1 and by immune complexes. These results illustrate the role of immune phagocytosis of spirochetes in host defense against Lyme disease.« less

  14. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of the major outer surface protein, OSP-A from North American and European isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, B.C.; Dunn, J.J.; France, L.L.

    1995-12-31

    Lyme borreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in North America and Western Europe. As the major delayed immune response in humans, a better understanding of the major outer surface lipoproteins OspA and OspB are of much interest. These proteins have been shown to exhibit three distinct phylogenetic genotypes based on their DNA sequences. This paper describes the cloning of genomic DNA for each variant and amplification of PCR. DNA sequence data was used to derive computer driven phylogenetic analysis and deduced amino acid sequences. Overproduction of variant OspAs was carried out in E.more » coli using a T7-based expression system. Circular dichroism and fluorescence studies was carried out on the recombinant B31 PspA yielding evidence supporting a B31 protein containing 11% alpha-helix, 34% antiparallel beta-sheet, 12% parallel beta sheet.« less

  15. Neutropenic Fever.

    PubMed

    White, Lindsey; Ybarra, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Fever is a common presenting complaint among adult or pediatric patients in the emergency department setting. Although fever in healthy individuals does not necessarily indicate severe illness, fever in patients with neutropenia may herald a life-threatening infection. Therefore, prompt recognition of patients with neutropenic fever is imperative. Serious bacterial illness is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for neutropenic patients. Neutropenic fever should trigger the initiation of a rapid work-up and the administration of empiric systemic antibiotic therapy to attenuate or avoid the progression along the spectrum of sepsis, severe sepsis, septic shock syndrome, and death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative analysis of the genomes of intestinal spirochetes of human and animal origin.

    PubMed Central

    Coene, M; Agliano, A M; Paques, A T; Cattani, P; Dettori, G; Sanna, A; Cocito, C

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare the genomes of 21 strains of intestinal spirochetes, which were isolated from patients suffering intestinal disorders, with those of Treponema hyodysenteriae (strain P18), the known etiological agent of swine dysentery (bloody scours), and of a nonpathogenic strain (M1) of Treponema innocens. The percent guanine-plus-cytosine value of the 23 DNAs was found to be 25.5 to 30.1, as determined by a double-labeling procedure based on nick-translation by DNA polymerase I. The genome size of two spirochetal strains, of human and porcine origin, was found to be similar (4 x 10(6) base pairs) and close to that of the reference bacterium Escherichia coli (4.2 x 10(6) base pairs). Restriction analysis showed the presence of two modified bases in spirochetal DNA. Methyladenine was present in the GATC sequence of DNA from 15 spirochetes of human origin, and methylcytosine was present in several sequences occurring in all strains. The DNA of T. hyodysenteriae displayed a 30 to 100% homology with respect to that of 21 spirochetes from humans, thus suggesting the occurrence of a genetic heterogeneity in the latter group. These data indicate that the intestinal spirochetes analyzed in the present work are related; hence there is a possibility of domestic animals being reservoirs of microorganisms pathogenic for humans. A classification of intestinal treponemes into subgroups has been proposed on the basis of restriction analysis and hybridization experiments. Images PMID:2535832

  17. Neurogenic Fever.

    PubMed

    Meier, Kevin; Lee, Kiwon

    2017-02-01

    Fever is a relatively common occurrence among patients in the intensive care setting. Although the most obvious and concerning etiology is sepsis, drug reactions, venous thromboembolism, and postsurgical fevers are all on the differential diagnosis. There is abundant evidence that fever is detrimental in acute neurologic injury. Worse outcomes are reported in acute stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury. In addition to the various etiologies of fever in the intensive care setting, neurologic illness is a risk factor for neurogenic fevers. This primarily occurs in subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury, with hypothalamic injury being the proposed mechanism. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity is another source of hyperthermia commonly seen in the population with traumatic brain injury. This review focuses on the detrimental effects of fever on the neurologically injured as well as the risk factors and diagnosis of neurogenic fever.

  18. Is Localized Scleroderma Caused by Borrelia burgdorferi?

    PubMed

    Zinchuk, Alexander N; Kalyuzhna, Lidiya D; Pasichna, Iryna A

    2016-09-01

    Despite considerable achievements in the study of localized scleroderma, the etiology of the disease has not been investigated completely. Borrelia burgdorferi-the agent of Lyme disease-is suggested to be one of the possible etiological factors of localized scleroderma. However, among scientists, this hypothesis is quite controversial. We have conducted investigations of the level of IgM and IgG class antibodies to B. burgdorferi in the serum of patients with localized scleroderma. To rationally substantiate the role of B. burgdorferi in the occurrence of localized scleroderma, thirty-two patients with localized scleroderma treated at an in-patient department were examined. The level of anti-Borrelia antibodies was determined in ELISA. Diagnostic levels of IgM and/or IgG were detected in 18.8% of patients with localized scleroderma, which is more than in the population (p < 0.01). Positive levels of anti-Borrelia antibodies in patients with localized scleroderma confirm the borreliosis nature of the disease, requiring conduction of complex antimicrobial treatment.

  19. Molecular detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato – An analytical comparison of real-time PCR protocols from five different Scandinavian laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Faller, Maximilian; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Kjelland, Vivian; Andreassen, Åshild; Dargis, Rimtas; Quarsten, Hanne; Dessau, Ram; Fingerle, Volker; Margos, Gabriele; Noraas, Sølvi; Ornstein, Katharina; Petersson, Ann-Cathrine; Matussek, Andreas; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Henningsson, Anna J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common tick transmitted disease in Europe. The diagnosis of LB today is based on the patient´s medical history, clinical presentation and laboratory findings. The laboratory diagnostics are mainly based on antibody detection, but in certain conditions molecular detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may serve as a complement. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity and concordance of eight different real-time PCR methods at five laboratories in Sweden, Norway and Denmark. Method Each participating laboratory was asked to analyse three different sets of samples (reference panels; all blinded) i) cDNA extracted and transcribed from water spiked with cultured Borrelia strains, ii) cerebrospinal fluid spiked with cultured Borrelia strains, and iii) DNA dilution series extracted from cultured Borrelia and relapsing fever strains. The results and the method descriptions of each laboratory were systematically evaluated. Results and conclusions The analytical sensitivities and the concordance between the eight protocols were in general high. The concordance was especially high between the protocols using 16S rRNA as the target gene, however, this concordance was mainly related to cDNA as the type of template. When comparing cDNA and DNA as the type of template the analytical sensitivity was in general higher for the protocols using DNA as template regardless of the use of target gene. The analytical specificity for all eight protocols was high. However, some protocols were not able to detect Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia lusitaniae or Borrelia japonica. PMID:28937997

  20. Follistatin-like protein 1 is a critical mediator of experimental Lyme arthritis and the humoral response to Borrelia burgdorferi infection.

    PubMed

    Campfield, Brian T; Nolder, Christi L; Marinov, Anthony; Bushnell, Daniel; Davis, Amy; Spychala, Caressa; Hirsch, Raphael; Nowalk, Andrew J

    2014-08-01

    Follistatin-like protein 1 (FSTL-1) has recently been described as a critical mediator of CIA and a marker of disease activity. Lyme arthritis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, shares similarities with autoimmune arthritis and the experimental murine model collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Because FSTL-1 is important in CIA and autoimmune arthritides, and Lyme arthritis shares similarities with CIA, we hypothesized that FSTL-1 may be an important mediator of Lyme arthritis. We demonstrate for the first time that FSTL-1 is induced by B. burgdorferi infection and is required for the development of Lyme arthritis in a murine model, utilizing a gene insertion to generate FSTL-1 hypomorphic mice. Using qPCR and qRT-PCR, we found that despite similar early infectious burden, FSTL-1 hypomorphic mice have improved spirochetal clearance in the face of attenuated arthritis and inflammatory cytokine production. Further, FSTL-1 mediates pathogen-specific antibody production and antigen recognition when assessed by ELISA and one- and two-dimensional immunoblotting. This study is the first to describe a role for FSTL-1 in the development of Lyme arthritis and anti-Borrelia response, and the first to demonstrate a role for FSTL-1 in response to infection, highlighting the potential for FSTL-1 as a target in the treatment of B. burgdorferi infection. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Free-living spirochetes from Cape Cod microbial mats detected by electron microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teal, T. H.; Chapman, M.; Guillemette, T.; Margulis, L.

    1996-01-01

    Spirochetes from microbial mats and anaerobic mud samples collected in salt marshes were studied by light microscopy, whole mount and thin section transmission electron microscopy. Enriched in cellobiose-rifampin medium, selective for Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, seven distinguishable spirochete morphotypes were observed. Their diameters ranged from 0.17 micron to > 0.45 micron. Six of these morphotypes came from southwest Cape Cod, Massachusetts: five from Microcoleus-dominated mat samples collected at Sippewissett salt marsh and one from anoxic mud collected at School Street salt marsh (on the east side of Eel Pond). The seventh morphotype was enriched from anoxic mud sampled from the north central Cape Cod, at the Sandy Neck salt marsh. Five of these morphotypes are similar or identical to previously described spirochetes (Leptospira, Spirochaeta halophila, Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi and Treponema), whereas the other two have unique features that suggest they have not been previously described. One of the morphotypes resembles Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi (the largest free-living spirochete described), in its large variable diameter (0.4-3.0 microns), cytoplasmic granules, and spherical (round) bodies with composite structure. This resemblance permits its tentative identification as a Sippewissett strain of Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi. Microbial mats samples collected in sterile Petri dishes and stored dry for more than four years yielded many organisms upon rewetting, including small unidentified spirochetes in at least 4 out of 100 enrichments.

  2. Dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Anita

    Dengue fever is a notifiable infectious disease in England because of its geographic expansion and the increase in the number of epidemics. The article highlighted the importance of informing overseas travellers of the risk of acquiring dengue fever and advising them on personal protective measures.

  3. Direct Measurement of Helical Cell Motion of the Spirochete Leptospira

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Shuichi; Leshansky, Alexander; Magariyama, Yukio; Namba, Keiichi; Kudo, Seishi

    2014-01-01

    Leptospira are spirochete bacteria distinguished by a short-pitch coiled body and intracellular flagella. Leptospira cells swim in liquid with an asymmetric morphology of the cell body; the anterior end has a long-pitch spiral shape (S-end) and the posterior end is hook-shaped (H-end). Although the S-end and the coiled cell body called the protoplasmic cylinder are thought to be responsible for propulsion together, most observations on the motion mechanism have remained qualitative. In this study, we analyzed the swimming speed and rotation rate of the S-end, protoplasmic cylinder, and H-end of individual Leptospira cells by one-sided dark-field microscopy. At various viscosities of media containing different concentrations of Ficoll, the rotation rate of the S-end and protoplasmic cylinder showed a clear correlation with the swimming speed, suggesting that these two helical parts play a central role in the motion of Leptospira. In contrast, the H-end rotation rate was unstable and showed much less correlation with the swimming speed. Forces produced by the rotation of the S-end and protoplasmic cylinder showed that these two helical parts contribute to propulsion at nearly equal magnitude. Torque generated by each part, also obtained from experimental motion parameters, indicated that the flagellar motor can generate torque >4000 pN nm, twice as large as that of Escherichia coli. Furthermore, the S-end torque was found to show a markedly larger fluctuation than the protoplasmic cylinder torque, suggesting that the unstable H-end rotation might be mechanically related to changes in the S-end rotation rate for torque balance of the entire cell. Variations in torque at the anterior and posterior ends of the Leptospira cell body could be transmitted from one end to the other through the cell body to coordinate the morphological transformations of the two ends for a rapid change in the swimming direction. PMID:24411236

  4. The vls antigenic variation systems of Lyme disease Borrelia: eluding host immunity through both random, segmental gene conversion and framework heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Spirochetes that cause Lyme borreliosis (also called Lyme disease) possess the vls locus, encoding an elaborate antigenic variation system. This locus contains the expression site vlsE as well as a contiguous array of vls silent cassettes, which contain variations of the central cassette region of vlsE. The locus is present on one of the many linear plasmids in the organism, e.g. plasmid lp28-1 in the strain B. burgdorferi B31. Changes in the sequence of vlsE occur continuously during mammalian infection and consist of random, segmental, unidirectional recombination events between the silent cassettes and the cassette region of vlsE. These gene conversion events do not occur during in vitro culture or the tick portion of the infection cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi or the other related Borrelia species that cause Lyme disease. The mechanism of recombination is largely unknown, but requires the RuvAB Holliday junction branch migrase. Other features of the vls locus also appear to be required, including cis locations of vlsE and the silent cassettes and high G+C content and GC skew. The vls system is required for long-term survival of Lyme Borrelia in infected mammals and represents an important mechanism of immune evasion. In addition to sequence variation, immune selection also results in significant heterogeneity in the sequence of the surface lipoprotein VlsE. Despite antigenic variation, VlsE generates a robust antibody response, and both full length VlsE and the C6 peptide (corresponding to invariant region 6) are widely used in immunodiagnostic tests for Lyme disease. PMID:26104445

  5. Assessment of the geographic distribution of Ornithodoros turicata (Argasidae): climate variation and host diversity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ornithodoros turicata is an argasid, or soft tick of medical and veterinary importance because it is a known vector of the relapsing fever spirochete, Borrelia turicatae, and potentially African swine fever virus. Historic collections of O. turicata have been recorded from Latin America to the south...

  6. Whole Genome Sequence and Comparative Genomics of the Novel Lyme Borreliosis Causing Pathogen, Borrelia mayonii

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Dhwani; Replogle, Adam; Rowe, Lori A.; Pritt, Bobbi S.; Petersen, Jeannine M.

    2016-01-01

    Borrelia mayonii, a Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) genospecies, was recently identified as a cause of Lyme borreliosis (LB) among patients from the upper midwestern United States. By microscopy and PCR, spirochete/genome loads in infected patients were estimated at 105 to 106 per milliliter of blood. Here, we present the full chromosome and plasmid sequences of two B. mayonii isolates, MN14-1420 and MN14-1539, cultured from blood of two of these patients. Whole genome sequencing and assembly was conducted using PacBio long read sequencing (Pacific Biosciences RSII instrument) followed by hierarchical genome-assembly process (HGAP). The B. mayonii genome is ~1.31 Mbp in size (26.9% average GC content) and is comprised of a linear chromosome, 8 linear and 7 circular plasmids. Consistent with its taxonomic designation as a new Bbsl genospecies, the B. mayonii linear chromosome shares only 93.83% average nucleotide identity with other genospecies. Both B. mayonii genomes contain plasmids similar to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto lp54, lp36, lp28-3, lp28-4, lp25, lp17, lp5, 5 cp32s, cp26, and cp9. The vls locus present on lp28-10 of B. mayonii MN14-1420 is remarkably long, being comprised of 24 silent vls cassettes. Genetic differences between the two B. mayonii genomes are limited and include 15 single nucleotide variations as well as 7 fewer silent vls cassettes and a lack of the lp5 plasmid in MN14-1539. Notably, 68 homologs to proteins present in B. burgdorferi sensu stricto appear to be lacking from the B. mayonii genomes. These include the complement inhibitor, CspZ (BB_H06), the fibronectin binding protein, BB_K32, as well as multiple lipoproteins and proteins of unknown function. This study shows the utility of long read sequencing for full genome assembly of Bbsl genomes, identifies putative genome regions of B. mayonii that may be linked to clinical manifestation or tissue tropism, and provides a valuable resource for pathogenicity, diagnostic and

  7. Whole Genome Sequence and Comparative Genomics of the Novel Lyme Borreliosis Causing Pathogen, Borrelia mayonii.

    PubMed

    Kingry, Luke C; Batra, Dhwani; Replogle, Adam; Rowe, Lori A; Pritt, Bobbi S; Petersen, Jeannine M

    2016-01-01

    Borrelia mayonii, a Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) genospecies, was recently identified as a cause of Lyme borreliosis (LB) among patients from the upper midwestern United States. By microscopy and PCR, spirochete/genome loads in infected patients were estimated at 105 to 106 per milliliter of blood. Here, we present the full chromosome and plasmid sequences of two B. mayonii isolates, MN14-1420 and MN14-1539, cultured from blood of two of these patients. Whole genome sequencing and assembly was conducted using PacBio long read sequencing (Pacific Biosciences RSII instrument) followed by hierarchical genome-assembly process (HGAP). The B. mayonii genome is ~1.31 Mbp in size (26.9% average GC content) and is comprised of a linear chromosome, 8 linear and 7 circular plasmids. Consistent with its taxonomic designation as a new Bbsl genospecies, the B. mayonii linear chromosome shares only 93.83% average nucleotide identity with other genospecies. Both B. mayonii genomes contain plasmids similar to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto lp54, lp36, lp28-3, lp28-4, lp25, lp17, lp5, 5 cp32s, cp26, and cp9. The vls locus present on lp28-10 of B. mayonii MN14-1420 is remarkably long, being comprised of 24 silent vls cassettes. Genetic differences between the two B. mayonii genomes are limited and include 15 single nucleotide variations as well as 7 fewer silent vls cassettes and a lack of the lp5 plasmid in MN14-1539. Notably, 68 homologs to proteins present in B. burgdorferi sensu stricto appear to be lacking from the B. mayonii genomes. These include the complement inhibitor, CspZ (BB_H06), the fibronectin binding protein, BB_K32, as well as multiple lipoproteins and proteins of unknown function. This study shows the utility of long read sequencing for full genome assembly of Bbsl genomes, identifies putative genome regions of B. mayonii that may be linked to clinical manifestation or tissue tropism, and provides a valuable resource for pathogenicity, diagnostic and

  8. [Yellow fever].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio

    2007-06-01

    After the discovery of the New World, yellow fever proved to be an important risk factor of morbidity and mortality for Caribbean populations. In the following centuries epidemic risk, expanded by sea trade and travel, progressively reached the settlements in North America and Brazil as well as the Atlantic seaboard of tropical and equatorial Africa. In the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century epidemics of yellow fever were reported in some coastal towns in the Iberian peninsula, French coast, Great Britain and Italy, where, in 1804 at Leghorn, only one epidemic was documented. Prevention and control programs against yellow fever, developed at the beginning of the twentieth century in Cuba and in Panama, were a major breakthrough in understanding definitively its aetiology and pathogenesis. Subsequently, further advances in knowledge of yellow fever epidemiology were obtained when French scientists, working in West and Central Africa, showed that monkeys were major hosts of the yellow fever virus (the wild yellow fever virus), besides man. In addition, advances in research, contributing to the development of vaccines against the yellow fever virus in the first half of the nineteenth century, are reported in this paper.

  9. Properties of Acetate Kinase Isozymes and a Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Kinase from a Spirochete

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, Caroline S.; Canale-Parola, Ercole

    1982-01-01

    Spirochete MA-2, which is anaerobic, ferments glucose, forming acetate as a major product. The spirochete also ferments (but does not utilize as growth substrates) small amounts of l-leucine, l-isoleucine, and l-valine, forming the branched-chain fatty acids isovalerate, 2-methylbutyrate, and isobutyrate, respectively, as end products. Energy generated through the fermentation of these amino acids is utilized to prolong cell survival under conditions of growth substrate starvation. A branched-chain fatty acid kinase and two acetate kinase isozymes were resolved from spirochete MA-2 cell extracts. Kinase activity was followed by measuring the formation of acyl phosphate from fatty acid and ATP. The branched-chain fatty acid kinase was active with isobutyrate, 2-methylbutyrate, isovalerate, butyrate, valerate, or propionate as a substrate but not with acetate as a substrate. The acetate kinase isozymes were active with acetate and propionate as substrates but not with longer-chain fatty acids as substrates. The acetate kinase isozymes and the branched-chain fatty acid kinase differed in nucleoside triphosphate and cation specificities. Each acetate kinase isozyme had an apparent molecular weight of approximately 125,000, whereas the branched-chain fatty acid kinase had a molecular weight of approximately 76,000. These results show that spirochete MA-2 synthesizes a branched-chain fatty acid kinase specific for leucine, isoleucine, and valine fermentation. It is likely that a phosphate branched-chain amino acids is also synthesized by spirochete MA-2. Thus, in spirochete MA-2, physiological mechanisms have evolved which serve specifically to generate maintenance energy from branched-chain amino acids. PMID:6288660

  10. Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) introduced in suburban forests in France.

    PubMed

    Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Marmet, Julie; Chassagne, Michelle; Bord, Séverine; Chapuis, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Numerous vertebrate reservoirs have been described for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl), which includes the etiological agents of Lyme Borreliosis (LB). The Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus) is a rodent originating from Asia, where it is suspected to be a B. burgdorferi reservoir. It has been intentionally released into the wild in Europe since the 1970s, but has not yet been subject to any study regarding its association with the LB agent. In this paper we studied Siberian chipmunk infestation with the LB vector (Ixodes ricinus) and infection prevalence by LB spirochetes in a suburban introduced population. We compared these findings with known competent reservoir hosts, the bank vole (Myodes [clethrionomys] glareolus) and wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). All Siberian chipmunks were infested with larvae and larval abundance was higher in this species (mean number of larvae [95% Confidence Interval]: 73.5 [46.0, 117.2]) than in the two other rodent species (bank voles: 4.4 [3.0, 6.3] and wood mice: 10.2 [4.9, 21.2]). Significant factors affecting abundance of larvae were host species and sampling season. Nymphs were most prevalent on chipmunks (86.2%, mean: 5.1 [3.3, 8.0]), one vole carried only two nymphs, and none of the mice had any nymphs. Nymph abundance in chipmunks was affected by sampling season and sex. Furthermore, the infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl in the Siberian chipmunk was the highest (33.3%) and predominantly of B. afzelii. The infection prevalence was 14.1% in bank voles, but no wood mouse was found to be infected. Our results suggest that the Siberian chipmunk may be an important reservoir host for LB.

  11. Prevalence of serological response to Borrelia burgdorferi in farmers from eastern and central Poland.

    PubMed

    Zając, V; Pinkas, J; Wójcik-Fatla, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Owoc, A; Bojar, I

    2017-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis (Lyme disease) caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochete is the most common tick-borne infection manifested by a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms. In Poland, the preventive health care does not comprise individual farmers as it is practiced in foresters. The objective of this study was to evaluate the exposure of Polish farmers to infection with B. burgdorferi, based on serological screening test and epidemiological investigation. A total of 3,597 farmers were examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi antibodies, as well as interviewed regarding exposure to ticks and prophylaxis of tick-borne diseases. The prevalence varied between 18.2 and 50.7 % suggesting a focal occurrence of borreliosis. A significant increase in the frequency of positive reactions in the oldest age ranges was observed, equaling 30.9 % in the range of 60-69 years and 53.6 % in the range of 80-91 years. The prevalence of the anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies of IgG class (14.7 %) was similar to that of IgM class (16.0 %). Seroreactivity to B. burgdorferi antigen was significantly higher in the group of farmers exposed to repeated tick bites. Significant relationships were also found between some other risk factors and occurrence of seropositive reactions to B. burgdorferi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study concerning seroprevalence to B. burgdorferi carried out on such a large group of farmers. Results indicate a high risk of B. burgdorferi infection among Polish farmers and associations between some risk factors and the presence of seropositive reactions.

  12. Immunization with a Borrelia burgdorferi BB0172-Derived Peptide Protects Mice against Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Small, Christina M.; Ajithdoss, Dharani K.; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline; Mwangi, Waithaka; Esteve-Gassent, Maria D.

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most prevalent arthropod borne disease in the US and it is caused by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), which is acquired through the bite of an infected Ixodes tick. Vaccine development efforts focused on the von Willebrand factor A domain of the borrelial protein BB0172 from which four peptides (A, B, C and D) were synthesized and conjugated to Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin, formulated in Titer Max® adjuvant and used to immunize C3H/HeN mice subcutaneously at days 0, 14 and 21. Sera were collected to evaluate antibody responses and some mice were sacrificed for histopathology to evaluate vaccine safety. Twenty-eight days post-priming, protection was evaluated by needle inoculation of half the mice in each group with 103 Bb/mouse, whereas the rest were challenged with 105Bb/mouse. Eight weeks post-priming, another four groups of similarly immunized mice were challenged using infected ticks. In both experiments, twenty-one days post-challenge, the mice were sacrificed to determine antibody responses, bacterial burdens and conduct histopathology. Results showed that only mice immunized with peptide B were protected against challenge with Bb. In addition, compared to the other the treatment groups, peptide B-immunized mice showed very limited inflammation in the heart and joint tissues. Peptide B-specific antibody titers peaked at 8 weeks post-priming and surprisingly, the anti-peptide B antibodies did not cross-react with Bb lysates. These findings strongly suggest that peptide B is a promising candidate for the development of a new DIVA vaccine (Differentiate between Infected and Vaccinated Animals) for protection against Lyme disease. PMID:24505447

  13. Direct measurement of helical cell motion of the spirochete leptospira.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shuichi; Leshansky, Alexander; Magariyama, Yukio; Namba, Keiichi; Kudo, Seishi

    2014-01-07

    Leptospira are spirochete bacteria distinguished by a short-pitch coiled body and intracellular flagella. Leptospira cells swim in liquid with an asymmetric morphology of the cell body; the anterior end has a long-pitch spiral shape (S-end) and the posterior end is hook-shaped (H-end). Although the S-end and the coiled cell body called the protoplasmic cylinder are thought to be responsible for propulsion together, most observations on the motion mechanism have remained qualitative. In this study, we analyzed the swimming speed and rotation rate of the S-end, protoplasmic cylinder, and H-end of individual Leptospira cells by one-sided dark-field microscopy. At various viscosities of media containing different concentrations of Ficoll, the rotation rate of the S-end and protoplasmic cylinder showed a clear correlation with the swimming speed, suggesting that these two helical parts play a central role in the motion of Leptospira. In contrast, the H-end rotation rate was unstable and showed much less correlation with the swimming speed. Forces produced by the rotation of the S-end and protoplasmic cylinder showed that these two helical parts contribute to propulsion at nearly equal magnitude. Torque generated by each part, also obtained from experimental motion parameters, indicated that the flagellar motor can generate torque >4000 pN nm, twice as large as that of Escherichia coli. Furthermore, the S-end torque was found to show a markedly larger fluctuation than the protoplasmic cylinder torque, suggesting that the unstable H-end rotation might be mechanically related to changes in the S-end rotation rate for torque balance of the entire cell. Variations in torque at the anterior and posterior ends of the Leptospira cell body could be transmitted from one end to the other through the cell body to coordinate the morphological transformations of the two ends for a rapid change in the swimming direction. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc

  14. Asymptomatic Borrelia-seropositive individuals display the same incidence of Borrelia-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-secreting cells in blood as patients with clinical Borrelia infection

    PubMed Central

    Ekerfelt, C; Forsberg, P; Svenvik, M; Roberg, M; Bergström, S; Ernerudh, J

    1999-01-01

    Lyme disease is a complex disorder that sometimes becomes chronic. There are contradictory reports of experimental Borrelia infections regarding which type of T cell cytokine responses, i.e. Th1 or Th2, are needed to eradicate the Borrelia spirochaetes. In human borreliosis a predominance of Borrelia-specific Th1-like responses has been shown. In this study, spontaneous, as well as Borrelia-specific, secretion of IFN-γ (Th1) and IL-4 (Th2) in Borrelia-seropositive healthy asymptomatic individuals (n = 17) was investigated in peripheral blood by a sensitive ELISPOT assay, and compared with previously reported responses in patients with clinical Borrelia infection (n = 25). The seropositive asymptomatic individuals displayed the same predominance of Borrelia-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells as the patients with clinical Borrelia infection. Interestingly, the proportion of spontaneously IL-4-secreting cells, reflecting the unstimulated in vivo secretion, was lower in the seropositive asymptomatic individuals compared with patients with chronic Borrelia infections (n = 13, P = 0.02), whereas no such difference was found compared with subacute Borrelia infections (n = 12). These findings indicate that IFN-γ secretion alone is not sufficient to eliminate Borrelia spirochaetes in humans, although IFN-γ may still have a beneficial role in borreliosis acting in concert with other mechanisms. PMID:10193424

  15. Dengue fever

    MedlinePlus

    Clothing, mosquito repellent, and netting can help reduce the risk for mosquito bites that can spread dengue fever and other infections. Limit outdoor activity during mosquito season, especially when they ...

  16. Yellow fever.

    PubMed

    Monath, Thomas P; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2015-03-01

    Yellow fever, a mosquito-borne flavivirus disease occurs in tropical areas of South America and Africa. It is a disease of major historical importance, but remains a threat to travelers to and residents of endemic areas despite the availability of an effective vaccine for nearly 70 years. An important aspect is the receptivity of many non-endemic areas to introduction and spread of yellow fever. This paper reviews the clinical aspects, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of yellow fever, with an emphasis on recent changes in the distribution and incidence of the disease. Recent knowledge about yellow fever 17D vaccine mechanism of action and safety are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Scarlet fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash the illness is named for. The main risk factor for getting scarlet fever is infection with the ... damage Pneumonia Sinus infection Swollen lymph glands or abscess When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your ...

  18. Similarities in murine infection and immune response to Borrelia bissettii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    Leydet, Brian F.; Ting Liang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    In 1982, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss) was identified as the aetiological agent of Lyme disease. Since then an increasing number of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) species have been isolated in the United States. To date, many of these species remain understudied despite mounting evidence associating them with human illness. Borrelia bissettii is a spirochaete closely related to B. burgdorferi that has been loosely associated with human illness. Using an experimental murine infection model, we compared the infectivity and humoral immune response with a North American isolate of B. bissettii and B. burgdorferi using culture, molecular and serological methods. The original B. bissettii cultures were unable to infect immunocompetent mice, but were confirmed to be infectious after adaptation in immunodeficient animals. B. bissettii infection resulted in spirochaete burdens similar to B. burgdorferi in skin, heart and bladder whereas significantly lower burdens were observed in the joint tissues. B. bissettii induced an antibody response similar to B. burgdorferi as measured by both immunoblotting and the C6 ELISA. Additionally, this isolate of B. bissettii was sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM, which successfully identified many genes orthologous to mammalian virulence factors described in B. burgdorferi. Similarities seen between both infections in this well-characterized murine model contribute to our understanding of the potential pathogenic nature of B. bissettii. Infection dynamics of B. bissettii, and especially the induced humoral response, are similar to B. burgdorferi, suggesting this species may contribute to the epidemiology of human borreliosis. PMID:26419825

  19. Rat bite fever without fever.

    PubMed

    Stehle, P; Dubuis, O; So, A; Dudler, J

    2003-09-01

    Rat bite fever is a rarely reported acute febrile bacterial illness caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus following a rat bite. It is classically characterised by abrupt onset of fever with rigors, myalgias, headache, and the appearance of a generalised maculopapular petechial skin rash. Polyarthritis complicates the course of the disease in up to 50% of infected patients, and numerous hurdles can make the diagnosis particularly difficult in the absence of fever or rash, as in the present case. A high degree of awareness is necessary to make the correct diagnosis in such cases. Diagnosis has important prognostic implications as the disease is potentially lethal, but easily treatable.

  20. First record of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 strain in Dermacentor nitens ticks in the northern region of Parana (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Carreira, Teresa; Nunes, Mónica; Benitez, Aline; Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Vidotto, Odilon; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks that feed on horses used for animal traction in rural Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil. Between February and June 2008, a total of 224 ticks was collected of which 75% were identified as Dermacentor nitens and 25% as Amblyomma cajenense. To amplify B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA, the intergenic space region (ISR) between the 5S (rrf) 23S (rrl) rRNA genes was used as targets for nested-PCR. Two ticks of the D. nitens species were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. Both species showed a fragment of 184 bp, but the sequencing revealed 99.9% homology with the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) strain B31. These results showed, for the first time, the presence of spirochete DNA infecting ticks that parasitize horses used for animal traction, in the rural municipality mentioned. In conclusion, this study opens up promising prospects for determining the infection rate of B. burgdorferi s.s. genospecies or other species in the equine population, as well as the impact of the infection rate on Lyme disease in the state of Parana. PMID:24516456

  1. Plasma fibronectin stabilizes Borrelia burgdorferi–endothelial interactions under vascular shear stress by a catch-bond mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Niddam, Alexandra F.; Ebady, Rhodaba; Bansal, Anil; Koehler, Anne; Hinz, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial dissemination via the cardiovascular system is the most common cause of infection mortality. A key step in dissemination is bacterial interaction with endothelia lining blood vessels, which is physically challenging because of the shear stress generated by blood flow. Association of host cells such as leukocytes and platelets with endothelia under vascular shear stress requires mechanically specialized interaction mechanisms, including force-strengthened catch bonds. However, the biomechanical mechanisms supporting vascular interactions of most bacterial pathogens are undefined. Fibronectin (Fn), a ubiquitous host molecule targeted by many pathogens, promotes vascular interactions of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Here, we investigated how B. burgdorferi exploits Fn to interact with endothelia under physiological shear stress, using recently developed live cell imaging and particle-tracking methods for studying bacterial–endothelial interaction biomechanics. We found that B. burgdorferi does not primarily target insoluble matrix Fn deposited on endothelial surfaces but, instead, recruits and induces polymerization of soluble plasma Fn (pFn), an abundant protein in blood plasma that is normally soluble and nonadhesive. Under physiological shear stress, caps of polymerized pFn at bacterial poles formed part of mechanically loaded adhesion complexes, and pFn strengthened and stabilized interactions by a catch-bond mechanism. These results show that B. burgdorferi can transform a ubiquitous but normally nonadhesive blood constituent to increase the efficiency, strength, and stability of bacterial interactions with vascular surfaces. Similar mechanisms may promote dissemination of other Fn-binding pathogens. PMID:28396443

  2. Lyme Disease Spirochetes in Ticks Collected from Birds in Midwestern United States

    Treesearch

    Thomas H. Nicholls; Steven M. Callister

    1996-01-01

    In a tick-spirochete survey conducted from fall 1989 through fall 1992 in northwestern Wisconsin, 4,256 birds (composed of 91 species) were examined for ticks. Infestations were recorded for 400 birds (composed of 30 species). Of 1,184 ticks taken from 335 birds (composed of 26 species), 60 (5%) Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard) from eight species of birds were...

  3. The occurrence of Ixodes ricinus ticks and important tick-borne pathogens in areas with high tick-borne encephalitis prevalence in different altitudinal levels of the Czech Republic Part II. Ixodes ricinus ticks and genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex.

    PubMed

    Daniel, M; Rudenko, N; Golovchenko, M; Danielová, V; Fialová, A; Kříž, B; Malý, M

    Three years long research study (2011-2013) on population density of Ixodes ricinus and the infection rate of the pathogens that they transmit was conducted in four topographically distant areas in the Czech Republic. In the previous decade (2001-2010) thirteen loci with increased incidence of tick borne encephalitis cases were defined, suggesting the permanent interaction of human population with ticks and indicating the landmarks for study of the presence of other tick borne pathogens. The work program included the identification of existing spectrum of spirochetes from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex and the conditions of their occurrence and distribution. In the areas of the Ústí nad Labem Region, Olomouc Region, South Bohemian Region, and Highlands Region, 600 m2 plots were selected in the local optimal I. ricinus habitats where tick flagging was performed every year in the spring-summer and autumn seasons of the tick questing activity. Collected adult ticks (1369 males and 1404 females) were individually screened for B. burgdorferi s. l. spirochets. Spirochetes from B. burgdorferi s.l. complex were detected in all 13 studies sites in all altitudes from 280 to 1030 meters a. s. l. The total rate of infection was determined as 11.4% (males 10.4%, females 12.4%) with range limits from 1.4% (Ústí nad Labem in 2011) to 19.7% (South Bohemian Region, 2012).Genospecies were detected in various proportions and in different combinations: Borrelia afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdorferi s. s., B. bavariensis, B. bissettii, B. valaisiana, B. spielmanii and B. lusitaniae. The three-year observation justifies the assumption that the regional differences in infectivity of I. ricinus are based on the character of the local biocenosis of the respective region. The dynamics of its seasonal changes, conditioned by climatic factors, determines the annual differences. Three of the medically most important Borrelia species formed a core group among all detected genospecies

  4. Dengue fever (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Dengue fever, or West Nile fever, is a mild viral illness transmitted by mosquitoes which causes fever, ... second exposure to the virus can result in Dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life-threatening illness.

  5. Rat-bite fever

    MedlinePlus

    Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic erythema; Spirillary fever; Sodoku ... Rat-bite fever can be caused by either of 2 different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Both of these are ...

  6. Whole-genome sequencing of Borrelia garinii BgVir, isolated from Taiga ticks (Ixodes persulcatus).

    PubMed

    Brenner, Evgeniy V; Kurilshikov, Alexander M; Stronin, Oleg V; Fomenko, Nataliya V

    2012-10-01

    Most Lyme borreliosis cases in Russia result from Borrelia garinii NT29 group infection. Borrelias of this group circulate exclusively in Ixodes persulcatus ticks, which are seldom found beyond Russia and the far east. Here we report the whole-genome sequence of Borrelia garinii BgVir isolated from an I. persulcatus female.

  7. Scarlet fever.

    PubMed

    2016-04-27

    Essential facts Scarlet fever is characterised by a rash that usually accompanies a sore throat and flushed cheeks. It is mainly a childhood illness. While this contagious disease rarely poses a danger to life today, outbreaks in the past led to many deaths.

  8. Orchid Fever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    Exotic, captivating, and seductive, orchids have long fascinated plant lovers. They first attracted the attention of Westerners in the 17th century, when explorers brought back samples from South America and Asia. By the mid-1800s, orchid collecting had reached a fever pitch, not unlike that of the Dutch tulip craze of the 1630s, with rich (and…

  9. Comparison of PCR-Based Diagnosis with Centrifuged-Based Enrichment Method for Detection of Borrelia persica in Animal Blood Samples.

    PubMed

    Naddaf, S R; Kishdehi, M; Siavashi, Mr

    2011-01-01

    The mainstay of diagnosis of relapsing fever (RF) is demonstration of the spirochetes in Giemsa-stained thick blood smears, but during non fever periods the bacteria are very scanty and rarely detected in blood smears by microscopy. This study is aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of different methods developed for detection of low-grade spirochetemia. Animal blood samples with low degrees of spirochetemia were tested with two PCRs and a nested PCR targeting flaB, GlpQ, and rrs genes. Also, a centrifuged-based enrichment method and Giemsa staining were performed on blood samples with various degrees of spirochetemia. The flaB-PCR and nested rrs-PCR turned positive with various degrees of spirochetemia including the blood samples that turned negative with dark-field microscopy. The GlpQ-PCR was positive as far as at least one spirochete was seen in 5-10 microscopic fields. The sensitivity of GlpQ-PCR increased when DNA from Buffy Coat Layer (BCL) was used as template. The centrifuged-based enrichment method turned positive with as low concentration as 50 bacteria/ml blood, while Giemsa thick staining detected bacteria with concentrations ≥ 25000 bacteria/ml. Centrifuged-based enrichment method appeared as much as 500-fold more sensitive than thick smears, which makes it even superior to some PCR assays. Due to simplicity and minimal laboratory requirements, this method can be considered a valuable tool for diagnosis of RF in rural health centers.

  10. Molecular characterization, genomic arrangement, and expression of bmpD, a new member of the bmp class of genes encoding membrane proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed Central

    Ramamoorthy, R; Povinelli, L; Philipp M, T

    1996-01-01

    An expression library made with Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in the vector lambda ZapII was screened with serum from a monkey infected with the Lyme disease agent. This serum killed B. burgdorferi in vitro by an antibody-dependent, complement-mediated mechanism and contained antibodies to at least seven spirochetal antigens, none of which were the major outer surface proteins OspA or OspB. Among several positive clones, a clone containing the B. burgdorferi bmpA gene encoding the immunodominant antigen P39 was obtained. Chromosome walking and DNA sequence analysis permitted the identification of two additional upstream genes homologous to the bmpA gene and its related companion, bmpB. The first of these was the recently characterized bmpC gene, and adjacent to it was the fourth and new member of this class, which has been designated bmpD. The gene product encoded by bmpD is 34l residues long, contains a signal sequence with a potential signal peptidase II cleavage site, and has 26% identity with TmpC of Treponema pallidum. Southern blotting confirmed the tandem arrangement of all four bmp genes in the chromosome of B. burgdorferi JD1. However, Northern (RNA) blotting revealed that bmpD is expressed as a monocistronic transcript, which indicates that it is not part of an operon at the bmp locus. The bmpD gene was found to be conserved in representative members of the three species of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex, suggesting that it serves an important biological function in the spirochete. PMID:8606088

  11. Tri-phasic fever in dengue fever.

    PubMed

    D, Pradeepa H; Rao, Sathish B; B, Ganaraj; Bhat, Gopalakrishna; M, Chakrapani

    2018-04-01

    Dengue fever is an acute febrile illness with a duration of 2-12 days. Our observational study observed the 24-h continuous tympanic temperature pattern of 15 patients with dengue fever and compared this with 26 others with fever due to a non-dengue aetiology. A tri-phasic fever pattern was seen among two-thirds of dengue fever patients, but in only one with an inflammatory disease. One-third of dengue fever patients exhibited a single peak temperature. Continuous temperature monitoring and temperature pattern analysis in clinical settings can aid in the early differentiation of dengue fever from non-dengue aetiology.

  12. Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete: making a living as a stealth pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Radolf, Justin D.; Deka, Ranjit K.; Anand, Arvind; Šmajs, David; Norgard, Michael V.; Yang, X. Frank

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a worldwide resurgence in infections caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the syphilis spirochete. The syphilis spirochete’s well-recognized capacity for early dissemination and immune evasion has earned it the designation ‘the stealth pathogen’. Despite the many hurdles to studying syphilis pathogenesis, most notably the inability to culture and to genetically manipulate T. pallidum, in recent years, considerable progress has been made in elucidating the structural, physiologic, and regulatory facets of stealth pathogenicity. In this Review, we integrate this eclectic body of information to garner fresh insights into the highly successful parasitic lifestyles of the syphilis spirochete and related pathogenic treponemes. PMID:27721440

  13. Typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Wain, John; Hendriksen, Rene S; Mikoleit, Matthew L; Keddy, Karen H; Ochiai, R Leon

    2015-03-21

    Control of typhoid fever relies on clinical information, diagnosis, and an understanding for the epidemiology of the disease. Despite the breadth of work done so far, much is not known about the biology of this human-adapted bacterial pathogen and the complexity of the disease in endemic areas, especially those in Africa. The main barriers to control are vaccines that are not immunogenic in very young children and the development of multidrug resistance, which threatens efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Clinicians, microbiologists, and epidemiologists worldwide need to be familiar with shifting trends in enteric fever. This knowledge is crucial, both to control the disease and to manage cases. Additionally, salmonella serovars that cause human infection can change over time and location. In areas of Asia, multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) has been the main cause of enteric fever, but now S Typhi is being displaced by infections with drug-resistant S enterica serovar Paratyphi A. New conjugate vaccines are imminent and new treatments have been promised, but the engagement of local medical and public health institutions in endemic areas is needed to allow surveillance and to implement control measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Temporomandibular joint involvement caused by Borrelia Burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Lesnicar, Gorazd; Zerdoner, Danijel

    2007-12-01

    Lyme borreliosis is an endemic disease in Slovenia with an incidence of around 150 patients per 100,000 inhabitants. Although the large joints are most typically affected in Lyme borreliosis, there are also periods of disease activity with arthritis or arthralgias involving smaller joints, including the temporo-mandibular joint. During the years between 2000 and 2003, two patients with Lyme borreliosis affecting the temporo-mandibular joints were treated. The patients presented with fatigue and pain in diverse muscle groups accompanied by arthralgia, which was most pronounced in the temporomandibular joint area. None of the patients were febrile or had joint effusions. Both patients were examined by means of biochemical and serological examinations for Borrelia burgdorferi using ELISA assay and Western blot test (both for IgM and IgG), plain radiographs, MR and CT scans, and scinti-scan of the temporo-mandibular joints They both had positive serum markers for an acute B. burgdorferi infection and were treated with intravenous ceftriaxone. None of the patients had clinical or laboratory signs of chronic Lyme disease activity two and four years following therapy, respectively. Roentgenographic and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the temporo-mandibular joints had not shown any persistent sign of acute inflammation. There are only few reports of patients with manifest temporo-mandibular joint involvement of Lyme borreliosis in the literature. This report emphasizes the importance of differential diagnosis of acute temporo-mandibular joint arthralgia, of early diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, and of the necessity for prompt antibiotic treatment.

  15. Yellow fever.

    PubMed

    Litvoc, Marcelo Nóbrega; Novaes, Christina Terra Gallafrio; Lopes, Max Igor Banks Ferreira

    2018-02-01

    The yellow fever (YF) virus is a Flavivirus, transmitted by Haemagogus, Sabethes or Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The disease is endemic in forest areas in Africa and Latin America leading to epizootics in monkeys that constitute the reservoir of the disease. There are two forms of YF: sylvatic, transmitted accidentally when approaching the forests, and urban, which can be perpetuated by Aedes aegypti. In Brazil, the last case of urban YF occurred in 1942. Since then, there has been an expansion of transmission areas from the North and Midwest regions to the South and Southeast. In 2017, the country faced an important outbreak of the disease mainly in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. In 2018, its reach extended from Minas Gerais toward São Paulo. Yellow fever has an incubation period of 3 to 6 days and sudden onset of symptoms with high fever, myalgia, headache, nausea/vomiting and increased transaminases. The disease ranges from asymptomatic to severe forms. The most serious forms occur in around 15% of those infected, with high lethality rates. These forms lead to renal, hepatic and neurological impairment, and bleeding episodes. Treatment of mild and moderate forms is symptomatic, while severe and malignant forms depend on intensive care. Prevention is achieved by administering the vaccine, which is an effective (immunogenicity at 90-98%) and safe (0.4 severe events per 100,000 doses) measure. In 2018, the first transplants in the world due to YF were performed. There is also an attempt to evaluate the use of active drugs against the virus in order to reduce disease severity.

  16. Zika fever.

    PubMed

    Martínez de Salazar, Pablo; Suy, Anna; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Rodó, Carlota; Salvador, Fernando; Molina, Israel

    2016-04-01

    Zika fever is an arboviral systemic disease that has recently become a public health challenge of global concern after its spread through the Americas. This review highlights the current understanding on Zika virus epidemiology, its routes of transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and the current management, prevention and control strategies. It also delves the association between Zika infection and complications, such as microencephaly or Guillem-Barré syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Valley fever may be under-recognized. 2 , 3 Public health surveillance for Valley fever Valley fever is reportable ... MMWR) . Check with your local, state, or territorial public health department for more information about disease reporting requirements ...

  18. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... spotted fever on the foot Rocky Mountain spotted fever, petechial rash Antibodies Deer and dog tick References McElligott SC, Kihiczak GG, Schwartz RA. Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other rickettsial infections. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann ...

  19. Widespread dispersal of Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks collected from songbirds across Canada.

    PubMed

    Scott, John D; Anderson, John F; Durden, Lance A

    2012-02-01

    Millions of Lyme disease vector ticks are dispersed annually by songbirds across Canada, but often overlooked as the source of infection. For clarity on vector distribution, we sampled 481 ticks (12 species and 3 undetermined ticks) from 211 songbirds (42 species/subspecies) nationwide. Using PCR, 52 (29.5%) of 176 Ixodes ticks tested were positive for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Immature blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis , collected from infested songbirds had a B. burgdorferi infection prevalence of 36% (larvae, 48%; nymphs, 31%). Notably, Ixodes affinis is reported in Canada for the first time and, similarly, Ixodes auritulus for the initial time in the Yukon. Firsts for bird-parasitizing ticks include I. scapularis in Quebec and Saskatchewan. We provide the first records of 3 tick species cofeeding on passerines (song sparrow, Swainson's thrush). New host records reveal I. scapularis on the blackpoll warbler and Nashville warbler. We furnish the following first Canadian reports of B. burgdorferi-positive ticks: I. scapularis on chipping sparrow, house wren, indigo bunting; I. auritulus on Bewick's wren; and I. spinipalpis on a Bewick's wren and song sparrow. First records of B. burgdorferi-infected ticks on songbirds include the following: the rabbit-associated tick, Ixodes dentatus, in western Canada; I. scapularis in Quebec, Saskatchewan, northern New Brunswick, northern Ontario; and Ixodes spinipalpis (collected in British Columbia). The presence of B. burgdorferi in Ixodes larvae suggests reservoir competency in 9 passerines (Bewick's wren, common yellowthroat, dark-eyed junco, Oregon junco, red-winged blackbird, song sparrow, Swainson's thrush, swamp sparrow, and white-throated sparrow). We report transstadial transmission (larva to nymph) of B. burgdorferi in I. auritulus. Data suggest a possible 4-tick, i.e., I. angustus, I. auritulus, I. pacificus, and I. spinipalpis, enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi on Vancouver Island

  20. Probable late lyme disease: a variant manifestation of untreated Borrelia burgdorferi infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lyme disease, a bacterial infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, can cause early and late manifestations. The category of probable Lyme disease was recently added to the CDC surveillance case definition to describe patients with serologic evidence of exposure and physician-diagnosed disease in the absence of objective signs. We present a retrospective case series of 13 untreated patients with persistent symptoms of greater than 12 weeks duration who meet these criteria and suggest a label of ‘probable late Lyme disease’ for this presentation. Methods The sample for this analysis draws from a retrospective chart review of consecutive, adult patients presenting between August 2002 and August 2007 to the author (JA), an infectious disease specialist. Patients were included in the analysis if their current illness had lasted greater than or equal to 12 weeks duration at the time of evaluation. Results Probable late Lyme patients with positive IgG serology but no history of previous physician-documented Lyme disease or appropriate Lyme treatment were found to represent 6% of our heterogeneous sample presenting with ≥ 12 weeks of symptom duration. Patients experienced a range of symptoms including fatigue, widespread pain, and cognitive complaints. Approximately one-third of this subset reported a patient-observed rash at illness onset, with a similar proportion having been exposed to non-recommended antibiotics or glucocorticosteroid treatment for their initial disease. A clinically significant response to antibiotics treatment was noted in the majority of patients with probable late Lyme disease, although post-treatment symptom recurrence was common. Conclusions We suggest that patients with probable late Lyme disease share features with both confirmed late Lyme disease and post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. Physicians should consider the recent inclusion of probable Lyme disease in the CDC Lyme disease surveillance

  1. Borrelia burgdorferi Keeps Moving and Carries on: A Review of Borrelial Dissemination and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Jenny A.

    2017-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the etiological agent of Lyme disease, a multisystemic, multistage, inflammatory infection resulting in patients experiencing cardiac, neurological, and arthritic complications when not treated with antibiotics shortly after exposure. The spirochetal bacterium transmits through the Ixodes vector colonizing the dermis of a mammalian host prior to hematogenous dissemination and invasion of distal tissues all the while combating the immune response as it traverses through its pathogenic lifecycle. The innate immune response controls the borrelial burden in the dermis, but is unable to clear the infection and thereby prevent progression of disease. Dissemination in the mammalian host requires temporal regulation of virulence determinants to allow for vascular interactions, invasion, and colonization of distal tissues. Virulence determinants and/or adhesins are highly heterogenetic among environmental B. burgdorferi strains with particular genotypes being associated with the ability to disseminate to specific tissues and the severity of disease, but fail to generate cross-protective immunity between borrelial strains. The unique motility of B. burgdorferi rendered by the endoflagella serves a vital function for dissemination and protection from immune recognition. Progress has been made toward understanding the chemotactic regulation coordinating the activity of the two polar localized flagellar motors and their role in borrelial virulence, but this regulation is not yet fully understood. Distinct states of motility allow for dynamic interactions between several B. burgdorferi adhesins and host targets that play roles in transendothelial migration. Transmigration across endothelial and blood–brain barriers allows for the invasion of tissues and elicits localized immune responses. The invasive nature of B. burgdorferi is lacking in proactive mechanisms to modulate disease, such as secretion systems and toxins, but recent work has shown

  2. Identification of a novel pathogenic Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis with unusually high spirochaetaemia: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Pritt, Bobbi S; Mead, Paul S; Johnson, Diep K Hoang; Neitzel, David F; Respicio-Kingry, Laurel B; Davis, Jeffrey P; Schiffman, Elizabeth; Sloan, Lynne M; Schriefer, Martin E; Replogle, Adam J; Paskewitz, Susan M; Ray, Julie A; Bjork, Jenna; Steward, Christopher R; Deedon, Alecia; Lee, Xia; Kingry, Luke C; Miller, Tracy K; Feist, Michelle A; Theel, Elitza S; Patel, Robin; Irish, Cole L; Petersen, Jeannine M

    2016-05-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. It is a multisystem disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies and characterised by tissue localisation and low spirochaetaemia. In this study we aimed to describe a novel Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis in the USA. At the Mayo clinic, from 2003 to 2014, we tested routine clinical diagnostic specimens from patients in the USA with PCR targeting the oppA1 gene of B burgdorferi sensu lato. We identified positive specimens with an atypical PCR result (melting temperature outside of the expected range) by sequencing, microscopy, or culture. We collected Ixodes scapularis ticks from regions of suspected patient tick exposure and tested them by oppA1 PCR. 100 545 specimens were submitted by physicians for routine PCR from Jan 1, 2003 to Sept 30, 2014. From these samples, six clinical specimens (five blood, one synovial fluid) yielded an atypical oppA1 PCR product, but no atypical results were detected before 2012. Five of the six patients with atypical PCR results had presented with fever, four had diffuse or focal rash, three had symptoms suggestive of neurological inclusion, and two were admitted to hospital. The sixth patient presented with knee pain and swelling. Motile spirochaetes were seen in blood samples from one patient and cultured from blood samples from two patients. Among the five blood specimens, the median oppA1 copy number was 180 times higher than that in 13 specimens that tested positive for B burgdorferi sensu stricto during the same time period. Multigene sequencing identified the spirochaete as a novel B burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies. This same genospecies was detected in ticks collected at a probable patient exposure site. We describe a new pathogenic Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies (candidatus Borrelia mayonii) in the upper midwestern USA, which causes Lyme borreliosis with unusually high spirochaetaemia. Clinicians

  3. Acarological Risk of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Infections Across Space and Time in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Takken, Willem; van Vliet, Arnold J H; Verhulst, Niels O; Jacobs, Frans H H; Gassner, Fedor; Hartemink, Nienke; Mulder, Sara; Sprong, Hein

    2017-02-01

    A longitudinal investigation on tick populations and their Borrelia infections in the Netherlands was undertaken between 2006 and 2011 with the aim to assess spatial and temporal patterns of the acarological risk in forested sites across the country and to assess variations in Borrelia genospecies diversity. Ticks were collected monthly in 11 sites and nymphs were examined for Borrelia infections. Tick populations expressed strong seasonal variations, with consistent and significant differences in mean tick densities between sites. Borrelia infections were present in all study sites, with a site-specific mean prevalence per month ranging from 7% to 26%. Prevalence was location-dependent and was not associated with tick densities. Mean Borrelia prevalence was lowest in January (4%), gradually increasing to reach a maximum (24%) in August. Borrelia afzelii represented 70% of all infections, with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana represented with 4%, 8%, and 10%, respectively. The density of infected nymphs and the proportional distribution of the four Borrelia genospecies, were significantly different between sites. The results show a consistent and significant spatial and temporal difference in acarological risk across the Netherlands.

  4. Dengue fever

    PubMed Central

    Badreddine, Samar; Al-Dhaheri, Fahmi; Al-Dabbagh, Ammar; Al-Amoudi, Abdulrahman; Al-Ammari, Maged; Elatassi, Nader; Abbas, Haytham; Magliah, Rami; Malibari, Abdulbasit; Almoallim, Hani

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To delineate the clinical features and outcomes of dengue infection and to guide clinician of early diagnosis and identification of risks factors for dengue hemorrhagic fever. Methods: This study is a retrospective cross-sectional. Clinical records of 567 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of dengue infection, admitted to a single hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between January 2010 and June 2014 were reviewed. Results: Dengue infection was most common in adult males. Sixty-eight percent of infections were in Saudi nationals. In addition to the diagnostic clinical features, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia were typical of dengue infection. Approximately 4.1% of adult patients and 7.1% of pediatric patients developed dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Abdominal pain and vomiting were more common in patients developing DHF. Mean platelet count was lower in adult, but not pediatric patients developing DHF. Peak alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was higher in adult and pediatric patients developing DHF. Three patients died, 2 of them developed DHF. Ninety-eight percent of adult patients and 92% of pediatric patients made a full recovery. Conclusions: Dengue infection is common in Jeddah. Abdominal pain and vomiting, thrombocytopenia, and elevated ALT are typical of severe infection, which is more likely to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. PMID:28917067

  5. Immunomodulatory effects of tick saliva on dermal cells exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Dorothy C; Embers, Monica E; Caskey, John R; Kaushal, Deepak; Mather, Thomas N; Buck, Wayne R; Morici, Lisa A; Philipp, Mario T

    2016-07-08

    The prolonged feeding process of ixodid ticks, in combination with bacterial transmission, should lead to a robust inflammatory response at the blood-feeding site. Yet, factors present in tick saliva may down-regulate such responses, which may be beneficial to spirochete transmission. The primary goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that tick saliva, in the context of Borrelia burgdorferi, can have widespread effects on the production of immune mediators in skin. A cross-section of tick feeding on skin was examined histologically. Human THP-1 cells stimulated with B. burgdorferi and grown in the presence or absence of tick saliva were examined by human DNA microarray, cytokine bead array, sandwich ELISA, and qRT-PCR. Similar experiments were also conducted using dermal fibroblasts. Tick feeding on skin showed dermal infiltration of histiocytes and granulocytes at the bite location. Changes in monocytic transcript levels during co-culture with B. burgdorferi and saliva indicated that tick saliva had a suppressive effect on the expression of certain pro-inflammatory mediators, such as IL-8 (CXCL8) and TLR2, but had a stimulatory effect on specific molecules such as the Interleukin 10 receptor, alpha subunit (IL-10RA), a known mediator of the immunosuppressive signal of IL-10. Stimulated cell culture supernatants were analyzed via antigen-capture ELISA and cytokine bead array for inflammatory mediator production. Treatment of monocytes with saliva significantly reduced the expression of several key mediators including IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha. Tick saliva had an opposite effect on dermal fibroblasts. Rather than inhibiting, saliva enhanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, including IL-8 and IL-6 from these sentinel skin cells. The effects of ixodid tick saliva on resident skin cells is cell type-dependent. The response to both tick and pathogen at the site of feeding favors pathogen transmission, but may not be wholly suppressed by tick saliva.

  6. The novel Lyme borreliosis vaccine VLA15 shows broad protection against Borrelia species expressing six different OspA serotypes.

    PubMed

    Comstedt, Pär; Schüler, Wolfgang; Meinke, Andreas; Lundberg, Urban

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that the Outer surface protein A (OspA) based Lyme borreliosis vaccine VLA15 induces protective immunity in mice. Herein, we report the induction of protective immunity by VLA15 with mouse models using ticks infected with B. burgdorferi (OspA serotype 1), B. afzelii (OspA serotype 2) and B. bavariensis (OspA serotype 4) or with in vitro grown B. garinii (OspA serotype 5 and 6) for challenge. For B. garinii (OspA serotype 3), we have developed a growth inhibition assay using chicken complement and functional antibodies targeting B. garinii (OspA serotype 3) could be demonstrated after immunization with VLA15. Furthermore, following three priming immunizations, a booster dose was administered five months later and the induction of immunological memory could be confirmed. Thus, the antibody titers after the booster dose were increased considerably compared to those after primary immunization. In addition, the half-lives of anti-OspA serotype specific antibodies after administration of the booster immunization were longer than after primary immunization. Taken together, we could show that VLA15 induced protection in mice against challenge with four different clinically relevant Borrelia species (B. burgdorferi, B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. bavariensis) expressing five of the six OspA serotypes included in the vaccine. The protection data is supported by functional assays showing efficacy against spirochetes expressing any of the six OspA serotypes (1 to 6). To our knowledge, this is the first time a Lyme borreliosis vaccine has been able to demonstrate such broad protection in preclinical studies. These new data provide further promise for the clinical development of VLA15 and supports our efforts to provide a new Lyme borreliosis vaccine available for global use.

  7. Comparison of the lifetime host-to-tick transmission between two strains of the Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia afzelii.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Maxime; Margos, Gabriele; Fingerle, Volker; Voordouw, Maarten J

    2016-12-16

    Transmission from the vertebrate host to the arthropod vector is a critical step in the life-cycle of any vector-borne pathogen. How the probability of host-to-vector transmission changes over the duration of the infection is an important predictor of pathogen fitness. The Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia afzelii is transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks and establishes a chronic infection inside rodent reservoir hosts. The present study compares the temporal pattern of host-to-tick transmission between two strains of B. afzelii. Laboratory mice were experimentally infected via tick bite with one of two strains of B. afzelii: A3 and A10. Mice were repeatedly infested with pathogen-free larval Ixodes ricinus ticks over a period of 4 months. Engorged larval ticks moulted into nymphal ticks that were tested for infection with B. afzelii using qPCR. The proportion of infected nymphs was used to characterize the pattern of host-to-tick transmission over time. Both strains of B. afzelii followed a similar pattern of host-to-tick transmission. Transmission decreased from the acute to the chronic phase of the infection by 16.1 and 29.3% for strains A3 and A10, respectively. Comparison between strains found no evidence of a trade-off in transmission between the acute and chronic phase of infection. Strain A10 had higher lifetime fitness and established a consistently higher spirochete load in nymphal ticks than strain A3. Quantifying the relationship between host-to-vector transmission and the age of infection in the host is critical for estimating the lifetime fitness of vector-borne pathogens.

  8. Inter- and intra-specific pan-genomes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: genome stability and adaptive radiation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lyme disease is caused by spirochete bacteria from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.) species complex. To reconstruct the evolution of B. burgdorferi s.l. and identify the genomic basis of its human virulence, we compared the genomes of 23 B. burgdorferi s.l. isolates from Europe and the United States, including B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (B. burgdorferi s.s., 14 isolates), B. afzelii (2), B. garinii (2), B. “bavariensis” (1), B. spielmanii (1), B. valaisiana (1), B. bissettii (1), and B. “finlandensis” (1). Results Robust B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. burgdorferi s.l. phylogenies were obtained using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms, despite recombination. Phylogeny-based pan-genome analysis showed that the rate of gene acquisition was higher between species than within species, suggesting adaptive speciation. Strong positive natural selection drives the sequence evolution of lipoproteins, including chromosomally-encoded genes 0102 and 0404, cp26-encoded ospC and b08, and lp54-encoded dbpA, a07, a22, a33, a53, a65. Computer simulations predicted rapid adaptive radiation of genomic groups as population size increases. Conclusions Intra- and inter-specific pan-genome sizes of B. burgdorferi s.l. expand linearly with phylogenetic diversity. Yet gene-acquisition rates in B. burgdorferi s.l. are among the lowest in bacterial pathogens, resulting in high genome stability and few lineage-specific genes. Genome adaptation of B. burgdorferi s.l. is driven predominantly by copy-number and sequence variations of lipoprotein genes. New genomic groups are likely to emerge if the current trend of B. burgdorferi s.l. population expansion continues. PMID:24112474

  9. Lyme disease risk in southern California: abiotic and environmental drivers of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) density and infection prevalence with Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Andrew J; Hyon, David W; Brewington, John B; O'Connor, Kerry E; Swei, Andrea; Briggs, Cheryl J

    2017-01-05

    Tick-borne diseases, particularly Lyme disease, are emerging across the northern hemisphere. In order to manage emerging diseases and predict where emergence will likely occur, it is necessary to understand the factors influencing the distribution, abundance and infection prevalence of vector species. In North America, Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease and is transmitted by blacklegged ticks. This study aimed to explore the abiotic and environmental drivers of density and infection prevalence of western blacklegged ticks (Ixodes pacificus) in southern California, an understudied and densely populated region of North America. Over the course of this two-year study, densities of I. pacificus adults were consistently positively associated with host availability for juvenile ticks and dense oak woodland habitat. Densities of nymphal and larval I. pacificus, on the other hand were primarily predicted by host availability for juvenile ticks in the first year of the study, and by habitat characteristics such as dense leaf litter in the second year. Infection with the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto), and related spirochetes was not predicted by the abiotic conditions promoting I. pacificus populations, but rather by diversity of the tick community, and in particular by the presence of two Ixodes tick species that do not generally feed on humans (Ixodes spinipalpis and Ixodes peromysci). Borrelia spp. infection was not detected in the I. pacificus populations sampled, but was detected in other vector species that may maintain enzootic transmission of the pathogen on the landscape. This study identified dense oak woodlands as high-risk habitats for I. pacificus tick encounter in southern California. The shift in relative importance of host availability to habitat characteristics in predicting juvenile tick abundance occurred as California's historic drought intensified, suggesting that habitat providing suitable

  10. Linkages of Weather and Climate With Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae), Enzootic Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, and Lyme Disease in North America.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Eisen, Lars; Ogden, Nicholas H; Beard, Charles B

    2016-03-01

    Lyme disease has increased both in incidence and geographic extent in the United States and Canada over the past two decades. One of the underlying causes is changes during the same time period in the distribution and abundance of the primary vectors: Ixodes scapularis Say and Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls in eastern and western North America, respectively. Aside from short periods of time when they are feeding on hosts, these ticks exist in the environment where temperature and relative humidity directly affect their development, survival, and host-seeking behavior. Other important factors that strongly influence tick abundance as well as the proportion of ticks infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, include the abundance of hosts for the ticks and the capacity of tick hosts to serve as B. burgdorferi reservoirs. Here, we explore the linkages between climate variation and: 1) duration of the seasonal period and the timing of peak activity; 2) geographic tick distributions and local abundance; 3) enzootic B. burgdorferi transmission cycles; and 4) Lyme disease cases. We conclude that meteorological variables are most influential in determining host-seeking phenology and development, but, while remaining important cofactors, additional variables become critical when exploring geographic distribution and local abundance of ticks, enzootic transmission of B. burgdorferi, and Lyme disease case occurrence. Finally, we review climate change-driven projections for future impact on vector ticks and Lyme disease and discuss knowledge gaps and research needs.

  11. Epitope-Specific Evolution of Human B Cell Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE Protein from Early to Late Stages of Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Jacek, Elzbieta; Tang, Kevin S; Komorowski, Lars; Ajamian, Mary; Probst, Christian; Stevenson, Brian; Wormser, Gary P; Marques, Adriana R; Alaedini, Armin

    2016-02-01

    Most immunogenic proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, are known or expected to contain multiple B cell epitopes. However, the kinetics of the development of human B cell responses toward the various epitopes of individual proteins during the course of Lyme disease has not been examined. Using the highly immunogenic VlsE as a model Ag, we investigated the evolution of humoral immune responses toward its immunodominant sequences in 90 patients with a range of early to late manifestations of Lyme disease. The results demonstrate the existence of asynchronous, independently developing, Ab responses against the two major immunogenic regions of the VlsE molecule in the human host. Despite their strong immunogenicity, the target epitopes were inaccessible to Abs on intact spirochetes, suggesting a lack of direct immunoprotective effect. These observations document the association of immune reactivity toward specific VlsE sequences with different phases of Lyme disease, demonstrating the potential use of detailed epitope mapping of Ags for staging of the infection, and offer insights regarding the pathogen's possible immune evasion mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Linkages of Weather and Climate With Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae), Enzootic Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, and Lyme Disease in North America

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Rebecca J.; Eisen, Lars; Ogden, Nicholas H.; Beard, Charles B.

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease has increased both in incidence and geographic extent in the United States and Canada over the past two decades. One of the underlying causes is changes during the same time period in the distribution and abundance of the primary vectors: Ixodes scapularis Say and Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls in eastern and western North America, respectively. Aside from short periods of time when they are feeding on hosts, these ticks exist in the environment where temperature and relative humidity directly affect their development, survival, and host-seeking behavior. Other important factors that strongly influence tick abundance as well as the proportion of ticks infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, include the abundance of hosts for the ticks and the capacity of tick hosts to serve as B. burgdorferi reservoirs. Here, we explore the linkages between climate variation and: 1) duration of the seasonal period and the timing of peak activity; 2) geographic tick distributions and local abundance; 3) enzootic B. burgdorferi transmission cycles; and 4) Lyme disease cases. We conclude that meteorological variables are most influential in determining host-seeking phenology and development, but, while remaining important cofactors, additional variables become critical when exploring geographic distribution and local abundance of ticks, enzootic transmission of B. burgdorferi, and Lyme disease case occurrence. Finally, we review climate change-driven projections for future impact on vector ticks and Lyme disease and discuss knowledge gaps and research needs. PMID:26681789

  13. Lyme disease: a selective medium for isolation of the suspected etiological agent, a spirochete.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S E; Klein, G C; Schmid, G P; Bowen, G S; Feeley, J C; Schulze, T

    1984-01-01

    A simple procedure with a new selective culture medium for the isolation of the suspected etiological agent of Lyme disease from ticks is described. Live ticks (Ixodes dammini) were ground with a mortar and pestle, and the suspensions were inoculated into a selective and nonselective medium. The selective medium, which contained kanamycin and 5-fluorouracil, yielded positive spirochete cultures from 100% of the pooled ticks and from 79% of the single tick specimens. The isolation rate for the nonselective medium was 0% from the tick pools and 58% from the single tick specimens. PMID:6361065

  14. Whole genome sequence of an unusual Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolate

    SciTech Connect

    Casjens, S.R.; Dunn, J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.

    2011-03-01

    Human Lyme disease is caused by a number of related Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species. We report here the complete genome sequence of Borrelia sp. isolate SV1 from Finland. This isolate is to date the closest known relative of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, but it is sufficiently genetically distinct from that species that it and its close relatives warrant its candidacy for new-species status. We suggest that this isolate should be named 'Borrelia finlandensis.'

  15. Lack of serum antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Burbelo, Peter D; Swedo, Susan E; Thurm, Audrey; Bayat, Ahmad; Levin, Andrew E; Marques, Adriana; Iadarola, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    It has been proposed that Borrelia burgdorferi infection is present in ∼25% of children with autism spectrum disorders. In this study, antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi were assessed in autistic (n = 104), developmentally delayed (n = 24), and healthy control (n = 55) children. No seropositivity against Borrelia burgdorferi was detected in the children with and without autism. There was no evidence of an association between Lyme disease and autism.

  16. Immunofluorescence of spirochetes with serum from swine recovered from swine dysentery using an indirect fluorescent antibody test.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C H; Olson, L D

    1976-01-01

    Using an indirect fluorescent antibody test, immunofluorescence of large spirochetes was observed with serum from swine that had recovered from swine dysentery. The spirochetes were obtained from scrapings of the colonic mucosa on the first day of diarrhea which was the time when the spirochete population was observed to be the highest. Of 29 exposed nonmedicated swine which developed and recovered from a diarrhea characteristic of swine dysentery 27 had antispirochete serum titers which ranged from 1:2 to 1:16. None of the 50 nonexposes swine developed a titer. Of 19 swine with a serum titer and reexposed with infective swine dysentery inoculum, 18 did not develop a diarrhea and were presumed to be immune. Considering these findings it is possible that this test could be used to detect antispirochete antibody in unknown swine serum. Images Fig. 1. PMID:793698

  17. A case of canine borreliosis in Iran caused by Borrelia persica.

    PubMed

    Shirani, Darush; Rakhshanpoor, Alaleh; Cutler, Sally Jane; Ghazinezhad, Behnaz; Naddaf, Saied Reza

    2016-04-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever is an endemic disease in Iran, with most cases attributed to infection by Borrelia persica, which is transmitted by Ornithodoros tholozani soft ticks. Here, we report spirochetemia in blood of a puppy residing in Tehran, Iran. The causative species was identified by use of highly discriminative IGS sequencing; the 489 bp IGS sequence obtained in our study showed 99% identity (100% coverage) when compared with B. persica sequences derived from clinical cases or from O. tholozani ticks. Our IGS sequence also showed 99% similarity over 414 bp (85% coverage) with a strain from a domestic dog, and 96% over 328 bp (69% coverage) with a strain from a domestic cat. Pet-keeping in cosmopolitan cities like Tehran has become increasingly popular in recent years. Animals are often transported into the city in cages or cardboard boxes that might also harbor minute tick larvae and/or early stages of the nymphs bringing them into the urban environment. This may pose a threat to household members who buy and keep these puppies and as a result may come into close contact with infected ticks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. The first case of imported Borrelia miyamotoi disease concurrent with Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Oda, Rentaro; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Sekikawa, Yoshiyuki; Hongo, Igen; Sato, Kozue; Ohnishi, Makoto; Kawabata, Hiroki

    2017-05-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD) is an emerging infectious disease caused by B. miyamotoi. Although BMD has been reported in the United States, Europe, and Japan, no case of imported BMD has been described in the world. Here, we report a 63-year-old American man living in Japan who presented with malaise, headache, myalgia, and arthralgia. We suspected Lyme disease because of his travel history to Minnesota and presence of erythema migrans. Serologic analysis supported our diagnosis, and doxycycline was administered for 14 days. However, we also suspected coinfection with BMD because of his fever, elevated liver function test results and his travel history. The patient was seropositive for the immunoglobulin M antibody to recombinant glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase, and was diagnosed with coinfection with BMD. This case suggests that BMD should be considered in febrile travelers returning from the Northeastern and Midwestern regions of the United States, and that BMD and Lyme disease coinfection should be considered to detect cases of imported BMD. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental infections of the reservoir species Peromyscus leucopus with diverse strains of Borrelia burgdorferi, a Lyme disease agent.

    PubMed

    Baum, Elisabeth; Hue, Fong; Barbour, Alan G

    2012-12-04

    The rodent Peromyscus leucopus is a major natural reservoir for the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi and a host for its vector Ixodes scapularis. At various locations in northeastern United States 10 to 15 B. burgdorferi strains coexist at different prevalences in tick populations. We asked whether representative strains of high or low prevalence differed in their infections of P. leucopus. After 5 weeks of experimental infection of groups with each of 6 isolates, distributions and burdens of bacteria in tissues were measured by quantitative PCR, and antibodies to B. burgdorferi were evaluated by immunoblotting and protein microarray. All groups of animals were infected in their joints, ears, tails, and hearts, but overall spirochete burdens were lower in animals infected with low-prevalence strains. Animals were similar regardless of the infecting isolate in their levels of antibodies to whole cells, FlaB, BmpA, and DbpB proteins, and the conserved N-terminal region of the serotype-defining OspC proteins. But there were strain-specific antibody responses to full-length OspC and to plasmid-encoded VlsE, BBK07, and BBK12 proteins. Sequencing of additional VlsE genes revealed substantial diversity within some pairs of strains but near-identical sequences within other pairs, which otherwise differed in their ospC alleles. The presence or absence of full-length bbk07 and bbk12 genes accounted for the differences in antibody responses. We propose that for B. burgdorferi, there is selection in reservoir species for (i) sequence diversity, as for OspC and VlsE, and (ii) the presence or absence of polymorphisms, as for BBK07 and BBK12. Humans are dead-end hosts for Borrelia agents of Lyme disease (LD), and, thus, irrelevant for the pathogens' maintenance. Many reports of human cases and laboratory mouse infections exist, but less is known about infection and immunity in natural reservoirs, such as the rodent Peromyscus leucopus. We observed that high- and low

  20. Treatable Bacterial Infections Are Underrecognized Causes of Fever in Ethiopian Children

    PubMed Central

    Aarsland, Sara J.; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Lockamy, Kameron P.; Mulu-Droppers, Ruth; Mulu, Moges; White, A. Clinton; Cabada, Miguel M.

    2012-01-01

    Febrile illnesses remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in resource-poor countries, but too often, tests are not available to determine the causes, leading to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. To determine the cause of febrile illnesses, we recovered the malaria smears from 102 children presenting with fever to Soddo Christian Hospital in Wolaitta Soddo, Ethiopia. DNA was isolated from the smears and evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We identified pathogen DNA with probes for Plasmodium spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Rickettsia spp., Salmonella spp., and Borrelia spp. Overall, we showed that it is possible to isolate high-quality DNA and identify treatable pathogens from malaria blood smears. Furthermore, our data showed that bacterial pathogens (especially Pneumococcus, Rickettsia spp., and Borrelia spp.) are common and frequently unrecognized but treatable causes of febrile illnesses in Ethiopian children. PMID:22764303

  1. Spirochaeta americana sp. nov.: A New Haloalkaliphilic, Obligately Anaerobic Spirochete Isolated from Soda Mono Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William B.; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A novel obligately anaerobic, mesophilic, haloalkaliphilic spirochete, strain ASpG1, was isolated from sediments of the alkaline, hypersaline Mono Lake in California, U.S.A. The gram-negative cells are motile and spirochete-shaped with sizes of 0.22 x 10-15 micron. Growth was observed over the temperature range of 10 C to 44 C (optimum 37 C), NaCl concentration range of greater than 1 - 12 % (wt/vol) (optimum 3%), and pH range 7.5 - 10.5 (optimum pH 9.5). The novel isolate is strictly alkaliphilic, requires high concentrations of carbonate in the medium, and is capable of utilizing D-glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, starch, and D-mannitol. Main end products of glucose fermentation are: H2, acetate, ethanol, and formate. Strain AspG1 is resistant to kanamycin, but sensitive to chloramphenicol, gentamycin and tetracycline. The G+C content of its DNA is 58.5 mol%. On the basis of its physiological and molecular properties, the isolate appears to be a novel species among the genus Spirochaeta; and the name Spirochaeta americana sp. nov., is proposed for the taxon (type strain ASpG1(sup T) = ATCC BAA_392(sup T) = DSMZ 14872(sup T)).

  2. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks removed from skin of people and circumstances of being bitten - research from the area of Poland, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Gałęziowska, Edyta; Rzymowska, Jolanta; Najda, Nella; Kołodziej, Przemysław; Domżał-Drzewicka, Renata; Rząca, Marcin; Muraczyńska, Bożena; Charzyńska-Gula, Marianna; Szadowska-Szlachetka, Zdzisława; Ślusarska, Barbara; Guty, Edyta

    2018-03-14

    During feeding, the tick sucks blood from the host along with the pathogens that are in the blood, simultaneously exchanging its own pathogens with the host. Humans can also be a host. It is important to understand the most typical circumstances in which people might become infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. This knowledge will help to prepare health education programmes aimed at the prevention of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases. The aim of the study was to determine the percentage of ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, depending on the circumstances of getting bitten. The research material consisted of ticks acquired from people who had been bitten, and questionnaires completed by these people. 510 ticks were acquired from 257 females and 253 males. Following delivery of a tick for testing, the stage of its development was determined and a molecular assay of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA performed. A positive result of the nested-PCR test was obtained in 78 ticks, which represents 15.30% of all ticks. The infected ticks were collected from male (41 ticks - 52.56%) and female subjects (37 ticks - 47.44%). The biggest number of infected ticks were collected in autumn (54 ticks - 69.23%) and from people who had been into forests (44 ticks - 56.41%). Among the people from whom the infected ticks were acquired, the dominating group included persons over 16 years of age (53 persons - 67.95%) and children aged 0-5 years (16 persons - 20.51%). One in four infected ticks were acquired from the southwestern (20 ticks - 25.64%) and eastern regions of Poland (21 ticks - 26.92%). Infestation of ticks infected with Lyme disease spirochete in this study proved to be variable and depend on the season, the area of tick attack and the region in Poland. The results of the study clearly show that ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi inhabit all regions of Poland. The results are consistent with National Institute of Hygiene data

  3. Analysis of Lipids and Lipid Rafts in Borrelia.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Alvaro; Huang, Zhen; Benach, Jorge L; London, Erwin

    2018-01-01

    Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains that are involved in cellular processes such as protein trafficking and signaling processes, and which play a fundamental role in membrane fluidity and budding. The lipid composition of the membrane and the biochemical characteristics of the lipids found within rafts define the ability of cells to form microdomains and compartmentalize the membrane. In this chapter, we describe the biophysical, biochemical, and molecular approaches used to define and characterize lipid rafts in the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi.

  4. [Diagnostic aspects of Borrelia-infections in dogs].

    PubMed

    Hovius, K E; Houwers, D J

    2007-08-15

    This paper discusses the problem of diagnosing borreliosis (Lyme disease) in dogs. A prospective cohort study in the Kempen district, a known Borrelia focus in The Netherlands, showed that dogs with the presumptive symptoms of borreliosis, episodic malaise and lameness, had significantly higher and longer lasting anti-Borrelia IgG titers than asymptomatic dogs. A small part of these dogs also had antibodies directed against the IR6 (C6) antigen which indicates persistent active Borrelia infection. A few typical case histories are presented. Dogs with episodic malaise and lameness with persistent high IgG titers are suspect of suffering from borreliosis. IR6 antibodies make this diagnosis likely. Initially, such patients should be treated with doxycyclin (10 mg/kg 1dd) for 10 days. If the symptoms recurr within a few months, a longer treatment (eg 6 weeks) should be considered. Bernese mountain dogs were strongly over-represented among the borreliosis patients in the cohort study and most high titered samples among those submitted for--diagnostic--serology appear to come from this breed, which suggests that these dogs have difficulties with clearing this tick-borne infection.

  5. Lesion Formation and Antibody Response Induced by Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis-Associated Spirochetes in a Murine Abscess Model▿

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Margaret K.; Alt, David P.; Zuerner, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD), also known as hairy heel wart, is a growing cause of lameness of cows in the U.S. dairy industry. Farms with PDD-afflicted cows experience economic loss due to treatment costs, decreased milk production, lower reproductive efficiency, and premature culling. While the exact cause of PDD is unknown, lesion development is associated with the presence of anaerobic spirochetes. This study was undertaken to investigate the virulence and antigenic relatedness of four previously isolated Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes (1A, 3A, 4A, and 5B) by using a mouse abscess model with subcutaneous inoculation of 109, 1010, and 1011 spirochetes. Each of the PDD isolates induced abscess formation, with strain 3A causing cutaneous ulceration. Lesion development and antibody responses were dose dependent and differed significantly from those seen with the nonpathogenic human T. phagedenis strain. Strains 3A, 4A, and 5B showed two-way cross-reactivity with each other and a one-way cross-reaction with T. phagedenis. Strain 5B showed one-way cross-reactivity with 1A. None of the isolates showed cross-reactivity with T. denticola. In addition, distinct differences in immunoglobulin G subclass elicitation occurred between the PDD strains and T. phagedenis. From these data, we conclude that spirochetes isolated from PDD lesions have differential virulence and antigenic traits in vivo. Continuing investigation of these properties is important for the elucidation of virulence mechanisms and antigenic targets for vaccine development. PMID:17591787

  6. Metal fume fever and polymer fume fever.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Michael I; Vearrier, David

    2015-05-01

    Inhalational exposure to metal-containing fumes generated by welding and related processes may result in the development of the clinical syndrome known as "metal fume fever." Polymer fume fever is a separate and distinct but related disorder that has been associated with inhalational exposure to specific fluorinated polymer products, such as polytetrafluoroethylene or Teflon(®). We undertook a review of the peer-reviewed medical literature as it relates to these two disease entities in order to describe their epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and prognosis. We performed a search of the PubMed ( www.pubmed.com ) and Ovid MEDLINE (ovidsp.tx.ovid.com) databases for keywords "metal fume fever," "polymer fume fever," and "fume fever," covering the period 1946 to September 2014, which resulted in a total of 141 citations. Limiting the search to articles published in the English language yielded 115 citations. These 115 articles were manually reviewed for relevance. In addition, the reference lists in each article retrieved were reviewed for additional relevant references. This left 48 relevant citations. Metal fume fever occurs most commonly as an occupational disease in individuals who perform welding and other metal-joining activities for a living. It is estimated that 1,500-2,500 cases of metal fume fever occur annually in the United States. Polymer fume fever was initially identified as an occupational disease but increased regulations have resulted in decreased incidence in the occupational setting. Overheating of Teflon(®)-coated cookware is one of the more common mechanisms for exposure. While the precise pathophysiology associated with the development of metal fume fever is yet to be elucidated, suggested pathophysiologic mechanisms include pro-inflammatory cytokine release, neutrophil activation, and oxygen radical formation. The pathophysiologic mechanism for polymer fume fever has not been definitively

  7. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Filoviridae (Ebola and Marburg) and Flaviviridae (yellow fever, dengue, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease). General information ... the Ebola vaccine trials in Guinea What is dengue and how is it treated? Fact sheets Crimean- ...

  8. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs) Virus Families Arenaviruses Old World/New World ...

  9. Fever--an update.

    PubMed

    Becker, John H; Wu, Stephanie C

    2010-01-01

    Fever is an active yet nonspecific response of the body to infections and other insults that cause immune cells to release cytokines, resulting in a brain prostanoid-mediated rise in body temperature. The causes, types, clinical management, and postoperative consequences of fever are reviewed in this article. Physicians use fever as a clinical sign for diagnoses and prognoses, but "fevers of unknown origin" continue to be problematic. Fevers that arise 1 or 2 days after surgery are usually due to stress and trauma, but later postoperative fevers often have more serious causes and consequences, such as wound infection. Fever is commonly encountered by podiatric physicians and surgeons, and certain procedures with the lower extremity are more likely to eventuate in fever.

  10. Rat Bite Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rat Bite Fever Health Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who have been bitten by an infected rat ...

  11. H{sup +} and Na{sup +} are involved in flagellar rotation of the spirochete Leptospira

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Morimoto, Yusuke V.; Graduate School of Frontier BioSciences, Osaka University, 1-3 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871

    2015-10-16

    Leptospira is a spirochete possessing intracellular flagella. Each Leptospira flagellar filament is linked with a flagellar motor composed of a rotor and a dozen stators. For many bacterial species, it is known that the stator functions as an ion channel and that the ion flux through the stator is coupled with flagellar rotation. The coupling ion varies depending on the species; for example, H{sup +} is used in Escherichia coli, and Na{sup +} is used in Vibrio spp. to drive a polar flagellum. Although genetic and structural studies illustrated that the Leptospira flagellar motor also contains a stator, the couplingmore » ion for flagellar rotation remains unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the motility of Leptospira under various pH values and salt concentrations. Leptospira cells displayed motility in acidic to alkaline pH. In the presence of a protonophore, the cells completely lost motility in acidic to neutral pH but displayed extremely slow movement under alkaline conditions. This result suggests that H{sup +} is a major coupling ion for flagellar rotation over a wide pH range; however, we also observed that the motility of Leptospira was significantly enhanced by the addition of Na{sup +}, though it vigorously moved even under Na{sup +}-free conditions. These results suggest that H{sup +} is preferentially used and that Na{sup +} is secondarily involved in flagellar rotation in Leptospira. The flexible ion selectivity in the flagellar system could be advantageous for Leptospira to survive in a wide range of environment. - Highlights: • This is a study on input energy for motility in the spirochete Leptospira. • Leptospira biflexa exhibited active motility in acidic to alkaline pH. • Both H{sup +} and Na{sup +} are involved in flagellar rotation in Leptospira. • H{sup +} is a primary energy source, but Na{sup +} can secondarily enhance motility.« less

  12. Neelaredoxin, an iron-binding protein from the syphilis spirochete, Treponema pallidum, is a superoxide reductase.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, T; Ascenso, C; Hazlett, K R; Sikkink, R; Krebs, C; Litwiller, R; Benson, L M; Moura, I; Moura, J J; Radolf, J D; Huynh, B H; Naylor, S; Rusnak, F

    2000-09-15

    Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of venereal syphilis, is a microaerophilic obligate pathogen of humans. As it disseminates hematogenously and invades a wide range of tissues, T. pallidum presumably must tolerate substantial oxidative stress. Analysis of the T. pallidum genome indicates that the syphilis spirochete lacks most of the iron-binding proteins present in many other bacterial pathogens, including the oxidative defense enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase, but does possess an orthologue (TP0823) for neelaredoxin, an enzyme of hyperthermophilic and sulfate-reducing anaerobes shown to possess superoxide reductase activity. To analyze the potential role of neelaredoxin in treponemal oxidative defense, we examined the biochemical, spectroscopic, and antioxidant properties of recombinant T. pallidum neelaredoxin. Neelaredoxin was shown to be expressed in T. pallidum by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Recombinant neelaredoxin is a 26-kDa alpha(2) homodimer containing, on average, 0.7 iron atoms/subunit. Mössbauer and EPR analysis of the purified protein indicates that the iron atom exists as a mononuclear center in a mixture of high spin ferrous and ferric oxidation states. The fully oxidized form, obtained by the addition of K(3)(Fe(CN)(6)), exhibits an optical spectrum with absorbances at 280, 320, and 656 nm; the last feature is responsible for the protein's blue color, which disappears upon ascorbate reduction. The fully oxidized protein has a A(280)/A(656) ratio of 10.3. Enzymatic studies revealed that T. pallidum neelaredoxin is able to catalyze a redox equilibrium between superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, a result consistent with it being a superoxide reductase. This finding, the first description of a T. pallidum iron-binding protein, indicates that the syphilis spirochete copes with oxidative stress via a primitive mechanism, which, thus far, has not been described in pathogenic

  13. Whole-Genome Sequences of Thirteen Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi

    SciTech Connect

    Schutzer S. E.; Dunn J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.

    2011-02-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is a causative agent of Lyme disease in North America and Eurasia. The first complete genome sequence of B. burgdorferi strain 31, available for more than a decade, has assisted research on the pathogenesis of Lyme disease. Because a single genome sequence is not sufficient to understand the relationship between genotypic and geographic variation and disease phenotype, we determined the whole-genome sequences of 13 additional B. burgdorferi isolates that span the range of natural variation. These sequences should allow improved understanding of pathogenesis and provide a foundation for novel detection, diagnosis, and prevention strategies.

  14. The Lymphocyte Transformation Test for Borrelia Detects Active Lyme Borreliosis and Verifies Effective Antibiotic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    von Baehr, Volker; Doebis, Cornelia; Volk, Hans-Dieter; von Baehr, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    Borrelia-specific antibodies are not detectable until several weeks after infection and even if they are present, they are no proof of an active infection. Since the sensitivity of culture and PCR for the diagnosis or exclusion of borreliosis is too low, a method is required that detects an active Borrelia infection as early as possible. For this purpose, a lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) using lysate antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii and recombinant OspC was developed and validated through investigations of seronegative and seropositive healthy individuals as well as of seropositive patients with clinically manifested borreliosis. The sensitivity of the LTT in clinical borreliosis before antibiotic treatment was determined as 89,4% while the specificity was 98,7%. In 1480 patients with clinically suspected borreliosis, results from serology and LTT were comparable in 79.8% of cases. 18% were serologically positive and LTT-negative. These were mainly patients with borreliosis after antibiotic therapy. 2.2% showed a negative serology and a positive LTT result. Half of them had an early erythema migrans. Following antibiotic treatment, the LTT became negative or borderline in patients with early manifestations of borreliosis, whereas in patients with late symptoms, it showed a regression while still remaining positive. Therefore, we propose the follow-up monitoring of dis-seminated Borrelia infections as the main indication for the Borrelia-LTT. PMID:23091571

  15. The lymphocyte transformation test for borrelia detects active lyme borreliosis and verifies effective antibiotic treatment.

    PubMed

    von Baehr, Volker; Doebis, Cornelia; Volk, Hans-Dieter; von Baehr, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    Borrelia-specific antibodies are not detectable until several weeks after infection and even if they are present, they are no proof of an active infection. Since the sensitivity of culture and PCR for the diagnosis or exclusion of borreliosis is too low, a method is required that detects an active Borrelia infection as early as possible. For this purpose, a lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) using lysate antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii and recombinant OspC was developed and validated through investigations of seronegative and seropositive healthy individuals as well as of seropositive patients with clinically manifested borreliosis. The sensitivity of the LTT in clinical borreliosis before antibiotic treatment was determined as 89,4% while the specificity was 98,7%. In 1480 patients with clinically suspected borreliosis, results from serology and LTT were comparable in 79.8% of cases. 18% were serologically positive and LTT-negative. These were mainly patients with borreliosis after antibiotic therapy. 2.2% showed a negative serology and a positive LTT result. Half of them had an early erythema migrans. Following antibiotic treatment, the LTT became negative or borderline in patients with early manifestations of borreliosis, whereas in patients with late symptoms, it showed a regression while still remaining positive. Therefore, we propose the follow-up monitoring of dis-seminated Borrelia infections as the main indication for the Borrelia-LTT.

  16. Prevalence of Ehrlichia, Borrelia, and Rickettsial agents in Amblyomma americanum (Acari : Ixodidae) collected from nine states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mixson, T.R.; Campbell, S.R.; Gill, J.S.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Reichard, M.V.; Schultz, T.L.; Dasch, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ambyomma antericanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) is an aggressive tick that feeds on humans during all postembryonic life stages. In many regions of the United States, it is the tick most commonly found attached to humans. Public health interest has grown recently, due to the recognition of new human pathogens transmitted by A. antericanum and the expanding distribution of the tick. A. americanum is a vector of several bacteria pathogenic to humans. Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii cause moderate-to-severe febrile illness. 'Rickettsia amblyommii,' a member of the spotted fever group Rickettsia, also has recently been implicated as a possible human pathogen based on serologic evidence from persons recovering from illness after a tick bite. We have determined the prevalence of infection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, E. ewingii, 'Borrelia lonestari,' and R. amblyommii within A. americanum ticks from 29 sites in nine states. Overall infection prevalences were 4.7% for E. chaffeensis (range, 0-27%), 3.5% for E. ewingii (range, 0-18.6%), 2.5% for B. lonestari (range, 0-12.2%), and 41.2% for R. amblyommii (range, 0-84.0%). In addition, 87 ticks (4.3%) were infected with two or more bacteria. This report documents new distribution records for E. ewingii, B. lonestari, and R. amblyommii and underscores the nonhomogeneous distribution of pathogen foci of infection. Additional surveillance throughout the range of A. antericanum is warranted to increase physician and public awareness of the risk of disease to humans from exposure to the agents transmitted by this tick.

  17. Borrelia Diversity and Co-infection with Other Tick Borne Pathogens in Ticks.

    PubMed

    Raileanu, Cristian; Moutailler, Sara; Pavel, Ionuţ; Porea, Daniela; Mihalca, Andrei D; Savuta, Gheorghe; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    Identifying Borrelia burgdorferi as the causative agent of Lyme disease in 1981 was a watershed moment in understanding the major impact that tick-borne zoonoses can have on public health worldwide, particularly in Europe and the USA. The medical importance of tick-borne diseases has long since been acknowledged, yet little is known regarding the occurrence of emerging tick-borne pathogens such as Borrelia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., " Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis", and tick-borne encephalitis virus in questing ticks in Romania, a gateway into Europe. The objective of our study was to identify the infection and co-infection rates of different Borrelia genospecies along with other tick-borne pathogens in questing ticks collected from three geographically distinct areas in eastern Romania. We collected 557 questing adult and nymph ticks of three different species (534 Ixodes ricinus , 19 Haemaphysalis punctata , and 4 Dermacentor reticulatus ) from three areas in Romania. We analyzed ticks individually for the presence of eight different Borrelia genospecies with high-throughput real-time PCR. Ticks with Borrelia were then tested for possible co-infections with A. phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., " Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis", and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Borrelia spp. was detected in I. ricinus ticks from all sampling areas, with global prevalence rates of 25.8%. All eight Borrelia genospecies were detected in I. ricinus ticks: Borrelia garinii (14.8%), B. afzelii (8.8%), B. valaisiana (5.1%), B. lusitaniae (4.9%), B. miyamotoi (0.9%), B. burgdorferi s.s (0.4%), and B. bissettii (0.2%). Regarding pathogen co-infection 64.5% of infected I. ricinus were positive for more than one pathogen. Associations between different Borrelia genospecies were detected in 9.7% of ticks, and 6.9% of I. ricinus ticks tested positive for co-infection of Borrelia spp. with other tick-borne pathogens. The most

  18. Borrelia Diversity and Co-infection with Other Tick Borne Pathogens in Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Raileanu, Cristian; Moutailler, Sara; Pavel, Ionuţ; Porea, Daniela; Mihalca, Andrei D.; Savuta, Gheorghe; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    Identifying Borrelia burgdorferi as the causative agent of Lyme disease in 1981 was a watershed moment in understanding the major impact that tick-borne zoonoses can have on public health worldwide, particularly in Europe and the USA. The medical importance of tick-borne diseases has long since been acknowledged, yet little is known regarding the occurrence of emerging tick-borne pathogens such as Borrelia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis”, and tick-borne encephalitis virus in questing ticks in Romania, a gateway into Europe. The objective of our study was to identify the infection and co-infection rates of different Borrelia genospecies along with other tick-borne pathogens in questing ticks collected from three geographically distinct areas in eastern Romania. We collected 557 questing adult and nymph ticks of three different species (534 Ixodes ricinus, 19 Haemaphysalis punctata, and 4 Dermacentor reticulatus) from three areas in Romania. We analyzed ticks individually for the presence of eight different Borrelia genospecies with high-throughput real-time PCR. Ticks with Borrelia were then tested for possible co-infections with A. phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis”, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Borrelia spp. was detected in I. ricinus ticks from all sampling areas, with global prevalence rates of 25.8%. All eight Borrelia genospecies were detected in I. ricinus ticks: Borrelia garinii (14.8%), B. afzelii (8.8%), B. valaisiana (5.1%), B. lusitaniae (4.9%), B. miyamotoi (0.9%), B. burgdorferi s.s (0.4%), and B. bissettii (0.2%). Regarding pathogen co-infection 64.5% of infected I. ricinus were positive for more than one pathogen. Associations between different Borrelia genospecies were detected in 9.7% of ticks, and 6.9% of I. ricinus ticks tested positive for co-infection of Borrelia spp. with other tick-borne pathogens. The

  19. Lyme disease spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi does not require thiamin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Bian, Jiang; Deng, Yijie; Smith, Alexis; Nunez, Roy E; Li, Michael B; Pal, Utpal; Yu, Ai-Ming; Qiu, Weigang; Ealick, Steven E; Li, Chunhao

    2016-11-21

    Thiamin pyrophosphate (ThDP), the active form of thiamin (vitamin B 1 ), is believed to be an essential cofactor for all living organisms 1,2 . Here, we report the unprecedented result that thiamin is dispensable for the growth of the Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) 3 . Bb lacks genes for thiamin biosynthesis and transport as well as known ThDP-dependent enzymes 4 , and we were unable to detect thiamin or its derivatives in Bb cells. We showed that eliminating thiamin in vitro and in vivo using BcmE, an enzyme that degrades thiamin, has no impact on Bb growth and survival during its enzootic infectious cycle. Finally, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis reveals that the level of thiamin and its derivatives in Ixodes scapularis ticks, the enzootic vector of Bb, is extremely low. These results suggest that by dispensing with use of thiamin, Borrelia, and perhaps other tick-transmitted bacterial pathogens, are uniquely adapted to survive in tick vectors before transmitting to mammalian hosts. To our knowledge, such a mechanism has not been reported previously in any living organisms.

  20. Fever in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Schortgen, F

    2012-11-01

    Fever is a common symptom of sepsis usually believed to predict better survival. Experimental data suggest that body temperature elevation may slow micro-organism growth and enhance host immune responses. In patients with sepsis, however, the high energy cost of fever may exacerbate the life-threatening situation. Fever control is widely used in the ICU, mainly in patients with infections. The efficacy of antipyretic drugs in lowering body temperature remains uncertain, however, and all antipyretics have well known adverse effects. Surface cooling methods are efficient but require sedation to avoid the harmful effects of shivering. A recent controlled trial in patients with septic shock suggests that external cooling for fever control may diminish vasopressor requirements and improve early survival. In this review, we examine the benefits and risks of fever and of controlled normothermia. The fever control modalities that provide the best risk/benefit ratio in sepsis are discussed.

  1. Fever in Infants and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... or higher that is unresponsive to fever-reducing medicine?YesNoDoes your child have a low-grade fever (up to 101°) ... fever, give your child a nonaspirin fever-reducing medicine. Call your child’s doctor after 24 hours if the fever continues ...

  2. Phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer of both prophage and heterologous DNA by ϕBB-1, a bacteriophage of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Eggers, Christian H; Gray, Carlie M; Preisig, Alexander M; Glenn, Danielle M; Pereira, Jessica; Ayers, Ryan W; Alshahrani, Mohammad; Acabbo, Christopher; Becker, Maria R; Bruenn, Kimberly N; Cheung, Timothy; Jendras, Taylor M; Shepley, Aron B; Moeller, John T

    2016-12-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, is likely mediated by bacteriophage. Studies of the B. burgdorferi phage, ϕBB-1 and its role in HGT have been hindered by the lack of an assay for readily characterizing phage-mediated DNA movement (transduction). Here we describe an in vitro assay in which a clone of B. burgdorferi strain CA-11.2A encoding kanamycin resistance on a ϕBB-1 prophage is co-cultured with different clones encoding gentamicin resistance on a shuttle vector; transduction is monitored by enumerating colonies selected in the presence of both kanamycin and gentamicin. When both clones used in the assay were derived from CA-11.2A, the frequency of transduction was 1.23 × 10 -6 transductants per cell, and could be increased 5-fold by exposing the phage-producing strain to 5% ethanol. Transduction was also demonstrated between the CA-11.2A clone and clones of both high-passage B. burgdorferi strain B31 and low-passage, virulent B. burgdorferi strain 297, although with lower transduction frequencies. The transductant in the 297 background produced phage capable of transducing another B. burgdorferi clone: this is the first experimental demonstration of transduction from a clone of a virulent strain. In addition to prophage DNA, small Escherichia coli-derived shuttle vectors were also transduced between co-cultured B. burgdorferi strains, suggesting both a broad role for the phage in the HGT of heterologous DNA and a potential use of the phage as a molecular tool. These results enhance our understanding of phage-mediated transduction as a mechanism of HGT in the Lyme disease spirochetes. Furthermore, the reagents and techniques developed herein will facilitate future studies of phage-mediated HGT, especially within the tick vector and vertebrate host. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Analysis of the Borrelia burgdorferi Cyclic-di-GMP-Binding Protein PlzA Reveals a Role in Motility and Virulence ▿

    PubMed Central

    Pitzer, Joshua E.; Sultan, Syed Z.; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Hobbs, Gerry; Miller, Michael R.; Motaleb, Md A.

    2011-01-01

    The cyclic-dimeric-GMP (c-di-GMP)-binding protein PilZ has been implicated in bacterial motility and pathogenesis. Although BB0733 (PlzA), the only PilZ domain-containing protein in Borrelia burgdorferi, was reported to bind c-di-GMP, neither its role in motility or virulence nor it's affinity for c-di-GMP has been reported. We determined that PlzA specifically binds c-di-GMP with high affinity (dissociation constant [Kd], 1.25 μM), consistent with Kd values reported for c-di-GMP-binding proteins from other bacteria. Inactivation of the monocistronically transcribed plzA resulted in an opaque/solid colony morphology, whereas the wild-type colonies were translucent. While the swimming pattern of mutant cells appeared normal, on swarm plates, mutant cells exhibited a significantly reduced swarm diameter, demonstrating a role of plzA in motility. Furthermore, the plzA mutant cells were significantly less infectious in experimental mice (as determined by 50% infectious dose [ID50]) relative to wild-type spirochetes. The mutant also had survival rates in fed ticks lower than those of the wild type. Consequently, plzA mutant cells failed to complete the mouse-tick-mouse infection cycle, indicating plzA is essential for the enzootic life cycle of B. burgdorferi. All of these defects were corrected when the mutant was complemented in cis. We propose that failure of plzA mutant cells to infect mice was due to altered motility; however, the possibility that an unidentified factor(s) contributed to interruption of the B. burgdorferi enzootic life cycle cannot yet be excluded. PMID:21357718

  4. Increased expression of Fas receptor and Fas ligand in the culture of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Grygorczuk, Sambor; Osada, Joanna; Moniuszko, Anna; Świerzbińska, Renata; Kondrusik, Maciej; Zajkowska, Joanna; Dunaj, Justyna; Dąbrowska, Milena; Pancewicz, Sławomir

    2015-03-01

    Apoptosis of the lymphocytes plays an essential role in the regulation of inflammatory/immune responses and its abnormalities may contribute to a chronic infection, persistent inflammation and autoimmunity. Its role in the pathogenesis of the late Lyme borreliosis manifestations has not been studied so far. We have measured Th lymphocyte apoptosis rate, membrane expression of pro-apoptotic Fas receptor, and supernatant concentrations of selected soluble pro- and anti-apoptotic mediators in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 16 patients with disseminated Lyme borreliosis (6 with osteoarticular symptoms, 7 with neuroborreliosis and 3 with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans) and 8 healthy controls. The cultures stimulated for 48h with live Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii or B. afzelii spirochetes. Fraction of the apoptotic Th (CD3+CD4+) lymphocytes and expression of Fas in this cell population was measured cytometrically and concentrations of soluble Fas, soluble Fas ligand, IL-10, IL-12 and TGF-β in culture supernatant with ELISA assays. The expression of IL-10, soluble and membrane Fas and soluble Fas ligand was increased under stimulation and higher in the presence of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto than the other species. Apoptosis rate was not affected. There was no difference between Lyme borreliosis patients and controls. IL-10 concentration correlated negatively with the membrane Fas expression and apoptosis under stimulation with B. afzelii and B. garinii. Expression of Fas/FasL system is up-regulated under stimulation with B. burgdorferi, but without corresponding increase in lymphocyte apoptosis. Variable responses observed with different B. burgdorferi species may reflect differences in the pathogenesis of the infection in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Spirochetal antigens and lymphoid cell surface markers in Lyme synovitis. Comparison with rheumatoid synovium and tonsillar lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed

    Steere, A C; Duray, P H; Butcher, E C

    1988-04-01

    Using monoclonal antibodies to spirochetal antigenes and lymphoid cell surface markers, we examined the synovial lesions of 12 patients with Lyme disease, and compared them with rheumatoid synovium and tonsillar lymphoid tissue. The synovial lesions of Lyme disease patients and rheumatoid arthritis patients were similar and often consisted of the elements found in normal organized lymphoid tissue. In both diseases, T cells, predominantly of the helper/inducer subset, were distributed diffusely in subsynovial lining areas, often with nodular aggregates of tightly intermixed T and B cells. IgD-bearing B cells were scattered within the aggregates, and a few follicular dendritic cells and activated germinal center B cells were sometimes present. Outside the aggregates, many plasma cells, high endothelial venules, scattered macrophages, and a few dendritic macrophages were found. HLA-DR and DQ expression was intense throughout the lesions. In 6 of the 12 patients with Lyme arthritis, but in none of those with rheumatoid arthritis, a few spirochetes and globular antigen deposits were seen in and around blood vessels in areas of lymphocytic infiltration. Thus, in Lyme arthritis, a small number of spirochetes are probably the antigenic stimulus for chronic synovial inflammation.

  6. Fever management in SAH.

    PubMed

    Scaravilli, V; Tinchero, G; Citerio, G

    2011-09-01

    An electronic literature search through August 2010 was performed to obtain articles describing fever incidence, impact, and treatment in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. A total of 24 original research studies evaluating fever in SAH were identified, with studies evaluating fever and outcome, temperature control strategies, and shivering. Fever during acute hospitalization for subarachnoid hemorrhage was consistently linked with worsened outcome and increased mortality. Antipyretic medications, surface cooling, and intravascular cooling may all reduce temperatures in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage; however, benefits from cooling may be offset by negative consequences from shivering.

  7. Fever in immunocompromised hosts.

    PubMed

    Patel, Devang M; Riedel, David J

    2013-11-01

    Fever is one of the most common reasons for the emergency department presentation of immunocompromised patients. Their differential diagnosis can be broad and includes rare or unexpected pathogens. Certain infectious causes of fever portend true emergencies; if they are not managed appropriately, rapid progression and death may ensue. This article reviews the diagnosis and management of fevers in patients immunocompromised by human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS, solid-organ and hematopoietic transplants, chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors. Prompt recognition of the type of immunosuppression and delineation of possible causes of fever are critical for management of these complex patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Filament formation associated with spirochetal infection: a comparative approach to Morgellons disease

    PubMed Central

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Stricker, Raphael B

    2011-01-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis is an emerging infectious disease that causes lameness, decreased milk production, and weight loss in livestock. Proliferative stages of bovine digital dermatitis demonstrate keratin filament formation in skin above the hooves in affected animals. The multifactorial etiology of digital dermatitis is not well understood, but spirochetes and other coinfecting microorganisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this veterinary illness. Morgellons disease is an emerging human dermopathy characterized by the presence of filamentous fibers of undetermined composition, both in lesions and subdermally. While the etiology of Morgellons disease is unknown, there is serological and clinical evidence linking this phenomenon to Lyme borreliosis and coinfecting tick-borne agents. Although the microscopy of Morgellons filaments has been described in the medical literature, the structure and pathogenesis of these fibers is poorly understood. In contrast, most microscopy of digital dermatitis has focused on associated pathogens and histology rather than the morphology of late-stage filamentous fibers. Clinical, laboratory, and microscopic characteristics of these two diseases are compared. PMID:22253541

  9. Filament formation associated with spirochetal infection: a comparative approach to Morgellons disease.

    PubMed

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Stricker, Raphael B

    2011-01-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis is an emerging infectious disease that causes lameness, decreased milk production, and weight loss in livestock. Proliferative stages of bovine digital dermatitis demonstrate keratin filament formation in skin above the hooves in affected animals. The multifactorial etiology of digital dermatitis is not well understood, but spirochetes and other coinfecting microorganisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this veterinary illness. Morgellons disease is an emerging human dermopathy characterized by the presence of filamentous fibers of undetermined composition, both in lesions and subdermally. While the etiology of Morgellons disease is unknown, there is serological and clinical evidence linking this phenomenon to Lyme borreliosis and coinfecting tick-borne agents. Although the microscopy of Morgellons filaments has been described in the medical literature, the structure and pathogenesis of these fibers is poorly understood. In contrast, most microscopy of digital dermatitis has focused on associated pathogens and histology rather than the morphology of late-stage filamentous fibers. Clinical, laboratory, and microscopic characteristics of these two diseases are compared.

  10. Negative incidence of Lyme disease-related Borrelia spp. in Alishan, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Masuzawa, T; Pan, M J; Yu, Q; Kadosaka, T; Imai, Y; Yanagihara, Y

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Lyme disease-related Borrelia species, wild rodents were captured around Yushan National Park and Alishan Forest Recreation Area Park in Taiwan 2,000 to 3,000 meters above sea level. Borrelia was not isolated from 67 small mammals of 7 species. Sera from rodents showed no positive reactivity against whole cell antigens of B. garinii, B. afzelii or B. valaisiana by ELISA. These results suggested that Lyme disease is not endemic to the Alishan area.

  11. Detection of Borrelia Genomospecies 2 in Ixodes spinipalpis Ticks Collected from a Rabbit in Canada.

    PubMed

    Scott, John D; Clark, Kerry L; Foley, Janet E; Anderson, John F; Durden, Lance A; Manord, Jodi M; Smith, Morgan L

    2017-02-01

    Lyme disease is a serious health problem, with many patients requiring in-depth clinical assessment and extended treatment. In the present study, we provide the first records of the western blacklegged tick, Ixodes pacificus , and Ixodes spinipalpis parasitizing eastern cottontails, Sylvilagus floridanus . We also documented a triple co-infestation of 3 tick species (Ixodes angustus, I. pacificus , I. spinipalpis) feeding on an eastern cottontail. Notably, we discovered a unique member of the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in Canada. Ixodes spinipalpis ticks, which were collected from an eastern cottontail on Vancouver Island, British Columbia (BC), were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. With the use of polymerase chain reaction amplification on the tick extracts and DNA sequencing on the borrelial amplicons, we detected Borrelia genomospecies 2, a novel subgroup of the B. burgdorferi s.l. complex. Based on 416 nucleotides of the flagellin B (flaB) gene, our amplicons are identical to the Borrelia genomospecies 2 type strain CA28. Borrelia genomospecies 2 is closely related genetically to other B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies, namely Borrelia americana, Borrelia andersonii, and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) that cause Lyme disease. Like some other borrelial strains, Borrelia genomospecies 2 can be missed by current Lyme disease serology. Health-care providers must be aware that Borrelia genomospecies 2 is present in I. pacificus and I. spinipalpis ticks in far-western North America, and patients with clinical symptoms of Lyme disease need to be assessed for potential infection with this pathogen.

  12. Identification of Borrelia protein candidates in mouse skin for potential diagnosis of disseminated Lyme borreliosis.

    PubMed

    Grillon, Antoine; Westermann, Benoît; Cantero, Paola; Jaulhac, Benoît; Voordouw, Maarten J; Kapps, Delphine; Collin, Elody; Barthel, Cathy; Ehret-Sabatier, Laurence; Boulanger, Nathalie

    2017-12-01

    In vector-borne diseases, the skin plays an essential role in the transmission of vector-borne pathogens between the vertebrate host and blood-feeding arthropods and in pathogen persistence. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a tick-borne bacterium that causes Lyme borreliosis (LB) in humans. This pathogen may establish a long-lasting infection in its natural vertebrate host where it can persist in the skin and some other organs. Using a mouse model, we demonstrate that Borrelia targets the skin regardless of the route of inoculation, and can persist there at low densities that are difficult to detect via qPCR, but that were infective for blood-feeding ticks. Application of immunosuppressive dermocorticoids at 40 days post-infection (PI) significantly enhanced the Borrelia population size in the mouse skin. We used non-targeted (Ge-LC-MS/MS) and targeted (SRM-MS) proteomics to detect several Borrelia-specific proteins in the mouse skin at 40 days PI. Detected Borrelia proteins included flagellin, VlsE and GAPDH. An important problem in LB is the lack of diagnosis methods capable of detecting active infection in humans suffering from disseminated LB. The identification of Borrelia proteins in skin biopsies may provide new approaches for assessing active infection in disseminated manifestations.

  13. Hemorrhagic Fevers - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know - English PDF Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional ( ...

  14. Lassa Fever Immune Plasma.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    three instances, and one each for sickle cell crisis , severe anemia, pyelonephritis, cerebral malaria and tonsillitis. Treatment of LF with LFIP under...diagnosis of 46 LF and Presumptive LF patients treated at CLH April 1983 - March 1984. Clinical diagnosis No. Lassa fever 38 Typhoid fever 3 Sickle cell crisis 1

  15. Malignant Mediterranean spotted fever

    PubMed Central

    Lunge, Snehal Balvant; Patil, Vaibhav; Ambar, Sameer; Naik, Vishwas

    2015-01-01

    Fever with rash is one of the most common causes of referral to a dermatologist. A plethora of conditions need to be considered in the differential diagnosis. They may be broadly classified into infectious causes, drug reactions, and autoimmune disorders. Here we present a rare case of rickettsial fever with cardiac involvement in an elderly male patient with no comorbidities. PMID:26904440

  16. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  17. Bullying Borrelia: When the Culture of Science is Under Attack

    PubMed Central

    Auwaerter, Paul G.; Melia, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Although Lyme disease responds to short courses of antibiotics, tick-borne Borrelia burgdorferi has been advanced by some as a frequent explanation for medically unexplained symptoms such as continual fatigue, musculoskeletal pains, and subjective neurocognitive dysfunction. Often called “chronic Lyme disease” by adherents of this philosophy, it is loosely defined, and practitioners liberally prescribe nostrums, including prolonged antimicrobial therapies, in a belief that this eradicates suspected infection. Perhaps due to the lack of supportive data, proponents of this theory have developed their own meetings, literature, activist groups, and substantial internet activities to advance their views. Forces motivating this movement are explored, as are tactics used to advance non-scientific ideas that have included legal action and garnering legislative endorsement. While neither logical nor evidence-based, “chronic Lyme disease” harnesses corrosive energies that taint modern medicine and society. PMID:23303970

  18. A case of hemifacial paresis in a patient with Lyme neuroborreliosis treated with antibiotics in whom Borrelia meningitis developed.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hisao; Haratani, Koji; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Kakehi, Yoshiaki; Nagami, Shuhei; Katanami, Yuichi; Kawabata, Hiroki; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-28

    A 38-year-old man visited our hospital because of hemifacial paresis that developed 2 months after being bit by a tick. We diagnosed idiopathic peripheral facial palsy and gave the patient oral prednisolone and valacyclovir. Although the symptoms completely resolved in about 2 weeks, there was a risk of Lyme neuroborreliosis. The patient therefore received doxycycline (100 mg twice daily) and amoxicillin (1,000 mg 3 times daily) for 14 days. Two months later, he had symptoms of meningitis such as headache and fever accompanied by lymphocytic cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Viral meningitis was diagnosed and treated with parenteral acyclovir. The symptoms of meningitis improved. Tests for serum IgG antibodies against borrelia were positive. We gave the patient a diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis. The patient received intravenous ceftriaxone and had no relapse. It is a rare for meningitis to develop in a patient with cranial neuropathy who received doxycycline. Lyme neuroborreliosis is a rare disease in Japan. Care should therefore be exercised in the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis and evaluation of the response to treatment.

  19. Fever with Rashes.

    PubMed

    Soman, Letha

    2018-07-01

    Fever with rashes is one of the commonest clinical problems a general practitioner or pediatrician has to face in day-to-day clinical practice. It can be a mild viral illness or a life-threatening illness like meningococcemia or Dengue hemorrhagic fever or it can be one with a lifelong consequence like Kawasaki disease. It is very important to arrive at a clinical diagnosis as early as possible with the minimum investigational facilities. The common causes associated with fever and rashes are infections, viral followed by other infections. There can be so many non-infectious causes also for fever and rashes like auto immune diseases, drug allergies etc. The type of rashes, their appearance in relation to the fever and pattern of spread to different parts of body and the disappearance, all will help in making a diagnosis. Often the diagnosis is clinical. In certain situations laboratory work up becomes essential.

  20. Borrelia burgdorferi-specific IgA in Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    D'Arco, Christina; Dattwyler, Raymond J; Arnaboldi, Paul M

    2017-05-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease is currently dependent on the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of the disease. The significance of serum IgA against B. burgdorferi remains unclear. The production of intrathecal IgA has been noted in patients with the late Lyme disease manifestation, neuroborreliosis, but production of antigen-specific IgA during early disease has not been evaluated. In the current study, we assessed serum IgA binding to the B. burgdorferi peptide antigens, C6, the target of the FDA-cleared C6 EIA, and FlaB(211-223)-modVlsE(275-291), a peptide containing a Borrelia flagellin epitope linked to a modified VlsE sequence, in patients with early and late Lyme disease. Specific IgA was detected in 59 of 152 serum samples (38.8%) from early Lyme disease patients. Approximately 50% of early Lyme disease patients who were seropositive for peptide-specific IgM and/or IgG were also seropositive for peptide-specific IgA. In a subpopulation of patients, high peptide-specific IgA could be correlated with disseminated disease, defined as multiple erythema migrans lesions, and neurological disease complications. These results suggest that there may be an association between elevated levels of antigen-specific IgA and particular disease manifestations in some patients with early Lyme disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Broad diversity of host responses of the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus to Borrelia infection and antigens.

    PubMed

    Cook, Vanessa; Barbour, Alan G

    2015-07-01

    Peromyscus leucopus, the white-footed mouse, is one of the more abundant mammals of North America and is a major reservoir host for at least five tickborne diseases of humans, including Lyme disease and a newly-recognized form of relapsing fever. In comparison to Mus musculus, which is not a natural reservoir for any of these infections, there has been little research on experimental infections in P. leucopus. With the aim of further characterizing the diversity of phenotypes of host responses, we studied a selection of quantitative traits in colony-bred and -reared outbred P. leucopus adults that were uninfected, infected with the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii alone, or infected after immunization with Lyme disease vaccine antigen OspA and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). The methods included measurements of organ weights, hematocrits, and bleeding times, quantitative PCR for bacterial burdens, and enzyme immunoassays for serum antibodies against both the immunization proteins and cellular antigens of the infecting organism. The results included the following: (i) uninfected animals displayed wide variation in relative sizes of their spleens and in their bleeding times. (ii) In an experiment with matched littermates, no differences were observed between females and males at 7 days of infection in bacterial burdens in blood and spleen, relative spleen size, or antibody responses to the B. hermsii specific-antigen, FbpC. (iii) In studies of larger groups of males or females, the wide variations between bacterial burdens and in relative spleen sizes between individuals was confirmed. (iv) In these separate groups of males and females, all animals showed moderate-to-high levels of antibodies to KLH but wide variation in antibody levels to OspA and to FbpC. The study demonstrated the diversity of host responses to infection and immunization in this species and identified quantitative traits that may be suitable for forward genetics approaches to reservoir

  2. Yellow fever: an update.

    PubMed

    Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    Yellow fever, the original viral haemorrhagic fever, was one of the most feared lethal diseases before the development of an effective vaccine. Today the disease still affects as many as 200,000 persons annually in tropical regions of Africa and South America, and poses a significant hazard to unvaccinated travellers to these areas. Yellow fever is transmitted in a cycle involving monkeys and mosquitoes, but human beings can also serve as the viraemic host for mosquito infection. Recent increases in the density and distribution of the urban mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, as well as the rise in air travel increase the risk of introduction and spread of yellow fever to North and Central America, the Caribbean and Asia. Here I review the clinical features of the disease, its pathogenesis and pathophysiology. The disease mechanisms are poorly understood and have not been the subject of modern clinical research. Since there is no specific treatment, and management of patients with the disease is extremely problematic, the emphasis is on preventative vaccination. As a zoonosis, yellow fever cannot be eradicated, but reduction of the human disease burden is achievable through routine childhood vaccination in endemic countries, with a low cost for the benefits obtained. The biological characteristics, safety, and efficacy of live attenuated, yellow fever 17D vaccine are reviewed. New applications of yellow fever 17D virus as a vector for foreign genes hold considerable promise as a means of developing new vaccines against other viruses, and possibly against cancers.

  3. Oropouche Fever: A Review.

    PubMed

    Sakkas, Hercules; Bozidis, Petros; Franks, Ashley; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2018-04-04

    Oropouche fever is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Oropouche virus (OROV), an arthropod transmitted Orthobunyavirus circulating in South and Central America. During the last 60 years, more than 30 epidemics and over half a million clinical cases attributed to OROV infection have been reported in Brazil, Peru, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago. OROV fever is considered the second most frequent arboviral febrile disease in Brazil after dengue fever. OROV is transmitted through both urban and sylvatic transmission cycles, with the primary vector in the urban cycle being the anthropophilic biting midge Culicoides paraensis . Currently, there is no evidence of direct human-to-human OROV transmission. OROV fever is usually either undiagnosed due to its mild, self-limited manifestations or misdiagnosed because its clinical characteristics are similar to dengue, chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever, including malaria as well. At present, there is no specific antiviral treatment, and in the absence of a vaccine for effective prophylaxis of human populations in endemic areas, the disease prevention relies solely on vector control strategies and personal protection measures. OROV fever is considered to have the potential to spread across the American continent and under favorable climatic conditions may expand its geographic distribution to other continents. In view of OROV's emergence, increased interest for formerly neglected tropical diseases and within the One Health concept, the existing knowledge and gaps of knowledge on OROV fever are reviewed.

  4. Fever: a concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Hilaire J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this paper is to critically analyse the current state of the science literature in order to develop an accurate conception of fever. Rationale The measurement of body temperature and treatment of fever have long been considered to be within the domain of nursing practice. What body temperature constitutes ‘fever’, however, is often not clear from nursing protocols or the literature. Methods Literature for this concept analysis was obtained by computerized searches of PubMed, CINAHL and BIOSYS for the years 1980−2004. Additional sources were obtained after reviewing the bibliographies of the literature identified by the initial search. The Wilsonian method of concept analysis provided the framework for the analysis. Findings Fever has characteristically been recognized as a cardinal sign of illness and has traditionally had negative connotations for patient well-being. Substantive advances over the past 20 years in immunology and neurophysiology have expanded understanding of the process of fever. This new knowledge has shifted the perception of fever as part of the acute-phase response to one of an adaptive nature. This knowledge has yet to be fully translated into changes in the fever management practices of nurses. Conclusions Consistent usage of terminology in relation to fever should lead to improved and evidence-based care for patients, and to fever management practices consistent with current research. It is important to use clear language about fever and hyperthermia in discussions and documentation between nurses and among disciplines. By creating clarity in our language, we may help to achieve praxis. PMID:16098165

  5. Geographical and genospecies distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA detected in humans in the USA.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kerry L; Leydet, Brian F; Threlkeld, Clifford

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the cause of illness in human patients primarily in the southern USA with suspected Lyme disease based on erythema migrans-like skin lesions and/or symptoms consistent with early localized or late disseminated Lyme borreliosis. The study also included some patients from other states throughout the USA. Several PCR assays specific for either members of the genus Borrelia or only for Lyme group Borrelia spp. (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato), and DNA sequence analysis, were used to identify Borrelia spp. DNA in blood and skin biopsy samples from human patients. B. burgdorferi sensu lato DNA was found in both blood and skin biopsy samples from patients residing in the southern states and elsewhere in the USA, but no evidence of DNA from other Borrelia spp. was detected. Based on phylogenetic analysis of partial flagellin (flaB) gene sequences, strains that clustered separately with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia americana or Borrelia andersonii were associated with Lyme disease-like signs and symptoms in patients from the southern states, as well as from some other areas of the country. Strains most similar to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. americana were found most commonly and appeared to be widely distributed among patients residing throughout the USA. The study findings suggest that human cases of Lyme disease in the southern USA may be more common than previously recognized and may also be caused by more than one species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. This study provides further evidence that B. burgdorferi sensu stricto is not the only species associated with signs and/or symptoms consistent with Lyme borreliosis in the USA.

  6. Discovery and Targeted Proteomics on Cutaneous Biopsies Infected by Borrelia to Investigate Lyme Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Gilles; Boeuf, Amandine; Westermann, Benoît; Jaulhac, Benoît; Lipsker, Dan; Carapito, Christine; Boulanger, Nathalie; Ehret-Sabatier, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most important vector-borne disease in the Northern hemisphere and represents a major public health challenge with insufficient means of reliable diagnosis. Skin is rarely investigated in proteomics but constitutes in the case of Lyme disease the key interface where the pathogens can enter, persist, and multiply. Therefore, we investigated proteomics on skin samples to detect Borrelia proteins directly in cutaneous biopsies in a robust and specific way. We first set up a discovery gel prefractionation-LC-MS/MS approach on a murine model infected by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto that allowed the identification of 25 Borrelia proteins among more than 1300 mouse proteins. Then we developed a targeted gel prefractionation-LC-selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assay to detect 9/33 Borrelia proteins/peptides in mouse skin tissue samples using heavy labeled synthetic peptides. We successfully transferred this assay from the mouse model to human skin biopsies (naturally infected by Borrelia), and we were able to detect two Borrelia proteins: OspC and flagellin. Considering the extreme variability of OspC, we developed an extended SRM assay to target a large set of variants. This assay afforded the detection of nine peptides belonging to either OspC or flagellin in human skin biopsies. We further shortened the sample preparation and showed that Borrelia is detectable in mouse and human skin biopsies by directly using a liquid digestion followed by LC-SRM analysis without any prefractionation. This study thus shows that a targeted SRM approach is a promising tool for the early direct diagnosis of Lyme disease with high sensitivity (<10 fmol of OspC/mg of human skin biopsy). PMID:25713121

  7. Isolation and characterization of Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes from digital dermatitis lesions in Swedish dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, Märit; Bergsten, Christer; Fernström, Lise-Lotte; Höök, Helena; Johansson, Karl-Erik

    2008-01-01

    Background Digital dermatitis in cattle is an emerging infectious disease. Ulcerative lesions are typically located on the plantar skin between the heel bulbs and adjacent to the coronet. Spirochetes of the genus Treponema are found in high numbers in the lesions and are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to obtain pure cultures of spirochetes from cattle with digital dermatitis and to describe them further. Methods Tissue samples and swabs from active digital dermatitis lesions were used for culturing. Pure isolates were subjected to, molecular typing through 16S rRNA gene sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and an intergenic spacer PCR developed for Treponema spp. as well as API-ZYM and antimicrobial susceptibility tests. The antimicrobial agents used were tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, aivlosin, lincomycin and doxycycline. Results Seven spirochete isolates from five herds were obtained. Both 16S rRNA gene sequences, which were identical except for three polymorphic nucleotide positions, and the intergenic spacer PCR indicated that all isolates were of one yet unnamed species, most closely related to Treponema phagedenis. The enzymatic profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern were also similar for all isolates. However it was possible to separate the isolates through their PFGE and RAPD banding pattern. Conclusion This is the first report on isolation of a Treponema sp. from cattle with digital dermatitis in Scandinavia. The phylotype isolated has previously been cultured from samples from cattle in the USA and the UK and is closely related to T. phagedenis. While very similar, the isolates in this study were possible to differentiate through PFGE and RAPD indicating that these methods are suitable for subtyping of this phylotype. No antimicrobial resistance could be detected among the tested isolates. PMID:18937826

  8. Isolation and characterization of Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes from digital dermatitis lesions in Swedish dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Märit; Bergsten, Christer; Fernström, Lise-Lotte; Höök, Helena; Johansson, Karl-Erik

    2008-10-20

    Digital dermatitis in cattle is an emerging infectious disease. Ulcerative lesions are typically located on the plantar skin between the heel bulbs and adjacent to the coronet. Spirochetes of the genus Treponema are found in high numbers in the lesions and are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to obtain pure cultures of spirochetes from cattle with digital dermatitis and to describe them further. Tissue samples and swabs from active digital dermatitis lesions were used for culturing. Pure isolates were subjected to, molecular typing through 16S rRNA gene sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and an intergenic spacer PCR developed for Treponema spp. as well as API-ZYM and antimicrobial susceptibility tests. The antimicrobial agents used were tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, aivlosin, lincomycin and doxycycline. Seven spirochete isolates from five herds were obtained. Both 16S rRNA gene sequences, which were identical except for three polymorphic nucleotide positions, and the intergenic spacer PCR indicated that all isolates were of one yet unnamed species, most closely related to Treponema phagedenis. The enzymatic profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern were also similar for all isolates. However it was possible to separate the isolates through their PFGE and RAPD banding pattern. This is the first report on isolation of a Treponema sp. from cattle with digital dermatitis in Scandinavia. The phylotype isolated has previously been cultured from samples from cattle in the USA and the UK and is closely related to T. phagedenis. While very similar, the isolates in this study were possible to differentiate through PFGE and RAPD indicating that these methods are suitable for subtyping of this phylotype. No antimicrobial resistance could be detected among the tested isolates.

  9. Evidence for Personal Protective Measures to Reduce Human Contact With Blacklegged Ticks and for Environmentally Based Control Methods to Suppress Host-Seeking Blacklegged Ticks and Reduce Infection with Lyme Disease Spirochetes in Tick Vectors and Rodent Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Lars; Dolan, Marc C.

    2018-01-01

    In the 1980s, the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, and rodents were recognized as the principal vector and reservoir hosts of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in the eastern United States, and deer were incriminated as principal hosts for I. scapularis adults. These realizations led to pioneering studies aiming to reduce the risk for transmission of B. burgdorferi to humans by attacking host-seeking ticks with acaricides, interrupting the enzootic transmission cycle by killing immatures infesting rodent reservoirs by means of acaricide-treated nesting material, or reducing deer abundance to suppress tick numbers. We review the progress over the past three decades in the fields of: 1) prevention of human–tick contact with repellents and permethrin-treated clothing, and 2) suppression of I. scapularis and disruption of enzootic B. burgdorferi transmission with environmentally based control methods. Personal protective measures include synthetic and natural product-based repellents that can be applied to skin and clothing, permethrin sprays for clothing and gear, and permethrin-treated clothing. A wide variety of approaches and products to suppress I. scapularis or disrupt enzootic B. burgdorferi transmission have emerged and been evaluated in field trials. Application of synthetic chemical acaricides is a robust method to suppress host-seeking I. scapularis ticks within a treated area for at least 6–8 wk. Natural product-based acaricides or entomopathogenic fungi have emerged as alternatives to kill host-seeking ticks for homeowners who are unwilling to use synthetic chemical acaricides. However, as compared with synthetic chemical acaricides, these approaches appear less robust in terms of both their killing efficacy and persistence. Use of rodent-targeted topical acaricides represents an alternative for homeowners opposed to open distribution of acaricides to the ground and vegetation on their properties. This host-targeted approach also

  10. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... way to prevent yellow fever is to avoid mosquito bites by:staying in well-screened or air-conditioned areas, wearing clothes that cover most of your body, using an effective insect repellent, such as those containing DEET.

  11. Hay Fever Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... the AAAAI Foundation Donate Utility navigation Español Journals Pollen Counts Annual Meeting Member Login / My Membership Search ... fever symptoms are most often triggered by tree pollen in the early spring. Grasses are often the ...

  12. Rhinitis (Hay Fever)

    MedlinePlus

    ... commonly known as hay fever, is triggered by outdoor allergens such as pollen and mold spores. Some ... in hot water. The same is true for outdoor allergens. Limiting your exposure during times of high ...

  13. Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... and local rate of virus transmission at the time of travel. Although reported cases of human disease are the ... be receiving yellow fever vaccine for the first time. If travel is unavoidable, the decision to vaccinate travelers aged ≥ ...

  14. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Lacz, N L; Schwartz, R A; Kapila, R

    2006-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an unusual but important dermatological condition to identify without hesitation. The classic triad of headache, fever, and a rash that begins on the extremities and travels proximally to involve the trunk is found in a majority of patients. The cutaneous centripetal pattern is a result of cell to cell migration by the causative organism Rickettsia rickettsii. Such individuals should receive prompt antimicrobial therapy and supportive care to avoid serious and potentially fatal complications.

  15. Association of Borrelia and Rickettsia spp. and bacterial loads in Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    PubMed

    Raulf, Marie-Kristin; Jordan, Daniela; Fingerle, Volker; Strube, Christina

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, awareness of coinfections has increased as synergistic or antagonistic effects on interacting bacteria have been observed. To date, several reports on coinfections of ticks with Rickettsia and Borrelia spp. are available. However, associations are rarely described and studies are based on rather low sample sizes. In the present study, coinfections of Ixodes ricinus with these pathogens were investigated by determining their association in a meta-analysis. A total of 5079 tick samples examined for Rickettsia and Borrelia spp. via probe-based quantitative real-time PCR in previous prevalence studies or as submitted diagnostic material were included. In Borrelia-positive ticks, genospecies were determined by Reverse Line Blot. Determination of bacterial loads resulted in an increase between developmental tick stages with highest mean bacterial loads in female ticks (7.96×10 4 in Borrelia single-infected, 4.87×10 5 in Rickettsia single-infected and 3.22×10 5 in Borrelia-Rickettsia coinfected females). The determined Borrelia-Rickettsia tick coinfection rate was 12.3% (626/5079) with a significant difference to the expected coinfection rate of 9.0% (457/5079). A significant slight association as well as correlation between Borrelia and Rickettsia were determined. In addition, a significant interrelation of the bacterial load in coinfected ticks was shown. At the level of Borrelia genospecies, significant weak associations with Rickettsia spp. were detected for B. afzelii, B. garinii/bavariensis, B. valaisiana and B. lusitaniae. The positive association provides evidence for interactions between Borrelia and Rickettsia spp. in the tick vector, presumably resulting in higher bacterial replication rates in the tick vector and possibly the reservoir host. However, coinfection may impact the vector negatively as indicated by an absent increase in coinfection rates from nymphs to adults. Future studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of

  16. STUDIES ON TUBERCULIN FEVER

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Charles H.; Atkins, Elisha

    1959-01-01

    Evidence has been presented that the fever elicited by intravenous administration of old tuberculin (O.T.) in BCG-infected rabbits is a specific property of this hypersensitivity system and is probably not due to contamination of tuberculin with bacterial endotoxins. Daily injections of O.T. in sensitized animals resulted in a rapid tolerance to its pyrogenic effect. Tuberculin tolerance can be differentiated from that occurring with endotoxins and was invariably associated with the development of a negative skin test. The mechanism of this tolerance would thus appear to be desensitization. A circulating pyrogen found during tuberculin fever was indistinguishable in its biologic effects from endogenous pyrogens obtained in several other types of experimental fever. This material produced fevers in normal recipients and therefore may be clearly differentiated from O.T. itself which was pyrogenic only to sensitized animals. Since the titer of serum pyrogen was directly proportional to the degree of fever induced by injection of O.T. in the donor animals, a causal relation is suggested. On the basis of these findings, it is postulated that tuberculin fever is due to a circulating endogenous pyrogen released by a specific action of O.T. on sensitized cells of the host. PMID:13641561

  17. Emergence of Q fever

    PubMed Central

    Angelakis, E; Raoult, D

    2011-01-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis with many acute and chronic manifestations caused by the pathogen Coxiella burnetii. Farm animals and pets are the main reservoirs of infection, and transmission to human beings is mainly accomplished through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Persons at greatest risk are those in contact with farm animals and include farmers, abattoir workers, and veterinarians. The organs most commonly affected during Q fever are the heart, the arteries, the bones and the liver. The most common clinical presentation is an influenza-like illness with varying degrees of pneumonia and hepatitis. Although acute disease is usually self-limiting, people do occasionally die from this condition. Endocarditis is the most serious and most frequent clinical presentation of chronic Q fever. Vascular infection is the second most frequent presentation of Q fever. The diagnosis of Q fever is based on a significant increase in serum antibody titers. The treatment is effective and well tolerated, but must be adapted to the acute or chronic pattern with the tetracyclines to be considered the mainstay of antibiotic therapy. For the treatment of Q fever during pregnancy the use of long-term cotrimoxazole therapy is proposed. PMID:23113081

  18. Prevalence of Lyme borrelia in Ixodes persulcatus ticks from an area with a confirmed case of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Murase, Yusuke; Konnai, Satoru; Githaka, Naftaly; Hidano, Arata; Taylor, Kyle; Ito, Takuya; Takano, Ai; Ando, Shuji; Kawabata, Hiroki; Tsubota, Toshio; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the prevalence of Borrelia infections in Ixodes ticks from a site in Hokkaido, Japan, with confirmed cases of Lyme disease was determined by a PCR method capable of detecting and differentiating between strains of pathogenic Borrelia, with particular emphasis on Borrelia garinii (B. garinii) and Borrelia afzelli (B. afzelli), using tick-derived DNA extracts as template. A total of 338 ticks, inclusive of 284 Ixodes persulcatus (I. persulcatus), were collected by flagging vegetation in mid-spring. Ninety-eight (34.5%) of I. persulcatus tested positive for Borrelia species DNA, whereas the overall prevalence of Borrelia species in Ixodes ovatus and Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks was 19.5 and 7.7%, respectively. PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of Borrelia rrf(5S)-rrl(23S) intergenic spacer DNA amplicons indicated that they originated from three different Borrelia species namely, B. garinii, B. afzelii and B. japonica. Among the I. persulcatus species, which is a known vector of human borreliosis, 86 were mono-infected with B. garinii, 2 ticks were mono-infected with B. afzelii and whereas 12 ticks had dual infections. Most significant, 11 of the I. persulcatus ticks were coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and B. garinii. The difference between the number of obtained and expected co-infections was significant (χ(2)=4.32, P=0.038).

  19. Acute bilateral painless radiculitis with abnormal Borrelia burgdorferi immunoblot.

    PubMed

    Almodovar, Jorge L; Hehir, Michael K; Nicholson, Katharine A; Stommel, Elijah W

    2012-12-01

    A 57-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and hypothyroidism presented with painless left arm weakness and numbness 2 weeks before evaluation. Nerve conduction studies of the left arm revealed normal motor and sensory responses. Needle examination revealed acute denervation changes in all myotomes of the affected extremity, including cervical paraspinals on the left, and several myotomes on the contralateral side. The laboratory evaluation revealed normal anti-GM1 antibodies and 3 IgM/5 IgG bands on Lyme Western Blot. The patient began treatment with 28 days of intravenous ceftriaxone. On follow-up, patient had regained full strength of her extremities with no sensory deficits. Inflammatory borrelia radiculitis usually presents with pain in the distribution of the affected nerves and nerve roots. The novelty of this case report rests on (1) the absence of primary borreliosis symptomatology preceding the radiculitis and (2) the painless and bilateral clinical presentation in a patient with suspected Lyme radiculitis.

  20. Borrelia burgdorferi infection induces lipid mediator production during Lyme arthritis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Charles R; Dennis, Edward A

    2017-10-01

    Experimental Lyme arthritis provides a mouse model for exploring the development of pathology following infection of C3H mice with Borrelia burgdorferi. Infected mice develop a reliable inflammatory arthritis of the ankle joint with severity that typically peaks around two to three weeks post-infection and then undergoes spontaneous resolution. This makes experimental Lyme arthritis an excellent model for investigating the mechanisms that drive both the development and resolution phases of inflammatory disease. Eicosanoids are powerful lipid mediators of inflammation and are known to regulate multiple aspects of inflammatory processes. While much is known about the role of eicosanoids in regulating immune responses during autoimmune disease and cancer, relatively little is known about their role during bacterial infection. In this review, we discuss the role of eicosanoid biosynthetic pathways in mediating inflammatory responses during bacterial infection using experimental Lyme arthritis as a model system. We point out the critical role eicosanoids play in disease development and highlight surprising differences between sterile autoimmune responses and those occurring in response to bacterial infection. These differences should be kept in mind when designing therapies and treatments for inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  1. Morphological and biochemical features of Borrelia burgdorferi pleomorphic forms

    PubMed Central

    Herranen, Anni; Schwarzbach, Armin; Gilbert, Leona

    2015-01-01

    The spirochaete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne infection in the northern hemisphere. There is a long-standing debate regarding the role of pleomorphic forms in Lyme disease pathogenesis, while very little is known about the characteristics of these morphological variants. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of B. burgdorferi pleomorphic formation in different culturing conditions at physiological temperature. Interestingly, human serum induced the bacterium to change its morphology to round bodies (RBs). In addition, biofilm-like colonies in suspension were found to be part of B. burgdorferi’s normal in vitro growth. Further studies provided evidence that spherical RBs had an intact and flexible cell envelope, demonstrating that they are not cell wall deficient, or degenerative as previously implied. However, the RBs displayed lower metabolic activity compared with spirochaetes. Furthermore, our results indicated that the different pleomorphic variants were distinguishable by having unique biochemical signatures. Consequently, pleomorphic B. burgdorferi should be taken into consideration as being clinically relevant and influence the development of novel diagnostics and treatment protocols. PMID:25564498

  2. PCR in laboratory diagnosis of human Borrelia burgdorferi infections.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, B L

    1997-01-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, the most prevalent vector-borne disease in the United States and endemic in parts of Europe and Asia, is currently based on serology with known limitations. Direct demonstration of Borrelia burgdorferi by culture may require weeks, while enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for antigen detection often lack sensitivity. The development of the PCR has offered a new dimension in the diagnosis. Capable of amplifying minute amounts of DNA into billions of copies in just a few hours, PCR facilitates the sensitive and specific detection of DNA or RNA of pathogenic organisms. This review is restricted to applications of PCR methods in the diagnosis of human B. burgdorferi infections. In the first section, methodological aspects, e.g., sample preparation, target selection, primers and PCR methods, and detection and control of inhibition and contamination, are highlighted. In the second part, emphasis is placed on diagnostic aspects, where PCR results in patients with dermatological, neurological, joint, and ocular manifestations of the disease are discussed. Here, special attention is given to monitoring treatment efficacy by PCR tests. Last, specific guidelines on how to interpret PCR results, together with the advantages and limitations of these new techniques, are presented.

  3. Borrelia burgdorferi protein interactions critical for microbial persistence in mammals.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Quentin; Thakur, Meghna; Smith, Alexis A; Kitsou, Chrysoula; Yang, Xiuli; Pal, Utpal

    2018-06-22

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease that persists in a complex enzootic life cycle, involving Ixodes ticks and vertebrate hosts. The microbe invades ticks and vertebrate hosts in spite of active immune surveillance and potent microbicidal responses, and establishes long-term infection utilizing mechanisms that are yet to be unraveled. The pathogen can cause multi-system disorders when transmitted to susceptible mammalian hosts, including in humans. In the past decades, several studies identified a limited number of B. burgdorferi gene-products critical for pathogen persistence, transmission between the vectors and the host, and host-pathogen interactions. This review will focus on the interactions between B. burgdorferi proteins, as well between microbial proteins and host components, protein and non-protein components, highlighting their roles in pathogen persistence in the mammalian host. A better understanding of the contributions of protein interactions in the microbial virulence and persistence of B. burgdorferi would support development of novel therapeutics against the infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Whole genome sequence and comparative analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi MM1

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Neda; Reddy, Panga Jaipal; Hood, Leroy

    2018-01-01

    Lyme disease is caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies. Complete genome assemblies are available for fewer than ten strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the primary cause of Lyme disease in North America. MM1 is a sensu stricto strain originally isolated in the midwestern United States. Aside from a small number of genes, the complete genome sequence of this strain has not been reported. Here we present the complete genome sequence of MM1 in relation to other sensu stricto strains and in terms of its Multi Locus Sequence Typing. Our results indicate that MM1 is a new sequence type which contains a conserved main chromosome and 15 plasmids. Our results include the first contiguous 28.5 kb assembly of lp28-8, a linear plasmid carrying the vls antigenic variation system, from a Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strain. PMID:29889842

  5. Behavioral fever in ectothermic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Rakus, Krzysztof; Ronsmans, Maygane; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Fever is an evolutionary conserved defense mechanism which is present in both endothermic and ectothermic vertebrates. Ectotherms in response to infection can increase their body temperature by moving to warmer places. This process is known as behavioral fever. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the mechanisms of induction of fever in mammals. We further discuss the evolutionary conserved mechanisms existing between fever of mammals and behavioral fever of ectothermic vertebrates. Finally, the experimental evidences supporting an adaptive value of behavioral fever expressed by ectothermic vertebrates are summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Yellow fever: epidemiology and prevention.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2007-03-15

    Yellow fever continues to occur in regions of Africa and South America, despite the availability of effective vaccines. Recently, some cases of severe neurologic disease and multiorgan system disease have been described in individuals who received yellow fever vaccine. These events have focused attention on the need to define criteria for judicious use of yellow fever vaccine and to describe the spectrum of adverse events that may be associated with yellow fever vaccine. Describing host factors that would increase risk of these events and identifying potential treatment modalities for yellow fever and yellow fever vaccine-associated adverse events are subjects of intense investigation.

  7. Infection of Ixodes ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in peri-urban forests of France

    PubMed Central

    Perthame, Emeline; Sertour, Natacha; Garnier, Martine; Godard, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. In Europe, it is transmitted by Ixodes ticks that carry bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The objective of this work was to explore eco-epidemiological factors of Lyme borreliosis in peri-urban forests of France (Sénart, Notre-Dame and Rambouillet). We investigated whether the introduction of Tamias sibiricus in Sénart could alter the density of infected ticks. Moreover, the density and tick infection were investigated according to the tree species found in various patches of Sénart forest. For this purpose, ticks were sampled during 3 years. In the Sénart forest, the density of nymph and adult ticks showed no significant difference between 2008, 2009 and 2011. The nymph density varied significantly as a function of the month of collection. Regarding the nymphs, a higher rate of infection and infected density were found in 2009. Plots with chipmunks (C) presented a lower density of both nymphs and adult ticks than plots without chipmunks (NC) did. A higher rate of infection of nymphs with Borrelia was seen in C plots. The prevalence of the various species of Borrelia was also found to vary between C and NC plots with the year of the collect. The presence of chestnut trees positively influenced the density of both nymphs and adults. The infected nymph density showed a significant difference depending on the peri-urban forest studied, Sénart being higher than Rambouillet. The prevalence of Borrelia species also differed between the various forests studied. Concerning the putative role that Tamias sibiricus may play in the transmission of Borrelia, our results suggest that its presence is correlated with a higher rate of infection of questing ticks by Borrelia genospecies and if its population increases, it could play a significant role in the risk of transmission of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:28846709

  8. Infection of Ixodes ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in peri-urban forests of France.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Axelle; Le Coupanec, Alain; Joly, Claire; Perthame, Emeline; Sertour, Natacha; Garnier, Martine; Godard, Vincent; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Choumet, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. In Europe, it is transmitted by Ixodes ticks that carry bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The objective of this work was to explore eco-epidemiological factors of Lyme borreliosis in peri-urban forests of France (Sénart, Notre-Dame and Rambouillet). We investigated whether the introduction of Tamias sibiricus in Sénart could alter the density of infected ticks. Moreover, the density and tick infection were investigated according to the tree species found in various patches of Sénart forest. For this purpose, ticks were sampled during 3 years. In the Sénart forest, the density of nymph and adult ticks showed no significant difference between 2008, 2009 and 2011. The nymph density varied significantly as a function of the month of collection. Regarding the nymphs, a higher rate of infection and infected density were found in 2009. Plots with chipmunks (C) presented a lower density of both nymphs and adult ticks than plots without chipmunks (NC) did. A higher rate of infection of nymphs with Borrelia was seen in C plots. The prevalence of the various species of Borrelia was also found to vary between C and NC plots with the year of the collect. The presence of chestnut trees positively influenced the density of both nymphs and adults. The infected nymph density showed a significant difference depending on the peri-urban forest studied, Sénart being higher than Rambouillet. The prevalence of Borrelia species also differed between the various forests studied. Concerning the putative role that Tamias sibiricus may play in the transmission of Borrelia, our results suggest that its presence is correlated with a higher rate of infection of questing ticks by Borrelia genospecies and if its population increases, it could play a significant role in the risk of transmission of Lyme borreliosis.

  9. Recurrent Fever in Children.

    PubMed

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-03-25

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time.

  10. Recurrent Fever in Children

    PubMed Central

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time. PMID:27023528

  11. Pathogenesis of Lassa fever.

    PubMed

    Yun, Nadezhda E; Walker, David H

    2012-10-09

    Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae), is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe human disease that is reported in more than 100,000 patients annually in the endemic regions of West Africa with mortality rates for hospitalized patients varying between 5-10%. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans. Here, we review the published literature on the life cycle of Lassa virus with the specific focus put on Lassa fever pathogenesis in humans and relevant animal models. Advancing knowledge significantly improves our understanding of Lassa virus biology, as well as of the mechanisms that allow the virus to evade the host's immune system. However, further investigations are required in order to design improved diagnostic tools, an effective vaccine, and therapeutic agents.

  12. Pathogenesis of Lassa Fever

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Nadezhda E.; Walker, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae), is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe human disease that is reported in more than 100,000 patients annually in the endemic regions of West Africa with mortality rates for hospitalized patients varying between 5-10%. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans. Here, we review the published literature on the life cycle of Lassa virus with the specific focus put on Lassa fever pathogenesis in humans and relevant animal models. Advancing knowledge significantly improves our understanding of Lassa virus biology, as well as of the mechanisms that allow the virus to evade the host’s immune system. However, further investigations are required in order to design improved diagnostic tools, an effective vaccine, and therapeutic agents. PMID:23202452

  13. Rift Valley Fever.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Amy

    2017-06-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe veterinary disease of livestock that also causes moderate to severe illness in people. The life cycle of RVF is complex and involves mosquitoes, livestock, people, and the environment. RVF virus is transmitted from either mosquitoes or farm animals to humans, but is generally not transmitted from person to person. People can develop different diseases after infection, including febrile illness, ocular disease, hemorrhagic fever, or encephalitis. There is a significant risk for emergence of RVF into new locations, which would affect human health and livestock industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Typhus fever: an overlooked diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Ramendra N; Pietroni, Mark A C; Mosabbir, Nadira; Salam, M A

    2009-06-01

    A case of typhus fever is presented. On admission, the clinical diagnosis was typhoid fever. Forty-eight hours after admission, the presence of subconjunctival haemorrhage, malena, and jaundice raised the possibility of a different aetiology, the two most likely differentials being dengue and typhus. Finally, a co-infection of typhoid and typhus was discovered. This uncommon clinical scenario should be taken into account in the management of patients with high fever on admission being treated as a case of typhoid fever.

  15. Immune Evasion and Recognition of the Syphilis Spirochete in Blood and Skin of Secondary Syphilis Patients: Two Immunologically Distinct Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Adriana R.; Ramirez, Lady G.; Zuluaga, Ana V.; Pillay, Allan; Abreu, Christine; Valencia, Carlos A.; La Vake, Carson; Cervantes, Jorge L.; Dunham-Ems, Star; Cartun, Richard; Mavilio, Domenico; Radolf, Justin D.; Salazar, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Background The clinical syndrome associated with secondary syphilis (SS) reflects the propensity of Treponema pallidum (Tp) to escape immune recognition while simultaneously inducing inflammation. Methods To better understand the duality of immune evasion and immune recognition in human syphilis, herein we used a combination of flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and transcriptional profiling to study the immune response in the blood and skin of 27 HIV(-) SS patients in relation to spirochetal burdens. Ex vivo opsonophagocytosis assays using human syphilitic sera (HSS) were performed to model spirochete-monocyte/macrophage interactions in vivo. Results Despite the presence of low-level spirochetemia, as well as immunophenotypic changes suggestive of monocyte activation, we did not detect systemic cytokine production. SS subjects had substantial decreases in circulating DCs and in IFNγ-producing and cytotoxic NK-cells, along with an emergent CD56−/CD16+ NK-cell subset in blood. Skin lesions, which had visible Tp by IHC and substantial amounts of Tp-DNA, had large numbers of macrophages (CD68+), a relative increase in CD8+ T-cells over CD4+ T-cells and were enriched for CD56+ NK-cells. Skin lesions contained transcripts for cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α), chemokines (CCL2, CXCL10), macrophage and DC activation markers (CD40, CD86), Fc-mediated phagocytosis receptors (FcγRI, FcγR3), IFN-β and effector molecules associated with CD8 and NK-cell cytotoxic responses. While HSS promoted uptake of Tp in conjunction with monocyte activation, most spirochetes were not internalized. Conclusions Our findings support the importance of macrophage driven opsonophagocytosis and cell mediated immunity in treponemal clearance, while suggesting that the balance between phagocytic uptake and evasion is influenced by the relative burdens of bacteria in blood and skin and the presence of Tp subpopulations with differential capacities for binding opsonic antibodies. They also

  16. Borrelia miyamotoi in vectors and hosts in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wagemakers, Alex; Jahfari, Seta; de Wever, Bob; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Starink, Markus V; de Vries, Henry J C; Sprong, Hein; Hovius, Joppe W

    2017-03-01

    Ixodes ticks transmit Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis (LB). These tick species also transmit Borrelia miyamotoi, which was recently found to cause infections in humans. We were interested in the prevalence of B. miyamotoi infection in ticks and natural hosts in The Netherlands, and to what extent ticks are co-infected with B. burgdorferi. In addition, erythema migrans has been sporadically described in B. miyamotoi-infected patients, but these skin lesions might as well represent co-infections with B. burgdorferi s.l. We therefore investigated whether B. miyamotoi was present in LB-suspected skin lesions of patients referred to our tertiary Lyme disease clinic. 3360 questing Ixodes ricinus nymphs as well as spleen tissue of 74 rodents, 26 birds and 10 deer were tested by PCR for the presence of B. miyamotoi. Tick lysates were also tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. Next, we performed a PCR for B. miyamotoi in 31 biopsies from LB-suspected skin lesions in patients visiting our tertiary Lyme center. These biopsies had been initially tested for B. burgdorferi s.l. by PCR, and the skin lesions had been investigated by specialized dermatologists. Out of 3360 unfed (or questing) nymphs, 313 (9.3%) were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l., 70 (2.1%) were infected with B. miyamotoi, and 14 (0.4%) were co-infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. and B. miyamotoi. Co-infection of B. burgdorferi s.l. with B. miyamotoi occurred more often than expected from single infection prevalences (p=0.03). Both rodents (9%) and birds (8%) were found positive for B. miyamotoi by PCR, whereas the roe deer samples were negative. Out of 31 LB-suspected skin biopsies, 10 (32%) were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. while none were positive for B. miyamotoi. The significant association of B. burgdorferi s.l. with B. miyamotoi in nymphs implies the existence of mutual reservoir hosts. Indeed, the presence of B. miyamotoi DNA indicates systemic

  17. Human Spotted Fever Rickettsial Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Ecological study of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Costa Rica. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1986;35:192–6. 6. Calero MC, Munez JM, Silva R. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in...J Jr, McKechnie DB, Treadwell TA, et al. Hidden mortality attributable to Rocky Mountain spotted fever : immunohistochemical detection of fatal

  18. Varicella complicated by scarlet fever.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Taner; Parlak, Ali Haydar; Kocabay, Kenan

    2003-10-01

    We report a 3-year-old boy with varicella complicated by cellulitis and scarlet fever. He developed a typical rash of scarlet fever following the onset of varicella. Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated from the ulcers due to varicella. The present case suggests that scarlet fever may rarely develop following varicella and should be considered in children with complicated varicella.

  19. Geographic and temporal variations in population dynamics of Ixodes ricinus and associated Borrelia infections in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gassner, Fedor; van Vliet, Arnold J H; Burgers, Saskia L G E; Jacobs, Frans; Verbaarschot, Patrick; Hovius, Emiel K E; Mulder, Sara; Verhulst, Niels O; van Overbeek, Leo S; Takken, Willem

    2011-05-01

    In a countrywide investigation of the ecological factors that contribute to Lyme borreliosis risk, a longitudinal study on population dynamics of the sheep tick Ixodes ricinus and their infections with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) was undertaken at 24 sites in The Netherlands from July 2006 to December 2007. Study sites were mature forests, dune vegetations, or new forests on land reclaimed from the sea. Ticks were sampled monthly and nymphal ticks were investigated for the presence of Borrelia spp. I. ricinus was the only tick species found. Ticks were found in all sites, but with significant spatial and temporal variations in density between sites. Peak densities were found in July and August, with lowest tick numbers collected in December and January. In some sites, questing activities of I. ricinus nymphs and adults were observed in the winter months. Mean monthly Borrelia infections in nymphs varied from 0% to 29.0% (range: 0%-60%), and several sites had significantly higher mean nymphal Borrelia infections than others. Four genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were found, with B. afzelii being dominant at most sites. Borrelia infection rates in nymphal ticks collected in July, September, and November 2006 were significantly higher (23.7%, p<0.01) than those in the corresponding months of 2007 (9.9%). The diversity in Borrelia genospecies between sites was significantly different (p<0.001). Habitat structure (tree cover) was an effective discriminant parameter in the determination of Borrelia infection risk, as measured by the proportion of nymphal ticks infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. Thickness of the litter layer and moss cover were positively related to nymphal and adult tick densities. The study shows that Borrelia-infected ticks are present in many forest and dune areas in The Netherlands and suggests that in such biotopes, which are used for a wide variety of recreational activities, the infection risk is high.

  20. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennan

    2017-01-01

    The tick-borne disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) can have deadly outcomes unless treated appropriately, yet nonspecific flu-like symptoms complicate diagnosis. Occupational health nurses must have a high index of suspicion with symptomatic workers and recognize that recent recreational or occupational activities with potential tick exposure may suggest RMSF.

  1. [Bolivian hemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Markin, V A; Pantiukhov, V B; Markov, V I; Bondarev, V P

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of data of the available literature on epidemiology of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, manifestations of human disease, biological properties of the causative agent and development carried out abroad of means and methods of diagnostics, prophylaxis and therapy of this infection that presents a potential threat for the population and economy of the Russian Federation in case of introduction of the causative agent is presented.

  2. Kid's Guide to Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español A Kid's Guide to Fever KidsHealth / For Kids / A Kid's ...

  3. Managing scarlet fever.

    PubMed

    2017-09-01

    Scarlet fever, an infection caused by toxin-producing strains of Streptococcus pyogenes, was associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality when epidemics were common in the 18 th and 19 th centuries throughout Europe and the USA. 1 Although this disease nearly disappeared during the 20 th century, several countries, including the UK, have recently experienced a re-emergence of scarlet fever. 1-3 However, the reason for these new outbreaks remains unclear. 1,4 Despite a general move to reduce the use of antibiotics for many mild self-limiting infections (e.g. tonsillitis, sinusitis), national guidance recommends treating people with scarlet fever with antibiotics regardless of severity of illness to speed recovery, to reduce the length of time the infection is contagious and to reduce the risk of complications. 5,6 Here, we discuss the management of scarlet fever in the UK. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Effects of dexamethasone and meloxicam on Borrelia burgdorferi-induced inflammation in glial and neuronal cells of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Geeta; Martinez, Alejandra N; Martin, Dale S; Philipp, Mario T

    2017-02-02

    Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), affects both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Previously, we reported that in a model of acute LNB in rhesus monkeys, treatment with the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone significantly reduced both pleocytosis and levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune mediators that were induced by Bb. Dexamethasone also inhibited the formation of inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and demyelinating lesions in the brain and spinal cord of these animals. In contrast, these signs were evident in the infected animals that were left untreated or in those that were treated with meloxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. To address the differential anti-inflammatory effects of dexamethasone and meloxicam in the central nervous system (CNS), we evaluated the potential of these drugs to alter the levels of Bb-induced inflammatory mediators in culture supernatants of rhesus frontal cortex (FC) explants, primary rhesus astrocytes and microglia, and human oligodendrocytes. We also ascertained the potential of dexamethasone to modulate Bb-induced apoptosis in rhesus FC explants. As meloxicam is a known COX-2 inhibitor, we evaluated whether meloxicam altered the levels of COX-2 as induced by live Bb in cell lysates of primary rhesus astrocytes and microglia. Dexamethasone but not meloxicam significantly reduced the levels of several Bb-induced immune mediators in culture supernatants of FC explants, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. Dexamethasone also had a protective effect on Bb-induced neuronal and oligodendrocyte apoptosis in rhesus FC explants. Further, meloxicam significantly reduced the levels of Bb-induced COX-2 in microglia, while both Bb and meloxicam were unable to alter the constitutive levels of COX-2 in astrocytes. These data indicate that dexamethasone and meloxicam have differential anti-inflammatory effects on Bb-induced inflammation in glial and neuronal cells

  5. Investigation of the Genes Involved in Antigenic Switching at the vlsE Locus in Borrelia burgdorferi: An Essential Role for the RuvAB Branch Migrase

    PubMed Central

    Dresser, Ashley R.; Hardy, Pierre-Olivier; Chaconas, George

    2009-01-01

    Persistent infection by pathogenic organisms requires effective strategies for the defense of these organisms against the host immune response. A common strategy employed by many pathogens to escape immune recognition and clearance is to continually vary surface epitopes through recombinational shuffling of genetic information. Borrelia burgdorferi, a causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, encodes a surface-bound lipoprotein, VlsE. This protein is encoded by the vlsE locus carried at the right end of the linear plasmid lp28-1. Adjacent to the expression locus are 15 silent cassettes carrying information that is moved into the vlsE locus through segmental gene conversion events. The protein players and molecular mechanism of recombinational switching at vlsE have not been characterized. In this study, we analyzed the effect of the independent disruption of 17 genes that encode factors involved in DNA recombination, repair or replication on recombinational switching at the vlsE locus during murine infection. In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 10 such genes have been implicated in recombinational switching at the pilE locus. Eight of these genes, including recA, are either absent from B. burgdorferi, or do not show an obvious requirement for switching at vlsE. The only genes that are required in both organisms are ruvA and ruvB, which encode subunits of a Holliday junction branch migrase. Disruption of these genes results in a dramatic decrease in vlsE recombination with a phenotype similar to that observed for lp28-1 or vls-minus spirochetes: productive infection at week 1 with clearance by day 21. In SCID mice, the persistence defect observed with ruvA and ruvB mutants was fully rescued as previously observed for vlsE-deficient B. burgdorferi. We report the requirement of the RuvAB branch migrase in recombinational switching at vlsE, the first essential factor to be identified in this process. These findings are supported by the independent work of Lin et al. in the

  6. Spirochaeta Americana Sp. Nov., A new Haloalkaliphilic, Obligately Anaerobic Spirochete Isolated from Soda Mono Lake in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Pikuta, Elena V.; Bej, Asim K.; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William B.; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A novel obligately anaerobic, mesophilic, haloalkaliphilic spirochete, strain ASpG1(sup T), was isolated from sediments of the alkaline, hypersaline Mono Lake in California, U.S.A. The Gram-negative cells are motile and spirochete-shaped with sizes of 0.2 - 0.22 X 8-15 microns. Growth was observed over the following ranges: temperature 10 C to 44 C; optimum +37 C; NaCl concentration 2 - 12 % (w/v); optimum NaCl3 % and pH 8 - 10.5; optimum pH 9.5. The novel isolate is strictly alkaliphilic, requires high concentrations of carbonate in the medium, and is capable of utilizing D-glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, starch, and D-mannitol. The main end products of glucose fermentation are: H2, acetate, ethanol, and formate. Strain ASpG(sup T) is resistant to kanamycin, and rifampin, but sensitive to chloramphenicol, gentamycin and tetracycline. The G+C content of its DNA is 58.5 mol%, genome size is 2.98 x l0(exp 9) Daltons, Tm of the genomic DNA is 68 +/- 2 C, and DNA-DNA hybridization with the most closely related species, Spirocheta alkalica Strain Z-7491(sup T), exhibited 48.7% homology. On the basis of its physiological and molecular properties, the isolate appears to be a novel species of the genus Spirochaeta; and the name Spirochaeta americana sp. nov., is proposed for the taxon (type strain ASpG1(sup T) = ATCC BAA-392(sup T) = DSMZ 14872(sup T)).

  7. The incidence of scarlet fever.

    PubMed Central

    Perks, E. M.; Mayon-White, R. T.

    1983-01-01

    This study attempted to find the incidence of scarlet fever in the Oxford region, including the proportion of patients from whom Streptococcus pyogenes could be isolated. General practitioners collected throat swabs from patients with suspected scarlet fever. The swabs were examined for viral and bacterial pathogens. Children admitted to hospital were used as controls. Twenty-five of 105 patients with suspected scarlet fever grew Str. pyogenes; M type 4 was the commonest type. The clinical diagnosis of scarlet fever was not always confirmed by throat culture. The annual incidence of scarlet fever was estimated to be 0.3 cases per 1000 per year. PMID:6358344

  8. Natural foci of Borrelia lusitaniae in a mountain region of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tarageľová, Veronika Rusňáková; Mahríková, Lenka; Selyemová, Diana; Václav, Radovan; Derdáková, Markéta

    2016-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. It is caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex and transmitted to humans by ticks of the genus Ixodes. Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana are the most common genospecies in Central Europe. In contrast, Borrelia lusitaniae predominates in Mediterranean countries such as Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Slovakia, its prevalence is low and restricted to only a few sites. The aim of our research was to study the expansion of ticks into higher altitudes in the ecosystem of the Malá Fatra mountains (north Slovakia) and their infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. pathogens. Questing ticks were collected by flagging in seven years (2004, 2006-2011) at three different altitudes: low (630-660 m above sea level (ASL)), intermediate (720-750 m ASL), and high (1040-1070 m ASL). Tick abundance was highest at the lowest altitude and lowest at the highest altitude. The average infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in nymphs and adults was 16.8% and 36.2%, respectively. The number of infected ticks decreased from 38.5% at the lowest altitude to 4.4% at the highest altitude. B. lusitaniae was the most frequently found genospecies (>60% of the ticks found positive for B. burgdorferi s.l.) in all sites in all the studied years with the exception of 2008 when B. afzelii predominated (62%). Our study confirms the spread of Ixodes ricinus ticks to higher altitudes in Slovakia. The discovery that our mountain study sites were a natural foci of B. lusitaniae was unexpected because this genospecies is usually associated with lizards and xerothermic habitats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Ebola haemorrhagic fever

    PubMed Central

    Feldmann, Heinz; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    Ebola viruses are the causative agents of a severe form of viral haemorrhagic fever in man, designated Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and are endemic in regions of central Africa. The exception is the species Reston Ebola virus, which has not been associated with human disease and is found in the Philippines. Ebola virus constitutes an important local public health threat in Africa, with a worldwide effect through imported infections and through the fear of misuse for biological terrorism. Ebola virus is thought to also have a detrimental effect on the great ape population in Africa. Case-fatality rates of the African species in man are as high as 90%, with no prophylaxis or treatment available. Ebola virus infections are characterised by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock, and thus, in some ways, resembling septic shock. PMID:21084112

  10. Lassa Fever Immune Plasma.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    obtained and 317 forwarded to USAMRIID, with 272 having LNI’s of 0.3 or higher. Testing of febrile patients for evidence of Lassa virus (LV) infection ...at a rehabilitation center near GWH revealed evidence of previous LV infection in 22 of 288 leprosy patients, 4 of 52 family members of these patients...Virus Infections in the Families of Lassa Fever Patients Annex 3. Record of Household Epidemiology Study 49 Annex 4. Means of Obtaining Samples for IFA

  11. Fever and rash.

    PubMed

    Schlossberg, D

    1996-03-01

    The combination of fever and rash comprises an extensive differential diagnosis. Many of the causes of this presentation are life-threatening. In this article, rashes are categorized as petechial, maculopapular, vesicular, erythematous, and urticarial. Each type of rash is then divided into infectious etiologies, both treatable and nontreatable, and noninfectious etiologies. It is usually possible to arrive at a workable differential diagnosis when clinical, historical, and epidemiologic factors are considered.

  12. Imbalanced presence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. multilocus sequence types in clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis.

    PubMed

    Coipan, E Claudia; Jahfari, Setareh; Fonville, Manoj; Oei, G Anneke; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Takumi, Katsuhisa; Hovius, Joppe W R; Sprong, Hein

    2016-08-01

    In this study we used typing based on the eight multilocus sequence typing scheme housekeeping genes (MLST) and 5S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) to explore the population structure of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from patients with Lyme borreliosis (LB) and to test the association between the B. burgdorferi s.l. sequence types (ST) and the clinical manifestations they cause in humans. Isolates of B. burgdorferi from 183 LB cases across Europe, with distinct clinical manifestations, and 257 Ixodes ricinus lysates from The Netherlands, were analyzed for this study alone. For completeness, we incorporated in our analysis also 335 European B. burgdorferi s.l. MLST profiles retrieved from literature. Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia bavariensis were associated with human cases of LB while Borrelia garinii, Borrelia lusitaniae and Borrelia valaisiana were associated with questing I. ricinus ticks. B. afzelii was associated with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, while B. garinii and B. bavariensis were associated with neuroborreliosis. The samples in our study belonged to 251 different STs, of which 94 are newly described, adding to the overall picture of the genetic diversity of Borrelia genospecies. The fraction of STs that were isolated from human samples was significantly higher for the genospecies that are known to be maintained in enzootic cycles by mammals (B. afzelii, B. bavariensis, and Borrelia spielmanii) than for genospecies that are maintained by birds (B. garinii and B. valaisiana) or lizards (B. lusitaniae). We found six multilocus sequence types that were significantly associated to clinical manifestations in humans and five IGS haplotypes that were associated with the human LB cases. While IGS could perform just as well as the housekeeping genes in the MLST scheme for predicting the infectivity of B. burgdorferi s.l., the advantage of MLST is that it can also capture the differential invasiveness of the various STs. Copyright © 2016 The

  13. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (Korean Hemorrhagic Fever).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-23

    fever , chills, nausea, headache and muscle ache in July 1985. One day after admission he developed petechial haemorrhage over his body and limbs and in...ftOA179 565 NENORNAGIC FEVER WI TH RENAL SYNDOMNE (KOREAN HEMORRHAIC FEVER )(U) KOREN UNIV SEOUL COLL OF MEDICINE N N LEE 23 JUL " DAD7-94-G-4616...34,, , " S , S S .S =. 5 5 . S S S * B M Lfl IC) uIeuCc FVM WITH RENAL SYNDR~OME (KOREAN EMORRHAGIC FEVER ) ANNUAL AND FINAL REPORT S HO WANG LIZB N.D. 5

  14. Did scarlet fever and rheumatic fever exist in Hippocrates' time?

    PubMed

    Quinn, R W

    1991-01-01

    Case histories recorded by Hippocrates around 400 B.C. describe the clinical manifestations of scarlet fever and rheumatic fever, although the entities are not identified by name. Although the descriptions are not as detailed or complete as they would be today, they strongly suggest the existence of scarlet fever and rheumatic fever at that time. Hippocrates' references to these illnesses were presumably the first to be documented and/or discovered, as a thorough search of the worldwide medical literature revealed no prior descriptions.

  15. Fever in Patients With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Pasikhova, Yanina; Ludlow, Steven; Baluch, Aliyah

    2017-04-01

    The definition of fever is flexible and depends on the clinical context. Fever is frequently observed in patients with cancer. Infectious and noninfectious causes of fever in patients with various oncological and hematological malignancies and the usefulness of biomarkers are discussed. To treat patients in a timely manner and to minimize morbidity and mortality, it is paramount that health care professionals determine the cause of fever. The usefulness of biomarkers in febrile patients with cancer continues to be controversial. Fever is frequently seen in patients with cancer and can be associated with a variety of infectious and noninfectious causes. The utility of acute-phase reactants, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin, along with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug challenge should be further evaluated as adjunct tools for the workup of fever in patients with cancer.

  16. An Ixodes minor and Borrelia carolinensis enzootic cycle involving a critically endangered Mojave Desert rodent.

    PubMed

    Foley, Janet; Ott-Conn, Caitlin; Worth, Joy; Poulsen, Amanda; Clifford, Deana

    2014-03-01

    Microtus californicus scirpensis is an endangered, isolated subspecies of California vole. It requires water pools and riparian bulrush (Schoenoplectus americanus) and occupies some of the rarest habitat of any North American mammal. The minimally vegetated, extremely arid desert surrounding the pools is essentially uninhabitable for Ixodes species ticks. We describe an enzootic cycle of Borrelia carolinensis in Ixodes minor ticks at a site 3500 km distant from the region in which I. minor is known to occur in Tecopa Host Springs, Inyo County, eastern Mojave Desert, California. Voles were live-trapped, and ticks and blood samples queried by PCR and DNA sequencing for identification and determination of the presence of Borrelia spp. Between 2011-2013, we found 21 Ixodes minor ticks (prevalence 4-8%) on Amargosa voles and Reithrodontomys megalotis. DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA from ticks yielded 99% identity to I. minor. There was 92% identity with I. minor in the calreticulin gene fragment. Three ticks (23.1%), 15 (24%) voles, three (27%) house mice, and one (7%) harvest mice were PCR positive for Borrelia spp. Sequencing of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer region and flagellin gene assigned Amargosa vole Borrelia strains to B. carolinensis. Ixodes minor, first described in 1902 from a single Guatemalan record, reportedly occurs only in the southeast American on small mammals and birds. The source of this tick in the Mojave Desert and time scale for introduction is not known but likely via migratory birds. Borrelia strains in the Amargosa ecosystem most closely resemble B. carolinensis. B. carolinensis occurs in a rodent-I. minor enzootic cycle in the southeast U.S. although its epidemiological significance for people or rodents is unknown. The presence of a tick and Borrelia spp. only known from southeast U.S. in this extremely isolated habitat on the other side of the continent is of serious concern because it suggests that the animals in the ecosystem

  17. Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis Agent Infection in a Pony Vaccinated with a Borrelia burgdorferi Recombinant OspA Vaccine and Challenged by Exposure to Naturally Infected Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yung-Fu; McDonough, Sean P.; Chang, Chao-Fu; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Yen, William; Divers, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    A pony was vaccinated with recombinant OspA vaccine (rOspA) and then exposed 3 months later to Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks (Ixodes scapularis) collected in Westchester County, N.Y. At 2 weeks after tick exposure, the pony developed a high fever (105°F). Buffy coat smears showed that 20% of neutrophils contained ehrlichial inclusion bodies (morulae). Flunixin Meglumine (1 g daily) was given for 2 days, and the body temperature returned to normal. PCR for ehrlichial DNA was performed on blood samples for 10 consecutive days beginning when the pony was first febrile. This pony was monitored for another 3.5 months but developed no further clinical signs. The 44-kDa immunodominant human granulocytic ehrlichiosis antigen gene was amplified by PCR and cloned into a pCR2.1 vector. DNA sequence analysis of this gene showed it was only 8 bp different (99% identity) from the results reported by others (J.W. Ijdo et al., Infect. Immun. 66:3264–3269, 1998). Western blot analysis, growth inhibition assays, and repeated attempts to isolate B. burgdorferi all demonstrated the pony was protected against B. burgdorferi infection. These results highlight the potential for ticks to harbor and transmit several pathogens simultaneously, which further complicates the diagnosis and vaccination of these emerging tick-borne diseases. PMID:10618280

  18. [The role of oxygen in the regulation of the metabolism of aerotolerant spirochetes, a major component of "Thiodendron" bacterial sulfur mats].

    PubMed

    Dubinina, G A; Grabovich, M Iu; Chernyshova, Iu Iu

    2004-01-01

    Two spirochete strains isolated earlier from "Thiodendron" bacterial sulfur mats grew better under microaerobic (0.3-0.5 mg O2/l) than under anaerobic conditions. The microaerobic growth of these strains was accompanied by a twofold increase in the cell yield and the efficiency of glucose utilization, despite an amount of ATP (and hence glucose) was spent in this case for the synthesis of exopolysaccharides. Glucose metabolism under microaerobic conditions gave rise to more oxidized products (acetate and carbon dioxide) than under anaerobic conditions (formate, ethanol, pyruvate, and hydrogen). The paper considers two putative mechanisms implemented by aerotolerant spirochetes: adaptive (the use of a more efficient pathway of glucose catabolism) and protective (an enhanced synthesis of exopolysaccharides and the reduction of hydrogen peroxide by the reduced sulfur compounds thiosulfate and sulfide, yielding elemental sulfur). The formation of "Thiodendron" bacterial sulfur mats in saltwater environments is also discussed.

  19. Intravital Imaging of Vascular Transmigration by the Lyme Spirochete: Requirement for the Integrin Binding Residues of the B. burgdorferi P66 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Devender; Ristow, Laura C.; Shi, Meiqing; Mukherjee, Priyanka; Caine, Jennifer A.; Lee, Woo-Yong; Kubes, Paul; Coburn, Jenifer; Chaconas, George

    2015-01-01

    Vascular extravasation, a key step in systemic infection by hematogenous microbial pathogens, is poorly understood, but has been postulated to encompass features similar to vascular transmigration by leukocytes. The Lyme disease spirochete can cause a variety of clinical manifestations, including arthritis, upon hematogenous dissemination. This pathogen encodes numerous surface adhesive proteins (adhesins) that may promote extravasation, but none have yet been implicated in this process. In this work we report the novel use of intravital microscopy of the peripheral knee vasculature to study transmigration of the Lyme spirochete in living Cd1d -/-mice. In the absence of iNKT cells, major immune modulators in the mouse joint, spirochetes that have extravasated into joint-proximal tissue remain in the local milieu and can be enumerated accurately. We show that BBK32, a fibronectin and glycosaminoglycan adhesin of B. burgdorferi involved in early steps of endothelial adhesion, is not required for extravasation from the peripheral knee vasculature. In contrast, almost no transmigration occurs in the absence of P66, an outer membrane protein that has porin and integrin adhesin functions. Importantly, P66 mutants specifically defective in integrin binding were incapable of promoting extravasation. P66 itself does not promote detectable microvascular interactions, suggesting that vascular adhesion of B. burgdorferi mediated by other adhesins, sets the stage for P66-integrin interactions leading to transmigration. Although integrin-binding proteins with diverse functions are encoded by a variety of bacterial pathogens, P66 is the first to have a documented and direct role in vascular transmigration. The emerging picture of vascular escape by the Lyme spirochete shows similarities, but distinct differences from leukocyte transmigration. PMID:26684456

  20. Intravital Imaging of Vascular Transmigration by the Lyme Spirochete: Requirement for the Integrin Binding Residues of the B. burgdorferi P66 Protein.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Devender; Ristow, Laura C; Shi, Meiqing; Mukherjee, Priyanka; Caine, Jennifer A; Lee, Woo-Yong; Kubes, Paul; Coburn, Jenifer; Chaconas, George

    2015-12-01

    Vascular extravasation, a key step in systemic infection by hematogenous microbial pathogens, is poorly understood, but has been postulated to encompass features similar to vascular transmigration by leukocytes. The Lyme disease spirochete can cause a variety of clinical manifestations, including arthritis, upon hematogenous dissemination. This pathogen encodes numerous surface adhesive proteins (adhesins) that may promote extravasation, but none have yet been implicated in this process. In this work we report the novel use of intravital microscopy of the peripheral knee vasculature to study transmigration of the Lyme spirochete in living Cd1d-/-mice. In the absence of iNKT cells, major immune modulators in the mouse joint, spirochetes that have extravasated into joint-proximal tissue remain in the local milieu and can be enumerated accurately. We show that BBK32, a fibronectin and glycosaminoglycan adhesin of B. burgdorferi involved in early steps of endothelial adhesion, is not required for extravasation from the peripheral knee vasculature. In contrast, almost no transmigration occurs in the absence of P66, an outer membrane protein that has porin and integrin adhesin functions. Importantly, P66 mutants specifically defective in integrin binding were incapable of promoting extravasation. P66 itself does not promote detectable microvascular interactions, suggesting that vascular adhesion of B. burgdorferi mediated by other adhesins, sets the stage for P66-integrin interactions leading to transmigration. Although integrin-binding proteins with diverse functions are encoded by a variety of bacterial pathogens, P66 is the first to have a documented and direct role in vascular transmigration. The emerging picture of vascular escape by the Lyme spirochete shows similarities, but distinct differences from leukocyte transmigration.

  1. Typhus Fever: An Overlooked Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Ramendra N.; Mosabbir, Nadira; Salam, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    A case of typhus fever is presented. On admission, the clinical diagnosis was typhoid fever. Forty-eight hours after admission, the presence of subconjunctival haemorrhage, malena, and jaundice raised the possibility of a different aetiology, the two most likely differentials being dengue and typhus. Finally, a co-infection of typhoid and typhus was discovered. This uncommon clinical scenario should be taken into account in the management of patients with high fever on admission being treated as a case of typhoid fever. PMID:19507758

  2. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Gubler, Duane J.

    1998-01-01

    Dengue fever, a very old disease, has reemerged in the past 20 years with an expanded geographic distribution of both the viruses and the mosquito vectors, increased epidemic activity, the development of hyperendemicity (the cocirculation of multiple serotypes), and the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in new geographic regions. In 1998 this mosquito-borne disease is the most important tropical infectious disease after malaria, with an estimated 100 million cases of dengue fever, 500,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 25,000 deaths annually. The reasons for this resurgence and emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the waning years of the 20th century are complex and not fully understood, but demographic, societal, and public health infrastructure changes in the past 30 years have contributed greatly. This paper reviews the changing epidemiology of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever by geographic region, the natural history and transmission cycles, clinical diagnosis of both dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, serologic and virologic laboratory diagnoses, pathogenesis, surveillance, prevention, and control. A major challenge for public health officials in all tropical areas of the world is to devleop and implement sustainable prevention and control programs that will reverse the trend of emergent dengue hemorrhagic fever. PMID:9665979

  3. Fever in the Neutropenic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, K.; Kay, H. E. M.; McElwain, T. J.

    1974-01-01

    A total of 100 consecutive episodes of fever of 101° F (38·3°C) or above in 56 neutropenic patients have been investigated. All the patients had either acute leukaemia or aplastic anaemia. A cause for the fever was found in 68 of these episodes, in 87% of which it was due to infection. The commonest single finding was septicaemia (30 episodes). Only two episodes of fever could be ascribed solely to the underlying malignant disease. Infection should be assumed to be present and the cause of fever in neutropenic patients until proved otherwise. PMID:4843653

  4. Spirochaetemia in a HIV positive patient.

    PubMed

    Okwori, E E

    2006-01-01

    Borreliosis, caused by Borrelia recurrentis and several other Borrelia species is not a commonly reported case in our environment, but the search for the cause of recurrent pyrexia in this patient made it possible to discover the spirochete as the cause of the disease. A 38 year old married HIV positive woman presented with recurrent fever in a private clinic. Six thin smears were made out of the patient serum and dried in the air. Three slides each were stained with 0.12% Leishman and 20% Giemsa stains and examined under the light microscope. Three of the Giemsa slides were positive for spirochetes (4-5 spirals), which were constituents with Borrelia species. The patient responded very well to tetracycline and serum became negative for the organism after ten days of treatment. Borrelia was discovered to be the cause of the recurrent pyrexia in this patient who responded very well to tetracycline. Borrelia should be looked for in cases of pyrexia of unknown origin

  5. [Recombinant OspC identification and antigenicity detection from Borrelia burgdorferi PD91 in China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Wan, Kang-Lin

    2003-10-01

    To recombine OspC gene from Borrelia burgdorferi PD91 of China and expressed it in E. coli for early diagnosis of Lyme disease. The OspC gene was amplified from the genome of Borrelia burgdorferi PD91 strain by polymerase chain reaction and recombined with plasmid PET-11D. The recombinant plasmid PET-11D-OspC was identified with PCR, restriction endonuclease analysis and sequencing. The antigenicity was verified with Western Blot. OspC gene was cloned correctly into vector PET-11D. The resultant sequence was definitely different from the published sequence. The recombinant OspC seemed to have had strong antigenicity. The findings laid basis for the studies on early diagnosis of Lyme disease.

  6. Treatment of hay fever.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, S F

    1989-01-01

    The range of treatments for hay fever available to the general practitioner has changed considerably in recent years. New antihistamines have addressed the problem of sedation and moved towards one daily dose; nasally applied corticosteroids avoid the need for systemic steroid therapy and its potential adverse effect; and regulatory decisions have set a trend away from immunotherapy in general practice. However, knowledge about the mechanism of action of immunotherapy is increasing and new developments with improved safety profiles include allergen polymers, allergoids, oral immunotherapy and nasal immunotherapy. Choice of treatment depends, as always, on the individual circumstances of the patient and his or her disease. PMID:2556545

  7. Lassa Fever Immune Plasma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-31

    cases are likely to be seen. Finally, further studies into the nature of the virus or viruses of LF are needed. Clinical experience suggests that there...OF ReIPRIt r ~M. u iav Is. PAGE COUNT Annual Rpnnrt T FROM 1,.1IR7 j ,O 30 lunB 88-7-31 22 1. SUPPUMENTARY NOTATION 17. COSATI CODES 10. SUSJECT...TERMS (Connimm on nwmw ,o neceiawt &W ide I No& num IELD IGROUP suS.GROUP Lassa fever Immunotherapy RA 1 06 1) 6 LLassa virus Liberia nf i Pl,:m haiman 19

  8. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an often-fatal disease caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family, genus Ebolavirus. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease are nonspecific, often progressing on to a severe hemorrhagic illness. Special Operations Forces Medical Providers should be aware of this disease, which occurs in sporadic outbreaks throughout Africa. Treatment at the present time is mainly supportive. Special care should be taken to prevent contact with bodily fluids of those infected, which can transmit the virus to caregivers. 2014.

  9. Physical treatment of fever

    PubMed Central

    Purssell, E.

    2000-01-01

    Fever is a common symptom of childhood illness, and much time and effort is spent in the pursuit of reducing high temperature. Although antipyretic drugs are the main form of treatment, this report considers the part that physical treatments might play in reducing the temperature of febrile children. Such treatments include tepid sponging, removing clothing, and cooling the environment. Of these treatments, tepid sponging has been studied most extensively, as an addition to paracetamol, but seems to offer little advantage over paracetamol alone. It is likely that other methods might be equally ineffective because they all rely on similar methods of heat loss.

 PMID:10685930

  10. Determinants of Infectivity of Pathogens in Vector Ticks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-15

    nature. Y’e compared the development of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in subadult rabbit-feeding Ixodes dentatus with that in mouse...the abundance of these vector ticks may effectively be reduced. The spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia buradorferi, disseminated from the...11 III. Fine structural evidence for the penetration of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burQdorferi through the gut and salivary tissues

  11. Reclassification of Borrelia spp. isolated in South Korea using Multilocus Sequence Typing.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Hee; Choi, Yeon-Joo; Kim, Jeoungyeon; Park, Hye-Jin; Song, Dayoung; Jang, Won-Jong

    2018-05-31

    Using Borrelia isolated from South Korea, we evaluated by MLST and three intergenic genes (16S rRNA, ospA, and 5S-23S IGS) typing to analyze the relationship between host and vector and molecular background. Using the MLST analysis, we identified B. afzelii, B. yangtzensis, B. garinii, and B. bavariensis. This study was first report of the identification of B. yangtzensis using the MLST in South Korea.

  12. Antibodies to Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi in Spanish Wild Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Lledó, Lourdes; Serrano, José Luis; Isabel Gegúndez, María; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Saz, José Vicente

    2016-01-01

    We examined 314 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the province of Soria, Spain, for Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia slovaca, and Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Immunofluorescence assays showed 1.9% had antibodies to R. typhi, 6.7% had antibodies to R. slovaca, and 8.3% had antibodies to B. burgdorferi. Serostatus was not correlated with sex or age. Because red foxes can be infected by Rickettsiae and B. burgdorferi, presence of red foxes may be and indicator for the presence of these pathogens.

  13. Powassan/Deer Tick Virus and Borrelia Burgdorferi Infection in Wisconsin Tick Populations.

    PubMed

    Knox, Konstance K; Thomm, Angela M; Harrington, Yvette A; Ketter, Ellen; Patitucci, Jacob M; Carrigan, Donald R

    2017-07-01

    Powassan/Deer Tick Virus (POWV/DTV) is an emerging cause of arboviral neuroinvasive disease in the upper Midwest. These studies describe the prevalence and geographic distribution of Wisconsin ticks carrying POWV/DTV as well as the high frequency of Ixodes scapularis ticks coinfected with both POWV/DTV and Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. These findings suggest that concurrent transmission of POWV/DTV and B. Burgdorferi from coinfected ticks is likely to occur in humans.

  14. Evidence for Personal Protective Measures to Reduce Human Contact With Blacklegged Ticks and for Environmentally Based Control Methods to Suppress Host-Seeking Blacklegged Ticks and Reduce Infection with Lyme Disease Spirochetes in Tick Vectors and Rodent Reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Lars; Dolan, Marc C

    2016-07-20

    In the 1980s, the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, and rodents were recognized as the principal vector and reservoir hosts of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in the eastern United States, and deer were incriminated as principal hosts for I. scapularis adults. These realizations led to pioneering studies aiming to reduce the risk for transmission of B. burgdorferi to humans by attacking host-seeking ticks with acaricides, interrupting the enzootic transmission cycle by killing immatures infesting rodent reservoirs by means of acaricide-treated nesting material, or reducing deer abundance to suppress tick numbers. We review the progress over the past three decades in the fields of: 1) prevention of human-tick contact with repellents and permethrin-treated clothing, and 2) suppression of I. scapularis and disruption of enzootic B. burgdorferi transmission with environmentally based control methods. Personal protective measures include synthetic and natural product-based repellents that can be applied to skin and clothing, permethrin sprays for clothing and gear, and permethrin-treated clothing. A wide variety of approaches and products to suppress I. scapularis or disrupt enzootic B. burgdorferi transmission have emerged and been evaluated in field trials. Application of synthetic chemical acaricides is a robust method to suppress host-seeking I. scapularis ticks within a treated area for at least 6-8 wk. Natural product-based acaricides or entomopathogenic fungi have emerged as alternatives to kill host-seeking ticks for homeowners who are unwilling to use synthetic chemical acaricides. However, as compared with synthetic chemical acaricides, these approaches appear less robust in terms of both their killing efficacy and persistence. Use of rodent-targeted topical acaricides represents an alternative for homeowners opposed to open distribution of acaricides to the ground and vegetation on their properties. This host-targeted approach also

  15. Evaluation of a serological test for the diagnosis of Borrelia miyamotoi disease in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jahfari, Setareh; Sarksyan, Denis S; Kolyasnikova, Nadezda M; Hovius, Joppe W; Sprong, Hein; Platonov, Alexander E

    2017-05-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi causes systemic febrile illness and is transmitted by the same tick species that transmits Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus. We describe a serological test using a fragment of glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) as an antigen, and determined its performance in well-defined patient categories. Serum of patients with PCR-confirmed Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD), Lyme borreliosis (LB), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), and healthy blood donors (HBD) were collected in Udmurt Republic, Russia. Sera of BMD and LB patients were collected at hospital admission, one week, one month and one year after admission. The levels of IgM and IgG anti-GlpQ antibodies, determined as optical density values in Luminex bead-based assays, were significantly higher in the BMD patient group than in LB patients, TBE patients or HBD group (all p<0.05). By using a strict cut-off value, it was possible to exclude B. miyamotoi infection in LB and TBE patients and to serologically confirm B. miyamotoi infection in 44% to 94% of the PCR-positive BMD patients (95% confidence interval). Thus, sensitive serological assays should not solely rely on rGlpQ, to support the diagnosis of acute BMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Studies that report unexpected positive blood cultures for Lyme borrelia - are they valid?

    PubMed

    Wormser, Gary P; Shapiro, Eugene D; Strle, Franc

    2017-11-01

    Positive blood cultures for Lyme borrelia have been well documented in untreated patients with early Lyme disease. In this report we review the validity of three studies that reported the recovery of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the blood of a high proportion of patients for whom no evidence was presented, and no claim was made, that the patients had untreated early Lyme disease. In two of the studies the patients had been treated extensively with antibiotics for Lyme disease before the cultures were obtained. Critical evaluation of the three reports suggests that they are invalid. Indeed, two subsequently published studies could not reproduce the results of one of the reports. In a published analysis of another of the reports, investigators from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention concluded that the cultures were likely to have been contaminated. When the biologic plausibility of recovering borrelia from blood is extremely low, the level of scientific rigor required of a study that claims a positive result should be particularly high. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of borreliae in archived sera from patients with clinically suspect Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sin Hang; Vigliotti, Jessica S; Vigliotti, Veronica S; Jones, William; Shearer, David M

    2014-03-11

    The diagnoses of Lyme disease based on clinical manifestations, serological findings and detection of infectious agents often contradict each other. We tested 52 blind-coded serum samples, including 20 pre-treatment and 12 post-treatment sera from clinically suspect Lyme disease patients, for the presence of residual Lyme disease infectious agents, using nested PCR amplification of a signature segment of the borrelial 16S ribosomal RNA gene for detection and direct DNA sequencing of the PCR amplicon for molecular validation. These archived sera were split from the samples drawn for the 2-tier serology tests performed by a CDC-approved laboratory, and are used as reference materials for evaluating new diagnostic reagents. Of the 12 post-treatment serum samples, we found DNA evidence of a novel borrelia of uncertain significance in one, which was also positive for the 2-tier serology test. The rest of the post-treatment sera and all 20 control sera were PCR-negative. Of the 20 pre-treatment sera from clinically suspect early Lyme disease patients, we found Borrelia miyamotoi in one which was 2-tier serology-negative, and a Borrelia burgdorferi in two-one negative and one positive for 2-tier serology. We conclude that a sensitive and reliable DNA-based test is needed to support the diagnosis of Lyme disease and Lyme disease-like borreliosis.

  18. Low prevalence of Borrelia bavariensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks in southeastern Austria.

    PubMed

    Glatz, Martin; Muellegger, Robert R; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker

    2014-10-01

    Borrelia bavariensis was recently described as a distinct genospecies among the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The prevalence of B. bavariensis in Austria, a highly endemic area for tick-transmitted pathogens, is scarcely characterized. To investigate the prevalence of B. bavariensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks we reevaluated the results of a study conducted in 518 ticks from southeastern Austria collected in 2002 and 2003. The presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-specific DNA in ticks was analyzed by a PCR for the outer surface protein A (ospA) gene. Borrelia species were differentiated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and samples positive for B. bavariensis were further analyzed by multilocus sequence analysis. Two of 133 (1.5%) B. burgdorferi s.l.-positive I. ricinus ticks were infected with B. bavariensis. Both specimens were coinfected with the OspA serotype 5 of B. garinii. Borrelia bavariensis is present; however, seem to be rare in I. ricinus ticks in southeastern Austria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Potomac horse fever.

    PubMed

    Palmer, J E

    1993-08-01

    E. risticii, the cause of classic Potomac horse fever, is now known to produce two disease syndromes: EEC and EEA. The pathogen appears to commonly infect horses based on seroepidemiologic studies; however, the method of transmission remains unknown. The most common clinical disease is EEC, commonly called Potomac horse fever, which presents a wide spectrum of clinical signs. Diagnosis is currently dependent on serology, which frequently does not lead to a definitive diagnosis and at best results in a retrospective diagnosis. A new diagnostic approach, polymerase chain reaction, may offer a rapid and accurate diagnostic test but is yet to be proven. Antimicrobials found to be highly effective in treating EEC include intravenous oxytetracycline and the oral combination of erythromycin and rifampin. Without an understanding of the mode of transmission, prevention of EEC will remain impossible. Although two commercial bacterins are available, vaccination does not result in complete protection. EEA is a recently recognized clinical syndrome caused by E. risticii. After recovery from EEC, pregnant mares may abort. Based on histologic examination, the aborted fetus appears to be a victim of an ehrlichial colitis as well as placentitis. The effect of antimicrobials and vaccination on the occurrence of EEA has yet to be investigated.

  20. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  1. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P.; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David

    2007-01-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that >21% of the serum samples had antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae. PMID:18214179

  2. [Clinical presentation of Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis caused by Borrelia miyamotoi in the context of an immune response to the pathogen].

    PubMed

    Platonov, A E; Toporkova, M G; Kolyasnikova, N M; Stukolova, O A; Dolgova, A S; Brodovikova, A V; Makhneva, N A; Karan, L S; Koetsveld, J; Shipulin, G A; Maleev, V V

    Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis caused by Borrelia miyamotoi (ITBB-BM) is a previously unknown infectious disease discovered in Russia. The present study continues the investigation of the clinical features of ITBB-BM in the context of an immune system-pathogen interaction. The study enrolled 117 patients with ITBB-BM and a comparison group of 71 patients with Lyme disease (LD) that is ITBB with erythema migrans. All the patients were treated at the New Hospital, Yekateringburg. More than 100 clinical, epidemiological and laboratory parameters were obtained from each patient's medical history and included in the general database. A subset of patients hospitalized in 2015 and 2016 underwent additional laboratory examinations. Namely, the levels of B. miyamotoi-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were measured by the protein microarray containing GlpQ protein and four variable major proteins (VMPs): Vlp15/16, Vlp18, Vsp1, and Vlp5. The blood concentration of Borrelia was estimated by quantitative real-time PCR. In contrast to LD, first of all (p<0.001) the following clinical features were typical for ITBB-BM: the absence of erythema migrans (in 95% of patients), fever (93%), fatigue (96%), headache (82%), chill (41%), nausea (28%), lymphopenia (56%), thrombocytopenia (46%), the abnormal levels of alanine aminotransferase (54%) and C-reactive protein (98%), proteinuria (61%). Given the set of these indicators, the course of ITBB-BM was more severe in approximately 70% of patients. At admission, only 13% and 38% of patients had antibodies to GlpQ and VMPs, respectively; at discharge, antibodies to GlpQ and VMPs were detected in 88% of patients. There was no statistically significant association of the antibody response with individual clinical manifestations and laboratory parameters of the disease. However, patients with more severe ITBB-BM produced less IgM antibodies to VMPs and GlpQ at the time of discharge. ITBB-BM is a moderate systemic disease accompanied by the

  3. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, and Powassan Virus in Ticks by a Multiplex Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Tagliafierro, Teresa; Cucura, D. Moses; Rochlin, Ilia; Sameroff, Stephen; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ixodes scapularis ticks are implicated in transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus. We describe the establishment and implementation of the first multiplex real-time PCR assay with the capability to simultaneously detect and differentiate all five pathogens in a single reaction. The application of this assay for analysis of ticks at sites in New York and Connecticut revealed a high prevalence of B. microti in ticks from Suffolk County, NY. These findings are consistent with reports of a higher incidence of babesiosis from clinicians managing the care of patients with tick-borne diseases in this region. IMPORTANCE The understanding of pathogen prevalence is an important factor in the determination of human risks for tick-borne diseases and can help guide diagnosis and treatment. The implementation of our assay addresses a critical need in surveillance of tick-borne diseases, through generation of a comprehensive assessment of pathogen prevalence in I. scapularis. Our finding of a high frequency of ticks infected with Babesia microti in Suffolk County, NY, implicates this agent as a probable frequent cause of non-Lyme tick-borne disease in this area. PMID:28435891

  4. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, and Powassan Virus in Ticks by a Multiplex Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay.

    PubMed

    Tokarz, Rafal; Tagliafierro, Teresa; Cucura, D Moses; Rochlin, Ilia; Sameroff, Stephen; Lipkin, W Ian

    2017-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis ticks are implicated in transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Borrelia burgdorferi , Borrelia miyamotoi , Babesia microti , and Powassan virus. We describe the establishment and implementation of the first multiplex real-time PCR assay with the capability to simultaneously detect and differentiate all five pathogens in a single reaction. The application of this assay for analysis of ticks at sites in New York and Connecticut revealed a high prevalence of B. microti in ticks from Suffolk County, NY. These findings are consistent with reports of a higher incidence of babesiosis from clinicians managing the care of patients with tick-borne diseases in this region. IMPORTANCE The understanding of pathogen prevalence is an important factor in the determination of human risks for tick-borne diseases and can help guide diagnosis and treatment. The implementation of our assay addresses a critical need in surveillance of tick-borne diseases, through generation of a comprehensive assessment of pathogen prevalence in I. scapularis . Our finding of a high frequency of ticks infected with Babesia microti in Suffolk County, NY, implicates this agent as a probable frequent cause of non-Lyme tick-borne disease in this area.

  5. Population genetics, taxonomy, phylogeny and evolution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    PubMed Central

    Margos, Gabriele; Vollmer, Stephanie A.; Ogden, Nicholas H.; Fish, Durland

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the population structure and dynamics of bacterial microorganisms, typing systems that accurately reflect the phylogenetic and evolutionary relationship of the agents are required. Over the past 15 years multilocus sequence typing schemes have replaced single locus approaches, giving novel insights into phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships of many bacterial species and facilitating taxonomy. Since 2004, several schemes using multiple loci have been developed to better understand the taxonomy, phylogeny and evolution of Lyme borreliosis spirochetes and in this paper we have reviewed and summarized the progress that has been made for this important group of vector-borne zoonotic bacteria. PMID:21843658

  6. Lyme borreliae prevalence and genospecies distribution in ticks removed from humans.

    PubMed

    Waindok, Patrick; Schicht, Sabine; Fingerle, Volker; Strube, Christina

    2017-08-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most important human tick-borne disease, but Borrelia genospecies cause different clinical manifestations. Ticks of the genus Ixodes removed from humans between 2006 and 2012 were analysed for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) infections. The majority of ticks originated from the Greater Hanover region in Northern Germany. The engorgement status varied over the entire spectrum from unengorged (no evidence of started blood feeding) to fully engorged. In the present study, prevalence data for B. burgdorferi sl 2011 and 2012 were obtained by quantitative real-time PCR and compared to those from a former study including years 2006-2010 (Strube et al., 2011) to evaluate B. burgdorferi sl infections in ticks affecting humans over a 7-year period. In 2011, 34.2% (70/205) of adult ticks, 22.2% (94/423) of nymphs, 8.3% of larvae (1/12) as well 3 of 6 not differentiated ticks were Borrelia positive. In 2012, 31.8% (41/129) of adult ticks, 20.4% of nymphs (69/337) as well as 1 of 4 of the not differentiated ticks were determined positive. Total Borrelia infection rates decreased significantly from 23.1% in 2006 to 17.1% in 2010, followed by a significant increase to 26.0% in 2011 and 23.4% in 2012. Furthermore, B. burgdorferi sl genospecies distribution in 2006-2012 was determined in the present study by applying Reverse Line Blot technique. Borrelia genospecies differentiation was successful in 641 (67.3%) out of 953 positive tick samples. The most frequently occurring genospecies was B. afzelii (40.5% of infected ticks), followed by B. garinii/B. bavariensis (12.4%). Amongst the 641 ticks analysed for their genospecies, 74 (11.5%) carried more than one genospecies, of which 69 (10.7%) were double-infected and five (0.8%) were triple-infected. Comparison of genospecies distribution in ticks removed from humans with those from questing ticks flagged in the same geographical area revealed that ticks removed from humans were significantly more

  7. Lyme Borreliosis--the Utility of Improved Real-Time PCR Assay in the Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Infections.

    PubMed

    Bil-Lula, Iwona; Matuszek, Patryk; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Woźniak, Mieczysław

    2015-01-01

    Infections of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato reveal clinical manifestations affecting numerous organs and tissues. The standard diagnostic procedure of these infections is quite simple if a positive history of tick exposure or typical erythema migrans appears. Lack of unequivocal clinical symptoms creates the necessity for further evaluation with laboratory tests. This study discusses the utility of a novel, improved, well-optimized, sensitive and highly specific quantitative real-time PCR assay for the diagnostics of infections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. We designed an improved, specific, highly sensitive real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) assay for the detection and quantification of all Borrelia burgdorferi genotypes. A wide validation effort was undertaken to ensure confidence in the highly sensitive and specific detection of B. burgdorferi. Due to high sensitivity and great specificity, as low as 1.6×10² copies of Borrelia per mL of whole blood could be detected. As much as 12 (3%) negative ELISA IgM results, 14 (2.8%) negative results of Line blot IgM, 11 (3.1%) and 7 (2.7%) of negative ELISA IgG and Line blot IgG results, respectively, were positive in real-time PCR. The data in this study confirms the high positive predictive value of real-time PCR test in the detection of Borrelia infections.

  8. Borrelia-primed and -infected mice deficient of interleukin-17 develop arthritis after neutralization of gamma-interferon.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Joseph; Warner, Thomas F; Schell, Ronald F

    2017-03-01

    The immune mechanisms responsible for development of Lyme arthritis are partially understood with interleukin-17 (IL-17) and gamma-interferon (IFN-γ) playing a generally accepted role. Elevated levels of IL-17 and/or IFN-γ have been reported in samples from human Lyme arthritis patients and experimental mice. In addition, IL-17 and IFN-γ have been implicated in the onset of arthritis in Borrelia-primed and -infected C57BL/6 mice. Recently, we showed that IL-17-deficient mice developed swelling and histopathological changes consistent with arthritis in the presence of high levels of IFN-γ. We hypothesized that neutralization of IFN-γ in IL-17-deficient mice would inhibit Borrelia-induced arthritis. Our results, however, showed that swelling of the hind paws and histopathological changes of arthritis did not differ between Borrelia-primed and -infected IL-17-deficient and wild-type mice with or without neutralization of IFN-γ. We also found higher levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6 in the popliteal lymph node cells of Borrelia-primed and -infected IL-17-deficient mice after neutralization of IFN-γ. These results suggest that multiple cytokines interact in the development of Borrelia-induced arthritis. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2007-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a life-threatening disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, an obligately intracellular bacterium that is spread to human beings by ticks. More than a century after its first clinical description, this disease is still among the most virulent human infections identified, being potentially fatal even in previously healthy young people. The diagnosis of RMSF is based on the patient's history and a physical examination, and often presents a dilemma for clinicians because of the non-specific presentation of the disease in its early course. Early empirical treatment is essential to prevent severe complications or a fatal outcome, and treatment should be initiated even in unconfirmed cases. Because there is no vaccine available against RMSF, avoidance of tick-infested areas is still the best way to prevent the infection.

  10. Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Racsa, Lori D.; Kraft, Colleen S.; Olinger, Gene G.; Hensley, Lisa E.

    2016-01-01

    There are 4 families of viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), including Filoviridae. Ebola virus is one virus within the family Filoviridae and the cause of the current outbreak of VHF in West Africa. VHF-endemic areas are found throughout the world, yet traditional diagnosis of VHF has been performed in large reference laboratories centered in Europe and the United States. The large amount of capital needed, as well as highly trained and skilled personnel, has limited the availability of diagnostics in endemic areas except in conjunction with governmental and nongovernmental entities. However, rapid diagnosis of VHF is essential to efforts that will limit outbreaks. In addition, increased global travel suggests VHF diagnoses may be made outside of the endemic areas. Thus, understanding how to diagnose VHF is imperative for laboratories worldwide. This article reviews traditional and current diagnostic modalities for VHF. PMID:26354968

  11. Rift Valley fever.

    PubMed

    Paweska, J T

    2015-08-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic viral disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants, camels and humans. The causative agent of RVF, the RVF virus (RVFV), has the capacity to cause large and severe outbreaks in animal and human populations and to cross significant natural geographic barriers. Rift Valley fever is usually inapparent in non-pregnant adult animals, but pregnant animals and newborns can be severely affected; outbreaks are characterised by a sudden onset of abortions and high neonatal mortality. The majority of human infections are subclinical or associated with moderate to severe, non-fatal, febrile illness, but some patients may develop a haemorrhagic syndrome and/or ocular and neurological lesions. In both animals and humans, the primary site of RVFV replication and tissue pathology is the liver. Outbreaks of RVF are associated with persistent high rainfalls leading to massive flooding and the emergence of large numbers of competent mosquito vectors that transmit the virus to a wide range of susceptible vertebrate species. Outbreaks of RVF have devastating economic effects on countries for which animal trade constitutes the main source of national revenue. The propensity of the virus to spread into new territories and re-emerge in traditionally endemic regions, where it causes large outbreaks in human and animal populations, presents a formidable challenge for public and veterinary health authorities. The presence of competent mosquito vectors in RVF-free countries, the wide range of mammals susceptible to the virus, altering land use, the global changes in climate, and increased animal trade and travel are some of the factors which might contribute to international spread of RVF.

  12. Rhombencephalitis associated with Dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajesh; Bharti, Kavita; Mehta, Mannan; Bansod, Amrit

    2016-05-01

    Dengue infection is gradually disseminating throughout the world in alarming proportions. It is a arbovirus infection,transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. It is a multi-systemic disorder associated with varied neurological complications. There is increased trend of development of neurological complications in dengue fever. The neurological complications arising due to dengue infection can be categorized into central and neuromuscular complications. The central nervous system disorders reported with dengue fever are encephalopathy,encephalitis and myelitis.Here we report a case of rhombencephalitis associated with dengue fever. The literature does not mention rhombencephalitis occurring with dengue illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Laboratory Diagnosis of Lassa Fever

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lassa virus remains an important cause of illness in West Africa and among the travelers returning from this region with an acute febrile illness. The symptoms of Lassa fever can be nonspecific and mimic those of other endemic infections, especially early in illness, making a clinical diagnosis difficult; therefore, laboratory testing is needed to confirm the diagnosis. An early identification of Lassa fever is crucial for maximizing the benefit of available antiviral therapy, as treatment efficacy rapidly decreases following the clinical onset of the disease. This minireview provides an overview of the currently available diagnostic tests for Lassa fever and their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:28404674

  14. Laboratory Diagnosis of Lassa Fever.

    PubMed

    Raabe, Vanessa; Koehler, Jeffrey

    2017-06-01

    Lassa virus remains an important cause of illness in West Africa and among the travelers returning from this region with an acute febrile illness. The symptoms of Lassa fever can be nonspecific and mimic those of other endemic infections, especially early in illness, making a clinical diagnosis difficult; therefore, laboratory testing is needed to confirm the diagnosis. An early identification of Lassa fever is crucial for maximizing the benefit of available antiviral therapy, as treatment efficacy rapidly decreases following the clinical onset of the disease. This minireview provides an overview of the currently available diagnostic tests for Lassa fever and their strengths and weaknesses. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Studies on Typhus and Spotted Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever , DNA, homology, genome, lymphocytes, immunity...spotted fever group. Certain studies have suggested that R. canada may be able to cause a severe illness in man clinically similar to Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Z...the Conference and are also in press. 10. Paul Fiset, Charles L. Wisseman, Jr., A. Farhang-Azad, Harvey Fischman. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

  16. Phylogeny of Yellow Fever Virus, Uganda, 2016.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Holly R; Kayiwa, John; Mossel, Eric C; Lutwama, Julius; Staples, J Erin; Lambert, Amy J

    2018-08-17

    In April 2016, a yellow fever outbreak was detected in Uganda. Removal of contaminating ribosomal RNA in a clinical sample improved the sensitivity of next-generation sequencing. Molecular analyses determined the Uganda yellow fever outbreak was distinct from the concurrent yellow fever outbreak in Angola, improving our understanding of yellow fever epidemiology.

  17. Use of in vivo Expression Technology for the Identification of Putative Host Adaptation Factors of the Lyme Disease Spirochete.

    PubMed

    Casselli, Timothy; Bankhead, Troy

    2015-01-01

    The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, is an obligate parasite that requires either a tick vector or a mammalian host for survival. Identification of the bacterial genes that are specifically expressed during infection of the mammalian host could provide targets for novel therapeutics and vaccines. In vivo expression technology (IVET) is a reporter-based promoter trap system that utilizes selectable markers to identify promoters of bacterial host-specific genes. Using previously characterized genes for in vivo and in vitro selection, this study utilized an IVET system that allows for selection of B. burgdorferi sequences that act as active promoters only during murine infection. This promoter trap system was able to successfully distinguish active promoter sequences both in vivo and in vitro from control sequences and a library of cloned B. burgdorferi genomic fragments. However, a bottleneck effect during the experimental mouse infection limited the utility for genome-wide promoter screening. Overall, IVET was demonstrated as a tool for the identification of in vivo-induced promoter elements of B. burgdorferi, and the observed infection bottleneck apparent using a polyclonal infection pool provides insight into the dynamics of experimental infection with B. burgdorferi. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The enzootic life-cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) and tick-borne rickettsiae: an epidemiological study on wild-living small mammals and their ticks from Saxony, Germany.

    PubMed

    Obiegala, Anna; Król, Nina; Oltersdorf, Carolin; Nader, Julian; Pfeffer, Martin

    2017-03-13

    Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) and rickettsiae of the spotted fever group are zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. While small mammals are confirmed reservoirs for certain Borrelia spp., little is known about the reservoirs for tick-borne rickettsiae. Between 2012 and 2014, ticks were collected from the vegetation and small mammals which were trapped in Saxony, Germany. DNA extracted from ticks and the small mammals' skin was analyzed for the presence of Rickettsia spp. and B. burgdorferi (s.l.) by qPCR targeting the gltA and p41 genes, respectively. Partial sequencing of the rickettsial ompB gene and an MLST of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) were conducted for species determination. In total, 673 small mammals belonging to eight species (Apodemus agrarius, n = 7; A. flavicollis, n = 214; Microtus arvalis, n = 8; Microtus agrestis, n = 1; Mustela nivalis, n = 2; Myodes glareolus, n = 435; Sorex araneus, n = 5; and Talpa europaea, n = 1) were collected and examined. In total, 916 questing ticks belonging to three species (Ixodes ricinus, n = 741; Dermacentor reticulatus, n = 174; and I. trianguliceps, n = 1) were collected. Of these, 474 ticks were further investigated. The prevalence for Rickettsia spp. and B. burgdorferi (s.l.) in the investigated small mammals was 25.3 and 31.2%, respectively. The chance of encountering Rickettsia spp. in M. glareolus was seven times higher for specimens infested with D. reticulatus than for those which were free of D. reticulatus (OR: 7.0; 95% CI: 3.3-14.7; P < 0.001). In total, 11.4% of questing I. ricinus and 70.5% of D. reticulatus were positive for Rickettsia spp. DNA of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) was detected only in I. ricinus (5.5%). Sequence analysis revealed 9 R. helvetica, 5 R. raoultii, and 1 R. felis obtained from 15 small mammal samples. Small mammals may serve as reservoirs for Rickettsia spp. and B. burgdorferi (s.l.). While the prevalence for Rickettsia spp. in M. glareolus is most

  19. Discriminating fever behavior in house flies.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert D; Blanford, Simon; Jenkins, Nina E; Thomas, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Fever has generally been shown to benefit infected hosts. However, fever temperatures also carry costs. While endotherms are able to limit fever costs physiologically, the means by which behavioral thermoregulators constrain these costs are less understood. Here we investigated the behavioral fever response of house flies (Musca domestica L.) challenged with different doses of the fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Infected flies invoked a behavioral fever selecting the hottest temperature early in the day and then moving to cooler temperatures as the day progressed. In addition, flies infected with a higher dose of fungus exhibited more intense fever responses. These variable patterns of fever are consistent with the observation that higher fever temperatures had greater impact on fungal growth. The results demonstrate the capacity of insects to modulate the degree and duration of the fever response depending on the severity of the pathogen challenge and in so doing, balance the costs and benefits of fever.

  20. Variations in Ixodes ricinus density and Borrelia infections associated with cattle introduced into a woodland in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gassner, Fedor; Verbaarschot, Patrick; Smallegange, Renate C; Spitzen, Jeroen; Van Wieren, Sipke E; Takken, Willem

    2008-12-01

    The effect of introduced large herbivores on the abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks and their Borrelia infections was studied in a natural woodland in The Netherlands. Oak and pine plots, either ungrazed or grazed by cattle, were selected. Ticks were collected weekly by blanket dragging. Borrelia infections were determined by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Rodent densities were estimated using mark-release-recapture methods. On occasion, the cattle were inspected for tick infestations. Meteorological data were recorded for each habitat. Significantly more ticks were collected in the ungrazed woodland than in the grazed woodland. The ungrazed oak habitat had higher tick densities than the pine habitat, while in the grazed habitats, tick densities were similar. Borrelia infection rates ranged from zero in larvae to 26% in nymphs to 33% in adult ticks, and B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and B. valaisiana were the species involved. Coinfections were found in five ticks. There was no effect of the presence of cattle on Borrelia infections in the ticks. In the ungrazed area, Borrelia infections in nymphs were significantly higher in the oak habitat than in the pine habitat. More mice were captured in the ungrazed area, and these had a significantly higher tick burden than mice from the grazed area. Tick burden on cattle was low. The results suggest that grazing has a negative effect on small rodents as well as on ticks but not on Borrelia infections. Implications of these results for management of woodland reserves and risk of Lyme disease are discussed.

  1. Variations in Ixodes ricinus Density and Borrelia Infections Associated with Cattle Introduced into a Woodland in The Netherlands▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gassner, Fedor; Verbaarschot, Patrick; Smallegange, Renate C.; Spitzen, Jeroen; Van Wieren, Sipke E.; Takken, Willem

    2008-01-01

    The effect of introduced large herbivores on the abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks and their Borrelia infections was studied in a natural woodland in The Netherlands. Oak and pine plots, either ungrazed or grazed by cattle, were selected. Ticks were collected weekly by blanket dragging. Borrelia infections were determined by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Rodent densities were estimated using mark-release-recapture methods. On occasion, the cattle were inspected for tick infestations. Meteorological data were recorded for each habitat. Significantly more ticks were collected in the ungrazed woodland than in the grazed woodland. The ungrazed oak habitat had higher tick densities than the pine habitat, while in the grazed habitats, tick densities were similar. Borrelia infection rates ranged from zero in larvae to 26% in nymphs to 33% in adult ticks, and B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and B. valaisiana were the species involved. Coinfections were found in five ticks. There was no effect of the presence of cattle on Borrelia infections in the ticks. In the ungrazed area, Borrelia infections in nymphs were significantly higher in the oak habitat than in the pine habitat. More mice were captured in the ungrazed area, and these had a significantly higher tick burden than mice from the grazed area. Tick burden on cattle was low. The results suggest that grazing has a negative effect on small rodents as well as on ticks but not on Borrelia infections. Implications of these results for management of woodland reserves and risk of Lyme disease are discussed. PMID:18836006

  2. Q Fever in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Eldin, Carole; Mahamat, Aba; Demar, Magalie; Abboud, Philippe; Djossou, Félix; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is present worldwide. Recent studies have shown that this bacterium is an emerging pathogen in French Guiana and has a high prevalence (24% of community-acquired pneumonia). In this review, we focus on the peculiar epidemiology of Q fever in French Guiana. We place it in the context of the epidemiology of the disease in the surrounding countries of South America. We also review the clinical features of Q fever in this region, which has severe initial presentation but low mortality rates. These characteristics seem to be linked to a unique genotype (genotype 17). Finally, we discuss the issue of the animal reservoir of C. burnetii in French Guiana, which is still unknown. Further studies are necessary to identify this reservoir. Identification of this reservoir will improve the understanding of the Q fever epidemic in French Guiana and will provide new tools to control this public health problem. PMID:25092817

  3. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis, within southwestern Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott M; Lehman, Preston M; Kern, Ryan A; Henning, Jill D

    2015-06-01

    Prevalence studies of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been rare for ticks from southwestern Pennsylvania. We collected 325 Ixodes scapularis ticks between 2011 and 2012 from four counties in southwestern Pennsylvania. We tested for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum using PCR. Of the ticks collected from Pennsylvania, B. burgdorferi (causative agent of Lyme disease) was present in 114/325 (35%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (causative agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis) was present in 48/325 (15%) as determined by PCR analysis. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  4. [Fever in pediatric office practice].

    PubMed

    Murahovschi, Jayme

    2003-05-01

    To determine how to select a child who requires in depth laboratory investigation, defining the most appropriate laboratory screening tests, and to detect the individual who requires immediate therapy, when fever is the main symptom presented by the child seen in an outpatient clinic, or at the physician's office. Additionally, this review aims at providing suggestions on how to deal with fever, and with the anxiety it causes. Bibliographic review using Medline database and previously selected manuscripts. Fever may cause both negative and positive outcomes, none of major consequence. Age group, fever magnitude and duration, shivering, appetite decrease or behavioral changes (toxemia), and other localizing symptoms should be investigated through the patient's medical history. Laboratory screening tests should include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, urinalysis (white cells count and gram stain of the sediment), and in some cases, lumbar puncture and blood culture. The treatment should include antipyretic medications and, occasionally, physical methods (cool baths, sponging) in order to reduce discomfort caused by the fever. Children with fever request both scientific expertise, as well as empathy from the pediatrician, so that they can receive individualized therapy.

  5. In Vitro Activities of the Everninomicin SCH 27899 and Other Newer Antimicrobial Agents against Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Dever, Lisa L.; Torigian, Christine V.; Barbour, Alan G.

    1999-01-01

    The in vitro activity of the everninomicin antibiotic SCH 27899 against 17 isolates of Borrelia spp. was investigated. MICs ranged from 0.06 to 0.5 μg/ml. Time-kill studies with the B31 strain of B. burgdorferi demonstrated ≥3-log10-unit killing after 72 h with concentrations representing four times the MIC. The in vitro activity of four other newer antimicrobial agents, meropenem, cefepime, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and linezolid, was also tested against the B31 strain. Meropenem was the most potent of the latter agents, with an MIC of 0.125 μg/ml. PMID:10390242

  6. Powassan/Deer Tick Virus and Borrelia Burgdorferi Infection in Wisconsin Tick Populations

    PubMed Central

    Thomm, Angela M.; Harrington, Yvette A.; Ketter, Ellen; Patitucci, Jacob M.; Carrigan, Donald R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Powassan/Deer Tick Virus (POWV/DTV) is an emerging cause of arboviral neuroinvasive disease in the upper Midwest. These studies describe the prevalence and geographic distribution of Wisconsin ticks carrying POWV/DTV as well as the high frequency of Ixodes scapularis ticks coinfected with both POWV/DTV and Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. These findings suggest that concurrent transmission of POWV/DTV and B. Burgdorferi from coinfected ticks is likely to occur in humans. PMID:28488932

  7. Erythema migrans and serodiagnosis by enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot with three borrelia species.

    PubMed

    Stanek, G; Breier, F; Menzinger, G; Schaar, B; Hafner, M; Partsch, H

    1999-12-10

    There is wide divergence of opinion between physicians regarding the use of serological measures for the diagnosis and treatment of erythema migrans, the hallmark of Lyme borreliosis. We studied the outcome of an enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot (Western blot) used on the sera of patients who had suffered tick bite and erythema migrans, and had been subsequently treated with various antibiotics. Ninety-nine consecutive patients presenting with erythema migrans after tick bite were prospectively recruited at the outpatient department of two Vienna City hospitals and at the consultation office for Lyme borreliosis of the Institute of Hygiene. University Vienna. Blood samples were taken before antibiotic treatment and 3 and 6 months thereafter. Blood samples from 100 blood donors served as controls. Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were determined by enzyme immunoassay (IgG and IgM EIA) and by IgG immunoblot. The latter was performed with isolates of B. alzelii (H2) B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (Le) and B. garinii (W) from Austrian patients. The 4 interpretation criteria for immunoblot results were: A (3 bands out of 8), B (2 bands out of 9), C and D (1 band out of 6). In all patients, the erythema resolved within the treatment period. No complications secondary to the borrelia infection were registered. After treatment there was no significant change in titre, nor was there a difference in the immunoblot pattern between the first, second and third serum samples. Serum antibodies to B. burgdorferi were positive by EIA in 22.9% (IgG) and 2.5% (IgM). Immunoblot results offered by borrelia species and by the interpretation criteria, ranging between 8.3% (criterion A, strain Le) and 44.2% (criterion D, strain H2). By EIA, control samples were IgG and IgM positive in 5% and 1%, respectively. Positive immunoblot results with strain H2 were found in 9%, 13%, 18%, and 20% by the criteria A through D respectively. After antibiotic treatment of erythema

  8. Mapping human risk of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, in a periurban forest in France.

    PubMed

    Vourc'h, G; Abrial, D; Bord, S; Jacquot, M; Masséglia, S; Poux, V; Pisanu, B; Bailly, X; Chapuis, J-L

    2016-07-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a major zoonosis in Europe, with estimates of over 26,000 cases per year in France alone. The etiological agents are spirochete bacteria that belong to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s. l.) complex and are transmitted by hard ticks among a large range of vertebrate hosts. In Europe, the tick Ixodes ricinus is the main vector. In the absence of a vaccine and given the current difficulties to diagnose and treat chronic Lyme syndromes, there is urgent need for prevention. In this context, accurate information on the spatial patterns of risk of exposure to ticks is of prime importance for public health. The objective of our study was to provide a snapshot map of the risk of human infection with B. burgdorferi s. l. pathogens in a periurban forest at a high resolution, and to analyze the factors that contribute to variation in this risk. Field monitoring took place over three weeks in May 2011 in the suburban Sénart forest (3,200ha; southeast of Paris), which receives over 3 million people annually. We sampled ticks over the entire forest area (from 220 forest stands with a total area of 35,200m(2)) and quantified the density of questing nymphs (DON), the prevalence of infection among nymphs (NIP), and the density of infected nymphs (DIN), which is the most important predictor of the human risk of Lyme borreliosis. For each of these response variables, we explored the relative roles of weather (saturation deficit), hosts (abundance indices of ungulates and Tamias sibiricus, an introduced rodent species), vegetation and forest cover, superficial soil composition, and the distance to forest roads. In total, 19,546 questing nymphs were collected and the presence of B. burgdorferi s. l. was tested in 3,903 nymphs by qPCR. The mean DON was 5.6 nymphs per 10m(2) (standard deviation=10.4) with an average NIP of 10.1% (standard deviation=0.11). The highest DIN was 8.9 infected nymphs per 10m(2), with a mean of 0.59 (standard deviation=0.6). Our

  9. Seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Borrelia species antibodies in patients with schizophrenia: a case-control study from western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cevizci, Sibel; Celik, Merve; Akcali, Alper; Oyekcin, Demet Gulec; Sahin, Ozlem Oztürk; Bakar, Coskun

    2015-06-01

    We examined IgG antibody seroprevalence and risk factors for anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Borrelia sp. in schizophrenic patients. This case-control study included 30 schizophrenic patients and 60 healthy individuals. Serological analyses were identified by using ELISA technique. In the case group the Toxoplasma seropositivity was 33.3% and Borrelia seropositivity was 13.3%, while in the control group the Toxoplasma positivity was 21.7% and Borrelia seropositivity was 15.0%. There was no significant difference with regard to seroprevalence between the groups (P = 0.232; P = 0.832, respectively). There was statistically significant difference between case and control groups related to hand and kitchen utensil hygiene after dealing with raw meat (P = 0.001). Our data showed the rate of Toxoplasma antibodies was higher in the case group, while the rate of Borrelia antibodies was higher in the control group. In both groups the high rates of seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii and Borrelia sp. is thought to be due to neglect of personal hygiene. The present study also is the first to examine the association between Borrelia sp. and schizophrenia. Further studies are needed to determine whether there is an association between Borrelia sp. and schizophrenia or not.

  10. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    PubMed

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  11. Cotton Fever: Does the Patient Know Best?

    PubMed

    Xie, Yingda; Pope, Bailey A; Hunter, Alan J

    2016-04-01

    Fever and leukocytosis have many possible etiologies in injection drug users. We present a case of a 22-year-old woman with fever and leukocytosis that were presumed secondary to cotton fever, a rarely recognized complication of injection drug use, after an extensive workup. Cotton fever is a benign, self-limited febrile syndrome characterized by fevers, leukocytosis, myalgias, nausea and vomiting, occurring in injection drug users who filter their drug suspensions through cotton balls. While this syndrome is commonly recognized amongst the injection drug user population, there is a paucity of data in the medical literature. We review the case presentation and available literature related to cotton fever.

  12. 17DD yellow fever vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Reinaldo M.; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S.; Farias, Roberto Henrique G.; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando C.; Lima, Sheila Maria B.; Nogueira, Rita Maria R.; Sá, Gloria Regina S.; Hokama, Darcy A.; de Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar V.; Filho, Edson Pereira; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To verify if the Bio-Manguinhos 17DD yellow fever vaccine (17DD-YFV) used in lower doses is as immunogenic and safe as the current formulation. Results: Doses from 27,476 IU to 587 IU induced similar seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibodies geometric mean titers (GMTs). Immunity of those who seroconverted to YF was maintained for 10 mo. Reactogenicity was low for all groups. Methods: Young and healthy adult males (n = 900) were recruited and randomized into 6 groups, to receive de-escalating doses of 17DD-YFV, from 27,476 IU to 31 IU. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (for neutralization tests to yellow fever, serology for dengue and clinical chemistry), 3 to 7 d after vaccination (for viremia and clinical chemistry) and 30 d after vaccination (for new yellow fever serology and clinical chemistry). Adverse events diaries were filled out by volunteers during 10 d after vaccination. Volunteers were retested for yellow fever and dengue antibodies 10 mo later. Seropositivity for dengue was found in 87.6% of volunteers before vaccination, but this had no significant influence on conclusions. Conclusion: In young healthy adults Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz yellow fever vaccine can be used in much lower doses than usual. International Register ISRCTN 38082350. PMID:23364472

  13. [Study on the infection of taiga ticks with Borrelia in the territory of Novosibirsk Scientific Center SB PAS].

    PubMed

    Borgoiakov, V Iu; Fomenko, N V; Panov, V V; Chikova, E D

    2010-01-01

    In our study, Borrelia were revealed in the taiga ticks Ixodes persulcatus collected on vegetation by flagging, as well as in the ticks removed from the people who asked for help in the vaccination center located in the Novosibirsk Scientific Center of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science (NS SB RAS). By the isolation of Borrelia on BSK-H medum, the occurrence of B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. miyamotoi was established in the territory of NSC. B. miyamotoi isolates were unstable and lost their ability to growth in later passages. DNA of the same three species of Borrelia was detected by PCR in the samples of ticks, both collected on vegetation by flagging and removed from humans. DNA of B. garinii was recorded most often; DNA of B. afzelii was less frequent; and the least number of positive samples was shown for B. miyamotoi. In the ticks collected on vegetation by flagging, DNA of B. garinii was found in 38.6%, B. afzelii in 9.9%, and B. miyamoboi in 3.9% of samples. In the ticks removed from people, number of positive samples was lesser; so, DNA of B. garinii was detected in 24.2%, B. afzelii in 6.9%, and B. miyamotoi in 5.6% of samples. Mixed infection with two Borrelia species was recorded, and DNA of B. mivamnotoi more often detected simultaneously with DNA of B. garinii.

  14. Evaluation of the importance of VlsE antigenic variation for the enzootic cycle of borrelia burgdorferi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Efficient acquisition and transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi by the tick vector, and the ability to persistently infect both vector and host, are important elements for the life cycle of the Lyme disease pathogen. Previous work has provided strong evidence implicating the significance of the vls l...

  15. Seroprevalence against Rickettsia and Borrelia Species in Patients with Uveitis: A Prospective Survey

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Kim B.; Wallménius, Katarina; Fridman, Åke; Påhlson, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases such as Lyme borreliosis and rickettsioses have been associated with ocular inflammation. Our aim was to study patients with diagnosed uveitis to evaluate serological signs of infection or exposure to these tick-borne agents. Forty-eight patients were prospectively examined with serology together with medical records and a questionnaire concerning previous exposure, diseases, and treatments. Seven patients (14.6%) showed seroconversion to Rickettsia spp. between acute and convalescent phase sera, which provides support for a positive Rickettsia diagnosis according to guidelines. The specificity was confirmed by Western blot. Additional 28 patients had stationary titres of which eight (16.6%) had 1 : 256 or higher titre in the first serum, and another 13 patients were seronegative. No epidemiological risk factor or marker could be identified. For Borrelia, only three patients showed moderate IgG titres. A control group of 100 blood donors, 60 patients with rheumatic disease, and 56 patients seeking medical care were tested of which 2.0–7.1% showed low anti-Rickettsia titres and 3.0–8.3% anti-Borrelia titres. The findings are indicative for an association between infection or exposure to Rickettsia spp. and uveitis with a seropositivity among patients with recurrent uveitis in concordance with the spread of rickettsial exposure in a tick-exposed population. PMID:29318041

  16. Molecular and Pathogenic Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Isolates from Spain

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Raquel; Barral, Marta; Pérez, Azucena; Vitutia, M. Mar; García-Pérez, Ana L.; Jiménez, Santos; Sellek, Ricela E.; Anda, Pedro

    2000-01-01

    Fifteen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from questing ticks and skin biopsy specimens from erythema migrans patients in three different areas of Spain were characterized. Four different genospecies were found (nine Borrelia garinii, including the two human isolates, three B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, two B. valaisiana, and one B. lusitaniae), showing a diverse spectrum of B. burgdorferi sensu lato species. B. garinii isolates were highly variable in terms of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern and OspA serotype, with four of the seven serotypes described. One of the human isolates was OspA serotype 5, the same found in four of seven tick isolates. The second human isolate was OspA serotype 3, which was not present in ticks from the same area. Seven B. garinii isolates were able to disseminate through the skin of C3H/HeN mice and to cause severe inflammation of joints. One of the two B. valaisiana isolates also caused disease in mice. Only one B. burgdorferi sensu stricto isolate was recovered from the urinary bladder. One isolate each of B. valaisiana and B. lusitaniae were not able to disseminate through the skin of mice or to infect internal organs. In summary, there is substantial diversity in the species and in the pathogenicity of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in areas in northern Spain where Lyme disease is endemic. PMID:11060064

  17. Strain-specific antibodies reduce co-feeding transmission of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia afzelii.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Maxime; Durand, Jonas; Rais, Olivier; Voordouw, Maarten J

    2016-03-01

    Vector-borne pathogens use a diversity of strategies to evade the vertebrate immune system. Co-feeding transmission is a potential immune evasion strategy because the vector-borne pathogen minimizes the time spent in the vertebrate host. We tested whether the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia afzelii, can use co-feeding transmission to escape the acquired immune response in the vertebrate host. We induced a strain-specific, protective antibody response by immunizing mice with one of two variants of OspC (A3 and A10), the highly variable outer surface protein C of Borrelia pathogens. Immunized mice were challenged via tick bite with B. afzelii strains A3 or A10 and infested with larval ticks at days 2 and 34 post-infection to measure co-feeding and systemic transmission respectively. Antibodies against a particular OspC variant significantly reduced co-feeding transmission of the targeted (homologous) strain but not the non-targeted (heterologous) strain. Cross-immunity between OspC antigens had no effect in co-feeding ticks but reduced the spirochaete load twofold in ticks infected via systemic transmission. In summary, OspC-specific antibodies reduced co-feeding transmission of a homologous but not a heterologous strain of B. afzelii. Co-feeding transmission allowed B. afzelii to evade the negative consequences of cross-immunity on the tick spirochaete load. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  19. Autoinflammatory Diseases with Periodic Fevers.

    PubMed

    Sag, Erdal; Bilginer, Yelda; Ozen, Seza

    2017-07-01

    One purpose of this review was to raise awareness for the new autoinflammatory syndromes. These diseases are increasingly recognized and are in the differential diagnosis of many disease states. We also aimed to review the latest recommendations for the diagnosis, management, and treatment of these patients. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS), and hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome/mevalonate kinase deficiency (HIDS/MVKD) are the more common autoinflammatory diseases that are characterized by periodic fevers and attacks of inflammation. Recently much collaborative work has been done to understand the characteristics of these patients and to develop recommendations to guide the physicians in the care of these patients. These recent recommendations will be summarized for all four diseases. FMF is the most common periodic fever disease. We need to further understand the pathogenesis and the role of single mutations in the disease. Recently, the management and treatment of the disease have been nicely reviewed. CAPS is another interesting disease associated with severe complications. Anti-interleukin-1 (anti-IL-1) treatment provides cure for these patients. TRAPS is characterized by the longest delay in diagnosis; thus, both pediatricians and internists should be aware of the characteristic features and the follow-up of these patients. HIDS/MVKD is another autoinflammatory diseases characterized with fever attacks. The spectrum of disease manifestation is rather large in this disease, and we need further research on biomarkers for the optimal management of these patients.

  20. The Heterogeneity, Distribution, and Environmental Associations of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, the Agent of Lyme Borreliosis, in Scotland.

    PubMed

    James, Marianne C; Gilbert, Lucy; Bowman, Alan S; Forbes, Ken J

    2014-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is an emerging infectious human disease caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex of bacteria with reported cases increasing in many areas of Europe and North America. To understand the drivers of disease risk and the distribution of symptoms, which may improve mitigation and diagnostics, here we characterize the genetics, distribution, and environmental associations of B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies across Scotland. In Scotland, reported Lyme borreliosis cases have increased almost 10-fold since 2000 but the distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. is so far unstudied. Using a large survey of over 2200 Ixodes ricinus tick samples collected from birds, mammals, and vegetation across 25 sites we identified four genospecies: Borrelia afzelii (48%), Borrelia garinii (36%), Borrelia valaisiana (8%), and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (7%), and one mixed genospecies infection. Surprisingly, 90% of the sequence types were novel and, importantly, up to 14% of samples were mixed intra-genospecies co-infections, suggesting tick co-feeding, feeding on multiple hosts, or multiple infections in hosts. B. garinii (hosted by birds) was considerably more genetically diverse than B. afzelii (hosted by small mammals), as predicted since there are more species of birds than small mammals and birds can import strains from mainland Europe. Higher proportions of samples contained B. garinii and B. valaisiana in the west, while B. afzelii and B. garinii were significantly more associated with mixed/deciduous than with coniferous woodlands. This may relate to the abundance of transmission hosts in different regions and habitats. These data on the genetic heterogeneity within and between Borrelia genospecies are a first step to understand pathogen spread and could help explain the distribution of patient symptoms, which may aid local diagnosis. Understanding the environmental associations of the pathogens is critical for rational policy making for disease risk