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Sample records for fiber optic temperature

  1. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawatari, Takeo (Inventor); Gaubis, Philip A. (Inventor); Mattes, Brenton L. (Inventor); Charnetski, Clark J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A fiber optic temperature sensor uses a light source which transmits light through an optical fiber to a sensor head at the opposite end of the optical fiber from the light source. The sensor head has a housing coupled to the end of the optical fiber. A metallic reflective surface is coupled to the housing adjacent the end of the optical fiber to form a gap having a predetermined length between the reflective surface and the optical fiber. A detection system is also coupled to the optical fiber which determines the temperature at the sensor head from an interference pattern of light which is reflected from the reflective surface.

  2. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawatari, Takeo (Inventor); Gaubis, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A fiber optic temperature sensor uses a light source which transmits light through an optical fiber to a sensor head at the opposite end of the optical fiber from the light source. The sensor head has a housing coupled to the end of the optical fiber. A metallic reflective surface is coupled to the housing adjacent the end of the optical fiber to form a gap having a predetermined length between the reflective surface and the optical fiber. A detection system is also coupled to the optical fiber which determines the temperature at the sensor head from an interference pattern of light which is reflected from the reflective surface.

  3. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quick, William H. (Inventor); August, Rudolf R. (Inventor); James, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Strahan, Jr., Virgil H. (Inventor); Nichols, Donald K. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An inexpensive, lightweight fiber optic micro-sensor that is suitable for applications which may require remote temperature sensing. The disclosed temperature sensor includes a phosphor material that, after receiving incident light stimulation, is adapted to emit phosphorescent radiation output signals, the amplitude decay rate and wavelength of which are functions of the sensed temperature.

  4. Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maram, Jonathan M.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed sensor measures temperatures over wide range, from cryogenic liquids to burning gases. Made in part of optical fibers, sensor lighter in weight than thermocouple and immune to electromagnetic interference. Device does not respond to temperatures elsewhere than at sensing tip. Thermal expansion and contraction of distance between fiber end and mirror alters interference between light reflected from those two surfaces, thereby giving interferometric indication of temperatures.

  5. Developments on high temperature fiber optic microphone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth D., II; Zuckerwar, Allan J.

    1992-01-01

    A fiber optic microphone, based on the principle of the fiber optic lever, features small size, extended bandwidth, and capability to operate at high temperatures. These are requirements for measurements in hypersonic flow. This paper describes the principles of operation of fiber optic sensors, a discussion of the design of a fiber optic microphone, the functional elements and packaging techniques of the optoelectronic circuitry, and the calibration techniques used in the development of the high temperature fiber optic microphone.

  6. Improved Optical-Fiber Temperature Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, Robert S.; Egalon, Claudio O.

    1993-01-01

    In optical-fiber temperature sensors of proposed type, phosphorescence and/or fluorescence in temperature-dependent coating layers coupled to photodetectors. Phosphorescent and/or fluorescent behavior(s) of coating material(s) depend on temperature; coating material or mixture of materials selected so one can deduce temperature from known temperature dependence of phosphorescence and/or fluorescence spectrum, and/or characteristic decay of fluorescence. Basic optical configuration same as that of optical-fiber chemical detectors described in "Making Optical-Fiber Chemical Detectors More Sensitive" (LAR-14525).

  7. Optical Fibers Would Sense Local Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed fiber-optic transducers measure local temperatures. Includes lead-in and lead-out lengths producing no changes in phase shifts, plus short sensing length in which phase shift sensitive to temperature. Phase shifts in two-mode fibers vary with temperatures.

  8. Microbend fiber-optic temperature sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, J.D.

    1995-05-30

    A temperature sensor is made of optical fiber into which quasi-sinusoidal microbends have been permanently introduced. In particular, the present invention includes a graded-index optical fiber directing steady light through a section of the optical fiber containing a plurality of permanent microbends. The microbend section of the optical fiber is contained in a thermally expansive sheath, attached to a thermally expansive structure, or attached to a bimetallic element undergoing temperature changes and being monitored. The microbend section is secured to the thermally expansive sheath which allows the amplitude of the microbends to decrease with temperature. The resultant increase in the optical fiber`s transmission thus allows temperature to be measured. The plural microbend section of the optical fiber is secured to the thermally expansive structure only at its ends and the microbends themselves are completely unconstrained laterally by any bonding agent to obtain maximum longitudinal temperature sensitivity. Although the permanent microbends reduce the transmission capabilities of fiber optics, the present invention utilizes this phenomenon as a transduction mechanism which is optimized to measure temperature. 5 figs.

  9. Fiber optic wide region temperature sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xunjian; Nonaka, Koji; Song, Hongbin

    2008-12-01

    A fiber optic wide region temperature sensing system based on optical pulse correlation measurement and SHG differential detection technique is proposed and demonstrated. In order to establish the reliability of this fiber optic temperature sensing system, a long-term wide region outside temperature monitoring experiment with a new designed 20ps time-bias optical pulse correlation unit for wide measurement rang was carried out. The temperature measured by means of a correlation sensor had the same variation as and higher sensitivity and quick measurement response than the digital thermometer. The resolution of the correlation sensor is approximately +/-0.01 oC . This fiber optic temperature sensor can measure even in very tough environment and low and high temperature range. Not only point temperature but also a field area average temperature can monitor by this system.

  10. Microbend fiber-optic temperature sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1995-01-01

    A temperature sensor is made of optical fiber into which quasi-sinusoidal microbends have been permanently introduced. In particular, the present invention includes a graded-index optical fiber directing steady light through a section of the optical fiber containing a plurality of permanent microbends. The microbend section of the optical fiber is contained in a thermally expansive sheath, attached to a thermally expansive structure, or attached to a bimetallic element undergoing temperature changes and being monitored. The microbend section is secured to the thermally expansive sheath which allows the amplitude of the microbends to decrease with temperature. The resultant increase in the optical fiber's transmission thus allows temperature to be measured. The plural microbend section of the optical fiber is secured to the thermally expansive structure only at its ends and the microbends themselves are completely unconstrained laterally by any bonding agent to obtain maximum longitudinal temperature sensitivity. Although the permanent microbends reduce the transmission capabilities of fiber optics, the present invention utilizes this phenomenon as a transduction mechanism which is optimized to measure temperature.

  11. Metal-Coated Optical Fibers for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeakes, Jason; Murphy, Kent; Claus, Richard; Greene, Jonathan; Tran, Tuan

    1996-01-01

    This poster will highlight on-going research at the Virginia Tech Fiber & Electro-Optics Research Center (FEORC) in the area of thin films on optical fibers. Topics will include the sputter deposition of metals and metal; alloys onto optical fiber and fiber optic sensors for innovative applications. Specific information will be available on thin film fiber optic hydrogen sensors, corrosion sensors, and metal-coated optical fiber for high temperature aerospace applications.

  12. Experiments on room temperature optical fiber-fiber direct bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jinping; Yan, Ping; Xiao, Qirong; Wang, Yaping; Gong, Mali

    2012-08-01

    High quality permanent connection between optical fibers is a significant issue in optics and communication. Studies on room temperature optical large diameter fiber-fiber direct bonding, which is essentially surface interactions of glass material, are presented here. Bonded fiber pairs are obtained for the first time through the bonding technics illustrated here. Two different kinds of bonding technics are provided-fresh surface (freshly grinded and polished) bonding and hydrophobic surface (activated by H2SO4 and HF) bonding. By means of fresh surface bonding, a bonded fiber pair with light transmitting efficiency of 98.1% and bond strength of 21.2 N is obtained. Besides, in the bonding process, chemical surface treatment of fibers' end surfaces is an important step. Therefore, various ways of surface treatment are analyzed and compared, based on atomic force microscopy force curves of differently disposed surfaces. According to the comparison, fresh surfaces are suggested as the prior choice in room temperature optical fiber-fiber bonding, owing to their larger adhesive force, attractive force, attractive distance, and adhesive range.

  13. Fiber optic temperature sensors for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaafsma, David T.; Palmer, Gail; Bechtel, James H.

    2003-07-01

    Recent developments in fiber-optic sensor technology have demonstrated the utility of fiber-optic sensors for both medical and industrial applications. Fiber sensors based on fluorescent decay of rare earth doped materials allow rapid and accurate temperature measurement in challenging environments. Here we review the principles of operation of these sensors with a rare earth doped probe material and demonstrate why this material is an excellent choice for these types of sensors. The decay time technique allows accurate temperature determination from two measurements of the fluorescence intensity at a well-defined time interval. With this method, all instrumental and extraneous environmental effect will cancel, thus providing an accurate temperature measurement. Stability data will be presented for the fiber-optic probes. For medical applications, new breakthroughs in RF ablation technology and electro-surgical procedures are being introduced as alternative, less invasive treatment for removal of small tumors and for removal of plaque within arteries as a preventive treatment that avoids open heart surgery. The availability of small diameter temperature probes (230 microns or 450 microns in diameter) offers a whole new scope to temperature measurement. Accurate and reliable temperature monitoring during any laser treatment procedure or RF ablation at the surgical site is critical. Precise, NIST traceable reliable results are needed to prevent overheating or underheating during treatment. In addition, how interventional catheters are used in hyperthermia studies and the advantages to having flexible cables and multiple sensors are discussed. Preliminary data is given from an animal study where temperature was monitored in a pig during an RF study.

  14. Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing of Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huwald, H.; Higgins, C. W.; Diebold, M.; Lehning, M.; Tyler, S. W.; Selker, J. S.; Parlange, M. B.

    2009-12-01

    Physical properties of seasonal and perennial snow covers can vary significantly on the order of a few meters with direct impact on snow dynamics, thermodynamics, temporal evolution, and ultimately on local snow water storage representing a challenge for measurement and modeling efforts. Detailed knowledge on small scale variability in snow internal temperature, density, and resulting subsurface heat fluxes is relatively limited, and pertinent snow cover internal data are also difficult to obtain. Uncertainty in the quantification of the components of the surface and snow internal energy budget is a consequence. From an experimental point of view, acquisition of distributed temperature data in the snow pack is non-trivial since accumulation, ablation, metamorphosis, etc., lead to continuous changes in the snow surface level. To provide better observational evidence of small scale variability and the associated snow physical processes we use fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS), a rapidly emerging technology in environmental sensing, which provides high resolution temperature measurements in space (1 meter) and time (a few minutes) with a resolution better than 0.1C over distances of several kilometers. Innovative experimental designs such as 2D transects and high resolution vertical temperature profiles using fiber optic cables were deployed and tested at high altitude sites in the Swiss Alps. The results of the experiments yield both expertise in the application of the novel measurement systems and new insight in snow pack thermodynamics such as 2D conductive heat fluxes. Also, wind pumping processes were investigated with a complimentary experimental system of synchronized high frequency measurements of atmospheric turbulence and barometric pressure fluctuations in the snow.

  15. An inexpensive high-temperature optical fiber thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Travis J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Tree, Dale R.; Allred, David D.

    2017-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose tip is coated with a highly conductive, opaque material. When heated, this sensing tip becomes an isothermal cavity that emits like a blackbody. This emission is used to predict the sensing tip temperature. In this work, analytical and experimental research has been conducted to further advance the development of optical fiber thermometry. An inexpensive optical fiber thermometer is developed by applying a thin coating of a high-temperature cement onto the tip of a silica optical fiber. An FTIR spectrometer is used to detect the spectral radiance exiting the fiber. A rigorous mathematical model of the irradiation incident on the detection system is developed. The optical fiber thermometer is calibrated using a blackbody radiator and inverse methods are used to predict the sensing tip temperature when exposed to various heat sources.

  16. Graphene-based all-fiber-optic temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Huihui; Tian, Zhengwen; Jin, Shaoshen; Yu, Jianhui; Liao, Guozhen; Zhang, Jun; Tang, Jieyuan; Luo, Yunhan; Chen, Zhe

    2014-03-01

    A novel all fiber-optic temperature sensor based on graphene film coated on a side polished fiber (SPF) was demonstrated. Significantly enhanced interaction between the propagating light and the graphene film can be achieved via strong evanescent light of the SPF. The experiments shows that the strong interaction results in temperature sensing with a dynamic optical power variation of 11.3dB in SPF. The novel temperature fiber sensor possesses a linear correlation coefficient of 99.4%, a sensitivity of 0.13dB/°C, a precision of better than 0.03°C. Furthermore, the graphene-based all fiber-optic temperature sensor is easy to fabricate, compatible with fiber-optic systems and possesses high potentiality in photonics applications such as all fiber-optic temperature sensing network.

  17. Modulated-splitting-ratio fiber-optic temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn; Anthan, Donald J.; Rys, John R.; Fritsch, Klaus; Ruppe, Walter A.

    1988-01-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor is described, which uses a small silicon beamsplitter whose splitting ratio varies as a function of temperature. A four-beam technique is used to measure the sensor's temperature-indicating splitting ratio. This referencing method provides a measurement that is largely independent of the transmission properties of the sensor's optical fiber link. A significant advantage of this sensor, relative to other fiber-optic sensors, is its high stability, which permits the fiber-optic components to be readily substituted, thereby simplifying the sensor's installation and maintenance.

  18. Modulated-splitting-ratio fiber-optic temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn; Anthan, Donald J.; Rys, John R.; Fritsch, Klaus; Ruppe, Walter R.

    1989-01-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor is described that uses a small silicon beamsplitter whose splitting ratio varies as a function of temperature. A four-beam technique is used to measure the sensor's temperature-indicating splitting ratio. This referencing method provides a measurement that is largely independent of the transmission properties of the sensor's optical fiber link. A significant advantage of this sensor, relative to other fiber-optic sensors, is its high stability, which permits the fiber-optic components to be readily substituted, thereby simplifying the sensor's installation and maintenance.

  19. Portable optical fiber probe for in vivo brain temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Musolino, Stefan; Schartner, Erik P; Tsiminis, Georgios; Salem, Abdallah; Monro, Tanya M; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2016-08-01

    This work reports on the development of an optical fiber based probe for in vivo measurements of brain temperature. By utilizing a thin layer of rare-earth doped tellurite glass on the tip of a conventional silica optical fiber a robust probe, suitable for long-term in vivo measurements of temperature can be fabricated. This probe can be interrogated using a portable optical measurement setup, allowing for measurements to be performed outside of standard optical laboratories.

  20. Portable optical fiber probe for in vivo brain temperature measurements

    PubMed Central

    Musolino, Stefan; Schartner, Erik P.; Tsiminis, Georgios; Salem, Abdallah; Monro, Tanya M.; Hutchinson, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on the development of an optical fiber based probe for in vivo measurements of brain temperature. By utilizing a thin layer of rare-earth doped tellurite glass on the tip of a conventional silica optical fiber a robust probe, suitable for long-term in vivo measurements of temperature can be fabricated. This probe can be interrogated using a portable optical measurement setup, allowing for measurements to be performed outside of standard optical laboratories. PMID:27570698

  1. Optical crystal temperature gauge with fiber optic connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, M. M. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An optical temperature gauge uses a semiconductor crystal with a band-edge shift property which is temperature dependent. An external narrow band light source provides optical excitation through a optical fiber and light energy thus passed through the crystal is conveyed by a second optical fiber to a light-to-electric transducers at an external location. The crystal can be located in cryogenic or other systems, to provide remote read-out. The light wavelength is varied (scanned) in a repetitive pattern in source with the instantaneous wavelength passing over the band-edge wavelength during each cycle of the scan. The timing of the crossover is related to the temperature of the crystal by electronic means. Several alternative elements of instrumentation are disclosed. A variation in the basic measurement apparatus is also disclosed, in which the band gap voltage of a light source such as a laser diode is evaluated at the time of band-edge crossover in the crystal and converted to a temperature value.

  2. Low-temperature hermetic sealing of optical fiber components

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, D.P.

    1996-10-22

    A method for manufacturing low-temperature hermetically sealed optical fiber components is provided. The method comprises the steps of: inserting an optical fiber into a housing, the optical fiber having a glass core, a glass cladding and a protective buffer layer disposed around the core and cladding; heating the housing to a predetermined temperature, the predetermined temperature being below a melting point for the protective buffer layer and above a melting point of a solder; placing the solder in communication with the heated housing to allow the solder to form an eutectic and thereby fill a gap between the interior of the housing and the optical fiber; and cooling the housing to allow the solder to form a hermetic compression seal between the housing and the optical fiber. 5 figs.

  3. Mechanical properties of polyimide coated optical fibers at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lei; Dyer, Robert S.; Lago, Ralph J.; Stolov, Andrei A.; Li, Jie

    2016-03-01

    High temperature mechanical strength and reliability of optical fibers have become important subjects as optical fibers are increasingly used for harsher environments. Theories and models of fiber mechanical properties established for traditional telecommunications applications may need to be validated for applications at elevated temperatures. In this paper, we describe the test setup for high temperature tensile strength of fiber and report initial results of dynamic tensile strength of polyimide coated optical fiber at 300 and 350ºC for different heating time intervals. The results are compared with room temperature strength data, data available in the literature, and our earlier work on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) weight loss of the polyimide coating and the observations on surface morphology at elevated temperatures. Interesting observations are discussed and possible explanations are proposed.

  4. Effect of temperature on optical fiber transmission. [for spacecraft communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeung, W. F.; Johnston, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented concerning the effects of temperature on the transmission properties of various optical fibers including a silicone plastic clad, an acrylic plastic clad, and CVD step-index fibers both with and without polyurethane jackets. Results are presented for the normalized transmitted power vs temperature, the index of refraction vs temperature, and induced attenuation coefficients vs temperature. The data show that the intrinsic transmission of a CVD fiber is independent of temperature over the -110 to +150 C range. Plastic clad fused silica fibers are subject to transmission losses at lower temperatures due to changes in the optical index of the cladding polymer. Acrylic-clad and plastic-clad silica fibers also show transmission losses at lower temperatures, but to lesser extents.

  5. Temperature-independent polymer optical fiber evanescent wave sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Nianbing; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Zhao, Mingfu; Huang, Yun; Chen, Rong

    2015-06-26

    Although the numerous advantages of polymer optical fibers have been exploited in the fields of sensors and telecommunications, such fibers still experience a critical problem: the temperature dependency. Therefore, we explored the temperature-independent operation of a polymer fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor immersed in distilled water. We investigated variations in the surface morphology, deformation trajectory, refractive index, and weight of the fiber-sensing region with varying water temperature. We also examined the spectral transmission and transmitted light intensity of fibers subjected to a heating-cooling treatment. We observed that the light-transmission modes and sensitivity of the sensor were affected by changes in the surface morphology, diameter, and refractive index of the sensing region caused by changes in temperature. The transmitted light intensity of the sensor was maintained at a constant level after five cycles of the heating-cooling treatment, after which the fibers exhibited a smooth surface, low refractive index, and large fiber diameter. Consequently, we utilized the heating-cooling-treated fiber to realize a temperature-independent, U-shaped polymer fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor. The temperature independence was evaluated using glucose solutions in the range of 10 to 70 °C. The fabricated sensor showed significant temperature independence and high degree of consistency in measuring solutions.

  6. Temperature-independent polymer optical fiber evanescent wave sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Nianbing; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Zhao, Mingfu; Huang, Yun; Chen, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Although the numerous advantages of polymer optical fibers have been exploited in the fields of sensors and telecommunications, such fibers still experience a critical problem: the temperature dependency. Therefore, we explored the temperature-independent operation of a polymer fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor immersed in distilled water. We investigated variations in the surface morphology, deformation trajectory, refractive index, and weight of the fiber-sensing region with varying water temperature. We also examined the spectral transmission and transmitted light intensity of fibers subjected to a heating-cooling treatment. We observed that the light-transmission modes and sensitivity of the sensor were affected by changes in the surface morphology, diameter, and refractive index of the sensing region caused by changes in temperature. The transmitted light intensity of the sensor was maintained at a constant level after five cycles of the heating-cooling treatment, after which the fibers exhibited a smooth surface, low refractive index, and large fiber diameter. Consequently, we utilized the heating-cooling-treated fiber to realize a temperature-independent, U-shaped polymer fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor. The temperature independence was evaluated using glucose solutions in the range of 10 to 70 °C. The fabricated sensor showed significant temperature independence and high degree of consistency in measuring solutions. PMID:26112908

  7. Low-temperature hermetic sealing of optical fiber components

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, Daniel P.

    1996-10-22

    A method for manufacturing low-temperature hermetically sealed optical fi components is provided. The method comprises the steps of: inserting an optical fiber into a housing, the optical fiber having a glass core, a glass cladding and a protective buffer layer disposed around the core and cladding; heating the housing to a predetermined temperature, the predetermined temperature being below a melting point for the protective buffer layer and above a melting point of a solder; placing the solder in communication with the heated housing to allow the solder to form an eutectic and thereby fill a gap between the interior of the housing and the optical fiber; and cooling the housing to allow the solder to form a hermetic compression seal between the housing and the optical fiber.

  8. Fiber-optic large area average temperature sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, L.L.; Forman, P.R.

    1994-05-01

    In many instances the desired temperature measurement is only the spatial average temperature over a large area; eg. ground truth calibration for satellite imaging system, or average temperature of a farm field. By making an accurate measurement of the optical length of a long fiber-optic cable, we can determine the absolute temperature averaged over its length and hence the temperature of the material in contact with it.

  9. Fatigue behavior of polyimide coated optical fibers at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lei; Dyer, Robert S.; Li, Jie

    2017-02-01

    As optical fiber is being used in much harsher environments than traditional telecommunications (e.g. distributed temperature sensing at elevated temperatures) understanding its mechanical properties at high temperatures is urgently needed. As a continuation of our previous work on high temperature strength of silica optical fiber, we report our results in fatigue behavior of polyimide coated silica optical fiber at 300°C in this paper. Fiber fatigue is the degradation in strength caused by a stress dependent chemical reaction between water vapor and the surface of the silica glass. In contrast to the published data on degradation in mechanical properties of silica optical fiber at elevated temperatures, our observations indicate a negligible decrease in strength along with unchanged, n-value, (fatigue resistant factor) at 300°C. To determine the n value, we tested tensile strength of the fiber using four different strain rates while the subject under test was at 300°C. The results indicate that the polyimide coating on the silica glass fiber continues to serve as an effective water vapor barrier at 300°C. These results will be compared with data available for room temperature performance of this silica/polyimide combination and possible failure mechanisms will be discussed.

  10. Miniature temperature sensor with germania-core optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingyi; Zheng, Yangzi; Chen, Li Han; Chan, Chi Chiu; Dong, Xinyong; Shum, Perry Ping; Su, Haibin

    2015-07-13

    A miniature all-fiber temperature sensor is demonstrated by using a Michelson interferometer formed with a short length of Germania-core, silica-cladding optical fiber (Ge-fiber) fusion-spliced to a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF). Thanks to the large differential refractive index of the Ge-fiber sensing element, a reasonably small free spectral range (FSR) of 18.6 nm is achieved even with an as short as 0.9 mm Ge-fiber that may help us increase the measurement accuracy especially in point sensing applications and, at the same time, keep large measurement temperature range without overlapping reading problem. Experimental results show that high sensitivity of 89.0 pm/°C is achieved and the highest measurement temperature is up to 500°C.

  11. Infrared fiber optic sensor for measurements of nonuniform temperature distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belotserkovsky, Edward; Drizlikh, S.; Zur, Albert; Bar-Or, O.; Katzir, Abraham

    1992-04-01

    Infrared (IR) fiber optic radiometry of thermal surfaces offers several advantages over refractive optics radiometry. It does not need a direct line of sight to the measured thermal surface and combines high capability of monitoring small areas with high efficiency. These advantages of IR fibers are important in the control of nonuniform temperature distributions, in which the temperature of closely situated points differs considerably and a high spatial resolution is necessary. The theoretical and experimental transforming functions of the sensor during scanning of an area with a nonuniform temperature distribution were obtained and their dependence on the spacial location of the fiber and type of temperature distribution were analyzed. Parameters such as accuracy and precision were determined. The results suggest that IR fiber radiometric thermometry may be useful in medical applications such as laser surgery, hyperthermia, and hypothermia.

  12. Optical fiber voltage sensors for broad temperature ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, A. H.; Day, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the development of an optical fiber ac voltage sensor for aircraft and spacecraft applications. Among the most difficult specifications to meet for this application is a temperature stability of +/- 1 percent from -65 C to +125 C. This stability requires a careful selection of materials, components, and optical configuration with further compensation using an optical-fiber temperature sensor located near the sensing element. The sensor is a polarimetric design, based on the linear electro-optic effect in bulk Bi4Ge3O12. The temperature sensor is also polarimetric, based on the temperature dependence of the birefringence of bulk SiO2. The temperature sensor output is used to automatically adjust the calibration of the instrument.

  13. Effects of Temperature and X-rays on Plastic Scintillating Fiber and Infrared Optical Fiber.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bongsoo; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Yoo, Wook Jae

    2015-05-11

    In this study, we have studied the effects of temperature and X-ray energy variations on the light output signals from two different fiber-optic sensors, a fiber-optic dosimeter (FOD) based on a BCF-12 as a plastic scintillating fiber (PSF) and a fiber-optic thermometer (FOT) using a silver halide optical fiber as an infrared optical fiber (IR fiber). During X-ray beam irradiation, the scintillating light and IR signals were measured simultaneously using a dosimeter probe of the FOD and a thermometer probe of the FOT. The probes were placed in a beaker with water on the center of a hotplate, under variation of the tube potential of a digital radiography system or the temperature of the water in the beaker. From the experimental results, in the case of the PSF, the scintillator light output at the given tube potential decreased as the temperature increased in the temperature range from 25 to 60 °C. We demonstrated that commonly used BCF-12 has a significant temperature dependence of -0.263 ± 0.028%/°C in the clinical temperature range. Next, in the case of the IR fiber, the intensity of the IR signal was almost uniform at each temperature regardless of the tube potential range from 50 to 150 kVp. Therefore, we also demonstrated that the X-ray beam with an energy range used in diagnostic radiology does not affect the IR signals transmitted via a silver halide optical fiber.

  14. Optical fiber temperature sensors: applications in heat treatments for foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Morales, María Elena; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2010-10-01

    Heat treatments are important methods to provide safe foods. Conventional heat treatments involve the application of steam and recently microwave treatments have been studied and applied as they are considered as fast, clean and efficient. Optical fiber sensing is an excellent tool to measure the temperature during microwave treatments. This paper shows the application of optical fiber temperature sensing during the heat treatment of different foods such as vegetables (jalapeño pepper and cilantro), cheese and ostrich meat. Reaching the target temperature, important bacteria were inactivated: Salmonella, Listeria and Escherichia coli. Thus, the use of optical fiber sensors has resulted be a useful way to develop protocols to inactivate microorganisms and to propose new methods for food processing.

  15. Noncontact measurement of high temperature using optical fiber sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, R. O.

    1990-01-01

    The primary goal of this research program was the investigation and application of noncontact temperature measurement techniques using optical techniques and optical fiber methods. In particular, a pyrometer utilizing an infrared optical light pipe and a multiwavelength filtering approach was designed, revised, and tested. This work was motivated by the need to measure the temperatures of small metallic pellets (approximately 3 mm diameter) in free fall at the Microgravity Materials Processing Drop Tube at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. In addition, research under this program investigated the adaptation of holography technology to optical fiber sensors, and also examined the use of rare-earth dopants in optical fibers for use in measuring temperature. The pyrometer development effort involved both theoretical analysis and experimental tests. For the analysis, a mathematical model based on radiative transfer principles was derived. Key parameter values representative of the drop tube system, such as particle size, tube diameter and length, and particle temperature, were used to determine an estimate of the radiant flux that will be incident on the face of an optical fiber or light pipe used to collect radiation from the incandescent falling particle. An extension of this work examined the advantage of inclining or tilting the collecting fiber to increase the time that the falling particle remains in the fiber field-of-view. Those results indicate that increases in total power collected of about 15 percent may be realized by tilting the fiber. In order to determine the suitability of alternative light pipes and optical fibers, and experimental set-up for measuring the transmittance and insertion loss of infrared fibers considered for use in the pyrometer was assembled. A zirconium fluoride optical fiber and several bundles of hollow core fiber of varying diameters were tested. A prototype two-color pyrometer was assembled and tested at Virginia Tech, and then

  16. Qualification of Fiber Optic Cables for Martian Extreme Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Lindensmith, Christian A.; Roberts, William T.; Rainen, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Means have been developed for enabling fiber optic cables of the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer instrument to survive ground operations plus the nominal 670 Martian conditions that include Martian summer and winter seasons. The purpose of this development was to validate the use of the rover external fiber optic cabling of ChemCam for space applications under the extreme thermal environments to be encountered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Flight-representative fiber optic cables were subjected to extreme temperature thermal cycling of the same diurnal depth (or delta T) as expected in flight, but for three times the expected number of in-flight thermal cycles. The survivability of fiber optic cables was tested for 600 cumulative thermal cycles from -130 to +15 C to cover the winter season, and another 1,410 cumulative cycles from -105 to +40 C to cover the summer season. This test satisfies the required 3 times the design margin that is a total of 2,010 thermal cycles (670 x 3). This development test included functional optical transmission tests during the course of the test. Transmission of the fiber optic cables was performed prior to and after 1,288 thermal cycles and 2,010 thermal cycles. No significant changes in transmission were observed on either of the two representative fiber cables subject through the 3X MSL mission life that is 2,010 thermal cycles.

  17. Development of a fiber optic high temperature strain sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rausch, E. O.; Murphy, K. E.; Brookshire, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    From 1 Apr. 1991 to 31 Aug. 1992, the Georgia Tech Research Institute conducted a research program to develop a high temperature fiber optic strain sensor as part of a measurement program for the space shuttle booster rocket motor. The major objectives of this program were divided into four tasks. Under Task 1, the literature on high-temperature fiber optic strain sensors was reviewed. Task 2 addressed the design and fabrication of the strain sensor. Tests and calibration were conducted under Task 3, and Task 4 was to generate recommendations for a follow-on study of a distributed strain sensor. Task 4 was submitted to NASA as a separate proposal.

  18. Fiber optic, Fabry-Perot high temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, K.; Quick, B.

    1984-01-01

    A digital, fiber optic temperature sensor using a variable Fabry-Perot cavity as the sensor element was analyzed, designed, fabricated, and tested. The fiber transmitted cavity reflection spectra is dispersed then converted from an optical signal to electrical information by a charged coupled device (CCD). A microprocessor-based color demodulation system converts the wavelength information to temperature. This general sensor concept not only utilizes an all-optical means of parameter sensing and transmitting, but also exploits microprocessor technology for automated control, calibration, and enhanced performance. The complete temperature sensor system was evaluated in the laboratory. Results show that the Fabry-Perot temperature sensor has good resolution (0.5% of full seale), high accuracy, and potential high temperature ( 1000 C) applications.

  19. Effects of Cryogenic Temperatures on LEDs and Optical Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantel, Erica R.

    2005-01-01

    Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) may provide a simple, low powered light source for future space missions. However, the effects of cryogenic temperatures on LEDs and optical fibers are largely unknown. Tests were performed on a selection of commercially-available LEDs, with wavelengths varying from 468 nm to 950 nm, as well as "white" LEDs. Dry ice and liquid nitrogen (LN2) were used to bring the LEDs to the desired temperatures. The optical fibers were tested using a specially-machined brass cylinder that would allow the fibers to be cooled slowly and evenly in an LN2 dewer. An optical fiber coupled to a spectrometer was used to acquired spectra of a calibration light source (wavelength range 253-922 nm) at various temperatures. Examination of the LED spectra has shown several different effects, depending on the LED in question. Those with wavelengths above 590 nm tend to show a "blue shift" in their peak wavelength and an increase in intensity. Other LEDs developed secondary or tertiary peaks, or showed no peak shift at all, although all LEDs did show an increase in observed intensity. The optical fiber showed a slight non-uniform decrease in transmission as the temperature cooled to -195 C.

  20. Effects of Cryogenic Temperatures on LEDs and Optical Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantel, Erica R.

    2005-01-01

    Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) may provide a simple, low powered light source for future space missions. However, the effects of cryogenic temperatures on LEDs and optical fibers are largely unknown. Tests were performed on a selection of commercially-available LEDs, with wavelengths varying from 468 nm to 950 nm, as well as "white" LEDs. Dry ice and liquid nitrogen (LN2) were used to bring the LEDs to the desired temperatures. The optical fibers were tested using a specially-machined brass cylinder that would allow the fibers to be cooled slowly and evenly in an LN2 dewer. An optical fiber coupled to a spectrometer was used to acquired spectra of a calibration light source (wavelength range 253-922 nm) at various temperatures. Examination of the LED spectra has shown several different effects, depending on the LED in question. Those with wavelengths above 590 nm tend to show a "blue shift" in their peak wavelength and an increase in intensity. Other LEDs developed secondary or tertiary peaks, or showed no peak shift at all, although all LEDs did show an increase in observed intensity. The optical fiber showed a slight non-uniform decrease in transmission as the temperature cooled to -195 C.

  1. Using a fiber loop and fiber bragg grating as a fiber optic sensor to simultaneously measure temperature and displacement.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Tang; Yen, Chih-Ta; Wu, Yue-Shiun; Cheng, Hsu-Chih

    2013-05-16

    This study integrated a fiber loop manufactured by using commercial fiber (SMF-28, Corning) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to form a fiber optic sensor that could simultaneously measure displacement and temperature. The fiber loop was placed in a thermoelectric cooling module with FBG affixed to the module, and, consequently, the center wavelength displacement of FBG was limited by only the effects of temperature change. Displacement and temperature were determined by measuring changes in the transmission of optical power and shifts in Bragg wavelength. This study provides a simple and economical method to measure displacement and temperature simultaneously.

  2. Low temperature fiber optic pyrometer for fast time resolved temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willsch, M.; Bosselmann, T.; Gaenshirt, D.; Kaiser, J.; Villnow, M.; Banda, M.

    2016-05-01

    Low temperature Pyrometry at temperatures beyond 150°C is limited in the measurement speed due to slow pyroelectric detectors. To detect the circumferential temperature distribution of fast rotating machines a novel Fiber Optical Pyrometer Type is presented here.

  3. High-temperature fiber-optic lever microphone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Cuomo, Frank W.; Nguyen, Trung D.; Rizzi, Stephen A.; Clevenson, Sherman A.

    1995-01-01

    The design and construction of a fiber-optic lever microphone, capable of operating continuously at temperatures up to 538 C (1000 F) are described. The design is based on the theoretical sensitivities of each of the microphone system components, namely, a cartridge containing a stretched membrane, an optical fiber probe, and an optoelectronic amplifier. Laboratory calibrations include the pistonphone sensitivity and harmonic distortion at ambient temperature, and frequency response, background noise, and optical power transmission at both ambient and elevated temperatures. A field test in the Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus at Langley Research Center, in which the microphone was subjected to overall sound-pressure levels in the range of 130-160 dB and at temperatures from ambient to 538 C, revealed good agreement with a standard probe microphone.

  4. Optical Fiber Strain Instrumentation for High Temperature Aerospace Structural Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, A.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the program is the development and laboratory demonstration of sensors based on silica optical fibers for measurement of high temperature strain for aerospace materials evaluations. A complete fiber strain sensor system based on white-light interferometry was designed and implemented. An experiment set-up was constructed to permit testing of strain measurement up to 850 C. The strain is created by bending an alumina cantilever beam to which is the fiber sensor is attached. The strain calibration is provided by the application of known beam deflections. To ensure the high temperature operation capability of the sensor, gold-coated single-mode fiber is used. Moreover, a new method of sensor surface attachment which permits accurate sensor gage length determination is also developed. Excellent results were obtained at temperatures up to 800-850 C.

  5. Development of a 2-Channel Embedded Infrared Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Using Silver Halide Optical Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Jang, Kyoung Won; Seo, Jeong Ki; Moon, Jinsoo; Han, Ki-Tek; Park, Jang-Yeon; Park, Byung Gi; Lee, Bongsoo

    2011-01-01

    A 2-channel embedded infrared fiber-optic temperature sensor was fabricated using two identical silver halide optical fibers for accurate thermometry without complicated calibration processes. In this study, we measured the output voltages of signal and reference probes according to temperature variation over a temperature range from 25 to 225 °C. To decide the temperature of the water, the difference between the amounts of infrared radiation emitted from the two temperature sensing probes was measured. The response time and the reproducibility of the fiber-optic temperature sensor were also obtained. Thermometry with the proposed sensor is immune to changes if parameters such as offset voltage, ambient temperature, and emissivity of any warm object. In particular, the temperature sensing probe with silver halide optical fibers can withstand a high temperature/pressure and water-chemistry environment. It is expected that the proposed sensor can be further developed to accurately monitor temperature in harsh environments. PMID:22163711

  6. Development of a 2-channel embedded infrared fiber-optic temperature sensor using silver halide optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Jang, Kyoung Won; Seo, Jeong Ki; Moon, Jinsoo; Han, Ki-Tek; Park, Jang-Yeon; Park, Byung Gi; Lee, Bongsoo

    2011-01-01

    A 2-channel embedded infrared fiber-optic temperature sensor was fabricated using two identical silver halide optical fibers for accurate thermometry without complicated calibration processes. In this study, we measured the output voltages of signal and reference probes according to temperature variation over a temperature range from 25 to 225 °C. To decide the temperature of the water, the difference between the amounts of infrared radiation emitted from the two temperature sensing probes was measured. The response time and the reproducibility of the fiber-optic temperature sensor were also obtained. Thermometry with the proposed sensor is immune to changes if parameters such as offset voltage, ambient temperature, and emissivity of any warm object. In particular, the temperature sensing probe with silver halide optical fibers can withstand a high temperature/pressure and water-chemistry environment. It is expected that the proposed sensor can be further developed to accurately monitor temperature in harsh environments.

  7. Strain-based multicore fiber optic temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökbulut, Belkıs.; Inci, Mehmet Naci

    2017-05-01

    A four-core optical fiber is introduced as a strain based temperature sensor to investigate the phase shift based on the temperature variations. An interferometric fringe pattern is obtained by the coherent waveguides from the four cores. A small piece of a four-core fiber is winded around a solid stainless steel cylinder to form a tight circular loop, which is exposed to a temperature change from 50 °C to 92 °C. Shear strain due to the expansion of the steel rod at this temperature interval causes an optical path length difference between the inner and outer core pairs, resulting a total phase shift of 20.4+/-0.29 rad, which is monitored with a CMOS camera. Using the phase changes, two dimensional shear strain is determined.

  8. Infrared Fiber-Optical Temperature Sensor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    where they are amplified by the electronics. A voltage is then outputted which represents measured temperature. The voltage is sampled by the computer where it is converted to temperature by use of computer algorithms .

  9. Liquid seal for temperature sensing with fiber-optic refractometers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ben; Li, Jianqing; Li, Yi; Xie, Jianglei; Dong, Xinyong

    2014-08-13

    Liquid sealing is an effective method to convert a fiber-optic refractometer into a simple and highly sensitive temperature sensor. A refractometer based on the thin-core fiber modal interferometer is sealed in a capillary tube filled with Cargille oil. Due to the thermo-optic effect of the sealing liquid, the high refractive-index sensitivity refractometer is subsequently sensitive to the ambient temperature. It is found that the liquid-sealed sensor produces a highest sensitivity of -2.30 nm/°C, which is over 250 times higher than its intrinsic sensitivity before sealing and significantly higher than that of a grating-based fiber sensors. The sensing mechanisms, including the incidental temperature-induced strain effect, are analyzed in detail both theoretically and experimentally. The liquid sealing technique is easy and low cost, and makes the sensor robust and insensitive to the surrounding refractive index. It can be applied to other fiber-optic refractometers for temperature sensing.

  10. The radiation tolerance of particular optical fibers at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovitch, Joshua

    2011-10-01

    This research project seeks to characterize a number of optical fibers in an irradiated, low-temperature environment, so that they may be used in the Large Hadron Collider's (LHC's) high luminosity upgrade at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). In the LHC experiments such as ATLAS and CMS, silicon pixel detectors are used to precisely measure the trajectories of charged particles. These detectors operate in a radioactive environment with ambient temperatures of -20 to -30 degrees Celsius, hence the requirement of radiation tolerance at low temperatures. A number of new fibers have been selected for their decreased bend sensitivity and improved bandwidth. Since, the LHC luminosity upgrade's requirements are very stringent, the vendor's specification data will be replaced with the results of this project. An optical test bench was needed to characterize the optical fibers in ionizing radiation from a Co-60 gamma source at Brookhaven National Laboratory in February 2011. Such a multi-channel optical measurement setup is not commercially available, and was as such designed in-house. Multiple 850nm VCSEL laser were used as sources, and TI OPT101 chips were used as detectors. This research contributes to the optical link R&D project with Fermi National Laboratory, Oxford University, and CERN, and my work's progress is integrated into the project flow of this international collaborative group.

  11. Inherent temperature compensation of fiber-optic current sensors employing spun highly birefringent fiber.

    PubMed

    Müller, G M; Gu, X; Yang, L; Frank, A; Bohnert, K

    2016-05-16

    We investigate the various contributions to the temperature dependence of an interferometric fiber-optic current sensor employing spun highly-birefringent sensing fiber, in particular, the contributions from the fiber retarder at the fiber coil entrance, the spun fiber's birefringence, and the Faraday effect. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that an appropriately designed retarder inherently compensates the temperature dependence of the fiber birefringence and the Faraday effect. We demonstrate insensitivity to temperature to within ± 0.2% between -40 and + 85 °C. Furthermore, we analyze the influence of the retarder parameters on the linearity of the recovered magneto-optic phase shift vs. current and determine a set of parameters that results in a perfectly linear relationship.

  12. Fresnel-reflection-based fiber optic cryogenic temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, Umesh; Kim, Dae-gil; Kim, Hyunjin; Song, Minho

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, Fresnel reflection based fiber-optic sensor for the real-time monitoring of cryogenic temperature is presented. The proposed sensor system utilizes a linear thermo-optic coefficient of polymer and Fresnel reflection of the fiber end. Epoxy resin and poly methyl metha acrylate (PMMA) are used as sensor head material. The designed sensor head measures the temperature ranging from -180°C to 25°C with an average sensitivity of 0.039dB/°C for epoxy resin and 0.029dB/°C for PMMA. Experimental results have proven the stability and the effectiveness of the proposed sensor system to measure the applied cryogenic temperatures.

  13. The Effects of High Temperature and Nuclear Radiation on the Optical Transmission of Silica Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawn, David P.

    Distributed measurements made with fiber optic instrumentation have the potential to revolutionize data collection for facility monitoring and process control in industrial environments. Dozens of sensors etched into a single optical fiber can be used to instrument equipment and structures so that dozens of spatially distributed temperature measurements, for example, can be made quickly using one optical fiber. Optically based sensors are commercially available to measure temperature, strain, and other physical quantities that can be related to strain, such as pressure and acceleration. Other commercially available technology eliminates the need to etch discrete sensors into an optical fiber and allows temperature measurements to be made along the length of an ordinary silica fiber. Distributed sensing with optical instrumentation is commonly used in the petroleum industry to measure the temperature and pressure profiles in down hole applications. The U.S. Department of Energy is interested in extending the distributed sensing capabilities of optical instrumentation to high temperature reactor radiation environments. For this technology extension to be possible, the survivability of silica optical fibers needed to be determined in this environment. In this work the optical attenuation added to silica optical fiber exposed simultaneously to reactor radiation and temperatures to 1000°C was experimentally determined. Optical transmission measurements were made in-situ from 400nm-2300nm. For easy visualization, all of the results generated in this work were processed into movies that are available publicly [1]. In this investigation, silica optical fibers were shown to survive optically and mechanically in a reactor radiation environment to 1000°C. For the combined high temperature reactor irradiation experiments completed in this investigation, the maximum attenuation increase in the low-OH optical fibers was around 0.5db/m at 1550nm and 0.6dB/m at 1300nm. The

  14. Effects of Temperature and X-rays on Plastic Scintillating Fiber and Infrared Optical Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bongsoo; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Yoo, Wook Jae

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have studied the effects of temperature and X-ray energy variations on the light output signals from two different fiber-optic sensors, a fiber-optic dosimeter (FOD) based on a BCF-12 as a plastic scintillating fiber (PSF) and a fiber-optic thermometer (FOT) using a silver halide optical fiber as an infrared optical fiber (IR fiber). During X-ray beam irradiation, the scintillating light and IR signals were measured simultaneously using a dosimeter probe of the FOD and a thermometer probe of the FOT. The probes were placed in a beaker with water on the center of a hotplate, under variation of the tube potential of a digital radiography system or the temperature of the water in the beaker. From the experimental results, in the case of the PSF, the scintillator light output at the given tube potential decreased as the temperature increased in the temperature range from 25 to 60 °C. We demonstrated that commonly used BCF-12 has a significant temperature dependence of −0.263 ± 0.028%/°C in the clinical temperature range. Next, in the case of the IR fiber, the intensity of the IR signal was almost uniform at each temperature regardless of the tube potential range from 50 to 150 kVp. Therefore, we also demonstrated that the X-ray beam with an energy range used in diagnostic radiology does not affect the IR signals transmitted via a silver halide optical fiber. PMID:25970257

  15. A fiber optic temperature sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Stephen C.; Tilstra, Shelle D.; Barnabo, Geoffrey A.; Thomas, David C.; Phillips, Richard W.

    1991-02-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor has been developed for aerospace applications on the basis of the time rate of decay (TRD) principle, with a view to an operational temperature range of -60 to 350 C. This TRD system has completed qualification testing and will then undergo flight tests. Attention is presently given to the design and performance of four low temperature sensors that are subelements of the larger sensor system; in order to convert analog signals into over/under temperature indications, simple comparators are implemented in software.

  16. Double-Tubing Encapsulated Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Juncheng; Pickrell, Gary; Huang, Zhengyu; Qi, Bing; Zhang, Po; Duan, Yuhong; Wang, Anbo

    2003-09-01

    Increasing the efficiency of oil production operations requires improved sensors to supply critical information such as mixed-phase fluid flow, pressure and temperature measurements within the down-hole oil environment. In order to provide robust and reliable fiber optic temperature sensors capable of operating in the harsh down-hole oil environment, where temperatures might exceed 250 °C and pressures might reach 20,000 psi (140 Mpa), a novel type of fiber optic temperature sensor has been developed. This temperature sensor functions as an EFPI (extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric) sensor. One unique contribution of this work is that the glass tubing used is a borosilicate glass with a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and long gauge length, allowing a much higher sensitivity to be achieved, without hysteresis. The sensor structure utilizes a dual tubing design (tubing within a tubing) to allow pressure isolation. An LED light beam is used as the signal interrogation source to remotely interrogate the sensor which may be located tens of thousands of meters away, connected by an optical fiber. A white-light interferometer measurement system is utilized to process the returned interference signal and to precisely determine the length of the Fabry-Perot interferometric cavity. Another unique feature of this work is that the sensor has been packaged with a specially developed hermetic protection process to prevent water penetration and to improve the mechanical integrity of the sensor. This protection process has allowed the successful hydraulic deployment of fiber optic sensors through 3 mm ID stainless steel tubing into a functioning oil well. Data on the resolution, repeatability and pressure sensitivity are presented.

  17. Thin-film fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Nave, S.E.

    1998-07-21

    The invention discloses a sensor probe device for monitoring of hydrogen gas concentrations and temperatures by the same sensor probe. The sensor probe is constructed using thin-film deposition methods for the placement of a multitude of layers of materials sensitive to hydrogen concentrations and temperature on the end of a light transparent lens located within the sensor probe. The end of the lens within the sensor probe contains a lens containing a layer of hydrogen permeable material which excludes other reactive gases, a layer of reflective metal material that forms a metal hydride upon absorbing hydrogen, and a layer of semi-conducting solid that is transparent above a temperature dependent minimum wavelength for temperature detection. The three layers of materials are located at the distal end of the lens located within the sensor probe. The lens focuses light generated by broad-band light generator and connected by fiber-optics to the sensor probe, onto a reflective metal material layer, which passes through the semi-conducting solid layer, onto two optical fibers located at the base of the sensor probe. The reflected light is transmitted over fiber optic cables to a spectrometer and system controller. The absence of electrical signals and electrical wires in the sensor probe provides for an elimination of the potential for spark sources when monitoring in hydrogen rich environments, and provides a sensor free from electrical interferences. 3 figs.

  18. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 μm) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  19. Progress in distributed fiber optic temperature sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartog, Arthur H.

    2002-02-01

    The paper reviews the adoption of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technology based on Raman backscatter. With one company alone having installed more than 400 units, the DTS is becoming accepted practice in several applications, notably in energy cable monitoring, specialised fire detection and oil production monitoring. The paper will provide case studies in these applications. In each case the benefit (whether economic or safety) will be addressed, together with key application engineering issues. The latter range from the selection and installation of the fibre sensor, the specific performance requirements of the opto-electronic equipment and the issues of data management. The paper will also address advanced applications of distributed sensing, notably the problem of monitoring very long ranges, which apply in subsea DC energy cables or in subsea oil wells linked to platforms through very long (e.g. 30km flowlines). These applications are creating the need for a new generation of DTS systems able to achieve measurements at up to 40km with very high temperature resolution, without sacrificing spatial resolution. This challenge is likely to drive the development of new concepts in the field of distributed sensing.

  20. A micro S-shaped optical fiber temperature sensor based on dislocation fiber splice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haitao; Li, Pengfei; Zhang, Haojie; Shen, Xiaoyue; Wang, Yongzhen

    2017-09-01

    We fabricated a simple, compact, and stable temperature sensor based on an S-shaped dislocated optical fiber. The dislocation optical fiber has two splice points, and we obtained the optimal parameters based on the theory and our experiment, such as the dislocation amount and length of the dislocation optical fiber. According to the relationship between the temperature and the peak wavelength shift, the temperature of the environment can be obtained. Then, we made this fiber a micro bending as S-shape between the two dislocation points, and the S-shaped micro bending part could release stress with the change in temperature and reduce the effect of stress on the temperature measurement. This structure could solve the problem of sensor distortion caused by the cross response of temperature and stress. We measured the S-shaped dislocation fiber sensor and the dislocation fiber without S-shape under the same environment and conditions, and the S-shaped dislocation fiber had the advantages of the stable reliability and good linearity.

  1. One centimeter spatial resolution temperature measurements in a nuclear reactor using Rayleigh scatter in optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, A. K.; Gifford, D. K.; Dickerson, B. D.; Fielder, B. F.; Froggatt, M. E.

    2007-07-01

    We present the use of swept wavelength interferometry for distributed fiber-optic temperature measurements in a Nuclear Reactor. The sensors consisted of 2 m segments of commercially available, single mode optical fibers. The interrogation technique is based on measuring the spectral shift of the intrinsic Rayleigh backscatter signal along the optical fiber and converting the spectral shift to temperature.

  2. Optical fiber distributed sensing for high temperature superconductor magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scurti, Federico; Schwartz, Justin

    2017-04-01

    Over the last two decades, high temperature superconductors (HTS) have achieved performance and technical maturity that make them an enabling technology or an attractive solution for a number of applications like electric motors and generators, particle accelerators and fusion magnets. One of the remaining challenges that hinders a wide use of HTS and needs to be solved is quench detection, since conventional voltage based quench detection puts HTS magnets at risk. In this work we have developed and experimentally investigated the application of Rayleigh-backscattering interrogated optical fibers (RIOF) to the detection of normal zones in superconducting magnets. Different ways to integrate optical fibers into magnets are explored and the earlier detection of RIOF compared to voltage is demonstrated.

  3. Fiber-Optic Strain and Temperature Monitoring System for DUSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. F.; Maclaughlin, M.; Fratta, D.; Murdoch, L. C.

    2009-12-01

    The opportunity to understand the response of rock masses to stresses deep within the earth's crust as a function of spatial and temporal scale is at the center of the geomechanics research program proposed for DUSEL. Within the 10-km3 volume of the former Homestake mine, deformations are expected from earth tides, effective stress changes caused by mine dewatering, seasonal water table changes, and new excavations as well as from long-term creep of drifts and shafts. Data from a whole-mine deformation monitoring and measurement system are integral to calibrating a mine-scale, mechanical and hydrological finite-element model of laboratory and detector space. A synergistic objective of a long-term, state-of-the-art monitoring system is to ensure shaft, tunnel, and cavern stability as well as occupant safety. Fiber-optic sensors are highly stable over long periods of time and they can be daisy-chained to significantly simplify the logistics of acquiring data from dozens of sensors. Temperature measurements over large spatial scales in fluid-saturated boreholes can delineate fluid-flow paths and can be deployed as a secondary monitoring system for ventilation and anomalous air temperatures. Two types of fiber-optic sensors are available: distributed strain and temperature (DST) and Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG). DST sensors can be installed over kilometers of distance with measurement resolutions of 1-to-10 microstrains and 0.1°C over intervals of 1-to-2 meters. FBG strain gages and displacement transducers function the same as their electrical counterparts, save for the underlying physics in that displacements are measured as a shift in the spacing of a Bragg grating embedded into the optical fiber. These systems are highly scalable as more than 50,000 points of temperature and strain measurements can be collected from a single fiber-optic cable. Other fiber-based sensors, e.g., acceleration, air pressure, and gases, are also available and can become part of a fiber

  4. Development of plasma bolometers using fiber-optic temperature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinke, M. L.; Han, M.; Liu, G.; van Eden, G. G.; Evenblij, R.; Haverdings, M.; Stratton, B. C.

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas are important for exhaust studies in present experiments and expected to be a critical diagnostic for future fusion reactors. Resistive bolometer sensors have long been utilized in tokamaks and helical devices but suffer from electromagnetic interference (EMI). Results are shown from initial testing of a new bolometer concept based on fiber-optic temperature sensor technology. A small, 80 μm diameter, 200 μm long silicon pillar attached to the end of a single mode fiber-optic cable acts as a Fabry-Pérot cavity when broadband light, λo ˜ 1550 nm, is transmitted along the fiber. Changes in temperature alter the optical path length of the cavity primarily through the thermo-optic effect, resulting in a shift of fringes reflected from the pillar detected using an I-MON 512 OEM spectrometer. While initially designed for use in liquids, this sensor has ideal properties for use as a plasma bolometer: a time constant, in air, of ˜150 ms, strong absorption in the spectral range of plasma emission, immunity to local EMI, and the ability to measure changes in temperature remotely. Its compact design offers unique opportunities for integration into the vacuum environment in places unsuitable for a resistive bolometer. Using a variable focus 5 mW, 405 nm, modulating laser, the signal to noise ratio versus power density of various bolometer technologies are directly compared, estimating the noise equivalent power density (NEPD). Present tests show the fiber-optic bolometer to have NEPD of 5-10 W/m2 when compared to those of the resistive bolometer which can achieve <0.5 W/m2 in the laboratory, but this can degrade to 1-2 W/m2 or worse when installed on a tokamak. Concepts are discussed to improve the signal to noise ratio of this new fiber-optic bolometer by reducing the pillar height and adding thin metallic coatings, along with improving the spectral resolution of the interrogator.

  5. Development of plasma bolometers using fiber-optic temperature sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Reinke, M. L.; Han, M.; Liu, G.; Eden, G. G. van; Evenblij, R.; Haverdings, M.; Stratton, B. C.

    2016-11-15

    Measurements of radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas are important for exhaust studies in present experiments and expected to be a critical diagnostic for future fusion reactors. Resistive bolometer sensors have long been utilized in tokamaks and helical devices but suffer from electromagnetic interference (EMI). Results are shown from initial testing of a new bolometer concept based on fiber-optic temperature sensor technology. A small, 80 μm diameter, 200 μm long silicon pillar attached to the end of a single mode fiber-optic cable acts as a Fabry–Pérot cavity when broadband light, λ{sub o} ∼ 1550 nm, is transmitted along the fiber. Changes in temperature alter the optical path length of the cavity primarily through the thermo-optic effect, resulting in a shift of fringes reflected from the pillar detected using an I-MON 512 OEM spectrometer. While initially designed for use in liquids, this sensor has ideal properties for use as a plasma bolometer: a time constant, in air, of ∼150 ms, strong absorption in the spectral range of plasma emission, immunity to local EMI, and the ability to measure changes in temperature remotely. Its compact design offers unique opportunities for integration into the vacuum environment in places unsuitable for a resistive bolometer. Using a variable focus 5 mW, 405 nm, modulating laser, the signal to noise ratio versus power density of various bolometer technologies are directly compared, estimating the noise equivalent power density (NEPD). Present tests show the fiber-optic bolometer to have NEPD of 5-10 W/m{sup 2} when compared to those of the resistive bolometer which can achieve <0.5 W/m{sup 2} in the laboratory, but this can degrade to 1-2 W/m{sup 2} or worse when installed on a tokamak. Concepts are discussed to improve the signal to noise ratio of this new fiber-optic bolometer by reducing the pillar height and adding thin metallic coatings, along with improving the spectral resolution of the interrogator.

  6. Development of plasma bolometers using fiber-optic temperature sensors.

    PubMed

    Reinke, M L; Han, M; Liu, G; van Eden, G G; Evenblij, R; Haverdings, M; Stratton, B C

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas are important for exhaust studies in present experiments and expected to be a critical diagnostic for future fusion reactors. Resistive bolometer sensors have long been utilized in tokamaks and helical devices but suffer from electromagnetic interference (EMI). Results are shown from initial testing of a new bolometer concept based on fiber-optic temperature sensor technology. A small, 80 μm diameter, 200 μm long silicon pillar attached to the end of a single mode fiber-optic cable acts as a Fabry-Pérot cavity when broadband light, λo ∼ 1550 nm, is transmitted along the fiber. Changes in temperature alter the optical path length of the cavity primarily through the thermo-optic effect, resulting in a shift of fringes reflected from the pillar detected using an I-MON 512 OEM spectrometer. While initially designed for use in liquids, this sensor has ideal properties for use as a plasma bolometer: a time constant, in air, of ∼150 ms, strong absorption in the spectral range of plasma emission, immunity to local EMI, and the ability to measure changes in temperature remotely. Its compact design offers unique opportunities for integration into the vacuum environment in places unsuitable for a resistive bolometer. Using a variable focus 5 mW, 405 nm, modulating laser, the signal to noise ratio versus power density of various bolometer technologies are directly compared, estimating the noise equivalent power density (NEPD). Present tests show the fiber-optic bolometer to have NEPD of 5-10 W/m(2) when compared to those of the resistive bolometer which can achieve <0.5 W/m(2) in the laboratory, but this can degrade to 1-2 W/m(2) or worse when installed on a tokamak. Concepts are discussed to improve the signal to noise ratio of this new fiber-optic bolometer by reducing the pillar height and adding thin metallic coatings, along with improving the spectral resolution of the interrogator.

  7. Flight Tests on a Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret L.; Sawatari, Takeo; Lin, Yuping; Elam, Kristie A.

    1998-01-01

    For aircraft engine control, one key parameter to detect on an airplane is the exhaust gas temperature (EGT). Presently, thermocouples are used to perform this measurement. These electrical sensors perform adequately; however, fully utilizing the benefits of optical sensors requires replacing electrical architectures with optical architectures. Part of this requires replacing electrical sensors with optical sensors, such as the EGT sensor chosen for these tests. The objective of the development and testing of this prototype sensor system was to determine the feasibility of operating an optical sensor in a hostile aircraft environment. The fiber optic sensor system was developed to measure temperatures from 20C to 600C in an aircraft environment and was utilized to monitor the EGT of an OV-10D aircraft engine. The sensor has successfully flown over 50 hours and proven to be immune to surface deterioration of the optical element (located inside the sensor head) and able to withstand and operate in normal and sustained severe flight conditions where forces on the airplane exceeded 4 g's. Potential commercial uses for this sensor include monitoring temperature for aeropropulsion system control, military vehicle and naval engine control, conventional and nuclear power plant monitoring and industrial plan monitoring where EMI issues are critical.

  8. Analysis of excess attenuation in optical fibers subjected to low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmon, P.

    Optical fibers which exhibit a dual coating comprised of a low modulus inner layer and a high modulus outer layer at times display excessive attenuation increase at low temperatures. The excess loss may be attributed in part to forces exerted on the optical fiber by the polymer coatings as the temperature decreases, thereby resulting in fiber bending. Fiber bending may occur if the optical fiber assumes a spiral configuration within the low modulus primary coating due to thermal contraction of the secondary coating. Defects in fiber coatings, such as coating eccentricity, fluctuations in coating thickness, and voids between primary and secondary layers, may amplify excess attenuation as the fiber temperature decreases.

  9. High-temperature sapphire optical sensor fiber coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desu, Seshu B.; Claus, Richard O.; Raheem, Ruby; Murphy, Kent A.

    1990-10-01

    the filter. These modes may be attributed to a number of material degradation mechanisms, such as thermal shock, oxidation corrosion of the material, mechanical loads, or phase changes in the filter material. Development of high temperature optical fiber (sapphire) sensors embedded in the CXF filters would be very valuable for both monitoring the integrity of the filter during its use and understanding the mechanisms of degradation such that durable filter development will be facilitated. Since the filter operating environment is very harsh, the high temperature sapphire optical fibers need to be protected and for some sensing techniques the fiber must also be coated with low refractive index film (cladding). The objective of the present study is to identify materials and develop process technologies for the application of claddings and protective coatings that are stable and compatible with sapphire fibers at both high temperatures and pressures.

  10. Fiber-Optic Surface Temperature Sensor Based on Modal Interference

    PubMed Central

    Musin, Frédéric; Mégret, Patrice; Wuilpart, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Spatially-integrated surface temperature sensing is highly useful when it comes to controlling processes, detecting hazardous conditions or monitoring the health and safety of equipment and people. Fiber-optic sensing based on modal interference has shown great sensitivity to temperature variation, by means of cost-effective image-processing of few-mode interference patterns. New developments in the field of sensor configuration, as described in this paper, include an innovative cooling and heating phase discrimination functionality and more precise measurements, based entirely on the image processing of interference patterns. The proposed technique was applied to the measurement of the integrated surface temperature of a hollow cylinder and compared with a conventional measurement system, consisting of an infrared camera and precision temperature probe. As a result, the optical technique is in line with the reference system. Compared with conventional surface temperature probes, the optical technique has the following advantages: low heat capacity temperature measurement errors, easier spatial deployment, and replacement of multiple angle infrared camera shooting and the continuous monitoring of surfaces that are not visually accessible. PMID:27483271

  11. Fiber-Optic Surface Temperature Sensor Based on Modal Interference.

    PubMed

    Musin, Frédéric; Mégret, Patrice; Wuilpart, Marc

    2016-07-28

    Spatially-integrated surface temperature sensing is highly useful when it comes to controlling processes, detecting hazardous conditions or monitoring the health and safety of equipment and people. Fiber-optic sensing based on modal interference has shown great sensitivity to temperature variation, by means of cost-effective image-processing of few-mode interference patterns. New developments in the field of sensor configuration, as described in this paper, include an innovative cooling and heating phase discrimination functionality and more precise measurements, based entirely on the image processing of interference patterns. The proposed technique was applied to the measurement of the integrated surface temperature of a hollow cylinder and compared with a conventional measurement system, consisting of an infrared camera and precision temperature probe. As a result, the optical technique is in line with the reference system. Compared with conventional surface temperature probes, the optical technique has the following advantages: low heat capacity temperature measurement errors, easier spatial deployment, and replacement of multiple angle infrared camera shooting and the continuous monitoring of surfaces that are not visually accessible.

  12. Thin-film fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Nave, Stanley E.

    1998-01-01

    The invention discloses a sensor probe device for monitoring of hydrogen gas concentrations and temperatures by the same sensor probe. The sensor probe is constructed using thin-film deposition methods for the placement of a multitude of layers of materials sensitive to hydrogen concentrations and temperature on the end of a light transparent lens located within the sensor probe. The end of the lens within the sensor probe contains a lens containing a layer of hydrogen permeable material which excludes other reactive gases, a layer of reflective metal material that forms a metal hydride upon absorbing hydrogen, and a layer of semi-conducting solid that is transparent above a temperature dependent minimum wavelength for temperature detection. The three layers of materials are located at the distal end of the lens located within the sensor probe. The lens focuses light generated by broad-band light generator and connected by fiber-optics to the sensor probe, onto a reflective metal material layer, which passes through the semi-conducting solid layer, onto two optical fibers located at the base of the sensor probe. The reflected light is transmitted over fiberoptic cables to a spectrometer and system controller. The absence of electrical signals and electrical wires in the sensor probe provides for an elimination of the potential for spark sources when monitoring in hydrogen rich environments, and provides a sensor free from electrical interferences.

  13. Temperature insensitive single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber optic structures with two multimode fibers in series.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Saurabh Mani; Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Manoj; Bock, Wojtek J

    2014-06-01

    We propose and demonstrate a temperature insensitive single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber optic structure consisting of two in-series multimode fibers of appropriate lengths and of opposite temperature sensitivities. A simple approximate expression to estimate the required length ratio of the multimode fiber sections has also been derived whose prediction is found in good agreement with the experiment. The study should be useful in realizing various fiber optic devices based on multimode interference with zero temperature cross sensitivity.

  14. Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing in Avalanche Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woerndl, Michaela; Tyler, S. W.; Hatch, C. E.; Dozier, J.; Prokop, A.

    2010-05-01

    Being a major driving force for snow metamorphism, thermal properties and temperature gradients in an alpine snow pack influence both, spatial distribution and temporal evolution of its stability throughout a winter season. In avalanche research and forecasting mainly weather station networks and models are employed for temperature-data collection and prediction. Standard temperature measurement devices used in weather stations and for model calibration typically provide point data over time. With fiber-optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) a laser is pulsed through standard telecommunications optical fibers of up to 30km in length, and uses the cables themselves as a thermometer. DTS allows for continuous observations of temperatures over large spatial scales and with high temporal resolution. Depending on the type of instrument, temperature readings can be provided every 0.25 to 2 meters along the cable and up to six times a minute. Measurement accuracies depend on integration times and can reach +/- 0.1 degrees C or better. Already well established in other environmental applications such as surface water - groundwater hydrology and soil moisture studies, this study assesses applicability and performance of DTS in snow environments and its potential benefits for avalanche research and forecasting. At the CRREL/UCSB research site on Mammoth Mountain, California, 40m fiber-optic cable loops were deployed at different depths in the snow pack to measure temperature and thermal gradient evolution over time and space. Four discrete measurement sessions of 4 to 20 days were conducted during the winter season 2008/2009. Strong horizontal spatial variability of temperatures of up to 3 degrees C within the snow pack over the 40m-sections were resolved. As expected, vertical thermal gradients were influenced by spatial location. Evolution of temperatures and gradients over time could be continuously monitored along the 40m transects during each measurement session

  15. Temperature dependence of signal loss in precision-wound optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffin, Paul B.; Sung, C. C.

    The thermal characteristics of excess signal loss in unjacketed multimode optical fibers are examined experimentally and theoretically. An unjacketed optical fiber is repeatedly wound under several different tensions and excess optical loss is measured at various temperatures using an Optical Time Domain Reflectometer. It is found that excess optical loss increases below 0 C. The fiber buckling model, used in the thermal analysis of jacketed fibers, is considered for the theoretical evaluation of fiber buckling caused by the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between the fiber and coating. The mode coupling theory is used to analyze microbending of the fiber caused by lateral shrinkage of the coating and Young's modulus increase at low temperature in the presence of initial fiber imperfections. A comparison of the data and theoretical results indicates that imperfections at the crossovers are the prime contributor to excess loss at low temperature. Results of the data show that excess optical loss at low temperature increases with winding tension.

  16. Cryogenic fiber optic temperature sensor and method of manufacturing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochergin, Vladimir (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention teaches the fiber optic sensors temperature sensors for cryogenic temperature range with improved sensitivity and resolution, and method of making said sensors. In more detail, the present invention is related to enhancement of temperature sensitivity of fiber optic temperature sensors at cryogenic temperatures by utilizing nanomaterials with a thermal expansion coefficient that is smaller than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber but larger in absolute value than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber at least over a range of temperatures.

  17. Temperature characteristics of silicon core optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaolin; Zhao, Ziwen; Chen, Na; Pang, Fufei; Chen, Zhenyi; Liu, Yunqi; Wang, Tingyun

    2015-04-01

    Silicon core optical fiber expanded silicon photonics to specialty fiber platform. Although great challenges still exist for the fiber fabrication, the presence of semiconductor material has already given optical fiber new features and enormous possibilities for fiber-based devices and sensors. In this Letter, an all fiber silicon cavity Fabry-Perot interferometer was made by splicing silicon core silica cladding fiber with conventional single-mode silica fiber. The cavity shows high temperature sensitivity around 82 pm/°C due to the larger thermo-optical coefficient of silicon material compared with that of silica material.

  18. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensing for fire source localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Miao; Tang, Yuquan; Yang, Shuang; Sigrist, Markus W.; Li, Jun; Dong, Fengzhong

    2017-08-01

    A method for localizing a fire source based on a distributed temperature sensor system is proposed. Two sections of optical fibers were placed orthogonally to each other as the sensing elements. A tray of alcohol was lit to act as a fire outbreak in a cabinet with an uneven ceiling to simulate a real scene of fire. Experiments were carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. Rather large fluctuations and systematic errors with respect to predicting the exact room coordinates of the fire source caused by the uneven ceiling were observed. Two mathematical methods (smoothing recorded temperature curves and finding temperature peak positions) to improve the prediction accuracy are presented, and the experimental results indicate that the fluctuation ranges and systematic errors are significantly reduced. The proposed scheme is simple and appears reliable enough to locate a fire source in large spaces.

  19. Energetic radiation influence on temperature dependency of Brillouin frequency in optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Pheron, X.; Ouerdane, Y.; Delepine-Lesoille, S.; Boukenter, A.; Bertrand, J.

    2011-07-01

    We present a post mortem study of the influence of energetic radiation on optical fiber Brillouin sensors, both Brillouin spectrum and its temperature dependency in two different fibers, a photosensitive optical fiber and a SMF28. The target application is nuclear wastes repository monitoring where optical fiber Brillouin sensors might be exposed to energetic radiation. UV exposure induced optical losses, Brillouin frequency shifts up to 28 MHz and even a variation of the temperature dependency. The photosensitive optical fiber resulted more sensitive than SMF28{sup TM}. (authors)

  20. High temperature measurements in irradiated environment using Raman fiber optics distributed temperature sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, Pierre; Blairon, Sylvain; Boldo, Didier; Taillade, Frédéric; Caussanel, Matthieu; Beauvois, Gwendal; Duval, Hervé; Grieu, Stéphane; Laffont, Guillaume; Lainé, Frédéric; Carrel, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Optical fiber temperature sensors using Raman effect are a promising technology for temperature mapping of nuclear power plant pipes. These pipes are exposed to high temperature (350 °C) and gamma radiations, which is a harsh environment for standard telecom fibers. Therefore metal coated fibers are to be used to perform measurement over 300 °C. Temperature variations can affect the attenuation of the metallic coated fiber before irradiation. The latter induces an extra attenuation, due to light absorption along the fiber by radiation-induced defects. The recombination of these defects can be strongly accelerated by the high temperature value. As backscattered Raman signal is weak it is important to test optical fibers under irradiation to observe how it gets attenuated. Different experiments are described in this conference paper: two in situ irradiation campaigns with different dose rates at, both ambient and high temperature. We observe that the tested off-the-shelf metallic coated fibers have a high attenuation under irradiation. We also noticed the fact that thermal annealing plays a massive role in the +300 °C temperature range.

  1. Integrated optic current transducers incorporating photonic crystal fiber for reduced temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Chu, Woo-Sung; Kim, Sung-Moon; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2015-08-24

    Optical current transducers (OCT) are indispensable for accurate monitoring of large electrical currents in an environment suffering from severe electromagnetic interference. Temperature dependence of OCTs caused by its components, such as wave plates and optical fibers, should be reduced to allow temperature-independent operation. A photonic crystal fiber with a structural optical birefringence was incorporated instead of a PM fiber, and a spun PM fiber was introduced to overcome the temperature-dependent linear birefringence of sensing fiber coil. Moreover, an integrated optic device that provides higher stability than fiber-optics was employed to control the polarization and detect the phase of the sensed optical signal. The proposed OCT exhibited much lower temperature dependence than that from a previous study. The OCT satisfied the 0.5 accuracy class (IIEC 60044-8) and had a temperature dependence less than ± 1% for a temperature range of 25 to 78 °C.

  2. Phase 9 Fiber Optic Cable Microbending and Temperature Cycling Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abushagur, Mustafa A.G.; Huang, Po T.; Hand, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Optical fibers represent the back bone of the current communications networks. Their performance in the field lacks long term testing data because of the continuous evolution of the manufacturing of fibers and cables. An optical fiber cable that is installed in NASA's KSC has experienced a dramatic increase in attenuation after three years of use from 0.7 dB/km to 7 dB/km in some fibers. A thorough study is presented to assess the causes of such an attenuation increase. Material and chemical decomposition testing showed that there are no changes in the composition of the fiber which might have caused the increase in attenuation. Microbending and heat cycling tests were performed on the cable and individual fibers. It was found that the increase in attenuation is due to microbending caused by excessive stress exerted on the fibers. This was the result of manufacturing and installation irregularities.

  3. Radiation and temperature effects on LDEF fiber optic samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.; Hartmayer, R.; Bergman, L. A.

    1993-01-01

    Results obtained from the JPL Fiber Optics Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment since the June 1991 Experimenters' Workshop are addressed. Radiation darkening of laboratory control samples and the subsequent annealing was measured in the laboratory for the control samples. The long-time residual loss was compared to the LDEF flight samples and found to be in agreement. The results of laboratory temperature tests on the flight samples, extending over a period of about nine years, including the pre-flight and post-flight analysis periods, are described. The temperature response of the different cable samples varies widely, and appears in two samples to be affected by polymer aging. Conclusions to date are summarized.

  4. Soil temperature variability in complex terrain measured using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil temperature (Ts) exerts critical controls on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes but magnitude and nature of Ts variability in a landscape setting are rarely documented. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensing systems (FO-DTS) potentially measure Ts at high density over a large extent. ...

  5. Design and test of multimode interference based optical fiber temperature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Enbang

    2008-12-01

    Fiber-optic temperature sensors offer unique advantages, such as immunity to electromagnetic interferences, stability, repeatability, durability against harsh environments, high sensitivity and resolution, and fast response. Therefore, optical fiber sensors have been widely adopted and applied in various areas for temperature measurements. It has been demonstrated that by using multimode interferences in a segment of multimode fiber, wavelength-encoded fiber optic temperature sensing can be achieved. The advantages of this kind of temperature sensors include the extremely simple structure and the ability for high-temperature measurements. In this work, we investigate the interference of core mode and cladding modes in double cladding fibers. Analysis and simulations are carried out in order to identify the optimal parameters of the temperature sensor. Practical design of the multimode interference based optical fiber temperature sensors is investigated, and sensing probes are fabricated and tested. The design details, temperature measurement experiments, and test results are presented in this paper.

  6. Effect of soil temperature on optical frequency transfer through unidirectional dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing fiber-optic links.

    PubMed

    Pinkert, T J; Böll, O; Willmann, L; Jansen, G S M; Dijck, E A; Groeneveld, B G H M; Smets, R; Bosveld, F C; Ubachs, W; Jungmann, K; Eikema, K S E; Koelemeij, J C J

    2015-02-01

    Results of optical frequency transfer over a carrier-grade dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) optical fiber network are presented. The relation between soil temperature changes on a buried optical fiber and frequency changes of an optical carrier through the fiber is modeled. Soil temperatures, measured at various depths by the Royal Netherlands Meteorology Institute (KNMI) are compared with observed frequency variations through this model. A comparison of a nine-day record of optical frequency measurements through the 2×298  km fiber link with soil temperature data shows qualitative agreement. A soil temperature model is used to predict the link stability over longer periods (days-months-years). We show that optical frequency dissemination is sufficiently stable to distribute and compare, e.g., rubidium frequency standards over standard DWDM optical fiber networks using unidirectional fibers.

  7. Technical ways to improve the temperature stability of fiber optic gyros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Youshan; Zhou, Shiqin; Lu, Zheng

    2001-12-01

    Described in this paper are technical ways to improve the temperature stability of fiber optic gyroscopes. The fiber optic gyroscope consists of a super luminescent diode, an integrated optical circuit, a fiber coupler, a polarizing optical fiber coil, a detector and a signal-processing device. The peak wavelength of SLD is 1.3 micrometers . The multifunctional integrated optical circuit that includes a polarizater, a Y type junction coupler and a phase modulator, is manufactured with annealed proton exchange process. The polarizing optical fiber coil is fabricated by applying quadrupolar winding technology. The fiber optic gyroscope can work in high/low temperature, large acceleration, vibration, shock and other harsh environments. It is applied in strapdown inertial navigation systems, directional measuring system in oil-rigs and automobile positioning and guidance.

  8. GFOC Project results: High Temperature / High Pressure, Hydrogen Tolerant Optical Fiber

    SciTech Connect

    E. Burov; A. Pastouret; E. Aldea; B. Overton; F. Gooijer; A. Bergonzo

    2012-02-12

    Tests results are given for exposure of multimode optical fiber to high temperatures (300 deg. C) and high partial pressure (15 bar) hydrogen. These results demonstrate that fluorine down doped optical fibers are much more hydrogen tolerant than traditional germanium doped multimode optical fibers. Also demonstrated is the similar hydrogen tolerance of carbon coated and non-carbon coated fibers. Model for reversible H2 impact in fiber versus T{sup o}C and H2 pressure is given. These results have significant impact for the longevity of use for distributed temperature sensing applications in harsh environments such as geothermal wells.

  9. A portable optical fiber probe for in vivo brain temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musolino, Stefan; Schartner, Erik P.; Tsiminis, Georgios; Salem, Abdallah; Monro, Tanya M.; Hutchinson, Mark R.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the development of an optical fiber based probe for in vivo measurements of brain temperature. By using a thin layer of rare-earth doped tellurite glass on the tip of a silica optical fiber a durable probe, suitable for long-term in vivo measurements of temperature can be fabricated. The probe can be interrogated using a portable optical measurement setup, allowing for measurements to be performed outside of standard optical laboratories as no alignment of components is required. This setup is deployed to a medical research laboratory to show preliminary results on the use of these optical fibers for in vivo pre-clinical measurements of brain temperature.

  10. Fiber - Optic Devices as Temperature Sensors for Temperature Measurements in AC Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rablau, Corneliu; Lafrance, Joseph; Sala, Anca

    2007-10-01

    We report on the investigation of several fiber-optic devices as potential sensors for temperature measurements in AC magnetic fields. Common temperature sensors, such as thermocouples, thermistors or diodes, will create random and/or systematic errors when placed in a magnetic field. A DC magnetic field is susceptible to create a systematic offset to the measurement, while in an AC magnetic field of variable frequency random errors which cannot be corrected for can also be introduced. Fiber-Bragg-gratings and thin film filters have an inherent temperature dependence. Detrimental for their primary applications, the same dependence allows one to use such devices as temperature sensors. In an AC magnetic field, they present the advantage of being immune to electromagnetic interference. Moreover, for fiber-Bragg-gratings, the shape factor and small mass of the bare-fiber device make it convenient for temperature measurements on small samples. We studied several thin-film filters and fiber-Bragg-gratings and compared their temperature measurement capabilities in AC magnetic fields of 0 to 150 Gauss, 0 to 20 KHz to the results provided by off-the-shelf thermocouples and thermistor-based temperature measurement systems.

  11. Simulation analysis for thermo-chromic fiber optic temperature sensing probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xueyan; Dou, Yinping; Huan, Kewei

    2016-03-01

    Fiber-optic temperature sensor based on thermo-chromic materials is a kind of effective facility to solve the problem of measuring temperature in the electrical power system. But the measuring range by this method is narrow, it is necessary to improve the measuring range by the means of append an attenuator. In this paper,based on traditional fiber optic temperature sensor , the purpose and principle of thermo-chromic optical fiber temperature sensing probe is introduced. The degree of attenuation of temperature which is obtained through ANSYS software thermal simulation is used as an evaluation index to make the choice of probe structure, and analyzes the result of simulation in detail. Finally, the functional between the temperature of heat source and the temperature of attenuator is fitted. So, this paper could be a reference or an example for the application of fiber-optic temperature sensor based on thermo-chromic materials.

  12. High-Temperature Microphone With Fiber-Optic Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellbaum, Richard F.; Gunther, Michael F.; Clause, Richard O.; Murphy, Kent A.

    1994-01-01

    Acoustic-pressure transducer (microphone) with fiber-optic output designed to withstand hot, loud, structurally vibrating environment like that of jet engine. Features flat frequency response out to frequencies well beyond several-kilohertz range needed to test for acoustic-pressure loads on engine structures.

  13. White-light interferometric optic fiber temperature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuesong; Lai, Shurong; Zhao, Huafeng; Liao, Yanbiao

    1996-10-01

    A white-light fiber interferometer working in the spatial domain, using two fiber ends in a hollow tube as the sensing head and an electric-magnetic actuator-mirror reflector as the path compensation-measurement element, is presented. Analysis and preliminary experiments have demonstrated repeatability of 0.02 degrees Celsius within 1 degree Celsius temperature range and repeatability of 0.6 degrees Celsius within 100 degrees Celsius temperature range for temperature measurement. Suggestions for further improving the measurement accuracy are also given.

  14. High temperature fiber optic microphone having a pressure-sensing reflective membrane under tensile stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Cuomo, Frank W. (Inventor); Robbins, William E. (Inventor); Hopson, Purnell, Jr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A fiber optic microphone is provided for measuring fluctuating pressures. An optical fiber probe having at least one transmitting fiber for transmitting light to a pressure-sensing membrane and at least one receiving fiber for receiving light reflected from a stretched membrane is provided. The pressure-sensing membrane may be stretched for high frequency response. Further, a reflecting surface of the pressure-sensing membrane may have dimensions which substantially correspond to dimensions of a cross section of the optical fiber probe. Further, the fiber optic microphone can be made of materials for use in high temperature environments, for example greater than 1000 F. A fiber optic probe is also provided with a backplate for damping membrane motion. The backplate further provides a means for on-line calibration of the microphone.

  15. Interferometric fiber-optic gyroscope performance owing to temperature-induced index fluctuations in the fiber: effect on bias modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Sverre; Bløtekjær, Kjell

    1995-06-01

    An analysis of the noise floor owing to temperature-induced index fluctuations in the fiber of a dynamically biased interferometric fiber-optic gyroscope is presented. A comparison with shot noise indicates that, for a harmonic bias modulation, thermal noise in the fiber dominates for fiber lengths longer than \\similar 1 - 2km when practical source power levels are considered. The noise can be reduced or eliminated by the proper choice of modulation frequency or waveform.

  16. Real-time simultaneous temperature and strain measurements at cryogenic temperatures in an optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahar, Scott; Geng, Jihong; Schultz, Joel; Minervini, Joseph; Jiang, Shibin; Titus, Peter; Takayasu, Makoto; Gung, Chen-yu; Tian, Wenyan; Chavez-Pirson, Arturo

    2008-08-01

    A novel fiber optic sensor has been developed to be used in superconducting magnets for fusion reactors and other large cable-in-conduit superconductor (CICC) magnet applications. These large superconducting magnets need a diagnostic that can measure the temperature and strain throughout the magnet in real-time, which was not possible until now. Simultaneous temperature and strain measurements at cryogenic temperatures have been demonstrated, using spontaneous Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber. Using an extremely narrow (100 Hz) linewidth Brillouin laser with very low noise as a frequency shifted local oscillator, the frequency shift of spontaneous Brillouin scattered light was measured using heterodyne detection. A pulsed laser was used to probe the fiber using Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR) to determine spatial resolution. The spontaneous Brillouin frequency shift and linewidth as a function of temperature agree with previous literature on stimulated Brillouin scattering data from room temperature down to 4 K. For the first time, the spontaneous Brillouin frequency shift, linewidth, and intensity as a function of strain have been measured down to 4 K. Analyzing the frequency spectrum of the scattered light after an FFT gives the Brillouin frequency shift, linewidth, and intensity of the scattered light. 65,000 pulses, with 53 ns pulse widths, were averaged in under one second, providing a 5 meter spatial resolution along a fiber that was about 100 m long. Measuring these three parameters allow the simultaneous determination of temperature and strain in real-time throughout a fiber with a spatial resolution on the order of several meters.

  17. Solar cyclic tests of optical fiber components working in ammonia and high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidelus, Janusz D.; Stańczyk, Tomasz; Wysokiński, Karol; Lipiński, Stanisław; Tenderenda, Tadeusz; Rodriguez Garcia, José; Canadas Martinez, Inmaculada; Nasiłowski, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    The paper reports on the metal (Cu, Ni, Au)-coated fibers annealed under concentrated solar radiation in ammonia and N2/H2 atmospheres at temperatures up to 580 °C. Tensile strength of the annealed fiber components was studied from the point of view of their possible application as a fiber optic sensors in urea chemical synthesis process control.

  18. Optical fiber temperature sensor utilizing alloyed Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fei; Kim, Jongsung

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, optical fiber temperature sensors have been prepared by using alloyed Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S quantum dots as sensing media. The surface of the optical fiber was silanized to enhance covalent bond between quantum dots and optical fiber. The quantum dots were bonded to the surface of optical fiber and further encapsulated via sol-gel coating using 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTMS) in ethyl alcohol in acidic condition. Quantum dots with green, yellow, and red fluorescence were used. The dependence of photoluminescence (PL) intensity from quantum dots on ambient temperature has been studied. Linear relation between the fluorescent intensity and temperature was obtained from alloyed quantum dots immobilized on the surface of optical fiber. The PL intensity, sensitivity, and thermal stability were increased by the silica encapsulation.

  19. Experimental investigation of the factors influencing temperature dependence of radiation-induced attenuation in optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jing; Xu, Raomei; Liu, Jixun; Song, Ningfang

    2014-03-01

    The effects of transmission wavelength, total dose and light source power on temperature dependence of radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) in Ge-P co-doped fibers were investigated. Three fibers irradiated up to total dose of 100 Gy and 10,000 Gy were used as test samples. A test system for temperature dependence of RIA was built up. The influence of transmission wavelength, total dose and light power on temperature sensitivity and linearity of RIA in three irradiated fibers were researched. The test results show that temperature sensitivity and linearity of RIA in optical fibers could be improved by adjusting total dose and selecting transmission wavelength. The light source power does not have obvious influence on temperature sensitivity and linearity. The Ge-P co-doped fiber at 850 nm transmission wavelength with higher total dose is a very promising candidate for fiber-optic temperature sensor.

  20. Fiber optic sensor for measurement of pressure fluctuations at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Cuomo, Frank W.

    1989-01-01

    A fiber-optic sensor, based on the principle of the fiber-optic lever, is described which features small size, extended bandwidth, and capability to operate at high temeratures, as required for measurements in hypersonic flow. The principle of operation, design features peculiar to the intended application, and expected performance at high temperatures are described.

  1. Sensitivity improvement of optical-fiber temperature sensor with solid cladding material based on multimode interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukano, Hideki; Kushida, Yohei; Taue, Shuji

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a simple, high-sensitivity optical-fiber temperature sensor based on multimode interference (MMI). The fabricated MMI structure comprises three segmented fibers: a single-mode fiber (SMF); a large-core multimode fiber (MMF), whose outer surface is coated with a temperature-sensitive material; and another SMF. Fluoroacrylate and silicone rubber are tested as temperature-sensitive cladding materials. The silicone rubber coating exhibits a large shift in interference wavelength with temperature, producing a very fine temperature resolution as low as 0.01 °C.

  2. A novel fiber optic distributed temperature and strain sensor for building applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tregubov, A. V.; Svetukhin, V. V.; Novikov, S. G.; Berintsev, A. V.; Prikhodko, V. V.

    A novel fiber optic distributed sensor for temperature and strain measurements in building constructions has been developed and studied which is a composite optical element in the form of a reinforced single-mode optical fiber placed directly in the body of a fiberglass armature. The sensor has a reasonably high sensitivity to changes in external temperature and strain and a good spatial resolution. Besides, it is characterized by a high mechanical strength as compared to conventional fiber sensor elements. The experimental results obtained on a prototype show the value of the temperature sensitivity of 0.1 MHz/deg and the sensitivity to strain of 2.7 MHz/mm.

  3. Influence of high temperatures on optical fibers coated with multilayer protective coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanczyk, T.; Fidelus, J.; Wysokinski, K.; Lipinski, S.; Tenderenda, T.; Kuklińska, M.; Kołakowska, A.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Canadas Martinez, I.; Nasiłowski, T.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present an innovative method of enhancing optical fibers' resistance to extremely high temperatures by deposition of a multilayer metal coating on the fibers' surface. Such multilayer coating is necessary because of the silica degradation at elevated temperatures. Despite the fact that copper coated fibers work well at temperatures up to 400°C, at higher temperatures copper oxidizes and can no longer protect the fiber. To hold back the copper oxidation and silica degradation processes we developed a dedicated multilayer coating which allows fibers to operate at temperatures up to 700°C. The optimal protective layer has been chosen after numerous high-temperature tests, where copper plates coated with different kinds of coatings were evaluated. What is more, we present results of the high-temperature reliability tests of copper coated fibers protected with our multilayer coating. Performed tests proved that our solution significantly improved optical fibers' reliability to both: elevated temperatures and rapid changes of temperature. Furthermore the developed metal coatings allow fibers' to be electrolytically bonded to other metal elements (e.g. sensor transducers) what makes them great candidates for harsh environment fiber optic sensor applications.

  4. An optical fiber sensing technique for temperature distribution measurements in microwave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Daichi; Sugiyama, Jun-ichi; Zushi, Hiroaki; Murayama, Hideaki

    2015-08-01

    We introduce an optical fiber sensing technique that can measure the temperature distributions along a fiber during microwave heating. We used a long-length fiber Bragg grating (FBG) as an electromagnetic-immune sensor and interrogated temperature distributions along the FBG by an optical frequency domain reflectometry. Water in a glass tube with a length of 820 mm was heated in a microwave oven, and its temperature distribution along the glass tube was measured using the sensing system. The temperature distribution was obtained in 5 mm intervals. Infrared radiometry was also used to compare the temperature measurement results. Time and spatial variations of the temperature distribution profiles were monitored for several microwave input powers. The results clearly depict inhomogeneous temperature profiles. The applicability and effectiveness of the optical fiber distributed measurement technique in microwave heating are demonstrated.

  5. Modification of an RBF ANN-Based Temperature Compensation Model of Interferometric Fiber Optical Gyroscopes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jianhua; Qi, Bing; Chen, Daidai; Jr. Landry, René

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents modification of Radial Basis Function Artificial Neural Network (RBF ANN)-based temperature compensation models for Interferometric Fiber Optical Gyroscopes (IFOGs). Based on the mathematical expression of IFOG output, three temperature relevant terms are extracted, which include: (1) temperature of fiber loops; (2) temperature variation of fiber loops; (3) temperature product term of fiber loops. Then, the input-modified RBF ANN-based temperature compensation scheme is established, in which temperature relevant terms are transferred to train the RBF ANN. Experimental temperature tests are conducted and sufficient data are collected and post-processed to form the novel RBF ANN. Finally, we apply the modified RBF ANN based on temperature compensation model in two IFOGs with temperature compensation capabilities. The experimental results show the proposed temperature compensation model could efficiently reduce the influence of environment temperature on the output of IFOG, and exhibit a better temperature compensation performance than conventional scheme without proposed improvements. PMID:25985163

  6. Special optical fiber for temperature sensing based on cladding-mode resonance.

    PubMed

    Pang, Fufei; Xiang, Wenchao; Guo, Hairun; Chen, Na; Zeng, Xianglong; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun

    2008-08-18

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor by using a multi-cladding special fiber is presented. It works on the basis of leaky mode resonance from fiber core to outer cladding. With the thin-thickness inner cladding, the cladding mode is strongly excited and the resonant spectrum is very sensitive to the refractive index variation of coating material. By coating the special fiber with temperature-sensitive silicone, the temperature response was investigated experimentally from -20 degrees C to 80 degrees C. The results show high temperature sensitivity (240 pm/degrees C at 20 degrees C) and good repeatability.

  7. Calculated coupling efficiency between an elliptical-core optical fiber and an optical waveguide over temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret L.; Weisshaar, Andreas; Li, Jian; Beheim, Glenn

    1995-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of coupling the output of a single-mode optical fiber into a single-mode rib waveguide in a temperature varying environment, a theoretical calculation of the coupling efficiency between the two was investigated. Due to the complex geometry of the rib guide, there is no analytical solution to the wave equation for the guided modes, thus, approximation and/or numerical techniques must be utilized to determine the field patterns of the guide. In this study, three solution methods were used for both the fiber and guide fields; the effective-index method (EIM), Marcatili's approximation, and a Fourier method. These methods were utilized independently to calculate the electric field profile of each component at two temperatures, 20 C and 300 C, representing a nominal and high temperature. Using the electric field profile calculated from each method, the theoretical coupling efficiency between an elliptical-core optical fiber and a rib waveguide was calculated using the overlap integral and the results were compared. It was determined that a high coupling efficiency can be achieved when the two components are aligned. The coupling efficiency was more sensitive to alignment offsets in the y direction than the x, due to the elliptical modal field profile of both components. Changes in the coupling efficiency over temperature were found to be minimal.

  8. High spatial resolution fiber optical sensors for simultaneous temperature and chemical sensing for energy industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Aidong; Huang, Sheng; Li, Shuo; Zaghloul, Mohamed; Ohodnicki, Paul; Buric, Michael; Chen, Kevin P.

    2017-05-01

    This paper demonstrates optical fibers as high-temperature sensor platforms. Through engineering and onfiber integration of functional metal oxide sensory materials, we report the development of an integrated sensor solution to perform temperature and chemical measurements for high-temperature energy applications. Using the Rayleigh optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) distributed sensing scheme, the temperature and hydrogen concentration were measured along the fiber. To overcome the weak Rayleighbackscattering intensity exhibited by conventional optical fibers, an ultrafast laser was used to enhance the Rayleigh scattering by a direct laser writing method. Using the Rayleigh-enhanced fiber as sensor platform, both temperature and hydrogen reaction were monitored at high temperature up to 750°C with 4-mm spatial resolution.

  9. Demonstration of distributed fiber-optic temperature sensing with PM fiber using polarization crosstalk analysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hongxin; Zhao, Ziwei; Feng, Ting; Ding, Dongliang; Li, Zhihong; Yao, X. Steve

    2016-11-01

    Polarization crosstalk is a phenomenon that the powers of two orthogonal polarization modes propagating in a polarization maintaining (PM) fiber couple into each other. Because there is certain mathematical relationship between the polarization crosstalk signals and external perturbations such as stress and temperature variations, stress and temperature sensing in PM fiber can be simultaneously achieved by measuring the strengths and locations of polarization crosstalk signals. In this paper, we report what we believe the first distributed temperature sensing demonstration using polarization crosstalk analysis in PM fibers. Firstly, by measuring the spacing changes between two crosstalk peaks at different fiber length locations, we obtained the temperature sensing coefficient (TSC) of approximately -0.73 μm/(°C•m), which means that the spacing between two crosstalk peaks induced at two locations changes by 0.73 μm when the temperature changes by 1 °C over a fiber length of 1 meter. Secondly, in order to bring different temperature values at different axial locations along a PM fiber to verify the distributed temperature sensing, four heating-strips are used to heat different fiber sections of the PM fiber under test, and the temperatures measured by the proposed fiber sensing method according to the obtained TSC are almost consistent with those of heating-strips measured by a thermoelectric thermometer. As a new type of distributed fiber temperature sensing technique, we believe that our method will find broad applications in the near future.

  10. Two Fiber Optical Fiber Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Mathew R.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Breeding, Shawn P.

    2000-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose sensing tip is given a metallic coating. The sensing tip of the fiber is essentially an isothermal cavity, so the emission from this cavity will be approximately equal to the emission from a blackbody. Temperature readings are obtained by measuring the spectral radiative heat flux at the end of the fiber at two wavelengths. The ratio of these measurements and Planck's Law are used to infer the temperature at the sensing tip. Optical fiber thermometers have high accuracy, excellent long-term stability and are immune to electromagnetic interference. In addition, they can be operated for extended periods without requiring re-calibration. For these reasons. it is desirable to use optical fiber thermometers in environments such as the International Space Station. However, it has recently been shown that temperature readings are corrupted by emission from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe several ways in which the reading from a second fiber can be used to correct the corrupted temperature measurements. The accuracy and sensitivity to measurement uncertainty will be presented for each method.

  11. Two Fiber Optical Fiber Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Mathew R.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Breeding, Shawn P.

    2000-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose sensing tip is given a metallic coating. The sensing tip of the fiber is essentially an isothermal cavity, so the emission from this cavity will be approximately equal to the emission from a blackbody. Temperature readings are obtained by measuring the spectral radiative heat flux at the end of the fiber at two wavelengths. The ratio of these measurements and Planck's Law are used to infer the temperature at the sensing tip. Optical fiber thermometers have high accuracy, excellent long-term stability and are immune to electromagnetic interference. In addition, they can be operated for extended periods without requiring re-calibration. For these reasons. it is desirable to use optical fiber thermometers in environments such as the International Space Station. However, it has recently been shown that temperature readings are corrupted by emission from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe several ways in which the reading from a second fiber can be used to correct the corrupted temperature measurements. The accuracy and sensitivity to measurement uncertainty will be presented for each method.

  12. Novel method of optical fiber temperature measurement: measuring the inner temperature of the cage motor in starting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Danping; Lin, Wei; Lin, YinWen

    2000-10-01

    Although the development of fluorescent fiber optic temperature measurement technology have overcome the difficulty of the surface temperature distribution measurement of a rotor of electric machine. The temperature of the conductor (or magnetic) strips which are buried under the surface of the rotor yet not be resolved. A new measuring scheme of fluorescent optical fiber is presented in this paper. It is fully suitable for the above measuring demands. Several fiber probes are assembled with the rotor. The sensor heads are buried under the rotor surface to touch the measuring points. The other ends of the fiber probes are terminated on an optical rotational coupling disc. The induced temperature signals then are sequentially transmitted out to the external of the rotor by another fix fiber. Finally the temperature of the strips is obtained. In this paper we will discuss the selection of light source, the design of light path and derive the theory analysis of dynamic coupling.

  13. Optical fiber sensors embedded in concrete for measurement of temperature in a real fire test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Antonio; Torres, Benjamín; Barrera, David; Calderón, Pedro Antonio; Lloris, José Manuel; López, María José; Sales, Salvador

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of a real fire test using optical fiber sensors embedded in concrete samples. The temperature curve used in this experiment is described in the Spanish/European standard UNE-EN 1363-1 temperature profile for normalized concrete resistance to real fire tests, reaching temperatures of more than 1000°C inside the fire chamber and up to 600°C inside the concrete samples. Three types of optical sensors have been embedded in concrete: 1. standard fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in photosensitive germanium-boron co-doped fiber, 2. regenerated fiber Bragg grating (RFGB) inscribed in germanium doped fiber, and 3. RFBG inscribed in germanium-boron co-doped fiber.

  14. Demonstrated survivability of a high temperature optical fiber cable on a 1500 pound thrust rocket chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, Amy L.

    1992-01-01

    A demonstration of the ability of an existing optical fiber cable to survive the harsh environment of a rocket engine was performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The intent of this demonstration was to prove the feasibility of applying fiber optic technology to rocket engine instrumentation systems. Extreme thermal transient tests were achieved by wrapping a high temperature optical fiber, which was cablized for mechanical robustness, around the combustion chamber outside wall of a 1500 lb Hydrogen-Oxygen rocket engine. Additionally, the fiber was wrapped around coolant inlet pipes which were subject to near liquid hydrogen temperatures. Light from an LED was sent through the multimode fiber, and output power was monitored as a function of time while the engine was fired. The fiber showed no mechanical damage after 419 firings during which it was subject to transients from 30 K to 350 K, and total exposure time to near liquid hydrogen temperatures in excess of 990 seconds. These extreme temperatures did cause attenuation greater than 3 dB, but the signal was fully recovered at room temperature. This experiment demonstrates that commercially available optical fiber cables can survive the environment seen by a typical rocket engine instrumentation system, and disclose a temperature-dependent attenuation observed during exposure to near liquid hydrogen temperatures.

  15. Compensation for effects of ambient temperature on rare-earth doped fiber optic thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, G.; Sotomayor, J. L.; Krasowski, M. J.; Eustace, J. G.

    1989-01-01

    Variations in ambient temperature have a negative effect on the performance of any fiber optic sensing system. A change in ambient temperature may alter the design parameters of fiber optic cables, connectors, sources, detectors, and other fiber optic components and eventually the performance of the entire system. The thermal stability of components is especially important in a system which employs intensity modulated sensors. Several referencing schemes have been developed to account for the variable losses that occur within the system. However, none of these conventional compensating techniques can be used to stabilize the thermal drift of the light source in a system based on the spectral properties of the sensor material. The compensation for changes in ambient temperature becomes especially important in fiber optic thermometers doped with rare earths. Different approaches to solving this problem are searched and analyzed.

  16. Compensation for effects of ambient temperature on rare-earth doped fiber optic thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, G.; Sotomayor, J. L.; Krasowski, M. J.; Eustace, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    Variations in ambient temperature have a negative effect on the performance of any fiber optic sensing system. A change in ambient temperature may alter the design parameters of fiber optic cables, connectors, sources, detectors, and other fiber optic components and eventually the performance of the entire system. The thermal stability of components is especially important in a system which employs intensity modulated sensors. Several referencing schemes have been developed to account for the variable losses that occur within the system. However, none of these conventional compensating techniques can be used to stabilize the thermal drift of the light source in a system based on the spectral properties of the sensor material. The compensation for changes in ambient temperature becomes especially important in fiber optic thermometers doped with rare earths. Different approaches to solving this problem are searched and analyzed.

  17. Spectral interferometric fiber optic temperature sensor with enhanced sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militky, J.; Kadulova, M.; Hlubina, P.

    2016-12-01

    Spectral interferometric techniques utilizing the interference of polarization modes in a highly birefringent (HB) elliptical-core fiber to measure temperature are analyzed experimentally. First, an experimental setup comprising a white-light source, a polarizer, a sensing birefringent fiber, an analyzer and a spectrometer is considered. Temperature sensing by this method is based on the wavelength interrogation. Second, the above setup is extended by a birefringent quartz crystal to increase the sensitivity of the temperature sensing. Third, the above setup is extended by an analyzer, and the combination of a polarizer, a birefringent quartz crystal and an analyzer represents another interferometer, which is used to increase the sensitivity of the temperature sensing. In this case the Vernier effect is present and the resultant spectrum is with an envelope, which is utilized in temperature sensing. We reached a sensitivity of 0.56 nm/K in the third setup, compared to -0.12 nm/K and -0.19 nm/K in the first and the second setup, respectively.

  18. Wavelength-encoded fiber-optic temperature sensor with ultra-high sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Enbang; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2008-12-01

    We present in this paper a wavelength-encoded fiber-optic temperature sensor with ultra-high sensitivity. The sensor consists of a segment of multimode fiber (MMF) with a polymer cladding spliced between two single mode fibers, forming a multimode fiber interferometer. For a temperature sensor with a 55 mm long MMF and a 45 mm long polymer cladding, a temperature sensitivity of -3.195 nm/°C has been achieved over a temperature range of 10 °C which is mainly limited by the spectral range of the light source used in the experiments. It has been found that the high temperature sensitivity is mainly attributed to the high thermo-optic coefficient of the polymer cladding. Other advantages of the temperature sensor reported here include its extremely simple structure and fabrication process, and hence a very low cost.

  19. Fabrication of miniature fiber-optic temperature sensors

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Yizheng; Wang, Anbo

    2010-07-27

    A method of coupling a silica fiber and a sapphire fiber includes providing a silica fiber having a doped core and a cladding layer, with the doped core having a prescribed diameter, providing a sapphire fiber having a diameter less than the doped core, placing an end of the sapphire fiber in close proximity to an end of the silica fiber, applying a heat source to the end of silica fiber and introducing the end of sapphire fiber into the heated doped core of the silica fiber to produce a coupling between the silica and sapphire fibers.

  20. Rayleigh-based distributed temperature sensing and fiber Bragg grating point temperature sensing with a single optical fiber on high electrical potential of 1 MV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringel, T.; Willsch, M.; Bosselmann, T.

    2017-04-01

    A temperature measurement of a high voltage bushing (HV-Bushing) is presented. An optical fiber with several inscribed Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) was used to measure the temperature at given positions and a Rayleigh-based measurement technique was used to measure the temperature (profile) between the FBGs. The used optical frequencies for the FBG and Rayleigh measurement had to be separated to achieve good results. Voltages of up to 1 MV were applied to the HV-Bushing during the measurement.

  1. Strain-independent temperature measurement by use of a fluorescence intensity ratio technique in optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Wade, S A; Collins, S F; Grattan, K T; Baxter, G W

    2000-06-20

    The strain sensitivity of the fluorescence intensity ratio temperature-sensing technique has been measured to be (2 +/- 3) x 10(-4)%/muepsilon in Yb3+-doped fiber, implying a temperature-to-strain cross sensitivity of (2 +/- 3) x 10(-4) degrees C/muepsilon. The near-zero strain sensitivity means that this optical-fiber sensor technique is well suited for temperature measurement in strain-affected environments.

  2. Stable multi-wavelength fiber lasers for temperature measurements using an optical loop mirror.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Silvia; Socorro, Abian Bentor; Martínez Manuel, Rodolfo; Fernandez, Ruben; Monasterio, Ioseba

    2016-10-10

    In this work, two novel stable multi-wavelength fiber laser configurations are proposed and demonstrated by using a spool of a single-mode fiber as an optical loop mirror and one or two fiber ring cavities, respectively. The lasers are comprised of fiber Bragg grating reflectors as the oscillation wavelength selecting filters. The influence of the length of the spool of fiber on the laser stability both in terms of wavelength and laser output power was investigated. An application for temperature measurement is also shown.

  3. Novel, fiber optic, hybrid pressure and temperature sensor designed for high-temperature gen-IV reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, M. E.; Fielder, R. S.; Davis, M. A.

    2006-07-01

    A novel, fiber optic, hybrid pressure-temperature sensor is presented. The sensor is designed for reliable operation up to 1050 C, and is based on the high-temperature fiber optic sensors already demonstrated during previous work. The novelty of the sensors presented here lies in the fact that pressure and temperature are measured simultaneously with a single fiber and a single transducer. This hybrid approach will enable highly accurate active temperature compensation and sensor self-diagnostics not possible with other platforms. Hybrid pressure and temperature sensors were calibrated by varying both pressure and temperature. Implementing active temperature compensation resulted in a ten-fold reduction in the temperature-dependence of the pressure measurement. Sensors were also tested for operability in a relatively high neutron radiation environment up to 6.9x10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}. In addition to harsh environment survivability, fiber optic sensors offer a number of intrinsic advantages for nuclear power applications including small size, immunity to electromagnetic interference, self diagnostics / prognostics, and smart sensor capability. Deploying fiber optic sensors on future nuclear power plant designs would provide a substantial improvement in system health monitoring and safety instrumentation. Additional development is needed, however, before these advantages can be realized. This paper will highlight recent demonstrations of fiber optic sensors in environments relevant to emerging nuclear power plants. Successes and lessons learned will be highlighted. (authors)

  4. Optical high temperature sensor based on fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bowei

    The aim of this thesis is to fabricate a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensor that is capable to measure temperatures in excess of 1100°C. For this purpose, two topics have been studied and investigated during this project. One of them is the development of a high temperature resistant molecular-water induced FBGs; and the other is to investigate the effect of microwave-irradiation on the hydrogen-loaded FBG. The molecular-water induced FBGs are different from the other types of FBG. In these devices the refractive index is modulated by the periodic changes of molecular-water concentration within the grating. The device was developed using thermal annealing technology based on hydrogen-load FBG. Thermal stability of these devices was studied by measuring the grating reflectivity from room temperature to 1000°C. The stability of the device was tested by examining the FBG reflectivity for a period of time at certain temperatures. The results show that these devices are extremely stable at temperatures in excess of 1000°C. The hydroxyl concentration in the grating has been also investigated during this thesis. Based on the knowledge of hydroxyl groups inside FBG, a microwave treatment was designed to increase the hydroxyl concentration in the FBG area. The results show that the molecular-water induced grating, which was fabricated using microwave radiated hydrogen-loaded FBI, are stable at temperatures above 1100°C.

  5. Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatak, Ajoy; Thyagarajan, K.

    With the development of extremely low-loss optical fibers and their application to communication systems, a revolution has taken fiber glass place during the last 40 years. In 2001, using glass fibers as the transmission medium and lightwaves as carrier wave waves, information was transmitted at a rate more than 1 Tbit/s (which is roughly equivalent to transmission of about 15 million simultaneous telephone conversations) through one hair thin optical fiber. Experimental demonstration of transmission at the rate of 14 Tbit/s over a 160 km long single fiber was demonstrated in 2006, which is equivalent to sending 140 digital high definition movies in 1 s. Very recently record transmission of more than 100 Tbit/s over 165 km single mode fiber has been reported. These can be considered as extremely important technological achievements. In this chapter we will discuss the propagation characteristics of optical fibers with special applications to optical communication systems and also present some of the noncommunication applications such as sensing.

  6. Multimode fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer and its use in temperature measurement.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, T; Yamaguchi, I

    1988-08-01

    A fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer with multimode fibers has been constructed, in which the fringe shift is detected by a spatial filtering detector. In this interferometer, throughput is much greater than in interferometers using single-mode fibers, but speckles disturb detection of the fringe shift. We have overcome this disadvantage by computer software; the interferometer measured temperature and a sensitivity of 72.3 +/- 1.2 fringes/ degrees C . m was obtained.

  7. Fiber optic intrinsic Fabry-Perot temperature sensor fabricated by femtosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenyuan; Pang, Fufei; Chen, Na; Zhang, Xiaobei; Lan, Lugang; Ding, Ding; Wang, Tingyun

    2010-12-01

    A fiber-optic intrinsic Fabry-Perot (F-P) interferometric sensor was inscribed in a standard single mode fiber by inducing refractive index change in the core. It was written directly by using a femtosecond laser. The reflection spectrum of the fiber-optic F-P interferometric sensor was measured and was investigated as a temperature sensor. The sensitivity of the sensor is 9.2 pm/°C in the temperature range of -20~80°C.

  8. All-fiber-optic temperature sensor based on reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Liao, Guozhen; Jin, Shaoshen; Cao, Dong; Wei, Qingsong; Lu, Huihui; Yu, Jianhui; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Xiao, Yi; Tang, Jieyuan; Luo, Yunhan; Chen, Zhe

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate a novel all-fiber-optic temperature sensor based on a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film coated onto a side-polished fiber (SPF). Significantly enhanced interaction between the propagating light and the rGO film can be obtained via strong evanescent field of the SPF. The strong light-graphene interaction results in temperature sensing with a maximum optical power variation of 11.3 dB in the SPF experimentally. The novel temperature fiber sensor has a linear correlation coefficient of 99.4%, a sensitivity of 0.134 dB °C-1, a precision of better than 0.03 °C, and a response speed of better than 0.0228 °C s-1. Such an rGO-based all-fiber-optic temperature sensor is easy to fabricate, is compatible with fiber-optic systems, and possesses high potentiality in photonics applications such as all-fiber-optic temperature sensing networks.

  9. Multipoint refractive index and temperature fiber optic sensor based on cascaded no core fiber-fiber Bragg grating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Xu, Shan; Zhao, Junfa; Li, Hongqiang; Bai, Hua; Miao, Changyun

    2017-02-01

    A multipoint fiber optic sensor based on two cascaded multimode interferometer (MMI) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) structures is proposed and demonstrated for simultaneous measurement of refractive index (RI) and temperature. The MMI is fabricated by splicing a section of no-core fiber (NCF) with two single-mode fibers. The suitable NCF lengths of 19.1 and 38.8 mm are selected by simulations to achieve wavelength division multiplexing. The two MMIs are sensitive to RI and temperature with the maximal RI sensitivities of 429.42228 and 399.20718 nm/RIU in the range of 1.333 to 1.419 and the temperature sensitivities of 10.05 and 10.22 pm/°C in the range of 26.4°C to 100°C, respectively. However, the FBGs are only sensitive to the latter with the sensitivities of 10.4 and 10.73 pm/°C. Therefore, dual-parameter measurement is obtained and cross-sensitivity issue can be solved. The distance between the two sensing heads is up to 12 km, which demonstrates the feasibility of long-distance measurement. During measurement, there is no mutual interference to each sensing head. The experimental results show that the average errors of RI are 7.61×10-4 RIU and 6.81×10-4 RIU and the average errors of temperature are 0.017°C and 0.012°C, respectively. This sensor exhibits the advantages of high RI sensitivity, dual-parameter and long-distance measurement, low cost, and easy and repeatable fabrication.

  10. Single mode step-index polymer optical fiber for humidity insensitive high temperature fiber Bragg grating sensors.

    PubMed

    Woyessa, Getinet; Fasano, Andrea; Stefani, Alessio; Markos, Christos; Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K; Bang, Ole

    2016-01-25

    We have fabricated the first single-mode step-index and humidity insensitive polymer optical fiber operating in the 850 nm wavelength ranges. The step-index preform is fabricated using injection molding, which is an efficient method for cost effective, flexible and fast preparation of the fiber preform. The fabricated single-mode step-index (SI) polymer optical fiber (POF) has a 4.8µm core made from TOPAS grade 5013S-04 with a glass transition temperature of 134°C and a 150 µm cladding made from ZEONEX grade 480R with a glass transition temperature of 138°C. The key advantages of the proposed SIPOF are low water absorption, high operating temperature and chemical inertness to acids and bases and many polar solvents as compared to the conventional poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene based POFs. In addition, the fiber Bragg grating writing time is short compared to microstructured POFs.

  11. Bed conduction impact on fiber optic distributed temperature sensing water temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell Meininger, T.; Selker, J. S.

    2015-02-01

    Error in distributed temperature sensing (DTS) water temperature measurements may be introduced by contact of the fiber optic cable sensor with bed materials (e.g., seafloor, lakebed, streambed). Heat conduction from the bed materials can affect cable temperature and the resulting DTS measurements. In the Middle Fork John Day River, apparent water temperature measurements were influenced by cable sensor contact with aquatic vegetation and fine sediment bed materials. Affected cable segments measured a diurnal temperature range reduced by 10% and lagged by 20-40 min relative to that of ambient stream temperature. The diurnal temperature range deeper within the vegetation-sediment bed material was reduced 70% and lagged 240 min relative to ambient stream temperature. These site-specific results illustrate the potential magnitude of bed-conduction impacts with buried DTS measurements. Researchers who deploy DTS for water temperature monitoring should understand the importance of the environment into which the cable is placed on the range and phase of temperature measurements.

  12. Development and Performance Verification of Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors in High Temperature Engine Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Mackey, Jeffrey R.; Kren, Lawrence A.; Floyd, Bertram M.; Elam, Kristie A.; Martinez, Martel

    2014-01-01

    A High Temperature Fiber Optic Sensor (HTFOS) has been developed at NASA Glenn Research Center for aircraft engine applications. After fabrication and preliminary in-house performance evaluation, the HTFOS was tested in an engine environment at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. The engine tests enabled the performance of the HTFOS in real engine environments to be evaluated along with the ability of the sensor to respond to changes in the engine's operating condition. Data were collected prior, during, and after each test in order to observe the change in temperature from ambient to each of the various test point levels. An adequate amount of data was collected and analyzed to satisfy the research team that HTFOS operates properly while the engine was running. Temperature measurements made by HTFOS while the engine was running agreed with those anticipated.

  13. In vivo brain temperature measurements based on fiber optic Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibaii, Mohammad I.; Latifi, Hamid; Karami, Fatemeh; Ronaghi, Abdolaziz; Chavoshi Nejad, Sara; Dargahi, Leila

    2017-04-01

    This work reports on the development of an optical fiber sensor based fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) probe for in vivo measurements of brain temperature. The major goal of this work is to demonstrate that the changes in brain temperature induced by drugs is an important reality, which could provide new valuable information on the mechanisms of drug action and open new therapeutic approaches. This probe can be interrogated using a portable optical measurement setup, allowing for measurements to be performed outside of standard optical laboratories.

  14. Miniature fiber-optic high temperature sensor based on a hybrid structured Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hae Young; Park, Kwan Seob; Park, Seong Jun; Paek, Un-Chul; Lee, Byeong Ha; Choi, Eun Seo

    2008-11-01

    A miniature Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometric fiber-optic sensor suitable for high-temperature sensing is proposed and demonstrated. The sensor head consists of two FP cavities formed by fusion splicing a short hollow-core fiber and a piece of single-mode fiber at a photonic crystal fiber in series. The reflection spectra of an implemented sensor are measured at several temperatures and analyzed in the spatial frequency domain. The experiment shows that the thermal-optic effect of the cavity material is much more appreciable than its thermal expansion. The temperature measurements up to 1000 degrees C with a step of 50 degrees C confirm that it could be applicable as a high-temperature sensor.

  15. High-temperature fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Wenhui; Jiang, Yi; Gao, Ran; Liu, Yuewu

    2015-05-15

    A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based high-temperature fiber-optic sensor is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensor head is a Fabry-Perot cavity manufactured with a short section of endless single-mode photonic crystal fiber (ESM PCF). The interferometric spectrum of the Fabry-Perot interferometer is collected by a charge coupled device linear array based micro spectrometer. A high-resolution demodulation algorithm is used to interrogate the peak wavelengths. Experimental results show that the temperature range of 1200 °C and the temperature resolution of 1 °C are achieved.

  16. High-temperature fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wenhui; Jiang, Yi; Gao, Ran; Liu, Yuewu

    2015-05-01

    A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based high-temperature fiber-optic sensor is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensor head is a Fabry-Perot cavity manufactured with a short section of endless single-mode photonic crystal fiber (ESM PCF). The interferometric spectrum of the Fabry-Perot interferometer is collected by a charge coupled device linear array based micro spectrometer. A high-resolution demodulation algorithm is used to interrogate the peak wavelengths. Experimental results show that the temperature range of 1200 °C and the temperature resolution of 1 °C are achieved.

  17. DNA based thin solid films and its application to optical fiber temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seongjin; Jung, Woohyun; Kim, Taeoh; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2017-04-01

    Temperature dependent refractive index of DNA-cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTMA) thin-solid-film was measured 20 to 90° to obtain its thermo-optic coefficient of -3.6×10-4 (dn/dT). DNA- CTMA film has high thermosoptic coefficient than other polymers. The film was deposited on coreless silica fiber (CSF) to serve as a multimode interferometer optical fiber temperature sensor. It is immersed in a water that changed temperature from 40 to 90°. It has sensitivity of 0.25nm/℃.

  18. Fiber-optic Bragg grating sensors for structural health monitoring at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecke, Wolfgang; Latka, Ines; Habisreuther, Tobias; Lingertat, Johann

    2007-04-01

    While conventional resistance strain gages show increasing cross-sensitivities to temperature and magnetic field with decreasing temperature down to liquid helium, it has been found that fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensors show negligible thermo-optic and magneto-optic effects in cryogenic environment and allow, therefore, reliable strain measurements. These specific application advantages of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors at low temperatures, together with the electrical isolation and low electro-magnetic interference, low thermal conductivity to a large number of multiplexed sensors, make them attractive for structural health monitoring of super-conductive magnets, e.g., for super-conductive motors, magnetic levitation transport, nuclear fusion reactors, or for measurement of material parameters at low temperature, and, if using special sensor substrates, also for temperature measurements and hot spot detection on superconductors.

  19. Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Using a Thin-Film Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn

    1997-01-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor was developed that is rugged, compact, stable, and can be inexpensively fabricated. This thin-film interferometric temperature sensor was shown to be capable of providing a +/- 2 C accuracy over the range of -55 to 275 C, throughout a 5000 hr operating life. A temperature-sensitive thin-film Fabry-Perot interferometer can be deposited directly onto the end of a multimode optical fiber. This batch-fabricatable sensor can be manufactured at a much lower cost than can a presently available sensor, which requires the mechanical attachment of a Fabry-Perot interferometer to a fiber. The principal disadvantage of the thin-film sensor is its inherent instability, due to the low processing temperatures that must be used to prevent degradation of the optical fiber's buffer coating. The design of the stable thin-film temperature sensor considered the potential sources of both short and long term drifts. The temperature- sensitive Fabry-Perot interferometer was a silicon film with a thickness of approx. 2 microns. A laser-annealing process was developed which crystallized the silicon film without damaging the optical fiber. The silicon film was encapsulated with a thin layer of Si3N4 over coated with aluminum. Crystallization of the silicon and its encapsulation with a highly stable, impermeable thin-film structure were essential steps in producing a sensor with the required long-term stability.

  20. Soil Temperature Variability in Complex Terrain measured using Distributed a Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, M. S.; Link, T. E.

    2013-12-01

    Soil temperature (Ts) exerts critical environmental controls on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes. Rates of carbon cycling, mineral weathering, infiltration and snow melt are all influenced by Ts. Although broadly reflective of the climate, Ts is sensitive to local variations in cover (vegetative, litter, snow), topography (slope, aspect, position), and soil properties (texture, water content), resulting in a spatially and temporally complex distribution of Ts across the landscape. Understanding and quantifying the processes controlled by Ts requires an understanding of that distribution. Relatively few spatially distributed field Ts data exist, partly because traditional Ts data are point measurements. A relatively new technology, fiber optic distributed temperature system (FO-DTS), has the potential to provide such data but has not been rigorously evaluated in the context of remote, long term field research. We installed FO-DTS in a small experimental watershed in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in the Owyhee Mountains of SW Idaho. The watershed is characterized by complex terrain and a seasonal snow cover. Our objectives are to: (i) evaluate the applicability of fiber optic DTS to remote field environments and (ii) to describe the spatial and temporal variability of soil temperature in complex terrain influenced by a variable snow cover. We installed fiber optic cable at a depth of 10 cm in contrasting snow accumulation and topographic environments and monitored temperature along 750 m with DTS. We found that the DTS can provide accurate Ts data (+/- .4°C) that resolves Ts changes of about 0.03°C at a spatial scale of 1 m with occasional calibration under conditions with an ambient temperature range of 50°C. We note that there are site-specific limitations related cable installation and destruction by local fauna. The FO-DTS provide unique insight into the spatial and temporal variability of Ts in a landscape. We found strong seasonal

  1. Local control of light polarization with low-temperature fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Mack, A H; Riordon, J; Dean, C R; Talbot, R; Gervais, G

    2007-06-01

    A fiber-optic-based polarization control system that uses a backreflection measurement scheme at low temperatures has been developed. This provides a stringent test of the light polarization state at the output of the fiber, allowing for determination and control of the degree of circular polarization; i.e., it can generate linear, right, or left circular polarization with cryogenic fibers. This polarization controller is paving the way toward the control and manipulation of nuclear spins in semiconductors via the optical Overhauser effect and could be used, for example, for the purpose of quantum information processing with the large nuclear spins of GaAs.

  2. [New type distributed optical fiber temperature sensor (DTS) based on Raman scattering and its' application].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Feng; Liu, Hong-Lin; Zhang, Shu-Qin; Yu, Xiang-Dong; Sun, Zhong-Zhou; Jin, Shang-Zhong; Zhang, Zai-Xuan

    2013-04-01

    Basic principles, development trends and applications status of distributed optical fiber Raman temperature sensor (DTS) are introduced. Performance parameters of DTS system include the sensing optical fiber length, temperature measurement uncertainty, spatial resolution and measurement time. These parameters have a certain correlation and it is difficult to improve them at the same time by single technology. So a variety of key techniques such as Raman amplification, pulse coding technique, Raman related dual-wavelength self-correction technique and embedding optical switching technique are researched to improve the performance of the DTS system. A 1 467 nm continuous laser is used as pump laser and the light source of DTS system (1 550 nm pulse laser) is amplified. When the length of sensing optical fiber is 50 km the Raman gain is about 17 dB. Raman gain can partially compensate the transmission loss of optical fiber, so that the sensing length can reach 50 km. In DTS system using pulse coding technique, pulse laser is coded by 211 bits loop encoder and correlation calculation is used to demodulate temperature. The encoded laser signal is related, whereas the noise is not relevant. So that signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of DTS system can be improved significantly. The experiments are carried out in DTS system with single mode optical fiber and multimode optical fiber respectively. Temperature measurement uncertainty can all reach 1 degrees C. In DTS system using Raman related dual-wavelength self-correction technique, the wavelength difference of the two light sources must be one Raman frequency shift in optical fiber. For example, wavelength of the main laser is 1 550 nm and wavelength of the second laser must be 1 450 nm. Spatial resolution of DTS system is improved to 2 m by using dual-wavelength self-correction technique. Optical switch is embedded in DTS system, so that the temperature measurement channel multiply extended and the total length of the sensing

  3. Fully-distributed fiber-optic high temperature sensing based on stimulated Brillouin scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Hu, Di; Wang, Dorothy Y.; Wang, Anbo

    2013-06-01

    We proposed a Brillouin optical fiber time domain analysis (BOTDA)-based fully-distributed temperature system as high as 1000°C and spatial resolution to 5 meters. This technique is prominent for high spatial resolution fully distributed high temperature and stress sensing over long distance.

  4. Temperature-independent evanescent wave sensor made of a stress-released silica optical fiber taper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yongxi; Li, Yingguang; Li, Nanya

    2017-07-01

    Based on a cyclic heating-cooling treatment method, a temperature-independent silica optical fiber evanescent wave sensor is proposed. The cyclic heating-cooling treatment process could significantly release the residual stresses in the taper, achieving a high measurement accuracy in the temperature range of 20-200 °C. After the treatment, the relative light intensity

  5. Distributed optical fiber temperature sensor applied in underground coal gasification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Hu, Chuanlong; Zhang, Zaixuan; Gong, Huaping; Jin, Yongxing; Shen, Changyu

    2010-12-01

    Distributed optical fiber temperature sensor (DTS) for underground coal gasification (UCG) system using is studied in this paper. By measuring temperature of reacting mine gasification process can be controlled. Calibration of DTS and experiment result are introduced. The results show that, DTS can play an important role in UCG systems.

  6. The effect of packaging material on optical fiber temperature sensor with singlemode multimode singlemode (SMS) structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chotimah, Ashri Khusnul; Hatta, Agus Muhamad; Pratama, Detak Yan

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, investigation of the effect of packaging material on optical fiber temperature sensor with single-mode multimode single-mode (SMS) structure has been done. First, the optimum length of multimode fiber that will be used as temperature sensor is chosen. The tests of SMS temperature sensor have done by using simple measurement system of intensity. The results show that the 42.63 mm length of step-index multimode fiber has a better performance than length 44.12 mm based on theoretical and experiment. After that, SMS optical fiber packaged with material. The materials of packaging are alumunium and stainless steel. The results show that after using packaging, the sensitivity of sensor has been inmproved. It is caused by the thermal expansion coefficient of packaging material. The highest sensitivity is obtained by using alumunium packaging. The sensitivity bare SMS optical fiber is 0.033 dBm/°C by theoretical and 0.066 dBm/°C by experiment. The sensitivity of SMS optical fiber packaged improve to 0.073 dBm/°C by theoretical and 0.176 dBm/°C by experiment.

  7. Fire Source Localization Based on Distributed Temperature Sensing by a Dual-Line Optical Fiber System.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao; Tang, Yuquan; Yang, Shuang; Li, Jun; Sigrist, Markus W; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-06-06

    We propose a method for localizing a fire source using an optical fiber distributed temperature sensor system. A section of two parallel optical fibers employed as the sensing element is installed near the ceiling of a closed room in which the fire source is located. By measuring the temperature of hot air flows, the problem of three-dimensional fire source localization is transformed to two dimensions. The method of the source location is verified with experiments using burning alcohol as fire source, and it is demonstrated that the method represents a robust and reliable technique for localizing a fire source also for long sensing ranges.

  8. Fire Source Localization Based on Distributed Temperature Sensing by a Dual-Line Optical Fiber System

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Miao; Tang, Yuquan; Yang, Shuang; Li, Jun; Sigrist, Markus W.; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for localizing a fire source using an optical fiber distributed temperature sensor system. A section of two parallel optical fibers employed as the sensing element is installed near the ceiling of a closed room in which the fire source is located. By measuring the temperature of hot air flows, the problem of three-dimensional fire source localization is transformed to two dimensions. The method of the source location is verified with experiments using burning alcohol as fire source, and it is demonstrated that the method represents a robust and reliable technique for localizing a fire source also for long sensing ranges. PMID:27275822

  9. A temperature sensor based on a polymer optical fiber macro-bend.

    PubMed

    Moraleda, Alberto Tapetado; García, Carmen Vázquez; Zaballa, Joseba Zubia; Arrue, Juan

    2013-09-26

    The design and development of a plastic optical fiber (POF) macrobend temperature sensor is presented. The sensor has a linear response versus temperature at a fixed bend radius, with a sensitivity of . The sensor system used a dummy fiber-optic sensor for reference purposes having a resolution below 0.3 °C. A comprehensive experimental analysis was carried out to provide insight into the effect of different surrounding media on practical macro-bend POF sensor implementation. Experimental results are successfully compared with bend loss calculations.

  10. A Temperature Sensor Based on a Polymer Optical Fiber Macro-Bend

    PubMed Central

    Moraleda, Alberto Tapetado; García, Carmen Vázquez; Zaballa, Joseba Zubia; Arrue, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The design and development of a plastic optical fiber (POF) macrobend temperature sensor is presented. The sensor has a linear response versus temperature at a fixed bend radius, with a sensitivity of 1.92·10−3 (°C)−1. The sensor system used a dummy fiber-optic sensor for reference purposes having a resolution below 0.3 °C. A comprehensive experimental analysis was carried out to provide insight into the effect of different surrounding media on practical macro-bend POF sensor implementation. Experimental results are successfully compared with bend loss calculations. PMID:24077323

  11. Fiber-optic temperature sensor using a spectrum-modulating semiconductor etalon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn; Anthan, Donald J.; Beheim, Glenn; Anthan, Donald J.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a fiber-optic temperature sensor that uses a spectrum modulating SiC etalon. The spectral output of this type of sensor may be analyzed to obtain a temperature measurement which is largely independent of the transmission properties of the sensor's fiber-optic link. A highly precise laboratory spectrometer is described in detail, and this instrument is used to study the properties of this type of sensor. Also described are a number of different spectrum analyzers that are more suitable for use in a practical thermometer.

  12. An optical fiber-folded distributed temperature sensor based on Raman backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Sun, XiaoHong; Xue, Qi; Wang, YiLe; Qi, YongLe; Wang, XiShi

    2017-08-01

    A temperature sensor is presented, which is based on optical fiber-folded distributed feedback and Raman backscattering. In the proposed configuration, different locations of optical fiber are put in the same environment to sense the same temperature. The proposed method and traditional method are used to demodulate different temperature fields. By comparing the demodulating results, two main problems have been solved. First, differential attenuation in the traditional method is eliminated between anti-Stokes and Stokes signal when they propagate along the fiber. Second, localized changes in the Stokes are removed, which is caused by other external factors except for the temperature. Furthermore, the detected signal consists of anti-Stokes only, which greatly simplifies the experimental device system. The proposed method has been verified by theoretical simulation to be simple and auto-correct.

  13. Infrared fiber optic temperature monitoring of biological tissues heated in a microwave oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belotserkovsky, Edward; Ashkenasy, Y.; Shenfeld, Ofer; Drizlikh, S.; Zur, Albert; Katzir, Abraham

    1993-05-01

    The heating of tissue by microwave radiation has attained a place of importance in various medical fields such as the treatment of malignancies, urinary retention and hypothermia. Accurate temperature measurements in these treated tissues is important for treatment planning and for the control of the heating process. It is also important to be able to measure spacial temperature distribution in the tissues because they are heated in a non uniform way by the microwave radiation. Fiber optic radiometry makes possible accurate temperature measurement in the presence of microwave radiation and does not require contact with the tissue. Using a IR silver halide fiber optic radiometric temperature sensor we obtained accurate temperature measurements of tissues heated by microwave, enabling us to control the heating process in all regions of the tissue. We also performed temperature mapping of the heated tissues and demonstrated the non-uniform temperature distributions in them.

  14. State of the art in high-temperature fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielder, Robert S.; Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.; Palmer, Matthew E.

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the work presented was to develop a suite of sensors for use in high-temperature aerospace environments, including turbine engine monitoring, hypersonic vehicle skin friction measurements, and support ground and flight test operations. A fiber optic sensor platform was used to construct the sensor suite. Successful laboratory demonstrations include calibration of pressure sensors to 500psi at a gas temperature of 800°C. Additionally, pressure sensors were demonstrated at 800°C in combination with a high-speed (1.0MHz) fiber optic readout system enabling previously unobtainable dynamic measurements at high-temperatures. Temperature sensors have been field tested up to 1400°C and as low as -195°C. The key advancement that enabled the operation of these novel harsh environment sensors was a fiber optic packaging methodology that allowed the coupling of alumina and sapphire transducer components, optical fiber, and high-temperature alloy housing materials. The basic operation of the sensors and early experimental results are presented. Each of the sensors described here represent a quantifiable advancement in the state of the art in high-temperature physical sensors and will have a significant impact on the aerospace propulsion instrumentation industry.

  15. A Novel, High-Resolution, High-Speed Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor for Oceanographic Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-11

    sharp thermo -gradient underwater. Keywords— Fiber-optic thermometer; Fabry-Pérot interferometer; ocean microstructure; turbulence I...in this paper is based on a FP cavity formed by thin crystalline silicon film attached to the end face of a single-mode fiber. Due to the thermo ...the dynamic temperature variations associated with a strong microstructure thermo -gradient is demonstrated. A. Sensitivity (a) (b) Fig. 1. (a

  16. Application of fiber optic temperature and strain sensing technology to gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Shannon M; Madden, Megan Elwood; Rawn, Claudia J; Szymcek, Phillip; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrates may have a significant influence on global carbon cycles due to their large carbon storage capacity in the form of greenhouse gases and their sensitivity to small perturbations in local conditions. Characterizing existing gas hydrate and the formation of new hydrate within sediment systems and their response to small changes in temperature and pressure is imperative to understanding how this dynamic system functions. Fiber optic sensing technology offers a way to measure precisely temperature and strain in harsh environments such as the seafloor. Recent large-scale experiments using Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Seafloor Process Simulator were designed to evaluate the potential of fiber optic sensors to study the formation and dissociation of gas hydrates in 4-D within natural sediments. Results indicate that the fiber optic sensors are so sensitive to experimental perturbations (e.g. refrigeration cycles) that small changes due to hydrate formation or dissociation can be overshadowed.

  17. Modeling and simulation on temperature performance in fiber optic gyroscope fiber coil of shipborne strapdown inertial navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yueze; Ma, Lin; Yu, Hao; Gao, Hongyu; Yuan, Yujie

    2016-10-01

    Compared with the traditional gyros, Fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) based on sagnac effect has the significant features, such as, long life, low cost, wide dynamic range, etc. These features have developed new applications of the gyroscope not only in industrial application area but also in aerospace application area. Now, the FOG has played a very important role in shipborne Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS). The fiber coil, as one of the most critical components in FOG, is extremely sensitive to changes in temperature. Here, by study the environment temperature in shipborne SINS, the temperature performance of the FOG was analyzed. Firstly, on the base of the research about the theory of Shupe non-reciprocal errors caused by temperature, the discrete mathematics formula of the temperature error in FOG of SINS was built .Then the element model of the fiber coil in SINS was built based on the discrete model of the fiber coil in temperature error in FOG. A turn-by-turn quantization temperature bias error model is establish. Finally, based on the temperature models mentioned above, the temperature performance of FOG in shipborne SINS was analyzed. With finite element analysis, numerical simulations were carried out to quantitatively analyze the angular error induced by temperature excitation in SINS. The model was validated by comparing numerical and experimental results.

  18. Low temperature and UV curable sol-gel coatings for long lasting optical fiber biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otaduy, D.; Villar, A.; Gomez-Herrero, E.; Goitandia, A. M.; Gorritxategi, E.; Quintana, I.

    2010-04-01

    The use of optical fibers as sensing element is increasing in clinical, pharmaceutical and industrial applications. Excellent light delivery, long interaction length, low cost and ability not only to excite the target molecules but also to capture the emitted light from the targets are the hallmarks of optical fiber as biosensors. In biosensors based on fiber optics the interaction with the analyte can occur within an element of the optical fiber. One of the techniques for this kind of biosensors is to remove the fiber optic cladding and substitute it for biological coatings that will interact with the parameter to sensorize. The deposition of these layers can be made by sol-gel technology. The sol-gel technology is being increasingly used mainly due to the high versatility to tailor their optical features. Incorporation of suitable chemical and biochemical sensing agents have allowed determining pH, gases, and biochemical species, among others. Nonetheless, the relatively high processing temperatures and short lifetime values mean severe drawbacks for a successful exploitation of sol-gel based coated optical fibres. With regard to the latter, herein we present the design, preparation and characterization of novel sol-gel coated optical fibres. Low temperature and UV curable coating formulations were optimized to achieve a good adhesion and optical performance. The UV photopolymerizable formulation was comprised by glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GLYMO), Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and an initiator. While the thermoset coating was prepared by using 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, GLYMO, and TEOS as main reagents. Both curable sol-gel coated fibres were analysed by FTIR, SEM and optical characterization. Furthermore, in the present work a new technique for silica cladding removal has been developed by ultra-short pulses laser processing, getting good dimensional accuracy and surface integrity.

  19. Distributed Temperature and Strain Discrimination with Stimulated Brillouin Scattering and Rayleigh Backscatter in an Optical Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Da-Peng; Li, Wenhai; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2013-01-01

    A distributed optical fiber sensor with the capability of simultaneously measuring temperature and strain is proposed using a large effective area non-zero dispersion shifted fiber (LEAF) with sub-meter spatial resolution. The Brillouin frequency shift is measured using Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) with differential pulse-width pair technique, while the spectrum shift of the Rayleigh backscatter is measured using optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR). These shifts are the functions of both temperature and strain, and can be used as two independent parameters for the discrimination of temperature and strain. A 92 m measurable range with the spatial resolution of 50 cm is demonstrated experimentally, and accuracies of ±1.2 °C in temperature and ±15 με in strain could be achieved. PMID:23385406

  20. Distributed temperature and strain discrimination with stimulated brillouin scattering and rayleigh backscatter in an optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Da-Peng; Li, Wenhai; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2013-01-31

    A distributed optical fiber sensor with the capability of simultaneously measuring temperature and strain is proposed using a large effective area non-zero dispersion shifted fiber (LEAF) with sub-meter spatial resolution. The Brillouin frequency shift is measured using Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) with differential pulse-width pair technique, while the spectrum shift of the Rayleigh backscatter is measured using optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR). These shifts are the functions of both temperature and strain, and can be used as two independent parameters for the discrimination of temperature and strain. A 92 m measurable range with the spatial resolution of 50 cm is demonstrated experimentally, and accuracies of ±1.2 °C in temperature and ±15 με in strain could be achieved.

  1. Temperature sensor based on a tapered optical fiber with ALD nanofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shan; Pang, Fufei; Wen, Jianxiang; Zhao, Ziwen; Wang, Tingyun

    2015-09-01

    A temperature sensor with high sensitivity based on a tapered optical fiber with Al2O3 nanofilm by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology is presented. Attributed to the high refractive index Al2O3 nanofilm overlay, an asymmetry Fabry-Perot interferometer is formed along the tapered fiber. Based on the ray-optic analysis, the resonant dip in the interference transmission spectrum depends on the phase delay variation induced by the Goos-Hänchen shift at the nanofilm-coating interface. As a result, the interference transmission spectrum shows good sensitivity to the change of surrounding refractive index. In this work, a temperature-sensitive silicone gel is coated around the fiber taper with Al2O3 nanofilm to realize a high sensitivity temperature sensor. The high sensitivity of 2.44 nm/°C is obtained.

  2. Optical fiber sensor for temperature measurement from 600 to 1900 C in gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tregay, G. W.; Calabrese, P. R.; Kaplin, P. L.; Finney, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    A temperature sensor system has been fabricated specifically for the harsh environment encountered in temperature measurement on gas turbine engines. Four components comprised the system: a thermally emissive source, a high temperature lightguide, a flexible optical cable and an electro-optic signal processor. The emissive source was located inside a sapphire rod so that the sapphire serves as both a lightguide and as a protective shroud. As the probe was heated, the thermal radiation from the emissive source increased with increasing temperature. The flexible optical cable was constructed with 200 micron core fiber and ruggedized for turbine engine applications. The electro-optic signal processor used the ratio of intensity in two wavelength intervals to determine a digital value of the temperature. The probe tip was operated above 1900 C in a low velocity propane flame and above 1500 C at Mach .37. Probe housings, optical cables, and signal processors were constructed and environmentally tested for the temperature and vibration experienced by turbine engine sensors. This technology was used to build an optical exhaust gas sensor for a General Electric Aircraft Engines F404 turbine. The four optical probes and optical cable were a functional replacement for four thermocouple probes. The system was ground tested for 50 hours with an excess of 1000 thermal cycles. This optical temperature sensor system measured gas temperature up to the operational limit of the turbine engine.

  3. The effect of temperature characteristic of Faraday rotator to passively demodulated all optical fiber current transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuekun; Wang, Zhengping; Sun, Shuai

    2012-11-01

    In order to move signal detecting point to the most sensitive position and improve the immunity of the system at the same time, the scheme named passively demodulated all optical fiber current transformer (AOFCT) inserts a Faraday rotator of 22.5° rotation angle between fiber λ/4retarder and leading fiber. To improve the performance of this type of all fiber current transformer, after considering the temperature features of a large proportion of Faraday crystals, the effect of the Faraday rotator's temperature properties on temperature stability of the passively demodulated AOFCTs are theoretically analyzed and numerically calculated. The results show that the errors induced by the Faraday rotators are beyond the requested values in the International Standard IEC 60044-8:2002 of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the State Standard of P.R.China GB/T 20840.8-2007. Finally, to solve this problem, some possible solutions are suggested.

  4. Analysis of a distributed fiber-optic temperature sensor using single-photon detectors.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Shellee D; Tanner, Michael G; Baek, Burm; Hadfield, Robert H; Nam, Sae Woo

    2012-02-13

    We demonstrate a high-accuracy distributed fiber-optic temperature sensor using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors and single-photon counting techniques. Our demonstration uses inexpensive single-mode fiber at standard telecommunications wavelengths as the sensing fiber, which enables extremely low-loss experiments and compatibility with existing fiber networks. We show that the uncertainty of the temperature measurement decreases with longer integration periods, but is ultimately limited by the calibration uncertainty. Temperature uncertainty on the order of 3 K is possible with spatial resolution of the order of 1 cm and integration period as small as 60 seconds. Also, we show that the measurement is subject to systematic uncertainties, such as polarization fading, which can be reduced with a polarization diversity receiver.

  5. Fabrication and comparison of thermochromic material-based fiber-optic sensors for monitoring the temperature of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Seo, Jeong Ki; Jang, Kyoung Won; Heo, Ji Yeon; Moon, Jin Soo; Park, Jang-Yeon; Park, Byung Gi; Lee, Bongsoo

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we explored the feasibility of developing two types of fiber-optic temperature sensors that can measure the temperature of water. One uses a thermochromic material such as Lophine, whose optical absorbance changes according to the thermal variation. The other uses a thermochromic pigment that gradually loses its own color through heat absorption. We measured the change in the intensity of the reflected light, which was due to the variation of the optical property of Lophine and pigments, with thermal variation. The relationship between the temperature of water and the output signal of the fiber-optic sensors was also determined. The fiber-optic temperature sensor using Lophine provided a relatively broad range of temperature measurement with low sensitivity, whereas the fiber-optic temperature sensor using a thermochromic pigment offered a high sensitivity in a narrow range of temperature measurement.

  6. Fiber optic temperature sensor using a Y2O2S:Eu thermographic phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Todd V.; Smith, Barton

    1994-03-01

    This report details the development and testing of a thermographic-phosphor-based fiber-optic temperature sensor. The sensor is constructed by removing a region of the fiber jacket and cladding, then coating the exposed core with yttrium oxysulfide doped with a europium activator (Y2O2S:Eu). When photoexcited, the europium in the host lattice emits a sharp-line fluorescence spectrum that is characteristic of the temperature of the host crystal lattice. By measuring fluorescence lifetimes, we can deduce the temperature of an optical fiber that is in thermal contact with the fiber. Two different distributions of Y2O2S:Eu in the cladding region were evaluated with regard to light coupling efficiency. Theoretical waveguide calculations indicate that a thin core/cladding boundary distribution of Y2O2S:Eu couples light more efficiently into the cores guided modes than does a bulk distribution of phosphor in the cladding. The sensor tests showed reproducible response from 20 to 180 degrees Celsius. This technique has several advantages over other fiber optic temperature sensing techniques.

  7. Fiber-optic thermometer using temperature dependent absorption, broadband detection, and time domain referencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Piltch, Nancy D.

    1986-01-01

    A fiber-optic thermometer based on temperature dependent absorption in Nd(3+) doped glass is demonstrated over the 298-573 K range. A broadband detection technique allows the use of the complete spectrum of a pulse modulated light emitting diode. A fiber-optic recirculating loop is employed to construct a reference channel in the time domain by generating a train of pulses from one initial pulse. A theoretical model is developed, and experimental data are shown to compare well with the theory. Possible sources of error and instability are identified, and ways to enhance the performance of the system are proposed.

  8. Optical fiber sensor temperature coded for concentration measurement of oil-biodiesel blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Possetti, Gustavo Rafael Collere; Kamikawachi, Ricardo Canute; Muller, Marcia; Fabris, José Luís

    2013-12-01

    This work describes the operation of an optical fiber sensor employed in the determination of remaining oil concentration in oil-biodiesel blends. The sensor is based both on the sensitivity of a long period grating to changes in the surroundings refractive index and on the thermo-optical properties of oil-biodiesel blends. The sensor response is provided by a temperature coded interrogation unit that employs an auxiliary fiber Bragg grating. The standard metrological analysis of an optimized sensor showed that is possible to detect until 0.10% v/v of oil in oil-biodiesel blends.

  9. Optical fiber sensor for simultaneous measurement of distributed strain and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivanesan, Ponniah

    Optical fiber sensors play an important role in health monitoring of space shuttles, aviation vehicles, and civil structures to issue early warnings. In this dissertation, a novel fiber sensor configuration using first and second order fiber Bragg gratings, coupled with Fourier demodulation technique, is investigated for simultaneously measuring strain and temperature. A detailed theoretical analysis for measurement resolution with regard to the sensor system matrix and the wavelength detection resolution is carried out for six different fiber grating based sensor configurations. Experimental methods to induce first and second order Bragg resonances in regular fiber gratings in single mode fibers are investigated. Far field (Fraunhofer field) diffraction intensity pattern in phase masks (dielectric surface relief gratings) is studied using simple plane wave electro-magnetic theory and the results are compared with the experimental measurements. A Fourier transform Bragg demodulator (FTBD) is built for simultaneously interrogating fiber gratings at 780 nm and 1550 nm wavelength ranges. The demodulator sensitivity and the grating sensor multiplexibility are investigated in terms of constraints arising from optical detectors, optical loss, and the spectral shape of the fiber gratings and mirrors. Finally, the measurement resolution of the whole sensor system is examined using simulated sensor data under two different laser tuning schemes; a single continuous sweep of the entire grating spectra and a multiple successive sweeps of the entire grating spectra. It is shown that the strain and temperature can be measured with a resolution of +/-150 x 10-6 and +/-25°C using first and second order fiber grating (1550 nm/780 nm) sensors bonded to a 30.48 cm x 2.54 cm x 2.3 mm aluminum beam and interrogated by a FTBD system with single laser sweep.

  10. Study of optical fibers strain-temperature sensitivities using hybrid Brillouin-Rayleigh system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishida, Kinzo; Yamauchi, Yoshiaki; Guzik, Artur

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the most recent progress as well as challenges of distributed optical fiber sensing (DOFS) in industrial applications is discussed. Compared to the vast market of sensors used to measure strain or temperature, the success of distributed optical fiber sensing (DOFS) at the industrial level is very limited, at best. One of the reasons for this lack of the wider acceptance is the mismatch between the commercially available systems and actual industrial requirements, especially for the spatial resolution and precision. These requirements are organized and clarified in the paper. It also describes the hybrid Brillouin-Rayleigh system, which exhibits capabilities surpassing those of strain gauges. The principles of the system are illustrated considering the fiber calibration methodology. Formulas required for determining strain, temperature, and hydro-pressure are derived and discussed. Finally, the examples of applications are presented.

  11. Measuring strain at extreme temperatures with a Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Marta S.; Roriz, Paulo; Bierlich, Jörg; Kobelke, Jens; Wondraczek, Katrin; Aichele, Claudia; Schuster, Kay; Santos, José L.; Frazão, Orlando

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensor for the measurement of strain at extreme temperatures is proposed. The cavity is formed by splicing a short section of a silica tube between two sections of single mode fiber. The tube, with a cladding ~14 μm thick and a hollow core, presents four small rods, of ~20 μm in diameter each, positioned in in diametrically opposite positions. This design ensures higher mechanical stability of the tube. Strain measurements are performed over a wide range of temperatures, until 900 °C. Some of the annealing effects are addressed in this study.

  12. Fiber optics for controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, Gary T.

    1987-01-01

    The challenge of those involved in control-system hardware development is to accommodate an ever-increasing complexity in aircraft control, while limiting the size and weight of the components and improving system reliability. A technology that displays promise towards this end is the area of fiber optics for controls. The primary advantages of employing optical fibers, passive optical sensors, and optically controlled actuators are weight and volume reduction, immunity from electromagnetic effects, superior bandwidth capabilities, and freedom from short circuits and sparking contacts. Since 1975, NASA Lewis has performed in-house, contract, and grant research in fiber optic sensors, high-temperature electro-optic switches, and fly-by-light control-system architecture. Passive optical sensor development is an essential yet challenging area of work and has therefore received much attention during this period. A major effort to develop fly-by-light control-system technology, known as the Fiber-Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program, was initiated in 1985 as a cooperative effort between NASA and DOD. Phase 1 of FOCSI, completed in 1986, was aimed at the design of a fiber-optic integrated propulsion/flight control system. Phase 2, yet to be initiated, will provide subcomponent and system development, and a system engine test. In addition to a summary of the benefits of fiber optics, the FOCSI program, sensor advances, and future directions in the NASA Lewis program will be discussed.

  13. High-temperature fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric pressure sensor fabricated by femtosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinan; Yuan, Lei; Lan, Xinwei; Kaur, Amardeep; Huang, Jie; Xiao, Hai

    2013-11-15

    In this Letter, we report on a fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric pressure sensor with its external diaphragm surface thinned and roughened by a femtosecond laser. The laser-roughened surface helps to eliminate outer reflections from the external diaphragm surface and makes the sensor immune to variations in the ambient refractive index. The sensor is demonstrated to measure pressure in a high-temperature environment with low-temperature dependence.

  14. Highly Sensitive Temperature Sensors Based on Fiber-Optic PWM and Capacitance Variation Using Thermochromic Sensing Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Rajibur Rahaman; Kang, Shin-Won

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a temperature/thermal sensor that contains a Rhodamine-B sensing membrane. We applied two different sensing methods, namely, fiber-optic pulse width modulation (PWM) and an interdigitated capacitor (IDC)-based temperature sensor to measure the temperature from 5 °C to 100 °C. To the best of our knowledge, the fiber-optic PWM-based temperature sensor is reported for the first time in this study. The proposed fiber-optic PWM temperature sensor has good sensing ability; its sensitivity is ~3.733 mV/°C. The designed temperature-sensing system offers stable sensing responses over a wide dynamic range, good reproducibility properties with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of ~0.021, and the capacity for a linear sensing response with a correlation coefficient of R2 ≈ 0.992 over a wide sensing range. In our study, we also developed an IDC temperature sensor that is based on the capacitance variation principle as the IDC sensing element is heated. We compared the performance of the proposed temperature-sensing systems with different fiber-optic temperature sensors (which are based on the fiber-optic wavelength shift method, the long grating fiber-optic Sagnac loop, and probe type fiber-optics) in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range, and linearity. We observed that the proposed sensing systems have better sensing performance than the above-mentioned sensing system. PMID:27409620

  15. Highly Sensitive Temperature Sensors Based on Fiber-Optic PWM and Capacitance Variation Using Thermochromic Sensing Membrane.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Rajibur Rahaman; Kang, Shin-Won

    2016-07-09

    In this paper, we propose a temperature/thermal sensor that contains a Rhodamine-B sensing membrane. We applied two different sensing methods, namely, fiber-optic pulse width modulation (PWM) and an interdigitated capacitor (IDC)-based temperature sensor to measure the temperature from 5 °C to 100 °C. To the best of our knowledge, the fiber-optic PWM-based temperature sensor is reported for the first time in this study. The proposed fiber-optic PWM temperature sensor has good sensing ability; its sensitivity is ~3.733 mV/°C. The designed temperature-sensing system offers stable sensing responses over a wide dynamic range, good reproducibility properties with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of ~0.021, and the capacity for a linear sensing response with a correlation coefficient of R² ≈ 0.992 over a wide sensing range. In our study, we also developed an IDC temperature sensor that is based on the capacitance variation principle as the IDC sensing element is heated. We compared the performance of the proposed temperature-sensing systems with different fiber-optic temperature sensors (which are based on the fiber-optic wavelength shift method, the long grating fiber-optic Sagnac loop, and probe type fiber-optics) in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range, and linearity. We observed that the proposed sensing systems have better sensing performance than the above-mentioned sensing system.

  16. Methods for calculating the temperature zero drift initiated in fiber ring interferometers by random inhomogeneities in single-mode optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malykin, G. B.

    2008-12-01

    The specific features of the existing methods used for calculating the temperature zero drift initiated in fiber ring interferometers (FRIs) by linear coupling between polarization eigenmodes at random inhomogeneities in single-mode optical fibers are analyzed. The ranges of applicability of each method are determined. It is demonstrated that numerical simulation with a variation in the temperature of the single-mode optical fiber of the FRI loop is the most complex and, at the same time, the most universal method.

  17. Optical Fiber Temperature and Torsion Sensor Based on Lyot-Sagnac Interferometer.

    PubMed

    Shao, Li-Yang; Zhang, Xinpu; He, Haijun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zou, Xihua; Luo, Bin; Pan, Wei; Yan, Lianshan

    2016-10-24

    An optical fiber temperature and torsion sensor has been proposed by employing the Lyot-Sagnac interferometer, which was composed by inserting two sections of high-birefringence (HiBi) fiber into the Sagnac loop. The two inserted sections of HiBi fiber have different functions; while one section acts as the temperature sensitive region, the other can be used as reference fiber. The temperature and twist sensor based on the proposed interferometer structure have been experimentally demonstrated. The experimental results show that the envelope of the output spectrum will shift with the temperature evolution. The temperature sensitivity is calculated to be -17.99 nm/°C, which is enlarged over 12 times compared to that of the single Sagnac interferometer. Additionally, the fringe visibility of the spectrum will change due to the fiber twist, and the test results reveal that the fringe visibility and twist angle perfectly conform to a Sine relationship over a 360° twist angle. Consequently, simultaneous torsion and temperature measurement could be realized by detecting the envelope shift and fringe visibility of the spectrum.

  18. Optical Fiber Temperature and Torsion Sensor Based on Lyot-Sagnac Interferometer

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Li-Yang; Zhang, Xinpu; He, Haijun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zou, Xihua; Luo, Bin; Pan, Wei; Yan, Lianshan

    2016-01-01

    An optical fiber temperature and torsion sensor has been proposed by employing the Lyot-Sagnac interferometer, which was composed by inserting two sections of high-birefringence (HiBi) fiber into the Sagnac loop. The two inserted sections of HiBi fiber have different functions; while one section acts as the temperature sensitive region, the other can be used as reference fiber. The temperature and twist sensor based on the proposed interferometer structure have been experimentally demonstrated. The experimental results show that the envelope of the output spectrum will shift with the temperature evolution. The temperature sensitivity is calculated to be −17.99 nm/°C, which is enlarged over 12 times compared to that of the single Sagnac interferometer. Additionally, the fringe visibility of the spectrum will change due to the fiber twist, and the test results reveal that the fringe visibility and twist angle perfectly conform to a Sine relationship over a 360° twist angle. Consequently, simultaneous torsion and temperature measurement could be realized by detecting the envelope shift and fringe visibility of the spectrum. PMID:27783032

  19. Temperature sensing based on multimodal interference in polymer optical fibers: Room-temperature sensitivity enhancement by annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawa, Tomohito; Numata, Goki; Lee, Heeyoung; Hayashi, Neisei; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2017-07-01

    To date, we have developed a temperature sensor based on multimodal interference in a polymer optical fiber (POF) with an extremely high sensitivity. Here, we experimentally evaluate the influence of annealing (heat treatment) of the POF on the temperature sensitivity at room temperature. We show that the temperature sensitivity is enhanced with increasing annealing temperature, and that, by annealing the POF at 90 °C, we can achieve a temperature sensitivity of +2.17 nm/°C, which is 2.9 times larger than that without annealing (+0.75 nm/°C).

  20. Method and apparatus for determining peak temperature along an optical fiber

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.J.

    1982-07-29

    The invention relates to a new method and new apparatus for determining the hottest temperature or the coldest temperature prevailing along the length of an optical-fiber light guide. The invention is conducted with an optical fiber capable of supporting multidiode propagation of light and comprising a core, a cladding, and a jacket. The core is selected to have (1) a higher refractive index than the core and the cladding and (2) a relatively high negative temperature coefficient of refractive index. A light beam capable of establishing substantially single-mode propagation in the core is launched into an end thereof at an angle to the axis. The angle is increased to effect the onset of light fraction from the core into the cladding. The value of the launch angle corresponding to the onset is determined and then used to establish the refractive index of the core corresponding to the onset angle. The maximum temperature prevailing along the fiber then is determined from the (1) refractive index so determined and (2) the temperature coefficient of refractive index for the core. The invention is based on the finding that the launch angle corresponding to the onset of refraction into the cladding is uniquely determined by the maximum value of the ratio of the core refractive index to the cladding refractive index, which maximum occurs at the hottest point along the fiber.

  1. Method and apparatus for determining peak temperature along an optical fiber

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a new method and new apparatus for determining the hottest temperature or the coldest temperature prevailing along the length of an optical-fiber light guide. The invention is conducted with an optical fiber capable of supporting multidiode propagation of light and comprising a core, a cladding, and a jacket. The core is selected to have (1) a higher refractive index than the core and the cladding and (2) a relatively high negative temperature coefficient of refractive index. A light beam capable of establishing substantially single-mode propagation in the core is launched into an end thereof at an angle to the axis. The angle is increased to effect the onset of light refraction from the core into the cladding. The value of the launch angle corresponding to the onset is determined and then used to establish the refractive index of the core corresponding to the onset angle. The maximum temperature prevailing along the fiber then is determined from the (1) refractive index so determined and (2) the temperature coefficient of refractive index for the core. The invention is based on the finding that the launch angle corresponding to the onset of refraction into the cladding is uniquely determined by the maximum value of the ratio of the core refractive index to the cladding refractive index, which maximum occurs at the hottest point along the fiber.

  2. Fiber-optic temperature profiling for thermal protection system heat shields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Richard J.; Costa, Joannes M.; Zarnescu, Livia; Hackney, Drew A.; Moslehi, Behzad; Peters, Kara J.

    2016-11-01

    To achieve better designs for spacecraft heat shields for missions requiring atmospheric aero-capture or entry/reentry, reliable thermal protection system (TPS) sensors are needed. Such sensors will provide both risk reduction and heat-shield mass minimization, which will facilitate more missions and enable increased payloads and returns. This paper discusses TPS thermal measurements provided by a temperature monitoring system involving lightweight, electromagnetic interference-immune, high-temperature resistant fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors with a thermal mass near that of TPS materials together with fast FBG sensor interrogation. Such fiber-optic sensing technology is highly sensitive and accurate, as well as suitable for high-volume production. Multiple sensing FBGs can be fabricated as arrays on a single fiber for simplified design and reduced cost. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the temperature monitoring system using multisensor FBG arrays embedded in a small-size super-light ablator (SLA) coupon which was thermally loaded to temperatures in the vicinity of the SLA charring temperature. In addition, a high-temperature FBG array was fabricated and tested for 1000°C operation, and the temperature dependence considered over the full range (cryogenic to high temperature) for which silica fiber FBGs have been subjected.

  3. Fiber optic coupled optical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, Kevin J.

    2001-01-01

    A displacement sensor includes a first optical fiber for radiating light to a target, and a second optical fiber for receiving light from the target. The end of the first fiber is adjacent and not axially aligned with the second fiber end. A lens focuses light from the first fiber onto the target and light from the target onto the second fiber.

  4. Variable temperature system using vortex tube cooling and fiber optic temperature measurement for low temperature magic angle spinning NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Rachel W.; Zilm, Kurt W.

    2004-06-01

    We describe the construction and operation of a variable temperature (VT) system for a high field fast magic angle spinning (MAS) probe. The probe is used in NMR investigations of biological macromolecules, where stable setting and continuous measurement of the temperature over periods of several days are required in order to prevent sample overheating and degradation. The VT system described is used at and below room temperature. A vortex tube is used to provide cooling in the temperature range of -20 to 20 °C, while a liquid nitrogen-cooled heat exchanger is used below -20 °C. Using this arrangement, the lowest temperature that is practically achievable is -140 °C. Measurement of the air temperature near the spinning rotor is accomplished using a fiber optic thermometer that utilizes the temperature dependence of the absorption edge of GaAs. The absorption edge of GaAs also has a magnetic field dependence that we have measured and corrected for. This dependence was calibrated at several field strengths using the well-known temperature dependence of the 1H chemical shift difference of the protons in methanol.

  5. Variable temperature system using vortex tube cooling and fiber optic temperature measurement for low temperature magic angle spinning NMR.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rachel W; Zilm, Kurt W

    2004-06-01

    We describe the construction and operation of a variable temperature (VT) system for a high field fast magic angle spinning (MAS) probe. The probe is used in NMR investigations of biological macromolecules, where stable setting and continuous measurement of the temperature over periods of several days are required in order to prevent sample overheating and degradation. The VT system described is used at and below room temperature. A vortex tube is used to provide cooling in the temperature range of -20 to 20 degrees C, while a liquid nitrogen-cooled heat exchanger is used below -20 degrees C. Using this arrangement, the lowest temperature that is practically achievable is -140 degrees C. Measurement of the air temperature near the spinning rotor is accomplished using a fiber optic thermometer that utilizes the temperature dependence of the absorption edge of GaAs. The absorption edge of GaAs also has a magnetic field dependence that we have measured and corrected for. This dependence was calibrated at several field strengths using the well-known temperature dependence of the (1)H chemical shift difference of the protons in methanol.

  6. Locating illicit connections in storm water sewers using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing.

    PubMed

    Hoes, O A C; Schilperoort, R P S; Luxemburg, W M J; Clemens, F H L R; van de Giesen, N C

    2009-12-01

    A newly developed technique using distributed temperature sensing (DTS) has been developed to find illicit household sewage connections to storm water systems in the Netherlands. DTS allows for the accurate measurement of temperature along a fiber-optic cable, with high spatial (2m) and temporal (30s) resolution. We inserted a fiber-optic cable of 1300m in two storm water drains. At certain locations, significant temperature differences with an intermittent character were measured, indicating inflow of water that was not storm water. In all cases, we found that foul water from households or companies entered the storm water system through an illicit sewage connection. The method of using temperature differences for illicit connection detection in storm water networks is discussed. The technique of using fiber-optic cables for distributed temperature sensing is explained in detail. The DTS method is a reliable, inexpensive and practically feasible method to detect illicit connections to storm water systems, which does not require access to private property.

  7. Distributed fiber-optic sensing in a high-temperature solid-oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buric, M.; Ohodnicki, P.; Yan, A.; Huang, S.; Chen, K. P.

    2016-09-01

    High temperature solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) present a challenging harsh environment for sensor systems with temperatures above 800C and ambient hydrogen concentration potentially ranging from 0-100% across the cell's anode. A strong gradient exists in both gas concentration and temperature from the fuel-inlet to outlet as fuel is consumed across the cell. We report a technique for measuring the spatial distribution of temperature along a solid-oxide fuel-cell interconnect channel using a distributed interrogation system coupled with a single-mode fiber optic thin-film evanescent wave absorption sensor. These sensors are to be operated inside an operating fuel-cell stack yielding spatially distributed measurements with sub-millimeter accuracy. Details are presented pertinent to the stable operation of silica optical fibers in the presence of high hydrogen concentration which can induce optical fiber losses. The stability of Rayleigh scattering centers is discussed with regard to the operational environment. The potential for extension of the approach to chemical (i.e. hydrogen) sensing as well as dual hydrogen/temperature sensor fabrication and stabilization are also briefly discussed.

  8. Effect of Solar Radiation on Fiber Optic Cables Used in Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilson, B. T.; Hatch, C. E.; Bingham, Q. G.; Tyler, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    In recent years, distributed temperature sensing (DTS) has enjoyed steady increases in the number and diversity of applications. Because fiber optic cables used for DTS are typically sheathed in dark materials resistant to UV deterioration, the question arises of how shortwave solar radiation penetrating a water column influences the accuracy of absolute DTS-derived temperatures. Initial calculations of these affects considered: shortwave radiation as a function of time of day, water depth, and water clarity; fiber optic cable dimensions; and fluid velocity. These indicate that for clear waterbodies with low velocities and shallow depths, some heating on the cable is likely during peak daily solar radiation. Given higher water velocities, substantial increases in turbidity, and/or deeper water, there should be negligible solar heating on the cable. To confirm these calculations, a field study was conducted to test the effects of solar radiation by installing two types of fiber optic cable at multiple, uniform depths in a trapezoidal canal with constant flow determined by a controlled release from Porcupine Dam near Paradise, Utah. Cables were installed in water depths from 0.05 to 0.79 m in locations of faster (center of canal) and slower (sidewall) water velocities. Thermister strings were installed at the same depths, but shielded from solar radiation and designed to record absolute water temperatures. Calculations predict that at peak solar radiation, in combination with shallow depths and slow velocities, typical fiber-optic cable is likely to experience heating greater than the ambient water column. In this study, DTS data show differences of 0.1-0.2°C in temperatures as seen by cables separated vertically by 0.31 m on the sidewall and center of the channel. Corresponding thermister data showed smaller vertical differences (~0.03-0.1°C) suggesting thermal stratification was also present in the canal. However, the magnitude of the DTS differences could not be

  9. Temperature and pressure fiber-optic sensors applied to minimally invasive diagnostics and therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Caroline; Pinet, Éric

    2006-02-01

    We present how fiber-optic temperature or pressure sensors could be applied to minimally invasive diagnostics and therapies. For instance a miniature pressure sensor based on micro-optical mechanical systems (MOMS) could solve most of the problems associated with fluidic pressure transduction presently used for triggering purposes. These include intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) therapy and other applications requiring detection of fast and/or subtle fluid pressure variations such as for intracranial pressure monitoring or for urology diagnostics. As well, miniature temperature sensors permit minimally invasive direct temperature measurement in diagnostics or therapies requiring energy transfer to living tissues. The extremely small size of fiber-optic sensors that we have developed allows quick and precise in situ measurements exactly where the physical parameters need to be known. Furthermore, their intrinsic immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) allows for the safe use of EMI-generating therapeutic or diagnostic equipments without compromising the signal quality. With the trend of ambulatory health care and the increasing EMI noise found in modern hospitals, the use of multi-parameter fiber-optic sensors will improve constant patient monitoring without any concern about the effects of EMI disturbances. The advantages of miniature fiberoptic sensors will offer clinicians new monitoring tools that open the way for improved diagnostic accuracy and new therapeutic technologies.

  10. Fiber optic monitoring device

    DOEpatents

    Samborsky, James K.

    1993-01-01

    A device for the purpose of monitoring light transmissions in optical fibers comprises a fiber optic tap that optically diverts a fraction of a transmitted optical signal without disrupting the integrity of the signal. The diverted signal is carried, preferably by the fiber optic tap, to a lens or lens system that disperses the light over a solid angle that facilitates viewing. The dispersed light indicates whether or not the monitored optical fiber or system of optical fibers is currently transmitting optical information.

  11. Temperature-insensitive optical fiber refractometer based on multimode interference in two cascaded no-core square fibers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jixuan; Miao, Yinping; Song, Binbin; Zhang, Kailiang; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Bo; Yao, Jianquan

    2014-08-01

    A temperature-insensitive optical fiber refractometer, based on multimode interference in no-core square fibers, has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The refractometer is formed by a single-mode fiber sandwiched between two segments of no-core square fibers through cleaving and fusion splicing. The transmission spectra characteristic of refractive index (RI) and environmental temperature have been investigated. Experimental results show that a transmission dip exhibits a redshift as large as about 25 nm when the ambient RI increases from 1.3424 to 1.4334. Within the RI range of 1.4033 to 1.4334, the RI sensitivity reaches 474.8189  nm/RIU. A temperature sensitivity of 0.00639  nm/°C is experimentally acquired between 20°C and 85°C, showing a low temperature cross-sensitivity of about 1.35×10⁻⁵  RIU/°C. The proposed refractometer has several advantages, such as low cost, simple structure, and compact size. Therefore, it is also expected to be employed in chemical and multi-parameter sensing applications.

  12. Fiber optic thermo-hygrometers for soil moisture and temperature measurements: the SFORI project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, M.; Consales, M.; Laudati, A.; Mennella, F.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2015-09-01

    This work deals with the development of fiber optic sensors for the measurement of soil moisture and temperature over large areas. It has been carried out within the Regional Project "Sensoristica in Fibra Ottica per il Risparmio Idrico - SFORI". The sensor system is based on the fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) technology and is aimed at optimizing the irrigation practice in order to guarantee a sustainable water resources management. Two sensors networks, each one based on FBG thermo-hygrometers, have been realized and installed in two experimental sites. Preliminary results envisages good perspectives for a massive usage of the proposed technology.

  13. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and humidity with microstructured polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Pedersen, Jens Kristian Mølgaard; Fasano, Andrea; Nielsen, Kristian; Markos, Christos; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Bang, Ole

    2017-04-01

    A microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF) Bragg grating sensor system for the simultaneous measurement of temperature and relative humidity (RH) has been developed and characterized. The sensing head is based on two in-line fiber Bragg gratings recorded in a mPOF. The sensor system has a root mean square deviation of 1.04 % RH and 0.8 °C in the range 10 to 90% RH and 20 to 80 °C. The proposed sensor system is easy to fabricate, cheap and compact.

  14. Fiber optic extrinsic FPI/FBG sensor for temperature-compensated pressure measurement in medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeggel, S.; Tosi, D.; Leen, G.; Lewis, E.

    2013-05-01

    A combined optical fiber pressure/temperature sensing system based on low-finesse extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) in conjunction with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) for biomedical measurement applications is presented. The sensing probe has 200 μm outer diameter, and is biocompatible, meeting the requirements for the most demanding biomedical applications. High accuracy (<1mmHg) is achieved by means of fiber polishing and diaphragm etching in hydrofluoric acid, and optimizing the sensitivity to <1nm/kPa. A white light interrogation system based on spectrometric analysis has been developed which implements several pressure detection algorithms. A measurement campaign has been carried out to validate the proposed system, showing 1mmHg accuracy, air-gap compression linearity, and temperature compensation.

  15. Temperature-independent refractometer based on fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiacheng; Qiao, Xueguang; Wang, Ruohui; Rong, Qiangzhou; Bao, Weijia; Shao, Zhihua; Yang, Tingting

    2016-04-01

    A miniature fiber-optic refractometer based on Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensing head consists of a short section of photonics crystal fiber (PCF) spliced to a single mode fiber (SMF), in which the end-face of the PCF is etched to remove holey structure with hydrofluoric (HF) acid. A Fabry-Perot interference spectrum is achieved based on the reflections from the fusion splicing interface and the end-face of the core of PCF. The interference fringe is sensitive to the external refractive index (RI) with an intensity-referenced sensitivity of 358.27 dB/RIU ranging from 1.33 to 1.38. The sensor has also been implemented for the concentration measurement of λ-phage DNA solution. In addition, the dip intensity is insensitive to the ambient temperature variation, making it a good candidate for temperature-independent bio-sensing area.

  16. Temperature Measurement Using Silica And Fluoride Based Optical Fibers For Biological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinofsky, Edward; Dumont, Michael G.

    1988-06-01

    We analyze the potential of an optical fiber based remote thermography system. Achievable accuracy, resolution, range, and response time are examined. Experimental results concerning each of these parameters will be presented and compared with theoretical predictions. Results obtained utilizing both silica and fluoride fibers are compared and the benefits and limitations of each are discussed. Two main application areas of this measurement technique are addressed. The use of this technique in the invitro and invivo study of laser induced temperature rise in biological tissue will lead to a better understanding of laser-tissue interaction. Tissue temperature information can be used as a feedback element in a medical laser energy delivery system. Simultaneous laser energy delivery and thernographic sensing through a single fiber will provide "automatic dosing" in many laser coagulative treatments.

  17. Fiber optic sensor and method for making

    DOEpatents

    Vartuli, James Scott; Bousman, Kenneth Sherwood; Deng, Kung-Li; McEvoy, Kevin Paul; Xia, Hua

    2010-05-18

    A fiber optic sensor including a fiber having a modified surface integral with the fiber wherein the modified surface includes an open pore network with optical agents dispersed within the open pores of the open pore network. Methods for preparing the fiber optic sensor are also provided. The fiber optic sensors can withstand high temperatures and harsh environments.

  18. Double-Ended Calibration of Fiber-Optic Raman Spectra Distributed Temperature Sensing Data

    PubMed Central

    van de Giesen, Nick; Steele-Dunne, Susan C.; Jansen, Jop; Hoes, Olivier; Hausner, Mark B.; Tyler, Scott; Selker, John

    2012-01-01

    Over the past five years, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) along fiber optic cables using Raman backscattering has become an important tool in the environmental sciences. Many environmental applications of DTS demand very accurate temperature measurements, with typical RMSE < 0.1 K. The aim of this paper is to describe and clarify the advantages and disadvantages of double-ended calibration to achieve such accuracy under field conditions. By measuring backscatter from both ends of the fiber optic cable, one can redress the effects of differential attenuation, as caused by bends, splices, and connectors. The methodological principles behind the double-ended calibration are presented, together with a set of practical considerations for field deployment. The results from a field experiment are presented, which show that with double-ended calibration good accuracies can be attained in the field. PMID:22778596

  19. High-resolution fiber optic temperature sensors using nonlinear spectral curve fitting technique.

    PubMed

    Su, Z H; Gan, J; Yu, Q K; Zhang, Q H; Liu, Z H; Bao, J M

    2013-04-01

    A generic new data processing method is developed to accurately calculate the absolute optical path difference of a low-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity from its broadband interference fringes. The method combines Fast Fourier Transformation with nonlinear curve fitting of the entire spectrum. Modular functions of LabVIEW are employed for fast implementation of the data processing algorithm. The advantages of this technique are demonstrated through high performance fiber optic temperature sensors consisting of an infrared superluminescent diode and an infrared spectrometer. A high resolution of 0.01 °C is achieved over a large dynamic range from room temperature to 800 °C, limited only by the silica fiber used for the sensor.

  20. Temperature calibration of fiber optic strain sensor for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesavan, K.; Ravisankar, K.; Narayanan, T.; Parivallal, S.; Sreeshylam, P.; Aravindan, P. K.

    2003-10-01

    Major civil engineering structures, such as bridges constitute a significant portion of national wealth, and the cost of maintenance of these structures is very high. Structural health monitoring is a cost effective method of maintenance, and it predicts the structural integrity by early detection of degradation of health of the structure. One of the best ways of structural health monitoring is by the use of fiber optic strain sensors, which are eminently suitable for long term monitoring. However, the apparent strain due to variations in temperature at different measurement times may be very large and has to be accounted for. The apparent strain calibration curves of fiber optic strain sensors bonded to three structural materials, namely, steel, aluminum and concrete are obtained from laboratory experiments which can be used for correcting the temperature induced apparent strain from the total strain measured in the structures.

  1. Pure and Au nanoparticles doped higher alkanes for an optical fiber temperature threshold sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybysz, Natalia; Marć, Paweł; Tomaszewska, Emilia; Grobelny, Jarosław; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

    2017-05-01

    Development of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) technology has created new research fields for optical sensors and telecommunication. The cross section geometry modifications of this type of fibers allow to influence their optical parameters. These modifications are not limited to change sizes and arrangements of an air holes' lattice, but also replacing air with another material. In the paper we have shown how to change thermo-optical properties of a large mode area commercially available LMA-10 PCF by filling it with different chemical substances. Our previous research has led us to develop a class of optical fiber temperature threshold sensor transducers based on a partially filled PCF with higher alkanes. The principle of work of such a sensor transducer is to use a temperature bi-stability of a filling material because when the higher alkane is in the solid state light cannot pass through the transducer, and when it is in the liquid state light can be transmitted. One of the most important advantages of higher alkanes we used in the experiments are their different melting points, but the most important disadvantage is discrepancy between melting and crystallization temperatures and the sensor switches on and off for different temperatures. This effect called supercoiling appears due to the lack of nucleation centers. To reduce this effect the gold nanoparticels (NPs) in hexane colloid were used. We have prepared samples with three higher alkanes doped with 1% of Au NPs and we have shown their temperature and time responses. The proper selection of melting points of higher alkanes allows to design the multilevel temperature threshold sensor which can cover the temperature range from -20°C up to 70°C, and can be applied in chemical, oil, gas and energy industry.

  2. Low frequency Raman scattering for high resolution low temperature optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabia, M. K.; Jurdyc, A.-M.; Le Brusq, J.; Champagnon, B.; Vouagner, D.

    2017-09-01

    Raman distributed optical fiber temperature sensors are based on the intensity ratio of the anti-Stokes to the Stokes Raman band at 440 cm-1 of silica. In this paper we predict that the sensitivity of the Raman measurements for low temperatures can be improved by considering the Boson peak in the low frequency Raman scattering domain at 60 cm-1. In this way Raman temperature sensors can be performed down to cryogenic temperatures. It is further shown that the Boson peak is less dependent than the 440 cm-1 band to the polarization of light. For the usual excitation at 1550 nm the anti-Stokes Boson peak at 1536 nm is in the low loss transmission window of the silica fibers.

  3. Analysis and modeling for fiber-optic gyroscope scale factor based on environment temperature.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chong; Chen, Xiyuan

    2012-05-10

    To explore and reduce the nonlinear error and temperature dependency of fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG) scale factor, a scale factor modeling method based on temperature is presented in this paper. A hyperbolic curve fitting is proposed according to the characteristic of scale factor under stable temperature at first. Compared to traditional modeling methods, it shows that a higher precision model of scale factor can be obtained. Then the influence of temperature on scale factor is analyzed and then the hyperbolic curve fitting method is extended based on temperature, making it possible to work over the whole potential temperature range of the FOG without degrading the performance. This paper also provides the experimental and verification results. It can be seen that a high precision model of scale factor has been established, the temperature dependency of scale factor has been reduced effectively, and the error due to environment temperature is reduced by one order at least.

  4. Radiation and temperature effects on LDEF fiber optic cable samples. [long duration exposure facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Hartmayer, Ron; Bergman, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will concentrate on results obtained from the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) Fiber Optics Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment since the June 1991 Experimenters Workshop. Radiation darkening of the laboratory control samples will be compared with the LDEF flight samples. The results of laboratory temperature tests on the flight samples extending over a period of about nine years including the preflight and postflight analysis periods will be described.

  5. Proton conducting perovskite-type ceramics for fiber optic sensors for hydrogen monitoring at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiling; Remmel, Kurtis; Sandker, Daniel; Xu, Zhi; Dong, Junhang

    2010-04-01

    A fiber optical sensor has been developed by coating proton conducting perovskite oxide (Sr(Ce0.8Zr0.1)Y0.1O2.95, SCZY) thin film on the long-period fiber grating (LPFG) for high temperature in situ measurement of bulk hydrogen in gas mixtures relevant to the fossil- and biomass-derived syngas. In this paper, we investigate in the H2-sensing mechanism of the SCZY-LPFG sensor. The high temperature H2 adsorbance in the SCZY, the SCZY electric conductivity in H2, and the resonant wavelength shift of the SCZY-LPFG (ΔλR,H2) have been experimentally studied to understand the effect of operation temperature on the sensor's sensitivity to H2. Because of the activation process of the H2 reaction with the perovskite oxide, increasing temperature benefits the H2 uptake in the SCZY phase and the sensitivity of the SCZY-LPFG sensor. However, the thermal stability of the LPFG and the microstructure of the SCZY nanocrystalline film limit the application temperature of the fiber optic sensor.

  6. Silicone rubber-coated highly sensitive optical fiber sensor for temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Vanita; Gangwar, Rahul Kumar; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2016-12-01

    A silicone rubber-coated Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is proposed and applied to temperature measurement. The MZI is fabricated by splicing single mode fiber between a short section of no-core fiber (NCF) and the ultra-abrupt taper region. The sensing length of MZI is coated with liquid silicone rubber to enhance the temperature sensitivity. Here, NCF is used to excite the higher order cladding mode, the ultra-abrupt taper region acts as a optical fiber coupler, and the silicone rubber coating on sensing length is used as solid cladding material instead of liquid. The enhancement of the sensitivity of a device is due to the high refractive index (1.42) and thermo-optic coefficient (-1.4×10-4/°C) of silicone rubber as compared to liquid cladding temperature sensors. The experiment was performed for both coated and uncoated MZI and the results were compared. The MZI exhibits a high temperature sensitivity of 253.75 and 121.26 pm/°C for coated and uncoated sensing probes, respectively, in the temperature range from 30°C to 75°C.

  7. Investigation of temperature characteristic of MEMS-based optical fiber pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jinde; Liu, Tiegen; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Kun; Wang, Shuang; Zhao, Bofu; Xue, Lei; Mei, Yunqiao; Pu, Yi; Yin, Jishou; Qin, Zunqi; Zou, Shengliang

    2013-12-01

    We fabricated MEMS-based optical fiber pressure sensor with anodic bonding. The vacuum-sealed microcavity with a thin silicon diaphragm is used as sensing element and its deformation characteristics determine the pressure measurement performance. Considering residual gas inside Fabry-Perot cavity and the thermal properties of material, we established a sensor's temperature response mathematical model based on ideal gas equation and elastic theory. Temperature experiment of this sensor was carried out under vacuum. This work will provide a guide of temperature compensation process for achieving high precision pressure measurement.

  8. Plasmonic nanocomposite thin film enabled fiber optic sensors for simultaneous gas and temperature sensing at extreme temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ohodnicki, Paul R; Buric, Michael P; Brown, Thomas D; Matranga, Christopher; Wang, Congjun; Baltrus, John; Andio, Mark

    2013-10-07

    Embedded sensors capable of operation in extreme environments including high temperatures, high pressures, and highly reducing, oxidizing and/or corrosive environments can make a significant impact on enhanced efficiencies and reduced greenhouse gas emissions of current and future fossil-based power generation systems. Relevant technologies can also be leveraged in a wide range of other applications with similar needs including nuclear power generation, industrial process monitoring and control, and aviation/aerospace. Here we describe a novel approach to embedded sensing under extreme temperature conditions by integration of Au-nanoparticle based plasmonic nanocomposite thin films with optical fibers in an evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy configuration. Such sensors can potentially enable simultaneous temperature and gas sensing at temperatures approaching 900-1000 °C in a manner compatible with embedded and distributed sensing approaches. The approach is demonstrated using the Au/SiO2 system deposited on silica-based optical fibers. Stability of optical fibers under relevant high temperature conditions and interactions with changing ambient gas atmospheres is an area requiring additional investigation and development but the simplicity of the sensor design makes it potentially cost-effective and may offer a potential for widespread deployment.

  9. High Precision Temperature Insensitive Strain Sensor Based on Fiber-Optic Delay

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ning; Su, Jun; Fan, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Qi

    2017-01-01

    A fiber-optic delay based strain sensor with high precision and temperature insensitivity was reported, which works on detecting the delay induced by strain instead of spectrum. In order to analyze the working principle of this sensor, the elastic property of fiber-optic delay was theoretically researched and the elastic coefficient was measured as 3.78 ps/km·με. In this sensor, an extra reference path was introduced to simplify the measurement of delay and resist the cross-effect of environmental temperature. Utilizing an optical fiber stretcher driven by piezoelectric ceramics, the performance of this strain sensor was tested. The experimental results demonstrate that temperature fluctuations contribute little to the strain error and that the calculated strain sensitivity is as high as 4.75 με in the range of 350 με. As a result, this strain sensor is proved to be feasible and practical, which is appropriate for strain measurement in a simple and economical way. Furthermore, on basis of this sensor, the quasi-distributed measurement could be also easily realized by wavelength division multiplexing and wavelength addressing for long-distance structure health and security monitoring. PMID:28468323

  10. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensor mapping of a jet-mixing flow field

    DOE PAGES

    Lomperski, Stephen; Gerardi, Craig; Pointer, William David

    2015-03-04

    In this paper, we introduce the use of a Rayleigh backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensor to map the temperature field in air flow for a thermal fatigue application. The experiment involves a pair of air jets at 22 and 70°C discharging from 136 mm hexagonal channels into a 1 × 1 × 1.7 m tank at atmospheric pressure. A 40 m-long, Φ155 µm fiber optic sensor was wound back and forth across the tank midplane to form 16 horizontal measurement sections with a vertical spacing of 51 mm. This configuration generated a 2D temperature map with 2800 data points overmore » a 0.76 × 1.7 m plane. Fiber optic sensor readings were combined with PIV and infrared measurements to relate flow field characteristics to the thermal signature of the tank lid. The paper includes sensor stability data and notes issues encountered using the distributed temperature sensor in a flow field. In conclusion, sensors are sensitive to strain and humidity, and so accuracy relies upon strict control of both.« less

  11. Sagnac type fiber interferometer for magneto-optic Kerr effect measurement at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jing; Beyersdorf, Peter; Fejer, Martin; Kapitulnik, Aharon

    2006-03-01

    We describe a Sagnac type magneto-optical interferometer operating at 1550 nm wavelength in which the fast and slow axis of a single 10-meter long Polarization-Maintaining fiber were used as the Sagnac loop. The last 2 meters of this PM fiber were fed into a cryogenic probe to measure Kerr rotation. This zero-area-Sagnac-loop design is virtually immune to temperature fluctuations and mechanical bending of the fiber, and can work at much lower temperature (< 1 K) compared to apparatus with optical windows. Most important, no perturbing AC magnetic field is needed. Up to now, we have achieved a Kerr rotation sensitivity of 2.5x10-7rad/√Hz down to liquid Helium temperature, with4μWof optical power at the detector. Drifts of this apparatus were observed to be less than0.5x10-7rad/Hour. We studied ferromagnetic transition and magnetic domains of thin (3 to 30 nm) SrRuO3 films by cooling them through Tc in zero fields (< 5 mG) and measuring polar Kerr rotations.

  12. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensor mapping of a jet-mixing flow field

    DOE PAGES

    Lomperski, Stephen; Gerardi, Craig; Pointer, William David

    2015-03-04

    In this paper, we introduce the use of a Rayleigh backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensor to map the temperature field in air flow for a thermal fatigue application. The experiment involves a pair of air jets at 22 and 70°C discharging from 136 mm hexagonal channels into a 1 × 1 × 1.7 m tank at atmospheric pressure. A 40 m-long, Φ155 µm fiber optic sensor was wound back and forth across the tank midplane to form 16 horizontal measurement sections with a vertical spacing of 51 mm. This configuration generated a 2D temperature map with 2800 data points overmore » a 0.76 × 1.7 m plane. Fiber optic sensor readings were combined with PIV and infrared measurements to relate flow field characteristics to the thermal signature of the tank lid. The paper includes sensor stability data and notes issues encountered using the distributed temperature sensor in a flow field. In conclusion, sensors are sensitive to strain and humidity, and so accuracy relies upon strict control of both.« less

  13. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensor mapping of a jet-mixing flow field

    SciTech Connect

    Lomperski, Stephen; Gerardi, Craig; Pointer, William David

    2015-03-04

    In this paper, we introduce the use of a Rayleigh backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensor to map the temperature field in air flow for a thermal fatigue application. The experiment involves a pair of air jets at 22 and 70°C discharging from 136 mm hexagonal channels into a 1 × 1 × 1.7 m tank at atmospheric pressure. A 40 m-long, Φ155 µm fiber optic sensor was wound back and forth across the tank midplane to form 16 horizontal measurement sections with a vertical spacing of 51 mm. This configuration generated a 2D temperature map with 2800 data points over a 0.76 × 1.7 m plane. Fiber optic sensor readings were combined with PIV and infrared measurements to relate flow field characteristics to the thermal signature of the tank lid. The paper includes sensor stability data and notes issues encountered using the distributed temperature sensor in a flow field. In conclusion, sensors are sensitive to strain and humidity, and so accuracy relies upon strict control of both.

  14. Hybrid Fiber Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Stephen W; Simpson, John T; Gillies, George

    2010-01-01

    Instruments and devices based on optical fiber were originally simple and passive. That has changed. A variety of devices uses optical fiber for sensing, communications and various optoelectronic functions. This paper discusses the creation of a hybrid optical fiber that incorporates not just the light transmission function but other types of materials and new multiple fiber arrangements. Recent experiences with a fiber draw tower reveal new possibilities for achieving multifunctional devices able to perform diverse instrumentation sensing applications. This is achievable even with feature sizes, when desired, on the nanoscale. For instance, fiber comprised of one or more light guides and one or more electrically conducting wires is feasible. This combination of optical fiber and metal wire may be termed a wiber . The wiber could determine temperature and proximity to surfaces, detect radio-frequency radiation, and provide electrical power. At the same time, a wiber would have the capability to simultaneously transmit light where the light is utilized to sense temperature and proximity and give illumination. There are many possible uses--depending on design and configuration--cutting across many technologies and programs.

  15. Optical fiber with nanostructured cladding of TiO2 nanoparticles self-assembled onto a side polished fiber and its temperature sensing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huihui; Tian, Zhengwen; Yu, Haiping; Yang, Bing; Jing, Guangyin; Liao, Guozhen; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Jianhui; Tang, Jieyuan; Luo, Yunhan; Chen, Zhe

    2014-12-29

    We demonstrated temperature sensing of a fiber with nanostructured cladding, which was constructed by titanium dioxide TiO2 nanoparticles self-assembled onto a side polished optical fiber (SPF). Significantly enhanced interaction between the propagating light and the TiO2 nanoparticles (TN) can be obtained via strong evanescent field of the SPF. The strong light-TN interaction results in temperature sensing with a maximum optical power variation of ~4dB in SPF experimentally for an external environment temperature varying from -7.8°C to 77.6°C. The novel temperature sensing device shows a linear correlation coefficient of better than 99.4%, and a sensitivity of ~0.044 dB/°C. The TN-based all-fiber-optic temperature sensing characteristics was successfully demonstrated, and it is compatible with fiber-optic interconnections and high potential in photonics applications.

  16. Fiber temperature sensor with nanostructured cladding by TiO2 nanoparticles self-assembled onto a side polished optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bing; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Yiting; Zhang, Jun; Liao, Guozhen; Tian, Zhengwen; Yu, Jianhui; Tang, Jieyuan; Luo, Yunhan; Lu, Huihui

    2015-07-01

    A temperature fiber sensor with nanostructured cladding composed ted by titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles was demonstrated. The nanoparticles self-assembled onto a side polished optical fiber (SPF). The enhancement of interaction between the propagating light and the TiO2 nanoparticles (TN) can be obtained via strong evanescent field of the SPF. The strong light-TN interaction gives rise to temperature sensing with a optical power variation of ~4dB in SPF experimentally for an environment temperature ranging from -7.8°C to 77.6°C. The novel temperature sensor shows a sensitivity of ~0.044 dB/°C. The TN-based fiber-optic temperature sensor is facile to manufactured, compatible with fiber-optic interconnections and high potential in photonics applications.

  17. Electrospun Amplified Fiber Optics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm–1). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics. PMID:25710188

  18. Electrospun amplified fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-03-11

    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics.

  19. Theoretical investigation of temperature optical sensor setup with spectrally adjusted fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madry, Mateusz; Bereś-Pawlik, ElŻbieta

    2015-12-01

    In this work we would like to exhibit theoretical investigation of correlated fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) for sensor applications. The spectra of FBGs have been simulated so as to overlap each other. There have been performed analysis of reflected optical power for different sensing FBGs using self-written program. Different width of scanning FBGs have been applied in order to obtain various response of sensor setup. The comparison study of these FBGs have been done. This work presents the results of simulations for reflected optical power with regard to different temperatures surrounding sensing FBGs.

  20. FOREX-A Fiber Optics Diagnostic System For Study Of Materials At High Temperatures And Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. E.; Roeske, F.

    1983-03-01

    We have successfully fielded a Fiber Optics Radiation EXperiment system (FOREX) designed for measuring material properties at high temperatures and pressures on an underground nuclear test. The system collects light from radiating materials and transmits it through several hundred meters of optical fibers to a recording station consisting of a streak camera with film readout. The use of fiber optics provides a faster time response than can presently be obtained with equalized coaxial cables over comparable distances. Fibers also have significant cost and physical size advantages over coax cables. The streak camera achieves a much higher information density than an equivalent oscilloscope system, and it also serves as the light detector. The result is a wide bandwidth high capacity system that can be fielded at a relatively low cost in manpower, space, and materials. For this experiment, the streak camera had a 120 ns time window with a 1.2 ns time resolution. Dynamic range for the system was about 1000. Beam current statistical limitations were approximately 8% for a 0.3 ns wide data point at one decade above the threshold recording intensity.

  1. FOREX: a fiber-optics diagnostic system for study of materials at high temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.E.; Roeske, F.

    1982-07-01

    We have successfully fielded a Fiber Optics Radiation Experiment system (FOREX) designed for measuring material properties at high temperatures and pressures in an underground nuclear test. The system collects light from radiating materials and transmits it through several hundred meters of optical fibers to a recording station consisting of a streak camera with film readout. The use of fiber optics provides a faster time response than can presently be obtained with equalized coaxial cables over comparable distances. Fibers also have significant cost and physical size advantages over coax cables. The streak camera achieves a much higher information density than an equivalent oscilloscope system, and it also serves as the light detector. The result is a wide bandwidth high capacity system that can be fielded at a relatively low cost in manpower, space, and materials. For this experiment, the streak camera had a 120 ns time window with a 1.2 ns time resolution. Dynamic range for the system was about 1000. Beam current statistical limitations were approximately 8% for a 0.3 ns wide data point at one decade above the threshold recording intensity.

  2. Sensitivity-enhanced temperature sensor with cascaded fiber optic Sagnac interferometers based on Vernier-effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Li-Yang; Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zou, Xihua; Luo, Bin; Pan, Wei; Yan, Lianshan

    2015-02-01

    A novel fiber optic temperature sensor has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated with ~9 times sensitivity enhancement by using two cascaded Sagnac interferometers. These two Sagnac interferometers consist of the same type of polarization maintaining fibers with slightly different lengths. The working principle is analogous to a Vernier scale. One interferometer acts as filter, while the other is for temperature sensing. The envelope of the cascaded sensor shifts much more than single one with a certain enhancement factor, which related to the free space range difference between the filter and sensor interferometers. Experimental results show that the temperature sensitivity is enhanced from -1.46 nm/°C based on single Sagnac configuration to -13.36 nm/°C.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided interstitial application of laser aided by fiber optic temperature sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahani, Keyvan; Shellock, Frank G.; Lufkin, Robert B.; Castro, Dan J.

    1992-04-01

    In order to further understand signal variations observed on magnetic resonance imaging scans of interstitial laser heating, a commercial multichannel fluoroptic thermometer, equipped with fiber optic sensors, was employed in conjunction with the laser/MRI phototherapy system. Three calibrated fiber optic sensors of the thermometer were used to measure temperature changes in ex-vivo sheep's brain at various distances directly across from the beam of a Nd:YAG laser emitted from a bare fiber. Laser was operated at 5 W for 220 sec. Temperature was measured every 10 seconds and MR images were acquired during and after laser irradiation until temperature in all probes returned to the equilibrium level of prelaser irradiation. Image contrast analysis of the heated region showed that MRI signal variations, during heating and cooling periods, correlated well with the changes in temperature. It is concluded that direct thermometry of MRI-monitored laser application will aid in understanding the effects of high focal heating on the MRI signal.

  4. Heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing: a tool for measuring soil water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Zubelzu, Sergio; Sánchez-Calvo, Raúl; Horcajo, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The use of Distributed Fiber Optic Temperature Measurement (DFOT) method for estimating temperature variation along a cable of fiber optic has been assessed in multiple environmental applications. Recently, the application of DFOT combined with an active heating pulses technique has been reported as a sensor to estimate soil moisture. This method applies a known amount of heat to the soil and monitors the temperature evolution, which mainly depends on the soil moisture content . This study presents the application of the Active Heated DFOT method to determine the soil water retention curve under experimental conditions. The experiment was conducted in a rectangular methacrylate box of 2.5 m x 0.25 m x 0.25 m which was introduced in a larger box 2.8 m x 0.3 m x 0.3 m of the same material. The inner box was filled with a sandy loamy soil collected from the nearest garden and dried under ambient temperature for 30 days. Care was taking to fill up the box maintaining the soil bulk density determined "in-situ". The cable was deployed along the box at 10 cm depth. At the beginning of the experiment, the box was saturated bottom-up, by filling the outer box with water, and then it kept dried for two months. The circulation of heated air at the bottom box accelerated the drying process. In addition, fast growing turf was also sowed to dry it fast. The DTS unit was a SILIXA ULTIMA SR (Silixa Ltd, UK) and has spatial and temporal resolution of 0.29 m and 5 s, respectively. In this study, heat pulses of 7 W/m for 2 1/2 min were applied uniformly along the fiber optic cable and the thermal response on an adjacent cable was monitored in different soil water status. Then, the heating and drying phase integer (called Tcum) was determined following the approach of Sayde et al., (2010). For each water status,  was measured by the gravimetric method in several soil samples collected in three box locations at the same depth that the fiber optic cable and after each heat pulse

  5. Fiber-Optic Sensor with Simultaneous Temperature, Pressure, and Chemical Sensing Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Jermaine L.

    2009-03-12

    This project aimed to develop a multifunctional sensor suitable for process control application in chemical and petrochemical industries. Specifically, the objective was to demonstrate a fiber optic sensing system capable of simultaneous temperature, pressure, and chemical composition determinations based on a single strand of sapphire optical fiber. These capabilities were to be achieved through the incorporation of a phosphor and a Bragg grating into the fiber, as well as the exploitation of the evanescent field interaction of the optical radiation inside the fiber with the surrounding chemical medium. The integration of the three functions into a single probe, compared to having three separate probes, would not only substantially reduce the cost of the combined system, but would also minimize the intrusion into the reactor. Such a device can potentially increase the energy efficiency in the manufacture of chemical and petrochemical products, as well as reduce waste and lead to improved quality. In accordance with the proposed research plan, the individual temperature, pressure and chemical sensors where fabricated and characterized first. Then towards the end of the program, an integrated system was implemented. The sapphire fibers were grown on a laser heated pedestal growth system. The temperature sensor was based on the fluorescence decay principle, which exploits the temperature dependence of the fluorescence decay rate of the selected phosphor. For this project, Cr3+ was chosen as the phosphor, and it was incorporated into the sapphire fiber by coating a short length of the source rod with a thin layer of Cr2O3. After the viability of the technique was established and the growth parameters optimized, the temperature sensor was characterized up to 300 °C and its long term stability was verified. The chemical sensor determined the concentration of chemicals through evanescent field absorption. Techniques to increase the

  6. Fiber Optic Distributed Sensors for High-resolution Temperature Field Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Lomperski, Stephen; Gerardi, Craig; Lisowski, Darius

    2016-01-01

    The reliability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes is checked by comparing simulations with experimental data. A typical data set consists chiefly of velocity and temperature readings, both ideally having high spatial and temporal resolution to facilitate rigorous code validation. While high resolution velocity data is readily obtained through optical measurement techniques such as particle image velocimetry, it has proven difficult to obtain temperature data with similar resolution. Traditional sensors such as thermocouples cannot fill this role, but the recent development of distributed sensing based on Rayleigh scattering and swept-wave interferometry offers resolution suitable for CFD code validation work. Thousands of temperature measurements can be generated along a single thin optical fiber at hundreds of Hertz. Sensors function over large temperature ranges and within opaque fluids where optical techniques are unsuitable. But this type of sensor is sensitive to strain and humidity as well as temperature and so accuracy is affected by handling, vibration, and shifts in relative humidity. Such behavior is quite unlike traditional sensors and so unconventional installation and operating procedures are necessary to ensure accurate measurements. This paper demonstrates implementation of a Rayleigh scattering-type distributed temperature sensor in a thermal mixing experiment involving two air jets at 25 and 45 °C. We present criteria to guide selection of optical fiber for the sensor and describe installation setup for a jet mixing experiment. We illustrate sensor baselining, which links readings to an absolute temperature standard, and discuss practical issues such as errors due to flow-induced vibration. This material can aid those interested in temperature measurements having high data density and bandwidth for fluid dynamics experiments and similar applications. We highlight pitfalls specific to these sensors for consideration in experiment design

  7. Fiber Optic Distributed Sensors for High-resolution Temperature Field Mapping.

    PubMed

    Lomperski, Stephen; Gerardi, Craig; Lisowski, Darius

    2016-11-07

    The reliability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes is checked by comparing simulations with experimental data. A typical data set consists chiefly of velocity and temperature readings, both ideally having high spatial and temporal resolution to facilitate rigorous code validation. While high resolution velocity data is readily obtained through optical measurement techniques such as particle image velocimetry, it has proven difficult to obtain temperature data with similar resolution. Traditional sensors such as thermocouples cannot fill this role, but the recent development of distributed sensing based on Rayleigh scattering and swept-wave interferometry offers resolution suitable for CFD code validation work. Thousands of temperature measurements can be generated along a single thin optical fiber at hundreds of Hertz. Sensors function over large temperature ranges and within opaque fluids where optical techniques are unsuitable. But this type of sensor is sensitive to strain and humidity as well as temperature and so accuracy is affected by handling, vibration, and shifts in relative humidity. Such behavior is quite unlike traditional sensors and so unconventional installation and operating procedures are necessary to ensure accurate measurements. This paper demonstrates implementation of a Rayleigh scattering-type distributed temperature sensor in a thermal mixing experiment involving two air jets at 25 and 45 °C. We present criteria to guide selection of optical fiber for the sensor and describe installation setup for a jet mixing experiment. We illustrate sensor baselining, which links readings to an absolute temperature standard, and discuss practical issues such as errors due to flow-induced vibration. This material can aid those interested in temperature measurements having high data density and bandwidth for fluid dynamics experiments and similar applications. We highlight pitfalls specific to these sensors for consideration in experiment design

  8. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain in glass fiber/epoxy composites by embedded fiber optic sensors: I. Cure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanini, R.; D'Acquisto, L.

    2007-10-01

    In this paper (Part I) the use of fiber optic sensors for real-time monitoring of the cure kinetics of GFRP composites is explored. The proposed sensing system allows the simultaneous measurement of both temperature and strain by monitoring the change in reflected wavelength from two coupled fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors that have been embedded into the composite laminate. Instrumented GFRP laminates with 12, 18 and 24 reinforcing plies, respectively, were prepared by means of the vacuum bagging technique. Samples were cured in a thermally controlled oven at 80 °C and 30 kPa for 240 min (isothermal stage) and then cooled down to ambient temperature by turning off the heating source (cooling stage). The obtained results, combined with proper data post-processing, have proven the effectiveness and potentiality of the proposed sensing system to measure the progression of the composite cure kinetics. It was shown that temperature within the specimen can differ significantly from the set-point temperature inside the oven because of the heat released during the exothermal reticulation of the epoxy resin. The combined sensing system also allowed the residual strain accumulated within the composite during the cooling stage to be accurately measured. Once the laminate had been cured, the embedded optical sensing system reveals itself purposeful for real-time structural health monitoring and damage assessment of the finished component. This aspect is discussed with more detail in the accompanying paper (Part II).

  9. Drastic sensitivity enhancement of temperature sensing based on modal interference in plastic optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numata, G.; Hayashi, N.; Tabaru, M.; Mizuno, Y.; Nakamura, K.

    2015-09-01

    It has been reported that temperature sensors based on modal interference in perfluorinated graded-index (GI) plastic optical fibers (POFs) show the world's highest temperature sensitivity of +49.8 nm/°C/m at 1300 nm at room temperature, which is over 1800 times the value in silica multimode fibers (MMFs). In this work, we newly find that the temperature sensitivity (absolute value) is significantly enhanced with increasing temperature toward ~70°C, which is close to the glass-transition temperature of the core polymer. When the core diameter is 62.5 μm, the sensitivity at 72 °C at 1300 nm is +202 nm/°C/m, which is approximately 26 times the value obtained at room temperature and even over 7000 times the highest value previously reported using a silica MMF. As the glass-transition temperature of polymers can be generally set to an arbitrary value, this characteristic could be used to develop POF-based temperature sensors with ultra-high sensitivity not only at ~70°C but at arbitrary temperature in future.

  10. Fast-response fiber-optic anemometer with temperature self-compensation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guigen; Hou, Weilin; Qiao, Wei; Han, Ming

    2015-05-18

    We report a novel fiber-optic anemometer with self-temperature compensation capability based on a Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) formed by a thin silicon film attached to the end face of a single-mode fiber. Guided in the fiber are a visible laser beam from a 635 nm diode laser used to heat the FPI and a white-light in the infrared wavelength range as the signal light to interrogate the optical length of the FPI. Cooling effects on the heated sensor head by wind is converted to a wavelength blueshift of the reflection spectral fringes of the FPI. Self-temperature-compensated measurement of wind speed is achieved by recording the difference in fringe wavelengths when the heating laser is turned on and then off. Large thermal-optic coefficient and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon render a high sensitivity that can also be easily tuned by altering the heating laser power. Furthermore, the large thermal diffusivity and the small mass of the thin silicon film endow a fast sensor response.

  11. Perovskite-type oxide thin film integrated fiber optic sensor for high-temperature hydrogen measurement.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiling; Remmel, Kurtis; Lan, Xinwei; Deng, Jiangdong; Xiao, Hai; Dong, Junhang

    2009-09-15

    Small size fiber optic devices integrated with chemically sensitive photonic materials are emerging as a new class of high-performance optical chemical sensor that have the potential to meet many analytical challenges in future clean energy systems and environmental management. Here, we report the integration of a proton conducting perovskite oxide thin film with a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) device for high-temperature in situ measurement of bulk hydrogen in fossil- and biomass-derived syngas. The perovskite-type Sr(Ce(0.8)Zr(0.1))Y(0.1)O(2.95) (SCZY) nanocrystalline thin film is coated on the 125 microm diameter LPFG by a facile polymeric precursor route. This fiber optic sensor (FOS) operates by monitoring the LPFG resonant wavelength (lambda(R)), which is a function of the refractive index of the perovskite oxide overcoat. At high temperature, the types and population of the ionic and electronic defects in the SCZY structure depend on the surrounding hydrogen partial pressure. Thus, varying the H(2) concentration changes the SCZY film refractive index and light absorbing characteristics that in turn shifts the lambda(R) of the LPFG. The SCZY-coated LPFG sensor has been demonstrated for bulk hydrogen measurement at 500 degrees C for its sensitivity, stability/reversibility, and H(2)-selectivity over other relevant small gases including CO, CH(4), CO(2), H(2)O, and H(2)S, etc.

  12. Compensation method for temperature error of fiber optical gyroscope based on relevance vector machine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guochen; Wang, Qiuying; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Zhenpeng

    2016-02-10

    Aiming to improve the bias stability of the fiber optical gyroscope (FOG) in an ambient temperature-change environment, a temperature-compensation method based on the relevance vector machine (RVM) under Bayesian framework is proposed and applied. Compared with other temperature models such as quadratic polynomial regression, neural network, and the support vector machine, the proposed RVM method possesses higher accuracy to explain the temperature dependence of the FOG gyro bias. Experimental results indicate that, with the proposed RVM method, the bias stability of an FOG can be apparently reduced in the whole temperature ranging from -40°C to 60°C. Therefore, the proposed method can effectively improve the adaptability of the FOG in a changing temperature environment.

  13. Fiber Optic Sensors for Health Monitoring of Morphing Airframes. Part 1; Bragg Grating Strain and Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Karen; Brown, Timothy; Rogowski, Robert; Jensen, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors are being developed for health monitoring of future aircraft. Aircraft health monitoring involves the use of strain, temperature, vibration and chemical sensors to infer integrity of the aircraft structure. Part 1 of this two part series describes sensors that will measure load and temperature signatures of these structures. In some cases a single fiber may be used for measuring these parameters. Part 2 will describe techniques for using optical fibers to monitor composite cure in real time during manufacture and to monitor in-service integrity of composite structures using a single fiber optic sensor capable of measuring multiple chemical and physical parameters. The facilities for fabricating optical fiber and associated sensors and the methods of demodulating Bragg gratings for strain measurement will be described.

  14. Fiber-optic flow sensors for high-temperature environment operation up to 800°C.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rongzhang; Yan, Aidong; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Kevin P

    2014-07-01

    This Letter presents an all-optical high-temperature flow sensor based on hot-wire anemometry. High-attenuation fibers (HAFs) were used as the heating elements. High-temperature-stable regenerated fiber Bragg gratings were inscribed in HAFs and in standard telecom fibers as temperature sensors. Using in-fiber light as both the heating power source and the interrogation light source, regenerative fiber Bragg grating sensors were used to gauge the heat transfer from an optically powered heating element induced by the gas flow. Reliable gas flow measurements were demonstrated between 0.066  m/s and 0.66  m/s from the room temperature to 800°C. This Letter presents a compact, low-cost, and multiflexible approach to measure gas flow for high-temperature harsh environments.

  15. Experimental study of low-cost fiber optic distributed temperature sensor system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashkov, Michael V.; Zharkov, Alexander D.

    2016-03-01

    The distributed control of temperature is an actual task for various application such as oil & gas fields, high-voltage power lines, fire alarm systems etc. The most perspective are optical fiber distributed temperature sensors (DTS). They have advantages on accuracy, resolution and range, but have a high cost. Nevertheless, for some application the accuracy of measurement and localization aren't so important as cost. The results of an experimental study of low-cost Raman based DTS based on standard OTDR are represented.

  16. Fiber optic pyrometer and its application in hot-blast stove temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weilai; Jiang, Desheng; Zhu, Weijia

    2004-03-01

    Introduced in this paper are a technique of fiber optic dual-wavelength pyrometer and its principle, structure and characteristics. It was successfully applied under the hostile environment in hot-blast stoves to measure high-temperature. The efforts to overcome all difficulties, such as pressure, water vapor, and probe bend caused by thermal expansion, are reported in details. The resulting device is reliable, stable and accurate, and has immunity to harmful gas corrosion. The proposed pyrometer has a long lifetime. Therefore, it can replace the conventional thermo-electric-couple for temperature measurement in a blast furnace.

  17. Miniature temperature insensitive fiber optic sensors for minimally invasive surgical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Ginu; Callaghan, Dean; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents the concept of implementing miniature temperature insensitive optical fiber sensors into minimally invasive surgical devices such as graspers, staplers and scissors. The lack of temperature insensitive and accurate force feedback end effectors make the current minimally invasive surgeries (MIS) less effective especially in the area of electrosurgery. The failure to provide accurate force feedback information reduces the user's sense of immersion in the operating procedure. In this paper we present fiber sensors based on photonic crystal fibers (PCF) for force feedback from the end effectors. Two types of miniature temperature insensitive PCF sensors can be implemented for MIS applications; a Fabry-Perot interferometric sensor based on hollow core PCF and a tapered modal interferometric sensor based on a solid core PCF. A concept for interrogating these sensors effectively at minimal cost is also presented. The integration of sensors onto the end effectors is also important as one has to find an optimum position for maximum strain/force transfer to the fiber sensor without interfering with the operation of the surgical tool. We have also presented the methodology for incorporating the sensors into surgical end-effectors in this paper.

  18. Fiber optic connector

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, Slobodan; Muhs, Jeffrey D.

    1996-01-01

    A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled.

  19. Fiber optic connector

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, S.; Muhs, J.D.

    1996-10-22

    A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded are disclosed. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled. 3 figs.

  20. Measuring centimeter-resolution air temperature profiles above land and water using fiber-optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmund, Armin; Pfister, Lena; Olesch, Johannes; Thomas, Christoph K.

    2016-04-01

    The precise determination of near-surface air temperature profiles is of special importance for the characterization of airflows (e.g. cold air) and the quantification of sensible heat fluxes according to the flux-gradient similarity approach. In contrast to conventional multi-sensor techniques, measuring temperature profiles using fiber-optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) provides thousands of measurements referenced to a single calibration standard at much reduced costs. The aim of this work was to enhance the vertical resolution of Raman scatter DTS measurements up to the centimeter-scale using a novel approach for atmospheric applications: the optical fiber was helically coiled around a meshed fabric. In addition to testing the new fiber geometry, we quantified the measurement uncertainty and demonstrated the benefits of the enhanced-resolution profiles. The fiber-optic cable was coiled around a hollow column consisting of white reinforcing fabric supported by plexiglass rings every meter. Data from two columns of this type were collected for 47 days to measure air temperature vertically over 3.0 and 5.1 m over a gently inclined meadow and over and in a small lake, respectively. Both profiles had a vertical resolution of 1 cm in the lower section near the surface and 5 cm in the upper section with an along-fiber instrument-specific averaging of 1.0 m and a temporal resolution of 30 s. Measurement uncertainties, especially from conduction between reinforcing fabric and fiber-optic cable, were estimated by modeling the fiber temperature via a detailed energy balance approach. Air temperature, wind velocity and radiation components were needed as input data and measured separately. The temperature profiles revealed valuable details, especially in the lowest 1 m above surface. This was best demonstrated for nighttime observations when artefacts due to solar heating did not occur. For example, the dynamics of a cold air layer was detected in a clear night

  1. A hybrid fiber-optic sensing system for down-hole pressure and distributed temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke; Zhou, Xinlei; Yang, Bokai; Peng, Wei; Yu, Qingxu

    2015-10-01

    A hybrid fiber-optic sensing technique, combining the extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) based pressure sensor with the incoherent optical frequency domain reflectometry (IOFDR) based distributed temperature sensor (DTS), is presented for down-hole measurements. By using a laser diode as the common light source, a highly integrated hybrid EFPI/DTS sensing system has been developed with a single fiber. With the injection current of the laser diode below lasing threshold, the broadband spontaneous emission light is used for EFPI based pressure sensing; while with the injection current above the threshold, the stimulated emission light is used for Raman based distributed temperature sensing. There is no overlap between the spectral range of the reflected light from the EFPI sensor and the spectral range of the Raman scattered light. Pressure and distributed temperature can thus be measured by using wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) technology. Experimental results show that both the pressure and the distributed temperature are measured with little interference. Furthermore, the pressure measurement can be compensated by the measured temperature values.

  2. Temperature dependence of light power propagation in bending plastic optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Ning; Teng, Chuanxin; Zheng, Jie; Wang, Guanjun; Zhang, Minjuan; Wang, Zhibin

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of temperature variation on the light power propagation in bending plastic optical fiber (POF). The transmittance of bending POFs with curvature radius of 2-30 mm and turns of 1/4, 1/2, 1, and 2 are measured over temperature of 20-70 °C. The temperature dependent loss of the bending POF is obtained. It is found that the temperature dependent loss of the bending POF changes with curvature radius and turns. The temperature effect reaches the highest value of 0.011 dB/°C with 2 turns, and is less than 0.002 dB/°C with curvature radius greater than 25 mm.

  3. Optical fiber pH sensors for high temperature water. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McCrae, D.; Saaski, E.

    1994-11-01

    The goal of this program was the development of an optical pH measurement system capable of operating in a high-temperature aqueous environment. This project built upon a dual-wavelength fiber optic sensing system previously developed by Research International which utilizes light-emitting diodes as light sources and provides remote absorption spectroscopy via a single bidirectional optical fiber. Suitable materials for constructing an optical pH sensing element were identified during the program. These included a sapphire/Ti/Pt/Au thin-film reflector, quartz and sapphire waveguides, a poly(benzimidazole) matrix, and an azo chromophore indicator. By a suitable combination of these design elements, it appears possible to optically measure pH in aqueous systems up to a temperature of about 150{degrees}C. A pH sensing system capable of operating in high-purity, low-conductivity water was built using quasi-evanescent wave sensing techniques. The sensing element incorporated a novel, mixed cellulose/cellulose acetate waveguide to which an azo indicator was bound. Testing revealed that the system could reproducibly respond to pH changes arising from 1 ppm differences in the morpholine content of low-conductivity water without influencing the measurement. The sensing system was stable for 150 hrs at room temperature, and no loss or degradation of the pH-responsive optical indicator was seen in 160 hrs at 50{degrees}C. However, the prototype polymer waveguide lost transparency at 1.7% per day during this same 50{degrees}C test. Additional effort is warranted in the areas of water-compatible waveguides and evanescent-wave detection methods.

  4. MEMS fiber-optic Fabry-Perot pressure sensor for high temperature application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, G. C.; Jia, P. G.; Cao, Q.; Xiong, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    We design and demonstrate a fiber-optic Fabry-Perot pressure sensor (FOFPPS) for high-temperature sensing by employing micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology. The FOFPPS is fabricated by anodically bonding the silicon wafer and the Pyrex glass together and fixing the facet of the optical fiber in parallel with the silicon surface by glass frit and organic adhesive. The silicon wafer can be reduced through dry etching technology to construct the sensitive diaphragm. The length of the cavity changes with the deformation of the diaphragm due to the loaded pressure, which leads to a wavelength shift of the interference spectrum. The pressure can be gauged by measuring the wavelength shift. The pressure experimental results show that the sensor has linear pressure sensitivities ranging from 0 kPa to 600 kPa at temperature range between 20°C to 300°C. The pressure sensitivity at 300°C is approximately 27.63 pm/kPa. The pressure sensitivities gradually decrease with increasing the temperature. The sensor also has a linear thermal drift when temperature changes from 20°C - 300°C.

  5. Distributed Temperature Sensing of the Atmosphere with Fiber Optic Cables of Different Diameters and Albedos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Giesen, N.; Jansen, J.; de Jong, S.; Selker, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) combines optical time domain reflectrometry and Raman spectrometry to determine temperatures along fiber optic cables. Environmental applications of DTS have taken flight over the past years. The ability to measure temperatures in soils, snow, and water over large distances with high temporal and spatial resolutions and good accuracies has improved insight in many natural processes. Atmospheric measurements have, so far, been hindered by the heating effect of incoming radiation. For this reason, atmospheric sounding with DTS has mainly been limited to night time observations or to the distribution of shading in forested areas. Radiative heating is partially compensated by advection of heat away from the cable. Thermodynamic theory shows that when heated cylinders (cables) are in equilibrium with the advecting wind field, the final temperature scales with the square root of the diameter. By using cables of different diameters, it is, in theory, possible to calculate the actual air temperature by extrapolating the measurements to a diameter of zero. This idea is based on earlier discussions with Dr. Gaylon Campbell. In our experiment, we used cables of different diameters but the noise levels were in general too large, or the diameter differences too small, to obtain very accurate results. We also used cables with different albedos (black and white). Not surprisingly, white cable temperatures were close to air temperature as measured by the adjacent micro-met station. Detailed analysis shows to what extent, and with what accuracy, DTS cables can be used to measure air temperature during the day.

  6. Simultaneous and quasi-independent strain and temperature sensor based on microstructured optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Aldaba, A.; Auguste, J.-L.; Jamier, R.; Roy, P.; Lopez-Amo, M.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a new sensor system for simultaneous and quasi-independent strain and temperature measurements is presented. The interrogation of the sensing head has been carried out by monitoring the FFT phase variations of two of the microstructured optical fiber (MOF) cavity interference frequencies. This method is independent of the signal amplitude and also avoids the need to track the wavelength evolution in the spectrum, which can be a handicap when there are multiple interference frequency components with different sensitivities. The sensor is operated within a range of temperature of 30°C-75°C, and 380μɛ of maximum strain were applied; being the sensitivities achieved of 127.5pm/°C and -19.1pm/μɛ respectively. Because the system uses an optical interrogator as unique active element, the system presents a cost-effective feature.

  7. Temperature measurements in a fiber optic interferometric multichannel automated instrumentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamela, Horacio; Garcia Souto, Jose A.; Varo, Antonio J.; Santos, Jose I.

    1999-05-01

    In this paper we present the results of an automated instrumentation system that we have designed for temperature gradient characterization in composite materials using the optical fibers embedded in it to construct a multichannel interferometer. The objective is to develop a specific automated measurement system that is able to interrogate different interferometric channels and electronic sensors at the same time. It is also of main concern the study of the interferometric signal processing and the disturbance analysis of such technique applied to this multichannel approach. Synchronous differential optical phase measurements have been used for both characterizations of common phase errors and spatial temperature gradient. Details of the performance, the system design and the experimental results obtained are given.

  8. Distributed fiber optic temperature monitoring and ampacity analysis for XLPE transmission cables. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.A.; Rorabaugh, F.

    1998-06-01

    Thermal conditions along the length of a circuit can strongly affect the power transfer capability of a buried cable. These conditions include burial depth, ambient earth temperature, soil thermal resistivity, and presence of other heat sources. Monitoring the temperature along the full length of a buried power cable will permit optimization of the power transfer capability of the circuit. This document describes the principles of distributed fiber optic (DFO) temperature monitoring for underground power cables and its application to a utility transmission system. Detailed analysis of the temperature profile, circuit loading and traditional ampacity-calculation procedures allowed the utility to confidently uprate the circuit by more than 8%. This report also describes integration of the results into EPRI`s Dynamic Thermal Circuit Rating Program.

  9. Optical fiber sensors-based temperature distribution measurement in ex vivo radiofrequency ablation with submillimeter resolution.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Edoardo Gino; Tosi, Daniele; Braschi, Giovanni; Gallati, Mario; Cigada, Alfredo; Busca, Giorgio; Lewis, Elfed

    2014-01-01

    Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA) induces a high-temperature field in a biological tissue having steep spatial (up to 6°C∕mm) and temporal (up to 1°C∕s) gradients. Applied in cancer care, RFTA produces a localized heating, cytotoxic for tumor cells, and is able to treat tumors with sizes up to 3 to 5 cm in diameter. The online measurement of temperature distribution at the RFTA point of care has been previously carried out with miniature thermocouples and optical fiber sensors, which exhibit problems of size, alteration of RFTA pattern, hysteresis, and sensor density worse than 1 sensor∕cm. In this work, we apply a distributed temperature sensor (DTS) with a submillimeter spatial resolution for the monitoring of RFTA in porcine liver tissue. The DTS demodulates the chaotic Rayleigh backscattering pattern with an interferometric setup to obtain the real-time temperature distribution. A measurement chamber has been set up with the fiber crossing the tissue along different diameters. Several experiments have been carried out measuring the space-time evolution of temperature during RFTA. The present work showcases the temperature monitoring in RFTA with an unprecedented spatial resolution and is exportable to in vivo measurement; the acquired data can be particularly useful for the validation of RFTA computational models.

  10. Optical fiber sensors-based temperature distribution measurement in ex vivo radiofrequency ablation with submillimeter resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchi, Edoardo Gino; Tosi, Daniele; Braschi, Giovanni; Gallati, Mario; Cigada, Alfredo; Busca, Giorgio; Lewis, Elfed

    2014-11-01

    Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA) induces a high-temperature field in a biological tissue having steep spatial (up to 6°C/mm) and temporal (up to 1°C/s) gradients. Applied in cancer care, RFTA produces a localized heating, cytotoxic for tumor cells, and is able to treat tumors with sizes up to 3 to 5 cm in diameter. The online measurement of temperature distribution at the RFTA point of care has been previously carried out with miniature thermocouples and optical fiber sensors, which exhibit problems of size, alteration of RFTA pattern, hysteresis, and sensor density worse than 1 sensor/cm. In this work, we apply a distributed temperature sensor (DTS) with a submillimeter spatial resolution for the monitoring of RFTA in porcine liver tissue. The DTS demodulates the chaotic Rayleigh backscattering pattern with an interferometric setup to obtain the real-time temperature distribution. A measurement chamber has been set up with the fiber crossing the tissue along different diameters. Several experiments have been carried out measuring the space-time evolution of temperature during RFTA. The present work showcases the temperature monitoring in RFTA with an unprecedented spatial resolution and is exportable to in vivo measurement; the acquired data can be particularly useful for the validation of RFTA computational models.

  11. Improving Photovoltaic Energy Production with Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausner, M. B.; Berli, M.

    2014-12-01

    The efficiency of solar photovoltaic (PV) generators declines sharply with increased temperatures. Peak solar exposure often occurs at the same time as peak temperatures, but solar PV installations are typically designed based on solar angle. In temperate areas, the peak temperatures may not be high enough to induce significant efficiency losses. In some of the areas with the greatest potential for solar development, however, summer air temperatures regularly reach 45 °C and PV panel temperatures exceed the air temperatures. Here we present a preliminary model of a PV array intended to optimize solar production in a hot and arid environment. The model begins with the diurnal and seasonal cycles in the angle and elevation of the sun, but also includes a meteorology-driven energy balance to project the temperatures of the PV panels and supporting structure. The model will be calibrated and parameterized using a solar array at the Desert Research Institute's (DRI) Renewable Energy Deployment and Display (REDD) facility in Reno, Nevada, and validated with a similar array at DRI's Las Vegas campus. Optical fibers will be installed on the PV panels and structural supports and interrogated by a distributed temperature sensor (DTS) to record the spatial and temporal variations in temperature. Combining the simulated panel temperatures, the efficiency-temperature relationship for the panels, and the known solar cycles at a site will allow us to optimize the design of future PV collectors (i.e., the aspect and angle of panels) for given production goals.

  12. Overview of Fiber Optic Sensor Technologies for Strain/Temperature Sensing Applications in Composite Materials

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Manjusha; Rajan, Ginu; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the different types of fiber optic sensors (FOS) that can be used with composite materials and also their compatibility with and suitability for embedding inside a composite material. An overview of the different types of FOS used for strain/temperature sensing in composite materials is presented. Recent trends, and future challenges for FOS technology for condition monitoring in smart composite materials are also discussed. This comprehensive review provides essential information for the smart materials industry in selecting of appropriate types of FOS in accordance with end-user requirements. PMID:26784192

  13. Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Schena, Emiliano; Tosi, Daniele; Saccomandi, Paola; Lewis, Elfed; Kim, Taesung

    2016-01-01

    During recent decades, minimally invasive thermal treatments (i.e., Radiofrequency ablation, Laser ablation, Microwave ablation, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound ablation, and Cryo-ablation) have gained widespread recognition in the field of tumor removal. These techniques induce a localized temperature increase or decrease to remove the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue remains intact. An accurate measurement of tissue temperature may be particularly beneficial to improve treatment outcomes, because it can be used as a clear end-point to achieve complete tumor ablation and minimize recurrence. Among the several thermometric techniques used in this field, fiber optic sensors (FOSs) have several attractive features: high flexibility and small size of both sensor and cabling, allowing insertion of FOSs within deep-seated tissue; metrological characteristics, such as accuracy (better than 1 °C), sensitivity (e.g., 10 pm·°C−1 for Fiber Bragg Gratings), and frequency response (hundreds of kHz), are adequate for this application; immunity to electromagnetic interference allows the use of FOSs during Magnetic Resonance- or Computed Tomography-guided thermal procedures. In this review the current status of the most used FOSs for temperature monitoring during thermal procedure (e.g., fiber Bragg Grating sensors; fluoroptic sensors) is presented, with emphasis placed on their working principles and metrological characteristics. The essential physics of the common ablation techniques are included to explain the advantages of using FOSs during these procedures. PMID:27455273

  14. Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Schena, Emiliano; Tosi, Daniele; Saccomandi, Paola; Lewis, Elfed; Kim, Taesung

    2016-07-22

    During recent decades, minimally invasive thermal treatments (i.e., Radiofrequency ablation, Laser ablation, Microwave ablation, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound ablation, and Cryo-ablation) have gained widespread recognition in the field of tumor removal. These techniques induce a localized temperature increase or decrease to remove the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue remains intact. An accurate measurement of tissue temperature may be particularly beneficial to improve treatment outcomes, because it can be used as a clear end-point to achieve complete tumor ablation and minimize recurrence. Among the several thermometric techniques used in this field, fiber optic sensors (FOSs) have several attractive features: high flexibility and small size of both sensor and cabling, allowing insertion of FOSs within deep-seated tissue; metrological characteristics, such as accuracy (better than 1 °C), sensitivity (e.g., 10 pm·°C(-1) for Fiber Bragg Gratings), and frequency response (hundreds of kHz), are adequate for this application; immunity to electromagnetic interference allows the use of FOSs during Magnetic Resonance- or Computed Tomography-guided thermal procedures. In this review the current status of the most used FOSs for temperature monitoring during thermal procedure (e.g., fiber Bragg Grating sensors; fluoroptic sensors) is presented, with emphasis placed on their working principles and metrological characteristics. The essential physics of the common ablation techniques are included to explain the advantages of using FOSs during these procedures.

  15. Silver halide fiber optic radiometry for temperature monitoring and control of tissues heated by microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenfeld, Ofer; Belotserkovsky, Edward; Goldwasser, Benad; Zur, Albert; Katzir, Abraham

    1993-02-01

    The heating of tissue by microwave radiation has attained a place of importance in various medical fields, such as the treatment of malignancies, urinary retention, and hypothermia. Accurate temperature measurements in these treated tissues is important for treatment planning and for the control of the heating process. It is also important to be able to measure spacial temperature distribution in the tissues because they are heated in a nonuniform way by the microwave radiation. Conventional temperature sensors used today are inaccurate in the presence of microwave radiation and require contact with the heated tissue. Fiber optic radiometry makes it possible to measure temperatures accurately in the presence of microwave radiation and does not require contact with the tissue. Accurate temperature measurements of tissues heated by microwave was obtained using a silver halide optic radiometer, enabling control of the heating process in other regions of the tissue samples. Temperature mappings of the heated tissues were performed and the nonuniform temperature distributions in these tissues was demonstrated.

  16. Vacuum-sealed high temperature high bandwidth fiber optic pressure and acoustic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Juncheng; Pickrell, Gary R.; Wang, Xingwei; Yu, Bing; Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo

    2005-11-01

    A novel vacuum-sealed miniature optical fiber sensor for static pressure or acoustic wave measurement is presented. This pressure sensor functions as a diaphragm-based extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (DEFPI) sensor. The sensor can work at high temperatures because of its all-silica structure. In static pressure measurement, the sensor's measurement range can be set up to 15,000psi with different thickness diaphragms. For acoustic applications, the sensor resonant frequency is higher than 600kHz. Evacuation of the sensor's cavity eliminates the thermally induced inner pressure changes (which is a common problem in pressure sensors) and therefore improves the accuracy and repeatability. In addition, the sensor fabrication process is simple, fast, controllable and low cost. This fiber sensor is immune to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and corrosion resistant.

  17. Fiber optic distributed temperature and strain sensing system based on Brillouin light scattering.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tianying; Li, David Y; Koscica, Thomas E; Cui, Hong-Liang; Sui, Qingmei; Jia, Lei

    2008-11-20

    We present an original method to improve the spatial resolution of a Brillouin distributed temperature and strain sensing system (DTSS). This method is shown to substantially improve the spatial resolution, while simultaneously strengthening the Brillouin backscattered light, which is based on the combination of an internal modulation of the laser source and an external modulator to generate two separate light pulses with different central wavelengths and pulse widths. Moreover, a novel Brillouin signal detection method, which we called isogenous heterodyne detection, is introduced, which is equivalent to a heterodyne detection scheme but is only with Rayleigh and Brillouin backscattered light without the need of an extra reference light. These new technical approaches have been incorporated into a fiber optic DTSS with 13 km single-mode fiber, which clearly successfully demonstrated all the advantages over conventional DTSS approaches in theory and the feasibility in experiment.

  18. Fiber optic monitoring device

    DOEpatents

    Samborsky, J.K.

    1993-10-05

    A device for the purpose of monitoring light transmissions in optical fibers comprises a fiber optic tap that optically diverts a fraction of a transmitted optical signal without disrupting the integrity of the signal. The diverted signal is carried, preferably by the fiber optic tap, to a lens or lens system that disperses the light over a solid angle that facilitates viewing. The dispersed light indicates whether or not the monitored optical fiber or system of optical fibers is currently transmitting optical information. 4 figures.

  19. Fiber optic monitoring device

    SciTech Connect

    Samborsky, J.K.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a device for the purpose of monitoring light transmissions in optical fibers comprises a fiber optic tap that optically diverts a fraction of a transmitted optical signal without disrupting the integrity of the signal. The diverted signal is carried, preferably by the fiber optic tap, to a lens or lens system that disperses the light over a solid angle that facilitates viewing. The dispersed light indicates whether or not the monitored optical fiber or system of optical fibers is currently transmitting optical information.

  20. Indium-Tin-Oxide coated optical fibers for temperature-viscosity sensing applications in synthetic lubricant oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, P.; Mendizabal, D.; R. Zamarreño, C.; Arregui, F. J.; Matias, I. R.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, is presented the fabrication and characterization of optical fiber refractometer based on lossy mode resonances (LMR). Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on optical fibers are used as the LMR supporting coatings. These resonances shift to the red as a function of the external refractive index. The refractometer has been used to characterize temperature variations related to the viscosity of synthetic industrial gear lubricant.

  1. Fiber optic temperature sensor using a Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu thermographic phosphor

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.V.; Smith, D.B.

    1993-09-01

    This report details the development and testing of a thermographic-phosphor-based fiber-optic temperature sensor. The sensor is constructed by removing a region of the fiber jacket and cladding, then coating the exposed core with yttrium oxysulfide doped with a europium activator (Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu). When photoexcited, the europium in the host lattice emits a sharp-line fluorescence spectrum that is characteristic of the temperature of the host crystal lattice. By measuring fluorescence lifetimes, we can deduce the temperature of an optical fiber that is in thermal contact with the fiber. Two different distributions of Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu in the cladding region were evaluated with regard to light coupling efficiency. Theoretical waveguide calculations indicate that a thin core/cladding boundary distribution of Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu couples light more efficiently into the cores guided modes than does a bulk distribution of phosphor in the cladding. The sensor tests showed reproducible response from 20 to 180 degrees Celsius. This technique has several advantages over other fiber optic temperature sensing techniques: the temperature measurement is independent of the strain applied to the fiber; the measurements are potentially accurate to within half a degree centigrade; the sensor allows temperature to be measured at precise locations; and the method doesn`t preclude the use of the fiber for the simultaneous measurement of other parameters.

  2. Using passive fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing to estimate soil water content at a discontinuous permafrost site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A. M.; Lindsey, N.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Gelvin, A.; Saari, S.; Ekblaw, I.; Ulrich, C.; Dou, S.; James, S. R.; Martin, E. R.; Freifeld, B. M.; Bjella, K.; Daley, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    We present preliminary results from an experimental study targeting the use of passive fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) in a variety of geometries to estimate moisture content evolution in a dynamic permafrost system. A 4 km continuous 2D array of multi-component fiber optic cable (6 SM/6 MM) was buried at the Fairbanks Permafrost Experiment Station to investigate the possibility of using fiber optic distributed sensing as an early detection system for permafrost thaw. A heating experiment using 120 60 Watt heaters was conducted in a 140 m2 area to artificially thaw the topmost section of permafrost. The soils at the site are primarily silt but some disturbed areas include backfilled gravel to depths of approximately 1.0 m. Where permafrost exists, the depth to permafrost ranges from 1.5 to approximately 5 m. The experiment was also used to spatially estimate soil water content distribution throughout the fiber optic array. The horizontal fiber optic cable was buried at depths between 10 and 20 cm. Soil temperatures were monitored with a DTS system at 25 cm increments along the length of the fiber. At five locations, soil water content time-domain reflectometer (TDR) probes were also installed at two depths, in line with the fiber optic cable and 15 to 25 cm below the cable. The moisture content along the fiber optic array was estimated using diurnal effects from the dual depth temperature measurements. In addition to the horizontally installed fiber optic cable, vertical lines of fiber optic cable were also installed inside and outside the heater plot to a depth of 10 m in small diameter (2 cm) boreholes. These arrays were installed in conjunction with thermistor strings and are used to monitor the thawing process and to cross correlate with soil temperatures at the depth of the TDR probes. Results will be presented from the initiation of the artificial thawing through subsequent freeze-up. A comparison of the DTS measured temperatures and

  3. Technical Note: Bed conduction impact on fiber optic DTS water temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell Meininger, T.; Selker, J. S.

    2014-07-01

    Error in Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS) water temperature measurements may be introduced by contact of the fiber optic cable sensor with bed materials (e.g., seafloor, lakebed, stream bed). Heat conduction from the bed materials can affect cable temperature and the resulting DTS measurements. In the Middle Fork John Day River, apparent water temperature measurements were influenced by cable sensor contact with aquatic vegetation and fine sediment bed materials. Affected cable segments measured a diurnal temperature range reduced by 10% and lagged by 20-40 min relative to that of ambient stream temperature. The diurnal temperature range deeper within the vegetation-sediment bed material was reduced 70% and lagged 240 min relative to ambient stream temperature. These site-specific results illustrate the potential magnitude of bed-conduction impacts with buried DTS measurements. Researchers who deploy DTS for water temperature monitoring should understand the importance of the environment into which the cable is placed on the range and phase of temperature measurements.

  4. Optical Fiber Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, T. L.

    2017-01-01

    Preface; Dedication; List of figures; List of tables; Acknowledgements; 1. Introduction; 2. Basics of optical fibers; 3. Optical sources and transmitters; 4. Optical receivers; 5. Optical amplifiers; 6. Dispersion management techniques; 7. WDM concepts and components; 8. Optical measurements; Appendix A. Fiber optic sensors; Appendix B. Radio over fiber; Appendix C. Wireless optics; Appendix D. Model test papers; Appendix E. Abbreviations and acronyms; References; Index.

  5. Pulse shape effects on the measurement of temperature using a Brillouin-based optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindez, Carlos; Madruga, Francisco-Javier; Cobo, Adolfo; Conde, Olga; Lopez-Higuera, Jose-Miguel

    2007-04-01

    Distributed fiber sensing based on Brillouin gain scattering (BGS) principle is a useful way to develop devices capable to measure temperature or/and strain in optical fibers. New effects or technologies that could achieve a larger distance and/or a better spatial resolution are a topic of special interest in this fiber sensing area. The influence of the probe-pulse shape in the interaction between the pulsed light and the continuous wave laser in a pump-probe system is presented. The purpose of this study is to improve the spatial resolution of the measurement without losing stability in the BGS. Also it is showed how the backscattering Brillouin gain is affected by inducing variations on the final value of the BGS intensity; this effect is illustrated by using an experimental set up based on the Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). Theoretical analysis of the probe pulse in the Brillouin shift and intensity value using triangular, sinc and saw tooth shapes around the medium phonon life time (~10ns) are presented; as well as the experimental results and possible applications are explained.

  6. Simultaneous strain and temperature sensing using a slightly tapered optical fiber with an inner cavity.

    PubMed

    Chen, H F; Wang, D N; Wang, Y

    2015-03-21

    An ultracompact optical fiber mode interferometer capable of performing simultaneous strain and temperature sensing is demonstrated. The device is fabricated by using femtosecond laser micromachining together with fusion splicing techniques and followed by a tapering process. The transmission spectrum of the device exhibits a number of resonance wavelength dips, corresponding to different orders of cladding mode, which allow simultaneous strain and temperature sensing by monitoring the variation of selected two wavelength dips. The sensitivity achieved is -16.12 pm με(-1) and 85.95 pm °C(-1) for strain and temperature, respectively. The device has a spatially precise sensing capability owing to the small size of the inner air-cavity.

  7. Assessment of detection limits of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing for detection of illicit connections.

    PubMed

    Nienhuis, Jaap; de Haan, Cornelis; Langeveld, Jeroen; Klootwijk, Martijn; Clemens, François

    2013-01-01

    Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) with fiber-optic cables is a powerful tool to detect illicit connections in storm sewer systems. High-frequency temperature measurements along the in-sewer cable create a detailed representation of temperature anomalies due to illicit discharges. The detection limits of the monitoring equipment itself are well-known, but there is little information available on detection limits for the discovery of illicit connections, as in mixing of sewers, and attenuation also plays an important role. This paper describes the results of full-scale experiments aiming to quantify the detection limits for illicit connections under various sewer conditions. Based on the results, a new monitoring set-up for (partially) filled sewer conduits has been proposed.

  8. Irradiation temperature effects on the induced point defects in Ge-doped optical fibers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, A.; Reghioua, I.; Girard, S.; Agnello, S.; Di Francesca, D.; Martin-Samos, L.; Marcandella, C.; Richard, N.; Cannas, M.; Boukenter, A.; Ouerdane, Y.

    2017-02-01

    We present an experimental investigation on the combined effects of temperature and irradiation on Ge-doped optical fibers. Our samples were X-ray (10 keV) irradiated up to 5 kGy with a dose rate of 50 Gy(SiO2)/s changing the irradiation temperature in the range 233-573 K. After irradiation we performed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and confocal microscopy luminescence (CML) measurements. The recorded data prove the generation of different Ge related paramagnetic point defects and of a red emission, different from that of the Ge/Si Non-Bridging Oxygen Hole center. Furthermore, by comparing the behaviour of the EPR signal of the Ge(1) as a function of the irradiation temperature with the one of the red emission we can exclude that this emission is originated by the Ge(1).

  9. Two-color infrared thermometer for low-temperature measurement using a hollow glass optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Small, W.

    1997-02-28

    In the thermometer, radiation from a target is collected via a single 700 {mu}m-bore hollow glass optical fiber coated with a metallic/dielectric layer on the inner surface, simultaneously split into two paths and modulated by a Au-coated reflective chopper, and focused onto two thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared HgCdZnTe photoconductors by 128.8 mm-radius Au-coated spherical mirrors. The photoconductors have spectral bandpasses of 2-6 {mu}m and 2.12 {mu}m, respectively. The modulated detector signals are recovered using lock- in amplification. The two signals are calibrated using a blackbody (emissivity=1) of known temperature, and exponential fits are applied to the two resulting voltage vs temperature curves. Using the two calibration equations, a computer algorithm calculates the temperature and emissivity of a target in real time, taking into account reflection of the background radiation field from the target surface.

  10. Temperature insensitive hysteresis free highly sensitive polymer optical fiber Bragg grating humidity sensor.

    PubMed

    Woyessa, Getinet; Nielsen, Kristian; Stefani, Alessio; Markos, Christos; Bang, Ole

    2016-01-25

    The effect of humidity on annealing of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microstructured polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (mPOFBGs) and the resulting humidity responsivity are investigated. Typically annealing of PMMA POFs is done in an oven without humidity control around 80°C and therefore at low humidity. We demonstrate that annealing at high humidity and high temperature improves the performances of mPOFBGs in terms of stability and sensitivity to humidity. PMMA POFBGs that are not annealed or annealed at low humidity level will have a low and highly temperature dependent sensitivity and a high hysteresis in the humidity response, in particular when operated at high temperature. PMMA mPOFBGs annealed at high humidity show higher and more linear humidity sensitivity with negligible hysteresis. We also report how annealing at high humidity can blue-shift the FBG wavelength more than 230 nm without loss in the grating strength.

  11. Miniature fiber-optic temperature sensors based on silica/polymer microfiber knot resonators.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu; Rao, Yun-Jiang; Chen, Yi-Huai; Gong, Yuan

    2009-09-28

    In this paper, we report two fiber-optic temperature sensors based on silica/polymer microfiber knot resonators (SMKR/PMKR). The structures of these sensors are composed of three layers, MgF(2) crystal plate is adopted as the substrate, and the sensing knots are covered by a thin MgF(2) slab to keep it steady and immunity to the environment fluctuations. Experimental results show that the temperature sensitivity of SMKR is approximately 52 pm/ degrees C within 30 degrees C approximately 700 degrees C, while the sensitivity of PMKR is approximately 266 pm/ degrees C within 20 degrees C approximately 80 degrees C. The temporal response of SMKR and PMKR sensors are less than 1 ms and 5 ms, respectively. These microfiber knot resonators can be used as miniature high temperature sensors with fast response. Higher resolution can be anticipated with further improvement of the Q factor of the microfiber knot resonators.

  12. Hybrid optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of gas refractive index and temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruohui; Qiao, Xueguang

    2014-11-10

    We present a hybrid miniature optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of gas refractive index and temperature. The interferometer is fabricated by cascading two short sections of capillary tubes with different inner diameters. One extrinsic interferometer is based on the air gap cavity formed by the capillary tube with large diameter. Another section of capillary tube with small inner diameter performs as an intrinsic interferometer and also provides a channel enabling gas to enter and leave the extrinsic cavity freely. The experiment shows that the different dips or peaks in fringe exhibit different responses to the changes in gas refractive index and temperature. Owing to this feature, simultaneous measurement of the gas refractive index and temperature can be realized.

  13. Temperature measurement of Ho:YAG laser induced bubble in water using silver halide IR optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Takehiro; Nakatani, Eriko; Arai, Tsunenori

    2008-02-01

    We measured the localized transient temperature of Ho:YAG laser induced bubble in water by infrared radiation measurement with a infrared optical fiber to study heat effect/damage of this bubble for vascular therapeutic applications. Although there have been many reports regarding to the temperature in the Ho:YAG laser induced bubble by both theoretical and experimental approaches, we can not find well-time-response reliable temperature in the laser induced bubble. We constructed the remote temperature measurement system to obtain the temperature of the laser induced bubble with the infrared optical fiber (Optran MIR, CeramOptec) made of AgCl/AgBr with 1mm in core diameter. The flash lamp excited Ho: YAG laser (IH102, NIIC,λ=2.1μm) beam was delivered through a silica optical fiber (core diameter: 600μm) and was irradiated from the fiber tip in water. The tip position of the infrared optical fiber against the silica glass fiber was changed to measure local bubble temperature. The sidewall of the infrared optical fiber tip was covered by a black rubber tube to prevent the collection of the Ho:YAG laser into the infrared fiber. The infrared radiation delivered through the infrared optical fiber was measured by the HgCdTe infrared detector (KMPC12-2-J1, Kolmar Technologies, rise time:500ns). This fiber optic radiation detection system was calibrated before the bubble temperature measurement. Since the bubble boundary location and its shape were changed with time, we corrected influences of these factors. We finally obtained the peak temperature of 61.7+/-2.8°C at the top surface in the laser induced bubble with 800mJ/pulse. This temperature was 10 degree lower than that of reported. The temperature at the top of the bubble was approximately 9.8 degree higher than that at the bubble side. Obtained temperature distribution with time may be available to study bubble dynamics necessary for our vascular applications.

  14. Longitudinally Graded Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evert, Alexander George

    hexahydrate and 0.30 M Al 3 derived from aluminum chloride hexahydrate. The doped preform was engineered to have two core layers of differing chemical composition, resulting in both a gradient refractive index profile as well as a gradient acoustic profile. While exhibiting higher loss than the original LGF, the Yb 3-doped fiber showed slightly better SBS suppression with preliminary calculations showing at least 6 dB reduction in Brillouin gain. Lastly, reported here is a straight-forward and flexible method to fabricate silica optical fibers of circular cladding cross-section and rectilinear cores whose aspect ratio and refractive index profile changes with position along the fiber in a deterministic way. Specifically, a modification to the process developed to produce longitudinally-graded optical fibers, was employed. Herein reported are MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers with rectangular cores where the aspect ratio changes by nearly 200 % and the average refractive index changed by about 5 %. Fiber losses were measured to be about 50 dB/km. Such rectangular core fibers are useful for a variety of telecommunication and biomedical applications and the dimensional and optical chirp provides a deterministic way to control further the modal properties of the fiber. Possible applications of longitudinally graded optical fibers and future improvements are also discussed. The methods employed are very straight-forward and technically simple, providing for a wide variety of longitudinal refractive index and acoustic velocity profiles, as well as core shapes, that could be especially valuable for SBS suppression in high energy laser systems. Next generation analogs, with longitudinally-graded compositional profiles that are very reasonable to fabricate, are shown computationally to be more effective at suppressing SBS than present alternatives, such as externally-applied temperature or strain gradients.

  15. Long-term monitoring of temperature in the subsoil using Fiber Optic Distributed Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanto, Kusnahadi; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Gance, Julien; Marc, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring changes in soil water content in the vadose zone of soils is a great importance for various hydrological, agronomical, ecological and environmental studies. By using soil temperature measurements with Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FO-DTS), we can indirectly document soil water changes at high spatial and temporal frequency. In this research, we installed an observatory of soil temperature on a representative black marl slope of the long-term Draix-Bléone hydrological observatory (South French Alps, Réseau de Basins-Versants / RBV). A 350 m long reinforced fiber optic cable was buried at 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 m of depths and installed at the soil surface. The total length of the monitored profile is 60 m, and it three different soil units consisting of argillaceous weathered black marls, silty colluvium under grass and silty colluvium under forest. Soil temperature is measured every 6 minutes at a spatial resolution of 0.50 m using a double-ended configuration. Both passive and active (heating of the FO) is used to document soil water changes. We present the analysis of a period of 6 months of temperature measurements (January-July 2016). Changes in soil temperature at various temporal scales (rainfall event, season) and for the three units are discussed. These changes indicate different processes of water infiltration at different velocities in relation to the presence of roots and the soil permeability. We further test several inversion strategies to estimate soil water content from the thermal diffusivity of the soils using simple and more complex thermal models. Some limitations of using this indirect technique for long-term monitoring are also presented. The work is supported by the research project HYDROSLIDE and the large infrastructure project CRITEX funded by the French Research Agency (ANR).

  16. Demonstration of a Fiber Optic Regression Probe in a High-Temperature Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    The capability to provide localized, real-time monitoring of material regression rates in various applications has the potential to provide a new stream of data for development testing of various components and systems, as well as serving as a monitoring tool in flight applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the regression of a combusting solid fuel surface, the ablation of the throat in a chemical rocket or the heat shield of an aeroshell, and the monitoring of erosion in long-life plasma thrusters. The rate of regression in the first application is very fast, while the second and third are increasingly slower. A recent fundamental sensor development effort has led to a novel regression, erosion, and ablation sensor technology (REAST). The REAST sensor allows for measurement of real-time surface erosion rates at a discrete surface location. The sensor is optical, using two different, co-located fiber-optics to perform the regression measurement. The disparate optical transmission properties of the two fiber-optics makes it possible to measure the regression rate by monitoring the relative light attenuation through the fibers. As the fibers regress along with the parent material in which they are embedded, the relative light intensities through the two fibers changes, providing a measure of the regression rate. The optical nature of the system makes it relatively easy to use in a variety of harsh, high temperature environments, and it is also unaffected by the presence of electric and magnetic fields. In addition, the sensor could be used to perform optical spectroscopy on the light emitted by a process and collected by fibers, giving localized measurements of various properties. The capability to perform an in-situ measurement of material regression rates is useful in addressing a variety of physical issues in various applications. An in-situ measurement allows for real-time data regarding the erosion rates, providing a quick method for

  17. Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, Gary; Scott, Brian

    2014-06-30

    This report covers the technical progress on the program “Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems”, funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Materials Science & Engineering and Electrical & Computer Engineering Departments at Virginia Tech, and summarizes technical progress from July 1st, 2005 –June 30th, 2014. The objective of this program was to develop novel fiber materials for high temperature gas sensors based on evanescent wave absorption in optical fibers. This project focused on two primary areas: the study of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber (SPCF) for operation at high temperature and long wavelengths, and a porous glass based fiber optic sensor for gas detection. The sapphire component of the project focused on the development of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber, modeling of the new structures, fabrication of the optimal structure, development of a long wavelength interrogation system, testing of the optical properties, and gas and temperature testing of the final sensor. The fabrication of the 6 rod SPCF gap bundle (diameter of 70μm) with a hollow core was successfully constructed with lead-in and lead-out 50μm diameter fiber along with transmission and gas detection testing. Testing of the sapphire photonic crystal fiber sensor capabilities with the developed long wavelength optical system showed the ability to detect CO2 at or below 1000ppm at temperatures up to 1000°C. Work on the porous glass sensor focused on the development of a porous clad solid core optical fiber, a hollow core waveguide, gas detection capabilities at room and high temperature, simultaneous gas species detection, suitable joining technologies for the lead-in and lead-out fibers and the porous sensor, sensor system sensitivity improvement, signal processing improvement, relationship between pore structure and fiber

  18. A Fiber-Optic Sensor Using an Aqueous Solution of Sodium Chloride to Measure Temperature and Water Level Simultaneously

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Sim, Hyeok In; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Moon, Joo Hyun; Lee, Bongsoo

    2014-01-01

    A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution) and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident. PMID:25310471

  19. Testing of Performance of Optical Fibers Under Irradiation in Intense Radiation Fields, When Subjected to Very High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, Thomas; Windl, Wolfgang; Dickerson, Bryan

    2013-01-03

    The primary objective of this project is to measure and model the performance of optical fibers in intense radiation fields when subjected to very high temperatures. This research will pave the way for fiber optic and optically based sensors under conditions expected in future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Sensor life and signal-to-noise ratios are susceptible to attenuation of the light signal due to scattering and absorbance in the fibers. This project will provide an experimental and theoretical study of the darkening of optical fibers in high-radiation and high-temperature environments. Although optical fibers have been studied for moderate radiation fluence and flux levels, the results of irradiation at very high temperatures have not been published for extended in-core exposures. Several previous multi-scale modeling efforts have studied irradiation effects on the mechanical properties of materials. However, model-based prediction of irradiation-induced changes in silica's optical transport properties has only recently started to receive attention due to possible applications as optical transmission components in fusion reactors. Nearly all damage-modeling studies have been performed in the molecular-dynamics domain, limited to very short times and small systems. Extended-time modeling, however, is crucial to predicting the long-term effects of irradiation at high temperatures, since the experimental testing may not encompass the displacement rate that the fibers will encounter if they are deployed in the VHTR. The project team will pursue such extended-time modeling, including the effects of the ambient and recrystallization. The process will be based on kinetic MC modeling using the concept of amorphous material consisting of building blocks of defect-pairs or clusters, which has been successfully applied to kinetic modeling in amorphized and recrystallized silicon. Using this procedure, the team will model compensation for rate effects, and the

  20. Fiber Optics Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)

  1. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  2. Fiber Optics Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)

  3. A high sensitive fiber-optic strain sensor with tunable temperature sensitivity for temperature-compensation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jie; Huang, Hui; Bai, Min; Zhan, Tingting; Yang, Zhibo; Yu, Yan; Qu, Bo

    2017-02-01

    A high sensitive fiber-optic strain sensor, which consists of a cantilever, a tandem rod and a fiber collimator, was proposed. The tandem rod, which transfer the applied strain to the cantilever, was used for tuning the temperature sensitivity from ‑0.15 to 0.19 dB/°C via changing the length ratio of the rods. Moreover, due to the small beam divergence of the collimator, high strain sensitivity can be realized via incident-angle sensitive detection-mechanism. A strain detection-range of 1.1 × 103 με (with a sensing length of 21.5 mm), a detection limit of 5.7 × 10‑3 με, and a maximum operating frequency of 1.18 KHz were demonstrated. This sensor is promising for compensating the thermal-expansion of various target objects.

  4. Analyzing effects of temperature on tissue equivalent phantoms using fiber Bragg gratings and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seevaratnam, Subaagari; Farid, Mashal; Farhat, Golnaz; Standish, Beau A.

    2013-10-01

    There exist a multitude of therapeutic options for the treatment of both benign and malignant tumors, where several of these options induce temperature changes in the tissue from several degrees centigrade to temperatures that ablate the region of interest (ROI). Recent advances in optical imaging technologies, namely optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG), may provide the necessary hardware/software components to both monitor and quantify the direct biological response to temperature-mediated cancer therapies. Preliminary research has been conducted to identify and analyze the trends in temperature measurements from FBG's placed within phantoms that mimic the optical characteristics of human tissue. Shifts of the Bragg wavelength at selected temperature intervals depict the temperature of the phantom relative to room temperature. The scattering properties of tissue were achieved in the phantom by using 0.665 g of titanium dioxide (TiO2 - Titanium (IV) oxide, anatase) nanopowder, with a particle size smaller than 25 nm, which was mixed into 475 mL of Penecro's Versagel (hydrocarbon material). This mixture imitates the tissue's index of refraction of ~1.4. Shifts in the Bragg wavelength were measured using a spectrum analyzer at temperature intervals at approximately 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 40°C, 45°C, 50°C, 55°C and 60°C. The results show that the relative Bragg wavelength is directly proportional to any increase or decrease of temperature in the phantom. In the case of these experiments, it was observed that the change in the bragg wavelength shift increased the phantom's temperature was also increased with respect to the temperature set by the hot plate. The FBG regions that monitored temperature variations within the tissue-mimicking phantoms were also imaged, via OCT, to investigate temperature induced changes in the OCT images including investigation of changes in the OCT envelope statistics. This data may provide the base line to

  5. Fiber optic sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, J.; Sohler, W.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of the developments in the field of fiber optics sensor technology is presented along with a discussion of the advantages of optical measuring instruments as compared with electronic sensors. The two primary types of fiber optics sensors, specifically those with multiwave fibers and those with monowave fibers, are described. Examples of each major sensor type are presented and discussed. Multiwave detectors include external and internal fiber optics sensors. Among the monowave detectors are Mach-Zender interferometers, Michelson interferometers, Sagnac interferometers (optical gyroscopes), waveguide resonators, and polarimeter sensors. Integrated optical sensors and their application in spectroscopy are briefly discussed.

  6. Investigation of aquifer-estuary interaction using wavelet analysis of fiber-optic temperature data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, R.D.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Harvey, C.F.

    2009-01-01

    Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FODTS) provides sub-minute temporal and meter-scale spatial resolution over kilometer-long cables. Compared to conventional thermistor or thermocouple-based technologies, which measure temperature at discrete (and commonly sparse) locations, FODTS offers nearly continuous spatial coverage, thus providing hydrologie information at spatiotemporal scales previously impossible. Large and information-rich FODTS datasets, however, pose challenges for data exploration and analysis. To date, FODTS analyses have focused on time-series variance as the means to discriminate between hydrologic phenomena. Here, we demonstrate the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and cross-wavelet transform (XWT) to analyze FODTS in the context of related hydrologic time series. We apply the CWT and XWT to data from Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts to identify the location and timing of tidal pumping of submarine groundwater Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Fabrication of All-SiC Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensors for High-Temperature Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yonggang; Li, Jian; Zhou, Zhiwen; Jiang, Xinggang; Zhang, Deyuan

    2016-01-01

    Single-crystal silicon carbide (SiC)-based pressure sensors can be used in harsh environments, as they exhibit stable mechanical and electrical properties at elevated temperatures. A fiber-optic pressure sensor with an all-SiC sensor head was fabricated and is herein proposed. SiC sensor diaphragms were fabricated via an ultrasonic vibration mill-grinding (UVMG) method, which resulted in a small grinding force and low surface roughness. The sensor head was formed by hermetically bonding two layers of SiC using a nickel diffusion bonding method. The pressure sensor illustrated a good linearity in the range of 0.1–0.9 MPa, with a resolution of 0.27% F.S. (full scale) at room temperature. PMID:27763494

  8. Fiber optic sensing system for temperature and gas monitoring in coal waste pile combustion environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viveiros, D.; Ribeiro, J.; Ferreira, J.; Lopez-Albada, A.; Pinto, A. M. R.; Perez-Herrera, R. A.; Diaz, S.; Lopez-Gil, A.; Dominguez-Lopez, A.; Esteban, O.; Martin-Lopez, S.; Auguste, J.-L.; Jamier, R.; Rougier, S.; Silva, S. O.; Frazão, O.; Santos, J. L.; Flores, D.; Roy, P.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M.; Lopez-Amo, M.; Baptista, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    It is presented an optical fiber sensing system projected to operate in the demanding conditions associated with coal waste piles in combustion. Distributed temperature measurement and spot gas sensing are requirements for such a system. A field prototype has been installed and is continuously gathering data, which will input a geological model of the coal waste piles in combustion aiming to understand their dynamics and evolution. Results are presented on distributed temperature and ammonia measurement, being noticed any significant methane emission in the short time period considered. Carbon dioxide is also a targeted gas for measurement, with validated results available soon. The assessment of this technology as an effective and reliable tool to address the problem of monitoring coal waste piles in combustion opens the possibility of its widespread application in view of the worldwide presence of coal related fires.

  9. The development of a fiber optic Raman temperature measurement system for rocket flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Groot, Wim A.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber-optic Raman diagnostic system for H2/O2 rocket flows is currently under development. This system is designed for measurements of temperature and major species concentration in the combustion chamber and part of the nozzle of a 100 Newton thrust rocket currently undergoing tests. This paper describes a measurement system based on the spontaneous Raman scattering phenomenon. An analysis of the principles behind the technique is given. Software is developed to measure temperature and major species concentration by comparing theoretical Raman scattering spectra with experimentally obtained spectra. Equipment selection and experimental approach are summarized. This experimental effort is part of a program, which is in progress, to evaluate Navier-Stokes based analyses for this class of rockets.

  10. Calibrating Single-Ended Fiber-Optic Raman Spectra Distributed Temperature Sensing Data

    PubMed Central

    Hausner, Mark B.; Suárez, Francisco; Glander, Kenneth E.; van de Giesen, Nick; Selker, John S.; Tyler, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologic research is a very demanding application of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) in terms of precision, accuracy and calibration. The physics behind the most frequently used DTS instruments are considered as they apply to four calibration methods for single-ended DTS installations. The new methods presented are more accurate than the instrument-calibrated data, achieving accuracies on the order of tenths of a degree root mean square error (RMSE) and mean bias. Effects of localized non-uniformities that violate the assumptions of single-ended calibration data are explored and quantified. Experimental design considerations such as selection of integration times or selection of the length of the reference sections are discussed, and the impacts of these considerations on calibrated temperatures are explored in two case studies. PMID:22346676

  11. Calibrating single-ended fiber-optic Raman spectra distributed temperature sensing data.

    PubMed

    Hausner, Mark B; Suárez, Francisco; Glander, Kenneth E; van de Giesen, Nick; Selker, John S; Tyler, Scott W

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologic research is a very demanding application of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) in terms of precision, accuracy and calibration. The physics behind the most frequently used DTS instruments are considered as they apply to four calibration methods for single-ended DTS installations. The new methods presented are more accurate than the instrument-calibrated data, achieving accuracies on the order of tenths of a degree root mean square error (RMSE) and mean bias. Effects of localized non-uniformities that violate the assumptions of single-ended calibration data are explored and quantified. Experimental design considerations such as selection of integration times or selection of the length of the reference sections are discussed, and the impacts of these considerations on calibrated temperatures are explored in two case studies.

  12. The development of a fiber optic Raman temperature measurement system for rocket flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Groot, Wim A.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber-optic Raman diagnostic system for H2/O2 rocket flows is currently under development. This system is designed for measurements of temperature and major species concentration in the combustion chamber and part of the nozzle of a 100 Newton thrust rocket currently undergoing tests. This paper describes a measurement system based on the spontaneous Raman scattering phenomenon. An analysis of the principles behind the technique is given. Software is developed to measure temperature and major species concentration by comparing theoretical Raman scattering spectra with experimentally obtained spectra. Equipment selection and experimental approach are summarized. This experimental effort is part of a program, which is in progress, to evaluate Navier-Stokes based analyses for this class of rockets.

  13. Fabrication of All-SiC Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensors for High-Temperature Applications.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yonggang; Li, Jian; Zhou, Zhiwen; Jiang, Xinggang; Zhang, Deyuan

    2016-10-17

    Single-crystal silicon carbide (SiC)-based pressure sensors can be used in harsh environments, as they exhibit stable mechanical and electrical properties at elevated temperatures. A fiber-optic pressure sensor with an all-SiC sensor head was fabricated and is herein proposed. SiC sensor diaphragms were fabricated via an ultrasonic vibration mill-grinding (UVMG) method, which resulted in a small grinding force and low surface roughness. The sensor head was formed by hermetically bonding two layers of SiC using a nickel diffusion bonding method. The pressure sensor illustrated a good linearity in the range of 0.1-0.9 MPa, with a resolution of 0.27% F.S. (full scale) at room temperature.

  14. Epoxy-free high-temperature fiber optic pressure sensors for gas turbine engine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Juncheng; Pickrell, Gary; Yu, Bing; Han, Ming; Zhu, Yizheng; Wang, Xingwei; Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo

    2004-12-01

    Pressure measurements at various locations of a gas turbine engine are highly desirable to improve the operational performance and reliability. However, measurement of dynamic pressure (1psi (6.9kPa) variation superimposed on the static bias) in the operating environment of the engine, where temperatures might exceed 600°C and pressures might exceed 100psi (690kPa), is a great challenge to currently available sensors. To meet these requirements, a novel type of fiber optic engine pressure sensor has been developed. This pressure sensor functions as a diaphragm-based extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) sensor. The structure of the sensor head, composed entirely of fused silica, allows a much higher operating temperature to be achieved in conjunction with a low temperature dependence. The sensor head and the fiber tail have been packaged in a metal fitting connected to a piece of metal extension tubing, which improves the mechanical strength of the sensor and facilitates easy sensor installation. The sensor exhibited very good performance in an engine field test, demonstrating not only that the sensors' package is robust enough for engine operation, but also that its performance is consistent with that of a commercial Kulite sensor.

  15. High-Sensitivity Fiber-Optic Fabry-Perot Interferometer Temperature Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuefeng; Lin, Shuo; Liang, Jinxing; Oigawa, Hiroshi; Ueda, Toshitsugu

    2012-06-01

    A novel structure of a fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric (FFPI) temperature sensor is presented in this paper. The design of the sensor is analyzed and evaluated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Then, the proposed sensor is fabricated using a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF). A gold (Au) layer and a nickel (Ni) layer are sputtered and electroplated on the surface of the SMF, respectively. As a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity, a micro-punch-hole is machined by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. Here, the structure of the FP cavity can be considered a pair of bimetallic strips. On the basis of the sharp difference in thermal expansion coefficient between the fused silica and the metallic materials, the temperature sensitivity of the proposed sensor was determined to be over 70 pm/°C in the 0 to +60 °C range. The standard deviation of temperature is less than 0.15 °C in 1 h.

  16. Omnidirectional fiber optic tiltmeter

    DOEpatents

    Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.

    1983-06-30

    A tiltmeter is provided which is useful in detecting very small movements such as earth tides. The device comprises a single optical fiber, and an associated weight affixed thereto, suspended from a support to form a pendulum. A light source, e.g., a light emitting diode, mounted on the support transmits light through the optical fiber to a group of further optical fibers located adjacent to but spaced from the free end of the single optical fiber so that displacement of the single optical fiber with respect to the group will result in a change in the amount of light received by the individual optical fibers of the group. Photodetectors individually connectd to the fibers produce corresponding electrical outputs which are differentially compared and processed to produce a resultant continuous analog output representative of the amount and direction of displacement of the single optical fiber.

  17. Optical Fiber Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    F&S Inc. developed and commercialized fiber optic and microelectromechanical systems- (MEMS) based instrumentation for harsh environments encountered in the aerospace industry. The NASA SBIR programs have provided F&S the funds and the technology to develop ruggedized coatings and coating techniques that are applied during the optical fiber draw process. The F&S optical fiber fabrication facility and developed coating methods enable F&S to manufacture specialty optical fiber with custom designed refractive index profiles and protective or active coatings. F&S has demonstrated sputtered coatings using metals and ceramics and combinations of each, and has also developed techniques to apply thin coatings of specialized polyimides formulated at NASA Langley Research Center. With these capabilities, F&S has produced cost-effective, reliable instrumentation and sensors capable of withstanding temperatures up to 800? C and continues building commercial sales with corporate partners and private funding. More recently, F&S has adapted the same sensing platforms to provide the rapid detection and identification of chemical and biological agents

  18. Fiber optic communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palais, J. C.

    A description of fiber optic communications systems and an optics review are provided, taking into account the historical perspective, the basic communications system, the nature of light, advantages of fibers, the applicatins of fiber optic communications, ray theory and applications, lenses, imaging, numerical aperture, and diffraction. Other subjects examined are related to integrated optic waveguides, lightwave fundamentals, optic fiber waveguides, light sources, light detectors, couplers and connectors, distribution systems, modulation, noise and detection, and system design. Attention is given to electromagnetic waves, dispersion, pulse distortion, polarization, integrated optic networks, the step-index fiber, the graded-index fiber, optic fiber cables, light-emitting diodes, laser principles, laser diodes, splices, source coupling, distribution networks, directional couplers, star couplers, switches, analog and digital modulation formats, optic heterodyne receives, thermal and shot noise, error rates, receiver circuit design, and analog and digital system design.

  19. Fiber optic temperature sensing with enhanced sensitivity based on spectral interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militky, J.; Kadulova, M.; Ciprian, D.; Hlubina, P.

    2017-01-01

    Temperature sensing with enhanced sensitivity based on the spectral interference of polarization modes in a highly birefringent (HB) fiber is proposed and demonstrated. A temperature sensor employs a tandem configuration of a birefringent quartz crystal and HB fiber placed between an analyzer and a polarizer. In the setup a modified channeled spectrum is generated, which shifts with the temperature change of the sensing part of the HB fiber. We analyze the measurement method theoretically and show that the sensitivity of the temperature sensing based on the wavelength interrogation is enhanced in comparison to a standard method with a fiber interferometer. We also demonstrate the enhancement of the temperature sensitivity for three HB fibers under test. Experimental results show that the temperature sensing can reach a sensitivity of -0.30 nm/K, which is enhanced in comparison to -0.10 nm/K reached for a standard measurement.

  20. Fiber Optic Attenuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Mike Buzzetti designed a fiber optic attenuator while working at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, intended for use in NASA's Deep Space Network. Buzzetti subsequently patented and received an exclusive license to commercialize the device, and founded Nanometer Technologies to produce it. The attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss, and is relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  1. Development of SPR temperature sensor using Au/TiO2 on hetero-core optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Sho; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Hosoki, Ai; Nishiyama, Michiko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a novel temperature sensor based on a hetero-core structured fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor with multi-layer thin film of gold (Au) and titanium dioxide (TiO2). Temperature condition is an essential parameter in chemical plants for avoiding fire accident and controlling qualities of chemical substances. Several fiber optic temperature sensors have been developed for some advantages such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, corrosion resistance and no electrical leakage. The proposed hetero-core fiber optic SPR sensor detects temperature condition by measuring slight refractive index changes of TiO2 which has a large thermo-optic coefficient. We experimentally confirmed that the SPR resonant wavelength in the hetero-core SPR sensor with coating an Au film which slightly depended on temperature changes in the range from 20 °C to 80 °C. In addition, it was experimentally shown that the proposed SPR temperature sensor with multi-layer film of Au and TiO2 had the SPR resonant wavelength shift of 1.6 nm due to temperature change from -10 °C to 50 °C. As a result, a series of experiments successfully demonstrated that the proposed sensor was able to detect temperature directly depending on the thermo-optic effect of TiO2.

  2. Time-frequency analysis of fiber-optic temperature data on groundwater-surface water interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwakanyamale, K. E.; Slater, L. D.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Alwasif, M. H.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Johnson, C. D.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate characterization of the hydrogeological framework and groundwater-surface water interactions in particular, is crucial to understanding contaminant transport between aquifers and rivers. Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FODTS) is a novel tool that offers unprecedented resolution for characterizing groundwater-surface water interaction. Time-frequency analysis of FODTS data provides a means to distinguish between a wide range of hydrologic processes at various scales. This work demonstrates the use of the S-Transform to analyze FODTS time series and synchronous river stage time series. Our study focused on improving understanding of the dynamics of groundwater-surface water interaction at the Hanford 300-Area Richland, WA. We used ~1.5 km long fiber optic cable to continuously monitor real time temperature variations along the hyporheic corridor at ~1 m spatial resolution and 5 minutes temporal resolution. It is generally recognized that contaminated groundwater discharge in Hanford site 300-Area is highly controlled by fluctuations in the Columbia River stage. Using S-Transform analysis of the temperature data along the river corridor we investigated in more detail the contributions of periodicity in the river stage to focused groundwater discharge. This time-frequency analysis of the DTS data uniquely identified areas of stage-controlled enhanced exchange along the hyporheic corridor. Dam operations upstream of the site were identified as a factor controlling stage fluctuations with relatively long periods (4 - 8 days). S-Transform analysis was used to map areas of high amplitude in these diagnostic periods indicative of stage-driven exchange along the river corridor.

  3. Temperature measurement and damage detection in concrete beams exposed to fire using PPP-BOTDA based fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yi; Hoehler, Matthew S.; Smith, Christopher M.; Bundy, Matthew; Chen, Genda

    2017-10-01

    In this study, Brillouin scattering-based distributed fiber optic sensor is implemented to measure temperature distributions and detect cracks in concrete structures subjected to fire for the first time. A telecommunication-grade optical fiber is characterized as a high temperature sensor with pulse pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis (PPP-BODTA), and implemented to measure spatially-distributed temperatures in reinforced concrete beams in fire. Four beams were tested to failure in a natural gas fueled compartment fire, each instrumented with one fused silica, single-mode optical fiber as a distributed sensor and four thermocouples. Prior to concrete cracking, the distributed temperature was validated at locations of the thermocouples by a relative difference of less than 9%. The cracks in concrete can be identified as sharp peaks in the temperature distribution since the cracks are locally filled with hot air. Concrete cracking did not affect the sensitivity of the distributed sensor but concrete spalling broke the optical fiber loop required for PPP-BOTDA measurements.

  4. Field testing of a fiber optic rotor temperature monitor for power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Stewart K.; Mannik, Len

    1991-12-01

    An optical technique has been developed for the on-line monitoring of rotor surface temperatures in electrical power generators. The method is based on the measurement of the decay time of the ultraviolet-laser-stimulated fluorescence produced by phosphors painted around the circumference of the rotor at selected locations along its length. At each location, a pair of optical fibers installed in stator cooling channels is used for light delivery and collection. The pulsing of the laser and the rotation of the rotor are synchronized so that the laser acts like a stroboscope to illuminate one small spot on the rotor surface, whose position can be altered by varying the triggering of the laser. A microprocessor-based signal analysis system has been designed and constructed to enable temperatures to be determined from the phosphor decay time data. Field tests on an operating 500-MW generator have yielded temperatures from 41 to 73 degree(s)C with a spatial resolution of 4 mm and an accuracy of +/- 2 degree(s)C. In the first installation, the phosphor was mixed with a silicone resin to produce a paint that lasted two years n the most adverse environment on the rotor. Efforts to improve the durability of the paint by using alternative binder materials have yielded encouraging results.

  5. Embedding Optical Fibers In Cast Metal Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibler, William N.; Atkins, Robert A.; Lee, Chung E.; Taylor, Henry F.

    1995-01-01

    Use of metal strain reliefs eliminates breakage of fibers during casting process. Technique for embedding fused silica optical fibers in cast metal parts devised. Optical fiber embedded in flange, fitting, or wall of vacuum or pressure chamber, to provide hermetically sealed feedthrough for optical transmission of measurement or control signals. Another example, optical-fiber temperature sensor embedded in metal structural component to measure strain or temperature inside component.

  6. Embedding Optical Fibers In Cast Metal Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibler, William N.; Atkins, Robert A.; Lee, Chung E.; Taylor, Henry F.

    1995-01-01

    Use of metal strain reliefs eliminates breakage of fibers during casting process. Technique for embedding fused silica optical fibers in cast metal parts devised. Optical fiber embedded in flange, fitting, or wall of vacuum or pressure chamber, to provide hermetically sealed feedthrough for optical transmission of measurement or control signals. Another example, optical-fiber temperature sensor embedded in metal structural component to measure strain or temperature inside component.

  7. Sealed fiber-optic bundle feedthrough

    DOEpatents

    Tanner, Carol E.

    2002-01-01

    A sealed fiber-optic bundle feedthrough by which a multitude of fiber-optic elements may be passed through an opening or port in a wall or structure separating two environments at different pressures or temperatures while maintaining the desired pressure or temperature in each environment. The feedthrough comprises a rigid sleeve of suitable material, a bundle of individual optical fibers, and a resin-based sealing material that bonds the individual optical fibers to each other and to the rigid sleeve.

  8. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, J.B.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W.

    1995-01-10

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity. 2 figures.

  9. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, Joseph B.; Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Tobin, Kenneth W.

    1995-01-01

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.

  10. Differential-pressure-based fiber-optic temperature sensor using Fabry-Perot interferometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiegen; Yin, Jinde; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Kun; Wang, Shuang; Zou, Shengliang

    2015-03-15

    We propose a novel fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric (FFPI) temperature sensor based on differential pressure resulting from thermal expansion of sealed air. A thin silicon diaphragm is sandwiched between two micro-circular cavity-structured Pyrex plates to construct a FP and an air cavity. The thermal expansion of sealed air induces differential pressure variation between cavities and thus the deformation of thin diaphragm, which transfers temperature change into cavity length shift of FP interferometer. Theory analysis results indicate that the temperature-sensitivity can be designed flexibly by choosing the parameters of radius and thickness of silicon diaphragm, and the differential pressure between two cavities. Experimental results demonstrate that the temperature sensitivity of 6.07 nm/°C is achieved with the resolution of 0.10°C under the range of -50°C to 100°C, and the response time is around 1.3 s with temperature change from 28°C to 100°C.

  11. Development of a room-temperature phosphorescence fiber-optic sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Campiglia, A.D.; Alarie, J.P.; Vo-Dinh, T.

    1996-05-01

    The design of a new fiber optic sensor based on solid-surface room temperature phosphorimetry is presented for the analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. Analytical figures of merit are given for several compounds of environmental importance. Limits of detection at the nanograms per milliliter level were estimated for pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, 1,2:3,4-dibenzanthracene, coronene, and 2,3-benzofluorene. The linearity of response of the phosphorescence sensor was evaluated, showing a fairly linear behavior for quantitative analysis. Finally, the feasibility of monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous media was illustrated by identifying pyrene in a contaminated ground water sample. 33 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Coating-free reflection technique for fiber-optic sensors based on multimode interference: A temperature sensing study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taue, Shuji; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Fukano, Hideki

    2016-08-01

    A novel reflection technique for use in fiber-optic sensors is investigated and applied to a multimode interference structure. The reflectivity at a fiber end face is increased with two operations. Firstly, the light intensity is increased toward the periphery of the end-face by adjusting the fiber length, which is determined theoretically. Secondly, the fiber end-face is deformed into an ellipsoid by heating it with a gas torch. The deformed shape is characterized from microscopic images. The reflected light intensity is increased by more than 10 dB as a result of controlling the fiber length and deforming its end-face. Temperature sensing was performed using the reflection-type multimode interference structure immersed in temperature-controlled silicone oil. The resulting sensitivity was 0.028 °C for a 29.60 mm sensing region, achieved without using any reflection coating.

  13. Optical Fiber Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report of work done on NASA Grant NAG-1-443. The work covers the period from July 1, 1992 to December 1, 1998. During this period several distinct but related research studies and work tasks were undertaken. These different subjects are enumerated below with a description of the work done on each of them. The focus of the research was the development of optical fibers for use as distributed temperature and stress sensors. The initial concept was to utilize the utilize the temperature and stress dependence of emission from rare earth and transition metal ions substitutionally doped into crystalline or glass fibers. During the course of investigating this it became clear that fiber Bragg gratings provided a alternative for making the desired measurements and there was a shift of research focus on to include the photo-refractive properties of germano-silicate glasses used for most gratings and to the possibility of developing fiber laser sources for an integrated optical sensor in the research effort. During the course of this work several students from Christopher Newport University and other universities participated in this effort. Their names are listed below. Their participation was an important part of their education.

  14. Advances In Optical Fiber Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. H.; Giallorenzi, T. G.; Bucaro, J. A.

    1981-07-01

    Over the past several years, a new non-communication optical fiber application has emerged. This application utilizes optical fibers for sensing. Initial interest centered around rate rotation sensing. Since that time, however, acoustic, magnetic, and temperature sensing utilizing optical fibers has evolved into a viable research effort with significant potential payoff. As an example, laboratory fiber optic acoustic sensors now rival the best sensitivity obtained with piezoelectric ceramics. These sensors possess a unique geometric versatility previously unavailable. In conjunction with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Navy has begun a Fiber Optic Sensor System (FOSS) program to develop associated technology necessary to realize these sensors. Substantial effort is ongoing at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and other Navy laboratories with considerable contractual effort from universities and industry. This paper reviews the status of the FOSS program.

  15. Heat Tracing Percolation in Managed Aquifer Recharge Facilities using Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M.; Ellis, W.; Bauer, B.; Hutchinson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Percolation rates in Managed Aquifer Rechage (MAR) facilities, such as recharge basins and stream channels, can vary widely through both time and space. Natural variations in sediment hydraulic conductivity can create 'dead zones' in which percolation rates are negligible. Clogging is a constant problem, leading to decays in facility percolation rates . Measuring percolation rate variations is important for management, maintenance, and remediation of surface MAR facilities We have used Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FODTS) to monitor percolation in two very different recharge facilities. The first is a small (2 ha) nearly round recharge basin of homogeneous sediment type in which water balance can be closely monitored. The second is a long narrow river channel separated from an active river by a levee. The alluvial sediment in the river channel varies widely in texture and water balance is difficult to monitor independently. Both facilities were monitored by trenching in fiber optic cable and measuring the propagation rate of the diurnal temperature oscillations carried downward with infiltrating water. In this way, heat was used as a tracer of percolation rates along the section defined by the trenched cable (400 and 1600 m, respectively). We were able to confirm the FODTS measurements of percolation in the recharge basin and demonstrate its wide applicability in the river channel. Results from the measurements have been used to understand both the hydraulic behavior of percolation in the facilities and to make management decisions regarding facility operations and the potential need for additional surface sediment remediation. Estimation of specific discharge (m/day) through the basin using the wavelet method. Basin stage is shown above

  16. Fiber optic micro accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Swierkowski, Steve P.

    2005-07-26

    An accelerometer includes a wafer, a proof mass integrated into the wafer, at least one spring member connected to the proof mass, and an optical fiber. A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially reflective surface on the proof mass and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. The two partially reflective surfaces are used to detect movement of the proof mass through the optical fiber, using an optical detection system.

  17. Monolithic fiber optic sensor assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Scott

    2015-02-10

    A remote sensor element for spectrographic measurements employs a monolithic assembly of one or two fiber optics to two optical elements separated by a supporting structure to allow the flow of gases or particulates therebetween. In a preferred embodiment, the sensor element components are fused ceramic to resist high temperatures and failure from large temperature changes.

  18. Wearable sensors in intelligent clothing for measuring human body temperature based on optical fiber Bragg grating.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongqiang; Yang, Haijing; Li, Enbang; Liu, Zhihui; Wei, Kejia

    2012-05-21

    Measuring body temperature is considerably important to physiological studies as well as clinical investigations. In recent years, numerous observations have been reported and various methods of measurement have been employed. The present paper introduces a novel wearable sensor in intelligent clothing for human body temperature measurement. The objective is the integration of optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensors into functional textiles to extend the capabilities of wearable solutions for body temperature monitoring. In addition, the temperature sensitivity is 150 pm/°C, which is almost 15 times higher than that of a bare FBG. This study combines large and small pipes during fabrication to implant FBG sensors into the fabric. The law of energy conservation of the human body is considered in determining heat transfer between the body and its clothing. The mathematical model of heat transmission between the body and clothed FBG sensors is studied, and the steady-state thermal analysis is presented. The simulation results show the capability of the material to correct the actual body temperature. Based on the skin temperature obtained by the weighted average method, this paper presents the five points weighted coefficients model using both sides of the chest, armpits, and the upper back for the intelligent clothing. The weighted coefficients of 0.0826 for the left chest, 0.3706 for the left armpit, 0.3706 for the right armpit, 0.0936 for the upper back, and 0.0826 for the right chest were obtained using Cramer's Rule. Using the weighting coefficient, the deviation of the experimental result was ± 0.18 °C, which favors the use for clinical armpit temperature monitoring. Moreover, in special cases when several FBG sensors are broken, the weighted coefficients of the other sensors could be changed to obtain accurate body temperature.

  19. The Fiber Optic Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the fiber optics programs at the Career and Technical Center in Berlin, Pennsylvania and the Charles S. Monroe Technology Center in Loudoun County, Virginia. Discusses the involvement of the Fiber Optic Association with education, research and development, manufacturing, sales, distribution, installation, and maintenance of fiber optic…

  20. The Fiber Optic Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the fiber optics programs at the Career and Technical Center in Berlin, Pennsylvania and the Charles S. Monroe Technology Center in Loudoun County, Virginia. Discusses the involvement of the Fiber Optic Association with education, research and development, manufacturing, sales, distribution, installation, and maintenance of fiber optic…

  1. Characterization of the Performance of Sapphire Optical Fiber in Intense Radiation Fields, when Subjected to Very High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Christian M.

    The U.S. Department of Energy is interested in extending optically-based instrumentation from non-extreme environments to extremely high temperature radiation environments for the purposes of developing in-pile instrumentation. The development of in-pile instrumentation would help support the ultimate goal of understanding the behavior and predicting the performance of nuclear fuel systems at a microstructural level. Single crystal sapphire optical fibers are a promising candidate for in-pile instrumentation due to the high melting temperature and radiation hardness of sapphire. In order to extend sapphire fiber-based optical instrumentation to high temperature radiation environments, the ability of sapphire fibers to adequately transmit light in such an environment must first be demonstrated. Broadband optical transmission measurements of sapphire optical fibers were made in-situ as the sapphire fibers were heated and/or irradiated. The damage processes in sapphire fibers were also modeled from the primary knock-on event from energetic neutrons to the resulting damage cascade in order to predict the formation of stable defects that ultimately determine the resulting change in optical properties. Sapphire optical fibers were shown to withstand temperatures as high as 1300 °C with minimal increases in optical attenuation. A broad absorption band was observed to grow over time without reaching a dynamic equilibrium when the sapphire fiber was heated at temperatures of 1400 °C and above. The growth of this absorption band limits the use of sapphire optical fibers, at least in air, to temperatures of 1300 °C and below. Irradiation of sapphire fibers with gamma rays caused saturation of a defect center located below 500 nm, and extending as far as ~1000 nm, with little effect on the transmission at 1300 and 1550 nm. Increasing temperature during gamma irradiation generally reduced the added attenuation. Reactor irradiation of sapphire fibers caused an initial rapid

  2. Practical strategies for identifying groundwater discharges into sediment and surface water with fiber optic temperature measurement.

    PubMed

    Selker, John; Selker, Frank; Huff, Julie; Short, Russ; Edwards, Deborah; Nicholson, Peter; Chin, Arthur

    2014-07-01

    Identifying or ruling out groundwater discharges into sediment and surface waters is often critical for evaluating impacts and for planning remedial actions. Information about subsurface structure and groundwater can be helpful, but imperfect information, heterogeneous materials, and the likelihood of preferential pathways make it difficult to locate seeps without direct seep monitoring. We present the practical application of a method that uses fiber optic temperature measurement to provide high-resolution, sensitive, and dynamic monitoring of seepage from sediments over large areas: distributed temperature sensing to identify groundwater discharge (DTSID). First, we introduce a stochastic Monte Carlo method for designing DTSID installation based on site characteristics and the required probability of detecting particular size seeps. We then present practical methods for analysing DTSID results to prioritize locations for further investigation used at three industrial locations. Summer conditions generally presented greater difficulty in the method due to stronger environmentally-driven temperature fluctuations and thermal stratification of surface water. Tidal fluctuations were shown to be helpful in seepage detection at some locations by creating a dynamic temperature pattern that likely reflects changing seepage with varying water levels. At locations with suitable conditions for the application of DTSID, it can provide unique information regarding likely seep locations, enhancing an integrated site investigation.

  3. Remote optical fiber dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, A. L.; Justus, B. L.; Falkenstein, P. L.; Miller, R. W.; Ning, H.; Altemus, R.

    2001-09-01

    Optical fibers offer a unique capability for remote monitoring of radiation in difficult-to-access and/or hazardous locations. Optical fiber sensors can be located in radiation hazardous areas and optically interrogated from a safe distance. A variety of remote optical fiber radiation dosimetry methods have been developed. All of the methods take advantage of some form of radiation-induced change in the optical properties of materials such as: radiation-induced darkening due to defect formation in glasses, luminescence from native defects or radiation-induced defects, or population of metastable charge trapping centers. Optical attenuation techniques are used to measure radiation-induced darkening in fibers. Luminescence techniques include the direct measurement of scintillation or optical excitation of radiation-induced luminescent defects. Optical fiber radiation dosimeters have also been constructed using charge trapping materials that exhibit thermoluminescence or optically stimulated luminescence (OSL).

  4. Prototype fiber-optic-based pressure probe with built-in temperature compensation with signal recovery by coherence reading.

    PubMed

    Rao, Y J; Jackson, D A

    1993-12-01

    A prototype multimode fiber-based Fabry-Perot interferometric pressure probe utilizing a corrugated diaphragm with built-in temperature compensation, with signal recovery by coherence reading, has been constructed and demonstrated. A separate fiber-optic-based temperature sensor was incorporated into the pressure sensor to permit the pressure measurement to be corrected for the temperature dependence of the pressure probe. A measurement range to resolution of 3.6 × 10(4) - 1 and an overall measurement accuracy of ±0.15% have been achieved. This system represents a practical approach for industrial use.

  5. Thermometry and dosimetry of heat with specific reference to the liquid-crystal optical fiber temperature probe.

    PubMed

    Livingston, G K

    1980-01-01

    A temperature sensing probe was designed utilizing the unique optical properties of thermotropic liquid crystals. An electronic and fiberoptic system coupled to the sensor was used to monitor temperature-dependent interactions of light (660 nm) with the liquid crystal mixture. The probe is a nonmetallic, nonperturbing thermal sensor for continuous temperature measurements of biological specimens subjected to electromagnetic fields. The advantages and disadvantages of the Liquid Crystal Optical Fiber (LCOF) temperature probe are discussed along with some typical applications where accurate dosimetry and thermometry are important parameters in experimental studies.

  6. Multipoint Pressure and Temperature Sensing Fiber Optic Cable for Monitoring CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Challener, William

    2015-02-10

    This report describes the work completed on contract DE-FE0010116. The goal of this two year project was to develop and demonstrate in the laboratory a highly accurate multi-point pressure measurement fiber optic cable based on MEMS pressure sensors suitable for downhole deployment in a CO2 sequestration well. The sensor interrogator was also to be demonstrated in a remote monitoring system and environmental testing was to be completed to indicate its downhole survivability over a lengthy period of time (e.g., 20 years). An interrogator system based on a pulsed laser excitation was shown to be capable of multiple (potentially 100+) simultaneous sensor measurements. Two sensors packages were completed and spliced in a cable onto the same fiber and measured. One sensor package was subsequently measured at high temperatures and pressures in supercritical CO2, while the other package was measured prior and after being subjected to high torque stresses to mimic downhole deployment. The environmental and stress tests indicated areas in which the package design should be further improved.

  7. High precision optical fiber fluorescent temperature measurement system and data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yutian; Bo, Xiaoxu; Gui, Feifei

    2010-08-01

    Generally, the theoretical analysis of the fluorescent life time temperature measurement is based on the assumption of the exponential life time characteristic, but in practice, the actual curve of the fluorescence are different from exponential. This is the key-influence on the stability of the high precision fluorescent measurement system. The differences are analyzed base on the theoretical mechanism of fluorescent, and a cutting and normalized method is given to describe the degree of the non-exponent of the actual fluorescent curve defer from the exponential curve. Several kinds of typical fluorescence materials spectrum and its cutting and normalized experiment results verify this theoretical analysis. Some effective measures to improve the non-exponent of the system are taken and are applied to a temperature measurement system based on actual fluorescent curve analysis with resolution 0.1°C, precisions +/-0.2°C, and real-time calibration is carried on. Based the theory base and the actuality of fluorescence optical fiber temperature sensor, two methods about fluorescence decay time constant are proposed. In the mean time, the mathematic model has been formed and analysis, so that the different schemes are selected in different situation.

  8. Field Measurement of Fracture/Matrix Heat Exchange using Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, A.; Becker, M. W.; Tsoflias, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Highly channelized flow in fractured geologic systems has been blamed for early thermal breakthrough and poor performance of geothermal circulation systems. An experiment is presented in which the effect of channelized flow on fluid/rock heat transfer is measured. Hot water was circulated between two wells (7-14 m separation) completed in a single bedding plane fracture. The elevation of rock matrix temperature was measured using Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS). Between wells with good hydraulic connection, heat transfer followed a classic dipole sweep pattern. Between wells with poor hydraulic connection, heat transfer was skewed toward apparent regions of higher transmissivity (or larger aperture). Heat transfer between fracture and matrix was compared with saline tracer circulated between the same wells. Saline distribution was imaged using surface Ground Penetrating Radar. The results suggest that flow channeling can have a significant impact on heat transfer efficiency even in single bedding plane fractures. Temperature rise in the rock matrix above a fracture as a function of time Map view comparison of heat exchange to ground penetrating radar reflection amplitude (a function of fracture aperture). Red is warmer rock, yellow is cooler.

  9. Design study of optical fiber F-P sensing system for bio-tissue temperature real-time measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Shan; Heng, Guo

    2011-11-01

    The measurement theory of optical fiber F-P temperature sensor is analyzed according to difficult problem that temperature is real-time measured in the study of thermal interaction between laser and bio-tissue. The model of temperature and strain is established. The work point stabilization method of optical fiber F-P sensor is studied. The optimal model of low fineness optical fiber F-P sensing system is established based on the technique of dual optical wavelength stabilization. The experimental device of real-time measurement temperature is build. The experimental results show that the sensor has higher measurement precision and small bulk. And the hurt is little for bio-tissue. It can be used to the real-time temperature measurement of bio-tissue efficiency. When the sensor is used to the continuum temperature measurement, the maximum absoluteness error is 0.63°C and the maximum relatively error is 1.4%. When the sensor worked half hour, the maximum cumulate error is 1.3%.

  10. Fiber optic laser rod

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, G.F.

    1988-04-13

    A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

  11. Pressure and temperature characterization of Bragg gratings in grapefruit microstructured optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Bai-Ou; Chen, Da; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Bo

    2008-04-01

    We report on the pressure characterization of Bragg gratings in grapefruit microstructured fibers. The air holes enhance the pressure response. The effect of air expansion in the holes on temperature response was also investigated.

  12. Fiber Optic Feed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-06

    Naval Research Laboratory IIK Washington, DC,20375 5000 NRL Memorandum Report 6741 0 N Fiber Optic Feed DENZIL STILWELL, MARK PARENT AND LEw GOLDBERG...SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Fiber Optic Feed 53-0611-A0 6. AUTHOR(S) P. D. Stilwell, M. G. Parent, L. Goldberg 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) This report details a Fiber Optic Feeding

  13. Cryogenic-temperature profiling of high-power superconducting lines using local and distributed optical-fiber sensors.

    PubMed

    Chiuchiolo, Antonella; Palmieri, Luca; Consales, Marco; Giordano, Michele; Borriello, Anna; Bajas, Hugues; Galtarossa, Andrea; Bajko, Marta; Cusano, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    This contribution presents distributed and multipoint fiber-optic monitoring of cryogenic temperatures along a superconducting power transmission line down to 30 K and over 20 m distance. Multipoint measurements were conducted using fiber Bragg gratings sensors coated with two different functional overlays (epoxy and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)) demonstrating cryogenic operation in the range 300-4.2 K. Distributed measurements exploited optical frequency-domain reflectometry to analyze the Rayleigh scattering along two concatenated fibers with different coatings (acrylate and polyimide). The integrated system has been placed along the 20 m long cryostat of a superconducting power transmission line, which is currently being tested at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Cool-down events from 300-30 K have been successfully measured in space and time, confirming the viability of these approaches to the monitoring of cryogenic temperatures along a superconducting transmission line.

  14. Optical-fiber-coupled inferometric measurement of tympanic membrane temperature: a new diagnostic tool for acute otitis media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRowe, Ari; Ophir, Eyal; Sade, Sharon; Fishman, Gadi; Ophir, Dov; Grankin, Mila; Katzir, Abraham

    1998-07-01

    A novel infrared (IR) transparent optical fiber coupled to a hand held otoscope and a radiometer was constructed and used to measure the temperatures of the tympanic membrane (TM) and to distinguish between diseased and healthy middle ears. A greater temperature difference between TM readings was found when Acute Otitis Media (AOM) existed in one of the ears examined. This supports the hypothesis that acute inflammation of the middle ear will result in elevated local temperature when measured in such a way that the reading is taken only from the TM without interference of the external canal. The use of an optical fiber enabled temperature measurements of the TM with high spatial resolution eliminating the external ear canal interference. A small patient population was examined and the initial results were statistically significant. In the hands of the primary care physician, this tool would prevent misdiagnosis of AOM preventing indiscriminate use of antibiotics and avoiding complications by early diagnosis.

  15. Longitudinally graded optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evert, A.; James, A.; Hawkins, T.; Foy, P.; Dong, L.; Stolen, R.; Ballato, J.; Dragic, P.; Rice, R.

    2013-03-01

    Described herein, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, are results on optical fibers possessing significant compositional gradations along its length due to longitudinal control of the core glass composition. More specifically, MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers were fabricated that exhibited a gradient of up to about 0.55 weight % GeO2 per meter. These gradients are about 1900 times greater than previously reported fibers possessing longitudinal changes in composition. The refractive index difference is shown to change by about 0.001, representing a numerical aperture change of about 10%, over a fiber length of less than 20 m. The lowest attenuation measured from the present longitudinally-graded fiber (LGF) was 82 dB/km at a wavelength of 1550 nm, though this is shown to result from extrinsic process-induced factors and could be reduced with further optimization. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) spectrum from the LGF exhibited a 4.4 dB increase in the spectral width, and thus reduction in Brillouin gain, relative to a standard commercial single mode fiber, over a fiber length of only 17 m. The method employed is very straight-forward and provides for a wide variety of longitudinal refractive index and acoustic velocity profiles, as well as core shapes, which could be especially valuable for SBS suppression in high-energy laser systems. Next generation analogs, with longitudinally-graded compositional profiles that are very reasonable to fabricate, are shown computationally to be more effective at suppressing SBS than present alternatives, such as externally-applied temperature or strain gradients.

  16. Potential of Brillouin scattering in polymer optical fiber for strain-insensitive high-accuracy temperature sensing.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the dependences of Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) on strain and temperature in a perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fiber (PFGI-POF) at 1.55 μm wavelength. They showed negative dependences with coefficients of -121.8 MHz/% and -4.09 MHz/K, respectively, which are -0.2 and -3.5 times as large as those in silica fibers. These unique BFS dependences indicate that the Brillouin scattering in PFGI-POFs has a big potential for strain-insensitive high-accuracy temperature sensing.

  17. Temperature Response of a Small Mountain Stream to Thunderstorm Cloud-Cover: Application of DTS Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, D.; Klatt, A. L.; Miller, S. N.; Ohara, N.

    2014-12-01

    From a hydrologic point of view, the critical zone in alpine areas contains the first interaction of living systems with water which will flow to streams and rivers that sustain lowland biomes and human civilization. A key to understanding critical zone functions is understanding the flow of energy, and we can measure temperature as a way of looking at energy transfer between related systems. In this study we installed a Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS) and fiber-optic cable in a zero-order stream at 9,000 ft in the Medicine Bow National Forest in southern Wyoming. We measured the temperature of the stream for 17 days from June 29 to July 16; the first 12 days were mostly sunny with occasional afternoon storms, and the last 5 experienced powerful, long-lasting storms for much of the day. The DTS measurements show a seasonal warming trend of both minimum and maximum stream temperature for the first 12 days, followed by a distinct cooling trend for the five days that experienced heavy storm activity. To gain insights into the timing and mechanisms of energy flow through the critical zone systems, we analyzed the timing of stream temperature change relative to solar short-wave radiation, and compared the stream temperature temporal response to the temporal response of soil temperature adjacent to the stream. Since convective thunderstorms are a dominant summer weather pattern in sub-alpine regions in the Rocky Mountains, this study gives us further insight into interactions of critical zone processes and weather in mountain ecosystems.

  18. A high sensitive fiber-optic strain sensor with tunable temperature sensitivity for temperature-compensation measurement

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jie; Huang, Hui; Bai, Min; Zhan, TingTing; Yang, ZhiBo; Yu, Yan; Qu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    A high sensitive fiber-optic strain sensor, which consists of a cantilever, a tandem rod and a fiber collimator, was proposed. The tandem rod, which transfer the applied strain to the cantilever, was used for tuning the temperature sensitivity from −0.15 to 0.19 dB/°C via changing the length ratio of the rods. Moreover, due to the small beam divergence of the collimator, high strain sensitivity can be realized via incident-angle sensitive detection-mechanism. A strain detection-range of 1.1 × 103 με (with a sensing length of 21.5 mm), a detection limit of 5.7 × 10−3 με, and a maximum operating frequency of 1.18 KHz were demonstrated. This sensor is promising for compensating the thermal-expansion of various target objects. PMID:28205595

  19. An arc tangent function demodulation method of fiber-optic Fabry-Perot high-temperature pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Qianyu; Li, Junhong; Hong, Yingping; Jia, Pinggang; Xiong, Jijun

    2017-09-01

    A new demodulation algorithm of the fiber-optic Fabry-Perot cavity length based on the phase generated carrier (PGC) is proposed in this paper, which can be applied in the high-temperature pressure sensor. This new algorithm based on arc tangent function outputs two orthogonal signals by utilizing an optical system, which is designed based on the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to overcome the range limit of the original PGC arc tangent function demodulation algorithm. The simulation and analysis are also carried on. According to the analysis of demodulation speed and precision, the simulation of different numbers of sampling points, and measurement results of the pressure sensor, the arc tangent function demodulation method has good demodulation results: 1 MHz processing speed of single data and less than 1% error showing practical feasibility in the fiber-optic Fabry-Perot cavity length demodulation of the Fabry-Perot high-temperature pressure sensor.

  20. Low coherence technique to interrogate optical sensors based on selectively filled double-core photonic crystal fiber for temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kun; Jiang, Meng; Zhao, Zhongze; Wang, Zeming

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an optical fiber sensing system based on low coherence interferometry (LCI) is proposed and demonstrated to interrogate sensors comprised of selectively filled double-core photonic crystal fiber (SFDC-PCF). The sensor used here is made by selectively filling about 1/3 area of air holes in the cladding of photonic crystal fiber with distilled water. So the dual-core in the sensor has different effective refractive indices, resulting in a phase delay between two lights transmitting in the fiber. The phase delay of the sensor can be compensated by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a scanning optical tunable delay line in one arm of the interferometer, namely temporal interrogation. By tracking the value of phase delay, the change of the measurand can be detected. Temperature measurement is carried out to testify the system performance. An average sensitivity of 0.9 μm/°C is achieved within the temperature range of 29-92 °C. This work provides a new thinking for fiber sensing technology based on LCI. The proposed all-fiber sensing system, with the merits of cost-effective, stability, and flexibility, can demodulate the SFDC-PCF sensor signals well. Further improvements such as better sensitivity, larger measurement range and multiplexing efficiency can be realized by tailoring the PCF sensor's structure.

  1. On the importance of simultaneous infrared/fiber-optic temperature monitoring in the microwave-assisted synthesis of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Obermayer, David; Kappe, C Oliver

    2010-01-07

    The temperature profiles obtained from both an external infrared and internal fiber-optic sensor were compared for heating and synthesizing the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (bmimBr) under microwave conditions. Utilizing a single-mode microwave reactor that allows simultaneous infrared/fiber-optic temperature measurements, significant differences between the two methods of temperature monitoring were revealed. Due to the strong microwave absorptivity of ionic liquids and the delay experienced in monitoring temperature on the outer surface of a heavy-walled glass vial, external infrared temperature sensors can not be used to accurately control the temperature in the heating of ionic liquids under microwave conditions. The use of internal fiber-optic probes allows the monitoring and control of the heating behavior in a much better way. In order to prevent the strong exotherm in the synthesis of bmimBr under microwave conditions the use of a reaction vessel made out of silicon carbide is the method of choice. Because of the high thermal conductivity and effusivity of silicon carbide, the heat generated during the ionic liquid formation is efficiently exchanged with the comparatively cool air in the microwave cavity via the silicon carbide ceramic.

  2. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensing for the determination of air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, S. A. P.; Slingerland, J. D.; van de Giesen, N. C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a method to correct for the effect of solar radiation in atmospheric distributed temperature sensing (DTS) applications. By using two cables with different diameters, one can determine what temperature a zero diameter cable would have. Such a virtual cable would not be affected by solar heating and would take on the temperature of the surrounding air. With two unshielded cable pairs, one black pair and one white pair, good results were obtained given the general consensus that shielding is needed to avoid radiation errors (WMO, 2010). The correlations between standard air temperature measurements and air temperatures derived from both cables of colors had a high correlation coefficient (r2=0.99) and a RMSE of 0.38 °C, compared to a RMSE of 2.40 °C for a 3.0 mm uncorrected black cable. A thin white cable measured temperatures that were close to air temperature measured with a nearby shielded thermometer (RMSE of 0.61 °C). The temperatures were measured along horizontal cables with an eye to temperature measurements in urban areas, but the same method can be applied to any atmospheric DTS measurements, and for profile measurements along towers or with balloons and quadcopters.

  3. Quench detection for high temperature superconductor magnets: a novel technique based on Rayleigh-backscattering interrogated optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scurti, F.; Ishmael, S.; Flanagan, G.; Schwartz, J.

    2016-03-01

    High temperature superconducting materials are the only option for the generation of magnetic fields exceeding 25 T and for magnets operating over a broad range of temperature and magnetic field for power applications. One remaining obstacle for the implementation of high temperature superconductors magnets into systems, however, is the inability to rapidly detect a quench. In this letter we present a novel quench detection technique that has been investigated experimentally. Optical fibers are co-wound into two small Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+x superconducting coils and interrogated by Rayleigh-backscattering. Two different configurations are used, one with the fiber atop the conductor and the other with the fiber located as turn-to-turn insulation. Each coil is also instrumented with voltage taps (VTs) and thermocouples for comparison during heater-induced quenches. The results show that Rayleigh-backscattering interrogated optical fibers (RIOF) have significant advantages over traditional techniques, including very high spatial resolution and the ability to detect a hot-spot well before the peak local temperature exceeds the current sharing temperature. Thus, RIOF quench detection is intrinsically faster than VTs, and this intrinsic advantage is greater as the coil size and/or current margin increases.

  4. Temperature-insensitive pressure or strain sensing technology with fiber optic hybrid Sagnac interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuanhong; Lu, Lin; Liu, Shuo; Jin, Wei; Han, Zonghu; Cao, Yaohui

    2016-05-01

    The transmission spectrum characteristic of two-segment polarization maintaining fibers Sagnac interferometer was investigated and simulated in detail and a temperature-insensitive pressure or strain sensing technology was proposed. An experimental hybrid Sagnac interferometer was built and the solid core polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber was taken as the sensing probe. The side pressure sensitive coefficients and the temperature crosstalk drift were measured and compared. The experimental results show that the side pressure sensitive coefficient was ~0.2877 nm/N and the temperature drift was less than 0.1 pm/°C.

  5. UAS and DTS: Using Drones and Fiber Optics to Measure High Resolution Temperature of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predosa, R. A.; Darricau, B.; Higgins, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is the lowest part of the atmosphere that directly interacts with the planet's surface. The development of the ABL plays a vital role, as it affects the transport of atmospheric constituents such as air pollutants, water vapor, and greenhouse gases. Measurements of the processes in the ABL have been difficult due to the limitations in the spatial and temporal resolutions of the equipment as well as the height of the traditional flux tower. Recent advances in the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technologies have provided us with new tools to study the complex processes in ABL. We conducted a series of pioneering experiments in Eastern Oregon using a platform that combines UAV and DTS to collect data during morning and evening transitions in the ABL. The major components of this platform consists of a quad-copter, a DTS computer unit, and a set of customized fiber optic cables. A total of 75 flights were completed to investigate: (1) the capability of a duplexed fiber optic cable to reduce noise in the high spatial and temporal temperature measurements taken during the morning transition; (2) the possibility of using fiber optic cable as "wet bulb" thermometer to calculate relative humidity in the ABL at high spatial and temporal resolution. The preliminary results showed that using a fiber optic cable in a duplexed configuration with the UAV-DTS platform can effectively reduce noise level during the morning transition data collection. The customized "wet bulb" fiber optic cable is capable of providing information for the calculation of relative humidity in the ABL at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions. From this study, the UAV-DTS platform demonstrated great potential in collecting temperature data in the ABL and with the development of atmospheric sensor technologies, it will have more applications in the future.

  6. Multimode optical fiber

    DOEpatents

    Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

    2014-11-04

    A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

  7. Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature with micro silica sphere cavity hybrid Fabry Perot optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar Naeini, O. R.; Latifi, H.; Zibaii, M. I.

    2015-09-01

    In this article, a novel Micro Silica Sphere Cavity Hybrid Fabry Perot optical fiber sensor is reported where refractive index (RI) and temperature can be simultaneously measured. The sensor is based on Micro Silica Sphere that was fabricated using a capillary tube. The micro silica sphere and optical fiber form a Hybrid Fabry Perot cavity. The temperature cross sensitivity of this sensor is small enough to be used for accurate RI measurement. The temperature sensitivity and RI sensitivity are -0.0028 dBm/ºC, -0.0044 dBm/ºC , -24.09 dBm/RIU and -20.6 dBm/RIU respectively, using two selected resonances.

  8. River Temperature Dynamics and Habitat Characteristics as Predictors of Salmonid Abundance using Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryczkowski, L.; Gallion, D.; Haeseker, S.; Bower, R.; Collier, M.; Selker, J. S.; Scherberg, J.; Henry, R.

    2011-12-01

    Salmonids require cool water for all life stages, including spawning and growth. Excessive water temperature causes reduced growth and increased disease and mortality. During the summer, salmonids seek local zones of cooler water as a refuge from elevated temperatures. They also prefer specific habitat features such as boulders and overhanging vegetation. The purpose of this study is to determine whether temperature dynamics or commonly measured fish habitat metrics best explain salmonid abundance. The study site was a 2-kilometer reach of the Walla Walla River near Milton-Freewater, OR, USA, which provides habitat for the salmonids chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), steelhead/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and the endangered bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). The Walla Walla River is listed as an impaired water body under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act due to temperature. The associated total maximum daily load (TMDL) calls for temperatures to be below 18 °C at all times for salmonid rearing and migration; however, river temperatures surpassed 24 °C in parts of the study reach in 2009. The two largest factors contributing to the warmer water are reduced riparian vegetation, which decreases shading and increases direct solar radiation, and decreased summer flows caused by diversions and irrigation for agriculture. Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing has emerged as a unique and powerful tool for ecological applications because of its high spatial and temporal resolution. In this study, meter-scale temperature measurements were obtained at 15-minute intervals along the length of the study reach, allowing for the detection and quantification of cold water inflows during the summer of 2009. The cold water inflows were classified as groundwater or hyporheic sources based on the diurnal temperature patterns. Snorkel surveys were conducted in mid-July and mid-August, 2009 to enumerate salmonid

  9. Interferometric Fiber Optic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byeong Ha; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Kwan Seob; Eom, Joo Beom; Kim, Myoung Jin; Rho, Byung Sup; Choi, Hae Young

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optic interferometers to sense various physical parameters including temperature, strain, pressure, and refractive index have been widely investigated. They can be categorized into four types: Fabry-Perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. In this paper, each type of interferometric sensor is reviewed in terms of operating principles, fabrication methods, and application fields. Some specific examples of recently reported interferometeric sensor technologies are presented in detail to show their large potential in practical applications. Some of the simple to fabricate but exceedingly effective Fabry-Perot interferometers, implemented in both extrinsic and intrinsic structures, are discussed. Also, a wide variety of Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometric sensors based on photonic crystal fibers are introduced along with their remarkable sensing performances. Finally, the simultaneous multi-parameter sensing capability of a pair of long period fiber grating (LPG) is presented in two types of structures; one is the Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a double cladding fiber and the other is the highly sensitive Sagnac interferometer cascaded with an LPG pair. PMID:22736961

  10. Interferometric fiber optic sensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeong Ha; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Kwan Seob; Eom, Joo Beom; Kim, Myoung Jin; Rho, Byung Sup; Choi, Hae Young

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optic interferometers to sense various physical parameters including temperature, strain, pressure, and refractive index have been widely investigated. They can be categorized into four types: Fabry-Perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. In this paper, each type of interferometric sensor is reviewed in terms of operating principles, fabrication methods, and application fields. Some specific examples of recently reported interferometeric sensor technologies are presented in detail to show their large potential in practical applications. Some of the simple to fabricate but exceedingly effective Fabry-Perot interferometers, implemented in both extrinsic and intrinsic structures, are discussed. Also, a wide variety of Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometric sensors based on photonic crystal fibers are introduced along with their remarkable sensing performances. Finally, the simultaneous multi-parameter sensing capability of a pair of long period fiber grating (LPG) is presented in two types of structures; one is the Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a double cladding fiber and the other is the highly sensitive Sagnac interferometer cascaded with an LPG pair.

  11. Advances in Using Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing to Identify the Mixing of Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, M. A.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Harvey, J. W.; Lane, J. W., Jr.; Hare, D. K.; Boutt, D. F.; Voytek, E. B.; Buckley, S.

    2014-12-01

    Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) provides thermal data through space and time along linear cables. When installed along a streambed, FO-DTS can capture the influence of upwelling groundwater (GW) as thermal anomalies. The planning of labor-intensive physical measurements can make use of FO-DTS data to target areas of focused GW discharge that can disproportionately affect surface-water (SW) quality and temperature. Typical longitudinal FO-DTS spatial resolution ranges 0.25 to1.0 m, and cannot resolve small-scale water-column mixing or sub-surface diurnal fluctuations. However, configurations where the cable is wrapped around rods can improve the effective vertical resolution to sub-centimeter scales, and the pipes can be actively heated to induce a thermal tracer. Longitudinal streambed and high-resolution vertical arrays were deployed at the upper Delaware River (PA, USA) and the Quashnet River (MA, USA) for aquatic habitat studies. The resultant datasets exemplify the varied uses of FO-DTS. Cold anomalies found along the Delaware River steambed coincide with zones of known mussel populations, and high-resolution vertical array data showed relatively stable in-channel thermal refugia. Cold anomalies at the Quashnet River identified in 2013 were found to persist in 2014, and seepage measurements and water samples at these locations showed high GW flux with distinctive chemistry. Cable location is paramount to seepage identification, particularly in faster flowing deep streams such as the Quashnet and Delaware Rivers where steambed FO-DTS identified many seepage zones with no surface expression. The temporal characterization of seepage dynamics are unique to FO-DTS. However, data from Tidmarsh Farms, a cranberry bog restoration site in MA, USA indicate that in slower flowing shallow steams GW inflow affects surface temperature; therefore infrared imaging can provide seepage location information similar to FO-DTS with substantially less effort.

  12. 1200°C high-temperature distributed optical fiber sensing using Brillouin optical time domain analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengbai; Dong, Yongkang; Zhou, Dengwang; Fu, Cheng; Zhang, Juwang; Zhang, Hongying; Lu, Zhiwei; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2016-07-20

    In this paper, up to 1100°C and 1200°C high-temperature distributed Brillouin sensing based on a GeO2-doped single-mode fiber (SMF) and a pure silica photonic crystal fiber (PCF) are demonstrated, respectively. The Brillouin frequency shift's (BFS) dependence on temperatures of the SMF and PCF agrees with a nonlinear function instead of a linear function, which is mainly due to the change of the acoustic velocity in a silica fiber. BFS hopping is observed in both kinds of fibers between 800°C-900°C in the first annealing process, and after that, the BFS exhibits stability and repeatability with a measurement accuracy as high as ±2.4°C for the SMF and ±3.6°C for the PCF. The BFS hopping is a highly temperature-dependent behavior, which means that a high temperature (>800°C) would accelerate this process to reach a stable state. After BFS hopping, both the SMF and PCF show good repeatability for temperatures higher than 1000°C without annealing. The process of coating burning of a silica fiber not only introduces a loss induced by micro-bending, but also imposes a compressive stress on the bare fiber, which contributes to an additional BFS variation at the temperature period of the coating burning (∼300°C-500°C).

  13. Woven fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A C; Courtney-Pratt, J S; Ross, E A

    1975-02-01

    In this paper we describe how the art of weaving can be applied to fiber optics in order to produce precisely controlled reproducible image guides and image dissectors. As examples of the types of device for which woven fiber optics are applicable, we describe a 3:1 interleaver for use with a cathode-ray tube to produce color images, and a high speed alpha numeric output device. The techniques of weaving fiber optics are discussed in sufficient detail in order to allow for further work. Although, in principle, one might be able to weave glass optical fibers, all the work described here made use of plastic optical fibers 0.25 mm in diameter.

  14. Fiber optic hydrophone

    DOEpatents

    Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Davis, Donald T.

    1994-01-01

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.

  15. Fiber optic hydrophone

    DOEpatents

    Kuzmenko, P.J.; Davis, D.T.

    1994-05-10

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer is disclosed. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optical fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends. 2 figures.

  16. Python fiber optic seal

    SciTech Connect

    Ystesund, K.; Bartberger, J.; Brusseau, C.; Fleming, P.; Insch, K.; Tolk, K.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a high security fiber optic seal that incorporates tamper resistance features that are not available in commercial fiber optic seals. The Python Seal is a passive fiber optic loop seal designed to give indication of unauthorized entry. The seal includes a fingerprint feature that provides seal identity information in addition to the unique fiber optic pattern created when the seal is installed. The fiber optic cable used for the seal loop is produced with tamper resistant features that increase the difficulty of attacking that component of a seal. A Seal Reader has been developed that will record the seal signature and the fingerprint feature of the seal. A Correlator software program then compares seal images to establish a match or mismatch. SNL is also developing a Polaroid reader to permit hard copies of the seal patterns to be obtained directly from the seal.

  17. Fiber optic attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A fiber optic attenuator of the invention is a mandrel structure through which a bundle of optical fibers is wrapped around in a complete circle. The mandrel structure includes a flexible cylindrical sheath through which the bundle passes. A set screw on the mandrel structure impacts one side of the sheath against two posts on the opposite side of the sheath. By rotating the screw, the sheath is deformed to extend partially between the two posts, bending the fiber optic bundle to a small radius controlled by rotating the set screw. Bending the fiber optic bundle to a small radius causes light in each optical fiber to be lost in the cladding, the amount depending upon the radius about which the bundle is bent.

  18. Polyimide-coated embedded optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Dilip K.; Nelson, Gary W.; Griffin, Stephen E.; Harrington, C. T.; He, Yi-Fei; Reinhart, Lawrence J.; Paine, D. C.; Morse, Theodore F.

    1991-10-01

    The present paper describes the behavior of embedded optical sensor fibers in a high- temperature PEEK (polyether ether ketone) carbon fiber composite. Sheets of this material, 200 micrometers thick, were layered in alternating directions for the carbon fibers. Typically, 16 sheets were used to form 3' X 6' or 3' X 8' panels by placing the optical fibers in the middle of the `prepreg' sheets, which were then heated to the processing temperature, and subjected to a pressure of 300 psi during the cool-down phase. Since the ordinary polymeric coatings of optical fibers cannot survive the 380 degree(s)C to 400 degree(s)C processing temperature of PEEK impregnated fiber composites, all of the optical sensor fibers tested were polyimide coated. The optical, mechanical, and thermal properties are reported and it is concluded that polyimide coated fibers can withstand PEEK processing conditions.

  19. Superlattice Microstructured Optical Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Ming-Leung Vincent; Liu, Zhengyong; Cho, Lok-Hin; Lu, Chao; Wai, Ping-Kong Alex; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2014-01-01

    A generic three-stage stack-and-draw method is demonstrated for the fabrication of complex-microstructured optical fibers. We report the fabrication and characterization of a silica superlattice microstructured fiber with more than 800 rhomboidally arranged air-holes. A polarization-maintaining fiber with a birefringence of 8.5 × 10−4 is demonstrated. The birefringent property of the fiber is found to be highly insensitive to external environmental effects, such as pressure. PMID:28788693

  20. Superlattice Microstructured Optical Fiber.

    PubMed

    Tse, Ming-Leung Vincent; Liu, Zhengyong; Cho, Lok-Hin; Lu, Chao; Wai, Ping-Kong Alex; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2014-06-16

    A generic three-stage stack-and-draw method is demonstrated for the fabrication of complex-microstructured optical fibers. We report the fabrication and characterization of a silica superlattice microstructured fiber with more than 800 rhomboidally arranged air-holes. A polarization-maintaining fiber with a birefringence of 8.5 × 10(-4) is demonstrated. The birefringent property of the fiber is found to be highly insensitive to external environmental effects, such as pressure.

  1. Modulated FT- Raman Fiber-Optic Spectroscopy: A technique for Remotely Monitoring High-Temperature Reactions in Real-Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John B.; Wise, Kent L.; Jensen, Brian J.

    1997-01-01

    A modification to a commercial FT-Raman spectrometer is presented for the elimination of thermal backgrounds in FT-Raman spectra. The modification involves the use of a mechanical chopper to modulate the CW laser, remote collection of the signal via fiber optics, and connection of a dual-phase digital signal processor lock-in amplifier between the detector and the spectrometer's collection electronics to demodulate and filter the optical signals. The resulting modulated FT-Raman fiber-optic spectrometer is capable of completely eliminating thermal backgrounds at temperatures exceeding 370 C. In addition, the signal/noise of generated Raman spectra is greater than for spectra collected with the conventional FT-Raman under identical conditions and incident laser power. This is true for both room-temperature and hot samples. The method allows collection of data using preexisting spectrometer software. The total cost of the modification (excluding fiber optics) is approximately $3000 and requires less than 2 h to implement. This is the first report of Fr-Raman spectra collected at temperatures in excess of 300 C in the absence of thermal backgrounds.

  2. Optical Fiber Chemical Sensor with Sol-Gel Derived Refractive Material as Transducer for High Temperature Gas Sensing in Clean Coal Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shiquan Tao

    2006-12-31

    The chemistry of sol-gel derived silica and refractive metal oxide has been systematically studied. Sol-gel processes have been developed for preparing porous silica and semiconductor metal oxide materials. Micelle/reversed micelle techniques have been developed for preparing nanometer sized semiconductor metal oxides and noble metal particles. Techniques for doping metal ions, metal oxides and nanosized metal particles into porous sol-gel material have also been developed. Optical properties of sol-gel derived materials in ambient and high temperature gases have been studied by using fiber optic spectroscopic techniques, such as fiber optic ultraviolet/visible absorption spectrometry, fiber optic near infrared absorption spectrometry and fiber optic fluorescence spectrometry. Fiber optic spectrometric techniques have been developed for investigating the optical properties of these sol-gel derived materials prepared as porous optical fibers or as coatings on the surface of silica optical fibers. Optical and electron microscopic techniques have been used to observe the microstructure, such as pore size, pore shape, sensing agent distribution, of sol-gel derived material, as well as the size and morphology of nanometer metal particle doped in sol-gel derived porous silica, the nature of coating of sol-gel derived materials on silica optical fiber surface. In addition, the chemical reactions of metal ion, nanostructured semiconductor metal oxides and nanometer sized metal particles with gas components at room temperature and high temperatures have also been investigated with fiber optic spectrometric methods. Three classes of fiber optic sensors have been developed based on the thorough investigation of sol-gel chemistry and sol-gel derived materials. The first group of fiber optic sensors uses porous silica optical fibers doped with metal ions or metal oxide as transducers for sensing trace NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S in high temperature gas samples. The second group of

  3. Fiber optic spanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Bryan; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2011-10-01

    Rotation is a fundamental function in nano/biotechnology and is being useful in a host of applications such as pumping of fluid flow in microfluidic channels for transport of micro/nano samples. Further, controlled rotation of single cell or microscopic object is useful for tomographic imaging. Though conventional microscope objective based laser spanners (based on transfer of spin or orbital angular momentum) have been used in the past, they are limited by the short working distance of the microscope objective. Here, we demonstrate development of a fiber optic spanner for rotation of microscopic objects using single-mode fiber optics. Fiber-optic trapping and simultaneous rotation of pin-wheel structure around axis perpendicular to fiber-optic axis was achieved using the fiber optic spanner. By adjusting the laser beam power, rotation speed of the trapped object and thus the microfluidic flow could be controlled. Since this method does not require special optical or structural properties of the sample to be rotated, three-dimensional rotation of a spherical cell could also be controlled. Further, using the fiber optic spanner, array of red blood cells could be assembled and actuated to generate vortex motion. Fiber optical trapping and spinning will enable physical and spectroscopic analysis of microscopic objects in solution and also find potential applications in lab- on-a-chip devices.

  4. Comparison of two fiber-optical temperature measurement systems in magnetic fields up to 9.4 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Buchenberg, Waltraud B; Dadakova, Tetiana; Groebner, Jens; Bock, Michael; Jung, Bernd

    2015-05-01

    Precise temperature measurements in the magnetic field are indispensable for MR safety studies and for temperature calibration during MR-guided thermotherapy. In this work, the interference of two commonly used fiber-optical temperature measurement systems with the static magnetic field B0 was determined. Two fiber-optical temperature measurement systems, a GaAs-semiconductor and a phosphorescent phosphor ceramic, were compared for temperature measurements in B0 . The probes and a glass thermometer for reference were placed in an MR-compatible tube phantom within a water bath. Temperature measurements were carried out at three different MR systems covering static magnetic fields up to B0  = 9.4T, and water temperatures were changed between 25°C and 65°C. The GaAs-probe significantly underestimated absolute temperatures by an amount related to the square of B0 . A maximum difference of ΔT = -4.6°C was seen at 9.4T. No systematic temperature difference was found with the phosphor ceramic probe. For both systems, the measurements were not dependent on the orientation of the sensor to B0 . Temperature measurements with the phosphor ceramic probe are immune to magnetic fields up to 9.4T, whereas the GaAs-probes either require a recalibration inside the MR system or a correction based on the square of B0. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Infrared fiber optic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    The development of IR fiber optics for use in astronomical and other space applications is summarized. Candidate materials were sought for use in the 1 to 200 micron and the 200 to 1000 micron wavelength range. Synthesis and optical characterization were carried out on several of these materials in bulk form. And the fabrication of a few materials in single crystal fiber optic form were studied.

  6. Optical fiber instrumentation and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claus, Richard O.

    1997-11-01

    Optical fiber-based sensor instrumentation has been used extensively for the measurement of physical observables including strain, temperature and chemical changes in smart materials and smart structures, and have been integrated with MEMS devices to provide multi-measurement capability along the length of a fiber link or network. This plenary paper briefly outlines recent developments in such optical fiber sensor instrumentation. Fiber optic sensors are small in size, immune to electromagnetic interference and can be easily integrated with existing optical fiber hardware and components that have been developed primarily for use in the larger telecommunications market. Such sensors can be easily multiplexed, resulting in networks that can be used for the health monitoring of large structures, or the real-time monitoring of structural parameters required for structural analysis and control. This paper briefly describes and compares three current fiber sensor configurations that use Fabry-Perot interferometry and fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) and long-period grating (LPG) elements to monitor strain, temperature and other parameters. Extensive details concerning additional related work and field test results and applications are discussed in the references.

  7. Optical fiber instrumentation and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claus, Richard O.

    1997-11-01

    Optical fiber-based sensor instrumentation has been used extensively for the measurement of physical observables including strain, temperature and chemical changes in smart materials and smart structures, and have been integrated with MEMS devices to provide multi-measurement capability along the length of a fiber link or network. This plenary paper briefly outlines recent developments in such optical fiber sensor instrumentation. Fiber optic sensors are small in size, immune to electromagnetic interference and can be easily integrated with existing optical fiber hardware nd components that have been developed primarily for use in the larger telecommunications market. Such sensors can be easily multiplexed, resulting in networks that can be used for the health monitoring of large structures, or the real-time monitoring of structural parameters required for structural analysis and control. This paper briefly describes and compares three current fiber sensor configurations that use Fabry-Perot interferometry and fiber Bragg gratings and long-period grating elements to monitor strain, temperature and other parameters. Extensive details concerning additional related work and field test results and applications are discussed in the references.

  8. Fiber optic moisture sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kirkham, R.R.

    1984-08-03

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  9. Application of active distribute temperature sensing and fiber optic as sensors to determinate the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubelzu, Sergio; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Sobrino, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    The development of methodologies for the characterization of soil water content through the use of distribute temperature sensing and fiber optic cable has allowed for modelling with high temporal and spatial accuracy water movement in soils. One of the advantage of using fiber optic as a sensor, compared with the traditional point water probes, is the possibility to measure the variable continuously along the cable every 0.125 m (up to a cable length of 1500) and every second. Traditionally, applications based on fiber optic as a soil water sensor apply the active heated fiber optic technique AHFO to follow the evolution soil water content during and after irrigation events or for hydrologic characterization. However, this paper accomplishes an original experience by using AHFO as a sensor to characterize the soil hydraulic conductivity curve in subsaturated conditions. The non lineal nature between the hidraulic conductivity curve and soil water, showing high slope in the range close to saturation ) favors the AHFO a most suitable sensor due to its ability to measure the variable at small time and length intervals. Thus, it is possible to obtain accurate and a large number of data to be used to estimate the hydraulic conductivity curve from de water flow general equation by numerical methods. Results are promising and showed the feasibility of this technique to estimate the hydraulic conductivity curve for subsaturated soils .

  10. Machine Tests Optical Fibers In Flexure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darejeh, Hadi; Thomas, Henry; Delcher, Ray

    1993-01-01

    Machine repeatedly flexes single optical fiber or cable or bundle of optical fibers at low temperature. Liquid nitrogen surrounds specimen as it is bent back and forth by motion of piston. Machine inexpensive to build and operate. Tests under repeatable conditions so candidate fibers, cables, and bundles evaluated for general robustness before subjected to expensive shock and vibration tests.

  11. A temperature-compensated optical fiber force sensor for minimally invasive surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Z.; Xu, W.; Broderick, N.; Chen, H.

    2015-12-01

    Force sensing in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is a chronic problem since it has an intensive magnetic resonance (MR) operation environment, which causes a high influence to traditional electronic force sensors. Optical sensor is a promising choice in this area because it is immune to MR influence. However, the changing temperature introduces a lot of noise signals to them, which is the main obstacle for optical sensing applications in MIS. This paper proposes a miniature temperature-compensated optical force sensor by using Fabry-Perot interference (FPI) principle. It can be integrated into medical tools' tips and the temperature noise is decreased by using a reference FPI temperature sensor. An injection needle with embedded temperature-compensated FPI force sensor has been fabricated and tested. And the comparison between temperature-force simulation results and the temperature-force experiment results has been carried out.

  12. Fiber optic sensor for simultaneous strain and temperature monitoring in composite materials at cryogenic condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, Umesh; Kim, Dae-gil; Kim, Hyunjin; Song, Minho

    2017-04-01

    Low thermal sensitivity and cross sensitivity of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) towards the applied strain, temperature make FBG implementation complicated in composite materials at cryogenic conditions. In order to alleviate this problem, our work focuses on simultaneous strain and temperature monitoring inside the composite material at cryogenic temperatures. The temperature sensitive polymer coating on an FBG sensor makes it a suitable candidate for cryogenic temperature measurement. The average temperature sensitivity of 48 pm °C-1 was obtained in -180 25 °C. In addition, the cross sensitivity problem has been adjusted by introducing a glass capillary tube to encapsulate the FBG. The thermal expansion of capillary material was compensated by cleaving the one end of FBG free and the other end with the temperature resistant epoxy resins. Experiments results validate that the proposed method can successfully monitor the strain and temperature factors that can be applied to composite material at cryogenic temperatures.

  13. High-resolution temperature sensing in the Dead Sea using fiber optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnon, A.; Lensky, N. G.; Selker, J. S.

    2014-02-01

    The thermal stratification of the Dead Sea was observed in high spatial and temporal resolution by means of fiber-optics temperature sensing. The aim of the research was to employ the novel high-resolution profiler in studying the dynamics of the thermal structure of the Dead Sea and the related processes including the investigation of the metalimnion fluctuations. The 18 cm resolution profiling system was placed vertically through the water column supported by a buoy 450 m from shore, from 2 m above to 53 m below the water surface (just above the local seafloor), covering the entire seasonal upper layer (the metalimnion had an average depth of ˜20 m). Temperature profiles were recorded every 5 min. The May to July 2012 data set allowed quantitative investigation of the thermal morphology dynamics, including objective definitions of key locations within the metalimnion based on the temperature depth profile and its first and second depth derivatives. Analysis of the fluctuation of the defined metalimnion locations showed strong anticorrelation to measured sea level fluctuations. The slope of the sea level versus metalimnion depth was found to be related to the density ratio of the upper layer and the underlying main water body, according to the prediction of a two-layer model. The heat content of the entire water column was calculated by integrating the temperature profiles. The vertically integrated apparent heat content was seen to vary by 50% in a few hours. These fluctuations were not correlated to the atmospheric heat fluxes, nor to the momentum transfer, but were highly correlated to the metalimnion and the sea level fluctuations (r = 0.84). The instantaneous apparent heat flux was 3 orders of magnitude larger than that delivered by radiation, with no direct correlation to the frequency of radiation and wind in the lake. This suggests that the source of the momentary heat flux is lateral advection due to internal waves (with no direct relation to the diurnal

  14. Permanent downhole fiber optic pressure and temperature monitoring during CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Hattenberger, C.; Moeller, F.; Liebscher, A.; Koehler, S.

    2009-04-01

    Permanent downhole monitoring of pressure and temperature, ideally over the entire length of the injection string, is essential for any smooth and safe CO2 injection within the framework of geological CO2 storage: i) To avoid fracturing of the cap-rock, a certain, site dependent pressure threshold within the reservoir should not be exceeded; ii) Any CO2 phase transition within the injection string, i.e. either condensation or evaporation, should be avoided. Such phase transitions cause uncontrolled and undetermined P-T regimes within the injection string that may ultimately result in a shut-in of the injection facility; and iii) Precise knowledge of the P and T response of the reservoir to the CO2 injection is a prerequisite to any reservoir modeling. The talk will present first results from our permanent downhole P-T monitoring program from the Ketzin CO2 storage test site (CO2SINK). At Ketzin, a fiber Bragg grating pressure sensor has been installed at the end of the injection string in combination with distributed temperature profiling over the entire length (about 550 m) of the string for continuous P-T monitoring during operation. Such fiber optic monitoring technique is used by default in the oil and gas industry but has not yet been applied as standard on a long-term routine mode for CO2 injection. Pressure is measured every 5 seconds with a resolution of < 1 bar. The data are later processed by user-defined program. The temperature logs along the injection string are measured every 3 minutes with a spatial resolution of one meter and with a temperature resolution of about 0.1°C. The long-term stability under full operational conditions is currently under investigation. The main computer of the P-T system operates as a stand-alone data-acquisition unit, and is connected with a secure intranet in order to ensure remote data access and system maintenance. The on-line measurements are displayed on the operator panel of the injection facility for direct control

  15. Self-gauged fiber-optic micro-heater with an operation temperature above 1000°C.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guigen; Sheng, Qiwen; Dam, Dustin; Hua, Jiong; Hou, Weilin; Han, Ming

    2017-04-01

    We report a fiber-optic micro-heater based on a miniature crystalline silicon Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) fusion spliced to the endface of a single-mode fiber. The silicon FPI, having a diameter of 100 μm and a length of 10 or 200 μm, is heated by a 980 nm laser diode guided through the lead-in fiber, leading to a localized hot spot with a temperature that can be conveniently tuned from the ambient temperature to >1000°C in air. In the meantime, using a white light system operating in the 1550 nm wavelength window where the silicon is transparent, the silicon FPI itself also serves as a thermometer with high resolution and high speed for convenient monitoring and precise control of the heater temperature. Due to its small size, high temperature capability, and easy operation, the micro-heater is attractive for applications in a variety of fields, such as biology, microfluidics system, mechanical engineering, and high-temperature optical sensing. As an example, the application of this micro-heater as a micro-boiler and micro-bubble generator has been demonstrated.

  16. Fiber optic communication links

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Fiber optics is a new, emerging technology which offers relief from many of the problems which limited past communications links. Its inherent noise immunity and high bandwidth open the door for new designs with greater capabilities. Being a new technology, certain problems can be encountered in specifying and installing a fiber optic link. A general fiber optic system is discussed with emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages. It is not intended to be technical in nature, but a general discussion. Finally, a general purpose prototype Sandia communications link is presented.

  17. Optical fiber metamagnetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Venugopal, Gayatri; Zeng, Jinwei; Chen, Yinnan; Lee, Dong Ho; Litchinitser, Natalia M; Cartwright, Alexander N

    2011-10-10

    To date, magnetic and negative-index metamaterials at optical frequencies were realized on bulk substrates in the form of thin films with thicknesses on the order of, or less than, optical wavelengths. In this work, we design and experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, fiber-coupled magnetic metamaterials integrated on the transverse cross-section of an optical fiber. Such fiber-metamaterials integration may provide fundamentally new solutions for photonic-on-a-chip systems for sensing, subwavelength imaging, image processing, and biomedical applications.

  18. Optical fiber evanescent wave adsorption sensors for high-temperature gas sensing in advanced coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Buric, M.; Ohodnicky, P.; Duy, J.

    2012-01-01

    Modern advanced energy systems such as coal-fired power plants, gasifiers, or similar infrastructure present some of the most challenging harsh environments for sensors. The power industry would benefit from new, ultra-high temperature devices capable of surviving in hot and corrosive environments for embedded sensing at the highest value locations. For these applications, we are currently exploring optical fiber evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy (EWAS) based sensors consisting of high temperature core materials integrated with novel high temperature gas sensitive cladding materials. Mathematical simulations can be used to assist in sensor development efforts, and we describe a simulation code that assumes a single thick cladding layer with gas sensitive optical constants. Recent work has demonstrated that Au nanoparticle-incorporated metal oxides show a potentially useful response for high temperature optical gas sensing applications through the sensitivity of the localized surface plasmon resonance absorption peak to ambient atmospheric conditions. Hence, the simulation code has been applied to understand how such a response can be exploited in an optical fiber based EWAS sensor configuration. We demonstrate that interrogation can be used to optimize the sensing response in such materials.

  19. Optical fiber evanescent absorption sensors for high-temperature gas sensing in advanced coal-fired power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buric, Michael P.; Ohodnicky, Paul R.; Duy, Janice

    2012-10-01

    Modern advanced energy systems such as coal-fired power plants, gasifiers, or similar infrastructure present some of the most challenging harsh environments for sensors. The power industry would benefit from new, ultra-high temperature devices capable of surviving in hot and corrosive environments for embedded sensing at the highest value locations. For these applications, we are currently exploring optical fiber evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy (EWAS) based sensors consisting of high temperature core materials integrated with novel high temperature gas sensitive cladding materials. Mathematical simulations can be used to assist in sensor development efforts, and we describe a simulation code that assumes a single thick cladding layer with gas sensitive optical constants. Recent work has demonstrated that Au nanoparticle-incorporated metal oxides show a potentially useful response for high temperature optical gas sensing applications through the sensitivity of the localized surface plasmon resonance absorption peak to ambient atmospheric conditions. Hence, the simulation code has been applied to understand how such a response can be exploited in an optical fiber based EWAS sensor configuration. We demonstrate that interrogation can be used to optimize the sensing response in such materials.

  20. Fiber Optic Microphone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.; George, Thomas; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Research into advanced pressure sensors using fiber-optic technology is aimed at developing compact size microphones. Fiber optic sensors are inherently immune to electromagnetic noise, and are very sensitive, light weight, and highly flexible. In FY 98, NASA researchers successfully designed and assembled a prototype fiber-optic microphone. The sensing technique employed was fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometry. The sensing head is composed of an optical fiber terminated in a miniature ferrule with a thin, silicon-microfabricated diaphragm mounted on it. The optical fiber is a single mode fiber with a core diameter of 8 micron, with the cleaved end positioned 50 micron from the diaphragm surface. The diaphragm is made up of a 0.2 micron thick silicon nitride membrane whose inner surface is metallized with layers of 30 nm titanium, 30 nm platinum, and 0.2 micron gold for efficient reflection. The active sensing area is approximately 1.5 mm in diameter. The measured differential pressure tolerance of this diaphragm is more than 1 bar, yielding a dynamic range of more than 100 dB.

  1. Optical fiber interferometric spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Li, Baosheng; Liu, Yan; Zhai, Yufeng; Wang, An

    2006-02-01

    We design an optical fiber spectrometer based on optical fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In optical fiber Fourier transform spectrometer spectra information is obtained by Fourier transform of interferogram, which recording intensity change vs. optical path difference. Optical path difference is generated by stretching one fiber arm which wound around fiber stretch drive by high power supply. Information from detector is linear with time rather than with optical path difference. In order to obtain high accuracy wavenumber, reference beam is used to control the optical path difference. Optical path difference is measured by reference laser interference fringe. Interferogram vs. optical path difference is resampled by Brault algorithm with information from reference beam and test beam. In the same condition, one-sided interferogram has higher resolution than that of two-sided interferogram. For one-sided interferogram, zero path difference position must be determined as accurately as possible, small shift will result in phase error. For practical experiment in laboratory, position shift is inevitable, so phase error correction must be considered. Zero order fringe is determined by curve fitting. Spectrum of light source is obtained from one-sided interferogram by Fourier cosine transform. A spectral resolution of about ~3.1 cm -1 is achieved. In practice, higher resolution is needed. This compact equipment will be used in emission spectra and absorption spectra, especially in infrared region.

  2. Multiband fiber optic radiometry for measuring the temperature and emissivity of gray bodies of low or high emissivity.

    PubMed

    Sade, Sharon; Katzir, Abraham

    2004-03-20

    Infrared fiber optic radiometry was used for noncontact thermometry of gray bodies whose temperature was close to room temperature (40-70 degrees C). We selected three gray bodies, one with high emissivity (epsilon = 0.97), one with medium emissivity (epsilon = 0.71), and one with low emissivity (epsilon = 0.025). We carried out optimization calculations and measurements for a multiband fiber optic radiometer that consisted of a silver halide (AgClBr) infrared-transmitting fiber, a dual-band cooled infrared detector, and a set of 18 narrowband infrared filters that covered the 2-14-microm spectral range. We determined the optimal spectral range, the optimal number of filters to be used, and the optimal chopping scheme. Using these optimal conditions, we performed measurements of the three gray bodies and obtained an accuracy of better than 1 degrees C for body temperature and for room temperature. An accuracy of 0.03 was obtained for body emissivity.

  3. Optical fiber magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarzello, John F.; Finkel, Jack

    1991-08-01

    An optical fiber magnetometer having omnidirectional capability is disclosed herein for measuring a total magnetic field independent of its physical orientation or the direction of the field or fields. A relatively long optical fiber defining a sensing arm for exposure to a magnetic field is wound in the form of a spheroid (like rubber bands on a golf ball or yarn threads on a baseball) to provide optical lengths of substantially the same total length in every direction through the spheroid winding. The plane of polarization of light transmitted through the optical fiber winding is caused to rotate (Faraday effect) when the fiber or components thereof is exposed parallel to a magnetic field. The extent of plane rotation is determined, inter alia, by the total magnetic field passing through the spheroid winding.

  4. Fiber Optics: No Illusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A campus computer center at Hofstra University (New York) that holds 70 terminals for student use was first a gymnasium, then a language laboratory. Strands of fiber optics are used for the necessary wiring. (MLF)

  5. Simulating Optical Fibers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Dale

    1988-01-01

    Described is a demonstration of Snell's law using a laser beam and an optical fiber. Provided are the set-up method of the demonstration apparatus and some practical suggestions including "index matching" technique using vaseline. (YP)

  6. Fiber Optics: No Illusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A campus computer center at Hofstra University (New York) that holds 70 terminals for student use was first a gymnasium, then a language laboratory. Strands of fiber optics are used for the necessary wiring. (MLF)

  7. Simulating Optical Fibers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Dale

    1988-01-01

    Described is a demonstration of Snell's law using a laser beam and an optical fiber. Provided are the set-up method of the demonstration apparatus and some practical suggestions including "index matching" technique using vaseline. (YP)

  8. Fiber optics: A research paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drone, Melinda M.

    1987-01-01

    Some basic aspects concerning fiber optics are examined. Some history leading up to the development of optical fibers which are now used in the transmission of data in many areas of the world is discussed. Basic theory of the operation of fiber optics is discussed along with methods for improving performance of the optical fiber through much research and design. Splices and connectors are compared and short haul and long haul fiber optic networks are discussed. Fiber optics plays many roles in the commercial world. The use of fiber optics for communication applications is emphasized.

  9. Fiber optics: A research paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drone, Melinda M.

    1987-08-01

    Some basic aspects concerning fiber optics are examined. Some history leading up to the development of optical fibers which are now used in the transmission of data in many areas of the world is discussed. Basic theory of the operation of fiber optics is discussed along with methods for improving performance of the optical fiber through much research and design. Splices and connectors are compared and short haul and long haul fiber optic networks are discussed. Fiber optics plays many roles in the commercial world. The use of fiber optics for communication applications is emphasized.

  10. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

  11. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Buchanan, Bruce R.; Prather, William S.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer.

  12. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1992-10-06

    An apparatus and method are described for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer. 4 figs.

  13. Fiber optic detector

    SciTech Connect

    Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

    1990-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

  14. Fiber optics welder

    DOEpatents

    Higgins, R.W.; Robichaud, R.E.

    A system is described for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45/sup 0/ angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  15. Fiber optic detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, Judy K.; Ward, Thomas E.; Grey, Alan E.

    1990-04-01

    This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

  16. Optical fiber chemical sensors with sol-gel derived nanomaterials for monitoring high temperature/high pressure reactions in clean energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Shiquan

    2010-04-01

    The development of sensor technologies for in situ, real time monitoring the high temperature/high pressure (HTP) chemical processes used in clean energy technologies is a tough challenge, due to the HTP, high dust and corrosive chemical environment of the reaction systems. A silica optical fiber is corrosive resistance, and can work in HTP conditions. This paper presents our effort in developing fiber optic sensors for in situ, real time monitoring the concentration of trace ammonia and hydrogen in high temperature gas samples. Preliminary test results illustrate the feasibility of using fiber optic sensor technologies for monitoring HTP processes for next generation energy industry.

  17. Few-mode optical fiber based simultaneously distributed curvature and temperature sensing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Tang, Ming; Wang, Meng; Zhao, Can; Zhao, Zhiyong; Wang, Ruoxu; Liao, Ruolin; Fu, Songnian; Yang, Chen; Tong, Weijun; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming

    2017-05-29

    The few-mode fiber (FMF) based Brillouin sensing operated in quasi-single mode (QSM) has been reported to achieve the distributed curvature measurement by monitoring the bend-induced strain variation. However, its practicality is limited by the inherent temperature-strain cross-sensitivity of Brillouin sensors. Here we proposed and experimentally demonstrated an approach for simultaneously distributed curvature and temperature sensing, which exploits a hybrid QSM operated Raman-Brillouin system in FMFs. Thanks to the larger spot size of the fundamental mode in the FMF, the Brillouin frequency shift change of the FMF is used for curvature estimation while the temperature variation is alleviated through Raman signals with the enhanced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Within 2 minutes measuring time, a 1.5 m spatial resolution is achieved along a 2 km FMF. The worst resolution of the square of fiber curvature is 0.333 cm(-2) while the temperature resolution is 1.301 °C at the end of fiber.

  18. Low drift and high resolution miniature optical fiber combined pressure- and temperature sensor for cardio-vascular and urodynamic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeggel, Sven; Tosi, Daniele; Duraibabu, Dineshbabu; Sannino, Simone; Lupoli, Laura; Ippolito, Juliet; Fusco, Fernando; Mirone, Vincenzo; Leen, Gabriel; Lewis, Elfed

    2014-05-01

    The all-glass optical fibre pressure and temperature sensor (OFPTS), present here is a combination of an extrinsic Fabry Perot Interferometer (EFPI) and an fiber Bragg gratings (FBG), which allows a simultaneously measurement of both pressure and temperature. Thermal effects experienced by the EFPI can be compensated by using the FBG. The sensor achieved a pressure measurement resolution of 0.1mmHg with a frame-rate of 100Hz and a low drift rate of < 1 mmHg/hour drift. The sensor has been evaluated using a cardiovascular simulator and additionally has been evaluated in-vivo in a urodynamics application under medical supervision.

  19. Optical fiber phase discriminator.

    PubMed

    Danielson, B L

    1978-11-15

    Phase discriminators are devices widely used at rf and microwave frequencies to convert phase, or frequency, changes to amplitude changes. They find widespread use in generating audio feedback signals for frequency stabilization of oscillators and in angle demodulation applications. This paper demonstrates that similar devices, with similar functions, can be constructed in the visible region using optical fibers as delay-line elements. The operating principles of an optical-fiber delay-line phase discriminator are discussed. The sensitivity is shown to be proportional to the fiber propagation-delay time. A device working at 0.6328 microm is described and compared with predictions.

  20. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.A.; Sanchez, R.; Dulleck, G.R.

    1996-05-01

    This report covers the development of fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensors for monitoring dissolved hydrogen gas in transformer oil. The concentration of hydrogen gas is a measure of the corona and spark discharge within the transformer and reflects the state of health of the transformer. Key features of the instrument include use of palladium alloys to enhance hydrogen sensitivity, a microprocessor controlled instrument with RS-232, liquid crystal readout, and 4-20 ma. current loop interfaces. Calibration data for both sensors can be down loaded to the instrument through the RS-232 interface. This project was supported by the Technology Transfer Initiative in collaboration with J. W. Harley, Inc. through the mechanism of a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA).

  1. Eliminating crystals in non-oxide optical fiber preforms and optical fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Michael R. (Inventor); Tucker, Dennis S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method is provided for eliminating crystals in non-oxide optical fiber preforms as well as optical fibers drawn therefrom. The optical-fiber-drawing axis of the preform is aligned with the force of gravity. A magnetic field is applied to the preform as it is heated to at least a melting temperature thereof. The magnetic field is applied in a direction that is parallel to the preform's optical-fiber-drawing axis. The preform is then cooled to a temperature that is less than a glass transition temperature of the preform while the preform is maintained in the magnetic field. When the processed preform is to have an optical fiber drawn therefrom, the preform's optical-fiber-drawing axis is again aligned with the force of gravity and a magnetic field is again applied along the axis as the optical fiber is drawn from the preform.

  2. Highly distributed multi-point, temperature and pressure compensated, fiber optic oxygen sensors (FOxSense) for aircraft fuel tank environment and safety monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Sunjian; Esterkin, Yan

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes recent progress towards the development and qualification of a highly distributed, multi-point, all optical pressure and temperature compensated, fiber optic oxygen sensor (FOxSense™) system for closed-loop monitoring and safety of the oxygen ullage environment inside fuel tanks of military and commercial aircraft. The alloptical FOxSense™ system uses a passive, multi-parameter (O2/T&P) fiber optic sensor probe with no electrical connections leading to the sensors install within the fuel tanks of an aircraft. The all optical sensor consists of an integrated multi-parameter fiber optic sensor probe that integrates a fuel insensitive fluorescence based optical oxygen optrode with built-in temperature and pressure optical optrodes for compensation of temperature and pressure variants induced in the fluorescence response of the oxygen optrode. The distributed (O2/T&P) fiber optic sensors installed in the fuel tanks of the aircraft are connected to the FOxSense optoelectronic system via a fiber optic cable conduit reaching to each fuel tank in the aircraft. A multichannel frequency-domain fiber optic sensor read-out (FOxSense™) system is used to interrogate the optical signal of all three sensors in real-time and to display the fuel tank oxygen environment suitable for aircraft status and alarm applications. Preliminary testing of the all optical fiber optic oxygen sensor have demonstrated the ability to monitor the oxygen environment inside a simulated fuel tank in the range of 0% O2 to 40% O2 concentrations, temperatures from (-) 40°C to (+) 60°C, and altitudes from 0-ft to 40,000-ft.

  3. Optical fiber gratings for structural health monitoring in high-temperature environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Richard J.; Chau, Kelvin; Chen, George; Moslehi, Behzad; Oblea, Levy; Sourichanh, Keo

    2007-04-01

    Fiber gratings are proving to provide versatile discrete sensor elements for structural health monitoring systems. For example, they outperform traditional resistive foil strain gages in terms of temperature resistance as well as multiplexing capability, relative ease of installation, electromagnetic interference immunity and electrical passivity. However, the fabrication method and post-fabrication processing influences both performance and survivability in extreme temperature environments. In this paper, we compare the performance and survivability when making strain measurements at elevated temperatures for a range of fabrication and processing conditions such as UV-laser and electric-arc writing and post-fabrication annealing. The optimum method or process will depend on the application temperatures (e.g., up to 300°C, 600°C or 1000°C), and times at these temperatures. As well, other sensing requirements, including the number of sensors, measurand and sensitivity may influence the grating choice (short or long period).

  4. Splicing plastic optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Susan D.; Salazar, Roberto A.

    1991-12-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) plastic optical fiber (500 micrometers diameter, fluoropolymer cladding) has been spliced using a fused silica sleeve and a variety of solvent/PMMA solutions as adhesives. Mechanical splicing using index matching fluid has also been investigated. To ensure good bonding and minimize scattering, fiber ends are polished prior to application of adhesive. Using an LED ((lambda) max approximately 640 nm), losses are routinely less than 1.0 dB/splice, and some adhesive formulations have exhibited losses as low as 0.2 dB/splice. Five-meter fibers with as many as ten splices/fiber have been monitored over a period of several months. No fiber has exhibited an increase in optical loss with time.

  5. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  6. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  7. Creation of a microstructured polymer optical fiber with UV Bragg grating inscription for the detection of extensions at temperatures up to 125°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasano, Andrea; Woyessa, Getinet; Stajanca, Pavol; Markos, Christos; Stefani, Alessio; Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Krebber, Katerina; Bang, Ole

    2016-04-01

    We describe the fabrication of a polycarbonate (PC) micro-structured polymer optical fiber (mPOF) and the writing of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in it to enable strain and temperature measurements. We demonstrate the photosensitivity of a dopant-free PC fiber by grating inscription using a UV laser. We further show that PC Bragg gratings can be extended up to at least 3% without affecting the initial functionality of the micro-structured fiber. The response of PC FBGs to temperature up to 125°C is also investigated. Polycarbonate has good mechanical properties and its high temperature resistance might extend the range of application of polymeric FBGs.

  8. Fiber optics for controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, Gary T.

    1990-01-01

    The design, development, and testing of a fiber optic integrated propulsion/flight control system for an advanced supersonic dash aircraft (flies at supersonic speeds for short periods of time) is the goal of the joint NASA/DOD Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program. Phase 1 provided a comparison of electronic and optical control systems, identified the status of current optical sensor technology, defined the aircraft sensor/actuator environment, proposed architectures for fully optical control systems, and provided schedules for development. Overall, it was determined that there are sufficient continued efforts to develop such a system. It was also determined that it is feasible to build a fiber optic control system for the development of a data base for this technology, but that further work is necessary in sensors, actuators, and components to develop an optimum design, fully fiber optic integrated control system compatible with advanced aircraft environments. Phase 2 is to design, construct, and ground test a fly by light control system. Its first task is to provide a detailed design of the electro-optic architecture.

  9. Silicon fiber optic sensors

    DOEpatents

    Pocha, Michael D.; Swierkowski, Steve P.; Wood, Billy E.

    2007-10-02

    A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially or wholly reflective surface on the free end of an integrated elongate channel or an integrated bounding wall of a chip of a wafer and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. Such a constructed device can be utilized to detect one or more physical parameters, such as, for example, strain, through the optical fiber using an optical detection system to provide measuring accuracies of less than aboutb0.1%.

  10. A Fabry-Perot fiber-optic ultrasonic hydrophone for the simultaneous measurement of temperature and acoustic pressure.

    PubMed

    Morris, Paul; Hurrell, Andrew; Shaw, Adam; Zhang, Edward; Beard, Paul

    2009-06-01

    A dual sensing fiber-optic hydrophone that can make simultaneous measurements of acoustic pressure and temperature at the same location has been developed for characterizing ultrasound fields and ultrasound-induced heating. The transduction mechanism is based on the detection of acoustically- and thermally-induced thickness changes in a polymer film Fabry-Perot interferometer deposited at the tip of a single mode optical fiber. The sensor provides a peak noise-equivalent pressure of 15 kPa (at 5 MHz, over a 20 MHz measurement bandwidth), an acoustic bandwidth of 50 MHz, and an optically defined element size of 10 microm. As well as measuring acoustic pressure, temperature changes up to 70 degrees C can be measured, with a resolution of 0.34 degrees C. To evaluate the thermal measurement capability of the sensor, measurements were made at the focus of a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field in a tissue mimicking phantom. These showed that the sensor is not susceptible to viscous heating, is able to withstand high intensity fields, and can simultaneously acquire acoustic waveforms while monitoring induced temperature rises. These attributes, along with flexibility, small physical size (OD approximately 150 microm), immunity to Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI), and low sensor cost, suggest that this type of hydrophone may provide a practical alternative to piezoelectric based hydrophones.

  11. Optical fiber switch

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

  12. Measurement of sound pressure and temperature in tissue-mimicking material using an optical fiber Bragg grating sensor.

    PubMed

    Imade, Keisuke; Kageyama, Takashi; Koyama, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Kentaro; Akiyama, Iwaki

    2016-10-01

    The experimental investigation of an optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor for biomedical application is described. The FBG sensor can be used to measure sound pressure and temperature rise simultaneously in biological tissues exposed to ultrasound. The theoretical maximum values that can be measured with the FBG sensor are 73.0 MPa and 30 °C. In this study, measurement of sound pressure up to 5 MPa was performed at an ultrasound frequency of 2 MHz. A maximum temperature change of 6 °C was measured in a tissue-mimicking material. Values yielded by the FBG sensor agreed with those measured using a thermocouple and a hydrophone. Since this sensor is used to monitor the sound pressure and temperature simultaneously, it can also be used for industrial applications, such as ultrasonic cleaning of semiconductors under controlled temperatures.

  13. Optical Fiber Sensors for the Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Falciai, R.; Trono, C.

    Two examples of optical fiber sensors for the protection of the cultural heritage were given. The varnished optical fiber could be used also as temperature sensor. In fact, thanks to the good temperature sensitivity and reversibility of gum mastic, it could be considered as a transducer for the implementation of a temperature sensor to be permanently inlayed in the painting. By embedding the optical fiber in the painting together with the picture varnish for example on a comer, continuous temperature monitoring could be possible, in order to prevent risk conditions that can arise when illuminating the painting with the use of lamps, as happens during television shots.

  14. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Fyfe, Richard W.; Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo

    1990-01-01

    An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

  15. High-sensitivity temperature sensing using higher-order Stokes stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Victor Lambin; Loranger, Sébastien; Marois, Mikaël; Kashyap, Raman

    2014-02-15

    In an effort to reduce the cost of sensing systems and make them more compact and flexible, Brillouin scattering has been demonstrated as a useful tool, especially for distributed temperature and strain sensing (DTSS), with a resolution of a few centimeters over several tens of kilometers of fiber. However, sensing is limited by the Brillouin frequency shift's sensitivity to these parameters, which are of the order of ~1.3  MHz/°C and of ~0.05  MHz/με for standard fiber. In this Letter, we demonstrate a new and simple technique for enhancing the sensitivity of sensing by using higher-orders Stokes shifts with stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). By this method, we multiply the sensitivity of the sensor by the number of the Stokes order used, enhanced by six-fold, therefore reaching a sensitivity of ~7  MHz/°C, and potentially ~0.30  MHz/με. To do this, we place the test fiber within a cavity to produce a frequency comb. Based on a reference multiorder SBS source for heterodyning, this system should provide a new distributed sensing technology with significantly better resolution at a potentially lower cost than currently available DTSS systems.

  16. Optical-Fiber Fluorosensors With Polarized Light Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Chemiluminescent and/or fluorescent molecules in optical-fiber fluorosensors oriented with light-emitting dipoles along transverse axis. Sensor of proposed type captures greater fraction of chemiluminescence or fluorescence and transmits it to photodetector. Transverse polarization increases sensitivity. Basic principles of optical-fiber fluorosensors described in "Making Optical-Fiber Chemical Sensors More Sensitive" (LAR-14525), "Improved Optical-Fiber Chemical Sensors" (LAR-14607), and "Improved Optical-Fiber Temperature Sensors" (LAR-14647).

  17. Optical-Fiber Fluorosensors With Polarized Light Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Chemiluminescent and/or fluorescent molecules in optical-fiber fluorosensors oriented with light-emitting dipoles along transverse axis. Sensor of proposed type captures greater fraction of chemiluminescence or fluorescence and transmits it to photodetector. Transverse polarization increases sensitivity. Basic principles of optical-fiber fluorosensors described in "Making Optical-Fiber Chemical Sensors More Sensitive" (LAR-14525), "Improved Optical-Fiber Chemical Sensors" (LAR-14607), and "Improved Optical-Fiber Temperature Sensors" (LAR-14647).

  18. Calibration of soil moisture flow simulation models aided by the active heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing AHFO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Zubelzu, Sergio; Sobrino, Fernando Fernando; Sánchez, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    Most of the studies dealing with the development of water flow simulation models in soils, are calibrated using experimental data measured by soil probe sensors or tensiometers which locate at specific points in the study area. However since the beginning of the XXI century, the use of Distributed Fiber Optic Temperature Measurement for estimating temperature variation along a cable of fiber optic has been assessed in multiple environmental applications. Recently, its application combined with an active heating pulses technique (AHFO) has been reported as a sensor to estimate soil moisture. This method applies a known amount of heat to the soil and monitors the temperature evolution, which mainly depends on the soil moisture content. Thus, it allows estimations of soil water content every 12.5 cm along the fiber optic cable, as long as 1500 m , with 2 % accuracy , every second. This study presents the calibration of a soil water flow model (developed in Hydrus 2D) with the AHFO technique. The model predicts the distribution of soil water content of a green area irrigated by sprinkler irrigation. Several irrigation events have been evaluated in a green area located at the ETSI Agronómica, Agroalimentaria y Biosistemas in Madrid where an installation of 147 m of fiber optic cable at 15 cm depth is deployed. The Distribute Temperature Sensing unit was a SILIXA ULTIMA SR (Silixa Ltd, UK) and has spatial and temporal resolution of 0.29 m. Data logged in the DTS unit before, during and after the irrigation event were used to calibrate the estimations in the Hydrus 2D model during the infiltration and redistribution of soil water content within the irrigation interval. References: Karandish, F., & Šimůnek, J. (2016). A field-modeling study for assessing temporal variations of soil-water-crop interactions under water-saving irrigation strategies. Agricultural Water Management, 178, 291-303. Li, Y., Šimůnek, J., Jing, L., Zhang, Z., & Ni, L. (2014). Evaluation of

  19. Measurement of the temperature of a stator winding with fiber-optic sensors in bench tests of a turbogenerator

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, E. I.; Lyamin, A. A.; Shelemba, I. S.

    2010-09-15

    The temperature of the elementary conductors of the stator winding of a 225 MW turbogenerator has been measured using miniature fiber-optic sensors, built in to the winding during manufacture. This is the first time that practical bench tests have been made in Russian electrical machine construction practice. The results of the experiment are used as the initial data for determining important parameters of the construction of turbogenerators with air cooling, namely, the thermal conductivity of the body insulation in the slot, and the heat-transfer coefficient in the front parts of the stator winding.

  20. Design and realization of a side-polished single-mode fiber optic high-sensitive temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraju, B.; Varshney, R. K.; Pal, B. P.; Singh, A.; Monnom, G.; Dussardier, B.

    2008-11-01

    A high sensitive temperature sensor based on evanescent field coupling between a side-polished fiber half-coupler (SPFHC) and a thermo-optic multimode overlay waveguide (MMOW) is designed and demonstrated. Such a structure essentially functions as an asymmetric directional coupler with a band-stop characteristic attributable to the wavelengthdependent resonant coupling between the mode of the SPFHC and one or more modes of the MMOW. A slight change in temperature leads to a significant shift in the phase resonance-coupling wavelength ( λr ) between the MMOW and SPFHC λr, which is easily measurable. The wavelength sensitivity of the device is measured to be ~ 5.3 nm/°C within the measurement range of 26-70°C this sensitivity is more than 5 times higher compared to earlier reported temperature sensors of this kind. The SPFHC was fabricated by selective polishing of the cladding from one side of a bent telecommunication standard single-mode fiber and the MMOW was formed on top of the SPFHC through spin coating. A semi- numerical rigorous normal mode analysis was employed at the design stage by including the curvature effect of the fiber lay in the half-coupler block and the resultant z-dependent evanescent coupling mechanism. An excellent agreement between theoretical and experimental results is found.

  1. Method for optical and mechanically coupling optical fibers

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, J.S.

    1996-10-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for splicing optical fibers. A fluorescing solder glass frit having a melting point lower than the melting point of first and second optical fibers is prepared. The solder glass frit is then attached to the end of the first optical fiber and/or the end of the second optical fiber. The ends of the optical fibers are aligned and placed in close proximity to each other. The solder glass frit is then heated to a temperature which is lower than the melting temperature of the first and second optical fibers, but which is high enough to melt the solder glass frit. A force is applied to the first and second optical fibers pushing the ends of the fibers towards each other. As the solder glass flit becomes molten, the layer of molten solder glass is compressed into a thin layer between the first and second optical fibers. The thin compressed layer of molten solder glass is allowed to cool such that the first and second optical fibers are bonded to each other by the hardened layer of solder glass. 6 figs.

  2. Integrated optics for fiber optic sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minford, W. J.; Depaula, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    Recent progress achieved in the field of fiber-optic sensor applications is discussed with emphasis placed on LiNbO3-based integrated optics (IO). Particular consideration is given to advanced electromagnetic-field sensors, an integrated laser vibrometer system, and a fiber-optic gyroscope system. It is shown that the multifunction IO chips have enabled high perforamance fiber-optic sensors (e.g., fiber-optic gyros), provided advanced and unique signal processing capabilities and advanced architectures, and have a potential of making fiber-optic sensors at low cost.

  3. Integrated optics for fiber optic sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minford, W. J.; Depaula, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    Recent progress achieved in the field of fiber-optic sensor applications is discussed with emphasis placed on LiNbO3-based integrated optics (IO). Particular consideration is given to advanced electromagnetic-field sensors, an integrated laser vibrometer system, and a fiber-optic gyroscope system. It is shown that the multifunction IO chips have enabled high perforamance fiber-optic sensors (e.g., fiber-optic gyros), provided advanced and unique signal processing capabilities and advanced architectures, and have a potential of making fiber-optic sensors at low cost.

  4. Irrigation scheduling of green areas based on soil moisture estimation by the active heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing AHFO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubelzu, Sergio; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Sobrino, Fernando; Sánchez, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation programing determines when and how much water apply to fulfill the plant water requirements depending of its phenology stage and location, and soil water content. Thus, the amount of water, the irrigation time and the irrigation frequency are variables that must be estimated. Likewise, irrigation programing has been based in approaches such as: the determination of plant evapotranspiration and the maintenance of soil water status between a given interval or soil matrix potential. Most of these approaches are based on the measurements of soil water sensors (or tensiometers) located at specific points within the study area which lack of the spatial information of the monitor variable. The information provided in such as few points might not be adequate to characterize the soil water distribution in irrigation systems with poor water application uniformity and thus, it would lead to wrong decisions in irrigation scheduling. Nevertheless, it can be overcome if the active heating pulses distributed fiber optic temperature measurement (AHFO) is used. This estimates the temperature variation along a cable of fiber optic and then, it is correlated with the soil water content. This method applies a known amount of heat to the soil and monitors the temperature evolution, which mainly depends on the soil moisture content. Thus, it allows estimations of soil water content every 12.5 cm along the fiber optic cable, as long as 1500 m (with 2 % accuracy) , every second. This study presents the results obtained in a green area located at the ETSI Agronómica, Agroalimentaria y Biosistesmas in Madrid. The area is irrigated by an sprinkler irrigation system which applies water with low uniformity. Also, it has deployed and installation of 147 m of fiber optic cable at 15 cm depth. The Distribute Temperature Sensing unit was a SILIXA ULTIMA SR (Silixa Ltd, UK) with spatial and temporal resolution of 0.29 m and 1 s, respectively. In this study, heat pulses of 7 W/m for 2

  5. Underwater Depth and Temperature Sensing Based on Fiber Optic Technology for Marine and Fresh Water Applications

    PubMed Central

    Duraibabu, Dinesh Babu; Leen, Gabriel; Toal, Daniel; Newe, Thomas; Lewis, Elfed; Dooly, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Oceanic conditions play an important role in determining the effects of climate change and these effects can be monitored through the changes in the physical properties of sea water. In fact, Oceanographers use various probes for measuring the properties within the water column. CTDs (Conductivity, Temperature and Depth) provide profiles of physical and chemical parameters of the water column. A CTD device consists of Conductivity (C), Temperature (T) and Depth (D) probes to monitor the water column changes with respect to relative depth. An optical fibre-based point sensor used as a combined pressure (depth) and temperature sensor and the sensor system are described. Measurements accruing from underwater trials of a miniature sensor for pressure (depth) and temperature in the ocean and in fresh water are reported. The sensor exhibits excellent stability and its performance is shown to be comparable with the Sea-Bird Scientific commercial sensor: SBE9Plus. PMID:28555006

  6. Underwater Depth and Temperature Sensing Based on Fiber Optic Technology for Marine and Fresh Water Applications.

    PubMed

    Duraibabu, Dinesh Babu; Leen, Gabriel; Toal, Daniel; Newe, Thomas; Lewis, Elfed; Dooly, Gerard

    2017-05-27

    Oceanic conditions play an important role in determining the effects of climate change and these effects can be monitored through the changes in the physical properties of sea water. In fact, Oceanographers use various probes for measuring the properties within the water column. CTDs (Conductivity, Temperature and Depth) provide profiles of physical and chemical parameters of the water column. A CTD device consists of Conductivity (C), Temperature (T) and Depth (D) probes to monitor the water column changes with respect to relative depth. An optical fibre-based point sensor used as a combined pressure (depth) and temperature sensor and the sensor system are described. Measurements accruing from underwater trials of a miniature sensor for pressure (depth) and temperature in the ocean and in fresh water are reported. The sensor exhibits excellent stability and its performance is shown to be comparable with the Sea-Bird Scientific commercial sensor: SBE9Plus.

  7. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  8. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  9. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOEpatents

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-11-30

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

  10. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOEpatents

    Lyons, Peter B.; Looney, Larry D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resitance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation.

  11. Fiber-Optic Sensing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Milnes, M.; Baylor, L.C.; Bave, S.

    1996-10-24

    This article offers a basic review of fiber-optic sensing technology, or more specifically, fiber-optic sensing technology as applied to the qualitative or quantitative identification of a chemical sample, and how it works,

  12. Spatio-temporally continuous monitoring of surface and ground temperature in Interior Alaska forest by optical Fiber DTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, K.; Iwahana, G.; Busey, R.; Ikawa, H.

    2015-12-01

    We have employed an optical Fiber DTS (distributed temperature sensing; N4386B by AP Sensing) system at a taiga site in Interior Alaska in order to monitor the surface and subsurface thermal regime continuously in space and time. The optic fiber cable sensor (multi-mode, GI50/125 dual core; 3.4 mm) of 2.7 km was installed on or below surface, measuring temperature at the half-meter resolution and half-hour interval. The site is in Poker Flat Research Range of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (N 65˚08', W 147˚26', 491 m a.s.l), underlain by permafrost. Dominant vegetation is black spruce. Within the area in which the cable was installed, density of spruce trees varies, ranging from open area with mosses to shrubby open forest to closed forest. Measurement was done for two years (from October, 2012 to October, 2014). When incident photons of a laser pulse is scattered by molecules of optical fiber (SiO2), a certain amount is back scattered at different frequencies (Stokes and Anti-Stokes peaks). The system detects the intensity ratio of the two peaks of this Raman scattering, which depends on the temperature of the molecules. The distance of the molecules is determines by the time it takes to travel (optical time domain reflectmetry; OTDR). About 2.0 km of the entire cable sensor lies on the surface to measure horizontal variations of surface temperatures. The diurnal and seasonal components of the variations were analyzed to illustrate their relationship with the overlying canopy characteristics. Cable is also coiled around a PVC tube (outer radius of 4 inch = 10.2 cm) for 120 cm, which is half buried to the ground to measure surface (or snow, when snow-covered) and subsurface temperatures with finer vertical resolution. Five of such tubes were installed in different land cover areas (open and closed forest, shrubs, open area, and relict thermokarst). We will also discuss challenges we encountered during installations and operations.

  13. Reduced Gravity Zblan Optical Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    2000-01-01

    Two optical fiber pullers have been designed for pulling ZBLAN optical fiber in reduced gravity. One fiber puller was designed, built and flown on board NASA's KC135 reduced gravity aircraft. A second fiber puller has been designed for use on board the International Space Station.

  14. Chemistry Research of Optical Fibers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-27

    BROADENING IN OPTICAL FIBERS Herbert B. Rosenstock* Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375 ABSTRACT A light pulse transmitted through a fiber...Marcatili, Marcuse , and Personick, "Dispersion Properties of Fibers" (Ch. 4 in "Optical Fiber Telecommunications," S. E. Miller and A. C. Chynoweth, eds

  15. Design, analysis, and initial testing of a fiber-optic shear gage for three-dimensional, high-temperature flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Matthew W.

    This investigation concerns the design, analysis, and initial testing of a new, two-component wall shear gage for 3D, high-temperature flows. This gage is a direct-measuring, non-nulling design with a round head surrounded by a small gap. Two flexure wheels are used to allow small motions of the floating head. Fiber-optic displacement sensors measure how far the polished faces of counterweights on the wheels move in relation to a fixed housing as the primary measurement system. No viscous damping was required. The gage has both fiber-optic instrumentation and strain gages mounted on the flexures for validation of the newer fiber optics. The sensor is constructed of Haynes RTM 230RTM, a high-temperature nickel alloy. The gage housing is made of 316 stainless steel. All components of the gage in pure fiber-optic form can survive to a temperature of 1073 K. The bonding methods of the backup strain gages limit their maximum temperature to 473 K. The dynamic range of the gage is from 0--500 Pa (0--10g) and higher shears can be measured by changing the floating head size. Extensive use of finite element modeling was critical to the design and analysis of the gage. Static structural, modal, and thermal analyses were performed on the flexures using the ANSYS finite element package. Static finite element analysis predicted the response of the flexures to a given load, and static calibrations using a direct force method confirmed these results. Finite element modal analysis results were within 16.4% for the first mode and within 30% for the second mode when compared with the experimentally determined modes. Vibration characteristics of the gage were determined from experimental free vibration data after the gage was subjected to an impulse. Uncertainties in the finished geometry make this level of error acceptable. A transient thermal analysis examined the effects of a very high heat flux on the exposed head of the gage. The 100,000 W/m2 heat flux used in this analysis is

  16. Infrared Fiber Optic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Successive years of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Langley Research Center to Sensiv Inc., a joint venture between Foster-Miller Inc. and Isorad, Ltd., assisted in the creation of remote fiber optic sensing systems. NASA's SBIR interest in infrared, fiber optic sensor technology was geared to monitoring the curing cycles of advanced composite materials. These funds helped in the fabrication of an infrared, fiber optic sensor to track the molecular vibrational characteristics of a composite part while it is being cured. Foster-Miller ingenuity allowed infrared transmitting optical fibers to combine with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy to enable remote sensing. Sensiv probes operate in the mid-infrared range of the spectrum, although modifications to the instrument also permits its use in the near-infrared region. The Sensiv needle-probe is built to be placed in a liquid or powder and analyze the chemicals in the mixture. Other applications of the probe system include food processing control; combustion control in furnaces; and maintenance problem solving.

  17. Improved Optical Fiber Chemical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    Calculations, based on exact theory of optical fiber, have shown how to increase optical efficiency sensitivity of active-core, step-index-profile optical-fiber fluorosensor. Calculations result of efforts to improve efficiency of optical-fiber chemical sensor of previous concept described in "Making Optical-Fiber Chemical Sensors More Sensitive" (LAR-14525). Optical fiber chemical detector of enhanced sensitivity made in several configurations. Portion of fluorescence or chemiluminescence generated in core, and launched directly into bound electromagnetic modes that propagate along core to photodetector.

  18. Anomalies and peculiarities of radiation-induced light absorption in pure silica optical fibers at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashaykin, Pavel F.; Tomashuk, Alexander L.; Salgansky, Mikhail Yu.; Guryanov, Alexey N.; Dianov, Evgeny M.

    2017-06-01

    Undoped-silica-core F-doped-silica-cladding optical fibers ("undoped fibers") are an important fiber type for applications requiring resistance to ionizing radiation (e.g., the nuclear industry, space, and military applications), the most important fundamental radiation-induced color centers arising in such fibers being self-trapped holes (STH). Despite the previous in-depth STH investigations, there have remained a few not-fully understood issues, such as the relationship between the radiation-induced absorption (RIA) bands due to STH in undoped fibers, on the one hand, and in bulk silica samples, on the other, the role of strain in the silica network in the STH occurrence, and possible peculiarities of short-lived STH-like radiation-induced color centers at temperatures above RT. To address these issues, we investigate the RIA spectra in undoped fibers with different frozen-in strain in their silica network immediately in the process of γ-irradiation to a dose of 1 kGy, the irradiation temperature being in the range ±60 °C or liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT). Gaussian decomposition of the RIA spectra measured at LNT has yielded STH bands at 2.6 and 2.16 eV together with the "classical" STH bands at 1.88 and 1.63 eV observed in fibers more frequently than the former bands. Based on this observation, it is proposed that all the STH bands observable in fibers fall into two classes: those inherent in silica and those strain-assisted, which can adjoin each other in the fiber silica network. The inherent STH include the well-known low-temperature infrared absorption and the bands at 2.6 and 2.16 eV; the strain assisted STH, the 1.88- and 1.63-eV bands. The 1.88-eV band is argued to be due to STH1, the 1.63-eV one, due to STH2. Anomalously high RIA at T = 0 and +60 °C is revealed and explained for the first time. The former effect is found to be caused by extreme compression of silica at T ˜ 0 °C enhancing the strain-assisted STH bands. The anomaly at T = +60

  19. Fiber optic gas sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  20. Fiber Optics and Library Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Michael

    1984-01-01

    This article examines fiber optic technology, explains some of the key terminology, and speculates about the way fiber optics will change our world. Applications of fiber optics to library systems in three major areas--linkage of a number of mainframe computers, local area networks, and main trunk communications--are highlighted. (EJS)

  1. Large core fiber optic cleaver

    DOEpatents

    Halpin, J.M.

    1996-03-26

    The present invention relates to a device and method for cleaving optical fibers which yields cleaved optical fiber ends possessing high damage threshold surfaces. The device can be used to cleave optical fibers with core diameters greater than 400 {micro}m. 30 figs.

  2. Aerogel-clad optical fiber

    DOEpatents

    Sprehn, G.A.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Poco, J.F.; Sandler, P.H.

    1997-11-04

    An optical fiber is surrounded by an aerogel cladding. For a low density aerogel, the index of refraction of the aerogel is close to that of air, which provides a high numerical aperture to the optical fiber. Due to the high numerical aperture, the aerogel clad optical fiber has improved light collection efficiency. 4 figs.

  3. Aerogel-clad optical fiber

    DOEpatents

    Sprehn, Gregory A.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Poco, John F.; Sandler, Pamela H.

    1997-01-01

    An optical fiber is surrounded by an aerogel cladding. For a low density aerogel, the index of refraction of the aerogel is close to that of air, which provides a high numerical aperture to the optical fiber. Due to the high numerical aperture, the aerogel clad optical fiber has improved light collection efficiency.

  4. Buying Fiber-Optic Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Describes consortia formed by college and university administrators to buy, manage, and maintain their own fiber-optic networks with the goals of cutting costs of leasing fiber-optic cable and planning for the future. Growth capacity is the real advantage of owning fiber-optic systems. (SLD)

  5. Buying Fiber-Optic Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Describes consortia formed by college and university administrators to buy, manage, and maintain their own fiber-optic networks with the goals of cutting costs of leasing fiber-optic cable and planning for the future. Growth capacity is the real advantage of owning fiber-optic systems. (SLD)

  6. Large core fiber optic cleaver

    DOEpatents

    Halpin, John M.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device and method for cleaving optical fibers which yields cleaved optical fiber ends possessing high damage threshold surfaces. The device can be used to cleave optical fibers with core diameters greater than 400 .mu.m.

  7. Fiber Optics and Library Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Michael

    1984-01-01

    This article examines fiber optic technology, explains some of the key terminology, and speculates about the way fiber optics will change our world. Applications of fiber optics to library systems in three major areas--linkage of a number of mainframe computers, local area networks, and main trunk communications--are highlighted. (EJS)

  8. Toward increased reliability in the electric power industry: direct temperature measurement in transformers using fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Greg

    1998-09-01

    Optimal loading, prevention of catastrophic failures and reduced maintenance costs are some of the benefits of accurate determination of hot spot winding temperatures in medium and high power transformers. Temperature estimates obtained using current theoretical models are not always accurate. Traditional technology (IR, thermocouples...) are unsuitable or inadequate for direct measurement. Nortech fiber-optic temperature sensors offer EMI immunity and chemical resistance and are a proven solution to the problem. The Nortech sensor's measurement principle is based on variations in the spectral absorption of a fiber-mounted semiconductor chip and probes are interchangeable with no need for recalibration. Total length of probe + extension can be up to several hundred meters allowing system electronics to be located in the control room or mounted in the transformer instrumentation cabinet. All of the sensor materials withstand temperatures up to 250 degree(s)C and have demonstrated excellent resistance to the harsh transformer environment (hot oil, kerosene). Thorough study of the problem and industry collaboration in testing and installation allows Nortech to identify and meet the need for durable probes, leak-proof feedthroughs, standard computer interfaces and measurement software. Refined probe technology, the method's simplicity and reliable calibration are all assets that should lead to growing acceptance of this type of direct measuring in the electric power industry.

  9. Fiber Optic Sensing: Prototype Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Martin, Jesus; Gonzalez Torres, Jose

    2015-09-01

    Airbus DS Crisa has been developing an interrogator of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors [1], aimed at measuring, mainly, temperature and strain by means of fiber optic links. This activity, funded by Airbus DS Crisa, ESA and HBM Fibersensing, finalizes with the manufacturing of a prototype. The present paper describes in detail the main outcomes of the testing activities of this prototype. At the moment of writing the paper all the functional tests have been concluded. The environmental tests, thermal and mechanical, will be conducted with the FOS interrogator forming part of the RTU2015, described in [2].

  10. Statistical mapping of zones of focused groundwater/surface-water exchange using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mwakanyamale, Kisa; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Slater, Lee D.

    2013-01-01

    Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) increasingly is used to map zones of focused groundwater/surface-water exchange (GWSWE). Previous studies of GWSWE using FO-DTS involved identification of zones of focused GWSWE based on arbitrary cutoffs of FO-DTS time-series statistics (e.g., variance, cross-correlation between temperature and stage, or spectral power). New approaches are needed to extract more quantitative information from large, complex FO-DTS data sets while concurrently providing an assessment of uncertainty associated with mapping zones of focused GSWSE. Toward this end, we present a strategy combining discriminant analysis (DA) and spectral analysis (SA). We demonstrate the approach using field experimental data from a reach of the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford 300 Area site. Results of the combined SA/DA approach are shown to be superior to previous results from qualitative interpretation of FO-DTS spectra alone.

  11. Brillouin gain spectrum dependences on temperature and strain in erbium-doped optical fibers with different erbium concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Mingjie; Hayashi, Neisei; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2013-05-01

    Brillouin Stokes power in erbium-doped optical fibers (EDFs) can be potentially controlled by pumping, but no report has been provided on its detailed characterization. In this study, as the first step toward this goal, the Brillouin gain spectra in EDFs with three different erbium concentrations (0.72, 1.20, and 2.28 wtppt) are measured at 1.55 μm without pumping, and the Brillouin frequency shifts (BFSs) and their dependences on strain, temperature, and erbium concentration are fully investigated. In the EDF with 0.72-wtppt concentration, the BFS was 11.42 GHz, and its temperature and strain coefficients were 0.87 MHz/K and 479 MHz/%, respectively.

  12. Measurement of magnetocaloric effect in pulsed magnetic fields with the help of infrared fiber optical temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamantsev, Alexander P.; Koledov, Victor V.; Mashirov, Alexey V.; Shavrov, Vladimir G.; Yen, N. H.; Thanh, P. T.; Quang, V. M.; Dan, N. H.; Los, Anton S.; Gilewski, Andrzej; Tereshina, Irina S.; Butvina, Leonid N.

    2017-10-01

    We present a new technique for experimental study of kinetics of phase transitions (PTs) and direct measurement of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in pulsed magnetic fields by using the fast response temperature probe with infrared fiber optical (IRFO) sensor. As demonstration of the new technique, the results are presented of MCE measurements for Gd near Curie point: ΔTad = 21.3 K under pulsed magnetic field μ0H = 12.7 T; and inverse MCE for Fe48Rh52 sample at initial temperature 305.1 K: ΔTad = -4.5 K under pulsed magnetic field μ0H = 8.5 T. Also, the energy losses on magnetization near the 1st order PT were calculated from the results of direct measurements of magnetization versus time for Fe48Rh52 sample: W = 45 J/kg.

  13. High-temperature measurement with Brillouin optical time domain analysis of an annealed fused-silica single-mode fiber.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yi; Chen, Genda

    2016-07-15

    The effect of annealing is experimentally studied for a fused silica, fully distributed fiber optic sensor based on the pulse pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis (PPP-BOTDA). Within a heating rate of 4.3°C/min and 30.6°C/min, and a sustained peak temperature for 120 and 240 min, annealing extended the sensor's upper operation temperature from 800°C to 1000°C and reduced the sensor's measurement variability over a temperature range of 22°C to 1000°C with a maximum Brillouin frequency variation of 1%. The annealed sensor had a linearly decreasing Brillouin frequency sensitivity from 1.349×10-3  GHz/°C at 22°C to 0.419×10-3  GHz/°C at 1000°C. The time required to achieve a stable annealing effect decayed exponentially with annealing temperature.

  14. Optical Fiber Distributed Sensing Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) Strain Measurements Taken During Cryotank Y-Joint Test Article Load Cycling at Liquid Helium Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Prosser, William H.; Hare, David A.; Moore, Thomas C.; Kenner, Winfred S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines cryogenic Y-joint testing at Langley Research Center (LaRC) to validate the performance of optical fiber Bragg grating strain sensors for measuring strain at liquid helium temperature (-240 C). This testing also verified survivability of fiber sensors after experiencing 10 thermal cool-down, warm-up cycles and 400 limit load cycles. Graphite composite skins bonded to a honeycomb substrate in a sandwich configuration comprised the Y-joint specimens. To enable SHM of composite cryotanks for consideration to future spacecraft, a light-weight, durable monitoring technology is needed. The fiber optic distributed Bragg grating strain sensing system developed at LaRC is a viable substitute for conventional strain gauges which are not practical for SHM. This distributed sensing technology uses an Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR). This measurement approach has the advantage that it can measure hundreds of Bragg grating sensors per fiber and the sensors are all written at one frequency, greatly simplifying fiber manufacturing. Fiber optic strain measurements compared well to conventional strain gauge measurements obtained during these tests. These results demonstrated a high potential for a successful implementation of a SHM system incorporating LaRC's fiber optic sensing system on the composite cryotank and other future cryogenic applications.

  15. Stabilizing Fiber-Optic Transmission Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, G. F.; Lau, K. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Voltage-controlled optical phase shifter is key. Optical phase shifter stabilizes propagation delay of fiber-optic transmission line by compensating for temperature and pressure effects. Applicable to phased array antenna systems and very-long-baseline interferometer distribution systems.

  16. Optical fiber synaptic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarchik, A. N.; Jaimes-Reátegui, R.; Sevilla-Escoboza, R.; García-Lopez, J. H.; Kazantsev, V. B.

    2011-06-01

    Understanding neuron connections is a great challenge, which is needed to solve many important problems in neurobiology and neuroengineering for recreation of brain functions and efficient biorobotics. In particular, a design of an optical synapse capable to communicate with neuron spike sequences would be crucial to improve the functionality of neuromimmetic networks. In this work we propose an optical synaptic sensor based on an erbium-doped fiber laser driven by a FitzHung-Nagumo electronic neuron, to connect with another electronic neuron. Two possible optical synaptic configurations are analyzed for optoelectronic coupling between neurons: laser cavity loss modulation and pump laser modulation. The control parameters of the proposed optical synapse provide additional degrees of flexibility to the neuron connection traditionally controlled only by coupling strengths in artificial networks.

  17. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, Emil F.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  18. Fiber Optic Velocity Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Neyer, Barry T.

    1988-04-01

    This paper explores the use of a new velocity measurement technique that has several advantages over existing techniques. It uses an optical fiber to carry coherent light to and from a moving target. A Fabry-Perot interferometer, formed by a gradient index lens and the moving target, produces fringes with a frequency proportional to the target velocity. This technique can measure velocities up to 10 km/s, is accurate, portable, and completely noninvasive.

  19. Optical fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hakimi, F.; Po, H.; Snitzer, E.

    1987-07-14

    An optical fiber laser is described comprising: a gain cavity including a single mode optical fiber of given length having a core with a given index of refraction and a cladding surrounding the core and having an index of refraction lower than that of the core. The core comprises a host glass having incorporated a laser gain material with a fluorescence spectrum having at least one broadband region in which there is at least one peak emission line; filter means optically coupled to one end of the gain cavity and reflective to radiation emitted from the gain material over a predetermined wavelength interval about the peak emission line to provide feedback in the gain cavity; an etalon filter section butt coupled to the remaining end of the gain cavity optical fiber, the etalon filter section comprising a pair of filters spaced apart in parallel by a predetermined length of material transparent to any radiation emitted from the gain cavity. The predetermined length of the transparent material is such that the etalon filter section is no longer than the distance over which the wave train energy from the fiber core remains substantially planar so that the etalon filter section is inside the divergent region to enhance feedback in the gain cavity; and means for pumping energy into the gain cavity to raise the interval energy level such that only a small part of the ion population, corresponding to a predetermined bandwidth about the peak emission line, is raised above laser threshold. The laser emits radiation only over narrow lines over a narrow wavelength interval centered about the peak emission line.

  20. New design of fiber-optic reflectometer for determining the phase boundary of multicomponent fluid mixtures at high pressures and high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weize; Ke, Jie; Poliakoff, Martyn

    2006-02-01

    A dynamic synthetic method based on an optic fiber sensor has been developed to measure phase boundaries of multicomponent fluid at high temperatures >300°C and pressures >30MPa. The breakthrough has been the design of the equilibrium cell containing the optic fiber, which gives highly reproducible signals for the phase transition. We demonstrate that this method can clearly distinguish between dew points and bubble points in the phase transitions of mixtures. Overall, the method is characterized by speed, simplicity, high pressures, and high temperatures.

  1. On the accuracy and reproducibility of fiber optic (FO) and infrared (IR) temperature measurements of solid materials in microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durka, Tomasz; Stefanidis, Georgios D.; Van Gerven, Tom; Stankiewicz, Andrzej

    2010-04-01

    The accuracy and reproducibility of temperature measurements in solid materials under microwave heating are investigated in this work using two of the most celebrated temperature measurement techniques, namely fiber optic probes (FO) and infrared (IR) sensors. Two solid materials with a wide range of applications in heterogeneous catalysis and different microwave absorbing capabilities are examined: CeO2-ZrO2 and Al2O3 particles. We investigate a number of effects ranging from purely technical issues, such as the use of a glass probe guide, over process operation parameters, such as the kind and the volume of the heated sample, to measurement related issues, such as the exact location of the probe in the sample. In this frame, the FO and IR methods are benchmarked. It was found that when using bare FO probes, not only is their lifetime reduced but also the reproducibility of the results is compromised. Using a glass probe guide greatly assists in precise location of the probe in the sample resulting in more reproducible temperature measurements. The FO reproducibility, though, decreases with increasing temperature. Besides, contrary to conventional heating, the sample temperature decreases with decreasing sample mass (and volume) at constant irradiation power level, confirming the volumetric nature of microwave heating. Furthermore, a strongly non-uniform temperature field is developed in the reactor despite the use of a monomode cavity and small amounts of samples. These temperature variations depending on the volume and position can only by detected by FO. In contrast, IR, which actually measures temperature at the exterior of the reactor wall, remains nearly insensitive to them and consistently underestimates the real temperature in the reactor. The modeler and the experimentalist should be rather circumspect in accepting the IR output as a representative reactor temperature.

  2. Shedding Light on Fiber Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    Explains the principles of fiber optics as a medium for light-wave communication. Current uses of fiber systems on college campuses include voice, video, and local area network applications. A group of seven school districts in Minnesota are linked via fiber-optic cables. Other uses are discussed. (MLF)

  3. Polymer Bonding of Optical Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goss, W.; Nelson, M. D.

    1983-01-01

    Optical waveguies coupled through their sides. In fiber etching process bonded length for coupling determined by observing optical output powers in two fibers. Surface tension of etchant remaining between two fibes holds then in contact when raised from solution for power measurement. When fibers reimmersed, they separate allowing free access by etchant.

  4. Shedding Light on Fiber Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    Explains the principles of fiber optics as a medium for light-wave communication. Current uses of fiber systems on college campuses include voice, video, and local area network applications. A group of seven school districts in Minnesota are linked via fiber-optic cables. Other uses are discussed. (MLF)

  5. High Sensitive Temperature Sensor Using a Liquid-core Optical Fiber with Small Refractive Index Difference Between Core and Cladding Materials

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yonghao; Chen, Xianfeng; Zhu, Yu

    2008-01-01

    An intensive temperature sensor based on a liquid-core optical fiber has been demonstrated for the measuring the temperature of the environment. The core of fiber is filled with a mixture of toluene and chloroform in order to make the refractive index of the liquid-core and the cladding of the fiber close. The experiment shows that a temperature sensitivity of about 5 dB/K and a tunable temperature range (from 20 °C to 60 °C) can be achieved. Based on the dielectric-clad liquid core fiber model, a simulation was carried out and the calculated results were in good accord with the experimental measurement. PMID:27879798

  6. LDEF fiber optic exposure experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Bergman, Larry A.; Hartmayer, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Ten fiber optic cable samples of different types were exposed in low Earth orbit for over 5.5 years on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Four of the samples were mounted externally, and the remaining six were internal, under approximately .5 gc/sq m of aluminum. The experiment was recovered in January of 1990, and laboratory evaluation of the effects of the exposure has continued since. An increase in loss, presumed to be from radiation darkening, aging effects on polymer materials used in cabling, unique contamination effects on connector terminations, and micrometeoroid impacts were observed on some of the samples. In addition, the dependence of sample loss was measured as a function of temperature before and after the flight. All cable samples were functional, and the best exhibited no measurable change in performance, indicating that conventional fiber optic cables can perform satisfactorily in spacecraft. Experimental results obtained to date will be presented and discussed.

  7. Precision Fiber Optic Sensor Market Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Jeff D.; Glasco, Jon; Dixon, Frank W.

    1986-01-01

    The worldwide market for precision fiber optic sensors is forecasted, 1984-1994. The forecast is based upon o Analysis of fiber optic sensor and related component current technology, and a forecast of technology advancement o Review and projection of demand for precision sensing, and the penetration which fiber optics will make into this market The analysis and projections are based mainly on interviews conducted worldwide with research teams, government agencies, systems contractors, medical and industrial laboratories, component suppliers and others. The worldwide market for precision (interferometric) fiber optic sensing systems is forecasted to exceed $0.8 billion by 1994. The forecast is segmented by geographical region (Europe, Japan and North America) and by function; o Gyroscope o Sonar o Gradiometer/Magnetometer o Other - Chemical Composition - Atmospheric Acoustic - Temperature - Position - Pressure Requirements for components are reviewed. These include special fiber, emitters and detectors, modulators, couplers, switches, integrated optical circuits and integrated optoelectronics. The advancement in component performance is forecasted. The major driving forces creating fiber optic sensor markets are reviewed. These include fiber optic sensor technical and economic advantages, increasingly stringent operational requirements, and technology evolution. The leading fiber optic sensor and related component development programs are reviewed. Component sources are listed. Funding sources for sensor and component development are outlined, and trends forecasted.

  8. Research and development program in fiber optic sensors and distributed sensing for high temperature harsh environment energy applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanosky, Robert R.

    2017-05-01

    he National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the Department of Energy (DOE) Fossil Energy (FE) Program is leading the effort to not only develop near zero emission power generation systems, but to increaser the efficiency and availability of current power systems. The overarching goal of the program is to provide clean affordable power using domestic resources. Highly efficient, low emission power systems can have extreme conditions of high temperatures up to 1600 oC, high pressures up to 600 psi, high particulate loadings, and corrosive atmospheres that require monitoring. Sensing in these harsh environments can provide key information that directly impacts process control and system reliability. The lack of suitable measurement technology serves as a driver for the innovations in harsh environment sensor development. Advancements in sensing using optical fibers are key efforts within NETL's sensor development program as these approaches offer the potential to survive and provide critical information about these processes. An overview of the sensor development supported by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) will be given, including research in the areas of sensor materials, designs, and measurement types. New approaches to intelligent sensing, sensor placement and process control using networked sensors will be discussed as will novel approaches to fiber device design concurrent with materials development research and development in modified and coated silica and sapphire fiber based sensors. The use of these sensors for both single point and distributed measurements of temperature, pressure, strain, and a select suite of gases will be addressed. Additional areas of research includes novel control architecture and communication frameworks, device integration for distributed sensing, and imaging and other novel approaches to monitoring and controlling advanced processes. The close coupling of the sensor program with process modeling and

  9. In-line fiber optic interferometric sensors in single-mode fibers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao; Wu, Di; Liu, Min; Duan, De-Wen

    2012-01-01

    In-line fiber optic interferometers have attracted intensive attention for their potential sensing applications in refractive index, temperature, pressure and strain measurement, etc. Typical in-line fiber-optic interferometers are of two types: Fabry-Perot interferometers and core-cladding-mode interferometers. It's known that the in-line fiber optic interferometers based on single-mode fibers can exhibit compact structures, easy fabrication and low cost. In this paper, we review two kinds of typical in-line fiber optic interferometers formed in single-mode fibers fabricated with different post-processing techniques. Also, some recently reported specific technologies for fabricating such fiber optic interferometers are presented.

  10. Optical fiber crossbar switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilcoyne, Michael K.; Beccue, Stephen M.; Brar, Berinder; Robinson, G.; Pedrotti, Kenneth D.; Haber, William A.

    1990-07-01

    Advances in high performance computers and signal processing systems have led to parallel system architectures. The main limitation in achieving the performance expected of these parallel systems has been the realization of an efficient means to interconnect many processors into a effective parallel system. Electronic interconnections have proved cumbersome, costly and ineffective. The Optical Fiber Crossbar Switch (OFCS) is a compact low power, multi-gigahertz bandwidth multi-channel switch which can be used in large scale computer and telecommunication applications. The switch operates in the optical domain using GaAs semiconductor lasers to transmit wideband multiple channel optical data over fiber optic cables. Recently, a 32 X 32 crossbar switching system was completed and demonstrated. Error free performance was obtained at a data bandwidth of 410 MBPS, using a silicon switch IC. The switch can be completely reconfigured in less than 50 nanoseconds under computer control. The fully populated OFCS has the capability to handle 12.8 gigabits per second (GBPS) of data while switching this data over 32 channels without the loss of a single bit during switching. GaAs IC technology has now progressed to the point that 16 X 16 GaAs based crossbar switch Ics are available which have increased the data bandwidth capability to 2.4 GBPS. The present optical interfaces are integrated GaAs transmitter drivers, GaAs lasers, and integrated GaAs optical receivers with data bandwidths exceeding 2.4 GBPS. A system using all Ill-V switching and optoelectronic components is presently under development for both NASA and DoD programs. The overall system is designed to operate at 1.3 GBPS. It is expected that these systems will find wide application in high capacity computing systems based on parallel microprocessor architecture which require high data bandwidth communication between processors. The OFCS will also have application in commercial optical telecommunication systems

  11. Fiber optic systems for mobile platforms II

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, N.E.; Moore, E.L.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the symposium of International Society for Optical Engineering. Topics covered/include: Fiber optic pressure sensor for internal combustion engine; Automotive fiber optic technology: application issues; and Fiber optic guided missile.

  12. Experiment study of bio-tissue's temperature irradiated by laser based on optical fiber F-P sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Ning; Liu, Xia

    2014-08-01

    Laser has several advantages, such as strong anti-interference ability, quick speed, high power, agility and precision. It is widely applied in military and medicine fields. When laser acts on human body, biological tissue of human body will appear the phenomenon of ablation and carbonization and solidification. In order to effectively defend excess damage by laser, the thermal effect research of skin tissue should be carried out. Temperature is a key parameter in the processing between laser and bio-tissue. It is the mostly foundation using analyze size of thermal damage area and forecast thermal damage degree. In this paper, the low fineness optical fiber F-P sensing system for temperature measurement is designed and established. The real-time measurement system of temperature generated by laser irradiating bio-tissue is build based on the sensing system. The temperature distributing generated by laser in the bio-tissue is studied through experiment when the spot diameter of emission laser is difference with the same energy density and the energy density is difference with the same spot diameter of emission laser. The experimental results show that the sensing system can be used to the real-time temperature measurement of bio-tissue efficiency. It has small bulk. Its outer diameter is 250μm. And the hurt for bio-tissue is small. It has high respond speed. The respond time of temperature is less than 1s. These can be satisfied with practice demand. When the energy density of laser is same, the temperature rising in the same location is low along the spot diameter of emission laser increasing. When the spot diameter of emission laser is same, the temperature rising in the same location is increasing along with the energy density of laser increasing.

  13. Synopsis of fiber optics in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirich, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Fiber optic technology is making significant advances for use in a number of harsh environments, such as air and space platforms. Many of these applications involve integration into systems which make extensive use of optical fiber for high bandwidth signal transmission. The large signal transmission bandwidth of optical fiber has a large and positive impact on the overall performance and weight of the cable harness. There are many benefits of fiber optic systems for air and space harsh environment applications, including minimal electromagnetic interference and environmental effects, lightweight and smaller diameter cables, greater bandwidth, integrated prognostics and diagnostics and the ability to be easily upgraded. To qualify and use a fiber optic cable in space and air harsh environments requires treatment of the cable assembly as a system and understanding the design and behavior of its parts. Many parameters affect an optical fiber's ability to withstand a harsh temperature and radiation environment. The space radiation environment is dependent on orbital altitude, inclination and time, contains energetic magnetically-trapped electrons in the outer Van Allen radiation belt, trapped protons in the inner belt and solar event protons and ions. Both transient and permanent temperature and radiation have an attenuation effect on the performance of the cable fiber. This paper presents an overview of defining fiber optic system and component performance by identifying operating and storage environmental requirements, using appropriate standards to be used in fiber optic cable assembly manufacturing and integration, developing inspection methods and fixtures compliant with the selected standards and developing a fiber optic product process that assures compliance with each design requirement.

  14. Fiber optic simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using a PM-PCF-based Sagnac interferometer incorporating a pumped EDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Oh-Jang; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Cuh, Suho; Yoon, Min-Seok; Park, Sangoh; Shim, Youngbo; Jeong, Myung Yung; Kim, Chang-Seok; Han, Young-Geun

    2010-09-01

    A simple and flexible sensing configuration for discrimination of temperature and strain is investigated by implementing a PM-PCF-based Sagnac fiber loop mirror incorporating an EDF. The integration of an optical source and the sensing probe can obviously simplify the overall system configuration without requiring any additional broadband light source. Since the ASE of the EDF was reduced by the increase of temperature, the transmission peak power of the proposed sensor decreased as the temperature increased. The temperature sensitivity of the transmission peak power was estimated to be -0.04 dB/°C. When the strain was applied to the proposed sensing head, the transmission peak power was not changed by the applied strain because the ASE power of the EDF was independent of the strain. However, the peak wavelength shifted into the longer wavelength because the variation of the peak wavelength was directly proportional to the applied strain. The strain sensitivity was measured to be 1.3 pm/μɛ

  15. Selenium semiconductor core optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, G. W.; Qian, Q. Peng, K. L.; Wen, X.; Zhou, G. X.; Sun, M.; Chen, X. D.; Yang, Z. M.

    2015-02-15

    Phosphate glass-clad optical fibers containing selenium (Se) semiconductor core were fabricated using a molten core method. The cores were found to be amorphous as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and corroborated by Micro-Raman spectrum. Elemental analysis across the core/clad interface suggests that there is some diffusion of about 3 wt % oxygen in the core region. Phosphate glass-clad crystalline selenium core optical fibers were obtained by a postdrawing annealing process. A two-cm-long crystalline selenium semiconductor core optical fibers, electrically contacted to external circuitry through the fiber end facets, exhibit a three times change in conductivity between dark and illuminated states. Such crystalline selenium semiconductor core optical fibers have promising utility in optical switch and photoconductivity of optical fiber array.

  16. Fiber optic TV direct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassak, John E.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the operational television (OTV) technology was to develop a multiple camera system (up to 256 cameras) for NASA Kennedy installations where camera video, synchronization, control, and status data are transmitted bidirectionally via a single fiber cable at distances in excess of five miles. It is shown that the benefits (such as improved video performance, immunity from electromagnetic interference and radio frequency interference, elimination of repeater stations, and more system configuration flexibility) can be realized if application of the proven fiber optic transmission concept is used. The control system will marry the lens, pan and tilt, and camera control functions into a modular based Local Area Network (LAN) control network. Such a system does not exist commercially at present since the Television Broadcast Industry's current practice is to divorce the positional controls from the camera control system. The application software developed for this system will have direct applicability to similar systems in industry using LAN based control systems.

  17. Honeywell FLASH fiber optic motherboard evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stange, Kent

    1996-10-01

    The use of fiber optic data transmission media can make significant contributions in achieving increasing performance and reduced life cycle cost requirements placed on commercial and military transport aircraft. For complete end-to-end fiber optic transmission, photonics technologies and techniques need to be understood and applied internally to the aircraft line replaceable units as well as externally on the interconnecting aircraft cable plant. During a portion of the Honeywell contribution to Task 2A on the Fly- by-Light Advanced System Hardware program, evaluations were done on a fiber optic transmission media implementation internal to a Primary Flight Control Computer (PFCC). The PFCC internal fiber optic transmission media implementation included a fiber optic backplane, an optical card-edge connector, and an optical source/detector coupler/installation. The performance of these optical media components were evaluated over typical aircraft environmental stresses of temperature, vibration, and humidity. These optical media components represent key technologies to the computer end-to-end fiber optic transmission capability on commercial and military transport aircraft. The evaluations and technical readiness assessments of these technologies will enable better perspectives on productization of fly-by-light systems requiring their utilizations.

  18. Fiber optic communication in borehole applications

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, R.J.; Morgan, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    The Telemetry Technology Development Department have, in support of the Advanced Geophysical Technology Department and the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership, developed a fiber optic communication capability for use in borehole applications. This environment requires the use of packaging and component technologies to operate at high temperature (up to 175{degrees}C) and survive rugged handling. Fiber optic wireline technology has been developed by The Rochester Corporation under contract to Sandia National Labs and produced a very rugged, versatile wireline cable. This development has utilized commercial fiber optic component technologies and demonstrated their utility in extreme operating environments.

  19. System for testing optical fibers

    DOEpatents

    Golob, John E. [Olathe, KS; Looney, Larry D. [Los Alamos, NM; Lyons, Peter B. [Los Alamos, NM; Nelson, Melvin A. [Santa Barbara, CA; Davies, Terence J. [Santa Barbara, CA

    1980-07-15

    A system for measuring a combination of optical transmission properties of fiber optic waveguides. A polarized light pulse probe is injected into one end of the optical fiber. Reflections from discontinuities within the fiber are unpolarized whereas reflections of the probe pulse incident to its injection remain polarized. The polarized reflections are prevented from reaching a light detector whereas reflections from the discontinuities reaches the detector.

  20. System for testing optical fibers

    DOEpatents

    Golob, J.E.; Looney, L.D.; Lyons, P.B.; Nelson, M.A.; Davies, T.J.

    1980-07-15

    A system for measuring a combination of optical transmission properties of fiber optic waveguides. A polarized light pulse probe is injected into one end of the optical fiber. Reflections from discontinuities within the fiber are unpolarized whereas reflections of the probe pulse incident to its injection remain polarized. The polarized reflections are prevented from reaching a light detector whereas reflections from the discontinuities reaches the detector. 2 figs.

  1. Measurements of nonlinear optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2003-10-01

    The paper is a tutorial and literature digest of chosen problems connected with specific measurement techniques of nonlinear optical fibers. Such fibers are used more and more frequently in active photonic devices and sources, nonlinear sensors and photonic functional devices. Nonlinear effects in optical fibers are also of concern in optical communications systems. This tutorial bases on (31) report and is supplemented with references digest.

  2. Fiber optics in liquid propellant rocket engine environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delcher, R.; Dinnsen, D.; Barkhoudarian, S.

    1991-01-01

    Fiber optics have recently been seen to offer several major benefits in liquid-fuel rocket engine applications. Fiber-optic sensors can provide measurements that cannot be made with conventional techniques. Fiber optics also can reduce harness weight, provide lightning immunity, and increase frequency response. This paper discusses the results of feasibility testing optical fibers in simulated liquid-fuel rocket engine environments. The environments included cryogenic and high temperatures, and high vibration levels.

  3. Novel optical fiber design for DTS measurement purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siska, Petr; Hajek, Lukas; Vasinek, Vladimir; Koudelka, Petr; Latal, Jan

    2015-07-01

    This article is dealing with an optical fiber refractive index design optimized for utilization in DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) measurements. Presented optical fiber uses wavelength of 850 nm for communication purposes and 1060 nm for sensory operation. The aim of this work is to design an optical fiber with redistribution of the optical field at 850 nm similar to communication multi-mode optical fiber 50/125 μm and for wavelength of 1060 nm the redistribution of the optical field will be shifted closer to the core-cladding boundary to increase its sensitivity to temperature. Optical properties obtained from fiber design are compared with standard multi-mode optical fiber with graded refractive index to ensure that new optical fiber design has better sensing characteristics, but still keeps good enough communication properties at the same time.

  4. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, E.F.

    1991-03-19

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

  5. Fiber optic sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A fiber optic interferometer utilizes a low coherence light emitting diode (LED) laser as a light source which is filtered and driven at two RF frequencies, high and low, that are specific to the initial length of the resonator chamber. A displacement of a reflecting mirror changes the length traveled by the nonreferencing signal. The low frequency light undergoes destructive interference which reduces the average intensity of the wave while the high frequency light undergoes constructive interference which increases the average intensity of the wave. The ratio of these two intensity measurements is proportional to the displacement incurred.

  6. Application of a genetic algorithm Elman network in temperature drift modeling for a fiber-optic gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiyuan; Song, Rui; Shen, Chong; Zhang, Hong

    2014-09-10

    The fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG) has been widely used as a satellite and automobile attitude sensor in many industrial and defense fields such as navigation and positioning. Based on the fact that the FOG is sensitive to temperature variation, a novel (to our knowledge) error-processing technique for the FOG through a set of temperature experiment results and error analysis is presented. The method contains two parts: one is denoising, and the other is modeling and compensating. After the denoising part, a novel modeling method which is based on the dynamic modified Elman neural network (ENN) is proposed. In order to get the optimum parameters of the ENN, the genetic algorithm (GA) is applied and the optimization objective function was set as the difference between the predicted data and real data. The modeling and compensating results indicate that the drift caused by the varying temperature can be reduced and compensated effectively by the proposed model; the prediction accuracy of the GA-ENN is improved 20% over the ENN.

  7. Optical Fiber Networks for Remote Fiber Optic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Vallejo, Montserrat; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of optical fiber sensor networks for remote sensing. Firstly, the state of the art of remote fiber sensor systems has been considered. We have summarized the great evolution of these systems in recent years; this progress confirms that fiber-optic remote sensing is a promising technology with a wide field of practical applications. Afterwards, the most representative remote fiber-optic sensor systems are briefly explained, discussing their schemes, challenges, pros and cons. Finally, a synopsis of the main factors to take into consideration in the design of a remote sensor system is gathered. PMID:22666011

  8. Optical fiber networks for remote fiber optic sensors.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Vallejo, Montserrat; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of optical fiber sensor networks for remote sensing. Firstly, the state of the art of remote fiber sensor systems has been considered. We have summarized the great evolution of these systems in recent years; this progress confirms that fiber-optic remote sensing is a promising technology with a wide field of practical applications. Afterwards, the most representative remote fiber-optic sensor systems are briefly explained, discussing their schemes, challenges, pros and cons. Finally, a synopsis of the main factors to take into consideration in the design of a remote sensor system is gathered.

  9. Fiber optic to integrated optical chip coupler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikulski, Joseph I. (Inventor); Ramer, O. Glenn (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Optical fibers are clamped by a block onto a substrate. Thereupon, metal is plated over the fibers to hold them in place upon the substrate. The clamp block is removed and the opening, resulting from the clamp block's presence, is then plated in. The built-up metallic body is a coupling which holds the fibers in position so that the ends can be polished for coupling to an integrated optical chip upon a coupling fixture.

  10. Fiber optic and laser sensors VII; Proceedings of the Meeting, Boston, MA, Sept. 5-7, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udd, Eric (Editor); Depaula, Ramon P. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on fiber optic and laser sensors are presented. Individual topics addressed include: fiber optic photoelastic pressure sensor for high-temperature gases, fiber optic gyroscope using an eight-component LiNbO3 integrated optic circuit, design and performance of a fiber optic gyroscope using integrated optics, digital angular position sensor using wavelength division multiplexing, simple repeatable fiber optic intensity sensor for temperature measurement, compensation for effects of ambient temperature on rare-earth-doped fiber optic thermometer.

  11. Fiber optic control system integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppel, G. L.; Glasheen, W. M.; Russell, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    A total fiber optic, integrated propulsion/flight control system concept for advanced fighter aircraft is presented. Fiber optic technology pertaining to this system is identified and evaluated for application readiness. A fiber optic sensor vendor survey was completed, and the results are reported. The advantages of centralized/direct architecture are reviewed, and the concept of the protocol branch is explained. Preliminary protocol branch selections are made based on the F-18/F404 application. Concepts for new optical tools are described. Development plans for the optical technology and the described system are included.

  12. Optical Fibers for Nonlinear Optics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    wavelength, showing structure due to water absorption bands .............................. 21 11 Schematic diagram of the experimental apparatus for phase...Figure 10. (b) Spectrum of PK3 fiber attenuation versus wavelength, showing structure due to water absorption bands. -L -L1 D C- LCL 0 (0 o o wj 0 00zzo...crystal fibers (ADP). 1984 Development of traveling zone method converting polycrystalline extruded fiber to single-crystal fiber (AgCl, AgBr, CuCl

  13. Thermal strain analysis of optic fiber sensors.

    PubMed

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Huang, Chih-Ying

    2013-01-31

    An optical fiber sensor surface bonded onto a host structure and subjected to a temperature change is analytically studied in this work. The analysis is developed in order to assess the thermal behavior of an optical fiber sensor designed for measuring the strain in the host structure. For a surface bonded optical fiber sensor, the measuring sensitivity is strongly dependent on the bonding characteristics which include the protective coating, adhesive layer and the bonding length. Thermal stresses can be generated due to a mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between the optical fiber and host structure. The optical fiber thermal strain induced by the host structure is transferred via the adhesive layer and protective coating. In this investigation, an analytical expression of the thermal strain and stress in the optical fiber is presented. The theoretical predictions are validated using the finite element method. Numerical results show that the thermal strain and stress are linearly dependent on the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the optical fiber and host structure and independent of the thermal expansion coefficients of the adhesive and coating.

  14. Interpreting seasonal convective mixing in Devils Hole, Death Valley National Park, from temperature profiles observed by fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausner, Mark B.; Wilson, Kevin P.; Gaines, D. Bailey; Tyler, Scott W.

    2012-05-01

    Devils Hole, a groundwater-filled fracture in the carbonate aquifer of the southern Nevada Mojave Desert, represents a unique ecohydrological setting, as home to the only extant population of Cyprinodon diabolis, the endangered Devils Hole pupfish. Using water column temperatures collected with a fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS) during four field campaigns in 2009, evidence of deep circulation and nutrient export are, for the first time, documented. The DTS was deployed to measure vertical temperature profiles in the system, and the raw data returned were postprocessed to refine the calibration beyond the precision of the instrument's native calibration routines. Calibrated temperature data serve as a tracer for water movement and reveal a seasonal pattern of convective mixing that is supported by numerical simulations of the system. The periodic presence of divers in the water is considered, and their impacts on the temperature profiles are examined and found to be minimal. The seasonal mixing cycle may deplete the pupfish's food supplies when nutrients are at their scarcest. The spatial and temporal scales of the DTS observations make it possible to observe temperature gradients on the order of 0.001°C m-1, revealing phenomena that would have been lost in instrument noise and uncertainty.

  15. Fabrication of Optical Fiber Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Miguel V.

    In this paper we present the main research activities of the Laboratorio de Fibras Opticas del Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales de la Universidad de Valencia. We show some of the main results obtained for devices based on tapered fibers, fiber Bragg gratings, acousto-optic effects and photonic crystal fibers.

  16. Fiber optic gyroscope for automobiles utilizing integrated optical gyrochip and elliptical core polarization-maintaining optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuhara, Toshiya; Kumagai, Tatsuya; Iizuka, Hisao; Kajioka, Hiroshi; Mekada, Naoyuki

    1994-03-01

    We have investigated fiber optic gyroscopes that use phase-modulation signal processing for use in automobiles. These gyroscopes use an integrated optical gyrochip and low-cost elliptical-core polarization-maintaining optical fiber. Fiber-to-fiber insertion loss deviation is less than +/- 0.4 dB at a wavelength of 0.83 micrometers over a temperature range of -30 to +80 degree(s)C, while the core dimensions of pigtailed fiber are as small as 4 X 1 micrometers 2. A gyroscope was developed for navigation systems and on board testing is now being performed. A gyroscope for chassis control systems is also being developed.

  17. Fiber-optic ground-truth thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, C.A. Jr.; Forman, P.; Veeser, L.

    1993-07-01

    By making a high accuracy measurement of the optical length of a long fiber optic cable, the authors can determine the absolute temperature averaged over its length and the temperature of a material in contact with it. They describe how to set up such a measurement and use it to determine the average temperature of the surface of the earth over a large enough area to be useful as a ground truth calibration for a satellite imaging system.

  18. Fiber-optic ground-truth thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, C.A. Jr.; Forman, P.; Veeser, L.

    1993-07-01

    By making a high accuracy measurement of the optical length of a long fiber optic cable, the authors can determine the absolute temperature averaged over its length and the temperature of a material in contact with it. They describe how to set up such a measurement and use it to determine the average temperature of the surface of the earth over a large enough area to be useful as a ground truth calibration for a satellite imaging system.

  19. Optical-Fiber Leak Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kosten, Susan E.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed optical-fiber sensor detects small changes in pressure in elastomeric O-ring or similar pressure seal, which may indicate deterioration of seal and interpreted as indications of incipient failure. According to concept, length of optical fiber embedded in seal. Light-emitting diode illuminates one end of fiber; photodetector measures intensity of light emerging from other end. Pressure-induced changes in seal bend fiber slightly, altering microbending-induced loss of light from fiber and alter intensity of light at photodetector. Change in intensity approximately proportional to change in pressure.

  20. Sparse Reconstruction for Temperature Distribution Using DTS Fiber Optic Sensors with Applications in Electrical Generator Stator Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Bazzo, João Paulo; Pipa, Daniel Rodrigues; da Silva, Erlon Vagner; Martelli, Cicero; Cardozo da Silva, Jean Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an image reconstruction method to monitor the temperature distribution of electric generator stators. The main objective is to identify insulation failures that may arise as hotspots in the structure. The method is based on temperature readings of fiber optic distributed sensors (DTS) and a sparse reconstruction algorithm. Thermal images of the structure are formed by appropriately combining atoms of a dictionary of hotspots, which was constructed by finite element simulation with a multi-physical model. Due to difficulties for reproducing insulation faults in real stator structure, experimental tests were performed using a prototype similar to the real structure. The results demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to reconstruct images of hotspots with dimensions down to 15 cm, representing a resolution gain of up to six times when compared to the DTS spatial resolution. In addition, satisfactory results were also obtained to detect hotspots with only 5 cm. The application of the proposed algorithm for thermal imaging of generator stators can contribute to the identification of insulation faults in early stages, thereby avoiding catastrophic damage to the structure. PMID:27618040