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Sample records for fgf signaling controls

  1. FGF10 signaling controls stomach morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nyeng, Pia; Norgaard, Gitte Anker; Kobberup, Sune; Jensen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Maintenance of progenitor cell properties in development is required for proper organogenesis of most organs, including those derived from the endoderm. FGF10 has been shown to play a role in both lung and pancreatic development. Here we find that FGF10 signaling controls stomach progenitor maintenance, morphogenesis and cellular differentiation. Through a characterization of the initiation of terminal differentiation of the three major gastric regions in the mouse, forestomach, corpus and antrum, we first describe the existence of a “secondary transition” event occurring in mouse stomach between E15.5-E16.5. This includes the formation of terminally differentiated squamous cells, parietal, chief a nd gastric endocrine cells from a pre-patterned gastric progenitor epithelium. Expression analysis of both FGF and Notch signaling components suggested a role of these networks in such progenitors, which was tested through ectopically expressing FGF10 in the developing posterior stomach. These data provide evidence that gastric gland specification and progenitor cell maintenance is controlled by FGF10. The glandular proliferative niche was disrupted in pPDX-FGF10FLAG mice leading to aberrant gland formation, and endocrine and parietal cell differentiation was attenuated. These effects were paralleled by changes in Hes1, Shh, and Wnt6 expression, suggesting that FGF10 acts in concert with multiple morphogenetic signaling systems during gastric development. PMID:17196193

  2. FGF9-Pitx2-FGF10 signaling controls cecal formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Al Alam, Denise; Sala, Frederic G; Baptista, Sheryl; Galzote, Rosanna; Danopoulos, Soula; Tiozzo, Caterina; Gage, Philip; Grikscheit, Tracy; Warburton, David; Frey, Mark R; Bellusci, Saverio

    2012-09-15

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling to the epithelium and mesenchyme mediated by FGF10 and FGF9, respectively, controls cecal formation during embryonic development. In particular, mesenchymal FGF10 signals to the epithelium via FGFR2b to induce epithelial cecal progenitor cell proliferation. Yet the precise upstream mechanisms controlling mesenchymal FGF10 signaling are unknown. Complete deletion of Fgf9 as well as of Pitx2, a gene encoding a homeobox transcription factor, both lead to cecal agenesis. Herein, we used mouse genetic approaches to determine the precise contribution of the epithelium and/or mesenchyme tissue compartments in this process. Using tissue compartment specific Fgf9 versus Pitx2 loss of function approaches in the gut epithelium and/or mesenchyme, we determined that FGF9 signals to the mesenchyme via Pitx2 to induce mesenchymal Fgf10 expression, which in turn leads to epithelial cecal bud formation.

  3. FGF9-Pitx2-FGF10 signaling controls cecal formation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Denise Al; Sala, Frederic G; Baptista, Sheryl; Galzote, Rosanna; Danopoulos, Soula; Tiozzo, Caterina; Gage, Philip; Grikscheit, Tracy; Warburton, David; Frey, Mark R; Bellusci, Saverio

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling to the epithelium and mesenchyme mediated by FGF10 and FGF9, respectively, controls cecal formation during embryonic development. In particular, mesenchymal FGF10 signals to the epithelium via FGFR2b to induce epithelial cecal progenitor cell proliferation. Yet the precise upstream mechanisms controlling mesenchymal FGF10 signaling are unknown. Complete deletion of Fgf9 as well as of Pitx2, a gene encoding a homeobox transcription factor, both lead to cecal agenesis. Herein, we used mouse genetic approaches to determine the precise contribution of the epithelium and/or mesenchyme tissue compartments in this process. Using tissue compartment specific Fgf9 versus Pitx2 loss of function approaches in the gut epithelium and/or mesenchyme, we determined that FGF9 signals to the mesenchyme via Pitx2 to induce mesenchymal Fgf10 expression, which in turn leads to epithelial cecal bud formation. PMID:22819677

  4. Fgf signalling controls diverse aspects of fin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Eri; Yokota, Yuki; Horita, Natsumi; Kudo, Akira; Abe, Gembu; Kawakami, Koichi; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-08-15

    Studies have shown that fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signalling is necessary for appendage regeneration, but its exact function and the ligands involved during regeneration have not yet been elucidated. Here, we performed comprehensive expression analyses and identified fgf20a and fgf3/10a as major Fgf ligands in the wound epidermis and blastema, respectively. To reveal the target cells and processes of Fgf signalling, we performed a transplantation experiment of mesenchymal cells that express the dominant-negative Fgf receptor 1 (dnfgfr1) under control of the heat-shock promoter. This mosaic knockdown analysis suggested that Fgf signalling is directly required for fin ray mesenchyme to form the blastema at the early pre-blastema stage and to activate the regenerative cell proliferation at a later post-blastema stage. These results raised the possibility that the early epidermal Fgf20a and the later blastemal Fgf3/10a could be responsible for these respective processes. We demonstrated by gain-of-function analyses that Fgf20a induces the expression of distal blastema marker junbl, and that Fgf3 promotes blastema cell proliferation. Our study highlights that Fgfs in the wound epidermis and blastema have distinct functions to regulate fin regeneration cooperatively.

  5. Control of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 7- and FGF1-induced mitogenesis and downstream signaling by distinct heparin octasaccharide motifs.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yongde; Ye, Sheng; Kan, Mikio; McKeehan, Wallace L

    2006-07-28

    Variation in length, disaccharide composition, and sulfation of heparan sulfate (HS) affects fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. However, it is unclear whether the specific distribution of groups within oligosaccharides or random variations in charge density underlies the effects. Recently we showed that a mixture of undersulfated octasaccharides exhibiting 7 and 8 sulfates (7,8-S-OctaF7) generated from heparin had the highest affinity for FGF7 monitored by salt resistance (>0.60 M salt) of octasaccharide-FGF7 complexes. 7,8-S-OctaF7 also had the highest specific activity for formation of a complex with dimeric FGFR2IIIb competent to bind FGF7. Here we show that when endogenous HS was inhibited by chlorate treatment, 7,8-S-OctaF7 specifically supported FGF7-stimulated DNA synthesis and downstream signaling in FGFR2IIIb-expressing mouse keratinocytes. It failed to support FGF1 signaling in both HS-deficient mouse keratinocytes and 3T3 fibroblasts. In contrast, abundant, more highly sulfated and heterogenous mixtures of octasaccharides with lower affinity (0.30-0.60 M salt) for FGF7 supported FGF1-induced signaling in both cell types. In contrast to the two-component 7,8-S-OctaF7 mixture from FGF7, the high affinity octasaccharide fraction from FGF1 was a heterogeneous mixture with components ranging from 8 to 12 sulfates with 11-S-octasaccharides the most abundant. The high affinity fraction exhibited similar properties to the lower affinity fractions from both FGF1 and FGF7. Octasaccharide mixtures eluting from FGF1 between 0.30 and 0.60 M and above 0.60 M salt were nearly equal in support of FGF1 signaling in fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Both were deficient in support of FGF7-induced signaling in keratinocytes. The results show that both variations in overall charge density and specific distribution of charged groups within HS motifs exhibit FGF-specific control over formation of FGF-HS-FGFR complexes and downstream signaling.

  6. Diverse FGF receptor signaling controls astrocyte specification and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Kyungjun; Song, Mi-Ryoung

    2010-05-07

    During CNS development, pluripotency neuronal progenitor cells give rise in succession to neurons and glia. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a major signal that maintains neural progenitors in the undifferentiated state, is also thought to influence the transition from neurogenesis to gliogenesis. Here we present evidence that FGF receptors and underlying signaling pathways transmit the FGF-2 signals that regulate astrocyte specification aside from its mitogenic activity. Application of FGF-2 to cortical progenitors suppressed neurogenesis whereas treatment with an FGFR antagonist in vitro promoted neurogenesis. Introduction of chimeric FGFRs with mutated tyrosine residues into cortical progenitors and drug treatments to specifically block individual downstream signaling pathways revealed that the overall activity of FGFR rather than individual autophosphorylation sites is important for delivering signals for glial specification. In contrast, a signal for cell proliferation by FGFR was mainly delivered by MAPK pathway. Together our findings indicate that FGFR activity promotes astrocyte specification in the developing CNS.

  7. Systemic Control of Bone Homeostasis by FGF23 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Clinkenbeard, Erica L.; White, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of phosphate metabolism as an influence on bone homeostasis is profound. Recent advances in understanding the systemic control of Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) has uncovered novel effectors of endocrine feedback loops for calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D balance that interact with ‘traditional’ feedback loops for mineral metabolism. Not only are these findings re-shaping research studying phosphate handling and skeletal interactions, they have provided new therapeutic interventions. Emerging data support that the control of FGF23 production in bone and its circulating concentrations is a multi-layered process, with some influences affecting FGF23 transcription and some post-translational modification of the secreted, bioactive protein. Additionally, the actions of FGF23 on its target tissues via its co-receptor αKlotho, are subject to regulatory events just coming to light. The recent findings of systemic influences on circulating FGF23 and the downstream manifestations on bone homeostasis will be reviewed herein. PMID:27134818

  8. Evolution of the Role of RA and FGF Signals in the Control of Somitogenesis in Chordates.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Stéphanie; Aldea, Daniel; Oulion, Silvan; Subirana, Lucie; de Lera, Angel R; Somorjai, Ildiko; Escriva, Hector

    2015-01-01

    During vertebrate development, the paraxial mesoderm becomes segmented, forming somites that will give rise to dermis, axial skeleton and skeletal muscles. Although recently challenged, the "clock and wavefront" model for somitogenesis explains how interactions between several cell-cell communication pathways, including the FGF, RA, Wnt and Notch signals, control the formation of these bilateral symmetric blocks. In the cephalochordate amphioxus, which belongs to the chordate phylum together with tunicates and vertebrates, the dorsal paraxial mesendoderm also periodically forms somites, although this process is asymmetric and extends along the whole body. It has been previously shown that the formation of the most anterior somites in amphioxus is dependent upon FGF signalling. However, the signals controlling somitogenesis during posterior elongation in amphioxus are still unknown. Here we show that, contrary to vertebrates, RA and FGF signals act independently during posterior elongation and that they are not mandatory for posterior somites to form. Moreover, we show that RA is not able to buffer the left/right asymmetry machinery that is controlled through the asymmetric expression of Nodal pathway actors. Our results give new insights into the evolution of the somitogenesis process in chordates. They suggest that RA and FGF pathways have acquired specific functions in the control of somitogenesis in vertebrates. We propose that the "clock and wavefront" system was selected specifically in vertebrates in parallel to the development of more complex somite-derived structures but that it was not required for somitogenesis in the ancestor of chordates.

  9. Evolution of the Role of RA and FGF Signals in the Control of Somitogenesis in Chordates

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Stéphanie; Aldea, Daniel; Oulion, Silvan; Subirana, Lucie; de Lera, Angel R.; Somorjai, Ildiko; Escriva, Hector

    2015-01-01

    During vertebrate development, the paraxial mesoderm becomes segmented, forming somites that will give rise to dermis, axial skeleton and skeletal muscles. Although recently challenged, the "clock and wavefront" model for somitogenesis explains how interactions between several cell-cell communication pathways, including the FGF, RA, Wnt and Notch signals, control the formation of these bilateral symmetric blocks. In the cephalochordate amphioxus, which belongs to the chordate phylum together with tunicates and vertebrates, the dorsal paraxial mesendoderm also periodically forms somites, although this process is asymmetric and extends along the whole body. It has been previously shown that the formation of the most anterior somites in amphioxus is dependent upon FGF signalling. However, the signals controlling somitogenesis during posterior elongation in amphioxus are still unknown. Here we show that, contrary to vertebrates, RA and FGF signals act independently during posterior elongation and that they are not mandatory for posterior somites to form. Moreover, we show that RA is not able to buffer the left/right asymmetry machinery that is controlled through the asymmetric expression of Nodal pathway actors. Our results give new insights into the evolution of the somitogenesis process in chordates. They suggest that RA and FGF pathways have acquired specific functions in the control of somitogenesis in vertebrates. We propose that the "clock and wavefront" system was selected specifically in vertebrates in parallel to the development of more complex somite-derived structures but that it was not required for somitogenesis in the ancestor of chordates. PMID:26371756

  10. FGF signaling regulates Wnt ligand expression to control vulval cell lineage polarity in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Minor, Paul J.; He, Ting-Fang; Sohn, Chang Ho; Asthagiri, Anand R.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    The interpretation of extracellular cues leading to the polarization of intracellular components and asymmetric cell divisions is a fundamental part of metazoan organogenesis. The Caenorhabditis elegans vulva, with its invariant cell lineage and interaction of multiple cell signaling pathways, provides an excellent model for the study of cell polarity within an organized epithelial tissue. Here, we show that the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathway acts in concert with the Frizzled homolog LIN-17 to influence the localization of SYS-1, a component of the Wnt/β-catenin asymmetry pathway, indirectly through the regulation of cwn-1. The source of the FGF ligand is the primary vulval precursor cell (VPC) P6.p, which controls the orientation of the neighboring secondary VPC P7.p by signaling through the sex myoblasts (SMs), activating the FGF pathway. The Wnt CWN-1 is expressed in the posterior body wall muscle of the worm as well as in the SMs, making it the only Wnt expressed on the posterior and anterior sides of P7.p at the time of the polarity decision. Both sources of cwn-1 act instructively to influence P7.p polarity in the direction of the highest Wnt signal. Using single molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization, we show that the FGF pathway regulates the expression of cwn-1 in the SMs. These results demonstrate an interaction between FGF and Wnt in C. elegans development and vulval cell lineage polarity, and highlight the promiscuous nature of Wnts and the importance of Wnt gradient directionality within C. elegans. PMID:23946444

  11. FGF signaling regulates Wnt ligand expression to control vulval cell lineage polarity in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Minor, Paul J; He, Ting-Fang; Sohn, Chang Ho; Asthagiri, Anand R; Sternberg, Paul W

    2013-09-01

    The interpretation of extracellular cues leading to the polarization of intracellular components and asymmetric cell divisions is a fundamental part of metazoan organogenesis. The Caenorhabditis elegans vulva, with its invariant cell lineage and interaction of multiple cell signaling pathways, provides an excellent model for the study of cell polarity within an organized epithelial tissue. Here, we show that the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathway acts in concert with the Frizzled homolog LIN-17 to influence the localization of SYS-1, a component of the Wnt/β-catenin asymmetry pathway, indirectly through the regulation of cwn-1. The source of the FGF ligand is the primary vulval precursor cell (VPC) P6.p, which controls the orientation of the neighboring secondary VPC P7.p by signaling through the sex myoblasts (SMs), activating the FGF pathway. The Wnt CWN-1 is expressed in the posterior body wall muscle of the worm as well as in the SMs, making it the only Wnt expressed on the posterior and anterior sides of P7.p at the time of the polarity decision. Both sources of cwn-1 act instructively to influence P7.p polarity in the direction of the highest Wnt signal. Using single molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization, we show that the FGF pathway regulates the expression of cwn-1 in the SMs. These results demonstrate an interaction between FGF and Wnt in C. elegans development and vulval cell lineage polarity, and highlight the promiscuous nature of Wnts and the importance of Wnt gradient directionality within C. elegans.

  12. FGF signalling controls anterior extraembryonic and embryonic fate in the beetle Tribolium.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rahul; Beermann, Anke; Schröder, Reinhard

    2013-09-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling plays a key role in early embryonic development and cell migration in vertebrates and in invertebrates. To gain novel insights into FGF signalling in an arthropod, we characterized the fgf1b ortholog in the beetle Tribolium that is not represented in the Drosophila genome. We found that FGF1b dependent signalling organizes the anterior to posterior axis of the early embryo. The loss of Tc-fgf1b function in Tribolium by RNA interference resulted in the reduction of the anteriormost extraembryonic fate, in an anterior shift of embryonic fate and in the loss or malformation of anterior embryonic structures. Without intact extraembryonic membranes the serosa and the amnion, Tc-fgf1b(RNAi) embryos did not undergo morphogenetic movements and remained posteriorly localized throughout embryogenesis. Only weakly affected embryos developed into a cuticle that show dorsally curved bodies with head defects and a dorsal opening. Except for the posterior dorsal amnion, the overall topology of the dorsal-ventral axis seemed unaffected. Moreover, FGF signalling was not required for the onset of mesoderm formation but for fine-tuning this tissue during later development. We also show that in affected embryos the dorsal epidermis was expanded and expressed Tc-dpp at a higher level. We conclude that in the Tribolium blastoderm embryo, FGF1-signalling organizes patterning along the AP-axis and also balances the expression level of Dpp in the dorsal epidermis, a tissue critically involved in dorsal closure.

  13. Escargot controls the sequential specification of two tracheal tip cell types by suppressing FGF signaling in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Miao, Guangxia; Hayashi, Shigeo

    2016-11-15

    Extrinsic branching factors promote the elongation and migration of tubular organs. In the Drosophila tracheal system, Branchless (Drosophila FGF) stimulates the branching program by specifying tip cells that acquire motility and lead branch migration to a specific destination. Tip cells have two alternative cell fates: the terminal cell (TC), which produces long cytoplasmic extensions with intracellular lumen, and the fusion cell (FC), which mediates branch connections to form tubular networks. How Branchless controls this specification of cells with distinct shapes and behaviors is unknown. Here we report that this cell type diversification involves the modulation of FGF signaling by the zinc-finger protein Escargot (Esg), which is expressed in the FC and is essential for its specification. The dorsal branch begins elongation with a pair of tip cells with high FGF signaling. When the branch tip reaches its final destination, one of the tip cells becomes an FC and expresses Esg. FCs and TCs differ in their response to FGF: TCs are attracted by FGF, whereas FCs are repelled. Esg suppresses ERK signaling in FCs to control this differential migratory behavior.

  14. Escargot controls the sequential specification of two tracheal tip cell types by suppressing FGF signaling in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Guangxia

    2016-01-01

    Extrinsic branching factors promote the elongation and migration of tubular organs. In the Drosophila tracheal system, Branchless (Drosophila FGF) stimulates the branching program by specifying tip cells that acquire motility and lead branch migration to a specific destination. Tip cells have two alternative cell fates: the terminal cell (TC), which produces long cytoplasmic extensions with intracellular lumen, and the fusion cell (FC), which mediates branch connections to form tubular networks. How Branchless controls this specification of cells with distinct shapes and behaviors is unknown. Here we report that this cell type diversification involves the modulation of FGF signaling by the zinc-finger protein Escargot (Esg), which is expressed in the FC and is essential for its specification. The dorsal branch begins elongation with a pair of tip cells with high FGF signaling. When the branch tip reaches its final destination, one of the tip cells becomes an FC and expresses Esg. FCs and TCs differ in their response to FGF: TCs are attracted by FGF, whereas FCs are repelled. Esg suppresses ERK signaling in FCs to control this differential migratory behavior. PMID:27742749

  15. Regulation of self-renewing neural progenitors by FGF/ERK signaling controls formation of the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Dee, Alexander; Li, Kairong; Heng, Xin; Guo, Qiuxia; Li, James Y H

    2016-10-15

    The embryonic tectum displays an anteroposterior gradient in development and produces the superior colliculus and inferior colliculus. Studies suggest that partition of the tectum is controlled by different strengths and durations of FGF signals originated from the so-called isthmic organizer at the mid/hindbrain junction; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. We show that deleting Ptpn11, which links FGF with the ERK pathway, prevents inferior colliculus formation by depleting a previously uncharacterized stem cell zone. The stem-zone loss is attributed to shortening of S phase and acceleration of cell cycle exit and neurogenesis. Expression of a constitutively active Mek1 (Mek1(DD)), the known ERK activator, restores the tectal stem zone and the inferior colliculus without Ptpn11. By contrast, Mek1(DD) expression fails to rescue the tectal stem zone and the inferior colliculus in the absence of Fgf8 and the isthmic organizer, indicating that FGF and Mek1(DD) initiate qualitatively and/or quantitatively distinctive signaling. Together, our data show that the formation of the inferior colliculus relies on the provision of new cells from the tectal stem zone. Furthermore, distinctive ERK signaling mediates Fgf8 in the control of cell survival, tissue polarity and cytogenetic gradient during the development of the tectum.

  16. Opposing RA and FGF signals control proximodistal vertebrate limb development through regulation of Meis genes.

    PubMed

    Mercader, N; Leonardo, E; Piedra, M E; Martínez-A, C; Ros, M A; Torres, M

    2000-09-01

    Vertebrate limbs develop in a temporal proximodistal sequence, with proximal regions specified and generated earlier than distal ones. Whereas considerable information is available on the mechanisms promoting limb growth, those involved in determining the proximodistal identity of limb parts remain largely unknown. We show here that retinoic acid (RA) is an upstream activator of the proximal determinant genes Meis1 and Meis2. RA promotes proximalization of limb cells and endogenous RA signaling is required to maintain the proximal Meis domain in the limb. RA synthesis and signaling range, which initially span the entire lateral plate mesoderm, become restricted to proximal limb domains by the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) activity following limb initiation. We identify fibroblast growth factor (FGF) as the main molecule responsible for this AER activity and propose a model integrating the role of FGF in limb cell proliferation, with a specific function in promoting distalization through inhibition of RA production and signaling.

  17. FGF signaling regulates otic placode induction and refinement by controlling both ectodermal target genes and hindbrain Wnt8a

    PubMed Central

    Urness, Lisa D.; Paxton, Christian N.; Wang, Xiaofen; Schoenwolf, Gary C.; Mansour, Suzanne L.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The inner ear epithelium, with its complex array of sensory, non-sensory, and neuronal cell types necessary for hearing and balance, is derived from a thickened patch of head ectoderm called the otic placode. Mouse embryos lacking both Fgf3 and Fgf10 fail to initiate inner ear development because appropriate patterns of gene expression fail to be specified within the pre-otic field. To understand the transcriptional “blueprint” initiating inner ear development, we used microarray analysis to identify prospective placode genes that were differentially expressed in control and Fgf3-/-;Fgf10-/- embryos. Several genes in the down-regulated class, including Hmx3, Hmx2, Foxg1, Sox9, Has2, and Slc26a9 were validated by in situ hybridization. We also assayed candidate target genes suggested by other studies of otic induction. Two placode markers, Fgf4 and Foxi3, were down-regulated in Fgf3-/-;Fgf10-/- embryos, whereas Foxi2, a cranial epidermis marker, was expanded in double mutants, similar to its behavior when WNT responses are blocked in the otic placode. Assays of hindbrain Wnt genes revealed that only Wnt8a was reduced or absent in FGF-deficient embryos, and that even some Fgf3-/-;Fgf10-/+ and Fgf3-/- embryos failed to express Wnt8a, suggesting a key role for Fgf3, and a secondary role for Fgf10, in Wnt8a expression. Chick explant assays showed that FGF3 or FGF4, but not FGF10, were sufficient to induce Wnt8a. Collectively, our results suggest that Wnt8a provides the link between FGF-induced formation of the pre-otic field and restriction of the otic placode to ectoderm adjacent to the hindbrain. PMID:20171206

  18. Concerted control of gliogenesis by InR/TOR and FGF signalling in the Drosophila post-embryonic brain

    PubMed Central

    Avet-Rochex, Amélie; Kaul, Aamna K.; Gatt, Ariana P.; McNeill, Helen; Bateman, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Glial cells are essential for the development and function of the nervous system. In the mammalian brain, vast numbers of glia of several different functional types are generated during late embryonic and early foetal development. However, the molecular cues that instruct gliogenesis and determine glial cell type are poorly understood. During post-embryonic development, the number of glia in the Drosophila larval brain increases dramatically, potentially providing a powerful model for understanding gliogenesis. Using glial-specific clonal analysis we find that perineural glia and cortex glia proliferate extensively through symmetric cell division in the post-embryonic brain. Using pan-glial inhibition and loss-of-function clonal analysis we find that Insulin-like receptor (InR)/Target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling is required for the proliferation of perineural glia. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling is also required for perineural glia proliferation and acts synergistically with the InR/TOR pathway. Cortex glia require InR in part, but not downstream components of the TOR pathway, for proliferation. Moreover, cortex glia absolutely require FGF signalling, such that inhibition of the FGF pathway almost completely blocks the generation of cortex glia. Neuronal expression of the FGF receptor ligand Pyramus is also required for the generation of cortex glia, suggesting a mechanism whereby neuronal FGF expression coordinates neurogenesis and cortex gliogenesis. In summary, we have identified two major pathways that control perineural and cortex gliogenesis in the post-embryonic brain and have shown that the molecular circuitry required is lineage specific. PMID:22745312

  19. FGF21 is an endocrine signal of protein restriction.

    PubMed

    Laeger, Thomas; Henagan, Tara M; Albarado, Diana C; Redman, Leanne M; Bray, George A; Noland, Robert C; Münzberg, Heike; Hutson, Susan M; Gettys, Thomas W; Schwartz, Michael W; Morrison, Christopher D

    2014-09-01

    Enhanced fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) production and circulation has been linked to the metabolic adaptation to starvation. Here, we demonstrated that hepatic FGF21 expression is induced by dietary protein restriction, but not energy restriction. Circulating FGF21 was increased 10-fold in mice and rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet. In these animals, liver Fgf21 expression was increased within 24 hours of reduced protein intake. In humans, circulating FGF21 levels increased dramatically following 28 days on a LP diet. LP-induced increases in FGF21 were associated with increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) in the liver, and both baseline and LP-induced serum FGF21 levels were reduced in mice lacking the eIF2α kinase general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2). Finally, while protein restriction altered food intake, energy expenditure, and body weight gain in WT mice, FGF21-deficient animals did not exhibit these changes in response to a LP diet. These and other data demonstrate that reduced protein intake underlies the increase in circulating FGF21 in response to starvation and a ketogenic diet and that FGF21 is required for behavioral and metabolic responses to protein restriction. FGF21 therefore represents an endocrine signal of protein restriction, which acts to coordinate metabolism and growth during periods of reduced protein intake.

  20. Ectodermal Wnt Controls Nasal Pit Morphogenesis Through Modulation of the BMP/FGF/JNK Signaling Axis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Jing; Liu, Yudong; Yuan, Xueyan; Wang, Min; Zhao, Wanxin; Yang, Xueqin; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Hsu, Wei; Qiu, Mengsheng; Zhang, Ze; Zhang, Zunyi

    2016-01-01

    Background Mutations of WNT3, WNT5A, WNT9B, and WNT11 genes are associated with orofacial birth defects, including non-syndromic cleft lip with cleft palate in humans. However, the source of Wnt ligands and their signaling effects on the orofacial morphogenetic process remain elusive. Results Using Foxg1-Cre to impair Wnt secretion through the inactivation of Gpr177/mWls, we investigate the relevant regulation of Wnt production and signaling in nasal–facial development. Ectodermal ablation of Gpr177 leads to severe facial deformities resulting from dramatically reduced cell proliferation and increased cell death due to a combined loss of WNT, FGF and BMP signaling in the developing facial prominence. In the invaginating nasal pit, the Gpr177 disruption also causes a detrimental effect on migration of the olfactory epithelial cells into the mesenchymal region. The blockage of Wnt secretion apparently impairs the olfactory epithelial cells through modulation of JNK signaling. Conclusions Our study thus suggests the head ectoderm, including the facial ectoderm and the neuroectoderm, as the source of canonical as well as noncanonical Wnt ligands during early development of the nasal–facial prominence. Both β-catenin–dependent and –independent signaling pathways are required for proper development of these morphogenetic processes. PMID:26661618

  1. FGF/MAPK signaling sets the switching threshold of a bistable circuit controlling cell fate decisions in embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Schröter, Christian; Rué, Pau; Mackenzie, Jonathan Peter; Martinez Arias, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular transcriptional regulators and extracellular signaling pathways together regulate the allocation of cell fates during development, but how their molecular activities are integrated to establish the correct proportions of cells with particular fates is not known. Here we study this question in the context of the decision between the epiblast (Epi) and the primitive endoderm (PrE) fate that occurs in the mammalian preimplantation embryo. Using an embryonic stem cell (ESC) model, we discover two successive functions of FGF/MAPK signaling in this decision. First, the pathway needs to be inhibited to make the PrE-like gene expression program accessible for activation by GATA transcription factors in ESCs. In a second step, MAPK signaling levels determine the threshold concentration of GATA factors required for PrE-like differentiation, and thereby control the proportion of cells differentiating along this lineage. Our findings can be explained by a simple mutual repression circuit modulated by FGF/MAPK signaling. This might be a general network architecture to integrate the activity of signal transduction pathways and transcriptional regulators, and serve to balance proportions of cell fates in several contexts. PMID:26511924

  2. Temporally controlled modulation of FGF/ERK signaling directs midbrain dopaminergic neural progenitor fate in mouse and human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Ines; Arber, Charles; Risner-Janiczek, Jessica R; Kuechler, Judit; Pritzsche, Diana; Chen, I-Cheng; Naveenan, Thulasi; Ungless, Mark A; Li, Meng

    2011-10-01

    Effective induction of midbrain-specific dopamine (mDA) neurons from stem cells is fundamental for realizing their potential in biomedical applications relevant to Parkinson's disease. During early development, the Otx2-positive neural tissues are patterned anterior-posteriorly to form the forebrain and midbrain under the influence of extracellular signaling such as FGF and Wnt. In the mesencephalon, sonic hedgehog (Shh) specifies a ventral progenitor fate in the floor plate region that later gives rise to mDA neurons. In this study, we systematically investigated the temporal actions of FGF signaling in mDA neuron fate specification of mouse and human pluripotent stem cells and mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. We show that a brief blockade of FGF signaling on exit of the lineage-primed epiblast pluripotent state initiates an early induction of Lmx1a and Foxa2 in nascent neural progenitors. In addition to inducing ventral midbrain characteristics, the FGF signaling blockade during neural induction also directs a midbrain fate in the anterior-posterior axis by suppressing caudalization as well as forebrain induction, leading to the maintenance of midbrain Otx2. Following a period of endogenous FGF signaling, subsequent enhancement of FGF signaling by Fgf8, in combination with Shh, promotes mDA neurogenesis and restricts alternative fates. Thus, a stepwise control of FGF signaling during distinct stages of stem cell neural fate conversion is crucial for reliable and highly efficient production of functional, authentic midbrain-specific dopaminergic neurons. Importantly, we provide evidence that this novel, small-molecule-based strategy applies to both mouse and human pluripotent stem cells.

  3. Temporally controlled modulation of FGF/ERK signaling directs midbrain dopaminergic neural progenitor fate in mouse and human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Ines; Arber, Charles; Risner-Janiczek, Jessica R.; Kuechler, Judit; Pritzsche, Diana; Chen, I-Cheng; Naveenan, Thulasi; Ungless, Mark A.; Li, Meng

    2011-01-01

    Effective induction of midbrain-specific dopamine (mDA) neurons from stem cells is fundamental for realizing their potential in biomedical applications relevant to Parkinson’s disease. During early development, the Otx2-positive neural tissues are patterned anterior-posteriorly to form the forebrain and midbrain under the influence of extracellular signaling such as FGF and Wnt. In the mesencephalon, sonic hedgehog (Shh) specifies a ventral progenitor fate in the floor plate region that later gives rise to mDA neurons. In this study, we systematically investigated the temporal actions of FGF signaling in mDA neuron fate specification of mouse and human pluripotent stem cells and mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. We show that a brief blockade of FGF signaling on exit of the lineage-primed epiblast pluripotent state initiates an early induction of Lmx1a and Foxa2 in nascent neural progenitors. In addition to inducing ventral midbrain characteristics, the FGF signaling blockade during neural induction also directs a midbrain fate in the anterior-posterior axis by suppressing caudalization as well as forebrain induction, leading to the maintenance of midbrain Otx2. Following a period of endogenous FGF signaling, subsequent enhancement of FGF signaling by Fgf8, in combination with Shh, promotes mDA neurogenesis and restricts alternative fates. Thus, a stepwise control of FGF signaling during distinct stages of stem cell neural fate conversion is crucial for reliable and highly efficient production of functional, authentic midbrain-specific dopaminergic neurons. Importantly, we provide evidence that this novel, small-molecule-based strategy applies to both mouse and human pluripotent stem cells. PMID:21880784

  4. Cell type-specific control of protein synthesis and proliferation by FGF-dependent signaling to the translation repressor 4E-BP.

    PubMed

    Ruoff, Rachel; Katsara, Olga; Kolupaeva, Victoria

    2016-07-05

    Regulation of protein synthesis plays a vital role in posttranscriptional modulation of gene expression. Translational control most commonly targets the initiation of protein synthesis: loading 40S ribosome complexes onto mRNA and AUG start codon recognition. This step is initiated by eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) (the m7GTP cap-binding protein), whose binding to eIF4G (a scaffolding subunit) and eIF4A (an ATP-dependent RNA helicase) leads to assembly of active eIF4F complex. The ability of eIF4E to recognize the cap is prevented by its binding to eIF4E binding protein (4E-BP), which thereby inhibits cap-dependent translation by sequestering eIF4E. The 4E-BP activity is, in turn, inhibited by mTORC1 [mTOR (the mechanistic target of rapamycin) complex 1] mediated phosphorylation. Here, we define a previously unidentified mechanism of mTOR-independent 4E-BP1 regulation that is used by chondrocytes upon FGF signaling. Chondrocytes are responsible for the formation of the skeleton long bones. Unlike the majority of cell types where FGF signaling triggers proliferation, chondrocytes respond to FGF with inhibition. We establish that FGF specifically suppresses protein synthesis in chondrocytes, but not in any other cells of mesenchymal origin. Furthermore, 4E-BP1 repressor activity is necessary not only for suppression of protein synthesis, but also for FGF-induced cell-cycle arrest. Importantly, FGF-induced changes in the 4E-BP1 activity observed in cell culture are likewise detected in vivo and reflect the action of FGF signaling on downstream targets during bone development. Thus, our findings demonstrate that FGF signaling differentially impacts protein synthesis through either stimulation or repression, in a cell-type-dependent manner, with 4E-BP1 being a key player.

  5. Dysregulated FGF signalling in neoplastic disorders.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Yasmine; Grose, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling pathway contributes to the regulation of a multitude of cellular functions, impacting on proliferation, survival, differentiation and migration. This biological importance is reflected by its prominent role in carcinogenesis; often being hijacked by cancer cells to offer growth or survival advantage. FGF signalling can contribute a driving force in the malignancy of different cancer types; through alterations in ligands, receptors or regulatory molecules. The dramatic advances in genomics technologies have highlighted how mutation, amplification, translocation or loss of elements in the FGF signalling network can contribute to cancer. Added to this are the stromal influences of FGF signalling. Dissection of the mechanisms that underlie the pro-tumourigenic effects resulting from perturbations to the FGF signalling network will be of utmost importance to the development of therapeutic approaches to treat FGF receptor (FGFR)-driven cancers. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of FGF deregulation, the prevalence of aberrations in different cancer types, and how we are progressing in the development of targeted therapies.

  6. Roles of FGF Signals in Heart Development, Health, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Hiroya; Nakayama, Yoshiaki; Konishi, Morichika

    2016-01-01

    The heart provides the body with oxygen and nutrients and assists in the removal of metabolic waste through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. It is the first organ to form during embryonic morphogenesis. FGFs with diverse functions in development, health, and disease are signaling proteins, mostly as paracrine growth factors or endocrine hormones. The human/mouse FGF family comprises 22 members. Findings obtained from mouse models and human diseases with FGF signaling disorders have indicated that several FGFs are involved in heart development, health, and disease. Paracrine FGFs including FGF8, FGF9, FGF10, and FGF16 act as paracrine signals in embryonic heart development. In addition, paracrine FGFs including FGF2, FGF9, FGF10, and FGF16 play roles as paracrine signals in postnatal heart pathophysiology. Although FGF15/19, FGF21, and FGF23 are typical endocrine FGFs, they mainly function as paracrine signals in heart development or pathophysiology. In heart diseases, serum FGF15/19 levels or FGF21 and FGF23 levels decrease or increase, respectively, indicating their possible roles in heart pathophysiology. FGF2 and FGF10 also stimulate the cardiac differentiation of cultured stem cells and cardiac reprogramming of cultured fibroblasts. These findings provide new insights into the roles of FGF signaling in the heart and potential therapeutic strategies for cardiac disorders. PMID:27803896

  7. Ras-dva1 small GTPase regulates telencephalon development in Xenopus laevis embryos by controlling Fgf8 and Agr signaling at the anterior border of the neural plate.

    PubMed

    Tereshina, Maria B; Ermakova, Galina V; Ivanova, Anastasiya S; Zaraisky, Andrey G

    2014-03-15

    We previously found that the small GTPase Ras-dva1 is essential for the telencephalic development in Xenopus laevis because Ras-dva1 controls the Fgf8-mediated induction of FoxG1 expression, a key telencephalic regulator. In this report, we show, however, that Ras-dva1 and FoxG1 are expressed in different groups of cells; whereas Ras-dva1 is expressed in the outer layer of the anterior neural fold, FoxG1 and Fgf8 are activated in the inner layer from which the telencephalon is derived. We resolve this paradox by demonstrating that Ras-dva1 is involved in the transduction of Fgf8 signal received by cells in the outer layer, which in turn send a feedback signal that stimulates FoxG1 expression in the inner layer. We show that this feedback signal is transmitted by secreted Agr proteins, the expression of which is activated in the outer layer by mediation of Ras-dva1 and the homeodomain transcription factor Otx2. In turn, Agrs are essential for maintaining Fgf8 and FoxG1 expression in cells at the anterior neural plate border. Our finding reveals a novel feedback loop mechanism based on the exchange of Fgf8 and Agr signaling between neural and non-neural compartments at the anterior margin of the neural plate and demonstrates a key role of Ras-dva1 in this mechanism.

  8. Pea3 expression is regulated by FGF signaling in developing retina

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Kathryn Leigh; McGuire, Chris; Reh, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    FGF signaling has been implicated as an important regulator of retinal development. As a first step in characterizing potential downstream targets of FGF signaling in the retina, we have analyzed expression of Pea3, a member of the Pea3 class of Ets-domain transcription factors, in the developing eye. We find that Pea3 is expressed in the developing retina, and its transcription is regulated by FGF receptor activation. In addition, FGF signaling activates Cath5, a gene necessary for retinal ganglion cell differentiation. These results suggest that FGF signaling via MAPK up-regulates transcription factors that in turn control retinal ganglion cell differentiation. PMID:16273524

  9. Cell type-specific control of protein synthesis and proliferation by FGF-dependent signaling to the translation repressor 4E-BP

    PubMed Central

    Ruoff, Rachel; Katsara, Olga; Kolupaeva, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of protein synthesis plays a vital role in posttranscriptional modulation of gene expression. Translational control most commonly targets the initiation of protein synthesis: loading 40S ribosome complexes onto mRNA and AUG start codon recognition. This step is initiated by eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) (the m7GTP cap-binding protein), whose binding to eIF4G (a scaffolding subunit) and eIF4A (an ATP-dependent RNA helicase) leads to assembly of active eIF4F complex. The ability of eIF4E to recognize the cap is prevented by its binding to eIF4E binding protein (4E-BP), which thereby inhibits cap-dependent translation by sequestering eIF4E. The 4E-BP activity is, in turn, inhibited by mTORC1 [mTOR (the mechanistic target of rapamycin) complex 1] mediated phosphorylation. Here, we define a previously unidentified mechanism of mTOR-independent 4E-BP1 regulation that is used by chondrocytes upon FGF signaling. Chondrocytes are responsible for the formation of the skeleton long bones. Unlike the majority of cell types where FGF signaling triggers proliferation, chondrocytes respond to FGF with inhibition. We establish that FGF specifically suppresses protein synthesis in chondrocytes, but not in any other cells of mesenchymal origin. Furthermore, 4E-BP1 repressor activity is necessary not only for suppression of protein synthesis, but also for FGF-induced cell-cycle arrest. Importantly, FGF-induced changes in the 4E-BP1 activity observed in cell culture are likewise detected in vivo and reflect the action of FGF signaling on downstream targets during bone development. Thus, our findings demonstrate that FGF signaling differentially impacts protein synthesis through either stimulation or repression, in a cell-type–dependent manner, with 4E-BP1 being a key player. PMID:27313212

  10. A TGFβ-Smad4-Fgf6 signaling cascade controls myogenic differentiation and myoblast fusion during tongue development

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dong; Zhao, Hu; Parada, Carolina; Hacia, Joseph G.; Bringas, Pablo; Chai, Yang

    2012-01-01

    The tongue is a muscular organ and plays a crucial role in speech, deglutition and taste. Despite the important physiological functions of the tongue, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of tongue muscle development. TGFβ family members play important roles in regulating myogenesis, but the functional significance of Smad-dependent TGFβ signaling in regulating tongue skeletal muscle development remains unclear. In this study, we have investigated Smad4-mediated TGFβ signaling in the development of occipital somite-derived myogenic progenitors during tongue morphogenesis through tissue-specific inactivation of Smad4 (using Myf5-Cre;Smad4flox/flox mice). During the initiation of tongue development, cranial neural crest (CNC) cells occupy the tongue buds before myogenic progenitors migrate into the tongue primordium, suggesting that CNC cells play an instructive role in guiding tongue muscle development. Moreover, ablation of Smad4 results in defects in myogenic terminal differentiation and myoblast fusion. Despite compromised muscle differentiation, tendon formation appears unaffected in the tongue of Myf5-Cre;Smad4flox/flox mice, suggesting that the differentiation and maintenance of CNC-derived tendon cells are independent of Smad4-mediated signaling in myogenic cells in the tongue. Furthermore, loss of Smad4 results in a significant reduction in expression of several members of the FGF family, including Fgf6 and Fgfr4. Exogenous Fgf6 partially rescues the tongue myoblast fusion defect of Myf5-Cre;Smad4flox/flox mice. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a TGFβ-Smad4-Fgf6 signaling cascade plays a crucial role in myogenic cell fate determination and lineage progression during tongue myogenesis. PMID:22438570

  11. FGF signalling regulates bone growth through autophagy.

    PubMed

    Cinque, Laura; Forrester, Alison; Bartolomeo, Rosa; Svelto, Maria; Venditti, Rossella; Montefusco, Sandro; Polishchuk, Elena; Nusco, Edoardo; Rossi, Antonio; Medina, Diego L; Polishchuk, Roman; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta; Settembre, Carmine

    2015-12-10

    Skeletal growth relies on both biosynthetic and catabolic processes. While the role of the former is clearly established, how the latter contributes to growth-promoting pathways is less understood. Macroautophagy, hereafter referred to as autophagy, is a catabolic process that plays a fundamental part in tissue homeostasis. We investigated the role of autophagy during bone growth, which is mediated by chondrocyte rate of proliferation, hypertrophic differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in growth plates. Here we show that autophagy is induced in growth-plate chondrocytes during post-natal development and regulates the secretion of type II collagen (Col2), the major component of cartilage ECM. Mice lacking the autophagy related gene 7 (Atg7) in chondrocytes experience endoplasmic reticulum storage of type II procollagen (PC2) and defective formation of the Col2 fibrillary network in the ECM. Surprisingly, post-natal induction of chondrocyte autophagy is mediated by the growth factor FGF18 through FGFR4 and JNK-dependent activation of the autophagy initiation complex VPS34-beclin-1. Autophagy is completely suppressed in growth plates from Fgf18(-/-) embryos, while Fgf18(+/-) heterozygous and Fgfr4(-/-) mice fail to induce autophagy during post-natal development and show decreased Col2 levels in the growth plate. Strikingly, the Fgf18(+/-) and Fgfr4(-/-) phenotypes can be rescued in vivo by pharmacological activation of autophagy, pointing to autophagy as a novel effector of FGF signalling in bone. These data demonstrate that autophagy is a developmentally regulated process necessary for bone growth, and identify FGF signalling as a crucial regulator of autophagy in chondrocytes.

  12. Impaired FGF signaling contributes to cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Riley, Bridget M; Mansilla, M Adela; Ma, Jinghong; Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Maher, Brion S; Raffensperger, Lisa M; Russo, Erilynn T; Vieira, Alexandre R; Dodé, Catherine; Mohammadi, Moosa; Marazita, Mary L; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2007-03-13

    Nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (NS CLP) is a complex birth defect resulting from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Several members of the FGF and FGFR families are expressed during craniofacial development and can rarely harbor mutations that result in human clefting syndromes. We hypothesized that disruptions in this pathway might also contribute to NS CLP. We sequenced the coding regions and performed association testing on 12 genes (FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, FGF2, FGF3, FGF4, FGF7, FGF8, FGF9, FGF10, FGF18, and NUDT6) and used protein structure analyses to predict the function of amino acid variants. Seven likely disease-causing mutations were identified, including: one nonsense mutation (R609X) in FGFR1, a de novo missense mutation (D73H) in FGF8, and other missense variants in FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR3. Structural analysis of FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGF8 variants suggests that these mutations would impair the function of the proteins, albeit through different mechanisms. Genotyping of SNPs in the genes found associations between NS CLP and SNPs in FGF3, FGF7, FGF10, FGF18, and FGFR1. The data suggest that the FGF signaling pathway may contribute to as much as 3-5% of NS CLP and will be a consideration in the clinical management of CLP.

  13. Impaired FGF signaling contributes to cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Bridget M.; Mansilla, M. Adela; Ma, Jinghong; Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Maher, Brion S.; Raffensperger, Lisa M.; Russo, Erilynn T.; Vieira, Alexandre R.; Dodé, Catherine; Mohammadi, Moosa; Marazita, Mary L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2007-01-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (NS CLP) is a complex birth defect resulting from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Several members of the FGF and FGFR families are expressed during craniofacial development and can rarely harbor mutations that result in human clefting syndromes. We hypothesized that disruptions in this pathway might also contribute to NS CLP. We sequenced the coding regions and performed association testing on 12 genes (FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, FGF2, FGF3, FGF4, FGF7, FGF8, FGF9, FGF10, FGF18, and NUDT6) and used protein structure analyses to predict the function of amino acid variants. Seven likely disease-causing mutations were identified, including: one nonsense mutation (R609X) in FGFR1, a de novo missense mutation (D73H) in FGF8, and other missense variants in FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR3. Structural analysis of FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGF8 variants suggests that these mutations would impair the function of the proteins, albeit through different mechanisms. Genotyping of SNPs in the genes found associations between NS CLP and SNPs in FGF3, FGF7, FGF10, FGF18, and FGFR1. The data suggest that the FGF signaling pathway may contribute to as much as 3–5% of NS CLP and will be a consideration in the clinical management of CLP. PMID:17360555

  14. Up-regulation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 9 expression and FGF-WNT/β-catenin signaling in laser-induced wound healing.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhenlong; Kang, Hye-Young; Lee, Sunha; Kang, Shin-Wook; Goo, Boncheol; Cho, Sung Bin

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 9 is secreted by both mesothelial and epithelial cells, and plays important roles in organ development and wound healing via WNT/β-catenin signaling. The aim of this study was to evaluate FGF9 expression and FGF-WNT/β-catenin signaling during wound healing of the skin. We investigated FGF9 expression and FGF-WNT/β-catenin signaling after laser ablation of mouse skin and adult human skin, as well as in cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) upon stimulation with recombinant human (rh) FGF9 and rh-transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Our results showed that laser ablation of both mouse skin and human skin leads to marked overexpression of FGF9 and FGF9 mRNA. Control NHEKs constitutively expressed FGF9, WNT7b, WNT2, and β-catenin, but did not show Snail or FGF receptor (FGFR) 2 expression. We also found that FGFR2 was significantly induced in NHEKs by rhFGF9 stimulation, and observed that FGFR2 expression was slightly up-regulated on particular days during the wound healing process after ablative laser therapy. Both WNT7b and WNT2 showed up-regulated protein expression during the laser-induced wound healing process in mouse skin; moreover, we discerned that the stimulatory effect of rhFGF9 and rhTGF-β1 activates WNT/β-catenin signaling via WNT7b in cultured NHEKs. Our data indicated that rhFGF9 and/or rhTGF-β1 up-regulate FGFR2, WNT7b, and β-catenin, but not FGF9 and Snail; pretreatment with rh dickkopf-1 significantly inhibited the up-regulation of FGFR2, WNT7b, and β-catenin. Our results suggested that FGF9 and FGF-WNT/β-catenin signaling may play important roles in ablative laser-induced wound healing processes.

  15. Genetic insights into the mechanisms of Fgf signaling.

    PubMed

    Brewer, J Richard; Mazot, Pierre; Soriano, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) family of ligands and receptor tyrosine kinases is required throughout embryonic and postnatal development and also regulates multiple homeostatic functions in the adult. Aberrant Fgf signaling causes many congenital disorders and underlies multiple forms of cancer. Understanding the mechanisms that govern Fgf signaling is therefore important to appreciate many aspects of Fgf biology and disease. Here we review the mechanisms of Fgf signaling by focusing on genetic strategies that enable in vivo analysis. These studies support an important role for Erk1/2 as a mediator of Fgf signaling in many biological processes but have also provided strong evidence for additional signaling pathways in transmitting Fgf signaling in vivo.

  16. Genetic insights into the mechanisms of Fgf signaling

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, J. Richard; Mazot, Pierre; Soriano, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) family of ligands and receptor tyrosine kinases is required throughout embryonic and postnatal development and also regulates multiple homeostatic functions in the adult. Aberrant Fgf signaling causes many congenital disorders and underlies multiple forms of cancer. Understanding the mechanisms that govern Fgf signaling is therefore important to appreciate many aspects of Fgf biology and disease. Here we review the mechanisms of Fgf signaling by focusing on genetic strategies that enable in vivo analysis. These studies support an important role for Erk1/2 as a mediator of Fgf signaling in many biological processes but have also provided strong evidence for additional signaling pathways in transmitting Fgf signaling in vivo. PMID:27036966

  17. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in development and skeletal diseases.

    PubMed

    Teven, Chad M; Farina, Evan M; Rivas, Jane; Reid, Russell R

    2014-12-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and their receptors serve many functions in both the developing and adult organism. Humans contain 18 FGF ligands and four FGF receptors (FGFR). FGF ligands are polypeptide growth factors that regulate several developmental processes including cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration, morphogenesis, and patterning. FGF-FGFR signaling is also critical to the developing axial and craniofacial skeleton. In particular, the signaling cascade has been implicated in intramembranous ossification of cranial bones as well as cranial suture homeostasis. In the adult, FGFs and FGFRs are crucial for tissue repair. FGF signaling generally follows one of three transduction pathways: RAS/MAP kinase, PI3/AKT, or PLCγ. Each pathway likely regulates specific cellular behaviors. Inappropriate expression of FGF and improper activation of FGFRs are associated with various pathologic conditions, unregulated cell growth, and tumorigenesis. Additionally, aberrant signaling has been implicated in many skeletal abnormalities including achondroplasia and craniosynostosis. The biology and mechanisms of the FGF family have been the subject of significant research over the past 30 years. Recently, work has focused on the therapeutic targeting and potential of FGF ligands and their associated receptors. The majority of FGF-related therapy is aimed at age-related disorders. Increased understanding of FGF signaling and biology may reveal additional therapeutic roles, both in utero and postnatally. This review discusses the role of FGF signaling in general physiologic and pathologic embryogenesis and further explores it within the context of skeletal development.

  18. FGF signaling induces mesoderm in the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii.

    PubMed

    Green, Stephen A; Norris, Rachael P; Terasaki, Mark; Lowe, Christopher J

    2013-03-01

    FGFs act in vertebrate mesoderm induction and also play key roles in early mesoderm formation in ascidians and amphioxus. However, in sea urchins initial characterizations of FGF function do not support a role in early mesoderm induction, making the ancestral roles of FGF signaling and mechanisms of mesoderm specification in deuterostomes unclear. In order to better characterize the evolution of mesoderm formation, we have examined the role of FGF signaling during mesoderm development in Saccoglossus kowalevskii, an experimentally tractable representative of hemichordates. We report the expression of an FGF ligand, fgf8/17/18, in ectoderm overlying sites of mesoderm specification within the archenteron endomesoderm. Embryological experiments demonstrate that mesoderm induction in the archenteron requires contact with ectoderm, and loss-of-function experiments indicate that both FGF ligand and receptor are necessary for mesoderm specification. fgf8/17/18 gain-of-function experiments establish that FGF8/17/18 is sufficient to induce mesoderm in adjacent endomesoderm. These experiments suggest that FGF signaling is necessary from the earliest stages of mesoderm specification and is required for all mesoderm development. Furthermore, they suggest that the archenteron is competent to form mesoderm or endoderm, and that FGF signaling from the ectoderm defines the location and amount of mesoderm. When considered in a comparative context, these data support a phylogenetically broad requirement for FGF8/17/18 signaling in mesoderm specification and suggest that FGF signaling played an ancestral role in deuterostome mesoderm formation.

  19. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in development and skeletal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Teven, Chad M.; Farina, Evan M.; Rivas, Jane; Reid, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and their receptors serve many functions in both the developing and adult organism. Humans contain 18 FGF ligands and four FGF receptors (FGFR). FGF ligands are polypeptide growth factors that regulate several developmental processes including cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration, morphogenesis, and patterning. FGF-FGFR signaling is also critical to the developing axial and craniofacial skeleton. In particular, the signaling cascade has been implicated in intramembranous ossification of cranial bones as well as cranial suture homeostasis. In the adult, FGFs and FGFRs are crucial for tissue repair. FGF signaling generally follows one of three transduction pathways: RAS/MAP kinase, PI3/AKT, or PLCγ. Each pathway likely regulates specific cellular behaviors. Inappropriate expression of FGF and improper activation of FGFRs are associated with various pathologic conditions, unregulated cell growth, and tumorigenesis. Additionally, aberrant signaling has been implicated in many skeletal abnormalities including achondroplasia and craniosynostosis. The biology and mechanisms of the FGF family have been the subject of significant research over the past 30 years. Recently, work has focused on the therapeutic targeting and potential of FGF ligands and their associated receptors. The majority of FGF-related therapy is aimed at age-related disorders. Increased understanding of FGF signaling and biology may reveal additional therapeutic roles, both in utero and postnatally. This review discusses the role of FGF signaling in general physiologic and pathologic embryogenesis and further explores it within the context of skeletal development. PMID:25679016

  20. Amphioxus FGF signaling predicts the acquisition of vertebrate morphological traits

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Stephanie; Camasses, Alain; Somorjai, Ildiko; Belgacem, Mohamed R.; Chabrol, Olivier; Escande, Marie-Line; Pontarotti, Pierre; Escriva, Hector

    2011-01-01

    FGF signaling is one of the few cell–cell signaling pathways conserved among all metazoans. The diversity of FGF gene content among different phyla suggests that evolution of FGF signaling may have participated in generating the current variety of animal forms. Vertebrates possess the greatest number of FGF genes, the functional evolution of which may have been implicated in the acquisition of vertebrate-specific morphological traits. In this study, we have investigated the roles of the FGF signal during embryogenesis of the cephalochordate amphioxus, the best proxy for the chordate ancestor. We first isolate the full FGF gene complement and determine the evolutionary relationships between amphioxus and vertebrate FGFs via phylogenetic and synteny conservation analysis. Using pharmacological treatments, we inhibit the FGF signaling pathway in amphioxus embryos in different time windows. Our results show that the requirement for FGF signaling during gastrulation is a conserved character among chordates, whereas this signal is not necessary for neural induction in amphioxus, in contrast to what is known in vertebrates. We also show that FGF signal, acting through the MAPK pathway, is necessary for the formation of the most anterior somites in amphioxus, whereas more posterior somite formation is not FGF-dependent. This result leads us to propose that modification of the FGF signal function in the anterior paraxial mesoderm in an amphioxus-like vertebrate ancestor might have contributed to the loss of segmentation in the preotic paraxial mesoderm of the vertebrate head. PMID:21571634

  1. FGF signaling repertoire of the indirect developing hemichordate Ptychodera flava.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tzu-Pei; Su, Yi-Hsien

    2015-12-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a group of ligands that play multiple roles during development by transducing signals through FGF receptors (FGFRs) to downstream factors. At least 22 FGF ligands and 4 receptors have been identified in vertebrates, while six to eight FGF ligands and a single FGFR are present in invertebrate chordates, such as tunicates and amphioxus. The chordate FGFs can be categorized into at least seven subfamilies, and the members of which expanded during the evolution of early vertebrates. In contrast, only one FGF and two FGFRs have been found in sea urchins. Thus, it is unclear whether the FGF subfamilies duplicated in the lineage leading to the chordates, or sea urchins lost several fgf genes. Analyses of the FGF signaling repertoire in hemichordates, which together with echinoderms form the closest group to the chordates, may provide insights into the evolution of FGF signaling in deuterostomes. In this study, we identified five FGFs and three FGFRs from Ptychodera flava, an indirect-developing hemichordate acorn worm. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that hemichordates possess a conserved FGF8/17/18 in addition to several putative hemichordate-specific FGFs. Analyses of sequence similarity and protein domain organizations suggested that the sea urchin and hemichordate FGFRs arose from independent lineage-specific duplications. Furthermore, the acorn worm fgf and fgfr genes were demonstrated to be expressed during P. flava embryogenesis. These results set the foundations for further functional studies of FGF signaling in hemichordates and provided insights into the evolutionary history of the FGF repertoire.

  2. FGF signals from the nasal pit are necessary for normal facial morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Szabo-Rogers, Heather L; Geetha-Loganathan, Poongodi; Nimmagadda, Suresh; Fu, Kathy K; Richman, Joy M

    2008-06-15

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are required for brain, pharyngeal arch, suture and neural crest cell development and mutations in the FGF receptors have been linked to human craniofacial malformations. To study the functions of FGF during facial morphogenesis we locally perturb FGF signalling in the avian facial prominences with FGFR antagonists, foil barriers and FGF2 protein. We tested 4 positions with antagonist-soaked beads but only one of these induced a facial defect. Embryos treated in the lateral frontonasal mass, adjacent to the nasal slit developed cleft beaks. The main mechanisms were a block in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis in those areas that were most dependent on FGF signaling. We inserted foil barriers with the goal of blocking diffusion of FGF ligands out of the lateral edge of the frontonasal mass. The barriers induced an upregulation of the FGF target gene, SPRY2 compared to the control side. Moreover, these changes in expression were associated with deletions of the lateral edge of the premaxillary bone. To determine whether we could replicate the effects of the foil by increasing FGF levels, beads soaked in FGF2 were placed into the lateral edge of the frontonasal mass. There was a significant increase in proliferation and an expansion of the frontonasal mass but the skeletal defects were minor and not the same as those produced by the foil. Instead it is more likely that the foil repressed FGF signaling perhaps mediated by the increase in SPRY2 expression. In summary, we have found that the nasal slit is a source of FGF signals and the function of FGF is to stimulate proliferation in the cranial frontonasal mass. The FGF independent regions correlate with those previously determined to be dependent on BMP signaling. We propose a new model whereby, FGF-dependent microenvironments exist in the cranial frontonasal mass and caudal maxillary prominence and these flank BMP-dependent regions. Coordination of the proliferation in these

  3. Therapeutics Targeting FGF Signaling Network in Human Diseases.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masaru

    2016-12-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling through its receptors, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, or FGFR4, regulates cell fate, angiogenesis, immunity, and metabolism. Dysregulated FGF signaling causes human diseases, such as breast cancer, chondrodysplasia, gastric cancer, lung cancer, and X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets. Recombinant FGFs are pro-FGF signaling therapeutics for tissue and/or wound repair, whereas FGF analogs and gene therapy are under development for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoarthritis. FGF traps, anti-FGF/FGFR monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and small-molecule FGFR inhibitors are anti-FGF signaling therapeutics under development for the treatment of cancer, chondrodysplasia, and rickets. Here, I discuss the benefit-risk and cost-effectiveness issues of precision medicine targeting FGFRs, ALK, EGFR, and FLT3. FGFR-targeted therapy should be optimized for cancer treatment, focusing on genomic tests and recurrence.

  4. Coordinated events: FGF signaling and other related pathways in palatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Snyder-Warwick, Alison K; Perlyn, Chad A

    2012-03-01

    Cleft palate is a common craniofacial anomaly that is costly to both patients and the health care system. Investigation of each stage of palate development enhances understanding of this anomaly. Although the exact molecular signaling mechanisms that contribute to palatogenesis remain elusive, multiple pathways, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, have been recognized as important contributors. Alterations in FGF signaling have previously been implicated in palatal clefting. The current review discusses FGF signaling and the major signaling mediators affecting FGF signaling during each stage of palatogenesis.

  5. FGF signaling is required for brain left-right asymmetry and brain midline formation.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Judith M; Yost, H Joseph

    2014-02-01

    Early disruption of FGF signaling alters left-right (LR) asymmetry throughout the embryo. Here we uncover a role for FGF signaling that specifically disrupts brain asymmetry, independent of normal lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) asymmetry. When FGF signaling is inhibited during mid-somitogenesis, asymmetrically expressed LPM markers southpaw and lefty2 are not affected. However, asymmetrically expressed brain markers lefty1 and cyclops become bilateral. We show that FGF signaling controls expression of six3b and six7, two transcription factors required for repression of asymmetric lefty1 in the brain. We found that Z0-1, atypical PKC (aPKC) and β-catenin protein distribution revealed a midline structure in the forebrain that is dependent on a balance of FGF signaling. Ectopic activation of FGF signaling leads to overexpression of six3b, loss of organized midline adherins junctions and bilateral loss of lefty1 expression. Reducing FGF signaling leads to a reduction in six3b and six7 expression, an increase in cell boundary formation in the brain midline, and bilateral expression of lefty1. Together, these results suggest a novel role for FGF signaling in the brain to control LR asymmetry, six transcription factor expressions, and a midline barrier structure.

  6. Deficient FGF signaling causes optic nerve dysgenesis and ocular coloboma.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhigang; Tao, Chenqi; Li, Hongge; Ladher, Raj; Gotoh, Noriko; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Wang, Fen; Zhang, Xin

    2013-07-01

    FGF signaling plays a pivotal role in eye development. Previous studies using in vitro chick models and systemic zebrafish mutants have suggested that FGF signaling is required for the patterning and specification of the optic vesicle, but due to a lack of genetic models, its role in mammalian retinal development remains elusive. In this study, we show that specific deletion of Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 in the optic vesicle disrupts ERK signaling, which results in optic disc and nerve dysgenesis and, ultimately, ocular coloboma. Defective FGF signaling does not abrogate Shh or BMP signaling, nor does it affect axial patterning of the optic vesicle. Instead, FGF signaling regulates Mitf and Pax2 in coordinating the closure of the optic fissure and optic disc specification, which is necessary for the outgrowth of the optic nerve. Genetic evidence further supports that the formation of an Frs2α-Shp2 complex and its recruitment to FGF receptors are crucial for downstream ERK signaling in this process, whereas constitutively active Ras signaling can rescue ocular coloboma in the FGF signaling mutants. Our results thus reveal a previously unappreciated role of FGF-Frs2α-Shp2-Ras-ERK signaling axis in preventing ocular coloboma. These findings suggest that components of FGF signaling pathway may be novel targets in the diagnosis of and the therapeutic interventions for congenital ocular anomalies.

  7. FGF19-FGFR4 signaling elaborates lens induction with the FGF8-L-Maf cascade in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Kurose, Hitomi; Okamoto, Mayumi; Shimizu, Miyuki; Bito, Takaaki; Marcelle, Cristophe; Noji, Sumihare; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2005-05-01

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family is known to be involved in vertebrate eye development. However, distinct roles of individual FGF members during eye development remain largely elusive. Here, we show a detailed expression pattern of Fgf19 in chick lens development. Fgf19 expression initiated in the forebrain, and then became restricted to the distal portion of the optic vesicle abutting the future lens placode, where FGF receptor 4 (Fgfr4), a receptor for FGF19, was expressed. Fgf8, a positive regulator for L-Maf, was expressed in a portion of the optic vesicle. To examine the role of FGF19 signaling during early eye development, Fgf19 was misexpressed near the presumptive lens ectoderm; however, no alteration in the expression of lens marker genes was observed. Conversely, a secreted form of FGFR4 was misexpressed to inhibit an FGF19 signal, resulting in the induction of L-Maf expression. To further define the relationship between L-Maf and Fgf19, L-Maf misexpression was performed, resulting in ectopic induction of Fgf19 expression by Hamburger and Hamilton's stage 12/13. Furthermore, misexpression of Fgf8 induced Fgf19 expression in addition to L-Maf. These results suggest that FGF19-FGFR4 signaling plays a role in early lens development in collaboration with FGF8 signaling and L-Maf transcriptional system.

  8. Dissecting the role of Wnt signaling and its interactions with FGF signaling during midbrain neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Carlene; Blanc, Eric; Stanley, Rob J; Knight, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between FGF and Wnt/ bcat signaling control development of the midbrain. The nature of this interaction and how these regulate patterning, growth and differentiation is less clear, as it has not been possible to temporally dissect the effects of one pathway relative to the other. We have employed pharmacological and genetic tools to probe the temporal and spatial roles of FGF and Wnt in controlling the specification of early midbrain neurons. We identify a β-catenin (bcat) independent role for GSK-3 in modulating FGF activity and hence neuronal patterning. This function is complicated by an overlap with bcat-dependent regulation of FGF signaling, through the regulation of sprouty4. Additionally we reveal how attenuation of Axin protein function can promote fluctuating levels of bcat activity that are dependent on FGF activity. This highlights the complex nature of the interactions between FGF and Wnt/ bcat and reveals that they act at multiple levels to control each others activity in the midbrain. PMID:27606327

  9. FGF signalling: diverse roles during early vertebrate embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dorey, Karel; Amaya, Enrique

    2010-11-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling has been implicated during several phases of early embryogenesis, including the patterning of the embryonic axes, the induction and/or maintenance of several cell lineages and the coordination of morphogenetic movements. Here, we summarise our current understanding of the regulation and roles of FGF signalling during early vertebrate development.

  10. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling pathway regulates liver homeostasis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Mei; Liu, Da-Wei; Wang, Wen-Pin

    2013-04-01

    In mammals, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling controls liver specification and regulates the metabolism of lipids, cholesterol, and bile acids. FGF signaling also promotes hepatocyte proliferation, and helps detoxify hepatotoxin during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. However, the function of Fgf in zebrafish liver is not yet well understood, specifically for postnatal homeostasis. The current study analyzed the expression of fgf receptors (fgfrs) in the liver of zebrafish. We then investigated the function of Fgf signaling in the zebrafish liver by expressing a dominant-negative Fgf receptor in hepatocytes (lfabp:dnfgfr1-egfp, lf:dnfr). Histological analysis showed that our genetic intervention resulted in a small liver size with defected medial expansion of developing livers in transgenic (Tg) larvae. Morphologically, the liver lobe of lf:dnfr adult fish was shorter than that of control. Ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes was observed in fish as young as 3 months. Further examination revealed the development of hepatic steatosis and cholestasis. In adult Tg fish, we unexpectedly observed increased liver-to-body-weight ratios, with higher percentages of proliferating hepatocytes. Considering all these findings, we concluded that as in mammals, in adult zebrafish the metabolism of lipid and bile acids in the liver are regulated by Fgf signaling. Disruption of the Fgf signal-mediated metabolism might indirectly affect hepatocyte proliferation.

  11. Inhibition of FGF signaling accelerates neural crest cell differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jaroonwitchawan, Thiranut; Muangchan, Pattamon; Noisa, Parinya

    2016-12-02

    Neural crest (NC) is a transient population, arising during embryonic development and capable of differentiating into various somatic cells. The defects of neural crest development leads to neurocristopathy. Several signaling pathways were revealed their significance in NC cell specification. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is recognized as an important signaling during NC development, for instance Xenopus and avian; however, its contributions in human species are remained elusive. Here we used human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to investigate the consequences of FGF inhibition during NC cell differentiation. The specific-FGF receptor inhibitor, SU5402, was used in this investigation. The inhibition of FGF did not found to affect the proliferation or death of hPSC-derived NC cells, but promoted hPSCs to commit NC cell fate. NC-specific genes, including PAX3, SLUG, and TWIST1, were highly upregulated, while hPSC genes, such as OCT4, and E-CAD, rapidly reduced upon FGF signaling blockage. Noteworthy, TFAP-2α, a marker of migratory NC cells, abundantly presented in SU5402-induced cells. This accelerated NC cell differentiation could be due to the activation of Notch signaling upon the blockage of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, since NICD was increased by SU5402. Altogether, this study proposed the contributions of FGF signaling in controlling human NC cell differentiation from hPSCs, the crosstalk between FGF and Notch, and might imply to the influences of FGF signaling in neurocristophatic diseases.

  12. Physiological role of FGF signaling in growth and remodeling of developing cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Krejci, E; Pesevski, Z; Nanka, O; Sedmera, D

    2016-07-18

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling plays an important role during embryonic induction and patterning, as well as in modulating proliferative and hypertrophic growth in fetal and adult organs. Hemodynamically induced stretching is a powerful physiological stimulus for embryonic myocyte proliferation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of FGF2 signaling on growth and vascularization of chick embryonic ventricular wall and its involvement in transmission of mechanical stretch-induced signaling to myocyte growth in vivo. Myocyte proliferation was significantly higher at the 48 h sampling interval in pressure-overloaded hearts. Neither Western blotting, nor immunohistochemistry performed on serial paraffin sections revealed any changes in the amount of myocardial FGF2 at that time point. ELISA showed a significant increase of FGF2 in the serum. Increased amount of FGF2 mRNA in the heart was confirmed by real time PCR. Blocking of FGF signaling by SU5402 led to decreased myocyte proliferation, hemorrhages in the areas of developing vasculature in epicardium and digit tips. FGF2 synthesis is increased in embryonic ventricular cardiomyocytes in response to increased stretch due to pressure overload. Inhibition of FGF signaling impacts also vasculogenesis, pointing to partial functional redundancy in paracrine control of cell proliferation in the developing heart.

  13. Reiterative roles for FGF signaling in the establishment of size and proportion of the zebrafish heart

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Sara R.; Lee, Yoonsung; Poss, Kenneth D.; Yelon, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Development of a functional organ requires the establishment of its proper size as well as the establishment of the relative proportions of its individual components. In the zebrafish heart, organ size and proportion depend heavily on the number of cells in each of its two major chambers, the ventricle and the atrium. Heart size and chamber proportionality are both affected in zebrafish fgf8 mutants. To determine when and how FGF signaling influences these characteristics, we examined the effect of temporally controlled pathway inhibition. During cardiac specification, reduction of FGF signaling inhibits formation of both ventricular and atrial cardiomyocytes, with a stronger impact on ventricular cells. After cardiomyocyte differentiation begins, reduction of FGF signaling can still result in a deficiency of ventricular cardiomyocytes. Consistent with two temporally distinct roles for FGF, we find that increased FGF signaling induces a cardiomyocyte surplus only before cardiac differentiation begins. Thus, FGF signaling first regulates heart size and chamber proportionality during cardiac specification and later refines ventricular proportion by regulating cell number after the onset of differentiation. Together, our data demonstrate that a single signaling pathway can act reiteratively to coordinate organ size and proportion. PMID:18639539

  14. Development of the lip and palate: FGF signalling.

    PubMed

    Stanier, Philip; Pauws, Erwin

    2012-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling pathway is critically involved in several aspects of craniofacial development, including formation of the lip and the palate. FGF receptors are activated by extracellular FGF ligands in order to regulate cellular processes such as migration and morphogenesis through instruction of specific target gene expression. A key factor in the development of orofacial structures is the interaction between mesodermal- and neural crest-derived mesenchyme and ecto- and endodermal-derived epithelium. FGF signalling occurs in both cell types and promotes epithelial-mesenchymal communication through region-specific expression of receptor subtypes. Many FGF ligands and receptors are expressed at specific stages and at precise locations during normal palatogenesis and an absolute requirement of some has been demonstrated by their (conditional) inactivation resulting in a cleft palate phenotype. Other important signalling pathways involving SHH and SPRY are intricately involved in the interpretation of FGF signalling. As a cause of human pathology, functionally validated FGF pathway gene mutations have been exclusively associated with syndromic forms of cleft lip and palate. Most commonly, this includes patients with mutations in FGFR1 and FGFR2 (Kallmann, Pfeiffer, Apert and Crouzon syndromes) where cleft palate is part of a broad craniofacial phenotype, including craniosynostosis. Similarly, FGF8 mutations have been found in patients with Kallmann-like idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, some also with cleft lip and palate. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of the relevant FGF ligands and receptors important for lip and palate morphogenesis, correlating their expression patterns with the effects of their perturbation that lead to a clefting pathogenesis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. FGF signaling supports Drosophila fertility by regulating development of ovarian muscle tissues.

    PubMed

    Irizarry, Jihyun; Stathopoulos, Angelike

    2015-08-01

    The thisbe (ths) gene encodes a Drosophila fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and mutant females are viable but sterile suggesting a link between FGF signaling and fertility. Ovaries exhibit abnormal morphology including lack of epithelial sheaths and muscle tissues that surround ovarioles. Here we investigated how FGF influences Drosophila ovary morphogenesis and identified several roles. Heartless (Htl) FGF receptor was found to be expressed within somatic cells at the larval and pupal stages, and phenotypes were uncovered using RNAi. Differentiation of terminal filament cells was affected, but this effect did not alter the ovariole number. In addition, proliferation of epithelial sheath progenitors, the apical cells, was decreased in both htl and ths mutants, while ectopic expression of the Ths ligand led to these cells' over-proliferation suggesting that FGF signaling supports ovarian muscle sheath formation by controlling apical cell number in the developing gonad. Additionally, live imaging of adult ovaries was used to show that htl RNAi mutants, hypomorphic mutants in which epithelial sheaths are present, exhibit abnormal muscle contractions. Collectively, our results demonstrate that proper formation of ovarian muscle tissues is regulated by FGF signaling in the larval and pupal stages through control of apical cell proliferation and is required to support fertility.

  16. Pharmacological inhibition of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor signaling ameliorates FGF23-mediated hypophosphatemic rickets.

    PubMed

    Wöhrle, Simon; Henninger, Christine; Bonny, Olivier; Thuery, Anne; Beluch, Noemie; Hynes, Nancy E; Guagnano, Vito; Sellers, William R; Hofmann, Francesco; Kneissel, Michaela; Graus Porta, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a circulating factor secreted by osteocytes that is essential for phosphate homeostasis. In kidney proximal tubular cells FGF23 inhibits phosphate reabsorption and leads to decreased synthesis and enhanced catabolism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2 D3 ). Excess levels of FGF23 cause renal phosphate wasting and suppression of circulating 1,25(OH)2 D3 levels and are associated with several hereditary hypophosphatemic disorders with skeletal abnormalities, including X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) and autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR). Currently, therapeutic approaches to these diseases are limited to treatment with activated vitamin D analogues and phosphate supplementation, often merely resulting in partial correction of the skeletal aberrations. In this study, we evaluate the use of FGFR inhibitors for the treatment of FGF23-mediated hypophosphatemic disorders using NVP-BGJ398, a novel selective, pan-specific FGFR inhibitor currently in Phase I clinical trials for cancer therapy. In two different hypophosphatemic mouse models, Hyp and Dmp1-null mice, resembling the human diseases XLH and ARHR, we find that pharmacological inhibition of FGFRs efficiently abrogates aberrant FGF23 signaling and normalizes the hypophosphatemic and hypocalcemic conditions of these mice. Correspondingly, long-term FGFR inhibition in Hyp mice leads to enhanced bone growth, increased mineralization, and reorganization of the disturbed growth plate structure. We therefore propose NVP-BGJ398 treatment as a novel approach for the therapy of FGF23-mediated hypophosphatemic diseases. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  17. FGF4 and FGF8 comprise the wavefront activity that controls somitogenesis.

    PubMed

    Naiche, L A; Holder, Nakisha; Lewandoski, Mark

    2011-03-08

    Somites form along the embryonic axis by sequential segmentation from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) and differentiate into the segmented vertebral column as well as other unsegmented tissues. Somites are thought to form via the intersection of two activities known as the clock and the wavefront. Previous work has suggested that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) activity may be the wavefront signal, which maintains the PSM in an undifferentiated state. However, it is unclear which (if any) of the FGFs expressed in the PSM comprise this activity, as removal of any one gene is insufficient to disrupt early somitogenesis. Here we show that when both Fgf4 and Fgf8 are deleted in the PSM, expression of most PSM genes is absent, including cycling genes, WNT pathway genes, and markers of undifferentiated PSM. Significantly, markers of nascent somite cell fate expand throughout the PSM, demonstrating the premature differentiation of this entire tissue, a highly unusual phenotype indicative of the loss of wavefront activity. When WNT signaling is restored in mutants, PSM progenitor markers are partially restored but premature differentiation of the PSM still occurs, demonstrating that FGF signaling operates independently of WNT signaling. This study provides genetic evidence that FGFs are the wavefront signal and identifies the specific FGF ligands that encode this activity. Furthermore, these data show that FGF action maintains WNT signaling, and that both signaling pathways are required in parallel to maintain PSM progenitor tissue.

  18. Sustained Inhibition of Proliferative Response After Transient FGF Stimulation Is Mediated by Interleukin 1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Poole, Ashleigh; Kacer, Doreen; Cooper, Emily; Tarantini, Francesca; Prudovsky, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Transient FGF stimulation of various cell types results in FGF memory--a sustained blockage of efficient proliferative response to FGF and other growth factors. FGF memory establishment requires HDAC activity, indicating its epigenetic character. FGF treatment stimulates proinflammatory NFκB signaling, which is also critical for FGF memory formation. The search for FGF-induced mediators of FGF memory revealed that FGF stimulates HDAC-dependent expression of the inflammatory cytokine IL1α. Similarly to FGF, transient cell treatment with recombinant IL1α inhibits the proliferative response to further FGF and EGF stimulation, but does not prevent FGF receptor-mediated signaling. Interestingly, like cells pretreated with FGF1, cells pretreated with IL1α exhibit enhanced restructuring of actin cytoskeleton and increased migration in response to FGF stimulation. IRAP, a specific inhibitor of IL 1 receptor, and a neutralizing anti-IL1α antibody prevent the formation of FGF memory and rescue an efficient proliferative response to FGF restimulation. A similar effect results following treatment with the anti-inflammatory agents aspirin and dexamethasone. Thus, FGF memory is mediated by proinflammatory IL1 signaling. It may play a role in the limitation of proliferative response to tissue damage and prevention of wound-induced hyperplasia.

  19. Fgf19 regulated by Hh signaling is required for zebrafish forebrain development.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Ayumi; Nakayama, Yoshiaki; Konishi, Morichika; Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2005-12-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling plays important roles in brain development. Fgf3 and Fgf8 are crucial for the formation of the forebrain and hindbrain. Fgf8 is also required for the midbrain to form. Here, we identified zebrafish Fgf19 and examined its roles in brain development by knocking down Fgf19 function. We found that Fgf19 expressed in the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain was involved in cell proliferation and cell survival during embryonic brain development. Fgf19 was also essential for development of the ventral telencephalon and diencephalon. Regional specification is linked to cell type specification. Fgf19 was also essential for the specification of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons and oligodendrocytes generated in the ventral telencephalon and diencephalon. The cross talk between Fgf and Hh signaling is critical for brain development. In the forebrain, Fgf19 expression was down-regulated on inhibition of Hh but not of Fgf3/Fgf8, and overexpression of Fgf19 rescued partially the phenotype on inhibition of Hh. The present findings indicate that Fgf19 signaling is crucial for forebrain development by interacting with Hh and provide new insights into the roles of Fgf signaling in brain development.

  20. Paradoxical Regulation of Human FGF21 by Both Fasting and Feeding Signals: Is FGF21 a Nutritional Adaptation Factor?

    PubMed Central

    Uebanso, Takashi; Taketani, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Hironori; Amo, Kikuko; Ominami, Hirokazu; Arai, Hidekazu; Takei, Yuichiro; Masuda, Masashi; Tanimura, Ayako; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Takeda, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has recently emerged as a metabolic hormone involved in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in mouse, but the regulatory mechanisms and actions of FGF21 in humans remain unclear. Here we have investigated the regulatory mechanisms of the human FGF21 gene at the transcriptional level. A deletion study of the human FGF21 promoter (−1672 to +230 bp) revealed two fasting signals, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and glucagon signals, that independently induced human FGF21 gene transcription in mouse primary hepatocytes. In addition, two feeding signals, glucose and xylitol, also dose-dependently induced human FGF21 gene transcription and mRNA expression in both human HepG2 cells and mouse primary hepatocytes. FGF21 protein expression and secretion were also induced by high glucose stimulation. The human FGF21 promoter (−1672 to +230 bp) was found to have a carbohydrate-responsive element at −380 to −366 bp, which is distinct from the PPAR response element (PPRE). Knock-down of the carbohydrate response element binding protein by RNAi diminished glucose-induced human FGF21 transcription. Moreover, we found that a region from −555 to −443 bp of the human FGF21 promoter region exerts an important role in the activation of basic transcription. In conclusion, human FGF21 gene expression is paradoxically and independently regulated by both fasting and feeding signals. These regulatory mechanisms suggest that human FGF21 is increased with nutritional crisis, including starvation and overfeeding. PMID:21829679

  1. The single fgf receptor gene in the beetle Tribolium castaneum codes for two isoforms that integrate FGF8- and Branchless-dependent signals.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rahul; Beer, Katharina; Iwanov, Katharina; Schmöhl, Felix; Beckmann, Paula Indigo; Schröder, Reinhard

    2015-06-15

    The precise regulation of cell-cell communication by numerous signal-transduction pathways is fundamental for many different processes during embryonic development. One important signalling pathway is the evolutionary conserved fibroblast-growth-factor (FGF)-pathway that controls processes like cell migration, axis specification and mesoderm formation in vertebrate and invertebrate animals. In the model insect Drosophila, the FGF ligand / receptor combinations of FGF8 (Pyramus and Thisbe) / Heartless (Htl) and Branchless (Bnl) / Breathless (Btl) are required for the migration of mesodermal cells and for the formation of the tracheal network respectively with both the receptors functioning independently of each other. However, only a single fgf-receptor gene (Tc-fgfr) has been identified in the genome of the beetle Tribolium. We therefore asked whether both the ligands Fgf8 and Bnl could transduce their signal through a common FGF-receptor in Tribolium. Indeed, we found that the function of the single Tc-fgfr gene is essential for mesoderm differentiation as well as for the formation of the tracheal network during early development. Ligand specific RNAi for Tc-fgf8 and Tc-bnl resulted in two distinct non-overlapping phenotypes of impaired mesoderm differentiation and abnormal formation of the tracheal network in Tc-fgf8- and Tc-bnl(RNAi) embryos respectively. We further show that the single Tc-fgfr gene encodes at least two different receptor isoforms that are generated through alternative splicing. We in addition demonstrate through exon-specific RNAi their distinct tissue-specific functions. Finally, we discuss the structure of the fgf-receptor gene from an evolutionary perspective.

  2. REGULATION OF NONCLASSICAL FGF1 RELEASE AND FGF-DEPENDENT CELL TRANSFORMATION BY CBF1-MEDIATED NOTCH SIGNALING

    PubMed Central

    Kacer, Doreen; McIntire, Christian; Kirov, Alek; Kany, Erin; Roth, Jennifer; Liaw, Lucy; Small, Deena; Friesel, Robert; Basilico, Claudio; Tarantini, Francesca; Verdi, Joseph; Prudovsky, Igor

    2011-01-01

    FGF1, a widely expressed proangiogenic factor involved in tissue repair and carcinogenesis, is released from cells through a nonclassical pathway independent of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. Although several proteins participating in FGF1 export were identified, genetic mechanisms regulating this process remained obscure. We found that FGF1 export and expression are regulated through Notch signaling mediated by transcription factor CBF1and its partner MAML. The expression of a dominant negative (dn) form of CBF1 in 3T3 cells induces transcription of FGF1 and sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), which is a component of FGF1 export pathway. dnCBF1 expression stimulates the stress-independent release of transduced FGF1 from NIH 3T3 cells and endogenous FGF1 from A375 melanoma cells. NIH 3T3 cells transfected with dnCBF1 form colonies in soft agar and produce rapidly growing highly angiogenic tumors in nude mice. The transformed phenotype of dnCBF1 transfected cells is efficiently blocked by dn forms of FGF receptor 1 and S100A13, which is a component of FGF1 export pathway. FGF1 export and acceleration of cell growth induced by dnCBF1 depend on SphK1. Similar to dnCBF1, dnMAML transfection induces FGF1 expression and release, and accelerates cell proliferation. The latter effect is strongly decreased in FGF1 null cells. We suggest that the regulation of FGF1 expression and release by CBF1-mediated Notch signaling can play an important role in tumor formation. PMID:21302306

  3. FGF and Notch signaling in sensory neuron formation: a multifactorial approach to understanding signaling pathway hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Voelkel, Jacob E; Harvey, Jamison A; Adams, Jason S; Lassiter, Rhonda N; Stark, Michael R

    2014-11-01

    The ophthalmic trigeminal (opV) placode exclusively gives rise to sensory neurons, making it a good model to study the molecular regulation of sensory neurogenesis. A number of signaling pathways including Wnt, PDGF, FGF, and Notch have been shown to be involved in the process of opV placode cell development. However, the regulatory relationships between these signaling pathways in placode cells are still unknown and have been difficult to study experimentally. Using a novel multifactorial approach in chick embryos that allows for inhibition of FGF throughout the tissue or in individual cells, with simultaneous inactivation of Notch signaling, we investigated the potential interaction between the FGF and Notch signaling pathways in trigeminal sensory neurogenesis. This study builds on prior research describing the individual role of FGF signaling or Notch signaling in opV placode development, where blocking FGF signaling resulted in neurogenesis failure, while blocking Notch signaling resulted in enhanced neurogenesis. Reported here, blocking both pathways simultaneously resulted in a reduction in the number of cells delaminating from the opV placode and undergoing sensory neuron differentiation. Further, Notch inhibition alone did not lead to an increase in the number of cells expressing FGFR4 or in the FGFR4 expression domain, but did result in a highly fragmented basal lamina, which was reversed when blocking FGF signaling. Cumulatively, the results presented here do not support a model of Notch/FGF interdependence, rather that FGF and Notch act in parallel to promote sensory neurogenesis.

  4. TGF-β mediated FGF10 signaling in cranial neural crest cells controls development of myogenic progenitor cells through tissue-tissue interactions during tongue morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hosokawa, Ryoichi; Oka, Kyoko; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Iwata, Junichi; Urata, Mark; Xu, Xun; Bringas, Pablo; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Chai, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscles are formed from two cell lineages, myogenic and fibroblastic. Mesoderm-derived myogenic progenitors form muscle cells whereas fibroblastic cells give rise to the supportive connective tissue of skeletal muscles, such as the tendons and perimysium. It remains unknown how myogenic and fibroblastic cell-cell interactions affect cell fate determination and the organization of skeletal muscle. In the present study, we investigated the functional significance of cell-cell interactions in regulating skeletal muscle development. Our study shows that cranial neural crest (CNC) cells give rise to the fibroblastic cells of the tongue skeletal muscle in mice. Loss of Tgfbr2 in CNC cells (Wnt1-Cre;Tgfbr2flox/flox) results in microglossia with reduced Scleraxis and Fgf10 expression as well as decreased myogenic cell proliferation, reduced cell number and disorganized tongue muscles. Furthermore, TGF-β2 beads induced the expression of Scleraxis in tongue explant cultures. The addition of FGF10 rescued the muscle cell number in Wnt1-Cre;Tgfbr2flox/flox mice. Thus, TGF-β induced FGF10 signaling has a critical function in regulating tissue-tissue interaction during tongue skeletal muscle development. PMID:20193675

  5. FGF signaling in gastrulation and neural development in Nematostella vectensis, an anthozoan cnidarian

    PubMed Central

    Matus, David Q.; Thomsen, Gerald H.

    2013-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signal transduction pathway serves as one of the key regulators of early metazoan development, displaying conserved roles in the specification of endodermal, mesodermal, and neural fates during vertebrate development. FGF signals also regulate gastrulation, in part, by triggering epithelial to mesenchymal transitions in embryos of both vertebrates and invertebrates. Thus, FGF signals coordinate gastrulation movements across many different phyla. To help understand the breadth of FGF signaling deployment across the animal kingdom, we have examined the presence and expression of genes encoding FGF pathway components in the anthozoan cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. We isolated three FGF ligands (NvFGF8A, NvFGF8B, and NvFGF1A), two FGF receptors (NvFGFRa and NvFGFRb), and two orthologs of vertebrate FGF responsive genes, Sprouty (NvSprouty), an inhibitor of FGF signaling, and Churchill (NvChurchill), a Zn finger transcription factor. We found these FGF ligands, receptors, and response gene expressed asymmetrically along the oral/aboral axis during gastrulation and in a developing chemosensory structure of planula stages known as the apical tuft. These results suggest a conserved role for FGF signaling molecules in coordinating both gastrulation and neural induction that predates the Cambrian explosion and the origins of the Bilateria. PMID:17237944

  6. FGF signaling in gastrulation and neural development in Nematostella vectensis, an anthozoan cnidarian.

    PubMed

    Matus, David Q; Thomsen, Gerald H; Martindale, Mark Q

    2007-02-01

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signal transduction pathway serves as one of the key regulators of early metazoan development, displaying conserved roles in the specification of endodermal, mesodermal, and neural fates during vertebrate development. FGF signals also regulate gastrulation, in part, by triggering epithelial to mesenchymal transitions in embryos of both vertebrates and invertebrates. Thus, FGF signals coordinate gastrulation movements across many different phyla. To help understand the breadth of FGF signaling deployment across the animal kingdom, we have examined the presence and expression of genes encoding FGF pathway components in the anthozoan cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. We isolated three FGF ligands (NvFGF8A, NvFGF8B, and NvFGF1A), two FGF receptors (NvFGFRa and NvFGFRb), and two orthologs of vertebrate FGF responsive genes, Sprouty (NvSprouty), an inhibitor of FGF signaling, and Churchill (NvChurchill), a Zn finger transcription factor. We found these FGF ligands, receptors, and response gene expressed asymmetrically along the oral/aboral axis during gastrulation and in a developing chemosensory structure of planula stages known as the apical tuft. These results suggest a conserved role for FGF signaling molecules in coordinating both gastrulation and neural induction that predates the Cambrian explosion and the origins of the Bilateria.

  7. Signaling pathways of immobilized FGF-2 on silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    de la Concepción Matesanz, María; Feito, María José; Ramírez-Santillán, Cecilia; Lozano, Rosa María; Sánchez-Salcedo, Sandra; Arcos, Daniel; Vallet-Regí, María; Portolés, María-Teresa

    2012-04-01

    Therapeutic strategies for bone regeneration involve the selection of suitable biomaterials, growth factors, and cell types to mimic the cellular microenvironment where molecular and mechanical signals control the reconstruction of bone tissue. The immobilization of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) on powdered silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) allows to prepare a biofunctional biomaterial able to interact with bone cells in a very specific way. The biological activity of FGF-2/Si-HA, evaluated in Saos-2 osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts through the PLCγ and MAPK/ERK signal transduction pathways, shows that FGF-2 immobilized on Si-HA provides the right signals to cells stimulating crucial intracellular mechanisms of osteoblast proliferation and differentiation.

  8. [FGF/FGFR signalling: Implication in oncogenesis and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Flippot, Ronan; Kone, Moumini; Magné, Nicolas; Vignot, Stéphane

    2015-06-01

    Deregulation of FGF (fibroblast growth factor)/FGFR (fibroblast growth factor receptor) signalling leads to the promotion of several oncogenic mechanisms: proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cytoskeleton modifications, migration and angiogenesis. Deregulation of this pathway is reported in various cancers at early stages, and can therefore be responsible for the emergence of the hallmarks of cancer. It is necessary to precise downstream pathways of FGFR signalling to understand its oncogenic potential. We will then describe its implications in different cancer types. Oncogenic mechanisms will be studied through the example of melanoma, in which deregulation of FGF/FGFR pathway is considered as a driver event and occurs in nearly 90% of cases. The FGF/FGFR signalling pathway is a putative therapeutic target. Numerous agents are in active development, operating through a selective or multi-targeted approach. Recent studies have shown rather disappointing results in non-selected patients, but promising results in patients with FGF/FGFR pathway alterations. A careful screening of patients is the key to a valuable evaluation of these new targeted molecular therapies.

  9. The Nuclear Receptor Rev-erbα Regulates Adipose Tissue-specific FGF21 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jager, Jennifer; Wang, Fenfen; Fang, Bin; Lim, Hee-Woong; Peed, Lindsey C; Steger, David J; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Adams, Andrew C; Lazar, Mitchell A

    2016-05-13

    FGF21 is an atypical member of the FGF family that functions as a hormone to regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Here we demonstrate that the actions of FGF21 in mouse adipose tissue, but not in liver, are modulated by the nuclear receptor Rev-erbα, a potent transcriptional repressor. Interrogation of genes induced in the absence of Rev-erbα for Rev-erbα-binding sites identified βKlotho, an essential coreceptor for FGF21, as a direct target gene of Rev-erbα in white adipose tissue but not liver. Rev-erbα ablation led to the robust elevated expression of βKlotho. Consequently, the effects of FGF21 were markedly enhanced in the white adipose tissue of mice lacking Rev-erbα. A major Rev-erbα-controlled enhancer at the Klb locus was also bound by the adipocytic transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, which regulates its activity in the opposite direction. These findings establish Rev-erbα as a specific modulator of FGF21 signaling in adipose tissue. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Relevant use of Klotho in FGF19 subfamily signaling system in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Ken-ichi; Maeda, Ryota; Urakawa, Itaru; Yamazaki, Yuji; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Ito, Shinji; Nabeshima, Yoko; Tomita, Tsutomu; Odori, Shinji; Hosoda, Kiminori; Nakao, Kazuwa; Imura, Akihiro; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi

    2010-01-26

    Alpha-Klotho (alpha-Kl) and its homolog, beta-Klotho (beta-Kl) are key regulators of mineral homeostasis and bile acid/cholesterol metabolism, respectively. FGF15/ humanFGF19, FGF21, and FGF23, members of the FGF19 subfamily, are believed to act as circulating metabolic regulators. Analyses of functional interactions between alpha- and beta-Kl and FGF19 factors in wild-type, alpha-kl(-/-), and beta-kl(-/-) mice revealed a comprehensive regulatory scheme of mineral homeostasis involving the mutually regulated positive/negative feedback actions of alpha-Kl, FGF23, and 1,25(OH)(2)D and an analogous regulatory network composed of beta-Kl, FGF15/humanFGF19, and bile acids that regulate bile acid/cholesterol metabolism. Contrary to in vitro data, beta-Kl is not essential for FGF21 signaling in adipose tissues in vivo, because (i) FGF21 signals are transduced in the absence of beta-Kl, (ii) FGF21 could not be precipitated by beta-Kl, and (iii) essential phenotypes in Fgf21(-/-) mice (decreased expressions of Hsl and Atgl in WAT) were not replicated in beta-kl(-/-) mice. These findings suggest the existence of Klotho-independent FGF21 signaling pathway(s) where undefined cofactors are involved. One-to-one functional interactions such as alpha-Klotho/FGF23, beta-Klotho/FGF15 (humanFGF19), and undefined cofactor/FGF21 would result in tissue-specific signal transduction of the FGF19 subfamily.

  11. The role of FGF signaling in guiding coordinate movement of cell groups

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Kyung; Trisnadi, Nathanie; Kadam, Snehalata; Stathopoulos, Angelike

    2012-01-01

    Cell migration influences cell-cell interactions to drive cell differentiation and organogenesis. To support proper development, cell migration must be regulated both temporally and spatially. Mesoderm cell migration in the Drosophila embryo serves as an excellent model system to study how cell migration is controlled and influences organogenesis. First, mesoderm spreading transforms the embryo into a multilayered form during gastrulation and, subsequently, cells originating from the caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM) migrate along the entire length of the gut. Here we review our studies, which have focused on the role of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, and compare and contrast these two different cell migration processes: mesoderm spreading and CVM migration. In both cases, FGF acts as a chemoattractant to guide cells’ directional movement but is likely not the only signal that serves this role. Furthermore, FGF likely modulates cell adhesion properties since FGF mutant phenotypes share similarities with those of cell adhesion molecules. Our working hypothesis is that levels of FGF signaling differentially influence cells’ response to result in either directional movement or changes in adhesive properties. PMID:23076054

  12. FGF signalling in prostate development, tissue homoeostasis and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yongshun; Wang, Fen

    2010-04-09

    The FGFs (fibroblast growth factors) regulate a broad spectrum of biological activities by activating transmembrane FGFR (FGF receptor) tyrosine kinases and their coupled intracellular signalling pathways. In the prostate, the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions mediated by androgen signalling and paracrine factors are essential for gland organogenesis, homoeostasis and tumorigenesis. FGFs mediate these mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in the prostate by paracrinal crosstalk through a diverse set of ligands and receptors. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in mouse models have demonstrated the requirement for the FGF signalling axis in prostate development and homoeostasis. The aberrant induction of this axis in either compartment of the prostate results in developmental disorders, disrupts the homoeostatic balance and leads to prostate carcinogenesis. FGFs are also implicated in mediating androgen signalling in the prostate between mesenchymal and epithelial compartments. Therefore studying FGF signalling in the prostate will help us to better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms by which the gland develops, maintains homoeostasis and undergoes carcinogenesis; as well as yield clues on how androgens mediate these processes and how advanced-tumour prostate cells escape strict androgen regulations.

  13. Neuron-glia interactions through the Heartless FGF receptor signaling pathway mediate morphogenesis of Drosophila astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Stork, Tobias; Sheehan, Amy; Tasdemir-Yilmaz, Ozge E; Freeman, Marc R

    2014-07-16

    Astrocytes are critically important for neuronal circuit assembly and function. Mammalian protoplasmic astrocytes develop a dense ramified meshwork of cellular processes to form intimate contacts with neuronal cell bodies, neurites, and synapses. This close neuron-glia morphological relationship is essential for astrocyte function, but it remains unclear how astrocytes establish their intricate morphology, organize spatial domains, and associate with neurons and synapses in vivo. Here we characterize a Drosophila glial subtype that shows striking morphological and functional similarities to mammalian astrocytes. We demonstrate that the Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor Heartless autonomously controls astrocyte membrane growth, and the FGFs Pyramus and Thisbe direct astrocyte processes to ramify specifically in CNS synaptic regions. We further show that the shape and size of individual astrocytes are dynamically sculpted through inhibitory or competitive astrocyte-astrocyte interactions and Heartless FGF signaling. Our data identify FGF signaling through Heartless as a key regulator of astrocyte morphological elaboration in vivo.

  14. Effects of Fibroblast Growth Factor 9 (FGF9) on Steroidogenesis and Gene Expression and Control of FGF9 mRNA in Bovine Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Nicole B.

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression of fibroblast growth factor-9 (FGF9) is decreased in granulosa cells (GC) of cystic follicles compared with normal dominant follicles in cattle. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of FGF9 on GC steroidogenesis, gene expression, and cell proliferation and to determine the hormonal control of GC FGF9 production. GC were collected from small (1–5 mm) and large (8–22 mm) bovine follicles and treated in vitro with various hormones in serum-free medium for 24 or 48 h. In small- and large-follicle GC, FGF9 inhibited (P < 0.05) IGF-I-, dibutyryl cAMP-, and forskolin-induced progesterone and estradiol production. In contrast, FGF9 increased (P < 0.05) GC numbers induced by IGF-I and 10% fetal calf serum. FGF9 inhibited (P < 0.05) FSHR and CYP11A1 mRNA abundance in small- and large-follicle GC but had no effect (P > 0.10) on CYP19A1 or StAR mRNA. In the presence of a 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor, trilostane, FGF9 also decreased (P < 0.05) pregnenolone production. IGF-I inhibited (P < 0.05) whereas estradiol and FSH had no effect (P > 0.10) on FGF9 mRNA abundance. TNFα and wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site family member-3A decreased (P < 0.05) whereas T4 and sonic hedgehog increased (P < 0.05) FGF9 mRNA abundance in control and IGF-I-treated GC. Thus, GC FGF9 gene expression is hormonally regulated, and FGF9 may act as an autocrine regulator of ovarian function by slowing follicular differentiation via inhibiting IGF-I action, gonadotropin receptors, the cAMP signaling cascade, and steroid synthesis while stimulating GC proliferation in cattle. PMID:22798350

  15. FGF signaling specifies hematopoietic stem cells through its regulation of somitic Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoonsung; Manegold, Jennifer E; Kim, Albert D; Pouget, Claire; Stachura, David L; Clements, Wilson K; Traver, David

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) derive from hemogenic endothelial cells of the primitive dorsal aorta (DA) during vertebrate embryogenesis. The molecular mechanisms governing this unique endothelial to hematopoietic transition remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate a novel requirement for fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in HSC emergence. This requirement is non-cell-autonomous, and acts within the somite to bridge the Wnt and Notch signaling pathways. We previously demonstrated that Wnt16 regulates the somitic expression of two Notch ligands, deltaC (dlc) and deltaD (dld), whose combined function is required for HSC fate. How Wnt16 connects to Notch function has remained an open question. Our current studies demonstrate that FGF signaling, via FGF receptor 4 (Fgfr4), mediates a signal transduction pathway between Wnt16 and Dlc, but not Dld, to regulate HSC specification. Our findings demonstrate that FGF signaling acts as a key molecular relay within the developmental HSC niche to instruct HSC fate. PMID:25428693

  16. Influence of heparin mimetics on assembly of the FGF.FGFR4 signaling complex.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Krishna; Schieborr, Ulrich; Anderka, Oliver; Duchardt-Ferner, Elke; Elshorst, Bettina; Gande, Santosh Lakshmi; Janzon, Julia; Kudlinzki, Denis; Sreeramulu, Sridhar; Dreyer, Matthias K; Wendt, K Ulrich; Herbert, Corentin; Duchaussoy, Philippe; Bianciotto, Marc; Driguez, Pierre-Alexandre; Lassalle, Gilbert; Savi, Pierre; Mohammadi, Moosa; Bono, Françoise; Schwalbe, Harald

    2010-08-20

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling regulates mammalian development and metabolism, and its dysregulation is implicated in many inherited and acquired diseases, including cancer. Heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (HSGAGs) are essential for FGF signaling as they promote FGF.FGF receptor (FGFR) binding and dimerization. Using novel organic synthesis protocols to prepare homogeneously sulfated heparin mimetics (HM), including hexasaccharide (HM(6)), octasaccharide (HM(8)), and decasaccharide (HM(10)), we tested the ability of these HM to support FGF1 and FGF2 signaling through FGFR4. Biological assays show that both HM(8) and HM(10) are significantly more potent than HM(6) in promoting FGF2-mediated FGFR4 signaling. In contrast, all three HM have comparable activity in promoting FGF1.FGFR4 signaling. To understand the molecular basis for these differential activities in FGF1/2.FGFR4 signaling, we used NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and size-exclusion chromatography to characterize binding interactions of FGF1/2 with the isolated Ig-domain 2 (D2) of FGFR4 in the presence of HM, and binary interactions of FGFs and D2 with HM. Our data confirm the existence of both a secondary FGF1.FGFR4 interaction site and a direct FGFR4.FGFR4 interaction site thus supporting the formation of the symmetric mode of FGF.FGFR dimerization in solution. Moreover, our results show that the observed higher activity of HM(8) relative to HM(6) in stimulating FGF2.FGFR4 signaling correlates with the higher affinity of HM(8) to bind and dimerize FGF2. Notably FGF2.HM(8) exhibits pronounced positive binding cooperativity. Based on our findings we propose a refined symmetric FGF.FGFR dimerization model, which incorporates the differential ability of HM to dimerize FGFs.

  17. Fgf differentially controls cross-antagonism between cardiac and haemangioblast regulators

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Filipa Costa; Peterkin, Tessa; Patient, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) has been implicated in the control of heart size during development, although whether this is by controlling cell fate, survival or proliferation has not been clear. Here, we show that Fgf, without affecting survival or proliferation, acts during gastrulation to drive cardiac fate and restrict anterior haemangioblast fate in zebrafish embryos. The haemangioblast programme was thought to be activated before the cardiac programme and is repressive towards it, suggesting that activation by Fgf of the cardiac programme might be via suppression of the haemangioblast programme. However, we show that the cardiac regulator nkx2.5 can also repress the haemangioblast programme and, furthermore, that cardiac specification still requires Fgf signalling even when haemangioblast regulators are independently suppressed. We further show that nkx2.5 and the cloche candidate gene lycat are expressed during gastrulation and regulated by Fgf, and that nkx2.5 overexpression, together with loss of the lycat targets etsrp and scl can stably induce expansion of the heart. We conclude that Fgf controls cardiac and haemangioblast fates by the simultaneous regulation of haemangioblast and cardiac regulators. We propose that elevation of Fgf signalling in the anterior haemangioblast territory could have led to its recruitment into the heart field during evolution, increasing the size of the heart. PMID:21750034

  18. Mechanisms of FGF gradient formation during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Revathi; Zhang, Xin

    2016-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have long been attributed to influence morphogenesis in embryonic development. Signaling by FGF morphogen encodes positional identity of tissues by creating a concentration gradient over the developing embryo. Various mechanisms that influence the development of such gradient have been elucidated in the recent past. These mechanisms of FGF gradient formation present either as an extracellular control over FGF ligand diffusion or as a subcellular control of FGF propagation and signaling. In this review, we describe our current understanding of FGF as a morphogen, the extracellular control of FGF gradient formation by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and mechanisms of intracellular regulation of FGF signaling that influence gradient formation.

  19. Pax9 regulates a molecular network involving Bmp4, Fgf10, Shh signaling and the Osr2 transcription factor to control palate morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing; Gao, Yang; Lan, Yu; Jia, Shihai; Jiang, Rulang

    2013-01-01

    Cleft palate is one of the most common birth defects in humans. Whereas gene knockout studies in mice have shown that both the Osr2 and Pax9 transcription factors are essential regulators of palatogenesis, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involving these transcription factors in palate development. We report here that Pax9 plays a crucial role in patterning the anterior-posterior axis and outgrowth of the developing palatal shelves. We found that tissue-specific deletion of Pax9 in the palatal mesenchyme affected Shh expression in palatal epithelial cells, indicating that Pax9 plays a crucial role in the mesenchyme-epithelium interactions during palate development. We found that expression of the Bmp4, Fgf10, Msx1 and Osr2 genes is significantly downregulated in the developing palatal mesenchyme in Pax9 mutant embryos. Remarkably, restoration of Osr2 expression in the early palatal mesenchyme through a Pax9Osr2KI allele rescued posterior palate morphogenesis in the absence of Pax9 protein function. Our data indicate that Pax9 regulates a molecular network involving the Bmp4, Fgf10, Shh and Osr2 pathways to control palatal shelf patterning and morphogenesis. PMID:24173808

  20. Pax9 regulates a molecular network involving Bmp4, Fgf10, Shh signaling and the Osr2 transcription factor to control palate morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Gao, Yang; Lan, Yu; Jia, Shihai; Jiang, Rulang

    2013-12-01

    Cleft palate is one of the most common birth defects in humans. Whereas gene knockout studies in mice have shown that both the Osr2 and Pax9 transcription factors are essential regulators of palatogenesis, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involving these transcription factors in palate development. We report here that Pax9 plays a crucial role in patterning the anterior-posterior axis and outgrowth of the developing palatal shelves. We found that tissue-specific deletion of Pax9 in the palatal mesenchyme affected Shh expression in palatal epithelial cells, indicating that Pax9 plays a crucial role in the mesenchyme-epithelium interactions during palate development. We found that expression of the Bmp4, Fgf10, Msx1 and Osr2 genes is significantly downregulated in the developing palatal mesenchyme in Pax9 mutant embryos. Remarkably, restoration of Osr2 expression in the early palatal mesenchyme through a Pax9(Osr2KI) allele rescued posterior palate morphogenesis in the absence of Pax9 protein function. Our data indicate that Pax9 regulates a molecular network involving the Bmp4, Fgf10, Shh and Osr2 pathways to control palatal shelf patterning and morphogenesis.

  1. Asymmetric cell convergence-driven zebrafish fin bud initiation and pre-pattern requires Tbx5a control of a mesenchymal Fgf signal

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qiyan; Stinnett, Haley K.; Ho, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Tbx5 plays a pivotal role in vertebrate forelimb initiation, and loss-of-function experiments result in deformed or absent forelimbs in all taxa studied to date. Combining single-cell fate mapping and three-dimensional cell tracking in the zebrafish, we describe a Tbx5a-dependent cell convergence pattern that is both asymmetric and topological within the fin-field lateral plate mesoderm during early fin bud initiation. We further demonstrate that a mesodermal Fgf24 convergence cue controlled by Tbx5a underlies this asymmetric convergent motility. Partial reduction in Tbx5a or Fgf24 levels disrupts the normal fin-field cell motility gradient and results in anteriorly biased perturbations of fin-field cell convergence and truncations in the pectoral fin skeleton, resembling aspects of the forelimb skeletal defects that define individuals with Holt–Oram syndrome. This study provides a quantitative reference model for fin-field cell motility during vertebrate fin bud initiation and suggests that a pre-pattern of anteroposterior fate specification is already present in the fin-field before or during migration because perturbations to these early cell movements result in the alteration of specific fates. PMID:26525676

  2. FGF10: A multifunctional mesenchymal-epithelial signaling growth factor in development, health, and disease.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2016-04-01

    The FGF family comprises 22 members with diverse functions in development and health. FGF10 specifically activates FGFR2b in a paracrine manner with heparan sulfate as a co-factor. FGF10and FGFR2b are preferentially expressed in the mesenchyme and epithelium, respectively. FGF10 is a mesenchymal signaling molecule in the epithelium. FGF10 knockout mice die shortly after birth due to the complete absence of lungs as well as fore- and hindlimbs. FGF10 is also essential for the development of multiple organs. The phenotypes of Fgf10 knockout mice are very similar to those of FGFR2b knockout mice, indicating that FGF10 acts as a ligand that is specific to FGFR2b in mouse multi-organ development. FGF10 also plays roles in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, the repair of tissue injury, and embryonic stem cell differentiation. In humans, FGF10 loss-of-function mutations result in inherited diseases including aplasia of lacrimal and salivary gland, lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital syndrome, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. FGF10 is also involved in the oncogenicity of pancreatic and breast cancers. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in FGF10 are also potential risk factors for limb deficiencies, cleft lip and palate, and extreme myopia. These findings indicate that FGF10 is a crucial paracrine signal from the mesenchyme to epithelium for development, health, and disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The FGF-BMP signaling axis regulates outflow tract valve primordium formation by promoting cushion neural crest cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jue; Chang, Julia Y. F.; Huang, Yanqing; Lin, Xiang; Luo, Yongde; Schwartz, Robert J.; Martin, James F.; Wang, Fen

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Heart valves develop from precursor structures called cardiac cushions, an endothelial-lined cardiac jelly that resides in the inner side of the heart tube. The cushions are then invaded by cells from different sources, undergo a series of complicated and poorly understood remodeling processes, and give rise to valves. Disruption of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling axis impairs morphogenesis of the outflow tract (OFT). Yet, whether FGF signaling regulates OFT valve formation is unknown. Objective To study how OFT valve formation is regulated and how aberrant cell signaling causes valve defects. Methods and results By employing mouse genetic manipulation, cell lineage tracing, ex vivo heart culture, and molecular biology approaches, we demonstrated that FGF signaling in the OFT myocardium upregulated Bmp4 expression, which then enhanced smooth muscle differentiation of neural crest cells (NCCs) in the cushion. FGF signaling also promoted OFT myocardial cell invasion to the cushion. Disrupting FGF signaling interrupted cushion remodeling with reduced NCCs differentiation into smooth muscle and less cardiomyocyte invasion, and resulted in malformed OFT valves. Conclusions The results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which the FGF-BMP signaling axis regulates formation of OFT valve primordia by controlling smooth muscle differentiation of cushion NCCs. PMID:20847311

  4. The FGF-BMP signaling axis regulates outflow tract valve primordium formation by promoting cushion neural crest cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jue; Chang, Julia Y F; Huang, Yanqing; Lin, Xiang; Luo, Yongde; Schwartz, Robert J; Martin, James F; Wang, Fen

    2010-11-12

    Heart valves develop from precursor structures called cardiac cushions, an endothelial-lined cardiac jelly that resides in the inner side of the heart tube. The cushions are then invaded by cells from different sources, undergo a series of complicated and poorly understood remodeling processes, and give rise to valves. Disruption of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling axis impairs morphogenesis of the outflow tract (OFT). Yet, whether FGF signaling regulates OFT valve formation is unknown. To study how OFT valve formation is regulated and how aberrant cell signaling causes valve defects. By using mouse genetic manipulation, cell lineage tracing, ex vivo heart culture, and molecular biology approaches, we demonstrated that FGF signaling in the OFT myocardium upregulated Bmp4 expression, which then enhanced smooth muscle differentiation of neural crest cells (NCCs) in the cushion. FGF signaling also promoted OFT myocardial cell invasion to the cushion. Disrupting FGF signaling interrupted cushion remodeling with reduced NCCs differentiation into smooth muscle and less cardiomyocyte invasion and resulted in malformed OFT valves. The results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which the FGF-BMP signaling axis regulates formation of OFT valve primordia by controlling smooth muscle differentiation of cushion NCCs.

  5. Expression profile of critical genes involved in FGF signaling pathway in the developing human primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Chunni; Liu, Hong; Lin, Chensheng; Zhang, Yanding; Hu, Xuefeng

    2015-11-01

    Mammalian tooth development is regulated by paracrine signal molecules of several conserved family interactions between epithelium and mesenchyme. The expression patterns and regulative roles of FGF signaling have been extensively studied in the mouse odontogenesis; however, that is not well known in human tooth development. In order to unveil the molecular mechanisms that regulate human tooth morphogenesis, we examined the expression patterns of the critical molecules involved in FGF signaling pathway in the developing human tooth germ by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and real-time RT-PCR, including FGF ligands, receptors, and intracellular transducer. We found overlapping but distinct expression pattern of FGF ligands and receptors in the different stages and components. Expression of FGF4, FGF7, FGF8, and FGF9 persists widespread in human tooth mesenchyme, which is quite different to that of in mouse. FGFR1 may be the major receptor in regulate mechanisms of FGF signals in human tooth development. Real-time RT-PCR indeed confirmed the results of in situ hybridization. Results of K-Ras, p-ERK1/2, p-p38, p-JNK, and p-PDK1 expression reveal spatial and temporal patterns of FGF signaling during morphogenesis and organogenesis of human tooth germ. Activity of the FGF signaling transducer protein in human tooth germ was much higher than that of in mouse. Our results provided important FGF singling information in the developing process, pinpoint to the domains where the downstream target genes of FGF signaling can be sought, and enlightened our knowledge about the nature of FGF signaling in human tooth germ.

  6. FXR Primes the Liver for Intestinal FGF15 Signaling by Transient Induction of β-Klotho

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ting; Kim, Young-Chae; Byun, Sangwon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Seok, Sunmi; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Xu, H. Eric; Kemper, Byron

    2016-01-01

    The bile acid (BA)-sensing nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), regulates postprandial metabolic responses, including inhibition of BA synthesis, by inducing the intestinal hormone, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)15 (FGF19 in human). In this study, we tested a novel hypothesis that FXR not only induces intestinal FGF15 but also primes the liver for effectively responding to the signal by transcriptional induction of the obligate coreceptor for FGF15, β-Klotho (βKL). Activation of FXR by a synthetic agonist, GW4064, in mice increased occupancy of FXR and its DNA-binding partner, retinoid X receptor-α, at FGF15-signaling component genes, particularly βKL, and induced expression of these genes. Interestingly, mRNA levels of Fgfr4, the FGF15 receptor, were not increased by GW4064, but protein levels increased as a result of βKL-dependent increased protein stability. Both FGF receptor 4 and βKL protein levels were substantially decreased in FXR-knockout (KO) mice, and FGF19 signaling, monitored by phosphorylated ERK, was blunted in FXR-KO mice, FXR-KO mouse hepatocytes, and FXR-down-regulated human hepatocytes. Overexpression of βKL in FXR-lacking hepatocytes partially restored FGF19 signaling and inhibition by FGF19 of Cyp7a1, which encodes the rate-limiting BA biosynthetic enzyme. In mice, transient inductions of intestinal Fgf15 and hepatic βKL were temporally correlated after GW4064 treatment, and pretreatment of hepatocytes with GW4064 before FGF19 treatment enhanced FGF19 signaling, which was abolished by transcriptional inhibition or βKL down-regulation. This study identifies FXR as a gut-liver metabolic coordinator for FGF15/19 action that orchestrates transient induction of hepatic βKL and intestinal Fgf15/19 in a temporally correlated manner. PMID:26505219

  7. FXR Primes the Liver for Intestinal FGF15 Signaling by Transient Induction of β-Klotho.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ting; Kim, Young-Chae; Byun, Sangwon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Seok, Sunmi; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Xu, H Eric; Kemper, Byron; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2016-01-01

    The bile acid (BA)-sensing nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), regulates postprandial metabolic responses, including inhibition of BA synthesis, by inducing the intestinal hormone, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)15 (FGF19 in human). In this study, we tested a novel hypothesis that FXR not only induces intestinal FGF15 but also primes the liver for effectively responding to the signal by transcriptional induction of the obligate coreceptor for FGF15, β-Klotho (βKL). Activation of FXR by a synthetic agonist, GW4064, in mice increased occupancy of FXR and its DNA-binding partner, retinoid X receptor-α, at FGF15-signaling component genes, particularly βKL, and induced expression of these genes. Interestingly, mRNA levels of Fgfr4, the FGF15 receptor, were not increased by GW4064, but protein levels increased as a result of βKL-dependent increased protein stability. Both FGF receptor 4 and βKL protein levels were substantially decreased in FXR-knockout (KO) mice, and FGF19 signaling, monitored by phosphorylated ERK, was blunted in FXR-KO mice, FXR-KO mouse hepatocytes, and FXR-down-regulated human hepatocytes. Overexpression of βKL in FXR-lacking hepatocytes partially restored FGF19 signaling and inhibition by FGF19 of Cyp7a1, which encodes the rate-limiting BA biosynthetic enzyme. In mice, transient inductions of intestinal Fgf15 and hepatic βKL were temporally correlated after GW4064 treatment, and pretreatment of hepatocytes with GW4064 before FGF19 treatment enhanced FGF19 signaling, which was abolished by transcriptional inhibition or βKL down-regulation. This study identifies FXR as a gut-liver metabolic coordinator for FGF15/19 action that orchestrates transient induction of hepatic βKL and intestinal Fgf15/19 in a temporally correlated manner.

  8. FGF signaling inhibitor, SPRY4, is evolutionarily conserved target of WNT signaling pathway in progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-03-01

    WNT, FGF and Hedgehog signaling pathways network together during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration, and carcinogenesis. FGF16, FGF18, and FGF20 genes are targets of WNT-mediated TCF/LEF-beta-catenin-BCL9/BCL9L-PYGO transcriptional complex. SPROUTY (SPRY) and SPRED family genes encode inhibitors for receptor tyrosine kinase signaling cascades, such as those of FGF receptor family members and EGF receptor family members. Here, transcriptional regulation of SPRY1, SPRY2, SPRY3, SPRY4, SPRED1, SPRED2, and SPRED3 genes by WNT/beta-catenin signaling cascade was investigated by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (humint). Because double TCF/LEF-binding sites were identified within the 5'-promoter region of human SPRY4 gene, comparative genomics analyses on SPRY4 orthologs were further performed. SPRY4-FGF1 locus at human chromosome 5q31.3 and FGF2-NUDT6-SPATA5-SPRY1 locus at human chromosome 4q27-q28.1 were paralogous regions within the human genome. Chimpanzee SPRY4 gene was identified within NW_107083.1 genome sequence. Human, chimpanzee, rat and mouse SPRY4 orthologs, consisting of three exons, were well conserved. SPRY4 gene was identified as the evolutionarily conserved target of WNT/beta-catenin signaling pathway based on the conservation of double TCF/LEF-binding sites within 5'-promoter region of mammalian SPRY4 orthologs. Human SPRY4 mRNA was expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, brain, pancreatic islet, colon cancer, head and neck tumor, melanoma, and pancreatic cancer. WNT signaling activation in progenitor cells leads to the growth regulation of progenitor cells themselves through SPRY4 induction, and also to the growth stimulation of proliferating cells through FGF secretion. Epigenetic silencing and loss-of-function mutations of SPRY4 gene in progenitor cells could lead to carcinogenesis. SPRY4 is the pharmacogenomics target in the fields of oncology and regenerative medicine.

  9. IL-1β inhibits β-Klotho expression and FGF19 signaling in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yueshui; Meng, Chenling; Wang, Yang; Huang, Huihui; Liu, Wenjing; Zhang, Jin-Fang; Zhao, Hui; Feng, Bo; Leung, Po Sing; Xia, Yin

    2016-02-15

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 is a member of the FGF15/19 subfamily of FGFs that includes FGF15/19, FGF21, and FGF23. FGF19 has been shown to have profound effects on liver metabolism and regeneration. FGF19 binds to FGFR4 and its coreceptor β-Klotho to activate intracellular kinases, including Erk1/2. Studies have shown that proinflammatory cytokines such as TNFα impair FGF21 signaling in adipose cells by repressing β-Klotho expression. However, little is known about the effects of inflammation on the FGF19 pathway in the liver. In the present study, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibited β-Klotho and Fgfr4 expression in livers in mice, whereas LPS had no effects on the two FGF19 receptors in Huh-7 and HepG2 cells. Of the three inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6, IL-1β drastically inhibited β-Klotho expression, whereas TNFα and IL-6 had no or minor effects. None of the three cytokines had any effects on FGFR4 expression. IL-1β directly inhibited β-Klotho transcription, and this inhibition required both the JNK and NF-κB pathways. In addition, IL-1β inhibited FGF19-induced Erk1/2 activation and cell proliferation. These results suggest that inflammation and IL-1β play an important role in regulating FGF19 signaling and function in the liver.

  10. Polyguluronate sulfate and its oligosaccharides but not heparin promotes FGF19/FGFR1c signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Ying; Zeng, Xuan; Guo, Zhihua; Zeng, Pengjiao; Hao, Cui; Zhao, Xia; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Lijuan

    2017-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 19(FGF19) functions as a hormone by affecting glucose metabolism. FGF19 improves glucose tolerance when overexpressed in mice with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. A functional cellular FGF19 receptor consists of FGF receptor (FGFR) and glycosaminoglycan complexed with either α Klotho or β Klotho. Interestingly, in mice with diet-induced diabetes, a single injection of FGF1 is enough to restore blood sugar levels to a healthy range. FGF1 binds heparin with high affinity whereas FGF19 does not, indicating that polysaccharides other than heparin might enhance FGF19/FGFR signaling. Using a FGFs/FGFR1c signaling-dependent BaF3 cell proliferation assay, we discovered that polyguluronate sulfate (PGS) and its oligosaccharides, PGS12 and PGS25, but not polyguluronate (PG), a natural marine polysaccharide, enhanced FGF19/FGFR1c signaling better than that of heparin based on 3H-thymidine incorporation. Interestingly, PGS6, PGS8, PGS10, PGS12, PGS25, and PGS, but not PG, had comparable FGF1/FGFR1c signal-stimulating activity compared to that of heparin. These results indicated that PGS and its oligosaccharides were excellent FGF1/FGFR1c and FGF19/FGFR1c signaling enhancers at cellular level. Since the inexpensive PGS and PGS oligosaccharides can be absorbed through oral route, these seaweed-derived compounds merit further investigation as novel agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes through enhancing FGF1/FGFR1c and FGF19/FGFR1c signaling in future.

  11. FGF1 C-terminal domain and phosphorylation regulate intracrine FGF1 signaling for its neurotrophic and anti-apoptotic activities

    PubMed Central

    Delmas, E; Jah, N; Pirou, C; Bouleau, S; Le Floch, N; Vayssière, J-L; Mignotte, B; Renaud, F

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) is a prototypic member of the FGFs family overexpressed in various tumors. Contrarily to most FGFs, FGF1 lacks a secretion peptide signal and acts mainly in an intracellular and nuclear manner. Intracellular FGF1 induces cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. We previously showed that intracellular FGF1 induces neuronal differentiation and inhibits both p53- and serum-free-medium-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. FGF1 nuclear localization is required for these intracellular activities, suggesting that FGF1 regulates p53-dependent apoptosis and neuronal differentiation by new nuclear pathways. To better characterize intracellular FGF1 pathways, we studied the effect of three mutations localized in the C-terminal domain of FGF1 (i.e., FGF1K132E, FGF1S130A and FGF1S130D) on FGF1 neurotrophic and anti-apoptotic activities in PC12 cells. The change of the serine 130 to alanine precludes FGF1 phosphorylation, while its mutation to aspartic acid mimics phosphorylation. These FGF1 mutants kept both a nuclear and cytosolic localization in PC12 cells. Our study highlights for the first time the role of FGF1 phosphorylation and the implication of FGF1 C-terminal domain on its intracellular activities. Indeed, we show that the K132E mutation inhibits both the neurotrophic and anti-apoptotic activities of FGF1, suggesting a regulatory activity for FGF1 C terminus. Furthermore, we observed that both FGF1S130A and FGF1S130D mutant forms induced PC12 cells neuronal differentiation. Therefore, FGF1 phosphorylation does not regulate FGF1-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. Then, we showed that only FGF1S130A protects PC12 cells against p53-dependent apoptosis, thus phosphorylation appears to inhibit FGF1 anti-apoptotic activity in PC12 cells. Altogether, our results show that phosphorylation does not regulate FGF1 neurotrophic activity but inhibits its anti-apoptotic activity after p53-dependent apoptosis induction, giving new insight

  12. Zebrafish Ext2 is necessary for Fgf and Wnt signaling, but not for Hh signaling.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sabine; Filipek-Gorniok, Beata; Ledin, Johan

    2011-09-05

    Heparan sulfate (HS) biosynthesis is tightly regulated during vertebrate embryo development. However, potential roles for HS biosynthesis in regulating the function of paracrine signaling molecules that bind to HS are incompletely understood. In this report we have studied Fgf, Wnt and Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in ext2 mutants, where heparan sulfate content is low. We found that Fgf targeted gene expression is reduced in ext2 mutants and that the remaining expression is readily inhibited by SU5402, an FGF receptor inhibitor. In the ext2 mutants, Fgf signaling is shown to be affected during nervous system development and reduction of Fgf ligands in the mutants affects tail development. Also, Wnt signaling is affected in the ext2 mutants, as shown by a stronger phenotype in ext2 mutants injected with morpholinos that partially block translation of Wnt11 or Wnt5b, compared to injected wild type embryos. In contrast, Hh dependent signaling is apparently unaffected in the ext2 mutants; Hh targeted gene expression is not reduced, the Hh inhibitor cyclopamine is not more affective in the mutants and Hh dependent cell differentiation in the retina and in the myotome are normal in ext2 mutants. In addition, no genetic interaction between ext2 and shha during development could be detected. We conclude that ext2 is involved in Fgf and Wnt signaling but not in Hh signaling, revealing an unexpected specificity for ext2 in signaling pathways during embryonic development. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that regulation of heparan sulfate biosynthesis has distinct instructive functions for different signaling factors.

  13. ATP oscillations mediate inductive action of FGF and Shh signalling on prechondrogenic condensation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuck Joon

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal patterns are prefigured by prechondrogenic condensation. Morphogens such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and sonic hedgehog (Shh) specify the skeletal patterns in limb development. However, how morphogens regulate prechondrogenic condensation has remained unclear. Recently, it was demonstrated that synchronized Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) oscillations play a critical role in prechondrogenic condensation. Thus, the present study has focused on whether ATP oscillations mediate the actions of major developmental morphogens such as FGF and Shh on prechondrogenic condensation. It has been shown that both FGF and Shh signalling promoted cellular condensation but not chondrogenic differentiation and also induced ATP oscillations. In addition, blockage of FGF and Shh signalling prevented both ATP oscillations and prechondrogenic condensation. Furthermore, it was found that inhibition of ATP oscillations suppressed FGF/Shh-induced prechondrogenic condensation. These results indicate that ATP oscillations mediate the actions of FGF and Shh signalling on prechondrogenic condensation. This study proposes that morphogens organize skeletal patterns via ATP oscillations.

  14. Bone proteins PHEX and DMP1 regulate fibroblastic growth factor Fgf23 expression in osteocytes through a common pathway involving FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Aline; Liu, Shiguang; David, Valentin; Li, Hua; Karydis, Anastasios; Feng, Jian Q.; Quarles, L. Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Fibroblastic growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a circulating phosphaturic hormone. Inactivating mutations of the endopeptidase PHEX or the SIBLING protein DMP1 result in equivalent intrinsic bone mineralization defects and increased Fgf23 expression in osteocytes. The mechanisms whereby PHEX and DMP1 regulate Fgf23 expression are unknown. We examined the possibility that PHEX and DMP1 regulate Fgf23 through a common pathway by analyzing the phenotype of compound Phex and Dmp1 mutant mice (Hyp/Dmp1−/−). Compared to single-mutant littermates, compound-mutant Hyp/Dmp1−/− mice displayed nonadditive elevations of serum FGF23 (1912 ± 183, 1715 ± 178, and 1799 ± 181 pg/ml), hypophosphatemia (Pi: 6.0 ± 0.3, 5.8 ± 0.2, and 5.4 ± 0.1 mg/dl), and severity of rickets/osteomalacia (bone mineral density: −36, −36, and −30%). Microarray analysis of long bones identified gene expression profiles implicating common activation of the FGFR pathway in all the mutant groups. Furthermore, inhibiting FGFR signaling using SU5402 in Hyp- and Dmp1−/−-derived bone marrow stromal cells prevented the increase in Fgf23 mRNA expression (129- and 124-fold increase in Hyp and Dmp1−/− vs. 1.3-fold in Hyp+SU5402 and 2.5-fold in Dmp1−/−+SU5402, P<0.05). For all analyses, samples collected from nonmutant wild-type littermates served as controls. These findings indicate that PHEX and DMP1 control a common pathway regulating bone mineralization and FGF23 production, the latter involving activation of the FGFR signaling in osteocytes.—Martin, A., Liu, S., David, V., Li, H., Karydis, A., Feng, J. Q., Quarles, L. D. Bone proteins PHEX and DMP1 regulate fibroblastic growth factor Fgf23 expression in osteocytes through a common pathway. PMID:21507898

  15. Specific regions within the embryonic midbrain and cerebellum require different levels of FGF signaling during development

    PubMed Central

    Basson, M. Albert; Echevarria, Diego; Ahn, Christina Petersen; Sudarov, Anamaria; Joyner, Alexandra L.; Mason, Ivor J.; Martinez, Salvador; Martin, Gail R.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Development of the prospective midbrain and cerebellum are coordinated by FGF ligands produced by the isthmic organizer. Previous studies have suggested that the midbrain and cerebellum require different levels of FGF signaling for their development. However, little is known about the extent to which specific regions within these two parts of the brain differ in their requirement for FGF signaling during embryogenesis. In this study, we have explored the effects of inhibiting FGF signaling within the embryonic midbrain (mesencephalon) and cerebellum (rhombomere 1) by misexpressing Sprouty2 (Spry2) specifically in the mouse mesencephalon and rhombomere 1 from an early stage. We show that such Spry2 misexpression moderately reduces FGF signaling, and that this reduction causes the death of cells in the anterior mesencephalon, the region furthest from the source of FGF ligands. Interestingly, the remaining cells in the posterior mesencephalon develop into anterior midbrain, indicating that a low level of FGF signaling is sufficient to promote only anterior midbrain development. Spry2 misexpression also affects development of the vermis, the medial part of the cerebellum that spans the midline. We found that whereas misexpression of Spry2 alone caused loss of the anterior vermis, reducing FGF signaling further, by decreasing Fgf8 gene dosage, resulted in loss of the entire vermis. We provide evidence that cell death is not responsible for this tissue loss. Instead, our data suggest that the vermis fails to develop because reducing FGF signaling perturbs the balance between vermis and roof plate development in rhombomere 1. We suggest a molecular explanation for this phenomenon by providing evidence that FGF signaling functions to inhibit the BMP signaling that promotes roof plate development. PMID:18216176

  16. Cardiomyocyte FGF signaling is required for Cx43 phosphorylation and cardiac gap junction maintenance.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takashi; Tsuchida, Mariko; Lampe, Paul D; Murakami, Masahiro

    2013-08-15

    Cardiac remodeling resulting from impairment of myocardial integrity leads to heart failure, through still incompletely understood mechanisms. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) system has been implicated in tissue maintenance, but its role in the adult heart is not well defined. We hypothesized that the FGF system plays a role in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis, and the impairment of cardiomyocyte FGF signaling leads to pathological cardiac remodeling. We showed that FGF signaling is required for connexin 43 (Cx43) localization at cell-cell contacts in isolated cardiomyocytes and COS7 cells. Lack of FGF signaling led to decreased Cx43 phosphorylation at serines 325/328/330 (S325/328/330), sites known to be important for assembly of gap junctions. Cx43 instability induced by FGF inhibition was restored by the Cx43 S325/328/330 phospho-mimetic mutant, suggesting FGF-dependent phosphorylation of these sites. Consistent with these in vitro findings, cardiomyocyte-specific inhibition of FGF signaling in adult mice demonstrated mislocalization of Cx43 at intercalated discs, whereas localization of N-cadherin and desmoplakin was not affected. This led to premature death resulting from impaired cardiac remodeling. We conclude that cardiomyocyte FGF signaling is essential for cardiomyocyte homeostasis through phosphorylation of Cx43 at S325/328/330 residues which are important for the maintenance of gap junction.

  17. Fgf Signaling is Required for Photoreceptor Maintenance in the Adult Zebrafish Retina

    PubMed Central

    Hochmann, Sarah; Kaslin, Jan; Hans, Stefan; Weber, Anke; Machate, Anja; Geffarth, Michaela; Funk, Richard H. W.; Brand, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (Fgf) are secreted signaling molecules that have mitogenic, patterning, neurotrophic and angiogenic properties. Their importance during embryonic development in patterning and morphogenesis of the vertebrate eye is well known, but less is known about the role of Fgfs in the adult vertebrate retina. To address Fgf function in adult retina, we determined the spatial distribution of components of the Fgf signaling pathway in the adult zebrafish retina. We detected differential expression of Fgf receptors, ligands and downstream Fgf targets within specific retinal layers. Furthermore, we blocked Fgf signaling in the retina, by expressing a dominant negative variant of Fgf receptor 1 conditionally in transgenic animals. After blocking Fgf signaling we observe a fast and progressive photoreceptor degeneration and disorganization of retinal tissue, coupled with cell death in the outer nuclear layer. Following the degeneration of photoreceptors, a profound regeneration response is triggered that starts with proliferation in the inner nuclear layer. Ultimately, rod and cone photoreceptors are regenerated completely. Our study reveals the requirement of Fgf signaling to maintain photoreceptors and for proliferation during regeneration in the adult zebrafish retina. PMID:22291943

  18. Fgf signaling is required for photoreceptor maintenance in the adult zebrafish retina.

    PubMed

    Hochmann, Sarah; Kaslin, Jan; Hans, Stefan; Weber, Anke; Machate, Anja; Geffarth, Michaela; Funk, Richard H W; Brand, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (Fgf) are secreted signaling molecules that have mitogenic, patterning, neurotrophic and angiogenic properties. Their importance during embryonic development in patterning and morphogenesis of the vertebrate eye is well known, but less is known about the role of Fgfs in the adult vertebrate retina. To address Fgf function in adult retina, we determined the spatial distribution of components of the Fgf signaling pathway in the adult zebrafish retina. We detected differential expression of Fgf receptors, ligands and downstream Fgf targets within specific retinal layers. Furthermore, we blocked Fgf signaling in the retina, by expressing a dominant negative variant of Fgf receptor 1 conditionally in transgenic animals. After blocking Fgf signaling we observe a fast and progressive photoreceptor degeneration and disorganization of retinal tissue, coupled with cell death in the outer nuclear layer. Following the degeneration of photoreceptors, a profound regeneration response is triggered that starts with proliferation in the inner nuclear layer. Ultimately, rod and cone photoreceptors are regenerated completely. Our study reveals the requirement of Fgf signaling to maintain photoreceptors and for proliferation during regeneration in the adult zebrafish retina.

  19. MicroRNA-34a and Impaired FGF19/21 Signaling in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Fu, T; Kemper, J K

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic and the urgent need for effective and safe drugs to treat obesity-related diseases have greatly increased research interest in the metabolic hormones, fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19, FGF15 in mice), and FGF21. FGF19 and FGF21 function as endocrine hormones that play key roles in energy metabolism and counteract obesity. Importantly, in obese humans and lab animals, circulating FGF19 and FGF21 levels are elevated, and metabolic actions of these hormones are impaired but the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. Recent microRNA (miR) studies have revealed that aberrantly elevated miR-34a in obesity directly targets β-Klotho, the obligate coreceptor for both FGF19 and FGF21, and attenuates metabolic signaling of these hormones. In this review, we will discuss recent findings in the miR and FGF19/21 fields, emphasizing the novel function of obesity-associated miR-34a in attenuation of FGF19/21 metabolic actions, and further discuss miRs, including miR-34a, as potential drug targets for obesity-related diseases.

  20. FGF signaling sustains the odontogenic fate of dental mesenchyme by suppressing β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Gu, Shuping; Sun, Cheng; Ye, Wenduo; Song, Zhongchen; Zhang, Yanding; Chen, YiPing

    2013-01-01

    Odontoblasts and osteoblasts develop from multipotent craniofacial neural crest cells during tooth and jawbone development, but the mechanisms that specify and sustain their respective fates remain largely unknown. In this study we used early mouse molar and incisor tooth germs that possess distinct tooth-forming capability after dissociation and reaggregation in vitro to investigate the mechanism that sustains odontogenic fate of dental mesenchyme during tooth development. We found that after dissociation and reaggregation, incisor, but not molar, mesenchyme exhibits a strong osteogenic potency associated with robustly elevated β-catenin signaling activity in a cell-autonomous manner, leading to failed tooth formation in the reaggregates. Application of FGF3 to incisor reaggregates inhibits β-catenin signaling activity and rescues tooth formation. The lack of FGF retention on the cell surface of incisor mesenchyme appears to account for the differential osteogenic potency between incisor and molar, which can be further attributed to the differential expression of syndecan 1 and NDST genes. We further demonstrate that FGF signaling inhibits intracellular β-catenin signaling by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway to regulate the subcellular localization of active GSK3β in dental mesenchymal cells. Our results reveal a novel function for FGF signaling in ensuring the proper fate of dental mesenchyme by regulating β-catenin signaling activity during tooth development. PMID:24067353

  1. FGF signaling sustains the odontogenic fate of dental mesenchyme by suppressing β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Gu, Shuping; Sun, Cheng; Ye, Wenduo; Song, Zhongchen; Zhang, Yanding; Chen, YiPing

    2013-11-01

    Odontoblasts and osteoblasts develop from multipotent craniofacial neural crest cells during tooth and jawbone development, but the mechanisms that specify and sustain their respective fates remain largely unknown. In this study we used early mouse molar and incisor tooth germs that possess distinct tooth-forming capability after dissociation and reaggregation in vitro to investigate the mechanism that sustains odontogenic fate of dental mesenchyme during tooth development. We found that after dissociation and reaggregation, incisor, but not molar, mesenchyme exhibits a strong osteogenic potency associated with robustly elevated β-catenin signaling activity in a cell-autonomous manner, leading to failed tooth formation in the reaggregates. Application of FGF3 to incisor reaggregates inhibits β-catenin signaling activity and rescues tooth formation. The lack of FGF retention on the cell surface of incisor mesenchyme appears to account for the differential osteogenic potency between incisor and molar, which can be further attributed to the differential expression of syndecan 1 and NDST genes. We further demonstrate that FGF signaling inhibits intracellular β-catenin signaling by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway to regulate the subcellular localization of active GSK3β in dental mesenchymal cells. Our results reveal a novel function for FGF signaling in ensuring the proper fate of dental mesenchyme by regulating β-catenin signaling activity during tooth development.

  2. Roles of FGF19 in liver metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kir, S; Kliewer, S A; Mangelsdorf, D J

    2011-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is an ileum-derived postprandial enterokine that governs bile acid and nutrient metabolism. Synthesis of FGF19 is up-regulated by bile acids and, conversely, bile acid synthesis is down-regulated by FGF19. FGF19 also controls gallbladder volume. FGF19 has been shown to have profound effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. Recent studies have described FGF19 as a postprandial regulator of hepatic glucose and protein metabolism. Like insulin, FGF19 induces protein and glycogen synthesis and suppresses gluconeogenesis in liver. However, unlike insulin, FGF19 does not stimulate lipogenesis. A key difference between FGF19 and insulin lies in their use of different cellular signaling pathways. The beneficial effects of FGF19 on liver metabolism raise the question of whether FGF19 and its variants can be used as therapeutic agents in the treatment of diabetes.

  3. Heparan sulfate biosynthetic gene Ndst1 is required for FGF signaling in early lens development.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi; Woodbury, Andrea; Esko, Jeffrey D; Grobe, Kay; Zhang, Xin

    2006-12-01

    Multiple signaling molecules, including bone morphogenic proteins (BMP) and fibroblast growth factors (FGF), play important roles in early lens development. However, how these morphogens are regulated is still largely unknown. Heparan sulfate participates in both morphogen transport and morphogen-receptor interaction. In this study, we demonstrate that inactivation of the heparan sulfate biosynthetic gene Ndst1 resulted in invagination defects of the early lens and in the disruption of lens-determination gene expression, leading to severe lens hypoplasia or anophthalmia. Ndst1 mutants exhibited reduced sulfation of heparan sulfate, but both BMP- and Wnt-signaling remained unchanged. Instead, these embryos showed diminished binding of a subset of FGF proteins to FGF receptors. Consistent with disruption of FGF signaling, expression of phospho-Erk and ERM were also downregulated in Ndst1-mutant lenses. Taken together, these results establish an important role of Ndst1 function in FGF signaling during lens development.

  4. Circadian control of bile acid synthesis by a KLF15-Fgf15 axis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sean (Shuxin); Zhang, Rongli; Jain, Rajan; Shi, Hong; Zhang, Lilei; Zhou, Guangjin; Sangwung, Panjamaporn; Tugal, Derin; Atkins, G. Brandon; Prosdocimo, Domenick A.; Lu, Yuan; Han, Xiaonan; Tso, Patrick; Liao, Xudong; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Jain, Mukesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian control of nutrient availability is critical to efficiently meet the energetic demands of an organism. Production of bile acids (BAs), which facilitate digestion and absorption of nutrients, is a major regulator of this process. Here we identify a KLF15-Fgf15 signalling axis that regulates circadian BA production. Systemic Klf15 deficiency disrupted circadian expression of key BA synthetic enzymes, tissue BA levels and triglyceride/cholesterol absorption. Studies in liver-specific Klf15-knockout mice suggested a non-hepatic basis for regulation of BA production. Ileal Fgf15 is a potent inhibitor of BA synthesis. Using a combination of biochemical, molecular and functional assays (including ileectomy and bile duct catheterization), we identify KLF15 as the first endogenous negative regulator of circadian Fgf15 expression. Elucidation of this novel pathway controlling circadian BA production has important implications for physiologic control of nutrient availability and metabolic homeostasis. PMID:26040986

  5. Tbx2 regulates anterior neural specification by repressing FGF signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cho, Gun-Sik; Park, Dong-Seok; Choi, Sun-Cheol; Han, Jin-Kwan

    2017-01-15

    During early embryogenesis, FGF signals regulate the antero-posterior (AP) patterning of the neural plate by promoting posterior cell fates. In particular, BMP signal-mediated attenuation of FGF pathway plays a critical role in the determination of the anterior neural region. Here we show that Tbx2, a T-box transcriptional repressor regulates anterior neural specification by suppressing FGF8 signaling pathway in Xenopus embryo. Tbx2 is expressed in the anterior edge of the neural plate in early neurulae. Overexpression and knockdown of Tbx2 induce expansion and reduction in the expression of anterior neural markers, respectively. It also suppresses FGF8-induced ERK phosphorylation and neural caudalization. Tbx2, which is a target gene of BMP signal, down-regulates FGF8 signaling by inhibiting the expression of Flrt3, a positive regulator of this pathway. We found that Tbx2 binds directly to the T-box element located in the promoter region of Flrt3 gene, thereby interfering with the activity of the promoter. Consistently, Tbx2 augmentation of anterior neural formation is inhibited by co-expression of Flrt3. Furthermore, disruption of the anterior-most structures such as eyes in Tbx2-depleted embryos can be rescued by inhibition of Flrt3 function or FGF signaling. Taken together, our results suggest that Tbx2 mediates BMP signal to down-regulate FGF signaling pathway by repressing Flrt3 expression for anterior tissue formation.

  6. Altered FGF Signaling Pathways Impair Cell Proliferation and Elevation of Palate Shelves

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weijie; Gu, Shuping; Sun, Cheng; He, Wei; Xie, Xiaohua; Li, Xihai; Ye, Wenduo; Qin, Chunlin; Chen, Yiping; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    In palatogenesis, palatal shelves are patterned along the mediolateral axis as well as the anteroposterior axis before the onset of palatal fusion. Fgf10 specifically expressed in lateral mesenchyme of palate maintains Shh transcription in lateral epithelium, while Fgf7 activated in medial mesenchyme by Dlx5, suppressed the expansion of Shh expression to medial epithelium. How FGF signaling pathways regulate the cell behaviors of developing palate remains elusive. In our study, we found that when Fgf8 is ectopically expressed in the embryonic palatal mesenchyme, the elevation of palatal shelves is impaired and the posterior palatal shelves are enlarged, especially in the medial side. The palatal deformity results from the drastic increase of cell proliferation in posterior mesenchyme and decrease of cell proliferation in epithelium. The expression of mesenchymal Fgf10 and epithelial Shh in the lateral palate, as well as the Dlx5 and Fgf7 transcription in the medial mesenchyme are all interrupted, indicating that the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during palatogenesis are disrupted by the ectopic activation of mesenchymal Fgf8. Besides the altered Fgf7, Fgf10, Dlx5 and Shh expression pattern, the reduced Osr2 expression domain in the lateral mesenchyme also suggests an impaired mediolateral patterning of posterior palate. Moreover, the ectopic Fgf8 expression up-regulates pJak1 throughout the palatal mesenchyme and pErk in the medial mesenchyme, but down-regulates pJak2 in the epithelium, suggesting that during normal palatogenesis, the medial mesenchymal cell proliferation is stimulated by FGF/Erk pathway, while the epithelial cell proliferation is maintained through FGF/Jak2 pathway. PMID:26332583

  7. Fgf8 signaling for development of the midbrain and hindbrain.

    PubMed

    Harada, Hidekiyo; Sato, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Harukazu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we review how midbrain and hindbrain are specified. Otx2 and Gbx2 are expressed from the early phase of development, and their expression abuts at the midbrain hindbrain boundary (MHB), where Fgf8 expression is induced, and functions as an organizing molecule for the midbrain and hindbrain. Fgf8 induces En1 and Pax2 expression at the region where Otx2 is expressed to specify midbrain. Fgf8 activates Ras-ERK pathway to specify hindbrain. Downstream of ERK, Pea3 specifies isthmus (rhombomere 0, r0), and Irx2 may specify r1, where the cerebellum is formed. © 2016 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  8. Astrocyte morphology is controlled by neuron-derived FGF

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Amit; Bergles, Dwight E.

    2014-01-01

    The highly ramified processes of astrocytes enable cellular interactions and extracellular homeostasis. In this issue of Neuron, Stork et al. (2014) report that extension and elaboration of astrocyte processes in Drosophila is controlled by the release of FGF by neurons. PMID:25033173

  9. Ectodysplasin regulates activator-inhibitor balance in murine tooth development through Fgf20 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Häärä, Otso; Harjunmaa, Enni; Lindfors, Päivi H.; Huh, Sung-Ho; Fliniaux, Ingrid; Åberg, Thomas; Jernvall, Jukka; Ornitz, David M.; Mikkola, Marja L.; Thesleff, Irma

    2012-01-01

    Uncovering the origin and nature of phenotypic variation within species is the first step in understanding variation between species. Mouse models with altered activities of crucial signal pathways have highlighted many important genes and signal networks regulating the morphogenesis of complex structures, such as teeth. The detailed analyses of these models have indicated that the balanced actions of a few pathways regulating cell behavior modulate the shape and number of teeth. Currently, however, most mouse models studied have had gross alteration of morphology, whereas analyses of more subtle modification of morphology are required to link developmental studies to evolutionary change. Here, we have analyzed a signaling network involving ectodysplasin (Eda) and fibroblast growth factor 20 (Fgf20) that subtly affects tooth morphogenesis. We found that Fgf20 is a major downstream effector of Eda and affects Eda-regulated characteristics of tooth morphogenesis, including the number, size and shape of teeth. Fgf20 function is compensated for by other Fgfs, in particular Fgf9 and Fgf4, and is part of an Fgf signaling loop between epithelium and mesenchyme. We showed that removal of Fgf20 in an Eda gain-of-function mouse model results in an Eda loss-of-function phenotype in terms of reduced tooth complexity and third molar appearance. However, the extra anterior molar, a structure lost during rodent evolution 50 million years ago, was stabilized in these mice. PMID:22833125

  10. Ectodysplasin regulates activator-inhibitor balance in murine tooth development through Fgf20 signaling.

    PubMed

    Häärä, Otso; Harjunmaa, Enni; Lindfors, Päivi H; Huh, Sung-Ho; Fliniaux, Ingrid; Åberg, Thomas; Jernvall, Jukka; Ornitz, David M; Mikkola, Marja L; Thesleff, Irma

    2012-09-01

    Uncovering the origin and nature of phenotypic variation within species is the first step in understanding variation between species. Mouse models with altered activities of crucial signal pathways have highlighted many important genes and signal networks regulating the morphogenesis of complex structures, such as teeth. The detailed analyses of these models have indicated that the balanced actions of a few pathways regulating cell behavior modulate the shape and number of teeth. Currently, however, most mouse models studied have had gross alteration of morphology, whereas analyses of more subtle modification of morphology are required to link developmental studies to evolutionary change. Here, we have analyzed a signaling network involving ectodysplasin (Eda) and fibroblast growth factor 20 (Fgf20) that subtly affects tooth morphogenesis. We found that Fgf20 is a major downstream effector of Eda and affects Eda-regulated characteristics of tooth morphogenesis, including the number, size and shape of teeth. Fgf20 function is compensated for by other Fgfs, in particular Fgf9 and Fgf4, and is part of an Fgf signaling loop between epithelium and mesenchyme. We showed that removal of Fgf20 in an Eda gain-of-function mouse model results in an Eda loss-of-function phenotype in terms of reduced tooth complexity and third molar appearance. However, the extra anterior molar, a structure lost during rodent evolution 50 million years ago, was stabilized in these mice.

  11. BMP-FGF signaling axis mediates Wnt-induced epidermal stratification in developing mammalian skin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Jing; Liu, YuDong; Dai, Zhong-Min; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Yang, XueQin; Li, Yan; Qiu, Mengsheng; Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei; Chen, YiPing; Zhang, Zunyi

    2014-10-01

    Epidermal stratification of the mammalian skin requires proliferative basal progenitors to generate intermediate cells that separate from the basal layer and are replaced by post-mitotic cells. Although Wnt signaling has been implicated in this developmental process, the mechanism underlying Wnt-mediated regulation of basal progenitors remains elusive. Here we show that Wnt secreted from proliferative basal cells is not required for their differentiation. However, epidermal production of Wnts is essential for the formation of the spinous layer through modulation of a BMP-FGF signaling cascade in the dermis. The spinous layer defects caused by disruption of Wnt secretion can be restored by transgenically expressed Bmp4. Non-cell autonomous BMP4 promotes activation of FGF7 and FGF10 signaling, leading to an increase in proliferative basal cell population. Our findings identify an essential BMP-FGF signaling axis in the dermis that responds to the epidermal Wnts and feedbacks to regulate basal progenitors during epidermal stratification.

  12. Tfap2a promotes specification and maturation of neurons in the inner ear through modulation of Bmp, Fgf and notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Kantarci, Husniye; Edlund, Renee K; Groves, Andrew K; Riley, Bruce B

    2015-03-01

    support a model in which Tfap2a, acting through Bmp7a, modulates Fgf and Notch signaling to control the duration, amount and speed of SAG neural development.

  13. FGF-23–Klotho signaling stimulates proliferation and prevents vitamin D–induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Medici, Damian; Razzaque, Mohammed S.; DeLuca, Stephelynn; Rector, Trent L.; Hou, Bo; Kang, Kihwa; Goetz, Regina; Mohammadi, Moosa; Kuro-o, Makoto; Olsen, Bjorn R.; Lanske, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and Klotho are secretory proteins that regulate mineral-ion metabolism. Fgf-23−/− or Klotho−/− knockout mice exhibit several pathophysiological processes consistent with premature aging including severe atrophy of tissues. We show that the signal transduction pathways initiated by FGF-23–Klotho prevent tissue atrophy by stimulating proliferation and preventing apoptosis caused by excessive systemic vitamin D. Because serum levels of active vitamin D are greatly increased upon genetic ablation of Fgf-23 or Klotho, we find that these molecules have a dual role in suppression of apoptotic actions of vitamin D through both negative regulation of 1α-hydroxylase expression and phosphoinositide-3 kinase–dependent inhibition of caspase activity. These data provide new insights into the physiological roles of FGF-23 and Klotho. PMID:18678710

  14. FGF23 signaling impairs neutrophil recruitment and host defense during CKD

    PubMed Central

    Rossaint, Jan; Oehmichen, Jessica; Van Aken, Hugo; Reuter, Stefan; Pavenstädt, Hermann J.; Meersch, Melanie; Unruh, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been associated with impaired host response and increased susceptibility to infections. Leukocyte recruitment during inflammation must be tightly regulated to protect the host against pathogens. FGF23 levels are increased in blood during CKD, and levels of this hormone have been associated with a variety of adverse effects in CKD patients. Here, we have shown that CKD impairs leukocyte recruitment into inflamed tissue and host defense in mice and humans. FGF23 neutralization during CKD in murine models restored leukocyte recruitment and host defense. Intravital microscopy of animals with chronic kidney failure showed that FGF23 inhibits chemokine-activated leukocyte arrest on the endothelium, and downregulation of FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2) on PMNs rescued host defense in these mice. In vitro, FGF23 inhibited PMN adhesion, arrest under flow, and transendothelial migration. Mechanistically, FGF23 binding to FGFR2 counteracted selectin- and chemokine-triggered β2 integrin activation on PMNs by activating protein kinase A (PKA) and inhibiting activation of the small GTPase Rap1. Moreover, knockdown of PKA abolished the inhibitory effect of FGF23 on integrin activation. Together, our data reveal that FGF23 acts directly on PMNs and dampens host defense by direct interference with chemokine signaling and integrin activation. PMID:26878171

  15. FGF23 signaling impairs neutrophil recruitment and host defense during CKD.

    PubMed

    Rossaint, Jan; Oehmichen, Jessica; Van Aken, Hugo; Reuter, Stefan; Pavenstädt, Hermann J; Meersch, Melanie; Unruh, Mark; Zarbock, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been associated with impaired host response and increased susceptibility to infections. Leukocyte recruitment during inflammation must be tightly regulated to protect the host against pathogens. FGF23 levels are increased in blood during CKD, and levels of this hormone have been associated with a variety of adverse effects in CKD patients. Here, we have shown that CKD impairs leukocyte recruitment into inflamed tissue and host defense in mice and humans. FGF23 neutralization during CKD in murine models restored leukocyte recruitment and host defense. Intravital microscopy of animals with chronic kidney failure showed that FGF23 inhibits chemokine-activated leukocyte arrest on the endothelium, and downregulation of FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2) on PMNs rescued host defense in these mice. In vitro, FGF23 inhibited PMN adhesion, arrest under flow, and transendothelial migration. Mechanistically, FGF23 binding to FGFR2 counteracted selectin- and chemokine-triggered β2 integrin activation on PMNs by activating protein kinase A (PKA) and inhibiting activation of the small GTPase Rap1. Moreover, knockdown of PKA abolished the inhibitory effect of FGF23 on integrin activation. Together, our data reveal that FGF23 acts directly on PMNs and dampens host defense by direct interference with chemokine signaling and integrin activation.

  16. Initial FGF23-mediated signaling occurs in the distal convoluted tubule.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Emily G; Davis, Siobhan I; Summers, Lelia J; White, Kenneth E

    2009-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), a hormone central to phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, reduces renal absorption of phosphate by downregulating the sodium-phosphate cotransporter Npt2a. However, the mechanisms of FGF23 action in the kidney are unclear, as Npt2a localizes to the proximal tubule (PT) and the FGF23 coreceptor alpha-Klotho (KL) localizes to the distal convoluted tubule (DCT). Immunofluorescent analyses following FGF23 injection in mice showed robust staining for phospho-ERK1/2, a marker of FGF23 bioactivity, only within the DCT in a subset of KL-positive cells. This activity colocalized with the FGF23 receptor FGFR1 and was present in DCT cells that were adjacent to Npt2a-expressing PT segments. Although KL is expressed as both secreted and membrane-bound isoforms, only the membrane-bound isoform was capable of mediating FGF23 bioactivity. These findings provide novel insight into the mechanisms of hormone-regulated phosphate metabolism by identifying an intrarenal signaling axis for FGF23.

  17. FGF8 signaling sustains progenitor status and multipotency of cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Meiying; Liu, Chao; Song, Yingnan; Ye, Wenduo; He, Wei; Yuan, Guohua; Gu, Shuping; Lin, Congxin; Ma, Liang; Zhang, Yanding; Tian, Weidong; Hu, Tao; Chen, YiPing

    2015-01-01

    The cranial neural crest (CNC) cells play a vital role in craniofacial development and regeneration. They are multi-potent progenitors, being able to differentiate into various types of tissues. Both pre-migratory and post-migratory CNC cells are plastic, taking on diverse fates by responding to different inductive signals. However, what sustains the multipotency of CNC cells and derivatives remains largely unknown. In this study, we present evidence that FGF8 signaling is able to sustain progenitor status and multipotency of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells both in vivo and in vitro. We show that augmented FGF8 signaling in pre-migratory CNC cells prevents cell differentiation and organogenesis in the craniofacial region by maintaining their progenitor status. CNC-derived mesenchymal cells with Fgf8 overexpression or control cells in the presence of exogenous FGF8 exhibit prolonged survival, proliferation, and multi-potent differentiation capability in cell cultures. Remarkably, exogenous FGF8 also sustains the capability of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells to participate in organogenesis such as odontogenesis. Furthermore, FGF8-mediated signaling strongly promotes adipogenesis but inhibits osteogenesis of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells in vitro. Our results reveal a specific role for FGF8 in the maintenance of progenitor status and in fate determination of CNC cells, implicating a potential application in expansion and fate manipulation of CNC-derived cells in stem cell-based craniofacial regeneration. PMID:26243590

  18. A combined series of Fgf9 and Fgf18 mutant alleles identifies unique and redundant roles in skeletal development.

    PubMed

    Hung, Irene H; Schoenwolf, Gary C; Lewandoski, Mark; Ornitz, David M

    2016-03-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is a critical regulator of skeletal development. Fgf9 and Fgf18 are the only FGF ligands with identified functions in embryonic bone growth. Mice lacking Fgf9 or Fgf18 have distinct skeletal phenotypes; however, the extent of overlapping or redundant functions for these ligands and the stage-specific contributions of FGF signaling to chondrogenesis and osteogenesis are not known. To identify separate versus shared roles for FGF9 and FGF18, we generated a combined series of Fgf9 and Fgf18 null alleles. Analysis of embryos lacking alleles of Fgf9 and Fgf18 shows that both encoded ligands function redundantly to control all stages of skeletogenesis; however, they have variable potencies along the proximodistal limb axis, suggesting gradients of activity during formation of the appendicular skeleton. Congenital absence of both Fgf9 and Fgf18 results in a striking osteochondrodysplasia and revealed functions for FGF signaling in early proximal limb chondrogenesis. Additional defects were also noted in craniofacial bones, vertebrae, and ribs. Loss of alleles of Fgf9 and Fgf18 also affect the expression of genes encoding other key intrinsic skeletal regulators, including IHH, PTHLH (PTHrP), and RUNX2, revealing potential direct, indirect, and compensatory mechanisms to coordinate chondrogenesis and osteogenesis.

  19. Cations modulate polysaccharide structure to determine FGF-FGFR signaling: a comparison of signaling and inhibitory polysaccharide interactions with FGF-1 in solution.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Scott E; Rudd, Timothy R; Skidmore, Mark A; Ori, Alessandro; Gaudesi, Davide; Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco; Edge, Ruth; Collison, David; McInnes, Eric; Torri, Giangiacomo; Turnbull, Jeremy E; Fernig, David G; Yates, Edwin A

    2009-06-09

    For heparan sulfate (HS) to bind and regulate the activity of proteins, the polysaccharide must present an appropriate sequence and adopt a suitable conformation. The conformations of heparin derivatives, as models of HS, are altered via a change in the associated cations, and this can drastically modify their FGF signaling activities. Here, we report that changing the cations associated with an N-acetyl-enriched heparin polysaccharide, from sodium to copper(II), converted it from supporting signaling through the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGF-1-FGFR1c) tyrosine kinase signaling system to being inhibitory in a cell-based BaF3 assay. Nuclear magnetic resonance and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy demonstrated that the polysaccharide conformation differed in the presence of sodium or copper(II) cations. Electron paramagnetic resonance confirmed the environment of the copper(II) ion on the N-acetyl-enriched polysaccharide was distinct from that previously observed with intact heparin, which supported signaling. Secondary structures in solution complexes of polysaccharides with FGF-1 (which either supported signaling through FGFR1c or were inhibitory) were determined by SRCD. This allowed direct comparison of the two FGF-1-polysaccharide complexes in solution, containing identical molecular components and differing only in their cation content. Subtle structural differences were revealed, including a reduction in the level of disordered structure in the inhibitory complex.

  20. FGF Signaling Regulates Rod Photoreceptor Cell Maintenance and Regeneration in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhao; Kidd, Ambrose R.; Thomas, Jennifer L.; Poss, Kenneth D.; Hyde, David R.; Raymond, Pamela A.; Thummel, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Fgf signaling is required for many biological processes involving the regulation of cell proliferation and maintenance, including embryonic patterning, tissue homeostasis, wound healing, and cancer progression. Although the function of Fgf signaling is suggested in several different regeneration models, including appendage regeneration in amphibians and fin and heart regeneration in zebrafish, it has not yet been studied during zebrafish photoreceptor cell regeneration. Here we demonstrate that intravitreal injections of FGF-2 induced rod precursor cell proliferation and photoreceptor cell neuroprotection during intense light damage. Using the dominant-negative Tg(hsp70:dn-fgfr1) transgenic line, we found that Fgf signaling was required for homeostasis of rod, but not cone, photoreceptors. Even though fgfr1 is expressed in both rod and cone photoreceptors, we found that Fgf signaling differentially affected the regeneration of cone and rod photoreceptors in the light-damaged retina, with the dominant-negative hsp70:dn-fgfr1 transgene significantly repressing rod photoreceptor regeneration without affecting cone photoreceptors. These data suggest that rod photoreceptor homeostasis and regeneration is Fgf-dependent and that rod and cone photoreceptors in adult zebrafish are regulated by different signaling pathways. PMID:21945172

  1. FGF Signaling Pathway in the Developing Chick Lung: Expression and Inhibition Studies

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Rute S.; Coutinho-Borges, José P.; Pacheco, Ana P.; daMota, Paulo O.; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) are essential key players during embryonic development. Through their specific cognate receptors (FGFR) they activate intracellular cascades, finely regulated by modulators such as Sprouty. Several FGF ligands (FGF1, 2, 7, 9, 10 and 18) signaling through the four known FGFRs, have been implicated in lung morphogenesis. Although much is known about mammalian lung, so far, the avian model has not been explored for lung studies. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we provide the first description of fgf10, fgfr1-4 and spry2 expression patterns in early stages of chick lung development by in situ hybridization and observe that they are expressed similarly to their mammalian counterparts. Furthermore, aiming to determine a role for FGF signaling in chick lung development, in vitro FGFR inhibition studies were performed. Lung explants treated with an FGF receptor antagonist (SU5402) presented an impairment of secondary branch formation after 48 h of culture; moreover, abnormal lung growth with a cystic appearance of secondary bronchi and reduction of the mesenchymal tissue was observed. Branching and morphometric analysis of lung explants confirmed that FGFR inhibition impaired branching morphogenesis and induced a significant reduction of the mesenchyme. Conclusions/Significance This work demonstrates that FGFRs are essential for the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that determine epithelial branching and mesenchymal growth and validate the avian embryo as a good model for pulmonary studies, namely to explore the FGF pathway as a therapeutic target. PMID:21412430

  2. FGF15/FGFR4 integrates growth factor signaling with hepatic bile acid metabolism and insulin action.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Ju; Osborne, Timothy F

    2009-04-24

    The current studies show FGF15 signaling decreases hepatic forkhead transcription factor 1 (FoxO1) activity through phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation. The bile acid receptor FXR (farnesoid X receptor) activates expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 in the intestine, which acts through hepatic FGFR4 to suppress cholesterol-7alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and limit bile acid production. Because FoxO1 activity and CYP7A1 gene expression are both increased by fasting, we hypothesized CYP7A1 might be a FoxO1 target gene. Consistent with recently reported results, we show CYP7A1 is a direct target of FoxO1. Additionally, we show that the PI 3-kinase pathway is key for both the induction of CYP7A1 by fasting and the suppression by FGF15. FGFR4 is the major hepatic FGF receptor isoform and is responsible for the hepatic effects of FGF15. We also show that expression of FGFR4 in liver was decreased by fasting, increased by insulin, and reduced by streptozotocin-induced diabetes, implicating FGFR4 as a primary target of insulin regulation. Because insulin and FGF both target the PI 3-kinase pathway, these observations suggest FoxO1 is a key node in the convergence of FGF and insulin signaling pathways and functions as a key integrator for the regulation of glucose and bile acid metabolism.

  3. Suramin blocks interaction between human FGF1 and FGFR2 D2 domain and reduces downstream signaling activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zong-Sian; Liu, Che Fu; Fu, Brian; Chou, Ruey-Hwang; Yu, Chin

    2016-09-02

    The extracellular portion of the human fibroblast growth factor receptor2 D2 domain (FGFR2 D2) interacts with human fibroblast growth factor 1 (hFGF1) to activate a downstream signaling cascade that ultimately affects mitosis and differentiation. Suramin is an antiparasiticdrug and a potent inhibitor of FGF-induced angiogenesis. Suramin has been shown to bind to hFGF1, and might block the interaction between hFGF1 and FGFR2 D2. Here, we titrated hFGF1 with FGFR2 D2 and suramin to elucidate their interactions using the detection of NMR. The docking results of both hFGF1-FGFR2 D2 domain and hFGF1-suramin complex were superimposed. The results indicate that suramin blocks the interaction between hFGF1 and FGFR2 D2. We used the PyMOL software to show the hydrophobic interaction of hFGF1-suramin. In addition, we used a Water-soluble Tetrazolium salts assay (WST1) to assess hFGF1 bioactivity. The results will be useful for the development of new antimitogenic activity drugs. - Highlights: • The interfacial residues on hFGF1-FGFR2 D2 and hFGF1-Suramin contact surface were mapped by {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N HSQC experiments. • hFGF1-FGFR2 D2 and hFGF1-Suramin complex models were generated from NMR restraints by using HADDOCK program. • We analyzed hFGF1-Suramin complex models and found the interaction between hFGF1-Suramin is hydrophobic. • The bioactivity of the hFGF1-FGFR2 D2 and hFGF1-Suramin complex was studied by using WST1 assay.

  4. Aberrant FGF signaling, independent of ectopic hedgehog signaling, initiates preaxial polydactyly in Dorking chickens.

    PubMed

    Bouldin, Cortney M; Harfe, Brian D

    2009-10-01

    The formation of supernumerary digits, or polydactyly, is a common congenital malformation. Although mutations in a number of genes have been linked to polydactyly, the molecular etiology for a third of human disorders with polydactyly remains unknown. To increase our understanding of the potential causes for polydactyly, we characterized a spontaneous chicken mutant, known as Dorking. The hindlimbs of Dorkings form a preaxial supernumerary digit. During the early stages of limb development, ectopic expression of several genes, including Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and Fibroblast Growth Factor 4 (Fgf4), was found in Dorking hindlimbs. In addition to ectopic gene expression, a decrease in cell death in the anterior of the developing Dorking hindlimb was observed. Further molecular investigation revealed that ectopic Fgf4 expression was initiated and maintained independent of ectopic Shh. Additionally, inhibition of Fgf signaling but not hedgehog signaling was capable of restoring the normal anterior domain of cell death in Dorking hindlimbs. Our data indicates that in Dorking chickens, preaxial polydactyly is initiated independent of Shh.

  5. Central Resistin/TLR4 Impairs Adiponectin Signaling, Contributing to Insulin and FGF21 Resistance.

    PubMed

    Benomar, Yacir; Amine, Hamza; Crépin, Délphine; Al Rifai, Sarah; Riffault, Laure; Gertler, Arieh; Taouis, Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    Adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing hormone, and resistin, known to promote insulin resistance, constitute a potential link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. In addition, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21 has effects similar to those of adiponectin in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. However, the interplay between adiponectin, FGF21, and resistin signaling pathways during the onset of insulin resistance is unknown. Here, we investigated whether central resistin promotes insulin resistance through the impairment of adiponectin and FGF21 signaling. We show that chronic intracerebroventricular resistin infusion downregulated both hypothalamic and hepatic APPL1, a key protein in adiponectin signaling, associated with decreased Akt-APPL1 interaction and an increased Akt association with its endogenous inhibitor tribbles homolog 3. Resistin treatment also decreased plasma adiponectin levels and reduced both hypothalamic and peripheral expression of adiponectin receptors. Additionally, we report that intracerebroventricular resistin increased plasma FGF21 levels and downregulated its receptor components in the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues, promoting FGF21 resistance. Interestingly, we also show that resistin effects were abolished in TLR4 knockout mice and in neuronal cells expressing TLR4 siRNAs. Our study reveals a novel mechanism of insulin resistance onset orchestrated by a central resistin-TLR4 pathway that impairs adiponectin signaling and promotes FGF21 resistance. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  6. Hepatic mTORC1 controls locomotor activity, body temperature, and lipid metabolism through FGF21

    PubMed Central

    Cornu, Marion; Oppliger, Wolfgang; Albert, Verena; Robitaille, Aaron M.; Trapani, Francesca; Quagliata, Luca; Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe; Terracciano, Luigi; Hall, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a key metabolic organ that controls whole-body physiology in response to nutrient availability. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a nutrient-activated kinase and central controller of growth and metabolism that is negatively regulated by the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1). To investigate the role of hepatic mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in whole-body physiology, we generated liver-specific Tsc1 (L-Tsc1 KO) knockout mice. L-Tsc1 KO mice displayed reduced locomotor activity, body temperature, and hepatic triglyceride content in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. Ectopic activation of mTORC1 also caused depletion of hepatic and plasma glutamine, leading to peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)–dependent fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) expression in the liver. Injection of glutamine or knockdown of PGC-1α or FGF21 in the liver suppressed the behavioral and metabolic defects due to mTORC1 activation. Thus, mTORC1 in the liver controls whole-body physiology through PGC-1α and FGF21. Finally, mTORC1 signaling correlated with FGF21 expression in human liver tumors, suggesting that treatment of glutamine-addicted cancers with mTOR inhibitors might have beneficial effects at both the tumor and whole-body level. PMID:25082895

  7. Hepatic mTORC1 controls locomotor activity, body temperature, and lipid metabolism through FGF21.

    PubMed

    Cornu, Marion; Oppliger, Wolfgang; Albert, Verena; Robitaille, Aaron M; Trapani, Francesca; Quagliata, Luca; Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe; Terracciano, Luigi; Hall, Michael N

    2014-08-12

    The liver is a key metabolic organ that controls whole-body physiology in response to nutrient availability. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a nutrient-activated kinase and central controller of growth and metabolism that is negatively regulated by the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1). To investigate the role of hepatic mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in whole-body physiology, we generated liver-specific Tsc1 (L-Tsc1 KO) knockout mice. L-Tsc1 KO mice displayed reduced locomotor activity, body temperature, and hepatic triglyceride content in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. Ectopic activation of mTORC1 also caused depletion of hepatic and plasma glutamine, leading to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)-dependent fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) expression in the liver. Injection of glutamine or knockdown of PGC-1α or FGF21 in the liver suppressed the behavioral and metabolic defects due to mTORC1 activation. Thus, mTORC1 in the liver controls whole-body physiology through PGC-1α and FGF21. Finally, mTORC1 signaling correlated with FGF21 expression in human liver tumors, suggesting that treatment of glutamine-addicted cancers with mTOR inhibitors might have beneficial effects at both the tumor and whole-body level.

  8. Buttressing a balanced brain: Target-derived FGF signaling regulates excitatory/inhibitory tone and adult neurogenesis within the maturating hippocampal network.

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, Ania; Umemori, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Brain development involves multiple levels of molecular coordination in forming a functional nervous system. The hippocampus is a brain area that is important for memory formation and spatial reasoning. During early postnatal development of the hippocampal circuit, Fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22) and FGF7 act to establish a balance of excitatory and inhibitory tone. Both FGFs are secreted from CA3 dendrites, acting on excitatory or inhibitory axon terminals formed onto CA3 dendrites, respectively. Mechanistically, FGF22 utilizes FGFR2b and FGFR1b to induce synaptic vesicle recruitment within axons of dentate granule cells (DGCs), and FGF7 utilizes FGFR2b to induce synaptic vesicle recruitment within interneuron axons. FGF signaling eventually induces gene expression in the presynaptic neurons; however, the effects of FGF22-induced gene expression within DGCs and FGF7-induced gene expression within interneurons in the context of a developing hippocampal circuit have yet to be explored. Here, we propose one hypothetical mechanism of FGF22-induced gene expression in controlling adult neurogenesis.

  9. Control of HIF-1{alpha} and vascular signaling in fetal lung involves cross talk between mTORC1 and the FGF-10/FGFR2b/Spry2 airway branching periodicity clock.

    PubMed

    Scott, C L; Walker, D J; Cwiklinski, E; Tait, C; Tee, A R; Land, S C

    2010-10-01

    Lung development requires coordinated signaling between airway and vascular growth, but the link between these processes remains unclear. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) can amplify hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) vasculogenic activity through an NH(2)-terminal mTOR binding (TOS) motif. We hypothesized that this mechanism coordinates vasculogenesis with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-10/FGF-receptor2b/Spry2 regulator of airway branching. First, we tested if the HIF-1α TOS motif participated in epithelial-mesenchymal vascular signaling. mTORC1 activation by insulin significantly amplified HIF-1α activity at fetal Po(2) (23 mmHg) in human bronchial epithelium (16HBE14o-) and induced vascular traits (Flk1, sprouting) in cocultured human embryonic lung mesenchyme (HEL-12469). This enhanced activation of HIF-1α by mTORC1 was abolished on expression of a HIF-1α (F99A) TOS-mutant and also suppressed vascular differentiation of HEL-12469 cocultures. Next, we determined if vasculogenesis in fetal lung involved regulation of mTORC1 by the FGF-10/FGFR2b/Spry2 pathway. Fetal airway epithelium displayed distinct mTORC1 activity in situ, and its hyperactivation by TSC1(-/-) knockout induced widespread VEGF expression and disaggregation of Tie2-positive vascular bundles. FGF-10-coated beads grafted into fetal lung explants from Tie2-LacZ transgenic mice induced localized vascular differentiation in the peripheral mesenchyme. In rat fetal distal lung epithelial (FDLE) cells cultured at fetal Po(2), FGF-10 induced mTORC1 and amplified HIF-1α activity and VEGF secretion without induction of ERK1/2. This was accompanied by the formation of a complex between Spry2, the cCBL ubiquitin ligase, and the mTOR repressor, TSC2, which abolished GTPase activity directed against Rheb, the G protein inducer of mTORC1. Thus, mTORC1 links HIF-1α-driven vasculogenesis with the FGF-10/FGFR2b/Spry2 airway branching periodicity regulator.

  10. Exogenous FGF2 reverses depressive-like behaviors and restores the suppressed FGF2-ERK1/2 signaling and the impaired hippocampal neurogenesis induced by neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ming-Ming; Lin, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Jun-Tao; Zhao, Ya-Wei; Li, Ying-Cong

    2017-05-18

    Our previous work demonstrated that neuroinflammation evoked by triple repeated central LPS challenges inhibited adult hippocampal neurogenesis that were correlated with the depressive-like behavioral symptoms induced by neuroinflammation. These findings suggest that hippocampal neurogenesis might be one of biological mechanisms underlying depression induced by neuroinflammation and targeting neurogenesis might lead to new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of depression. In this study, we manipulated adult hippocampal neurogenesis using fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), one crucial molecule modulating cell proliferation and survival in central nervous system, and investigate the involvement and the potential therapeutic effects of FGF2 on neuroinflammation-induced depression. Central lipopolysaccharides (LPS) challenges were used as previously to evoke the neuroinflammatory state in the brain of rat. Exogenous FGF2 was infused into lateral ventricle during the neuroinflammatory state. It was found that the protein expression of FGF2 in hippocampus was inhibited by neuroinflammation. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), the downstream molecule of FGF2, was also inhibited by neuroinflammation. Exogenous FGF2 infusions prevented the decrease in phosphorylation of ERK1/2 under neuroinflammation state. Exogenous FGF2 reversed depressive-like behaviors and the impaired hippocampal neurogenesis induced by neuroinflammation. These findings provide evidence that the FGF2-ERK1/2 pathway is involved in the pathophysiology of depressive-like behaviors, and manipulating the neurogenesis pathway is a viable therapeutic approach to inflammation-associated depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An FGF3-BMP Signaling Axis Regulates Caudal Neural Tube Closure, Neural Crest Specification and Anterior-Posterior Axis Extension

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Matthew J.; Schimmang, Thomas; Lewandoski, Mark

    2016-01-01

    During vertebrate axis extension, adjacent tissue layers undergo profound morphological changes: within the neuroepithelium, neural tube closure and neural crest formation are occurring, while within the paraxial mesoderm somites are segmenting from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). Little is known about the signals between these tissues that regulate their coordinated morphogenesis. Here, we analyze the posterior axis truncation of mouse Fgf3 null homozygotes and demonstrate that the earliest role of PSM-derived FGF3 is to regulate BMP signals in the adjacent neuroepithelium. FGF3 loss causes elevated BMP signals leading to increased neuroepithelium proliferation, delay in neural tube closure and premature neural crest specification. We demonstrate that elevated BMP4 depletes PSM progenitors in vitro, phenocopying the Fgf3 mutant, suggesting that excessive BMP signals cause the Fgf3 axis defect. To test this in vivo we increased BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants by removing one copy of Noggin, which encodes a BMP antagonist. In such mutants, all parameters of the Fgf3 phenotype were exacerbated: neural tube closure delay, premature neural crest specification, and premature axis termination. Conversely, genetically decreasing BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants, via loss of BMP receptor activity, alleviates morphological defects. Aberrant apoptosis is observed in the Fgf3 mutant tailbud. However, we demonstrate that cell death does not cause the Fgf3 phenotype: blocking apoptosis via deletion of pro-apoptotic genes surprisingly increases all Fgf3 defects including causing spina bifida. We demonstrate that this counterintuitive consequence of blocking apoptosis is caused by the increased survival of BMP-producing cells in the neuroepithelium. Thus, we show that FGF3 in the caudal vertebrate embryo regulates BMP signaling in the neuroepithelium, which in turn regulates neural tube closure, neural crest specification and axis termination. Uncovering this FGF3-BMP signaling axis is

  12. An FGF3-BMP Signaling Axis Regulates Caudal Neural Tube Closure, Neural Crest Specification and Anterior-Posterior Axis Extension.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew J; Schimmang, Thomas; Lewandoski, Mark

    2016-05-01

    During vertebrate axis extension, adjacent tissue layers undergo profound morphological changes: within the neuroepithelium, neural tube closure and neural crest formation are occurring, while within the paraxial mesoderm somites are segmenting from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). Little is known about the signals between these tissues that regulate their coordinated morphogenesis. Here, we analyze the posterior axis truncation of mouse Fgf3 null homozygotes and demonstrate that the earliest role of PSM-derived FGF3 is to regulate BMP signals in the adjacent neuroepithelium. FGF3 loss causes elevated BMP signals leading to increased neuroepithelium proliferation, delay in neural tube closure and premature neural crest specification. We demonstrate that elevated BMP4 depletes PSM progenitors in vitro, phenocopying the Fgf3 mutant, suggesting that excessive BMP signals cause the Fgf3 axis defect. To test this in vivo we increased BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants by removing one copy of Noggin, which encodes a BMP antagonist. In such mutants, all parameters of the Fgf3 phenotype were exacerbated: neural tube closure delay, premature neural crest specification, and premature axis termination. Conversely, genetically decreasing BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants, via loss of BMP receptor activity, alleviates morphological defects. Aberrant apoptosis is observed in the Fgf3 mutant tailbud. However, we demonstrate that cell death does not cause the Fgf3 phenotype: blocking apoptosis via deletion of pro-apoptotic genes surprisingly increases all Fgf3 defects including causing spina bifida. We demonstrate that this counterintuitive consequence of blocking apoptosis is caused by the increased survival of BMP-producing cells in the neuroepithelium. Thus, we show that FGF3 in the caudal vertebrate embryo regulates BMP signaling in the neuroepithelium, which in turn regulates neural tube closure, neural crest specification and axis termination. Uncovering this FGF3-BMP signaling axis is

  13. FGFRL1 is a neglected putative actor of the FGF signalling pathway present in all major metazoan phyla

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Stephanie; Somorjai, Ildiko; Garcia-Fernandez, Jordi; Lamonerie, Thomas; Escriva, Hector

    2009-01-01

    Background Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGF) and their receptors are well known for having major implications in cell signalling controlling embryonic development. Recently, a gene coding for a protein closely related to FGFRs (Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors) called FGFR5 or FGFR-like 1 (FGFRL1), has been described in vertebrates. An orthologous gene was also found in the cephalochordate amphioxus, but no orthologous genes were found by the authors in other non-vertebrate species, even if a FGFRL1 gene was identified in the sea urchin genome, as well as a closely related gene, named nou-darake, in the planarian Dugesia japonica. These intriguing data of a deuterostome-specific gene that might be implicated in FGF signalling prompted us to search for putative FGFRL1 orthologues in the completely sequenced genomes of metazoans. Results We found FGFRL1 genes in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis as well as in many bilaterian species. Our analysis also shows that FGFRL1 orthologous genes are linked in the genome with other members of the FGF signalling pathway from cnidarians to bilaterians (distance < 10 Mb). To better understand the implication of FGFRL1 genes in chordate embryonic development, we have analyzed expression patterns of the amphioxus and the mouse genes by whole mount in situ hybridization. We show that some homologous expression territories can be defined, and we propose that FGFRL1 and FGF8/17/18 were already co-expressed in the pharyngeal endoderm in the ancestor of chordates. Conclusion Our work sheds light on the existence of a putative FGF signalling pathway actor present in the ancestor of probably all metazoans, the function of which has received little attention until now. PMID:19740411

  14. Role of FGF/FGFR signaling in skeletal development and homeostasis: learning from mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Su, Nan; Jin, Min; Chen, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling plays essential roles in bone development and diseases. Missense mutations in FGFs and FGFRs in humans can cause various congenital bone diseases, including chondrodysplasia syndromes, craniosynostosis syndromes and syndromes with dysregulated phosphate metabolism. FGF/FGFR signaling is also an important pathway involved in the maintenance of adult bone homeostasis. Multiple kinds of mouse models, mimicking human skeleton diseases caused by missense mutations in FGFs and FGFRs, have been established by knock-in/out and transgenic technologies. These genetically modified mice provide good models for studying the role of FGF/FGFR signaling in skeleton development and homeostasis. In this review, we summarize the mouse models of FGF signaling-related skeleton diseases and recent progresses regarding the molecular mechanisms, underlying the role of FGFs/FGFRs in the regulation of bone development and homeostasis. This review also provides a perspective view on future works to explore the roles of FGF signaling in skeletal development and homeostasis. PMID:26273516

  15. The Multiple Roles of FGF Signaling in the Developing Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Diez del Corral, Ruth; Morales, Aixa V.

    2017-01-01

    During vertebrate embryonic development, the spinal cord is formed by the neural derivatives of a neuromesodermal population that is specified at early stages of development and which develops in concert with the caudal regression of the primitive streak. Several processes related to spinal cord specification and maturation are coupled to this caudal extension including neurogenesis, ventral patterning and neural crest specification and all of them seem to be crucially regulated by Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling, which is prominently active in the neuromesodermal region and transiently in its derivatives. Here we review the role of FGF signaling in those processes, trying to separate its different functions and highlighting the interactions with other signaling pathways. Finally, these early functions of FGF signaling in spinal cord development may underlay partly its ability to promote regeneration in the lesioned spinal cord as well as its action promoting specific fates in neural stem cell cultures that may be used for therapeutical purposes. PMID:28626748

  16. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) gene expression in the developing cerebellum suggests multiple roles for FGF signaling during cerebellar morphogenesis and development.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Yu, Tian; Ahmed, Mohi U; Berry, Mary; Mason, Ivor; Basson, M Albert

    2009-08-01

    The cerebellum is derived from the anterior-most segment of the embryonic hindbrain, rhombomere 1 (r1). Previous studies have shown that the early development and patterning of r1 requires fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. However, many of the developmental processes that shape cerebellar morphogenesis take place later in embryonic development and during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life in the mouse. Here, we present a more comprehensive analysis of the expression patterns of genes encoding FGF receptors and secreted FGF ligands during these later stages of cerebellar development. We show that these genes are expressed in multiple cell types in the developing cerebellum, in an astonishing array of distinct patterns. These data suggest that FGF signaling functions throughout cerebellar development to regulate many processes that shape the formation of a functional cerebellum.

  17. Stage-specific roles of FGF2 signaling in human neural development.

    PubMed

    Grabiec, Marta; Hříbková, Hana; Vařecha, Miroslav; Střítecká, Dana; Hampl, Aleš; Dvořák, Petr; Sun, Yuh-Man

    2016-09-01

    This study elucidated the stage-specific roles of FGF2 signaling during neural development using in-vitro human embryonic stem cell-based developmental modeling. We found that the dysregulation of FGF2 signaling prior to the onset of neural induction resulted in the malformation of neural rosettes (a neural tube-like structure), despite cells having undergone neural induction. The aberrant neural rosette formation may be attributed to the misplacement of ZO-1, which is a polarized tight junction protein and shown co-localized with FGF2/FGFR1 in the apical region of neural rosettes, subsequently led to abnormal neurogenesis. Moreover, the FGF2 signaling inhibition at the stage of neural rosettes caused a reduction in cell proliferation, an increase in numbers of cells with cell-cycle exit, and premature neurogenesis. These effects may be mediated by NUMB, to which expression was observed enriched in the apical region of neural rosettes after FGF2 signaling inhibition coinciding with the disappearance of PAX6(+)/Ki67(+) neural stem cells and the emergence of MAP2(+) neurons. Moreover, our results suggested that the hESC-based developmental system reserved a similar neural stem cell niche in vivo.

  18. FGF Signalling Regulates Chromatin Organisation during Neural Differentiation via Mechanisms that Can Be Uncoupled from Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nishal S.; Rhinn, Muriel; Semprich, Claudia I.; Halley, Pamela A.; Dollé, Pascal; Bickmore, Wendy A.; Storey, Kate G.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in higher order chromatin organisation have been linked to transcriptional regulation; however, little is known about how such organisation alters during embryonic development or how it is regulated by extrinsic signals. Here we analyse changes in chromatin organisation as neural differentiation progresses, exploiting the clear spatial separation of the temporal events of differentiation along the elongating body axis of the mouse embryo. Combining fluorescence in situ hybridisation with super-resolution structured illumination microscopy, we show that chromatin around key differentiation gene loci Pax6 and Irx3 undergoes both decompaction and displacement towards the nuclear centre coincident with transcriptional onset. Conversely, down-regulation of Fgf8 as neural differentiation commences correlates with a more peripheral nuclear position of this locus. During normal neural differentiation, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling is repressed by retinoic acid, and this vitamin A derivative is further required for transcription of neural genes. We show here that exposure to retinoic acid or inhibition of FGF signalling promotes precocious decompaction and central nuclear positioning of differentiation gene loci. Using the Raldh2 mutant as a model for retinoid deficiency, we further find that such changes in higher order chromatin organisation are dependent on retinoid signalling. In this retinoid deficient condition, FGF signalling persists ectopically in the elongating body, and importantly, we find that inhibiting FGF receptor (FGFR) signalling in Raldh2−/− embryos does not rescue differentiation gene transcription, but does elicit both chromatin decompaction and nuclear position change. These findings demonstrate that regulation of higher order chromatin organisation during differentiation in the embryo can be uncoupled from the machinery that promotes transcription and, for the first time, identify FGF as an extrinsic signal that can direct

  19. Localised inhibition of FGF signalling in the third pharyngeal pouch is required for normal thymus and parathyroid organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Jennifer R.; Jackson, Abigail L.; Gordon, Julie; Lickert, Heiko; Manley, Nancy R.; Basson, M. Albert

    2012-01-01

    The thymus and parathyroid glands are derived from the third pharyngeal pouch endoderm. The mechanisms that establish distinct molecular domains in the third pouch and control the subsequent separation of these organ primordia from the pharynx are poorly understood. Here, we report that mouse embryos that lack two FGF feedback antagonists, Spry1 and Spry2, display parathyroid and thymus hypoplasia and a failure of these organ primordia to completely separate from the pharynx. We show that FGF ligands and downstream reporter genes are expressed in highly regionalised patterns in the third pouch and that sprouty gene deletion results in upregulated FGF signalling throughout the pouch endoderm. As a consequence, the initiation of markers of parathyroid and thymus fate is altered. In addition, a normal apoptotic programme that is associated with the separation of the primordia from the pharynx is disrupted, resulting in the maintenance of a thymus-pharynx attachment and a subsequent inability of the thymus to migrate to its appropriate position above the heart. We demonstrate that the sprouty genes function in the pharyngeal endoderm itself to control these processes and that the defects in sprouty-deficient mutants are, at least in part, due to hyper-responsiveness to Fgf8. Finally, we provide evidence to suggest that parathyroid hypoplasia in these mutants is due to early gene expression defects in the third pouch, whereas thymus hypoplasia is caused by reduced proliferation of thymic epithelial cells in the thymus primordium. PMID:22912418

  20. Localised inhibition of FGF signalling in the third pharyngeal pouch is required for normal thymus and parathyroid organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Jennifer R; Jackson, Abigail L; Gordon, Julie; Lickert, Heiko; Manley, Nancy R; Basson, M Albert

    2012-09-01

    The thymus and parathyroid glands are derived from the third pharyngeal pouch endoderm. The mechanisms that establish distinct molecular domains in the third pouch and control the subsequent separation of these organ primordia from the pharynx are poorly understood. Here, we report that mouse embryos that lack two FGF feedback antagonists, Spry1 and Spry2, display parathyroid and thymus hypoplasia and a failure of these organ primordia to completely separate from the pharynx. We show that FGF ligands and downstream reporter genes are expressed in highly regionalised patterns in the third pouch and that sprouty gene deletion results in upregulated FGF signalling throughout the pouch endoderm. As a consequence, the initiation of markers of parathyroid and thymus fate is altered. In addition, a normal apoptotic programme that is associated with the separation of the primordia from the pharynx is disrupted, resulting in the maintenance of a thymus-pharynx attachment and a subsequent inability of the thymus to migrate to its appropriate position above the heart. We demonstrate that the sprouty genes function in the pharyngeal endoderm itself to control these processes and that the defects in sprouty-deficient mutants are, at least in part, due to hyper-responsiveness to Fgf8. Finally, we provide evidence to suggest that parathyroid hypoplasia in these mutants is due to early gene expression defects in the third pouch, whereas thymus hypoplasia is caused by reduced proliferation of thymic epithelial cells in the thymus primordium.

  1. FGF SIGNALING EXPANDS EMBRYONIC CORTICAL SURFACE AREA BY REGULATING NOTCH-DEPENDENT NEUROGENESIS

    PubMed Central

    Rash, Brian G.; Lim, H. David; Breunig, Joshua J.; Vaccarino, Flora M.

    2011-01-01

    The processes regulating cortical surface area expansion during development and evolution are unknown. We show that loss of function of all Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors (FgfR) expressed at the earliest stages of cortical development causes severe deficits in surface area growth by embryonic day (E) 12.5 in the mouse. In FgfR mutants, accelerated production of neurons led to severe loss of radial progenitors and premature termination of neurogenesis. Nevertheless, these mutants showed remarkably little change in cortical layer structure. Birthdating experiments indicated that a greater proportion of layer fates was generated during early neurogenic stages, revealing that FgfR activity normally slows the temporal progression of cortical layer fates. Electroporation of a dominant negative FgfR at E11.5 increased cortical neurogenesis in normal mice—an effect that was blocked by simultaneous activation of the Notch pathway. Together with changes in the expression of Notch pathway genes in FgfR mutant embryos, these findings indicate that Notch lies downstream of FgfR signaling in the same pathway regulating cortical neurogenesis and begin to establish a mechanism for regulating cortical surface expansion. PMID:22031906

  2. Cooperative inputs of Bmp and Fgf signaling induce tail regeneration in urodele amphibians.

    PubMed

    Makanae, Aki; Mitogawa, Kazumasa; Satoh, Akira

    2016-02-01

    Urodele amphibians have remarkable organ regeneration ability. They can regenerate not only limbs but also a tail throughout their life. It has been demonstrated that the regeneration of some organs are governed by the presence of neural tissues. For instance, limb regeneration cannot be induced without nerves. Thus, identifying the nerve factors has been the primary focus in amphibian organ regeneration research. Recently, substitute molecules for nerves in limb regeneration, Bmp and Fgfs, were identified. Cooperative inputs of Bmp and Fgfs can induce limb regeneration in the absence of nerves. In the present study, we investigated whether similar or same regeneration mechanisms control another neural tissue governed organ regeneration, i.e., tail regeneration, in Ambystoma mexicanum. Neural tissues in a tail, which is the spinal cord, could transform wound healing responses into organ regeneration responses, similar to nerves in limb regeneration. Furthermore, the identified regeneration inducer Fgf2+Fgf8+Bmp7 showed similar inductive effects. However, further analysis revealed that the blastema cells induced by Fgf2+Fgf8+Bmp7 could participate in the regeneration of several tissues, but could not organize a patterned tail. Regeneration inductive ability of Fgf2+Fgf8+Bmp7 was confirmed in another urodele, Pleurodeles waltl. These results suggest that the organ regeneration ability in urodele amphibians is controlled by a common mechanism.

  3. Interaction between FGF and BMP signaling pathways regulates development of metanephric mesenchyme

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Andrew T.; Godin, Robert E.; Robertson, Elizabeth J.

    1999-01-01

    Nephrogenesis in the mouse kidney begins at embryonic day 11 and ends ∼10 days postpartum. During this period, new nephrons are continually being generated from a stem-cell population—the nephrogenic mesenchyme—in response to signals emanating from the tips of the branching ureter. Relatively little is known about the mechanism by which the nephrogenic mesenchyme cell population is maintained at the tips of the ureter in the presence of signals promoting tubulogenesis. Previous studies have shown that a loss of Bmp7 function leads to kidney defects that are a likely result of progressive loss of nephrogenic mesenchyme by apoptosis. The studies presented here demonstrate that BMP7 signaling can prevent apoptosis in explants of metanephric mesenchyme. The surviving mesenchyme cell population, however, is not competent to respond to signals promoting tubulogenesis. In conjunction with FGF2, BMP7 promotes growth and maintains competence of the mesenchyme in vitro. In addition, FGF2 and BMP7 signaling, both independently and in combination, inhibit tubulogenesis. Interestingly, FGF2 and BMP7 also promote expansion of the stromal progenitor cell population in whole kidney culture. Because BMP7 is not produced by stromal progenitor cells, these data suggest a novel interaction between the nephrogenic mesenchyme and stromal progenitor cell populations. A model for the regulation of nephrogenesis by FGF and BMP signaling is presented. PMID:10385628

  4. Antagonizing Retinoic Acid and FGF/MAPK Pathways Control Posterior Body Patterning in the Invertebrate Chordate Ciona intestinalis

    PubMed Central

    Pasini, Andrea; Manenti, Raoul; Rothbächer, Ute; Lemaire, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate embryos exploit the mutual inhibition between the RA and FGF signalling pathways to coordinate the proliferative elongation of the main body axis with the progressive patterning and differentiation of its neuroectodermal and paraxial mesodermal structures. The evolutionary history of this patterning system is still poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role played by the RA and FGF/MAPK signals during the development of the tail structures in the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, an invertebrate chordate belonging to the sister clade of vertebrates, in which the prototypical chordate body plan is established through very derived morphogenetic processes. Ciona embryos are constituted of few cells and develop according to a fixed lineage; elongation of the tail occurs largely by rearrangement of postmitotic cells; mesoderm segmentation and somitogenesis are absent. We show that in the Ciona embryo, the antagonism of the RA and FGF/MAPK signals is required to control the anteroposterior patterning of the tail epidermis. We also demonstrate that the RA, FGF/MAPK and canonical Wnt pathways control the anteroposterior patterning of the tail peripheral nervous system, and reveal the existence of distinct subpopulations of caudal epidermal neurons with different responsiveness to the RA, FGF/MAPK and canonical Wnt signals. Our data provide the first demonstration that the use of the antagonism between the RA and FGF signals to pattern the main body axis predates the emergence of vertebrates and highlight the evolutionary plasticity of this patterning strategy, showing that in different chordates it can be used to pattern different tissues within the same homologous body region. PMID:23049976

  5. Antagonizing retinoic acid and FGF/MAPK pathways control posterior body patterning in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Pasini, Andrea; Manenti, Raoul; Rothbächer, Ute; Lemaire, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate embryos exploit the mutual inhibition between the RA and FGF signalling pathways to coordinate the proliferative elongation of the main body axis with the progressive patterning and differentiation of its neuroectodermal and paraxial mesodermal structures. The evolutionary history of this patterning system is still poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role played by the RA and FGF/MAPK signals during the development of the tail structures in the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, an invertebrate chordate belonging to the sister clade of vertebrates, in which the prototypical chordate body plan is established through very derived morphogenetic processes. Ciona embryos are constituted of few cells and develop according to a fixed lineage; elongation of the tail occurs largely by rearrangement of postmitotic cells; mesoderm segmentation and somitogenesis are absent. We show that in the Ciona embryo, the antagonism of the RA and FGF/MAPK signals is required to control the anteroposterior patterning of the tail epidermis. We also demonstrate that the RA, FGF/MAPK and canonical Wnt pathways control the anteroposterior patterning of the tail peripheral nervous system, and reveal the existence of distinct subpopulations of caudal epidermal neurons with different responsiveness to the RA, FGF/MAPK and canonical Wnt signals. Our data provide the first demonstration that the use of the antagonism between the RA and FGF signals to pattern the main body axis predates the emergence of vertebrates and highlight the evolutionary plasticity of this patterning strategy, showing that in different chordates it can be used to pattern different tissues within the same homologous body region.

  6. WT1 targets Gas1 to maintain nephron progenitor cells by modulating FGF signals.

    PubMed

    Kann, Martin; Bae, Eunnyung; Lenz, Maximilian O; Li, Liangji; Trannguyen, BaoTran; Schumacher, Valerie A; Taglienti, Mary E; Bordeianou, Liliana; Hartwig, Sunny; Rinschen, Markus M; Schermer, Bernhard; Benzing, Thomas; Fan, Chen-Ming; Kreidberg, Jordan A

    2015-04-01

    Development of the metanephric kidney depends on tightly regulated interplay between self-renewal and differentiation of a nephron progenitor cell (NPC) pool. Several key factors required for the survival of NPCs have been identified, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling and the transcription factor Wilms' tumor suppressor 1 (WT1). Here, we present evidence that WT1 modulates FGF signaling by activating the expression of growth arrest-specific 1 (Gas1), a novel WT1 target gene and novel modulator of FGF signaling. We show that WT1 directly binds to a conserved DNA binding motif within the Gas1 promoter and activates Gas1 mRNA transcription in NPCs. We confirm that WT1 is required for Gas1 expression in kidneys in vivo. Loss of function of GAS1 in vivo results in hypoplastic kidneys with reduced nephron mass due to premature depletion of NPCs. Although kidney development in Gas1 knockout mice progresses normally until E15.5, NPCs show decreased rates of proliferation at this stage and are depleted as of E17.5. Lastly, we show that Gas1 is selectively required for FGF-stimulated AKT signaling in vitro. In summary, our data suggest a model in which WT1 modulates receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in NPCs by directing the expression of Gas1. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. FGF23 activates injury-primed renal fibroblasts via FGFR4-dependent signalling and enhancement of TGF-β autoinduction.

    PubMed

    Smith, Edward R; Holt, Stephen G; Hewitson, Tim D

    2017-09-15

    Bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an important endocrine regulator of mineral homeostasis with effects transduced by cognate FGF receptor (FGFR)1-α-Klotho complexes. Circulating FGF23 levels rise precipitously in patients with kidney disease and portend worse renal and cardiovascular outcomes. De novo expression of FGF23 has been found in the heart and kidney following injury but its significance remains unclear. Studies showing that exposure to chronically high FGF23 concentrations activates hypertrophic gene programs in the cardiomyocyte has spawned intense interest in other pathological off-target effects of FGF23 excess. In the kidney, observational evidence points to a concordance of ectopic renal FGF23 expression and the activation of local transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signalling. Although we have previously shown that FGF23 activates injury-primed renal fibroblasts in vitro, our understanding of the mechanism underpinning these effects was incomplete. Here we show that in the absence of α-Klotho, FGF23 augments pro-fibrotic signalling cascades in injury-primed renal fibroblasts via activation of FGFR4 and upregulation of the calcium transporter, transient receptor potential cation channel 6. The resultant rise in intracellular calcium and production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species induced expression of NFAT responsive-genes and enhanced TGF-β1 autoinduction through non-canonical JNK-dependent pathways. Reconstitution with transmembrane α-Klotho, or its soluble ectodomain, restored classical Egr signalling and antagonised FGF23-driven myofibroblast differentiation. Thus, renal FGF23 may amplify local myofibroblast activation in injury and perpetuate pro-fibrotic signalling. These findings strengthen the rationale for exploring therapeutic inhibition of FGFR4 or restoration of α-Klotho as upstream regulators of off-target FGF23 effects. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. BMP-FGF Signaling Axis Mediates Wnt-Induced Epidermal Stratification in Developing Mammalian Skin

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Jing; Liu, YuDong; Dai, Zhong-Min; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Yang, XueQin; Li, Yan; Qiu, Mengsheng; Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei; Chen, YiPing; Zhang, Zunyi

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal stratification of the mammalian skin requires proliferative basal progenitors to generate intermediate cells that separate from the basal layer and are replaced by post-mitotic cells. Although Wnt signaling has been implicated in this developmental process, the mechanism underlying Wnt-mediated regulation of basal progenitors remains elusive. Here we show that Wnt secreted from proliferative basal cells is not required for their differentiation. However, epidermal production of Wnts is essential for the formation of the spinous layer through modulation of a BMP-FGF signaling cascade in the dermis. The spinous layer defects caused by disruption of Wnt secretion can be restored by transgenically expressed Bmp4. Non-cell autonomous BMP4 promotes activation of FGF7 and FGF10 signaling, leading to an increase in proliferative basal cell population. Our findings identify an essential BMP-FGF signaling axis in the dermis that responds to the epidermal Wnts and feedbacks to regulate basal progenitors during epidermal stratification. PMID:25329657

  9. The nucleotide analog cidofovir suppresses basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) expression and signaling and induces apoptosis in FGF2-overexpressing endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liekens, Sandra; Gijsbers, Sofie; Vanstreels, Els; Daelemans, Dirk; De Clercq, Erik; Hatse, Sigrid

    2007-03-01

    Cidofovir [(S)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine; (S)-HPMPC] is an antiviral drug that has been approved for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with AIDS. Cidofovir also possesses potent activity against human papillomavirus-induced tumors in animal models and patients. We have recently shown that cidofovir inhibits the development of vascular tumors induced by basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2)-overexpressing endothelial cells (FGF2-T-MAE) in mice. Here, we demonstrate that the inhibitory activity of cidofovir in FGF2-T-MAE cells may result from the specific induction of apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis revealed that cidofovir induces accumulation of cells in the S phase and, upon prolonged treatment, a significant increase in sub-G1 cells, exhibiting a subdiploid DNA content. Moreover, annexin V binding, an early event in apoptosis induction, was increased in cidofovir-treated FGF2-T-MAE cells. Cidofovir also caused nuclear fragmentation and the activation of caspase-3-like proteases, as evidenced by the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase. In addition, cidofovir treatment of FGF2-T-MAE cells resulted in a pronounced up-regulation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. However, the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 remained unchanged, and cidofovir did not induce the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. In addition, cidofovir did not suppress the phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt, a transmitter of antiapoptotic survival signals, or its downstream regulator Bad, indicating that the Akt pathway is not affected by cidofovir in FGF2-T-MAE cells. However, the compound inhibited the expression of FGF2 and FGF2 signaling through Erk42/44, as shown by Western blot analysis. Our results indicate that cidofovir inhibits the growth of FGF2-T-MAE cells via inhibition of FGF2 expression and signaling and via the induction of apoptosis. These findings suggest that the clinical use of cidofovir might be expanded to tumors that are

  10. A bi-modal function of Wnt signalling directs an FGF activity gradient to spatially regulate neuronal differentiation in the midbrain.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Carlene; Blanc, Eric; Hanisch, Anja; Roehl, Henry; Otto, Georg W; Yu, Tian; Basson, M A; Knight, Robert

    2014-01-01

    FGFs and Wnts are important morphogens during midbrain development, but their importance and potential interactions during neurogenesis are poorly understood. We have employed a combination of genetic and pharmacological manipulations in zebrafish to show that during neurogenesis FGF activity occurs as a gradient along the anterior-posterior axis of the dorsal midbrain and directs spatially dynamic expression of the Hairy gene her5. As FGF activity diminishes during development, Her5 is lost and differentiation of neuronal progenitors occurs in an anterior-posterior manner. We generated mathematical models to explain how Wnt and FGFs direct the spatial differentiation of neurons in the midbrain through Wnt regulation of FGF signalling. These models suggested that a negative-feedback loop controlled by Wnt is crucial for regulating FGF activity. We tested Sprouty genes as mediators of this regulatory loop using conditional mouse knockouts and pharmacological manipulations in zebrafish. These reveal that Sprouty genes direct the positioning of early midbrain neurons and are Wnt responsive in the midbrain. We propose a model in which Wnt regulates FGF activity at the isthmus by driving both FGF and Sprouty gene expression. This controls a dynamic, posteriorly retracting expression of her5 that directs neuronal differentiation in a precise spatiotemporal manner in the midbrain.

  11. A bi-modal function of Wnt signalling directs an FGF activity gradient to spatially regulate neuronal differentiation in the midbrain

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Carlene; Blanc, Eric; Hanisch, Anja; Roehl, Henry; Otto, Georg W.; Yu, Tian; Basson, M. A.; Knight, Robert

    2014-01-01

    FGFs and Wnts are important morphogens during midbrain development, but their importance and potential interactions during neurogenesis are poorly understood. We have employed a combination of genetic and pharmacological manipulations in zebrafish to show that during neurogenesis FGF activity occurs as a gradient along the anterior-posterior axis of the dorsal midbrain and directs spatially dynamic expression of the Hairy gene her5. As FGF activity diminishes during development, Her5 is lost and differentiation of neuronal progenitors occurs in an anterior-posterior manner. We generated mathematical models to explain how Wnt and FGFs direct the spatial differentiation of neurons in the midbrain through Wnt regulation of FGF signalling. These models suggested that a negative-feedback loop controlled by Wnt is crucial for regulating FGF activity. We tested Sprouty genes as mediators of this regulatory loop using conditional mouse knockouts and pharmacological manipulations in zebrafish. These reveal that Sprouty genes direct the positioning of early midbrain neurons and are Wnt responsive in the midbrain. We propose a model in which Wnt regulates FGF activity at the isthmus by driving both FGF and Sprouty gene expression. This controls a dynamic, posteriorly retracting expression of her5 that directs neuronal differentiation in a precise spatiotemporal manner in the midbrain. PMID:24284206

  12. FGF8 signaling sustains progenitor status and multipotency of cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shao, Meiying; Liu, Chao; Song, Yingnan; Ye, Wenduo; He, Wei; Yuan, Guohua; Gu, Shuping; Lin, Congxin; Ma, Liang; Zhang, Yanding; Tian, Weidong; Hu, Tao; Chen, YiPing

    2015-10-01

    The cranial neural crest (CNC) cells play a vital role in craniofacial development and regeneration. They are multi-potent progenitors, being able to differentiate into various types of tissues. Both pre-migratory and post-migratory CNC cells are plastic, taking on diverse fates by responding to different inductive signals. However, what sustains the multipotency of CNC cells and derivatives remains largely unknown. In this study, we present evidence that FGF8 signaling is able to sustain progenitor status and multipotency of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells both in vivo and in vitro. We show that augmented FGF8 signaling in pre-migratory CNC cells prevents cell differentiation and organogenesis in the craniofacial region by maintaining their progenitor status. CNC-derived mesenchymal cells with Fgf8 overexpression or control cells in the presence of exogenous FGF8 exhibit prolonged survival, proliferation, and multi-potent differentiation capability in cell cultures. Remarkably, exogenous FGF8 also sustains the capability of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells to participate in organogenesis such as odontogenesis. Furthermore, FGF8-mediated signaling strongly promotes adipogenesis but inhibits osteogenesis of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells in vitro. Our results reveal a specific role for FGF8 in the maintenance of progenitor status and in fate determination of CNC cells, implicating a potential application in expansion and fate manipulation of CNC-derived cells in stem cell-based craniofacial regeneration. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  13. A computationally identified compound antagonizes excess FGF-23 signaling in renal tubules and a mouse model of hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhousheng; Riccardi, Demian; Velazquez, Hector A; Chin, Ai L; Yates, Charles R; Carrick, Jesse D; Smith, Jeremy C; Baudry, Jerome; Quarles, L Darryl

    2016-11-22

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) interacts with a binary receptor complex composed of α-Klotho (α-KL) and FGF receptors (FGFRs) to regulate phosphate and vitamin D metabolism in the kidney. Excess FGF-23 production, which causes hypophosphatemia, is genetically inherited or occurs with chronic kidney disease. Among other symptoms, hypophosphatemia causes vitamin D deficiency and the bone-softening disorder rickets. Current therapeutics that target the receptor complex have limited utility clinically. Using a computationally driven, structure-based, ensemble docking and virtual high-throughput screening approach, we identified four novel compounds predicted to selectively inhibit FGF-23-induced activation of the FGFR/α-KL complex. Additional modeling and functional analysis found that Zinc13407541 bound to FGF-23 and disrupted its interaction with the FGFR1/α-KL complex; experiments in a heterologous cell expression system showed that Zinc13407541 selectivity inhibited α-KL-dependent FGF-23 signaling. Zinc13407541 also inhibited FGF-23 signaling in isolated renal tubules ex vivo and partially reversed the hypophosphatemic effects of excess FGF-23 in a mouse model. These chemical probes provide a platform to develop lead compounds to treat disorders caused by excess FGF-23.

  14. A computationally identified compound antagonizes excess FGF-23 signaling in renal tubules and a mouse model of hypophosphatemia

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Zhousheng; Riccardi, Demian; Velazquez, Hector A.; ...

    2016-11-22

    Fibroblast growth factor–23 (FGF-23) interacts with a binary receptor complex composed of α-Klotho (α-KL) and FGF receptors (FGFRs) to regulate phosphate and vitamin D metabolism in the kidney. Excess FGF-23 production, which causes hypophosphatemia, is genetically inherited or occurs with chronic kidney disease. Among other symptoms, hypophosphatemia causes vitamin D deficiency and the bone-softening disorder rickets. Current therapeutics that target the receptor complex have limited utility clinically. In this paper, using a computationally driven, structure-based, ensemble docking and virtual high-throughput screening approach, we identified four novel compounds predicted to selectively inhibit FGF-23–induced activation of the FGFR/α-KL complex. Additional modeling andmore » functional analysis found that Zinc13407541 bound to FGF-23 and disrupted its interaction with the FGFR1/α-KL complex; experiments in a heterologous cell expression system showed that Zinc13407541 selectivity inhibited α-KL–dependent FGF-23 signaling. Zinc13407541 also inhibited FGF-23 signaling in isolated renal tubules ex vivo and partially reversed the hypophosphatemic effects of excess FGF-23 in a mouse model. Finally, these chemical probes provide a platform to develop lead compounds to treat disorders caused by excess FGF-23.« less

  15. A computationally identified compound antagonizes excess FGF-23 signaling in renal tubules and a mouse model of hypophosphatemia

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Zhousheng; Riccardi, Demian; Velazquez, Hector A.; Chin, Ai L.; Yates, Charles R.; Carrick, Jesse D.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Baudry, Jerome; Quarles, L. Darryl

    2016-11-22

    Fibroblast growth factor–23 (FGF-23) interacts with a binary receptor complex composed of α-Klotho (α-KL) and FGF receptors (FGFRs) to regulate phosphate and vitamin D metabolism in the kidney. Excess FGF-23 production, which causes hypophosphatemia, is genetically inherited or occurs with chronic kidney disease. Among other symptoms, hypophosphatemia causes vitamin D deficiency and the bone-softening disorder rickets. Current therapeutics that target the receptor complex have limited utility clinically. In this paper, using a computationally driven, structure-based, ensemble docking and virtual high-throughput screening approach, we identified four novel compounds predicted to selectively inhibit FGF-23–induced activation of the FGFR/α-KL complex. Additional modeling and functional analysis found that Zinc13407541 bound to FGF-23 and disrupted its interaction with the FGFR1/α-KL complex; experiments in a heterologous cell expression system showed that Zinc13407541 selectivity inhibited α-KL–dependent FGF-23 signaling. Zinc13407541 also inhibited FGF-23 signaling in isolated renal tubules ex vivo and partially reversed the hypophosphatemic effects of excess FGF-23 in a mouse model. Finally, these chemical probes provide a platform to develop lead compounds to treat disorders caused by excess FGF-23.

  16. Proliferation-independent regulation of organ size by Fgf/Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kozlovskaja-Gumbrienė, Agnė; Yi, Ren; Alexander, Richard; Aman, Andy; Jiskra, Ryan; Nagelberg, Danielle; Knaut, Holger; McClain, Melainia; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Organ morphogenesis depends on the precise orchestration of cell migration, cell shape changes and cell adhesion. We demonstrate that Notch signaling is an integral part of the Wnt and Fgf signaling feedback loop coordinating cell migration and the self-organization of rosette-shaped sensory organs in the zebrafish lateral line system. We show that Notch signaling acts downstream of Fgf signaling to not only inhibit hair cell differentiation but also to induce and maintain stable epithelial rosettes. Ectopic Notch expression causes a significant increase in organ size independently of proliferation and the Hippo pathway. Transplantation and RNASeq analyses revealed that Notch signaling induces apical junctional complex genes that regulate cell adhesion and apical constriction. Our analysis also demonstrates that in the absence of patterning cues normally provided by a Wnt/Fgf signaling system, rosettes still self-organize in the presence of Notch signaling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21049.001 PMID:28085667

  17. Frs2α-deficiency in cardiac progenitors disrupts a subset of FGF signals required for outflow tract morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jue; Lin, Yongshun; Zhang, Yongyou; Lan, Yongsheng; Lin, Chunhong; Moon, Anne M.; Schwartz, Robert J.; Martin, James F.; Wang, Fen

    2009-01-01

    Summary The cardiac outflow tract (OFT) is a developmentally complex structure derived from multiple lineages and is often defective in human congenital anomalies. While emerging evidence shows that the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is essential for OFT development, the downstream pathways mediating FGF-signaling in cardiac progenitors remain poorly understood. Here, we report that FRS2α, an adaptor protein that links FGF receptor kinases to multiple signaling pathways, mediates critical aspects of FGF-dependent OFT development. Ablation of Frs2α in mesodermal OFT progenitor cells that originate in the second heart field (SHF) affects their expansion into the OFT myocardium, resulting in OFT misalignment and hypoplasia. Moreover, Frs2α mutants had defective endothelial-mesenchymal-transition and neural crest cell recruitment into the OFT cushions, resulting in OFT septation defects. The results provide new insight into the signaling molecules downstream of FGF receptor tyrosine kinases in cardiac progenitors. PMID:18832393

  18. Midbrain-Hindbrain Boundary Morphogenesis: At the Intersection of Wnt and Fgf Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Holly C.; Chang-Gonzalez, Ana; Hwang, Wonmuk; Yeh, Alvin T.; Lekven, Arne C.

    2017-01-01

    A constriction in the neural tube at the junction of the midbrain and hindbrain is a conserved feature of vertebrate embryos. The constriction is a defining feature of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB), a signaling center that patterns the adjacent midbrain and rostral hindbrain and forms at the junction of two gene expression domains in the early neural plate: an anterior otx2/wnt1 positive domain and a posterior gbx/fgf8 positive domain. otx2 and gbx genes encode mutually repressive transcription factors that create a lineage restriction boundary at their expression interface. Wnt and Fgf genes form a mutually dependent feedback system that maintains their expression domains on the otx2 or gbx side of the boundary, respectively. Constriction morphogenesis occurs after these conserved gene expression domains are established and while their mutual interactions maintain their expression pattern; consequently, mutant studies in zebrafish have led to the suggestion that constriction morphogenesis should be considered a unique phase of MHB development. We analyzed MHB morphogenesis in fgf8 loss of function zebrafish embryos using a reporter driven by the conserved wnt1 enhancer to visualize anterior boundary cells. We found that fgf8 loss of function results in a re-activation of wnt1 reporter expression posterior to the boundary simultaneous with an inactivation of the wnt1 reporter in the anterior boundary cells, and that these events correlate with relaxation of the boundary constriction. In consideration of other results that correlate the boundary constriction with Wnt and Fgf expression, we propose that the maintenance of an active Wnt-Fgf feedback loop is a key factor in driving the morphogenesis of the MHB constriction. PMID:28824384

  19. Modulation of FGF receptor signaling as an intervention and potential therapy for myelin breakdown in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Su; Yao, Zhong-Xiang

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and oligodendrocyte degeneration and white matter damage play a critical role in the pathogenesis of AD. FGF/FGF receptor signaling have been implicated in diverse cellular processes including cell apoptosis, survival, adhesion, migration, differentiation, and proliferation, as well as key regulators of the development of the central nervous system (including in axon guidance and synaptogenesis) via multiple signal pathways. It has been demonstrated that FGF infusion or gene transfer restores neurogenesis in subventricular zone and hippocampal functions in aged mice and mouse models of AD and has therapeutic implications for neurocognitive disorders. Besides, FGF receptor signaling in oligodendrocytes regulates myelin sheath thickness via Erk1/2 MAPK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, which sequentially regulates progression through distinct stages of oligodendrocyte differentiation. The effect could be effectively antagonized by the potent, selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor of FGF receptor activity. We therefore propose that modulation of FGF receptor signaling will suppress the development of oligodendrocyte degeneration and myelin breakdown or white matter damage in mouse models or patients of AD and improve or restore the pathological and clinical symptoms of cognitive decline, and FGF receptor signaling with its inhibitors and/or gene transfer would serve as an intervention and potential therapy for myelin breakdown and cognitive decline in AD.

  20. Silencing of FGF-21 expression promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis by regulation of the STAT3-SOCS3 signal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Dai, Jihuan; Yang, Mengliu; Deng, Guangjiang; Xu, Shengnan; Jia, Yanjun; Boden, Guenther; Ma, Zhongmin A; Yang, Gangyi; Li, Ling

    2014-05-01

    Insulin resistance is a metabolic disorder associated with type 2 diabetes. Recent reports have shown that fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) plays an important role in the progression of insulin resistance. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms by which changes in FGF-21 activation result in changes in the rates of hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis remain to be elucidated. In this study, we developed adenovirus-mediated shRNA against FGF-21 to inhibit FGF-21 expression in ApoE knockout mice. Using this mouse model, we determined the effects of FGF-21 knockdown in vivo on hepatic glucose production, gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, and their relationship with the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) signal pathways. We show that liver-specific knockdown of FGF-21 in high-fat diet-fed ApoE knockout mice resulted in a 39% increase in glycogenolysis and a 75% increase in gluconeogenesis, accompanied by increased hepatic expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Furthermore, FGF-21 knockdown decreased phosphorylation of STAT3 and SOCS3 expression in high-fat diet-fed mice. Our data suggest that hepatic FGF-21 knockdown increases gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis by activation of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase via the STAT3/SOCS3 pathway, ultimately leading to exacerbation of hepatic insulin resistance.

  1. Regulation of neurogenesis by Fgf8a requires Cdc42 signaling and a novel Cdc42 effector protein

    PubMed Central

    Hulstrand, Alissa M.; Houston, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling is required for numerous aspects of neural development, including neural induction, CNS patterning and neurogenesis. The ability of FGFs to activate Ras/MAPK signaling is thought to be critical for these functions. However, it is unlikely that MAPK signaling can fully explain the diversity of responses to FGFs. We have characterized a Cdc42-dependent signaling pathway operating downstream of the Fgf8a splice isoform. We show that a Cdc42 effector 4-like protein (Cdc42ep4-l or Cep4l) has robust neuronal-inducing activity in Xenopus embryos. Furthermore, we find that Cep4l and Cdc42 itself are necessary and sufficient for sensory neurogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, both proteins are involved in Fgf8a-induced neuronal induction, and Cdc42/Cep4l association is promoted specifically by the Fgf8a isoform of Fgf8, but not by Fgf8b, which lacks neuronal inducing activity. Overall, these data suggest a novel role for Cdc42 in an Fgf8a-specific signaling pathway essential for vertebrate neuronal development. PMID:23994638

  2. Polysaccharides purified from wild Cordyceps activate FGF2/FGFR1c signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Yu, Guangli; Hao, Jiejie; Zhang, Lijuan

    2015-02-01

    Land animals as well as all organisms in ocean synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. Fungi split from animals about 1.5 billion years ago. As fungi make the evolutionary journey from ocean to land, the biggest changes in their living environment may be a sharp decrease in salt concentration. It is established that sulfated polysaccharides interact with hundreds of signaling molecules and facilitate many signaling transduction pathways, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and FGF receptor signaling pathway. The disappearance of sulfated polysaccharides in fungi and plants on land might indicate that polysaccharides without sulfation might be sufficient in facilitating protein ligand/receptor interactions in low salinity land. Recently, it was reported that plants on land start to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides in high salt environment, suggesting that fungi might be able to do the same when exposed in such environment. Interestingly, Cordyceps, a fungus habituating inside caterpillar body, is the most valued traditional Chinese Medicine. One of the important pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps is polysaccharides. Therefore, we hypothesize that the salty environment inside caterpillar body might allow the fungi to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. To test the hypothesis, we isolated polysaccharides from both lava and sporophore of wild Cordyceps and also from Cordyceps militaris cultured without or with added salts. We then measured the polysaccharide activity using a FGF2/FGFR1c signaling-dependent BaF3 cell proliferation assay and found that polysaccharides isolated from wild Cordyceps activated FGF2/FGFR signaling, indicating that the polysaccharides synthesized by wild Cordyceps are indeed different from those by the cultured mycelium.

  3. Parathyroid-Specific Deletion of Klotho Unravels a Novel Calcineurin-Dependent FGF23 Signaling Pathway That Regulates PTH Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Olauson, Hannes; Lindberg, Karolina; Amin, Risul; Sato, Tadatoshi; Jia, Ting; Goetz, Regina; Mohammadi, Moosa; Andersson, Göran; Lanske, Beate; Larsson, Tobias E.

    2013-01-01

    Klotho acts as a co-receptor for and dictates tissue specificity of circulating FGF23. FGF23 inhibits PTH secretion, and reduced Klotho abundance is considered a pathogenic factor in renal secondary hyperparathyroidism. To dissect the role of parathyroid gland resident Klotho in health and disease, we generated mice with a parathyroid-specific Klotho deletion (PTH-KL−/−). PTH-KL−/− mice had a normal gross phenotype and survival; normal serum PTH and calcium; unaltered expression of the PTH gene in parathyroid tissue; and preserved PTH response and sensitivity to acute changes in serum calcium. Their PTH response to intravenous FGF23 delivery or renal failure did not differ compared to their wild-type littermates despite disrupted FGF23-induced activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway. Importantly, calcineurin-NFAT signaling, defined by increased MCIP1 level and nuclear localization of NFATC2, was constitutively activated in PTH-KL−/− mice. Treatment with the calcineurin-inhibitor cyclosporine A abolished FGF23-mediated PTH suppression in PTH-KL−/− mice whereas wild-type mice remained responsive. Similar results were observed in thyro-parathyroid explants ex vivo. Collectively, we present genetic and functional evidence for a novel, Klotho-independent, calcineurin-mediated FGF23 signaling pathway in parathyroid glands that mediates suppression of PTH. The presence of Klotho-independent FGF23 effects in a Klotho-expressing target organ represents a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of FGF23 endocrine action. PMID:24348262

  4. Parathyroid-specific deletion of Klotho unravels a novel calcineurin-dependent FGF23 signaling pathway that regulates PTH secretion.

    PubMed

    Olauson, Hannes; Lindberg, Karolina; Amin, Risul; Sato, Tadatoshi; Jia, Ting; Goetz, Regina; Mohammadi, Moosa; Andersson, Göran; Lanske, Beate; Larsson, Tobias E

    2013-01-01

    Klotho acts as a co-receptor for and dictates tissue specificity of circulating FGF23. FGF23 inhibits PTH secretion, and reduced Klotho abundance is considered a pathogenic factor in renal secondary hyperparathyroidism. To dissect the role of parathyroid gland resident Klotho in health and disease, we generated mice with a parathyroid-specific Klotho deletion (PTH-KL(-/-)). PTH-KL(-/-) mice had a normal gross phenotype and survival; normal serum PTH and calcium; unaltered expression of the PTH gene in parathyroid tissue; and preserved PTH response and sensitivity to acute changes in serum calcium. Their PTH response to intravenous FGF23 delivery or renal failure did not differ compared to their wild-type littermates despite disrupted FGF23-induced activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway. Importantly, calcineurin-NFAT signaling, defined by increased MCIP1 level and nuclear localization of NFATC2, was constitutively activated in PTH-KL(-/-) mice. Treatment with the calcineurin-inhibitor cyclosporine A abolished FGF23-mediated PTH suppression in PTH-KL(-/-) mice whereas wild-type mice remained responsive. Similar results were observed in thyro-parathyroid explants ex vivo. Collectively, we present genetic and functional evidence for a novel, Klotho-independent, calcineurin-mediated FGF23 signaling pathway in parathyroid glands that mediates suppression of PTH. The presence of Klotho-independent FGF23 effects in a Klotho-expressing target organ represents a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of FGF23 endocrine action.

  5. Interactions between NF-κB and SP3 connect inflammatory signaling with reduced FGF-10 expression.

    PubMed

    Carver, Billy J; Plosa, Erin J; Stinnett, Amanda M; Blackwell, Timothy S; Prince, Lawrence S

    2013-05-24

    Inflammation inhibits normal lung morphogenesis in preterm infants. Soluble inflammatory mediators present in the lungs of patients developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia disrupt expression of multiple genes critical for development. However, the mechanisms linking innate immune signaling and developmental programs are not clear. NF-κB activation inhibits expression of the critical morphogen FGF-10. Here, we show that interactions between the RELA subunit of NF-κB and SP3 suppress SP1-mediated FGF-10 expression. SP3 co-expression reduced SP1-mediated Fgf-10 promoter activity, suggesting antagonistic interactions between SP1 and SP3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of LPS-treated primary mouse fetal lung mesenchymal cells detected increased interactions between SP3, RELA, and the Fgf-10 promoter. Expression of a constitutively active IκB kinase β mutant not only decreased Fgf-10 promoter activity but also increased RELA-SP3 nuclear interactions. Expression of a dominant-negative IκB, which blocks NF-κB nuclear translocation, prevented inhibition of FGF-10 by SP3. The inhibitory functions of SP3 required sequences located in the N-terminal region of the protein. These data suggested that inhibition of FGF-10 by inflammatory signaling involves the NF-κB-dependent interactions between RELA, SP3, and the Fgf-10 promoter. NF-κB activation may therefore lead to reduced gene expression by recruiting inhibitory factors to specific gene promoters following exposure to inflammatory stimuli.

  6. A random cell motility gradient downstream of FGF controls elongation of an amniote embryo

    PubMed Central

    Bénazéraf, Bertrand; Francois, Paul; Baker, Ruth E.; Denans, Nicolas; Little, Charles D.; Pourquie, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Vertebrate embryos are characterized by an elongated antero-posterior (AP) body axis, which forms by progressive cell deposition from a posterior growth zone in the embryo. Here, we used tissue ablation in the chicken embryo to demonstrate that the caudal presomitic mesoderm (PSM) plays a key role in axis elongation. Using time-lapse microscopy, we analysed the movements of fluorescently labelled cells in the PSM during embryo elongation which revealed a clear posterior-to-anterior gradient of cell motility and directionality in the PSM. We tracked the movement of the PSM extracellular matrix in parallel with the labelled cells and subtracted the extracellular matrix movement from the global motion of cells. After subtraction, cell motility remained graded but lacked directionality, indicating that the posterior cell movements associated with axis elongation in the PSM are not intrinsic but reflect tissue deformation. The gradient of cell motion along the PSM parallels the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) gradient 1, which has been implicated in the control of cell motility in this tissue2. Both FGF signalling gain- and loss-of-function experiments lead to disruption of the motility gradient and a slowing down of axis elongation. Furthermore, embryos treated with cell movement inhibitors (Blebbistatin or RhoK inhibitor), but not cell cycle inhibitors, show a slower axis elongation rate. We propose that the gradient of random cell motility downstream of FGF signalling in the PSM controls posterior elongation in the amniote embryo. Our data suggest that tissue elongation is an emergent property that arises from the collective regulation of graded, random cell motion rather than by the regulation of directionality of individual cellular movements. PMID:20613841

  7. Opposing Shh and Fgf signals initiate nasotemporal patterning of the zebrafish retina.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bejarano, María; Gestri, Gaia; Spawls, Lana; Nieto-López, Francisco; Picker, Alexander; Tada, Masazumi; Brand, Michael; Bovolenta, Paola; Wilson, Stephen W; Cavodeassi, Florencia

    2015-11-15

    The earliest known determinants of retinal nasotemporal identity are the transcriptional regulators Foxg1, which is expressed in the prospective nasal optic vesicle, and Foxd1, which is expressed in the prospective temporal optic vesicle. Previous work has shown that, in zebrafish, Fgf signals from the dorsal forebrain and olfactory primordia are required to specify nasal identity in the dorsal, prospective nasal, optic vesicle. Here, we show that Hh signalling from the ventral forebrain is required for specification of temporal identity in the ventral optic vesicle and is sufficient to induce temporal character when activated in the prospective nasal retina. Consequently, the evaginating optic vesicles become partitioned into prospective nasal and temporal domains by the opposing actions of Fgfs and Shh emanating from dorsal and ventral domains of the forebrain primordium. In absence of Fgf activity, foxd1 expression is established irrespective of levels of Hh signalling, indicating that the role of Shh in promoting foxd1 expression is only required in the presence of Fgf activity. Once the spatially complementary expression of foxd1 and foxg1 is established, the boundary between expression domains is maintained by mutual repression between Foxd1 and Foxg1.

  8. Opposing Shh and Fgf signals initiate nasotemporal patterning of the zebrafish retina

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Bejarano, María; Gestri, Gaia; Spawls, Lana; Nieto-López, Francisco; Picker, Alexander; Tada, Masazumi; Brand, Michael; Bovolenta, Paola; Wilson, Stephen W.; Cavodeassi, Florencia

    2015-01-01

    The earliest known determinants of retinal nasotemporal identity are the transcriptional regulators Foxg1, which is expressed in the prospective nasal optic vesicle, and Foxd1, which is expressed in the prospective temporal optic vesicle. Previous work has shown that, in zebrafish, Fgf signals from the dorsal forebrain and olfactory primordia are required to specify nasal identity in the dorsal, prospective nasal, optic vesicle. Here, we show that Hh signalling from the ventral forebrain is required for specification of temporal identity in the ventral optic vesicle and is sufficient to induce temporal character when activated in the prospective nasal retina. Consequently, the evaginating optic vesicles become partitioned into prospective nasal and temporal domains by the opposing actions of Fgfs and Shh emanating from dorsal and ventral domains of the forebrain primordium. In absence of Fgf activity, foxd1 expression is established irrespective of levels of Hh signalling, indicating that the role of Shh in promoting foxd1 expression is only required in the presence of Fgf activity. Once the spatially complementary expression of foxd1 and foxg1 is established, the boundary between expression domains is maintained by mutual repression between Foxd1 and Foxg1. PMID:26428010

  9. Lhx9 gene expression during early limb development in mice requires the FGF signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yisheng; Wilson, Megan J

    2015-01-01

    Lhx9 is a member of the LIM-homeodomain gene family necessary for the correct development of many organs including gonads, limbs, heart and the nervous system. In the context of limb development, Lhx9 has been implicated as an integrator for Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling required for proximal-distal (PD) and anterior-posterior (AP) development of the limb. Three splice variants of the Lhx9 transcript are expressed during development, two of which are predicted to act in a dominant negative fashion, competing with the DNA binding version of Lhx9 for binding to cofactors via the LIM-domain. We examined the expression pattern for the three alternative splice forms of Lhx9; Lhx9α, Lhx9β and Lhx9c during early limb development. We have found that of the three Lhx9 isoforms, only Lhx9α and Lhx9c (intact homeodomain) are expressed during early limb development, each with their own distinct expression pattern. Additionally we determined that Lhx9 expression overlaps with FGF10 expression in the developing limb bud mesenchyme. Limb bud explant cultures, in the presence of signalling pathway inhibitors, also indicated that Lhx9 mRNA expression in the limb bud was dependent on FGF signalling.

  10. bFGF signaling-mediated reprogramming of porcine primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Ma, Jing; Li, Hai; Lv, Jiawei; Wei, Renyue; Cong, Yimei; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-05-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) have the ability to be reprogrammed into embryonic germ cells (EGCs) in vitro and are an alternative source of embryonic stem cells. Other than for the mouse, the systematic characterization of mammalian PGCs is still lacking, especially the process by which PGCs convert to pluripotency. This hampers the understanding of germ cell development and the derivation of authenticated EGCs from other species. We observed the morphological development of the genital ridge from Bama miniature pigs and found primary sexual differentiation in the E28 porcine embryo, coinciding with Blimp1 nuclear exclusion in PGCs. To explore molecular events involved in porcine PGC reprogramming, transcriptome data of porcine EGCs and fetal fibroblasts (FFs) were assembled and 1169 differentially expressed genes were used for Gene Ontology analysis. These genes were significantly enriched in cell-surface receptor-linked signal transduction, in agreement with the activation of LIF/Stat3 signaling and FGF signaling during the derivation of porcine EG-like cells. Using a growth-factor-defined culture system, we explored the effects of bFGF on the process and found that bFGF not only functioned at the very beginning of PGC dedifferentiation by impeding Blimp1 nuclear expression via a PI3K/AKT-dependent pathway but also maintained the viability of cultured PGCs thereafter. These results provide further insights into the development of germ cells from livestock and the mechanism of porcine PGC reprogramming.

  11. TISSUE SPECIFIC RESPONSES TO ABERRANT FGF SIGNALING IN COMPLEX HEAD PHENOTYPES

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Motch, Susan M.; Pankratz, Talia L.; Wang, Yingli; Aldridge, Kristina; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

    2012-01-01

    Background The role of fibroblast growth factor and receptor (FGF/FGFR) signaling in bone development is well studied, partly because mutations in FGFRs cause human diseases of achondroplasia and FGFR-related craniosynostosis syndromes including Crouzon syndrome. The FGFR2c C342Y mutation is a frequent cause of Crouzon syndrome, characterized by premature cranial vault suture closure, midfacial deficiency and neurocranial dysmorphology. Here, using newborn Fgfr2cC342Y/+ Crouzon syndrome mice, we tested whether the phenotypic effects of this mutation go beyond the skeletal tissues of the skull, altering the development of other non-skeletal head tissues including the brain, the eyes, the nasopharynx and the inner ears. Results Quantitative analysis of 3D multimodal imaging (high resolution micro computed tomography and magnetic resonance microscopic images) revealed local differences in skull morphology and coronal suture patency between Fgfr2cC342Y/+ mice and unaffected littermates, as well as changes in brain shape but not brain size, significant reductions in nasopharyngeal and eye volumes, and no difference in inner ear volume in Fgfr2cC342Y/+ mice. Conclusion These findings provide an expanded catalogue of clinical phenotypes in Crouzon syndrome caused by aberrant FGF/FGFR signaling and evidence of the broad role for FGF/FGFR signaling in development and evolution of the vertebrate head. PMID:23172727

  12. Expression of osterix Is Regulated by FGF and Wnt/β-Catenin Signalling during Osteoblast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Felber, Katharina; Elks, Philip M; Lecca, Maria; Roehl, Henry H

    2015-01-01

    Osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal cells is regulated by multiple signalling pathways. Here we have analysed the roles of Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) and canonical Wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt/β-Catenin) signalling pathways on zebrafish osteogenesis. We have used transgenic and chemical interference approaches to manipulate these pathways and have found that both pathways are required for osteoblast differentiation in vivo. Our analysis of bone markers suggests that these pathways act at the same stage of differentiation to initiate expression of the osteoblast master regulatory gene osterix (osx). We use two independent approaches that suggest that osx is a direct target of these pathways. Firstly, we manipulate signalling and show that osx gene expression responds with similar kinetics to that of known transcriptional targets of the FGF and Wnt pathways. Secondly, we have performed ChIP with transcription factors for both pathways and our data suggest that a genomic region in the first intron of osx mediates transcriptional activation. Based upon these data, we propose that FGF and Wnt/β-Catenin pathways act in part by directing transcription of osx to promote osteoblast differentiation at sites of bone formation.

  13. Targeting of Ras-mediated FGF signaling suppresses Pten-deficient skin tumor.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Grinu; Hannan, Abdul; Hertzler-Schaefer, Kristina; Wang, Fen; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Zhong, Jian; Zhao, Jean J; Downward, Julian; Zhang, Xin

    2016-11-15

    Deficiency in PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) is the underlying cause of PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome and a wide variety of human cancers. In skin epidermis, we have previously identified an autocrine FGF signaling induced by loss of Pten in keratinocytes. In this study, we demonstrate that skin hyperplasia requires FGF receptor adaptor protein Frs2α and tyrosine phosphatase Shp2, two upstream regulators of Ras signaling. Although the PI3-kinase regulatory subunits p85α and p85β are dispensable, the PI3-kinase catalytic subunit p110α requires interaction with Ras to promote hyperplasia in Pten-deficient skin, thus demonstrating an important cross-talk between Ras and PI3K pathways. Furthermore, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Ras-MAPK pathway impeded epidermal hyperplasia in Pten animals. These results reveal a positive feedback loop connecting Pten and Ras pathways and suggest that FGF-activated Ras-MAPK pathway is an effective therapeutic target for preventing skin tumor induced by aberrant Pten signaling.

  14. Bitter melon extract attenuating hepatic steatosis may be mediated by FGF21 and AMPK/Sirt1 signaling in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongmei; Zhang, Xian H.; Ebersole, Blake; Ribnicky, David; Wang, Zhong Q.

    2013-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon, BM) extract on insulin sensitivity, NAFLD, hepatic FGF21 and AMPK signaling in mice fed a high-fat diet. Male C57/B6 mice were randomly divided into HFD and HFD supplementation with BM for 12 week. Body weight, plasma glucose, FGF21 and insulin levels, hepatic FGF21 and AMPK signaling proteins were measured. The results showed that plasma FGF21 and insulin concentrations were significantly decreased and hepatic FGF21 content was significantly down-regulated, while FGF receptors 1, 3 and 4 (FGFR1, FGFR3 and FGFR4) were greatly up-regulated in BM group compared to the HFD group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). BM also significantly increased hepatic AMPK p, AMPK α1 AMPK α2 and Sirt1 content compared to the HFD mice. We, for the first time, demonstrated that BM extract attenuated hepatic steatosis in mice by enhancing hepatic FGF21 and AMPK/Sirt1 signaling. PMID:24189525

  15. Bitter melon extract attenuating hepatic steatosis may be mediated by FGF21 and AMPK/Sirt1 signaling in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongmei; Zhang, Xian H; Ebersole, Blake; Ribnicky, David; Wang, Zhong Q

    2013-11-05

    We sought to evaluate the effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon, BM) extract on insulin sensitivity, NAFLD, hepatic FGF21 and AMPK signaling in mice fed a high-fat diet. Male C57/B6 mice were randomly divided into HFD and HFD supplementation with BM for 12 week. Body weight, plasma glucose, FGF21 and insulin levels, hepatic FGF21 and AMPK signaling proteins were measured. The results showed that plasma FGF21 and insulin concentrations were significantly decreased and hepatic FGF21 content was significantly down-regulated, while FGF receptors 1, 3 and 4 (FGFR1, FGFR3 and FGFR4) were greatly up-regulated in BM group compared to the HFD group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). BM also significantly increased hepatic AMPK p, AMPK α1 AMPK α2 and Sirt1 content compared to the HFD mice. We, for the first time, demonstrated that BM extract attenuated hepatic steatosis in mice by enhancing hepatic FGF21 and AMPK/Sirt1 signaling.

  16. FGF Signaling and Dietary Factors in the Prostate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Signaling 3. Mohammadi, M., Dionne, C. A., Li, W., Li, N., Spivak , T., Honegger, A. M., 25. Spruck, C. H., de Miguel, M. P., Smith, A. P., Ryan, A., Stein...Hadari, Y. R., Spivak -Kroizman, T., Schilling, J., Bar-Sagi, D., 27. Sgambato, A., Cittadini, A., Faraglia, B., and Weinstein, I. B. (2000) J. Cell

  17. Diverse ETS transcription factors mediate FGF signaling in the Ciona anterior neural plate.

    PubMed

    Gainous, T Blair; Wagner, Eileen; Levine, Michael

    2015-03-15

    The ascidian Ciona intestinalis is a marine invertebrate belonging to the sister group of the vertebrates, the tunicates. Its compact genome and simple, experimentally tractable embryos make Ciona well-suited for the study of cell-fate specification in chordates. Tunicate larvae possess a characteristic chordate body plan, and many developmental pathways are conserved between tunicates and vertebrates. Previous studies have shown that FGF signals are essential for neural induction and patterning at sequential steps of Ciona embryogenesis. Here we show that two different ETS family transcription factors, Ets1/2 and Elk1/3/4, have partially redundant activities in the anterior neural plate of gastrulating embryos. Whereas Ets1/2 promotes pigment cell formation in lateral lineages, both Ets1/2 and Elk1/3/4 are involved in the activation of Myt1L in medial lineages and the restriction of Six3/6 expression to the anterior-most regions of the neural tube. We also provide evidence that photoreceptor cells arise from posterior regions of the presumptive sensory vesicle, and do not depend on FGF signaling. Cells previously identified as photoreceptor progenitors instead form ependymal cells and neurons of the larval brain. Our results extend recent findings on FGF-dependent patterning of anterior-posterior compartments in the Ciona central nervous system. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Astrocyte activation is suppressed in both normal and injured brain by FGF signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wenfei; Balordi, Francesca; Su, Nan; Chen, Lin; Fishell, Gordon; Hébert, Jean M.

    2014-01-01

    In the brain, astrocytes are multifunctional cells that react to insults and contain damage. However, excessive or sustained reactive astrocytes can be deleterious to functional recovery or contribute to chronic inflammation and neuronal dysfunction. Therefore, astrocyte activation in response to damage is likely to be tightly regulated. Although factors that activate astrocytes have been identified, whether factors also exist that maintain astrocytes as nonreactive or reestablish their nonreactive state after containing damage remains unclear. By using loss- and gain-of-function genetic approaches, we show that, in the unperturbed adult neocortex, FGF signaling is required in astrocytes to maintain their nonreactive state. Similarly, after injury, FGF signaling delays the response of astrocytes and accelerates their deactivation. In addition, disrupting astrocytic FGF receptors results in reduced scar size without affecting neuronal survival. Overall, this study reveals that the activation of astrocytes in the normal and injured neocortex is not only regulated by proinflammatory factors, but also by factors such as FGFs that suppress activation, providing alternative therapeutic targets. PMID:25002516

  19. The serpin PN1 is a feedback regulator of FGF signaling in germ layer and primary axis formation.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Helena; Iliev, Dobromir; Grahn, Tan Hooi Min; Gouignard, Nadège; Maccarana, Marco; Griesbach, Julia; Herzmann, Svende; Sagha, Mohsen; Climent, Maria; Pera, Edgar M

    2015-03-15

    Germ layer formation and primary axis development rely on Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). In Xenopus, the secreted serine protease HtrA1 induces mesoderm and posterior trunk/tail structures by facilitating the spread of FGF signals. Here, we show that the serpin Protease nexin-1 (PN1) is transcriptionally activated by FGF signals, suppresses mesoderm and promotes head development in mRNA-injected embryos. An antisense morpholino oligonucleotide against PN1 has the opposite effect and inhibits ectodermal fate. However, ectoderm and anterior head structures can be restored in PN1-depleted embryos when HtrA1 and FGF receptor activities are diminished, indicating that FGF signals negatively regulate their formation. We show that PN1 binds to and inhibits HtrA1, prevents degradation of the proteoglycan Syndecan 4 and restricts paracrine FGF/Erk signaling. Our data suggest that PN1 is a negative-feedback regulator of FGF signaling and has important roles in ectoderm and head development.

  20. SOCS-1/3 participation in FGF-2 signaling to modulate RANK ligand expression in paget's disease of bone.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Kumaran; Senn, Joseph; Reddy, Sakamuri V

    2013-09-01

    Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a chronic focal skeletal disorder characterized by excessive bone resorption followed by disorganized new bone formation. Measles virus nucleocapsid (MVNP) is implicated in pathogenesis of PDB. RANK ligand (RANKL), a critical osteoclastogenic factor expressed on bone marrow stromal/preosteoblast cells is upregulated in PDB. We recently demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) which induces RANKL expression is elevated in PDB. In this study, we hypothesized that FGF-2 modulates suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) to induce RANKL expression in PDB. We identified increased levels of SOCS-1/3 mRNA expression in bone marrow mononuclear cells derived from patients with PDB compared to normal subjects. Interestingly, conditioned media obtained from MVNP transduced osteoclast progenitor cells significantly increased SOCS-1/3 mRNA expression in stromal/preosteoblast cells. We next examined if SOCS participates in FGF-2 signaling to modulate RANKL gene expression. We showed that FGF-2 stimulation significantly increased SOCS-1/3 expression in human bone marrow stromal/preosteoblast cells. In addition, co-expression of SOCS-1/3 with hRANKL gene promoter-luciferase reporter plasmid in marrow stromal cells demonstrated a significant increase in promoter activity without FGF-2 stimulation. Furthermore, siRNA inhibition of STAT-1 suppresses FGF-2 increased SOCS-1/3 expression in these cells. Thus, our results suggest that SOCS participates in FGF-2 modulation of RANKL expression in PDB.

  1. Tumour initiating cells and IGF/FGF signalling contribute to sorafenib resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Victoria; Cornella, Helena; Moeini, Agrin; Vidal, Samuel; Hoshida, Yujin; Sia, Daniela; Peix, Judit; Cabellos, Laia; Alsinet, Clara; Torrecilla, Sara; Martinez-Quetglas, Iris; Lozano, Juan José; Desbois-Mouthon, Christèle; Solé, Manel; Domingo-Domenech, Josep; Villanueva, Augusto; Llovet, Josep M

    2017-03-01

    Sorafenib is effective in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but patients ultimately present disease progression. Molecular mechanisms underlying acquired resistance are still unknown. Herein, we characterise the role of tumour-initiating cells (T-ICs) and signalling pathways involved in sorafenib resistance. HCC xenograft mice treated with sorafenib (n=22) were explored for responsiveness (n=5) and acquired resistance (n=17). Mechanism of acquired resistance were assessed by: (1) role of T-ICs by in vitro sphere formation and in vivo tumourigenesis assays using NOD/SCID mice, (2) activation of alternative signalling pathways and (3) efficacy of anti-FGF and anti-IGF drugs in experimental models. Gene expression (microarray, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)) and protein analyses (immunohistochemistry, western blot) were conducted. A novel gene signature of sorafenib resistance was generated and tested in two independent cohorts. Sorafenib-acquired resistant tumours showed significant enrichment of T-ICs (164 cells needed to create a tumour) versus sorafenib-sensitive tumours (13 400 cells) and non-treated tumours (1292 cells), p<0.001. Tumours with sorafenib-acquired resistance were enriched with insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling cascades (false discovery rate (FDR)<0.05). In vitro, cells derived from sorafenib-acquired resistant tumours and two sorafenib-resistant HCC cell lines were responsive to IGF or FGF inhibition. In vivo, FGF blockade delayed tumour growth and improved survival in sorafenib-resistant tumours. A sorafenib-resistance 175 gene signature was characterised by enrichment of progenitor cell features, aggressive tumorous traits and predicted poor survival in two cohorts (n=442 patients with HCC). Acquired resistance to sorafenib is driven by T-ICs with enrichment of progenitor markers and activation of IGF and FGF signalling. Inhibition of these pathways would benefit a subset of patients after

  2. FGF signaling targets the pRb-related p107 and p130 proteins to induce chondrocyte growth arrest

    PubMed Central

    Laplantine, Emmanuel; Rossi, Ferdinand; Sahni, Malika; Basilico, Claudio; Cobrinik, David

    2002-01-01

    Unregulated FGF signaling affects endochondral ossification and long bone growth, causing several genetic forms of human dwarfism. One major mechanism by which FGFs regulate endochondral bone growth is through their inhibitory effect on chondrocyte proliferation. Because mice with targeted mutations of the retinoblastoma (Rb)-related proteins p107 and p130 present severe endochondral bone defects with excessive chondrocyte proliferation, we have investigated the role of the Rb family of cell cycle regulators in the FGF response. Using a chondrocyte cell line, we found that FGF induced a rapid dephosphorylation of all three proteins of the Rb family (pRb, p107, and p130) and a blockade of the cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This cell cycle block was reversed by inactivation of Rb proteins with viral oncoproteins such as polyoma large T (PyLT) antigen and Adenovirus E1A. Expression of a PyLT mutant that efficiently binds pRb, but not p107 and p130, allowed the cells to be growth inhibited by FGF, suggesting that pRb itself is not involved in the FGF response. To investigate more precisely the role of the individual Rb family proteins in FGF-mediated growth inhibition, we used chondrocyte micromass culture of limb bud cells isolated from mice lacking Rb proteins individually or in combination. Although wild-type as well as Rb−/− chondrocytes were similarly growth inhibited by FGF, chondrocytes null for p107 and p130 did not respond to FGF. Furthermore, FGF treatment of metatarsal bone rudiments obtained from p107−/−;p130−/− embryos failed to inhibit proliferation of growth plate chondrocytes, whereas rudiments from p107-null or p130-null embryos showed only a slight inhibition of growth. Our findings indicate that p107 and p130, but not pRb, are critical effectors of FGF-mediated growth inhibition in chondrocytes. PMID:12177046

  3. RA and FGF Signalling Are Required in the Zebrafish Otic Vesicle to Pattern and Maintain Ventral Otic Identities

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Esther C.; Whitfield, Tanya T.

    2014-01-01

    During development of the zebrafish inner ear, regional patterning in the ventral half of the otic vesicle establishes zones of gene expression that correspond to neurogenic, sensory and non-neural cell fates. FGF and Retinoic acid (RA) signalling from surrounding tissues are known to have an early role in otic placode induction and otic axial patterning, but how external signalling cues are translated into intrinsic patterning during otic vesicle (OV) stages is not yet understood. FGF and RA signalling pathway members are expressed in and around the OV, suggesting important roles in later patterning or maintenance events. We have analysed the temporal requirement of FGF and RA signalling for otic development at stages after initial anteroposterior patterning has occurred. We show that high level FGF signalling acts to restrict sensory fates, whereas low levels favour sensory hair cell development; in addition, FGF is both required and sufficient to promote the expression of the non-neural marker otx1b in the OV. RA signalling has opposite roles: it promotes sensory fates, and restricts otx1b expression and the development of non-neural fates. This is surprisingly different from the earlier requirement for RA signalling in specification of non-neural fates via tbx1 expression, and highlights the shift in regulation that takes place between otic placode and vesicle stages in zebrafish. Both FGF and RA signalling are required for the development of the otic neurogenic domain and the generation of otic neuroblasts. In addition, our results indicate that FGF and RA signalling act in a feedback loop in the anterior OV, crucial for pattern refinement. PMID:25473832

  4. FGF9 and FGF18 in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis promote survival and migration and inhibit myofibroblast differentiation of human lung fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Joannes, Audrey; Brayer, Stéphanie; Besnard, Valérie; Marchal-Sommé, Joëlle; Jaillet, Madeleine; Mordant, Pierre; Mal, Hervé; Borie, Raphael; Crestani, Bruno; Mailleux, Arnaud A

    2016-04-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by an accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins and fibroblasts in the distal airways. Key developmental lung signaling pathways are reactivated in IPF. For instance, fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) and FGF18, involved in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, are critical for lung development. We evaluated the expression of FGF9, FGF18, and FGF receptors (FGFRs) in lung tissue from controls and IPF patients and assessed their effect on proliferation, survival, migration, and differentiation of control and IPF human lung fibroblasts (HLFs). FGF9, FGF18, and all FGFRs were present in the remodeled alveolar epithelium close to the fibroblast foci in IPF lungs. FGFR3 was generally detected in fibroblast foci by immunohistochemistry. In vitro, HLFs mainly expressed mesenchyme-associated FGFR isoforms (FGFR1c and FGFR3c) and FGFR4. FGF9 did not affect fibroblast proliferation, whereas FGF18 inhibited cell growth in control fibroblasts. FGF9 and FGF18 decreased Fas-ligand-induced apoptosis in control but not in IPF fibroblasts. FGF9 prevented transforming growth factor β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation. FGF9 and FGF18 increased the migratory capacities of HLF, and FGF9 actively modulated matrix metalloproteinase activity. In addition, FGFR3 inhibition by small interfering RNA impacted p-ERK activation by FGF9 and FGF18 and their effects on differentiation and migration. These results identify FGF9 as an antiapoptotic and promigratory growth factor on HLF, maintaining fibroblasts in an undifferentiated state. The biological effects of FGF9 and FGF18 were partially driven by FGFR3. FGF18 was a less potent molecule. Both growth factors likely contribute to the fibrotic process in vivo.

  5. A balance of FGF and BMP signals regulates cell cycle exit and Equarin expression in lens cells.

    PubMed

    Jarrin, Miguel; Pandit, Tanushree; Gunhaga, Lena

    2012-08-01

    In embryonic and adult lenses, a balance of cell proliferation, cell cycle exit, and differentiation is necessary to maintain physical function. The molecular mechanisms regulating the transition of proliferating lens epithelial cells to differentiated primary lens fiber cells are poorly characterized. To investigate this question, we used gain- and loss-of-function analyses to modulate fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and/or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signals in chick lens/retina explants. Here we show that FGF activity plays a key role for proliferation independent of BMP signals. Moreover, a balance of FGF and BMP signals regulates cell cycle exit and the expression of Ccdc80 (also called Equarin), which is expressed at sites where differentiation of lens fiber cells occurs. BMP activity promotes cell cycle exit and induces Equarin expression in an FGF-dependent manner. In contrast, FGF activity is required but not sufficient to induce cell cycle exit or Equarin expression. Furthermore, our results show that in the absence of BMP activity, lens cells have increased cell cycle length or are arrested in the cell cycle, which leads to decreased cell cycle exit. Taken together, these findings suggest that proliferation, cell cycle exit, and early differentiation of primary lens fiber cells are regulated by counterbalancing BMP and FGF signals.

  6. A balance of FGF and BMP signals regulates cell cycle exit and Equarin expression in lens cells

    PubMed Central

    Jarrin, Miguel; Pandit, Tanushree; Gunhaga, Lena

    2012-01-01

    In embryonic and adult lenses, a balance of cell proliferation, cell cycle exit, and differentiation is necessary to maintain physical function. The molecular mechanisms regulating the transition of proliferating lens epithelial cells to differentiated primary lens fiber cells are poorly characterized. To investigate this question, we used gain- and loss-of-function analyses to modulate fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and/or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signals in chick lens/retina explants. Here we show that FGF activity plays a key role for proliferation independent of BMP signals. Moreover, a balance of FGF and BMP signals regulates cell cycle exit and the expression of Ccdc80 (also called Equarin), which is expressed at sites where differentiation of lens fiber cells occurs. BMP activity promotes cell cycle exit and induces Equarin expression in an FGF-dependent manner. In contrast, FGF activity is required but not sufficient to induce cell cycle exit or Equarin expression. Furthermore, our results show that in the absence of BMP activity, lens cells have increased cell cycle length or are arrested in the cell cycle, which leads to decreased cell cycle exit. Taken together, these findings suggest that proliferation, cell cycle exit, and early differentiation of primary lens fiber cells are regulated by counterbalancing BMP and FGF signals. PMID:22718906

  7. FGF signaling directs a center-to-pole expansion of tubulogenesis in mouse testis differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Ryuji; Harikae, Kyoko; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Matsuo, Isao; Kanai, Yoshiakira

    2010-01-01

    In mouse embryogenesis, Sry is transiently activated in a center-to-pole wavelike manner along the anteroposterior (AP) axis of developing XY gonads. However, the mechanism and significance of the center-to-pole expansion of testis initiation pathways downstream of Sry expression remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that FGF9 can act as a diffusible conductor for a poleward expansion of tubulogenic programs at early phases of testis differentiation. In XY genital ridge cultures of anterior, middle and posterior segments at 11.0-11.25 days post-coitum, male-specific activation of Sry and its target gene, Sox9, was still observed in both anterior and posterior pole segments despite their isolation from the central domain. However, high-level Sox9 expression was not maintained, resulting in the failure of testis cord organization in most pole segments. A reconstruction experiment using ROSA:lacZ middle segments showed rescue of the tubulogenic defect in the poles without any appreciable contribution of lacZ-positive gonadal parenchyma cells. A partition culture assay also showed a possible contribution of soluble/diffusible factors secreted from the gonadal center domain to proper tubulogenesis in the poles. Among various signaling factors, Fgf9 expression was significantly lower in both anterior and posterior pole segments than in the central domain. The supportive role of the central domain could be substituted by exogenous FGF9 supply, whereas reduction of Wnt4 activity did not rescue the tubulogenesis defect in the pole segments. These observations imply that center-to-pole FGF9 diffusion directs a poleward expansion of testiculogenic programs along the AP axis of developing XY gonads.

  8. Stem cells with FGF4-bFGF fused gene enhances the expression of bFGF and improves myocardial repair in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiang-Qi; Chen, Liang-Long Fan, Lin; Fang, Jun; Chen, Zhao-Yang; Li, Wei-Wei

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • BFGF exists only in the cytoplasm of live cells. • BFGF cannot be secreted into the extracellular space to promote cell growth. • We combine the secretion-promoting signal peptide of FGF4. • We successfully modified BMSCs with the fused genes of FGF4-bFGF. • We promoted the therapeutic effects of transplanted BMSCs in myocardial infarction. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the modification of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) with the fused FGF4 (fibroblast growth factor 4)-bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor) gene could improve the expression and secretion of BFGF, and increase the efficacies in repairing infarcted myocardium. We used In-Fusion technique to construct recombinant lentiviral vectors containing the individual gene of bFGF, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), or genes of FGF4-bFGF and EGFP, and then transfected these lentiviruses into rat BMSCs. We conducted an in vitro experiment to compare the secretion of bFGF in BMSCs infected by these lentiviruses and also examined their therapeutic effects in the treatment of myocardial infraction in a rodent study. Sixty rats were tested in the following five conditions: Group-SHAM received only sham operation as controls; Group-AMI received only injection of placebo PBS buffer; Group-BMSC, Group-bFGF and Group-FGF4-bFGF received implantation of BMSCs with empty lentivirus, bFGF lentivirus, and FGF4-bFGF lentivirus, respectively. Our results found out that the transplanted FGF4-bFGF BMSCs had the highest survival rate, and also the highest myocardial expression of bFGF and microvascular density as evidenced by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. As compared to other groups, the Group-FGF4-BFGF rats had the lowest myocardial fibrotic fraction, and the highest left ventricular ejection fraction. These results suggest that the modification of BMSCs with the FGF4-bFGF fused gene can not only increase the expression of

  9. FGF/EGF signaling regulates the renewal of early nephron progenitors during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Brown, Aaron C; Adams, Derek; de Caestecker, Mark; Yang, Xuehui; Friesel, Robert; Oxburgh, Leif

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that nephron progenitor cells of the embryonic kidney are arranged in a series of compartments of an increasing state of differentiation. The earliest progenitor compartment, distinguished by expression of CITED1, possesses greater capacity for renewal and differentiation than later compartments. Signaling events governing progression of nephron progenitor cells through stages of increasing differentiation are poorly understood, and their elucidation will provide key insights into normal and dysregulated nephrogenesis, as well as into regenerative processes that follow kidney injury. In this study, we found that the mouse CITED1(+) progenitor compartment is maintained in response to receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) ligands that activate both FGF and EGF receptors. This RTK signaling function is dependent on RAS and PI3K signaling but not ERK. In vivo, RAS inactivation by expression of sprouty 1 (Spry1) in CITED1(+) nephron progenitors results in loss of characteristic molecular marker expression and in increased death of progenitor cells. Lineage tracing shows that surviving Spry1-expressing progenitor cells are impaired in their subsequent epithelial differentiation, infrequently contributing to epithelial structures. These findings demonstrate that the survival and developmental potential of cells in the earliest embryonic nephron progenitor cell compartment are dependent on FGF/EGF signaling through RAS.

  10. c-Ki-ras oncogene amplification and FGF2 signaling pathways in the mouse Y1 adrenocortical cell line.

    PubMed

    Forti, Fábio L; Costa, Erico T; Rocha, Kátia M; Moraes, Miriam S; Armelin, Hugo A

    2006-06-01

    The mouse Y1 adrenocortical tumor cell line is highly responsive to FGF2-(Fibroblast Growth Factor 2) and possesses amplified and over-expressed c-Ki-ras proto-oncogene. We previously reported that this genetic lesion leads to high constitutive levels of activation of the c-Ki-Ras-GTP-->PI3K-->Akt signaling pathway (Forti et al. 2002). On the other hand, activation levels of another important pathway downstream of c-Ki-Ras-GTP, namely, Raf-->MEK-->ERK, remain strictly dependent on FGF2 stimulation (Rocha et al. 2003). Here we show that, first, FGF2 transiently up-regulates the c-Ki-Ras-GTP-->PI3K-->Akt pathway, in spite of its high basal levels. Second, c-Ki-Ras-GTP transient up-regulation likely underlies activation of the ERK1/2 pathway by FGF2. Third, c-Ki-Ras-GTP high basal levels suppress activation of the c-H-Ras onco-protein. But, Y1 cells, expressing dominant negative mutant RasN17, display a rapid and transient up-regulation of c-H-Ras-GTP upon FGF2 treatment. Elucidation of FGF2-signaling pathways in Y1 tumor cells can uncover new targets for drug development of interest in cancer therapy.

  11. Selective synaptic targeting of the excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic organizers FGF22 and FGF7

    PubMed Central

    Terauchi, Akiko; Timmons, Kendall M.; Kikuma, Koto; Pechmann, Yvonne; Kneussel, Matthias; Umemori, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Specific formation of excitatory and inhibitory synapses is crucial for proper functioning of the brain. Fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22) and FGF7 are postsynaptic-cell-derived presynaptic organizers necessary for excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic differentiation, respectively, in the hippocampus. For the establishment of specific synaptic networks, these FGFs must localize to appropriate synaptic locations – FGF22 to excitatory and FGF7 to inhibitory postsynaptic sites. Here, we show that distinct motor and adaptor proteins contribute to intracellular microtubule transport of FGF22 and FGF7. Excitatory synaptic targeting of FGF22 requires the motor proteins KIF3A and KIF17 and the adaptor protein SAP102 (also known as DLG3). By contrast, inhibitory synaptic targeting of FGF7 requires the motor KIF5 and the adaptor gephyrin. Time-lapse imaging shows that FGF22 moves with SAP102, whereas FGF7 moves with gephyrin. These results reveal the basis of selective targeting of the excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic organizers that supports their different synaptogenic functions. Finally, we found that knockdown of SAP102 or PSD95 (also known as DLG4), which impairs the differentiation of excitatory synapses, alters FGF7 localization, suggesting that signals from excitatory synapses might regulate inhibitory synapse formation by controlling the distribution of the inhibitory presynaptic organizer. PMID:25431136

  12. Developing an ancient epithelial appendage: FGF signalling regulates early tail denticle formation in sharks.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rory L; Martin, Kyle J; Rasch, Liam J; Fraser, Gareth J

    2017-01-01

    Vertebrate epithelial appendages constitute a diverse group of organs that includes integumentary structures such as reptilian scales, avian feathers and mammalian hair. Recent studies have provided new evidence for the homology of integumentary organ development throughout amniotes, despite their disparate final morphologies. These structures develop from conserved molecular signalling centres, known as epithelial placodes. It is not yet certain whether this homology extends beyond the integumentary organs of amniotes, as there is a lack of knowledge regarding their development in basal vertebrates. As the ancient sister lineage of bony vertebrates, extant chondrichthyans are well suited to testing the phylogenetic depth of this homology. Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays) possess hard, mineralised epithelial appendages called odontodes, which include teeth and dermal denticles (placoid scales). Odontodes constitute some of the oldest known vertebrate integumentary appendages, predating the origin of gnathostomes. Here, we used an emerging model shark (Scyliorhinus canicula) to test the hypothesis that denticles are homologous to other placode-derived amniote integumentary organs. To examine the conservation of putative gene regulatory network (GRN) member function, we undertook small molecule inhibition of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling during caudal denticle formation. We show that during early caudal denticle morphogenesis, the shark expresses homologues of conserved developmental gene families, known to comprise a core GRN for early placode morphogenesis in amniotes. This includes conserved expression of FGFs, sonic hedgehog (shh) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (bmp4). Additionally, we reveal that denticle placodes possess columnar epithelial cells with a reduced rate of proliferation, a conserved characteristic of amniote skin appendage development. Small molecule inhibition of FGF signalling revealed placode development is FGF dependent

  13. ESCRT-II/Vps25 constrains digit number by endosome-mediated selective modulation of FGF-SHH signaling

    PubMed Central

    Handschuh, Karen; Feenstra, Jennifer; Koss, Matthew; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Risolino, Maurizio; Zewdu, Rediet; Sahai, Michelle A.; Bénazet, Jean-Denis; Peng, Xiao P.; Depew, Michael J.; Quintana, Laura; Sharpe, James; Wang, Baolin; Alcorn, Heather; Rivi, Roberta; Butcher, Stephen; Manak, J Robert; Vaccari, Thomas; Weinstein, Harel; Anderson, Kathryn V.; Lacy, Elizabeth; Selleri, Licia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sorting and degradation of receptors and associated signaling molecules maintain homeostasis of conserved signaling pathways during cell specification and tissue development. Yet, whether machineries that sort signaling proteins act preferentially on different receptors and ligands in different contexts remains mysterious. Here we show that Vacuolar protein sorting 25, Vps25, a component of ESCRT-II (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport II), directs preferential endosome-mediated modulation of FGF signaling in limbs. By ENU-induced mutagenesis we isolated a polydactylous mouse line carrying a hypomorphic mutation of Vps25 (Vps25ENU). Unlike Vps25-null embryos we generated, Vps25ENU/ENU mutants survive until late gestation. Their limbs display FGF signaling enhancement and consequent hyper-activation of the FGF-SHH feedback loop causing polydactyly, whereas WNT and BMP signaling remain unperturbed. Notably, Vps25ENU/ENU Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts exhibit aberrant FGFR trafficking and degradation; however SHH signaling is unperturbed. These studies establish that the ESCRT-II machinery selectively limits FGF signaling in vertebrate skeletal patterning. PMID:25373905

  14. Chemokine and Fgf signalling act as opposing guidance cues in formation of the lateral line primordium

    PubMed Central

    Breau, Marie A.; Wilson, Duncan; Wilkinson, David G.; Xu, Qiling

    2012-01-01

    The directional migration of many cell populations occurs as a coherent group. An amenable model is provided by the posterior lateral line in zebrafish, which is formed by a cohesive primordium that migrates from head to tail and deposits future neuromasts at intervals. We found that prior to the onset of migration, the compact state of the primordium is not fully established, as isolated cells with lateral line identity are present caudal to the main primordium. These isolated cells are retained in position such that they fuse with the migrating primordium as it advances, and later contribute to the leading zone and terminal neuromasts. We found that the isolated lateral line cells are positioned by two antagonistic cues: Fgf signalling attracts them towards the primordium, which counteracts Sdf1α/Cxcr4b-mediated caudal attraction. These findings reveal a novel chemotactic role for Fgf signalling in which it enables the coalescence of the lateral line primordium from an initial fuzzy pattern into a compact group of migrating cells. PMID:22619392

  15. MicroRNA-182 prevents vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation via FGF9/PDGFRβ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Nana; Wang, Wei; Tian, Jinwei; Xie, Zulong; Lv, Bo; Dai, Jiannan; Jiang, Rui; Huang, Dan; Fang, Shaohong; Tian, Jiangtian; Li, Hulun; Yu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The abnormal phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) causes various proliferative vascular diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have been established to play important roles in SMC biology and phenotypic modulation. This study revealed that the expression of miR-182 was markedly altered during rat vascular SMC phenotypic transformation in vitro. We aimed to investigate the role of miR-182 in the vascular SMC phenotypic switch and to determine the potential molecular mechanisms involved. The expression of miR-182 gene was significantly downregulated in cultured SMCs during dedifferentiation from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype. Conversely, the upregulation of miR-182 increased the expression of SMC-specific contractile genes, such as α-smooth muscle actin, smooth muscle 22α and calponin. Additionally, miR-182 overexpression potently inhibited SMC proliferation and migration under both basal conditions and under platelet-derived growth factor-BB stimulation. Furthermore, we identified fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) as the target gene of miR-182 for the phenotypic modulation of SMCs mediated through platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) signaling. These data suggest that miR-182 may be a novel SMC phenotypic marker and a modulator that may be used to prevent SMC dedifferentiation via FGF9/PDGFRβ signaling. PMID:28259995

  16. Chemokine and Fgf signalling act as opposing guidance cues in formation of the lateral line primordium.

    PubMed

    Breau, Marie A; Wilson, Duncan; Wilkinson, David G; Xu, Qiling

    2012-06-01

    The directional migration of many cell populations occurs as a coherent group. An amenable model is provided by the posterior lateral line in zebrafish, which is formed by a cohesive primordium that migrates from head to tail and deposits future neuromasts at intervals. We found that prior to the onset of migration, the compact state of the primordium is not fully established, as isolated cells with lateral line identity are present caudal to the main primordium. These isolated cells are retained in position such that they fuse with the migrating primordium as it advances, and later contribute to the leading zone and terminal neuromasts. We found that the isolated lateral line cells are positioned by two antagonistic cues: Fgf signalling attracts them towards the primordium, which counteracts Sdf1α/Cxcr4b-mediated caudal attraction. These findings reveal a novel chemotactic role for Fgf signalling in which it enables the coalescence of the lateral line primordium from an initial fuzzy pattern into a compact group of migrating cells.

  17. The roles of the FGF signal in zebrafish embryos analyzed using constitutive activation and dominant-negative suppression of different FGF receptors.

    PubMed

    Ota, Satoshi; Tonou-Fujimori, Noriko; Yamasu, Kyo

    2009-01-01

    The roles of the FGF family growth factors and their receptors (FGFRs) in zebrafish embryos were examined using variously modified versions of the four FGFR genes (fgfr1-4). Constitutively active forms of all of the examined FGFRs (ca-FGFRs) caused dorsalization, brain caudalization, and secondary axis formation, indicating that the main FGF signal transduction downstream of the receptor is highly similar among FGFRs. All of the membrane-bound type of dominant-negative FGFRs (mdn-FGFRs) derived from the four fgfr genes, which interfere with endogenous FGFRs, produced posterior truncation, as previously reported in both Xenopus and zebrafish. mdn-FGFR3c had the strongest effects on embryos, progressively disrupting the posterior structure as the dose increased. At the highest dose, only the forebrain was formed. At lower doses, mdn-FGFR3c mainly suppressed the paraxial mesoderm. The co-injection of mRNA for different mdn-FGFRs and FGFs resulted in diverse suppression spectra of the respective FGFRs against FGFs. Only mdn-FGFR3c severely suppressed all of the FGFs examined. We also examined the effects of the secretory type of dominant-negative FGFRs (sdn-FGFRs), which are released from cells and trap FGF ligands. Only sdn-FGFR3c resulted in the characteristic effect of selectively disrupting the isthmic development, as well as the tailbud. The co-injection of the mRNA for sdn-FGFRs and FGFs suggested that sdn-FGFR3c inhibits FGFs of the FGF8 subfamily, which is consistent with its specific effects on development. We discuss the implications of our findings obtained in the present study.

  18. Differential regulation of gene expression in the digit forming area of the mouse limb bud by SHH and gremlin 1/FGF-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal signalling.

    PubMed

    Panman, Lia; Galli, Antonella; Lagarde, Nadege; Michos, Odysse; Soete, Gwen; Zuniga, Aimee; Zeller, Rolf

    2006-09-01

    Spatially and temporally coordinated changes in gene expression are crucial to orderly progression of embryogenesis. We combine mouse genetics with experimental manipulation of signalling to analyze the kinetics by which the SHH morphogen and the BMP antagonist gremlin 1 (GREM1) control gene expression in the digit-forming mesenchyme of mouse limb buds. Although most mesenchymal cells respond rapidly to SHH signalling, the transcriptional upregulation of specific SHH target signals in the mesenchyme occurs with differential temporal kinetics and in a spatially restricted fashion. In particular, the expression of the BMP antagonist Grem1 is always upregulated in mesenchymal cells located distal to the SHH source and acts upstream of FGF signalling by the apical ectodermal ridge. GREM1/FGF-mediated feedback signalling is, in turn, required to propagate SHH and establish the presumptive digit expression domains of the Notch ligand jagged 1 (Jag1) and 5'Hoxd genes in the distal limb bud mesenchyme. Their establishment is significantly delayed in Grem1-deficient limb buds and cannot be rescued by specific restoration of SHH signalling in mutant limb buds. This shows that GREM1/FGF feedback signalling is required for regulation of the temporal kinetics of the mesenchymal response to SHH signalling. Finally, inhibition of SHH signal transduction at distinct time points reveals the differential temporal dependence of Grem1, Jag1 and 5'Hoxd gene expression on SHH signalling. In particular, the expression of Hoxd13 depends on SHH signal transduction significantly longer than does Hoxd11 expression, revealing that the reverse co-linear establishment, but not maintenance of their presumptive digit expression domains, depends on SHH signalling.

  19. Interactions between FGF and Wnt signals and Tbx3 gene expression in mammary gland initiation in mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Eblaghie, Maxwell C; Song, Soo-Jin; Kim, Jae-Young; Akita, Keiichi; Tickle, Cheryll; Jung, Han-Sung

    2004-01-01

    Interactions between Wnts, Fgfs and Tbx genes are involved in limb initiation and the same gene families have been implicated in mammary gland development. Here we explore how these genes act together in mammary gland initiation. We compared expression of Tbx3, the gene associated with the human condition ulnar–mammary syndrome, expression of the gene encoding the dual-specificity MAPK phosphatase Pyst1/MKP3, which is an early response to FGFR1 signalling (as judged by sensitivity to the SU5402 inhibitor), and expression of Lef1, encoding a transcription factor mediating Wnt signalling and the earliest gene so far known to be expressed in mammary gland development. We found that Tbx3 is expressed earlier than Lef1 and that Pyst1 is also expressed early but only transiently. Patterns of expression of Tbx3, Pyst1 and Lef1 in different glands suggest that the order of mammary gland initiation is 3, 4, 1, 2 and 5. Consistent with expression of Pyst1 in the mammary gland, we detected expression of Fgfr1b, Fgf8 and Fgf9 in both surface ectoderm and mammary bud epithelium, and Fgf4 and Fgf17 in mammary bud epithelium. Beads soaked in FGF-8 applied to the flank of mouse embryos, at a stage just prior to mammary bud initiation, induce expression of Pyst1 and Lef1 and maintain Tbx3 expression in flank tissue surrounding the bead. Grafting beads soaked in the FGFR1 inhibitor, SU5402, abolishes Tbx3, Pyst1 and Lef1 expression, supporting the idea that FGFR1 signalling is required for early mammary gland initiation. We also showed that blocking Wnt signalling abolishes Tbx3 expression but not Pyst1 expression. These data, taken together with previous findings, suggest a model in which Tbx3 expression is induced and maintained in early gland initiation by both Wnt and Fgf signalling through FGFR1. PMID:15255957

  20. FGF21 Mediates Endocrine Control of Simple Sugar Intake and Sweet Taste Preference by the Liver.

    PubMed

    von Holstein-Rathlou, Stephanie; BonDurant, Lucas D; Peltekian, Lila; Naber, Meghan C; Yin, Terry C; Claflin, Kristin E; Urizar, Adriana Ibarra; Madsen, Andreas N; Ratner, Cecilia; Holst, Birgitte; Karstoft, Kristian; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Anderson, Catherine B; Cassell, Martin D; Thompson, Anthony P; Solomon, Thomas P; Rahmouni, Kamal; Kinnamon, Sue C; Pieper, Andrew A; Gillum, Matthew P; Potthoff, Matthew J

    2016-02-09

    The liver is an important integrator of nutrient metabolism, yet no liver-derived factors regulating nutrient preference or carbohydrate appetite have been identified. Here we show that the liver regulates carbohydrate intake through production of the hepatokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which markedly suppresses consumption of simple sugars, but not complex carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids. Genetic loss of FGF21 in mice increases sucrose consumption, whereas acute administration or overexpression of FGF21 suppresses the intake of both sugar and non-caloric sweeteners. FGF21 does not affect chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet tastants, instead reducing sweet-seeking behavior and meal size via neurons in the hypothalamus. This liver-to-brain hormonal axis likely represents a negative feedback loop as hepatic FGF21 production is elevated by sucrose ingestion. We conclude that the liver functions to regulate macronutrient-specific intake by producing an endocrine satiety signal that acts centrally to suppress the intake of "sweets."

  1. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling regulates transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)-dependent smooth muscle cell phenotype modulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei-Yu; Qin, Lingfeng; Li, Guangxin; Tellides, George; Simons, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in normal blood vessels exist in a highly differentiate state characterized by expression of SMC-specific contractile proteins (“contractile phenotype”). Following blood vessel injury in vivo or when cultured in vitro in the presence of multiple growth factors, SMC undergo a phenotype switch characterized by the loss of contractile markers and appearance of expression of non-muscle proteins (“proliferative phenotype”). While a number of factors have been reported to modulate this process, its regulation remains uncertain. Here we show that induction of SMC FGF signaling inhibits TGFβ signaling and converts contractile SMCs to the proliferative phenotype. Conversely, inhibition of SMC FGF signaling induces TGFβ signaling converting proliferating SMCs to the contractile phenotype, even in the presence of various growth factors in vitro or vascular injury in vivo. The importance of this signaling cross-talk is supported by in vivo data that show that an SMC deletion of a pan-FGF receptor adaptor Frs2α (fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 alpha) in mice profoundly reduces neointima formation and vascular remodelling following carotid artery ligation. These results demonstrate that FGF-TGFβ signaling antagonism is the primary regulator of the SMC phenotype switch. Manipulation of this cross-talk may be an effective strategy for treatment of SMC-proliferation related diseases. PMID:27634335

  2. Vhnf1 acts downstream of Bmp, Fgf, and RA signals to regulate endocrine beta cell development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianbo; Kim, Hyon J; Gong, Zhiyuan; Liu, Ning-Ai; Lin, Shuo

    2007-03-15

    Bmp, Fgf, and retinoic acid (RA) signals have been implicated as regulators of pancreas development. However, the integration of these signaling pathways in vivo is not fully understood. Variant hnf1 (Vhnf1) is a transcription factor involved in pancreas, liver, and kidney development and its mutation in zebrafish causes underdeveloped pancreas and liver. We investigated the signaling pathways that regulate vhnf1 expression during pancreas development. First, we showed that Bmp activity is required for vhnf1 expression in the endoderm. In chordin (a Bmp antagonist) morpholino (MO)-injected embryos, vhnf1 expression in endoderm and in endocrine beta cells is expanded. On the other hand, in alk8 (a type I TGFbeta receptor) MO-injected embryos, vhnf1 expression in the endoderm is significantly reduced. Second, we showed that Fgf signaling participates in regulation of pancreas development through the vhnf1 pathway. Third, we demonstrated that RA fails to rescue reduction of insulin expression in vhnf1 mutants, whereas overexpression of vhnf1 restores insulin expression that is repressed by treatment with a RA receptor inhibitor. And finally, we revealed that both Bmp and Fgf signals act genetically upstream of RA in directing pancreas development. Taken together, our data establish that vhnf1 acts downstream of the signaling pathways of RA, Bmp, and Fgf to regulate pancreas development in zebrafish.

  3. FGF receptors 1 and 2 control chemically-induced injury and compound detoxification in regenerating livers of mice

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Friederike; Speicher, Tobias; Hellerbrand, Claus; Dickson, Clive; Partanen, Juha M.; Ornitz, David M.; Werner, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 4 controls bile acid metabolism and protects the liver from fibrosis, but the roles of FGFR1 and FGFR2 in the adult liver are largely unknown. We investigated the functions and mechanisms of action of these receptors in liver homeostasis, regeneration, and fibrosis. Methods We generated mice with hepatocytes that lack FGFR1 and FGFR2 and subjected them to acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury and partial hepatectomy; mice were also injected with FGF7. We performed histology, histomorphometry, real-time reverse transcription PCR, and immunoblot analyses. Results In hepatocytes, loss of FGFR1 and FGFR2 eliminated responsiveness to FGF7 and related FGF family members, but did not affect toxin-induced liver injury and fibrosis. However, mortality after partial hepatectomy increased because of severe hepatocyte necrosis. These effects appeared to be mediated by a failure of hepatocyes to induce the expression of the transcriptional regulators Dbp and Tef upon liver surgery; this affected expression of their target genes, which encode detoxifying cytochrome P450 enzymes. We found that Dbp and Tef expression was directly controlled by FGFR signalling in hepatocytes. As a consequence of the reduced expression of genes that control detoxification, the liver tissue that remained after partial hepatectomy failed to efficiently metabolize endogenous compounds and the drugs applied for anaesthesia/analgesia. Conclusions We identified a new, cytoprotective effect of FGFR1 and FGFR2 in the regenerating liver and suggest the use of recombinant FGF7 to increase survival of patients after surgical resection of large amounts of liver tissue. PMID:20603121

  4. Gonocytes-to-spermatogonia transition initiates prior to birth in murine testes and it requires FGF signaling.

    PubMed

    Pui, Han Pin; Saga, Yumiko

    2017-03-21

    Spermatogenesis is a continuous and highly coordinated process of spermatozoa production. In mice, this process is believed to initiate shortly after birth with the emergence of nascent spermatogonia in the testes. However, because the nascent spermatogonia originated from the gonocytes are morphologically indistinguishable from their predecessors and there is no clear definition for the gonocytes-to-spermatogonia transition (GST), it remains unclear when and how spermatogenesis is initiated in the mouse testes. To address these questions, we characterized the emergence of nascent spermatogonia in ICR mice. We found that GST is initiated in a subset of gonocytes as early as E18.5. These nascent spermatogonia express markers typical of undifferentiated spermatogonia residing in testes of adult mice. In addition to markers expression, we identified FOXO1 nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation as a novel feature of GST distinguishing nascent spermatogonia from the gonocytes. Using those criteria, we demonstrated that GST requires FGF signaling. When FGF signaling was inhibited pharmacologically, gonocytes retained nuclear FOXO1 expression, did not express spermatogonial markers and failed to proliferate. We found that FGF signaling acts upstream of GDNF and RA signalings for the activation of the MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways in germ cells during GST. Taken together, we defined the precise timing of GST and revealed FGF signaling as a master regulator of GST in the perinatal mouse testes.

  5. FGF-2 signal promotes proliferation of cerebellar progenitor cells and their oligodendrocytic differentiation at early postnatal stage

    SciTech Connect

    Naruse, Masae; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2015-08-07

    The origins and developmental regulation of cerebellar oligodendrocytes are largely unknown, although some hypotheses of embryonic origins have been suggested. Neural stem cells exist in the white matter of postnatal cerebellum, but it is unclear whether these neural stem cells generate oligodendrocytes at postnatal stages. We previously showed that cerebellar progenitor cells, including neural stem cells, widely express CD44 at around postnatal day 3. In the present study, we showed that CD44-positive cells prepared from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum gave rise to neurospheres, while CD44-negative cells prepared from the same cerebellum did not. These neurospheres differentiated mainly into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, suggesting that CD44-positive neural stem/progenitor cells might generate oligodendrocytes in postnatal cerebellum. We cultured CD44-positive cells from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum in the presence of signaling molecules known as mitogens or inductive differentiation factors for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Of these, only FGF-2 promoted survival and proliferation of CD44-positive cells, and these cells differentiated into O4+ oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on cerebellar oligodendrocyte development ex vivo. FGF-2 enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and increased the number of O4+ and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in slice cultures. These results suggest that CD44-positive cells might be a source of cerebellar oligodendrocytes and that FGF-2 plays important roles in their development at an early postnatal stage. - Highlights: • CD44 is expressed in cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells at postnatal day 3 (P3). • FGF-2 promoted proliferation of CD44-positive progenitor cells from P3 cerebellum. • FGF-2 promoted oligodendrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive progenitor cells. • FGF-2 increased the number of oligodendrocytes in P3 cerebellar slice culture.

  6. Ketogenic Diet Impairs FGF21 Signaling and Promotes Differential Inflammatory Responses in the Liver and White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Asrih, Mohamed; Altirriba, Jordi; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise; Jornayvaz, François R.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Hypothesis Beside its beneficial effects on weight loss, ketogenic diet (KD) causes dyslipidemia, a pro-inflammatory state involved in the development of hepatic steatosis, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, although the latter is still being debated. Additionally, KD is known to increase fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) plasma levels. However, FGF21 cannot initiate its beneficial actions on metabolism in these conditions. We therefore hypothesized and tested in the present study that KD may impair FGF21 signaling. Methods/Results Using indirect calorimetry, we found that KD-fed mice exhibited higher energy expenditure than regular chow (RC)-fed mice associated with increased Ucp1 levels in white adipose tissue (WAT), along with increased plasma FGF21 levels. We then assessed the effect of KD on FGF21 signaling in both the liver and WAT. We found that Fgfr4 and Klb (β-klotho) were downregulated in the liver, while Fgfr1 was downregulated in WAT of KD-fed mice. Because inflammation could be one of the mechanisms linking KD to impaired FGF21 signaling, we measured the expression levels of inflammatory markers and macrophage accumulation in WAT and liver and found an increased inflammation and macrophage accumulation in the liver, but surprisingly, a reduction of inflammation in WAT.We also showed that KD enhances lipid accumulation in the liver, which may explain hepatic inflammation and impaired Fgfr4 and Klb expression. In contrast, import of lipids from the circulation was significantly reduced in WAT of KD-fed mice, as suggested by a downregulation of Lpl and Cd36. This was further associated with reduced inflammation in WAT. Conclusion Altogether, these results indicate that KD could be beneficial for a given tissue but deleterious for another. PMID:25973847

  7. Fucoidan/FGF-2 induces angiogenesis through JNK- and p38-mediated activation of AKT/MMP-2 signalling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom Su; Park, Ji-Yun; Kang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Jun

    2014-08-08

    Angiogenesis is an important biological process in tissue development and repair. Fucoidan has previously been shown to potentiate in vitro tube formation in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate the action of fucoidan in angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore fucoidan-signalling pathways. First, we evaluated the effect of fucoidan on cell proliferation. Matrigel-based tube formation and wound healing assays were performed to investigate angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression and activity levels were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and zymography, respectively. Additionally, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and protein kinase B (AKT) was detected by Western blot. The results indicate that fucoidan treatment significantly increased cell proliferation in the presence of FGF-2. Moreover, compared to the effect of FGF-2 alone, fucoidan and FGF-2 had a greater effect on tube formation and cell migration, and this effect was found to be synergistic. Furthermore, fucoidan enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and AKT. MMP-2 activation was also significantly increased. Specific inhibitors of p38 (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited tube formation and wound healing, while an ERK inhibitor (PD98059) did not. MMP-2 activation and AKT phosphorylation were also attenuated and associated with the suppression of p38 and JNK phosphorylation, but not with that of ERK. These results indicate that fucoidan, in the presence of FGF-2, induces angiogenesis through AKT/MMP-2 signalling by activating p38 and JNK. These findings provide basic molecular information on the effect of fucoidan on angiogenesis in the presence of FGF-2.

  8. Ketogenic Diet Impairs FGF21 Signaling and Promotes Differential Inflammatory Responses in the Liver and White Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Asrih, Mohamed; Altirriba, Jordi; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise; Jornayvaz, François R

    2015-01-01

    Beside its beneficial effects on weight loss, ketogenic diet (KD) causes dyslipidemia, a pro-inflammatory state involved in the development of hepatic steatosis, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, although the latter is still being debated. Additionally, KD is known to increase fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) plasma levels. However, FGF21 cannot initiate its beneficial actions on metabolism in these conditions. We therefore hypothesized and tested in the present study that KD may impair FGF21 signaling. Using indirect calorimetry, we found that KD-fed mice exhibited higher energy expenditure than regular chow (RC)-fed mice associated with increased Ucp1 levels in white adipose tissue (WAT), along with increased plasma FGF21 levels. We then assessed the effect of KD on FGF21 signaling in both the liver and WAT. We found that Fgfr4 and Klb (β-klotho) were downregulated in the liver, while Fgfr1 was downregulated in WAT of KD-fed mice. Because inflammation could be one of the mechanisms linking KD to impaired FGF21 signaling, we measured the expression levels of inflammatory markers and macrophage accumulation in WAT and liver and found an increased inflammation and macrophage accumulation in the liver, but surprisingly, a reduction of inflammation in WAT.We also showed that KD enhances lipid accumulation in the liver, which may explain hepatic inflammation and impaired Fgfr4 and Klb expression. In contrast, import of lipids from the circulation was significantly reduced in WAT of KD-fed mice, as suggested by a downregulation of Lpl and Cd36. This was further associated with reduced inflammation in WAT. Altogether, these results indicate that KD could be beneficial for a given tissue but deleterious for another.

  9. Controlled release of EGF and bFGF from dextran hydrogels in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Alper K; Gümüşderelioglu, Menemşe; Aksöz, Erol

    2005-07-01

    In the present study, dextran-epichlorohydrin hydrogels were employed as carriers for the controlled release of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The hydrogels were synthesized from 50% (by weight) monomeric cross-linker, epichlorohydrin, containing dextran mixtures by intermolecular side-chain reaction of dextran-hydroxyl groups with epichlorohydrin-epoxy groups. The hydrogel disks of 3-mm diameter and 1.5-mm thickness have a high swelling capacity (EWC = 650%) and enough mechanical stability for the studies in vivo. Impregnation of EGF and bFGF into the dried hydrogels was carried out by use of phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS, pH = 7.4) containing 0.5 microg mL(-1) EGF and 0.1 microg mL(-1) bFGF, respectively. The in vitro release of growth factors was detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. The prolonged release of EGF is continued up to the 14th day, in comparison with a 26-day release of bFGF. The in vivo studies were realized with subcutaneously implanted hydrogels in Wistar albino rats. The rate of neovascularization was analyzed statistically using one-way analysis of significance with EGF and bFGF incorporated hydrogels. In conclusion, dextran-epichlorohydrin hydrogels were shown to be an alternative delivery system for the release of growth factors.

  10. Control of retinoic acid synthesis and FGF expression in the nasal pit is required to pattern the craniofacial skeleton.

    PubMed

    Song, Y; Hui, J N; Fu, K K; Richman, J M

    2004-12-15

    Endogenous retinoids are important for patterning many aspects of the embryo including the branchial arches and frontonasal region of the embryonic face. The nasal placodes express retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-3 (RALDH3) and thus retinoids from the placode are a potential patterning influence on the developing face. We have carried out experiments that have used Citral, a RALDH antagonist, to address the function of retinoid signaling from the nasal pit in a whole embryo model. When Citral-soaked beads were implanted into the nasal pit of stage 20 chicken embryos, the result was a specific loss of derivatives from the lateral nasal prominences. Providing exogenous retinoic acid residue development of the beak demonstrating that most Citral-induced defects were produced by the specific blocking of RA synthesis. The mechanism of Citral effects was a specific increase in programmed cell death on the lateral (lateral nasal prominence) but not the medial side (frontonasal mass) of the nasal pit. Gene expression studies were focused on the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway, which has a well-established role in programmed cell death. Unexpectedly, blocking RA synthesis decreased rather than increased Msx1, Msx2, and Bmp4 expression. We also examined cell survival genes, the most relevant of which was Fgf8, which is expressed around the nasal pit and in the frontonasal mass. We found that Fgf8 was not initially expressed along the lateral side of the nasal pit at the start of our experiments, whereas it was expressed on the medial side. Citral prevented upregulation of Fgf8 along the lateral edge and this may have contributed to the specific increase in programmed cell death in the lateral nasal prominence. Consistent with this idea, exogenous FGF8 was able to prevent cell death, rescue most of the morphological defects and was able to prevent a decrease in retinoic acid receptorbeta (Rarbeta) expression caused by Citral. Together, our results demonstrate that

  11. Fucoidan/FGF-2 induces angiogenesis through JNK- and p38-mediated activation of AKT/MMP-2 signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Beom Su; Park, Ji-Yun; Kang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Jun

    2014-08-08

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the angiogenic activity mechanism by FGF-2/fucoidan treatment in HUVECs. Fucoidan enhances the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs. However, p38 and JNK were involved in AKT phosphorylation and MMP-2 activation and resulted in enhanced angiogenic activity, such as tube formation and migration, in HUVECs. - Highlights: • The angiogenic activity of fucoidan in HUVECs was explored. • Fucoidan enhanced HUVEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation. • Fucoidan enhanced angiogenesis through p38 and JNK but not ERK in HUVECs. • Fucoidan targeted angiogenesis-mediated AKT/MMP-2 signalling in HUVECs. - Abstract: Angiogenesis is an important biological process in tissue development and repair. Fucoidan has previously been shown to potentiate in vitro tube formation in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate the action of fucoidan in angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore fucoidan-signalling pathways. First, we evaluated the effect of fucoidan on cell proliferation. Matrigel-based tube formation and wound healing assays were performed to investigate angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression and activity levels were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and zymography, respectively. Additionally, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and protein kinase B (AKT) was detected by Western blot. The results indicate that fucoidan treatment significantly increased cell proliferation in the presence of FGF-2. Moreover, compared to the effect of FGF-2 alone, fucoidan and FGF-2 had a greater effect on tube formation and cell migration, and this effect was found to be synergistic. Furthermore, fucoidan enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK

  12. FGF19 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by modulating the GSK3β/β- catenin signaling cascade via FGFR4 activation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huakan; Lv, Fenglin; Liang, Guizhao; Huang, Xiaobin; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Wenfa; Yu, Le; Shi, Lei; Teng, Yong

    2016-03-22

    Compelling evidence suggests that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) correlates with aggressiveness of tumors and poor survival. FGF19 has been shown to be involved in EMT in cholangiocarcinoma and colorectal cancer, however, molecular mechanisms underlying FGF19-induced EMT process in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain largely unknown. Here, we show the expression of FGF19 is significantly elevated and negatively associated with the expression of E-cadherin in HCC tissues and cell lines. Ectopic FGF19 expression promotes EMT and invasion in epithelial-like HCC cells through repression of E-cadherin expression, whereas FGF19 knockdown enhances E-cadherin expression and hence diminishes EMT traits in mesenchymal-like HCC cells, suggesting FGF19 exerts its tumor progressing functions as an EMT inducer. Interestingly, depletion of FGF19 cannot abrogate EMT traits in the presence of GSK3β inhibitors. Furthermore, FGF19-induced EMT can be markedly attenuated when FGFR4 is knocked out. These observations clearly indicate that FGFR4/GSK3β/β-catenin axis may play a pivotal role in FGF19-induced EMT in HCC cells. As FGF19 and its specific receptor FGFR4 are frequently amplified in HCC cells, selective targeting this signaling node may lend insights into a potential effective therapeutic approach for blocking metastasis of HCC.

  13. Role of FGF19 induced FGFR4 activation in the regulation of glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinle; Li, Yang

    2009-12-09

    FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23 form a unique subfamily of fibroblast growth factors. Because they contain intra-molecular disulfide bonds and show reduced affinity toward heparan sulfate located in the extracellular space, it is thought that, in contrast to other FGFs, they function as endocrine hormones. FGF23 and its co-receptor alphaKlotho are involved in the control of aging, but it is not known if the same holds true for FGF19, which can also signal through alphaKlotho. However, considerable evidence supports a role for FGF19 in controlling various aspects of metabolism. We have recently fully characterized FGF19/FGFR/co-factor interactions and signaling, and in the current manuscript discuss the contribution of the FGF19/FGFR4 axis to bile acid and glucose regulation.

  14. Cell-autonomous FGF signaling regulates anteroposterior patterning and neuronal differentiation in the mesodiencephalic dopaminergic progenitor domain.

    PubMed

    Lahti, Laura; Peltopuro, Paula; Piepponen, T Petteri; Partanen, Juha

    2012-03-01

    The structure and projection patterns of adult mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (DA) neurons are one of the best characterized systems in the vertebrate brain. However, the early organization and development of these nuclei remain poorly understood. The induction of midbrain DA neurons requires sonic hedgehog (Shh) from the floor plate and fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) from the isthmic organizer, but the way in which FGF8 regulates DA neuron development is unclear. We show that, during early embryogenesis, mesodiencephalic neurons consist of two distinct populations: a diencephalic domain, which is probably independent of isthmic FGFs; and a midbrain domain, which is dependent on FGFs. Within these domains, DA progenitors and precursors use partly different genetic programs. Furthermore, the diencephalic DA domain forms a distinct cell population, which also contains non-DA Pou4f1(+) cells. FGF signaling operates in proliferative midbrain DA progenitors, but is absent in postmitotic DA precursors. The loss of FGFR1/2-mediated signaling results in a maturation failure of the midbrain DA neurons and altered patterning of the midbrain floor. In FGFR mutants, the DA domain adopts characteristics that are typical for embryonic diencephalon, including the presence of Pou4f1(+) cells among TH(+) cells, and downregulation of genes typical of midbrain DA precursors. Finally, analyses of chimeric embryos indicate that FGF signaling regulates the development of the ventral midbrain cell autonomously.

  15. Epac1 increases migration of endothelial cells and melanoma cells via FGF2-mediated paracrine signaling.

    PubMed

    Baljinnyam, Erdene; Umemura, Masanari; Chuang, Christine; De Lorenzo, Mariana S; Iwatsubo, Mizuka; Chen, Suzie; Goydos, James S; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Whitelock, John M; Iwatsubo, Kousaku

    2014-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) regulates endothelial and melanoma cell migration. The binding of FGF2 to its receptor requires N-sulfated heparan sulfate (HS) glycosamine. We have previously reported that Epac1, an exchange protein activated by cAMP, increases N-sulfation of HS in melanoma. Therefore, we examined whether Epac1 regulates FGF2-mediated cell-cell communication. Conditioned medium (CM) of melanoma cells with abundant expression of Epac1 increased migration of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) and melanoma cells with poor expression of Epac1. CM-induced increase in migration was inhibited by antagonizing FGF2, by the removal of HS and by the knockdown of Epac1. In addition, knockdown of Epac1 suppressed the binding of FGF2 to FGF receptor in HUVEC, and in vivo angiogenesis in melanoma. Furthermore, knockdown of Epac1 reduced N-sulfation of HS chains attached to perlecan, a major secreted type of HS proteoglycan that mediates the binding of FGF2 to FGF receptor. These data suggested that Epac1 in melanoma cells regulates melanoma progression via the HS-FGF2-mediated cell-cell communication. © 2014 The Authors. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The FGFRL1 receptor is shed from cell membranes, binds fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), and antagonizes FGF signaling in Xenopus embryos.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Florian; Zhuang, Lei; Beyeler, Michael; Kälin, Roland E; Mullis, Primus E; Brändli, André W; Trueb, Beat

    2010-01-15

    FGFRL1 (fibroblast growth factor receptor like 1) is the fifth and most recently discovered member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family. With up to 50% amino acid similarity, its extracellular domain closely resembles that of the four conventional FGFRs. Its intracellular domain, however, lacks the split tyrosine kinase domain needed for FGF-mediated signal transduction. During embryogenesis of the mouse, FGFRL1 is essential for the development of parts of the skeleton, the diaphragm muscle, the heart, and the metanephric kidney. Since its discovery, it has been hypothesized that FGFRL1 might act as a decoy receptor for FGF ligands. Here we present several lines of evidence that support this notion. We demonstrate that the FGFRL1 ectodomain is shed from the cell membrane of differentiating C2C12 myoblasts and from HEK293 cells by an as yet unidentified protease, which cuts the receptor in the membrane-proximal region. As determined by ligand dot blot analysis, cell-based binding assays, and surface plasmon resonance analysis, the soluble FGFRL1 ectodomain as well as the membrane-bound receptor are capable of binding to some FGF ligands with high affinity, including FGF2, FGF3, FGF4, FGF8, FGF10, and FGF22. We furthermore show that ectopic expression of FGFRL1 in Xenopus embryos antagonizes FGFR signaling during early development. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence that FGFRL1 is indeed a decoy receptor for FGFs.

  17. Attractive action of FGF-signaling contributes to the postnatal developing hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Cuccioli, V; Bueno, C; Belvindrah, R; Lledo, P-M; Martinez, S

    2015-04-01

    During brain development neural cell migration is a crucial, well-orchestrated, process, which leads to the proper whole brain structural organization. As development proceeds, new neurons are continuously produced, and this protracted neurogenesis is maintained throughout life in specialized germinative areas inside the telencephalon: the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. In the anterior SVZ, newly generated neurons migrate through long distances, along the rostral migratory stream (RMS), before reaching their final destinations in the olfactory bulb (OB). Intriguingly, recent observations pointed out the existence of other postnatal tangential routes of migration alternative to the RMS but still starting from the SVZ. The presence of such dynamic and heterogeneous cell movements contributes to important features in the postnatal brain such as neural cell replacement and plasticity in cortical regions. In this work, we asked whether a caudal migratory pathway starting from the caudal SVZ continues through life. Strikingly, in vivo analysis of this caudal migration revealed the presence of a postnatal contribution of SVZ to the hippocampus. In vitro studies of the caudal migratory stream revealed the role of FGF signaling in attracting caudally the migrating neuroblasts during postnatal stages. Our findings demonstrate a postnatal neuronal contribution from the caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE) CGE-SVZ to the hippocampus through an FGF-dependent migrating mechanism. All together our data emphasizes the emerging idea that a developmental program is still operating in discrete domains of the postnatal brain and may contribute to the regulation of neural cell replacement processes in physiological plasticity and/or pathological circumstances.

  18. Sprouty / FGF signaling regulates the proximal-distal feather morphology and the size of dermal papillae

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Zhicao; Jiang, Ting Xin; Wu, Ping; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2013-01-01

    In a feather, there are distinct morphologies along the proximal-distal axis. The proximal part is a cylindrical stalk (calamus), whereas the distal part has barb and barbule branches. Here we focus on what molecular signaling activity can modulate feather stem cells to generate these distinct morphologies. We demonstrate the drastic tissue remodeling during feather cycling which includes initiation, growth and resting phases. In the growth phase, epithelial components undergo progressive changes from the collar growth zone to the ramogenic zone, to maturing barb branches along the proximal- distal axis. Mesenchymal components also undergo progressive changes from the dermal papilla, to the collar mesenchyme, to the pulp along the proximal- distal axis. Over-expression of Spry4, a negative regulator of receptor tyrosine kinases, promotes barb branch formation at the expense of the epidermal collar. It even induces barb branches from the follicle sheath (equivalent to the outer root sheath in hair follicles). The results are feathers with expanded feather vane regions and small or missing proximal feather shafts (the calamus). Spry4 also expands the pulp region while reducing the size of dermal papillae, leading to a failure to regenerate. In contrast, over-expressing Fgf10 increases the size of the dermal papillae, expands collar epithelia and mesenchyme, but also prevents feather branch formation and feather keratin differentiation. These results suggest that coordinated Sprouty/FGF pathway activity at different stages is important to modulate feather epidermal stem cells to form distinct feather morphologies along the proximal-distal feather axis. PMID:23000358

  19. Efficient cultivation of neural stem cells with controlled delivery of FGF-2.

    PubMed

    Galderisi, U; Peluso, G; Di Bernardo, G; Calarco, A; D'Apolito, M; Petillo, O; Cipollaro, M; Fusco, F R; Melone, M A B

    2013-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) raised the hope for cell-based therapies in human neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. Current research strategies aim to isolate, enrich, and propagate homogeneous populations of neural stem cells. Unfortunately, several concerns with NSC cultures currently may limit their therapeutic promise. Exhaustion of growth factors and/or their uncontrolled release with burst and fall in their concentration may greatly affect the in vitro behavior of NSCs. In this context, we investigate whether a device containing heparan sulfate (HS), which is a co-factor in growth factor-mediated cell proliferation and differentiation, could potentiate and prolong the delivery of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and thus improve in vitro NSC cultivation. We demonstrated that NSCs cultivated in media with a controlled release of FGF-2 from a polyelectrolyte polymer showed a higher proliferation rate, and reduced apoptosis and senescence. In these experimental conditions NSCs preserve their stemness properties for a longer period of time compared with controls. Also of interest is that cell fate properties are conserved as well. The controlled release of FGF-2 reduced the level of oxidative stress and this is associated with a lower level of damaged DNA. This result may explain the reduced level of senescence and apoptosis in NSCs cultivated in the presence of hydrogel-releasing FGF-2.

  20. Hedgehog is a positive regulator of FGF signalling during embryonic tracheal cell migration.

    PubMed

    Butí, Elisenda; Mesquita, Duarte; Araújo, Sofia J

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration is a widespread and complex process that is crucial for morphogenesis and for the underlying invasion and metastasis of human cancers. During migration, cells are steered toward target sites by guidance molecules that induce cell direction and movement through complex intracellular mechanisms. The spatio-temporal regulation of the expression of these guidance molecules is of extreme importance for both normal morphogenesis and human disease. One way to achieve this precise regulation is by combinatorial inputs of different transcription factors. Here we used Drosophila melanogaster mutants with migration defects in the ganglionic branches of the tracheal system to further clarify guidance regulation during cell migration. By studying the cellular consequences of overactivated Hh signalling, using ptc mutants, we found that Hh positively regulates Bnl/FGF levels during embryonic stages. Our results show that Hh modulates cell migration non-autonomously in the tissues surrounding the action of its activity. We further demonstrate that the Hh signalling pathway regulates bnl expression via Stripe (Sr), a zinc-finger transcription factor with homology to the Early Growth Response (EGR) family of vertebrate transcription factors. We propose that Hh modulates embryonic cell migration by participating in the spatio-temporal regulation of bnl expression in a permissive mode. By doing so, we provide a molecular link between the activation of Hh signalling and increased chemotactic responses during cell migration.

  1. Ampelopsin Improves Insulin Resistance by Activating PPARγ and Subsequently Up-Regulating FGF21-AMPK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yu; Liu, Lei; Wan, Jing; Zou, Lingyun; Zhang, Qianyong; Zhu, Jundong; Mi, Mantian

    2016-01-01

    Ampelopsin (APL), a major bioactive constituent of Ampelopsis grossedentata, exerts a number of biological effects. Here, we explored the anti-diabetic activity of APL and elucidate the underlying mechanism of this action. In palmitate-induced insulin resistance of L6 myotubes, APL treatment markedly up- regulated phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 and protein kinase B, along with a corresponding increase of glucose uptake capacity. APL treatment also increased expressions of fibroblast growth factor (FGF21) and phosphorylated adenosine 5’-monophosphate -activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), however inhibiting AMPK by Compound C or AMPK siRNA, or blockage of FGF21 by FGF21 siRNA, obviously weakened APL -induced increases of FGF21 and p-AMPK as well as glucose uptake capacity in palmitate -pretreated L6 myotubes. Furthermore, APL could activate PPAR γ resulting in increases of glucose uptake capacity and expressions of FGF21 and p-AMPK in palmitate -pretreated L6 myotubes, whereas all those effects were obviously abolished by addition of GW9662, a specific inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor –γ (PPARγ), and PPARγsiRNA. Using molecular modeling and the luciferase reporter assays, we observed that APL could dock with the catalytic domain of PPARγ and dose-dependently up-regulate PPARγ activity. In summary, APL maybe a potential agonist of PPARγ and promotes insulin sensitization by activating PPARγ and subsequently regulating FGF21- AMPK signaling pathway. These results provide new insights into the protective health effects of APL, especially for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27391974

  2. FGF19 and cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Benjamin C; Desnoyers, Luc R

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their cognate receptors, FGF receptors (FGFRs), play critical roles in a variety of normal developmental and physiological processes. Numerous reports support a role for deregulation of FGF-FGFR signaling, whether it is at the ligand and/or receptor level, in tumor development and progression. The FGF19-FGFR4 signaling axis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several cancers, including hepatocellular carcinomas in mice and potentially in humans. This chapter focuses on recent progress in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of FGF19 action and its potential involvement in cancer.

  3. Distinct sets of FGF receptors sculpt excitatory and inhibitory synaptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dabrowski, Ania; Terauchi, Akiko; Strong, Cameron; Umemori, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Neurons in the brain must establish a balanced network of excitatory and inhibitory synapses during development for the brain to function properly. An imbalance between these synapses underlies various neurological and psychiatric disorders. The formation of excitatory and inhibitory synapses requires precise molecular control. In the hippocampus, the structure crucial for learning and memory, fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22) and FGF7 specifically promote excitatory or inhibitory synapse formation, respectively. Knockout of either Fgf gene leads to excitatory-inhibitory imbalance in the mouse hippocampus and manifests in an altered susceptibility to epileptic seizures, underscoring the importance of FGF-dependent synapse formation. However, the receptors and signaling mechanisms by which FGF22 and FGF7 induce excitatory and inhibitory synapse differentiation are unknown. Here, we show that distinct sets of overlapping FGF receptors (FGFRs), FGFR2b and FGFR1b, mediate excitatory or inhibitory presynaptic differentiation in response to FGF22 and FGF7. Excitatory presynaptic differentiation is impaired in Fgfr2b and Fgfr1b mutant mice; however, inhibitory presynaptic defects are only found in Fgfr2b mutants. FGFR2b and FGFR1b are required for an excitatory presynaptic response to FGF22, whereas only FGFR2b is required for an inhibitory presynaptic response to FGF7. We further find that FGFRs are required in the presynaptic neuron to respond to FGF22, and that FRS2 and PI3K, but not PLCγ, mediate FGF22-dependent presynaptic differentiation. Our results reveal the specific receptors and signaling pathways that mediate FGF-dependent presynaptic differentiation, and thereby provide a mechanistic understanding of precise excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation in the mammalian brain. PMID:25926357

  4. FGF-1/-3/FGFR4 signaling in cancer-associated fibroblasts promotes tumor progression in colon cancer through Erk and MMP-7.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu-Pan; Shang, Kun; Chen, Huan; Ding, Fei; Wang, Zhen; Liang, Chen; Xu, Ye; Sun, Meng-Hong; Li, Ying-Yi

    2015-10-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), as the activated fibroblasts in the tumor stroma, are important modifiers of tumour progression. In the present study, we observed that azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate treatments induced increasingly severe colorectal mucosal inflammation and the intratumoural accumulation of CAFs. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 and FGF-3 were detected in infiltrating cells, and FGFR4, the specific receptor for FGF-1 and FGF-3, was detected in colon cancer tissues. The phosphorylation of FGFR4 enhanced the production of metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (Mek)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), which was accompanied by excessive vessel generation and cell proliferation. Moreover, we separated CAFs, pericarcinoma fibroblasts (PFs), and normal fibroblasts (NFs) from human colon tissue specimens to characterize the function of CAFs. We observed that CAFs secrete more FGF-1/-3 than NFs and PFs and promote cancer cell growth and angiogenesis through the activation of FGFR4, which is followed by the activation of Mek/Erk and the modulation of MMP-7 expression. The administration of FGF-1/-3-neutralizing antibodies or the treatment of cells with FGFR4 siRNA or the FGFR4 inhibitor PD173074 markedly suppressed colon cancer cell proliferation and neovascularization. These observations suggest a crucial role for CAFs and FGF signaling in the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. The inhibition of the FGF signaling pathway may be a useful strategy for the treatment of colon cancer.

  5. FGF-1/-3/FGFR4 signaling in cancer-associated fibroblasts promotes tumor progression in colon cancer through Erk and MMP-7

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yu-Pan; Shang, Kun; Chen, Huan; Ding, Fei; Wang, Zhen; Liang, Chen; Xu, Ye; Sun, Meng-Hong; LI, Ying-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), as the activated fibroblasts in the tumor stroma, are important modifiers of tumour progression. In the present study, we observed that azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate treatments induced increasingly severe colorectal mucosal inflammation and the intratumoural accumulation of CAFs. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 and FGF-3 were detected in infiltrating cells, and FGFR4, the specific receptor for FGF-1 and FGF-3, was detected in colon cancer tissues. The phosphorylation of FGFR4 enhanced the production of metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (Mek)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), which was accompanied by excessive vessel generation and cell proliferation. Moreover, we separated CAFs, pericarcinoma fibroblasts (PFs), and normal fibroblasts (NFs) from human colon tissue specimens to characterize the function of CAFs. We observed that CAFs secrete more FGF-1/-3 than NFs and PFs and promote cancer cell growth and angiogenesis through the activation of FGFR4, which is followed by the activation of Mek/Erk and the modulation of MMP-7 expression. The administration of FGF-1/-3-neutralizing antibodies or the treatment of cells with FGFR4 siRNA or the FGFR4 inhibitor PD173074 markedly suppressed colon cancer cell proliferation and neovascularization. These observations suggest a crucial role for CAFs and FGF signaling in the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. The inhibition of the FGF signaling pathway may be a useful strategy for the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:26183471

  6. PKCε activation promotes FGF-2 exocytosis and induces endothelial cell proliferation and sprouting.

    PubMed

    Monti, Martina; Donnini, Sandra; Morbidelli, Lucia; Giachetti, Antonio; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Mignatti, Paolo; Ziche, Marina

    2013-10-01

    Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) activation controls fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) angiogenic signaling. Here, we examined the effect of activating PKCε on FGF-2 dependent vascular growth and endothelial activation. ψεRACK, a selective PKCε agonist induces pro-angiogenic responses in endothelial cells, including formation of capillary like structures and cell growth. These effects are mediated by FGF-2 export to the cell membrane, as documented by biotinylation and immunofluorescence, and FGF-2/FGFR1 signaling activation, as attested by ERK1/2-STAT-3 phosphorylation and de novo FGF-2 synthesis. Similarly, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) activates PKCε in endothelial cells, and promotes FGF-2 export and FGF-2/FGFR1 signaling activation. ψεRACK fails to elicit responses in FGF-2(-/-) endothelial cells, and in cells pretreated with methylamine (MeNH2), an exocytosis inhibitor, indicating that both intracellular FGF-2 and its export toward the membrane are required for the ψεRACK activity. In vivo ψεRACK does not induce angiogenesis in the rabbit cornea. However, ψεRACK promotes VEGF angiogenic responses, an effect sustained by endothelial FGF-2 release and synthesis, since anti-FGF-2 antibody strongly attenuates VEGF responses. The results demonstrate that PKCε stimulation promotes angiogenesis and modulates VEGF activity, by inducing FGF-2 release and autocrine signaling.

  7. PKCε ACTIVATION PROMOTES FGF-2 EXOCYTOSIS AND INDUCES ENDOTHELIAL CELL PROLIFERATION AND SPROUTING

    PubMed Central

    Monti, Martina; Donnini, Sandra; Morbidelli, Lucia; Giachetti, Antonio; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Mignatti, Paolo; Ziche, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) activation controls fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) angiogenic signaling. Here, we examined the effect of activating PKCε on FGF-2 dependent vascular growth and endothelial activation. ψεRACK, a selective PKCε agonist induces pro-angiogenic responses in endothelial cells, including formation of capillary like structures and cell growth. These effects are mediated by FGF-2 export to the cell membrane, as documented by biotinylation and immunofluorescence, and FGF-2/FGFR1 signaling activation, as attested by ERK1/2-STAT-3 phosphorylation and de novo FGF-2 synthesis. Similarly, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) activates PKCε in endothelial cells, and promotes FGF-2 export and FGF-2/FGFR1 signaling activation. ψεRACK fails to elicit responses in FGF-2−/− endothelial cells, and in cells pretreated with methylamine (MeNH2), an exocytosis inhibitor, indicating that both intracellular FGF-2 and its export toward the membrane are required for the ψεRACK activity. In vivo ψεRACK does not induce angiogenesis in the rabbit cornea. However, ψεRACK promotes VEGF angiogenic responses, an effect sustained by endothelial FGF-2 release and synthesis, since anti-FGF-2 antibody strongly attenuates VEGF responses. The results demonstrate that PKCε stimulation promotes angiogenesis and modulates VEGF activity, by inducing FGF-2 release and autocrine signaling. PMID:23880610

  8. Myeloid-specific TGF-β signaling in bone promotes basic-FGF and breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Meng, X; Vander Ark, A; Lee, P; Hostetter, G; Bhowmick, N A; Matrisian, L M; Williams, B O; Miranti, C K; Li, X

    2016-05-05

    Breast cancer (BCa) bone metastases cause osteolytic bone lesions, which result from the interactions of metastatic BCa cells with osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Osteoclasts differentiate from myeloid lineage cells. To understand the cell-specific role of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in the myeloid lineage, in BCa bone metastases, MDA-MB-231 BCa cells were intra-tibially or intra-cardially injected into LysM(Cre)/Tgfbr2(floxE2/floxE2) knockout (LysM(Cre)/Tgfbr2 KO) or Tgfbr2(floxE2/floxE2) mice. Metastatic bone lesion development was compared by analysis of both lesion number and area. We found that LysM(Cre)/Tgfbr2 knockout significantly decreased MDA-MB-231 bone lesion development in both the cardiac and tibial injection models. LysM(Cre)/Tgfbr2 knockout inhibited the tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis and osteoclastogenesis of the metastatic bones. Cytokine array analysis showed that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was downregulated in MDA-MB-231-injected tibiae from the LysM(Cre)/Tgfbr2 KO group, and intravenous injection of the recombinant bFGF to LysM(Cre)/Tgfbr2 KO mice rescued the inhibited metastatic bone lesion development. The mechanism by which bFGF rescued the bone lesion development was by promotion of tumor cell proliferation through the downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-cFos pathway after binding to the FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1). Consistent with animal studies, we found that in human BCa bone metastatic tissues, TGF-β type II receptor (TβRII) and p-Smad2 were expressed in osteoclasts and tumor cells, and were correlated with the expression of FGFR1. Our studies suggest that myeloid-specific TGF-β signaling-mediated bFGF in the bone promotes BCa bone metastasis.

  9. FGFR Inhibitor Ameliorates Hypophosphatemia and Impaired Engrailed-1/Wnt Signaling in FGF2 High Molecular Weight Isoform Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Erxia; Xiao, Liping; Hurley, Marja M

    2016-09-01

    High molecular weight FGF2 transgenic (HMWTg) mouse phenocopies the Hyp mouse, homolog of human X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets with hypophosphatemis, and abnormal FGF23, FGFR, Klotho signaling in kidney. Since abnormal Wnt signaling was reported in Hyp mice we assessed whether Wnt signaling was impaired in HMWTg kidneys and the effect of blocking FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content in female HMWTg mice were significantly reduced. HMWTg mice were gavaged with FGFR inhibitor NVP-BGJ398, or vehicle and were euthanized 24 h post treatment. Serum phosphate was significantly reduced and urine phosphate was significantly increased in HMWTg and was rescued by NVP-BGJ398. Analysis of kidneys revealed a significant reduction in Npt2a mRNA in HMWTg that was significantly increased by NVP-BGJ398. Increased FGFR1, KLOTHO, P-ERK1/2, and decreased NPT2a protein in HMWTg were rescued by NVP-BGJ398. Wnt inhibitor Engrailed-1 mRNA and protein was increased in HMWTg and was decreased by BGJ398. Akt mRNA and protein was decreased in HMWTg and was increased by NVP-BGJ398. The active form of glycogen synthase 3 beta (pGSK3-β) and phosphor-β-catenin were increased in HMWTg and were both decreased by NVP-BGJ398 while decreased active-β-catenin in HMWTg was increased by NVP-BGJ398. We conclude that FGFR blockade rescued hypophosphatemia by regulating FGF and WNT signaling in HMWTg kidneys. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1991-2000, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The MAPKERK-1,2 pathway integrates distinct and antagonistic signals from TGF alpha and FGF7 in morphogenesis of mouse mammary epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Fata, Jimmie E; Mori, Hidetoshi; Ewald, Andrew J; Zhang, Hui; Yao, Evelyn; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

    2006-10-03

    Transforming growth factor-{alpha} (TGF{alpha}) and fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF7) exhibit distinct expression patterns in the mammary gland. Both factors signal through mitogen-activated kinase/extracellular regulated kinase-1,2 (MAPK{sup ERK1,2}); however, their unique and/or combined contributions to mammary morphogenesis have not been examined. In ex vivo mammary explants, we show that a sustained activation of MAPK{sup ERK1,2} for 1 h, induced by TGF{alpha}, was necessary and sufficient to initiate branching morphogenesis, whereas a transient activation (15 min) of MAPK{sup ERK1,2}, induced by FGF7, led to growth without branching. Unlike TGF{alpha}, FGF7 promoted sustained proliferation as well as ectopic localization of, and increase in, keratin-6 expressing cells. The response of the explants to FGF10 was similar to that to FGF7. Simultaneous stimulation by FGF7 and TGF{alpha} indicated that the FGF7-induced MAPK{sup ERK1,2} signaling and associated phenotypes were dominant: FGF7 may prevent branching by suppression of two necessary TGF{alpha}-induced morphogenetic effectors, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3/stromelysin-1), and fibronectin. Our findings indicate that expression of morphogenetic effectors, proliferation, and cell-type decisions during mammary organoid morphogenesis are intimately dependent on the duration of activation of MAPK{sup ERK1,2} activation.

  11. Chordin and dickkopf-1b are essential for the formation of head structures through activation of the FGF signaling pathway in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shingo; Hosokawa, Hiroshi; Weinberg, Eric S; Maegawa, Shingo

    2017-04-15

    The ability of the Spemann organizer to induce dorsal axis formation is dependent on downstream factors of the maternal Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathway has been identified as one of the downstream components of the maternal Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The ability of the FGF signaling pathway to induce the formation of a dorsal axis with a complete head structure requires chordin (chd) expression; however, the molecular mechanisms involved in this developmental process, due to activation of FGF signaling, remain unclear. In this study, we showed that activation of the FGF signaling pathway induced the formation of complete head structures through the expression of chd and dickkopf-1b (dkk1b). Using the organizer-deficient maternal mutant, ichabod, we identified dkk1b as a novel downstream factor in the FGF signaling pathway. We also demonstrate that dkk1b expression is necessary, after activation of the FGF signaling pathway, to induce neuroectoderm patterning along the anteroposterior (AP) axis and for formation of complete head structures. Co-injection of chd and dkk1b mRNA resulted in the formation of a dorsal axis with a complete head structure in ichabod embryos, confirming the role of these factors in this developmental process. Unexpectedly, we found that chd induced dkk1b expression in ichabod embryos at the shield stage. However, chd failed to maintain dkk1b expression levels in cells of the shield and, subsequently, in the cells of the prechordal plate after mid-gastrula stage. In contrast, activation of the FGF signaling pathway maintained the dkk1b expression from the beginning of gastrulation to early somitogenesis. In conclusion, activation of the FGF signaling pathway induces the formation of a dorsal axis with a complete head structure through the expression of chd and subsequent maintenance of dkk1b expression levels.

  12. FGF stimulation of the Erk1/2 signalling cascade triggers transition of pluripotent embryonic stem cells from self-renewal to lineage commitment.

    PubMed

    Kunath, Tilo; Saba-El-Leil, Marc K; Almousailleakh, Marwa; Wray, Jason; Meloche, Sylvain; Smith, Austin

    2007-08-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells must select between alternative fates of self-replication and lineage commitment during continuous proliferation. Here, we delineate the role of autocrine production of fibroblast growth factor 4 (Fgf4) and associated activation of the Erk1/2 (Mapk3/1) signalling cascade. Fgf4 is the major stimulus activating Erk in mouse ES cells. Interference with FGF or Erk activity using chemical inhibitors or genetic ablations does not impede propagation of undifferentiated ES cells. Instead, such manipulations restrict the ability of ES cells to commit to differentiation. ES cells lacking Fgf4 or treated with FGF receptor inhibitors resist neural and mesodermal induction, and are refractory to BMP-induced non-neural differentiation. Lineage commitment potential of Fgf4-null cells is restored by provision of FGF protein. Thus, FGF enables rather than antagonises the differentiation activity of BMP. The key downstream role of Erk signalling is revealed by examination of Erk2-null ES cells, which fail to undergo either neural or mesodermal differentiation in adherent culture, and retain expression of pluripotency markers Oct4, Nanog and Rex1. These findings establish that Fgf4 stimulation of Erk1/2 is an autoinductive stimulus for naïve ES cells to exit the self-renewal programme. We propose that the Erk cascade directs transition to a state that is responsive to inductive cues for germ layer segregation. Consideration of Erk signalling as a primary trigger that potentiates lineage commitment provides a context for reconciling disparate views on the contribution of FGF and BMP pathways during germ layer specification in vertebrate embryos.

  13. FGF /FGFR Signal Induces Trachea Extension in the Drosophila Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Wei-Chen; Lee, Yuan-Ming; Henry Sun, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila compound eye is a large sensory organ that places a high demand on oxygen supplied by the tracheal system. Although the development and function of the Drosophila visual system has been extensively studied, the development and contribution of its tracheal system has not been systematically examined. To address this issue, we studied the tracheal patterns and developmental process in the Drosophila visual system. We found that the retinal tracheae are derived from air sacs in the head, and the ingrowth of retinal trachea begin at mid-pupal stage. The tracheal development has three stages. First, the air sacs form near the optic lobe in 42-47% of pupal development (pd). Second, in 47-52% pd, air sacs extend branches along the base of the retina following a posterior-to-anterior direction and further form the tracheal network under the fenestrated membrane (TNUFM). Third, the TNUFM extend fine branches into the retina following a proximal-to-distal direction after 60% pd. Furthermore, we found that the trachea extension in both retina and TNUFM are dependent on the FGF(Bnl)/FGFR(Btl) signaling. Our results also provided strong evidence that the photoreceptors are the source of the Bnl ligand to guide the trachea ingrowth. Our work is the first systematic study of the tracheal development in the visual system, and also the first study demonstrating the interactions of two well-studied systems: the eye and trachea. PMID:23991208

  14. Mutational Spectrum in Holoprosencephaly Shows That FGF is a New Major Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dubourg, Christèle; Carré, Wilfrid; Hamdi-Rozé, Houda; Mouden, Charlotte; Roume, Joëlle; Abdelmajid, Benmansour; Amram, Daniel; Baumann, Clarisse; Chassaing, Nicolas; Coubes, Christine; Faivre-Olivier, Laurence; Ginglinger, Emmanuelle; Gonzales, Marie; Levy-Mozziconacci, Annie; Lynch, Sally-Ann; Naudion, Sophie; Pasquier, Laurent; Poidvin, Amélie; Prieur, Fabienne; Sarda, Pierre; Toutain, Annick; Dupé, Valérie; Akloul, Linda; Odent, Sylvie; de Tayrac, Marie; David, Véronique

    2016-12-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common congenital cerebral malformation in humans, characterized by impaired forebrain cleavage and midline facial anomalies. It presents a high heterogeneity, both in clinics and genetics. We have developed a novel targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay and screened a cohort of 257 HPE patients. Mutations with high confidence in their deleterious effect were identified in approximately 24% of the cases and were held for diagnosis, whereas variants of uncertain significance were identified in 10% of cases. This study provides a new classification of genes that are involved in HPE. SHH, ZIC2, and SIX3 remain the top genes in term of frequency with GLI2, and are followed by FGF8 and FGFR1. The three minor HPE genes identified by our study are DLL1, DISP1, and SUFU. Here, we demonstrate that fibroblast growth factor signaling must now be considered a major pathway involved in HPE. Interestingly, several cases of double mutations were found and argue for a polygenic inheritance of HPE. Altogether, it supports that the implementation of NGS in HPE diagnosis is required to improve genetic counseling.

  15. Mutant p63 causes defective expansion of ectodermal progenitor cells and impaired FGF signalling in AEC syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ferone, Giustina; Thomason, Helen A; Antonini, Dario; De Rosa, Laura; Hu, Bing; Gemei, Marica; Zhou, Huiqing; Ambrosio, Raffaele; Rice, David P; Acampora, Dario; van Bokhoven, Hans; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Koster, Maranke I; Tadini, Gianluca; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Dixon, Michael; Dixon, Jill; Missero, Caterina

    2012-03-01

    Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome, which is characterized by cleft palate and severe defects of the skin, is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding transcription factor p63. Here, we report the generation of a knock-in mouse model for AEC syndrome (p63(+/L514F) ) that recapitulates the human disorder. The AEC mutation exerts a selective dominant-negative function on wild-type p63 by affecting progenitor cell expansion during ectodermal development leading to a defective epidermal stem cell compartment. These phenotypes are associated with impairment of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling resulting from reduced expression of Fgfr2 and Fgfr3, direct p63 target genes. In parallel, a defective stem cell compartment is observed in humans affected by AEC syndrome and in Fgfr2b(-/-) mice. Restoring Fgfr2b expression in p63(+/L514F) epithelial cells by treatment with FGF7 reactivates downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling and cell proliferation. These findings establish a functional link between FGF signalling and p63 in the expansion of epithelial progenitor cells and provide mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of AEC syndrome. Copyright © 2012 EMBO Molecular Medicine.

  16. Mitochondrial mass, a new metabolic biomarker for stem-like cancer cells: Understanding WNT/FGF-driven anabolic signaling.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Rebecca; Bonuccelli, Gloria; Ozsvári, Béla; Peiris-Pagès, Maria; Fiorillo, Marco; Smith, Duncan L; Bevilacqua, Generoso; Mazzanti, Chiara Maria; McDonnell, Liam A; Naccarato, Antonio Giuseppe; Chiu, Maybo; Wynne, Luke; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2015-10-13

    Here, we developed an isogenic cell model of "stemness" to facilitate protein biomarker discovery in breast cancer. For this purpose, we used knowledge gained previously from the study of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). MMTV initiates mammary tumorigenesis in mice by promoter insertion adjacent to two main integration sites, namely Int-1 (Wnt1) and Int-2 (Fgf3), which ultimately activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling, driving the propagation of mammary cancer stem cells (CSCs). Thus, to develop a humanized model of MMTV signaling, we over-expressed WNT1 and FGF3 in MCF7 cells, an ER(+) human breast cancer cell line. We then validated that MCF7 cells over-expressing both WNT1 and FGF3 show a 3.5-fold increase in mammosphere formation, and that conditioned media from these cells is also sufficient to promote stem cell activity in untransfected parental MCF7 and T47D cells, as WNT1 and FGF3 are secreted factors. Proteomic analysis of this model system revealed the induction of i) EMT markers, ii) mitochondrial proteins, iii) glycolytic enzymes and iv) protein synthesis machinery, consistent with an anabolic CSC phenotype. MitoTracker staining validated the expected WNT1/FGF3-induced increase in mitochondrial mass and activity, which presumably reflects increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Importantly, many of the proteins that were up-regulated by WNT/FGF-signaling in MCF7 cells, were also transcriptionally over-expressed in human breast cancer cells in vivo, based on the bioinformatic analysis of public gene expression datasets of laser-captured patient samples. As such, this isogenic cell model should accelerate the discovery of new biomarkers to predict clinical outcome in breast cancer, facilitating the development of personalized medicine.Finally, we used mitochondrial mass as a surrogate marker for increased mitochondrial biogenesis in untransfected MCF7 cells. As predicted, metabolic fractionation of parental MCF7 cells, via MitoTracker staining, indicated

  17. Postsynaptic SDC2 induces transsynaptic signaling via FGF22 for bidirectional synaptic formation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hsiao-Tang; Umemori, Hisashi; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Functional synapse formation requires tight coordination between pre- and post-synaptic termini. Previous studies have shown that postsynaptic expression of heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-2 (SDC2) induces dendritic spinogenesis. Those SDC2-induced dendritic spines are frequently associated with presynaptic termini. However, how postsynaptic SDC2 accelerates maturation of corresponding presynaptic termini is unknown. Because fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22), a heparan sulfate binding growth factor, has been shown to act as a presynaptic organizer released from the postsynaptic site, it seems possible that postsynaptic SDC2 presents FGF22 to the presynaptic FGF receptor to promote presynaptic differentiation. Here, we show that postsynaptic SDC2 uses its ectodomain to interact with and facilitate dendritic filopodial targeting of FGF22, triggering presynaptic maturation. Since SDC2 also enhances filopodial targeting of NMDAR via interaction with the CASK-mLIN7-MINT1 adaptor complex, presynaptic maturation promoted by FGF22 further feeds back to activate NMDAR at corresponding postsynaptic sites through increased neurotransmitter release and, consequently, promotes the dendritic filopodia-spines (F-S) transition. Meanwhile, via regulation of the KIF17 motor, CaMKII (activated by the NMDAR pathway) may further facilitate FGF22 targeting to dendritic filopodia that receive presynaptic stimulation. Our study suggests a positive feedback that promotes the coordination of postsynaptic and presynaptic differentiation. PMID:27627962

  18. A right-sided pathway involving FGF8/Snai1 controls asymmetric development of the proepicardium in the chick embryo

    PubMed Central

    Schlueter, Jan; Brand, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The proepicardium (PE) is a transient structure that forms at the venous pole of the embryonic vertebrate heart. This cardiac progenitor cell population gives rise to the epicardium, coronary vasculature, and fibroblasts. In the chicken embryo, the PE displays left-right (L-R) asymmetry and develops only on the right side, while on the left only a vestigial PE is formed, which subsequently gets lost by apoptosis. In this study, we analyzed how the L-R asymmetry pathway affects PE formation. Experimental manipulation of left-side determinants such as Shh, Nodal, and Cfc as well as forced expression of Pitx2 had no effect on the sidedness of PE development. In contrast, inhibition of early-acting regulators of L-R axis formation such as H+/K+-ATPase or primitive streak apoptosis affected the sidedness of PE development. Experimental interference with the right-side determinants Fgf8 or Snai1 prevented PE formation, whereas ectopic left-sided expression of Fgf8 or Snai1 resulted in bilateral PE development. These data provide novel insight into the molecular control of asymmetric morphogenesis suggesting that also the right side harbors an instructive signaling pathway that is involved in the control of PE development. This pathway might be of general relevance for setting up L-R asymmetries at the venous pole of the heart. PMID:19365073

  19. A right-sided pathway involving FGF8/Snai1 controls asymmetric development of the proepicardium in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Schlueter, Jan; Brand, Thomas

    2009-05-05

    The proepicardium (PE) is a transient structure that forms at the venous pole of the embryonic vertebrate heart. This cardiac progenitor cell population gives rise to the epicardium, coronary vasculature, and fibroblasts. In the chicken embryo, the PE displays left-right (L-R) asymmetry and develops only on the right side, while on the left only a vestigial PE is formed, which subsequently gets lost by apoptosis. In this study, we analyzed how the L-R asymmetry pathway affects PE formation. Experimental manipulation of left-side determinants such as Shh, Nodal, and Cfc as well as forced expression of Pitx2 had no effect on the sidedness of PE development. In contrast, inhibition of early-acting regulators of L-R axis formation such as H(+)/K(+)-ATPase or primitive streak apoptosis affected the sidedness of PE development. Experimental interference with the right-side determinants Fgf8 or Snai1 prevented PE formation, whereas ectopic left-sided expression of Fgf8 or Snai1 resulted in bilateral PE development. These data provide novel insight into the molecular control of asymmetric morphogenesis suggesting that also the right side harbors an instructive signaling pathway that is involved in the control of PE development. This pathway might be of general relevance for setting up L-R asymmetries at the venous pole of the heart.

  20. Manipulation of Fgf and Bmp signaling in teleost fishes suggests potential pathways for the evolutionary origin of multicuspid teeth

    PubMed Central

    Jackman, William R; Davies, Shelby H; Lyons, David B; Stauder, Caitlin K; Denton-Schneider, Benjamin R; Jowdry, Andrea; Aigler, Sharon R; Vogel, Scott A; Stock, David W

    2014-01-01

    Teeth with two or more cusps have arisen independently from an ancestral unicuspid condition in a variety of vertebrate lineages, including sharks, teleost fishes, amphibians, lizards, and mammals. One potential explanation for the repeated origins of multicuspid teeth is the existence of multiple adaptive pathways leading to them, as suggested by their different uses in these lineages. Another is that the addition of cusps required only minor changes in genetic pathways regulating tooth development. Here we provide support for the latter hypothesis by demonstrating that manipulation of the levels of Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) or Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling produces bicuspid teeth in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a species lacking multicuspid teeth in its ancestry. The generality of these results for teleosts is suggested by the conversion of unicuspid pharyngeal teeth into bicuspid teeth by similar manipulations of the Mexican Tetra (Astyanax mexicanus). That these manipulations also produced supernumerary teeth in both species supports previous suggestions of similarities in the molecular control of tooth and cusp number. We conclude that despite their apparent complexity, the evolutionary origin of multicuspid teeth is positively constrained, likely requiring only slight modifications of a pre-existing mechanism for patterning the number and spacing of individual teeth. PMID:25098636

  1. FGF signaling via MAPK is required early and improves Activin A-induced definitive endoderm formation from human embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Lina; Mfopou, Josue K.; Geens, Mieke; Sermon, Karen; Bouwens, Luc

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep study the FGF signaling role during DE specification in the context of hESCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DE differentiation from hESCs has an early dependence on FGF signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A serum-free DE protocol is developed based on the findings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DE cells showed potential to differentiate into pancreatic progenitor cells. -- Abstract: Considering their unlimited proliferation and pluripotency properties, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) constitute a promising resource applicable for cell replacement therapy. To facilitate this clinical translation, it is critical to study and understand the early stage of hESCs differentiation wherein germ layers are defined. In this study, we examined the role of FGF signaling in Activin A-induced definitive endoderm (DE) differentiation in the absence of supplemented animal serum. We found that activated FGF/MAPK signaling is required at the early time point of Activin A-induced DE formation. In addition, FGF activation increased the number of DE cells compared to Activin A alone. These DE cells could further differentiate into PDX1 and NKX6.1 positive pancreatic progenitors in vitro. We conclude that Activin A combined with FGF/MAPK signaling efficiently induce DE cells in the absence of serum. These findings improve our understanding of human endoderm formation, and constitute a step forward in the generation of clinical grade hESCs progenies for cell therapy.

  2. FGF19 protects hepatocellular carcinoma cells against endoplasmic reticulum stress via activation of FGFR4-GSK3β-Nrf2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yong; Zhao, Huakan; Gao, Lixia; Zhang, Wenfa; Shull, Austin Y; Shay, Chloe

    2017-09-26

    The tumor microenvironment induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in tumor cells, an event that can promote progression, but it is unknown how tumor cells adapt to this stress. In this study, we show that the fibroblast growth factor FGF19, a gene frequently amplified in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), facilitates a survival response to ER stress. Levels of FGF19 expression were increased in stressed HCC cells in culture and in a mouse xenograft model. Induction of ER stress required the transcription factor ATF4, which directly bound the FGF19 promoter. In cells where ER stress was induced, FGF19 overexpression promoted HCC cell survival and increased resistance to apoptosis, whereas FGF19 silencing counteracted these effects. Mechanistic investigations implicated glycogen synthase kinase-3β in regulating nuclear accumulation of the stress-regulated transcription factor Nrf2 activated by FGF19. Our findings show how FGF19 provides a cytoprotective role against ER stress by activating a FGFR4-GSK3β-Nrf2 signaling cascade, with implications for targeting this signaling node as a candidate therapeutic regimen for HCC management. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. FGF control of E-cadherin targeting in the Drosophila midgut impacts on primordial germ cell motility.

    PubMed

    Parés, Guillem; Ricardo, Sara

    2016-01-15

    Embryo formation requires tight regulation and coordination of adhesion in multiple cell types. By undertaking imaging, three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions and genetic analysis during posterior midgut morphogenesis in Drosophila, we find a new requirement for the conserved fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathway in the maintenance of epithelial cell adhesion through FGF modulation of zygotic E-cadherin. During Drosophila gastrulation, primordial germ cells (PGCs) are transported with the posterior midgut while it undergoes dynamic cell shape changes. In embryos mutant for the FGF signaling pathway components Branchless and Breathless, zygotic E-cadherin is not targeted to adherens junctions, causing midgut pocket collapse, which impacts on PGC movement. We find that the ventral midline also requires FGF signaling to maintain cell-cell adhesion. We show that FGF signaling regulates the distribution of zygotic E-cadherin during early embryonic development to maintain cell-cell adhesion in the posterior midgut and the ventral midline, a role that is likely crucial in other tissues undergoing active cell shape changes with higher adhesive needs.

  4. Conversion of Nonproliferating Astrocytes into Neurogenic Neural Stem Cells: Control by FGF2 and Interferon-γ.

    PubMed

    Kleiderman, Susanne; Gutbier, Simon; Ugur Tufekci, Kemal; Ortega, Felipe; Sá, João V; Teixeira, Ana P; Brito, Catarina; Glaab, Enrico; Berninger, Benedikt; Alves, Paula M; Leist, Marcel

    2016-12-01

    Conversion of astrocytes to neurons, via de-differentiation to neural stem cells (NSC), may be a new approach to treat neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries. The signaling factors affecting such a cell conversion are poorly understood, and they are hard to identify in complex disease models or conventional cell cultures. To address this question, we developed a serum-free, strictly controlled culture system of pure and homogeneous "astrocytes generated from murine embryonic stem cells (ESC)." These stem cell derived astrocytes (mAGES), as well as standard primary astrocytes resumed proliferation upon addition of FGF. The signaling of FGF receptor tyrosine kinase converted GFAP-positive mAGES to nestin-positive NSC. ERK phosphorylation was necessary, but not sufficient, for cell cycle re-entry, as EGF triggered no de-differentiation. The NSC obtained by de-differentiation of mAGES were similar to those obtained directly by differentiation of ESC, as evidenced by standard phenotyping, and also by transcriptome mapping, metabolic profiling, and by differentiation to neurons or astrocytes. The de-differentiation was negatively affected by inflammatory mediators, and in particular, interferon-γ strongly impaired the formation of NSC from mAGES by a pathway involving phosphorylation of STAT1, but not the generation of nitric oxide. Thus, two antagonistic signaling pathways were identified here that affect fate conversion of astrocytes independent of genetic manipulation. The complex interplay of the respective signaling molecules that promote/inhibit astrocyte de-differentiation may explain why astrocytes do not readily form neural stem cells in most diseases. Increased knowledge of such factors may provide therapeutic opportunities to favor such conversions. Stem Cells 2016;34:2861-2874.

  5. Involvement of Hedgehog and FGF signalling in the lamprey telencephalon: evolution of regionalization and dorsoventral patterning of the vertebrate forebrain.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Fumiaki; Aota, Shin-ichi; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Murakami, Yasunori; Takio-Ogawa, Yoko; Hirano, Shigeki; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2011-03-01

    Dorsoventral (DV) specification is a crucial step for the development of the vertebrate telencephalon. Clarifying the origin of this mechanism will lead to a better understanding of vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) evolution. Based on the lamprey, a sister group of the gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), we identified three lamprey Hedgehog (Hh) homologues, which are thought to play central signalling roles in telencephalon patterning. However, unlike in gnathostomes, none of these genes, nor Lhx6/7/8, a marker for the migrating interneuron subtype, was expressed in the ventral telencephalon, consistent with the reported absence of the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) in this animal. Homologues of Gsh2, Isl1/2 and Sp8, which are involved in the patterning of the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) of gnathostomes, were expressed in the lamprey subpallium, as in gnathostomes. Hh signalling is necessary for induction of the subpallium identity in the gnathostome telencephalon. When Hh signalling was inhibited, the ventral identity was disrupted in the lamprey, suggesting that prechordal mesoderm-derived Hh signalling might be involved in the DV patterning of the telencephalon. By blocking fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling, the ventral telencephalon was suppressed in the lamprey, as in gnathostomes. We conclude that Hh- and FGF-dependent DV patterning, together with the resultant LGE identity, are likely to have been established in a common ancestor before the divergence of cyclostomes and gnathostomes. Later, gnathostomes would have acquired a novel Hh expression domain corresponding to the MGE, leading to the obtainment of cortical interneurons.

  6. FGF/FGFR2 signaling regulates the generation and correct positioning of Bergmann glia cells in the developing mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Meier, Florian; Giesert, Florian; Delic, Sabit; Faus-Kessler, Theresa; Matheus, Friederike; Simeone, Antonio; Hölter, Sabine M; Kühn, Ralf; Weisenhorn, Daniela M Vogt; Wurst, Wolfgang; Prakash, Nilima

    2014-01-01

    The normal cellular organization and layering of the vertebrate cerebellum is established during embryonic and early postnatal development by the interplay of a complex array of genetic and signaling pathways. Disruption of these processes and of the proper layering of the cerebellum usually leads to ataxic behaviors. Here, we analyzed the relative contribution of Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2)-mediated signaling to cerebellar development in conditional Fgfr2 single mutant mice. We show that during embryonic mouse development, Fgfr2 expression is higher in the anterior cerebellar primordium and excluded from the proliferative ventricular neuroepithelium. Consistent with this finding, conditional Fgfr2 single mutant mice display the most prominent defects in the anterior lobules of the adult cerebellum. In this context, FGFR2-mediated signaling is required for the proper generation of Bergmann glia cells and the correct positioning of these cells within the Purkinje cell layer, and for cell survival in the developing cerebellar primordium. Using cerebellar microexplant cultures treated with an FGFR agonist (FGF9) or antagonist (SU5402), we also show that FGF9/FGFR-mediated signaling inhibits the outward migration of radial glia and Bergmann glia precursors and cells, and might thus act as a positioning cue for these cells. Altogether, our findings reveal the specific functions of the FGFR2-mediated signaling pathway in the generation and positioning of Bergmann glia cells during cerebellar development in the mouse.

  7. FGF/FGFR2 Signaling Regulates the Generation and Correct Positioning of Bergmann Glia Cells in the Developing Mouse Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Faus-Kessler, Theresa; Matheus, Friederike; Simeone, Antonio; Hölter, Sabine M.; Kühn, Ralf; Weisenhorn, Daniela M. Vogt.; Wurst, Wolfgang; Prakash, Nilima

    2014-01-01

    The normal cellular organization and layering of the vertebrate cerebellum is established during embryonic and early postnatal development by the interplay of a complex array of genetic and signaling pathways. Disruption of these processes and of the proper layering of the cerebellum usually leads to ataxic behaviors. Here, we analyzed the relative contribution of Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2)-mediated signaling to cerebellar development in conditional Fgfr2 single mutant mice. We show that during embryonic mouse development, Fgfr2 expression is higher in the anterior cerebellar primordium and excluded from the proliferative ventricular neuroepithelium. Consistent with this finding, conditional Fgfr2 single mutant mice display the most prominent defects in the anterior lobules of the adult cerebellum. In this context, FGFR2-mediated signaling is required for the proper generation of Bergmann glia cells and the correct positioning of these cells within the Purkinje cell layer, and for cell survival in the developing cerebellar primordium. Using cerebellar microexplant cultures treated with an FGFR agonist (FGF9) or antagonist (SU5402), we also show that FGF9/FGFR-mediated signaling inhibits the outward migration of radial glia and Bergmann glia precursors and cells, and might thus act as a positioning cue for these cells. Altogether, our findings reveal the specific functions of the FGFR2-mediated signaling pathway in the generation and positioning of Bergmann glia cells during cerebellar development in the mouse. PMID:24983448

  8. Pan-FGFR inhibition leads to blockade of FGF23 signaling, soft tissue mineralization, and cardiovascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yanochko, Gina M; Vitsky, Allison; Heyen, Jonathan R; Hirakawa, Brad; Lam, Justine L; May, Jeff; Nichols, Tim; Sace, Frederick; Trajkovic, Dusko; Blasi, Eileen

    2013-10-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) play a major role in angiogenesis and are desirable targets for the development of therapeutics. Groups of Wistar Han rats were dosed orally once daily for 4 days with a small molecule pan-FGFR inhibitor (5mg/kg) or once daily for 6 days with a small molecule MEK inhibitor (3mg/kg). Serum phosphorous and FGF23 levels increased in all rats during the course of the study. Histologically, rats dosed with either drug exhibited multifocal, multiorgan soft tissue mineralization. Expression levels of the sodium phosphate transporter Npt2a and the vitamin D-metabolizing enzymes Cyp24a1 and Cyp27b1 were modulated in kidneys of animals dosed with the pan-FGFR inhibitor. Both inhibitors decreased ERK phosphorylation in the kidneys and inhibited FGF23-induced ERK phosphorylation in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. A separate cardiovascular outcome study was performed to monitor hemodynamics and cardiac structure and function of telemetered rats dosed with either the pan-FGFR inhibitor or MEK inhibitor for 3 days. Both compounds increased blood pressure (~+ 17 mmHg), decreased heart rate (~-75 bpm), and modulated echocardiography parameters. Our data suggest that inhibition of FGFR signaling following administration of either pan-FGFR inhibitor or MEK inhibitor interferes with the FGF23 pathway, predisposing animals to hyperphosphatemia and a tumoral calcinosis-like syndrome in rodents.

  9. Different Concentrations of FGF Ligands, FGF2 or FGF8 Determine Distinct States of WNT-Induced Presomitic Mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Sudheer, Smita; Liu, Jinhua; Marks, Matthias; Koch, Frederic; Anurin, Anna; Scholze, Manuela; Senft, Anna Dorothea; Wittler, Lars; Macura, Karol; Grote, Phillip; Herrmann, Bernhard G

    2016-07-01

    Presomitic mesoderm (PSM) cells are the precursors of the somites, which flank both sides of the neural tube and give rise to the musculo-skeletal system shaping the vertebrate body. WNT and FGF signaling control the formation of both the PSM and the somites and show a graded distribution with highest levels in the posterior PSM. We have used reporters for the mesoderm/PSM control genes T, Tbx6, and Msgn1 to investigate the differentiation of mouse ESCs from the naïve state via EpiSCs to PSM cells. Here we show that the activation of WNT signaling by CHIR99021 (CH) in combination with FGF ligand induces embryo-like PSM at high efficiency. By varying the FGF ligand concentration, the state of PSM cells formed can be altered. High FGF concentration supports posterior PSM formation, whereas low FGF generates anterior/differentiating PSM, in line with in vivo data. Furthermore, the level of Msgn1 expression depends on the FGF ligand concentration. We also show that Activin/Nodal signaling inhibits CH-mediated PSM induction in EpiSCs, without affecting T-expression. Inversely, Activin/Nodal inhibition enhances PSM induction by WNT/high FGF signaling. The ability to generate PSM cells of either posterior or anterior PSM identity with high efficiency in vitro will promote the investigation of the gene regulatory networks controlling the formation of nascent PSM cells and their switch to differentiating/somitic paraxial mesoderm. Stem Cells 2016;34:1790-1800.

  10. The splicing factor PQBP1 regulates mesodermal and neural development through FGF signaling

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Yasuno; Thomsen, Gerald H.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs is an important means of regulating developmental processes, yet the molecular mechanisms governing alternative splicing in embryonic contexts are just beginning to emerge. Polyglutamine-binding protein 1 (PQBP1) is an RNA-splicing factor that, when mutated, in humans causes Renpenning syndrome, an X-linked intellectual disability disease characterized by severe cognitive impairment, but also by physical defects that suggest PQBP1 has broader functions in embryonic development. Here, we reveal essential roles for PQBP1 and a binding partner, WBP11, in early development of Xenopus embryos. Both genes are expressed in the nascent mesoderm and neurectoderm, and morpholino knockdown of either causes defects in differentiation and morphogenesis of the mesoderm and neural plate. At the molecular level, knockdown of PQBP1 in Xenopus animal cap explants inhibits target gene induction by FGF but not by BMP, Nodal or Wnt ligands, and knockdown of either PQBP1 or WBP11 in embryos inhibits expression of fgf4 and FGF4-responsive cdx4 genes. Furthermore, PQBP1 knockdown changes the alternative splicing of FGF receptor-2 (FGFR2) transcripts, altering the incorporation of cassette exons that generate receptor variants (FGFR2 IIIb or IIIc) with different ligand specificities. Our findings may inform studies into the mechanisms underlying Renpenning syndrome. PMID:25209246

  11. FGF and canonical Wnt signaling cooperate to induce paraxial mesoderm from tailbud neuromesodermal progenitors through regulation of a two-step epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hana; Kimmey, Samuel C; Row, Richard H; Matus, David Q; Martin, Benjamin L

    2017-04-15

    Mesoderm induction begins during gastrulation. Recent evidence from several vertebrate species indicates that mesoderm induction continues after gastrulation in neuromesodermal progenitors (NMPs) within the posteriormost embryonic structure, the tailbud. It is unclear to what extent the molecular mechanisms of mesoderm induction are conserved between gastrula and post-gastrula stages of development. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is required for mesoderm induction during gastrulation through positive transcriptional regulation of the T-box transcription factor brachyury We find in zebrafish that FGF is continuously required for paraxial mesoderm (PM) induction in post-gastrula NMPs. FGF signaling represses the NMP markers brachyury (ntla) and sox2 through regulation of tbx16 and msgn1, thereby committing cells to a PM fate. FGF-mediated PM induction in NMPs functions in tight coordination with canonical Wnt signaling during the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) from NMP to mesodermal progenitor. Wnt signaling initiates EMT, whereas FGF signaling terminates this event. Our results indicate that germ layer induction in the zebrafish tailbud is not a simple continuation of gastrulation events. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. SRC Homology 2 Domain Binding Sites in Insulin, IGF-1 and FGF receptor mediated signaling networks reveal an extensive potential interactome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Specific peptide ligand recognition by modular interaction domains is essential for the fidelity of information flow through the signal transduction networks that control cell behavior in response to extrinsic and intrinsic stimuli. Src homology 2 (SH2) domains recognize distinct phosphotyrosine peptide motifs, but the specific sites that are phosphorylated and the complement of available SH2 domains varies considerably in individual cell types. Such differences are the basis for a wide range of available protein interaction microstates from which signaling can evolve in highly divergent ways. This underlying complexity suggests the need to broadly map the signaling potential of systems as a prerequisite for understanding signaling in specific cell types as well as various pathologies that involve signal transduction such as cancer, developmental defects and metabolic disorders. This report describes interactions between SH2 domains and potential binding partners that comprise initial signaling downstream of activated fibroblast growth factor (FGF), insulin (Ins), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors. A panel of 50 SH2 domains screened against a set of 192 phosphotyrosine peptides defines an extensive potential interactome while demonstrating the selectivity of individual SH2 domains. The interactions described confirm virtually all previously reported associations while describing a large set of potential novel interactions that imply additional complexity in the signaling networks initiated from activated receptors. This study of pTyr ligand binding by SH2 domains provides valuable insight into the selectivity that underpins complex signaling networks that are assembled using modular protein interaction domains. PMID:22974441

  13. FGF/FGFR signaling coordinates skull development by modulating magnitude of morphological integration: evidence from Apert syndrome mouse models.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Heuzé, Yann; Wang, Yingli; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Aldridge, Kristina; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2011-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor and receptor system (FGF/FGFR) mediates cell communication and pattern formation in many tissue types (e.g., osseous, nervous, vascular). In those craniosynostosis syndromes caused by FGFR1-3 mutations, alteration of signaling in the FGF/FGFR system leads to dysmorphology of the skull, brain and limbs, among other organs. Since this molecular pathway is widely expressed throughout head development, we explore whether and how two specific mutations on Fgfr2 causing Apert syndrome in humans affect the pattern and level of integration between the facial skeleton and the neurocranium using inbred Apert syndrome mouse models Fgfr2(+/S252W) and Fgfr2(+/P253R) and their non-mutant littermates at P0. Skull morphological integration (MI), which can reflect developmental interactions among traits by measuring the intensity of statistical associations among them, was assessed using data from microCT images of the skull of Apert syndrome mouse models and 3D geometric morphometric methods. Our results show that mutant Apert syndrome mice share the general pattern of MI with their non-mutant littermates, but the magnitude of integration between and within the facial skeleton and the neurocranium is increased, especially in Fgfr2(+/S252W) mice. This indicates that although Fgfr2 mutations do not disrupt skull MI, FGF/FGFR signaling is a covariance-generating process in skull development that acts as a global factor modulating the intensity of MI. As this pathway evolved early in vertebrate evolution, it may have played a significant role in establishing the patterns of skull MI and coordinating proper skull development.

  14. FGF/FGFR Signaling Coordinates Skull Development by Modulating Magnitude of Morphological Integration: Evidence from Apert Syndrome Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Heuzé, Yann; Wang, Yingli; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Aldridge, Kristina; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

    2011-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor and receptor system (FGF/FGFR) mediates cell communication and pattern formation in many tissue types (e.g., osseous, nervous, vascular). In those craniosynostosis syndromes caused by FGFR1-3 mutations, alteration of signaling in the FGF/FGFR system leads to dysmorphology of the skull, brain and limbs, among other organs. Since this molecular pathway is widely expressed throughout head development, we explore whether and how two specific mutations on Fgfr2 causing Apert syndrome in humans affect the pattern and level of integration between the facial skeleton and the neurocranium using inbred Apert syndrome mouse models Fgfr2+/S252W and Fgfr2+/P253R and their non-mutant littermates at P0. Skull morphological integration (MI), which can reflect developmental interactions among traits by measuring the intensity of statistical associations among them, was assessed using data from microCT images of the skull of Apert syndrome mouse models and 3D geometric morphometric methods. Our results show that mutant Apert syndrome mice share the general pattern of MI with their non-mutant littermates, but the magnitude of integration between and within the facial skeleton and the neurocranium is increased, especially in Fgfr2+/S252W mice. This indicates that although Fgfr2 mutations do not disrupt skull MI, FGF/FGFR signaling is a covariance-generating process in skull development that acts as a global factor modulating the intensity of MI. As this pathway evolved early in vertebrate evolution, it may have played a significant role in establishing the patterns of skull MI and coordinating proper skull development. PMID:22053191

  15. bFGF-containing electrospun gelatin scaffolds with controlled nano-architectural features for directed angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Montero, Ramon B; Vial, Ximena; Nguyen, Dat Tat; Farhand, Sepehr; Reardon, Mark; Pham, Si M; Tsechpenakis, Gavriil; Andreopoulos, Fotios M

    2012-05-01

    Current therapeutic angiogenesis strategies are focused on the development of biologically responsive scaffolds that can deliver multiple angiogenic cytokines and/or cells in ischemic regions. Herein, we report on a novel electrospinning approach to fabricate cytokine-containing nanofibrous scaffolds with tunable architecture to promote angiogenesis. Fiber diameter and uniformity were controlled by varying the concentration of the polymeric (i.e. gelatin) solution, the feed rate, needle to collector distance, and electric field potential between the collector plate and injection needle. Scaffold fiber orientation (random vs. aligned) was achieved by alternating the polarity of two parallel electrodes placed on the collector plate thus dictating fiber deposition patterns. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was physically immobilized within the gelatin scaffolds at variable concentrations and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were seeded on the top of the scaffolds. Cell proliferation and migration was assessed as a function of growth factor loading and scaffold architecture. HUVECs successfully adhered onto gelatin B scaffolds and cell proliferation was directly proportional to the loading concentrations of the growth factor (0-100 bFGF ng/mL). Fiber orientation had a pronounced effect on cell morphology and orientation. Cells were spread along the fibers of the electrospun scaffolds with the aligned orientation and developed a spindle-like morphology parallel to the scaffold's fibers. In contrast, cells seeded onto the scaffolds with random fiber orientation, did not demonstrate any directionality and appeared to have a rounder shape. Capillary formation (i.e. sprouts length and number of sprouts per bead), assessed in a 3-D in vitro angiogenesis assay, was a function of bFGF loading concentration (0 ng, 50 ng and 100 ng per scaffold) for both types of electrospun scaffolds (i.e. with aligned or random fiber orientation). Copyright © 2011 Acta

  16. bFGF-containing electrospun gelatin scaffolds with controlled nano-architectural features for directed angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Montero, Ramon B.; Vial, Ximena; Nguyen, Dat Tat; Farhand, Sepehr; Reardon, Mark; Pham, Si M.; Tsechpenakis, Gavriil; Andreopoulos, Fotios M.

    2011-01-01

    Current therapeutic angiogenesis strategies are focused on the development of biologically responsive scaffolds that can deliver multiple angiogenic cytokines and/or cells in ischemic regions. Herein, we report on a novel electrospinning approach to fabricate cytokine-containing nanofibrous scaffolds with tunable architecture to promote angiogenesis. Fiber diameter and uniformity were controlled by varying the concentration of the polymeric (i.e. gelatin) solution, the feed rate, needle to collector distance, and electric field potential between the collector plate and injection needle. Scaffold fiber orientation (random vs. aligned) was achieved by alternating the polarity of two parallel electrodes placed on the collector plate thus dictating fiber deposition patterns. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was physically immobilized within the gelatin scaffolds at variable concentrations and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were seeded on the top of the scaffolds. Cell proliferation and migration was assessed as a function of growth factor loading and scaffold architecture. HUVECs successfully adhered onto gelatin B scaffolds and cell proliferation was directly proportional to the loading concentrations of the growth factor (0–100 bFGF ng/mL). Fiber orientation had a pronounced effect on cell morphology and orientation. Cells were spread along the fibers of the electrospun scaffolds with the aligned orientation and developed a spindle-like morphology parallel to the scaffold's fibers. In contrast, cells seeded onto the scaffolds with random fiber orientation, did not demonstrate any directionality and appeared to have a rounder shape. Capillary formation (i.e. sprouts length and number of sprouts per bead), assessed in a 3-D in vitro angiogenesis assay, was a function of bFGF loading concentration (0 ng, 50 ng and 100 ng per scaffold) for both types of electrospun scaffolds (i.e. with aligned or random fiber orientation). PMID:22200610

  17. Wnt9b-dependent FGF signaling is crucial for outgrowth of the nasal and maxillary processes during upper jaw and lip development.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yong-Ri; Han, Xiang Hua; Taketo, Makoto M; Yoon, Jeong Kyo

    2012-05-01

    Outgrowth and fusion of the lateral and medial nasal processes and of the maxillary process of the first branchial arch are integral to lip and primary palate development. Wnt9b mutations are associated with cleft lip and cleft palate in mice; however, the cause of these defects remains unknown. Here, we report that Wnt9b(-/-) mice show significantly retarded outgrowth of the nasal and maxillary processes due to reduced proliferation of mesenchymal cells, which subsequently results in a failure of physical contact between the facial processes that leads to cleft lip and cleft palate. These cellular defects in Wnt9b(-/-) mice are mainly caused by reduced FGF family gene expression and FGF signaling activity resulting from compromised canonical WNT/β-catenin signaling. Our study has identified a previously unknown regulatory link between WNT9B and FGF signaling during lip and upper jaw development.

  18. Fgf receptors Fgfr1a and Fgfr2 control the function of pharyngeal endoderm in late cranial cartilage development.

    PubMed

    Larbuisson, Arnaud; Dalcq, Julia; Martial, Joseph A; Muller, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Cranial cartilage derives mainly from cranial neural crest cells and its formation requires fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling for early differentiation and survival of developing chondrocytes as well as patterning of the endodermal pouches. Here, we investigate the role of Fgf receptors in chondrocyte maturation at later stages, beyond 24 hpf. Using inducible expression of a dominant-negative Fgf receptor, we show that Fgf signaling is required around 30 hpf for correct cartilage formation. The receptor genes fgfr1a and fgr2 are expressed in pharyngeal endodermal pouches after 24 hpf or 26 hpf, respectively. Depletion of any of these two receptors by microinjection of antisense morpholinos results in severe defects in cartilage formation at 4 dpf and a decrease in expression of the late chondrocyte markers barx1 and runx2b. Although endodermal pouches are correctly formed and patterned, receptor knock down leads to decreased expression of runx3, egr1 and sox9b in this tissue, while expression of fsta, coding for a secreted BMP/Tgfß inhibitor, is clearly increased. Rescue experiments revealed that each Fgfr1a or Fgfr2 receptor is able to compensate for the loss of the other. Thus, we show that minimal amounts of Fgfr1a or Fgfr2 are required to initiate a regulatory cascade in pharyngeal endoderm reducing expression of fsta, thereby allowing correct BMP signaling to the maturing chondrocytes of the head cartilage.

  19. Impact of short-term high-fat feeding and insulin-stimulated FGF21 levels in subjects with low birth weight and controls.

    PubMed

    Vienberg, Sara G; Brøns, Charlotte; Nilsson, Emma; Astrup, Arne; Vaag, Allan; Andersen, Birgitte

    2012-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic factor involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the physiological role of FGF21 during a dietary challenge in humans. Twenty healthy low birth weight (LBW) with known risk of type 2 diabetes and 26 control (normal birth weight (NBW)) young men were subjected to 5 days of high-fat (HF) overfeeding (+50%). Basal and clamp insulin-stimulated serum FGF21 levels were examined before and after the diet, and FGF21 mRNA expression was measured in muscle and fat biopsies respectively. Five days of HF overfeeding diet significantly (P<0.001) increased fasting serum FGF21 levels in both the groups (P<0.001). Furthermore, insulin infusion additionally increased serum FGF21 levels to a similar extent in both the groups. Basal mRNA expression of FGF21 in muscle was near the detection limit and not present in fat in both the groups before and after the dietary challenge. However, insulin significantly (P<0.001) increased FGF21 mRNA in both muscle and fat in both the groups during both diets. Short-term HF overfeeding markedly increased serum FGF21 levels in healthy young men with and without LBW but failed to increase muscle or fat FGF21 mRNA levels. This suggests that the liver may be responsible for the rise of serum FGF21 levels during overfeeding. In contrast, the increase in serum FGF21 levels during insulin infusion may arise from increased transcription in muscle and fat. We speculate that increased serum FGF21 levels during HF overfeeding may be a compensatory response to increase fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure.

  20. Tissue-specific expression of betaKlotho and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor isoforms determines metabolic activity of FGF19 and FGF21.

    PubMed

    Kurosu, Hiroshi; Choi, Mihwa; Ogawa, Yasushi; Dickson, Addie S; Goetz, Regina; Eliseenkova, Anna V; Mohammadi, Moosa; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Kliewer, Steven A; Kuro-o, Makoto

    2007-09-14

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 subfamily of ligands, FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23, function as hormones that regulate bile acid, fatty acid, glucose, and phosphate metabolism in target organs through activating FGF receptors (FGFR1-4). We demonstrated that Klotho and betaKlotho, homologous single-pass transmembrane proteins that bind to FGFRs, are required for metabolic activity of FGF23 and FGF21, respectively. Here we show that, like FGF21, FGF19 also requires betaKlotho. Both FGF19 and FGF21 can signal through FGFR1-3 bound by betaKlotho and increase glucose uptake in adipocytes expressing FGFR1. Additionally, both FGF19 and FGF21 bind to the betaKlotho-FGFR4 complex; however, only FGF19 signals efficiently through FGFR4. Accordingly, FGF19, but not FGF21, activates FGF signaling in hepatocytes that primarily express FGFR4 and reduces transcription of CYP7A1 that encodes the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. We conclude that the expression of betaKlotho, in combination with particular FGFR isoforms, determines the tissue-specific metabolic activities of FGF19 and FGF21.

  1. The formation of multivesicular bodies in activated blastocysts is influenced by autophagy and FGF signaling in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyejin; Bang, Soyoung; Kim, Jiyeon; Jun, Jin Hyun; Song, Haengseok; Lim, Hyunjung Jade

    2017-01-01

    Dormant blastocysts during delayed implantation undergo autophagic activation, which is an adaptive response to prolonged survival in utero during less favorable environment. We observed that multivesicular bodies (MVBs) accumulate in the trophectoderm of dormant blastocysts upon activation for implantation. Since autophagosomes are shown to fuse with MVBs and efficient autophagic degradation requires functional MVBs, we examined if MVB formation in activated blastocysts are associated with protracted autophagic state during dormancy. We show here that autophagic activation during dormancy is one precondition for MVB formation in activated blastocysts. Furthermore, the blockade of FGF signaling with PD173074 partially interferes with MVB formation in these blastocysts, suggesting the involvement of FGFR signaling in this process. We believe that MVB formation in activated blastocysts after dormancy is a potential mechanism of clearing subcellular debris accumulated during prolonged autophagy. PMID:28155881

  2. FGF2 activates TRPC and Ca2+ signaling leading to satellite cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yewei; Schneider, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite cells, as stem cells of adult skeletal muscle, are tightly associated with the differentiated muscle fibers and remain quiescent in the absence of muscle damage. In response to an injury, the quiescent satellite cell is activated by soluble factors, including FGFs released from injured myofibers. Using immunostaining, we here first show that TRPC1 channels are highly expressed in satellite cells attached to muscle fibers. Since CD34, a traditional stem cell marker, was recently found to be expressed in skeletal muscle satellite cells we labeled living satellite cells in their physiological niche associated with host FDB fibers using anti-CD34-FITC antibody. We then monitored intra-cellular calcium in anti-CD34-FITC labeled satellite cells attached to muscle fibers using the calcium sensitive dye X rhod-1 which has little fluorescence cross talk with FITC. FGF2 increased intracellular calcium in satellite cells, which was antagonized by the TRPC channel blocker SKF 96365. Immunostaining showed that NFATc3 is highly expressed in satellite cells, but not in host FDB fibers. Elevation of intracellular calcium by FGF2 is accompanied by nuclear translocation of NFATc3 and NFATc2 and by an increase in the number of MyoD positive cells per muscle fiber, both of which were attenuated by TRPC blocker SKF 96365. Our results suggest a novel pathway of satellite cell activation where FGF2 enhances calcium influx through a TRPC channel, and the increased cytosolic calcium leads to both NFATc3 and NFATc2 nuclear translocation and enhanced number of MyoD positive satellite cells per muscle fiber. PMID:24575047

  3. Soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain inhibits FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling and prevents nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan; An, Yuan; Zhao, Na; Zhao, Yang; Yu, Chundong

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} Soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain (FGFR4-ECD) was effectively expressed. {yields} FGFR4-ECD inhibited FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling. {yields} FGFR4-ECD reduced palmitic acid-induced steatosis of HepG2 cells. {yields} FGFR4-ECD reduced tetracycline-induced fatty liver in mice. {yields} FGFR4-ECD partially restored tetracycline-repressed PPAR{alpha} expression. -- Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of hepatic bile acid and lipid metabolism. FGFR4 underlies high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis, suggesting that inhibition of FGFR4 activation may be an effective way to prevent or treat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To determine whether neutralization of FGFR4 ligands by soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain (FGFR4-ECD) can inhibit the activation of FGFR4, we constructed FGFR4-ECD expression vector and showed that FGFR4-ECD was effectively expressed in cells and secreted into culture medium. FGFR4-ECD inhibited FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling and reduced steatosis of HepG2 induced by palmitic acid in vitro. Furthermore, in a tetracycline-induced fatty liver model, expression of FGFR4-ECD in mouse liver reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids and partially restored the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}), which promotes the mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation but is repressed by tetracycline. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FGFR4-ECD can block FGFR4 signaling and prevent hepatic steatosis, highlighting the potential value of inhibition of FGFR4 signaling as a method for therapeutic intervention against NAFLD.

  4. RSPO3-LGR4 Regulates Osteogenic Differentiation Of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Via ERK/FGF Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Yunsong; Lv, Longwei; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Yongsheng

    2017-01-01

    The four R-spondins (RSPOs) and their three related receptors, LGR4, 5 and 6, have emerged as a major ligand-receptor system with critical roles in development and stem cell survival. However, the exact roles of the RSPO-LGR system in osteogenesis remain largely unknown. In the present study, we showed that RSPO3-shRNA increased the osteogenic potential of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) significantly. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that RSPO3 is a negative regulator of ERK/FGF signalling. We confirmed that inhibition of the ERK1/2 signalling pathway blocked osteogenic differentiation in hASCs, and the increased osteogenic capacity observed after RSPO3 knockdown in hASCs was reversed by inhibition of ERK signalling. Further, silencing of LGR4 inhibited the activity of ERK signalling and osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. Most importantly, we found that loss of LGR4 abrogated RSPO3-regulated osteogenesis and RSPO3-induced ERK1/2 signalling inhibition. Collectively, our data show that ERK signalling works downstream of LGR4 and RSPO3 regulates osteoblastic differentiation of hASCs possibly via the LGR4-ERK signalling. PMID:28220828

  5. Plexin-A4 promotes tumor progression and tumor angiogenesis by enhancement of VEGF and bFGF signaling.

    PubMed

    Kigel, Boaz; Rabinowicz, Noa; Varshavsky, Asya; Kessler, Ofra; Neufeld, Gera

    2011-10-13

    Plexin-A4 is a receptor for sema6A and sema6B and associates with neuropilins to transduce signals of class-3 semaphorins. We observed that plexin-A1 and plexin-A4 are required simultaneously for transduction of inhibitory sema3A signals and that they form complexes. Unexpectedly, inhibition of plexin-A1 or plexin-A4 expression in endothelial cells using specific shRNAs resulted in prominent plexin type specific rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton that were accompanied by inhibition of bFGF and VEGF-induced cell proliferation. The two responses were not interdependent since silencing plexin-A4 in U87MG glioblastoma cells inhibited cell proliferation and strongly inhibited the formation of tumors from these cells without affecting cytoskeletal organization. Plexin-A4 formed stable complexes with the FGFR1 and VEGFR-2 tyrosine-kinase receptors and enhanced VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 phosphorylation in endothelial cells as well as bFGF-induced cell proliferation. We also obtained evidence suggesting that some of the pro-proliferative effects of plexin-A4 are due to transduction of autocrine sema6B-induced pro-proliferative signals, since silencing sema6B expression in endothelial cells and in U87MG cells mimicked the effects of plexin-A4 silencing and also inhibited tumor formation from the U87MG cells. Our results suggest that plexin-A4 may represent a target for the development of novel anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic drugs.

  6. Exercise-stimulated FGF23 promotes exercise performance via controlling the excess reactive oxygen species production and enhancing mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Jie; Fu, Hui; Zhao, Ting; Ni, Min; Shen, Fu-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Physical exercise induces many adaptive changes in skeletal muscle and the whole body and improves metabolic characteristics. Fibroblast growth-factor 23 (FGF23) is a unique member of the FGF family that acts as a hormone regulating phosphate metabolism, calcitriol concentration, and kidney functions. The role of FGF23 in exercise and skeletal muscle is largely unknown yet. C57BL/6J mice were exercised on a motor treadmill. Mice serum FGF23 levels; FGF23 mRNA expression in various organs including the liver, heart, skeletal muscle tissue, and thyroid; and FGF23 receptor Klotho mRNA expression were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting, respectively, after a single bout of acute exercise (60min), exhaustive exercise, and chronic prolonged exercise (60min every day for one week). C57BL/6J mice were injected with recombinant FGF23 (100mg/kg, twice per day, i.p.) or vehicle control (saline) for 3days, and then the exercise performance, reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2 production, and mitochondrial functional biomarkers in muscle (gene expression of sirtuin 1, PPAR-δ, PGC-1α and mitochondrial transcription factor A [TFAM], and citrate synthase activity) were assayed. Three forms of exercise, acute exercise, exhaustive exercise, and chronic exercise, increased serum FGF23 levels. However, only chronic exercise upregulated FGF23 mRNA and protein expression in skeletal muscle. FGF23 mRNA expression in the heart, liver, and thyroid was not affected. FGF23 protein was mainly located in the cytoplasm in skeletal muscle tissue and the localization of FGF23 was not altered by exercise. Exogenous FGF23 treatment significantly extended the time to exhaustion and reduced the exercise-induced ROS and H2O2 production. FGF23 treatment increased the mRNA level of PPAR-δ and citrate synthase activity, but did not influence the mRNA expression of sirtuin 1, PGC-1α, and TFAM in skeletal muscle. These results

  7. Regulation of amphiregulin gene expression by β-catenin signaling in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells: a novel crosstalk between FGF19 and the EGFR system.

    PubMed

    Latasa, Maria U; Salis, Fabiana; Urtasun, Raquel; Garcia-Irigoyen, Oihane; Elizalde, Maria; Uriarte, Iker; Santamaria, Monica; Feo, Francesco; Pascale, Rosa M; Prieto, Jesús; Berasain, Carmen; Avila, Matías A

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most prevalent liver tumor and a deadly disease with limited therapeutic options. Dysregulation of cell signaling pathways is a common denominator in tumorigenesis, including hepatocarcinogenesis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling system is commonly activated in HCC, and is currently being evaluated as a therapeutic target in combination therapies. We and others have identified a central role for the EGFR ligand amphiregulin (AR) in the proliferation, survival and drug resistance of HCC cells. AR expression is frequently up-regulated in HCC tissues and cells through mechanisms not completely known. Here we identify the β-catenin signaling pathway as a novel mechanism leading to transcriptional activation of the AR gene in human HCC cells. Activation of β-catenin signaling, or expression of the T41A β-catenin active mutant, led to the induction of AR expression involving three specific β-catenin-Tcf responsive elements in its proximal promoter. We demonstrate that HCC cells expressing the T41A β-catenin active mutant show enhanced proliferation that is dependent in part on AR expression and EGFR signaling. We also demonstrate here a novel cross-talk of the EGFR system with fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). FGF19 is a recently identified driver gene in hepatocarcinogenesis and an activator of β-catenin signaling in HCC and colon cancer cells. We show that FGF19 induced AR gene expression through the β-catenin pathway in human HCC cells. Importantly, AR up-regulation and EGFR signaling participated in the induction of cyclin D1 and cell proliferation elicited by FGF19. Finally, we demonstrate a positive correlation between FGF19 and AR expression in human HCC tissues, therefore supporting in clinical samples our experimental observations. These findings identify the AR/EGFR system as a key mediator of FGF19 responses in HCC cells involving β-catenin signaling, and suggest that combined targeting of

  8. Differential role of FGF9 on epithelium and mesenchyme in mouse embryonic lung.

    PubMed

    del Moral, Pierre-Marie; De Langhe, Stijn P; Sala, Frédéric G; Veltmaat, Jacqueline M; Tefft, Denise; Wang, Kasper; Warburton, David; Bellusci, Savério

    2006-05-01

    Mesothelial Fibroblast Growth Factor 9 (Fgf9) has been demonstrated by inactivation studies in mouse to be critical for the proliferation of the mesenchyme. We now show that Fgf9 is also expressed at significant levels in the distal epithelium from the mid-pseudoglandular stages. Using mesenchymal-free lung endoderm culture, we show that FGF9 triggers the proliferation of the distal epithelium leading to the formation of a cyst-like structure. On embryonic Fgfr2b-/- lungs, FGF9 induces proliferation of the mesenchyme but fails to trigger a similar effect on the epithelium, therefore involving the FGFR2b receptor in the proliferative response of the epithelium to FGF9. While FGF9 inhibits the differentiation of the mesenchyme, the epithelium appears to differentiate normally. At the molecular level, FGF9 up-regulates Fgf10 expression in the mesenchyme likely via increased expression of Tbx4 and 5 and controls the transcription of Hedgehog targets Ptc and Gli-1 in a Hedgehog-independent manner. We also show that FGF9 inhibits the activation of the canonical Wnt pathway in the epithelium by increasing Dkk1 expression, a canonical Wnt antagonist. Our work shows for the first time that FGF9 acts on the epithelium involving FGFR2b to control its proliferation but not its differentiation and contributes to the regulation of canonical Wnt signaling in the epithelium.

  9. FGF21 ameliorates the neurocontrol of blood pressure in the high fructose-drinking rats

    PubMed Central

    He, Jian-Li; Zhao, Miao; Xia, Jing-Jun; Guan, Jian; Liu, Yang; Wang, Lu-Qi; Song, Dong-Xue; Qu, Mei-Yu; Zuo, Meng; Wen, Xin; Yu, Xue; Huo, Rong; Pan, Zhen-Wei; Ban, Tao; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Jiu-Xin; Shou, Weinian; Qiao, Guo-Fen; Li, Bai-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is closely related to various metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. However, the direct targets and mechanisms linking FGF21 to blood pressure control and hypertension are still elusive. Here we demonstrated a novel regulatory function of FGF21 in the baroreflex afferent pathway (the nucleus tractus solitarii, NTS; nodose ganglion, NG). As the critical co-receptor of FGF21, β-klotho (klb) significantly expressed on the NTS and NG. Furthermore, we evaluated the beneficial effects of chronic intraperitoneal infusion of recombinant human FGF21 (rhFGF21) on the dysregulated systolic blood pressure, cardiac parameters, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and hyperinsulinemia in the high fructose-drinking (HFD) rats. The BRS up-regulation is associated with Akt-eNOS-NO signaling activation in the NTS and NG induced by acute intravenous rhFGF21 administration in HFD and control rats. Moreover, the expressions of FGF21 receptors were aberrantly down-regulated in HFD rats. In addition, the up-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and -α (PPAR-γ/-α) in the NTS and NG in HFD rats were markedly reversed by chronic rhFGF21 infusion. Our study extends the work of the FGF21 actions on the neurocontrol of blood pressure regulations through baroreflex afferent pathway in HFD rats. PMID:27387420

  10. Expression of chick Fgf19 and mouse Fgf15 orthologs is regulated in the developing brain by Fgf8 and Shh.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, L; Martinez, S

    2007-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) constitute a family of signaling molecules that play essential roles in development. We have studied the expression pattern of mouse Fgf15 in the developing brain. Fgf19 is another member of the FGF family that has been suggested as the chick and human ortholog of mouse and rat Fgf15. Here, we compare the expression pattern during neural development of chick Fgf19 with mouse Fgf15. Unlike Fgf15, Fgf19 presents an expression in the isthmic alar plate, diencephalic and mesencephalic parabasal plates, hindbrain basal plate, as well as in the zona limitans intrathalamica (zli). Moreover, we explored the regulation between Fgf19 and the signaling molecules of the isthmic and zli organizers: Fgf8 and Shh, respectively. Considering the possibility that Fgf19 plays a similar role in humans and chicks, this finding could explain the significant diencephalic phenotypic differences between humans and mice in models and diseases where the Shh pathway is affected.

  11. Fgf and Sdf-1 pathways interact during zebrafish fin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bouzaffour, Mohamed; Dufourcq, Pascale; Lecaudey, Virginie; Haas, Petra; Vriz, Sophie

    2009-06-08

    The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1) was originally identified as a pre-B cell stimulatory factor but has been recently implicated in several other key steps in differentiation and morphogenesis. In addition, SDF1 as well as FGF signalling pathways have recently been shown to be involved in the control of epimorphic regeneration. In this report, we address the question of a possible interaction between the two signalling pathways during adult fin regeneration in zebrafish. Using a combination of pharmaceutical and genetic tools, we show that during epimorphic regeneration, expression of sdf1, as well as of its cognate receptors, cxcr4a, cxcr4b and cxcr7 are controlled by FGF signalling. We further show that, Sdf1a negatively regulates the expression of fgf20a. Together, these results lead us to propose that: 1) the function of Fgf in blastema formation is, at least in part, relayed by the chemokine Sdf1a, and that 2) Sdf1 exerts negative feedback on the Fgf pathway, which contributes to a transient expression of Fgf20a downstream genes at the beginning of regeneration. However this feedback control can be bypassed since the Sdf1 null mutants regenerate their fin, though slower. Very few mutants for the regeneration process were isolated so far, illustrating the difficulty in identifying genes that are indispensable for regeneration. This observation supports the idea that the regeneration process involves a delicate balance between multiple pathways.

  12. Sprouty/FGF signaling regulates the proximal-distal feather morphology and the size of dermal papillae.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zhicao; Jiang, Ting Xin; Wu, Ping; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2012-12-01

    In a feather, there are distinct morphologies along the proximal-distal axis. The proximal part is a cylindrical stalk (calamus), whereas the distal part has barb and barbule branches. Here we focus on what molecular signaling activity can modulate feather stem cells to generate these distinct morphologies. We demonstrate the drastic tissue remodeling during feather cycling which includes initiation, growth and resting phases. In the growth phase, epithelial components undergo progressive changes from the collar growth zone to the ramogenic zone, to maturing barb branches along the proximal-distal axis. Mesenchymal components also undergo progressive changes from the dermal papilla, to the collar mesenchyme, to the pulp along the proximal-distal axis. Over-expression of Spry4, a negative regulator of receptor tyrosine kinases, promotes barb branch formation at the expense of the epidermal collar. It even induces barb branches from the follicle sheath (equivalent to the outer root sheath in hair follicles). The results are feathers with expanded feather vane regions and small or missing proximal feather shafts (the calamus). Spry4 also expands the pulp region while reducing the size of dermal papillae, leading to a failure to regenerate. In contrast, over-expressing Fgf10 increases the size of the dermal papillae, expands collar epithelia and mesenchyme, but also prevents feather branch formation and feather keratin differentiation. These results suggest that coordinated Sprouty/FGF pathway activity at different stages is important to modulate feather epidermal stem cells to form distinct feather morphologies along the proximal-distal feather axis.

  13. Fgf-signaling-dependent Sox9a and Atoh1a regulate otic neural development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jialiang; Wu, Ying; Zhao, Feng; Wu, Yuting; Dong, Wei; Zhao, Jue; Zhu, Zuoyan; Liu, Dong

    2015-01-07

    Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) play important roles in developmental processes of the inner ear, including the ontogeny of the statoacoustic ganglia (SAG) and hair cells. However, the detailed genetic mechanism(s) underlying Fgf/Fgfr-dependent otic neural development remains elusive. Using conditional genetic approaches and inhibitory small molecules, we have revealed that Fgfr-PI3K/Akt signaling is mainly responsible for zebrafish SAG development and have determined that Sox9a and Atoh1a act downstream of Fgfr-Akt signaling to specify and/or maintain the otic neuron fate during the early segmentation stage. Sox9a and Atoh1a coregulate numerous downstream factors identified through our ChIP-seq analyses, including Tlx2 and Eya2. Fgfr-Erk1/2 signaling contributes to ultricular hair cell development during a critical period between 9 and 15 hours postfertilization. Our work reveals that a genetic network of the previously known sensory determinant Atoh1 and the neural crest determinant Sox9 plays critical roles in SAG development. These newly uncovered roles for Atoh1and Sox9 in zebrafish otic development may be relevant to study in other species.

  14. Soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain inhibits FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling and prevents nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan; An, Yuan; Zhao, Na; Zhao, Yang; Yu, Chundong

    2011-06-17

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of hepatic bile acid and lipid metabolism. FGFR4 underlies high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis, suggesting that inhibition of FGFR4 activation may be an effective way to prevent or treat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To determine whether neutralization of FGFR4 ligands by soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain (FGFR4-ECD) can inhibit the activation of FGFR4, we constructed FGFR4-ECD expression vector and showed that FGFR4-ECD was effectively expressed in cells and secreted into culture medium. FGFR4-ECD inhibited FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling and reduced steatosis of HepG2 induced by palmitic acid in vitro. Furthermore, in a tetracycline-induced fatty liver model, expression of FGFR4-ECD in mouse liver reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids and partially restored the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), which promotes the mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation but is repressed by tetracycline. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FGFR4-ECD can block FGFR4 signaling and prevent hepatic steatosis, highlighting the potential value of inhibition of FGFR4 signaling as a method for therapeutic intervention against NAFLD.

  15. PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a signaling mediates cardioprotection of FGF-2 against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mi-Hua; Li, Guo-Hua; Peng, Li-Jun; Qu, Shun-Lin; Zhang, Yuan; Peng, Juan; Luo, Xin-Yuan; Hu, Heng-Jing; Ren, Zhong; Liu, Yao; Tang, Hui; Liu, Lu-Shan; Tang, Zhi-Han; Jiang, Zhi-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a growing major global public health problem. Oxidative stress is regarded as one of the key regulators of pathological physiology, which eventually leads to cardiovascular disease. However, mechanisms by which FGF-2 rescues cells from oxidative stress damage in cardiovascular disease is not fully elucidated. Herein this study was designed to investigate the protective effects of FGF-2 in H2O2-induced apoptosis of H9c2 cardiomyocytes, as well as the possible signaling pathway involved. Apoptosis of H9c2 cardiomyocytes was induced by H2O2 and assessed using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, Hoechst, and TUNEL staining. Cells were pretreated with PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 to investigate the possible PI3K/Akt pathways involved in the protection of FGF-2. The levels of p-Akt, p-FoxO3a, and Bim were detected by immunoblotting. Stimulation with H2O2 decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and FoxO3a, and induced nuclear localization of FoxO3a and apoptosis of H9c2 cells. These effects of H2O2 were abrogated by pretreatment with FGF-2. Furthermore, the protective effects of FGF-2 were abolished by PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. In conclusion, our data suggest that FGF-2 protects against H2O2-induced apoptosis of H9c2 cardiomyocytes via activation of the PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a pathway.

  16. The endocytic adapter E-Syt2 recruits the p21 GTPase activated kinase PAK1 to mediate actin dynamics and FGF signalling

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Steve; Tremblay, Michel G.; Herdman, Chelsea; Guillou, François; Moss, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Summary Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling plays an essential role in early vertebrate development. However, the response to FGF requires endocytosis of the activated FGF receptor (FGFR) that is in part dependent on remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton. Recently we showed that the extended synaptotagmin family plasma membrane protein, E-Syt2, is an essential endocytic adapter for FGFR1. Here we show E-Syt2 is also an interaction partner for the p21-GTPase Activated Kinase PAK1. The phospholipid binding C2C domain of E-Syt2 specifically binds a site adjacent to the CRIB/GBD of PAK1. PAK1 and E-Syt2 selectively complex with FGFR1 and functionally cooperate in the FGF signalling. E-Syt2 binding suppresses actin polymerization and inhibits the activation of PAK1 by the GTPases Cdc42 and Rac. Interestingly, the E-Syt2 binding site on PAK1 extensively overlaps a site recently suggested to bind phospholipids. Our data suggest that PAK1 interacts with phospholipid membrane domains via E-Syt2, where it may cooperate in the E-Syt2-dependent endocytosis of activated FGFR1 by modulating cortical actin stability. PMID:23213466

  17. BMP, Wnt and FGF signals are integrated through evolutionarily conserved enhancers to achieve robust expression of Pax3 and Zic genes at the zebrafish neural plate border.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Aaron T; Square, Tyler A; Medeiros, Daniel M

    2012-11-01

    Neural crest cells generate a range of cells and tissues in the vertebrate head and trunk, including peripheral neurons, pigment cells, and cartilage. Neural crest cells arise from the edges of the nascent central nervous system, a domain called the neural plate border (NPB). NPB induction is known to involve the BMP, Wnt and FGF signaling pathways. However, little is known about how these signals are integrated to achieve temporally and spatially specific expression of genes in NPB cells. Furthermore, the timing and relative importance of these signals in NPB formation appears to differ between vertebrate species. Here, we use heat-shock overexpression and chemical inhibitors to determine whether, and when, BMP, Wnt and FGF signaling are needed for expression of the NPB specifiers pax3a and zic3 in zebrafish. We then identify four evolutionarily conserved enhancers from the pax3a and zic3 loci and test their response to BMP, Wnt and FGF perturbations. We find that all three signaling pathways are required during gastrulation for the proper expression of pax3a and zic3 in the zebrafish NPB. We also find that, although the expression patterns driven by the pax3a and zic3 enhancers largely overlap, they respond to different combinations of BMP, Wnt and FGF signals. Finally, we show that the combination of the two pax3a enhancers is less susceptible to signaling perturbations than either enhancer alone. Taken together, our results reveal how BMPs, FGFs and Wnts act cooperatively and redundantly through partially redundant enhancers to achieve robust, specific gene expression in the zebrafish NPB.

  18. FGF-2 signaling induces downregulation of TAZ protein in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eda, Homare; Aoki, Katsuhiko; Marumo, Keishi; Fujii, Katsuyuki; Ohkawa, Kiyoshi

    2008-02-08

    Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) protein is a coactivator of Runx2 and corepressor of PPAR{gamma}. It also induces differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts. In this study, we found that FGF-2, which inhibits bone mineralization and stimulates cell proliferation, reduced the TAZ protein expression level in osteoblast-like cells, MC3T3-E1. This reduction was recovered by removing FGF-2 from the culture medium, which also restored the osteoblastic features of MC3T3-E1 cells. Furthermore, FGF-2-induced reduction of TAZ is blocked by a SAPK/JNK-specific inhibitor. These findings suggest that the expression of TAZ protein is involved in osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. This may help elucidate the discrepancies in the effect of FGF-2 and contribute to the understanding of FGF/FGFR-associated craniosynostosis syndrome etiology and treatment.

  19. Regional effects of endocannabinoid, BDNF and FGF receptor signalling on neuroblast motility and guidance along the rostral migratory stream

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ya; Oudin, Madeleine J.; Gajendra, Sangeetha; Sonego, Martina; Falenta, Katarzyna; Williams, Gareth; Lalli, Giovanna; Doherty, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    During development and after birth neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) generate neuroblasts that migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to populate the olfactory bulb (OB) with neurons. Multiple factors promote neuroblast migration, but the contribution that many of these make to guidance within the intact RMS is not known. In the present study we have characterised in detail how endocannabinoid (eCB), BDNF and FGF receptor (FGFR) signalling regulates motility and guidance, and also determined whether any of these receptors operate in a regionally restricted manner. We used in vivo electroporation in postnatal mice to fluorescently label neuroblasts, and live cell imaging to detail their migratory properties. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists rendered neuroblasts less mobile, and when they did move guidance was lost. Similar results were obtained when eCB synthesis was blocked with diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) inhibitors, and importantly eCB function is required for directed migration at both ends of the RMS. Likewise, inhibition of BDNF signalling disrupted motility and guidance in a similar manner along the entire RMS. In contrast, altering FGFR signalling inhibits motility and perturbs guidance, but only at the beginning of the stream. Inhibition of FGFR signalling in vivo also reduces the length of the leading process on migratory neuroblasts in a graded manner along the RMS. These results provide evidence for a guidance function for all three of the above receptor systems in the intact RMS, but show that FGFR signalling is unique as it is required in a regionally specific manner. PMID:25481343

  20. Muscle mitochondrial stress adaptation operates independently of endogenous FGF21 action.

    PubMed

    Ost, Mario; Coleman, Verena; Voigt, Anja; van Schothorst, Evert M; Keipert, Susanne; van der Stelt, Inge; Ringel, Sebastian; Graja, Antonia; Ambrosi, Thomas; Kipp, Anna P; Jastroch, Martin; Schulz, Tim J; Keijer, Jaap; Klaus, Susanne

    2016-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) was recently discovered as stress-induced myokine during mitochondrial disease and proposed as key metabolic mediator of the integrated stress response (ISR) presumably causing systemic metabolic improvements. Curiously, the precise cell-non-autonomous and cell-autonomous relevance of endogenous FGF21 action remained poorly understood. We made use of the established UCP1 transgenic (TG) mouse, a model of metabolic perturbations made by a specific decrease in muscle mitochondrial efficiency through increased respiratory uncoupling and robust metabolic adaptation and muscle ISR-driven FGF21 induction. In a cross of TG with Fgf21-knockout (FGF21(-/-)) mice, we determined the functional role of FGF21 as a muscle stress-induced myokine under low and high fat feeding conditions. Here we uncovered that FGF21 signaling is dispensable for metabolic improvements evoked by compromised mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Strikingly, genetic ablation of FGF21 fully counteracted the cell-non-autonomous metabolic remodeling and browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), together with the reduction of circulating triglycerides and cholesterol. Brown adipose tissue activity was similar in all groups. Remarkably, we found that FGF21 played a negligible role in muscle mitochondrial stress-related improved obesity resistance, glycemic control and hepatic lipid homeostasis. Furthermore, the protective cell-autonomous muscle mitohormesis and metabolic stress adaptation, including an increased muscle proteostasis via mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) and amino acid biosynthetic pathways did not require the presence of FGF21. Here we demonstrate that although FGF21 drives WAT remodeling, the adaptive pseudo-starvation response under elevated muscle mitochondrial stress conditions operates independently of both WAT browning and FGF21 action. Thus, our findings challenge FGF21 as key metabolic mediator of the mitochondrial

  1. Muscle mitochondrial stress adaptation operates independently of endogenous FGF21 action

    PubMed Central

    Ost, Mario; Coleman, Verena; Voigt, Anja; van Schothorst, Evert M.; Keipert, Susanne; van der Stelt, Inge; Ringel, Sebastian; Graja, Antonia; Ambrosi, Thomas; Kipp, Anna P.; Jastroch, Martin; Schulz, Tim J.; Keijer, Jaap; Klaus, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) was recently discovered as stress-induced myokine during mitochondrial disease and proposed as key metabolic mediator of the integrated stress response (ISR) presumably causing systemic metabolic improvements. Curiously, the precise cell-non-autonomous and cell-autonomous relevance of endogenous FGF21 action remained poorly understood. Methods We made use of the established UCP1 transgenic (TG) mouse, a model of metabolic perturbations made by a specific decrease in muscle mitochondrial efficiency through increased respiratory uncoupling and robust metabolic adaptation and muscle ISR-driven FGF21 induction. In a cross of TG with Fgf21-knockout (FGF21−/−) mice, we determined the functional role of FGF21 as a muscle stress-induced myokine under low and high fat feeding conditions. Results Here we uncovered that FGF21 signaling is dispensable for metabolic improvements evoked by compromised mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Strikingly, genetic ablation of FGF21 fully counteracted the cell-non-autonomous metabolic remodeling and browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), together with the reduction of circulating triglycerides and cholesterol. Brown adipose tissue activity was similar in all groups. Remarkably, we found that FGF21 played a negligible role in muscle mitochondrial stress-related improved obesity resistance, glycemic control and hepatic lipid homeostasis. Furthermore, the protective cell-autonomous muscle mitohormesis and metabolic stress adaptation, including an increased muscle proteostasis via mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) and amino acid biosynthetic pathways did not require the presence of FGF21. Conclusions Here we demonstrate that although FGF21 drives WAT remodeling, the adaptive pseudo-starvation response under elevated muscle mitochondrial stress conditions operates independently of both WAT browning and FGF21 action. Thus, our findings challenge FGF21 as key

  2. Self-renewing and differentiating properties of cortical neural stem cells are selectively regulated by basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling via specific FGF receptors.

    PubMed

    Maric, Dragan; Fiorio Pla, Alessandra; Chang, Yoong Hee; Barker, Jeffery L

    2007-02-21

    Developmental processes mediating the initiation of lineage commitment from self-renewing neural stem cells (NSCs) remain mostly unclear because of the persisting ambiguity in identifying true NSCs from proliferative lineage-restricted progenitors (LRPs), which are directly or indirectly derived from NSCs. Our multilineage immunohistochemical analyses of early embryonic rat telencephalon at the onset of neurogenesis revealed clear dorsoventral gradients in the emergence of two types of neuronal progenitors (NPs) from multilineage-negative NSCs. Enumeration of NSCs using comprehensive flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that their precipitous decline in vivo involved both active differentiation into NPs and an increased propensity toward apoptosis. Both processes paralleled the dorsoventral changes in fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) expressions. NSCs residing in the dorsal telencephalon coexpressed FGFR1 and FGFR3, whereas those residing in the ventral telencephalon also expressed FGFR2. NSCs exposed to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in vitro generated four stereotypical clonal expansion states: efficiently self-renewing, inefficiently self-renewing limited by apoptosis, exclusively neurogenic, and multipotential, generating up to five types of LRPs. The plasticity among these expansion states depended on ambient [bFGF], telencephalic developmental stage, and differential activation/inactivation of specific FGFRs. Coactivation of FGFR1 and FGFR3 promoted symmetrical divisions of NSCs (self-renewal), whereas inactivation of either triggered asymmetrical divisions and neurogenesis from these cells. Developmental upregulation of FGFR2 expression correlated with a shift of NSCs into a multipotential state or apoptosis. These results provide new insights regarding the roles of FGFRs in diversification of NSC properties and initiation of neural lineage-restricted differentiation.

  3. FGF plays a subtle role in oligodendrocyte maintenance in vivo.

    PubMed

    Harari, D; Finkelstein, D; Bernard, O

    1997-08-15

    Numerous in vitro studies indicate that fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play a role in both the development and maintenance of oligodendrocytes. Addition of FGF to mature oligodendrocytes in culture was reported to downregulate the expression of genes encoding proteins of the myelin sheath and to induce a loss of myelin compaction. In this study, a model was developed to functionally block FGF signaling in oligodendrocytes in vivo, by generating transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative FGF receptor (FGFR1), under the control of the myelin basic protein (MBP) promoter. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this model, truncated FGFR1 was first overexpressed in an FGF-responsive cell line in vitro. It was confirmed that FGF-signalling was blocked in these cells. Subsequently, five independent transgenic lines ("MBP-FRD") were generated. Three lines expressing the highest level of the transgene were further studied. Initial investigation by Western blot and light microscopic analyses revealed no apparent alterations in myelination of the MBP-FRD mouse brains. However, ultrastructural analysis of myelinated optic nerve fibres from two independent MBP-FRD lines revealed a significant increase in myelin thickness as a function of fibre diameter for both transgenic lines (13% and 16% increase). This increase in myelin thickness was not accompanied by alterations in myelin compaction. These results support the idea that FGF signaling in oligodendrocytes plays a role in the modulation of axon myelination in vivo.

  4. Mouse FGF15 is the ortholog of human and chick FGF19, but is not uniquely required for otic induction.

    PubMed

    Wright, Tracy J; Ladher, Raj; McWhirter, John; Murre, Cornelis; Schoenwolf, Gary C; Mansour, Suzanne L

    2004-05-01

    The inner ear develops from an ectodermal placode that is specified by inductive signals from the adjacent neurectoderm and underlying mesoderm. In chick, fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)-19 is expressed in mesoderm underlying the presumptive otic placode, and human FGF19 induces expression of otic markers in a tissue explant containing neural plate and surface ectoderm. We show here that mouse Fgf15 is the sequence homolog of chick and human Fgf19/FGF19. In addition, we show that FGF15, like FGF19, is sufficient to induce expression of otic markers in a chick explant assay, suggesting that these FGFs are orthologs. Mouse embryos lacking Fgf15, however, do not have otic abnormalities at E9.5-E10.5, suggesting that Fgf15 is not uniquely required for otic induction or early patterning of the otocyst. To compare FGF15 and FGF19 signaling components and assess where signals potentially redundant with FGF15 might function, we determined the expression patterns of Fgf15 and Fgf19. Unlike Fgf19, Fgf15 is not expressed in mesoderm underlying the presumptive otic placode, but is expressed in the adjacent neurectoderm. Fgfr4, which encodes the likely receptor for both FGF19 and FGF15, is expressed in the neurectoderm of both species, and is also expressed in the mesoderm only in chick. These results suggest the hypotheses that during otic induction, FGF19 signals in either an autocrine fashion to the mesoderm or a paracrine fashion to the neurectoderm, whereas FGF15 signals in an autocrine fashion to the neurectoderm. Thus, the FGFs that signal to the neurectoderm are the best potential candidates for redundancy with FGF15 during mouse otic development.

  5. Retrograde fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22) signaling regulates insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) expression for activity-dependent synapse stabilization in the mammalian brain

    PubMed Central

    Terauchi, Akiko; Johnson-Venkatesh, Erin M; Bullock, Brenna; Lehtinen, Maria K; Umemori, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Communication between pre- and postsynaptic cells promotes the initial organization of synaptic specializations, but subsequent synaptic stabilization requires transcriptional regulation. Here we show that fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22), a target-derived presynaptic organizer in the mouse hippocampus, induces the expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) for the stabilization of presynaptic terminals. FGF22 is released from CA3 pyramidal neurons and organizes the differentiation of excitatory nerve terminals formed onto them. Local application of FGF22 on the axons of dentate granule cells (DGCs), which are presynaptic to CA3 pyramidal neurons, induces IGF2 in the DGCs. IGF2, in turn, localizes to DGC presynaptic terminals and stabilizes them in an activity-dependent manner. IGF2 application rescues presynaptic defects of Fgf22-/- cultures. IGF2 is dispensable for the initial presynaptic differentiation, but is required for the following presynaptic stabilization both in vitro and in vivo. These results reveal a novel feedback signal that is critical for the activity-dependent stabilization of presynaptic terminals in the mammalian hippocampus. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12151.001 PMID:27083047

  6. Fgf9 inhibition of meiotic differentiation in spermatogonia is mediated by Erk-dependent activation of Nodal-Smad2/3 signaling and is antagonized by Kit Ligand.

    PubMed

    Tassinari, V; Campolo, F; Cesarini, V; Todaro, F; Dolci, S; Rossi, P

    2015-03-12

    Both fibroblast growth factor 9 (Fgf9) and Kit Ligand (Kl) signal through tyrosine kinase receptors, yet they exert opposite effects on meiotic differentiation in postnatal spermatogonia, Fgf9 acting as a meiosis-inhibiting substance and Kl acting as a promoter of the differentiation process. To understand the molecular mechanisms that might underlie this difference, we tried to dissect the intracellular signaling elicited by these two growth factors. We found that both Fgf9 and Kl stimulate Erk1/2 activation in Kit+ (differentiating) spermatogonia, even though with different time courses, whereas Kl, but not Fgf9, elicits activation of the Pi3k-Akt pathway. Sustained Erk1/2 activity promoted by Fgf9 is required for induction of the autocrine Cripto-Nodal-Smad2/3 signaling loop in these cells. Nodal signaling, in turn, is essential to mediate Fgf9 suppression of the meiotic program, including inhibition of Stra8 and Scp3 expression and induction of the meiotic gatekeeper Nanos2. On the contrary, sustained activation of the Pi3k-Akt pathway is required for the induction of Stra8 expression elicited by Kl and retinoic acid. Moreover, we found that Kl treatment impairs Nodal mRNA expression and Fgf9-mediated Nanos2 induction, reinforcing the antagonistic effect of these two growth factors on the meiotic fate of male germ cells.

  7. TGF-β1/FGF-2 signaling mediates the 15-HETE-induced differentiation of adventitial fibroblasts into myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Yan; Li, Guixia; Chen, Minggang; Huang, Wei; Liu, Yanrui; Li, Yumei

    2016-01-05

    Pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts (PAFs) are activated under stress stimuli leading to their differentiation into myofibroblasts, which is involved in vessel remodeling. 15-HETE is known as an important factor in vessel remodeling under hypoxia; however, the role of 15-HETE in PAF phenotypic alteration is not clear. The effect of 15-HETE on PAF phenotypic alterations was investigated in the present study. PAFs were treated with 15-HETE (0.5 μM) for 24 h, and the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was analyzed. The 15-HETE induced α-SMA expression and cell morphology. 15-HETE upregulated FGF-2 levels in PAFs, and knockdown FGF-2 by siRNAs blocked the enhanced α-SMA expression induced by 15-HETE. p38 kinase was activated, and blocked depressed 15-HETE-induced FGF-2 expression. The downstream of p38 pathway, Egr-1 activation, was also raised by 15-HETE treatment, and silenced Egr-1 suppressed the 15-HETE-induced upregulation of FGF-2. TGF-β1 was upregulated with FGF-2 treatment, and α-SMA expression induced by FGF-2 was inhibited after the cell was transferred with TGF-β1 siRNA. Meanwhile, FGF-2 increased α-SMA expression and improved proliferation, which was associated with p27(kip1) and cyclin E variation. The above results suggest that p38/Egr-1 pathway-mediated FGF-2 is involved in 15-HETE-induced differentiation of PAFs into myofibroblasts and cell proliferation.

  8. Infiltrating T cells promote prostate cancer metastasis via modulation of FGF11→miRNA-541→androgen receptor (AR)→MMP9 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shuai; Li, Lei; Yeh, Shuyuan; Cui, Yun; Li, Xin; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Jin, Jie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2014-01-01

    Early clinical studies suggested infiltrating T cells might be associated with poor outcomes in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. The detailed mechanisms how T cells contribute to PCa progression, however, remained unclear. Here, we found PCa cells have a better capacity to recruit more CD4(+) T cells than the surrounding normal prostate cells via secreting more chemokines-CXCL9. The consequences of more recruited CD4(+) T cells to PCa might then lead to enhance PCa cell invasion. Mechanism dissection revealed that infiltrating CD4(+) T cells might function through the modulation of FGF11→miRNA-541 signals to suppress PCa androgen receptor (AR) signals. The suppressed AR signals might then alter the MMP9 signals to promote the PCa cell invasion. Importantly, suppressed AR signals via AR-siRNA or anti-androgen Enzalutamidein PCa cells also enhanced the recruitment of T cells and the consequences of this positive feed back regulation could then enhance the PCa cell invasion. Targeting these newly identified signals viaFGF11-siRNA, miRNA-541 inhibitor or MMP9 inhibitor all led to partially reverse the enhanced PCa cell invasion. Results from in vivo mouse models also confirmed the in vitro cell lines in co-culture studies. Together, these results concluded that infiltrating CD4(+) T cells could promote PCa metastasis via modulation of FGF11→miRNA-541→AR→MMP9 signaling. Targeting these newly identified signals may provide us a new potential therapeutic approach to better battle PCa metastasis. PMID:25135278

  9. The development of the thalamic motor learning area is regulated by Fgf8 expression.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Ferre, Almudena; Martinez, Salvador

    2009-10-21

    Habenular nuclei play a key role in the control of motor and cognitive behavior, processing emotion, motivation, and reward values in the brain. Thus, analysis of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the development and evolution of this region will contribute to a better understanding of brain function. The Fgf8 gene is expressed in the dorsal midline of the diencephalon, close to the area in which the habenular region will develop. Given that Fgf8 is an important morphogenetic signal, we decided to investigate the role of Fgf8 signaling in diencephalic development. To this end, we analyzed the effects of altered Fgf8 expression in the mouse embryo, using molecular and cellular markers. Decreasing Fgf8 activity in the diencephalon was found to be associated with dosage-dependent alterations in the epithalamus: the habenular region and pineal gland are reduced or lacking in Fgf8 hypomorphic mice. Actually, our findings indicate that Fgf8 may be the master gene for these diencephalic domains, acting as an inductive and morphogenetic regulator. Therefore, the emergence of the habenular region in vertebrates could be understood in terms of a phylogenetic territorial addition caused by de novo expression of Fgf8 in the diencephalic alar plate. This region specializes to permit the development of adaptive control of the motor function in the vertebrate brain.

  10. Gremlin is the BMP antagonist required for maintenance of Shh and Fgf signals during limb patterning.

    PubMed

    Khokha, Mustafa K; Hsu, David; Brunet, Lisa J; Dionne, Marc S; Harland, Richard M

    2003-07-01

    During limb outgrowth, signaling by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) must be moderated to maintain the signaling loop between the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) and the apical ectodermal ridge (AER). Gremlin, an extracellular Bmp antagonist, has been proposed to fulfill this function and therefore be important in limb patterning. We tested this model directly by mutating the mouse gene encoding gremlin (Cktsf1b1, herein called gremlin). In the mutant limb, the feedback loop between the ZPA and the AER is interrupted, resulting in abnormal skeletal pattern. We also show that the gremlin mutation is allelic to the limb deformity mutation (ld). Although Bmps and their antagonists have multiple roles in limb development, these experiments show that gremlin is the principal BMP antagonist required for early limb outgrowth and patterning.

  11. A spatial and temporal gradient of Fgf differentially regulates distinct stages of neural development in the zebrafish inner ear.

    PubMed

    Vemaraju, Shruti; Kantarci, Husniye; Padanad, Mahesh S; Riley, Bruce B

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblasts of the statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) initially form in the floor of the otic vesicle during a relatively brief developmental window. They soon delaminate and undergo a protracted phase of proliferation and migration (transit-amplification). Neuroblasts eventually differentiate and extend processes bi-directionally to synapse with hair cells in the inner ear and various targets in the hindbrain. Our studies in zebrafish have shown that Fgf signaling controls multiple phases of this complex developmental process. Moderate levels of Fgf in a gradient emanating from the nascent utricular macula specify SAG neuroblasts in laterally adjacent otic epithelium. At a later stage, differentiating SAG neurons express Fgf5, which serves two functions: First, as SAG neurons accumulate, increasing levels of Fgf exceed an upper threshold that terminates the initial phase of neuroblast specification. Second, elevated Fgf delays differentiation of transit-amplifying cells, balancing the rate of progenitor renewal with neuronal differentiation. Laser-ablation of mature SAG neurons abolishes feedback-inhibition and causes precocious neuronal differentiation. Similar effects are obtained by Fgf5-knockdown or global impairment of Fgf signaling, whereas Fgf misexpression has the opposite effect. Thus Fgf signaling renders SAG development self-regulating, ensuring steady production of an appropriate number of neurons as the larva grows.

  12. A network of transcriptional and signaling events is activated by FGF to induce chondrocyte growth arrest and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Lisa; Laplantine, Emmanuel; Priore, Riccardo; Basilico, Claudio

    2003-06-23

    Activating mutations in FGF receptor 3 (FGFR3) cause several human dwarfism syndromes by affecting both chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Using microarray and biochemical analyses of FGF-treated rat chondrosarcoma chondrocytes, we show that FGF inhibits chondrocyte proliferation by initiating multiple pathways that result in the induction of antiproliferative functions and the down-regulation of growth-promoting molecules. The initiation of growth arrest is characterized by the rapid dephosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) p107 and repression of a subset of E2F target genes by a mechanism that is independent of cyclin E-Cdk inhibition. In contrast, hypophosphorylation of pRb and p130 occur after growth arrest is first detected, and may contribute to its maintenance. Importantly, we also find a number of gene expression changes indicating that FGF promotes many aspects of hypertrophic differentiation, a notion supported by in situ analysis of developing growth plates from mice expressing an activated form of FGFR3. Thus, FGF may coordinate the onset of differentiation with chondrocyte growth arrest in the developing growth plate.

  13. FGF2, FGF3 and FGF4 expression pattern during molars odontogenesis in Didelphis albiventris.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Íria Gabriela Dias; Jorge, Erika Cristina; Copola, Aline Gonçalves Lio; Bertassoli, Bruno Machado; Goes, Alfredo Miranda de; Silva, Gerluza Aparecida Borges

    2017-03-01

    Odontogenesis is guided by a complex signaling cascade in which several molecules, including FGF2-4, ensure all dental groups development and specificity. Most of the data on odontogenesis derives from rodents, which does not have all dental groups. Didelphis albiventris is an opossum with the closest dentition to humans, and the main odontogenesis stages occur when the newborns are in the pouch. In this study, D. albiventris postnatals were used to characterize the main stages of their molars development; and also to establish FGF2, FGF3 and FGF4 expression pattern. D. albiventris postnatals were processed for histological and indirect immunoperoxidase analysis of the tooth germs. Our results revealed similar dental structures between D. albiventris and mice. However, FGF2, FGF3 and FGF4 expression patterns were observed in a larger number of dental structures, suggesting broader functions for these molecules in this opossum species. The knowledge of the signaling that determinates odontogenesis in an animal model with complete dentition may contribute to the development of therapies for the replacement of lost teeth in humans. This study may also contribute to the implementation of D. albiventris as model for Developmental Biology studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Sprouty2 controls proliferation of palate mesenchymal cells via fibroblast growth factor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Kaori; Taketomi, Takaharu; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Arai, Shinsaku; Sanui, Terukazu; Yoshiga, Daigo; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Nakamura, Seiji

    2011-01-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Sprouty2-deficient mice exhibit cleft palate as a result of failure of palatal shelf elevation. {yields} We examined palate cell proliferation in Sprouty2-deficient mice. {yields} Palate mesenchymal cell proliferation was increased in Sprouty2 KO mice. {yields} Sprouty2 plays roles in murine palatogenesis by regulating cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Cleft palate is one of the most common craniofacial deformities. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) plays a central role in reciprocal interactions between adjacent tissues during palatal development, and the FGF signaling pathway has been shown to be inhibited by members of the Sprouty protein family. In this study, we report the incidence of cleft palate, possibly caused by failure of palatal shelf elevation, in Sprouty2-deficient (KO) mice. Sprouty2-deficient palates fused completely in palatal organ culture. However, palate mesenchymal cell proliferation estimated by Ki-67 staining was increased in Sprouty2 KO mice compared with WT mice. Sprouty2-null palates expressed higher levels of FGF target genes, such as Msx1, Etv5, and Ptx1 than WT controls. Furthermore, proliferation and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation in response to FGF was enhanced in palate mesenchymal cells transfected with Sprouty2 small interfering RNA. These results suggest that Sprouty2 regulates palate mesenchymal cell proliferation via FGF signaling and is involved in palatal shelf elevation.

  15. FGF15/19 protein levels in the portal blood do not reflect changes in the ileal FGF15/19 or hepatic CYP7A1 mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Shang, Quan; Guo, Grace L; Honda, Akira; Saumoy, Monica; Salen, Gerald; Xu, Guorong

    2013-10-01

    It has been proposed that bile acid suppression of CYP7A1 gene expression is mediated through a gut-liver signaling pathway fibroblast growth factor (FGF)15/19-fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 which is initiated by activation of farnesoid X receptor in the ileum but not in the liver. This study evaluated whether FGF15/19 protein levels in the portal blood reflected changes in FGF15/19 mRNA in the ileum. Studies were conducted in Sprague Dawley rats and New Zealand white rabbits fed regular chow (controls), supplemented with cholesterol (Ch) or cholic acid (CA). After feeding CA, ileal FGF15 mRNA increased 8.5-fold in rats and FGF19 rose 16-fold in rabbits associated with 62 and 75% reduction of CYP7A1 mRNA, respectively. Neither FGF15 nor FGF19 protein levels changed in the portal blood to correspond with the marked increase of FGF15/19 mRNA levels in the ileum or inhibited CYP7A1 expression in the liver. Further, in Ch-fed rats, CYP7A1 mRNA increased 1.9-fold (P < 0.001) although FGF15 mRNA levels in the ileum and portal blood FGF15 protein levels were not decreased. In Ch-fed rabbits, although FGF19 mRNA levels in the ileum and liver did not increase significantly, CYP7A1 mRNA declined 49% (P < 0.05). We were unable to find corresponding changes of FGF15/19 protein levels in the portal blood in rats and rabbits where the mRNA levels of FGF15/19 in the ileum and CYP7A1 in the liver change significantly.

  16. Fundamentals of FGF19 & FGF21 action in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Adams, Andrew C; Coskun, Tamer; Rovira, Armando R Irizarry; Schneider, Michael A; Raches, David W; Micanovic, Radmila; Bina, Holly A; Dunbar, James D; Kharitonenkov, Alexei

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors 19 (FGF19) and 21 (FGF21) have emerged as key regulators of energy metabolism. Several studies have been conducted to understand the mechanism of FGF19 and FGF21 action, however, the data presented has often been inconsistent and at times contradictory. Here in a single study we compare the mechanisms mediating FGF19/FGF21 actions, and how similarities/differences in actions at the cellular level between these two factors translate to common/divergent physiological outputs. Firstly, we show that in cell culture FGF19/FGF21 are very similar, however, key differences are still observed differentiating the two. In vitro we found that both FGF's activate FGFRs in the context of βKlotho (KLB) expression. Furthermore, both factors alter ERK phosphorylation and glucose uptake with comparable potency. Combination treatment of cells with both factors did not have additive effects and treatment with a competitive inhibitor, the FGF21 delta N17 mutant, also blocked FGF19's effects, suggestive of a shared receptor activation mechanism. The key differences between FGF21/FGF19 were noted at the receptor interaction level, specifically the unique ability of FGF19 to bind/signal directly via FGFR4. To determine if differential effects on energy homeostasis and hepatic mitogenicity exist we treated DIO and ob/ob mice with FGF19/FGF21. We find comparable efficacy of the two proteins to correct body weight and serum glucose in both DIO and ob/ob mice. Nevertheless, FGF21 and FGF19 had distinctly different effects on proliferation in the liver. Interestingly, in vivo blockade of FGF21 signaling in mice using ΔN17 caused profound changes in glycemia indicative of the critical role KLB and FGF21 play in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Overall, our data demonstrate that while subtle differences exist in vitro the metabolic effects in vivo of FGF19/FGF21 are indistinguishable, supporting a shared mechanism of action for these two hormones in the

  17. The structural biology of the FGF19 subfamily.

    PubMed

    Beenken, Andrew; Mohammadi, Moosa

    2012-01-01

    The ability of the Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) 19 subfamily to signal in an endocrine fashion sets this subfamily apart from the remaining five FGF subfamilies known for their paracrine functions during embryonic development. Compared to the members of paracrine FGF subfamiles, the three members of the FGF19 subfamily, namely FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23, have poor affinity for heparan sulfate (HS) and therefore can diffuse freely in the HS-rich extracellular matrix to enter into the bloodstream. In further contrast to paracrine FGFs, FGF19 subfamily members have unusually poor affinity for their cognate FGF receptors (FGFRs) and therefore cannot bind and activate them in a solely HS-dependent fashion. As a result, the FGF19 subfamily requires α/βklotho coreceptor proteins in order to bind, dimerize and activate their cognate FGFRs. This klotho-dependency also determines the tissue specificity of endocrine FGFs. Recent structural and biochemical studies have begun to shed light onto the molecular basis for the klotho-dependent endocrine mode of action of the FGF19 subfamily. Crystal structures of FGF19 and FGF23 show that the topology of the HS binding site (HBS) of FGF19 subfamily members deviates drastically from the common topology adopted by the paracrine FGFs. The distinct topologies of the HBS of FGF19 and FGF23 prevent HS from direct hydrogen bonding with the backbone atoms of the HBS of these ligands and accordingly decrease the HS binding affinity of this subfamily. Recent biochemical data reveal that the ?klotho ectodomain binds avidly to the ectodomain of FGFR1c, the main cognate FGFR of FGF23, creating a de novo high affinity binding site for the C-terminal tail of FGF23. The isolated FGF23 C-terminus can be used to effectively inhibit the formation of the FGF23-FGFR1c-αklotho complex and alleviate hypophosphatemia in renal phosphate disorders due to elevated levels of FGF23.

  18. Fibroblast growth factor signalling in multiple sclerosis: inhibition of myelination and induction of pro-inflammatory environment by FGF9.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Maren; Thümmler, Katja; Arthur, Ariel; Brunner, Sarah; Elliott, Christina; McElroy, Daniel; Mohan, Hema; Williams, Anna; Edgar, Julia M; Schuh, Cornelia; Stadelmann, Christine; Barnett, Susan C; Lassmann, Hans; Mücklisch, Steve; Mudaliar, Manikhandan; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Meinl, Edgar; Linington, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Remyelination failure plays an important role in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We now report actively demyelinating lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis are associated with increased glial expression of fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9), which we demonstrate inhibits myelination and remyelination in vitro. This inhibitory activity is associated with the appearance of multi-branched 'pre-myelinating' MBP+ / PLP+ oligodendrocytes that interact with axons but fail to assemble myelin sheaths; an oligodendrocyte phenotype described previously in chronically demyelinated multiple sclerosis lesions. This inhibitory activity is not due to a direct effect of FGF9 on cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage but is mediated by factors secreted by astrocytes. Transcriptional profiling and functional validation studies demonstrate that these include effects dependent on increased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-sensitive proteases, enzymes more commonly associated with extracellular matrix remodelling. Further, we found that FGF9 induces expression of Ccl2 and Ccl7, two pro-inflammatory chemokines that contribute to recruitment of microglia and macrophages into multiple sclerosis lesions. These data indicate glial expression of FGF9 can initiate a complex astrocyte-dependent response that contributes to two distinct pathogenic pathways involved in the development of multiple sclerosis lesions. Namely, induction of a pro-inflammatory environment and failure of remyelination; a combination of effects predicted to exacerbate axonal injury and loss in patients.

  19. Murine Jagged1/Notch signaling in the second heart field orchestrates Fgf8 expression and tissue-tissue interactions during outflow tract development

    PubMed Central

    High, Frances A.; Jain, Rajan; Stoller, Jason Z.; Antonucci, Nicole B.; Lu, Min Min; Loomes, Kathleen M.; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Pear, Warren S.; Epstein, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Notch signaling is vital for proper cardiovascular development and function in both humans and animal models. Indeed, mutations in either JAGGED or NOTCH cause congenital heart disease in humans and NOTCH mutations are associated with adult valvular disease. Notch typically functions to mediate developmental interactions between adjacent tissues. Here we show that either absence of the Notch ligand Jagged1 or inhibition of Notch signaling in second heart field tissues results in murine aortic arch artery and cardiac anomalies. In mid-gestation, these mutants displayed decreased Fgf8 and Bmp4 expression. Notch inhibition within the second heart field affected the development of neighboring tissues. For example, faulty migration of cardiac neural crest cells and defective endothelial-mesenchymal transition within the outflow tract endocardial cushions were observed. Furthermore, exogenous Fgf8 was sufficient to rescue the defect in endothelial-mesenchymal transition in explant assays of endocardial cushions following Notch inhibition within second heart field derivatives. These data support a model that relates second heart field, neural crest, and endocardial cushion development and suggests that perturbed Notch-Jagged signaling within second heart field progenitors accounts for some forms of congenital and adult cardiac disease. PMID:19509466

  20. Astragalus polysaccharides affect insulin resistance by regulating the hepatic SIRT1-PGC-1α/PPARα-FGF21 signaling pathway in male Sprague Dawley rats undergoing catch-up growth

    PubMed Central

    GU, CHENGYING; ZENG, YIPENG; TANG, ZHAOSHENG; WANG, CHAOXUN; HE, YANJU; FENG, XINGE; ZHOU, LIGANG

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on insulin resistance by modulation of hepatic sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α/PPARα-fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: A normal control group, a catch-up growth group and an APS-treated (APS-G) group. The latter two groups underwent food restriction for 4 weeks, prior to being provided with a high fat diet, which was available ad libitum. The APS-G group was orally treated with APS for 8 weeks, whereas the other groups were administered saline. Body weight was measured and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted after 8 weeks. The plasma glucose and insulin levels obtained from the OGTT were assayed, and hepatic morphology was observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of PGC-1α/PPARα, and the protein expression levels of SIRT1, FGF21 and nuclear factor-κB were quantified in the liver and serum. APS treatment suppressed abnormal glycolipid metabolism and insulin resistance following 8 weeks of catch-up growth by improving hepatic SIRT1-PPARα-FGF21 intracellular signaling and reducing chronic inflammation, and by partially attenuating hepatic steatosis. The suppressive effects of APS on liver acetylation and glycolipid metabolism-associated molecules contributed to the observed suppression of insulin resistance. However, the mechanism underlying the effects of APS on insulin resistance requires further research in order to be elucidated. Rapid and long-term treatment with APS may provide a novel, safe and effective therapeutic strategy for type 2 diabetes. PMID:26323321

  1. Astragalus polysaccharides affect insulin resistance by regulating the hepatic SIRT1-PGC-1α/PPARα-FGF21 signaling pathway in male Sprague Dawley rats undergoing catch-up growth.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chengying; Zeng, Yipeng; Tang, Zhaosheng; Wang, Chaoxun; He, Yanju; Feng, Xinge; Zhou, Ligang

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on insulin resistance by modulation of hepatic sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)‑peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor (PPAR)‑γ coactivator (PGC)‑1α/PPARα‑fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: A normal control group, a catch‑up growth group and an APS‑treated (APS-G) group. The latter two groups underwent food restriction for 4 weeks, prior to being provided with a high fat diet, which was available ad libitum. The APS‑G group was orally treated with APS for 8 weeks, whereas the other groups were administered saline. Body weight was measured and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted after 8 weeks. The plasma glucose and insulin levels obtained from the OGTT were assayed, and hepatic morphology was observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of PGC‑1α/PPARα, and the protein expression levels of SIRT1, FGF21 and nuclear factor‑κB were quantified in the liver and serum. APS treatment suppressed abnormal glycolipid metabolism and insulin resistance following 8 weeks of catch‑up growth by improving hepatic SIRT1‑PPARα‑FGF21 intracellular signaling and reducing chronic inflammation, and by partially attenuating hepatic steatosis. The suppressive effects of APS on liver acetylation and glycolipid metabolism‑associated molecules contributed to the observed suppression of insulin resistance. However, the mechanism underlying the effects of APS on insulin resistance requires further research in order to be elucidated. Rapid and long‑term treatment with APS may provide a novel, safe and effective therapeutic strategy for type 2 diabetes.

  2. FGF23 induces left ventricular hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Faul, Christian; Amaral, Ansel P.; Oskouei, Behzad; Hu, Ming-Chang; Sloan, Alexis; Isakova, Tamara; Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Aguillon-Prada, Robier; Lincoln, Joy; Hare, Joshua M.; Mundel, Peter; Morales, Azorides; Scialla, Julia; Fischer, Michael; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Chen, Jing; Go, Alan S.; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Nessel, Lisa; Townsend, Raymond R.; Feldman, Harold I.; St. John Sutton, Martin; Ojo, Akinlolu; Gadegbeku, Crystal; Di Marco, Giovana Seno; Reuter, Stefan; Kentrup, Dominik; Tiemann, Klaus; Brand, Marcus; Hill, Joseph A.; Moe, Orson W.; Kuro-o, Makoto; Kusek, John W.; Keane, Martin G.; Wolf, Myles

    2011-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health epidemic that increases risk of death due to cardiovascular disease. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an important mechanism of cardiovascular disease in individuals with CKD. Elevated levels of FGF23 have been linked to greater risks of LVH and mortality in patients with CKD, but whether these risks represent causal effects of FGF23 is unknown. Here, we report that elevated FGF23 levels are independently associated with LVH in a large, racially diverse CKD cohort. FGF23 caused pathological hypertrophy of isolated rat cardiomyocytes via FGF receptor–dependent activation of the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway, but this effect was independent of klotho, the coreceptor for FGF23 in the kidney and parathyroid glands. Intramyocardial or intravenous injection of FGF23 in wild-type mice resulted in LVH, and klotho-deficient mice demonstrated elevated FGF23 levels and LVH. In an established animal model of CKD, treatment with an FGF–receptor blocker attenuated LVH, although no change in blood pressure was observed. These results unveil a klotho-independent, causal role for FGF23 in the pathogenesis of LVH and suggest that chronically elevated FGF23 levels contribute directly to high rates of LVH and mortality in individuals with CKD. PMID:21985788

  3. Transitory FGF treatment results in the long-lasting suppression of the proliferative response to repeated FGF stimulation.

    PubMed

    Poole, Ashleigh; Knowland, Nicholas; Cooper, Emily; Cole, Rebecca; Wang, Hongchuan; Booth, Lucas; Kacer, Doreen; Tarantini, Francesca; Friesel, Robert; Prudovsky, Igor

    2014-05-01

    FGF applied as a single growth factor to quiescent mouse fibroblasts induces a round of DNA replication, however continuous stimulation results in arrest in the G1 phase of the next cell cycle. We hypothesized that FGF stimulation induces the establishment of cell memory, which prevents the proliferative response to repeated or continuous FGF application. When a 2-5 days quiescence period was introduced between primary and repeated FGF treatments, fibroblasts failed to efficiently replicate in response to secondary FGF application. The establishment of "FGF memory" during the first FGF stimulation did not require DNA synthesis, but was dependent on the activity of FGF receptors, MEK, p38 MAPK and NFκB signaling, and protein synthesis. While secondary stimulation resulted in strongly decreased replication rate, we did not observe any attenuation of morphological changes, Erk1/2 phosphorylation and cyclin D1 induction. However, secondary FGF stimulation failed to induce the expression of cyclin A, which is critical for the progression from G1 to S phase. Treatment of cells with a broad range histone deacetylase inhibitor during the primary FGF stimulation rescued the proliferative response to the secondary FGF treatment suggesting that the establishment of "FGF memory" may be based on epigenetic changes. We suggest that "FGF memory" can prevent the hyperplastic response to cell damage and inflammation, which are associated with an enhanced FGF production and secretion. "FGF memory" may present a natural obstacle to the efficient application of recombinant FGFs for the treatment of ulcers, ischemias, and wounds.

  4. Prevalent expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors and FGF2 in human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chandler, L A; Sosnowski, B A; Greenlees, L; Aukerman, S L; Baird, A; Pierce, G F

    1999-05-05

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) has potent mitogenic and angiogenic activities that have been implicated in tumor development and malignant progression. The biological effects of FGF2 and other members of the FGF ligand family are mediated by 4 transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors (FGFRs). To better understand the roles of FGFRs in cancer, the expression of FGF2 and each of the 4 FGFRs was assessed by RNase protection analysis of 60 human tumor cell lines, representing 9 tumor types. Expression of at least one FGFR isoform was detected in 90% and FGF2 mRNA in 35% of the cell lines. Our comprehensive analysis of FGF2 and FGFR expression in human tumor cell lines provides evidence that FGF signaling pathways are active in a majority of human tumor cell lines, and lends support to the development of anti-tumor strategies that target FGFRs.

  5. Regulation of Receptor Binding Specificity of FGF9 by an Autoinhibitory Homodimerization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Ma, Jinghong; Beenken, Andrew; Srinivasan, Lakshmi; Eliseenkova, Anna V; Mohammadi, Moosa

    2017-09-05

    The epithelial fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) subfamily specifically binds and activates the mesenchymal "c" splice isoform of FGF receptors 1-3 (FGFR1-3) to regulate organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. The unique N and C termini of FGF9 subfamily ligands mediate a reversible homodimerization that occludes major receptor binding sites within the ligand core region. Here we provide compelling X-ray crystallographic, biophysical, and biochemical data showing that homodimerization controls receptor binding specificity of the FGF9 subfamily by keeping the concentration of active FGF9 monomers at a level, which is sufficient for a normal FGFR "c" isoform binding/signaling, but is insufficient for an illegitimate FGFR "b" isoform binding/signaling. We show that deletion of the N terminus or alanine substitutions in the C terminus of FGF9 skews the delicate ligand equilibrium toward active FGF9 monomers causing off-target binding and activation of FGFR b isoforms. Our study is the first to implicate ligand homodimerization in the regulation of ligand-receptor specificity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fibroblast surface-associated FGF-2 promotes contact-dependent colorectal cancer cell migration and invasion through FGFR-SRC signaling and integrin αvβ5-mediated adhesion.

    PubMed

    Knuchel, Sarah; Anderle, Pascale; Werfelli, Patricia; Diamantis, Eva; Rüegg, Curzio

    2015-06-10

    Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts were reported to promote colorectal cancer (CRC) invasion by secreting motility factors and extracellular matrix processing enzymes. Less is known whether fibroblasts may induce CRC cancer cell motility by contact-dependent mechanisms. To address this question we characterized the interaction between fibroblasts and SW620 and HT29 colorectal cancer cells in 2D and 3D co-culture models in vitro. Here we show that fibroblasts induce contact-dependent cancer cell elongation, motility and invasiveness independently of deposited matrix or secreted factors. These effects depend on fibroblast cell surface-associated fibroblast growth factor (FGF) -2. Inhibition of FGF-2 or FGF receptors (FGFRs) signaling abolishes these effects. FGFRs activate SRC in cancer cells and inhibition or silencing of SRC in cancer cells, but not in fibroblasts, prevents fibroblasts-mediated effects. Using an RGD-based integrin antagonist and function-blocking antibodies we demonstrate that cancer cell adhesion to fibroblasts requires integrin αvβ5. Taken together, these results demonstrate that fibroblasts induce cell-contact-dependent colorectal cancer cell migration and invasion under 2D and 3D conditions in vitro through fibroblast cell surface-associated FGF-2, FGF receptor-mediated SRC activation and αvβ5 integrin-dependent cancer cell adhesion to fibroblasts. The FGF-2-FGFRs-SRC-αvβ5 integrin loop might be explored as candidate therapeutic target to block colorectal cancer invasion.

  7. FGF23 fails to inhibit uremic parathyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Canalejo, Rocío; Canalejo, Antonio; Martinez-Moreno, Julio Manuel; Rodriguez-Ortiz, M Encarnacion; Estepa, Jose C; Mendoza, Francisco Javier; Munoz-Castaneda, Juan Rafael; Shalhoub, Victoria; Almaden, Yolanda; Rodriguez, Mariano

    2010-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) modulates mineral metabolism by promoting phosphaturia and decreasing the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3). FGF23 decreases parathyroid hormone (PTH) mRNA and secretion, but despite a marked elevation in FGF23 in uremia, PTH production increases. Here, we investigated the effect of FGF23 on parathyroid function in normal and uremic hyperplastic parathyroid glands in rats. In normal parathyroid glands, FGF23 decreased PTH production, increased expression of both the parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor and the vitamin D receptor, and reduced cell proliferation. Furthermore, FGF23 induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, which mediates the action of FGF23. In contrast, in hyperplastic parathyroid glands, FGF23 did not reduce PTH production, did not affect expression of the calcium-sensing receptor or vitamin D receptor, and did not affect cell proliferation. In addition, FGF23 failed to activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in hyperplastic parathyroid glands. We observed very low expression of the FGF23 receptor 1 and the co-receptor Klotho in uremic hyperplastic parathyroid glands, which may explain the lack of response to FGF23 in this tissue. In conclusion, in hyperparathyroidism secondary to renal failure, the parathyroid cells resist the inhibitory effects of FGF23, perhaps as a result of the low expression of FGF23 receptor 1 and Klotho in this condition.

  8. Characterization of FGF family growth factors concerning branching morphogenesis of mouse lung epithelium.

    PubMed

    Goto, Asami; Yamazaki, Naohiro; Nogawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-01

    Mouse lung rudiments express eight members of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family genes from embryonic day 10 (E10) to E13. Some of these are expressed in either the epithelium or mesenchyme, while others are expressed in both. Incorporating the results of our previous study, we characterized the branch-inducing activities of all of FGFs expressed in the early lung rudiment. Of these, FGF1, FGF2, FGF7, FGF9 and FGF10 induced branching morphogenesis in Matrigel-embedded E11 epithelium, and their effective concentrations varied (10 nM, 10 nM, 3 nM, 1 nM, and 100 nM, respectively). Whereas shaking culture dishes containing medium supplemented with FGF7 or FGF10 showed reduced branching morphogenesis, those supplemented with FGF1, FGF2, or FGF9 did not, suggesting the involvement of autocrine growth factor(s) in branching morphogenesis induced by FGF7 or FGF10. In the presence of heparin, a well-known activator of FGF signaling, cystic morphology with lumen expansion was observed in cultures containing FGF1, FGF7, or FGF10, but growth arrest was observed in cultures containing FGF2 or FGF9. These results indicate that several paracrine and autocrine FGFs function during branching morphogenesis of lung epithelium.

  9. Co-operative Bmp- and Fgf-signaling inputs convert skin wound healing to limb formation in urodele amphibians.

    PubMed

    Makanae, Aki; Mitogawa, Kazumasa; Satoh, Akira

    2014-12-01

    Urodele amphibians have remarkable organ regeneration capability, and their limb regeneration capability has been investigated as a representative phenomenon. In the early 19th century, nerves were reported to be an essential tissue for the successful induction of limb regeneration. Nerve substances that function in the induction of limb regeneration responses have long been sought. A new experimental system called the accessory limb model (ALM) has been established to identify the nerve factors. Skin wounding in urodele amphibians results in skin wound healing but never in limb induction. However, nerve deviation to the wounded skin induces limb formation in ALM. Thus, nerves can be considered to have the ability to transform skin wound healing to limb formation. In the present study, co-operative Bmp and Fgf application, instead of nerve deviation, to wounded skin transformed skin wound healing to limb formation in two urodele amphibians, axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and newt (Pleurodeles waltl). Our findings demonstrate that defined factors can induce homeotic transformation in postembryonic bodies of urodele amphibians. The combination of Bmp and Fgf(s) may contribute to the development of novel treatments for organ regeneration.

  10. Anticoagulant and FGF/FGFR signal activating activities of the heparinoid propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate and its oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Yiran; Zeng, Yangyang; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhao, Xia

    2016-01-20

    Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), prepared by chemical sulfation of alginate, has been used for treating cardiovascular diseases in China for nearly 30 years. In the current study, the PSS was hydrolyzed partially by an environment-friendly solid phase acid degradation method, and then separated by using a Bio-Gel P6 chromatographic column. Thirteen PSS oligosaccharide fractions were obtained and characterized by ESI-MS. The results of different coagulation assays showed that a high molecular weight and a higher degree of sulfation were essential for the anticoagulant activity of the PSS because the PSS oligosaccharides exhibited no detectable anticoagulant activity. In contrast, not only PSS but also certain oligosaccharides showed significant activities in stimulation of FGF1, 2, 7, 8, 9 or 10 induced cell proliferation in FGFR1c-expressing BaF3 cells. Such properties made the PSS and its oligosaccharides promising compounds in the regulation of FGF-dependent development, treatment of cancer, and wound healing processes.

  11. FGF23-S129F mutant bypasses ER/Golgi to the circulation of hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis patients.

    PubMed

    Shawar, Said M; Ramadan, Ahmad R; Ali, Bassam R; Alghamdi, Manal A; John, Anne; Hudaib, Ferial M

    2016-12-01

    FGF23 is essential for the homeostasis of phosphate, and vitamin D. Loss-of-function mutations in this hormone cause hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC). Earlier reports suggested that intact FGF23 from loss of function mutants such as FGF23/S129F (iFGF23/S129F) is retained intracellularly while the carboxy-terminal fragment is secreted. We sought to investigate the fate of iFGF23/S129F mutant hormone in vivo and in vitro. Five patients clinically diagnosed with HFTC and confirmed by DNA sequencing to carry the c.386 C>T; p.S129F mutation in the homozygous state were studied. Healthy and heterozygous individuals were used as controls in the study. Using ELISA assays, we showed that iFGF23/S129F was 2-5 folds higher in patients' plasma, compared to heterozygous or healthy controls. Importantly, the mutant hormone could not be detected in the patients' sera. However, using proteinase inhibition profiling, we found that a serum metalloproteinase degraded the iFGF23/S129F explaining our failure to detect it in sera. The serum metalloproteinase degrades the WT and the mutant at different rates. Also, confocal microscopy imaging using wild-type (WT) FGF23 or FGF23/S129F mutant in transiently transfected HEK293 and HeLa cells showed weak staining of the Golgi complex with some vesicular staining resembling the ER. Additionally, FGF23 variants (FGF23/WT, FGF23/S129F, FGF23/S71G, and FGF23/R176Q) from stably transfected HEK293 cells secreted high levels into a serum-free medium that can be detected by ELISA and Western blot. Our results suggest that iFGF23/S129F mutant bypasses the ER/Golgi quality control system to the circulation of HFTC patients by an unknown pathway. Finally, we hypothesize that either the mutant hormone is unable to bind α-Klotho-FGFR1c, or it binds the dyad receptor with low affinity and, therefore, incapable of initiating maximal intracellular signaling. Our findings raise the potential use of the WT hormone in therapies of some

  12. A controllable water signal transistor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lili; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Lu, Hangjun; Liang, Qing; Kou, Jianlong; Wu, Fengmin; Fan, Jintu

    2017-03-27

    We performed molecular dynamics simulations to study the regulating ability of water chains confined in a Y-shaped nanochannel. It was shown that a signal at the molecular level could be controlled by two other charge-induced signals when the water chains were confined in a Y-shaped nanochannel, demonstrating promising applications as water signal transistors in nanosignal systems. The mechanism of a water signal transistor is similar to a signal logic device. This remarkable ability to control the water signal is attributed to the strong dipole-ordering of the water chains in the nanochannel. The controllable water signal process of the Y-shaped nanochannel provides opportunities for future application in the design of molecular-scale signal devices.

  13. Fibroblast Growth Factor 9 (FGF9)-Pituitary Homeobox 2 (PITX2) Pathway Mediates Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) Signaling to Regulate Cell Proliferation in Palatal Mesenchyme during Mouse Palatogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Jun-ichi; Tung, Lily; Urata, Mark; Hacia, Joseph G.; Pelikan, Richard; Suzuki, Akiko; Ramenzoni, Liza; Chaudhry, Obaid; Parada, Carolina; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A.; Chai, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Cleft palate represents one of the most common congenital birth defects. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling plays crucial functions in regulating craniofacial development, and loss of TGFβ receptor type II in cranial neural crest cells leads to craniofacial malformations, including cleft palate in mice (Tgfbr2fl/fl;Wnt1-Cre mice). Here we have identified candidate target genes of TGFβ signaling during palatal formation. These target genes were selected based on combining results from gene expression profiles of embryonic day 14.5 palates from Tgfbr2fl/fl;Wnt1-Cre mice and previously identified cleft palate phenotypes in genetically engineered mouse models. We found that fibroblast growth factor 9 (Fgf9) and transcription factor pituitary homeobox 2 (Pitx2) expressions are significantly down-regulated in the palate of Tgfbr2fl/fl;Wnt1-Cre mice, and Fgf9 and Pitx2 loss of function mutations result in cleft palate in mice. Pitx2 expression is down-regulated by siRNA knockdown of Fgf9, suggesting that Fgf9 is upstream of Pitx2. We detected decreased expression of both cyclins D1 and D3 in the palates of Tgfbr2fl/fl;Wnt1-Cre mice, consistent with the defect in cell proliferation. Significantly, exogenous FGF9 restores expression of cyclins D1 and D3 in a Pitx2-dependent manner and rescues the cell proliferation defect in the palatal mesenchyme of Tgfbr2fl/fl;Wnt1-Cre mice. Our study indicates that a TGFβ-FGF9-PITX2 signaling cascade regulates cranial neural crest cell proliferation during palate formation. PMID:22123828

  14. Structural specificity in a FGF7-affinity purified heparin octasaccharide required for formation of a complex with FGF7 and FGFR2IIIb.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yongde; Ye, Sheng; Kan, Mikio; McKeehan, Wallace L

    2006-04-15

    Variations in sulfation of heparan sulfate (HS) affect interaction with FGF, FGFR, and FGF-HS-FGFR signaling complexes. Whether structurally distinct HS motifs are at play is unclear. Here we used stabilized recombinant FGF7 as a bioaffinity matrix to purify size-defined heparin oligosaccharides. We show that only 0.2%-4% of 6 to 14 unit oligosaccharides, respectively, have high affinity for FGF7 based on resistance to salt above 0.6M NaCl. The high affinity fractions exhibit highest specific activity for interaction with FGFR2IIIb and formation of complexes of FGF7-HS-FGFR2IIIb. The majority fractions with moderate (0.30-0.6M NaCl), low (0.14-0.30M NaCl) or no affinity at 0.14M NaCl for FGF7 supported no complex formation. The high affinity octasaccharide mixture exhibited predominantly 7- and 8-sulfated components (7,8-S-OctaF7) and formed FGF7-HS-FGFR2IIIb complexes with highest specific activity. Deduced disaccharide analysis indicated that 7,8-S-OctaF7 comprised of DeltaHexA2SGlcN6S in a 2:1 ratio to a trisulfated and a variable unsulfated or monosulfated disaccharide. The inactive octasaccharides with moderate affinity for FGF7 were much more heterogenous and highly sulfated with major components containing 11 or 12 sulfates comprised of predominantly trisulfated disaccharides. This suggests that a rare undersulfated motif in which sulfate groups are specifically distributed has highest affinity for FGF7. The same motif also exhibits structural requirements for high affinity binding to dimers of FGFR2IIIb prior to binding FGF7 to form FGF7-HS-FGFR2IIIb complexes. In contrast, the majority of more highly sulfated HS motifs likely play FGFR-independent roles in stability and control of access of FGF7 to FGFR2IIIb in the tissue matrix. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Irx1 and Irx2 are coordinately expressed and regulated by retinoic acid, TGFβ and FGF signaling during chick hindlimb development.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Hernández, Martha Elena; Bustamante, Marcia; Galván-Hernández, Claudio Iván; Chimal-Monroy, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The Iroquois homeobox (Irx) genes play a crucial role in the regionalization and patterning of tissues and organs during metazoan development. The Irx1 and Irx2 gene expression pattern during hindlimb development has been investigated in different species, but its regulation during hindlimb morphogenesis has not been explored yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression pattern of Irx1 and Irx2 as well as their regulation by important regulators of hindlimb development such as retinoic acid (RA), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling during chick hindlimb development. Irx1 and Irx2 were coordinately expressed in the interdigital tissue, digital primordia, joints and in the boundary between cartilage and non-cartilage tissue. Down-regulation of Irx1 and Irx2 expression at the interdigital tissue coincided with the onset of cell death. RA was found to down-regulate their expression by a bone morphogenetic protein-independent mechanism before any evidence of cell death. Furthermore, TGFβ protein regulated Irx1 and Irx2 in a stage-dependent manner at the interdigital tissue, it inhibited their expression when it was administered to the interdigital tissue at developing stages before their normal down-regulation. TGFβ administered to the interdigital tissue at developing stages after normal down-regulation of Irx1 and Irx2 evidenced that expression of these genes marked the boundary between cartilage tissue and non-cartilage tissue. It was also found that at early stages of hindlimb development FGF signaling inhibited the expression of Irx2. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that Irx1 and Irx2 are coordinately expressed and regulated during chick embryo hindlimb development as occurs in other species of vertebrates supporting the notion that the genomic architecture of Irx clusters is conserved in vertebrates.

  16. Irx1 and Irx2 Are Coordinately Expressed and Regulated by Retinoic Acid, TGFβ and FGF Signaling during Chick Hindlimb Development

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Hernández, Martha Elena; Bustamante, Marcia; Galván-Hernández, Claudio Iván; Chimal-Monroy, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The Iroquois homeobox (Irx) genes play a crucial role in the regionalization and patterning of tissues and organs during metazoan development. The Irx1 and Irx2 gene expression pattern during hindlimb development has been investigated in different species, but its regulation during hindlimb morphogenesis has not been explored yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression pattern of Irx1 and Irx2 as well as their regulation by important regulators of hindlimb development such as retinoic acid (RA), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling during chick hindlimb development. Irx1 and Irx2 were coordinately expressed in the interdigital tissue, digital primordia, joints and in the boundary between cartilage and non-cartilage tissue. Down-regulation of Irx1 and Irx2 expression at the interdigital tissue coincided with the onset of cell death. RA was found to down-regulate their expression by a bone morphogenetic protein-independent mechanism before any evidence of cell death. Furthermore, TGFβ protein regulated Irx1 and Irx2 in a stage-dependent manner at the interdigital tissue, it inhibited their expression when it was administered to the interdigital tissue at developing stages before their normal down-regulation. TGFβ administered to the interdigital tissue at developing stages after normal down-regulation of Irx1 and Irx2 evidenced that expression of these genes marked the boundary between cartilage tissue and non-cartilage tissue. It was also found that at early stages of hindlimb development FGF signaling inhibited the expression of Irx2. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that Irx1 and Irx2 are coordinately expressed and regulated during chick embryo hindlimb development as occurs in other species of vertebrates supporting the notion that the genomic architecture of Irx clusters is conserved in vertebrates. PMID:23505533

  17. FGF23 and disorders of phosphate homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xijie; White, Kenneth E

    2005-04-01

    It is well known that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family members are associated with embryonic development and are critical for basic metabolic functions. This review will focus upon fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and its roles in disorders associated with phosphate handling. The discovery that mutations in FGF23 were responsible for the isolated renal phosphate wasting disorder autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) has ascribed novel functions to the FGF family. FGF23 circulates in the bloodstream, and animal models demonstrate that FGF23 controls phosphate and Vitamin D homeostasis through the regulation of specific renal proteins. The ADHR mutations in FGF23 produce a protein species less susceptible to proteolytic processing. X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO), and fibrous dysplasia of bone (FD) are disorders involving phosphate homeostasis that share phenotypes with ADHR, indicating that FGF23 may be a common denominator for the pathophysiology of these syndromes. Our understanding of FGF23 will help to develop novel therapies for phosphate wasting disorders, as well as for disorders of increased serum phosphate, such as tumoral calcinosis, a rare disorder, and renal failure, a common disorder.

  18. PDGF, TGF-beta, and FGF signaling is important for differentiation and growth of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs): transcriptional profiling can identify markers and signaling pathways important in differentiation of MSCs into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineages.

    PubMed

    Ng, Felicia; Boucher, Shayne; Koh, Susie; Sastry, Konduru S R; Chase, Lucas; Lakshmipathy, Uma; Choong, Cleo; Yang, Zheng; Vemuri, Mohan C; Rao, Mahendra S; Tanavde, Vivek

    2008-07-15

    We compared the transcriptomes of marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with differentiated adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes derived from these MSCs. Using global gene-expression profiling arrays to detect RNA transcripts, we have identified markers that are specific for MSCs and their differentiated progeny. Further, we have also identified pathways that MSCs use to differentiate into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineages. We identified activin-mediated transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling as the key pathways involved in MSC differentiation. The differentiation of MSCs into these lineages is affected when these pathways are perturbed by inhibitors of cell surface receptor function. Since growth and differentiation are tightly linked processes, we also examined the importance of these 3 pathways in MSC growth. These 3 pathways were necessary and sufficient for MSC growth. Inhibiting any of these pathways slowed MSC growth, whereas a combination of TGF-beta, PDGF, and beta-FGF was sufficient to grow MSCs in a serum-free medium up to 5 passages. Thus, this study illustrates it is possible to predict signaling pathways active in cellular differentiation and growth using microarray data and experimentally verify these predictions.

  19. CK2 activity is required for the interaction of FGF14 with voltage-gated sodium channels and neuronal excitability

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wei-Chun J.; Scala, Federico; Nenov, Miroslav N.; Wildburger, Norelle C.; Elferink, Hannah; Singh, Aditya K.; Chesson, Charles B.; Buzhdygan, Tetyana; Sohail, Maveen; Shavkunov, Alexander S.; Panova, Neli I.; Nilsson, Carol L.; Rudra, Jai S.; Lichti, Cheryl F.; Laezza, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Recent data shows that fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14) binds to and controls the function of the voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel with phenotypic outcomes on neuronal excitability. Mutations in the FGF14 gene in humans have been associated with brain disorders that are partially recapitulated in Fgf14−/− mice. Thus, signaling pathways that modulate the FGF14:Nav channel interaction may be important therapeutic targets. Bioluminescence-based screening of small molecule modulators of the FGF14:Nav1.6 complex identified 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB), a potent casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibitor, as a strong suppressor of FGF14:Nav1.6 interaction. Inhibition of CK2 through TBB reduces the interaction of FGF14 with Nav1.6 and Nav1.2 channels. Mass spectrometry confirmed direct phosphorylation of FGF14 by CK2 at S228 and S230, and mutation to alanine at these sites modified FGF14 modulation of Nav1.6-mediated currents. In 1 d in vitro hippocampal neurons, TBB induced a reduction in FGF14 expression, a decrease in transient Na+ current amplitude, and a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of Nav channel steady-state inactivation. In mature neurons, TBB reduces the axodendritic polarity of FGF14. In cornu ammonis area 1 hippocampal slices from wild-type mice, TBB impairs neuronal excitability by increasing action potential threshold and lowering firing frequency. Importantly, these changes in excitability are recapitulated in Fgf14−/− mice, and deletion of Fgf14 occludes TBB-dependent phenotypes observed in wild-type mice. These results suggest that a CK2-FGF14 axis may regulate Nav channels and neuronal excitability.—Hsu, W.-C. J., Scala, F., Nenov, M. N., Wildburger, N. C., Elferink, H., Singh, A. K., Chesson, C. B., Buzhdygan, T., Sohail, M., Shavkunov, A. S., Panova, N. I., Nilsson, C. L., Rudra, J. S., Lichti, C. F., Laezza, F. CK2 activity is required for the interaction of FGF14 with voltage-gated sodium channels and neuronal

  20. TGF-β induction of FGF-2 expression in stromal cells requires integrated smad3 and MAPK pathways

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Douglas W; Liang, Yao-Yun; Yang, Feng; Barron, David A; Ressler, Steven J; Schauer, Isaiah G; Feng, Xin-Hua; Rowley, David R

    2014-01-01

    Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) regulates the reactive stroma microenvironment associated with most carcinomas and mediates expression of many stromal derived factors important for tumor progression, including FGF-2 and CTGF. TGF-β is over-expressed in most carcinomas, and FGF-2 action is important in tumor-induced angiogenesis. The signaling mechanisms of how TGF-β regulates FGF-2 expression in the reactive stroma microenvironment are not understood. Accordingly, we have assessed key signaling pathways that mediate TGF-β1-induced FGF-2 expression in prostate stromal fibroblasts and mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) null for Smad2 and Smad3. TGF-β1 induced phosphorylation of Smad2, Smad3, p38 and ERK1/2 proteins in both control MEFs and prostate fibroblasts. Of these, Smad3, but not Smad2 was found to be required for TGF-β1 induction of FGF-2 expression in stromal cells. ChIP analysis revealed a Smad3/Smad4 complex was associated with the -1.9 to -2.3 kb upstream proximal promoter of the FGF-2 gene, further suggesting a Smad3-specific regulation. In addition, chemical inhibition of p38 or ERK1/2 MAPK activity also blocked TGF-β1-induced FGF-2 expression in a Smad3-independent manner. Conversely, inhibition of JNK signaling enhanced FGF-2 expression. Together, these data indicate that expression of FGF-2 in fibroblasts in the tumor stromal cell microenvironment is coordinately dependent on both intact Smad3 and MAP kinase signaling pathways. These pathways and key downstream mediators of TGF-β action in the tumor reactive stroma microenvironment, may evolve as putative targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25374926

  1. TGF-β induction of FGF-2 expression in stromal cells requires integrated smad3 and MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Strand, Douglas W; Liang, Yao-Yun; Yang, Feng; Barron, David A; Ressler, Steven J; Schauer, Isaiah G; Feng, Xin-Hua; Rowley, David R

    2014-01-01

    Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) regulates the reactive stroma microenvironment associated with most carcinomas and mediates expression of many stromal derived factors important for tumor progression, including FGF-2 and CTGF. TGF-β is over-expressed in most carcinomas, and FGF-2 action is important in tumor-induced angiogenesis. The signaling mechanisms of how TGF-β regulates FGF-2 expression in the reactive stroma microenvironment are not understood. Accordingly, we have assessed key signaling pathways that mediate TGF-β1-induced FGF-2 expression in prostate stromal fibroblasts and mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) null for Smad2 and Smad3. TGF-β1 induced phosphorylation of Smad2, Smad3, p38 and ERK1/2 proteins in both control MEFs and prostate fibroblasts. Of these, Smad3, but not Smad2 was found to be required for TGF-β1 induction of FGF-2 expression in stromal cells. ChIP analysis revealed a Smad3/Smad4 complex was associated with the -1.9 to -2.3 kb upstream proximal promoter of the FGF-2 gene, further suggesting a Smad3-specific regulation. In addition, chemical inhibition of p38 or ERK1/2 MAPK activity also blocked TGF-β1-induced FGF-2 expression in a Smad3-independent manner. Conversely, inhibition of JNK signaling enhanced FGF-2 expression. Together, these data indicate that expression of FGF-2 in fibroblasts in the tumor stromal cell microenvironment is coordinately dependent on both intact Smad3 and MAP kinase signaling pathways. These pathways and key downstream mediators of TGF-β action in the tumor reactive stroma microenvironment, may evolve as putative targets for therapeutic intervention.

  2. Mice lacking neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 (Slc6a19) have elevated levels of FGF21 and GLP-1 and improved glycaemic control

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yang; Rose, Adam J.; Sijmonsma, Tjeerd P.; Bröer, Angelika; Pfenninger, Anja; Herzig, Stephan; Schmoll, Dieter; Bröer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes arises from insulin resistance of peripheral tissues followed by dysfunction of β-cells in the pancreas due to metabolic stress. Both depletion and supplementation of neutral amino acids have been discussed as strategies to improve insulin sensitivity. Here we characterise mice lacking the intestinal and renal neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 (Slc6a19) as a model to study the consequences of selective depletion of neutral amino acids. Methods Metabolic tests, analysis of metabolite levels and signalling pathways were used to characterise mice lacking the intestinal and renal neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 (Slc6a19). Results Reduced uptake of neutral amino acids in the intestine and loss of neutral amino acids in the urine causes an overload of amino acids in the lumen of the intestine and reduced systemic amino acid availability. As a result, higher levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are produced by the intestine after a meal, while the liver releases the starvation hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). The combination of these hormones generates a metabolic phenotype that is characterised by efficient removal of glucose, particularly by the heart, reduced adipose tissue mass, browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue, enhanced production of ketone bodies and reduced hepatic glucose output. Conclusions Reduced neutral amino acid availability improves glycaemic control. The epithelial neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 could be a suitable target to treat type 2 diabetes. PMID:25973388

  3. Endocrine fibroblast growth factor FGF19 promotes prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shu; Dakhova, Olga; Creighton, Chad J; Ittmann, Michael

    2013-04-15

    Prostate cancer is the most common visceral malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in US men. There is broad evidence that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors are important in prostate cancer initiation and progression, but the contribution of particular FGFs in this disease is not fully understood. The FGF family members FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23 comprise a distinct subfamily that circulate in serum and act in an endocrine manner. These endocrine FGFs require α-Klotho (KL) and/or β-Klotho (KLB), two related single-pass transmembrane proteins restricted in their tissue distribution, to act as coreceptors along with classic FGF receptors (FGFR) to mediate potent biologic activity. Here we show that FGF19 is expressed in primary and metastatic prostate cancer tissues, where it functions as an autocrine growth factor. Exogenous FGF19 promoted the growth, invasion, adhesion, and colony formation of prostate cancer cells at low ligand concentrations. FGF19 silencing in prostate cancer cells expressing autocrine FGF19 decreased invasion and proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Consistent with these observations, KL and/or KLB were expressed in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, raising the possibility that additional endocrine FGFs may also exert biologic effects in prostate cancer. Our findings support the concept that therapies targeting FGFR signaling may have efficacy in prostate cancer and highlight FGF19 as a relevant endocrine FGF in this setting.

  4. Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling Controls Liver Size in Mice With Humanized Livers

    PubMed Central

    Naugler, Willscott E.; Tarlow, Branden D.; Fedorov, Lev M.; Taylor, Matthew; Pelz, Carl; Li, Bin; Darnell, Jennifer; Grompe, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The ratio of liver size to body weight (hepatostat) is tightly controlled, but little is known about how the physiologic functions of the liver help determine its size. Livers of mice repopulated with human hepatocytes (humanized livers) grow to larger than normal; the human hepatocytes do not recognize fibroblast growth factor-15 (FGF15) produced by mouse intestine. This results in upregulation of bile acid synthesis in the human hepatocytes and enlargement of the bile acid pool. We investigated whether abnormal bile acid signaling affects the hepatostat in mice. Methods We crossed Fah−/−, Rag2−/−, Il2r−/− mice with NOD mice to create FRGN mice, whose livers can be fully repopulated with human hepatocytes. We inserted the gene for human FGF19 (ortholog to mouse Fgf15), including regulatory sequences, into the FRGN mice to create FRGN19+ mice. Livers of FRGN19+ mice and their FRGN littermates were fully repopulated with human hepatocytes. Liver tissues were collected and bile acid pool sizes and RNA sequences were analyzed and compared with those of mice without humanized livers (controls). Results Livers were larger in FRGN mice with humanized livers (13% of body weight), compared to control FRGN mice; they also had much larger bile acid pools and aberrant bile acid signaling. Livers from FRGN19+ normalized to 7.8% of body weight, and their bile acid pool and signaling more closely resembled that of control FRGN19+ mice. RNA sequence analysis showed activation of the Hippo pathway, and immunohistochemical and transcription analyses revealed increased hepatocyte proliferation, but not apoptosis, in the enlarged humanized livers of FRGN mice. Cell sorting experiments showed that although healthy human liver does not produce FGF19, non-parenchymal cells from cholestatic livers produce FGF19. Conclusions In mice with humanized livers, expression of an FGF19 transgene corrects bile acid signaling defects, resulting in normalization of bile

  5. Membrane and integrative nuclear fibroblastic growth factor receptor (FGFR) regulation of FGF-23.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaobin; Xiao, Zhousheng; Quarles, L Darryl

    2015-04-17

    Fibroblastic growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) signaling pathways are implicated in the regulation of FGF-23 gene transcription, but the molecular pathways remain poorly defined. We used low molecular weight (LMW, 18 kDa) FGF-2 and high molecular weight (HMW) FGF-2 isoforms, which, respectively, activate cell surface FGF receptors and intranuclear FGFR1, to determine the roles of membrane FGFRs and integrative nuclear FGFR1 signaling (INFS) in the regulation of FGF-23 gene transcription in osteoblasts. We found that LMW-FGF-2 induced NFAT and Ets1 binding to conserved cis-elements in the proximal FGF-23 promoter and stimulated FGF-23 promoter activity through PLCγ/calcineurin/NFAT and MAPK pathways in SaOS-2 and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. In contrast, HMW-FGF-2 stimulated FGF-23 promoter activity in osteoblasts through a cAMP-dependent binding of FGFR1 and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) to a conserved cAMP response element (CRE) contiguous with the NFAT binding site in the FGF-23 promoter. Mutagenesis of the NFAT and CRE binding sites, respectively, inhibited the effects of LMW-FGF-2 and HMW-FGF-23 to stimulate FGF-23 promoter activity. FGF-2 activation of both membrane FGFRs and INFS-dependent FGFR1 pathways may provide a means to integrate systemic and local regulation of FGF-23 transcription under diverse physiological and pathological conditions.

  6. Membrane and Integrative Nuclear Fibroblastic Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) Regulation of FGF-23*

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiaobin; Xiao, Zhousheng; Quarles, L. Darryl

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblastic growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) signaling pathways are implicated in the regulation of FGF-23 gene transcription, but the molecular pathways remain poorly defined. We used low molecular weight (LMW, 18 kDa) FGF-2 and high molecular weight (HMW) FGF-2 isoforms, which, respectively, activate cell surface FGF receptors and intranuclear FGFR1, to determine the roles of membrane FGFRs and integrative nuclear FGFR1 signaling (INFS) in the regulation of FGF-23 gene transcription in osteoblasts. We found that LMW-FGF-2 induced NFAT and Ets1 binding to conserved cis-elements in the proximal FGF-23 promoter and stimulated FGF-23 promoter activity through PLCγ/calcineurin/NFAT and MAPK pathways in SaOS-2 and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. In contrast, HMW-FGF-2 stimulated FGF-23 promoter activity in osteoblasts through a cAMP-dependent binding of FGFR1 and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) to a conserved cAMP response element (CRE) contiguous with the NFAT binding site in the FGF-23 promoter. Mutagenesis of the NFAT and CRE binding sites, respectively, inhibited the effects of LMW-FGF-2 and HMW-FGF-23 to stimulate FGF-23 promoter activity. FGF-2 activation of both membrane FGFRs and INFS-dependent FGFR1 pathways may provide a means to integrate systemic and local regulation of FGF-23 transcription under diverse physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25752607

  7. Central action of FGF19 reduces hypothalamic AGRP/NPY neuron activity and improves glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Marcelin, Geneviève; Jo, Young-Hwan; Li, Xiaosong; Schwartz, Gary J; Zhang, Ying; Dun, Nae J; Lyu, Rong-Ming; Blouet, Clémence; Chang, Jaw K; Chua, Streamson

    2014-02-01

    Tight control of glucose excursions has been a long-standing goal of treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in order to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with hyperglycemia. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 is a hormone-like enterokine released postprandially that emerged as a potential therapeutic agent for metabolic disorders, including diabetes and obesity. Remarkably, FGF19 treatment has hypoglycemic actions that remain potent in models of genetic and acquired insulin resistance. Here, we provided evidence that the central nervous system responds to FGF19 administered in the periphery. Then, in two mouse models of insulin resistance, leptin-deficiency and high-fat diet feeding, third intra-cerebro-ventricular infusions of FGF19 improved glycemic status, reduced insulin resistance and potentiated insulin signaling in the periphery. In addition, our study highlights a new mechanism of central FGF19 action, involving the suppression of AGRP/NPY neuronal activity. Overall, our work unveils novel regulatory pathways induced by FGF19 that will be useful in the design of novel strategies to control diabetes in obesity.

  8. The FGF8-related signals Pyramus and Thisbe promote pathfinding, substrate adhesion, and survival of migrating longitudinal gut muscle founder cells

    PubMed Central

    Reim, Ingolf; Hollfelder, Dominik; Ismat, Afshan; Frasch, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) frequently fulfill prominent roles in the regulation of cell migration in various contexts. In Drosophila, the FGF8-like ligands Pyramus (Pyr) and Thisbe (Ths), which signal through their receptor Heartless (Htl), are known to regulate early mesodermal cell migration after gastrulation as well as glial cell migration during eye development. Herein, we show that Pyr and Ths also exert key roles during the long-distance migration of a specific sub-population of mesodermal cells that migrate from the caudal visceral mesoderm within stereotypic bilateral paths along the trunk visceral mesoderm toward the anterior. These cells constitute the founder myoblasts of the longitudinal midgut muscles. In a forward genetic screen for regulators of this morphogenetic process we identified loss of function alleles for pyr. We show that pyr and ths are expressed along the paths of migration in the trunk visceral mesoderm and endoderm and act largely redundantly to help guide the founder myoblasts reliably onto and along their substrate of migration. Ectopically-provided Pyr and Ths signals can efficiently re-rout the migrating cells, both in the presence and absence of endogenous signals. Our data indicate that the guidance functions of these FGFs must act in concert with other important attractive or adhesive activities of the trunk visceral mesoderm. Apart from their guidance functions, the Pyr and Ths signals play an obligatory role for the survival of the migrating cells. Without these signals, essentially all of these cells enter cell death and detach from the migration substrate during early migration. We present experiments that allowed us to dissect the roles of these FGFs as guidance cues versus trophic activities during the migration of the longitudinal visceral muscle founders. PMID:22609944

  9. Tumor vasculature is regulated by FGF/FGFR signaling-mediated angiogenesis and bone marrow-derived cell recruitment: this mechanism is inhibited by SSR128129E, the first allosteric antagonist of FGFRs.

    PubMed

    Fons, Pierre; Gueguen-Dorbes, Geneviève; Herault, Jean-Pascal; Geronimi, Fabien; Tuyaret, Joël; Frédérique, Dol; Schaeffer, Paul; Volle-Challier, Cécile; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Bono, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is accompanied by vasculogenesis, which is involved in the differentiation and mobilization of human bone marrow cells. In order to further characterize the role of vasculogenesis in the tumor growth process, the effects of FGF2 on the differentiation of human bone marrow AC133(+) cells (BM-AC133(+)) into vascular precursors were studied in vitro. FGF2, like VEGFA, induced progenitor cell differentiation into cell types with endothelial cell characteristics. SSR128129E, a newly discovered specific FGFR antagonist acting by allosteric interaction with FGFR, abrogated FGF2-induced endothelial cell differentiation, showing that FGFR signaling is essential during this process. To assess the involvement of the FGF/FRGR signaling in vivo, the pre-clinical model of Lewis lung carcinoma (LL2) in mice was used. Subcutaneous injection of LL2 cells into mice induced an increase of circulating EPCs from peripheral blood associated with tumor growth and an increase of intra-tumoral vascular index. Treatment with the FGFR antagonist SSR128129E strongly decreased LL2 tumor growth as well as the intra-tumoral vascular index (41% and 50% decrease vs. vehicle-treated mice respectively, P < 0.01). Interestingly, SSR128129E treatment significantly decreased the number of circulating EPCs from the peripheral blood (53% inhibition vs. vehicle-treated mice, P < 0.01). These results demonstrate for the first time that the blockade of the FGF/FGFR pathway by SSR128129E reduces EPC recruitment during angiogenesis-dependent tumor growth. In this context, circulating EPCs could be a reliable surrogate marker for tumor growth and angiogenic activity.

  10. Nuclear receptor corepressors Ncor1 and Ncor2 (Smrt) are required for retinoic acid-dependent repression of Fgf8 during somitogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Cunningham, Thomas J; Duester, Gregg

    2016-10-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) repression of Fgf8 is required for many different aspects of organogenesis, however relatively little is known about how endogenous RA controls gene repression as opposed to gene activation. Here, we show that nuclear receptor corepressors NCOR1 and NCOR2 (SMRT) redundantly mediate the ability of RA to repress Fgf8. Ncor1;Ncor2 double mutants generated by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing exhibited a small somite and distended heart phenotype similar to that of RA-deficient Raldh2-/- embryos, associated with increased Fgf8 expression and FGF signaling in caudal progenitors and heart progenitors. Embryo chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that NCOR1/2 but not coactivators are recruited to the Fgf8 RA response element (RARE) in an RA-dependent manner, whereas coactivators but not NCOR1/2 are recruited RA-dependently to a RARE near Rarb that is activated by RA. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic deletion of the Fgf8 RARE in mouse embryos often resulted in a small somite defect with Fgf8 derepression caudally, but no defect was observed in heart development or heart Fgf8 expression. This suggests the existence of another DNA element whose function overlaps with the Fgf8 RARE to mediate Fgf8 repression by RA and NCOR1/2. Our studies support a model in which NCOR1/2 mediates direct RA-dependent repression of Fgf8 in caudal progenitors in order to control somitogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The transcription activity of heat shock factor 4b is regulated by FGF2.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan-Zhong; Zhang, Jun; Li, Shulian; Wang, Chuan; Chu, Liujie; Zhang, Zhi; Ma, Zengyi; Wang, Mingli; Jiang, Qiying; Liu, Guangchao; Qi, Yijun; Ma, Yuanfang

    2013-02-01

    Heat shock factor 4b has been found to be closely associated with postnatal lens development. It expresses in postnatal lens epithelial and secondary fiber cells and controls the expression of small heat shock proteins which are important for lens homeostasis. However, the signal pathways underlying Hsf4b are still not completely understood. Here we present that Hsf4b transcription activity is regulated by FGF2 a key growth factor that is involved in regulating lens development at multiple stages. FGF2 can promote Hsf4b nuclear-translocation and the expression of Hsp25 and αB-crystallin, the key downstream targets of Hsf4b in the Hsf4b-reconstituted mouse hsf4-/- lens epithelial cells. Further study indicates that FGF2 can induce Hsf4b protein stabilization through ERK1/2-mediated posttranslational phosphorylation or sumoylation. Hsf4b can promote FGF2-induced morphology transition from lens epithelial cell to the fiber cell, and this morphology transition can be inhibited by ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Hsf4b is a novel downstream transcription factor of FGF2, and its transcription activity is associated with FGF2-modulated lens epithelial cell-fiber cell transition.

  12. Fgf19 is required for zebrafish lens and retina development.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yoshiaki; Miyake, Ayumi; Nakagawa, Yu; Mido, Tomotaka; Yoshikawa, Maya; Konishi, Morichika; Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-15

    Fgf signaling plays crucial roles in morphogenesis. Fgf19 is required for zebrafish forebrain development. Here, we examined the roles of Fgf19 in the formation of the lens and retina in zebrafish. Knockdown of Fgf19 caused a size reduction of the lens and the retina, failure of closure of the choroids fissure, and a progressive expansion of the retinal tissue to the midline of the forebrain. Fgf19 expressed in the nasal retina and lens was involved in cell survival but not cell proliferation during embryonic lens and retina development. Fgf19 was essential for the differentiation of lens fiber cells in the lens but not for the neuronal differentiation and lamination in the retina. Loss of nasal fate in the retina caused by the knockdown of Fgf19, expansion of nasal fate in the retina caused by the overexpression of Fgf19 and eye transplantation indicated that Fgf19 in the retina was crucial for the nasal-temporal patterning of the retina that is critical for the guidance of retinal ganglion cell axons. Knockdown of Fgf19 also caused incorrect axon pathfinding. The present findings indicate that Fgf19 positively regulates the patterning and growth of the retina, and the differentiation and growth of the lens in zebrafish.

  13. Soluble expression of disulfide bond containing proteins FGF15 and FGF19 in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kong, Bo; Guo, Grace L

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is the human ortholog of mouse FGF15, and both proteins function as an endocrine signal to regulate various liver functions. FGF15/FGF19 protein contains two disulfide bonds. It is unfavorable to form disulfide bonds in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cytoplasm because of the bacterial cytoplasmic reducing environment. Modification of the cytoplasmic reducing environment and/or co-expression of protein chaperones are common strategies to express disulfide bond containing proteins in E. coli. In the current study, we report a method to produce soluble FGF15/FGF19 protein in cytoplasm of E. coli. Several commercial available strains with the disruption of thiol-redox pathways, and/or co-expression of redoxase or refolding chaperones were used to develop this novel method for expression of FGF15/FGF19 in E. coli. Mutation of the thiol-disulfide bond reducing pathway in E. coli or N-terminal fusion of thioredox (TRX) alone is not enough to support disulfide bond formation in FGF15/19 proteins. However, TRX fusion protein improved FGF19 solubility in strains of thiol-redox system mutants. In addition, DsbC co-expressed in thiol-redox system mutants alone improved and further enhanced FGF19 solubility with combination of TRX fusion tag. The soluble FGF19 proteins were easily purified through Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and anion exchange chromatography, and the purified protein maintained its biological activities, confirmed by suppressing hepatic Cyp7a1 gene transcription in mice and by activating ERK1/2 signaling pathway in HepG2 cells. In contrast, soluble FGF15 protein in cytoplasm remained very low using these strategies. In summary, we have successfully developed a method to express functional FGF19 protein in prokaryotic cells, and this strategy may be adapted for the expression of other disulfide-containing proteins.

  14. Endoderm-specific deletion of Tbx1 reveals an FGF-independent role for Tbx1 in pharyngeal apparatus morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Abigail; Kasah, Sahrunizam; Mansour, Suzanne L.; Morrow, Bernice; Basson, M. Albert

    2015-01-01

    Background The T-box transcription factor Tbx1, is essential for the normal development of multiple organ systems in the embryo. One of the most striking phenotypes in Tbx1−/− embryos is the failure of the caudal pharyngeal pouches to evaginate from the foregut endoderm. Despite considerable interest in the role of Tbx1 in development, the mechanisms whereby Tbx1 controls caudal pouch formation have remained elusive. In particular, the question as to how Tbx1 expression in the pharyngeal endoderm regulates pharyngeal pouch morphogenesis in the mouse embryo is not known. Results To address this question, we produced mouse embryos in which Tbx1 was specifically deleted from the pharyngeal endoderm and as expected, embryos failed to form caudal pharyngeal pouches. To determine the molecular mechanism, we examined expression of Fgf3 and Fgf8 ligands and downstream effectors. Although Fgf8 expression is greatly reduced in Tbx1-deficient endoderm, FGF signaling levels are unaffected. Furthermore, pouch morphogenesis is only partially perturbed by the loss of both Fgf3 and Fgf8 from the endoderm, indicating that neither are required for pouch formation. Conclusions Tbx1 deletion from the pharyngeal endoderm is sufficient to cause caudal pharyngeal arch segmentation defects by FGF-independent effectors that remain to be identified. PMID:24812002

  15. FGF23 regulates renal sodium handling and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Andrukhova, Olena; Slavic, Svetlana; Smorodchenko, Alina; Zeitz, Ute; Shalhoub, Victoria; Lanske, Beate; Pohl, Elena E; Erben, Reinhold G

    2014-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived hormone regulating renal phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D synthesis in renal proximal tubules. Here, we show that FGF23 directly regulates the membrane abundance of the Na(+):Cl(-) co-transporter NCC in distal renal tubules by a signaling mechanism involving the FGF receptor/αKlotho complex, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1), and with-no lysine kinase-4 (WNK4). Renal sodium (Na(+)) reabsorption and distal tubular membrane expression of NCC are reduced in mouse models of Fgf23 and αKlotho deficiency. Conversely, gain of FGF23 function by injection of wild-type mice with recombinant FGF23 or by elevated circulating levels of endogenous Fgf23 in Hyp mice increases distal tubular Na(+) uptake and membrane abundance of NCC, leading to volume expansion, hypertension, and heart hypertrophy in a αKlotho and dietary Na(+)-dependent fashion. The NCC inhibitor chlorothiazide abrogates FGF23-induced volume expansion and heart hypertrophy. Our findings suggest that FGF23 is a key regulator of renal Na(+) reabsorption and plasma volume, and may explain the association of FGF23 with cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease patients. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  16. FGF23 regulates renal sodium handling and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Andrukhova, Olena; Slavic, Svetlana; Smorodchenko, Alina; Zeitz, Ute; Shalhoub, Victoria; Lanske, Beate; Pohl, Elena E; Erben, Reinhold G

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived hormone regulating renal phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D synthesis in renal proximal tubules. Here, we show that FGF23 directly regulates the membrane abundance of the Na+:Cl− co-transporter NCC in distal renal tubules by a signaling mechanism involving the FGF receptor/αKlotho complex, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1), and with-no lysine kinase-4 (WNK4). Renal sodium (Na+) reabsorption and distal tubular membrane expression of NCC are reduced in mouse models of Fgf23 and αKlotho deficiency. Conversely, gain of FGF23 function by injection of wild-type mice with recombinant FGF23 or by elevated circulating levels of endogenous Fgf23 in Hyp mice increases distal tubular Na+ uptake and membrane abundance of NCC, leading to volume expansion, hypertension, and heart hypertrophy in a αKlotho and dietary Na+-dependent fashion. The NCC inhibitor chlorothiazide abrogates FGF23-induced volume expansion and heart hypertrophy. Our findings suggest that FGF23 is a key regulator of renal Na+ reabsorption and plasma volume, and may explain the association of FGF23 with cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease patients. PMID:24797667

  17. Control of Wnt5b secretion by Wntless modulates chondrogenic cell proliferation through fine-tuning fgf3 expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bo-Tsung; Wen, Shih-Hsien; Hwang, Sheng-Ping L; Huang, Chang-Jen; Kuan, Yung-Shu

    2015-06-15

    Wnts and Fgfs regulate various tissues development in vertebrates. However, how regional Wnt or Fgf activities are established and how they interact in any given developmental event is elusive. Here, we investigated the Wnt-mediated craniofacial cartilage development in zebrafish and found that fgf3 expression in the pharyngeal pouches is differentially reduced along the anteroposterior axis in wnt5b mutants and wntless (wls) morphants, but its expression is normal in wnt9a and wnt11 morphants. Introducing fgf3 mRNAs rescued the cartilage defects in Wnt5b- and Wls-deficient larvae. In wls morphants, endogenous Wls expression is not detectable but maternally deposited Wls is present in eggs, which might account for the lack of axis defects in wls morphants. Secretion of endogenous Wnt5b but not Wnt11 was affected in the pharyngeal tissue of Wls morphants, indicating that Wls is not involved in every Wnt secretion event. Furthermore, cell proliferation but not apoptosis in the developing jaw was affected in Wnt5b- and Wls-deficient embryos. Therefore, Wnt5b requires Wls for its secretion and regulates the proliferation of chondrogenic cells through fine-tuning the expression of fgf3 during jaw cartilage development.

  18. FGF19 functions as autocrine growth factor for hepatoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Elzi, David J.; Song, Meihua; Blackman, Barron; Weintraub, Susan T.; López-Terrada, Dolores; Chen, Yidong; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Shiio, Yuzuru

    2016-01-01

    Hepatoblastoma is the most common liver cancer in children, accounting for over 65% of all childhood liver malignancies. Hepatoblastoma is distinct from adult liver cancer in that it is not associated with hepatitis virus infection, cirrhosis, or other underlying liver pathology. The paucity of appropriate cell and animal models has been hampering the mechanistic understanding of hepatoblastoma pathogenesis. Consequently, there is no molecularly targeted therapy for hepatoblastoma. To gain insight into cytokine signaling in hepatoblastoma, we employed mass spectrometry to analyze the proteins secreted from Hep293TT hepatoblastoma cell line we established and identified the specific secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), a growth factor for liver cells. We determined that silencing FGF19 by shRNAs or neutralizing secreted FGF19 by anti-FGF19 antibody inhibits the proliferation of hepatoblastoma cells. Furthermore, blocking FGF19 signaling by an FGF receptor kinase inhibitor suppressed hepatoblastoma growth. RNA expression analysis in hepatoblastoma tumors revealed that the high expression of FGF19 signaling pathway components as well as the low expression of FGF19 signaling repression targets correlates with the aggressiveness of the tumors. These results suggest the role of FGF19 as autocrine growth factor for hepatoblastoma. PMID:27382436

  19. FGF19 functions as autocrine growth factor for hepatoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Elzi, David J; Song, Meihua; Blackman, Barron; Weintraub, Susan T; López-Terrada, Dolores; Chen, Yidong; Tomlinson, Gail E; Shiio, Yuzuru

    2016-03-01

    Hepatoblastoma is the most common liver cancer in children, accounting for over 65% of all childhood liver malignancies. Hepatoblastoma is distinct from adult liver cancer in that it is not associated with hepatitis virus infection, cirrhosis, or other underlying liver pathology. The paucity of appropriate cell and animal models has been hampering the mechanistic understanding of hepatoblastoma pathogenesis. Consequently, there is no molecularly targeted therapy for hepatoblastoma. To gain insight into cytokine signaling in hepatoblastoma, we employed mass spectrometry to analyze the proteins secreted from Hep293TT hepatoblastoma cell line we established and identified the specific secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), a growth factor for liver cells. We determined that silencing FGF19 by shRNAs or neutralizing secreted FGF19 by anti-FGF19 antibody inhibits the proliferation of hepatoblastoma cells. Furthermore, blocking FGF19 signaling by an FGF receptor kinase inhibitor suppressed hepatoblastoma growth. RNA expression analysis in hepatoblastoma tumors revealed that the high expression of FGF19 signaling pathway components as well as the low expression of FGF19 signaling repression targets correlates with the aggressiveness of the tumors. These results suggest the role of FGF19 as autocrine growth factor for hepatoblastoma.

  20. Parathyroid hormone 1 receptor is essential to induce FGF23 production and maintain systemic mineral ion homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yi; Bi, Ruiye; Densmore, Michael J.; Sato, Tadatoshi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Yuan, Quan; Zhou, Xuedong; Erben, Reinhold G.; Lanske, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Parathyroid-hormone–type 1 receptor (PTH1R) is extensively expressed in key regulatory organs for systemic mineral ion homeostasis, including kidney and bone. We investigated the bone-specific functions of PTH1R in modulating mineral ion homeostasis by generating a novel mouse model in which PTH1R is ablated in the limb mesenchyme using Prx1Cre transgenic mice. Such ablation decreased FGF23 protein and serum levels by 50%, despite normal Fgf23 mRNA levels in long bones. Circulating calcium and PTH levels were unchanged, but inorganic phosphate and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels were significantly decreased and accompanied by elevated urinary calcium and phosphate wasting. Key renal genes for balancing mineral ion homeostasis, calbindinD28k, Klotho, and Napi2a were suppressed by 30–40%. Intermittent hPTH(1–34) injections increased Fgf23 mRNA (7.3-fold), Nurr1 mRNA (3.1-fold), and serum intact-FGF23 (1.6-fold) in controls, but failed to induce Fgf23, Nurr1 mRNA, or intact FGF23 production in mutants. Moreover, a significant elevation in serum C-terminal-FGF23 levels (4-fold) was detected in both genotypes. PTH markedly downregulated Galnt3 expression (2.7-fold) in controls but not in mutants. These results demonstrate the pivotal role of PTH1R in long bones to regulate systemic mineral ion homeostasis and the direct induction of FGF23 by PTH1R signaling.—Fan, Y., Bi, R., Densmore, M. J., Sato, T., Kobayashi, T., Yuan, Q., Zhou, X., Erben, R. G., Lanske, B. Parathyroid hormone 1 receptor is essential to induce FGF23 production and maintain systemic mineral ion homeostasis. PMID:26428657

  1. Diabetes: Models, Signals and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobelli, C.

    2010-07-01

    Diabetes and its complications impose significant economic consequences on individuals, families, health systems, and countries. The control of diabetes is an interdisciplinary endeavor, which includes significant components of modeling, signal processing and control. Models: first, I will discuss the minimal (coarse) models which describe the key components of the system functionality and are capable of measuring crucial processes of glucose metabolism and insulin control in health and diabetes; then, the maximal (fine-grain) models which include comprehensively all available knowledge about system functionality and are capable to simulate the glucose-insulin system in diabetes, thus making it possible to create simulation scenarios whereby cost effective experiments can be conducted in silico to assess the efficacy of various treatment strategies - in particular I will focus on the first in silico simulation model accepted by FDA as a substitute to animal trials in the quest for optimal diabetes control. Signals: I will review metabolic monitoring, with a particular emphasis on the new continuous glucose sensors, on the crucial role of models to enhance the interpretation of their time-series signals, and on the opportunities that they present for automation of diabetes control. Control: I will review control strategies that have been successfully employed in vivo or in silico, presenting a promise for the development of a future artificial pancreas and, in particular, I will discuss a modular architecture for building closed-loop control systems, including insulin delivery and patient safety supervision layers.

  2. C-terminal tail of FGF19 determines its specificity toward Klotho co-receptors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinle; Lemon, Bryan; Li, XiaoFan; Gupte, Jamila; Weiszmann, Jennifer; Stevens, Jennitte; Hawkins, Nessa; Shen, Wenyan; Lindberg, Richard; Chen, Jin-Long; Tian, Hui; Li, Yang

    2008-11-28

    FGF19 subfamily proteins (FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23) are unique members of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) that regulate energy, bile acid, glucose, lipid, phosphate, and vitamin D homeostasis in an endocrine fashion. Their activities require the presence of alpha or betaKlotho, two related single-pass transmembrane proteins, as co-receptors in relevant target tissues. We previously showed that FGF19 can bind to both alpha and betaKlotho, whereas FGF21 and FGF23 can bind only to either betaKlotho or alphaKlotho, respectively in vitro. To determine the mechanism regulating the binding and specificity among FGF19 subfamily members to Klotho family proteins, chimeric proteins between FGF19 subfamily members or chimeric proteins between Klotho family members were constructed to probe the interaction between those two families. Our results showed that a chimera of FGF19 with the FGF21 C-terminal tail interacts only with betaKlotho and a chimera with the FGF23 C-terminal tail interacts only with alphaKlotho. FGF signaling assays also reflected the change of specificity we observed for the chimeras. These results identified the C-terminal tail of FGF19 as a region necessary for its recognition of Klotho family proteins. In addition, chimeras between alpha and betaKlotho were also generated to probe the regions in Klotho proteins that are important for signaling by this FGF subfamily. Both FGF23 and FGF21 require intact alpha or betaKlotho for signaling, respectively, whereas FGF19 can signal through a Klotho chimera consisting of the N terminus of alphaKlotho and the C terminus of betaKlotho. Our results provide the first glimpse of the regions that regulate the binding specificity between this unique family of FGFs and their co-receptors.

  3. FGF-23 regulates CYP27B1 transcription in the kidney and in extra-renal tissues.

    PubMed

    Chanakul, Ankanee; Zhang, Martin Y H; Louw, Andrew; Armbrecht, Harvey J; Miller, Walter L; Portale, Anthony A; Perwad, Farzana

    2013-01-01

    The mitochondrial enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase, which is encoded by the CYP27B1 gene, converts 25OHD to the biological active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). Renal 1α-hydroxylase activity is the principal determinant of the circulating 1,25(OH)2D concentration and enzyme activity is tightly regulated by several factors. Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) decreases serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations by suppressing CYP27B1 mRNA abundance in mice. In extra-renal tissues, 1α-hydroxylase is responsible for local 1,25(OH)2D synthesis, which has important paracrine actions, but whether FGF-23 regulates CYP27B1 gene expression in extra-renal tissues is unknown. We sought to determine whether FGF-23 regulates CYP27B1 transcription in the kidney and whether extra-renal tissues are target sites for FGF-23-induced suppression of CYP27B1. In HEK293 cells transfected with the human CYP27B1 promoter, FGF-23 suppressed promoter activity by 70%, and the suppressive effect was blocked by CI-1040, a specific inhibitor of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2. To examine CYP27B1 transcriptional activity in vivo, we crossed fgf-23 null mice with mice bearing the CYP27B1 promoter-driven luciferase transgene (1α-Luc). In the kidney of FGF-23 null/1α-Luc mice, CYP27B1 promoter activity was increased by 3-fold compared to that in wild-type/1α-Luc mice. Intraperitoneal injection of FGF-23 suppressed renal CYP27B1 promoter activity and protein expression by 26% and 60% respectively, and the suppressive effect was blocked by PD0325901, an ERK1/2 inhibitor. These findings provide evidence that FGF-23 suppresses CYP27B1 transcription in the kidney. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in FGF-23 null/1α-Luc mice, CYP27B1 promoter activity and mRNA abundance are increased in several extra-renal sites. In the heart of FGF-23 null/1α-Luc mice, CYP27B1 promoter activity and mRNA were 2- and 5-fold higher, respectively, than in control mice. We also

  4. Metabolic Effects of FGF-21: Thermoregulation and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Ni, Bin; Farrar, Jared S; Vaitkus, Janina A; Celi, Francesco S

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21, a member of the FGF family, is a novel hormone involved in the control of metabolism by modulating glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, ketogenesis, and promoting adipose tissue "browning." Recent studies demonstrated that brown adipose tissue is not only a target for FGF-21, but is also a potentially important source of systemic FGF-21. These findings support the hypothesis that FGF-21 plays a physiologic role in thermogenesis and thermogenic recruitment of white adipose tissue by an autocrine-paracrine axis. This review examines the role of FGF-21 in thermogenesis from the perspective of cell-based, animal model, and human studies. We also present recent advances in the characterization of FGF-21's regulation of metabolism.

  5. A Sox9/Fgf feed-forward loop maintains pancreatic organ identity

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Philip A.; Shih, Hung Ping; Patel, Nisha A.; Freude, Kristine K.; Xie, Ruiyu; Lim, Christopher J.; Sander, Maike

    2012-01-01

    All mature pancreatic cell types arise from organ-specific multipotent progenitor cells. Although previous studies have identified cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic cues for progenitor cell expansion, it is unclear how these cues are integrated within the niche of the developing organ. Here, we present genetic evidence in mice that the transcription factor Sox9 forms the centerpiece of a gene regulatory network that is crucial for proper organ growth and maintenance of organ identity. We show that pancreatic progenitor-specific ablation of Sox9 during early pancreas development causes pancreas-to-liver cell fate conversion. Sox9 deficiency results in cell-autonomous loss of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (Fgfr) 2b, which is required for transducing mesenchymal Fgf10 signals. Likewise, Fgf10 is required to maintain expression of Sox9 and Fgfr2 in epithelial progenitors, showing that Sox9, Fgfr2 and Fgf10 form a feed-forward expression loop in the early pancreatic organ niche. Mirroring Sox9 deficiency, perturbation of Fgfr signaling in pancreatic explants or genetic inactivation of Fgf10 also result in hepatic cell fate conversion. Combined with previous findings that Fgfr2b or Fgf10 are necessary for pancreatic progenitor cell proliferation, our results demonstrate that organ fate commitment and progenitor cell expansion are coordinately controlled by the activity of a Sox9/Fgf10/Fgfr2b feed-forward loop in the pancreatic niche. This self-promoting Sox9/Fgf10/Fgfr2b loop may regulate cell identity and organ size in a broad spectrum of developmental and regenerative contexts. PMID:22874919

  6. FGF23 and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf El Din, Usama A A; Salem, Mona M; Abdulazim, Dina O

    2017-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is a recognized feature in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The role of systemic inflammation in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification was recently settled. FGF23 was recently accused as a direct stimulus of systemic inflammation. This finding explains the strong association of FGF23 to vascular calcification and increased mortality among CKD. PMID:28101453

  7. Molecular and clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 /bFGF) in malignancies of solid and hematological cancers for personalized therapies

    PubMed Central

    Akl, Mohamed R.; Nagpal, Poonam; Ayoub, Nehad M.; Tai, Betty; Prabhu, Sathyen A.; Capac, Catherine M.; Gliksman, Matthew; Goy, Andre; Suh, K. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is essential for normal and cancer biology. Mammalian FGF family members participate in multiple signaling pathways by binding to heparan sulfate and FGF receptors (FGFR) with varying affinities. FGF2 is the prototype member of the FGF family and interacts with its receptor to mediate receptor dimerization, phosphorylation, and activation of signaling pathways, such as Ras-MAPK and PI3K pathways. Excessive mitogenic signaling through the FGF/FGFR axis may induce carcinogenic effects by promoting cancer progression and increasing the angiogenic potential, which can lead to metastatic tumor phenotypes. Dysregulated FGF/FGFR signaling is associated with aggressive cancer phenotypes, enhanced chemotherapy resistance and poor clinical outcomes. In vitro experimental settings have indicated that extracellular FGF2 affects proliferation, drug sensitivity, and apoptosis of cancer cells. Therapeutically targeting FGF2 and FGFR has been extensively assessed in multiple preclinical studies and numerous drugs and treatment options have been tested in clinical trials. Diagnostic assays are used to quantify FGF2, FGFRs, and downstream signaling molecules to better select a target patient population for higher efficacy of cancer therapies. This review focuses on the prognostic significance of FGF2 in cancer with emphasis on therapeutic intervention strategies for solid and hematological malignancies. PMID:27007053

  8. Red light, green light: Signals that control endothelial cell proliferation during embryonic vascular development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The proper regulation of endothelial cell proliferation is critical for vascular development in the embryo. VEGF-A and bFGF, which are important in the induction of mesodermal progenitors to form a capillary plexus, are also key mitogenic signals. Disruption in VEGF-A or bFGF decreases endothelial c...

  9. FGF1 and FGF19 reverse diabetes by suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Perry, Rachel J; Lee, Sangwon; Ma, Lie; Zhang, Dongyan; Schlessinger, Joseph; Shulman, Gerald I

    2015-04-28

    Fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) and FGF19 have been shown to improve glucose metabolism in diabetic rodents, but how this occurs is unknown. Here to investigate the mechanism of action of these growth factors, we perform intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of recombinant FGF1 or FGF19 in an awake rat model of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and measure rates of whole-body lipolysis, hepatic acetyl CoA content, pyruvate carboxylase activity and hepatic glucose production. We show that i.c.v. injection of FGF19 or FGF1 leads to a ∼60% reduction in hepatic glucose production, hepatic acetyl CoA content and whole-body lipolysis, which results from decreases in plasma ACTH and corticosterone concentrations. These effects are abrogated by an intra-arterial infusion of corticosterone. Taken together these studies identify suppression of the HPA axis and ensuing reductions in hepatic acetyl CoA content as a common mechanism responsible for mediating the acute, insulin-independent, glucose-lowering effects of FGF1 and FGF19 in rodents with poorly controlled T1D.

  10. Fgf16 is essential for pectoral fin bud formation in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Ryohei; Kamei, Eriko; Hotta, Yuuhei; Konishi, Morichika; Miyake, Ayumi; Itoh, Nobuyuki . E-mail: itohnobu@pharm.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2006-08-18

    Zebrafish pectoral fin bud formation is an excellent model for studying morphogenesis. Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) and sonic hedgehog (shh) are essential for pectoral fin bud formation. We found that Fgf16 was expressed in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) of fin buds. A knockdown of Fgf16 function resulted in no fin bud outgrowth. Fgf16 is required for cell proliferation and differentiation in the mesenchyme and the AER of the fin buds, respectively. Fgf16 functions downstream of Fgf10, a mesenchymal factor, signaling to induce the expression of Fgf4 and Fgf8 in the AER. Fgf16 in the AER and shh in the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) interact to induce and/or maintain each other's expression. These findings have revealed that Fgf16, a newly identified AER factor, plays a crucial role in pectoral fin bud outgrowth by mediating the interactions of AER-mesenchyme and AER-ZPA.

  11. A Tbx1-Six1/Eya1-Fgf8 genetic pathway controls mammalian cardiovascular and craniofacial morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chaoshe; Sun, Ye; Zhou, Bin; Adam, Rosalyn M; Li, XiaoKun; Pu, William T; Morrow, Bernice E; Moon, Anne; Li, Xue

    2011-04-01

    Shared molecular programs govern the formation of heart and head during mammalian embryogenesis. Development of both structures is disrupted in human chromosomal microdeletion of 22q11.2 (del22q11), which causes DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS). Here, we have identified a genetic pathway involving the Six1/Eya1 transcription complex that regulates cardiovascular and craniofacial development. We demonstrate that murine mutation of both Six1 and Eya1 recapitulated most features of human del22q11 syndromes, including craniofacial, cardiac outflow tract, and aortic arch malformations. The mutant phenotypes were attributable in part to a reduction of fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8), which was shown to be a direct downstream effector of Six1 and Eya1. Furthermore, we showed that Six1 and Eya1 genetically interacted with Fgf8 and the critical del22q11 gene T-box transcription factor 1 (Tbx1) in mice. Together, these findings reveal a Tbx1-Six1/Eya1-Fgf8 genetic pathway that is crucial for mammalian cardiocraniofacial morphogenesis and provide insights into the pathogenesis of human del22q11 syndromes.

  12. [Updates on rickets and osteomalacia: various roles of Klotho and FGF23 in vivo ].

    PubMed

    Imura, Akihiro

    2013-10-01

    Recent understandings of phosphate regulation have, at least in part, depended upon the findings of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23, the hormone specific for phosphate regulation. Moreover, FGF23 would be the most important marker for prognosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) . On the other hand, Klotho was firstly developed as a responsible gene for senescence. Although the role of Klotho has been so far established as a co-receptor for FGF23 in mineral metabolism, Klotho would play rather various roles than FGF23 signaling. Thus Klotho is not necessarily equivalent to FGF23. Further studies for both Klotho and FGF23 will elucidate to understand mineral homeostasis.

  13. FGF signalling and SUMO modification: new players in the aetiology of cleft lip and/or palate.

    PubMed

    Pauws, Erwin; Stanier, Philip

    2007-12-01

    Owing to the complex aetiology and the variable penetrance of cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P), understanding the molecular basis has been challenging. Recent reports have identified two independent biochemical pathways that will help to elucidate the underlying pathology. Fibroblast growth factor signalling, previously known for its involvement in craniofacial development, is now implicated in the genetic basis of both syndromic and non-syndromic CL/P. At the same time, an important role in lip and palate development is beginning to emerge for small ubiquitin-like modifier modification, a widely used posttranslational regulatory mechanism. Both of these pathways might interact with environmental risk factors for CL/P. Here we review their contribution to normal and abnormal orofacial development.

  14. FGF1 Mediates Overnutrition-Induced Compensatory β-Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Page-McCaw, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Increased insulin demand resulting from insulin resistance and/or overnutrition induces a compensatory increase in β-cell mass. The physiological factors responsible for the compensation have not been fully characterized. In zebrafish, overnutrition rapidly induces compensatory β-cell differentiation through triggering the release of a paracrine signal from persistently activated β-cells. We identified Fgf1 signaling as a key component of the overnutrition-induced β-cell differentiation signal in a small molecule screen. Fgf1 was confirmed as the overnutrition-induced β-cell differentiation signal, as inactivation of fgf1 abolished the compensatory β-cell differentiation. Furthermore, expression of human FGF1 solely in β-cells in fgf1−/− animals rescued the compensatory response, indicating that β-cells can be the source of FGF1. Additionally, constitutive secretion of FGF1 with an exogenous signal peptide increased β-cell number in the absence of overnutrition. These results demonstrate that fgf1 is necessary and FGF1 expression in β-cells is sufficient for the compensatory β-cell differentiation. We further show that FGF1 is secreted during prolonged activation of cultured mammalian β-cells and that endoplasmic reticulum stress acts upstream of FGF1 release. Thus, the recently discovered antidiabetes function of FGF1 may act partially through increasing β-cell differentiation. PMID:26420862

  15. FGF23 associated bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Liao, Eryuan

    2013-03-01

    Recently, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has sparked widespread interest because of its potential role in regulating phosphate and vitamin D metabolism. In this review, we summarized the FGF superfamily, the mechanism of FGF23 on phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, and the FGF23 related bone disease.

  16. Expression of Fibroblast growth factor 19 (Fgf19) during chicken embryogenesis and eye development, compared with Fgf15 expression in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Kurose, Hitomi; Bito, Takaaki; Adachi, Taro; Shimizu, Miyuki; Noji, Sumihare; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2004-10-01

    The normal development of eyes relies on proper signaling through Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors, but the source and identity of cognate ligands have remained largely unknown. We have found that Fgf19 is expressed in the developing chicken retina. In situ hybridization discloses dynamic expression patterns for Fgf19 in the optic vesicle, lens primordia and retinal horizontal cells. Overall expression pattern of Fgf19 during chicken embryogenesis was also examined: Fgf19 is expressed in the regions associated with cranial placodes induction, boundary regions of rhombomeres, somites, specific groups of neural cells in midbrain, hindbrain, and those derived from epibranchial placodes, and the apical ectodermal ridge of limb buds. Expression pattern of the Fgf19-orthologous gene Fgf15 was further examined in the mouse developing eye. Fgf15 is expressed in the optic vesicle, a subset of progenitor cells of neural retina, and emerging ganglion and amacrine cells during retinogenesis.

  17. Physiological functions and underlying mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family members: recent findings and implications for their pharmacological application.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Despite their name, fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are multifunctional regulators affecting a wide variety of physiological events. This review summarizes our recent studies on FGFs from mechanistic, physiological and application-oriented viewpoints. These include studies on the importance of βKlotho and glycosaminoglycans for the signaling of hormonal FGFs (FGF21 and FGF19); the physiological role of a paracrine FGF (FGF18) in hair cycle regulation; and the development of a stable, chimeric FGF protein composed of FGF1 and FGF2 domains suitable for radioprotection.

  18. Glypican-1 controls brain size through regulation of fibroblast growth factor signaling in early neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jen, Yi-Huei Linda; Musacchio, Michele; Lander, Arthur D

    2009-01-01

    Background Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) act as co-receptors for multiple families of growth factors that regulate animal cell proliferation, differentiation and patterning. Elimination of heparan sulfate during brain development is known to produce severe structural abnormalities. Here we investigate the developmental role played by one particular HSPG, glypican-1 (Gpc1), which is especially abundant on neuronal cell membranes, and is the major HSPG of the adult rodent brain. Results Mice with a null mutation in Gpc1 were generated and found to be viable and fertile. The major phenotype associated with Gpc1 loss is a highly significant reduction in brain size, with only subtle effects on brain patterning (confined to the anterior cerebellum). The brain size difference emerges very early during neurogenesis (between embryonic days 8.5 and 9.5), and remains roughly constant throughout development and adulthood. By examining markers of different signaling pathways, and the differentiation behaviors of cells in the early embryonic brain, we infer that Gpc1-/- phenotypes most likely result from a transient reduction in fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. Through the analysis of compound mutants, we provide strong evidence that Fgf17 is the FGF family member through which Gpc1 controls brain size. Conclusion These data add to a growing literature that implicates the glypican family of HSPGs in organ size control. They also argue that, among heparan sulfate-dependent signaling molecules, FGFs are disproportionately sensitive to loss of HSPGs. Finally, because heterozygous Gpc1 mutant mice were found to have brain sizes half-way between homozygous and wild type, the data imply that endogenous HSPG levels quantitatively control growth factor signaling, a finding that is both novel and relevant to the general question of how the activities of co-receptors are exploited during development. PMID:19732411

  19. Cellular Responses Modulated by FGF-2 Adsorbed on Albumin/Heparin Layer-by-Layer Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Kumorek, Marta; Kubies, Dana; Filová, Elena; Houska, Milan; Kasoju, Naresh; Mázl Chánová, Eliška; Matějka, Roman; Krýslová, Markéta; Bačáková, Lucie; Rypáček, František

    2015-01-01

    In a typical cell culture system, growth factors immobilized on the cell culture surfaces can serve as a reservoir of bio-signaling molecules, without the need to supplement them additionally into the culture medium. In this paper, we report on the fabrication of albumin/heparin (Alb/Hep) assemblies for controlled binding of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). The surfaces were constructed by layer-by-layer adsorption of polyelectrolytes albumin and heparin and were subsequently stabilized by covalent crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. An analysis of the surface morphology by atomic force microscopy showed that two Alb/Hep bilayers are required to cover the surface of substrate. The formation of the Alb/Hep assemblies was monitored by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR), the infrared multiinternal reflection spectroscopy (FTIR MIRS) and UV/VIS spectroscopy. The adsorption of FGF-2 on the cross-linked Alb/Hep was followed by SPR. The results revealed that FGF-2 binds to the Alb/Hep assembly in a dose and time-dependent manner up to the surface concentration of 120 ng/cm2. The bioactivity of the adsorbed FGF-2 was assessed in experiments in vitro, using calf pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (CPAE). CPAE cells could attach and proliferate on Alb/Hep surfaces. The adsorbed FGF-2 was bioactive and stimulated both the proliferation and the differentiation of CPAE cells. The improvement was more pronounced at a lower FGF-2 surface concentration (30 ng/cm2) than on surfaces with a higher concentration of FGF-2 (120 ng/cm2). PMID:25945799

  20. Cellular Responses Modulated by FGF-2 Adsorbed on Albumin/Heparin Layer-by-Layer Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Kumorek, Marta; Kubies, Dana; Filová, Elena; Houska, Milan; Kasoju, Naresh; Mázl Chánová, Eliška; Matějka, Roman; Krýslová, Markéta; Bačáková, Lucie; Rypáček, František

    2015-01-01

    In a typical cell culture system, growth factors immobilized on the cell culture surfaces can serve as a reservoir of bio-signaling molecules, without the need to supplement them additionally into the culture medium. In this paper, we report on the fabrication of albumin/heparin (Alb/Hep) assemblies for controlled binding of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). The surfaces were constructed by layer-by-layer adsorption of polyelectrolytes albumin and heparin and were subsequently stabilized by covalent crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. An analysis of the surface morphology by atomic force microscopy showed that two Alb/Hep bilayers are required to cover the surface of substrate. The formation of the Alb/Hep assemblies was monitored by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR), the infrared multiinternal reflection spectroscopy (FTIR MIRS) and UV/VIS spectroscopy. The adsorption of FGF-2 on the cross-linked Alb/Hep was followed by SPR. The results revealed that FGF-2 binds to the Alb/Hep assembly in a dose and time-dependent manner up to the surface concentration of 120 ng/cm(2). The bioactivity of the adsorbed FGF-2 was assessed in experiments in vitro, using calf pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (CPAE). CPAE cells could attach and proliferate on Alb/Hep surfaces. The adsorbed FGF-2 was bioactive and stimulated both the proliferation and the differentiation of CPAE cells. The improvement was more pronounced at a lower FGF-2 surface concentration (30 ng/cm(2)) than on surfaces with a higher concentration of FGF-2 (120 ng/cm(2)).

  1. Diabetes: Models, Signals, and Control

    PubMed Central

    Cobelli, Claudio; Man, Chiara Dalla; Sparacino, Giovanni; Magni, Lalo; De Nicolao, Giuseppe; Kovatchev, Boris P.

    2010-01-01

    The control of diabetes is an interdisciplinary endeavor, which includes a significant biomedical engineering component, with traditions of success beginning in the early 1960s. It began with modeling of the insulin-glucose system, and progressed to large-scale in silico experiments, and automated closed-loop control (artificial pancreas). Here, we follow these engineering efforts through the last, almost 50 years. We begin with the now classic minimal modeling approach and discuss a number of subsequent models, which have recently resulted in the first in silico simulation model accepted as substitute to animal trials in the quest for optimal diabetes control. We then review metabolic monitoring, with a particular emphasis on the new continuous glucose sensors, on the analyses of their time-series signals, and on the opportunities that they present for automation of diabetes control. Finally, we review control strategies that have been successfully employed in vivo or in silico, presenting a promise for the development of a future artificial pancreas and, in particular, discuss a modular architecture for building closed-loop control systems, including insulin delivery and patient safety supervision layers. We conclude with a brief discussion of the unique interactions between human physiology, behavioral events, engineering modeling and control relevant to diabetes. PMID:20936056

  2. Diabetes: Models, Signals, and Control.

    PubMed

    Cobelli, Claudio; Man, Chiara Dalla; Sparacino, Giovanni; Magni, Lalo; De Nicolao, Giuseppe; Kovatchev, Boris P

    2009-01-01

    The control of diabetes is an interdisciplinary endeavor, which includes a significant biomedical engineering component, with traditions of success beginning in the early 1960s. It began with modeling of the insulin-glucose system, and progressed to large-scale in silico experiments, and automated closed-loop control (artificial pancreas). Here, we follow these engineering efforts through the last, almost 50 years. We begin with the now classic minimal modeling approach and discuss a number of subsequent models, which have recently resulted in the first in silico simulation model accepted as substitute to animal trials in the quest for optimal diabetes control. We then review metabolic monitoring, with a particular emphasis on the new continuous glucose sensors, on the analyses of their time-series signals, and on the opportunities that they present for automation of diabetes control. Finally, we review control strategies that have been successfully employed in vivo or in silico, presenting a promise for the development of a future artificial pancreas and, in particular, discuss a modular architecture for building closed-loop control systems, including insulin delivery and patient safety supervision layers. We conclude with a brief discussion of the unique interactions between human physiology, behavioral events, engineering modeling and control relevant to diabetes.

  3. Cell proliferation by silk gut incorporating FGF-2 protein microcrystals.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Eiji; Yamamoto, Naoto; Kobayashi, Isao; Uchino, Keiro; Muto, Sayaka; Ijiri, Hiroshi; Shimabukuro, Junji; Tamura, Toshiki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Mori, Hajime

    2015-06-08

    Silk gut processed from the silk glands of the silkworm could be an ideal biodegradable carrier for cell growth factors. We previously demonstrated that polyhedra, microcrystals of Cypovirus 1 polyhedrin, can serve as versatile carrier proteins. Here, we report the generation of a transgenic silkworm that expresses polyhedrin together with human basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) in its posterior silk glands to utilize silk gut as a proteinaceous carrier to protect and slowly release active cell growth factors. In the posterior silk glands, polyhedrin formed polyhedral microcrystals, and FGF-2 became encapsulated within the polyhedra due to a polyhedron-immobilization signal. Silk gut powder prepared from posterior silk glands containing polyhedron-encapsulated FGF-2 stimulated the phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase and induced the proliferation of serum-starved NIH3T3 cells by releasing bioactive FGF-2. Even after a one-week incubation at 25 °C, significantly higher biological activity of FGF-2 was observed for silk gut powder incorporating polyhedron-encapsulated FGF-2 relative to silk gut powder with non-encapsulated FGF-2. Our results demonstrate that posterior silk glands incorporating polyhedron-encapsulated FGF-2 are applicable to the preparation of biodegradable silk gut, which can protect and release FGF-2 that is produced in a virus- and serum-free expression system with significant application potential.

  4. Liver-specific activities of FGF19 require Klotho beta.

    PubMed

    Lin, Benjamin C; Wang, Manping; Blackmore, Craig; Desnoyers, Luc R

    2007-09-14

    Hepatocyte function is regulated by members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of proteins, but little is known about the specific molecular mechanisms of this endocrine pathway. FGF19 regulates bile acid homeostasis and gall bladder filling; FGF19 binds only to FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4), but its liver-specific activity cannot be explained solely by the distribution of this receptor. Although it has been suggested that Klotho beta (KLB) may have a role in mediating FGF19 activity, we have provided for the first time definitive evidence that KLB is required for FGF19 binding to FGFR4, intracellular signaling, and downstream modulation of gene expression. We have shown that FGFR4 is widely distributed in mouse, whereas KLB distribution is more restricted. Liver was the only organ in which both genes were abundantly expressed. We show that in mice, FGF19 injection triggers liver-specific induction of c-Fos and repression of CYP7A1. The tissue-specific activity of FGF19 supports the unique intersection of KLB and FGFR4 distribution in liver. These studies define KLB as a novel FGFR4 coreceptor required for FGF19 liver specific functions.

  5. Integration of signals along orthogonal axes of the vertebrate neural tube controls progenitor competence and increases cell diversity.

    PubMed

    Sasai, Noriaki; Kutejova, Eva; Briscoe, James

    2014-07-01

    A relatively small number of signals are responsible for the variety and pattern of cell types generated in developing embryos. In part this is achieved by exploiting differences in the concentration or duration of signaling to increase cellular diversity. In addition, however, changes in cellular competence-temporal shifts in the response of cells to a signal-contribute to the array of cell types generated. Here we investigate how these two mechanisms are combined in the vertebrate neural tube to increase the range of cell types and deliver spatial control over their location. We provide evidence that FGF signaling emanating from the posterior of the embryo controls a change in competence of neural progenitors to Shh and BMP, the two morphogens that are responsible for patterning the ventral and dorsal regions of the neural tube, respectively. Newly generated neural progenitors are exposed to FGF signaling, and this maintains the expression of the Nk1-class transcription factor Nkx1.2. Ventrally, this acts in combination with the Shh-induced transcription factor FoxA2 to specify floor plate cells and dorsally in combination with BMP signaling to induce neural crest cells. As development progresses, the intersection of FGF with BMP and Shh signals is interrupted by axis elongation, resulting in the loss of Nkx1.2 expression and allowing the induction of ventral and dorsal interneuron progenitors by Shh and BMP signaling to supervene. Hence a similar mechanism increases cell type diversity at both dorsal and ventral poles of the neural tube. Together these data reveal that tissue morphogenesis produces changes in the coincidence of signals acting along orthogonal axes of the neural tube and this is used to define spatial and temporal transitions in the competence of cells to interpret morphogen signaling.

  6. Fgf regulates dedifferentiation during skeletal muscle regeneration in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Kish, Phillip E; Kahana, Alon

    2016-09-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) regulate critical biological processes such as embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, wound healing, and tissue regeneration. In zebrafish, Fgf signaling plays an important role in the regeneration of the spinal cord, liver, heart, fin, and photoreceptors, although its exact mechanism of action is not fully understood. Utilizing an adult zebrafish extraocular muscle (EOM) regeneration model, we demonstrate that blocking Fgf receptor function using either a chemical inhibitor (SU5402) or a dominant-negative transgenic construct (dnFGFR1a:EGFP) impairs muscle regeneration. Adult zebrafish EOMs regenerate through a myocyte dedifferentiation process, which involves a muscle-to-mesenchyme transition and cell cycle reentry by differentiated myocytes. Blocking Fgf signaling reduced cell proliferation and active caspase 3 levels in the regenerating muscle with no detectable levels of apoptosis, supporting the hypothesis that Fgf signaling is involved in the early steps of dedifferentiation. Fgf signaling in regenerating myocytes involves the MAPK/ERK pathway: inhibition of MEK activity with U0126 mimicked the phenotype of the Fgf receptor inhibition on both muscle regeneration and cell proliferation, and activated ERK (p-ERK) was detected in injured muscles by immunofluorescence and western blot. Interestingly, following injury, ERK2 expression is specifically induced and activated by phosphorylation, suggesting a key role in muscle regeneration. We conclude that the critical early steps of myocyte dedifferentiation in EOM regeneration are dependent on Fgf signaling.

  7. FGF1-mediated cardiomyocyte cell cycle reentry depends on the interaction of FGFR-1 and Fn14.

    PubMed

    Novoyatleva, Tatyana; Sajjad, Amna; Pogoryelov, Denys; Patra, Chinmoy; Schermuly, Ralph T; Engel, Felix B

    2014-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) signal through FGF receptors (FGFRs) mediating a broad range of cellular functions during embryonic development, as well as disease and regeneration during adulthood. Thus, it is important to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms that modulate this system. Here, we show that FGFR-1 can interact with the TNF receptor superfamily member fibroblast growth factor-inducible molecule 14 (Fn14) resulting in cardiomyocyte cell cycle reentry. FGF1-induced cell cycle reentry in neonatal cardiomyocytes could be blocked by Fn14 inhibition, while TWEAK-induced cell cycle activation was inhibited by blocking FGFR-1 signaling. In addition, costimulation experiments revealed a synergistic effect of FGF1 and TWEAK in regard to cardiomyocyte cell cycle induction via PI3K/Akt signaling. Overexpression of Fn14 with either FGFR-1 long [FGFR-1(L)] or FGFR-1 short [FGFR-1(S)] isoforms resulted after FGF1/TWEAK stimulation in cell cycle reentry of >40% adult cardiomyocytes. Finally, coimmunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays indicated that endogenous FGFR-1 and Fn14 interact with each other in cardiomyocytes. This interaction was strongly enhanced in the presence of their corresponding ligands, FGF1 and TWEAK. Taken together, our data suggest that FGFR-1/Fn14 interaction may represent a novel endogenous mechanism to modulate the action of these receptors and their ligands and to control cardiomyocyte cell cycle reentry.

  8. FGF23 Deficiency Leads to Mixed Hearing Loss and Middle Ear Malformation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lysaght, Andrew C.; Yuan, Quan; Fan, Yi; Kalwani, Neil; Caruso, Paul; Cunnane, MaryBeth; Lanske, Beate; Stanković, Konstantina M.

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a circulating hormone important in phosphate homeostasis. Abnormal serum levels of FGF23 result in systemic pathologies in humans and mice, including renal phosphate wasting diseases and hyperphosphatemia. We sought to uncover the role FGF23 plays in the auditory system due to shared molecular mechanisms and genetic pathways between ear and kidney development, the critical roles multiple FGFs play in auditory development and the known hearing phenotype in mice deficient in klotho (KL), a critical co-factor for FGF23 signaling. Using functional assessments of hearing, we demonstrate that Fgf mice are profoundly deaf. Fgf mice have moderate hearing loss above 20 kHz, consistent with mixed conductive and sensorineural pathology of both middle and inner ear origin. Histology and high-voltage X-ray computed tomography of Fgf mice demonstrate dysplastic bulla and ossicles; Fgf mice have near-normal morphology. The cochleae of mutant mice appear nearly normal on gross and microscopic inspection. In wild type mice, FGF23 is ubiquitously expressed throughout the cochlea. Measurements from Fgf mice do not match the auditory phenotype of Kl−/− mice, suggesting that loss of FGF23 activity impacts the auditory system via mechanisms at least partially independent of KL. Given the extensive middle ear malformations and the overlap of initiation of FGF23 activity and Eustachian tube development, this work suggests a possible role for FGF23 in otitis media. PMID:25243481

  9. Phosphate enhances Fgf23 expression through reactive oxygen species in UMR-106 cells.

    PubMed

    Hori, Michiko; Kinoshita, Yuka; Taguchi, Manabu; Fukumoto, Seiji

    2016-03-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has been shown to work as a phosphotropic hormone. Although FGF23 reduces the serum phosphate level, it has not been established that phosphate directly regulates FGF23 production. In this study, we investigated whether phosphate can enhance Fgf23 expression using the rat osteoblastic cell line UMR-106, which has been shown to express Fgf23 in response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D]. Phosphate increased Fgf23 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D. Phosphate also increased Fgf23 promoter activity, but showed no effect on the half-life of Fgf23 messenger RNA. Phosphonoformic acid and PD98059, an inhibitor of MEK, inhibited the effects of phosphate on Fgf23 expression and promoter activity. In addition, phosphate enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in UMR-106 cells, and hydrogen peroxide enhanced FGF23 production in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Hydrogen peroxide also enhanced Elk1 reporter activity, a target of the MEK-extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Furthermore, the effect of phosphate on ROS production and Fgf23 expression was inhibited by apocynin, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. These results indicate that phosphate directly enhances Fgf23 transcription without affecting the stability of Fgf23 messenger RNA by stimulating NADPH-induced ROS production and the MEK-ERK pathway in UMR-106 cells.

  10. Understanding the structure-function relationship between FGF19 and its mitogenic and metabolic activities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinle; Li, Yang

    2012-01-01

    FGF19 differs from the classical FGFs in that it has a much-reduced heparan sulfate proteoglycan binding affinity that allows it to act as endocrine hormone. Although FGF19 regulates several different metabolic activities, it still activates downstream signaling pathways through FGF receptors, in a similar manner to that seen in classical FGFs. Aberrant FGF signaling has been implicated in tumor development, and mouse models have confirmed that FGF19 has the potential to induce hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment with anti-FGF19 antibody suppressed tumor progression in both FGF19 transgenic mice and colon cancer cell xenograft models. FGFR4, the predominant FGF receptor expressed in the liver, may play an important role in FGF19-mediated tumorigenesis. This review reports the current advances in understanding the structure-function relationship between FGF19 and its interactions with FGFRs, its physiological activities, and its differences from FGF21. The review also discusses strategies to separate the mitogenic and metabolic activities for the development of potential therapeutic molecules based on FGF19.

  11. Effect of noncovalent interaction on the self-assembly of a designed peptide and its potential use as a carrier for controlled bFGF release

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanfei; Zhang, Ling; Wei, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Peptide self-assembly is one of the promising bottom-up approaches for creating synthetic supermolecular architectures. Noncovalent interactions such as hydrophobic packing, electrostatic interaction, and polypeptide chain entropy (ΔSC) are the most relevant factors that affect the folding and self-assembly of peptides and the stability of supermolecular structures. The GVGV tetrapeptide is an abundant repeat in elastin, an extracellular matrix protein. In this study, four GVGV-containing peptides were designed with the aim of understanding the effects of these weak interactions on peptide self-assembly. Transmission electron microscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering measurements, and rheometry assays were used to study the structural features of the peptides. Because self-assembling peptides with different amino acid sequences may significantly affect protein release, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was used as a model molecule and encapsulated within the P2 (RLDLGVGVRLDLGVGV) hydrogel to study the release kinetics. The results showed that the balance among hydrophobic effects, electrostatic interactions, and chain entropy determined the molecular state and self-assembly of the peptide. Moreover, encapsulation of bFGF within the P2 hydrogel allowed its sustained release without causing changes in the secondary structure. The release profiles could be tuned by adjusting the P2 hydrogel concentration. Cell Counting Kit-8 and Western blot assays demonstrated that the encapsulated and released bFGFs were biologically active and capable of promoting the proliferation of murine fibroblast NIH-3T3 cells, most likely due to the activation of downstream signaling pathways. PMID:28176898

  12. Effect of noncovalent interaction on the self-assembly of a designed peptide and its potential use as a carrier for controlled bFGF release.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanfei; Zhang, Ling; Wei, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Peptide self-assembly is one of the promising bottom-up approaches for creating synthetic supermolecular architectures. Noncovalent interactions such as hydrophobic packing, electrostatic interaction, and polypeptide chain entropy (ΔSC) are the most relevant factors that affect the folding and self-assembly of peptides and the stability of supermolecular structures. The GVGV tetrapeptide is an abundant repeat in elastin, an extracellular matrix protein. In this study, four GVGV-containing peptides were designed with the aim of understanding the effects of these weak interactions on peptide self-assembly. Transmission electron microscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering measurements, and rheometry assays were used to study the structural features of the peptides. Because self-assembling peptides with different amino acid sequences may significantly affect protein release, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was used as a model molecule and encapsulated within the P2 (RLDLGVGVRLDLGVGV) hydrogel to study the release kinetics. The results showed that the balance among hydrophobic effects, electrostatic interactions, and chain entropy determined the molecular state and self-assembly of the peptide. Moreover, encapsulation of bFGF within the P2 hydrogel allowed its sustained release without causing changes in the secondary structure. The release profiles could be tuned by adjusting the P2 hydrogel concentration. Cell Counting Kit-8 and Western blot assays demonstrated that the encapsulated and released bFGFs were biologically active and capable of promoting the proliferation of murine fibroblast NIH-3T3 cells, most likely due to the activation of downstream signaling pathways.

  13. Fibroblast growth factor signaling in mammalian tooth development.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Ying; Prochazka, Jan; Goodwin, Alice F; Klein, Ophir D

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the central role of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in mammalian tooth development. The FGF family consists of 22 members, most of which bind to four different receptor tyrosine kinases, which in turn signal through a cascade of intracellular proteins. This signaling regulates a number of cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, cell adhesion and cell mobility. FGF signaling first becomes important in the presumptive dental epithelium at the initiation stage of tooth development, and subsequently, it controls the invagination of the dental epithelium into the underlying mesenchyme. Later, FGFs are critical in tooth shape formation and differentiation of ameloblasts and odontoblasts, as well as in the development and homeostasis of the stem cell niche that fuels the continuously growing mouse incisor. In addition, FGF signaling is critical in human teeth, as mutations in genes encoding FGF ligands or receptors result in several congenital syndromes characterized by alterations in tooth number, morphology or enamel structure. The parallel roles of FGF signaling in mouse and human tooth development demonstrate the conserved importance of FGF signaling in mammalian odontogenesis.

  14. FGF14 regulates the intrinsic excitability of cerebellar Purkinje neurons.

    PubMed

    Shakkottai, Vikram G; Xiao, Maolei; Xu, Lin; Wong, Michael; Nerbonne, Jeanne M; Ornitz, David M; Yamada, Kelvin A

    2009-01-01

    A missense mutation in the fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14) gene underlies SCA27, an autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia in humans. Mice with a targeted disruption of the Fgf14 locus (Fgf14(-/-)) develop ataxia resembling human SCA27. We tested the hypothesis that loss of FGF14 affects the firing properties of Purkinje neurons, which play an important role in motor control and coordination. Current clamp recordings from Purkinje neurons in cerebellar slices revealed attenuated spontaneous firing in Fgf14(-/-) neurons. Unlike in the wild type animals, more than 80% of Fgf14(-/-) Purkinje neurons were quiescent and failed to fire repetitively in response to depolarizing current injections. Immunohistochemical examination revealed reduced expression of Nav1.6 protein in Fgf14(-/-) Purkinje neurons. Together, these observations suggest that FGF14 is required for normal Nav1.6 expression in Purkinje neurons, and that the loss of FGF14 impairs spontaneous and repetitive firing in Purkinje neurons by altering the expression of Nav1.6 channels.

  15. S100B engages RAGE or bFGF/FGFR1 in myoblasts depending on its own concentration and myoblast density. Implications for muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Riuzzi, Francesca; Sorci, Guglielmo; Beccafico, Sara; Donato, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    In high-density myoblast cultures S100B enhances basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) receptor 1 (FGFR1) signaling via binding to bFGF and blocks its canonical receptor, receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), thereby stimulating proliferation and inhibiting differentiation. Here we show that upon skeletal muscle injury S100B is released from myofibers with maximum release at day 1 post-injury in coincidence with satellite cell activation and the beginning of the myoblast proliferation phase, and declining release thereafter in coincidence with reduced myoblast proliferation and enhanced differentiation. By contrast, levels of released bFGF are remarkably low at day 1 post-injury, peak around day 5 and decline thereafter. We also show that in low-density myoblast cultures S100B binds RAGE, but not bFGF/FGFR1 thereby simultaneously stimulating proliferation via ERK1/2 and activating the myogenic program via p38 MAPK. Clearance of S100B after a 24-h treatment of low-density myoblasts results in enhanced myotube formation compared with controls as a result of increased cell numbers and activated myogenic program, whereas chronic treatment with S100B results in stimulation of proliferation and inhibition of differentiation due to a switch of the initial low-density culture to a high-density culture. However, at relatively high doses, S100B stimulates the mitogenic bFGF/FGFR1 signaling in low-density myoblasts, provided bFGF is present. We propose that S100B is a danger signal released from injured muscles that participates in skeletal muscle regeneration by activating the promyogenic RAGE or the mitogenic bFGF/FGFR1 depending on its own concentration, the absence or presence of bFGF, and myoblast density.

  16. S100B Engages RAGE or bFGF/FGFR1 in Myoblasts Depending on Its Own Concentration and Myoblast Density. Implications for Muscle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Beccafico, Sara; Donato, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    In high-density myoblast cultures S100B enhances basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) receptor 1 (FGFR1) signaling via binding to bFGF and blocks its canonical receptor, receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), thereby stimulating proliferation and inhibiting differentiation. Here we show that upon skeletal muscle injury S100B is released from myofibers with maximum release at day 1 post-injury in coincidence with satellite cell activation and the beginning of the myoblast proliferation phase, and declining release thereafter in coincidence with reduced myoblast proliferation and enhanced differentiation. By contrast, levels of released bFGF are remarkably low at day 1 post-injury, peak around day 5 and decline thereafter. We also show that in low-density myoblast cultures S100B binds RAGE, but not bFGF/FGFR1 thereby simultaneously stimulating proliferation via ERK1/2 and activating the myogenic program via p38 MAPK. Clearance of S100B after a 24-h treatment of low-density myoblasts results in enhanced myotube formation compared with controls as a result of increased cell numbers and activated myogenic program, whereas chronic treatment with S100B results in stimulation of proliferation and inhibition of differentiation due to a switch of the initial low-density culture to a high-density culture. However, at relatively high doses, S100B stimulates the mitogenic bFGF/FGFR1 signaling in low-density myoblasts, provided bFGF is present. We propose that S100B is a danger signal released from injured muscles that participates in skeletal muscle regeneration by activating the promyogenic RAGE or the mitogenic bFGF/FGFR1 depending on its own concentration, the absence or presence of bFGF, and myoblast density. PMID:22276098

  17. FGF Suppresses Poldip2 Expression in Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Katsumura, Sakie; Izu, Yayoi; Yamada, Takayuki; Griendling, Kathy; Harada, Kiyoshi; Noda, Masaki; Ezura, Yoichi

    2016-12-05

    Osteoporosis is one of the most prevalent ageing-associated diseases that are soaring in the modern world. Although various aspects of the disease have been investigated to understand the bases of osteoporosis, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bone loss is still incompletely understood. Poldip2 is a molecule that has been shown to be involved in cell migration of vascular cells and angiogenesis. However, expression of Poldip2 and its regulation in bone cells were not known. Therefore, we examined the Poldip2 mRNA expression and the effects of bone regulators on the Poldip2 expression in osteoblasts. We found that Poldip2 mRNA is expressed in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. As FGF controls osteoblasts and angiogenesis, FGF regulation was investigated in these cells. FGF suppressed the expression of Poldip2 in MC3T3-E1 cells in a time dependent manner. Protein synthesis inhibitor but not transcription inhibitor reduced the FGF effects on Poldip2 gene expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. As for bone-related hormones, dexamethasone was found to enhance the expression of Poldip2 in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells whereas FGF still suppressed such dexamethasone effects. With respect to function, knockdown of Poldip2 by siRNA suppressed the migration of MC3T3-E1 cells. Poldip2 was also expressed in the primary cultures of osteoblast-enriched cells and FGF also suppressed its expression. Finally, Poldip2 was expressed in femoral bone in vivo and its levels were increased in aged mice compared to young adult mice. These data indicate that Poldip2 is expressed in osteoblastic cells and is one of the targets of FGF. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-8, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Inhibition of H3K9me2 Reduces Hair Cell Regeneration after Hair Cell Loss in the Zebrafish Lateral Line by Down-Regulating the Wnt and Fgf Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Dongmei; Lin, Qin; He, Yingzi; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    The activation of neuromast (NM) supporting cell (SC) proliferation leads to hair cell (HC) regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. Epigenetic mechanisms have been reported that regulate HC regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line, but the role of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration after HC loss remains poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the role of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration following neomycin-induced HC loss. To investigate the effects of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration, we took advantage of the G9a/GLP-specific inhibitor BIX01294 that significantly reduces the dimethylation of H3K9. We found that BIX01294 significantly reduced HC regeneration after neomycin-induced HC loss in the zebrafish lateral line. BIX01294 also significantly reduced the proliferation of NM cells and led to fewer SCs in the lateral line. In situ hybridization showed that BIX01294 significantly down-regulated the Wnt and Fgf signaling pathways, which resulted in reduced SC proliferation and HC regeneration in the NMs of the lateral line. Altogether, our results suggest that down-regulation of H3K9me2 significantly decreases HC regeneration after neomycin-induced HC loss through inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin and Fgf signaling pathways. Thus H3K9me2 plays a critical role in HC regeneration. PMID:27303264

  19. Remote control of neuronal signaling.

    PubMed

    Rogan, Sarah C; Roth, Bryan L

    2011-06-01

    A significant challenge for neuroscientists is to determine how both electrical and chemical signals affect the activity of cells and circuits and how the nervous system subsequently translates that activity into behavior. Remote, bidirectional manipulation of those signals with high spatiotemporal precision is an ideal approach to addressing that challenge. Neuroscientists have recently developed a diverse set of tools that permit such experimental manipulation with varying degrees of spatial, temporal, and directional control. These tools use light, peptides, and small molecules to primarily activate ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that in turn activate or inhibit neuronal firing. By monitoring the electrophysiological, biochemical, and behavioral effects of such activation/inhibition, researchers can better understand the links between brain activity and behavior. Here, we review the tools that are available for this type of experimentation. We describe the development of the tools and highlight exciting in vivo data. We focus primarily on designer GPCRs (receptors activated solely by synthetic ligands, designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) and microbial opsins (e.g., channelrhodopsin-2, halorhodopsin, Volvox carteri channelrhodopsin) but also describe other novel techniques that use orthogonal receptors, caged ligands, allosteric modulators, and other approaches. These tools differ in the direction of their effect (activation/inhibition, hyperpolarization/depolarization), their onset and offset kinetics (milliseconds/minutes/hours), the degree of spatial resolution they afford, and their invasiveness. Although none of these tools is perfect, each has advantages and disadvantages, which we describe, and they are all still works in progress. We conclude with suggestions for improving upon the existing tools.

  20. Remote Control of Neuronal Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Rogan, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    A significant challenge for neuroscientists is to determine how both electrical and chemical signals affect the activity of cells and circuits and how the nervous system subsequently translates that activity into behavior. Remote, bidirectional manipulation of those signals with high spatiotemporal precision is an ideal approach to addressing that challenge. Neuroscientists have recently developed a diverse set of tools that permit such experimental manipulation with varying degrees of spatial, temporal, and directional control. These tools use light, peptides, and small molecules to primarily activate ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that in turn activate or inhibit neuronal firing. By monitoring the electrophysiological, biochemical, and behavioral effects of such activation/inhibition, researchers can better understand the links between brain activity and behavior. Here, we review the tools that are available for this type of experimentation. We describe the development of the tools and highlight exciting in vivo data. We focus primarily on designer GPCRs (receptors activated solely by synthetic ligands, designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) and microbial opsins (e.g., channelrhodopsin-2, halorhodopsin, Volvox carteri channelrhodopsin) but also describe other novel techniques that use orthogonal receptors, caged ligands, allosteric modulators, and other approaches. These tools differ in the direction of their effect (activation/inhibition, hyperpolarization/depolarization), their onset and offset kinetics (milliseconds/minutes/hours), the degree of spatial resolution they afford, and their invasiveness. Although none of these tools is perfect, each has advantages and disadvantages, which we describe, and they are all still works in progress. We conclude with suggestions for improving upon the existing tools. PMID:21415127

  1. Fgf8 Dosage Determines Midfacial Integration and Polarity within the Nasal and Optic Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, John N.; Compagnucci, Claudia; Hu, Diane; Fish, Jennifer; Klein, Ophir; Marcucio, Ralph; Depew, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial development requires an exquisitely timed and positioned cross-talk between the embryonic cephalic epithelia and mesenchyme. This cross-talk underlies the precise translation of patterning processes and information into distinct, appropriate skeletal morphologies. The molecular and cellular dialogue includes communication via secreted signaling molecules, including Fgf8, and effectors of their interpretation. Herein, we use genetic attenuation of Fgf8 in mice and perform gain-of-function mouse-chick chimeric experiments to demonstrate that significant character states of the frontonasal and optic skeletons are dependent on Fgf8. Notably, we show that the normal orientation and polarity of the nasal capsules and their developing primordia are dependent on Fgf8. We further demonstrate that Fgf8 is required for midfacial integration, and provide evidence for a role for Fgf8 in optic capsular development. Taken together, our data highlight Fgf8 signaling in craniofacial development as a plausible target for evolutionary selective pressures. PMID:23201021

  2. Smooth muscle FGF/TGFβ cross talk regulates atherosclerosis progression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yu; Qin, Lingfeng; Li, Guangxin; Tellides, George; Simons, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from contractile to proliferative phenotype is thought to play an important role in atherosclerosis. However, the contribution of this process to plaque growth has never been fully defined. In this study, we show that activation of SMC TGFβ signaling, achieved by suppression of SMC fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling input, induces their conversion to a contractile phenotype and dramatically reduces atherosclerotic plaque size. The FGF/TGFβ signaling cross talk was observed in vitro and in vivo In vitro, inhibition of FGF signaling increased TGFβ activity, thereby promoting smooth muscle differentiation and decreasing proliferation. In vivo, smooth muscle-specific knockout of an FGF receptor adaptor Frs2α led to a profound inhibition of atherosclerotic plaque growth when these animals were crossed on Apoe(-/-) background and subjected to a high-fat diet. In particular, there was a significant reduction in plaque cellularity, increase in fibrous cap area, and decrease in necrotic core size. In agreement with these findings, examination of human coronary arteries with various degrees of atherosclerosis revealed a strong correlation between the activation of FGF signaling, loss of TGFβ activity, and increased disease severity. These results identify SMC FGF/TGFβ signaling cross talk as an important regulator of SMC phenotype switch and document a major contribution of medial SMC proliferation to atherosclerotic plaque growth.

  3. [Effects of FGF-21 on Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in High Glucose Environment].

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Chen, Cheng; An, Zhen-Mei; Li, Yu-Jue; Zhang, Mei; He, He; Li, Shuang-Qing

    2016-09-01

    To determine the effect of fibroblast growth factor-21(FGF-21)on the osteogenic differention of human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) exposed to a hyperglycemia condition in vitro. hBMSCs were isolated from adult bone marrows, and identified by Alizarin red and oil red O staining. The expressions of immunophenotype were analysed using flow cytometry (CD105, CD90, CD73, CD44).HBMSCs were divided into control group[glucose (Glu) concentration of 5.5 mmol/L], Glu A, B, C groups(Glu 16.5, 25, 40 mmol/L), FGF-21 group (Glu 5.5mmol/ L+ FGF-21 ),Glu B+ FGF-21 group, and Glu B +FGF-21+cell mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) blocker (PD98059, SP600125 ,and SB203580) groups. The effect of FGF-21 on the differentiation of hBMSCs was detected using indicators as follows: alkaline phosphatase(ALP)on day 14, mRNA expressions ofALP, osteocalcin(OCN)and Runx2, protein expressions and phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), mitogen-activated protein kinase(P38) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases(JNK) on day 21. hBMSCs differentiated into osteoblast cells and lipocyte. The hBMSCs were identified by flow cytometry.Compared with control group, significant increases of ALP mRNA, OCN mRNA and Runx2mRNA levels, as well as phosphorylation of ERK, P38 and JNK were observed in Glu A, B, C groups.Compared with Glu B group, ALP, OCN and Runx2 mRNA levels, and phosphorylation of ERK, P38 and JNK were decreased in Glu B+FGF-21 group .Compared with Glu B+FGF-21 group, ALP and Runx2 mRNA levels, and phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and P38 were decreased in Glu B +FGF-21 +MAPK blocker groups. High glucose could promote the biomineralization of hBMSCs. FGF-21 in high glucose environment could inhibit the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs.

  4. Reciprocal interactions of Fgf10/Fgfr2b modulate the mouse tongue epithelial differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Wern-Joo; Jung, Hye-In; Choi, Min-A; Han, Jin-Hyun; Gwon, Gi-Jeong; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Lee, Sanggyu; Ryoo, Zae Young; Park, Eui-Kyun; Shin, Hong-In; Jung, Han-Sung; Kim, Jae-Young

    2011-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms for epithelial differentiation have been studied by observing skin development in embryogenesis, but the early signaling modulations involved in tongue epithelial differentiation are not completely understood. Based on the gene expression patterns of the Fgf signaling molecules and previous results from Fgf10 and Fgfr2b knockout mice, it was hypothesized that there would be fundamental signaling interactions through the epithelial Fgfr2b and its mesenchymal ligand Fgf10 to regulate tongue epithelium differentiation. To elucidate these reciprocal interactions in tongue epithelial differentiation, this study employed an in vitro tongue organ culture system with antisense-oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs) and recombinant protein-soaked bead implantation for the loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies. Functional analysis of Fgf signaling revealed precise reciprocal interactions, which showed that mesenchymal Fgf10 rather than Fgf7 modulates tongue epithelial differentiation via Fgfr2b in a temporal- and spatial-specific manner.

  5. DLX5, FGF8 and the Pin1 isomerase control ΔNp63α protein stability during limb development: a regulatory loop at the basis of the SHFM and EEC congenital malformations

    PubMed Central

    Restelli, Michela; Lopardo, Teresa; Lo Iacono, Nadia; Garaffo, Giulia; Conte, Daniele; Rustighi, Alessandra; Napoli, Marco; Del Sal, Giannino; Perez-Morga, David; Costanzo, Antonio; Merlo, Giorgio Roberto; Guerrini, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Ectrodactyly, or Split-Hand/Foot Malformation (SHFM), is a congenital condition characterized by the loss of central rays of hands and feet. The p63 and the DLX5;DLX6 transcription factors, expressed in the embryonic limb buds and ectoderm, are disease genes for these conditions. Mutations of p63 also cause the ectodermal dysplasia–ectrodactyly–cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome, comprising SHFM. Ectrodactyly is linked to defects of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) of the developing limb buds. FGF8 is the key signaling molecule in this process, able to direct proximo-distal growth and patterning of the skeletal primordial of the limbs. In the limb buds of both p63 and Dlx5;Dlx6 murine models of SHFM, the AER is poorly stratified and FGF8 expression is severely reduced. We show here that the FGF8 locus is a downstream target of DLX5 and that FGF8 counteracts Pin1–ΔNp63α interaction. In vivo, lack of Pin1 leads to accumulation of the p63 protein in the embryonic limbs and ectoderm. We show also that ΔNp63α protein stability is negatively regulated by the interaction with the prolyl-isomerase Pin1, via proteasome-mediated degradation; p63 mutant proteins associated with SHFM or EEC syndromes are resistant to Pin1 action. Thus, DLX5, p63, Pin1 and FGF8 participate to the same time- and location-restricted regulatory loop essential for AER stratification, hence for normal patterning and skeletal morphogenesis of the limb buds. These results shed new light on the molecular mechanisms at the basis of the SHFM and EEC limb malformations. PMID:24569166

  6. Foxp1 maintains hair follicle stem cell quiescence through regulation of Fgf18

    PubMed Central

    Leishman, Erin; Howard, Jeffrey M.; Garcia, Gloria E.; Miao, Qi; Ku, Amy T.; Dekker, Joseph D.; Tucker, Haley; Nguyen, Hoang

    2013-01-01

    Hair follicles cyclically degenerate and regenerate throughout adult life and require regular stem cell activation to drive the cycle. In the resting phase of the hair cycle, hair follicle stem cells are maintained in a quiescent state until they receive signals to proliferate. We found that the forkhead transcription factor Foxp1 is crucial for maintaining the quiescence of hair follicle stem cells. Loss of Foxp1 in skin epithelial cells leads to precocious stem cell activation, resulting in drastic shortening of the quiescent phase of the hair cycle. Conversely, overexpression of Foxp1 in keratinocytes prevents cell proliferation by promoting cell cycle arrest. Finally, through both gain- and loss-of-function studies, we identify fibroblast growth factor 18 (Fgf18) as the key downstream target of Foxp1. We show that exogenously supplied FGF18 can prevent the hair follicle stem cells of Foxp1 null mice from being prematurely activated. As Fgf18 controls the length of the quiescent phase and is a key downstream target of Foxp1, our data strongly suggest that Foxp1 regulates the quiescent stem cell state in the hair follicle stem cell niche by controlling Fgf18 expression. PMID:23946441

  7. Heparin-based coacervate of bFGF facilitates peripheral nerve regeneration by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress following sciatic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanqing; Li, Yiyang; Khor, Sinan; Mao, Yuqin; He, Huacheng; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Hongyu; Li, Xiaokun; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Huai; Jin, Qike; Ye, Qingsong; Wang, Zhouguang; Xiao, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Creating a microenvironment at the injury site that favors axonal regrowth and remyelinationis pivotal to the success of therapeutic reinnervation. The mature myelin sheath of the peripheral nervous system depends on active participation of Schwann cells to form new cytoskeletal components and tremendous amounts of relevant neurotrophic factors. In this study, we utilized a new biomaterial for growth factor delivery consisting of a biocompatible polycation, poly(ethylene argininylaspartatediglyceride) and heparin. It is capable of binding a variety of growth factors to deliver basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) through polyvalent ionic interactions for nerve repair. In vitro assays demonstrated that the bFGF loading efficiency reached 10 μg and this delivery vehicle could control the release of bFGF. In vivo, the coacervate enhanced bFGF bioavailability, which improved both motor and sensory function. It could also acceleratemyelinated fiber regeneration and remyelination and promote Schwann cells proliferation. Furthermore, the neuroprotective effect of bFGF-coacervate in sciatic nerve injury was associated with the alleviation of endoplasmic reticulum stress signal. This heparin-based delivery platform leads to increased bFGF loading efficiency and better controls its release, which will provide an effective strategy for peripheral nerve injury regeneration therapy. PMID:28624802

  8. Identification and characterization of VEGF and FGF from Hydra.

    PubMed

    Krishnapati, Lakshmi-Surekha; Ghaskadbi, Surendra

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) play important roles in the formation of the blood vascular system and in axon guidance, nervous system development and function. Here, we report isolation and characterization of VEGF and FGF homologues from Hydra vulgaris Ind-Pune, a Cnidarian which exhibits an organized nervous system and primitive epithelio-muscular cells. VEGF expression was prominent in the endoderm of the peduncle region and tentacles, as evident from in situ hybridization of whole polyps and its transverse sections. High levels of FGF were detected in the ectoderm of the budding region. The expression of VEGF in endodermal and FGF in interstitial cells was confirmed using sf-1 hydra, a temperature-sensitive mutant strain of Hydra magnipapillata. Tissue-specific expression of VEGF and FGF was confirmed by semi quantitative RT-PCR for ectodermal and endodermal tissues in H. vulgaris Ind-Pune. Treatment with SU5416, a specific inhibitor of the VEGF receptor, did not affect the whole polyp, but did delay both budding and head regeneration, suggesting a possible role of VEGF in nerve cell development, tube formation and/or in branching. FGF expression in the ectoderm of budding region, where the majority of interstitial stem cells reside suggests its role in interstitial stem cell maintenance. Further, activation of canonical Wnt signalling with the glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibitor alsterpaullone caused down-regulation of VEGF and FGF, suggesting an antagonistic relationship between the Wnt and VEGF/FGF pathways. Our results indicate that VEGF and FGF evolved early in evolution, before the development of the blood vascular system, and open up the possibility of elucidating the evolutionarily ancient functions of VEGF and FGF.

  9. Therapeutic potential of the endocrine fibroblast growth factors FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23.

    PubMed

    Degirolamo, Chiara; Sabbà, Carlo; Moschetta, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The endocrine fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23, are critical for maintaining whole-body homeostasis, with roles in bile acid, glucose and lipid metabolism, modulation of vitamin D and phosphate homeostasis and metabolic adaptation during fasting. Given these functions, the endocrine FGFs have therapeutic potential in a wide array of chronic human diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and kidney and cardiovascular disease. However, the safety and feasibility of chronic endocrine FGF administration has been challenged, and FGF analogues and mimetics are now being investigated. Here, we discuss current knowledge of the complex biology of the endocrine FGFs and assess how this may be harnessed therapeutically.

  10. Fasting-Induced FGF21 Is Repressed by LXR Activation via Recruitment of an HDAC3 Corepressor Complex in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Amena; Venteclef, Nicolas; Mode, Agneta; Pedrelli, Matteo; Gabbi, Chiara; Clément, Karine; Parini, Paolo; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2012-01-01

    The liver plays a pivotal role in the physiological adaptation to fasting and a better understanding of the metabolic adaptive responses may give hints on new therapeutic strategies to control the metabolic diseases. The liver X receptors (LXRs) are well-established regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism. More recently fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has emerged as an important regulator of energy homeostasis. We hypothesized that the LXR transcription factors could influence Fgf21 expression, which is induced in response to fasting. Wild-type, LXRα−/−, and LXRβ−/− mice were treated for 3 d with vehicle or the LXR agonist GW3965 and fasted for 12 h prior to the killing of the animals. Interestingly, serum FGF21 levels were induced after fasting, but this increase was blunted when the mice were treated with GW3965 independently of genotypes. Compared with wild-type mice, GW3965-treated LXRα−/− and LXRβ−/− mice showed improved insulin sensitivity and enhanced ketogenic response at fasting. Of note is that during fasting, GW3965 treatment tended to reduce liver triglycerides as opposed to the effect of the agonist in the fed state. The LXR-dependent repression of Fgf21 seems to be mainly mediated by the recruitment of LXRβ onto the Fgf21 promoter upon GW3965 treatment. This repression by LXRβ occurs through the recruitment and stabilization of the repressor complex composed of retinoid-related orphan receptor-α/Rev-Erbα/histone deacetylase 3 onto the Fgf21 promoter. Our data clearly demonstrate that there is a cross talk between the LXR and FGF21 signaling pathways in the adaptive response to fasting. PMID:23073827

  11. Fasting-induced FGF21 is repressed by LXR activation via recruitment of an HDAC3 corepressor complex in mice.

    PubMed

    Archer, Amena; Venteclef, Nicolas; Mode, Agneta; Pedrelli, Matteo; Gabbi, Chiara; Clément, Karine; Parini, Paolo; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Korach-André, Marion

    2012-12-01

    The liver plays a pivotal role in the physiological adaptation to fasting and a better understanding of the metabolic adaptive responses may give hints on new therapeutic strategies to control the metabolic diseases. The liver X receptors (LXRs) are well-established regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism. More recently fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has emerged as an important regulator of energy homeostasis. We hypothesized that the LXR transcription factors could influence Fgf21 expression, which is induced in response to fasting. Wild-type, LXRα(-/-), and LXRβ(-/-) mice were treated for 3 d with vehicle or the LXR agonist GW3965 and fasted for 12 h prior to the killing of the animals. Interestingly, serum FGF21 levels were induced after fasting, but this increase was blunted when the mice were treated with GW3965 independently of genotypes. Compared with wild-type mice, GW3965-treated LXRα(-/-) and LXRβ(-/-) mice showed improved insulin sensitivity and enhanced ketogenic response at fasting. Of note is that during fasting, GW3965 treatment tended to reduce liver triglycerides as opposed to the effect of the agonist in the fed state. The LXR-dependent repression of Fgf21 seems to be mainly mediated by the recruitment of LXRβ onto the Fgf21 promoter upon GW3965 treatment. This repression by LXRβ occurs through the recruitment and stabilization of the repressor complex composed of retinoid-related orphan receptor-α/Rev-Erbα/histone deacetylase 3 onto the Fgf21 promoter. Our data clearly demonstrate that there is a cross talk between the LXR and FGF21 signaling pathways in the adaptive response to fasting.

  12. An integrated holo-enhancer unit defines tissue and gene specificity of the Fgf8 regulatory landscape.

    PubMed

    Marinić, Mirna; Aktas, Tugce; Ruf, Sandra; Spitz, François

    2013-03-11

    Fgf8 encodes a key signaling factor, and its precise regulation is essential for embryo patterning. Here, we identified the regulatory modules that control Fgf8 expression during mammalian embryogenesis. These enhancers are interspersed with unrelated genes along a large region of 220 kb; yet they act on Fgf8 only. Intriguingly, this region also contains additional genuine enhancer activities that are not transformed into gene expression. Using genomic engineering strategies, we showed that these multiple and distinct regulatory modules act as a coherent unit and influence genes depending on their position rather than on their promoter sequence. These findings highlight how the structure of a locus regulates the autonomous intrinsic activities of the regulatory elements it contains and contributes to their tissue and target specificities. We discuss the implications of such regulatory systems regarding the evolution of gene expression and the impact of human genomic structural variations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fibroblast growth factor signaling during early vertebrate development.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Ralph T; Niehrs, Christof

    2005-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have been implicated in diverse cellular processes including apoptosis, cell survival, chemotaxis, cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, and proliferation. This review presents our current understanding on the roles of FGF signaling, the pathways employed, and its regulation. We focus on FGF signaling during early embryonic processes in vertebrates, such as induction and patterning of the three germ layers as well as its function in the control of morphogenetic movements.

  14. FGF19 as a postprandial, insulin-independent activator of hepatic protein and glycogen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kir, Serkan; Beddow, Sara A; Samuel, Varman T; Miller, Paul; Previs, Stephen F; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Xu, H Eric; Shulman, Gerald I; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2011-03-25

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 is an enterokine synthesized and released when bile acids are taken up into the ileum. We show that FGF19 stimulates hepatic protein and glycogen synthesis but does not induce lipogenesis. The effects of FGF19 are independent of the activity of either insulin or the protein kinase Akt and, instead, are mediated through a mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway that activates components of the protein translation machinery and stimulates glycogen synthase activity. Mice lacking FGF15 (the mouse FGF19 ortholog) fail to properly maintain blood concentrations of glucose and normal postprandial amounts of liver glycogen. FGF19 treatment restored the loss of glycogen in diabetic animals lacking insulin. Thus, FGF19 activates a physiologically important, insulin-independent endocrine pathway that regulates hepatic protein and glycogen metabolism.

  15. Human FGF1 promoter is active in ependymal cells and dopaminergic neurons in the brains of F1B-GFP transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Shu; Lin, Hua-Kuo; Chiu, Hsun; Lee, Don-Ching; Chung, Yu-Fen; Chiu, Ing-Ming

    2015-03-01

    FGF1 is involved in multiple biological functions and exhibits the importance in neuroprotective effects. Our previous studies indicated that, in human brain and retina, the FGF1B promoter controlled the expression of FGF1. However, the exact function and regulation of FGF1 in brain is still unclear. Here, we generated F1B-GFP transgenic mice that expressed the GFP reporter gene under the control of human FGF1B promoter (-540 to +31). Using the fresh brain sections of F1B-GFP transgenic mice, we found that the F1B-GFP cells expressed strong fluorescent signals in the ventricular system throughout the brain. The results of immunohistochemistry further showed that two distinct populations of F1B-GFP(+) cells existed in the brains of F1B-GFP transgenic mice. We demonstrated that one population of F1B-GFP(+) cells was ependymal cells, which distributed along the entire ventricles, and the second population of F1B-GFP(+) cells was neuronal cells that projected their long processes into multiple directions in specific areas of the brain. The double labeling of F1B-GFP(+) cells and tyrosine hydroxylase indicated that a subpopulation of F1B-GFP(+) -neuronal cells was dopaminergic neurons. Importantly, these F1B-GFP(+) /TH(+) cells were distributed in the main dopaminergic neuronal groups including hypothalamus, ventral tegmental area, and raphe nuclei. These results suggested that human FGF1B promoter was active in ependymal cells, neurons, and a portion of dopaminergic neurons. Thus, the F1B-GFP transgenic mice provide an animal model not only for studying FGF1 gene expression in vivo but also for understanding the role of FGF1 contribution in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.

  16. PML control of cytokine signaling.

    PubMed

    Maarifi, Ghizlane; Chelbi-Alix, Mounira K; Nisole, Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein is a tumor suppressor acting as the organizer of nuclear matrix-associated structures named nuclear bodies (NBs). The involvement of PML in various cell processes, including cell death, senescence or antiviral defense underlines the multiple functions of PML due to its ability to interact with various partners either in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. The importance of paracrine signaling in the regulation of PML expression is well established. More recently, a growing body of evidence also supports PML as a key regulator of cytokine signaling. These findings shed light on unsuspected biological functions of PML such as immune response, inflammation and cytokine-induced apoptosis. Here we review the current understanding of the pleiotropic activities of PML on cytokine-induced signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lineage-specific loss of FGF17 within the avian orders Galliformes and Passeriformes

    PubMed Central

    Abramyan, John

    2015-01-01

    The genomic and developmental complexity of vertebrates is commonly attributed to two rounds of whole genome duplications which occurred at the base of the vertebrate radiation. These duplications led to the rise of several, multi-gene families of developmental proteins like the Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs); a signaling protein family which functions at various stages of embryonic development. One of the major FGF assemblages arising from these duplications is the FGF8 subfamily, which includes FGF8, FGF17, and FGF18 in tetrapods. While FGF8 and FGF18 are found in all tetrapods and are critical for embryonic survival, genomic analyses suggest putative loss of FGF17 in various lineages ranging from frogs and fish, to the chicken. This study utilizes 27 avian genomes in conjunction with molecular analyses of chicken embryos to confirm the loss of FGF17 in chicken as a true, biological occurrence. FGF17 is also missing in the turkey, black grouse, Japanese quail and the northern bobwhite genomes. These species, along with chicken, form a monophyletic clade in the order Galliformes. Four additional species, members of the clade Passeroidea, within the order Passeriformes, are also missing FGF17. Additionally, analysis of intact FGF17 in other avian lineages reveals that it is still under strong purifying selection, despite being seemingly dispensable. Thus, FGF17 likely represents a molecular spandrel arising from a genome duplication event and due to its high connectivity with FGF8/FGF18, and potential for interference with their function, is retained under strong purifying selection, despite itself not having a strong selective advantage. PMID:25791492

  18. FGF receptors: cancer biology and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masaru; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2014-03-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are involved in a variety of cellular processes, such as stemness, proliferation, anti-apoptosis, drug resistance, and angiogenesis. Here, FGF signaling network, cancer genetics/genomics of FGF receptors (FGFRs), and FGFR-targeted therapeutics will be reviewed. FGF signaling to RAS-MAPK branch and canonical WNT signaling cascade mutually regulate transcription programming. FGF signaling to PI3K-AKT branch and Hedgehog, Notch, TGFβ, and noncanonical WNT signaling cascades regulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion. Gene amplification of FGFR1 occurs in lung cancer and estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer, and that of FGFR2 in diffuse-type gastric cancer and triple-negative breast cancer. Chromosomal translocation of FGFR1 occurs in the 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, as with FGFR3 in multiple myeloma and peripheral T-cell lymphoma. FGFR1 and FGFR3 genes are fused to neighboring TACC1 and TACC3 genes, respectively, due to interstitial deletions in glioblastoma multiforme. Missense mutations of FGFR2 are found in endometrial uterine cancer and melanoma, and similar FGFR3 mutations in invasive bladder tumors, and FGFR4 mutations in rhabdomyosarcoma. Dovitinib, Ki23057, ponatinib, and AZD4547 are orally bioavailable FGFR inhibitors, which have demonstrated striking effects in preclinical model experiments. Dovitinib, ponatinib, and AZD4547 are currently in clinical trial as anticancer drugs. Because there are multiple mechanisms of actions for FGFR inhibitors to overcome drug resistance, FGFR-targeted therapy is a promising strategy for the treatment of refractory cancer. Whole exome/transcriptome sequencing will be introduced to the clinical laboratory as the companion diagnostic platform facilitating patient selection for FGFR-targeted therapeutics in the era of personalized medicine. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. FGF and BMP derived from dorsal root ganglia regulate blastema induction in limb regeneration in Ambystoma mexicanum.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Akira; Makanae, Aki; Nishimoto, Yurie; Mitogawa, Kazumasa

    2016-09-01

    Urodele amphibians have a remarkable organ regeneration ability that is regulated by neural inputs. The identification of these neural inputs has been a challenge. Recently, Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) and Bone morphogenic protein (Bmp) were shown to substitute for nerve functions in limb and tail regeneration in urodele amphibians. However, direct evidence of Fgf and Bmp being secreted from nerve endings and regulating regeneration has not yet been shown. Thus, it remained uncertain whether they were the nerve factors responsible for successful limb regeneration. To gather experimental evidence, the technical difficulties involved in the usage of axolotls had to be overcome. We achieved this by modifying the electroporation method. When Fgf8-AcGFP or Bmp7-AcGFP was electroporated into the axolotl dorsal root ganglia (DRG), GFP signals were detectable in the regenerating limb region. This suggested that Fgf8 and Bmp7 synthesized in neural cells in the DRG were delivered to the limbs through the long axons. Further knockdown experiments with double-stranded RNA interference resulted in impaired limb regeneration ability. These results strongly suggest that Fgf and Bmp are the major neural inputs that control the organ regeneration ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Abnormal bone growth and selective translational regulation in basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Coffin, J D; Florkiewicz, R Z; Neumann, J; Mort-Hopkins, T; Dorn, G W; Lightfoot, P; German, R; Howles, P N; Kier, A; O'Toole, B A

    1995-01-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) is a pleiotropic growth factor detected in many different cells and tissues. Normally synthesized at low levels, FGF-2 is elevated in various pathologies, most notably in cancer and injury repair. To investigate the effects of elevated FGF-2, the human full-length cDNA was expressed in transgenic mice under control of a phosphoglycerate kinase promoter. Overexpression of FGF-2 caused a variety of skeletal malformations including shortening and flattening of long bones and moderate macrocephaly. Comparison by Western blot of FGF-2 transgenic mice to nontransgenic littermates showed expression of human FGF-2 protein in all major organs and tissues examined including brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, and skeletal muscle; however, different molar ratios of FGF-2 protein isoforms were observed between different organs and tissues. Some tissues preferentially synthesize larger isoforms of FGF-2 while other tissues produce predominantly smaller 18-kDa FGF-2. Translation of the high molecular weight isoforms initiates from unconventional CUG codons and translation of the 18-kDa isoform initiates from an AUG codon in the FGF-2 mRNA. Thus the Western blot data from the FGF-2 transgenic mice suggest that tissue-specific expression of FGF-2 isoforms is regulated translationally. Images PMID:8590811

  1. Loss of FGF21 in diabetic mouse during hepatocellular carcinogenetic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan; Li, Yan; Liang, Tingting; Lu, Xuemian; Liu, Xingkai; Zhang, Chi; Jiang, Xin; Martin, Robert C; Cheng, Mingliang; Cai, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes associated metabolic syndrome has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Cirrhosis, in fact, was not always a prerequisite of HCC development and this might particularly apply to the metabolic abnormality associated HCC. This study was to investigate diabetes associated HCC and the potential role of FGF21 during carcinogenetic transformation of HCC. Dimethylnitrosamine (DEN) was used to induce HCC in the diabetic OVE26 mice. Pronounced damage characterized by steatohepatitis was found in the liver of diabetic mice. Steatohepatitis accompanied by constant cell proliferation and tumor cell growth were also found in the hepatic tissues of diabetic OVE26 mice when DEN being administrated. FGF21 protein level increased in liver tissues at an early stage along with steatohepatitis in diabetic OVE26 mice, but decreased in liver tissues later when HCC was developed. In addition, decreased FGF21 protein level was associated with cancerous hyper-proliferation and aberrant p53 and TGF-β/Smad signaling during HCC development. Loss of FGF21 may play an important role in HCC carcinogenetic transformation during metabolic liver injury in diabetic animals. The present finding calls attention to the need to control metabolic disorders associated with diabetes and may further develop a protective strategy against HCC. PMID:26175944

  2. Crouzon's syndrome: differential in vitro secretion of bFGF, TGFbeta I isoforms and extracellular matrix macromolecules in patients with FGFR2 gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Tiziano; Lilli, Cinzia; Marinucci, Lorella; Bellocchio, Silvia; Pezzetti, Furio; Carinci, Francesco; Stabellini, Giordano; Balducci, Chiara; Locci, Paola

    2002-07-21

    In the Crouzon's syndrome the cranial morphogenic processes are altered due to the early fusion of cranial sutures. We analysed the phenotype of cultured fibroblasts from normal subjects and from Crouzon patients with a specific fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 mutation resulting in a Cys 342 Tyr substitution within the third immunoglobulin domain. Crouzon fibroblasts differed from normal fibroblasts in their extracellular matrix macromolecule accumulation. In Crouzon fibroblasts glycosaminoglycans and fibronectin were decreased and type I collagen increased. As transforming growth factors beta (TGF beta) and basic fibroblasts growth factor (bFGF) together regulate extracellular matrix deposition, we evaluated TGF beta(1), TGF beta(3) and bFGF production by Crouzon and normal fibroblasts. TGF beta(1), TGFb(3) and bFGF levels were lower while TGF beta(1) mRNA transcripts were higher in Crouzon cells. As the increased TGF beta(1) gene expression did not translate into a parallel increase of secreted TGF beta(1), control of TGF beta(1) secretion may be mainly post-transcriptional. Furthermore, adding bFGF increased TGF beta(1) and TGF beta(3) secretion, suggesting the drop may be due to the altered signal transduction of bFGF. These innovative data suggest the in vitro differences between normal and Crouzon fibroblasts may be due to an imbalance in TGF beta and bFGF levels which alters the microenvironment where morphogenesis takes place.

  3. Controlling of explicit internal signal stochastic resonance by external signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ya Ping; Wang, Pin; Li, Qian Shu

    2004-09-01

    Explicit internal signal stochastic resonance (EISSR) is investigated in a model of energy transduction of molecular machinery when noise is added to the region of oscillation in the presence of external signal (ES). It is found that EISSR could be controlled, i.e., enhanced or suppressed by adjusting frequency (ωe) and amplitude (A) of ES, and that there exits an optimal frequency for ES, which makes EISSR strength reach the maximum. Meanwhile, a critical amplitude (Ac) is found, which is a threshold of occurrence of EISSR. Finally, the difference and similarity between EISSR and IISSR (implicit internal signal stochastic resonance) are discussed.

  4. Spiel-ohne-grenzen/pou2 mediates regional competence to respond to Fgf8 during zebrafish early neural development.

    PubMed

    Reim, Gerlinde; Brand, Michael

    2002-02-01

    Neural patterning of the vertebrate brain starts within the ectoderm during gastrulation and requires the activity of organizer cell populations in the neurectoderm. One such organizer is located at the prospective midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) and controls development of the midbrain and the anterior hindbrain via the secreted signaling molecule Fgf8. However, little is known about how the ability of neural precursors to respond to Fgf8 is regulated. We have studied the function of the zebrafish spiel-ohne-grenzen (spg) gene in early neural development. Genetic mapping and molecular characterization presented in the accompanying paper revealed that spg mutations disrupt the pou2 gene, which encodes a POU domain transcription factor that is specifically expressed in the MHB primordium, and is orthologous to mammalian Oct3/Oct4. We show that embryos homozygous for spg/pou2 have severe defects in development of the midbrain and hindbrain primordium. Key molecules that function in the formation of the MHB, such as pax2.1, spry4, wnt1, her5, eng2 and eng3, and in hindbrain development, such as krox20, gbx2, fkd3 and pou2, are all abnormal in spg mutant embryos. By contrast, regional definition of the future MHB in the neuroectoderm by complementary expression of otx2 and gbx1, before the establishment of the complex regulatory cascade at the MHB, is normal in spg embryos. Moreover, the Fgf8 and Wnt1 signaling pathways are activated normally at the MHB but become dependent on spg towards the end of gastrulation. Therefore, spg plays a crucial role both in establishing and in maintaining development of the MHB primordium. Transplantation chimeras show that normal spg function is required within the neuroectoderm but not the endomesoderm. Importantly, gain-of-function experiments by mRNA injection of fgf8 and pou2 or Fgf8 bead implantations, as well as analysis of spg-ace double mutants show that spg embryos are insensitive to Fgf8, although Fgf receptor expression

  5. Dynamic relationship of the epithelium and mesenchyme during salivary gland initiation: the role of Fgf10.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kirsty L; Gaete, Marcia; Matalova, Eva; Deutsch, Danny; Rice, David; Tucker, Abigail S

    2013-01-01

    Salivary glands provide an excellent model for the study of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. We have looked at the interactions involved in the early initiation and development of murine salivary glands using classic recombination experiments and knockout mice. We show that salivary gland epithelium, at thickening and initial bud stages, is able to direct salivary gland development in non-gland pharyngeal arch mesenchyme at early stages. The early salivary gland epithelium is therefore able to induce gland development in non-gland tissue. This ability later shifts to the mesenchyme, with non-gland epithelium, such as from the limb bud, able to form a branching gland when combined with pseudoglandular stage gland mesenchyme. This shift appears to involve Fgf signalling, with signals from the epithelium inducing Fgf10 in the mesenchyme. Fgf10 then signals back to the epithelium to direct gland down-growth and bud development. These experiments highlight the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal signalling in gland initiation, controlling where, when and how many salivary glands form.

  6. Dynamic relationship of the epithelium and mesenchyme during salivary gland initiation: the role of Fgf10

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kirsty L.; Gaete, Marcia; Matalova, Eva; Deutsch, Danny; Rice, David; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Salivary glands provide an excellent model for the study of epithelial–mesenchymal interactions. We have looked at the interactions involved in the early initiation and development of murine salivary glands using classic recombination experiments and knockout mice. We show that salivary gland epithelium, at thickening and initial bud stages, is able to direct salivary gland development in non-gland pharyngeal arch mesenchyme at early stages. The early salivary gland epithelium is therefore able to induce gland development in non-gland tissue. This ability later shifts to the mesenchyme, with non-gland epithelium, such as from the limb bud, able to form a branching gland when combined with pseudoglandular stage gland mesenchyme. This shift appears to involve Fgf signalling, with signals from the epithelium inducing Fgf10 in the mesenchyme. Fgf10 then signals back to the epithelium to direct gland down-growth and bud development. These experiments highlight the importance of epithelial–mesenchymal signalling in gland initiation, controlling where, when and how many salivary glands form. PMID:24167707

  7. Retinoic acid signaling controls the formation, proliferation and survival of the blastema during adult zebrafish fin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Blum, Nicola; Begemann, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    Adult teleosts rebuild amputated fins through a proliferation-dependent process called epimorphic regeneration, in which a blastema of cycling progenitor cells replaces the lost fin tissue. The genetic networks that control formation of blastema cells from formerly quiescent stump tissue and subsequent blastema function are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the cellular and molecular consequences of genetically interfering with retinoic acid (RA) signaling for the formation of the zebrafish blastema. We show that RA signaling is upregulated within the first few hours after fin amputation in the stump mesenchyme, where it controls Fgf, Wnt/β-catenin and Igf signaling. Genetic inhibition of the RA pathway at this stage blocks blastema formation by inhibiting cell cycle entry of stump cells and impairs the formation of the basal epidermal layer, a signaling center in the wound epidermis. In the established blastema, RA signaling remains active to ensure the survival of the highly proliferative blastemal population by controlling expression of the anti-apoptotic factor bcl2. In addition, RA signaling maintains blastema proliferation through the activation of growth-stimulatory signals mediated by Fgf and Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as well as by reducing signaling through the growth-inhibitory non-canonical Wnt pathway. The endogenous roles of RA in adult vertebrate appendage regeneration are uncovered here for the first time. They provide a mechanistic framework to understand previous observations in salamanders that link endogenous sources of RA to the regeneration process itself and support the hypothesis that the RA signaling pathway is an essential component of vertebrate tissue regeneration.

  8. Biological variability of plasma intact and C-terminal FGF23 measurements.

    PubMed

    Smith, Edward R; Cai, Michael M; McMahon, Lawrence P; Holt, Stephen G

    2012-09-01

    FGF23 measurement may have a role in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our objective was to study the biological variability of plasma intact FGF23 (iFGF23) and C-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23) concentrations. Plasma samples were taken from 12 healthy adults at multiple time points on 2 consecutive days to assess diurnal variability of FGF23 concentrations. Early-morning fasting and nonfasting samples were also taken over a 6-wk period to estimate components of biological variation. Samples from 170 volunteers were used to define reference intervals. FGF23 concentrations were measured by commercial ELISA. Western blotting was used to analyze FGF23 species from the plasma of healthy adults and patients with predialysis CKD and those undergoing dialysis. A total of 180 healthy adults and 18 adults with stage 3-5D CKD participated in this study at a hospital research unit. Estimates were made of the biological variability of plasma FGF23 concentrations. iFGF23, but not cFGF23, showed significant diurnal variation. cFGF23 had a significantly lower intra-individual variation than iFGF23 (8.3 vs. 18.3%) but higher inter-individual variation than iFGF23 (28.9 vs. 19.2%). Fourteen samples would be needed to estimate an individual's homeostatic set point (within 10%) for iFGF23 compared with only three samples for cFGF23. Using Western blotting, C-terminal FGF23 fragments were detected in the plasma of individuals with normal renal function and at all stages of renal disease. The percent cFGF23 was significantly higher in those without renal impairment (P < 0.001) and was positively correlated with plasma phosphate concentration in those with normal renal function. The high intra-individual biological variability of iFGF23 may limit its clinical use as a diagnostic or management tool. Risk-related thresholds may be more appropriate for clinical decision making based on cFGF23 measurements than conventional reference intervals. FGF23 cleavage pathways

  9. Signaling Pathways Controlling Microglia Chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yang; Xie, Lirui; Chung, Chang Y.

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are the primary resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). They are the first line of defense of the brain’s innate immune response against infection, injury, and diseases. Microglia respond to extracellular signals and engulf unwanted neuronal debris by phagocytosis, thereby maintaining normal cellular homeostasis in the CNS. Pathological stimuli such as neuronal injury induce transformation and activation of resting microglia with ramified morphology into a motile amoeboid form and activated microglia chemotax toward lesion site. This review outlines the current research on microglial activation and chemotaxis. PMID:28301917

  10. Digitally Controlled Analog Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    as a* .1 4* U S -;. - 4.. 14 01 1.2-8 A discusion of alternative state of the art approaches to monolithic continuous-time signal processing can be...vi(t) art , he input and output samples which are simultaneously measured at time t. There are three unknowns in this expression; the maximum input and...Unfortunately the current OpAmp bandwidth of 30MHz is near state-of-the- art limits. 2.2-108 (2) The finite voltage-dependent on-resistance of S, distorted

  11. Effect of FGF-binding Protein 3 on Vascular Permeability*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wentao; Chen, Yifan; Swift, Matthew R.; Tassi, Elena; Stylianou, Dora C.; Gibby, Krissa A.; Riegel, Anna T.; Wellstein, Anton

    2008-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-binding protein 1 (FGF-BP1 is BP1) is involved in the regulation of embryonic development, tumor growth, and angiogenesis by mobilizing endogenous FGFs from their extracellular matrix storage. Here we describe a new member of the FGF-BP family, human BP3. We show that the hBP3 protein is secreted from cells, binds to FGF2 in vitro and in intact cells, and inhibits FGF2 binding to heparin. To determine the function of hBP3 in vivo, hBP3 was transiently expressed in chicken embryos and resulted in >50% lethality within 24 h because of vascular leakage. The onset of vascular permeability was monitored by recording the extravasation kinetics of FITC-labeled 40-kDa dextran microperfused into the vitelline vein of 3-day-old embryos. Vascular permeability increased as early as 8 h after expression of hBP3. The increased vascular permeability caused by hBP3 was prevented by treatment of embryos with PD173074, a selective FGFR kinase inhibitor. Interestingly, a C-terminal 66-amino acid fragment (C66) of hBP3, which contains the predicted FGF binding domain, still inhibited binding of FGF2 to heparin similar to full-length hBP3. However, expression of the C66 fragment did not increase vascular permeability on its own, but required the administration of exogenous FGF2 protein. We conclude that the FGF binding domain and the heparin binding domain are necessary for the hBP3 interaction with endogenous FGF and the activation of FGFR signaling in vivo. PMID:18669637

  12. Fibroblast growth factor 21 in breast milk controls neonatal intestine function.

    PubMed

    Gavaldà-Navarro, Aleix; Hondares, Elayne; Giralt, Marta; Mampel, Teresa; Iglesias, Roser; Villarroya, Francesc

    2015-09-02

    FGF21 is a hormonal factor with important functions in the control of metabolism.