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Sample records for fiber-based optical frequency

  1. Fiber-based femtosecond optical frequency comb stabilized to iodine frequency standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagayev, S. N.; Denisov, V. I.; Dychkov, A. S.; Koliada, N. A.; Nyushkov, B. N.; Pivtsov, V. S.; Farnosov, S. A.; Antropov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    A fiber-based femtosecond optical frequency comb spanning wavelengths from 1 to 2 μm was stabilized precisely to an iodine frequency standard by means of heterodyne optical phase-locked loops. It enables transfer of frequency stability across electromagnetic spectrum and implementation of compact optical clocks with ∼10-15 long-term instability.

  2. Recent developments in fiber-based optical frequency comb and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Wei; Chen, Xuzong

    2016-04-01

    Fiber-based optical frequency combs, characterized by compact configuration and outstanding optical properties, have been developed into state-of-the-art precision instruments which are no longer used just for optical frequency metrology, but for a number of applications, including optical clocks, attosecond science, exoplanet searches, medical diagnostics, physicochemical processes control and advanced manufacturing. This short perspective presents some of the milestones and highlights in the evolution of fiber-based optical frequency combs and the technical revolution that are brought by them for a wide range of applications. Along the way, both the challenges and opportunities in the future development of the fiber-based optical frequency comb technology have been described as well.

  3. Optical properties assessment for liquid phantoms using fiber based frequency-modulated light scattering interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Liang; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Svanberg, Sune

    2014-03-01

    Fiber based frequency-modulated light scattering interferometry (FMLSI) is developed for optical properties studies of liquid phantoms, made of Intralipid®. By employing optical frequency modulation on a tunable diode laser, the power spectrum of the heterodyne-detected intensity fluctuations through the dynamic turbid medium is a combination of the time-of-flight distribution and the Doppler power spectrum due to the movement of the scattering particles. The reduced scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient and Brownian diffusion constant are retrieved by employing nonlinear fitting to the power spectrum based on diffusion theory.

  4. Hollow-core photonic-crystal-fiber-based optical frequency references

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holá, Miroslava; Hrabina, Jan; Mikel, Břetislav; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2016-12-01

    This research deals with preparation of an optical frequency references based on hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCF). This fiber-based type of absorption cells represents a effiecient way how to replace classic bulky and fragile glass made tubes references with low-weight and low-volume optical fibers. This approach allows not only to increase possible interaction length between incident light and absorption media but it also carries a possibility of manufacturing of easy-operable reference which is set up just by plugging-in of optical connectors into the optical setup. We present the results of preparation, manufacturing and filling of a set of fiber-based cells intended for lasers frequency stabilization. The work deals with setting and optimalization of HC-PCF splicing processes, minimalization of optical losses between HC-PCF and SMF fiber transitions and finishing of HC-PCF spliced ends with special care for optimal closing of hollow-core structure needed for avoiding of absorption media leakage.

  5. Environmental-adaptability analysis of an all polarization-maintaining fiber-based optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Xu, Xin; Hu, Xiaohong; Liu, Yuanshan; Wang, Yishan; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Zhi; Duan, Lina; Zhao, Wei; Cheng, Zhao

    2015-06-29

    We demonstrate an all polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber-based optical frequency comb and provide the detailed environmental stability analysis results. The frequency comb has been built by commercial available PM fiber completely, and its static uncertainty in optical domain is 350 Hz in 1 s when referenced to a low noise oven controlled crystal oscillator. The acoustic resonant frequencies of the system have been measured. It is proved that acoustic-vibration induced phase noise could be eliminated by low pass vibration-isolation structure. Further, the existence of the optimum working temperature is illustrated. At this temperature (289.6 K), the out-loop integrated phase noise of f(r) and the temperature-drift induced instability of f(CEO) reach the lowest level 31.6 μrad and 0 kHz/(mW∙K) respectively. Finally, the system is proved to be stable under different humidity (18% ~80%) by a 240-day-long record of the f(CEO).

  6. Highly stabilized optical frequency comb interferometer with a long fiber-based reference path towards arbitrary distance measurement.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Minoshima, Kaoru

    2015-10-05

    An optical frequency comb interferometer with a 342-m-long fiber-based optical reference path was developed. The long fiber-based reference path was stabilized to 10(-12)-order stability by using a fiber noise cancellation technique, and small temperature changes on the millikelvin order were detected by measuring an interferometric phase signal. Pulse number differences of 30 and 61 between the measurement and reference paths were determined precisely, with slight tuning of the 53.4 MHz repetition frequency. Moreover, with pulse number difference of 61, a 6.4-m-wide scanning for the relative pulse position is possible only by 1 MHz repetition frequency tuning, which makes pulses overlapped for arbitrary distance. Such wide-range high-precision delay length scanning can be used to measure arbitrary distances by using a highly stabilized long fiber-based reference path.

  7. Direct Spectroscopy in Hollow Optical with Fiber-Based Optical Frequency Combs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-09

    filled frequency reference in a 10 m length. Since optimal single-modedness is expected at longer lengths (~10-30 m), a gas such as ammonia , with weaker...Conference on(2010), pp. 16-17. 41. A. M. Cubillas, J. Hald, and J. C. Petersen, "High resolution spectroscopy of ammonia in a hollow-core fiber," Opt

  8. Optical fiber-based photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cǎsǎndruc, Albert; Bücker, Robert; Kassier, Günther; Miller, R. J. Dwayne

    2016-08-01

    We present the design of a back-illuminated photocathode for electron diffraction experiments based on an optical fiber, and experimental characterization of emitted electron bunches. Excitation light is guided through the fiber into the experimental vacuum chamber, eliminating typical alignment difficulties between the emitter metal and the optical trigger and position instabilities, as well as providing reliable control of the laser spot size and profile. The in-vacuum fiber end is polished and coated with a 30 nm gold (Au) layer on top of 3 nm of chromium (Cr), which emits electrons by means of single-photon photoemission when femtosecond pulses in the near ultraviolet (257 nm) are fed into the fiber on the air side. The emission area can be adjusted to any value between a few nanometers (using tapered fibers) and the size of a multi-mode fiber core (100 μm or larger). In this proof-of-principle experiment, two different types of fibers were tested, with emission spot diameters of 50 μm and 100 μm, respectively. The normalized thermal electron beam emittance (TE) was measured by means of the aperture scan technique, and a TE of 4.0 π nm was measured for the smaller spot diameter. Straightforward enhancements to the concept allowed to demonstrate operation in an electric field environment of up to 7 MV/m.

  9. Optical fiber-based CDMA networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gameiro, Atilio M. S.

    1996-01-01

    In this communication we consider the use of an optical fiber based fixed infrastructure for code division multiple access (CDMA) mobile networks. In such a scenario, the base stations are linked to the central station through optical fiber using subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) technology. One of the major problems associated with optical SCM is the nonlinearity of the laser diodes (LD). In this communication we model the LD as a memoryless nonlinearity and evaluate the effect of the nonlinearity on the SCM transmission CDMA signals. We find that the behavior departs significantly from what happens in FDMA and depends critically on the nonlinearity of the LD being a compressing or an expanding one. In the former case significant performance degradation may occur whereas for the latter the degradation is usually not dramatic.

  10. Hybrid bidirectional radio-over-fiber-based orthogonal frequency division multiple access-passive optical network supporting 60/120 GHz using offset quadrate phase shift keying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Chen, Chen; Qiu, Kun

    2015-09-01

    A hybrid bidirectional orthogonal frequency division multiple access-passive optical network (OFDMA-PON) based on offset quadrate phase shift keying (OQPSK) to support 60- and 120-GHz radio-over-fiber system is proposed. The system can support wired/wireless applications and enable the dynamic bandwidth allocation according to a subscriber's application. It is successfully achieved by using the millimeter waves (MMWs) generation and the carrier-reuse technique. In the proposed scheme, the MMW bands used for downlink (DL) and uplink transmissions are generated at the optical line terminal by the dual-arm Mach-Zehnder modulators. Both 60- and 120-GHz MMWs are obtained for the transmission of the high bit-rate services in source-free optical network units (ONUs), only using a single 15-GHz sinusoidal wave source. The Rayleigh backscattering effect is considered in the proposed OQPSK-based OFDMA-PON. For DL transmission over a 30-km single-mode fiber, the power penalties are less than 0.8 and 1 dB for the OQPSK-OFDM wired data at 10 Gb/s and the OQPSK-OFDM wireless data at 5 Gb/s, respectively.

  11. Fiber-based devices for DWDM optical communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Claire; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Yisi; Pan, Jing-Jong; Zhou, Fengqing; Dong, Liang; He, Henry

    2005-01-01

    Photonic devices with low insertion loss are important in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems. Currently most of these devices, such as variable optical attenuators (VOA), switches, filters, and dispersion compensators, etc., involve bulk (or micro-optic) components that require conversions between fibers and free-space optical elements leading to high insertion loss. Recently, we have proposed, analyzed, and demonstrated several fiber based devices for DWDM optical communication systems. Here we present an in-line fiber VOA, a 2x2 switchable wavelength add/drop filter, and high performance dispersion compensators. The VOA is built with a side-polished fiber covered with a liquid crystal overlay. By varying the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules using an applied electric field, the loss of the device can be controlled. The 2x2 wavelength switch is designed by recording electrically switchable holographic gratings in a layer of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) sandwiched between two side-polished fibers. The dispersion compensators are based on high precision fiber Bragg gratings (FBG). A unique method for writing FBGs with arbitrary phase and amplitude distributions is demonstrated. All of these devices are analyzed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Both theoretical and experimental results will be presented and discussed. These devices are suitable for DWDM optical information transmission and network management.

  12. Optical fiber-based system for continuous measurement of in-bore projectile velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guohua; Sun, Jinglin; Li, Qiang

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports the design of an optical fiber-based velocity measurement system and its application in measuring the in-bore projectile velocity. The measurement principle of the implemented system is based on Doppler effect and heterodyne detection technique. The analysis of the velocity measurement principle deduces the relationship between the projectile velocity and the instantaneous frequency (IF) of the optical fiber-based system output signal. To extract the IF of the fast-changing signal carrying the velocity information, an IF extraction algorithm based on the continuous wavelet transforms is detailed. Besides, the performance of the algorithm is analyzed by performing corresponding simulation. At last, an in-bore projectile velocity measurement experiment with a sniper rifle having a 720 m/s muzzle velocity is performed to verify the feasibility of the optical fiber-based velocity measurement system. Experiment results show that the measured muzzle velocity is 718.61 m/s, and the relative uncertainty of the measured muzzle velocity is approximately 0.021%.

  13. Optical fiber-based system for continuous measurement of in-bore projectile velocity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guohua; Sun, Jinglin; Li, Qiang

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports the design of an optical fiber-based velocity measurement system and its application in measuring the in-bore projectile velocity. The measurement principle of the implemented system is based on Doppler effect and heterodyne detection technique. The analysis of the velocity measurement principle deduces the relationship between the projectile velocity and the instantaneous frequency (IF) of the optical fiber-based system output signal. To extract the IF of the fast-changing signal carrying the velocity information, an IF extraction algorithm based on the continuous wavelet transforms is detailed. Besides, the performance of the algorithm is analyzed by performing corresponding simulation. At last, an in-bore projectile velocity measurement experiment with a sniper rifle having a 720 m/s muzzle velocity is performed to verify the feasibility of the optical fiber-based velocity measurement system. Experiment results show that the measured muzzle velocity is 718.61 m/s, and the relative uncertainty of the measured muzzle velocity is approximately 0.021%.

  14. High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin.

    PubMed

    Saxer, C E; de Boer, J F; Park, B H; Zhao, Y; Chen, Z; Nelson, J S

    2000-09-15

    A high-speed single-mode fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS OCT) system was developed. With a polarization modulator, Stokes parameters of reflected flight for four input polarization states are measured as a function of depth. A phase modulator in the reference arm of a Michelson interferometer permits independent control of the axial scan rate and carrier frequency. In vivo PS OCT images of human skin are presented, showing subsurface structures that are not discernible in conventional OCT images. A phase retardation image in tissue is calculated based on the reflected Stokes parameters of the four input polarization states.

  15. High performance fiber-based optical coherent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Youming

    The sensitivity of signal detection is of major interest for optical high speed communication systems and LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar) systems. Sensitive receivers in fiber-optical networks can reduce transmitter power or amplifier amplification requirements and extend link spans. High receiver sensitivity allows links to be established over long distances in deep space satellite communication systems and large atmospheric attenuation to be overcome in terrestrial free space communications. For lidar systems, the sensitivity of signal detection determines how far and how accurately the lidar can detect the remote objects. Optical receivers employ either coherent or direct detection. In addition to amplitude, coherent detection extracts frequency and phase information from received signals, whereas direct detection extracts the received pulse amplitude only. In theory, coherent detection should yield the highest receiver sensitivity. Another possible technique to improve detection sensitivity is to employ a fiber preamplifier. This technique has been successfully demonstrated in direct detection systems but not in the coherent detection systems. Due to the existence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) inside the amplifier, the sensitivity of coherent detection varies with the data rate or pulse rate. For this reason, optically preamplified coherent detection is not used in applications as commonly as optically preamplified direct detection. We investigate the performance of coherent detection employing a fiber amplifier and time-domain-filter. The fiber amplifier is used as the optical preamplifier of the coherent detection system. To reduce the noise induced by the preamplifier to a maximum extent, we investigate the noise properties for both a single pass amplifier and a double pass amplifier. The relative intensity noise and linewidth broadening caused by ASE have been experimentally characterized. The results show that the double pass amplifier has

  16. Fiber-based modulated optical reflectance configuration allowing for offset pump and probe beams.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A; Folsom, C; Jensen, C; Ban, H

    2016-12-01

    A new fiber-based modulated optical reflectance configuration is developed in this work. The technique maintains the fiber-based heating laser (pump) and detection laser (probe) in close proximity at a fixed separation distance in a ceramic ferrule. The pump beam periodically heats the sample inducing thermal waves into the sample. The probe beam measures the temperature response at a known distance from the pump beam over a range of heating modulation frequencies. The thermal diffusivity of the sample may be calculated from the phase response between the input heat flux and the temperature response of a sample having a reflective surface. The unique measurement configuration is ideal for in situ measurements and has many advantages for laboratory-based systems. The design and development of the system are reported along with theoretical justification for the experimental design. The thermal diffusivities of Ge and SiC are measured and found to be within 10% of reported literature values. The diffusivity for SiO2 is measured with a relative difference of approximately 100% from the literature value when the ferrule is in contact with the sample. An additional measurement was made on the SiO2 sample with the ferrule not in contact resulting in a difference of less than 2% from the literature value. The difference in the SiO2 measurement when the ferrule is in contact with the sample is likely due to a parallel heat transfer path through the dual-fiber ferrule assembly.

  17. Fiber-based modulated optical reflectance configuration allowing for offset pump and probe beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, A.; Folsom, C.; Jensen, C.; Ban, H.

    2016-12-01

    A new fiber-based modulated optical reflectance configuration is developed in this work. The technique maintains the fiber-based heating laser (pump) and detection laser (probe) in close proximity at a fixed separation distance in a ceramic ferrule. The pump beam periodically heats the sample inducing thermal waves into the sample. The probe beam measures the temperature response at a known distance from the pump beam over a range of heating modulation frequencies. The thermal diffusivity of the sample may be calculated from the phase response between the input heat flux and the temperature response of a sample having a reflective surface. The unique measurement configuration is ideal for in situ measurements and has many advantages for laboratory-based systems. The design and development of the system are reported along with theoretical justification for the experimental design. The thermal diffusivities of Ge and SiC are measured and found to be within 10% of reported literature values. The diffusivity for SiO2 is measured with a relative difference of approximately 100% from the literature value when the ferrule is in contact with the sample. An additional measurement was made on the SiO2 sample with the ferrule not in contact resulting in a difference of less than 2% from the literature value. The difference in the SiO2 measurement when the ferrule is in contact with the sample is likely due to a parallel heat transfer path through the dual-fiber ferrule assembly.

  18. Customized analog circuit design for fiber-based optical coherence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Bonnema, Garret T.; Gossage, Kirk W.; Wade, Norman H.; Medford, June; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2006-01-01

    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is an interferometric method for acquiring high-resolution, depth-resolved, en face images. In this article we demonstrate a fiber-based OCM system with analog fringe generation and signal demodulation. A high power operational amplifier drives a mirrored piezoelectric stack mounted in the reference arm of the interferometer causing a displacement equal to 0.42 times the light source center wavelength. The drive signal is synchronized with the demodulation frequency of two analog lock-in amplifiers which extract the first and second harmonics of the interferometric component of the signal. Four outputs (X and Y components of first and second harmonics) are acquired with a data-acquisition board and combined to eliminate the slow phase drift in the interferometer. A sample image of carrot tap root is presented. High dynamic range images are obtained at acquisition speeds up to 40000pixels/s.

  19. Performance analysis of fiber-based free-space optical communications with coherent detection spatial diversity.

    PubMed

    Li, Kangning; Ma, Jing; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan; Zhai, Chao

    2016-06-10

    The performances of fiber-based free-space optical (FSO) communications over gamma-gamma distributed turbulence are studied for multiple aperture receiver systems. The equal gain combining (EGC) technique is considered as a practical scheme to mitigate the atmospheric turbulence. Bit error rate (BER) performances for binary-phase-shift-keying-modulated coherent detection fiber-based free-space optical communications are derived and analyzed for EGC diversity receptions through an approximation method. To show the net diversity gain of a multiple aperture receiver system, BER performances of EGC are compared with a single monolithic aperture receiver system with the same total aperture area (same average total incident optical power on the aperture surface) for fiber-based free-space optical communications. The analytical results are verified by Monte Carlo simulations. System performances are also compared for EGC diversity coherent FSO communications with or without considering fiber-coupling efficiencies.

  20. High-speed fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Saxer, Christopher E.; Boer, Johannes F. de; Park, B. Hyle; Zhao, Yonghua; Chen, Zhongping; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2000-09-15

    A high-speed single-mode fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS OCT) system was developed. With a polarization modulator, Stokes parameters of reflected flight for four input polarization states are measured as a function of depth. A phase modulator in the reference arm of a Michelson interferometer permits independent control of the axial scan rate and carrier frequency. In vivo PS OCT images of human skin are presented, showing subsurface structures that are not discernible in conventional OCT images. A phase retardation image in tissue is calculated based on the reflected Stokes parameters of the four input polarization states. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

  1. Fiber-based multiple-access frequency synchronization via 1f-2f dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xi; Wang, Bo; Gao, Chao; Wang, Li-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Considering the reference frequency dissemination requirements of the Square Kilometre Array telescope (SKA) project, on the basis of the 1f-2f precision frequency synchronization scheme, we propose and demonstrate a fiber-based multiple-access frequency synchronization scheme. The dissemination reference frequency can be recovered at arbitrary nodes along the entire fiber link. It can be applied to antennas close proximity to the SKA central station, and will lead to a better SKA frequency synchronization network. As a performance test, we recover the disseminated 100-MHz reference frequency at an arbitrary node chosen as being 5 km away from the transmitting site. Relative frequency stabilities of 2.0×10-14/s and 1.6×10-16/104s are obtained. We also experimentally verify the feasibility of a frequency dissemination link with three access points. Project supported by the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project of China (Grant No. 2013YQ09094303).

  2. Optical biopsy fiber-based fluorescence spectroscopy instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Alvin; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Yang, Yuanlong; Tang, Gui C.; Budansky, Yury; Celmer, Edward J.; Savage, Howard E.; Schantz, Stimson P.; Alfano, Robert R.

    1996-04-01

    Native fluorescence spectroscopy of biomolecules has emerged as a new modality to the medical community in characterizing the various physiological conditions of tissues. In the past several years, many groups have been working to introduce the spectroscopic methods to diagnose cancer. Researchers have successfully used native fluorescence to distinguish cancerous from normal tissue samples in rat and human tissue. We have developed three generations of instruments, called the CD-scan, CD-ratiometer and CD-map, to allow the medical community to use optics for diagnosing tissue. Using ultraviolet excitation and emission spectral measurements on both normal and cancerous tissue of the breast, gynecology, colon, and aerodigestive tract can be separated. For example, from emission intensities at 340 nm to 440 nm (300 nm excitation), a statistically consistent difference between malignant tissue and normal or benign tissue is observed. In order to utilize optical biopsy techniques in a clinical setting, the CD-scan instrument was developed, which allows for rapid and reliable in-vitro and in-vivo florescence measurements of the aerodigestive tract with high accuracy. The instrumentation employs high sensitivity detection techniques which allows for lamp excitation, small diameter optical fiber probes; the higher spatial resolution afforded by the small diameter probes can increase the ability to detect smaller tumors. The fiber optic probes allow for usage in the aerodigestive tract, cervix and colon. Needle based fiber probes have been developed for in-vivo detection of breast cancer.

  3. Protective antireflection coatings for optical IR fibers based on silver halogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebov, V. N.; Leonov, Pavel G.; Malyutin, A. M.; Yakunin, Vladimir P.

    2002-04-01

    The polycrystalline optical IR fibers based on silver halogenides AgCl-AgBr exhibiting low losses (0.5 dB/m and less) in the wavelength range from 4.0 to 16.0 micrometers are of interest in technical and medico-biological applications as fiber optic sensing devices and flexible systems for delivery of low-power CO2 and CO lasers radiation.

  4. Analysis of a plastic optical fiber-based displacement sensor.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Felipe; Arrue, Jon; Aldabaldetreku, Gotzon; Durana, Gaizka; Zubia, Joseba; Ziemann, Olaf; Bunge, Christian-Alexander

    2007-09-01

    An easy-to-manufacture setup for a displacement sensor based on plastic optical fiber (POF) is analyzed, showing computational and experimental results. If the displacement is the consequence of force or pressure applied to the device, this can be used as a force or pressure transducer. Its principle of operation consists of bending a POF section around a flexible cylinder and measuring light attenuation when the whole set is subjected to side pressure. Attenuations are obtained computationally as a function of side deformation for different design parameters. Experimental results with an actually built prototype are also provided.

  5. Optical fiber based imaging of bioengineered tissue construct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapoznik, Etai; Niu, Guoguang; Lu, Peng; Zhou, Yu; Xu, Yong; Soker, Shay

    2016-04-01

    Imaging cells and tissues through opaque and turbid media is challenging and presents a major barrier for monitoring maturation and remodeling of bioengineered tissues. The fiber optics based imaging system described here offers a new approach for fluorescent cell imaging. A micro imaging channel is embedded in a Polycaprolactone (PCL) electrospun scaffold designed for cell seeding, which allows us to use an optical fiber to locally deliver excitation laser close to the fluorescent cells. The emission is detected by an Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Device (EMCCD) detector and image reconstruction of multiple excitation points is achieved with a working distance of several centimeters. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of system parameters on image reconstruction outcomes. Initial studies using fluorescent beads indicated that scaffold thickness had a small effect on image quality, whereas scaffold composition (collagen content), fluorophore spectra, and the reconstruction window size had a large effect. The results also suggest that a far-red fluorescent emission is preferential when using collagenous scaffolds with a thickness of up to 500 μm. Using these optimized parameters, we were able to image fluorescently labeled cells on a scaffold with a resolution of 15-20 μm, and have also measured muscle progenitor cell differentiation and scaffold surface coverage with endothelial cells. In the future, this imaging platform can be applied to other bioengineered tissues for non-invasive monitoring both in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Amylin Detection with a Miniature Optical-Fiber Based Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaowen; Ann, Matsko; Hughes, Adam; Reeves, Mark

    We present results of a biosensor based on shifts in the localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles self-assembled on the end of an optical fiber. This system allows for detection of protein expression in low sensing volumes and for scanning in cell cultures and tissue samples. Positive and negative controls were done using biotin/avidin and the BSA/Anti-BSA system. These demonstrate that detection is specific and sensitive to nanomolar levels. Sensing of amylin, an important protein for pancreatic function, was performed with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. The measured data demonstrates the difference in sensitivity to the two types of antibodies, and titration experiments establish the sensitivity of the sensor. Further experiments demonstrate that the sensor can be regenerated and then reused.

  7. Fiber-based optical trapping for cell mechanics study and microrheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ti, Chaoyang; Thomas, Gawain M.; Yu, Xiaokong; Wen, Qi; Tao, Mingjiang; Liu, Yuxiang

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we developed fiber based optical trapping system and explored its applications in biology and physics. We aim to replace objective lenses with optical fibers, both for optical trapping and particle position detection. Compared with objective lens based counterparts, fiber based optical trapping systems are small, low-cost, integratable, independent of objective lenses, and can work in turbid mediums. These advantages make fiber optical trapping systems ideal for applications in tightly confined spaces as well as integration with various microscopy techniques. We demonstrate the applications of fiber optical trapping systems in both single-cell mechanics and microrheology study of asphalt binders. Fiber optical trapping system is being used to study mechanical properties of viscoelastic hydrogel, as an important extra cellular matrix (ECM) material that is used to understand the force propagation on cell membranes on 2D substrates or in 3D compartments. Moreover, the fiber optical trapping system has also been demonstrated to measure the cellular response to the external mechanical stimuli. Direct measurements of cellular traction forces in 3D compartments are underway. In addition, fiber optical trapping systems are used to measure the microscale viscoelastic properties of asphalt binders, in order to improve the fundamental understanding of the relationship between mechanical and chemical properties of asphalt binders. This fundamental understanding could help targeted asphalt recycling and pavement maintenance. Fiber optical trapping systems are versatile and highly potential tools that can find applications in various areas ranging from mechanobiology to complex fluids.

  8. Instrumentation of fiber-based functional optical coherence tomographic imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaofeng; Ding, Zhihua; Chen, Yuheng; Huang, Lina; Wu, Lan; Liu, Xu

    2005-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been developed not only for morphological imaging, but also for functional imaging. By combining Doppler velocimetry with optical sectioning capability of OCT, we developed one branch of functional OCT (F-OCT) termed optical Doppler tomography (ODT). This newly developed fiber-based F-OCT system can provide structural image and Doppler image simultaneously, and is ready for extension to another branch of F-OCT termed as polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT). Measurements of in vivo human skin and fresh milk flowing inside capillary tube are presented to demonstrate the capability of the developed system.

  9. Microstructured Optical Fiber-based Biosensors: Reversible and Nanoliter-Scale Measurement of Zinc Ions.

    PubMed

    Heng, Sabrina; McDevitt, Christopher A; Kostecki, Roman; Morey, Jacqueline R; Eijkelkamp, Bart A; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Monro, Tanya M; Abell, Andrew D

    2016-05-25

    Sensing platforms that allow rapid and efficient detection of metal ions would have applications in disease diagnosis and study, as well as environmental sensing. Here, we report the first microstructured optical fiber-based biosensor for the reversible and nanoliter-scale measurement of metal ions. Specifically, a photoswitchable spiropyran Zn(2+) sensor is incorporated within the microenvironment of a liposome attached to microstructured optical fibers (exposed-core and suspended-core microstructured optical fibers). Both fiber-based platforms retains high selectivity of ion binding associated with a small molecule sensor, while also allowing nanoliter volume sampling and on/off switching. We have demonstrated that multiple measurements can be made on a single sample without the need to change the sensor. The ability of the new sensing platform to sense Zn(2+) in pleural lavage and nasopharynx of mice was compared to that of established ion sensing methodologies such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and a commercially available fluorophore (Fluozin-3), where the optical-fiber-based sensor provides a significant advantage in that it allows the use of nanoliter (nL) sampling when compared to ICP-MS (mL) and FluoZin-3 (μL). This work paves the way to a generic approach for developing surface-based ion sensors using a range of sensor molecules, which can be attached to a surface without the need for its chemical modification and presents an opportunity for the development of new and highly specific ion sensors for real time sensing applications.

  10. Non-contact photoacoustic imaging using a fiber based interferometer with optical amplification

    PubMed Central

    Hochreiner, Armin; Bauer-Marschallinger, Johannes; Burgholzer, Peter; Jakoby, Bernhard; Berer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In photoacoustic imaging the ultrasonic signals are usually detected by contacting transducers. For some applications contact with the tissue should be avoided. As alternatives to contacting transducers interferometric means can be used to acquire photoacoustic signals remotely. In this paper we report on non-contact three and two dimensional photoacoustic imaging using an optical fiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A detection beam is transmitted through an optical fiber network onto the surface of the specimen. Back reflected light is collected and coupled into the same optical fiber. To achieve a high signal/noise ratio the reflected light is amplified by means of optical amplification with an erbium doped fiber amplifier before demodulation. After data acquisition the initial pressure distribution is reconstructed by a Fourier domain reconstruction algorithm. We present remote photoacoustic imaging of a tissue mimicking phantom and on chicken skin. PMID:24298397

  11. Non-contact photoacoustic imaging using a fiber based interferometer with optical amplification.

    PubMed

    Hochreiner, Armin; Bauer-Marschallinger, Johannes; Burgholzer, Peter; Jakoby, Bernhard; Berer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In photoacoustic imaging the ultrasonic signals are usually detected by contacting transducers. For some applications contact with the tissue should be avoided. As alternatives to contacting transducers interferometric means can be used to acquire photoacoustic signals remotely. In this paper we report on non-contact three and two dimensional photoacoustic imaging using an optical fiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A detection beam is transmitted through an optical fiber network onto the surface of the specimen. Back reflected light is collected and coupled into the same optical fiber. To achieve a high signal/noise ratio the reflected light is amplified by means of optical amplification with an erbium doped fiber amplifier before demodulation. After data acquisition the initial pressure distribution is reconstructed by a Fourier domain reconstruction algorithm. We present remote photoacoustic imaging of a tissue mimicking phantom and on chicken skin.

  12. High precision long-term stable fiber-based optical synchronization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yurong; Wang, Xiaochao; Jiang, Youen; Qiao, Zhi; Li, Rao; Fan, Wei

    2016-10-01

    A fiber-based high precision long-term stable time synchronization system for multi-channel laser pulses is presented using fiber pulse stacker combined with high-speed optical-electrical conversion and electronics processing technology. This scheme is used to synchronize two individual lasers including a mode-lock laser and a time shaping pulse laser system. The relative timing jitter between two laser pulses achieved with this system is 970 fs (rms) in five minutes and 3.5 ps (rms) in five hours. The synchronization system is low cost and can work at over several tens of MHz repetition rate.

  13. Fiber-based free-space optical coherent receiver with vibration compensation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruochi; Wang, Jianmin; Zhao, Guang; Lv, Junyi

    2013-07-29

    We propose a novel fiber-based free-space optical (FSO) coherent receiver for inter-satellite communication. The receiver takes advantage of established fiber-optic components and utilizes the fine-pointing subsystem installed in FSO terminals to minimize the influence of satellite platform vibrations. The received beam is coupled to a single-mode fiber, and the coupling efficiency of the system is investigated both analytically and experimentally. A receiving sensitivity of -38 dBm is obtained at the forward error correction limit with a transmission rate of 22.4 Gbit/s. The proposed receiver is shown to be a promising component for inter-satellite optical communication.

  14. Micromachined array tip for multifocus fiber-based optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Victor X D; Munce, Nigel; Pekar, Julius; Gordon, Maggie L; Lo, Stewart; Marcon, Norman E; Wilson, Brian C; Vitkin, I Alex

    2004-08-01

    High-resolution optical coherence tomography demands a large detector bandwidth and a high numerical aperture for real-time imaging, which is difficult to achieve over a large imaging depth. To resolve these conflicting requirements we propose a novel multifocus fiber-based optical coherence tomography system with a micromachined array tip. We demonstrate the fabrication of a prototype four-channel tip that maintains a 9-14-microm spot diameter with more than 500 microm of imaging depth. Images of a resolution target and a human tooth were obtained with this tip by use of a four-channel cascaded Michelson fiber-optic interferometer, scanned simultaneously at 8 kHz with geometric power distribution across the four channels.

  15. Fiber-based optical parametric oscillator for high resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gottschall, Thomas; Meyer, Tobias; Baumgartl, Martin; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2014-09-08

    Imaging based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) relies on the interaction of high peak-power, synchronized picosecond pulses with narrow bandwidths and a well-defined frequency difference. Recently a new type of fiber-based CARS laser source based on four-wave-mixing (FWM) has been developed. In order to enhance its spectral resolution and efficiency, a FWM based fiber optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) is proposed in this work. The source delivers 180 mW with 5.6 kW peak power for the CARS pump and 130 mW with 2.9 kW peak power for the Stokes signal. CARS resonances around 2850 and 2930 cm(-1) can be resolved with a resolution of 1 cm(-1) enabling high-contrast, spectrally resolved CARS imaging of biological tissue.

  16. Portable, Fiber-Based, Diffuse Reflection Spectroscopy (DRS) Systems for Estimating Tissue Optical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Vishwanath, Karthik; Chang, Kevin; Klein, Daniel; Deng, Yu Feng; Chang, Vivide; Phelps, Janelle E.; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2010-01-01

    Steady-state diffuse reflection spectroscopy is a well-studied optical technique that can provide a noninvasive and quantitative method for characterizing the absorption and scattering properties of biological tissues. Here, we compare three fiber-based diffuse reflection spectroscopy systems that were assembled to create a light-weight, portable, and robust optical spectrometer that could be easily translated for repeated and reliable use in mobile settings. The three systems were built using a broadband light source and a compact, commercially available spectrograph. We tested two different light sources and two spectrographs (manufactured by two different vendors). The assembled systems were characterized by their signal-to-noise ratios, the source-intensity drifts, and detector linearity. We quantified the performance of these instruments in extracting optical properties from diffuse reflectance spectra in tissue-mimicking liquid phantoms with well-controlled optical absorption and scattering coefficients. We show that all assembled systems were able to extract the optical absorption and scattering properties with errors less than 10%, while providing greater than ten-fold decrease in footprint and cost (relative to a previously well-characterized and widely used commercial system). Finally, we demonstrate the use of these small systems to measure optical biomarkers in vivo in a small-animal model cancer therapy study. We show that optical measurements from the simple portable system provide estimates of tumor oxygen saturation similar to those detected using the commercial system in murine tumor models of head and neck cancer. PMID:21499501

  17. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.; Schipper, J.F.

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a T configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  18. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOEpatents

    George, E. Victor; Schipper, John F.

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a "T" configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  19. Dissemination stability and phase noise characteristics in a cascaded, fiber-based long-haul radio frequency dissemination network.

    PubMed

    Gao, C; Wang, B; Zhu, X; Yuan, Y B; Wang, L J

    2015-09-01

    To study the dissemination stability and phase noise characteristics of the cascaded fiber-based RF dissemination, we perform an experiment using three sets of RF modulated frequency dissemination systems. The experimental results show that the total transfer stability of the cascaded system can be given by σ(T)(2)=∑(i=1)(N)σ(i)(2) (σ(i) is the frequency dissemination stability of the ith segment and N is the quantity of segments). Furthermore, for each segment, the phase noise of recovered frequency signal is also measured. The results show that for an N-segment, cascaded dissemination system, its stability degrades only by a factor of N. This sub-linear relation makes the cascaded, RF-dissemination method a very attractive one for long-haul, time and frequency dissemination network.

  20. A high-efficiency fiber-based imaging system for co-registered autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Pahlevaninezhad, Hamid; Lee, Anthony M D; Shaipanich, Tawimas; Raizada, Rashika; Cahill, Lucas; Hohert, Geoffrey; Yang, Victor X D; Lam, Stephen; MacAulay, Calum; Lane, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    We present a power-efficient fiber-based imaging system capable of co-registered autofluorescence imaging and optical coherence tomography (AF/OCT). The system employs a custom fiber optic rotary joint (FORJ) with an embedded dichroic mirror to efficiently combine the OCT and AF pathways. This three-port wavelength multiplexing FORJ setup has a throughput of more than 83% for collected AF emission, significantly more efficient compared to previously reported fiber-based methods. A custom 900 µm diameter catheter ‒ consisting of a rotating lens assembly, double-clad fiber (DCF), and torque cable in a stationary plastic tube ‒ was fabricated to allow AF/OCT imaging of small airways in vivo. We demonstrate the performance of this system ex vivo in resected porcine airway specimens and in vivo in human on fingers, in the oral cavity, and in peripheral airways.

  1. Robust interferometric frequency lock between cw lasers and optical frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Benkler, Erik; Rohde, Felix; Telle, Harald R

    2013-02-15

    A transfer interferometer is presented which establishes a versatile and robust optical frequency locking link between a tunable single frequency laser and an optical frequency comb. It enables agile and continuous tuning of the frequency difference between both lasers while fluctuations and drift effects of the transfer interferometer itself are widely eliminated via common mode rejection. Experimental results will be presented for a tunable extended-cavity 1.5 μm laser diode locked to an Er-fiber based frequency comb.

  2. Fiber based optical tweezers for simultaneous in situ force exertion and measurements in a 3D polyacrylamide gel compartment.

    PubMed

    Ti, Chaoyang; Thomas, Gawain M; Ren, Yundong; Zhang, Rui; Wen, Qi; Liu, Yuxiang

    2015-07-01

    Optical tweezers play an important role in biological applications. However, it is difficult for traditional optical tweezers based on objective lenses to work in a three-dimensional (3D) solid far away from the substrate. In this work, we develop a fiber based optical trapping system, namely inclined dual fiber optical tweezers, that can simultaneously apply and measure forces both in water and in a 3D polyacrylamide gel matrix. In addition, we demonstrate in situ, non-invasive characterization of local mechanical properties of polyacrylamide gel by measurements on an embedded bead. The fiber optical tweezers measurements agree well with those of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The inclined dual fiber optical tweezers provide a promising and versatile tool for cell mechanics study in 3D environments.

  3. New optical frequency domain differential mode delay measurement method for a multimode optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Ahn, T; Moon, S; Youk, Y; Jung, Y; Oh, K; Kim, D

    2005-05-30

    A novel mode analysis method and differential mode delay (DMD) measurement technique for a multimode optical fiber based on optical frequency domain reflectometry has been proposed for the first time. We have used a conventional OFDR with a tunable external cavity laser and a Michelson interferometer. A few-mode optical multimode fiber was prepared to test our proposed measurement technique. We have also compared the OFDR measurement results with those obtained using a traditional time-domain measurement method.

  4. Precision optical reference frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Fritz; Schnatz, Harald; Zinner, G.; Trebst, Tilmann; Helmcke, Juergen

    1999-05-01

    Optical reference frequencies are provided by lasers of which the frequencies are stabilized to suitable absorption lines. Presently, twelve reference frequencies/wavelengths within the wavelengths range from 243 nm to 10.3 micrometers are recommended by the International Committee of Weights and Measures as references for the realization of the meter and scientific applications. As typical examples, we describe a diode-pumped, frequency doubled YAG-laser stabilized to an absorption line of molecular iodine and a Ca-stabilized laser. The latter one has been developed in two versions, a transportable system utilizing a small beam of thermal Ca atoms and a stationary standard based on laser cooled and trapped Ca atoms. The frequency of the Ca standard based on cold Ca atoms has been measured by a frequency chain allowing a phase-coherent comparison against the primary standard of time and frequency, the caesium clock. Its value is vCa equals 455 986 240 494.13 kHz with a relative standard uncertainty of 2.5 (DOT) 10-13.

  5. Frequency domain nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legare, Francois

    2016-05-01

    The universal dilemma of gain narrowing occurring in fs amplifiers prevents ultra-high power lasers from delivering few-cycle pulses. This problem is overcome by a new amplification concept: Frequency domain Optical Parametric Amplification - FOPA. It enables simultaneous up-scaling of peak power and amplified spectral bandwidth and can be performed at any wavelength range of conventional amplification schemes, however, with the capability to amplify single cycles of light. The key idea for amplification of octave-spanning spectra without loss of spectral bandwidth is to amplify the broad spectrum ``slice by slice'' in the frequency domain, i.e. in the Fourier plane of a 4f-setup. The striking advantages of this scheme, are its capability to amplify (more than) one octave of bandwidth without shorting the corresponding pulse duration. This is because ultrabroadband phase matching is not defined by the properties of the nonlinear crystal employed but the number of crystals employed. In the same manner, to increase the output energy one simply has to increase the spectral extension in the Fourier plane and to add one more crystal. Thus, increasing pulse energy and shortening its duration accompany each other. A proof of principle experiment was carried out at ALLS on the sub-two cycle IR beam line and yielded record breaking performance in the field of few-cycle IR lasers. 100 μJ two-cycle pulses from a hollow core fibre compression setup were amplified to 1.43mJ without distorting spatial or temporal properties. Pulse duration at the input of FOPA and after FOPA remains the same. Recently, we have started upgrading this system to be pumped by 250 mJ to reach 40 mJ two-cycle IR few-cycle pulses and latest results will be presented at the conference. Furthermore, the extension of the concept of FOPA to other nonlinear optical processes will be discussed. Frequency domain nonlinear optics.

  6. Optical fiber-based MR-compatible sensors for medical applications: an overview.

    PubMed

    Taffoni, Fabrizio; Formica, Domenico; Saccomandi, Paola; Di Pino, Giovanni; Schena, Emiliano

    2013-10-18

    During last decades, Magnetic Resonance (MR)--compatible sensors based on different techniques have been developed due to growing demand for application in medicine. There are several technological solutions to design MR-compatible sensors, among them, the one based on optical fibers presents several attractive features. The high elasticity and small size allow designing miniaturized fiber optic sensors (FOS) with metrological characteristics (e.g., accuracy, sensitivity, zero drift, and frequency response) adequate for most common medical applications; the immunity from electromagnetic interference and the absence of electrical connection to the patient make FOS suitable to be used in high electromagnetic field and intrinsically safer than conventional technologies. These two features further heightened the potential role of FOS in medicine making them especially attractive for application in MRI. This paper provides an overview of MR-compatible FOS, focusing on the sensors employed for measuring physical parameters in medicine (i.e., temperature, force, torque, strain, and position). The working principles of the most promising FOS are reviewed in terms of their relevant advantages and disadvantages, together with their applications in medicine.

  7. Optical Fiber-Based MR-Compatible Sensors for Medical Applications: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Taffoni, Fabrizio; Formica, Domenico; Saccomandi, Paola; Di Pino, Giovanni; Schena, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    During last decades, Magnetic Resonance (MR)—compatible sensors based on different techniques have been developed due to growing demand for application in medicine. There are several technological solutions to design MR-compatible sensors, among them, the one based on optical fibers presents several attractive features. The high elasticity and small size allow designing miniaturized fiber optic sensors (FOS) with metrological characteristics (e.g., accuracy, sensitivity, zero drift, and frequency response) adequate for most common medical applications; the immunity from electromagnetic interference and the absence of electrical connection to the patient make FOS suitable to be used in high electromagnetic field and intrinsically safer than conventional technologies. These two features further heightened the potential role of FOS in medicine making them especially attractive for application in MRI. This paper provides an overview of MR-compatible FOS, focusing on the sensors employed for measuring physical parameters in medicine (i.e., temperature, force, torque, strain, and position). The working principles of the most promising FOS are reviewed in terms of their relevant advantages and disadvantages, together with their applications in medicine. PMID:24145918

  8. Fiber optic frequency transfer link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, Lori E. (Inventor); Sydnor, Richard L. (Inventor); Lutes, George F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A reference frequency distribution system is disclosed for transmitting a reference frequency from a reference unit to a remote unit while keeping the reference frequency at the reference unit and the remote unit in phase. A fiber optic cable connects the reference unit to the remote unit. A frequency source at the reference unit produces a reference frequency having an adjustable phase. A fiber optic transmitter at the reference unit modulates a light beam with the reference frequency and transmits the light beam into the fiber optic cable. A 50/50 reflector at the remote unit reflects a first portion of the light beam from the reference unit back into the fiber optic cable to the reference unit. A first fiber optic receiver disposed at the remote unit receives a second portion of the light beam and demodulates the reference frequency to be used at the remote unit. A second fiber optic receiver disposed at the reference unit receives the first portion of the light beam and demodulates a reference frequency component. A phase conjugator is connected to the frequency source for comparing the phase of the reference frequency component to the phase of the reference frequency modulating the light beam being transmitted from the reference unit to maintain a conjugate (anti-symmetric) relationship between the reference frequency component and the reference frequency modulating the light beam where virtually no phase difference exists between the phase of the reference frequency component and the phase of the reference frequency modulating the light beam.

  9. Arbitrary optical frequency synthesis traced to an optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zihang; Zhang, Weipeng; Yang, Honglei; Li, Yan; Wei, Haoyun

    2016-11-01

    An arbitrary optical frequency synthesizer with a broad tuning range and high frequency accuracy is presented. The system includes an external cavity diode laser (ECDL) as the output laser, an Erbium-doped optical frequency comb being a frequency reference, and a control module. The optical frequency from the synthesizer can be continuously tuned by the large-scale trans-tooth switch and the fine intra-tooth adjustment. Robust feedback control by regulating the current and PZT voltage enables the ECDL to phase-lock to the Erbium-doped optical frequency comb, therefore to keep stable frequency output. In the meanwhile, the absolute frequency of the synthesizer is determined by the repetition rate, the offset frequency and the beat frequency. All the phase lock loops in the system are traced back to a Rubidium clock. A powerful and friendly software is developed to make the operation convenient by integrating the functions of frequency setting, tuning, tracing, locking and measuring into a LabVIEW interface. The output frequency tuning span and the uncertainty of the system are evaluated as >6 THz and <3 kHz, respectively. The arbitrary optical frequency synthesizer will be a versatile tool in diverse applications, such as synthetic wavelength based absolute distance measurement and frequency-stabilized Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy.

  10. Body-monitoring and health supervision by means of optical fiber-based sensing systems in medical textiles.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Brit M; Scherer, Lukas J; Boesel, Luciano F; Wolf, Martin; Bona, Gian-Luca; Rossi, René M

    2015-02-18

    Long-term monitoring with optical fibers has moved into the focus of attention due to the applicability for medical measurements. Within this Review, setups of flexible, unobtrusive body-monitoring systems based on optical fibers and the respective measured vital parameters are in focus. Optical principles are discussed as well as the interaction of light with tissue. Optical fiber-based sensors that are already used in first trials are primarily selected for the section on possible applications. These medical textiles include the supervision of respiration, cardiac output, blood pressure, blood flow and its saturation with hemoglobin as well as oxygen, pressure, shear stress, mobility, gait, temperature, and electrolyte balance. The implementation of these sensor concepts prompts the development of wearable smart textiles. Thus, current sensing techniques and possibilities within photonic textiles are reviewed leading to multiparameter designs. Evaluation of these designs should show the great potential of optical fibers for the introduction into textiles especially due to the benefit of immunity to electromagnetic radiation. Still, further improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio is often necessary to develop a commercial monitoring system.

  11. Single all-fiber-based nanosecond-pulsed supercontinuum source for multispectral photoacoustic microscopy and optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiao; Bondu, Magalie; Dong, Biqin; Podoleanu, Adrian; Leick, Lasse; Zhang, Hao F

    2016-06-15

    We report the usefulness of a single all-fiber-based supercontinuum (SC) source for combined photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The SC light is generated by a tapered photonic crystal fiber pumped by a nanosecond pulsed master oscillator power amplifier at 1064 nm. The spectrum is split into a shorter wavelength band (500-800 nm) for single/multi-spectral PAM and a longer wavelength band (800-900 nm) band for OCT. In vivo mouse ear imaging was achieved with an integrated dual-modality system. We further demonstrated its potential for spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging by doing multispectral measurements on retinal pigment epithelium and blood samples with 15-nm linewidth.

  12. Optical feedback-induced light modulation for fiber-based laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Wook

    2014-11-01

    Optical fibers have been used as a minimally invasive tool in various medical fields. However, due to excessive heat accumulation, the distal end of a fiber often suffers from severe melting or devitrification, leading to the eventual fiber failure during laser treatment. In order to minimize thermal damage at the fiber tip, an optical feedback sensor was developed and tested ex vivo. Porcine kidney tissue was used to evaluate the feasibility of optical feedback in terms of signal activation, ablation performance, and light transmission. Testing various signal thresholds demonstrated that 3 V was relatively appropriate to trigger the feedback sensor and to prevent the fiber deterioration during kidney tissue ablation. Based upon the development of temporal signal signatures, full contact mode rapidly activated the optical feedback sensor possibly due to heat accumulation. Modulated light delivery induced by optical feedback diminished ablation efficiency by 30% in comparison with no feedback case. However, long-term transmission results validated that laser ablation assisted with optical feedback was able to almost consistently sustain light delivery to the tissue as well as ablation efficiency. Therefore, an optical feedback sensor can be a feasible tool to protect optical fiber tips by minimizing debris contamination and delaying thermal damage process and to ensure more efficient and safer laser-induced tissue ablation.

  13. Application of a high power Yb fiber-based laser compatible with commercial optical parametric oscillator for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hage, Charles-Henri; Boisset, Simon; Ibrahim, Ali; Morin, Franck; Hoenninger, Clemens; Grunske, Tobias; Souissi, Sami; Heliot, Laurent; Leray, Aymeric

    2014-06-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is a powerful tool for chemical analysis at a subcellular level, frequently used for imaging lipid dynamics in living cells. We report a high-power picosecond fiber-based laser and its application for optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumping and CARS microscopy. This fiber-based laser has been carefully characterized. It produces 5 ps pulses with 0.8 nm spectral width at a 1,030 nm wavelength with more than 10 W of average power at 80 MHz repetition rate; these spectral and temporal properties can be slightly modified. We then study the influence of these modifications on the spectral and temporal properties of the OPO. We find that the OPO system generates a weakly spectrally chirped signal beam constituted of 3 ps pulses with 0.4 nm spectral width tunable from 790 to 930 nm optimal for CARS imaging. The frequency doubling unconverted part is composed of 7-8 ps pulses with 0.75 nm spectral width compatible with CARS imaging. We also study the influence of the fiber laser properties on the CARS signal generated by distilled water. In agreement with theory, we find that shorter temporal pulses allow higher peak powers and thus higher CARS signal, if the spectral widths are less than 10 cm(-1) . We demonstrate that this source is suitable for performing CARS imaging of living cells during several hours without photodamages. We finally demonstrate CARS imaging on more complex aquatic organisms called copepods (micro-crustaceans), on which we distinguish morphological details and lipid reserves.

  14. Diamagnetic tellurite glass and fiber based magneto-optical current transducer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuling; Ma, Qiuhua; Wang, Hui; Chen, Qiuping

    2015-10-10

    Diamagnetic TeO2-ZnO-Na2O glasses and fibers were fabricated and characterized for magneto-optical current-sensor applications. Two prototypes based on the obtained glass and fibers were constructed. An analysis of the distribution of the magnetic field flux inside the conductor was performed. Hardware and developed software were constructed for the acquisition of weak output signals induced by a low current. The good sensitivities of the fiber magneto-optical current transducer and the bulk magneto-optical current transducer are due to the high Verdet constant and homemade signal-acquisition hardware.

  15. Polarization maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We present a new ultra high resolution spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) system based on polarization maintaining (PM) fibers. The method transfers the principles of our previous bulk optic PS-OCT systems to a fiberized setup. The phase shift between the orthogonal polarization states travelling in the two orthogonal modes of the PM fiber is compensated by software in post processing. Thereby, the main advantage of our bulk optics setups, i.e. the use of only a single input polarization state to simultaneously acquire reflectivity, retardation, optic axis orientation, and Stokes vector, is maintained. The use of a broadband light source of 110 nm bandwidth provides improved depth resolution and smaller speckle size. The latter is important for improved resolution of depolarization imaging. We demonstrate our instrument for high-resolution PS-OCT imaging of the healthy human retina. PMID:20052196

  16. Microstructured optical fiber-based micro-cavity sensor for chemical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bongkyun; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang; Chung, Youngjoo

    2014-02-01

    The studies on microstructured optical fibers (MOF) have drawn considerable interest and played an important role in many applications. MOFs provide unique optical properties and controllable modal properties because of their flexibilities on manipulation of the transmission spectrum and the waveguide dispersion properties. MOFs are especially useful for optical sensing applications because the micro-structured air channels in MOF can host various types of analytes such as liquids, gases, and chemical molecules. Recently, many studies have focused on the development of MOF-based optical sensors for various gases and chemical molecules. We propose a compact, and highly sensitive optical micro-cavity chemical sensor using microstructured fiber. The sensor probe is composed of a hollow optical fiber and end cleaved microstructured fiber with a solid core. The interference spectrum resulting from the reflected light at the silica and air interfaces changes when the micro-cavity is infiltrated with external chemical molecules. This structure enables the direct detection of chemical molecules such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) without the introduction of any permeable material.

  17. Evaluation of optical properties for real photonic crystal fiber based on total variation in wavelet domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yan; Wang, Xin; Lou, Shuqin; Lian, Zhenggang; Zhao, Tongtong

    2016-09-01

    An evaluation method based on the total variation model (TV) in wavelet domain is proposed for modeling optical properties of real photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). The TV model in wavelet domain is set up to suppress the noise of the original image effectively and rebuild the cross section images of real PCFs with high accuracy. The optical properties of three PCFs are evaluated, including two kinds of PCFs that supplied from the Crystal Fiber A/S and a homemade side-leakage PCF, by using the combination of the proposed model and finite element method. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method can obtain high noise suppression ratio and effectively reduce the noise of cross section images of PCFs, which leads to an accurate evaluation of optical properties of real PCFs. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time to denoise the cross section images of PCFs with the TV model in the wavelet domain.

  18. An optical fiber-based sensor array for the monitoring of zinc and copper ions in aqueous environments.

    PubMed

    Kopitzke, Steven; Geissinger, Peter

    2014-02-17

    Copper and zinc are elements commonly used in industrial applications as aqueous solutions. Before the solutions can be discharged into civil or native waterways, waste treatment processes must be undertaken to ensure compliance with government guidelines restricting the concentration of ions discharged in solution. While currently there are methods of analysis available to monitor these solutions, each method has disadvantages, be it high costs, inaccuracy, and/or being time-consuming. In this work, a new optical fiber-based platform capable of providing fast and accurate results when performing solution analysis for these metals is described. Fluorescent compounds that exhibit a high sensitivity and selectivity for either zinc or copper have been employed for fabricating the sensors. These sensors demonstrated sub-part-per-million detection limits, 30-second response times, and the ability to analyze samples with an average error of under 10%. The inclusion of a fluorescent compound as a reference material to compensate for fluctuations from pulsed excitation sources has further increased the reliability and accuracy of each sensor. Finally, after developing sensors capable of monitoring zinc and copper individually, these sensors are combined to form a single optical fiber sensor array capable of simultaneously monitoring concentration changes in zinc and copper in aqueous environments.

  19. Strain transfer analysis of optical fiber based sensors embedded in an asphalt pavement structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaping; Xiang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Asphalt pavement is vulnerable to random damage, such as cracking and rutting, which can be proactively identified by distributed optical fiber sensing technology. However, due to the material nature of optical fibers, a bare fiber is apt to be damaged during the construction process of pavements. Thus, a protective layer is needed for this application. Unfortunately, part of the strain of the host material is absorbed by the protective layer when transferring the strain to the sensing fiber. To account for the strain transfer error, in this paper a theoretical analysis of the strain transfer of a three-layered general model has been carried out by introducing Goodman’s hypothesis to describe the interfacial shear stress relationship. The model considers the viscoelastic behavior of the host material and protective layer. The effects of one crack in the host material and the sensing length on strain transfer relationship are been discussed. To validate the effectiveness of the strain transfer analysis, a flexible asphalt-mastic packaged distributed optical fiber sensor was designed and tested in a laboratory environment to monitor the distributed strain and appearance of cracks in an asphalt concrete beam at two different temperatures. The experimental results indicated that the developed strain transfer formula can significantly reduce the strain transfer error, and that the asphalt-mastic packaged optical fiber sensor can successfully monitor the distributed strain and identify local cracks.

  20. Light-directed functionalization methods for high-resolution optical fiber based biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahyaoglu, Leyla Nesrin; Madangopal, Rajtarun; Stensberg, Matthew; Rickus, Jenna L.

    2005-05-01

    Recent advances in miniaturization and analyte-sensitive fluorescent indicators make optical fiber biosensors promising alternatives to microelectrodes. Optical sensing offers several advantages over electrochemical methods including increased stability and better spatial control to monitor physiological processes at cellular resolutions. The distal end of an optical fiber can be functionalized with different fluorophore/polymer combinations through mechanical, dip-coating or photopolymerization techniques. Unlike mechanical and dip-coating schemes, photopolymerization can spatially confine the sensing layer in the vicinity of light in a more reproducible and controllable manner. The objective of this study was to fabricate microscale fluorescence lifetime based optrodes using UV-induced photopolymerization. Six commercially available acrylate based monomers were investigated for stable entrapment of the oxygen sensitive porphyrin dye (PtTFPP) dye via photopolymerization at the end of optical fibers. Of these, the acrylate-functionalized alkoxysilane monomer, 3-methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (tradename Dynasylan MEMO) showed maximal response to changes in oxygen concentration. Dye-doped polymer microtips were grown at the ends 50 μm optical fibers and sensitivity and response time were optimized by varying both the concentration of doped dye and the excitation power used for polymerization. The resulting sensors showed linear response within the physiologically relevant range of oxygen concentrations and fast response times. While applied here to oxygen sensing, the photopolymer formulation and process parameters described are compatible with a wide range of available organic dyes and can be used to pattern arrays of spots, needles or more complex shapes at high spatial resolution.

  1. Active Faraday optical frequency standard.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Jingbiao

    2014-11-01

    We propose the mechanism of an active Faraday optical clock, and experimentally demonstrate an active Faraday optical frequency standard based on narrow bandwidth Faraday atomic filter by the method of velocity-selective optical pumping of cesium vapor. The center frequency of the active Faraday optical frequency standard is determined by the cesium 6 (2)S(1/2) F=4 to 6 (2)P(3/2) F'=4 and 5 crossover transition line. The optical heterodyne beat between two similar independent setups shows that the frequency linewidth reaches 281(23) Hz, which is 1.9×10(4) times smaller than the natural linewidth of the cesium 852-nm transition line. The maximum emitted light power reaches 75 μW. The active Faraday optical frequency standard reported here has advantages of narrow linewidth and reduced cavity pulling, which can readily be extended to other atomic transition lines of alkali and alkaline-earth metal atoms trapped in optical lattices at magic wavelengths, making it useful for new generation of optical atomic clocks.

  2. Optical Fiber-Based In Situ Spectroscopy of Pigmented Single Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Wiggli, M.; Ghosh, R.; Bachofen, R.

    1996-01-01

    We have adapted a commercially available fiber-optic spectroradiometer with diode array detection to record reflection and absorption spectra from single, 1-mm-diameter bacterial colonies. A careful assessment of the performance of the spectroradiometer for this application is reported. In a model study employing colonies from various phototrophic bacteria, we show that the reflectance spectra are reliable within the range of 450 to 820 nm, whereas the transmission spectra yield accurate peak intensities and absorption maxima from 400 to 900 nm. For screening of populations of about 10(sup4) colonies, fiber-optic transmission spectroscopy provides an attractive and inexpensive alternative to present techniques based on charge-coupled device imaging technology. PMID:16535403

  3. Distributed optical fiber-based theoretical and empirical methods monitoring hydraulic engineering subjected to seepage velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Huaizhi; Tian, Shiguang; Cui, Shusheng; Yang, Meng; Wen, Zhiping; Xie, Wei

    2016-09-01

    In order to systematically investigate the general principle and method of monitoring seepage velocity in the hydraulic engineering, the theoretical analysis and physical experiment were implemented based on distributed fiber-optic temperature sensing (DTS) technology. During the coupling influence analyses between seepage field and temperature field in the embankment dam or dike engineering, a simplified model was constructed to describe the coupling relationship of two fields. Different arrangement schemes of optical fiber and measuring approaches of temperature were applied on the model. The inversion analysis idea was further used. The theoretical method of monitoring seepage velocity in the hydraulic engineering was finally proposed. A new concept, namely the effective thermal conductivity, was proposed referring to the thermal conductivity coefficient in the transient hot-wire method. The influence of heat conduction and seepage could be well reflected by this new concept, which was proved to be a potential approach to develop an empirical method monitoring seepage velocity in the hydraulic engineering.

  4. Colloidal Metamaterials at Optical Frequencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-18

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0184 Colloidal Metamaterials at Optical Frequencies Jennifer Dionne LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIV CA Final Report 07/18/2014...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Colloidal Metamaterials at Optical Frequencies Annual Report, June 30, 2014 A. Investigators PI: Jennifer Dionne...team has combined theoretical and experimental methods to produce a colloidally -synthesized metamaterial fluid, or “metafluid,” exhibiting strong

  5. Optical-fiber-based laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of early caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-06-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system targeting for the in vivo analysis of tooth enamel is described. The system is planned to enable real-time analysis of teeth during laser dental treatment by utilizing a hollow optical fiber that transmits both Q-switched Nd:YAG laser light for LIBS and infrared Er:YAG laser light for tooth ablation. The sensitivity of caries detection was substantially improved by expanding the spectral region under analysis to ultraviolet (UV) light and by focusing on emission peaks of Zn in the UV region. Subsequently, early caries were distinguished from healthy teeth with accuracy rates above 80% in vitro.

  6. Easy to Use Plastic Optical Fiber-Based Biosensor for Detection of Butanal

    PubMed Central

    Varriale, Antonio; Staiano, Maria; Di Pietrantonio, Fabio; Notargiacomo, Andrea; Zeni, Luigi; D’Auria, Sabato

    2015-01-01

    The final goal of this work is to achieve a selective detection of butanal by the realization of a simple, small-size and low cost experimental approach. To this end, a porcine odorant-binding protein was used in connection with surface plasmon resonance transduction in a plastic optical fiber tool for the selective detection of butanal by a competitive assay. This allows to reduce the cost and the size of the sensing device and it offers the possibility to design a “Lab-on-a-chip” platform. The obtained results showed that this system approach is able to selectively detect the presence of butanal in the concentration range from 20 μM to 1000 μM. PMID:25789470

  7. Plastic optical fiber-based biosensor platform for rapid cell detection.

    PubMed

    Wandermur, Gisele; Rodrigues, Domingos; Allil, Regina; Queiroz, Vanessa; Peixoto, Raquel; Werneck, Marcelo; Miguel, Marco

    2014-04-15

    This work presents a novel, fast response time, plastic optic fiber (POF) biosensor to detect Escherichia coli. It discloses the technique for the development, calibration and measurement of this robust and simple-to-construct POF biosensor. The probes in U-shaped format were manufactured with a specially developed device. The calibration process led to the evaluation of the sensitivity, accuracy and repeatability by using solutions of sucrose for obtaining refractive indices (RI) in the range 1.33-1.39 IR equivalent of water and bacteria, respectively. The POF probes were functionalized with antibody anti-E. coli serotype O55 and tested firstly with saline and then with bacterial concentrations of 10(4), 10(6), and 10(8) colony forming units/ml (CFU/ml). The optoelectronic setup consists of an 880 nm LED connected to the U-shaped probe driven by a sine waveform generated by the Simulink (from Matlab(®)). On the other side of the probe a photodetector generates a photocurrent which is amplified by a transconductance amplifier. The output voltage signal is read by the analog-to-digital (A/D) input of the microcontroller. In all tested concentrations, the results presented a tendency of a decrease in the output signal with time, due to the attachment of the bacteria to the POF probe and consequent increase in the RI close to the sensitive area of the fiber surface. It has been shown that the system is capable of providing positive response to the bacterial concentration in less than 10 min, demonstrating good possibilities to be commercially developed as a portable field sensor.

  8. Temperature Compensation in Determining of Remazol Black B Concentrations Using Plastic Optical Fiber Based Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Su Sin; Aziz, A.R. Abdul; Harun, Sulaiman W.; Arof, Hamzah

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the construction and test of tapered plastic optical fiber (POF) sensors, based on an intensity modulation approach are described. Tapered fiber sensors with different diameters of 0.65 mm, 0.45 mm, and 0.35 mm, were used to measure various concentrations of Remazol black B (RBB) dye aqueous solutions at room temperature. The concentrations of the RBB solutions were varied from 0 ppm to 70 ppm. In addition, the effect of varying the temperature of the RBB solution was also investigated. In this case, the output of the sensor was measured at four different temperatures of 27 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C, and 40 °C, while its concentration was fixed at 50 ppm and 100 ppm. The experimental results show that the tapered POF with d = 0.45 mm achieves the best performance with a reasonably good sensitivity of 61 × 10−4 and a linearity of more than 99%. It also maintains a sufficient and stable signal when heat was applied to the solution with a linearity of more than 97%. Since the transmitted intensity is dependent on both the concentration and temperature of the analyte, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to combine the two independent variables into a single equation. The resulting equation was then validated experimentally and the best agreement between the calculated and experimental results was achieved by the sensor with d = 0.45 mm, where the minimum discrepancy is less than 5%. The authors conclude that POF-based sensors are suitable for RBB dye concentration sensing and, with refinement in fabrication, better results could be achieved. Their low fabrication cost, simple configuration, accuracy, and high sensitivity would attract many potential applications in chemical and biological sensing. PMID:25166498

  9. Broadband ultrasonic sensor array via optical frequency domain reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabai, Haniel; Steinberg, Idan; Eyal, Avishay

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a new approach for multiplexing fiber-based ultrasound sensors using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR). In the present demonstration of the method, each sensor was a short section of Polyimide-coated single-mode fiber. One end of the sensing fiber was pigtailed to a mirror and the other end was connected, via a fiber optic delay line, to a 1X4 fiber coupler. The multiplexing was enabled by using a different delay to each sensor. Ultrasonic excitation was performed by a 1MHz transducer which transmitted 4μs tone-bursts above the sensor array. The ultrasound waves generated optical phase variations in the fibers which were detected using the OFDR method. The ultrasound field at the sensors was successfully reconstructed without any noticeable cross-talk.

  10. Frequency-modulated light scattering interferometry employed for optical properties and dynamics studies of turbid media

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Liang; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Svanberg, Sune

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, fiber-based frequency-modulated light scattering interferometry (FMLSI) is developed and employed for studies of optical properties and dynamics in liquid phantoms made from Intralipid®. The fiber-based FMLSI system retrieves the optical properties by examining the intensity fluctuations through the turbid medium in a heterodyne detection scheme using a continuous-wave frequency-modulated coherent light source. A time resolution of 21 ps is obtained, and the experimental results for the diluted Intralipid phantoms show good agreement with the predicted results based on published data. The present system shows great potential for assessment of optical properties as well as dynamic studies in liquid phantoms, dairy products, and human tissues. PMID:25136504

  11. Dynamic optical frequency domain reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Arbel, Dror; Eyal, Avishay

    2014-04-21

    We describe a dynamic Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR) system which enables real time, long range, acoustic sensing at high sampling rate. The system is based on a fast scanning laser and coherent detection scheme. Distributed sensing is obtained by probing the Rayleigh backscattered light. The system was tested by interrogation of a 10 km communication type single mode fiber and successfully detected localized impulse and sinusoidal excitations.

  12. A FEMTOSECOND-LEVEL FIBER-OPTICS TIMING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING FREQUENCY-OFFSET INTERFEROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, J.W.; Byrd, J.; Doolittle, L.; Huang, G.; Wilcox, R.

    2009-10-17

    An optical fiber-based frequency and timing distribution system based on the principle of heterodyne interferometry has been in development at LBNL for several years. The fiber drift corrector has evolved from an RF-based to an optical-based system, from mechanical correctors (piezo and optical trombone) to fully electronic, and the electronics from analog to fully digital, all using inexpensive off-the-shelf commodity fiber components. Short-term optical phase jitter and long-term phase drift are both in the femtosecond range over distribution paths of 2 km or more.

  13. Different ways to active optical frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Duo; Xue, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiaogang; Chen, Jingbiao

    2016-06-01

    Active optical frequency standard, or active optical clock, is a new concept of optical frequency standard, where a weak feedback with phase coherence information in optical bad-cavity limitation is formed, and the continuous self-sustained coherent stimulated emission between two atomic transition levels with population inversion is realized. Through ten years of both theoretical and experimental exploration, the narrow linewidth and suppression of cavity pulling effect of active optical frequency standard have been initially proved. In this paper, after a simple review, we will mainly present the most recent experimental progresses of active optical frequency standards in Peking University, including 4-level cesium active optical frequency standards and active Faraday optical frequency standards. The future development of active optical frequency standards is also discussed.

  14. Interaction of high-density and low-density lipoproteins to solid surfaces coated with cholesterol as determined by an optical fiber-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bal R.; Poirier, Michelle A.

    1993-05-01

    In recent years, the use of fiber optics has become an important tool in biomedicine and biotechnology. We are involved in developing and employing a new system which, through the use of fiber optics, may be capable of measuring the content of cholesterol and lipoproteins in blood samples in real time. In the optical fiber-based biosensor, a laser beam having a wavelength of 512 nm (green light) is launched into an optical fiber, which transmits the light to its distal end. An evanescent wave (travelling just outside the fiber core) is used to excite rhodamine-labelled HDL or LDL which become bound to the fiber or to fiber-bound molecules. The fluorescence (red light) is coupled back into the fiber and detected with a photodiode. Preliminary work has involved testing of high density lipoprotein (HDL) binding to a cholesterol-coated fiber and to a bare fiber and low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding to a cholesterol-coated fiber. A significant difference was observed in the binding rate of HDL (5 (mu) g/mL and lower) to a bare fiber as opposed to a cholesterol-coated fiber. The binding rate of HDL (5 (mu) g/mL) to a bare fiber was 7.5 (mu) V/sec and to a cholesterol-coated fiber was 3.5 (mu) V/sec. We have calculated the binding affinity of LDL to a cholesterol- coated fiber as 1.4 (mu) M-1. These preliminary results suggest that the optical fiber-based biosensor can provide a unique and promising approach to the analysis of lipoprotein interaction with solid surfaces and with cholesterol. More importantly, the results suggest that this technique may be used to assess the binding of blood proteins to artificial organs/tissues, and to measure the amount of cholesterol, HDL and LDL in less than a minute.

  15. BMFO-PVDF electrospun fiber based tunable metamaterial structures for electromagnetic interference shielding in microwave frequency region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revathi, Venkatachalam; Dinesh Kumar, Sakthivel; Subramanian, Venkatachalam; Chellamuthu, Muthamizhchelvan

    2015-11-01

    Metamaterial structures are artificial structures that are useful in controlling the flow of electromagnetic radiation. In this paper, composite fibers of sub-micron thickness of barium substituted magnesium ferrite (Ba0.2Mg0.8Fe2O4) - polyvinylidene fluoride obtained by electrospinning is used as a substrate to design electromagnetic interference shielding structures. While electrospinning improves the ferroelectric properties of the polyvinylidene fluoride, the presence of barium magnesium ferrite modifies the magnetic property of the composite fiber. The dielectric and magnetic properties at microwave frequency measured using microwave cavity perturbation technique are used to design the reflection as well as absorption based tunable metamaterial structures for electromagnetic interference shielding in microwave frequency region. For one of the structures, the simulation indicates that single negative metamaterial structure becomes a double negative metamaterial under the external magnetic field.

  16. Frequency domain optical parametric amplification

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Bruno E.; Thiré, Nicolas; Boivin, Maxime; Laramée, Antoine; Poitras, François; Lebrun, Guy; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Ibrahim, Heide; Légaré, François

    2014-01-01

    Today’s ultrafast lasers operate at the physical limits of optical materials to reach extreme performances. Amplification of single-cycle laser pulses with their corresponding octave-spanning spectra still remains a formidable challenge since the universal dilemma of gain narrowing sets limits for both real level pumped amplifiers as well as parametric amplifiers. We demonstrate that employing parametric amplification in the frequency domain rather than in time domain opens up new design opportunities for ultrafast laser science, with the potential to generate single-cycle multi-terawatt pulses. Fundamental restrictions arising from phase mismatch and damage threshold of nonlinear laser crystals are not only circumvented but also exploited to produce a synergy between increased seed spectrum and increased pump energy. This concept was successfully demonstrated by generating carrier envelope phase stable, 1.43 mJ two-cycle pulses at 1.8 μm wavelength. PMID:24805968

  17. Optical Frequency Synthesizer for Precision Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzwarth, R.; Udem, Th.; Hänsch, T. W.; Knight, J. C.; Wadsworth, W. J.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2000-09-01

    We have used the frequency comb generated by a femtosecond mode-locked laser and broadened to more than an optical octave in a photonic crystal fiber to realize a frequency chain that links a 10 MHz radio frequency reference phase-coherently in one step to the optical region. By comparison with a similar frequency chain we set an upper limit for the uncertainty of this new approach to 5.1×10-16. This opens the door for measurement and synthesis of virtually any optical frequency and is ready to revolutionize frequency metrology.

  18. Design of a porous cored hexagonal photonic crystal fiber based optical sensor with high relative sensitivity for lower operating wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Shuvo; Chowdhury, Sawrab; Ahmed, Kawsar; Asaduzzaman, Sayed

    2017-03-01

    In this article, highly sensitive and low confinement loss enriching micro structured photonic crystal fiber (PCF) has been suggested as an optical sensor. The proposed PCF is porous cored hexagonal (P-HPCF) where cladding contains five layers with circular air holes and core vicinity is formed by two layered elliptical air holes. Two fundamental propagation characteristics such as the relative sensitivity and confinement loss of the proposed P-HPCF have been numerically scrutinized by the full vectorial finite element method (FEM) simulation procedure. The optimized values are modified with different geometrical parameters like diameters of circular or elliptical air holes, pitches of the core, and cladding region over a spacious assortment of wavelength from 0.8 µm to 1.8 µm. All pretending results exhibit that the relative sensitivity is enlarged according to decrement of wavelength of the transmission band (O+E+S+C+L+U). In addition, all useable liquids reveal the maximum sensitivity of 57.00%, 57.18%, and 57.27% for n=1.33, 1.354, and 1.366 respectively by lower band. Moreover, effective area, nonlinear coefficient, frequency, propagation constant, total electric energy, total magnetic energy, and wave number in free space of the proposed P-HPCF have been reported recently.

  19. REVIEW: Optical frequency standards and femtosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, E. V.; Pokasov, P. V.

    2003-05-01

    A review is presented of the state of the art in a new direction in quantum electronics based on the use of femtosecond lasers for precision frequency measurements and the development of optical frequency and time standards.

  20. Simultaneous 1310/1550 dual-band swept laser source and fiber-based dual-band common-path swept source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Youxin; Chang, Shoude; Murdock, Erroll; Flueraru, Costel

    2011-08-01

    A simultaneous two wavelength band swept laser source and a fiber-based dual-band common-path swept source optical coherence tomography is reported. Simultaneous 1310/1550 dual-wavelength tuning is performed by using two fiber-ring cavities with corresponding optical semiconductor amplifier as their gain mediums and two narrowband optical filters with a single dual-window polygonal scanner. Measured average output powers of 60 mW and 27 mW have been achieved for 1310 and 1550 nm bands, respectively, while the two wavelengths were swept simultaneously from 1227 nm to 1387 nm for 1310 nm band and from 1519 nm to 1581 nm for 1550 nm band at an A-scan rate of 65 kHz. A broadband 1310/1550 wavelength-division multiplexing is used for coupling two wavelengths into a common-path single-mode GRIN-lensed fiber probe to form a dual-band common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography. Simultaneous OCT imaging at 1310 and 1550 nm is achieved by using a depth ratio correction method. This technique allows potentially for in vivo endoscopic high-speed functional OCT imaging with high quality spectroscopic contrast with low computational costs. On the other hand, the common path configuration is able to reject common mode noise and potentially implement high stability quantitative phase measurements.

  1. Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber based multifunctional optical system for trapping, position sensing, and detection of fluorescent particles.

    PubMed

    Shinoj, V K; Murukeshan, V M

    2012-05-15

    We demonstrate a novel multifunctional optical system that is capable of trapping, imaging, position sensing, and fluorescence detection of micrometer-sized fluorescent test particles using hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). This multifunctional optical system for trapping, position sensing, and fluorescent detection is designed such that a near-IR laser light is used to create an optical trap across a liquid-filled HC-PCF, and a 473 nm laser is employed as a source for fluorescence excitation. This proposed system and the obtained results are expected to significantly enable an efficient integrated trapping platform employing HC-PCF for diagnostic biomedical applications.

  2. Frequency-Domain Optical Mammography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    optical measurements on breast-like phantoms (Months 19-24) a. Prepare the breast-like phantoms (optical inhomogeneities + strongly scattering...reveals contralateral hemodynamic changes upon hemi- imaging of solid phantoms for optical mammography. Appl Opt field paradigm. Vision Res 41: 97...1064 nm for the Nd:YAG, 660-1180 nm (tunable) for the Ti:sapphire, and 625-780 nm (tunable) for dye lasers using DCM or oxanine 1 dyes. A unique

  3. Optical fiber-based full Mueller polarimeter for endoscopic imaging using a two-wavelength simultaneous measurement method.

    PubMed

    Vizet, Jérémy; Manhas, Sandeep; Tran, Jacqueline; Validire, Pierre; Benali, Abdelali; Garcia-Caurel, Enric; Pierangelo, Angelo; De Martino, Antonello; Pagnoux, Dominique

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports a technique based on spectrally differential measurement for determining the full Mueller matrix of a biological sample through an optical fiber. In this technique, two close wavelengths were used simultaneously, one for characterizing the fiber and the other for characterizing the assembly of fiber and sample. The characteristics of the fiber measured at one wavelength were used to decouple its contribution from the measurement on the assembly of fiber and sample and then to extract sample Mueller matrix at the second wavelength. The proof of concept was experimentally validated by measuring polarimetric parameters of various calibrated optical components through the optical fiber. Then, polarimetric images of histological cuts of human colon tissues were measured, and retardance, diattenuation, and orientation of the main axes of fibrillar regions were displayed. Finally, these images were successfully compared with images obtained by a free space Mueller microscope. As the reported method does not use any moving component, it offers attractive integration possibilities with an endoscopic probe.

  4. Time-frequency spectrograms of optical pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, M.

    1995-11-01

    The authors present a discussion of several different types of joint time-frequency distributions of optical pulses. Particular attention is paid to the Wigner distribution W(t,{omega}), as it is the fundamental distribution from which all others can be derived. They elucidate the relationship between the Wigner distribution and other spectrograms of current-interest, such as that obtained from frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG).

  5. Digitally enhanced optical fiber frequency reference.

    PubMed

    McRae, Terry G; Ngo, Silvie; Shaddock, Daniel A; Hsu, Magnus T L; Gray, Malcolm B

    2014-04-01

    We use digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometry to measure the stability of optical fiber laser frequency references. Suppression of laser frequency noise by over four orders of magnitude is achieved using post processing time delay interferometry, allowing us to measure the mechanical stability for frequencies as low as 100 μHz. The performance of the digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometer platform used here is not practically limited by the dynamic range or bandwidth issues that can occur in feedback stabilization systems. This allows longer measurement times, better frequency discrimination, a reduction in spatially uncorrelated noise sources and an increase in interferometer sensitivity. An optical fiber frequency reference with the stability reported here, over a signal band of 20 mHz-1 Hz, has potential for use in demanding environments, such as space-based interferometry missions and optical flywheel applications.

  6. Reference frequency transmission over optical fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, G.; Kirk, A.

    1986-01-01

    A 100-MHz reference frequency from a hydrogen maser frequency standard has been transmitted via optical fiber over a 14-km distance with a measured stability of 1.5 X 10 to the-15 power for 1000 seconds averaging time. This capability was demonstrated in a frequency distribution experiment performed in April, 1986. The reference frequency was transmitted over a single-mode fiber-optic link from Deep Space Station (DSS) 13 to DSS 12 and back. The background leading up to the experiment and the significance of stable reference frequency distribution in the Deep Space Network (DSN) is discussed. Also described are the experiment, including the fiber-optic link, the measurement method and equipment, and finally the results of the experiment.

  7. High-resolution optical frequency dissemination on a telecommunications network with data traffic.

    PubMed

    Kéfélian, Fabien; Lopez, Olivier; Jiang, Haifeng; Chardonnet, Christian; Amy-Klein, Anne; Santarelli, Giorgio

    2009-05-15

    We transferred the frequency of an ultrastable laser over a 108-km-long urban fiber link comprising 22 km of an optical communications network fiber simultaneously carrying Internet data traffic. The metrological signal and the digital data signal were transferred over two different frequency channels in a dense wavelength-division multiplexing scheme. The metrological signal was inserted in and extracted from the communication network using bidirectional off-the-shelf optical add-drop multiplexers. The link-induced phase noise was measured and canceled with a round-trip technique using an all-fiber-based interferometer. The compensated link showed an Allan deviation of a few 10(-16) at 1 s and below 10(-19) at 10,000 s. This work paves the way to a wide dissemination of ultrastable optical clock signals between distant laboratories via the Internet.

  8. Semiconductor laser gyro with optical frequency dithering

    SciTech Connect

    Prokof'eva, L P; Sakharov, V K; Shcherbakov, V V

    2014-04-28

    The semiconductor laser gyro is described, in which the optical frequency dithering implemented by intracavity phase modulation suppresses the frequency lock-in and provides the interference of multimode radiation. The sensitivity of the device amounted to 10–20 deg h{sup -1}. (laser gyroscopes)

  9. Frequency Selective Volumes for Optical Spatial Filters

    SciTech Connect

    E Topsakal; JL Volakis

    2004-04-15

    A new model is proposed for modeling metallic losses at optical frequencies and is used in the analysis of Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSSs) and Volumes (FSVs). Conventional methods for simulating metallic losses are also outlined and a comparison with those models is given for a patch FSS. Measured data for a slot-ring FSS are also given for model validation.

  10. General model of signal propagation in a Raman amplified single-mode fiber based coherent optical communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jingchi; Tang, Ming; Fu, Songnian; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming

    2016-12-01

    The distributed Raman amplifier (DRA) has been widely utilized in state-of-the-art coherent optical communication systems using multi-level modulation formatted signals in order to improve transmission performance. A general model based on Jones vector notation governing the signal propagation under Raman amplified link is proposed. Primary physics including both linear and nonlinear effects have been taken into account. The numerical approach for solving the equations is illustrated in detail. Using the model, system characterization and optimization can be easily performed. We also compare our model with the commonly used coarse-step method. It is found that the coarse-step method will exaggerate the cross-polarization modulation induced impairments by over 6 dB and will become unusable when the pump power is as high as several Watts. The proposed model provides a guideline for the simulation of Raman amplified coherent transmission systems.

  11. A new single-mode LMA optical fiber based on an anti-resonance in the cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharabi, Avidan; Sheintop, Uzziel; Goldin, Shlomo

    2016-03-01

    A novel single-mode large-mode-area (LMA) optical fiber is proposed. The primary part of the cladding is a thin layer with high refractive index. The layer possesses a periodic array of holes (or intrusions) which are either drawn in the propagation direction or drilled in the radial direction. When the holes (or intrusions) are drawn in the propagation direction, the periodicity of their array is in the azimuthal direction. The core may be hollow. The light confinement is achieved via a transmission anti-resonance. Namely, the array of holes allows coupling between an optical mode inside the primary cladding layer and the light both in the core and in the outer space. The light then sees two channels to penetrate the cladding: direct transmission and holes-assisted transmission. A distractive interference between these channels is achieved at an appropriate combination of fiber parameters. The fiber can be designed to hold nearly anyone of TE/TMnm modes. Computer simulations of the fiber were performed using COMSOL. The open boundary was simulated using a perfectly matched layer and the attenuation constants of different modes were determined via the imaginary parts of their propagation constants. As an example, a fiber holding a single TE01 mode inside a core of 100 μm diameter for the vacuum wavelength 1.55 μm was designed. The attenuation constant of the TE01 mode was found to be 5.8 ṡ 10-6 [dB/cm] while the other modes had attenuation of at least 4 orders of magnitude larger. Required fabrication tolerances were calculated and the fabrication of fibers of lengths 10 - 1000 m was found to be feasible. The bandwidth of the fiber was found to be in the range of 5 - 35 nm, depending on its length. Possible applications include high-power CW and pulsed lasers and amplifiers, sensors and others.

  12. Frequency agile optical parametric oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Velsko, Stephan P.

    1998-01-01

    The frequency agile OPO device converts a fixed wavelength pump laser beam to arbitrary wavelengths within a specified range with pulse to pulse agility, at a rate limited only by the repetition rate of the pump laser. Uses of this invention include Laser radar, LIDAR, active remote sensing of effluents/pollutants, environmental monitoring, antisensor lasers, and spectroscopy.

  13. Frequency agile optical parametric oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Velsko, S.P.

    1998-11-24

    The frequency agile OPO device converts a fixed wavelength pump laser beam to arbitrary wavelengths within a specified range with pulse to pulse agility, at a rate limited only by the repetition rate of the pump laser. Uses of this invention include Laser radar, LIDAR, active remote sensing of effluents/pollutants, environmental monitoring, antisensor lasers, and spectroscopy. 14 figs.

  14. Frequency-Domain Optical Mammogram

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    spectral features of all the tumors. Task 2. Perform the optical measurements on breast-like phantoms (Months 19-24) a. Prepare the breast-like phantoms ...a tur- ygen saturation measurements to within 15% of the bid medium can be modeled with the first-order actual values in phantoms and have reported...31. Y. Yamashita and M. Kaneko, "Visible and infrared diaphanog- ized abnormalities embedded within tissuelike phantoms ," raphy for medical diagnosis

  15. High-resolution differential mode delay measurement for a multimode optical fiber using a modified optical frequency domain reflectometer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, T-J; Kim, D

    2005-10-03

    A novel differential mode delay (DMD) measurement technique for a multimode optical fiber based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) has been proposed. We have obtained a high-resolution DMD value of 0.054 ps/m for a commercial multimode optical fiber with length of 50 m by using a modified OFDR in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure with a tunable external cavity laser and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer instead of Michelson interferometer. We have also compared the OFDR measurement results with those obtained using a traditional time-domain measurement method. DMD resolution with our proposed OFDR technique is more than an order of magnitude better than a result obtainable with a conventional time-domain method.

  16. Dual hollow core fiber-based Fabry-Perot interferometer for measuring the thermo-optic coefficients of liquids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Ling; Ho, Hsuan-Yu; Gu, Jheng-Hong; Yeh, Tung-Yuan; Tseng, Chung-Hao

    2015-02-15

    A microcavity fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (MFFPI) that is based on dual hollow core fibers (HCFs) is developed for measuring the thermo-optic coefficients (TOCs) of liquids. The proposed MFFPI was fabricated by fusion-splicing a tiny segment of the main-HCF with a diameter D of 30 μm and another section of feeding-HCF with a diameter of 5 μm. Then, the main-HCF was filled with liquid by capillary action through the feeding-HCF by immersing the MFFPI in the liquid. The TOCs of the Cargille liquid (n(D)=1.3), deionized (DI) water, and ethanol were accurately determined from the shift of the interference wavelength, which was due to the temperature variation. Our experimental results were also compared with other published studies to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed sensing scheme. The major advantage is that the miniature MFFPI can achieve the measurement of the TOCs of the liquids with picoliter volume, and the measured liquids also can be sealed off and stored inside the HCF to prevent contamination.

  17. Real-time measurement of the vaginal pressure profile using an optical-fiber-based instrumented speculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Luke A.; Gargett, Caroline E.; Young, Natharnia; Rosamilia, Anna; Vashi, Aditya V.; Werkmeister, Jerome A.; Papageorgiou, Anthony W.; Arkwright, John W.

    2016-12-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) occurs when changes to the pelvic organ support structures cause descent or herniation of the pelvic organs into the vagina. Clinical evaluation of POP is a series of manual measurements known as the pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) score. However, it fails to identify the mechanism causing POP and relies on the skills of the practitioner. We report on a modified vaginal speculum incorporating a double-helix fiber-Bragg grating structure for distributed pressure measurements along the length of the vagina and include preliminary data in an ovine model of prolapse. Vaginal pressure profiles were recorded at 10 Hz as the speculum was dilated incrementally up to 20 mm. At 10-mm dilation, nulliparous sheep showed higher mean pressures (102±46 mmHg) than parous sheep (39±23 mmHg) (P=0.02), attributable largely to the proximal (cervical) end of the vagina. In addition to overall pressure variations, we observed a difference in the distribution of pressure that related to POP-Q measurements adapted for the ovine anatomy, showing increased tissue laxity in the upper anterior vagina for parous ewes. We demonstrate the utility of the fiber-optic instrumented speculum for rapid distributed measurement of vaginal support.

  18. Tutorial on fiber-based sources for biophotonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, James R.

    2016-06-01

    Fiber-based lasers and master oscillator power fiber amplifier configurations are described. These allow spectral versatility coupled with pulse width and pulse repetition rate selection in compact and efficient packages. This is enhanced through the use of nonlinear optical conversion in fibers and fiber-coupled nonlinear crystals, which can be integrated to provide all-fiber pump sources for diverse application. The advantages and disadvantages of sources based upon supercontinuum generation, stimulated Raman conversion, four-wave mixing, parametric generation and difference frequency generation, allowing spectral coverage from the UV to the mid-infrared, are considered.

  19. Optical frequency standards for time and length applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Feng-Lei

    2017-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed tremendous progress in research on optical frequency metrology. Optical frequency standards using optical lattice and single-ion trap technologies have reached levels of stability and accuracy that surpass the performance of the best Cs fountain atomic clocks by orders of magnitude. Optical frequency standards are also used for various applications including length metrology. Optical frequency measurement and links using optical frequency combs and optical fibres play important roles in the development of optical frequency standards. This article introduces optical frequency standards recommended by the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) along with updates provided by recent research results. Frequency ratio measurements and remote frequency comparisons are addressed in relation to the work whose goal is to redefine the second. Optical frequency standard and optical frequency comb applications are also described.

  20. Nobel Lecture: Defining and measuring optical frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, John L.

    2006-10-01

    Four long-running currents in laser technology met and merged in 1999-2000. Two of these were the quest toward a stable repetitive sequence of ever-shorter optical pulses and, on the other hand, the quest for the most time-stable, unvarying optical frequency possible. The marriage of UltraFast and UltraStable lasers was brokered mainly by two international teams and became exciting when a special “designer” microstructure optical fiber was shown to be nonlinear enough to produce “white light” from the femtosecond laser pulses, such that the output spectrum embraced a full optical octave. Then, for the first time, one could realize an optical frequency interval equal to the comb’s lowest frequency, and count out this interval as a multiple of the repetition rate of the femtosecond pulse laser. This “gear-box” connection between the radio frequency standard and any/all optical frequency standards came just as Sensitivity-Enhancing ideas were maturing. The four-way Union empowered an explosion of accurate frequency measurement results in the standards field and prepares the way for refined tests of some of our cherished physical principles, such as the time-stability of some of the basic numbers in physics (e.g., the “fine-structure” constant, the speed of light, certain atomic mass ratios etc.), and the equivalence of time-keeping by clocks based on different physics. The stable laser technology also allows time-synchronization between two independent femtosecond lasers so exact they can be made to appear as if the source were a single laser. By improving pump/probe experiments, one important application will be in bond-specific spatial scanning of biological samples. This next decade in optical physics should be a blast.

  1. Stabilized fiber-optic frequency distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Lutes, G. F.; Sydnor, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    A technique for stabilizing reference frequencies transmitted over fiber-optic cable in a frequency distribution system is discussed. The distribution system utilizes fiber-optic cable as the transmission medium to distribute precise reference signals from a frequency standard to remote users. The stability goal of the distribution system is to transmit a 100-MHz signal over a 22-km fiber-optic cable and maintain a stability of 1 part in 10(17) for 1000-second averaging times. Active stabilization of the link is required to reduce phase variations produced by environmental effects, and is achieved by transmitting the reference signal from the frequency standard to the remote unit and then reflecting back to the reference unit over the same optical fiber. By comparing the phase of the transmitted and reflected signals at the reference unit, phase variations of the remote signal can be measured. An error voltage derived from the phase difference between the two signals is used to add correction phase.

  2. Long-range vibration sensor based on correlation analysis of optical frequency-domain reflectometry signals.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhenyang; Yao, X Steve; Liu, Tiegen; Du, Yang; Liu, Kun; Han, Qun; Meng, Zhuo; Chen, Hongxin

    2012-12-17

    We present a novel method to achieve a space-resolved long- range vibration detection system based on the correlation analysis of the optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) signals. By performing two separate measurements of the vibrated and non-vibrated states on a test fiber, the vibration frequency and position of a vibration event can be obtained by analyzing the cross-correlation between beat signals of the vibrated and non-vibrated states in a spatial domain, where the beat signals are generated from interferences between local Rayleigh backscattering signals of the test fiber and local light oscillator. Using the proposed technique, we constructed a standard single-mode fiber based vibration sensor that can have a dynamic range of 12 km and a measurable vibration frequency up to 2 kHz with a spatial resolution of 5 m. Moreover, preliminarily investigation results of two vibration events located at different positions along the test fiber are also reported.

  3. Nonlinear optical protection against frequency agile lasers

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, V.P.

    1988-08-04

    An eye-protection or equipment-filter device for protection from laser energy is disclosed. The device may be in the form of a telescope, binoculars, goggles, constructed as part of equipment such as image intensifiers or range designators. Optical elements focus the waist of the beam within a nonlinear frequency-doubling crystal or nonlinear optical element or fiber. The nonlinear elements produce a harmonic outside the visible spectrum in the case of crystals, or absorb the laser energy in the case of nonlinear fibers. Embodiments include protectors for the human eye as well as filters for sensitive machinery such as TV cameras, FLIR systems or other imaging equipment.

  4. Observation of fundamental thermal noise in optical fibers down to infrasonic frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jing; Huang, Junchao; Li, Tang; Liu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic thermal noise in optical fibers represents the ultimate limit for fiber-based systems. However, at infrasonic frequencies, the spectral behavior of the intrinsic thermal noise is still unclear. In this letter, we present measurements of the fundamental thermal noise in optical fibers that are obtained using a balanced fiber Michelson interferometer. When an ultra-stable laser is used as the laser source and other noise sources are carefully controlled, the 1/f spectral density of the thermal noise is observed down to infrasonic frequencies, and the measured magnitude is consistent with the results of theoretical predictions at frequencies over the range from 0.2 Hz to 20 kHz. Moreover, as observed experimentally, the level of the 1/f thermal noise can be reduced by changing the coatings of the optical fibers. This therefore indicates one possible way to reduce thermal noise in optical fibers at low Fourier frequencies. Finally, the inconsistency between the experimental data and the existing theory for thermomechanical noise is discussed.

  5. Optical wire guided lumpectomy: frequency domain measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, A. L.; Keränen, V. T.; Prahl, S. A.

    2009-02-01

    In practice, complete removal of the tumor during a lumpectomy is difficult; the published rates of positive margins range from 10% to 50%. A spherical lumpectomy specimen with tumor directly in the middle may improve the success rate. A light source placed within the tumor may accomplish this goal by creating a sphere surrounding the tumor that can serve as a guide for resection. In an optical phantom and a prophylactic mastectomy specimen, sinusoidally modulated light within the medium was collected by optical fiber(s) at fixed distance(s) from the source and used to measure the optical properties. These optical properties were then used to calculate the distance the light had traveled through the medium. The fiber was coupled to an 830nm diode laser that was modulated at 100, 200 and 300 MHz. A handheld optical probe collected the modulated light and a network analyzer measured the phase lag. This data was used to calculate the distance the light traveled from the emitting fiber tip to the probe. The optical properties were μa = 0.004mm-1 and μ1s = 0.38mm-1 in the phantom. The optical properties for the tissue were μa = 0.005mm-1 and μ1s = 0.20mm-1. The prediction of distance from the source was within 4mm of the actual distance at 30mm in the phantom and within 3mm of the actual distance at 25mm in the tissue. The feasibility of a frequency domain system that makes measurements of local optical properties and then extrapolates those optical properties to make measurements of distance with a separate probe was demonstrated.

  6. Silicon-Chip-Based Optical Frequency Combs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-26

    generated sideband. Considering the phase mismatch equation with only the GVD contribution, the detuning is inversely proportional to the square root...lower than expected due to resist polymerization issues during fabrication. Since the optical parametric oscillation threshold is inversely proportional...portion around 1360 nm is frequency doubled in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal and then collinearly recombined in space and time

  7. Multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating

    SciTech Connect

    Siders, C.W.; Siders, J.L.W.; Omenetto, F.G.; Taylor, A.J.

    1999-04-01

    The authors review multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating (MI-FROG) as a technique, uniquely suited for pump-probe coherent spectroscopy using amplified visible and near-infrared short-pulse systems and/or emissive targets, for time-resolving ultrafast phase shifts and intensity changes. Application of polarization-gate MI-FROG to the study of ultrafast ionization in gases is presented.

  8. Study on high coupling efficiency Er-doped fiber laser for femtosecond optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Lihui; Liu, Wenjun; Han, Hainian; Wei, Zhiyi

    2016-09-01

    The femtosecond laser is crucial to the operation of the femtosecond optical frequency comb. In this paper, a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser is presented with 91.4 fs pulse width and 100.8 MHz repetition rate, making use of the nonlinear polarized evolution effect. Using a 976 nm pump laser diode, the average output power is 16 mW from the coupler and 27 mW from the polarization beam splitter at the pump power of 700 mW. The proposed fiber laser can offer excellent temporal purity in generated pulses with high power, and provide a robust source for fiber-based frequency combs and supercontinuum generation well suited for industrial applications.

  9. Ultralow-frequency-noise stabilization of a laser by locking to an optical fiber-delay line.

    PubMed

    Kéfélian, Fabien; Jiang, Haifeng; Lemonde, Pierre; Santarelli, Giorgio

    2009-04-01

    We report the frequency stabilization of an erbium-doped fiber distributed-feedback laser using an all-fiber-based Michelson interferometer of large arm imbalance. The interferometer uses a 1 km SMF-28 optical fiber spool and an acousto-optic modulator allowing heterodyne detection. The frequency-noise power spectral density is reduced by more than 40 dB for Fourier frequencies ranging from 1 Hz to 10 kHz, corresponding to a level well below 1 Hz2/Hz over the entire range; it reaches 10(-2) Hz2/Hz at 1 kHz. Between 40 Hz and 30 kHz, the frequency noise is shown to be comparable to the one obtained by Pound-Drever-Hall locking to a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity. Locking to a fiber delay line could consequently represent a reliable, simple, and compact alternative to cavity stabilization for short-term linewidth reduction.

  10. The optical frequency comb fibre spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Coluccelli, Nicola; Cassinerio, Marco; Redding, Brandon; Cao, Hui; Laporta, Paolo; Galzerano, Gianluca

    2016-10-03

    Optical frequency comb sources provide thousands of precise and accurate optical lines in a single device enabling the broadband and high-speed detection required in many applications. A main challenge is to parallelize the detection over the widest possible band while bringing the resolution to the single comb-line level. Here we propose a solution based on the combination of a frequency comb source and a fibre spectrometer, exploiting all-fibre technology. Our system allows for simultaneous measurement of 500 isolated comb lines over a span of 0.12 THz in a single acquisition; arbitrarily larger span are demonstrated (3,500 comb lines over 0.85 THz) by doing sequential acquisitions. The potential for precision measurements is proved by spectroscopy of acetylene at 1.53 μm. Being based on all-fibre technology, our system is inherently low-cost, lightweight and may lead to the development of a new class of broadband high-resolution spectrometers.

  11. The optical frequency comb fibre spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coluccelli, Nicola; Cassinerio, Marco; Redding, Brandon; Cao, Hui; Laporta, Paolo; Galzerano, Gianluca

    2016-10-01

    Optical frequency comb sources provide thousands of precise and accurate optical lines in a single device enabling the broadband and high-speed detection required in many applications. A main challenge is to parallelize the detection over the widest possible band while bringing the resolution to the single comb-line level. Here we propose a solution based on the combination of a frequency comb source and a fibre spectrometer, exploiting all-fibre technology. Our system allows for simultaneous measurement of 500 isolated comb lines over a span of 0.12 THz in a single acquisition; arbitrarily larger span are demonstrated (3,500 comb lines over 0.85 THz) by doing sequential acquisitions. The potential for precision measurements is proved by spectroscopy of acetylene at 1.53 μm. Being based on all-fibre technology, our system is inherently low-cost, lightweight and may lead to the development of a new class of broadband high-resolution spectrometers.

  12. The optical frequency comb fibre spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Coluccelli, Nicola; Cassinerio, Marco; Redding, Brandon; Cao, Hui; Laporta, Paolo; Galzerano, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Optical frequency comb sources provide thousands of precise and accurate optical lines in a single device enabling the broadband and high-speed detection required in many applications. A main challenge is to parallelize the detection over the widest possible band while bringing the resolution to the single comb-line level. Here we propose a solution based on the combination of a frequency comb source and a fibre spectrometer, exploiting all-fibre technology. Our system allows for simultaneous measurement of 500 isolated comb lines over a span of 0.12 THz in a single acquisition; arbitrarily larger span are demonstrated (3,500 comb lines over 0.85 THz) by doing sequential acquisitions. The potential for precision measurements is proved by spectroscopy of acetylene at 1.53 μm. Being based on all-fibre technology, our system is inherently low-cost, lightweight and may lead to the development of a new class of broadband high-resolution spectrometers. PMID:27694981

  13. Frequency domain optical tomography in human tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuqi; Wang, Yao; Pei, Yaling; Zhu, Wenwu; Hu, Jenhun; Barbour, Randall L.

    1995-10-01

    In this paper, a reconstruction algorithm for frequency-domain optical tomography in human tissue is presented. A fast and efficient multigrid finite difference (MGFD) method is adopted as a forward solver to obtain the simulated detector responses and the required imaging operator. The solutions obtained form MGFD method for 3D problems with weakly discontinuous cocoefficients are compared with analyzed solutions to determine the accuracy of the numerical method. Simultaneous reconstruction of both absorption and scattering coefficients for tissue-like media is accomplished by solving a perturbation equation using the Born approximation. This solution is obtained by a conjugate gradient descent method with Tikhonov regularization. Two examples are given to show the quality of the reconstruction results. Both involve the examination of anatomically accurate optical models of tissue derived from segmented 3D magnetic resonance images to which have been assigned optical coefficients to the designated tissue types. One is a map of a female breast containing two small 'added pathologies', such as tumors. The other is a map of the brain containing a 'local bleeding' area, representing a hemorrhage. The reconstruction results show that the algorithm is computationally practical and can yield qualitatively correct geometry of the objects embedded in the simulated human tissue. Acceptable results are obtaiend even when 10% noise is present in the data.

  14. Fiber-based multiple-beam reflection interferometer for single-longitudinal-mode generation in fiber laser based on semiconductor optical amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentyev, V. S.; Simonov, V. A.; Babin, S. A.

    2017-02-01

    A technique of single-longitudinal-mode selection in a fiber laser by means of a fiber multiple-beam reflection interferometer (FRI) has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time. The laser is based on a semiconductor optical amplifier placed in a linear fiber cavity formed by a fiber Bragg grating (FBG), and the FRI generates at 1529.24 nm with output power of 1 mW in single-frequency regime with a linewidth of about 217 kHz and polarization extinction ratio of  >30 dB. The FRI technique potentially enables fast tuning (within the FBG bandwidth of ~0.9 nm in our case) by varying the base length of the FRI that can be used in a number of practical applications.

  15. Time-domain optical reflectometry measurements using a frequency comb interferometer.

    PubMed

    Taurand, Geneviève; Giaccari, Philippe; Deschênes, Jean-Daniel; Genest, Jérôme

    2010-08-10

    We characterize the temporal response of fiber-optic components using a fiber-based frequency comb interferometer; measurements are compared and validated against a commercial instrument. The main advantage of the instrument lies in the absence of moving parts or a tunable laser, leading to very fast scanning. A measurement of a mechanical distortion, cycled at 130 Hz, on a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is presented. A complete profile of the mechanical distortion is taken every 2.5 ms (400 Hz scanning speed) and each "snapshot" is taken in 200 micros. This scanning speed was arbitrarily chosen, and the instrument could be set to scan much faster, up to hundreds of kilohertz. With high-reflectivity FBGs, the same instrument could scan simultaneously the profile of 140 wavelength-multiplexed FBGs at 2 kHz.

  16. All optical measurement of an unknown wideband microwave frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Priye, V.; Raj Singh, R.

    2016-12-01

    A novel all optical measurement scheme is proposed to measure wideband microwave frequencies up to 30 GHz. The proposed method is based on a four-wave mixing (FWM) approach in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) of both even order side-bands generated by an unknown microwave frequency modulating an optical carrier. The optical power of a generated FWM signal depends on frequency spacing between extracted side-bands. A mathematical relation is established between FWM power and frequency of an unknown signal. A calibration curve is drawn based on the mathematical relation which predicts the unknown frequency from power withdrawn after FWM.

  17. Optical Tunable-Based Transmitter for Multiple Radio Frequency Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung (Inventor); Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor); Wintucky, Edwin G. (Inventor); Freeman, Jon C. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An optical tunable transmitter is used to transmit multiple radio frequency bands on a single beam. More specifically, a tunable laser is configured to generate a plurality of optical wavelengths, and an optical tunable transmitter is configured to modulate each of the plurality of optical wavelengths with a corresponding radio frequency band. The optical tunable transmitter is also configured to encode each of the plurality of modulated optical wavelengths onto a single laser beam for transmission of a plurality of radio frequency bands using the single laser beam.

  18. Sub-Doppler Resolution Spectroscopy of the Fundamental Band of HCl with AN Optical Frequency Comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakuni, K.; Abe, M.; Sasada, H.

    2013-06-01

    We have demonstrated wavelength modulation spectroscopy of HCl using a difference-frequency-generation (DFG) source and an enhanced-cavity absorption cell. The frequency axis of the spectrum is calibrated by a fiber-based optical frequency comb which is locked to a Rb clock linked with TAI. The pump and signal sources of DFG are a 1.06-μm Nd:YAG laser and a 1.55-μm ECLD, and the idler wave is generated in a waveguide-type PPLN. The hyperfine structure caused by the Cl nucleus with the spin 3/2 is resolved for the R(0), R(1), and R(2) transitions in the fundamental vibration band. The hyperfine components of Δ F = +1, 0, -1, and the cross-over resonances are observed with a typical line width of about 220 kHz, and the transition frequencies are measured with an uncertainty of less than 10 kHz. The pressure- and power-dependences of the transition frequency and the spectral intensity of the cross-over resonances are also investigated.

  19. Fiber-based photon-pair source capable of hybrid entanglement in frequency and transverse mode, controllably scalable to higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Delgado, D.; Ramirez-Alarcon, R.; Ortiz-Ricardo, E.; Monroy-Ruz, J.; Dominguez-Serna, F.; Cruz-Ramirez, H.; Garay-Palmett, K.; U’Ren, A. B.

    2016-06-01

    We have designed and implemented a photon-pair source, based on the spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) process in a few-mode fiber, in a geometry which permits multiple, simultaneous SFWM processes, each associated with a distinct combination of transverse modes for the four participating waves. In our source: i) each process is group-velocity-matched so that it is, by design, nearly-factorable, and ii) the spectral separation between neighboring processes is greater than the marginal spectral width of each process. Consequently, there is a direct correspondence between the joint amplitude of each process and each of the Schmidt mode pairs of the overall two-photon state. Our approach permits hybrid entanglement in discrete frequency and in transverse mode, whereby control of the number of supported fiber transverse modes allows scalability to higher dimensions while spectral filtering may be used for straightforward Schmidt mode discrimination.

  20. Fiber-based photon-pair source capable of hybrid entanglement in frequency and transverse mode, controllably scalable to higher dimensions.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Delgado, D; Ramirez-Alarcon, R; Ortiz-Ricardo, E; Monroy-Ruz, J; Dominguez-Serna, F; Cruz-Ramirez, H; Garay-Palmett, K; U'Ren, A B

    2016-06-07

    We have designed and implemented a photon-pair source, based on the spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) process in a few-mode fiber, in a geometry which permits multiple, simultaneous SFWM processes, each associated with a distinct combination of transverse modes for the four participating waves. In our source: i) each process is group-velocity-matched so that it is, by design, nearly-factorable, and ii) the spectral separation between neighboring processes is greater than the marginal spectral width of each process. Consequently, there is a direct correspondence between the joint amplitude of each process and each of the Schmidt mode pairs of the overall two-photon state. Our approach permits hybrid entanglement in discrete frequency and in transverse mode, whereby control of the number of supported fiber transverse modes allows scalability to higher dimensions while spectral filtering may be used for straightforward Schmidt mode discrimination.

  1. Fiber-based photon-pair source capable of hybrid entanglement in frequency and transverse mode, controllably scalable to higher dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Delgado, D.; Ramirez-Alarcon, R.; Ortiz-Ricardo, E.; Monroy-Ruz, J.; Dominguez-Serna, F.; Cruz-Ramirez, H.; Garay-Palmett, K.; U’Ren, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    We have designed and implemented a photon-pair source, based on the spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) process in a few-mode fiber, in a geometry which permits multiple, simultaneous SFWM processes, each associated with a distinct combination of transverse modes for the four participating waves. In our source: i) each process is group-velocity-matched so that it is, by design, nearly-factorable, and ii) the spectral separation between neighboring processes is greater than the marginal spectral width of each process. Consequently, there is a direct correspondence between the joint amplitude of each process and each of the Schmidt mode pairs of the overall two-photon state. Our approach permits hybrid entanglement in discrete frequency and in transverse mode, whereby control of the number of supported fiber transverse modes allows scalability to higher dimensions while spectral filtering may be used for straightforward Schmidt mode discrimination. PMID:27271284

  2. Stabilisation of a fibre frequency synthesiser using acousto-optical and electro-optical modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koliada, N. A.; Nyushkov, B. N.; Pivtsov, V. S.; Dychkov, A. S.; Farnosov, S. A.; Denisov, V. I.; Bagayev, S. N.

    2016-12-01

    A fibre-optic frequency synthesiser is developed that is stabilised to the optical frequency standard based on molecular iodine ({\\text{Nd : YAG/I}}2). The possibility of transferring stability of the optical frequency standard to other optical frequencies in the IR range 1 - 2 \\unicode{956}{\\text{m}} and to the RF range by using synthesiser phase-locked loops (PLLs) with acousto-optical and electro-optical modulators is experimentally demonstrated. The additive instability introduced into the optical frequency comb of the synthesiser (which arises due to PLL residual random errors) is several orders less than the intrinsic instability of the reference optical frequency standard employed (i.e., is noticeably less than 1 × 10-13 for 1 {\\text{s}} and 5 × 10-15 for 1000 {\\text{s}}).

  3. Precision Spectroscopy, Diode Lasers, and Optical Frequency Measurement Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollberg, Leo (Editor); Fox, Richard (Editor); Waltman, Steve (Editor); Robinson, Hugh

    1998-01-01

    This compilation is a selected set of reprints from the Optical Frequency Measurement Group of the Time and Frequency Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and consists of work published between 1987 and 1997. The two main programs represented here are (1) development of tunable diode-laser technology for scientific applications and precision measurements, and (2) research toward the goal of realizing optical-frequency measurements and synthesis. The papers are organized chronologically in five, somewhat arbitrarily chosen categories: Diode Laser Technology, Tunable Laser Systems, Laser Spectroscopy, Optical Synthesis and Extended Wavelength Coverage, and Multi-Photon Interactions and Optical Coherences.

  4. Effect of laser frequency noise on fiber-optic frequency reference distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, R. T., Jr.; Lutes, G. F.; Maleki, L.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of the linewidth of a single longitude-mode laser on the frequency stability of a frequency reference transmitted over a single-mode optical fiber is analyzed. The interaction of the random laser frequency deviations with the dispersion of the optical fiber is considered to determine theoretically the effect on the Allan deviation (square root of the Allan variance) of the transmitted frequency reference. It is shown that the magnitude of this effect may determine the limit of the ultimate stability possible for frequency reference transmission on optical fiber, but is not a serious limitation to present system performance.

  5. A double-taper optical fiber-based radiation wave other than evanescent wave in all-fiber immunofluorescence biosensor for quantitative detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhonghuan; Hua, Fei; Liu, Ting; Zhao, Yong; Li, Jun; Yang, Ruifu; Yang, Changxi; Zhou, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Cylindrical or taper-and-cylinder combination optical fiber probe based on evanescent wave has been widely used for immunofluorescence biosensor to detect various analytes. In this study, in contrast to the contradiction between penetration depth and analyte diameter of optical fiber probe-based evanescent wave, we demonstrate that double-taper optical fiber used in a radiation wave-based all-fiber immunofluorescence biosensor (RWAIB) can detect micron-scale analytes using Escherichia coli O157:H7 as representative target. Finite-difference time-domain method was used to compare the properties of evanescent wave and radiation wave (RW). Ray-tracing model was formulated to optimize the taper geometry of the probe. Based on a commercial multi-mode fiber, a double-taper probe was fabricated and connected with biosensor through a "ferrule connector" optical fiber connector. The RWAIB configuration was accomplished using commercial multi-mode fibers and fiber-based devices according to the "all-fiber" method. The standard sample tests revealed that the sensitivity of the proposed technique for E. coli O157:H7 detection was 10(3) cfu · mL(-1). Quantitation could be achieved within the concentration range of 10(3) cfu · mL(-1) to 107 cfu · mL(-1). No non-specific recognition to ten kinds of food-borne pathogens was observed. The results demonstrated that based on the double-taper optical fiber RWAIB can be used for the quantitative detection of micron-scale targets, and RW sensing is an alternative for traditional evanescent wave sensing during the fabrication of fiber-optic biosensors.

  6. Method and apparatus for optical communication by frequency modulation

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, Gordon J.

    1988-01-01

    Laser optical communication according to this invention is carried out by producing multi-frequency laser beams having different frequencies, splitting one or more of these constituent beams into reference and signal beams, encoding information on the signal beams by frequency modulation and detecting the encoded information by heterodyne techniques. Much more information can be transmitted over optical paths according to the present invention than with the use of only one path as done previously.

  7. Femtosecond frequency combs for optical clocks and timing transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, Seth M.

    The rapid development of femtosecond optical frequency combs over the last decade has brought together ultrastable phase control of both cw and mode-locked lasers and ultrafast time-domain applications. Frequency-domain laser stabilization techniques applied to the ultrashort-pulse trains emitted by a mode-locked laser result in a level of optical phase control previously achievable only for radio frequencies and microwaves. I present our work extending such control to mode-locked lasers for both timing and frequency stabilization applications of optical frequency combs. I first present a microwave technique for synchronizing two independent modelocked lasers at a level of timing precision less than the duration of an optical cycle, below 1 fs of residual rms timing jitter. Using these synchronized pulses, simultaneous sum- and difference-frequency generation of 400-nm and tunable mid-infrared fs pulses is demonstrated, opening the door for broadband coherent control of atomic and molecular systems. For frequency metrology, I report on an offset-free clockwork for an optical clock based on the 3.39-mum transition in methane. The clockwork's simplicity leads to a robust and reliable table-sized optical frequency reference with instability approaching a few parts in 1014. Then I describe a directly-octave-spanning, self-referenced Ti:sapphire laser employed as the robustly-running phase-coherent clockwork for an 87Sr optical lattice clock. The optical comb distributes the 2-s coherence time of the 698-nm ultrastable clock laser to its modes spanning the visible and near-IR spectrum, and is therefore simultaneously used as a hub for measuring absolute frequencies or frequency ratios between the Sr clock and other remotely-located microwave and optical atomic standards. Finally, I report on the transfer of ultrastable frequency references, both microwave and optical, through 10-km-scale optical fiber links. Actively stabilizing the optical phase delay of such a fiber

  8. Frequency Measurements of Al+ and Hg+ Optical Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itano, W. M.; Bergquist, J. C.; Rosenband, T.; Wineland, D. J.; Hume, D.; Chou, C.-W.; Jefferts, S. R.; Heavner, T. P.; Parker, T. E.; Diddams, S. A.; Fortier, T. M.

    2010-02-01

    Frequency standards based on narrow optical transitions in 27Al+ and 199Hg+ ions have been developed at NIST. Both standards have absolute reproducibilities of a few parts in 1017. This is about an order of magnitude better than the fractional uncertainty of the SI second, which is based on the 133Cs hyperfine frequency. Use of femtosecond laser frequency combs makes it possible to compare the optical frequency standards to microwave frequency standards or to each other. The ratio of the Al+ and Hg+ frequencies can be measured more accurately than the reproducibility of the primary cesium frequency standards. Frequency measurements made over time can be used to set limits on the time variation of fundamental constants, such as the fine structure constant α or the quark masses.

  9. Frequency Resolution of an Acousto-Optical Spectrometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-03

    AD-A267 822 FOREIGN AEROSPACE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CENTER DTIC S ELECTE AUG 111993 D FREQUENCY RESOLUTION OF AN ACOUSTO - OPTICAL SPECTROMETER by... D ~t• i,5"t~o’• A i +’- 1 Av.:+l +,O ,J Dist Avi! .. DTIC QUALITY I1V’PEMTED 3 FREQUENCY RESOLUTION OF AN ACOUSTO - OPTICAL SPECTROMETER... optical spectrometer (AOS) system as affected by the acousto - optical deflector and the coherent light beam truncation ratio, and examines the response

  10. Optical frequency tripling with improved suppression and sideband selection.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Manoj P; Medeiros, Maria C R; Laurêncio, Paula; Mitchell, John E

    2011-12-12

    A novel optical dispersion tolerant millimetre-wave radio-over-fibre system using optical frequency tripling technique with enhanced and selectable sideband suppression is demonstrated. The implementation utilises cascaded optical modulators to achieve either an optical single sideband (OSSB) or double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) signal with high sideband suppression. Our analysis and simulation results indicate that the achievable suppression ratio of this configuration is only limited by other system factors such as optical noise and drifting of the operational conditions. The OSSB transmission system performance is assessed experimentally by the transport of 4 WiMax channels modulating a 10 GHz optical upconverted RF carrier as well as for optical frequency doubling and tripling. The 10 GHz and tripled carrier at 30 GHz are dispersion tolerant resulting both in an average relative constellation error (RCE) of -28.7 dB after 40 km of fibre.

  11. An optical frequency standard based on ultracold magnesium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, A. N.; Bonert, A. E.; Brazhnikov, D. V.; Prudnikov, O. N.; Tropnikov, M. A.; Kuznetsov, S. A.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Bagayev, S. N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the recent experimental results on development of an optical frequency standard based on ultra cold magnesium atoms with relative frequency uncertainty and long term stability at the level of Δv/v <10‑16. We stabilized the frequency of our clock laser system at 655 THz to narrow Ramsey fringes in a time separated laser fields interacting with cooled Mg atoms localized in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The intercombination line 1S0→3P1 was used as the reference for frequency stabilization. The results of stabilization were studied with femtosecond comb based on Ti:Sa laser.

  12. 10-GHz Self-Referenced Optical Frequency Comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Albrecht; Heinecke, Dirk; Diddams, Scott A.

    2009-10-01

    The femtosecond laser-based frequency comb has played a key role in high-precision optical frequency metrology for a decade. Although often referred to as a precise optical frequency ruler, its tick marks are in fact too densely spaced for direct observation and individual use, limiting important applications in spectroscopy, astronomy, and ultrafast electromagnetic waveform control. We report on a femtosecond laser frequency comb with a 10-gigahertz repetition rate that creates a stabilized output spectrum with coverage from 470 to 1130 nanometers. The individual modes can be directly resolved with a grating spectrometer and are visible by eye.

  13. Stable radio-frequency transfer over optical fiber by phase-conjugate frequency mixing.

    PubMed

    He, Yabai; Orr, Brian J; Baldwin, Kenneth G H; Wouters, Michael J; Luiten, Andre N; Aben, Guido; Warrington, R Bruce

    2013-08-12

    We demonstrate long-distance (≥100-km) synchronization of the phase of a radio-frequency reference over an optical-fiber network without needing to actively stabilize the optical path length. Frequency mixing is used to achieve passive phase-conjugate cancellation of fiber-length fluctuations, ensuring that the phase difference between the reference and synchronized oscillators is independent of the link length. The fractional radio-frequency-transfer stability through a 100-km "real-world" urban optical-fiber network is 6 × 10(-17) with an averaging time of 10(4) s. Our compensation technique is robust, providing long-term stability superior to that of a hydrogen maser. By combining our technique with the short-term stability provided by a remote, high-quality quartz oscillator, this system is potentially applicable to transcontinental optical-fiber time and frequency dissemination where the optical round-trip propagation time is significant.

  14. Frequency Measurement System of Optical Clocks Without a Flywheel Oscillator.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, Miho; Ido, Tetsuya; Hachisu, Hidekazu; Gotoh, Tadahiro; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Hayasaka, Kazuhiro; Toyoda, Kenji; Yonegaki, Kenji; Tanaka, Utako; Urabe, Shinji

    2016-12-01

    We developed a system for the remote frequency comparison of optical clocks. The system does not require a flywheel oscillator at the remote end, making it possible to evaluate optical frequencies even in laboratories, where no stable microwave reference, such as an Rb clock, a Cs clock, or a hydrogen maser exists. The system is established by the integration of several systems: a portable carrier-phase two-way satellite frequency transfer station and a microwave signal generation system by an optical frequency comb from an optical clock. The measurement was as quick as a conventional method that employs a local microwave reference. We confirmed the system uncertainty and instability to be at the low 10(-15) level using an Sr lattice clock.

  15. Frequency-resolved optical grating using third-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, T.; Krumbuegel, M.A.; Delong, K.W.

    1995-12-01

    We demonstrate the first frequency-resolved optical gating measurement of an laser oscillator without the time ambiguity using third-harmonic generation. The experiment agrees well with the phase-retrieved spectrograms.

  16. The Optically Pumped Cs Frequency Standard at the NRLM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    References 1. J.L. Picqu6, "Hyperfine optical pumping of a cesium atomic beam, and applications," Metrologia, vo1.13, pp.115-119, 1977. 2. M. Arditi and... Arditi , "A caesium beam atomic clock with laser optical pumping, as a potential frequency standard," Metrologia, vo1.18, pp.59-66, 1982. 4. G

  17. Spectroscopy of Metamaterials from Infrared to Optical Frequencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 37402 (2005). 14. F . Wooten , Optical Properties of Solids (Academic, 1972). 15. For example, see M. Born...for materials with differ- ent symmetry properties of the constitutive relations. The terms and are called the magneto- optical permittivi- ties...Spectroscopy of metamaterials from infrared to optical frequencies Willie J. Padilla Materials Science and Technology Division, Center for Integrated

  18. Improved optical frequency standards at 612 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Bertinetto, F.; Cordiale, P.; Fontana, S.

    1994-12-31

    Using FM Spectroscopy as the detection method in an experiment of optical saturation absorption, a fractional stability (Allan variance) of 5 x 10{sup -14} has been observed for an integration time of 10{sup 3} s, and a reproducibility better than 1 part in 10{sup 11} has been achieved.

  19. Optical-Fiber-Based, Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectrometer for Thin-Film Absorber Characterization and Analysis of TRPL Data for CdS/CdTe Interface: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kuciauskas, D.; Duenow, J. N.; Kanevce, A.; Li, J. V.; Young, M. R.; Dippo, P.; Levi, D. H.

    2012-06-01

    We describe the design of a time resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectrometer for rapid semiconductor absorber characterization. Simplicity and flexibility is achieved by using single optical fiber to deliver laser pulses and to collect photoluminescence. We apply TRPL for characterization of CdS/CdTe absorbers after deposition, CdCl2 treatment, Cu doping, and back contact formation. Data suggest this method could be applied in various stages of PV device processing. Finally, we show how to analyze TRPL data for CdS/CdTe absorbers by considering laser light absorption depth and intermixing at CdS/CdTe interface.

  20. Modal Frequency Detection in Composite Beams Using Fiber Optic Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-28

    optic sensors showed more sensitivity and better signal-to-noise ratios. The analytical classical beam theory and a finite element model validated the...61 C. INPUT AND OUTPUT FOR THE FINITE ELEMENT MODEL ..... 88 B IB LIO G RA PH Y...beam compared to MATLAB generated frequencies of classical beam theory and frequencies calculated using a finite element model (FEM

  1. Water wave frequency detection by optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ziyi; Bao, Xiaoyi; Rennie, Colin D.; Nistor, Ioan; Cornett, Andrew

    2008-12-01

    An optical fiber sensor has been developed and applied to measure frequency of water waves based on wave induced polarization change of the light. The fiber sensor can accurately detect water wave frequency for regular and irregular waves. The optimum sag of sensing fiber to the sensor output's linearity has been studied. The agreement of the fiber sensor and wave gauge in frequency and time domain suggests that the fiber sensor has great potential for passive acoustic sensing and wave monitoring.

  2. Compensated Fiber-Optic Frequency Distribution Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    availability of long- haul components at 1550 nm. If installing a new system with new fiber, it may also make sense to use dispersion-shifted fiber, which...selected the 1550 nm (C-Band) for the optical wavelength. Although this wavelength requires CD correction in long haul systems, it makes good sense for...CD, we place both lasers on the same ITU channel, and adjust their center wavelengths to within a few GHz of each other. Ideally, the two signals

  3. Optical Frequency Standards Based on Neutral Atoms and Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Fritz; Helmcke, Juergen

    The current status and prospects of optical frequency standards based on neutral atomic and molecular absorbers are reviewed. Special attention is given to an optical frequency standard based on cold Ca atoms which are interrogated with a pulsed excitation scheme leading to resolved line structures with a quality factor Q > 10^12. The optical frequency was measured by comparison with PTB's primary clock to be νCa = 455 986 240 494.13 kHz with a total relative uncertainty of 2.5 x10^-13. After a recent recommendation of the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM), this frequency standard now represents one of the most accurate realizations of the length unit.

  4. Metrology with AN Optical Feedback Frequency Stabilized Crds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassi, Samir; Burkart, Johannes

    2015-06-01

    We will present a metrological application of our recently developed Optical Feedback Frequency Stabilized - Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (OFFS-CRDS). This instrument, which ideally fits with an optical frequency comb for absolute frequency calibration, relies on the robust lock of a steady cavity ring down resonator against a highly stable, radiofrequency tuned optical source. At 1.6 μm, over 7 nm, we demonstrate Lamb dip spectroscopy of CO_2 with line frequency retrieval at the kHz level, a dynamic in excess of 700,000 on the absorption scale and a detectivity of 4x10-13cm-1Hz-1/2. Such an instrument nicely meets the requirements for the most demanding spectroscopy spanning from accurate isotopic ratio determination and very precise lineshape recordings to Boltzmann constant redefinition.

  5. Photon frequency-mode matching using acousto-optic frequency beam splitters

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Nick S.; Stace, T. M.

    2006-03-15

    It is a difficult engineering task to create distinct solid state single photon sources which nonetheless emit photons at the same frequency. It is also hard to create entangled photon pairs from quantum dots. In the spirit of quantum engineering we propose a simple optical circuit which can, in the right circumstances, make frequency distinguishable photons frequency indistinguishable. Our circuit can supply a downstream solution to both problems, opening up a large window of allowed frequency mismatches between physical mechanisms. The only components used are spectrum analysers or prisms and an acousto-optic modulator. We also note that an acousto-optic modulator can be used to obtain Hong-Ou-Mandel two photon interference effects from the frequency distinguishable photons generated by distinct sources.

  6. A multi-point laser Doppler vibrometer with fiber-based configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Guo, M.; Liu, H.; Yan, K.; Xu, Y. J.; Fu, Y.; Miao, H.

    2013-12-15

    Laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) is a non-contact optical interferometric system to measure vibrations of structures and machines with a high precision. Normal LDV can only offer a single-point measurement. Scanning LDV is usually impractical to do measurement on transient events. In this paper, a fiber-based self-synchronized multi-point LDV is proposed. The multiple laser beams with different frequency shifts are generated from one laser source. The beams are projected onto a vibrating object, reflected and interfered with a common reference beam. The signal including vibration information of multiple spatial points is captured by one single-pixel photodetector. The optical system is mainly integrated by fiber components for flexibility in measurement. Two experiments are conducted to measure a steady-state simple harmonic vibration of a cantilever beam and a transient vibration of a beam clamped at both ends. In the first measurement, a numerical interpolation is applied to reconstruct the mode shape with increased number of data points. The vibration mode obtained is compared with that from FEM simulation. In transient vibration measurement, the first five resonant frequencies are obtained. The results show the new-reported fiber-based multipoint LDV can offer a vibration measurement on various spatial points simultaneously. With the flexibility of fiber configuration, it becomes more practical for dynamic structural evaluation in industrial areas.

  7. Fast frequency hopping codes applied to SAC optical CDMA network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2015-06-01

    This study designed a fast frequency hopping (FFH) code family suitable for application in spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. The FFH code family can effectively suppress the effects of multiuser interference and had its origin in the frequency hopping code family. Additional codes were developed as secure codewords for enhancing the security of the network. In considering the system cost and flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a set of optical securers using two arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers (DeMUXs) were also constructed. Based on a Gaussian approximation, expressions for evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and spectral efficiency (SE) of SAC optical CDMA networks are presented. The results indicated that the proposed SAC optical CDMA network exhibited favorable performance.

  8. Direct frequency comb optical frequency standard based on two-photon transitions of thermal atoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S. Y.; Wu, J. T.; Zhang, Y. L.; Leng, J. X.; Yang, W. P.; Zhang, Z. G.; Zhao, J. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Optical clocks have been the focus of science and technology research areas due to their capability to provide highest frequency accuracy and stability to date. Their superior frequency performance promises significant advances in the fields of fundamental research as well as practical applications including satellite-based navigation and ranging. In traditional optical clocks, ultrastable optical cavities, laser cooling and particle (atoms or a single ion) trapping techniques are employed to guarantee high stability and accuracy. However, on the other hand, they make optical clocks an entire optical tableful of equipment, and cannot work continuously for a long time; as a result, they restrict optical clocks used as very convenient and compact time-keeping clocks. In this article, we proposed, and experimentally demonstrated, a novel scheme of optical frequency standard based on comb-directly-excited atomic two-photon transitions. By taking advantage of the natural properties of the comb and two-photon transitions, this frequency standard achieves a simplified structure, high robustness as well as decent frequency stability, which promise widespread applications in various scenarios. PMID:26459877

  9. Direct frequency comb optical frequency standard based on two-photon transitions of thermal atoms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S Y; Wu, J T; Zhang, Y L; Leng, J X; Yang, W P; Zhang, Z G; Zhao, J Y

    2015-10-13

    Optical clocks have been the focus of science and technology research areas due to their capability to provide highest frequency accuracy and stability to date. Their superior frequency performance promises significant advances in the fields of fundamental research as well as practical applications including satellite-based navigation and ranging. In traditional optical clocks, ultrastable optical cavities, laser cooling and particle (atoms or a single ion) trapping techniques are employed to guarantee high stability and accuracy. However, on the other hand, they make optical clocks an entire optical tableful of equipment, and cannot work continuously for a long time; as a result, they restrict optical clocks used as very convenient and compact time-keeping clocks. In this article, we proposed, and experimentally demonstrated, a novel scheme of optical frequency standard based on comb-directly-excited atomic two-photon transitions. By taking advantage of the natural properties of the comb and two-photon transitions, this frequency standard achieves a simplified structure, high robustness as well as decent frequency stability, which promise widespread applications in various scenarios.

  10. Precise Stabilization of the Optical Frequency of WGMRs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Matsko, Andrey; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute; Iltchenko, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Crystalline whispering gallery mode resonators (CWGMRs) made of crystals with axial symmetry have ordinary and extraordinary families of optical modes. These modes have substantially different thermo-refractive constants. This results in a very sharp dependence of differential detuning of optical frequency on effective temperature. This frequency difference compared with clock gives an error signal for precise compensation of the random fluctuations of optical frequency. Certain crystals, like MgF2, have turnover points where the thermo-refractive effect is completely nullified. An advantage for applications using WGMRs for frequency stabilization is in the possibility of manufacturing resonators out of practically any optically transparent crystal. It is known that there are crystals with negative and zero thermal expansion at some specific temperatures. Doping changes properties of the crystals and it is possible to create an optically transparent crystal with zero thermal expansion at room temperature. With this innovation s stabilization technique, the resultant WGMR will have absolute frequency stability The expansion of the resonator s body can be completely compensated for by nonlinear elements. This results in compensation of linear thermal expansion (see figure). In three-mode, the MgF2 resonator, if tuned at the turnover thermal point, can compensate for all types of random thermal-related frequency drift. Simplified dual-mode method is also available. This creates miniature optical resonators with good short- and long-term stability for passive secondary frequency ethalon and an active resonator for active secondary frequency standard (a narrowband laser with long-term stability).

  11. Frequency comb metrology with an optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Balskus, K; Schilt, S; Wittwer, V J; Brochard, P; Ploetzing, T; Jornod, N; McCracken, R A; Zhang, Z; Bartels, A; Reid, D T; Südmeyer, T

    2016-04-18

    We report on the first demonstration of absolute frequency comb metrology with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) frequency comb. The synchronously-pumped OPO operated in the 1.5-µm spectral region and was referenced to an H-maser atomic clock. Using different techniques, we thoroughly characterized the frequency noise power spectral density (PSD) of the repetition rate frep, of the carrier-envelope offset frequency fCEO, and of an optical comb line νN. The comb mode optical linewidth at 1557 nm was determined to be ~70 kHz for an observation time of 1 s from the measured frequency noise PSD, and was limited by the stability of the microwave frequency standard available for the stabilization of the comb repetition rate. We achieved a tight lock of the carrier envelope offset frequency with only ~300 mrad residual integrated phase noise, which makes its contribution to the optical linewidth negligible. The OPO comb was used to measure the absolute optical frequency of a near-infrared laser whose second-harmonic component was locked to the F = 2→3 transition of the 87Rb D2 line at 780 nm, leading to a measured transition frequency of νRb = 384,228,115,346 ± 16 kHz. We performed the same measurement with a commercial fiber-laser comb operating in the 1.5-µm region. Both the OPO comb and the commercial fiber comb achieved similar performance. The measurement accuracy was limited by interferometric noise in the fibered setup of the Rb-stabilized laser.

  12. A method of developing frequency encoded multi-bit optical data comparator using semiconductor optical amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garai, Sisir Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Optical data comparator is the part and parcel of arithmetic and logical unit of any optical data processor and it is working as a building block in a larger optical circuit, as an optical switch in all optical header processing and optical packet switching based all optical telecommunications system. In this article the author proposes a method of developing an all optical single bit comparator unit and subsequently extending the proposal to develop a n-bit comparator exploiting the nonlinear rotation of the state of polarization of the probe beam in semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Here the dataset to be compared are taken in frequency encoded/decoded form throughout the communication. The major advantages of frequency encoding over all other conventional techniques are that as the frequency of any signal is fundamental one so it can preserve its identity throughout the communication of optical signal and minimizes the probability of bit error problem. For frequency routing purpose optical add/drop multiplexer (ADM) is used which not only route the pump beams properly but also to amplify the pump beams efficiently. Switching speed of 'MZI-SOA switch' as well as SOA based switches are very fast with good on-off contrast ratio and as a result it is possible to obtain very fast action of optical data comparator.

  13. Frequency domain optical tomography using a Monte Carlo perturbation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Sakamoto, Hiroki

    2016-04-01

    A frequency domain Monte Carlo method is applied to near-infrared optical tomography, where an intensity-modulated light source with a given modulation frequency is used to reconstruct optical properties. The frequency domain reconstruction technique allows for better separation between the scattering and absorption properties of inclusions, even for ill-posed inverse problems, due to cross-talk between the scattering and absorption reconstructions. The frequency domain Monte Carlo calculation for light transport in an absorbing and scattering medium has thus far been analyzed mostly for the reconstruction of optical properties in simple layered tissues. This study applies a Monte Carlo calculation algorithm, which can handle complex-valued particle weights for solving a frequency domain transport equation, to optical tomography in two-dimensional heterogeneous tissues. The Jacobian matrix that is needed to reconstruct the optical properties is obtained by a first-order "differential operator" technique, which involves less variance than the conventional "correlated sampling" technique. The numerical examples in this paper indicate that the newly proposed Monte Carlo method provides reconstructed results for the scattering and absorption coefficients that compare favorably with the results obtained from conventional deterministic or Monte Carlo methods.

  14. Fiber optic reference frequency distribution to remote beam waveguide antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Malcolm; Kuhnle, Paul; Law, Julius

    1995-01-01

    In the NASA/JPL Deep Space Network (DSN), radio science experiments (probing outer planet atmospheres, rings, gravitational waves, etc.) and very long-base interferometry (VLBI) require ultra-stable, low phase noise reference frequency signals at the user locations. Typical locations for radio science/VLBI exciters and down-converters are the cone areas of the 34 m high efficiency antennas or the 70 m antennas, located several hundred meters from the reference frequency standards. Over the past three years, fiber optic distribution links have replaced coaxial cable distribution for reference frequencies to these antenna sites. Optical fibers are the preferred medium for distribution because of their low attenuation, immunity to EMI/IWI, and temperature stability. A new network of Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas presently under construction in the DSN requires hydrogen maser stability at tens of kilometers distance from the frequency standards central location. The topic of this paper is the design and implementation of an optical fiber distribution link which provides ultra-stable reference frequencies to users at a remote BWG antenna. The temperature profile from the earth's surface to a depth of six feet over a time period of six months was used to optimize the placement of the fiber optic cables. In-situ evaluation of the fiber optic link performance indicates Allan deviation on the order of parts in 10(exp -15) at 1000 and 10,000 seconds averaging time; thus, the link stability degradation due to environmental conditions still preserves hydrogen maser stability at the user locations. This paper reports on the implementation of optical fibers and electro-optic devices for distributing very stable, low phase noise reference signals to remote BWG antenna locations. Allan deviation and phase noise test results for a 16 km fiber optic distribution link are presented in the paper.

  15. A scheme of developing frequency encoded tristate-optical logic operations using semiconductor optical amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garai, Sisir Kumar

    2010-03-01

    The ever increasing demand for very fast and agile optical networks requires very fast execution of different optical and logical operations as well as large information handling capacities at the same time. In conventional binary logic based operations the information is represented by two distinct states only (0 and 1 state). It limits the large information handling capacity and speed of different arithmetic and optical logic operations. Tristate based logic operations can be accommodated with optics successfully in data processing, as this type of operation can enhance the speed of operation as well as increase the information handling capacity. Here in this communication the author proposes a new method to implement all-optical different logic gates with tristate logic using the frequency-encoding principle. The frequency encoding/decoding based optical communication has distinctly great advantages because the frequency is the fundamental character of an optical signal and it preserves its identity throughout the communication. The principle of the rotation of the state of polarization of a probe beam through semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), frequency routing property of an optical add/drop multiplexer (AD) and high frequency conversion property of reflecting semiconductor optical amplifiers (RSOA) have been exploited here to implement the desired AND, OR, NAND and NOR logic operations with tristate logic.

  16. Mounting system for optical frequency reference cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notcutt, Mark (Inventor); Hall, John L. (Inventor); Ma, Long-Sheng (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique for reducing the vibration sensitivity of laser-stabilizing optical reference cavities is based upon an improved design and mounting method for the cavity, wherein the cavity is mounted vertically. It is suspended at one plane, around the spacer cylinder, equidistant from the mirror ends of the cavity. The suspension element is a collar of an extremely low thermal expansion coefficient material, which surrounds the spacer cylinder and contacts it uniformly. Once the collar has been properly located, it is cemented in place so that the spacer cylinder is uniformly supported and does not have to be squeezed at all. The collar also includes a number of cavities partially bored into its lower flat surface, around the axial bore. These cavities are support points, into which mounting base pins will be inserted. Hence the collar is supported at a minimum of three points.

  17. Frequency noise processes in a strontium ion optical clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barwood, G. P.; Huang, G.; King, S. A.; Klein, H. A.; Gill, P.

    2015-02-01

    A recent comparison of the frequencies of a pair of optical clocks based on the 674 nm 2S1/2-2D5/2 optical clock transition in 88Sr+ has highlighted the need to understand factors affecting frequency instability. We have developed statistical models to show that our clock is capable of reaching the quantum projection noise limit; for our clock using 100 ms probe pulses, this is ˜3 × 10-15/√τ. However, this optical clock uses atomic transitions with a linear Zeeman shift, which can lead to a degradation in stability in the presence of magnetic field noise. We show that this generally leads to an increase in white frequency noise, even in cases dominated by magnetic field flicker or random walk noise. By taking into account both the quantum projection and magnetic field noise we are able to explain our observed frequency instabilities. This analysis will relate to any optical clock with a linear Zeeman shift where cancellation of this shift is achieved by interrogating pairs of components. Furthermore, implementing automatic control of lasers and minimization of micromotion requires pausing of the frequency servo occasionally; this leads to only a small degradation of frequency stability.

  18. Phase and frequency tracking considerations for heterodyne optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, J. E.

    Heterodyne optical communications systems represent a potential for substantial performance improvement over direct detection systems. Certain difficulties can arise, however, in heterodyne systems, in connection with a frequency instability of the employed laser. In general, frequency or phase tracking will be needed at the receiver to avoid significant degradations in communications performance and requirements for increased transmitter power unless very stable lasers are available. The present investigation is concerned with receiver phase and frequency tracking schemes suitable for heterodyne PSK and MFSK (multilevel frequency-shift-keying) systems in a space communications context, although this work is also applicable to fiberoptic systems.

  19. Optical techniques for time and frequency transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumont, Francoise; Gaignebet, Jean

    1994-01-01

    Light has been used as a means for time synchronization for a long time. The flight time was supposed to be negligible. The first scientific determination of the velocity of the light was done by measuring a round trip flight time on a given distance. The well known flying clock experiment leading to Einstein's General Relativity is another example. The advent of lasers, particularly short pulse and modulated ones, as well as the improvements of the timing equipments have led to new concepts for time and frequency transfer. We describe some experiments using different techniques and configurations which have been proposed and tested in this field since the beginning of the space age. Added to that, we set out advantages, drawbacks, and performances achieved in the different cases.

  20. Ultra-broadband microwave frequency down-conversion based on optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiao; Bai, Ming; Ye, Xiuzhu; Miao, Jungang; Zheng, Zheng

    2015-06-29

    Based on optical frequency comb (OFC), a photonic-assisted ultra-broadband microwave signal down-converting method is proposed. In the proposed scheme, microwave signal at 2~20GHz can be down-converted to 0~1GHz intermediate frequency (IF) signals by an OFC of 2GHz frequency space at different order of comb lines. By slightly switching the frequency space of OFC, the frequency of the signal to be measured can be retrieved through the frequency shift of the down-converted IF signal. The validity of this proposed unknown signal detection method is verified by the experiments. The proposed method is proven to be flexible, low-cost and easily implemented, which requires only a low-frequency tunable microwave source while provides ultra-broadband down-converting frequency range.

  1. Revealing carrier-envelope phase through frequency mixing and interference in frequency resolved optical gating.

    PubMed

    Snedden, E W; Walsh, D A; Jamison, S P

    2015-04-06

    We demonstrate that full temporal characterisation of few-cycle electromagnetic pulses, including retrieval of the carrier envelope phase (CEP), can be directly obtained from Frequency Resolved Optical Gating (FROG) techniques in which the interference between non-linear frequency mixing processes is resolved. We derive a framework for this scheme, defined Real Domain FROG (ReD-FROG), for the cases of interference between sum and difference frequency components and between fundamental and sum / difference frequency components. A successful numerical demonstration of ReD-FROG as applied to the case of a self-referenced measurement is provided. A proof-of-principle experiment is performed in which the CEP of a single-cycle THz pulse is accurately obtained and demonstrates the possibility for THz detection beyond optical probe duration limitations inherent to electro-optic sampling.

  2. Femtosecond fibre laser stabilisation to an optical frequency standard using a KTP electro-optic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Nyushkov, B N; Pivtsov, V S; Koliada, N A; Kaplun, A B; Meshalkin, A B

    2015-05-31

    A miniature intracavity KTP-based electro-optic phase modulator has been developed which can be used for effective stabilisation of an optical frequency comb of a femtosecond erbiumdoped fibre laser to an optical frequency standard. The use of such an electro-optic modulator (EOM) has made it possible to extend the working frequency band of a phase-locked loop system for laser stabilisation to several hundred kilohertz. We demonstrate that the KTP-based EOM is sufficiently sensitive even at a small optical length, which allows it to be readily integrated into cavities of femtosecond fibre lasers with high mode frequency spacings (over 100 MHz). (extreme light fields and their applications)

  3. One-way quantum computing in the optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Menicucci, Nicolas C; Flammia, Steven T; Pfister, Olivier

    2008-09-26

    One-way quantum computing allows any quantum algorithm to be implemented easily using just measurements. The difficult part is creating the universal resource, a cluster state, on which the measurements are made. We propose a scalable method that uses a single, multimode optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The method is very efficient and generates a continuous-variable cluster state, universal for quantum computation, with quantum information encoded in the quadratures of the optical frequency comb of the OPO.

  4. Optical frequency comb interference profilometry using compressive sensing.

    PubMed

    Pham, Quang Duc; Hayasaki, Yoshio

    2013-08-12

    We describe a new optical system using an ultra-stable mode-locked frequency comb femtosecond laser and compressive sensing to measure an object's surface profile. The ultra-stable frequency comb laser was used to precisely measure an object with a large depth, over a wide dynamic range. The compressive sensing technique was able to obtain the spatial information of the object with two single-pixel fast photo-receivers, with no mechanical scanning and fewer measurements than the number of sampling points. An optical experiment was performed to verify the advantages of the proposed method.

  5. Differential processing for frequency chirp measurement using optical pulse synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwagi, Ken; Seki, Satoshi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Takenouchi, Hirokazu; Kurokawa, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we introduced an optical pulse synthesizer (OPS) to measure frequency chirps of optical pulses by differential processing. The OPS has a single-chip integrated structure of all elements for the differential filtering and enables stable measurement. Because the exact filter causes a large loss, we employed a phase-only filter, whose frequency response was only in phase. We measured chirp rates of pulses which were induced by propagating standard single mode fibers with different lengths. The retrieved chirp rates were comparable to calculated results. We simulated accuracy of the method and concluded that our experiment had phase control accuracy within 0.07π.

  6. Rectennas at optical frequencies: How to analyze the response

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Saumil; Moddel, Garret

    2015-08-28

    Optical rectennas, antenna-coupled diode rectifiers that receive optical-frequency electromagnetic radiation and convert it to DC output, have been proposed for use in harvesting electromagnetic radiation from a blackbody source. The operation of these devices is qualitatively different from that of lower-frequency rectennas, and their design requires a new approach. To that end, we present a method to determine the rectenna response to high frequency illumination. It combines classical circuit analysis with classical and quantum-based photon-assisted tunneling response of a high-speed diode. We demonstrate the method by calculating the rectenna response for low and high frequency monochromatic illumination, and for radiation from a blackbody source. Such a blackbody source can be a hot body generating waste heat, or radiation from the sun.

  7. Rectennas at optical frequencies: How to analyze the response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Saumil; Moddel, Garret

    2015-08-01

    Optical rectennas, antenna-coupled diode rectifiers that receive optical-frequency electromagnetic radiation and convert it to DC output, have been proposed for use in harvesting electromagnetic radiation from a blackbody source. The operation of these devices is qualitatively different from that of lower-frequency rectennas, and their design requires a new approach. To that end, we present a method to determine the rectenna response to high frequency illumination. It combines classical circuit analysis with classical and quantum-based photon-assisted tunneling response of a high-speed diode. We demonstrate the method by calculating the rectenna response for low and high frequency monochromatic illumination, and for radiation from a blackbody source. Such a blackbody source can be a hot body generating waste heat, or radiation from the sun.

  8. Multiplexed sub-Doppler spectroscopy with an optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, D. A.; Fleisher, A. J.; Plusquellic, D. F.; Hodges, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    An optical frequency comb generated with an electro-optic phase modulator and a chirped radio-frequency waveform is used to perform pump-probe spectroscopy on the D1 and D2 transitions of atomic potassium at 770.1 and 766.7 nm, respectively. With a comb tooth spacing of 200 kHz and an optical bandwidth of 2 GHz the hyperfine transitions can be observed simultaneously. Interferograms are recorded in as little as 5 µs (a timescale corresponding to the inverse of the comb tooth spacing). Importantly, the sub-Doppler features can be measured as long as the laser carrier frequency lies within the Doppler profile, thus removing the need for slow scanning or a priori knowledge of the frequencies of the sub-Doppler features. Sub-Doppler optical frequency comb spectroscopy has the potential to dramatically reduce acquisition times and allow for rapid and accurate assignment of complex molecular and atomic spectra which are presently intractable.

  9. Optically transparent frequency selective surfaces on flexible thin plastic substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Dewani, Aliya A. O’Keefe, Steven G.; Thiel, David V.; Galehdar, Amir

    2015-02-15

    A novel 2D simple low cost frequency selective surface was screen printed on thin (0.21 mm), flexible transparent plastic substrate (relative permittivity 3.2). It was designed, fabricated and tested in the frequency range 10-20 GHz. The plane wave transmission and reflection coefficients agreed with numerical modelling. The effective permittivity and thickness of the backing sheet has a significant effect on the frequency characteristics. The stop band frequency reduced from 15GHz (no backing) to 12.5GHz with polycarbonate. The plastic substrate thickness beyond 1.8mm has minimal effect on the resonant frequency. While the inner element spacing controls the stop-band frequency, the substrate thickness controls the bandwidth. The screen printing technique provided a simple, low cost FSS fabrication method to produce flexible, conformal, optically transparent and bio-degradable FSS structures which can find their use in electromagnetic shielding and filtering applications in radomes, reflector antennas, beam splitters and polarizers.

  10. Frequency-noise measurements of optical frequency combs by multiple fringe-side discriminator

    PubMed Central

    Coluccelli, Nicola; Cassinerio, Marco; Gambetta, Alessio; Laporta, Paolo; Galzerano, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    The frequency noise of an optical frequency comb is routinely measured through the hetherodyne beat of one comb tooth against a stable continuous-wave laser. After frequency-to-voltage conversion, the beatnote is sent to a spectrum analyzer to retrive the power spectral density of the frequency noise. Because narrow-linewidth continuous-wave lasers are available only at certain wavelengths, heterodyning the comb tooth can be challenging. We present a new technique for direct characterization of the frequency noise of an optical frequency comb, requiring no supplementary reference lasers and easily applicable in all spectral regions from the terahertz to the ultraviolet. The technique is based on the combination of a low finesse Fabry-Perot resonator and the so-called “fringe-side locking” method, usually adopted to characterize the spectral purity of single-frequency lasers, here generalized to optical frequency combs. The effectiveness of this technique is demonstrated with an Er-fiber comb source across the wavelength range from 1 to 2 μm. PMID:26548900

  11. Optoelectronic Infrastructure for Radio Frequency and Optical Phased Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    Optoelectronic integrated circuits offer radiation-hardened solutions for satellite systems in addition to improved size, weight, power, and bandwidth characteristics. ODIS, Inc., has developed optoelectronic integrated circuit technology for sensing and data transfer in phased arrays. The technology applies integrated components (lasers, amplifiers, modulators, detectors, and optical waveguide switches) to a radio frequency (RF) array with true time delay for beamsteering. Optical beamsteering is achieved by controlling the current in a two-dimensional (2D) array. In this project, ODIS integrated key components to produce common RF-optical aperture operation.

  12. Novel phase-locking schemes for the carrier envelope offset frequency of an optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Sho; Onae, Atsushi; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Sera, Hideyuki; Inaba, Hajime; Hong, Feng-Lei

    2015-11-01

    We propose simple schemes to phase-lock the carrier envelope offset frequency (fceo) referring to the repetition rate (frep) of an optical frequency comb. We demonstrate the locking of fceo such that fceo = (1/2)frep, (1/3)frep, and (2/3)frep. The Allan deviation and signal-to-noise ratio of the coherent δ-function peak for the in-loop beat signal are 5.3 × 10-17/τ and 80-85 dB·Hz, respectively, where τ is the averaging time of the frequency measurement. These new locking schemes simplify the sign and mode-number determination in frequency measurements.

  13. Kerr optical frequency combs: theory, applications and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chembo, Yanne K.

    2016-06-01

    The optical frequency comb technology is one of the most important breakthrough in photonics in recent years. This concept has revolutionized the science of ultra-stable lightwave and microwave signal generation. These combs were originally generated using ultrafast mode-locked lasers, but in the past decade, a simple and elegant alternativewas proposed,which consisted in pumping an ultra-high-Q optical resonator with Kerr nonlinearity using a continuous-wave laser. When optimal conditions are met, the intracavity pump photons are redistributed via four-wave mixing to the neighboring cavity modes, thereby creating the so-called Kerr optical frequency comb. Beyond being energy-efficient, conceptually simple, and structurally robust, Kerr comb generators are very compact devices (millimetric down to micrometric size) which can be integrated on a chip. They are, therefore, considered as very promising candidates to replace femtosecond mode-locked lasers for the generation of broadband and coherent optical frequency combs in the spectral domain, or equivalently, narrow optical pulses in the temporal domain. These combs are, moreover, expected to provide breakthroughs in many technological areas, such as integrated photonics, metrology, optical telecommunications, and aerospace engineering. The purpose of this review article is to present a comprehensive survey of the topic of Kerr optical frequency combs.We provide an overview of the main theoretical and experimental results that have been obtained so far. We also highlight the potential of Kerr combs for current or prospective applications, and discuss as well some of the open challenges that are to be met at the fundamental and applied level.

  14. WGM Resonators for Terahertz-to-Optical Frequency Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov,Dmitry; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Nu, Nan

    2008-01-01

    Progress has been made toward solving some practical problems in the implementation of terahertz-to-optical frequency converters utilizing whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators. Such frequency converters are expected to be essential parts of non-cryogenic terahertz- radiation receivers that are, variously, under development or contemplated for a variety of applications in airborne and spaceborne instrumentation for astronomical and military uses. In most respects, the basic principles of terahertz-to-optical frequency conversion in WGM resonators are the same as those of microwave (sub-terahertz)-to-optical frequency conversion in WGM resonators, various aspects of which were discussed in the three preceeding articles. To recapitulate: In a receiver following this approach, a preamplified incoming microwave signal (in the present case, a terahertz signal) is up-converted to an optical signal by a technique that exploits the nonlinearity of the electromagnetic response of a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonator made of LiNbO3 or another suitable electro-optical material. Upconversion takes place by three-wave mixing in the resonator. To ensure the required interaction among the optical and terahertz signals, the WGM resonator must be designed and fabricated to function as an electro-optical modulator while simultaneously exhibiting (1) resonance at the required microwave and optical operating frequencies and (2) phase matching among the microwave and optical signals circulating in the resonator. Downstream of the WGM resonator, the up-converted signal is processed photonically by use of a tunable optical filter or local oscillator and is then detected. The practical problems addressed in the present development effort are the following: Satisfaction of the optical and terahertz resonance-frequency requirement is a straightforward matter, inasmuch as the optical and terahertz spectra can be measured. However, satisfaction of the phase-matching requirement is

  15. Optical frequency upconversion technique for transmission of wireless MIMO-type signals over optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Shaddad, R Q; Mohammad, A B; Al-Gailani, S A; Al-Hetar, A M

    2014-01-01

    The optical fiber is well adapted to pass multiple wireless signals having different carrier frequencies by using radio-over-fiber (ROF) technique. However, multiple wireless signals which have the same carrier frequency cannot propagate over a single optical fiber, such as wireless multi-input multi-output (MIMO) signals feeding multiple antennas in the fiber wireless (FiWi) system. A novel optical frequency upconversion (OFU) technique is proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, the novel OFU approach is used to transmit three wireless MIMO signals over a 20 km standard single mode fiber (SMF). The OFU technique exploits one optical source to produce multiple wavelengths by delivering it to a LiNbO3 external optical modulator. The wireless MIMO signals are then modulated by LiNbO3 optical intensity modulators separately using the generated optical carriers from the OFU process. These modulators use the optical single-sideband with carrier (OSSB+C) modulation scheme to optimize the system performance against the fiber dispersion effect. Each wireless MIMO signal is with a 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz carrier frequency, 1 Gb/s data rate, and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The crosstalk between the wireless MIMO signals is highly suppressed, since each wireless MIMO signal is carried on a specific optical wavelength.

  16. Optical Frequency Upconversion Technique for Transmission of Wireless MIMO-Type Signals over Optical Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Shaddad, R. Q.; Mohammad, A. B.; Al-Gailani, S. A.; Al-Hetar, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The optical fiber is well adapted to pass multiple wireless signals having different carrier frequencies by using radio-over-fiber (ROF) technique. However, multiple wireless signals which have the same carrier frequency cannot propagate over a single optical fiber, such as wireless multi-input multi-output (MIMO) signals feeding multiple antennas in the fiber wireless (FiWi) system. A novel optical frequency upconversion (OFU) technique is proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, the novel OFU approach is used to transmit three wireless MIMO signals over a 20 km standard single mode fiber (SMF). The OFU technique exploits one optical source to produce multiple wavelengths by delivering it to a LiNbO3 external optical modulator. The wireless MIMO signals are then modulated by LiNbO3 optical intensity modulators separately using the generated optical carriers from the OFU process. These modulators use the optical single-sideband with carrier (OSSB+C) modulation scheme to optimize the system performance against the fiber dispersion effect. Each wireless MIMO signal is with a 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz carrier frequency, 1 Gb/s data rate, and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The crosstalk between the wireless MIMO signals is highly suppressed, since each wireless MIMO signal is carried on a specific optical wavelength. PMID:24772009

  17. Frequency-domain single-shot optical frequency comb tomography using VIPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyaoka, Takumi; Shioda, Tatsutoshi

    2016-03-01

    Novel two-dimensional single-shot imaging optical system based on Frequency-domain interferometry using a virtually imaged phased array is proposed. The VIPA simultaneously outputs incoherent optical frequency combs (OFCs) whose teeth interval are scanned as a function of its output angle. Teeth intervals of the OFCs only in a reference are spatially swept by using of a VIPA whose advantage compared to an optical resonator. Thus, the single-shot imaging system can be realized with the FSR scanned frequency-domain OFC interference monitored by CCD. This system enable high speed 2-dimensional tomographic image without mechanical moving part. And the axial measurement range is not limited by using multi-order interference that is generated by OFCs interferometry. We will present the operation principle with its confirmed results in terms of both simulation and experiment.

  18. Squeezing Alters Frequency Tuning of WGM Optical Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohageg, Makan; Maleki, Lute

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical squeezing has been found to alter the frequency tuning of a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonator that has an elliptical shape and is made of lithium niobate. It may be possible to exploit this effect to design reconfigurable optical filters for optical communications and for scientific experiments involving quantum electrodynamics. Some background information is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the squeezing-induced alteration of frequency tuning: The spectrum of a WGM resonator is represented by a comblike plot of intensity versus frequency. Each peak of the comblike plot corresponds to an electromagnetic mode represented by an integer mode number, and the modes are grouped into sets represented by integer mode indices. Because lithium niobate is an electro-optically active material, the WGM resonator can be tuned (that is, the resonance frequencies can be shifted) by applying a suitable bias potential. The frequency shift of each mode is quantified by a tuning rate defined as the ratio between the frequency shift and the applied potential. In the absence of squeezing, all modes exhibit the same tuning rate. This concludes the background information. It has been demonstrated experimentally that when the resonator is squeezed along part of either of its two principal axes, tuning rates differ among the groups of modes represented by different indices (see figure). The differences in tuning rates could be utilized to configure the resonance spectrum to obtain a desired effect; for example, through a combination of squeezing and electrical biasing, two resonances represented by different mode indices could be set at a specified frequency difference something that could not be done through electrical biasing alone.

  19. Multiphoton, optical fiber-based fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bereś-Pawlik, ElŻbieta; Stawska, Hanna; Popenda, Maciej; Pajewski, Łukasz; Malinowska, Natalia; Hossa, Robert

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents investigation of normal and cancerous tissue by the means of one and two photon fluorescence spectroscopy. A comparison those methods has been conducted, allowing for eventual determination of granting the best possible diagnostic results.

  20. Optical isotropy at terahertz frequencies using anisotropic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, In-Sung; Sohn, Ik-Bu; Kang, Chul; Kee, Chul-Sik; Yang, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Joong Wook

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate optically isotropic filters in the terahertz (THz) frequency range using structurally anisotropic metamaterials. The proposed metamaterials with two-dimensional arrangements of anisotropic H-shaped apertures show polarization-independent transmission due to the combined effects of the dipole resonances of resonators and antennas. Our results may offer the potential for the design and realization of versatile THz devices and systems.

  1. Stabilized Fiber-Optic Distribution of Reference Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Malcolm; Tjoelker, Robert; Diener, William; Dick, G. John; Wang, Rabi; Kirk, Albert

    2003-01-01

    An optoelectronic system distributes a reference signal of low noise and highly stabilized phase and frequency (100 MHz) from an atomic frequency standard to a remote facility at a distance up to tens of kilometers. The reference signal is transmitted to the remote station as amplitude modulation of an optical carrier signal propagating in an optical fiber. The stabilization scheme implemented in this system is intended particularly to suppress phase and frequency fluctuations caused by vibrations and by expansion and contraction of the optical fiber and other components in diurnal and seasonal heating and cooling cycles. The system (see figure) comprises several subsystems, the main one being (1) a hydrogen-maser or linear-ion-trap frequency standard in an environmentally controlled room in a signal-processing center (SPC), (2) a stabilized fiber-optic distribution assembly (SFODA), (3) a compensated sapphire oscillator (CSO) in an environmentally controlled room in the remote facility, (4) thermally stabilized distribution amplifiers and cabling from the environmentally controlled room to end users, and (5) performance- measuring equipment.

  2. An optical beam frequency reference with 10{sup -14} range frequency instability

    SciTech Connect

    McFerran, J. J.; Hartnett, J. G.; Luiten, A. N.

    2009-07-20

    The authors report on a thermal beam optical frequency reference with a fractional frequency instability of 9.2x10{sup -14} at 1 s reducing to 2.0x10{sup -14} at 64 s before slowly rising. The {sup 1}S{sub 0}{r_reversible}{sup 3}P{sub 1} intercombination line in neutral {sup 40}Ca is used as a frequency discriminator. A diode laser at 423 nm probes the ground state population after a Ramsey-Borde sequence of 657 nm light-field interactions on the atoms. The measured fractional frequency instability is an order of magnitude improvement on previously reported thermal beam optical clocks. The photon shot-noise of the read-out produces a limiting square root {lambda}-variance of 7x10{sup -14}/{radical}({tau})

  3. Frequency Comparison of Two High-Accuracy Al+ Optical Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C. W.; Hume, D. B.; Koelemeij, J. C. J.; Wineland, D. J.; Rosenband, T.

    2010-02-01

    We have constructed an optical clock with a fractional frequency inaccuracy of 8.6×10-18, based on quantum logic spectroscopy of an Al+ ion. A simultaneously trapped Mg+ ion serves to sympathetically laser cool the Al+ ion and detect its quantum state. The frequency of the S01↔P03 clock transition is compared to that of a previously constructed Al+ optical clock with a statistical measurement uncertainty of 7.0×10-18. The two clocks exhibit a relative stability of 2.8×10-15τ-1/2, and a fractional frequency difference of -1.8×10-17, consistent with the accuracy limit of the older clock.

  4. Phase-coherent all-optical frequency division by three

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Klein, Marvin E.; Meyn, Jan-Peter; Wallenstein, Richard; Gross, Petra; Boller, Klaus-Jochen

    2003-01-01

    The properties of all-optical phase-coherent frequency division by 3, based on a self-phase-locked continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO), are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The frequency to be divided is provided by a diode laser master-oscillator power-amplifier system operated at a wavelength of 812 nm and used as the pump source of the OPO. Optical self-phase-locking of the OPO signal and idler waves is achieved by mutual injection locking of the signal wave and the intracavity frequency-doubled idler wave. The OPO process and the second-harmonic generation of the idler wave are simultaneously phase matched through quasi-phase-matching using two periodically poled sections of different period manufactured within the same LiNbO{sub 3} crystal. An optical self-phase-locking range of up to 1 MHz is experimentally observed. The phase coherence of frequency division by three is measured via the phase stability of an interference pattern formed by the input and output waves of the OPO. The fractional frequency instability of the divider is measured to be smaller than 7.6x10{sup -14} for a measurement time of 10 s (resolution limited). The self-phase-locking characteristics of the cw OPO are theoretically investigated by analytically solving the coupled field equations in the steady-state regime. For the experimental parameters of the OPO, the calculations predict a locking range of 1.3 MHz and a fractional frequency instability of 1.6x10{sup -15}, in good agreement with the experimental results.

  5. Analysis on error of laser frequency locking for fiber optical receiver in direct detection wind lidar based on Fabry-Perot interferometer and improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feifei; Dou, Xiankang; Sun, Dongsong; Shu, Zhifeng; Xia, Haiyun; Gao, Yuanyuan; Hu, Dongdong; Shangguan, Mingjia

    2014-12-01

    Direct detection Doppler wind lidar (DWL) has been demonstrated for its capability of atmospheric wind detection ranging from the troposphere to stratosphere with high temporal and spatial resolution. We design and describe a fiber-based optical receiver for direct detection DWL. Then the locking error of the relative laser frequency is analyzed and the dependent variables turn out to be the relative error of the calibrated constant and the slope of the transmission function. For high accuracy measurement of the calibrated constant for a fiber-based system, an integrating sphere is employed for its uniform scattering. What is more, the feature of temporally widening the pulse laser allows more samples be acquired for the analog-to-digital card of the same sampling rate. The result shows a relative error of 0.7% for a calibrated constant. For the latter, a new improved locking filter for a Fabry-Perot Interferometer was considered and designed with a larger slope. With these two strategies, the locking error for the relative laser frequency is calculated to be about 3 MHz, which is equivalent to a radial velocity of about 0.53 m/s and demonstrates the effective improvements of frequency locking for a robust DWL.

  6. Optical Frequency Measurements Relying on a Mid-Infrared Frequency Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovera, G. Daniele; Acef, Ouali

    Only a small number of groups are capable of measuring optical frequencies throughout the world. In this contribution we present some of the underlying philosophy of such frequency measurement systems, including some important theoretical hints. In particular, we concentrate on the approach that has been used with the BNM-LPTF frequency chain, where a separate secondary frequency standard in the mid-infrared has been used. The low-frequency section of the chain is characterized by a measurement of the phase noise spectral density Sφ at 716GHz.Most of the significant measurements performed in the last decade are briefly presented, together with a report on the actual stability and reproducibility of the CO2/ OsO4 frequency standard.Measuring the frequency of an optical frequency standard by direct comparison with the signal available at the output of a primary frequency standard (usually between 5MHz and 100MHz) requires a multiplication factor greater than 107. A number of possible configurations, using harmonic generation, sum or difference frequency generation, have been proposed and realized in the past [1,2,3,4,5,6] and in more recent times [7]. A new technique, employing a femtosecond laser, is presently giving its first impressive results [8].All of the classical frequency chains require a large amount of manpower, together with a great deal of simultaneously operating hardware. This has the consequence that only a very few systems are actually in an operating condition throughout the world.

  7. Parametric frequency upconversion, optical fiber transmission, and streak camera recording

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, M.E.; Rotter, M.D.

    1987-01-30

    The use of optical fiber for the transmission of information over relatively long distances is being recognized as the only viable solution to many data transmission problems, particularly those requiring high information density and faithful temporal content. This necessary reliance upon the optical carrier has meant that the image-tube based optical streak camera is often the instrument of choice for recording single-shot multi-parameter events with high temporal resolution. However, current photocathode technology is incompatible with the trend of the optical fiber industry toward the use of the 1300 to 1600 nm wavelength regime. To retain the advantages of optical streak-camera recording and optical fiber transmission, a way must be found to ''upconvert'' the optical carrier to higher energy. This report describes the use of an intense lazer pump beam coincident with the IR signal into a non-linear crystal (LiIO/sub 3/) to increase the signal's frequency. A beam splitter is used to separate the signal from the pump beam at the detector. The physical theory underlying this process is described. (JDH)

  8. Generation of frequency-chirped optical pulses with felix

    SciTech Connect

    Knippels, G.M.H.; Meer, A.F.G. van der; Mols, R.F.X.A.M.

    1995-12-31

    Frequency-chirped optical pulses have been produced in the picosecond regime by varying the energy of the electron beam on a microsecond time scale. These pulses were then compressed close to their bandwidth limit by an external pulse compressor. The amount of chirp can be controlled by varying the sweep rate on the electron beam energy and by cavity desynchronisation. To examine the generated chirp we used the following diagnostics: a pulse compressor, a crossed beam autocorrelator, a multichannel electron spectrometer and multichannel optical spectrometer. The compressor is build entirely using reflective optics to permit broad band operation. The autocorrelator is currently operating from 6 {mu}m to 30 {mu}m with one single crystal. It has been used to measure pulses as short as 500 fs. All diagnostics are evacuated to prevent pulse shape distortion or pulse lengthening caused by absorption in ambient water vapour. Pulse length measurements and optical spectra will be presented for different electron beam sweep rates, showing the presence of a frequency chirp. Results on the compression of the optical pulses to their bandwidth limit are given for different electron sweep rates. More experimental results showing the dependence of the amount of chirp on cavity desynchronisation will be presented.

  9. Glass-ceramic optical fiber containing Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals for frequency conversion of lasers

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zaijin; Xiao, Xusheng; Wang, Xin; Ma, Zhijun; Lewis, Elfed; Farrell, Gerald; Wang, Pengfei; Ren, Jing; Guo, Haitao; Qiu, Jianrong

    2017-01-01

    A glass-ceramic optical fiber containing Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals fabricated using a novel combination of the melt-in-tube method and successive heat treatment is reported for the first time. For the melt-in-tube method, fibers act as a precursor at the drawing temperature for which the cladding glass is softened while the core glass is melted. It is demonstrated experimentally that following heat treatment, Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals with diameters below 10 nm are evenly distributed throughout the fiber core. Comparing to the conventional rod-in-tube method, the melt-in-tube method is superior in terms of controllability of crystallization to allow for the fabrication of low loss glass-ceramic fibers. When irradiated using a 1030 nm femtosecond laser, an enhanced green emission at a wavelength of 515 nm is observed in the glass-ceramic fiber, which demonstrates second harmonic generation of a laser action in the fabricated glass-ceramic fibers. Therefore, this new glass-ceramic fiber not only provides a highly promising development for frequency conversion of lasers in all optical fiber based networks, but the melt-in-tube fabrication method also offers excellent opportunities for fabricating a wide range of novel glass-ceramic optical fibers for multiple future applications including fiber telecommunications and lasers. PMID:28358045

  10. Glass-ceramic optical fiber containing Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals for frequency conversion of lasers.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zaijin; Xiao, Xusheng; Wang, Xin; Ma, Zhijun; Lewis, Elfed; Farrell, Gerald; Wang, Pengfei; Ren, Jing; Guo, Haitao; Qiu, Jianrong

    2017-03-30

    A glass-ceramic optical fiber containing Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals fabricated using a novel combination of the melt-in-tube method and successive heat treatment is reported for the first time. For the melt-in-tube method, fibers act as a precursor at the drawing temperature for which the cladding glass is softened while the core glass is melted. It is demonstrated experimentally that following heat treatment, Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals with diameters below 10 nm are evenly distributed throughout the fiber core. Comparing to the conventional rod-in-tube method, the melt-in-tube method is superior in terms of controllability of crystallization to allow for the fabrication of low loss glass-ceramic fibers. When irradiated using a 1030 nm femtosecond laser, an enhanced green emission at a wavelength of 515 nm is observed in the glass-ceramic fiber, which demonstrates second harmonic generation of a laser action in the fabricated glass-ceramic fibers. Therefore, this new glass-ceramic fiber not only provides a highly promising development for frequency conversion of lasers in all optical fiber based networks, but the melt-in-tube fabrication method also offers excellent opportunities for fabricating a wide range of novel glass-ceramic optical fibers for multiple future applications including fiber telecommunications and lasers.

  11. Fibre optics wavemeters calibration using a self-referenced optical frequency comb

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo-Santos, J.; Velasco, A. V.; Corredera, P.

    2015-01-15

    Self-referenced optical frequency combs enable the measurement of optical frequencies with a very high accuracy, achieving uncertainties close to the atomic clock used as reference (<10{sup −13} s). In this paper, we present the technique for the measurement of laser frequencies for optical communications followed at IO-CSIC and its application to the calibration of two wavemeters in the 1.5 μm optical communication window. Calibration uncertainties down to 12 MHz and 59 MHz were obtained, respectively, for each of the devices. Furthermore, the long-term behaviour of the higher resolution wavemeter was studied during a 750 h period of sustained operation, exhibiting a dispersion in the measurements of 7.72 MHz. Temperature dependence of the device was analysed, enabling to further reduce dispersion down to a 2.15 MHz range, with no significant temporal deviations.

  12. Enhanced link availability for free space optical time-frequency transfer using adaptive optic terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrillo, Keith G.; Dennis, Michael L.; Juarez, Juan C.; Souza, Katherine T.; Baumann, Esther; Bergeron, Hugo; Coddington, Ian; Deschenes, Jean-Daniel; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R.; Newbury, Nathan R.; Sinclair, Laura C.; Swann, William C.

    2016-05-01

    Optical time and frequency transfer offers extremely high precision wireless synchronization across multiple platforms for untethered distributed systems. While large apertures provide antenna gain for wireless systems which leads to robust link budgets and operation over increased distance, turbulence disrupts the beam and limits the full realization of the antenna gain. Adaptive optics can correct for phase distortions due to turbulence which potentially increases the total gain of the aperture to that for diffraction-limited operation. Here, we explore the use of adaptive optics terminals for free-space time and frequency transfer. We find that the requirement of reciprocity in a two-way time and frequency transfer link is maintained during the phase compensation of adaptive optics, and that the enhanced link budget due to aperture gain allows for potential system operation over ranges of at least tens of kilometers.

  13. Absolute distance measurement using frequency-sweeping heterodyne interferometer calibrated by an optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuejian; Wei, Haoyun; Zhang, Hongyuan; Ren, Libing; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jitao

    2013-04-01

    We present a frequency-sweeping heterodyne interferometer to measure an absolute distance based on a frequency-tunable diode laser calibrated by an optical frequency comb (OFC) and an interferometric phase measurement system. The laser frequency-sweeping process is calibrated by the OFC within a range of 200 GHz and an accuracy of 1.3 kHz, which brings about a precise temporal synthetic wavelength of 1.499 mm. The interferometric phase measurement system consisting of the analog signal processing circuit and the digital phase meter achieves a phase difference resolution better than 0.1 deg. As the laser frequency is sweeping, the absolute distance can be determined by measuring the phase difference variation of the interference signals. In the laboratory condition, our experimental scheme realizes micrometer accuracy over meter distance.

  14. Frequency converter implementing an optical analogue of the cosmological redshift.

    PubMed

    Ginis, Vincent; Tassin, Philippe; Craps, Ben; Veretennicoff, Irina

    2010-03-01

    According to general relativity, the frequency of electromagnetic radiation is altered by the expansion of the universe. This effect-commonly referred to as the cosmological redshift--is of utmost importance for observations in cosmology. Here we show that this redshift can be reproduced on a much smaller scale using an optical analogue inside a dielectric metamaterial with time-dependent material parameters. To this aim, we apply the framework of transformation optics to the Robertson-Walker metric. We demonstrate theoretically how perfect redshifting or blueshifting of an electromagnetic wave can be achieved without the creation of sidebands with a device of finite length.

  15. Frequency-dependent optical steering from subwavelength plasmonic structures.

    PubMed

    Djalalian-Assl, A; Gómez, D E; Roberts, A; Davis, T J

    2012-10-15

    We show theoretically and with numerical simulations that the direction of the in-plane scattering from a subwavelength optical antenna system can be controlled by the frequency of the incident light. This optical steering effect does not rely on propagation phase shifts or diffraction but arises from phase shifts in the localized surface plasmon modes of the antenna. An analytical model is developed to optimize the parameters for the configuration, showing good agreement with a rigorous numerical simulation. The simulation predicts a 25° angular shift in the direction of the light scattered from two gold nanorods for a wavelength change of 12 nm.

  16. Offset-free broadband Yb:fiber optical frequency comb for optical clocks.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takuma; Ito, Isao; Kobayashi, Yohei

    2015-07-27

    We demonstrate a passively offset-frequency stabilized optical frequency comb centered at 1060 nm. The offset-free comb was achieved through difference frequency generation (DFG) between two portions of a supercontinuum based on a Yb:fiber laser. As the DFG comb had only one degree of freedom, repetition frequency, full stabilization was achieved via locking one of the modes to an ultra-stable continuous wave (CW) laser. The DFG comb provided sufficient average power to enable further amplification, using Yb-doped fiber amplifier, and spectral broadening. The spectrum spanned from 690 nm to 1300 nm and the average power was of several hundred mW, which could be ideal for the comparison of optical clocks, such as optical lattice clocks operated with Sr (698 nm) and Hg (1063 nm) reference atoms.

  17. Nonlinear optics at low powers: Alternative mechanism of on-chip optical frequency comb generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogov, Andrei S.; Narimanov, Evgenii E.

    2016-12-01

    Nonlinear optical effects provide a natural way of light manipulation and interaction and form the foundation of applied photonics, from high-speed signal processing and telecommunication to ultrahigh-bandwidth interconnects and information processing. However, relatively weak nonlinear response at optical frequencies calls for operation at high optical powers or boosting efficiency of nonlinear parametric processes by enhancing local-field intensity with high-quality-factor resonators near cavity resonance, resulting in reduced operational bandwidth and increased loss due to multiphoton absorption. We present an alternative to this conventional approach, with strong nonlinear optical effects at low local intensities, based on period-doubling bifurcations near nonlinear cavity antiresonance and apply it to low-power optical frequency comb generation in a silicon chip.

  18. Routes to spatiotemporal chaos in Kerr optical frequency combs

    SciTech Connect

    Coillet, Aurélien; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2014-03-15

    We investigate the various routes to spatiotemporal chaos in Kerr optical frequency combs, obtained through pumping an ultra-high Q-factor whispering-gallery mode resonator with a continuous-wave laser. The Lugiato–Lefever model is used to build bifurcation diagrams with regards to the parameters that are externally controllable, namely, the frequency and the power of the pumping laser. We show that the spatiotemporal chaos emerging from Turing patterns and solitons display distinctive dynamical features. Experimental spectra of chaotic Kerr combs are also presented for both cases, in excellent agreement with theoretical spectra.

  19. A distributed fiber optic sensor system for dike monitoring using Brillouin optical frequency domain analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nöther, Nils; Wosniok, Aleksander; Krebber, Katerina; Thiele, Elke

    2008-03-01

    We report on the development of a complete system for spatially resolved detection of critical soil displacement in river embankments. The system uses Brillouin frequency domain analysis (BOFDA) for distributed measurement of strain in silica optical fibers. Our development consists of the measurement unit, an adequate coating for the optical fibers and a technique to integrate the coated optical fibers into geotextiles as they are commonly used in dike construction. We present several laboratory and field tests that prove the capability of the system to detect areas of soil displacement as small as 2 meters. These are the first tests of truly distributed strain measurements on optical fibers embedded into geosynthetics.

  20. Charge Transfer Plasmons: Optical Frequency Conductances and Tunable Infrared Resonances.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fangfang; Zhang, Yue; Gottheim, Samuel; King, Nicholas S; Zhang, Yu; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2015-06-23

    A charge transfer plasmon (CTP) appears when an optical-frequency conductive pathway between two metallic nanoparticles is established, enabling the transfer of charge between nanoparticles when the plasmon is excited. Here we investigate the properties of the CTP in a nanowire-bridged dimer geometry. Varying the junction geometry controls its conductance, which modifies the resonance energies and scattering intensities of the CTP while also altering the other plasmon modes of the nanostructure. Reducing the junction conductance shifts this resonance to substantially lower energies in the near- and mid-infrared regions of the spectrum. The CTP offers both a high-information probe of optical frequency conductances in nanoscale junctions and a new, unique approach to controllably engineering tunable plasmon modes at infrared wavelengths.

  1. Cascade frequency generation regime in an optical parametric oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Kolker, D B; Dmitriev, Aleksandr K; Gorelik, P; Vong, Franko; Zondy, J J

    2009-05-31

    In a parametric oscillator of a special two-sectional design based on a lithium niobate periodic structure, a cascade frequency generation regime was observed in which a signal wave pumped a secondary parametric oscillator, producing secondary signal and idler waves. The secondary parametric oscillator can be tuned in a broad range of {approx}200 nm with respect to a fixed wavelength of the primary idler wave. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  2. Frequency-domain optical tomographic imaging of arthritic finger joints.

    PubMed

    Hielscher, Andreas H; Kim, Hyun Keol; Montejo, Ludguier D; Blaschke, Sabine; Netz, Uwe J; Zwaka, Paul A; Illing, Gerd; Muller, Gerhard A; Beuthan, Jürgen

    2011-10-01

    We are presenting data from the largest clinical trial on optical tomographic imaging of finger joints to date. Overall we evaluated 99 fingers of patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 120 fingers from healthy volunteers. Using frequency-domain imaging techniques we show that sensitivities and specificities of 0.85 and higher can be achieved in detecting RA. This is accomplished by deriving multiple optical parameters from the optical tomographic images and combining them for the statistical analysis. Parameters derived from the scattering coefficient perform slightly better than absorption derived parameters. Furthermore we found that data obtained at 600 MHz leads to better classification results than data obtained at 0 or 300 MHz.

  3. Simultaneous transfer of optical frequency and time over 306 km long-haul optical fibre link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hucl, Vaclav; Cizek, Martin; Pravdova, Lenka; Rerucha, Simon; Hrabina, Jan; Mikel, Bretislav; Smotlacha, Vladimir; Vojtech, Josef; Lazar, Josef; Cip, Ondrej

    2016-12-01

    Optical fibre links for distributing optical frequencies and time stamps were researched and experimentally tested in the past fifteen years. They have been used mainly for stability comparison of experimental optical clocks. But recent development puts demands on a technology transfer from laboratory experiments to the real industry. The remote calibration of interrogators of Fibre Bragg Grating strain sensory networks is one of important examples. The first step of the adoption the time and frequency broadcasting should be the drop-out free long-term operation of this technology between research laboratories connected via long-haul fibre links. We present a 306 km long-haul optical fibre link between the cities of Prague and Brno in the Czech Republic where a coherent transfer of stable optical frequency and a stable time signal has been firstly demonstrated. The link between ISI CAS Brno and CESNET Prague uses an internet communication fibre where a window of 1540-1546 nm is dedicated for the coherent transfer and 1PPS signal. The link is equipped with 6 bidirectional EDFA amplifiers. The optical frequency standard based on the highly-coherent laser Koheras Adjustik working at 1540.5 nm and stabilized with a saturation absorption spectroscopy technique was used for the coherent wave transfer. The suppression of the Doppler shift induced by the optical fibre was based on an accoustooptical modulator with a servo-loop including a fast PID controller processing the beat-note frequency given by mixing of the Adjustik laser (Brno) and the reflected frequency of this laser from the far end of 306 km long-haul fibre link (Prague). We verified the Doppler shift suppression for the coherent wave with a measuring method analysing the transport delay of the 1PPS signal.

  4. Stable fiber-based Fabry-Perot cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmetz, T.; Colombe, Y.; Hunger, D.; Haensch, T. W.; Balocchi, A.; Warburton, R. J.; Reichel, J.

    2006-09-11

    The development of a fiber-based, tunable optical cavity with open access is reported. The cavity is of the Fabry-Perot type and is formed with miniature spherical mirrors positioned on the end of single- or multimode optical fibers by a transfer technique, which involves lifting a high-quality mirror from a smooth convex substrate, either a ball lens or microlens. The cavities typically have a finesse of {approx}1000 and a mode volume of 600 {mu}m{sup 3}. The detection of small ensembles of cold Rb atoms guided through such a cavity on an atom chip is demonstrated.

  5. Synthesis of Optical Frequencies and Ultrastable Femtosecond Pulse Trains from an Optical Reference Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, A.; Ramond, T. M.; Diddams, S. A.; Hollberg, L.

    Recently, atomic clocks based on optical frequency standards have been demonstrated [1,2]. A key element in these clocks is a femtosecond laser that downconverts the petahertz oscillation rate into countable ticks at 1 GHz. When compared to current microwave standards, these new optical clocks are expected to yield an improvement in stability and accuracy by roughly a factor of 1000. Furthermore, it is possible that the lowest noise microwave sources will soon be based on atomically-stabilized optical oscillators that have their frequency converted to the microwave domain via a femtosecond laser. Here, we present tests of the ability of femtosecond lasers to transfer stability from an optical oscillator to their repetition rates as well as to the associated broadband frequency comb. In a first experiment, we phase-lock two lasers to a stabilized laser diode and find that the relative timing jitter in their pulse trains can be on the order of 1 femtosecond in a 100 kHz bandwidth. It is important to distinguish this technique from previous work where a femtosecond laser has been stabilized to a microwave standard [3,4] or another femtosecond laser [5]. Furthermore, we extract highly stable microwave signals with a fractional frequency instability of 2×10-14 in 1 s by photodetection of the laser pulse trains. In a second experiment, we similarly phase-lock the femtosecond laser to an optical oscillator with linewidth less than 1 Hz [6]. The precision with which we can make the femtosecond frequency comb track this reference oscillator is then tested by a heterodyne measurement between a second stable optical oscillator and a mode of the frequency comb that is displaced 76 THz from the 1 Hz-wide reference. From this heterodyne signal we place an upper limit of 150 Hz on the linewidth of the elements of the frequency comb, limited by the noise in the measurement itself.

  6. Comparing a mercury optical lattice clock with microwave and optical frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyumenev, R.; Favier, M.; Bilicki, S.; Bookjans, E.; Le Targat, R.; Lodewyck, J.; Nicolodi, D.; Le Coq, Y.; Abgrall, M.; Guéna, J.; De Sarlo, L.; Bize, S.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we report the evaluation of an optical lattice clock based on neutral mercury with a relative uncertainty of 1.7× {10}-16. Comparing this characterized frequency standard to a 133Cs atomic fountain we determine the absolute frequency of the {}1{{{S}}}0\\to {}3{{{P}}}0 transition of 199Hg as {ν }{Hg}=1128 575 290 808 154.62 {Hz}+/- 0.19 {Hz}({statistical})+/- 0.38 {Hz} (systematic), limited solely by the realization of the SI second. Furthermore, by comparing the mercury optical lattice clock to a 87Rb atomic fountain, we determine for the first time to our knowledge the ratio between the 199Hg clock transition and the 87Rb ground state hyperfine transition. Finally we present a direct optical to optical measurement of the 199Hg/87Sr frequency ratio. The obtained value of {ν }{Hg}/{ν }{Sr} = 2.629 314 209 898 909 15 with a fractional uncertainty of 1.8× {10}-16 is in excellent agreement with a similar measurement obtained by Yamanaka et al (2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 230801). This makes this frequency ratio one of the few physical quantities agreed upon by different laboratories to this level of uncertainty. Frequency ratio measurements of the kind reported in this paper have a strong impact for frequency metrology and fundamental physics as they can be used to monitor putative variations of fundamental constants.

  7. Frequency-time coherence for all-optical sampling without optical pulse source

    PubMed Central

    Preußler, Stefan; Raoof Mehrpoor, Gilda; Schneider, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Sampling is the first step to convert an analogue optical signal into a digital electrical signal. The latter can be further processed and analysed by well-known electrical signal processing methods. Optical pulse sources like mode-locked lasers are commonly incorporated for all-optical sampling, but have several drawbacks. A novel approach for a simple all-optical sampling is to utilise the frequency-time coherence of each signal. The method is based on only using two coupled modulators driven with an electrical sine wave. Since no optical source is required, a simple integration in appropriate platforms, such as Silicon Photonics might be possible. The presented method grants all-optical sampling with electrically tunable bandwidth, repetition rate and time shift. PMID:27687495

  8. An Optical Frequency Comb Tied to GPS for Laser Frequency/Wavelength Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Jack A.; Egan, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Optical frequency combs can be employed over a broad spectral range to calibrate laser frequency or vacuum wavelength. This article describes procedures and techniques utilized in the Precision Engineering Division of NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) for comb-based calibration of laser wavelength, including a discussion of ancillary measurements such as determining the mode order. The underlying purpose of these calibrations is to provide traceable standards in support of length measurement. The relative uncertainty needed to fulfill this goal is typically 10−8 and never below 10−12, very modest requirements compared to the capabilities of comb-based frequency metrology. In this accuracy range the Global Positioning System (GPS) serves as an excellent frequency reference that can provide the traceable underpinning of the measurement. This article describes techniques that can be used to completely characterize measurement errors in a GPS-based comb system and thus achieve full confidence in measurement results. PMID:27134794

  9. Spectrometer employing optical fiber time delays for frequency resolution

    DOEpatents

    Schuss, Jack J.; Johnson, Larry C.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides different length glass fibers for providing a broad range of optical time delays for short incident chromatic light pulses for the selective spatial and frequency analysis of the light with a single light detector. To this end, the frequencies of the incident light are orientated and matched with the different length fibers by dispersing the separate frequencies in space according to the respective fiber locations and lengths at the input terminal of the glass fibers. This makes the different length fibers useful in the field of plasma physics. To this end the short light pulses can be scattered by a plasma and then passed through the fibers for analyzing and diagnosing the plasma while it varies rapidly with time.

  10. Atomically referenced 1-GHz optical parametric oscillator frequency comb.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Richard A; Balskus, Karolis; Zhang, Zhaowei; Reid, Derryck T

    2015-06-15

    The visible to mid-infrared coverage of femtosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) frequency combs makes them attractive resources for high-resolution spectroscopy and astrophotonic spectrograph calibration. Such applications require absolute traceability and wide comb-tooth spacing, attributes which until now have remained unavailable from any single OPO frequency comb. Here, we report a 1-GHz Ti:sapphire pumped OPO comb whose repetition and offset frequencies are referenced to Rb-stabilised microwave and laser oscillators respectively. This technique simultaneously achieves fully stabilized combs from both the Ti:sapphire laser and the OPO with sub-MHz comb-tooth linewidths, multi-hour locking stability and without the need for super-continuum generation.

  11. 1-GHz harmonically pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Balskus, K; Leitch, S M; Zhang, Z; McCracken, R A; Reid, D T

    2015-01-26

    We present the first example of a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator frequency comb harmonically-pumped by a 333-MHz Ti:sapphire laser to achieve a stabilized signal comb at 1-GHz mode spacing in the 1.1-1.6-µm wavelength band. Simultaneous locking of the comb carrier-envelope-offset and repetition frequencies is achieved with uncertainties over 1 s of 0.27 Hz and 5 mHz respectively, which are comparable with those of 0.27 Hz and 1.5 mHz achieved for 333-MHz fundamental pumping. The phase-noise power-spectral density of the CEO frequency integrated from 1 Hz-64 kHz was 2.8 rad for the harmonic comb, 1.0 rad greater than for fundamental pumping. The results show that harmonic operation does not substantially compromise the frequency-stability of the comb, which is shown to be limited only by the Rb atomic frequency reference used.

  12. Optimal light harvesting structures at optical and infrared frequencies.

    PubMed

    Villate-Guío, F; López-Tejeira, F; García-Vidal, F J; Martín-Moreno, L; de León-Pérez, F

    2012-11-05

    One-dimensional light harvesting structures with a realistic geometry nano-patterned on an opaque metallic film are optimized to render high transmission efficiencies at optical and infrared frequencies. Simple design rules are developed for the particular case of a slit-groove array with a given number of grooves that are symmetrically distributed with respect to a central slit. These rules take advantage of the hybridization of Fabry-Perot modes in the slit and surface modes of the corrugated metal surface. Same design rules apply for optical and infrared frequencies. The parameter space of the groove array is also examined with a conjugate gradient optimization algorithm that used as a seed the geometries optimized following physical intuition. Both uniform and nonuniform groove arrays are considered. The largest transmission enhancement, with respect to a uniform array, is obtained for a chirped groove profile. Such relative enhancement is a function of the wavelength. It decreases from 39 % in the optical part of the spectrum to 15 % at the long wavelength infrared.

  13. Frequency-domain optical mammography: edge effect corrections.

    PubMed

    Fantini, S; Franceschini, M A; Gaida, G; Gratton, E; Jess, H; Mantulin, W W; Moesta, K T; Schlag, P M; Kaschke, M

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the problem of edge effects in laser-beam transillumination scanning of the human breast. Edge effects arise from tissue thickness variability along the scanned area, and from lateral photon losses through the sides of the breast. Edge effects can be effectively corrected in frequency-domain measurements by employing a two-step procedure: (1) use of the phase information to calculate an effective tissue thickness for each pixel location; (2) application of the knowledge of tissue thickness to calculate an edge-corrected optical image from the ac signal image. The measurements were conducted with a light mammography apparatus (LIMA) designed for feasibility tests in the clinical environment. Operating in the frequency-domain (110 MHz), this instrument performs a transillumination optical scan at two wavelengths (685 and 825 nm). We applied the proposed two-step procedure to data from breast phantoms and from human breasts. The processed images provide higher contrast and detectability in optical mammography with respect to raw data breast images.

  14. Frequency comparison of optical lattice clocks beyond the Dick limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamoto, Masao; Takano, Tetsushi; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2011-05-01

    The supreme accuracy of atomic clocks relies on the universality of atomic transition frequencies. The stability of a clock, meanwhile, measures how quickly the clock's statistical uncertainties are reduced. The ultimate measure of stability is provided by the quantum projection noise, which improves as 1/√N by measuring N uncorrelated atoms. Quantum projection noise limited stabilities have been demonstrated in caesium clocks and in single-ion optical clocks, where the quantum noise overwhelms the Dick effect attributed to local oscillator noise. Here, we demonstrate a synchronous frequency comparison of two optical lattice clocks using 87Sr and 88Sr atoms, respectively, for which the Allan standard deviation reached 1 × 10-17 in an averaging time of 1,600 s by cancelling out the Dick effect to approach the quantum projection noise limit. The scheme demonstrates the advantage of using a large number (N ~ 1,000) of atoms in optical clocks and paves the way to investigating the inherent uncertainties of clocks and relativistic geodesy on a timescale of tens of minutes.

  15. Effect of soil temperature on optical frequency transfer through unidirectional dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing fiber-optic links.

    PubMed

    Pinkert, T J; Böll, O; Willmann, L; Jansen, G S M; Dijck, E A; Groeneveld, B G H M; Smets, R; Bosveld, F C; Ubachs, W; Jungmann, K; Eikema, K S E; Koelemeij, J C J

    2015-02-01

    Results of optical frequency transfer over a carrier-grade dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) optical fiber network are presented. The relation between soil temperature changes on a buried optical fiber and frequency changes of an optical carrier through the fiber is modeled. Soil temperatures, measured at various depths by the Royal Netherlands Meteorology Institute (KNMI) are compared with observed frequency variations through this model. A comparison of a nine-day record of optical frequency measurements through the 2×298  km fiber link with soil temperature data shows qualitative agreement. A soil temperature model is used to predict the link stability over longer periods (days-months-years). We show that optical frequency dissemination is sufficiently stable to distribute and compare, e.g., rubidium frequency standards over standard DWDM optical fiber networks using unidirectional fibers.

  16. Invited Article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, L C; Deschênes, J-D; Sonderhouse, L; Swann, W C; Khader, I H; Baumann, E; Newbury, N R; Coddington, I

    2015-08-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of a self-referenced, optically coherent frequency comb. The system robustness is derived from a combination of an optics package based on polarization-maintaining fiber, saturable absorbers for mode-locking, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) detection of the control signals, and digital feedback control for frequency stabilization. The output is phase-coherent over a 1-2 μm octave-spanning spectrum with a pulse repetition rate of ∼200 MHz and a residual pulse-to-pulse timing jitter <3 fs well within the requirements of most frequency-comb applications. Digital control enables phase coherent operation for over 90 h, critical for phase-sensitive applications such as timekeeping. We show that this phase-slip free operation follows the fundamental limit set by the SNR of the control signals. Performance metrics from three nearly identical combs are presented. This laptop-sized comb should enable a wide-range of applications beyond the laboratory.

  17. Invited Article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, L. C.; Deschênes, J.-D.; Sonderhouse, L.; Swann, W. C.; Khader, I. H.; Baumann, E.; Newbury, N. R.; Coddington, I.

    2015-08-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of a self-referenced, optically coherent frequency comb. The system robustness is derived from a combination of an optics package based on polarization-maintaining fiber, saturable absorbers for mode-locking, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) detection of the control signals, and digital feedback control for frequency stabilization. The output is phase-coherent over a 1-2 μm octave-spanning spectrum with a pulse repetition rate of ˜200 MHz and a residual pulse-to-pulse timing jitter <3 fs well within the requirements of most frequency-comb applications. Digital control enables phase coherent operation for over 90 h, critical for phase-sensitive applications such as timekeeping. We show that this phase-slip free operation follows the fundamental limit set by the SNR of the control signals. Performance metrics from three nearly identical combs are presented. This laptop-sized comb should enable a wide-range of applications beyond the laboratory.

  18. Noise-Immune Cavity-Enhanced Optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowski, Lucile; Khodabakhsh, Amir; Johanssson, Alexandra C.; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra

    2015-06-01

    We present noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy (NICE-OFCS), a recently developed technique for sensitive, broadband, and high resolution spectroscopy. In NICE-OFCS an optical frequency comb (OFC) is locked to a high finesse cavity and phase-modulated at a frequency precisely equal to (a multiple of) the cavity free spectral range. Since each comb line and sideband is transmitted through a separate cavity mode in exactly the same way, any residual frequency noise on the OFC relative to the cavity affects each component in an identical manner. The transmitted intensity contains a beat signal at the modulation frequency that is immune to frequency-to-amplitude noise conversion by the cavity, in a way similar to continuous wave noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS). The light transmitted through the cavity is detected with a fast-scanning Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) and the NICE-OFCS signal is obtained by fast Fourier transform of the synchronously demodulated interferogram. Our NICE-OFCS system is based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser locked to a cavity with a finesse of ˜9000 and a fast-scanning FTS equipped with a high-bandwidth commercial detector. We measured NICE-OFCS signals from the 3νb{1}+νb{3} overtone band of CO_2 around 1.57 μm and achieved absorption sensitivity 6.4×10-11cm-1 Hz-1/2 per spectral element, corresponding to a minimum detectable CO_2 concentration of 25 ppb after 330 s integration time. We will describe the principles of the technique and its technical implementation, and discuss the spectral lineshapes of the NICE-OFCS signals. A. Khodabakhsh, C. Abd Alrahman, and A. Foltynowicz, Opt. Lett. 39, 5034-5037 (2014). J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6-15 (1998). A. Khodabakhsh, A. C. Johansson, and A. Foltynowicz, Appl. Phys. B (2015) doi:10.1007/s00340-015-6010-7.

  19. Optical frequency comb based multi-band microwave frequency conversion for satellite applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinwu; Xu, Kun; Yin, Jie; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Li, Jianqiang; Lu, Hua; Liu, Tao; Ji, Yuefeng

    2014-01-13

    Based on optical frequency combs (OFC), we propose an efficient and flexible multi-band frequency conversion scheme for satellite repeater applications. The underlying principle is to mix dual coherent OFCs with one of which carrying the input signal. By optically channelizing the mixed OFCs, the converted signal in different bands can be obtained in different channels. Alternatively, the scheme can be configured to generate multi-band local oscillators (LO) for widely distribution. Moreover, the scheme realizes simultaneous inter- and intra-band frequency conversion just in a single structure and needs only three frequency-fixed microwave sources. We carry out a proof of concept experiment in which multiple LOs with 2 GHz, 10 GHz, 18 GHz, and 26 GHz are generated. A C-band signal of 6.1 GHz input to the proposed scheme is successfully converted to 4.1 GHz (C band), 3.9 GHz (C band) and 11.9 GHz (X band), etc. Compared with the back-to-back (B2B) case measured at 0 dBm input power, the proposed scheme shows a 9.3% error vector magnitude (EVM) degradation at each output channel. Furthermore, all channels satisfy the EVM limit in a very wide input power range.

  20. RA diagnostics applying optical tomography in frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Alexander D.; Prapavat, Viravuth; Minet, Olaf; Beuthan, Juergen; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1998-01-01

    Our aim is to reconstruct the optical parameters in a slice of a finger joint phantom for further investigations about rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, we have developed a flexible NIR scanning system in order to collect amplitude and phase delay of photon density waves in frequency-domain. A cylindrical finger joint phantom was embedded in a container of Intralipid solution due to the application of an inverse method for infinite geometry. The joint phantom was investigated by a laser beam obtaining several projections. The average optical parameters of each projection was calculated. Using different reconstruction techniques, e.g. ART and SIRT with a special projection operator, we reconstructed the optical parameters in a slice. The projection operator can be heuristically described by a photon path density function of a homogeneous media with infinite geometry. Applied to an object with an unknown distribution of optical parameters it calculates the expectation value of the investigated object. The potentials and limits of these fast reconstruction methods will be presented.

  1. Multiphoton Raman Atom Optics with Frequency-Swept Adiabatic Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotru, Krish; Butts, David; Kinast, Joseph; Stoner, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Light-pulse atom interferometry is a promising candidate for future inertial navigators, gravitational wave detectors, and measurements of fundamental physical constants. The sensitivity of this technique, however, is often limited by the small momentum separations created between interfering atom wave packets (typically ~ 2 ℏk) . We address this issue using light-pulse atom optics derived from stimulated Raman transitions and frequency-swept adiabatic rapid passage (ARP). In experiments, these Raman ARP atom optics have generated up to 30 ℏk photon recoil momenta in an acceleration-sensitive atom interferometer, thereby enhancing the phase shift per unit acceleration by a factor of 15. Since this approach forgoes evaporative cooling and velocity selection, it could enable large-area atom interferometry at higher data rates, while also lowering the atom shot-noise-limited measurement uncertainty.

  2. Software reconfigurable highly flexible gain switched optical frequency comb source.

    PubMed

    Pascual, M Deseada Gutierrez; Zhou, Rui; Smyth, Frank; Anandarajah, Prince M; Barry, Liam P

    2015-09-07

    The authors present the performance and noise properties of a software reconfigurable, FSR and wavelength tunable gain switched optical frequency comb source. This source, based on the external injection of a temperature tuned Fabry-Pérot laser diode, offers quasi-continuous wavelength tunability over the C-band (30nm) and FSR tunability ranging from 6 to 14GHz. The results achieved demonstrate the excellent spectral quality of the comb tones (RIN ~-130dB/Hz and low phase noise of 300kHz) and its outstanding stability (with fluctuations of the individual comb tones of less than 0.5dB in power and 5pm in wavelength, characterized over 24hours) highlighting its suitability for employment in next generation flexible optical transmission networks.

  3. Tunable radio frequency photonics filter using a comb-based optical tapped delay line with an optical nonlinear multiplexer.

    PubMed

    Ziyadi, Morteza; Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Chitgarha, Mohammad Reza; Khaleghi, Salman; Almaiman, Ahmed; Cao, Yinwen; Abouzaid, Amin; Shamee, Bishara; Tur, Moshe; Paraschis, Loukas; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Touch, Joseph D; Willner, Alan E

    2015-07-15

    A radio frequency (RF) photonic filter is experimentally demonstrated using an optical tapped delay line (TDL) based on an optical frequency comb and a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide as multiplexer. The approach is used to implement RF filters with variable bandwidth, shape, and center-frequency.

  4. Lattice-induced nonadiabatic frequency shifts in optical lattice clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Beloy, K.

    2010-09-15

    We consider the frequency shift in optical lattice clocks which arises from the coupling of the electronic motion to the atomic motion within the lattice. For the simplest of three-dimensional lattice geometries this coupling is shown to affect only clocks based on blue-detuned lattices. We have estimated the size of this shift for the prospective strontium lattice clock operating at the 390-nm blue-detuned magic wavelength. The resulting fractional frequency shift is found to be on the order of 10{sup -18} and is largely overshadowed by the electric quadrupole shift. For lattice clocks based on more complex geometries or other atomic systems, this shift could potentially be a limiting factor in clock accuracy.

  5. All-optical stabilization of a soliton frequency comb in a crystalline microresonator.

    PubMed

    Jost, J D; Lucas, E; Herr, T; Lecaplain, C; Brasch, V; Pfeiffer, M H P; Kippenberg, T J

    2015-10-15

    We demonstrate the all-optical stabilization of a low-noise temporal soliton based microresonator based optical frequency comb in a crystalline resonator via a new technique to control the repetition rate. This is accomplished by thermally heating the microresonator with an additional probe laser coupled to an auxiliary optical resonator mode. The carrier-envelope offset frequency is controlled by stabilizing the pump laser frequency to a reference optical frequency comb. We analyze the stabilization by performing an out-of-loop comparison and measure the overlapping Allan deviation. This all-optical stabilization technique can prove useful as an actuator for self-referenced microresonator frequency combs.

  6. Fast Interrogation of Fiber Bragg Gratings with Electro-Optical Dual Optical Frequency Combs.

    PubMed

    Posada-Roman, Julio E; Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Poiana, Dragos A; Acedo, Pablo

    2016-11-26

    Optical frequency combs (OFC) generated by electro-optic modulation of continuous-wave lasers provide broadband coherent sources with high power per line and independent control of line spacing and the number of lines. In addition to their application in spectroscopy, they offer flexible and optimized sources for the interrogation of other sensors based on wavelength change or wavelength filtering, such as fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. In this paper, a dual-OFC FBG interrogation system based on a single laser and two optical-phase modulators is presented. This architecture allows for the configuration of multimode optical source parameters such as the number of modes and their position within the reflected spectrum of the FBG. A direct read-out is obtained by mapping the optical spectrum onto the radio-frequency spectrum output of the dual-comb. This interrogation scheme is proposed for measuring fast phenomena such as vibrations and ultrasounds. Results are presented for dual-comb operation under optimized control. The optical modes are mapped onto detectable tones that are multiples of 0.5 MHz around a center radiofrequency tone (40 MHz). Measurements of ultrasounds (40 kHz and 120 kHz) are demonstrated with this sensing system. Ultrasounds induce dynamic strain onto the fiber, which generates changes in the reflected Bragg wavelength and, hence, modulates the amplitude of the OFC modes within the reflected spectrum. The amplitude modulation of two counterphase tones is detected to obtain a differential measurement proportional to the ultrasound signal.

  7. Automatic analysis of ciliary beat frequency using optical flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figl, Michael; Lechner, Manuel; Werther, Tobias; Horak, Fritz; Hummel, Johann; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2012-02-01

    Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) can be a useful parameter for diagnosis of several diseases, as e.g. primary ciliary dyskinesia. (PCD). CBF computation is usually done using manual evaluation of high speed video sequences, a tedious, observer dependent, and not very accurate procedure. We used the OpenCV's pyramidal implementation of the Lukas-Kanade algorithm for optical flow computation and applied this to certain objects to follow the movements. The objects were chosen by their contrast applying the corner detection by Shi and Tomasi. Discrimination between background/noise and cilia by a frequency histogram allowed to compute the CBF. Frequency analysis was done using the Fourier transform in matlab. The correct number of Fourier summands was found by the slope in an approximation curve. The method showed to be usable to distinguish between healthy and diseased samples. However there remain difficulties in automatically identifying the cilia, and also in finding enough high contrast cilia in the image. Furthermore the some of the higher contrast cilia are lost (and sometimes found) by the method, an easy way to distinguish the correct sub-path of a point's path have yet to be found in the case where the slope methods doesn't work.

  8. Acousto-optical combined frequency splitters and shifters as components of a ring optical gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Kotov, V M

    1999-03-31

    An analysis is made of the task of symmetrisation of a Y-type directional coupler and of shifting the frequency of counterpropagating waves in a ring gyroscope by means of the relatively recently discovered new type of acousto-optical diffraction when the incident radiation is diffracted simultaneously into two orders. Anisotropic and isotropic acousto-optical diffraction in a uniaxial crystal is considered and expressions convenient for calculations are derived. Experiments carried out on isotropic diffraction in LiNbO{sub 3} confirm, on the whole, the theoretical predictions. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  9. Optical frequency domain reflectometry: principles and applications in fiber optic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreger, Stephen T.; Rahim, Nur Aida Abdul; Garg, Naman; Klute, Sandra M.; Metrey, Daniel R.; Beaty, Noah; Jeans, James W.; Gamber, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR) is the basis of an emerging high-definition distributed fiber optic sensing (HD-FOS) technique that provides an unprecedented combination of resolution and sensitivity. OFDR employs swept laser interferometry to produce strain or temperature vs. sensor length with fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) or Rayleigh scatter as the source signal. We look at the influence of HD-FOS on design and test of new, lighter weight, stronger and more fuel efficient vehicles. Examples include defect detection, model verification and structural health monitoring of composites, and temperature distribution monitoring of battery packs and inverters in hybrid and electric powertrains.

  10. Measuring absolute frequencies beyond the GPS limit via long-haul optical frequency dissemination.

    PubMed

    Clivati, Cecilia; Cappellini, Giacomo; Livi, Lorenzo F; Poggiali, Francesco; de Cumis, Mario Siciliani; Mancini, Marco; Pagano, Guido; Frittelli, Matteo; Mura, Alberto; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide; Fallani, Leonardo; Catani, Jacopo; Inguscio, Massimo

    2016-05-30

    Global Positioning System (GPS) dissemination of frequency standards is ubiquitous at present, providing the most widespread time and frequency reference for the majority of industrial and research applications worldwide. On the other hand, the ultimate limits of the GPS presently curb further advances in high-precision, scientific and industrial applications relying on this dissemination scheme. Here, we demonstrate that these limits can be reliably overcome even in laboratories without a local atomic clock by replacing the GPS with a 642-km-long optical fiber link to a remote primary caesium frequency standard. Through this configuration we stably address the 1S0-3P0 clock transition in an ultracold gas of 173Yb, with a precision that exceeds the possibilities of a GPS-based measurement, dismissing the need for a local clock infrastructure to perform beyond-GPS high-precision tasks. We also report an improvement of two orders of magnitude in the accuracy on the transition frequency reported in literature.

  11. Fast, precise, and widely tunable frequency control of an optical parametric oscillator referenced to a frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prehn, Alexander; Glöckner, Rosa; Rempe, Gerhard; Zeppenfeld, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Optical frequency combs (OFCs) provide a convenient reference for the frequency stabilization of continuous-wave lasers. We demonstrate a frequency control method relying on tracking over a wide range and stabilizing the beat note between the laser and the OFC. The approach combines fast frequency ramps on a millisecond timescale in the entire mode-hop free tuning range of the laser and precise stabilization to single frequencies. We apply it to a commercially available optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and demonstrate tuning over more than 60 GHz with a ramping speed up to 3 GHz/ms. Frequency ramps spanning 15 GHz are performed in less than 10 ms, with the OPO instantly relocked to the OFC after the ramp at any desired frequency. The developed control hardware and software are able to stabilize the OPO to sub-MHz precision and to perform sequences of fast frequency ramps automatically.

  12. Development of a prototype compact fibre frequency synthesiser for mobile femtosecond optical clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Pivtsov, V S; Korel', I I; Koliada, N A; Farnosov, S A; Denisov, V I; Nyushkov, B N

    2014-06-30

    A prototype compact fibre frequency synthesiser based on a femtosecond erbium fibre laser and an original hybrid highly nonlinear fibre is developed and preliminarily studied. This synthesiser will ensure an extremely low relative instability of synthesised frequencies (down to 10{sup -17}) with the use of a corresponding optical standard and will be used in mobile optical clocks. The realised frequency stabilisation principle makes the synthesiser universal and allows it to transfer the frequency stability of various types of optical standards to the synthesised radio- and optical frequencies. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  13. Material candidates for optical frequency comb generation in microspheres.

    PubMed

    Riesen, Nicolas; Afshar V, Shahraam; François, Alexandre; Monro, Tanya M

    2015-06-01

    This paper evaluates the opportunities for using materials other than silica for optical frequency comb generation in whispering gallery mode microsphere resonators. Different materials are shown to satisfy the requirement of dispersion compensation in interesting spectral regions such as the visible or mid-infrared and for smaller microspheres. This paper also analyses the prospects of comb generation in microspheres within aqueous solution for potential use in applications such as biosensing. It is predicted that to achieve comb generation with microspheres in aqueous solution the visible low-loss wavelength window of water needs to be exploited. This is because efficient comb generation necessitates ultra-high Q-factors, which are only possible for cavities with low absorption of the evanescent field outside the cavity. This paper explores the figure of merit for nonlinear interaction efficiency and the potential for dispersion compensation at unique wavelengths for a host of microsphere materials and dimensions and in different surroundings.

  14. Demonstration of optical multicasting using Kerr frequency comb lines.

    PubMed

    Bao, Changjing; Liao, Peicheng; Kordts, Arne; Karpov, Maxim; Pfeiffer, Martin H P; Zhang, Lin; Yan, Yan; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Almaiman, Ahmed; Ziyadi, Morteza; Li, Long; Zhao, Zhe; Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Wilkinson, Steven R; Tur, Moshe; Fejer, Martin M; Kippenberg, Tobias J; Willner, Alan E

    2016-08-15

    We experimentally demonstrate optical multicasting using Kerr frequency combs generated from a Si3N4 microresonator. We obtain Kerr combs in two states with different noise properties by varying the pump wavelength in the resonator and investigate the effect of Kerr combs on multicasting. Seven-fold multicasting of 20 Gbaud quadrature phase-shift-keyed signals and four-fold multicasting of 16-quadrature amplitude modulation signals have been achieved when low-phase-noise combs are input into a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide. In addition, we find that the wavelength conversion efficiency in the PPLN waveguide for chaotic combs with high noise is similar to that for low-noise combs, while the signal quality of the multicast copy is significantly degraded.

  15. Optical Frequency Domain Visualization of Electron Beam Driven Plasma Wakefields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; Downer, M. C.; Muggli, Patric; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Babzien, Marcus; Kusche, Karl; Fedurin, Mikhail

    2010-11-01

    Beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators (PWFA), such as the ``plasma afterburner,'' are a promising approach for significantly increasing the particle energies of conventional accelerators. The study and optimization of PWFA would benefit from an experimental correlation between the parameters of the drive bunch, the accelerated bunch and the corresponding, accelerating plasma wave structure. However, the plasma wave structure has not yet been observed directly in PWFA. We will report our current work on noninvasive optical Frequency Domain Interferometric (FDI) and Holographic (FDH) visualization of beam-driven plasma waves. Both techniques employ two laser pulses (probe and reference) co-propagating with the particle drive-beam and its plasma wake. The reference pulse precedes the drive bunch, while the probe overlaps the plasma wave and maps its longitudinal and transverse structure. The experiment is being developed at the BNL/ATF Linac to visualize wakes generated by two and multi-bunch drive beams.

  16. Time-delay interferometry with optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinto, Massimo; Yu, Nan

    2015-08-01

    Heterodyne laser phase measurements in a space-based gravitational wave interferometer are degraded by the phase fluctuations of the onboard clocks, resulting in unacceptable sensitivity performance levels of the interferometric data. In order to calibrate out the clock phase noises, it has previously been suggested that additional interspacecraft phase measurements must be performed by modulating the laser beams. With the advent of self-referenced optical frequency combs, it is possible to generate a heterodyne microwave signal that is coherently referenced to the onboard laser. We show in this case that the microwave noise can be canceled directly by applying modified second-generation time-delay interferometric combinations to the heterodyne phase measurements. This approach avoids the use of modulated laser beams as well as the need for additional ultrastable oscillator clocks.

  17. Real-time monitoring of continuous-wave terahertz radiation using a fiber-based, terahertz-comb-referenced spectrum analyzer.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Takeshi; Nakamura, Ryotaro; Kawamoto, Kohji; Ihara, Atsushi; Fujimoto, Yoshihide; Yokoyama, Shuko; Inaba, Hajime; Minoshima, Kaoru; Nagatsuma, Tadao; Araki, Tsutomu

    2009-09-14

    We propose a fiber-based, terahertz-comb-referenced spectrum analyzer which has the advantages of being a portable, alignment-free, robust, and flexible apparatus suitable for practical use. To this end, we constructed a 1550-nm mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser whose mode-locked frequency was stabilized precisely by referring to a rubidium frequency standard, and used it to generate a highly stable terahertz (THz) frequency comb in a photoconductive antenna or an electro-optic crystal. By standardizing the THz comb, we determined the frequency accuracy of an active-frequency-multiplier-chain (AFMC) source to be 2.4 x 10(-11). Furthermore, the potential of the THz spectrum analyzer was effectively demonstrated by real-time monitoring of the spectral behavior of the AFMC source and a photomixing source of two free-running CW lasers at adjacent wavelengths.

  18. Holographic frequency resolved optical gating for spatio-temporal characterization of ultrashort optical pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Nikhil; Yang, Chuan; Xu, Yong; Liu, Zhiwen

    2014-09-01

    We introduce a novel method for characterizing the spatio-temporal evolution of ultrashort optical field by recording the spectral hologram of frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) trace. We show that FROG holography enables the measurement of phase (up to an overall constant) and group delay of the pulse which cannot be measured by conventional FROG method. To illustrate our method, we perform numerical simulation to generate holographic collinear FROG (cFROG) trace of a chirped optical pulse and retrieve its complex profile at multiple locations as it propagates through a hypothetical dispersive medium. Further, we experimentally demonstrate our method by retrieving a 67 fs pulse at three axial locations in the vicinity of focus of an objective lens and compute its group delay.

  19. Towards chip-scale optical frequency synthesis based on optical heterodyne phase-locked loop.

    PubMed

    Arafin, Shamsul; Simsek, Arda; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Dwivedi, Sarvagya; Liang, Wei; Eliyahu, Danny; Klamkin, Jonathan; Matsko, Andrey; Johansson, Leif; Maleki, Lute; Rodwell, Mark; Coldren, Larry

    2017-01-23

    An integrated heterodyne optical phase-locked loop was designed and demonstrated with an indium phosphide based photonic integrated circuit and commercial off-the-shelf electronic components. As an input reference, a stable microresonator-based optical frequency comb with a 50-dB span of 25 nm (~3 THz) around 1550 nm, having a spacing of ~26 GHz, was used. A widely-tunable on-chip sampled-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector laser is offset locked across multiple comb lines. An arbitrary frequency synthesis between the comb lines is demonstrated by tuning the RF offset source, and better than 100Hz tuning resolution with ± 5 Hz accuracy is obtained. Frequency switching of the on-chip laser to a point more than two dozen comb lines away (~5.6 nm) and simultaneous locking to the corresponding nearest comb line is also achieved in a time ~200 ns. A low residual phase noise of the optical phase-locking system is successfully achieved, as experimentally verified by the value of -80 dBc/Hz at an offset of as low as 200 Hz.

  20. Coherent Magnetic Response at Optical Frequencies Using Atomic Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Nicholas R.; Buckholtz, Zachary N.; Simmons, Zachary J.; Mueller, Eli A.; Yavuz, Deniz D.

    2017-01-01

    In optics, the interaction of atoms with the magnetic field of light is almost always ignored since its strength is many orders of magnitude weaker compared to the interaction with the electric field. In this article, by using a magnetic-dipole transition within the 4 f shell of europium ions, we show a strong interaction between a green laser and an ensemble of atomic ions. The electrons move coherently between the ground and excited ionic levels (Rabi flopping) by interacting with the magnetic field of the laser. By measuring the Rabi flopping frequency as the laser intensity is varied, we report the first direct measurement of a magnetic-dipole matrix element in the optical region of the spectrum. Using density-matrix simulations of the ensemble, we infer the generation of coherent magnetization with magnitude 5.5 ×10-3 A /m , which is capable of generating left-handed electromagnetic waves of intensity 1 nW /cm2 . These results open up the prospect of constructing left-handed materials using sharp transitions of atoms.

  1. Fast Interrogation of Fiber Bragg Gratings with Electro-Optical Dual Optical Frequency Combs

    PubMed Central

    Posada-Roman, Julio E.; Garcia-Souto, Jose A.; Poiana, Dragos A.; Acedo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Optical frequency combs (OFC) generated by electro-optic modulation of continuous-wave lasers provide broadband coherent sources with high power per line and independent control of line spacing and the number of lines. In addition to their application in spectroscopy, they offer flexible and optimized sources for the interrogation of other sensors based on wavelength change or wavelength filtering, such as fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. In this paper, a dual-OFC FBG interrogation system based on a single laser and two optical-phase modulators is presented. This architecture allows for the configuration of multimode optical source parameters such as the number of modes and their position within the reflected spectrum of the FBG. A direct read-out is obtained by mapping the optical spectrum onto the radio-frequency spectrum output of the dual-comb. This interrogation scheme is proposed for measuring fast phenomena such as vibrations and ultrasounds. Results are presented for dual-comb operation under optimized control. The optical modes are mapped onto detectable tones that are multiples of 0.5 MHz around a center radiofrequency tone (40 MHz). Measurements of ultrasounds (40 kHz and 120 kHz) are demonstrated with this sensing system. Ultrasounds induce dynamic strain onto the fiber, which generates changes in the reflected Bragg wavelength and, hence, modulates the amplitude of the OFC modes within the reflected spectrum. The amplitude modulation of two counterphase tones is detected to obtain a differential measurement proportional to the ultrasound signal. PMID:27898043

  2. Precision Calculation of Blackbody Radiation Shifts for Optical Frequency Metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, M. S.; Kozlov, M. G.; Clark, Charles W.

    2011-09-30

    We show that three group IIIB divalent ions, B{sup +}, Al{sup +}, and In{sup +}, have anomalously small blackbody radiation (BBR) shifts of the ns{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0}-nsnp {sup 3}P{sub 0}{sup o} clock transitions. The fractional BBR shifts for these ions are at least 10 times smaller than those of any other present or proposed optical frequency standards at the same temperature, and are less than 0.3% of the Sr clock shift. We have developed a hybrid configuration-interaction + coupled-cluster method that provides accurate treatment of correlation corrections in such ions and yields a rigorous upper bound on the uncertainty of the final results. We reduce the BBR contribution to the fractional frequency uncertainty of the Al{sup +} clock to 4x10{sup -19} at T=300 K. We also reduce the uncertainties due to this effect at room temperature to 10{sup -18} level for B{sup +} and In{sup +} to facilitate further development of these systems for metrology and quantum sensing.

  3. Frequency-resolved optical grating using surface third-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, T.; Krumbuegel, M.A.; Delong, K.W.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Trebino, R.

    1995-11-01

    We demonstrate the frequency-resolved optical grating technique using third-harmonic generation on the surface of a cover glass with ultra-short optical pulses and compare that with the phase-retrieved spectrogram.

  4. Photonic radio-frequency dissemination via optical fiber with high-phase stability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaocheng; Liu, Zhangweiyi; Wang, Siwei; Sun, Dongning; Dong, Yi; Hu, Weisheng

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a photonic radio-frequency transmission system via optical fiber. Optical radio-frequency signal is generated utilizing a Mach-Zehnder modulator based on double-side-band with carrier suppression modulation scheme. The phase error induced by optical fiber transmission is transferred to an intermediate frequency signal by the dual-heterodyne phase error transfer scheme, and then canceled by a phase locked loop. With precise phase compensation, a radio frequency with high-phase stability can be obtained at the remote end. We performed 20.07-GHz radio-frequency transfer over 100-km optical fiber, and achieved residual phase noise of -65  dBc/Hz at 1-Hz offset frequency, and the RMS timing jitter in the frequency range from 0.01 Hz to 1 MHz reaches 110 fs. The long-term frequency stability also achieves 8×10(-17) at 10,000 s averaging time.

  5. Nonlinear Dynamics of Photonics for Optical Signal Processing - Optical Frequency Conversion and Optical DSB-to-SSB Conversion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-17

    Multiplexing, Optical Amplifier , Terahertz Electronics, Four-wave mixing, Radio-over-fiber networks, Intensity-asymmetry 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...structure and operation. For the photonic microwave amplification, we have demonstrated that microwaves can be amplified “photonically” by up to 30 dB for...linewidth and stability. 3. Photonic microwave amplification: Goals: To “photonically” amplify microwaves for a broad frequency range, from a few tens

  6. Continued analysis of optical frequency-modulated continuous-wave interference.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jesse

    2005-02-10

    I continue to analyze systematically the theory of optical frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) interference. Two special cases, multiple-beam optical FMCW interference and multiple-wavelength optical FMCW interference, are discussed in detail. Multiple-beam optical FMCW interference generates a signal with multiple frequencies because of mutual interference among the waves. Multiple-wavelength optical FMCW interference produces a signal whose amplitude is modulated by a synthetic wave. The applications of both types of optical FMCW interference are also discussed.

  7. Generation of Flat Optical Frequency Comb based on Mach-Zehnder Modulator and Recirculating Frequency Shifter Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shibao; Li, Yulong; Fei, Yue; Hu, Faze

    2014-06-01

    We propose a novel scheme to generate optical frequency comb by using Mach-Zehnder modulator and recirculating frequency shifter loop based on IQ modulator driven by radio frequency clock signals. A system of 4 flat and stable comb lines generation based on Mach-Zehnder modulator is set as the seed light source of the recirculating loop. Through theorical analysis and simulation it is shown that the proposed theoretical model is proved in good agreement with simulation results.

  8. Time-frequency analysis of functional optical mammographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, Randall L.; Graber, Harry L.; Schmitz, Christoph H.; Tarantini, Frank; Khoury, Georges; Naar, David J.; Panetta, Thomas F.; Lewis, Theophilus; Pei, Yaling

    2003-07-01

    We have introduced working technology that provides for time-series imaging of the hemoglobin signal in large tissue structures. In this study we have explored our ability to detect aberrant time-frequency responses of breast vasculature for subjects with Stage II breast cancer at rest and in response to simple provocations. The hypothesis being explored is that time-series imaging will be sensitive to the known structural and functional malformations of the tumor vasculature. Mammographic studies were conducted using an adjustable hemisheric measuring head containing 21 source and 21 detector locations (441 source-detector pairs). Simultaneous dual-wavelength studies were performed at 760 and 830 nm at a framing rate of ~2.7 Hz. Optical measures were performed on women lying prone with the breast hanging in a pendant position. Two class of measures were performed: (1) 20- minute baseline measure wherein the subject was at rest; (2) provocation studies wherein the subject was asked to perform some simple breathing maneuvers. Collected data were analyzed to identify the time-frequency structure and central tendencies of the detector responses and those of the image time series. Imaging data were generated using the Normalized Difference Method (Pei et al., Appl. Opt. 40, 5755-5769, 2001). Results obtained clearly document three classes of anomalies when compared to the normal contralateral breast. 1) Breast tumors exhibit altered oxygen supply/demand imbalance in response to an oxidative challenge (breath hold). 2) The vasomotor response of the tumor vasculature is mainly depressed and exhibits an altered modulation. 3) The affected area of the breast wherein the altered vasomotor signature is seen extends well beyond the limits of the tumor itself.

  9. Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Olivier; Haboucha, Adil; Chanteau, Bruno; Chardonnet, Christian; Amy-Klein, Anne; Santarelli, Giorgio

    2012-10-08

    We report an optical link of 540 km for ultrastable frequency distribution over the Internet fiber network. The stable frequency optical signal is processed enabling uninterrupted propagation on both directions. The robustness and the performance of the link are enhanced by a cost effective fully automated optoelectronic station. This device is able to coherently regenerate the return optical signal with a heterodyne optical phase locking of a low noise laser diode. Moreover the incoming signal polarization variation are tracked and processed in order to maintain beat note amplitudes within the operation range. Stable fibered optical interferometer enables optical detection of the link round trip phase signal. The phase-noise compensated link shows a fractional frequency instability in 10 Hz bandwidth of 5 × 10(-15) at one second measurement time and 2 × 10(-19) at 30,000 s. This work is a significant step towards a sustainable wide area ultrastable optical frequency distribution and comparison network.

  10. Non-contact precision profile measurement to rough-surface objects with optical frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoe, Taro; Takahashi, Satoru; Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    2016-12-01

    In this research, we developed a new method for the high precision and contactless profile measurement of rough-surfaced objects using optical frequency combs. The uncertainty of the frequency beats of an optical frequency comb is very small (relative uncertainty is 10-10 in our laboratory). In addition, the wavelengths corresponding to these frequency beats are long enough to measure rough-surfaced objects. We can conduct high-precision measurement because several GHz frequency beats can be used if the capability of the detector permits. Moreover, two optical frequency combs with Rb-stabilized repetition frequencies are used for the measurement instead of an RF frequency oscillator; thus, we can avoid the cyclic error caused by the RF frequency oscillator. We measured the profile of a wood cylinder with a rough surface (diameter is approximately 113.2 mm) and compared the result with that of coordinate measuring machine (CMM).

  11. A novel fiber-based adsorbent technology

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, T.A.

    1997-10-01

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, Chemica Technologies, Inc. is developing an economical, robust, fiber-based adsorbent technology for removal of heavy metals from contaminated water. The key innovation is the development of regenerable adsorbent fibers and adsorbent fiber cloths that have high capacity and selectivity for heavy metals and are chemically robust. The process has the potential for widespread use at DOE facilities, mining operations, and the chemical process industry.

  12. Optical Frequency Domain Visualization of Electron Beam Driven Plasma Wakefields

    SciTech Connect

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; Downer, Michael C.; Muggli, Patric; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Kusche, Karl; Fedurin, Michhail; Babzien, Marcus

    2010-11-04

    Bunch driven plasma wakefield accelerators (PWFA), such as the 'plasma afterburner', are a promising emerging method for significantly increasing the energy output of conventional particle accelerators. The study and optimization of this method would benefit from an experimental correlation of the drive bunch parameters and the accelerated particle parameters with the corresponding plasma wave structure. However, the plasma wave structure has not been observed directly so far. We will report ongoing development of a noninvasive optical Frequency Domain Interferometric (FDI) and Holographic (FDH) diagnostics of bunch driven plasma wakes. Both FDI and FDH have been previously demonstrated in the case of laser driven wakes. These techniques employ two laser pulses co-propagating with the drive particle bunch and the trailing plasma wave. One pulse propagates ahead of the drive bunch and serves as a reference, while the second is overlapped with the plasma wave and probes its structure. The multi-shot FDI and single-shot FDH diagnostics permit direct noninvasive observation of longitudinal and transverse structure of the plasma wakes. The experiment is being developed at the 70 MeV Linac in the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory to visualize wakes generated by two and multi-bunch drive beams.

  13. Optical Frequency Domain Visualization of Electron Beam Driven Plasma Wakefields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; Downer, Michael C.; Muggli, Patric; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Kusche, Karl; Fedurin, Michhail; Babzien, Marcus

    2010-11-01

    Bunch driven plasma wakefield accelerators (PWFA), such as the "plasma afterburner," are a promising emerging method for significantly increasing the energy output of conventional particle accelerators [1]. The study and optimization of this method would benefit from an experimental correlation of the drive bunch parameters and the accelerated particle parameters with the corresponding plasma wave structure. However, the plasma wave structure has not been observed directly so far. We will report ongoing development of a noninvasive optical Frequency Domain Interferometric (FDI) [2] and Holographic (FDH) [3] diagnostics of bunch driven plasma wakes. Both FDI and FDH have been previously demonstrated in the case of laser driven wakes. These techniques employ two laser pulses co-propagating with the drive particle bunch and the trailing plasma wave. One pulse propagates ahead of the drive bunch and serves as a reference, while the second is overlapped with the plasma wave and probes its structure. The multi-shot FDI and single-shot FDH diagnostics permit direct noninvasive observation of longitudinal and transverse structure of the plasma wakes. The experiment is being developed at the 70 MeV Linac in the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory to visualize wakes generated by two [4] and multi-bunch [5] drive beams.

  14. Design-oriented analytic model of phase and frequency modulated optical links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsurrò, Pietro; Saitto, Antonio; Tommasino, Pasquale; Trifiletti, Alessandro; Vannucci, Antonello; Cimmino, Rosario F.

    2016-07-01

    An analytic design-oriented model of phase and frequency modulated microwave optical links has been developed. The models are suitable for design of broadband high dynamic range optical links for antenna remoting and optical beamforming, where noise and linearity of the subsystems are a concern Digital filter design techniques have been applied to the design of optical filters working as frequency discriminator, that are the bottleneck in terms of linearity for these systems. The models of frequency modulated, phase modulated, and coherent I/Q link have been used to compare performance of the different architectures in terms of linearity and SFDR.

  15. Frequency-shifted interferometry for fiber-optic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Fei

    This thesis studies frequency-shifted interferometry (FSI), a useful and versatile technique for fiber-optic sensing. I first present FSI theory by describing practical FSI configurations and discussing the parameters that affect system performance. Then, I demonstrate the capabilities of FSI in fiber-optic sensor multiplexing and high sensitivity chemical analysis. We implemented a cryogenic liquid level sensing system in which an array of 3 fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based sensors was interrogated by FSI. Despite sensors' spectral overlap, FSI is able to separate sensor signals according to their spatial locations and to measure their spectra, from which whether a sensor is in liquid or air can be unambiguously determined. I showed that a broadband source paired with a fast tunable filter can be used in FSI systems as the light source. An array of 9 spectrally overlapping FBGs was successfully measured by such a system, indicating the potential of system cost reduction as well as measurement speed improvement. I invented the the FSI-CRD technique, a highly sensitive FSI-based fiber cavity ring-down (CRD) method capable of deducing minuscule loss change in a fiber cavity from the intensity decay rate of continuous-wave light circulating in the cavity. As a proof-of-principle experiment, I successfully measured the fiber bend loss introduced in the fiber cavity with FSI-CRD, which was found to be 0.172 dB/m at a bend radius of 12.5 mm. We then applied FSI-CRD to evanescent-field sensing. We incorporated fiber tapers as the sensor head in the system and measured the concentration of 1-octyne solutions. A minimum detectable 1-octyne concentration of 0.29% was achieved with measurement sensitivity of 0.0094 dB/% 1-octyne. The same system also accurately detected the concentration change of sodium chloride (NaCl) and glucose solutions. Refractive index sensitivity of 1 dB/RIU with a measurement error of 1x10-4 dB was attined for NaCl solutions. Finally, I proposed a

  16. Frequency interleaving towards spectrally efficient directly detected optical OFDM for next-generation optical access networks.

    PubMed

    Mehedy, Lenin; Bakaul, Masuduzzaman; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai

    2010-10-25

    In this paper, we theoretically analyze and demonstrate that spectral efficiency of a conventional direct detection based optical OFDM system (DDO-OFDM) can be improved significantly using frequency interleaving of adjacent DDO-OFDM channels where OFDM signal band of one channel occupies the spectral gap of other channel and vice versa. We show that, at optimum operating condition, the proposed technique can effectively improve the spectral efficiency of the conventional DDO-OFDM system as much as 50%. We also show that such a frequency interleaved DDO-OFDM system, with a bit rate of 48 Gb/s within 25 GHz bandwidth, achieves sufficient power budget after transmission over 25 km single mode fiber to be used in next-generation time-division-multiplexed passive optical networks (TDM-PON). Moreover, by applying 64- quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), the system can be further scaled up to 96 Gb/s with a power budget sufficient for 1:16 split TDM-PON.

  17. Absolute frequency measurement of the 674-nm {sup 88}Sr{sup +} clock transition using a femtosecond optical frequency comb

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, H.S.; Huang, G.; Barwood, G.P.; Lea, S.N.; Klein, H.A.; Rowley, W.R.C.; Gill, P.; Windeler, R.S.

    2003-03-01

    The frequency of the 5s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-4d {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} electric quadrupole transition at 674 nm in a single, trapped, laser-cooled {sup 88}Sr{sup +} ion has been measured with respect to the Systeme International (SI) second using a femtosecond laser optical frequency comb. The measured frequency of 444 779 044 095.52 kHz, with an estimated standard uncertainty of 0.10 kHz, is more accurate than, and in agreement with, the value previously measured using a conventional frequency chain.

  18. Ytterbium fiber-based, 270 fs, 100 W chirped pulse amplification laser system with 1 MHz repetition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhigang; Kobayashi, Yohei

    2016-01-01

    A 100 W Yb-doped, fiber-based, femtosecond, chirped pulse amplification laser system was developed with a repetition rate of 1 MHz, corresponding to a pulse energy of 100 µJ. Large-scale, fused-silica transmission gratings were used for both the pulse stretcher and compressor, with a compression throughput efficiency of ∼85%. A pulse duration of 270 fs was measured by second harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating (SHG-FROG). To the best of our knowledge, this is the shortest pulse duration ever achieved by a 100-W-level fiber chirped pulse amplification laser system at a repetition rate of few megahertz, without any special post-compression manipulation.

  19. Progress in optical frequency standards: ultracold Thulium, ions, and passive resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolachevsky, N.; Khabarova, K.; Semerikov, I.; Zalivako, I.; Borisenko, A.

    2017-01-01

    We report on different types of optical clocks and passive frequency references which are under development in our laboratories: optical lattice clock based on the inner-shell transition in the Tm atom at λ = 1.14μm, optical ion clock on single 27Al+ ion, and a family of lasers referenced to ultra-stable ULE and cryogenic silicon cavities.

  20. Baseband integrated acousto-optic frequency shifter/modulator module for fiber optic at 1.3 mum.

    PubMed

    Tsai, C S; Cheng, Z Y

    1993-01-01

    A baseband integrated acoustooptic (AO) frequency shifter/modulator module that consists of a pair of titanium-indiffused proton-exchanged (TIPE) waveguide lenses and a pair of cascaded guided-wave AO Bragg cells has been realized in a Y-cut LiNbO(3) waveguide substrate 0.1 cmx1.0 cmx2.0 cm in size. A device module operating at the optical wavelength of 1.3 mum has provided a -3-dB tunable bandwidth of 120 MHz at baseband. The frequency-shifted or -modulated light propagates in a fixed direction, irrespective of the magnitude of frequency shift or modulation, and is focused into a spot (FWHM) of 6.2-mum size on the output edge of the waveguide. Accordingly, this optical frequency shifter/module can be directly interfaced with single-mode optical fibers to facilitate applications in fiber optic systems.

  1. Frequency-dependent linewidth enhancement factor of optical injection-locked quantum dot/dash lasers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Chaibi, Mohamed E; Huang, Heming; Erasme, Didier; Poole, Philip; Even, Jacky; Grillot, Frédéric

    2015-08-24

    Combining theoretical and experimental studies show that optical injection strongly changes the behavior of the linewidth enhancement factor (α(H)-factor) and the FM-to-AM indices ratio (FAIR) in quantum dash/dot semiconductor lasers. In contrast to solitary lasers, both the α(H)-factor and the FAIR at low-frequency modulation are reduced by optical injection. At high modulation frequency, however, the phase-amplitude coupling characteristics are little influenced by optical injection.

  2. Note: Laser frequency shifting by using two novel triple-pass acousto-optic modulator configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos-Lopez, E. de; Lopez, J. M.; Lopez, S.; Espinosa, M. G.; Lizama, L. A.

    2012-11-15

    We report the design of two novel triple-pass acousto-optic modulator systems. These designs are extensions of the well known acousto-optic modulator (AOM) double-pass configuration, which eliminates the angle dependence of the diffracted beam with respect to the modulation frequency. In a triple-pass system, however, the frequency dependence of the angle does not disappear but the frequency shift is larger, spanning 3 times the AOM central frequency. In some applications, such as optically pumped Cesium-beam frequency standards, the frequencies of the two laser beams remain fixed and a triple-pass optical system can be used to reduce to one the number of lasers used in such atomic clocks. The two triple-pass configurations use either a retro-reflecting mirror, or a right angle prism to pass for third time the laser beam through the AOM, obtaining diffraction efficiencies of about 27% and 44%, respectively.

  3. Inter-satellite coherent optical communication locked frequency analysis and method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Haichao; She, Shang; Xiaojun, Li; Song, Dawei

    2014-10-01

    In free space optical homodyne receiver that analyze Residual carrier COSTAS loop, Inter-satellite LEO-GEO laser communication link frequency analysis, result from Doppler frequency shift 10GHz in the maximum range, LEO-GEO inter-satellite laser links between Doppler rate of change in the 20MHz/s. The optical homodyne COSTAS receiver is the application in inter-satellite optical link coherent communication system. The homodyne receiver is the three processes: Scanning frequency, Locked frequency and Locked phase, before the homodyne coherent communication. The processes are validated in lab., and the paper presents the locked frequency data and chart, LO laser frequency with triangle control scanning and receiving optical frequency is mixed less 100MHz intermediate frequency, locked frequency range between 100MHz and 1MHz basically, discriminator method determines mixing intermediate frequency less 1MHz between the signal laser and the LO laser with the low-pass filter due to frequency loop and phase loop noise. When two loops are running, the boundary frequency of laser tuning is fuzzy, so that we must be decoupling internal PID parameters. In the Locked frequency and phase COSTAS loop homodyne receiver gave the eye-diagram with Bit error rate 10E-7.

  4. Optical frequency combs generated by four-wave mixing in optical fibers for astrophysical spectrometer calibration and metrology.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Flavio C

    2008-08-18

    Optical frequency combs generated by multiple four-wave mixing in short and highly nonlinear optical fibers are proposed for use as high precision frequency markers, calibration of astrophysical spectrometers, broadband spectroscopy and metrology. Implementations can involve two optical frequency standards as input lasers, or one standard and a second laser phase-locked to it using a stable microwave reference oscillator. Energy and momentum conservation required by the parametric generation assures phase coherence among comb frequencies, while fibers with short lengths can avoid linewidth broadening and stimulated Brillouin scattering. In contrast to combs from mode-locked lasers or microcavities, the absence of a resonator allows large tuning of the frequency spacing from tens of gigahertz to beyond teraHertz.

  5. Generation of optical frequency combs in fibres: an optical pulse analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajnulina, Marina; Böhm, Michael; Blow, Keith; Chavez Boggio, José M.; Rieznik, Andres A.; Haynes, Roger; Roth, Martin M.

    2014-07-01

    The innovation of optical frequency combs (OFCs) generated in passive mode-locked lasers has provided astronomy with unprecedented accuracy for wavelength calibration in high-resolution spectroscopy in research areas such as the discovery of exoplanets or the measurement of fundamental constants. The unique properties of OCFs, namely a highly dense spectrum of uniformly spaced emission lines of nearly equal intensity over the nominal wavelength range, is not only beneficial for high-resolution spectroscopy. Also in the low- to medium-resolution domain, the OFCs hold the promise to revolutionise the calibration techniques. Here, we present a novel method for generation of OFCs. As opposed to the mode-locked laser-based approach that can be complex, costly, and difficult to stabilise, we propose an all optical fibre-based system that is simple, compact, stable, and low-cost. Our system consists of three optical fibres where the first one is a conventional single-mode fibre, the second one is an erbium-doped fibre and the third one is a highly nonlinear low-dispersion fibre. The system is pumped by two equally intense continuous-wave (CW) lasers. To be able to control the quality and the bandwidth of the OFCs, it is crucial to understand how optical solitons arise out of the initial modulated CW field in the first fibre. Here, we numerically investigate the pulse evolution in the first fibre using the technique of the solitons radiation beat analysis. Having applied this technique, we realised that formation of higherorder solitons is supported in the low-energy region, whereas, in the high-energy region, Kuznetsov-Ma solitons appear.

  6. Two-photon microscopy using fiber-based nanosecond excitation

    PubMed Central

    Karpf, Sebastian; Eibl, Matthias; Sauer, Benjamin; Reinholz, Fred; Hüttmann, Gereon; Huber, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy is a powerful technique for sensitive tissue imaging at depths of up to 1000 micrometers. However, due to the shallow penetration, for in vivo imaging of internal organs in patients beam delivery by an endoscope is crucial. Until today, this is hindered by linear and non-linear pulse broadening of the femtosecond pulses in the optical fibers of the endoscopes. Here we present an endoscope-ready, fiber-based TPEF microscope, using nanosecond pulses at low repetition rates instead of femtosecond pulses. These nanosecond pulses lack most of the problems connected with femtosecond pulses but are equally suited for TPEF imaging. We derive and demonstrate that at given cw-power the TPEF signal only depends on the duty cycle of the laser source. Due to the higher pulse energy at the same peak power we can also demonstrate single shot two-photon fluorescence lifetime measurements. PMID:27446680

  7. Two-photon microscopy using fiber-based nanosecond excitation.

    PubMed

    Karpf, Sebastian; Eibl, Matthias; Sauer, Benjamin; Reinholz, Fred; Hüttmann, Gereon; Huber, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy is a powerful technique for sensitive tissue imaging at depths of up to 1000 micrometers. However, due to the shallow penetration, for in vivo imaging of internal organs in patients beam delivery by an endoscope is crucial. Until today, this is hindered by linear and non-linear pulse broadening of the femtosecond pulses in the optical fibers of the endoscopes. Here we present an endoscope-ready, fiber-based TPEF microscope, using nanosecond pulses at low repetition rates instead of femtosecond pulses. These nanosecond pulses lack most of the problems connected with femtosecond pulses but are equally suited for TPEF imaging. We derive and demonstrate that at given cw-power the TPEF signal only depends on the duty cycle of the laser source. Due to the higher pulse energy at the same peak power we can also demonstrate single shot two-photon fluorescence lifetime measurements.

  8. Optical frequency standards based on mercury and aluminum ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itano, W. M.; Bergquist, J. C.; Brusch, A.; Diddams, S. A.; Fortier, T. M.; Heavner, T. P.; Hollberg, L.; Hume, D. B.; Jefferts, S. R.; Lorini, L.; Parker, T. E.; Rosenband, T.; Stalnaker, J. E.

    2007-09-01

    Single-trapped-ion frequency standards based on a 282 nm transition in 199Hg+ and on a 267 nm transition in 27Al + have been developed at NIST over the past several years. Their frequencies are measured relative to each other and to the NIST primary frequency standard, the NIST-F1 cesium fountain, by means of a self-referenced femtosecond laser frequency comb. Both ion standards have demonstrated instabilities and inaccuracies of less than 1 × 10 -16.

  9. Frequency Comparison of Al+ and Hg+ Optical Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenband, T.; Hume, D. B.; Brusch, A.; Lorini, L.; Schmidt, P. O.; Fortier, T. M.; Stalnaker, J. E.; Diddams, S. A.; Newbury, N. R.; Swann, W. C.; Oskay, W. H.; Itano, W. M.; Wineland, D. J.; Bergquist, J. C.

    2008-04-01

    We compare the frequencies of two single ion frequency standards: 27Al+ and 199Hg+. Systematic fractional frequency uncertainties of both standards are below 10-16, and the statistical measurement uncertainty is below 5 × 10-17. Recent ratio measurements show a reproducibility that is better than 10-16.

  10. Optical frequency measurement of the 1S-3S two-photon transition in hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoult, O.; Nez, F.; Julien, L.; Biraben, F.

    2010-11-01

    This article reports the first optical frequency measurement of the 1S-3S transition in hydrogen. The excitation of this transition occurs at a wavelength of 205 nm which is obtained with two frequency doubling stages of a titanium sapphire laser at 820 nm. Its frequency is measured with an optical frequency comb. The second-order Doppler effect is evaluated from the observation of the motional Stark effect due to a transverse magnetic field perpendicular to the atomic beam. The measured value of the 1S_{1/2}( F = 1)-3S1/2( F = 1) frequency splitting is 2 922 742 936.729(13) MHz with a relative uncertainty of 4.5 × 10-12. After the measurement of the 1S-2S frequency, this result is the most precise of the optical frequencies in hydrogen.

  11. Bend-insensitive fiber based vibration sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanping; Lu, Ping; Baset, Farhana; Bhardwaj, Vedula Ravi; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2014-05-01

    We report two novel fiber-optic vibration sensors based on standard telecom bend-insensitive fiber (BIF). A tapered BIF forming a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer could measure continuous and damped vibration from 1 Hz up to 500 kHz. An enclosed microcantilever is fabricated inside the BIF by chemical etching and fusion spliced with a readout singlemode fiber that exhibits a frequency range from 5 Hz to 10 kHz with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) up to 68 dB. The unique double cladding structure of the BIF ensures both sensors with advantages of compactness, high resistance to the external disturbance and stronger mechanical strength.

  12. A distance meter using a terahertz intermode beat in an optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Shuko; Yokoyama, Toshiyuki; Hagihara, Yuki; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2009-09-28

    We propose a distance meter that utilizes an intermode beat of terahertz frequency in an optical frequency comb to perform high resolution and high dynamic range absolute distance measurements. The proposed system is based on a novel method, called multiheterodyne cross-correlation detection, in which intermode beat frequencies are scaled down to radio frequencies by optical mixing of two detuned optical frequency combs with a nonlinear optical crystal. Using this method, we obtained a 1.056 THz intermode beat and achieved a distance resolution of 0.820 microm from its phase measurement. Absolute distance measurement using 1.056 THz and 8.187 GHz intermode beats was also demonstrated in the range of 10 mm, resulting in a precision of 0.688 microm.

  13. A stable frequency comb directly referenced to rubidium electromagnetically induced transparency and two-photon transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Dong; Wu, Jiutao; Zhang, Shuangyou; Ren, Quansheng; Zhang, Zhigang; Zhao, Jianye

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate an approach to create a stable erbium-fiber-based frequency comb at communication band by directly locking the combs to two rubidium atomic transitions resonances (electromagnetically induced transparency absorption and two-photon absorption), respectively. This approach directly transfers the precision and stability of the atomic transitions to the comb. With its distinguishing feature of compactness by removing the conventional octave-spanning spectrum and f-to-2f beating facilities and the ability to directly control the comb's frequency at the atomic transition frequency, this stable optical comb can be widely used in optical communication, frequency standard, and optical spectroscopy and microscopy.

  14. A stable frequency comb directly referenced to rubidium electromagnetically induced transparency and two-photon transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Dong; Wu, Jiutao; Zhang, Shuangyou; Ren, Quansheng; Zhang, Zhigang; Zhao, Jianye

    2014-03-17

    We demonstrate an approach to create a stable erbium-fiber-based frequency comb at communication band by directly locking the combs to two rubidium atomic transitions resonances (electromagnetically induced transparency absorption and two-photon absorption), respectively. This approach directly transfers the precision and stability of the atomic transitions to the comb. With its distinguishing feature of compactness by removing the conventional octave-spanning spectrum and f-to-2f beating facilities and the ability to directly control the comb's frequency at the atomic transition frequency, this stable optical comb can be widely used in optical communication, frequency standard, and optical spectroscopy and microscopy.

  15. Tracking performance of optical phase locking loop with frequency discrimination and control subloop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunxiang; Li, Biao; Guo, Yong; Wang, Zhiyong; Shi, Shuangjin; Su, Jun; Qiu, Qi

    2016-05-01

    Optical phase locking is a key technique in homodyne coherent optical communication, coherent optical detection, and active coherent laser beam combination. In these applications, environmental temperature variation and mechanical vibration would affect the accuracy of phase locking, or even cause losing lock. These disturbances are generally equivalent to introducing phase jitter, phase step, frequency ramp, and frequency step in the loop. A frequency discrimination and control subloop is introduced to improve the frequency acquisition, and the tracking performance is studied experimentally. The loop can track phase step in 0.2 ms, and precisely track ±π/2 sine phase jitter for jittering frequency lower than 1 kHz. For frequency ramp, the residual phase error is unaffected for ramping rates slower than 40 MHz/s. The frequency discrimination and control subloop makes the loop lock quickly under a frequency step larger than the pull-in frequency. The mean tracking time is 31 ms for a 1 MHz frequency step. The maximum trackable frequency step is around 160 MHz. Continuous or step variation of phase and frequency could be tracked by the loop with the frequency discrimination and control subloop.

  16. A deep-UV optical frequency comb at 205 nm.

    PubMed

    Peters, E; Diddams, S A; Fendel, P; Reinhardt, S; Hänsch, T W; Udem, Th

    2009-05-25

    By frequency quadrupling a picosecond pulse train from a Ti:sapphire laser at 820 nm we generate a frequency comb at 205 nm with nearly bandwidth-limited pulses. The nonlinear frequency conversion is accomplished by two successive frequency doubling stages that take place in resonant cavities that are matched to the pulse repetition rate of 82 MHz. This allows for an overall efficiency of 4.5 % and produces an output power of up to 70 mW for a few minutes and 25 mW with continuous operation for hours. Such a deep UV frequency comb may be employed for direct frequency comb spectroscopy in cases where it is less efficient to convert to these short wavelengths with continuous wave lasers.

  17. Self-oscillating optical frequency comb generator based on an optoelectronic oscillator employing cascaded modulators.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jian; Xu, Xingyuan; Wu, Zhongle; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Zhou, Yue; Li, Jianqiang; Xu, Kun

    2015-11-16

    An ultraflat self-oscillating optical frequency comb generator based on an optoelectronic oscillator employing cascaded modulators was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. By incorporating the optoelectronic oscillation loop with cascaded modulators into the optical frequency comb generator, 11 ultraflat comb lines would be generated, and the frequency spacing is equal to the oscillation frequency of the OEO. 10 and 12GHz optical frequency combs are demonstrated with the spectral power variation below 0.82dB and 0.93dB respectively. The corresponding spectral pure microwave source are also generated and evaluated. The corresponding single-sideband phase noise are as low as -122dBc/Hz and -115 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset frequency.

  18. Midinfrared frequency comb from self-stable degenerate GaAs optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kevin F; Mohr, C; Jiang, J; Schunemann, Peter G; Vodopyanov, K L; Fermann, M E

    2015-10-05

    We pump a degenerate frequency-divide-by-two optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on orientation-patterned GaAs with a stable Tm frequency comb at 2 micrometer wavelength and measure the OPO comb offset frequency and linewidth. We show frequency division by two with sub-Hz relative linewidth of the comb teeth. The OPO thermally self-stabilizes and oscillates for nearly an hour without any active control.

  19. Study of the cortical representation of whisker frequency selectivity using voltage-sensitive dye optical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Pumbo, Elena; Tang, Qinggong; Chen, Chao-Wei; Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The facial whiskers of rodents act as a high-resolution tactile apparatus that allow the animal to detect the finest details of its environment. Previously it was shown that whisker-sensitive neurons in the somatosensory cortex show frequency selectivity to small amplitude stimuli, An intravital voltage-sensitive dye optical imaging (VSDi) method in combination with the different frequency whisker stimulation was used in order to visualize neural activity in the mice somatosensory cortex in response to the stimulation of a single whisker by different frequencies. Using the intravital voltage-sensitive dye optical imaging (VSDi) method in combination with the different frequency whisker stimulation we visualized neural activity in the mice somatosensory cortex in response to the stimulation of a single whisker by different frequencies. We found that whisker stimuli with different frequencies led to different optical signals in the barrel field. Our results provide evidence that different neurons of the barrel cortex have different frequency preferences. This supports prior research that whisker deflections cause responses in cortical neurons within the barrel field according to the frequency of the stimulation. Many studies of the whisker frequency selectivity were performed using unit recording but to map spatial organization, imaging methods are essential. In the work described in the present paper, we take a serious step toward detailed functional mapping of the somatosensory cortex using VSDi. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of whisker frequency sensitivity and selectivity of barrel cortex neurons with optical imaging methods. PMID:28243518

  20. Measurement of the Yb I S10-P11 transition frequency at 399 nm using an optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinert, Michaela; Gold Dahl, M. E.; Bergeson, Scott

    2016-11-01

    We determine the frequency of the Yb I S10-P11 transition at 399 nm using an optical frequency comb. Although this transition was measured previously using an optical transfer cavity [D. Das et al., Phys. Rev. A 72, 032506 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevA.72.032506], recent work has uncovered significant errors in that method. We compare our result of 751 526 533.49 ± 0.33 MHz for the 174Yb isotope with those from the literature and discuss observed differences. We verify the correctness of our method by measuring the frequencies of well-known transitions in Rb and Cs, and by demonstrating proper control of systematic errors in both laser metrology and atomic spectroscopy. We also demonstrate the effect of quantum interference due to hyperfine structure in a divalent atomic system and present isotope shift measurements for all stable isotopes.

  1. Two-fold transmission reach enhancement enabled by transmitter-side digital backpropagation and optical frequency comb-derived information carriers.

    PubMed

    Temprana, E; Myslivets, E; Liu, L; Ataie, V; Wiberg, A; Kuo, B P P; Alic, N; Radic, S

    2015-08-10

    We demonstrate a two-fold reach extension of 16 GBaud 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) system based on erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)-only amplified standard and single mode fiber -based link. The result is enabled by transmitter-side digital backpropagation and frequency referenced carriers drawn from a parametric comb.

  2. A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place.

    PubMed

    Predehl, K; Grosche, G; Raupach, S M F; Droste, S; Terra, O; Alnis, J; Legero, Th; Hänsch, T W; Udem, Th; Holzwarth, R; Schnatz, H

    2012-04-27

    Optical clocks show unprecedented accuracy, surpassing that of previously available clock systems by more than one order of magnitude. Precise intercomparisons will enable a variety of experiments, including tests of fundamental quantum physics and cosmology and applications in geodesy and navigation. Well-established, satellite-based techniques for microwave dissemination are not adequate to compare optical clocks. Here, we present phase-stabilized distribution of an optical frequency over 920 kilometers of telecommunication fiber. We used two antiparallel fiber links to determine their fractional frequency instability (modified Allan deviation) to 5 × 10(-15) in a 1-second integration time, reaching 10(-18) in less than 1000 seconds. For long integration times τ, the deviation from the expected frequency value has been constrained to within 4 × 10(-19). The link may serve as part of a Europe-wide optical frequency dissemination network.

  3. Effect of coherence and polarization on frequency resolution in optical Fourier transforming system.

    PubMed

    Ostrovsky, Andrey S; Olvera-Santamaría, Miguel Á; Romero-Soría, Paulo C

    2011-12-01

    Using an example of vector Gaussian Schell-model beam, we demonstrate and analyze the dependence of the spatial frequency resolution in optical Fourier transforming system on the intrinsic coherence-polarization structure of illumination.

  4. Surface plasmon optical antennae in the infrared region with high resonant efficiency and frequency selectivity.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Kosei; Sun, Quan; Mino, Masahiro; Itoh, Takumi; Oshikiri, Tomoya; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2016-08-08

    Infrared light has received attention for sensor applications, including fingerprint spectroscopy, in the bioengineering and security fields. Surface plasmon physics enables the operation of a light harvesting optical antenna. Gold nanochains exhibit localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the infrared region with high frequency selectivity. However, a feasible design for optical antennae with a higher resonant efficiency and frequency selectivity as a function of structural design and periodicity is still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the resonant efficiency and frequency selectivity as a function of the structural design of gold nanochains and explored structural periodicity for obtaining highly frequency-selective optical antennae. An optical antenna design with higher resonant efficiency is proposed on the basis of its efficient interaction with non-polarized light.

  5. Effect of noise on Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating measurements of ultrashort pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Fittinghoff, D.N.; DeLong, K.W.; Ladera, C.L.; Trebino, R.

    1995-02-01

    We study the effects of noise in Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating measurements of ultrashort pulses. We quantify the measurement accuracy in the presence of additive, muliplicative, and quantization noise, and discuss filtering and pre-processing of the data.

  6. Mid-infrared optical parametric oscillators and frequency combs for molecular spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vainio, M; Halonen, L

    2016-02-14

    Nonlinear optical frequency conversion is one of the most versatile methods to generate wavelength-tunable laser light in the mid-infrared region. This spectral region is particularly important for trace gas detection and other applications of molecular spectroscopy, because it accommodates the fundamental vibrational bands of several interesting molecules. In this article, we review the progress of the most significant nonlinear optics instruments for widely tunable, high-resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy: continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators and difference frequency generators. We extend our discussion to mid-infrared optical frequency combs, which are becoming increasingly important spectroscopic tools, owing to their capability of highly sensitive and selective parallel detection of several molecular species. To illustrate the potential and limitations of mid-infrared sources based on nonlinear optics, we also review typical uses of these instruments in both applied and fundamental spectroscopy.

  7. Frequency-resolved noise figure measurements of phase (in)sensitive fiber optical parametric amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Malik, R; Kumpera, A; Lorences-Riesgo, A; Andrekson, P A; Karlsson, M

    2014-11-17

    We measure the frequency-resolved noise figure of fiber optical parametric amplifiers both in phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive modes in the frequency range from 0.03 to 3 GHz. We also measure the variation in noise figure due to the degradation in pump optical signal to noise ratio and also as a function of the input signal powers. Noise figure degradation due to stimulated Brillouin scattering is observed.

  8. A new method for determining the plasma electron density using optical frequency comb interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki Tojo, Hiroshi; Sasao, Hajime; Kawano, Yasunori; Itami, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-15

    A new method of plasma electron density measurement using interferometric phases (fractional fringes) of an optical frequency comb interferometer is proposed. Using the characteristics of the optical frequency comb laser, high density measurement can be achieved without fringe counting errors. Simulations show that the short wavelength and wide wavelength range of the laser source and low noise in interferometric phases measurements are effective to reduce ambiguity of measured density.

  9. Frequency-modulated light scattering interferometry used for assessment of optical properties in turbid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Liang; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Svanberg, Sune

    2013-02-01

    Frequency-modulated light scattering interferometry, which employs a frequency-modulated coherent light source and examines the intensity fluctuation of the resulting scattered light using a heterodyne detection scheme, was utilized to evaluate the optical properties of liquid phantoms made of Intralipid® and Indian ink. Based on the diffusion theory, nonlinear fits to the power spectrum of the heterodyne-detected light intensity are performed and discussed in detail, and the optical properties of liquid phantoms are consequently retrieved.

  10. Dissemination of optical-comb-based ultra-broadband frequency reference through a fiber network.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Shigeo; Kumagai, Motohiro; Li, Ying; Ido, Tetsuya; Ishii, Shoken; Mizutani, Kohei; Aoki, Makoto; Otsuka, Ryohei; Hanado, Yuko

    2016-08-22

    We disseminated an ultra-broadband optical frequency reference based on a femtosecond (fs)-laser optical comb through a kilometer-scale fiber link. Its spectrum ranged from 1160 nm to 2180 nm without additional fs-laser combs at the end of the link. By employing a fiber-induced phase noise cancellation technique, the linewidth and fractional frequency instability attained for all disseminated comb modes were of order 1 Hz and 10-18 in a 5000 s averaging time. The ultra-broad optical frequency reference, for which absolute frequency is traceable to Japan Standard Time, was applied in the frequency stabilization of an injection-seeded Q-switched 2051 nm pulse laser for a coherent light detection and ranging LIDAR system.

  11. FBG sensor interrogation using fiber optical bistability in frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Guohui; Ou, Jinping; Ye, Hongan; Zhou, Zhi; Shang, Shaohua; Yang, Chao; Wang, Huiying

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel scheme of fiber Bragg grating interrogation by use of hybrid fiber optical bistable device (OBD). The OBD is realized in the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing element. Light source is an electronic tuned widely swept ring fiber laser. In this experiment, FBG's are acting as optical intensity modulator and sensing elements at same time. Combined with feedback control circuit, the OBD can be used as an optic-fiber sensor working in digital type through bistable switching phenomenon. We discuss the mechanism of this bistable sensor. Scanning the bias Voltage on PZT, the bistable pulse signal can be counted by circuit that operates in the manner of a pulse-equivalent. If we use 16 bit Digital Analog Converter (DAC), the resolution will achieve 1pm level. High accuracy, high speed and high ratio of signal to noise are the advantages of this scheme.

  12. Intermittent optical frequency measurements to reduce the dead time uncertainty of frequency link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, Hidekazu; Ido, Tetsuya

    2015-11-01

    The absolute frequency of the 87Sr lattice clock transition was evaluated with an uncertainty of 1.1 × 10-15 using a frequency link to the international atomic time (TAI). The frequency uncertainty of a hydrogen maser used as a transfer oscillator was reduced by homogeneously distributed intermittent measurement over a five-day grid of TAI. Three sets of four or five days measurements as well as systematic uncertainty of the clock at 8.6 × 10-17 have resulted in an absolute frequency of 87Sr 1S0-3P0 clock transition to be 429 228 004 229 872.85 (47) Hz.

  13. Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network.

    PubMed

    Calosso, C E; Bertacco, E; Calonico, D; Clivati, C; Costanzo, G A; Frittelli, M; Levi, F; Mura, A; Godone, A

    2014-03-01

    We performed a two-way remote optical phase comparison on optical fiber. Two optical frequency signals were launched in opposite directions in an optical fiber and their phases were simultaneously measured at the other end. In this technique, the fiber noise is passively canceled, and we compared two optical frequencies at the ultimate 10(-21) stability level. The experiment was performed on a 47 km fiber that is part of the metropolitan network for Internet traffic. The technique relies on the synchronous measurement of the optical phases at the two ends of the link, which is here performed by digital electronics. This scheme offers some advantages with respect to active noise cancellation schemes, as the light travels only once in the fiber.

  14. Parallel multichannel optical correlator for frequency subband decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbe, J.; Campos, Juan; Iemmi, Claudio C.; Nicolas, Josep

    2001-08-01

    Many applications require a complex processing, using for it a bank of filters. Different architectures have been proposed of optical processors to perform a parallel filtering. We prose a new multichannel architecture based in the translation Fourier Transform properties. These properties allowed us to design multichannels phase filters. The architecture does not need the introduction of any additional modification in the optical processor. We developed an application for texture classification in real time. We obtain excellent results in the texture classification process, 99 percent of images have been correctly classified.

  15. Mid-Range Spatial Frequency Errors in Optical Components.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    pattern. Malacara (1978, pp. 356-359) describes the diffraction intensity distri- bution on either side of the focal plane and presents a diagram of the...Leoble and Co., Ltd., Aug. 1963. Kintner, Eric C., and Richard M. Sillitto. "A New Analytic Method for Computing the Optical Transfer Function." OPTICA ...2, 1976. Malacara , Daniel (ed). Optical Shop Testing. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1978. Reticon Corporation. Reticon G Series Data Sheet. Sunnyvale, CA: Reticon, 1976. 41 FILMED 9-85 DTIC

  16. Flight-Like Optical Reference Cavity for GRACE Follow-On Laser Frequency Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; deVine, G.; Klipstein, W. M.; McKenzie, K.; Spero, R.; Thompson, R.; Yu, N.; Stephens, M.; Leitch, J.; Pierce, R.; Shaddock, D.; Lam, T.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a prototype optical cavity and associated optics that has been developed to provide a stable frequency reference for a future space-based laser ranging system. This instrument is being considered for inclusion as a technology demonstration on the recently announced GRACE follow-on mission, which will monitor variations in the Earth's gravity field.

  17. Long-Distance Frequency Transfer Over an Urban Fiber Link Using Optical Phase Stabilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    eliability, and the potential for phase noise cancellation. Microwave frequency transmission using amplitude odulation of an optical carrier has demonstrated...isolation box. About W of optical power, including 30% in the phase odulation sidebands, are typically sent onto the cavity ith a coupling

  18. Frequency dependent optical conductivity of strained graphene at T=0 from an effective quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shi-Jiang; Pan, Hui; Wang, Hai-Long

    2017-04-01

    An effective quantum field theory (EQFT) graphene sheet with arbitrary one dimensional strain field is derived from a microscopic effective low energy Hamiltonian. The geometric meaning of the strain-induced complex gauge field is clarified. The optical conductivity is also investigated, and a frequency dependent optical conductivity is obtained. The actual value of interband optical conductivity along the deformed direction is C0 + C1/ω2 in spite of the particular strain fields at T=0.

  19. Frequency-resolved optical-gating measurements of ultrashort pulses using surface third-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, T.; Krumbuegel, M.A.; DeLong, K.W.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Trebino, R.

    1996-09-01

    We demonstrate what is to our knowledge the first frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) technique to measure ultrashort pulses from an unamplified Ti:sapphire laser oscillator without direction-of-time ambiguity. This technique utilizes surface third-harmonic generation as the nonlinear-optical effect and, surprisingly, is the most sensitive third-order FROG geometry yet. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  20. Recent developments and proposed schemes for trapped ion frequency standards. [trapped mercury ions for microwave and optical frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, L.

    1982-01-01

    Ion traps are exciting candidates as future precision frequency sources. Recent developments demonstrate that mercury ion frequency standards are capable of a stability performance comparable to commercial cesium standards. There is, however, considerable room for improvement with regard to the signal to noise problem. The 40 GHz microwave frequency implies that a careful design should be implemented to ensure the elimination of the unwanted side bands in the microwave pump signal. A long life, high performance light source to be used in a trapped mercury ion microwave standard must be developed and the long term performance of a trapped mercury ion microwave standard must be investigated. While newly proposed two photon pumping schemes in conjuction with mercury ions promise exciting developments for both microwave and optical frequency standards, other ions that may be potential candidates should be evaluated for their usefulness.

  1. Dual frequency optical carrier technique for transmission of reference frequencies in dispersive media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Two different carrier frequencies modulated by a reference frequency are transmitted to each receiver to be synchronized therewith. Each receiver responds to local phase differences between the two received signals to correct the phase of one of them so as to maintain the corrected signal as a reliable synchronization reference.

  2. Doppler-Free Two-Photon Absorption Spectroscopy of Naphthalene Assisted by AN Optical Frequency Comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Akiko; Matsuba, Ayumi; Misono, Masatoshi

    2014-06-01

    Optical frequency combs are powerful tools for precise frequency measurements in various wavelength regions. The combs have been applied not only to metrology, but also to molecular spectroscopy. Recently, we studied high resolution spectroscopy of iodine molecule assisted by an optical frequency comb. In the study, the comb was used for frequency calibration of a scanning dye laser. In this study, we developed a frequency calibration scheme with a comb and an acousto-optic modulator to realize more precise frequency measurement in a wide frequency range. And the frequency calibration scheme was applied to Doppler-free two-photon absorption (DFTPA) spectroscopy of naphthalene. Naphthalene is one of the prototypical aromatic molecules, and its detailed structure and dynamics in excited states have been reported. We measured DFTPA spectra of A^1B1u(v4=1) ← X^1A_g(v=0) transition around 298 nm. A part of obtained spectra is shown in the figure. The spectral lines are rotationally resolved and the resolution is about 100 kHz. The horizontal axis was calibrated by the developed frequency calibration system employing the comb. The uncertainties of the calibrated frequencies were determined by the fluctuations of the comb modes which were stabilized to a GPS-disciplined clock. A. Nishiyama, D. Ishikawa, and M. Misono, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2107 (2013).

  3. Three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging using fiber-based line detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, Hubert; Berer, Thomas; Burgholzer, Peter; Nuster, Robert; Paltauf, Günther

    2010-03-01

    For photoacoustic imaging, usually point-like detectors are used. As a special sensing technology for photoacoustic imaging, integrating detectors have been investigated that integrate the acoustic pressure over an area or line that is larger than the imaged object. Different kinds of optical fiber-based detectors are compared regarding their sensitivity and resolution in three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography. In the same type of interferometer, polymer optical fibers yielded much higher sensitivity than glass fibers. Fabry-Pérot glass-fiber interferometers in turn gave higher sensitivity than Mach-Zehnder-type interferometers. Regarding imaging resolution, the single-mode glass fiber showed the best performance. Last, three-dimensional images of phantoms and insects using a glass-fiber-based Fabry-Pérot interferometer as integrating line detector are presented.

  4. High resolution atomic coherent control via spectral phase manipulation of an optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Matthew C; Cruz, Flavio C; Marian, Adela; Ye, Jun

    2006-04-21

    We demonstrate high resolution coherent control of cold atomic rubidium utilizing spectral phase manipulation of a femtosecond optical frequency comb. Transient coherent accumulation is directly manifested by the enhancement of signal amplitude and spectral resolution via the pulse number. The combination of frequency comb technology and spectral phase manipulation enables coherent control techniques to enter a new regime with natural linewidth resolution.

  5. High Resolution Atomic Coherent Control via Spectral Phase Manipulation of an Optical Frequency Comb

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, Matthew C.; Cruz, Flavio C.; Marian, Adela; Ye Jun

    2006-04-21

    We demonstrate high resolution coherent control of cold atomic rubidium utilizing spectral phase manipulation of a femtosecond optical frequency comb. Transient coherent accumulation is directly manifested by the enhancement of signal amplitude and spectral resolution via the pulse number. The combination of frequency comb technology and spectral phase manipulation enables coherent control techniques to enter a new regime with natural linewidth resolution.

  6. High Accuracy Optical Inverse Square Law Experiment Using Inexpensive Light to Frequency Converters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanser, Keith H.; Mahrley, Steve; Tanner, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on the use of two different light to frequency converters, four different light sources, three of which are novel and inexpensive, and a hand held digital multimeter with a frequency counter, suitable for making accurate and rapid determination of the optical inverse square law exponent of -2 to better than [plus or…

  7. Fiber based photonic-crystal acoustic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Onur

    Photonic-crystal slabs are two-dimensional photonic crystals etched into a dielectric layer such as silicon. Standard micro fabrication techniques can be employed to manufacture these structures, which makes it feasible to produce them in large areas, usually an important criterion for practical applications. An appealing feature of these structures is that they can be employed as free-space optical devices such as broadband reflectors. The small thickness of the slab (usually in the vicinity of half a micron) also makes it deflectable. These combined optical and mechanical properties make it possible to employ photonic-crystal slabs in a range of practical applications, including displacement sensors, which in turn can be used for example to detect acoustic waves. An additional benefit of employing a photonic-crystal slab is that it is possible to tailor its optical and mechanical properties by adjusting the geometrical parameters of the structure such as hole radius or shape, pitch, and the slab thickness. By altering the hole radius and pitch, it is possible to make broadband reflectors or sharp transmission filters out of these structures. Adjusting the thickness also affects its deformability, making it possible to make broadband mirrors compliant to acoustic waves. Altering the hole shape, for example by introducing an asymmetry, extends the functionalities of photonic-crystal slabs even further. Breaking the symmetry by introducing asymmetric holes enables polarization-sensitive devices such as retarders, polarization beam splitters, and photonic crystals with additional non-degenerate resonances useful for increased sensitivity in sensors. All these practical advantages of photonic-crystal slabs makes them suitable as key components in micromachined sensor applications. We report one such example of an application of photonic-crystal slabs in the form of a micromachined acoustic sensor. It consists of a Fabry-Perot interferometer made of a photonic

  8. Elimination of the light shift in rubidium gas cell frequency standards using pulsed optical pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T. C.; Jechart, E.; Kwon, T. M.

    1978-01-01

    Changes in the intensity of the light source in an optically pumped, rubidium, gas cell frequency standard can produce corresponding frequency shifts, with possible adverse effects on the long-term frequency stability. A pulsed optical pumping apparatus was constructed with the intent of investigating the frequency stability in the absence of light shifts. Contrary to original expectations, a small residual frequency shift due to changes in light intensity was experimentally observed. Evidence is given which indicates that this is not a true light-shift effect. Preliminary measurements of the frequency stability of this apparatus, with this small residual pseudo light shift present, are presented. It is shown that this pseudo light shift can be eliminated by using a more homogeneous C-field. This is consistent with the idea that the pseudo light shift is due to inhomogeneity in the physics package (position-shift effect).

  9. Two-Photon Spectroscopy in Rb for an Optical Frequency Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Kyle; Phelps, Gretchen; Lemke, Nathan; Blakley, Daniel; Erickson, Christopher; Burke, John; Applied Technology Associates Team; Space Dynamics Laboratory Team; Air Force Research Laboratory Team

    2016-05-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory is pursuing optical atomic clocks for navigation and timing applications. Optical clocks are of particular interest owing to their very high oscillation frequencies. We present an optical rubidium atomic frequency standard (O-RAFS), based upon a two-photon transition at 778 nm, that utilizes readily available commercial off-the-shelf components. Compared to existing GPS clocks, O-RAFS offers reduced short-term instability (7 ×10-13 /√{ τ}), improved manufacturability, and competitive size, weight, and power, making it an attractive candidate for future space operation.

  10. High Resolution Spectroscopy of Naphthalene Calibrated by AN Optical Frequency Comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Akiko; Nakashima, Kazuki; Matsuba, Ayumi; Misono, Masatoshi

    2015-06-01

    In high-resolution molecular spectroscopy, the precise measure of the optical frequency is crucial to evaluate minute shifts and splittings of the energy levels. On the other hand, in such spectroscopy, thousands of spectral lines distributed over several wavenumbers have to be measured by a continuously scanning cw laser. Therefore, the continuously changing optical frequency of the scanning laser has to be determined with enough precision. To satisfy these contradictory requirements, we have been developed two types of high-resolution spectroscopic systems employing an optical frequency comb. One of the systems employs RF band-pass filters to generate equally spaced frequency markers for optical frequency calibration, and is appropriate for wide wavelength-range measurement with relatively high scanning rate.^a In the other system, the beat frequency between the optical frequency comb and the scanning laser is controlled by an acousto-optic frequency shifter. This system is suitable for more precise measurement, and enables detailed analyses of frequency characteristics of scanning laser.^b In the present study, we observe Doppler-free two-photon absorption spectra of A^1B1u (v_4 = 1) ← X^1A_g (v = 0) transition of naphthalene around 298 nm. The spectral lines are rotationally resolved and the resolution is about 100 kHz. For ^qQ transition, the rotational lines are assigned, and molecular constants in the excited state are determined. In addition, we analyze the origin of the measured linewidth and Coriolis interactions between energy levels. To determine molecular constants more precisely, we proceed to measure and analyze spectra of other transitions, such as ^sS transitions. ^a A. Nishiyama, D. Ishikawa, and M. Misono, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2107 (2013). ^b A. Nishiyama, A. Matsuba, and M. Misono, Opt. Lett. 39, 4923 (2014).

  11. Development Of Frequency Transfer Via Optical Fiber Link at NICT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    al., 2006 “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10-15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia , 43, 109-120. [4] H. Kiuchi, T...M. Hosokawa, 2008, “Evaluation of caesium atomic fountain NICT-CsF1,” Metrologia , 45, 139-148. [12] M. Kumagai, H. Ito, G. Santarelli, C. Locke, J

  12. Noise-Induced Phase Locking and Frequency Mixing in an Optical Bistable System with Delayed Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misono, Masatoshi; Miyakawa, Kenji

    2011-11-01

    The interplay between stochastic resonance (SR) and coherence resonance (CR) is experimentally studied in an optical bistable system with a time-delayed feedback loop. We demonstrate that the phase of the noise-induced motion is locked to that of the periodic input when the ratio of their frequencies is a simple rational number. We also demonstrate that the interplay between SR and CR generates frequency-mixed modes, and that the efficiency of frequency mixing is enhanced by the optimum noise.

  13. CMOS in-pixel optical pulse frequency modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nel, Nicolaas E.; du Plessis, M.; Joubert, T.-H.

    2016-02-01

    This paper covers the design of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) pixel readout circuit with a built-in frequency conversion feature. The pixel contains a CMOS photo sensor along with all signal-to-frequency conversion circuitry. An 8×8 array of these pixels is also designed. Current imaging arrays often use analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) and digital signal processing (DSP) techniques that are off-chip1. The frequency modulation technique investigated in this paper is preferred over other ADC techniques due to its smaller size, and the possibility of a higher dynamic range. Careful considerations are made regarding the size of the components of the pixel, as various characteristics of CMOS devices are limited by decreasing the scale of the components2. The methodology used was the CMOS design cycle for integrated circuit design. All components of the pixel were designed from first principles to meet necessary requirements of a small pixel size (30×30 μm2) and an output resolution greater than that of an 8-bit ADC. For the photodetector, an n+-p+/p-substrate diode was designed with a parasitic capacitance of 3 fF. The analog front-end stage was designed around a Schmitt trigger circuit. The photo current is integrated on an integration capacitor of 200 fF, which is reset when the Schmitt trigger output voltage exceeds a preset threshold. The circuit schematic and layout were designed using Cadence Virtuoso and the process used was the AMS CMOS 350 nm process using a power supply of 5V. The simulation results were confirmed to comply with specifications, and the layout passed all verification checks. The dynamic range achieved is 58.828 dB per pixel, with the output frequencies ranging from 12.341kHz to 10.783 MHz. It is also confirmed that the output frequency has a linear relationship to the photocurrent generated by the photodiode.

  14. Holographic Optical Elements with Ultra-High Spatial Frequencies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    capable of solving most of these problems. Holography Wavefront reconstruction, now known as holography, was invented by Dennis Gabor in 194821. At...Zone Plate. How- ever, it was not until Gabor proposed his principle of wave- front reconstruction and Leith and Upatnieks introduced off-axis... Gabor , Nature 161, 777 (1948). 22. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, McGraw- Hill Book Company, St. Louis,MI (1968). 23. R. J. Collier, C. B

  15. High frequency optoelectronic oscillators based on the optical feedback of semiconductor mode-locked laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Haji, Mohsin; Hou, Lianping; Kelly, Anthony E; Akbar, Jehan; Marsh, John H; Arnold, John M; Ironside, Charles N

    2012-01-30

    Optical self seeding feedback techniques can be used to improve the noise characteristics of passively mode-locked laser diodes. External cavities such as fiber optic cables can increase the memory of the phase and subsequently improve the timing jitter. In this work, an improved optical feedback architecture is proposed using an optical fiber loop delay as a cavity extension of the mode-locked laser. We investigate the effect of the noise reduction as a function of the loop length and feedback power. The well known composite cavity technique is also implemented for suppressing supermode noise artifacts presented due to harmonic mode locking effects. Using this method, we achieve a record low radio frequency linewidth of 192 Hz for any high frequency (>1 GHz) passively mode-locked laser to date (to the best of the authors' knowledge), making it promising for the development of high frequency optoelectronic oscillators.

  16. Freely designable optical frequency conversion in Raman-resonant four-wave-mixing process

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jian; Katsuragawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical processes are governed by the relative-phase relationships among the relevant electromagnetic fields in these processes. In this Report, we describe the physics of arbitrary manipulation of Raman-resonant four-wave-mixing process by artificial control of relative phases. As a typical example, we show freely designable optical-frequency conversions to extreme spectral regions, mid-infrared and vacuum-ultraviolet, with near-unity quantum efficiencies. Furthermore, we show that such optical-frequency conversions can be realized by using a surprisingly simple technology where transparent plates are placed in a nonlinear optical medium and their positions and thicknesses are adjusted precisely. In a numerical simulation assuming practically applicable parameters in detail, we demonstrate a single-frequency tunable laser that covers the whole vacuum-ultraviolet spectral range of 120 to 200 nm. PMID:25748023

  17. Transportable cavity-stabilized laser system for optical carrier frequency transmission experiments.

    PubMed

    Parker, B; Marra, G; Johnson, L A M; Margolis, H S; Webster, S A; Wright, L; Lea, S N; Gill, P; Bayvel, P

    2014-12-10

    We report the design and performance of a transportable laser system at 1543 nm, together with its application as the source for a demonstration of optical carrier frequency transmission over 118 km of an installed dark fiber network. The laser system is based around an optical reference cavity featuring an elastic mounting that bonds the cavity to its support, enabling the cavity to be transported without additional clamping. The cavity exhibits passive fractional frequency insensitivity to vibration along the optical axis of 2.0×10(-11)  m(-1) s(2). With active fiber noise cancellation, the optical carrier frequency transmission achieves a fractional frequency instability, measured at the user end, of 2.6×10(-16) at 1 s, averaging down to below 3×10(-18) after 20,000 s. The fractional frequency accuracy of the transfer is better than 3×10(-18). This level of performance is sufficient for comparison of state-of-the-art optical frequency standards and is achieved in an urban fiber environment.

  18. Asymmetric corner frequency in the 1/f FM-noise PSD of optical frequency combs generated by quantum-dash mode-locked lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panapakkam, V.; Anthur, A.; Vujicic, V.; Gaimard, Q.; Merghem, K.; Aubin, G.; Lelarge, F.; Viktorov, E.; Barry, L. P.; Ramdane, A.

    2016-10-01

    We experimentally investigate the corner frequency in the 1/f frequency noise of the longitudinal modes of an InAs/InP quantum-dash based single-section passive mode-locked laser. The corner frequency features a strong asymmetry across the optical frequency comb with the values ranging from 10 MHz in the low-frequency side to 180 MHz in the high-frequency side. Actively mode-locking the laser induces a reduction in the corner frequency as it changes from 3 MHz in the low-frequency side to 70 MHz in the high-frequency side and the asymmetry persists.

  19. A novel method of developing all-optical frequency encoded memory unit exploiting nonlinear switching character of semiconductor optical amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Garai, Sisir; Mukhopadhyay, Sourangshu

    2010-10-01

    The very fast running optical memory and optical logic gates are the basic building blocks for any optical computing data processing system. Realization of a very fast memory-cell in the optical domain is very challenging. In the last two decades many methods of implementing all-optical flip-flops have been proposed. Most of these suffer from speed limitation because of low switching response of the active devices. In our present communication the authors propose a method of developing a frequency encoded memory unit based on the switching action of semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Nonlinear polarization rotation characters of SOA and 'SOA based Mach-Zehnder Interferometer' switch, i.e. 'SOA-MZI' switch, are exploited for the purpose of some switching action with least switching power (<-3 dB m) and high switching contrast ratio (20 dB). Here two logic states ('0' state and '1' state) of the memory is encoded by two different frequencies, which will remain unchanged throughout the data communication irrespective of loss of light energy due to reflection, refraction, attenuation, etc. Though the SOA based switch runs with the operational speed 100 Gb/s, still due to the presence of the other optical components in the memory unit, the overall speed of the proposed system will come down to 10 Gb/s.

  20. Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation.

    PubMed

    Brasch, V; Geiselmann, M; Herr, T; Lihachev, G; Pfeiffer, M H P; Gorodetsky, M L; Kippenberg, T J

    2016-01-22

    Optical solitons are propagating pulses of light that retain their shape because nonlinearity and dispersion balance each other. In the presence of higher-order dispersion, optical solitons can emit dispersive waves via the process of soliton Cherenkov radiation. This process underlies supercontinuum generation and is of critical importance in frequency metrology. Using a continuous wave-pumped, dispersion-engineered, integrated silicon nitride microresonator, we generated continuously circulating temporal dissipative Kerr solitons. The presence of higher-order dispersion led to the emission of red-shifted soliton Cherenkov radiation. The output corresponds to a fully coherent optical frequency comb that spans two-thirds of an octave and whose phase we were able to stabilize to the sub-Hertz level. By preserving coherence over a broad spectral bandwidth, our device offers the opportunity to develop compact on-chip frequency combs for frequency metrology or spectroscopy.

  1. Multiple frequency optical mixer and demultiplexer and apparatus for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jeffrey R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A pulsed laser system includes a modulator module configured to provide pulsed electrical signals and a plurality of solid-state seed sources coupled to the modulator module and configured to operate, responsive to the pulsed electrical signals, in a pulse mode. Each of the plurality of solid-state seed sources is tuned to a different frequency channel separated from any adjacent frequency channel by a frequency offset. The pulsed laser system also includes a combiner that combines outputs from each of the solid state seed sources into a single optical path and an optical doubler and demultiplexer coupled to the single optical path and providing each doubled seed frequency on a separate output path.

  2. Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasch, V.; Geiselmann, M.; Herr, T.; Lihachev, G.; Pfeiffer, M. H. P.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Kippenberg, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Optical solitons are propagating pulses of light that retain their shape because nonlinearity and dispersion balance each other. In the presence of higher-order dispersion, optical solitons can emit dispersive waves via the process of soliton Cherenkov radiation. This process underlies supercontinuum generation and is of critical importance in frequency metrology. Using a continuous wave-pumped, dispersion-engineered, integrated silicon nitride microresonator, we generated continuously circulating temporal dissipative Kerr solitons. The presence of higher-order dispersion led to the emission of red-shifted soliton Cherenkov radiation. The output corresponds to a fully coherent optical frequency comb that spans two-thirds of an octave and whose phase we were able to stabilize to the sub-Hertz level. By preserving coherence over a broad spectral bandwidth, our device offers the opportunity to develop compact on-chip frequency combs for frequency metrology or spectroscopy.

  3. Research study of fiber-optic interferometry at very low frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, R. B.

    1984-06-01

    A comprehensive review of fiber-optic interferometry shows that frequency-dependent phenomena affecting fiber-optic interferometric electromagnetic sensors at very low frequencies have been neither adequately understood nor quantitatively described. In addition to the electro-optical and magneto-strictive (or electro-strictive) factors that intrinsically limit transduction, other interactive mechanisms such as skin-depth and mechanical loading are commonly supposed to affect the detection sensitivity of the interferometric sensor. This research study of fiber-optic interferometry consists of the following: a review of fiber-optic interferometry, analyses aimed at understanding the mechanisms and quantifying where possible, their effects, and an investigation of means to reduce their impact on the performance of practical sensor implementations. Additional experimental studies have been planned in an attempt to address these interactive mechanisms, their effects and methods of mitigating them. The experimental studies have been performed on a best efforts basis due to cost and schedule constraints.

  4. Theoretical analysis and system design of two-photon based optical frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, J. P.; Jivan, P.; Matthee, C.; Kritzinger, R.; Hussein, H.; Terra, O.

    2014-06-01

    The National Metrology Institute of South Africa (NMISA) is developing a new optical frequency standard based on the Rubidium two-photon transition in collaboration with the National Institute of Standards (NIS, Egypt) that will use both bulk and fiber optics in the system. This is system is called A-POD; an acronym for a portable photonic oscillator device. Rubidium two-photon standards can yield relatively simple and precise standards that are compatible with standard Ti:Sapphire optical frequency combs, as well as the need for a precise frequency standard in the optical telecommunication domain and for measurement of length with a visible beam. The robustness and transportability of the standard are important considerations for the optical frequency standard. This projects implements a framework for better two-photon standards that can be highly accurate, and possibly compete with much more complex clocks in the metrology environment, and especially so in the smaller national metrology institutes found in the developing world. This paper discusses the design constraints and the development considerations towards the optical setup. The robustness and transportability was greatly improved via the usage of optical fiber in the light source of the system, or even in atom-light interaction region. Of particular importance are the beam parameters inside the atomic interaction area. The extent of Doppler broadening and the intensity dependent line shift have to be optimized within practical extents, where both these aspects are affected by the beam shape and optical geometry. A way to fully treat the optical beam effects together with atomic movement is proposed. Furthermore a method is proposed to do real time compensation of intensity dependent light shift, which could have major applicability to frequency standards in general - the complexity is shifted from physical setups to digital signal processing, which is easily adaptable and stable.

  5. Low Frequency Error Analysis and Calibration for High-Resolution Optical Satellite's Uncontrolled Geometric Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mi; Fang, Chengcheng; Yang, Bo; Cheng, Yufeng

    2016-06-01

    The low frequency error is a key factor which has affected uncontrolled geometry processing accuracy of the high-resolution optical image. To guarantee the geometric quality of imagery, this paper presents an on-orbit calibration method for the low frequency error based on geometric calibration field. Firstly, we introduce the overall flow of low frequency error on-orbit analysis and calibration, which includes optical axis angle variation detection of star sensor, relative calibration among star sensors, multi-star sensor information fusion, low frequency error model construction and verification. Secondly, we use optical axis angle change detection method to analyze the law of low frequency error variation. Thirdly, we respectively use the method of relative calibration and information fusion among star sensors to realize the datum unity and high precision attitude output. Finally, we realize the low frequency error model construction and optimal estimation of model parameters based on DEM/DOM of geometric calibration field. To evaluate the performance of the proposed calibration method, a certain type satellite's real data is used. Test results demonstrate that the calibration model in this paper can well describe the law of the low frequency error variation. The uncontrolled geometric positioning accuracy of the high-resolution optical image in the WGS-84 Coordinate Systems is obviously improved after the step-wise calibration.

  6. Frequency ratio measurement of 171Yb and 87Sr optical lattice clocks.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Daisuke; Yasuda, Masami; Inaba, Hajime; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Tanabe, Takehiko; Onae, Atsushi; Hong, Feng-Lei

    2014-04-07

    The frequency ratio of the (1)S(0)(F = 1/2)-(3)P(0)(F = 1/2) clock transition in (171)Yb and the (1)S(0)(F = 9/2)-(3)P(0)(F = 9/2) clock transition in (87)Sr is measured by an optical-optical direct frequency link between two optical lattice clocks. We determined the ratio (ν(Yb)/ν(Sr)) to be 1.207 507 039 343 341 2(17) fractional standard uncertainty of 1.4 × 10(-15) [corrected]. The measurement uncertainty of the frequency ratio is smaller than that obtained from absolute frequency measurements using the International Atomic Time (TAI) link. The measured ratio agrees well with that derived from the absolute frequency measurement results obtained at NIST and JILA, Boulder, CO using their Cs-fountain clock. Our measurement enables the first international comparison of the frequency ratios of optical clocks. The measured frequency ratio will be reported to the International Committee for Weights and Measures for a discussion related to the redefinition of the second.

  7. Thulium-doped fiber laser utilizing a photonic crystal fiber-based optical low-pass filter with application in 1.7 μm and 1.8 μm band.

    PubMed

    Emami, Siamak Dawazdah; Khodaei, Amin; Gandan, Shumithira; Penny, Richard; Lim, Kok Sing; Abdul-Rashid, Hairul Azhar; Ahmad, Harith

    2015-07-27

    This paper describes a low pass filter based on photonics crystal fiber (PCF) partial ASE suppression, and its application within a 1.7 µm to 1.8 µm band thulium-doped fiber amplifier (TDFA) and a thulium-doped fiber laser (TDFL). The enlargement of air holes around the doped core region of the PCF resulted in a low-pass filter device that was able to attenuate wavelengths above the conventional long cut-off wavelength. These ensuing long cut-off wavelengths were 1.85 μm and 1.75 μm, and enabled a transmission mechanism that possessed a number of desirable characteristics. The proposed optical low-pass filter was applied within a TDFA and TDFL system. Peak spectrum was observed at around 1.9 μm for conventional TDF lasers, while the proposed TDF laser with PCF setup had fiber laser peak wavelengths measured at downshifted values of 1.74 μm and 1.81 μm.

  8. Nonlinear modification of the laser noise power spectrum induced by frequency-shifted optical feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacot, Eric; Houchmandzadeh, Bahram; Girardeau, Vadim; Hugon, Olivier; Jacquin, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we study the nonlinear coupling between the stationary (i.e., the beating modulation signal) and transient (i.e., the laser quantum noise) dynamics of a laser subjected to frequency-shifted optical feedback. We show how the noise power spectrum and more specifically the relaxation oscillation frequency of the laser are modified under different optical feedback conditions. Specifically we study the influence of (i) the amount of light returning to the laser cavity and (ii) the initial detuning between the frequency shift and intrinsic relaxation frequency. The present work shows how the relaxation frequency is related to the strength of the beating signal, and the shape of the noise power spectrum gives an image of the transfer modulation function (i.e., of the amplification gain) of the nonlinear-laser dynamics. The theoretical predictions, confirmed by numerical resolutions, are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  9. Building a Pulse Detector using the Frequency Resolved Optical Gating Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Vallin, J

    2004-02-05

    We show how to construct a diagnostic optical layout known as Frequency Resolved Optical Gating (FROG) for an ir mode-locked laser by using the nonlinear effect known as second harmonic generation (SHG). In this paper, we explain the principle of operation and the theory upon which this diagnostic is based. Moreover, we described the procedure used to measure the duration and frequency components of a pulse. This process consists of calibrating the scales of a two-dimensional image, time delay vs. frequency, known as FROG spectrogram or FROG trace. This calibration of the time delay scale yields the correspondence between a pixel and time delay. Similarly, the calibration of the frequency scale yields the correspondence between a pixel, and frequency.

  10. Optical frequency standard by using a 1560 nm diode laser locked to saturated absorption lines of rubidium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, Shin; Seki, Atsushi; Niki, Shoji

    2007-07-20

    A robust, compact, highly accurate rubidium optical frequency standard module was developed to overcome the delicate performance of conventional frequency stabilized lasers. A frequency doubled1560 nm distributed feedback diode laser locked to a rubidium D2 saturated absorption line without using an optical amplifier was demonstrated, and dithering-free optical output was obtained. In addition, the sensitivity of the developed optical frequency standard to magnetic fields was investigated. We confirmed that the influence of the magnetic fields on the optical frequency standard can be almost negligible when using appropriate magnetic-shield films. As a result, the magnetic-field-insensitive optical frequency standard, which can be embedded in optical systems,exhibiting uncertainty less than at least 100 kHz, was successfully realized for the first time to the best of our knowledge.

  11. Frequency combs and platicons in optical microresonators with normal GVD.

    PubMed

    Lobanov, V E; Lihachev, G; Kippenberg, T J; Gorodetsky, M L

    2015-03-23

    We predict the existence of a novel type of the flat-top dissipative solitonic pulses, "platicons", in microresonators with normal group velocity dispersion (GVD). We propose methods to generate these platicons from cw pump. Their duration may be altered significantly by tuning the pump frequency. The transformation of a discrete energy spectrum of dark solitons of the Lugiato-Lefever equation into a quasicontinuous spectrum of platicons is demonstrated. Generation of similar structures is also possible with bi-harmonic, phase/amplitude modulated pump or via laser injection locking.

  12. High-resolution frequency domain second harmonic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jianping; Tomov, I. V.; Jiang, Yi; Chen, Zhongping

    2007-02-01

    We used continuum generated in an 8.5 cm long fiber by a femtosecond Yb fiber laser to improve threefold the axial resolution of frequency domain SH-OCT to 12μm. The acquisition time was shortened by more than two orders of magnitude compared to time domain SH-OCT. The system was applied to image biological tissue of fish scales, pig leg tendon and rabbit eye sclera. Highly organized collagen fibrils can be visualized in the recorded images. Polarization dependence on second harmonic has been used to obtain polarization resolved images.

  13. Development of a frequency-tunable optical phase lock loop (OPLL) for high resolution fiber optic distributed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuperschmidt, Vladimir; Stolpner, Lew; Mols, Peter; Alalusi, Mazin; Mehnert, Axel; Barsan, Radu; Ansari, Farhad

    2011-04-01

    We report on the development of a precision-tunable, dual wavelength, optical light source suitable for high performance fiber optic Brillouin scattering distributed sensing. The design is based on an Optical Phase Locked Loop (OPLL) system using novel narrow linewidth, low frequency noise and high stability PLANEX external cavity semiconductor. The inherent wavelength stability of PLANEX lasers (typically an order of magnitude better that any DFB laser on the market) enable the OPLL to operate continuously over a wide ambient temperature range without degradation in wavelength locking performance. The OPLL architecture is implemented with polarization maintaining (PM) components and has a very low beat frequency jitter on the order of few kHz. The OPLL frequency tuning range is between 8 and 14 GHz, with fast tuning of sweep steps on the order of 100 μsec. Such a frequency tuning range covers practically all corresponding temperature and strain sensing applications based on the measurement of the frequency shift produced by spontaneous or stimulated Brillouin scattering, and thus is a versatile and enabling technology for both BOTDA/BOTDR distributed sensing systems.

  14. Development and test of the Ball Aerospace optical frequency comb: a versatile measurement tool for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachs, Jordan; Leitch, James; Knight, Scott; Pierce, Robert; Adkins, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The Ball Fiber Optical Comb Demo is a lab-based system which is used to develop space applications for optical frequency combs. These developments utilize the broadband optical coherence of the frequency comb to expand the capabilities of ground test and orbital systems used for optical wave-front measurement, control of adaptive optics, precision ranging, and reference frequency stabilization. The work expands upon a NIST-developed all-fiber frequency comb that exhibits high stability in a compact, enclosed package. Previously demonstrated applications for frequency combs include: Spectroscopy, distance and velocity measurement, frequency conversion, and timing transfer. Results from the Ball system show the characterization and performance of a frequency comb system with a technological path-to-space. Demonstrations in high precision metrology and long distance ranging are also presented for application in adaptive and multi-body optical systems.

  15. Frequency Comparison of [Formula: see text] Ion Optical Clocks at PTB and NPL via GPS PPP.

    PubMed

    Leute, J; Huntemann, N; Lipphardt, B; Tamm, Christian; Nisbet-Jones, P B R; King, S A; Godun, R M; Jones, J M; Margolis, H S; Whibberley, P B; Wallin, A; Merimaa, M; Gill, P; Peik, E

    2016-07-01

    We used precise point positioning, a well-established GPS carrier-phase frequency transfer method to perform a direct remote comparison of two optical frequency standards based on single laser-cooled [Formula: see text] ions operated at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), U.K. and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany. At both institutes, an active hydrogen maser serves as a flywheel oscillator which is connected to a GPS receiver as an external frequency reference and compared simultaneously to a realization of the unperturbed frequency of the (2)S1/2(F=0)-(2)D3/2(F=2) electric quadrupole transition in [Formula: see text] via an optical femtosecond frequency comb. To profit from long coherent GPS-link measurements, we extrapolate the fractional frequency difference over the various data gaps in the optical clock to maser comparisons which introduces maser noise to the frequency comparison but improves the uncertainty from the GPS-link instability. We determined the total statistical uncertainty consisting of the GPS-link uncertainty and the extrapolation uncertainties for several extrapolation schemes. Using the extrapolation scheme with the smallest combined uncertainty, we find a fractional frequency difference [Formula: see text] of -1.3×10(-15) with a combined uncertainty of 1.2×10(-15) for a total measurement time of 67 h. This result is consistent with an agreement of the frequencies realized by both optical clocks and with recent absolute frequency measurements against caesium fountain clocks within the corresponding uncertainties.

  16. Frequency-based design of Adaptive Optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapito, Guido; Battistelli, Giorgio; Mari, Daniele; Selvi, Daniela; Tesi, Alberto; Tesi, Pietro

    2013-12-01

    The problem of reducing the effects of wavefront distortion and structural vibrations inground-based telescopes is addressed within a modal-control framework. The proposed approach aimsat optimizing the parameters of a given modal stabilizing controller with respect to a performance criterionwhich reflects the residual phase variance and is defined on a sampled frequency domain. Thisframework makes it possible to account for turbulence and vibration profiles of arbitrary complexity(even empirical power spectral densities from data), while the controller order can be kept at a desiredvalue. Moreover it is possible to take into account additional requirements, as robustness in the presenceof disturbances whose intensity and frequency profile vary with time. The proposed design procedureresults in solving a minmax problem and can be converted into a linear programming problem withquadratic constraints, for which there exist several standard optimization techniques. The optimizationstarts from a given stabilizing controller which can be either a non-model-based controller (in this caseno identification effort is required), or a model-based controller synthesized by means of turbulence andvibration models of limited complexity. In this sense the approach can be viewed not only as alternative,but also as cooperative with other control design approaches. The results obtained by means of anEnd-to-End simulator are shown to emphasize the power of the proposed method.

  17. Synchronously Pumped Optical Parametric Oscillator with Intracavity Difference Frequency Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-29

    temperature given by Eq. (2.4). Thus we have, dAkQL dT dAkQL dT dAkc, dT dAk LRf(T) + dT LRf(T) + AkQLR 2TT df(T) dT df(T) ARf 2(T) dT...5.57 dL . , , dAk -1 (2.23) Using the same OPO example as earlier, this gives a rather large temperature accep- tance bandwidth of 16.6° C. As...1979. [85] D. T. Reid, Z. Penman, M. Ebrahimzadeh, W. Sibbett, H. Karlsson, and F. Lau - rell, "Broadly tunable infrared femtosecond optical

  18. Optical Reflection Measurement System Using A Swept Modulation Frequency Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, David M.; Leyde, Kent W.

    1989-03-01

    A measurement system has been developed capable of mea-suring reflected optical power as low as 0.0025% with a spot size diam-eter of 24 Am. One application for this system is the characterization of small-area photodetectors. The operation of the measurement system is simple, allowing the operator to quickly make multiple reflection measurements, and it does not require a darkroom. The measurement system merges a microscope, for visual alignment and focusing of the laser beam, with a lightwave component analyzer using modulation vec-tor error correction. A measurement comparison between the analyzer-based system and a power-meter-based system showed that each sys-tem can measure reflections as low as 0.0025%. However, the analyzer-based system offers the advantage of identifying the location and magnitude of system reflections. The system operates at a wavelength of 1310 nm.

  19. Phase Analysis for Frequency Standards in the Microwave and Optical Domains.

    PubMed

    Kazda, Michael; Gerginov, Vladislav; Huntemann, Nils; Lipphardt, Burghard; Weyers, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Coherent manipulation of atomic states is a key concept in high-precision spectroscopy and used in atomic fountain clocks and a number of optical frequency standards. Operation of these standards can involve a number of cyclic switching processes, which may induce cycle-synchronous phase excursions of the interrogation signal and thus lead to shifts in the output of the frequency standard. We have built a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based phase analyzer to investigate these effects and conducted measurements on two kinds of frequency standards. For the caesium fountains PTB-CSF1 and PTB-CSF2, we were able to exclude phase variations of the microwave source at the level of a few microradians, corresponding to relative frequency shifts of less than [Formula: see text]. In the optical domain, we investigated phase variations in PTB's Yb (+) optical frequency standard and made detailed measurements of acousto-optic modulator (AOM) chirps and their scaling with duty cycle and driving power. We ascertained that cycle-synchronous as well as long-term phase excursion do not cause frequency shifts larger than [Formula: see text].

  20. All-optical binary logic unit (BLU) using frequency encoded data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Dhoumendra; Garai, Sisir Kumar

    2015-03-01

    In frequency division multiplexing based communication network frequency encoded data is very important. In this communication, authors propose a new approach of developing an all-optical binary logic unit (BLU) by means of which sixteen different types of binary logic operations can be performed using frequency encoded data. The authors first develop all-optical NOT, AND, OR, XOR, etc. logic gates exploiting the polarization switching character of semiconductor optical amplifier which works based on the principle of nonlinear state of polarization rotation of the probe beam. Finally these logic gates are coupled by means of polarization switches, and activated to implement different logic operations as desired using control beams of different frequencies, after being proper routing the control beams by means of 16:1 MUX and 1:16 DMUX. Frequency conversion by polarization switching character of SOA is very efficient and faster with least optical power consumption, and therefore our proposed scheme of binary logic unit with frequency encoded data offers bit error free secure different binary logic operations with faster speed of processing. Simulation result reflects the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  1. Variable pulse repetition frequency output from an optically injected solid state laser.

    PubMed

    Kane, D M; Toomey, J P

    2011-02-28

    An optically injected solid state laser (OISSL) system is known to generate complex nonlinear dynamics within the parameter space of varying the injection strength of the master laser and the frequency detuning between the master and slave lasers. Here we show that within these complex nonlinear dynamics, a system which can be operated as a source of laser pulses with a pulse repetition frequency (prf) that can be continuously varied by a single control, is embedded. Generation of pulse repetition frequencies ranging from 200 kHz up to 4 MHz is shown to be achievable for an optically injected Nd:YVO4 solid state laser system from analysis of prior experimental and simulation results. Generalizing this to other optically injected solid state laser systems, the upper bound on the repetition frequency is of order the relaxation oscillation frequency for the lasers. The system is discussed in the context of prf versatile laser systems more generally. Proposals are made for the next generation of OISSLs that will increase understanding of the variable pulse repetition frequency operation, and determine its practical limitations. Such variable prf laser systems; both low powered, and, higher powered systems achieved using one or more optical power amplifier stages; have many potential applications from interrogating resonance behaviors in microscale structures, through sensing and diagnostics, to laser processing.

  2. Antenna-load interactions at optical frequencies: impedance matching to quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmon, R. L.; Raschke, M. B.

    2012-11-01

    The goal of antenna design at optical frequencies is to deliver optical electromagnetic energy to loads in the form of, e.g., atoms, molecules or nanostructures, or to enhance the radiative emission from such structures, or both. A true optical antenna would, on a qualitatively new level, control the light-matter interaction on the nanoscale for controlled optical signal transduction, radiative decay engineering, quantum coherent control, and super-resolution microscopy, and provide unprecedented sensitivity in spectroscopy. Resonant metallic structures have successfully been designed to approach these goals. They are called optical antennas in analogy to radiofrequency (RF) antennas due to their capability to collect and control electromagnetic fields at optical frequencies. However, in contrast to the RF, where exact design rules for antennas, waveguides, and antenna-load matching in terms of their impedances are well established, substantial physical differences limit the simple extension of the RF concepts into the optical regime. Key distinctions include, for one, intrinsic material resonances including quantum state excitations (metals, metal oxides, semiconductor homo- and heterostructures) and extrinsic resonances (surface plasmon/phonon polaritons) at optical frequencies. Second, in the absence of discrete inductors, capacitors, and resistors, new design strategies must be developed to impedance match the antenna to the load, ultimately in the form of a vibrational, electronic, or spin excitation on the quantum level. Third, there is as yet a lack of standard performance metrics for characterizing, comparing and quantifying optical antenna performance. Therefore, optical antenna development is currently challenged at all the levels of design, fabrication, and characterization. Here we generalize the ideal antenna-load interaction at optical frequencies, characterized by three main steps: (i) far-field reception of a propagating mode exciting an antenna

  3. Antenna-load interactions at optical frequencies: impedance matching to quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Olmon, R L; Raschke, M B

    2012-11-09

    The goal of antenna design at optical frequencies is to deliver optical electromagnetic energy to loads in the form of, e.g., atoms, molecules or nanostructures, or to enhance the radiative emission from such structures, or both. A true optical antenna would, on a qualitatively new level, control the light-matter interaction on the nanoscale for controlled optical signal transduction, radiative decay engineering, quantum coherent control, and super-resolution microscopy, and provide unprecedented sensitivity in spectroscopy. Resonant metallic structures have successfully been designed to approach these goals. They are called optical antennas in analogy to radiofrequency (RF) antennas due to their capability to collect and control electromagnetic fields at optical frequencies. However, in contrast to the RF, where exact design rules for antennas, waveguides, and antenna-load matching in terms of their impedances are well established, substantial physical differences limit the simple extension of the RF concepts into the optical regime. Key distinctions include, for one, intrinsic material resonances including quantum state excitations (metals, metal oxides, semiconductor homo- and heterostructures) and extrinsic resonances (surface plasmon/phonon polaritons) at optical frequencies. Second, in the absence of discrete inductors, capacitors, and resistors, new design strategies must be developed to impedance match the antenna to the load, ultimately in the form of a vibrational, electronic, or spin excitation on the quantum level. Third, there is as yet a lack of standard performance metrics for characterizing, comparing and quantifying optical antenna performance. Therefore, optical antenna development is currently challenged at all the levels of design, fabrication, and characterization. Here we generalize the ideal antenna-load interaction at optical frequencies, characterized by three main steps: (i) far-field reception of a propagating mode exciting an antenna

  4. Ion optics system incorporating radio frequency mass separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John R.; Carruth, M. R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Results of an experimental study are presented. They show that an RF mass discriminator, based on a Bennett mass spectrometer concept, can be used to discriminate between two species of ions with about a 2-to-1 charge-to-mass ratio. Such a device would be useful for separating monatomic and diatomic oxygen ions in a system designed to simulate the environment that spacecraft encounter in low earth orbit. The influence of changing mass discriminator parameters - such as the spacing of its grids, the amplitude and frequency of RF voltage signals applied to it and the current density of ions incident upon it - on its species discrimination capabilities is discussed. Experimental results are also compared to the results of a simple theoretical model to gain insight into the processes occurring in the discriminator. These results are shown to be in good agreement.

  5. Radio frequency phototube and optical clock: High resolution, high rate and highly stable single photon timing technique

    SciTech Connect

    Margaryan, Amur

    2011-10-01

    A new timing technique for single photons based on the radio frequency phototube and optical clock or femtosecond optical frequency comb generator is proposed. The technique has a 20 ps resolution for single photons, is capable of operating with MHz frequencies and achieving 10 fs instability level.

  6. Modeling hemoglobin at optical frequency using the unconditionally stable fundamental ADI-FDTD method.

    PubMed

    Heh, Ding Yu; Tan, Eng Leong

    2011-04-12

    This paper presents the modeling of hemoglobin at optical frequency (250 nm - 1000 nm) using the unconditionally stable fundamental alternating-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain (FADI-FDTD) method. An accurate model based on complex conjugate pole-residue pairs is proposed to model the complex permittivity of hemoglobin at optical frequency. Two hemoglobin concentrations at 15 g/dL and 33 g/dL are considered. The model is then incorporated into the FADI-FDTD method for solving electromagnetic problems involving interaction of light with hemoglobin. The computation of transmission and reflection coefficients of a half space hemoglobin medium using the FADI-FDTD validates the accuracy of our model and method. The specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution of human capillary at optical frequency is also shown. While maintaining accuracy, the unconditionally stable FADI-FDTD method exhibits high efficiency in modeling hemoglobin.

  7. Optical frequency comb profilometry based on a single-pixel phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhtar, Nabila; Pham, Quang Duc; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Hayasaki, Yoshio

    2016-08-01

    In this research, we introduce a new system based on the ghost imaging, for measuring the surface profile of an object using optical frequency comb laser and a single-pixel camera. The optical frequency comb laser was used to record the relative phase of the object precisely whilst the ghost imaging technique was applied to reconstruct the object's profile. The effect of using a mask on the parameters such as number of object point, number of measurements and sparse number related to the complexity of the object for reconstruction was studied by a simulation. The performance of the system strongly depends on the design of the mask. The random mask and the Hadamard mask were used to estimate the performances in the optical frequency comb profilometry.

  8. Dual-pump Kerr Micro-cavity Optical Frequency Comb with varying FSR spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiqiang; Chu, Sai T.; Little, Brent E.; Pasquazi, Alessia; Wang, Yishan; Wang, Leiran; Zhang, Wenfu; Wang, Lei; Hu, Xiaohong; Wang, Guoxi; Hu, Hui; Su, Yulong; Li, Feitao; Liu, Yuanshan; Zhao, Wei

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel dual-pump approach to generate robust optical frequency comb with varying free spectral range (FSR) spacing in a CMOS-compatible high-Q micro-ring resonator (MRR). The frequency spacing of the comb can be tuned by an integer number FSR of the MRR freely in our dual-pump scheme. The dual pumps are self-oscillated in the laser cavity loop and their wavelengths can be tuned flexibly by programming the tunable filter embedded in the cavity. By tuning the pump wavelength, broadband OFC with the bandwidth of >180 nm and the frequency-spacing varying from 6 to 46-fold FSRs is realized at a low pump power. This approach could find potential and practical applications in many areas, such as optical metrology, optical communication, and signal processing systems, for its excellent flexibility and robustness.

  9. Dual-pump Kerr Micro-cavity Optical Frequency Comb with varying FSR spacing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiqiang; Chu, Sai T; Little, Brent E; Pasquazi, Alessia; Wang, Yishan; Wang, Leiran; Zhang, Wenfu; Wang, Lei; Hu, Xiaohong; Wang, Guoxi; Hu, Hui; Su, Yulong; Li, Feitao; Liu, Yuanshan; Zhao, Wei

    2016-06-24

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel dual-pump approach to generate robust optical frequency comb with varying free spectral range (FSR) spacing in a CMOS-compatible high-Q micro-ring resonator (MRR). The frequency spacing of the comb can be tuned by an integer number FSR of the MRR freely in our dual-pump scheme. The dual pumps are self-oscillated in the laser cavity loop and their wavelengths can be tuned flexibly by programming the tunable filter embedded in the cavity. By tuning the pump wavelength, broadband OFC with the bandwidth of >180 nm and the frequency-spacing varying from 6 to 46-fold FSRs is realized at a low pump power. This approach could find potential and practical applications in many areas, such as optical metrology, optical communication, and signal processing systems, for its excellent flexibility and robustness.

  10. Modeling hemoglobin at optical frequency using the unconditionally stable fundamental ADI-FDTD method

    PubMed Central

    Heh, Ding Yu; Tan, Eng Leong

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling of hemoglobin at optical frequency (250 nm – 1000 nm) using the unconditionally stable fundamental alternating-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain (FADI-FDTD) method. An accurate model based on complex conjugate pole-residue pairs is proposed to model the complex permittivity of hemoglobin at optical frequency. Two hemoglobin concentrations at 15 g/dL and 33 g/dL are considered. The model is then incorporated into the FADI-FDTD method for solving electromagnetic problems involving interaction of light with hemoglobin. The computation of transmission and reflection coefficients of a half space hemoglobin medium using the FADI-FDTD validates the accuracy of our model and method. The specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution of human capillary at optical frequency is also shown. While maintaining accuracy, the unconditionally stable FADI-FDTD method exhibits high efficiency in modeling hemoglobin. PMID:21559129

  11. Dual-pump Kerr Micro-cavity Optical Frequency Comb with varying FSR spacing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiqiang; Chu, Sai T.; Little, Brent E.; Pasquazi, Alessia; Wang, Yishan; Wang, Leiran; Zhang, Wenfu; Wang, Lei; Hu, Xiaohong; Wang, Guoxi; Hu, Hui; Su, Yulong; Li, Feitao; Liu, Yuanshan; Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel dual-pump approach to generate robust optical frequency comb with varying free spectral range (FSR) spacing in a CMOS-compatible high-Q micro-ring resonator (MRR). The frequency spacing of the comb can be tuned by an integer number FSR of the MRR freely in our dual-pump scheme. The dual pumps are self-oscillated in the laser cavity loop and their wavelengths can be tuned flexibly by programming the tunable filter embedded in the cavity. By tuning the pump wavelength, broadband OFC with the bandwidth of >180 nm and the frequency-spacing varying from 6 to 46-fold FSRs is realized at a low pump power. This approach could find potential and practical applications in many areas, such as optical metrology, optical communication, and signal processing systems, for its excellent flexibility and robustness. PMID:27338250

  12. Method of implementing frequency encoded multiplexer and demultiplexer systems using nonlinear semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garai, Sisir Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sourangshu

    2009-11-01

    Multiplexing and demultiplexing are the essential parts of any communication network. In case of optical multiplexing and demultiplexing the coding of the data as well as the coding of control signals are most important issues. Many encoding/decoding mechanisms have already been developed in optical communication technology. Recently frequency encoding technique has drawn some special interest to the scientific communities. The advantage of frequency encoding technique over any other techniques is that as the frequency is fundamental character of any signal so it remains unaltered in reflection, refraction, absorption, etc. during transmission of the signal and therefore the system will execute the operation with reliability. On the other hand, the switching speed of semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) is sufficiently high with property of best on/off contrast ratio. In our present communication we propose a method of implementing a '4-to-1' multiplexer (MUX) and a '1-to-4' demultiplexer (DEMUX) exploiting the switching character of nonlinear SOA with the use of frequency encoded control signals. To implement the '4-to-1' MUX and '1-to-4' DEMUX system, the frequency selection by multiquantum well (MQW)-grating filter-based SOA has been used for frequency routing purpose. At the same time, the polarization rotation character of SOA has also been exploited to get the desired purpose. Here the fast switching action of SOA with reliable frequency encoded control input signals, it is possible to achieve a faithful MUX/DEMUX service at tera-Hz operational speed.

  13. Performance analysis on quality of optical frequency comb generated by the recirculating frequency shifter based on linear IQ modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lu; Li, Jianping; Lin, Jiachuan; Xi, Lixia; Tang, Xianfeng; Zhang, Xiaoguang

    2015-11-01

    An optical frequency comb generator using a modified single-sideband recirculating frequency shifter scheme adopting a linear IQ modulator as the kernel device (SSB-RFS-LIQM) is proposed. The optical comb lines generated by the proposed scheme possess good features such as extreme flatness and high optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), compared to the quality we can obtain when we use a conventional IQ modulator in the SSB-RFS structure (called SSB-RFS-CIQM scheme). The mechanism of how the SSB-RFS-LIQM works is carefully analyzed with analytical and numerical methods. With the capability of strong suppression of high-order crosstalk and less demand of the gain of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (and hence less amplified spontaneous noise induced) in the loop, 5.5 dB OSNR improvement can be achieved when 100 extreme flat comb lines are generated using the SSB-RFS-LIQM scheme compared to using the SSB-RFS-CIQM scheme.

  14. Colloidal superlattices for unnaturally high-index metamaterials at broadband optical frequencies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungwoo

    2015-11-02

    The recent advance in the assembly of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has enabled sophisticated engineering of unprecedented light-matter interaction at the optical domain. In this work, I expand the design flexibility of NP optical metamaterial to push the upper limit of accessible refractive index to the unnaturally high regime. The precise control over the geometrical parameters of NP superlattice monolayer conferred the dramatic increase in electric resonance and related effective permittivity far beyond the naturally accessible regime. Simultaneously, effective permeability change, another key factor to achieving high refractive index, was effectively suppressed by reducing the thickness of NPs. By establishing this design rule, I have achieved unnaturally high refractive index (15.7 at the electric resonance and 7.3 at the quasi-static limit) at broadband optical frequencies (100 THz ~300 THz). I also combined this NP metamaterial with graphene to electrically control the high refractive index over the broad optical frequencies.

  15. WDM-CAP-PON integration with VLLC system based on optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jing; Dong, Huan; Deng, Rui; Shi, Jin; Chen, Lin

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a wavelength division multiplexing carrier-less amplitude phase modulation passive optical network (WDM-CAP-PON) integration with visible laser light communication (VLLC) system is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. To reduce the cost of WDM system, the optical frequency comb scheme using one Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) is utilized and five flat optical combs can be generated. Meanwhile, a blue laser diode (LD) as a VLLC optical source can provide high data rate and long transmission distance. Utilizing overlap frequency domain equalization (OFDE) and negative chirp of MZM, the system performance in both Q-factor and receiver sensitivity can be improved. After 20 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) and 4.5 m free space transmission, the experimental results show that 10 Gb/s CAP signal can be achieved under 7% forward error correction (FEC) limit of 3 . 8 × 10-3.

  16. A wide-band fiber optic frequency distribution system employing thermally controlled phase compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dean; Calhoun, Malcolm; Sydnor, Richard; Lutes, George

    1993-01-01

    An active wide-band fiber optic frequency distribution system employing a thermally controlled phase compensator to stabilize phase variations induced by environmental temperature changes is described. The distribution system utilizes bidirectional dual wavelength transmission to provide optical feedback of induced phase variations of 100 MHz signals propagating along the distribution cable. The phase compensation considered differs from earlier narrow-band phase compensation designs in that it uses a thermally controlled fiber delay coil rather than a VCO or phase modulation to compensate for induced phase variations. Two advantages of the wide-band system over earlier designs are (1) that it provides phase compensation for all transmitted frequencies, and (2) the compensation is applied after the optical interface rather than electronically ahead of it as in earlier schemes. Experimental results on the first prototype shows that the thermal stabilizer reduces phase variations and Allan deviation by a factor of forty over an equivalent uncompensated fiber optic distribution system.

  17. All-optical frequency downconversion technique utilizing a four-wave mixing effect in a single semiconductor optical amplifier for wavelength division multiplexing radio-over-fiber applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Song, Jong-In

    2012-03-26

    An all-optical frequency downconversion utilizing a four-wave mixing effect in a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was experimentally demonstrated for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) radio-over-fiber (RoF) applications. Two WDM optical radio frequency (RF) signals having 155 Mbps differential phase shift keying (DPSK) data at 28.5 GHz were simultaneously down-converted to two WDM optical intermediate frequency (IF) signals having an IF frequency of 4.5 GHz by mixing with an optical local oscillator (LO) signal having a LO frequency of 24 GHz in the SOA. The bit-error-rate (BER) performance of the RoF up-links with different optical fiber lengths employing all-optical frequency downconversion was investigated. The receiver sensitivity of the RoF up-link with a 6 km single mode fiber and an optical IF signal in an optical double-sideband format was approximately -8.5 dBm and the power penalty for simultaneous frequency downconversion was approximately 0.63 dB. The BER performance showed a strong dependence on the fiber length due to the fiber dispersion. The receiver sensitivity of the RoF up-link with the optical IF signal in the optical single-sideband format was reduced to approximately -17.4 dBm and showed negligible dependence on the fiber length.

  18. Gated frequency-resolved optical imaging with an optical parametric amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Cameron, Stewart M.; Bliss, David E.; Kimmel, Mark W.; Neal, Daniel R.

    1999-01-01

    A system for detecting objects in a turbid media utilizes an optical parametric amplifier as an amplifying gate for received light from the media. An optical gating pulse from a second parametric amplifier permits the system to respond to and amplify only ballistic photons from the object in the media.

  19. Gated frequency-resolved optical imaging with an optical parametric amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Cameron, S.M.; Bliss, D.E.; Kimmel, M.W.; Neal, D.R.

    1999-08-10

    A system for detecting objects in a turbid media utilizes an optical parametric amplifier as an amplifying gate for received light from the media. An optical gating pulse from a second parametric amplifier permits the system to respond to and amplify only ballistic photons from the object in the media. 13 figs.

  20. An investigation of optical feedback to extend the frequency response of solid-state detector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    A primary limitation of many solid-state photodetectors used in electro-optical systems such as the facsimile camera is their slow response in converting light intensities into electrical signals. An optical feedback technique is presented which can extend the frequency response of systems that use these detectors by orders of magnitude without significantly degrading their signal-to-noise performance. This technique is analyzed to predict improvement, implemented, and evaluated to verify analytical results.

  1. Frequency-resolved optical gating for characterization of VUV pulses using ultrafast plasma mirror switching.

    PubMed

    Itakura, Ryuji; Kumada, Takayuki; Nakano, Motoyoshi; Akagi, Hiroshi

    2015-05-04

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a method for characterizing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) pulses based on time-resolved reflection spectroscopy of fused silica pumped by an intense laser pulse. Plasma mirror reflection is used as an ultrafast optical switch, which enables us to measure frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) traces. The VUV temporal waveform can be retrieved from the measured FROG trace using principal component generalized projections algorithm with modification. The temporal profile of the plasma mirror reflectivity is also extracted simultaneously.

  2. Synthesis of virtual Brillouin frequency shift profiles in BOTDA sensors using optical source dithering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urricelqui, Javier; Sagues, Mikel; Loayssa, Alayn

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate a novel concept for Brillouin optical time domain analysis sensors that is based on synthesizing a virtual Brillouin frequency shift profile along the sensing fiber. The technique is based on modulating the wavelength of the optical source with a periodic waveform that is synchronized to the pump pulse. Application of this new tool to the compensation of non-local effects and Brillouin-induced noise in distributed sensors is experimentally demonstrated.

  3. Acousto-optical modulation of light at a doubled sound frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Kotov, V M; Averin, S V; Shkerdin, G N

    2016-02-28

    A method of acousto-optical (AO) Bragg diffraction is proposed that provides the amplitude modulation of optical radiation at a doubled acoustic frequency. The method is based on the double transmission of the light through the AO modulator made of a gyrotropic crystal and is experimentally tested by the example of the modulation of light with a wavelength of 0.63 μm, controlled by the paratellurite AO cell. (acoustooptics)

  4. Frequency measurement of a Sr lattice clock using an SI-second-referenced optical frequency comb linked by a global positioning system (GPS).

    PubMed

    Hong, Feng-Lei; Takamoto, Masao; Higashi, Ryoichi; Fukuyama, Yasuhiro; Jiang, Jie; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2005-07-11

    We have established a transportable frequency measurement system using an optical frequency comb linked to a commercial Cs atomic clock, which is in turn linked to international atomic time (TAI) through global positioning system (GPS) time. An iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser is used as a flywheel in the frequency measurement system. This system is used to measure the absolute frequency of the clock transition of (87)Sr in an optical lattice. We obtained a fractional uncertainty of 2x10(-14) in the frequency measurement with a total averaging time of ~ 10(5) s over 9 days.

  5. Circuit elements at optical frequencies from first principles: A synthesis of electronic structure and circuit theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramprasad, R.; Tang, C.

    2006-08-01

    A first principles electronic structure based method is presented to determine the equivalent circuit representations of nanostructured physical systems at optical frequencies, via a mapping of the effective permittivity calculated for a lattice of physical nano-elements using density functional theory to that calculated for a lattice of impedances using circuit theory. Specifically, it is shown that silicon nanowires and carbon nanotubes can be represented as series combinations of inductance, capacitance and resistance. It is anticipated that the generality of this approach will allow for an alternate description of physical systems at optical frequencies, and in the realization of novel opto- and nanoelectronic devices, including negative refractive index materials.

  6. Improving the scale factor for rotation sensing in a frequency sensitive integrated optical gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Long; Li, Wenxiu; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Yang; Huang, Anping; Xiao, Zhisong

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically analyze the characteristics of scale factor in frequency sensitive integrated optical gyroscope consisting of a ring resonator coupled with double ring resonators. The impact of through coupling coefficients is investigated to decide the optimal parameters located at 0s-1 for improving the scale factor. It demonstrates that the scale factor enhancement in this frequency sensitive optical gyroscope, without increasing the overall footprint, can be improved compared with conventional single ring resonator gyroscope and presents the characteristic of better performance within low-rate range. It implies a broad prospect in highly integrated on-chip applications, especially in aeronautic and astronautic area.

  7. Frequency stabilization for space-based missions using optical fiber interferometry.

    PubMed

    McRae, Terry G; Ngo, Silvie; Shaddock, Daniel A; Hsu, Magnus T L; Gray, Malcolm B

    2013-02-01

    We present measurement results for a laser frequency reference, implemented with an all-optical fiber Michelson interferometer, down to frequencies as low as 1 mHz. Optical fiber is attractive for space-based operations as it is physically robust, small and lightweight. The small free spectral range of fiber interferometers also provides the possibility to prestabilize two lasers on two distant spacecraft and ensures that the beatnote remains within the detector bandwidth. We demonstrate that these fiber interferometers are viable candidates for future laser-based gravity recovery and climate experiment missions requiring a stability of 30 Hz/√Hz over a 10 mHz-1 Hz bandwidth.

  8. Multidie LED combined with homogenizing optics to improve frequency response and intensity for FLIM applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, H-T; Lin, W-L; Feng, Y-L; Lin, Y; Chen, Y-C

    2017-03-15

    Application of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) has been limited by the trade-off between modulation frequency and illumination intensity of LEDs, which affects the signal-to-noise ratio in fluorescence lifetime measurements. To increase modulation frequency without sacrificing output power of LEDs, we propose to use LEDs with multiple dice connected in series. The LED capacitance was reduced with series connection; therefore, the frequency response of multidie LED was significantly increased. LEDs in visible light, including blue, green, amber and red, were all applicable in FLIM. We also present a homogenizing optics design, so that multidie LEDs produced uniform illumination on the same focal spot. When the homogenizing optics was combined with multicolour emitters, it provides multiple colour selection in a compact and convenient design.

  9. Frequency dependent optical and dielectric properties of zinc sulfide in Terahertz regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganti, Satya R.; Sundaram, S. K.; McCloy, John S.

    2014-07-01

    Frequency dependent optical and dielectric properties for several grades of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) zinc sulfide (standard, elemental, and multi-spectral) was performed using a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.15 THz to 2.5 THz. Zinc sulfide exhibits low frequency vibrational modes characterized by the THz-TDS. Two low-frequency phonon resonance lines were revealed at 0.78 THz and 2.20 THz. These samples were also characterized in the GHz range using a backward wave oscillator (BWO) source quasi-optical spectrometer, and the data obtained by both approaches were compared. Experimental data were also compared with an undamped harmonic oscillator model. These results compare well with the literature values obtained using other methods.

  10. Scanning-free BOTDA based on ultra-fine digital optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chao; Guo, Nan; Feng, Yuanhua; Wang, Liang; Liang, Hao; Li, Jianping; Li, Zhaohui; Yu, Changyuan; Lu, Chao

    2015-02-23

    We realize a scanning-free Brillouin optical time domain analyzer (BOTDA) based on an ultra-fine digital optical frequency comb (DOFC) with 1.95MHz frequency spacing and 2GHz bandwidth. The DOFC can be used to reconstruct the Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) and locate the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) without frequency scanning and thus can improve the measurement speed about 100 times compared with the conventional BOTDA. This scanning-free BOTDA scheme has also been demonstrated experimentally with 51.2m spatial resolution over 10km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) and with resolution of 1.5°C for temperature and 43.3με for strain measurement respectively.

  11. Reference-free, high-resolution measurement method of timing jitter spectra of optical frequency combs

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Dohyeon; Jeon, Chan-Gi; Shin, Junho; Heo, Myoung-Sun; Park, Sang Eon; Song, Youjian; Kim, Jungwon

    2017-01-01

    Timing jitter is one of the most important properties of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and optical frequency combs. Accurate measurement of timing jitter power spectral density (PSD) is a critical prerequisite for optimizing overall noise performance and further advancing comb applications both in the time and frequency domains. Commonly used jitter measurement methods require a reference mode-locked laser with timing jitter similar to or lower than that of the laser-under-test, which is a demanding requirement for many laser laboratories, and/or have limited measurement resolution. Here we show a high-resolution and reference-source-free measurement method of timing jitter spectra of optical frequency combs using an optical fibre delay line and optical carrier interference. The demonstrated method works well for both mode-locked oscillators and supercontinua, with 2 × 10−9 fs2/Hz (equivalent to −174 dBc/Hz at 10-GHz carrier frequency) measurement noise floor. The demonstrated method can serve as a simple and powerful characterization tool for timing jitter PSDs of various comb sources including mode-locked oscillators, supercontinua and recently emerging Kerr-frequency combs; the jitter measurement results enabled by our method will provide new insights for understanding and optimizing timing noise in such comb sources. PMID:28102352

  12. Reference-free, high-resolution measurement method of timing jitter spectra of optical frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Dohyeon; Jeon, Chan-Gi; Shin, Junho; Heo, Myoung-Sun; Park, Sang Eon; Song, Youjian; Kim, Jungwon

    2017-01-01

    Timing jitter is one of the most important properties of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and optical frequency combs. Accurate measurement of timing jitter power spectral density (PSD) is a critical prerequisite for optimizing overall noise performance and further advancing comb applications both in the time and frequency domains. Commonly used jitter measurement methods require a reference mode-locked laser with timing jitter similar to or lower than that of the laser-under-test, which is a demanding requirement for many laser laboratories, and/or have limited measurement resolution. Here we show a high-resolution and reference-source-free measurement method of timing jitter spectra of optical frequency combs using an optical fibre delay line and optical carrier interference. The demonstrated method works well for both mode-locked oscillators and supercontinua, with 2 × 10‑9 fs2/Hz (equivalent to ‑174 dBc/Hz at 10-GHz carrier frequency) measurement noise floor. The demonstrated method can serve as a simple and powerful characterization tool for timing jitter PSDs of various comb sources including mode-locked oscillators, supercontinua and recently emerging Kerr-frequency combs; the jitter measurement results enabled by our method will provide new insights for understanding and optimizing timing noise in such comb sources.

  13. Multicast contention resolution based on time-frequency joint scheduling in elastic optical switching networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huanlin; Li, Yuan; Peng, Han; Huang, Jun; Kong, Deqian

    2017-01-01

    Resolving the optical multicast contention in optical switch node is an effective approach to improve the performance of elastic optical multicast switch. An optical node architecture integrating with output shared all-optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) network coding technology and shared feedback fiber delay lines (FDLs) buffer is designed. And a time-frequency joint scheduling strategy (TFJSS) is proposed. In TFJSS, the maximal weighted independent set algorithm is used to select the output packets with no overlapping spectrum among the contending multicast packets. The remaining contention packets are compressed by OFDM network coding with all-optical XOR operation. Hence, the contention is avoided in spectrum domain by encoding the contending unicast/multicast packets and changing the carrier frequency of encoded packets. If the network coding cannot successfully resolve the contending packets, the shared feedback FDLs are called to address the contention in time domain. Compared with the existing node architecture and scheduling algorithm, the simulation results show that the proposed architecture and the TFJSS can reduce the packet loss probability with low delay largely.

  14. Simple laser velocimeter that uses photoconductive semiconductors to measure optical frequency differences.

    PubMed

    Wang, C C; Davidson, F; Trivedi, S

    1995-10-01

    The dc photocurrents generated by steady-state moving space-charge fields inside photoconductive semiconductors containing deep level donors and traps can be used to determine the relative frequency differences between the two interfering optical fields that establish the space-charge fields. A simple laser velocimeter that uses a semi-insulating GaAs:Cr sample to detect the Doppler frequency shift between two laser beams is demonstrated.

  15. Single-mode waveguide optical isolator based on direction-dependent cutoff frequency.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lingling; Drezdzon, Samuel M; Yoshie, Tomoyuki

    2008-09-29

    A single-mode-waveguide optical isolator based on propagation direction dependent cut-off frequency is proposed. The isolation bandwidth is the difference between the cut-off frequencies of the lowest forward and backward propagating modes. Perturbation theory is used for analyzing the correlation between the material distribution and the bandwidth. The mode profile determines an appropriate distribution of non-reciprocal materials.

  16. Frequency tuning of the optical delay in cesium D{sub 2} line including hyperfine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Monte D.; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-03-15

    The frequency dependence of optical delays in both the wings and core of the cesium 6 {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-6 {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transition have been observed and modeled with a Voigt line shape convolved with the six hyperfine components. Tunable delays of 0-37 ns are achieved by tuning the laser frequency through resonance at various vapor pressures of 0.15-5.28 mTorr.

  17. A novel elastic optical path network that utilizes bitrate-specific anchored frequency slot arrangement.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhi-shu; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Takafumi; Hirano, Akira

    2014-02-10

    We propose a novel elastic optical path network where each specific bitrate signal uses its own dedicated fixed grid and one edge of its frequency grid is anchored at a specific frequency. Numerical evaluations using various bitrate signal patterns and network topologies show that the network proposal can almost match the performance of conventional flexible grid networks, while greatly mitigating the hardware requirements: it allows the use of the tunable filters for the fixed grid systems.

  18. High-resolution absolute frequency referenced fiber optic sensor for quasi-static strain sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Timothy T.-Y.; Chow, Jong H.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Littler, Ian C. M.; Gagliardi, Gianluca; Gray, Malcolm B.; McClelland, David E.

    2010-07-20

    We present a quasi-static fiber optic strain sensing system capable of resolving signals below nanostrain from 20 mHz. A telecom-grade distributed feedback CW diode laser is locked to a fiber Fabry-Perot sensor, transferring the detected signals onto the laser. An H{sup 13}C{sup 14}N absorption line is then used as a frequency reference to extract accurate low-frequency strain signals from the locked system.

  19. Frequency estimation for optical coherent M-QAM system without removing modulated data phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Song; Cao, Yinwen; Leng, Haijun; Wu, Guohua; Gu, Wanyi

    2012-08-01

    For optical coherent M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) system, the frequency offset can be extracted directly by applying Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to the signal's argument, without removing the modulated data phase. By categorizing the constellation points and rotating some constellation points by π/4, this algorithm is robust to extract the frequency offset against the noise. Numerical simulations of 16-QAM and 256-QAM coherent systems are presented to demonstrate this algorithm.

  20. Reduction of phase-induced intensity noise in a fiber-based coherent Doppler lidar using polarization control.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2010-03-01

    Optimization of signal-to-noise ratio is an important aspect in the design of optical heterodyne detection systems such as a coherent Doppler lidar (CDL). In a CDL, optimal performance is achieved when the noise in the detector signal is dominated by local oscillator shot-noise. Most modern CDL systems are built using rugged and cost-efficient fiber optic components. Unfortunately, leakage signals such as residual reflections inherent within fiber components (e.g. circulator) can introduce phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) to the Doppler spectrum in a CDL. Such excess noise may be a few orders of magnitude above the shot-noise level within the relevant CDL frequency bandwidth--corrupting the measurement of typically weak backscattered signals. In this study, observation of PIIN in a fiber-based CDL with a master-oscillator power-amplifier tapered semiconductor laser source is reported. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate what we believe is a newly proposed method using a simple polarization scheme to reduce PIIN by more than an order of magnitude.

  1. Towards spatial frequency domain optical imaging of neurovascular coupling in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Alexander J.; Konecky, Soren D.; Rice, Tyler B.; Green, Kim N.; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2012-02-01

    Early neurovascular coupling (NVC) changes in Alzheimer's disease can potentially provide imaging biomarkers to assist with diagnosis and treatment. Previous efforts to quantify NVC with intrinsic signal imaging have required assumptions of baseline optical pathlength to calculate changes in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations during evoked stimuli. In this work, we present an economical spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) platform utilizing a commercially available LED projector, camera, and off-the-shelf optical components suitable for imaging dynamic optical properties. The fast acquisition platform described in this work is validated on silicone phantoms and demonstrated in neuroimaging of a mouse model.

  2. Multipixel system for gigahertz frequency-domain optical imaging of finger joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netz, Uwe J.; Beuthan, Jürgen; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2008-03-01

    Frequency-domain optical imaging systems have shown great promise for characterizing blood oxygenation, hemodynamics, and other physiological parameters in human and animal tissues. However, most of the frequency domain systems presented so far operate with source modulation frequencies below 150MHz. At these low frequencies, their ability to provide accurate data for small tissue geometries such as encountered in imaging of finger joints or rodents is limited. Here, we present a new system that can provide data up to 1GHz using an intensity modulated charged coupled device camera. After data processing, the images show the two-dimensional distribution of amplitude and phase of the light modulation on the finger surface. The system performance was investigated and test measurements on optical tissue phantoms were taken to investigate whether higher frequencies yield better signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). It could be shown that local changes in optical tissue properties, as they appear in the initial stages of rheumatoid arthritis in a finger joint, are detectable by simple image evaluation, with the range of modulation frequency around 500MHz proving to yield the highest SNR.

  3. Multipixel system for gigahertz frequency-domain optical imaging of finger joints.

    PubMed

    Netz, Uwe J; Beuthan, Jürgen; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2008-03-01

    Frequency-domain optical imaging systems have shown great promise for characterizing blood oxygenation, hemodynamics, and other physiological parameters in human and animal tissues. However, most of the frequency domain systems presented so far operate with source modulation frequencies below 150 MHz. At these low frequencies, their ability to provide accurate data for small tissue geometries such as encountered in imaging of finger joints or rodents is limited. Here, we present a new system that can provide data up to 1 GHz using an intensity modulated charged coupled device camera. After data processing, the images show the two-dimensional distribution of amplitude and phase of the light modulation on the finger surface. The system performance was investigated and test measurements on optical tissue phantoms were taken to investigate whether higher frequencies yield better signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). It could be shown that local changes in optical tissue properties, as they appear in the initial stages of rheumatoid arthritis in a finger joint, are detectable by simple image evaluation, with the range of modulation frequency around 500 MHz proving to yield the highest SNR.

  4. Brain connectivity study of joint attention using frequency-domain optical imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Zhu, Banghe; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2010-02-01

    Autism is a socio-communication brain development disorder. It is marked by degeneration in the ability to respond to joint attention skill task, from as early as 12 to 18 months of age. This trait is used to distinguish autistic from nonautistic populations. In this study, diffuse optical imaging is being used to study brain connectivity for the first time in response to joint attention experience in normal adults. The prefrontal region of the brain was non-invasively imaged using a frequency-domain based optical imager. The imaging studies were performed on 11 normal right-handed adults and optical measurements were acquired in response to joint-attention based video clips. While the intensity-based optical data provides information about the hemodynamic response of the underlying neural process, the time-dependent phase-based optical data has the potential to explicate the directional information on the activation of the brain. Thus brain connectivity studies are performed by computing covariance/correlations between spatial units using this frequency-domain based optical measurements. The preliminary results indicate that the extent of synchrony and directional variation in the pattern of activation varies in the left and right frontal cortex. The results have significant implication for research in neural pathways associated with autism that can be mapped using diffuse optical imaging tools in the future.

  5. Morphology of human sweat ducts observed by optical coherence tomography and their frequency of resonance in the terahertz frequency region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Saroj R.; Miyata, Eisuke; Ishai, Paul Ben; Kawase, Kodo

    2015-03-01

    It is crucial to understand the various biological effects induced by terahertz (THz) electromagnetic waves with the rapid development of electronic and photonic devices operating in the THz frequency region. The presence of sweat glands plays an important role in THz wave interactions with human skin. We investigated the morphological features of sweat ducts using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to further understand such phenomena. We observed remarkable features of the ducts, such as their clear helical structure. The intersubject and intrasubject variations in the diameter of sweat ducts were considerably smaller than the variations in other structural parameters, such as length and number of turns. Based on the sweat duct dimensions and THz dielectric properties of skin measured using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), we calculated the resonating frequency of the sweat duct under the assumption of it functioning as a helical antenna. Here, we show that the resonance frequency in the axial mode of operation lies in the THz wave region with a centre frequency of 0.44 +/- 0.07 THz. We expect that these findings will further our understanding of the various health consequences of the interaction of THz waves with human beings.

  6. Morphology of human sweat ducts observed by optical coherence tomography and their frequency of resonance in the terahertz frequency region

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Saroj R.; Miyata, Eisuke; Ishai, Paul Ben; Kawase, Kodo

    2015-01-01

    It is crucial to understand the various biological effects induced by terahertz (THz) electromagnetic waves with the rapid development of electronic and photonic devices operating in the THz frequency region. The presence of sweat glands plays an important role in THz wave interactions with human skin. We investigated the morphological features of sweat ducts using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to further understand such phenomena. We observed remarkable features of the ducts, such as their clear helical structure. The intersubject and intrasubject variations in the diameter of sweat ducts were considerably smaller than the variations in other structural parameters, such as length and number of turns. Based on the sweat duct dimensions and THz dielectric properties of skin measured using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), we calculated the resonating frequency of the sweat duct under the assumption of it functioning as a helical antenna. Here, we show that the resonance frequency in the axial mode of operation lies in the THz wave region with a centre frequency of 0.44 ± 0.07 THz. We expect that these findings will further our understanding of the various health consequences of the interaction of THz waves with human beings. PMID:25766116

  7. Optical whispering-gallery mode resonators for applications in optical communication and frequency control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutter, Karen Esther

    High quality factor (Q) optical whispering gallery mode resonators are a key component in many on-chip optical systems, such as delay lines, modulators, and add-drop filters. They are also a convenient, compact structure for studying optomechanical interactions on-chip. In all these applications, optical Q is an important factor for high performance. For optomechanical reference oscillators in particular, high mechanical Q is also necessary. Previously, optical microresonators have been made in a wide variety of materials, but it has proven challenging to demonstrate high optical Q and high mechanical Q in a single, integrated device. This work demonstrates a new technique for achieving high optical Q on chip, a fully-integrated tunable filter with ultra-narrow minimum bandwidth, and the effect of material choice and device design on optical Q, mechanical Q and phase noise in microring optomechanical oscillators. To achieve a high optical Q, phosphosilicate glass (PSG) is studied as a resonator material. The low melting point of PSG enables wafer-scale reflow, which reduces sidewall roughness without significantly changing lithographically-defined dimensions. With this process, optical Qs up to 1.5 x 10. 7 are achieved, overten times higher than typical silicon optical resonators. These high-Q PSG resonators are then integrated with MEMS-actuated waveguides in a tunable-bandwidth filter. Due to the high Q of the PSG resonator, this device has a best-to-date minimum bandwidth of 0.8 GHz, with a tuning range of 0.8 to 8.5GHz. Finally, microring optomechanical oscillators (OMOs) in PSG, stoichiometric silicon nitride, and silicon are fabricated, and their performance is compared after characterization via a tapered optical fiber in vacuum. The silicon nitride device has the best performance, with a mechanical Q of more than 1 x 10. 4and record-breaking OMO phase noise of -102 dBc/Hz at a 1 kHz offset from a 72 MHz carrier.

  8. Full-range swept source optical coherence tomography based on carrier frequency by transmissive dispersive optical delay line.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong; Ding, Zhihua; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Minghui

    2011-12-01

    A high speed swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system capable of full-range imaging is presented. Wave-number carrier frequency is introduced into the spectral interference signal by a transmissive dispersive optical delay line (TDODL). High carrier frequency in the spectral interference signal corresponding to an equivalent distance-shift is exploited to obtain full-range OCT imaging. Theoretical development is conducted with the instantaneous coherence function introduced for a complete description of a spectral interference signal. Performance advantage of the TDODL-based method over the conventional approach where only one side (positive or negative path length difference) is used for imaging to avoid overlaying mirror artifacts is confirmed by the measured envelopes of spectral interference signal. Feasibility of the proposed method for full-range imaging is validated in a custom-built SS-OCT system by in vivo imaging of a biological sample.

  9. Full-range swept source optical coherence tomography based on carrier frequency by transmissive dispersive optical delay line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tong; Ding, Zhihua; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Minghui

    2011-12-01

    A high speed swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system capable of full-range imaging is presented. Wave-number carrier frequency is introduced into the spectral interference signal by a transmissive dispersive optical delay line (TDODL). High carrier frequency in the spectral interference signal corresponding to an equivalent distance-shift is exploited to obtain full-range OCT imaging. Theoretical development is conducted with the instantaneous coherence function introduced for a complete description of a spectral interference signal. Performance advantage of the TDODL-based method over the conventional approach where only one side (positive or negative path length difference) is used for imaging to avoid overlaying mirror artifacts is confirmed by the measured envelopes of spectral interference signal. Feasibility of the proposed method for full-range imaging is validated in a custom-built SS-OCT system by in vivo imaging of a biological sample.

  10. Development of high precision digital driver of acoustic-optical frequency shifter for ROG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rong; Kong, Mei; Xu, Yameng

    2016-10-01

    We develop a high precision digital driver of the acoustic-optical frequency shifter (AOFS) based on the parallel direct digital synthesizer (DDS) technology. We use an atomic clock as the phase-locked loop (PLL) reference clock, and the PLL is realized by a dual digital phase-locked loop. A DDS sampling clock up to 320 MHz with a frequency stability as low as 10-12 Hz is obtained. By constructing the RF signal measurement system, it is measured that the frequency output range of the AOFS-driver is 52-58 MHz, the center frequency of the band-pass filter is 55 MHz, the ripple in the band is less than 1 dB@3MHz, the single channel output power is up to 0.3 W, the frequency stability is 1 ppb (1 hour duration), and the frequency-shift precision is 0.1 Hz. The obtained frequency stability has two orders of improvement compared to that of the analog AOFS-drivers. For the designed binary frequency shift keying (2-FSK) and binary phase shift keying (2-PSK) modulation system, the demodulating frequency of the input TTL synchronous level signal is up to 10 kHz. The designed digital-bus coding/decoding system is compatible with many conventional digital bus protocols. It can interface with the ROG signal detecting software through the integrated drive electronics (IDE) and exchange data with the two DDS frequency-shift channels through the signal detecting software.

  11. Determining optical path difference with a frequency-modulated continuous-wave method.

    PubMed

    Song, Ningfang; Lu, Xiangxiang; Li, Wei; Li, Yang; Wang, Yingying; Liu, Jixun; Xu, Xiaobin; Pan, Xiong

    2015-08-01

    A technique for determining the optical path difference (OPD) between two Raman beams using a frequency-modulated continuous-wave method is investigated. This approach greatly facilitates the measurement and adjustment of the OPD when tuning the OPD is essential to minimize the effects of the diode laser's phase noise on Raman lasers. As a demonstration, the frequencies of the beat note with different OPDs are characterized and analyzed. When the measured beat frequency is 0.367 Hz, the OPD between Raman beams is zero. The phase noise of the Raman laser system after implementation of zeroing of the OPD is also measured.

  12. Simultaneous broadband microwave downconversion and programmable complex filtering by optical frequency comb shaping.

    PubMed

    Torres-Company, Victor; Leaird, Daniel E; Weiner, Andrew M

    2012-10-01

    High-repetition-rate optical frequency combs can act as broadband photonic mixers and downconvert a microwave signal to an intermediate frequency (IF) band so that it becomes accessible with high-speed electronics. In this Letter, we show that with line-by-line pulse shaping and dispersive propagation, the photonic mixer can simultaneously perform programmable multitap complex-coefficient-filtering within the IF band. This solution opens new possibilities for microwave signal processing by combining the flexibility of optoelectronic frequency comb technology with high-speed analog-to-digital converters.

  13. Space position measurement using long-path heterodyne interferometer with optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaonan; Takahashi, Satoru; Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    2012-01-30

    A heterodyne interference system was developed for position measurement. A stabilized optical-frequency comb is used as the laser source. The preliminary experiment to measure a distance of 22.478 m shows a drift of 1.6 μm in 20 minutes after the temperature compensation. Comparison and frequency shift experiments have been done for a distance of about 7.493 m. The experimental results show that the drift is mainly caused by environmental condition changes and the vibration of the table and floor also has some effects. It was verified that the absolute distance measurement can be realized by fringe scanning and frequency-shifting methods.

  14. Fiber-Based Laser Transmitter for Oxygen A-Band Spectroscopy and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephen, Mark A.; Abshire, James B.

    2010-01-01

    A fiber-based laser transmitter has been designed for active remote-sensing spectroscopy. The transmitter uses a master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration with a distributed feedback diode-laser master oscillator and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier. The output from the MOPA is frequency-doubled with a periodically poled nonlinear crystal. The utility of this single-frequency, wavelength-tunable, power-scalable laser has been demonstrated in a spectroscopic measurement of the diatomic oxygen A-band.

  15. Three-dimensional pointwise comparison of human retinal optical property at 845 and 1060 nm using optical frequency domain imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yueli; Burnes, Daina L; de Bruin, Martijn; Mujat, Mircea; de Boer, Johannes F

    2009-01-01

    To compare the optical properties of the human retina, 3-D volumetric images of the same eye are acquired with two nearly identical optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems at center wavelengths of 845 and 1060 nm using optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI). To characterize the contrast of individual tissue layers in the retina at these two wavelengths, the 3-D volumetric data sets are carefully spatially matched. The relative scattering intensities from different layers such as the nerve fiber, photoreceptor, pigment epithelium, and choroid are measured and a quantitative comparison is presented. OCT retinal imaging at 1060 nm is found to have a significantly better depth penetration but a reduced contrast between the retinal nerve fiber, the ganglion cell, and the inner plexiform layers compared to the OCT retinal imaging at 845 nm.

  16. Three-dimensional pointwise comparison of human retinal optical property at 845 and 1060 nm using optical frequency domain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yueli; Burnes, Daina L.; de Bruin, Martijn; Mujat, Mircea; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2009-03-01

    To compare the optical properties of the human retina, 3-D volumetric images of the same eye are acquired with two nearly identical optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems at center wavelengths of 845 and 1060 nm using optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI). To characterize the contrast of individual tissue layers in the retina at these two wavelengths, the 3-D volumetric data sets are carefully spatially matched. The relative scattering intensities from different layers such as the nerve fiber, photoreceptor, pigment epithelium, and choroid are measured and a quantitative comparison is presented. OCT retinal imaging at 1060 nm is found to have a significantly better depth penetration but a reduced contrast between the retinal nerve fiber, the ganglion cell, and the inner plexiform layers compared to the OCT retinal imaging at 845 nm.

  17. New optical and radio frequency angular tropospheric refraction models for deep space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, A. L.; Rockwell, S. T.

    1976-01-01

    The development of angular tropospheric refraction models for optical and radio frequency usage is presented. The models are compact analytic functions, finite over the entire domain of elevation angle, and accurate over large ranges of pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. Additionally, FORTRAN subroutines for each of the models are included.

  18. Space and frequency-multiplexed optical linear algebra processor - Fabrication and initial tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, D.; Jackson, J.

    1986-01-01

    A new optical linear algebra processor architecture is described. Space and frequency-multiplexing are used to accommodate bipolar and complex-valued data. A fabricated laboratory version of this processor is described, the electronic support system used is discussed, and initial test data obtained on it are presented.

  19. Pump wavelength tuning of optical parametric oscillations and frequency mixing in KTiOAsO4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Mahendra G.; Murray, James T.; Petrin, Roger R.; Powell, Richard C.; Loiacono, D. N.; Loiacono, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The properties of alexandrite laser-pumped optical parametric oscillators are reported for potassium titanyl arsenate. Near-infrared tuning curves and slope efficiencies were measured as functions of pump wavelength and pump power. In addition, sum frequency mixing of red and infrared wavelengths to produce green emission is also reported.

  20. Electro-optic modulation of a laser at microwave frequencies for interferometric purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specht, Paul E.; Jilek, Brook A.

    2017-02-01

    A multi-point microwave interferometer (MPMI) concept was previously proposed by the authors for spatially-resolved, non-invasive tracking of a shock, reaction, or detonation front in energetic media [P. Specht et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 1793, 160010 (2017).]. The advantage of the MPMI concept over current microwave interferometry techniques is its detection of Doppler shifted microwave signals through electro-optic (EO) modulation of a laser. Since EO modulation preserves spatial variations in the Doppler shift, collecting the EO modulated laser light into a fiber array for recording with an optical heterodyne interferometer yields spatially-resolved velocity information. This work demonstrates the underlying physical principle of the MPMI diagnostic: the monitoring of a microwave signal with nanosecond temporal resolution using an optical heterodyne interferometer. For this purpose, the MPMI concept was simplified to a single-point construction using two tunable 1550 nm lasers and a 35.2 GHz microwave source. A (110) ZnTe crystal imparted the microwave frequency onto a laser, which was combined with a reference laser for determination of the microwave frequency in an optical heterodyne interferometer. A single, characteristic frequency associated with the microwave source was identified in all experiments, providing a means to monitor a microwave signal on nanosecond time scales. Lastly, areas for improving the frequency resolution of this technique are discussed, focusing on increasing the phase-modulated signal strength.

  1. Gated frequency-resolved optical imaging with an optical parametric amplifier for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, S.M.; Bliss, D.E.

    1997-02-01

    Implementation of optical imagery in a diffuse inhomogeneous medium such as biological tissue requires an understanding of photon migration and multiple scattering processes which act to randomize pathlength and degrade image quality. The nature of transmitted light from soft tissue ranges from the quasi-coherent properties of the minimally scattered component to the random incoherent light of the diffuse component. Recent experimental approaches have emphasized dynamic path-sensitive imaging measurements with either ultrashort laser pulses (ballistic photons) or amplitude modulated laser light launched into tissue (photon density waves) to increase image resolution and transmissive penetration depth. Ballistic imaging seeks to compensate for these {open_quotes}fog-like{close_quotes} effects by temporally isolating the weak early-arriving image-bearing component from the diffusely scattered background using a subpicosecond optical gate superimposed on the transmitted photon time-of-flight distribution. The authors have developed a broadly wavelength tunable (470 nm -2.4 {mu}m), ultrashort amplifying optical gate for transillumination spectral imaging based on optical parametric amplification in a nonlinear crystal. The time-gated image amplification process exhibits low noise and high sensitivity, with gains greater than 104 achievable for low light levels. We report preliminary benchmark experiments in which this system was used to reconstruct, spectrally upcovert, and enhance near-infrared two-dimensional images with feature sizes of 65 {mu}m/mm{sup 2} in background optical attenuations exceeding 10{sup 12}. Phase images of test objects exhibiting both absorptive contrast and diffuse scatter were acquired using a self-referencing Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor in combination with short-pulse quasi-ballistic gating. The sensor employed a lenslet array based on binary optics technology and was sensitive to optical path distortions approaching {lambda}/100.

  2. Comparative Study of Optical and Radio-Frequency Communication Systems for a Deep-Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, H.; Wilson, K.; Sue, M. K.; Harcke, L. J.; Wilhelm, M.; Chen, C.-C.; Lesh, J.; Feria, Y.; Rascoe, D.; Lansing, F.

    1997-01-01

    We have performed a study on telecommunication systems for a hypothetical mission to Mars. The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the benefits that microwave-X-band (8.4 GHz) and Ka-band (32 GHz) - and optical communications technologies a afford to future missions. The telecommunication systems were required to return data after launch and in orbit at 2.7 AU with daily data volumes of 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 Gbits (Gb). Spacecraft terminals capable of delivering each of the three data volumes were proposed and characterized in terms of mass, power consumption, size, and cost. The estimated parameters for X-band, Ka-band, and optical frequencies are compared and presented here. For all cases, the optical light terminal exhibits about 60 percent of the mass of the corresponding radio frequency (RF) subsystem. Power consumption is comparable for all three technologies at a 0.1 Gb/day data volume, but the power required at either Ka-band or optical is less than half of the X-band requirement at 10 Gb/day. These benefits can be obtained only with a suitable investment in reception facilities for Ka-band or optical frequencies.

  3. Full-field time-encoded frequency-domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Povazay, Boris; Unterhuber, Angelika; Hermann, Boris; Sattmann, Harald; Arthaber, Holger; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2006-08-21

    Ultrahigh axial resolution surface profiling as well as volumetric optical imaging based on time encoded optical coherence tomography in the frequency domain without any mechanical scanning element is presented. A frequency tuned broad bandwidth titanium sapphire laser is interfaced to an optical microscope (Axioskop 2 MAT, Carl Zeiss Meditec) that is enhanced with an interferometric imaging head. The system is equipped with a 640 x 480 pixel CMOS camera, optimized for the 800 nm wavelength tuning range for transmission and reflection measurements of a microscopic sample. Sample volume information over 1.3 x 1 x 0.2 mm(3) with ~3 mum axial and ~4 mum transverse resolution in tissue is acquired by a single wavelength scan over more than 100 nm optical bandwidth from <760 to >860 nm with 128-2048 equidistant optical frequency steps with an acquisition time of 1 to 50 ms per step. Topography and tomography with a signal to noise ratio of 83 dB is demonstrated on test surfaces and biological specimen respectively. This novel OCT technique promises to enable high speed, three dimensional imaging by employing high frame rate cameras and state of the art tunable lasers in a mechanically stable environment, due to lack of moving components while reducing the intensity on the sample.

  4. T-shaped cavity dual-frequency Nd:YAG laser with electro-optical modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Junhong; Jiao, Mingxing; Liu, Yun

    2016-05-01

    A T-shaped cavity dual-frequency Nd:YAG laser with electro-optical modulation is proposed, which consists of both p- and s-cavities sharing the same gain medium of Nd:YAG. Each cavity was not only able to select longitudinal mode but also tune frequency using an electro-optic birefringent filter polarization beam splitter + lithium niobate. The frequency difference of dual frequency was tuned through the whole gain bandwidth of Nd:YAG, which is far above the usually accepted free spectral range value in the case of a single-axis laser. As a result, the simultaneous operation of orthogonally and linearly polarized dual-frequency laser was obtained, which coincides with the theoretical analysis based on Jones matrices. The obtained frequency difference ranges from 0 to 132 GHz. This offers a simple and widely tunable source with potential for portable frequency reference applications in terahertz-wave generation and absolute-distance interferometry measurement areas.

  5. Optical Fiber Based Thermometry System for a Hyperthermia Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Seattle, WA. Oct 11-15, 2000. [16] O. Carranza. “Termómetro basado en fibras ópticas para aplicaciones biomédicas”. Tesis de maestría. SEPI- ESIME-IPN, México DF, Dec. 2000.

  6. Extending the effective imaging depth in spectral domain optical coherence tomography by dual spatial frequency encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tong; Wang, Qingqing; Liu, Youwen; Wang, Jiming

    2016-03-01

    We present a spatial frequency domain multiplexing method for extending the imaging depth range of a SDOCT system without any expensive device. This method uses two reference arms with different round-trip optical delay to probe different depth regions within the sample. Two galvo scanners with different pivot-offset distances in the reference arms are used for spatial frequency modulation and multiplexing. While simultaneously driving the galvo scanners in the reference arms and the sample arm, the spatial spectrum of the acquired two-dimensional OCT spectral interferogram corresponding to the shallow and deep depth of the sample will be shifted to the different frequency bands in the spatial frequency domain. After data filtering, image reconstruction and fusion the spatial frequency multiplexing SDOCT system can provide an approximately 1.9 fold increase in the effective ranging depth compared with that of a conventional single-reference-arm full-range SDOCT system.

  7. Laser Frequency Stabilization and Control through Offset Sideband Locking to Optical Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, James I.; Livas, J.; Numata, K.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a class of techniques whereby a laser frequency can be stabilized to a fixed optical cavity resonance with an adjustable offset, providing a wide tuning range for the central frequency. These techniques require only minor modifications to the standard Pound-Drever-Hall locking techniques and have the advantage of not altering the intrinsic stability of the frequency reference. In a laboratory investigation the sideband techniques were found to perform equally well as the standard, non-tunable Pound-Drever-Hall technique, each providing more than four decades of frequency noise suppression over the free-running noise. An application of a tunable system as a pre-stabilization stage in a phase-lock loop is also presented with the combined system achieving a frequency noise suppression of nearly twelve orders of magnitude.

  8. Comparison of DSP schemes with frequency domain equalization for passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Ye, Jia; Liu, Yanhe; Yan, Lianshan

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, digital signal processing (DSP) has been widely investigated for the applications in future next generation passive optical networks (PONs). In this paper, we compare four transmission technologies based on DSP with frequency domain equalization (FDE) for PON transmission with double-side band (DSB) intensity modulation and direct detection. These schemes include orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), single-carrier frequency domain equalization (SCFDE), discrete Fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DFT-S-OFDM) and interleaved frequency division multiplexing (IFDM). We analyze their computational complexity and flexibility in PON applications, and compare their transmission performance by experiments. Based on above work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a hybrid DSP-enhanced PON architecture with downstream OFDM modulation and upstream SCFDE modulation.

  9. Frequency-agile kilohertz repetition-rate optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.T.; Velsko, S.P.

    1999-02-01

    We report kilohertz repetition-rate pulse-to-pulse wavelength tuning from 3.22 to 3.7 {mu}m in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Rapid tuning over 400thinspcm{sup {minus}1} with random wavelength accessibility is achieved by rotation of the pump beam angle by no more than 24thinspthinspmrad in the PPLN crystal by use of an acousto-optic beam deflector. Over the entire tuning range, a near-transform-limited OPO bandwidth can be obtained by means of injection seeding with a single-frequency 1.5-{mu}m laser diode. The frequency agility, high repetition rate, and narrow bandwidth of this mid-IR PPLN OPO make it well suited as a lidar transmitter source. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital Optical Society of America}

  10. Lightning detection from Space Science and Applications Team review. [optical and radio frequency sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Few, A. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The various needs for lightning data that exist among potential users of satellite lightning data were identified and systems were defined which utilize the optical and radio frequency radiations from lightning to serve as the satellite based lightning mapper. Three teams worked interactively with NASA to develop a system concept. An assessment of the results may be summarized as follows: (1) a small sensor system can be easily designed to operate on a geostationary satellite that can provide the bulk of the real time user requirements; (2) radio frequency systems in space may be feasible but would be much larger and more costly; RF technology for this problem lags the optical technology by years; and (3) a hybrid approach (optical in space and RF on the ground) would provide the most complete information but is probably unreasonably complex and costly at this time.

  11. Enhanced hybrid asymmetrically clipped orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for optical wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Rui; Huang, Nuo; Wang, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Houyu; Chen, Ming

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an enhanced hybrid asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (EHACO-OFDM) scheme, which benefits from the simultaneous transmission of ACO-OFDM, pulse-amplitude-modulated discrete multitone modulation, and direct-current-biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DCO-OFDM). Since the entire available bandwidth is utilized for data modulation, this scheme can achieve higher spectral efficiency than HACO-OFDM and ACO-OFDM. Moreover, as a smaller DC bias is introduced in our scheme, it is more power efficient than asymmetrically clipped DC-biased optical OFDM (ADO-OFDM) and DCO-OFDM. A modified receiver is also designed for this system, taking advantage of an iterative algorithm and a pairwise averaging. It has been shown by simulation that our three-path simultaneous transmission scheme can surpass the existing mixed OFDM-based schemes at high data rates. In addition, compared with the noniterative receiver, the modified receiver exhibits significant gains.

  12. Method for determiantion of the frequency-contrast characteristics of electronic-optic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardirossian, Garo; Zhekov, Zhivko

    The frequency-contrast characteristics is an important criterion to judge the quality of electronic-optic systems, which boast an increasing application in space research, astronomy, martial art etc. The paper provides a brief description of the methods for determining the frequency-contrast characteristics of optic systems, developed at the Space Research Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Science. The suggested methods have been used to develop a couple of electronic-optic systems participated in the designed ground-based and aerospace scientific-research equipment. Based on the obtained practical results, the conclusion was made that the methods provide to obtain sufficiently precise data, which coincide well with the results, obtained when using other methods.

  13. Characterization of Ultrafast Laser Pulses using a Low-dispersion Frequency Resolved Optical Grating Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, Hope; Bishop, Michael; Khosravi, Soroush; Obaid, Razib; Berrah, Nora

    2016-05-01

    A low dispersion frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) spectrometer was designed to characterize ultrashort (<50 femtosecond) laser pulses from a commercial regenerative amplifier, optical parametric amplifier, and a home-built non-colinear optical parametric amplifier. This instrument splits a laser pulse into two replicas with a 90:10 intensity ratio using a thin pellicle beam-splitter and then recombines the pulses in a birefringent medium. The instrument detects a wavelength-sensitive change in polarization of the weak probe pulse in the presence of the stronger pump pulse inside the birefringent medium. Scanning the time delay between the two pulses and acquiring spectra allows for characterization of the frequency and time content of ultrafast laser pulses, that is needed for interpretation of experimental results obtained from these ultrafast laser systems. Funded by the DoE-BES, Grant No. DE-SC0012376.

  14. All-optical central-frequency-programmable and bandwidth-tailorable radar

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Weiwen; Zhang, Hao; Long, Xin; Zhang, Siteng; Cui, Yuanjun; Chen, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Radar has been widely used for military, security, and rescue purposes, and modern radar should be reconfigurable at multi-bands and have programmable central frequencies and considerable bandwidth agility. Microwave photonics or photonics-assisted radio-frequency technology is a unique solution to providing such capabilities. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical central-frequency-programmable and bandwidth-tailorable radar architecture that provides a coherent system and utilizes one mode-locked laser for both signal generation and reception. Heterodyning of two individually filtered optical pulses that are pre-chirped via wavelength-to-time mapping generates a wideband linearly chirped radar signal. The working bands can be flexibly tailored with the desired bandwidth at a user-preferred carrier frequency. Radar echoes are first modulated onto the pre-chirped optical pulse, which is also used for signal generation, and then stretched in time or compressed in frequency several fold based on the time-stretch principle. Thus, digitization is facilitated without loss of detection ability. We believe that our results demonstrate an innovative radar architecture with an ultra-high-range resolution. PMID:26795596

  15. Development of compact and ultra-high-resolution spectrograph with multi-GHz optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Mamoru; Sukegawa, Takashi; Silva, Alissa; Kobayashi, Yohei

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, a calibration method for an astronomical spectrograph using an optical frequency comb (OFC) with a repetition rate of more than ten GHz has been developed successfully [1-5]. But controlling filtering cavities that are used for thinning out longitudinal modes precludes long term stability. The super-mode noise coming from the fundamental repetition rate is an additional problem. We developed a laser-diode pumped Yb:Y2O3 ceramic oscillator, which enabled the generation of 4-GHz (maximum repetition rate of 6.7 GHz) pulse trains directly with a spectrum width of 7 nm (full-width half-maximum, FWHM), and controlled its optical frequency within a MHz level of accuracy using a beat note between the 4-GHz laser and a 246-MHz Yb-fiber OFC. The optical frequency of the Yb-fiber OFC was phase locked to a Rb clock frequency standard. Furthermore we also built a table-top multi-pass spectrograph with a maximum frequency resolution of 600 MHz and a bandwidth of 1 nm using a large-size high-efficiency transmission grating. The resolution could be changed by selecting the number of passes through the grating. This spectrograph could resolve each longitudinal mode of our 4-GHz OFC clearly, and more than 10% throughput was obtained when the resolution was set to 600 MHz. We believe that small and middle scale astronomical observatories could easily implement such an OFC-calibrated spectrograph.

  16. All-optical central-frequency-programmable and bandwidth-tailorable radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Weiwen; Zhang, Hao; Long, Xin; Zhang, Siteng; Cui, Yuanjun; Chen, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Radar has been widely used for military, security, and rescue purposes, and modern radar should be reconfigurable at multi-bands and have programmable central frequencies and considerable bandwidth agility. Microwave photonics or photonics-assisted radio-frequency technology is a unique solution to providing such capabilities. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical central-frequency-programmable and bandwidth-tailorable radar architecture that provides a coherent system and utilizes one mode-locked laser for both signal generation and reception. Heterodyning of two individually filtered optical pulses that are pre-chirped via wavelength-to-time mapping generates a wideband linearly chirped radar signal. The working bands can be flexibly tailored with the desired bandwidth at a user-preferred carrier frequency. Radar echoes are first modulated onto the pre-chirped optical pulse, which is also used for signal generation, and then stretched in time or compressed in frequency several fold based on the time-stretch principle. Thus, digitization is facilitated without loss of detection ability. We believe that our results demonstrate an innovative radar architecture with an ultra-high-range resolution.

  17. Absolute frequency stabilization of an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Plusquellic, D.F.; Votava, O.; Nesbitt, D.J.

    1996-03-01

    A method is described that provides absolute frequency stabilization and calibration of the signal and idler waves generated by an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The method makes use of a He{endash}Ne stabilized transfer cavity (TC) to control the frequencies of the cw sources used to seed both the pump laser and OPO cavity. The TC serves as a stable calibration source for the signal and idler waves by providing marker fringes as the seed laser is scanned. Additionally, an acoustic-optic modulator (AOM) is used to shift the OPO seed laser{close_quote}s frequency before locking it onto the TC. The sidebands of the AOM are tunable over more than one free spectral range of the TC, thereby permitting stabilization of the signal and idler waves at any frequency. A {plus_minus}25-MHz residual error in the absolute frequency stabilities of the pump, signal, and idler waves is experimentally demonstrated, which is roughly 30{percent} of the 160-MHz near-transform-limited linewidths of the signal and idler pulses. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  18. Ultralow-phase-noise millimetre-wave signal generator assisted with an electro-optics-modulator-based optical frequency comb

    PubMed Central

    Ishizawa, A.; Nishikawa, T.; Goto, T.; Hitachi, K.; Sogawa, T.; Gotoh, H.

    2016-01-01

    Low-noise millimetre-wave signals are valuable for digital sampling systems, arbitrary waveform generation for ultra-wideband communications, and coherent radar systems. However, the phase noise of widely used conventional signal generators (SGs) will increase as the millimetre-wave frequency increases. Our goal has been to improve commercially available SGs so that they provide a low-phase-noise millimetre-wave signal with assistance from an electro-optics-modulator-based optical frequency comb (EOM-OFC). Here, we show that the phase noise can be greatly reduced by bridging the vast frequency difference between the gigahertz and terahertz ranges with an EOM-OFC. The EOM-OFC serves as a liaison that magnifies the phase noise of the SG. With the EOM-OFC used as a phase noise “booster” for a millimetre-wave signal, the phase noise of widely used SGs can be reduced at an arbitrary frequency f (6 ≦ f ≦ 72 GHz). PMID:27185040

  19. Ultralow-phase-noise millimetre-wave signal generator assisted with an electro-optics-modulator-based optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, A; Nishikawa, T; Goto, T; Hitachi, K; Sogawa, T; Gotoh, H

    2016-05-17

    Low-noise millimetre-wave signals are valuable for digital sampling systems, arbitrary waveform generation for ultra-wideband communications, and coherent radar systems. However, the phase noise of widely used conventional signal generators (SGs) will increase as the millimetre-wave frequency increases. Our goal has been to improve commercially available SGs so that they provide a low-phase-noise millimetre-wave signal with assistance from an electro-optics-modulator-based optical frequency comb (EOM-OFC). Here, we show that the phase noise can be greatly reduced by bridging the vast frequency difference between the gigahertz and terahertz ranges with an EOM-OFC. The EOM-OFC serves as a liaison that magnifies the phase noise of the SG. With the EOM-OFC used as a phase noise "booster" for a millimetre-wave signal, the phase noise of widely used SGs can be reduced at an arbitrary frequency f (6 ≦ f ≦ 72 GHz).

  20. Ultrabroadband phased-array radio frequency (RF) receivers based on optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overmiller, Brock M.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Schneider, Garrett; Murakowski, Janusz; Prather, Dennis W.

    2014-03-01

    Military operations require the ability to locate and identify electronic emissions in the battlefield environment. However, recent developments in radio detection and ranging (RADAR) and communications technology are making it harder to effectively identify such emissions. Phased array systems aid in discriminating emitters in the scene by virtue of their relatively high-gain beam steering and nulling capabilities. For the purpose of locating emitters, we present an approach realize a broadband receiver based on optical processing techniques applied to the response of detectors in conformal antenna arrays. This approach utilizes photonic techniques that enable us to capture, route, and process the incoming signals. Optical modulators convert the incoming signals up to and exceeding 110 GHz with appreciable conversion efficiency and route these signals via fiber optics to a central processing location. This central processor consists of a closed loop phase control system which compensates for phase fluctuations induced on the fibers due to thermal or acoustic vibrations as well as an optical heterodyne approach for signal conversion down to baseband. Our optical heterodyne approach uses injection-locked paired optical sources to perform heterodyne downconversion/frequency identification of the detected emission. Preliminary geolocation and frequency identification testing of electronic emissions has been performed demonstrating the capabilities of our RF receiver.

  1. High-frequency chaotic dynamics enabled by optical phase-conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Mercier, Émeric; Wolfersberger, Delphine; Sciamanna, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Wideband chaos is of interest for applications such as random number generation or encrypted communications, which typically use optical feedback in a semiconductor laser. Here, we show that replacing conventional optical feedback with phase-conjugate feedback improves the chaos bandwidth. In the range of achievable phase-conjugate mirror reflectivities, the bandwidth increase reaches 27% when compared with feedback from a conventional mirror. Experimental measurements of the time-resolved frequency dynamics on nanosecond time-scales show that the bandwidth enhancement is related to the onset of self-pulsing solutions at harmonics of the external-cavity frequency. In the observed regime, the system follows a chaotic itinerancy among these destabilized high-frequency external-cavity modes. The recorded features are unique to phase-conjugate feedback and distinguish it from the long-standing problem of time-delayed feedback dynamics. PMID:26739806

  2. Frequency Comparison of Two High-Accuracy Al{sup +} Optical Clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C. W.; Hume, D. B.; Koelemeij, J. C. J.; Wineland, D. J.; Rosenband, T.

    2010-02-19

    We have constructed an optical clock with a fractional frequency inaccuracy of 8.6x10{sup -18}, based on quantum logic spectroscopy of an Al{sup +} ion. A simultaneously trapped Mg{sup +} ion serves to sympathetically laser cool the Al{sup +} ion and detect its quantum state. The frequency of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}reversible{sup 3}P{sub 0} clock transition is compared to that of a previously constructed Al{sup +} optical clock with a statistical measurement uncertainty of 7.0x10{sup -18}. The two clocks exhibit a relative stability of 2.8x10{sup -15}tau{sup -1/2}, and a fractional frequency difference of -1.8x10{sup -17}, consistent with the accuracy limit of the older clock.

  3. Wired/wireless access integrated RoF-PON with scalable generation of multi-frequency MMWs enabled by tunable optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yu; Jiang, Ning; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Chongfu; Qiu, Kun

    2013-08-26

    In this paper, a novel wired/wireless access integrated radio-over-fiber passive optical network (RoF-PON) system that utilizes scalable multiple-frequency millimeter-wave (MF-MMW) generation based on tunable optical frequency comb (TOFC) is proposed. The TOFC is performed by cascading a phase modulator (PM) and two intensity modulators (IMs), and with proper selection of the peak-to-peak voltage of the PM, a flat and effective optical comb with tens of frequency lines is achieved. The MF-MMWs are generated by beating the optical comb line pairs with an interval about 60 GHz. The feasibility and scalability of the proposed wired/wireless access integrated RoF-PON scheme are confirmed by the simulations of simultaneous distribution of wired and wireless data with the proposed multiple frequency MMW generation technology.

  4. Frequency comb swept lasers

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Zhou, Chao; Adler, Desmond C.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a frequency comb (FC) swept laser and a frequency comb Fourier domain mode locked (FC-FDML) laser for applications in optical coherence tomography (OCT). The fiber-based FC swept lasers operate at a sweep rate of 1kHz and 120kHz, respectively over a 135nm tuning range centered at 1310nm with average output powers of 50mW. A 25GHz free spectral range frequency comb filter in the swept lasers causes the lasers to generate a series of well defined frequency steps. The narrow bandwidth (0.015nm) of the frequency comb filter enables a ~−1.2dB sensitivity roll off over ~3mm range, compared to conventional swept source and FDML lasers which have −10dB and −5dB roll offs, respectively. Measurements at very long ranges are possible with minimal sensitivity loss, however reflections from outside the principal measurement range of 0–3mm appear aliased back into the principal range. In addition, the frequency comb output from the lasers are equally spaced in frequency (linear in k-space). The filtered laser output can be used to self-clock the OCT interference signal sampling, enabling direct fast Fourier transformation of the fringe signals, without the need for fringe recalibration procedures. The design and operation principles of FC swept lasers are discussed and designs for short cavity lasers for OCT and interferometric measurement applications are proposed. PMID:19997365

  5. Frequency comb swept lasers.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Zhou, Chao; Adler, Desmond C; Fujimoto, James G

    2009-11-09

    We demonstrate a frequency comb (FC) swept laser and a frequency comb Fourier domain mode locked (FC-FDML) laser for applications in optical coherence tomography (OCT). The fiber-based FC swept lasers operate at a sweep rate of 1kHz and 120kHz, respectively over a 135nm tuning range centered at 1310nm with average output powers of 50mW. A 25GHz free spectral range frequency comb filter in the swept lasers causes the lasers to generate a series of well defined frequency steps. The narrow bandwidth (0.015nm) of the frequency comb filter enables a approximately -1.2dB sensitivity roll off over approximately 3mm range, compared to conventional swept source and FDML lasers which have -10dB and -5dB roll offs, respectively. Measurements at very long ranges are possible with minimal sensitivity loss, however reflections from outside the principal measurement range of 0-3mm appear aliased back into the principal range. In addition, the frequency comb output from the lasers are equally spaced in frequency (linear in k-space). The filtered laser output can be used to self-clock the OCT interference signal sampling, enabling direct fast Fourier transformation of the fringe signals, without the need for fringe recalibration procedures. The design and operation principles of FC swept lasers are discussed and designs for short cavity lasers for OCT and interferometric measurement applications are proposed.

  6. Continuous glucose determination using fiber-based tunable mid-infrared laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Songlin; Li, Dachao; Chong, Hao; Sun, Changyue; Xu, Kexin

    2014-04-01

    Wavelength-tunable laser spectroscopy in combination with a small-sized fiber-optic attenuated total reflection (ATR) sensor (fiber-based evanescent field analysis, FEFA) is reported for the continuous measurement of the glucose level. We propose a method of controlling and stabilizing the wavelength and power of laser emission and present a newly developed mid-infrared wavelength-tunable laser with a broad emission spectrum band of 9.19-9.77 μm (1024-1088 cm-1). The novel small-sized flow-through fiber-optic ATR sensor with long optical sensing length was used for glucose level determination. The experimental results indicate that the noise-equivalent concentration of this laser measurement system is as low as 3.8 mg/dL, which is among the most precise glucose measurements using mid-infrared spectroscopy. The sensitivity, which is three times that of conventional Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, was acquired because of the higher laser power and higher spectral resolution. The best prediction of the glucose concentration in phosphate buffered saline solution was achieved using the five-variable partial least-squares model, yielding a root-mean-square error of prediction as small as 3.5 mg/dL. The high sensitivity, multiple tunable wavelengths and small fiber-based sensor with long optical sensing length make glucose determination possible in blood or interstitial fluid in vivo.

  7. Bi-directional conversion between microwave and optical frequencies in a piezoelectric optomechanical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainsencher, Amit; Satzinger, K. J.; Peairs, G. A.; Cleland, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the principles of design, fabrication, and operation of a piezoelectric optomechanical crystal with which we demonstrate bi-directional conversion of energy between microwave and optical frequencies. The optomechanical crystal has an optical mode at 1523 nm co-located with a mechanical breathing mode at 3.8 GHz, with a measured optomechanical coupling strength gom/2π of 115 kHz. The breathing mode is driven and detected by curved interdigitated transducers that couple to a Lamb mode in suspended membranes on either end of the optomechanical crystal, allowing the external piezoelectric modulation of the optical signal as well as the converse, the detection of microwave electrical signals generated by a modulated optical signal. We compare measurements to theory where appropriate.

  8. Demonstration of space optical transmitter development for multiple high-frequency bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hung; Simons, Rainee; Wintucky, Edwin; Freeman, Jon

    2013-05-01

    As the demand for multiple radio frequency carrier bands continues to grow in space communication systems, the design of a cost-effective compact optical transmitter that is capable of transmitting selective multiple RF bands is of great interest, particularly for NASA Space Communications Network Programs. This paper presents experimental results that demonstrate the feasibility of a concept based on an optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technique that enables multiple microwave bands with different modulation formats and bandwidths to be combined and transmitted all in one unit, resulting in many benefits to space communication systems including reduced size, weight and complexity with corresponding savings in cost. Experimental results will be presented including the individual received RF signal power spectra for the L, C, X, Ku, Ka, and Q frequency bands, and measurements of the phase noise associated with each RF frequency. Also to be presented is a swept RF frequency power spectrum showing simultaneous multiple RF frequency bands transmission. The RF frequency bands in this experiment are among those most commonly used in NASA space environment communications.

  9. Demonstration of Space Optical Transmitter Development for Multiple High Frequency Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung; Simons, Rainee; Wintucky, Edwin; Freeman, Jon

    2013-01-01

    As the demand for multiple radio frequency carrier bands continues to grow in space communication systems, the design of a cost-effective compact optical transmitter that is capable of transmitting selective multiple RF bands is of great interest, particularly for NASA Space Communications Network Programs. This paper presents experimental results that demonstrate the feasibility of a concept based on an optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technique that enables multiple microwave bands with different modulation formats and bandwidths to be combined and transmitted all in one unit, resulting in many benefits to space communication systems including reduced size, weight and complexity with corresponding savings in cost. Experimental results will be presented including the individual received RF signal power spectra for the L, C, X, Ku, Ka, and Q frequency bands, and measurements of the phase noise associated with each RF frequency. Also to be presented is a swept RF frequency power spectrum showing simultaneous multiple RF frequency bands transmission. The RF frequency bands in this experiment are among those most commonly used in NASA space environment communications.

  10. Multi-carrier transmission for hybrid radio frequency with optical wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Nguyen, Tien M.

    2015-05-01

    Radio frequency (RF) wireless communication is reaching its capacity to support large data rate transmissions due to hardware constraints (e.g., silicon processes), software strategies (e.g., information theory), and consumer desire for timely large file exchanges (e.g., big data and mobile cloud computing). A high transmission rate performance must keep pace with the generated huge volumes of data for real-time processing. Integrated RF and optical wireless communications (RF/OWC) could be the next generation transmission technology to satisfy both the increased data rate exchange and the communications constraints. However, with the promising benefits of RF/OWC, challenges remain to fully develop hybrid RF with wireless optical communications such as uniform waveform design for information transmission and detection. In this paper, an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission scheme, which widely employed in RF communications, is developed for optical communications. The traditional high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in OFDM is reduced to improve system performance. The proposed multi-carrier waveform is evaluated with a frequency-selective fading channel. The results demonstrate that bit error rate (BER) performance of our proposed optical OFDM transmission technique outperforms the traditional OWC on-off keying (OOK) transmission scheme.

  11. Short-term stability improvements of an optical frequency standard based on free Ca atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Jeff; Oates, Chris

    2010-03-01

    Compared to optical frequency standards featuring trapped ions or atoms in optical lattices, the strength of a standard using freely expanding neutral calcium atoms is not ultimate accuracy but rather short-term stability and experimental simplicity. Recently, a fractional frequency instability of 4 x10-15 at 1 second was demonstrated for the Ca standard at 657 nm [1]. The short cycle time (˜2 ms) combined with only a moderate interrogation duty cycle (˜15 %) is thought to introduce excess, and potentially critically limiting technical noise due to the Dick effect---high-frequency noise on the laser oscillator is not averaged away but is instead down-sampled by aliasing. We will present results of two strategies employed to minimize this effect: the reduction of clock laser noise by filtering the master clock oscillator through a high-finesse optical cavity [2], and an optimization of the interrogation cycle to match our laser's noise spectrum.[4pt] [1] Oates et al., Optics Letters, 25(21), 1603--5 (2000)[0pt] [2] Nazarova et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 5(10), 1632--8 (2008)

  12. Observation of a different birefringence order at optical and THz frequencies in LBO crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Yu. M.; Kokh, A. E.; Kokh, K. A.; Lanskii, G. V.; Litvinenko, K.; Mamrashev, A. A.; Molloy, J. F.; Murdin, B.; Naftaly, M.; Nikolaev, N. A.; Svetlichnyi, V. A.

    2017-04-01

    THz optical properties of lithium borate (LBO) crystals were measured using time-domain spectroscopy (TDS). The LBO crystal samples were of high optical quality and were cut and polished along the <100>, <010> and <001> axes. Two independent measurements were performed in order to confirm the reproducibility and consistency of results. The contradictions in the previously published data on the THz optical properties of LBO were clarified. It was shown that the birefringence order at THz frequencies is nz optical frequencies it is known to be nx frequencies up to 0.5 THz for a wave polarized parallel to the Z-axis. A set of new dispersion equations was designed for the entire transparency range.

  13. Absolute Frequency Measurements with a Set of Transportable HE-NE/CH4 Optical Frequency Standards and Prospects for Future Design and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubin, M.; Kovalchuk, E.; Petrukhin, E.; Shelkovnikov, A.; Tyurikov, D.; Gamidov, R.; Erdogan, C.; Sahin, E.; Felder, R.; Gill, P.; Lea, S. N.; Kramer, G.; Lipphardt, B.

    2002-04-01

    The accumulated results of absolute frequency measurements (AFM) carried out in 1997-2000 with transportable double-mode He-Ne/CH4 optical frequency standards (λ = 3 .39μm) in a collaboration of several laboratories are presented. The performance of this secondary optical frequency standard is estimated on the level of 10-13 (in repeatability), and 1 × 10-14/s (in stability). The next steps towards He-Ne/CH4 standards with one order of magnitude better performance, including devices based on monolithic zerodur resonators, are discussed. Important applications of transportable He-Ne/CH4 optical frequency standards have appeared now due to dramatic progress in the field of optical frequency measurements. Used to stabilize the repetition rate of a Ti:Sa fs laser, these compact secondary standards can transfer their performance into the whole optical range covered by a fs comb. Thus they can play the role of a narrow spectrum interrogative oscillator for super-accurate optical or microwave frequency standards substituting in some tasks a H-maser or oscillators based on cryogenic sapphire resonators.

  14. Feasibility of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for optically characterizing a preclinical oncology model

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Syeda; Zhao, Yanyu; Istfan, Raeef; Wu, Junjie; Waxman, David J.; Roblyer, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Determination of chemotherapy efficacy early during treatment would provide more opportunities for physicians to alter and adapt treatment plans. Diffuse optical technologies may be ideally suited to track early biological events following chemotherapy administration due to low cost and high information content. We evaluated the use of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) to characterize a small animal tumor model in order to move towards the goal of endogenous optical monitoring of cancer therapy in a controlled preclinical setting. The effects of key measurement parameters including the choice of imaging spatial frequency and the repeatability of measurements were evaluated. The precision of SFDI optical property extractions over repeat mouse measurements was determined to be within 3.52% for move and replace experiments. Baseline optical properties and chromophore values as well as intratumor heterogeneity were evaluated over 25 tumors. Additionally, tumor growth and chemotherapy response were monitored over a 45 day longitudinal study in a small number of mice to demonstrate the ability of SFDI to track treatment effects. Optical scattering and oxygen saturation increased as much as 70% and 25% respectively in treated tumors, suggesting SFDI may be useful for preclinical tracking of cancer therapies. PMID:27867722

  15. Frequency ratios of optical lattice clocks at the 17th decimal place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katori, Hidetoshi

    2016-05-01

    Optical lattice clocks benefit from a low quantum-projection noise by simultaneously interrogating a large number of atoms, which are trapped in an optical lattice tuned to the ``magic wavelength'' to largely cancel out light shift perturbation in the clock transition. About a thousand atoms enable the clocks to achieve 10-18 instability in a few hours of operation, allowing intensive investigation and control of systematic uncertainties. As optical lattice clocks have reached inaccuracies approaching 10-18, it is now the uncertainty of the SI second (~ 10-16) itself that restricts the measurement of the absolute frequencies of such optical clocks. Direct comparisons of optical clocks are, therefore, the only way to investigate and utilize their superb performance beyond the SI second. In this presentation, we report on frequency comparisons of optical lattice clocks with neutral strontium (87 Sr), ytterbium (171 Yb) and mercury (199 Hg) atoms. By referencing cryogenic Sr clocks, we determine frequency ratios, νYb/νSr and νHg/νSr, of a cryogenic Yb clock and a Hg clock with uncertainty at the mid 10-17 level. Such ratios provide an access to search for temporal variation of the fundamental constants. We also present remote comparisons between cryogenic Sr clocks located at RIKEN and the University of Tokyo over a 30-km-long phase-stabilized fiber link. The gravitational red shift Δν /ν0 ~ 1.1× 10-18 Δh cm-1 reads out the height difference of Δh ~ 15 m between the two clocks with uncertainty of 5 cm, which demonstrates a step towards relativistic geodesy. ERATO, JST.

  16. Ultrasensitive high resolution laser spectroscopy and its application to optical frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jun

    1997-09-01

    Advanced laser stabilization techniques now enable one to lock laser frequencies onto line centers of natural atomic/molecular resonances with unprecedented precision and accuracy. In this dissertation we discuss our effort in utilizing these techniques to establish visible optical frequency standards. By summarizing our earlier results on frequency measurements of the 87Rb D2 line at 780 nm 127I2 hyperfine transitions at 532 nm, we show the advantage of using a higher quality reference line, usually characterized by its narrower linewidth, higher attainable signal-to-noise ratio and lower sensitivity toward external perturbations. We then present a novel approach of cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy for ultra-sensitive detections. The powerful utility of this new technique in the field of frequency standards is demonstrated by probing saturated molecular overtone transitions in the visible and near infrared. Weakly-absorbing gases such as C2H2 and C2HD are placed inside an external high-finesse resonator to enhance their detection sensitivities. A frequency modulation technique is employed to achieve a shot noise limited signal-to- noise ratio. The rf modulation frequency is chosen to match the cavity's free spectral range in order to avoid the cavity-induced conversion of laser frequency noise into amplitude noise. The molecular saturated dispersion signal is directly recovered after demodulation of the cavity transmitted light. A record high integrated absorption sensitivity of 5× 10-13/ (1× 10-14/cm) (at 1 second averaging time) has been obtained. Systematic studies on this new technique are presented on topics of detection sensitivity, signal line shape, signal size and slope, and pressure dependent linewidth broadening and linecenter shift. A Nd:YAG laser is stabilized on the P(5) transition in the (ν2+3/ ν3) overtone band of C2HD at 1.064 μm. Its absolute frequency is established. The excellent signal- to-noise ratio produces a frequency

  17. A compact laser head with high-frequency stability for Rb atomic clocks and optical instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Affolderbach, Christoph; Mileti, Gaetano

    2005-07-15

    We present a compact and frequency-stabilized laser head based on an extended-cavity diode laser. The laser head occupies a volume of 200 cm{sup 3} and includes frequency stabilization to Doppler-free saturated absorption resonances on the hyperfine components of the {sup 87}Rb D{sub 2} lines at 780 nm, obtained from a simple and compact spectroscopic setup using a 2 cm{sup 3} vapor cell. The measured frequency stability is {<=}2x10{sup -12} over integration times from 1 s to 1 day and shows the potential to reach 2x10{sup -13} over 10{sup 2}-10{sup 5} s. Compact laser sources with these performances are of great interest for applications in gas-cell atomic frequency standards, atomic magnetometers, interferometers and other instruments requiring stable and narrow-band optical sources.

  18. Magic radio-frequency dressing of nuclear spins in high-accuracy optical clocks.

    PubMed

    Zanon-Willette, Thomas; de Clercq, Emeric; Arimondo, Ennio

    2012-11-30

    A Zeeman-insensitive optical clock atomic transition is engineered when nuclear spins are dressed by a nonresonant radio-frequency field. For fermionic species as (87)Sr, (171)Yb, and (199)Hg, particular ratios between the radio-frequency driving amplitude and frequency lead to "magic" magnetic values where a net cancelation of the Zeeman clock shift and a complete reduction of first-order magnetic variations are produced within a relative uncertainty below the 10(-18) level. An Autler-Townes continued fraction describing a semiclassical radio-frequency dressed spin is numerically computed and compared to an analytical quantum description including higher-order magnetic field corrections to the dressed energies.

  19. Coherent optical time domain reflectometry by logarithmic detection and timed random frequency hopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lidong; Sun, Xiaoyan; Bu, Xiande; Li, Binglin

    2017-02-01

    A scheme using timed random frequency hopping and signal logarithmic mean method is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in a coherent optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) system to reduce the fading noise of the OTDR trace and simplify the signal processing procedure. The timed random frequency hopping is realized by randomly changing the driving current of the laser at certain time points. By this method, the fading noise of OTDR trace can be reduced to be 1/5 of that without using it. Also, a radio frequency power detector (RFPD), whose output voltage has linear relationship with the input logarithmic RF power, is used to extract the power of the RF signals from the balanced photodetector. Then, a data acquisition card directly captures and adds the digital voltage signals from the RFPD to reduce the fading noise and improve the measurement dynamic range. Compared with synchronous and asynchronous frequency hopping scheme, the proposed method is of high efficiency.

  20. Prospect of optical frequency standard based on a {sup 43}Ca{sup +} ion

    SciTech Connect

    Kajita, Masatoshi; Li Ying; Matsubara, Kensuke; Hayasaka, Kazuhiro; Hosokawa, Mizuhiko

    2005-10-15

    An optical frequency standard based on the S-D transition of trapped {sup 43}Ca{sup +} is possible by using just laser diodes for cooling and probing. We discuss two open problems related to the feasibility of this frequency standard, the attainable frequency uncertainty and the method of initial-state preparation. The uncertainty of the clock transition frequency can be so small as 1x10{sup -15}. Using a laser system consisting of three lasers at different detunings and polarizations, the ion can be cooled down to the Lamb-Dicke regime and then prepared in the m=0 state within a period much shorter than the cooling period without being heated. The details of our numerical simulation are described.

  1. 3D microstructure modeling of compressed fiber-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaiselmann, Gerd; Tötzke, Christian; Manke, Ingo; Lehnert, Werner; Schmidt, Volker

    2014-07-01

    A novel parametrized model that describes the 3D microstructure of compressed fiber-based materials is introduced. It allows to virtually generate the microstructure of realistically compressed gas-diffusion layers (GDL). Given the input of a 3D microstructure of some fiber-based material, the model compresses the system of fibers in a uniaxial direction for arbitrary compression rates. The basic idea is to translate the fibers in the direction of compression according to a vector field which depends on the rate of compression and on the locations of fibers within the material. In order to apply the model to experimental 3D image data of fiber-based materials given for several compression states, an optimal vector field is estimated by simulated annealing. The model is applied to 3D image data of non-woven GDL in PEMFC gained by synchrotron tomography for different compression rates. The compression model is validated by comparing structural characteristics computed for experimentally compressed and virtually compressed microstructures, where two kinds of compression - using a flat stamp and a stamp with a flow-field profile - are applied. For both stamps types, a good agreement is found. Furthermore, the compression model is combined with a stochastic 3D microstructure model for uncompressed fiber-based materials. This allows to efficiently generate compressed fiber-based microstructures in arbitrary volumes.

  2. Some aspects of optical feedback with cadmium sulfide and related photoconductors. [for extended frequency response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, S. J.

    1974-01-01

    A primary limitation of many solid state photoconductors used in electro-optical systems is their slow response in converting varying light intensities into electrical signals. An optical feedback technique is presented which can extend the frequency response of systems that use these detectors by orders of magnitude without adversely affecting overall signal-to-noise ratio performance. The technique is analyzed to predict the improvement possible and a system is implemented using cadmium sulfide to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique and the validity of the analysis.

  3. Radio frequency spectral characterization and model parameters extraction of high Q optical resonators

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Zeina; Boucher, Yann G.; Fernandez, Arnaud; Balac, Stéphane; Llopis, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    A microwave domain characterization approach is proposed to determine the properties of high quality factor optical resonators. This approach features a very high precision in frequency and aims to acquire a full knowledge of the complex transfer function (amplitude and phase) characterizing an optical resonator using a microwave vector network analyzer. It is able to discriminate between the different coupling regimes, from the under-coupling to the selective amplification, and it is used together with a model from which the main resonator parameters are extracted, i.e. coupling factor, intrinsic losses, phase slope, intrinsic and external quality factor. PMID:27251460

  4. Experimental Realization of Multipartite Entanglement of 60 Modes of a Quantum Optical Frequency Comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Moran; Menicucci, Nicolas C.; Pfister, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    We report the experimental realization and characterization of one 60-mode copy and of two 30-mode copies of a dual-rail quantum-wire cluster state in the quantum optical frequency comb of a bimodally pumped optical parametric oscillator. This is the largest entangled system ever created whose subsystems are all available simultaneously. The entanglement proceeds from the coherent concatenation of a multitude of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen pairs by a single beam splitter, a procedure which is also a building block for the realization of hypercubic-lattice cluster states for universal quantum computing.

  5. Convergence test for inversion of frequency-resolved optical gating spectrograms

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Daniel J.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Taylor, Antoinette J.

    2000-08-15

    We describe a new and simple method to aid in the analysis of retrieved pulses from inverted frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) traces. The analysis can separate noise from distortion and shows that distortion is more deleterious to the retrieved pulse than is pure noise. The analysis relies on the fact that FROG traces can be constructed from a single outer product of two vectors, whereas distortion and noise require the sum of a series of outer products. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

  6. Pulse width dependence of Brillouin frequency in single mode optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seok-Beom; Kim, Young-Gyu; Heo, Jin-Seok; Lee, Jung-Ju

    2005-11-14

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers can be used to measure strain or temperature in a distributed manner. Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) is the most common sensor system based on the Brillouin scattering. This paper presents the experimental analysis of the characteristics of Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) influenced by the width of launched pulse. Brillouin strain coefficient is also examined for the different pulse widths, which is important to apply a Brillouin scattering-based sensor to a structural health monitoring. Experimental results showed that not only the Brillouin linewidth and gain but also the Brillouin frequency were dependent on the pulse widths.

  7. Scheme for independently stabilizing the repetition rate and optical frequency of a laser using a regenerative mode-locking technique.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Masataka; Yoshida, Masato

    2008-05-15

    We have succeeded in achieving independent control of the repetition rate and optical frequency of a pulse laser by employing a regenerative mode-locking technique. By adopting a voltage-controlled microwave phase shifter or an optical delay line in a regenerative feedback loop we can control the repetition rate of the laser without directly disturbing the optical frequencies. We experimentally show how this independent control can be realized by employing a 40 GHz harmonically and regeneratively mode-locked fiber laser.

  8. On the generation of octave-spanning optical frequency combs using monolithic whispering-gallery-mode microresonators.

    PubMed

    Chembo, Yanne K; Yu, Nan

    2010-08-15

    Octave-spanning optical frequency combs are especially interesting in optical metrology owing to the ability of self-referencing. We report a theoretical study on the generation of octave-spanning combs in the whispering gallery modes of a microresonator. Through a modal expansion model simulation in a calcium fluoride microcavity, we show that a combination of suitable pump power, Kerr nonlinearity, and dispersion profile can lead to stable and robust octave-spanning optical frequency combs.

  9. Frequency-independent approach to calculate physical optics radiations with the quadratic concave phase variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu Mao; Teng, Si Jia

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we develop the numerical steepest descent path (NSDP) method to calculate the physical optics (PO) radiations with the quadratic concave phase variations. With the surface integral equation method, the physical optics (PO) scattered fields are formulated and further reduced to the surface integrals. The high frequency physical critical points contributions, including the stationary phase points, the boundary resonance points and the vertex points are comprehensively studied via the proposed NSDP method. The key contributions of this work are twofold. One is that together with the PO integrals taking the quadratic parabolic and hyperbolic phase terms, this work makes the NSDP theory be complete for treating the PO integrals with quadratic phase variations. Another is that, in order to illustrate the transition effect of the high frequency physical critical points, in this work, we consider and further extend the NSDP method to calculate the PO integrals with the coalescence of the high frequency critical points. Numerical results for the highly oscillatory PO integral with the coalescence of the critical points are given to verify the efficiency of the proposed NSDP method. The NSDP method could achieve the frequency independent computational workload and error controllable accuracy in all the numerical experiments, especially for the case of the coalescence of the high frequency critical points.

  10. Single snapshot multiple frequency modulated imaging of subsurface optical properties of turbid media with structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Cao, Zili; Lin, Weihao; Chen, Xinlin; Zheng, Longfei; Zeng, Bixin

    2016-12-01

    We report a novel demodulation method that enables single snapshot wide field imaging of optical properties of turbid media in the Spatial Frequency Domain (SFD). This Single Snapshot Multiple frequency Demodulation (SSMD) method makes use of the orthogonality of harmonic functions to extract the modulation transfer function (MTF) at multiple modulation frequencies simultaneously from a single structured-illuminated image at once. The orientation, frequency, and amplitude of each modulation can be set arbitrarily subject to the limitation of the implementation device. We first validate and compare SSMD to the existing demodulation methods by numerical simulations. The performance of SSMD is then demonstrated with experiments on both tissue mimicking phantoms and in vivo for recovering optical properties by comparing to the standard three-phase demodulation approach. The results show that SSMD increases significantly the data acquisition speed and reduces motion artefacts. SSMD exhibits excellent noise suppression in imaging as well at the rate proportional to the square root of the number of pixels contained in its kernel. SSMD is ideal in the implementation of a real-time spatial frequency domain imaging platform and will open up SFDI for vast applications in imaging and monitoring dynamic turbid medium and processes.

  11. LOLS research in technology for the development and application of new fiber-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Coelho, João; Nespereira, Marta; Silva, Catarina; Rebordão, José

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the research made at the Laboratory of Optics, Lasers and Systems (LOLS) of the Faculty of Sciences of University of Lisbon, Portugal, in the field of fiber-based sensors. Three areas are considered: sensor encapsulation for natural aqueous environments, refractive index modulation and laser micropatterning. We present the main conclusions on the issues and parameters to take in consideration for the encapsulation process and results of its design and application. Mid-infrared laser radiation was applied to produce long period fiber gratings and nanosecond pulses of near-infrared Q-switch laser were used for micropatterning.

  12. InP photonic integrated externally injected gain switched optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez Pascual, M Deseada; Vujicic, Vidak; Braddell, Jules; Smyth, Frank; Anandarajah, Prince M; Barry, Liam P

    2017-02-01

    We report on an InP photonic integrated circuit for the generation of an externally injected gain switched optical frequency comb. The device is fully characterized and generates a comb with frequency spacing ranging from 6 to 10 GHz, good noise properties that include relative intensity noise of <-130  dB/Hz and linewidth of 1.5 MHz, and a high phase correlation between comb lines. These characteristics, in conjunction with the compactness and cost efficiency of the integrated device, demonstrate the quality of the resultant comb source for numerous applications.

  13. Research of dual-band microwave photonic filter for WLAN based on optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Jiaqi; Jiang, Lingke; Pan, Linbing; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Xindong; Ruan, Shengping

    2016-07-20

    This paper presents a dual-band microwave photonic filter for a wireless local area networks with independently tunable passband center frequencies and bandwidths. The two bands of the filter were 2.4 GHz and 5.725 GHz, respectively. The filter was based on a stimulated Brillouin scattering and an optical frequency comb (OFC) scheme. We created this filter using OFC pumps instead of a single pump. The OFC scheme consists of a cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and a dual-parallel MZM (DPMZM) hybrid modulation that generated seven and 11 lines. The experimental results show that the two passbands of the filter were 80 and 130 MHz.

  14. Three-dimensional negative index of refraction at optical frequencies by coupling plasmonic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Ewold; de Waele, René; Kuipers, L; Polman, Albert

    2010-11-26

    We identify a route towards achieving a negative index of refraction at optical frequencies based on coupling between plasmonic waveguides that support backwards waves. We show how modal symmetry can be exploited in metal-dielectric waveguide pairs to achieve negative refraction of both phase and energy. Control of waveguide coupling yields a metamaterial consisting of a one-dimensional multilayer stack that exhibits an isotropic index of -1 at a free-space wavelength of 400 nm. The concepts developed here may inspire new low-loss metamaterial designs operating close to the metal plasma frequency.

  15. Quantum-fluctuation-initiated coherence in multioctave Raman optical frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Y; Wu, Chunbai; Couny, F; Raymer, M G; Benabid, F

    2010-09-17

    We show experimentally and theoretically that the spectral components of a multioctave frequency comb spontaneously created by stimulated Raman scattering in a hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber exhibit strong self-coherence and mutual coherence within each 12 ns driving laser pulse. This coherence arises in spite of the field's initiation being from quantum zero-point fluctuations, which causes each spectral component to show large phase and energy fluctuations. This points to the possibility of an optical frequency comb with nonclassical correlations between all comb lines.

  16. Generation of a frequency comb of squeezing in an optical parametric oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlop, A. E.; Huntington, E. H.; Harb, C. C.; Ralph, T. C.

    2006-01-15

    The multimode operation of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) operating below threshold is calculated. We predict that squeezing can be generated in a comb that is limited only by the phase matching bandwidth of the OPO. Effects of technical noise on the squeezing spectrum are investigated. It is shown that maximal squeezing can be obtained at high frequency even in the presence of seed laser noise and cavity length fluctuations. Furthermore the spectrum obtained by detuning the laser frequency off OPO cavity resonance is calculated.

  17. Weighted interframe averaging-based channel estimation for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bangjiang; Li, Yiwei; Zhang, Shihao; Tang, Xuan

    2015-10-01

    Weighted interframe averaging (WIFA)-based channel estimation (CE) is presented for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network (OFDM-PON), in which the CE results of the adjacent frames are directly averaged to increase the estimation accuracy. The effectiveness of WIFA combined with conventional least square, intrasymbol frequency-domain averaging, and minimum mean square error, respectively, is demonstrated through 26.7-km standard single-mode fiber transmission. The experimental results show that the WIFA method with low complexity can significantly enhance transmission performance of OFDM-PON.

  18. Quantum-Fluctuation-Initiated Coherence in Multioctave Raman Optical Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Wu, Chunbai; Couny, F.; Raymer, M. G.; Benabid, F.

    2010-09-01

    We show experimentally and theoretically that the spectral components of a multioctave frequency comb spontaneously created by stimulated Raman scattering in a hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber exhibit strong self-coherence and mutual coherence within each 12 ns driving laser pulse. This coherence arises in spite of the field’s initiation being from quantum zero-point fluctuations, which causes each spectral component to show large phase and energy fluctuations. This points to the possibility of an optical frequency comb with nonclassical correlations between all comb lines.

  19. Frequency dependence of optical third-harmonic generation from doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulis, Vl. A.; Muryumin, E. E.; Gaiduk, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    In connection with the controversial question about the frequency dependence of the optical third-harmonic generation (THG) from doped graphene, which has recently been discussed in the literature, we develop an analytical theory for the THG susceptibility of doped graphene by using the original Genkin-Mednis nonlinear-conductivity-theory formalism including mixed intra- and interband terms. The theory is free of any nonphysical divergences at zero frequency, and it predicts the main resonant peak in the THG spectrum to be located at the photon energy ħω equal to two thirds of the Fermi energy EF of charge carriers in doped graphene.

  20. Fiber-based distance sensing interferometry.

    PubMed

    Thurner, Klaus; Quacquarelli, Francesca Paola; Braun, Pierre-François; Dal Savio, Claudio; Karrai, Khaled

    2015-04-01

    We present an interferometric displacement sensor based on a folded low-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity. The fiber-optic sensor uses a quadrature detection scheme based on the wavelength modulation of a DFB laser. This enables measuring position changes over a range of 1 m for velocities up to 2 m/s. The sensor is well suited to work in extreme environments such as ultrahigh vacuum, cryogenic temperatures, or high magnetic fields and supports multichannel applications. The interferometer achieves a repeatability of 0.44  nm(3σ) at a working distance of 20 mm, a resolution of 1 pm, and an accuracy of 1 nm.

  1. Frequency modulation and compression of optical pulses in an optical fibre with a travelling refractive-index wave

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotovskii, I O; Lapin, V A; Sementsov, D I

    2016-01-31

    We have studied the conditions for spectral broadening, frequency modulation and compression (both temporal and spectral) of Gaussian pulses propagating in a fibre with a travelling refractive-index wave. Analytical expressions have been derived for the dependences of pulse duration, chirp and spectral width on the distance travelled through the fibre, parameters of the fibre and radiation launched into it. Based on the numerical analysis we have studied the behaviour of these characteristics by changing the coefficient of the refractive-index modulation and other parameters of the travelling refractive-index wave. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  2. Note: A simple broad bandwidth undersampling frequency-domain digital diffuse optical spectroscopy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Justin; Istfan, Raeef; Roblyer, Darren

    2014-07-01

    Near-Infrared frequency-domain technologies, such as Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS), have demonstrated growing potential in a number of clinical applications. The broader dissemination of this technology is limited by the complexity and cost of instrumentation. We present here a simple system constructed with off-the-shelf components that utilizes undersampling for digital frequency-domain dDOS measurements. Broadband RF sweeps (50-300 MHz) were digitally sampled at 25 MSPS; amplitude, phase, and optical property extractions were within 5% of network analyzer derived values. The use of undersampling for broad bandwidth dDOS provides a significant reduction in complexity, power consumption, and cost compared with high-speed ADCs and analog techniques.

  3. High-speed switching of biphoton delays through electro-optic pump frequency modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odele, Ogaga D.; Lukens, Joseph M.; Jaramillo-Villegas, Jose A.; Imany, Poolad; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M.; Leaird, Daniel E.; Weiner, Andrew M.

    2017-01-01

    The realization of high-speed tunable delay control has received significant attention in the scene of classical photonics. In quantum optics, however, such rapid delay control systems for entangled photons have remained undeveloped. Here for the first time, we demonstrate rapid (2.5 MHz) modulation of signal-idler arrival times through electro-optic pump frequency modulation. Our technique applies the quantum phenomenon of nonlocal dispersion cancellation along with pump frequency tuning to control the relative delay between photon pairs. Chirped fiber Bragg gratings are employed to provide large amounts of dispersion which result in biphoton delays exceeding 30 ns. This rapid delay modulation scheme could be useful for on-demand single-photon distribution in addition to quantum versions of pulse position modulation.

  4. Optical detection of low frequency NQR signals: a step forward from conventional NQR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begus, S.; Pirnat, J.; Jazbinsek, V.; Trontelj, Z.

    2017-03-01

    In searching for the more sensitive 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) detecting system for illicit substances, a promising combination of a classic RF pulse NQR spectrometer and a K optically pumped magnetometer was tested. The initial results are encouraging. The principles of such a combination are described, and the detection limits in the low frequency RF region, where the 14N pulse NQR frequencies are usually positioned, are presented. Several illicit substances which are difficult to detect with a classic pulse NQR spectrometer were detected with both types of spectrometers. We noticed that with the proposed combination of classic RF excitation of 14N nuclei, using a pulse NQR spectrometer and subsequent optical detection of the sample’s response, a gain in S/N of up to a factor of 10 was possible.

  5. Highly integrated optical heterodyne phase-locked loop with phase/frequency detection.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mingzhi; Park, Hyunchul; Bloch, Eli; Sivananthan, Abirami; Bhardwaj, Ashish; Griffith, Zach; Johansson, Leif A; Rodwell, Mark J; Coldren, Larry A

    2012-04-23

    A highly-integrated optical phase-locked loop with a phase/frequency detector and a single-sideband mixer (SSBM) has been proposed and demonstrated for the first time. A photonic integrated circuit (PIC) has been designed, fabricated and tested, together with an electronic IC (EIC). The PIC integrates a widely-tunable sampled-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector laser, an optical 90 degree hybrid and four high-speed photodetectors on the InGaAsP/InP platform. The EIC adds a single-sideband mixer, and a digital phase/frequency detector, to provide single-sideband heterodyne locking from -9 GHz to 7.5 GHz. The loop bandwith is 400 MHz.

  6. Circuit elements at optical frequencies: A synthesis of first principles electronic structure and circuit theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, C.; Ramprasad, R.

    2006-03-01

    We present a new first principles based method to determine the equivalent circuit representations of nanostructured physical systems at optical frequencies. This method involves the determination of the frequency dependent effective permittivity of two constructs: an ordered composite system consisting of physical nano-elements using density functional theory, and an ordered arrangement of impedances using transmission line theory. Matching the calculated effective permittivity functions of these two constructs has enabled a mapping of the physical nano-system to its equivalent circuit. Specifically, we will show that silicon nanowires and carbon nanotubes can be represented as a series combination of inductance, capacitance and resistance. Once this mapping has been reasonably accomplished for a variety of physical systems, the nano-elements can be combined suitably to result in equivalent circuit topologies appropriate for optical and nanoelectronic devices, including left-handed (or negative refractive index) materials.

  7. Frequency-agile kilohertz repetition-rate optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Yang, S T; Velsko, S P

    1999-02-01

    We report kilohertz repetition-rate pulse-to-pulse wavelength tuning from 3.22 to 3.7 mum in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Rapid tuning over 400 cm(-1) with random wavelength accessibility is achieved by rotation of the pump beam angle by no more than 24 mrad in the PPLN crystal by use of an acousto-optic beam deflector. Over the entire tuning range, a near-transform-limited OPO bandwidth can be obtained by means of injection seeding with a single-frequency 1.5-mum laser diode. The frequency agility, high repetition rate, and narrow bandwidth of this mid-IR PPLN OPO make it well suited as a lidar transmitter source.

  8. Note: A simple broad bandwidth undersampling frequency-domain digital diffuse optical spectroscopy system

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Justin; Istfan, Raeef; Roblyer, Darren

    2014-01-01

    Near-Infrared frequency-domain technologies, such as Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS), have demonstrated growing potential in a number of clinical applications. The broader dissemination of this technology is limited by the complexity and cost of instrumentation. We present here a simple system constructed with off-the-shelf components that utilizes undersampling for digital frequency-domain dDOS measurements. Broadband RF sweeps (50–300 MHz) were digitally sampled at 25 MSPS; amplitude, phase, and optical property extractions were within 5% of network analyzer derived values. The use of undersampling for broad bandwidth dDOS provides a significant reduction in complexity, power consumption, and cost compared with high-speed ADCs and analog techniques. PMID:25085193

  9. Generation of a flat optical frequency comb based on a cascaded polarization modulator and phase modulator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cihai; He, Chao; Zhu, Dan; Guo, Ronghui; Zhang, Fangzheng; Pan, Shilong

    2013-08-15

    A scheme to generate a flat optical frequency comb (OFC) with a fixed phase relationship between the comb lines is proposed and experimentally demonstrated based on a cascaded polarization modulator (PolM) and phase modulator. Because the PolM introduces more controllable parameters compared with the conventional intensity modulator, 9, 11, and 13 comb lines can be generated with relatively low RF powers, or 15, 17, and 19 comb lines can be obtained if high RF powers are applied. The experimentally generated 9, 11, and 13 OFCs have a flatness of 1, 1.3, and 2.1 dB, respectively. The scheme requires no DC bias to the modulators, no optical filter, and no frequency divider or multiplier, which is simple and stable.

  10. High speed 3D endoscopic optical frequency domain imaging probe for lung cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianan; Feroldi, Fabio; Mo, Jianhua; Helderman, Frank; de Groot, Mattijs; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2013-06-01

    We present a miniature motorized endoscopic probe for Optical Frequency Domain Imaging with an outer diameter of 1.65 mm and a rotation speed of 3,000 - 12,500 rpm. The probe has a motorized distal end which provides a significant advantage over proximally driven probes since it does not require a drive shaft to transfer the rotational torque to the distal end of the probe and functions without a fiber rotary junction. The probe has a focal Full Width at Half Maximum of 9.6 μm and a working distance of 0.47 mm. We analyzed the non-uniform rotation distortion and found a location fluctuation of only 1.87° in repeated measurements of the same object. The probe was integrated in a high-speed Optical Frequency Domain Imaging setup at 1310 nm. We demonstrated its performance with imaging ex vivo pig bronchial and in vivo goat lung.

  11. En face speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy by frequency compounding

    PubMed Central

    Magnain, Caroline; Wang, Hui; Sakadžić, Sava; Fischl, Bruce; Boas, David A.

    2017-01-01

    We report the use of frequency compounding to significantly reduce speckle noise in optical coherence microscopy, more specifically on the en face images. This method relies on the fact that the speckle patterns recorded from different wavelengths simultaneously are independent; hence their summation yields significant reduction in noise, with only a single acquisition. The results of our experiments with microbeads show that the narrow confocal parameter, due to a high numerical aperture objective, restricts the axial resolution loss that would otherwise theoretically broaden linearly with the number of optical frequency bands used. This speckle reduction scheme preserves the lateral resolution since it is performed on individual A-scans. Finally, we apply this technique to images of fixed human brain tissue, showing significant improvements in contrast-to-noise ratio with only moderate loss of axial resolution, in an effort to improve automatic three-dimensional detection of cells and fibers in the cortex. PMID:27128040

  12. Phase Reconstruction from FROG Using Genetic Algorithms[Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating

    SciTech Connect

    Omenetto, F.G.; Nicholson, J.W.; Funk, D.J.; Taylor, A.J.

    1999-04-12

    The authors describe a new technique for obtaining the phase and electric field from FROG measurements using genetic algorithms. Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating (FROG) has gained prominence as a technique for characterizing ultrashort pulses. FROG consists of a spectrally resolved autocorrelation of the pulse to be measured. Typically a combination of iterative algorithms is used, applying constraints from experimental data, and alternating between the time and frequency domain, in order to retrieve an optical pulse. The authors have developed a new approach to retrieving the intensity and phase from FROG data using a genetic algorithm (GA). A GA is a general parallel search technique that operates on a population of potential solutions simultaneously. Operators in a genetic algorithm, such as crossover, selection, and mutation are based on ideas taken from evolution.

  13. Comparison of different fiber amplifiers in Yb-doped fiber femtosecond optical frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Cao, S.; Lin, B.; Fang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Recently, Yb-doped fiber femtosecond optical frequency combs (Yb-FOFCs) have obtained high repetition rates and high power outputs, and the wavelengths can cover the visible region by using a photonic crystal fiber to broaden the spectrum. In this paper, f0 (carrier-envelope offset frequency) with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 40 dB is generated in an Yb-FOFC by adopting a scheme which includes the three processes of amplifying, broadening the spectrum and detecting f0, and optimizing the system parameters. The effects of two types of amplifiers which employ direct optical pulse amplification and self-similar amplification, respectively, on the output parameters of the amplifiers, minimal output power of the octave spectrum meeting f0 detection requirements, and the SNR of f0 are compared and analyzed in detail.

  14. State-of-the-art fiber optics for short distance frequency reference distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, G. F.; Primas, L. E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of recently developed fiber-optic components that hold the promise of unprecedented stability for passively stabilized frequency distribution links are characterized. These components include a fiber-optic transmitter, an optical isolator, and a new type of fiber-optic cable. A novel laser transmitter exhibits extremely low sensitivity to intensity and polarization changes of reflected light due to cable flexure. This virtually eliminates one of the shortcomings in previous laser transmitters. A high-isolation, low-loss optical isolator has been developed which also virtually eliminates laser sensitivity to changes in intensity and polarization of reflected light. A newly developed fiber has been tested. This fiber has a thermal coefficient of delay of less than 0.5 parts per million per deg C, nearly 20 times lower than the best coaxial hardline cable and 10 times lower than any previous fiber-optic cable. These components are highly suitable for distribution systems with short extent, such as within a Deep Space Communications Complex. Here, these new components are described and the test results presented.

  15. Convergence test for inversion of frequency-resolved optical gating spectrograms.

    PubMed

    Kane, D J; Omenetto, F G; Taylor, A J

    2000-08-15

    We describe a new and simple method to aid in the analysis of retrieved pulses from inverted frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) traces. The analysis can separate noise from distortion and shows that distortion is more deleterious to the retrieved pulse than is pure noise. The analysis relies on the fact that FROG traces can be constructed from a single outer product of two vectors, whereas distortion and noise require the sum of a series of outer products.

  16. Nonuniform strain measurement in composite material based on optical frequency domain reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huajun; Zhang, Dongsheng; Li, Litong; Wu, Mengqi; Wen, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Traditional electrical sensor or traditional fiber Bragg grating sensing technology is not applicable to the measurement of nonuniform strain in composite material. Therefore, the distributed nonuniform strain in the lap plate position of composite interlining material is measured using a single fiber with optical frequency domain reflection technology in this study. The experimental results show consistency with the experiment phenomena, and the measurement accuracy could be increased to the submillimeter level.

  17. Molecular Electronics for Frequency Domain Optical Storage. Persistent Spectral Hole-Burning. A Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-25

    if applicable) Office of Naval Research IBM Almaden Research Center Chemistry Division, Code 1113 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b...NOTATION Journal of Molecular Electronics 17. .* COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse of necessary and identify by block number) FIEL GRUP SB...GOUP Molecular electronics, spectral hole-burning, frequency I I domain. optical storage, solid state photo chemistry , * I photon gating. 19. ABSTRACT

  18. Laser frequency locking with 46  GHz offset using an electro-optic modulator for magneto-optical trapping of francium atoms.

    PubMed

    Harada, K; Aoki, T; Ezure, S; Kato, K; Hayamizu, T; Kawamura, H; Inoue, T; Arikawa, H; Ishikawa, T; Aoki, T; Uchiyama, A; Sakamoto, K; Ito, S; Itoh, M; Ando, S; Hatakeyama, A; Hatanaka, K; Imai, K; Murakami, T; Nataraj, H S; Shimizu, Y; Sato, T; Wakasa, T; Yoshida, H P; Sakemi, Y

    2016-02-10

    We demonstrate frequency offset locking between two laser sources using a waveguide-type electro-optic modulator (EOM) with 10th-order sidebands for magneto-optical trapping of Fr atoms. The frequency locking error signal was successfully obtained by performing delayed self-homodyne detection of the beat signal between the repumping frequency and the 10th-order sideband component of the trapping light. Sweeping the trapping-light and repumping-light frequencies with keeping its frequency difference of 46 GHz was confirmed over 1 GHz by monitoring the Doppler absorption profile of I₂. This technique enables us to search for a resonance frequency of magneto-optical trapping of Fr.

  19. Laser frequency locking with 46 GHz offset using an electro-optic modulator for magneto-optical trapping of francium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, K.; Aoki, T.; Ezure, S.; Kato, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Kawamura, H.; Inoue, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Aoki, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Sakamoto, K.; Ito, S.; Itoh, M.; Ando, S.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Shimizu, Y.; Sato, T.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Sakemi, Y.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrated a frequency offset locking between two laser sources using a waveguide-type electro-optic modulator (EOM) with 10th-order sidebands for magneto-optical trapping of Fr atoms. The frequency locking error signal was successfully obtained by performing delayed self-homodyne detection of the beat signal between the repumping frequency and the 10th-order sideband component of the trapping light. Sweeping the trapping-light and repumping-light frequencies with keeping its frequency difference of 46 GHz was confirmed over 1 GHz by monitoring the Doppler absorption profile of I2. This technique enables us to search for a resonance frequency of magneto-optical trapping of Fr.

  20. Fiber-optic catheter-based polarization-sensitive OCT for radio-frequency ablation monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiaoyong; Wang, Zhao; Wang, Hui; Wang, Yves T; Jenkins, Michael W; Rollins, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    An all-fiber optic catheter-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system is demonstrated. A novel multiplexing method was used to illuminate the sample, splitting the light from a 58.5kHz Fourier-domain mode-locked laser such that two different polarization states, alternated in time, are generated by two semiconductor optical amplifiers. A 2.3mm forward-view cone-scanning catheter probe was designed, fabricated, and used to acquire sample scattering intensity and phase retardation images. The system was first verified with a quarter-wave plate and then by obtaining intensity and phase retardation images of high-birefringence plastic, human skin in vivo, and untreated and thermally ablated porcine myocardium ex vivo. The system can potentially in vivo image of the cardiac wall to aid radio-frequency ablation therapy for cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:25166075

  1. Electro-optic fiber sensor for amplitude and phase detection of radio frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Axel; Müller, Peter; Lott, Urs; Kuster, Niels; Bomholt, Fin

    2006-08-15

    We present a miniature fiber-optic electromagnetic field (EMF) sensor that is capable of simultaneously detecting the amplitude and phase of an EMF in the range of 0.1-6 GHz. We focus on magnetic field measurements, since the H-field is more significant in our target applications due its direct relation to the current. The sensor is based on an open optical platform to which various antennas can be attached and contains a radio-frequency amplifier for signal conditioning and a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser as an electro-optic converter. The millimeter size and the full electrical isolation of the sensor allow EMF detection with minimal disturbance. We have characterized the sensor in the near field of a lambda/2 dipole, a rectangular waveguide, and a microstrip line, and we explain the experimental results with a simple theoretical model confirming the mapped near-field distribution of the investigated field source.

  2. Dual optical frequency comb architecture with capabilities from visible to mid-infrared.

    PubMed

    Jerez, Borja; Martín-Mateos, Pedro; Prior, Estefanía; de Dios, Cristina; Acedo, Pablo

    2016-06-27

    In this paper, a new approach to dual comb generation based on well-known optical techniques (Gain-Switching and Optical Injection Locking) is presented. The architecture can be implemented using virtually every kind of continuous-wave semiconductor laser source (DFB, VCSEL, QCL) and without the necessity of electro-optic modulators. This way, a frequency-agile and adaptive dual-comb architecture is provided with potential implementation capabilities from mid-infrared to near ultraviolet. With a RF comb comprising around 70 teeth, the system is validated in the 1.5 μm region measuring the absorption feature of H13CN at 1538.523 nm with a minimum integration time of 10 μs.

  3. Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link.

    PubMed

    Schnatz, Harald; Terra, Osama; Predehl, Katharina; Feldmann, Thorsten; Legero, Thomas; Lipphardt, Burghard; Sterr, Uwe; Grosche, Gesine; Holzwarth, Ronald; Hänsch, Theodor W; Udem, Thomas; Lu, Zehuang H; Wang, Li J; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Friebe, Jan; Pape, Andrè; Rasel, Ernst-M; Riedmann, Mathias; Wübbena, Temmo

    2010-01-01

    We have explored the performance of 2 "dark fibers" of a commercial telecommunication fiber link for a remote comparison of optical clocks. These fibers establish a network in Germany that will eventually link optical frequency standards at PTB with those at the Institute of Quantum Optics (IQ) at the Leibniz University of Hanover, and the Max Planck Institutes in Erlangen (MPL) and Garching (MPQ). We demonstrate for the first time that within several minutes a phase coherent comparison of clock lasers at the few 10(-15) level can also be accomplished when the lasers are more than 100 km apart. Based on the performance of the fiber link to the IQ, we estimate the expected stability for the link from PTB to MPQ via MPL that bridges a distance of approximately 900 km.

  4. Electro-optic fiber sensor for amplitude and phase detection of radio frequency electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Axel; Müller, Peter; Lott, Urs; Kuster, Niels; Bomholt, Fin

    2006-08-01

    We present a miniature fiber-optic electromagnetic field (EMF) sensor that is capable of simultaneously detecting the amplitude and phase of an EMF in the range of 0.1-6 GHz. We focus on magnetic field measurements, since the H-field is more significant in our target applications due its direct relation to the current. The sensor is based on an open optical platform to which various antennas can be attached and contains a radio-frequency amplifier for signal conditioning and a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser as an electro-optic converter. The millimeter size and the full electrical isolation of the sensor allow EMF detection with minimal disturbance. We have characterized the sensor in the near field of a λ/2 dipole, a rectangular waveguide, and a microstrip line, and we explain the experimental results with a simple theoretical model confirming the mapped near-field distribution of the investigated field source.

  5. High repetition frequency PPMgOLN mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Liu, Q.; Yan, X.; Chen, H.; Gong, M.

    2010-09-01

    A mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with the idler wavelengths of 3591 nm, 3384 nm, and 3164 nm at the repetition of 76.8 kHz is reported, and a high repetition frequency acousto-optic Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser is used as the pump source. The OPO is designed as an external non-colinear single-resonator optical parametric oscillator. When the power of the pump light is 25.1 W, the idler with the wavelength of 3164 nm and the power of 4.3 W is generated. The corresponding signal light is 1603 nm with the power of 3.1 W. The efficiency from 1064 nm to 3160 nm can reach as high as 17.1%, and the efficiency of the OPO is 29.5%.

  6. Generation of optical frequency combs in a fiber-ring/microresonator laser system.

    PubMed

    Guo, Changlei; Che, Kaijun; Xu, Huiying; Zhang, Pan; Tang, Deyu; Ren, Changyan; Luo, Zhengqian; Cai, Zhiping

    2016-06-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple scheme for generating optical frequency combs (OFCs) in a fiber-ring/microresonator laser system. The ultrahigh Q whispering gallery mode microresonator is employed both as a mode reflection mirror to generate erbium lasing and as a Kerr-nonlinearity initiator that introduces optical parametric oscillation signals to form OFCs. By controlling the coupling position between the fiber taper and microresonator, optimizing the fiber polarization, as well as the pump power from a 974 nm laser diode (LD), versatile OFCs can be tuned out from single-wavelength states. The OFCs have single, multiple, or combined free spectral ranges. In addition, a Raman-gain-assisted OFC is also observed with a bandwidth of ∼230  nm. This LD-pumped and multifunctional laser system could find applications in precision spectroscopy, biochemical sensing, and optical fiber communication systems.

  7. Coherent coupling between radio frequency, optical, and acoustic waves in piezo-optomechanical circuits.

    PubMed

    Balram, Krishna C; Davanço, Marcelo I; Song, Jin Dong; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2016-05-01

    Optomechanical cavities have been studied for applications ranging from sensing to quantum information science. Here, we develop a platform for nanoscale cavity optomechanical circuits in which optomechanical cavities supporting co-localized 1550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. Working in GaAs facilitates manipulation of the localized mechanical mode either with a radio frequency (RF) field through the piezo-electric effect, which produces acoustic waves that are routed and coupled to the optomechanical cavity by phononic crystal waveguides, or optically through the strong photoelastic effect. Along with mechanical state preparation and sensitive readout, we use this to demonstrate an acoustic wave interference effect, similar to atomic coherent population trapping, in which RF-driven coherent mechanical motion is cancelled by optically-driven motion. Manipulating cavity optomechanical systems with equal facility through both photonic and phononic channels enables new architectures for signal transduction between the optical, electrical, and mechanical domains.

  8. Multiplexing of fiber-optic ultrasound sensors via swept frequency interferometry.

    PubMed

    Gabai, Haniel; Steinberg, Idan; Eyal, Avishay

    2015-07-27

    The use of fiber-optic sensors for ultrasound (US) detection has many advantages over conventional piezoelectric detectors. However, the issue of multiplexing remains a major challenge. Here, a novel approach for multiplexing fiber-optic based US sensors using swept frequency interferometry is introduced. Light from a coherent swept source propagates in an all-fiber interferometric network made of a reference arm and a parallel connection of N sensing arms. Each sensing arm comprises a short polyimide coated sensing section (~4cm), which is exposed to the US excitation, preceded by a delay of different length. When the instantaneous frequency of the laser is linearly swept, the receiver output contains N harmonic beat components which correspond to the various optical paths. Exposing the sensing sections to US excitation introduces phase modulation of the harmonic components. The US-induced signals can be separated in the frequency domain and be extracted from their carriers by common demodulation techniques. The method was demonstrated by multiplexing 4 sensing fibers and detecting microsecond US pulses which were generated by a 2.25MHz ultrasound transducer. The pulses were successfully measured by all sensing fibers without noticeable cross-talk.

  9. In-field Raman amplification on coherent optical fiber links for frequency metrology.

    PubMed

    Clivati, C; Bolognini, G; Calonico, D; Faralli, S; Mura, A; Levi, F

    2015-04-20

    Distributed Raman amplification (DRA) is widely exploited for the transmission of broadband, modulated signals used in data links, but not yet in coherent optical links for frequency metrology, where the requirements are rather different. After preliminary tests on fiber spools, in this paper we deeper investigate Raman amplification on deployed in-field optical metrological links. We actually test a Doppler-stabilized optical link both on a 94 km-long metro-network implementation with multiplexed ITU data channels and on a 180 km-long dedicated fiber haul connecting two cities, where DRA is employed in combination with Erbium-doped fiber amplification (EDFA). The performance of DRA is detailed in both experiments, indicating that it does not introduce noticeable penalties for the metrological signal or for the ITU data channels. We hence show that Raman amplification of metrological signals can be compatible with a wavelength division multiplexing architecture and that it can be used as an alternative or in combination with dedicated bidirectional EDFAs. No deterioration is noticed in the coherence properties of the delivered signal, which attains frequency instability at the 10(-19) level in both cases. This study can be of interest also in view of the undergoing deployment of continental fiber networks for frequency metrology.

  10. Influence of PDMS encapsulation on the sensitivity and frequency range of fiber-optic interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedoma, Jan; Fajkus, Marcel; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    Fiber-optic sensors are one of the dynamically developing areas of photonics and photonic applications. This group of sensors can also include fiber-optic interferometers which enable very sensitive sensing. They are entirely passive regarding power supply, and immune to electromagnetic interference. This type of sensor is dependent on the phase change. It mostly used in the field which requires high measurement accuracy. We can achieve a change of sensitivity in the order of 10-8. The fundamental problem of fiber-optic interferometry is a design and imposition (encapsulation) of the measuring arm and reference arm of the interferometer. Polydimethylsiloxane elastomer (PDMS) is one of the possibilities to encapsulation of the sensory arm. Two-component PDMS Sylgard 184 is used type. The article analyzes the effect of encapsulation into a PDMS of the measuring arm of the interferometer to frequency response and sensitivity of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer with the division of power in a ratio of 1:1 (measuring arm and reference arm). Input power set to a reference value of 1 mW, this value was constant for all performed experimental measurements. The generator of a harmonic signal with fixed amplitude signal used for analysis of the frequency characteristic of the interferometer. The application written in LabView development environment, evaluated the amplitude-frequency spectra of the signal. Repeated test of assembled prototype verified the measured results.

  11. Feasibility of direct digital sampling for diffuse optical frequency domain spectroscopy in tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roblyer, Darren; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Warren, Robert V.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2013-04-01

    Frequency domain optical spectroscopy in the diffusive regime is currently being investigated for biomedical applications including tumor detection, therapy monitoring, exercise metabolism and others. Analog homodyne or heterodyne detection of sinusoidally modulated signals has been the predominant method for measuring phase and amplitude of photon density waves that have traversed through tissue. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing direct digital sampling of modulated signals using a 3.6 gigasample/second 12 bit analog to digital converter. Digitally synthesized modulated signals between 50 MHz and 400 MHz were measured on tissue-simulating phantoms at six near-infrared wavelengths. An amplitude and phase precision of 1% and 0.6° were achieved during drift tests. Amplitude, phase, scattering and absorption values were compared with a well-characterized network analyzer-based diffuse optical device. Optical properties measured with both systems were within 3.6% for absorption and 2.8% for scattering over a range of biologically relevant values. Direct digital sampling represents a viable method for frequency domain diffuse optical spectroscopy and has the potential to reduce system complexity, size and cost.

  12. Low threshold optical bistability at terahertz frequencies with graphene surface plasmons

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Leyong; Xiang, Yuanjiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a modified Kretschmann-Raether configuration to realize the low threshold optical bistable devices at the terahertz frequencies. The metal layer is replaced by the dielectric sandwich structure with the insertion of graphene, and this configuration can support TM-polarization surface electromagnetic wave. The surface plasmon resonance is strongly dependent on the Fermi-level of graphene and the thickness of the sandwich structure. It is found that the switching-up and switching-down intensities required to observe the optical bistable behavior are lowered markedly due to the excitation of the graphene surface plasmons, thus making this configuration a prime candidate for experimental investigation at the terahertz range. And the switching threshold value can be further reduced by decreasing the Fermi-level or increasing the thickness of sandwich structure, hence providing a new way for realizing tunable optical bistable devices. Finally, the optical bistability at higher terahertz frequency and the influence of relaxation time under the actual experimental condition on Fermi-level are discussed. PMID:26194273

  13. Frequency-resolved optical gating measurement of ultrashort pulses by using single nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiaxin; Liao, Feng; Gu, Fuxing; Zeng, Heping

    2016-09-01

    The use of ultrashort pulses for fundamental studies and applications has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Along with the development of ultrashort lasers, exploring new pulse diagnositic approaches with higher signal-to-noise ratio have attracted great scientific and technological interests. In this work, we demonstrate a simple technique of ultrashort pulses characterization with a single semiconductor nanowire. By performing a frequency-resolved optical gating method with a ZnO nanowire coupled to tapered optical microfibers, the phase and amplitude of a pulse series are extracted. The generated signals from the transverse frequency conversion process can be spatially distinguished from the input, so the signal-to-noise ratio is improved and permits lower energy pulses to be identified. Besides, since the nanometer scale of the nonlinear medium provides relaxed phase-matching constraints, a measurement of 300-nm-wide supercontinuum pulses is achieved. This system is highly compatible with standard optical fiber systems, and shows a great potential for applications such as on-chip optical communication.

  14. Frequency-resolved optical gating measurement of ultrashort pulses by using single nanowire

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiaxin; Liao, Feng; Gu, Fuxing; Zeng, Heping

    2016-01-01

    The use of ultrashort pulses for fundamental studies and applications has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Along with the development of ultrashort lasers, exploring new pulse diagnositic approaches with higher signal-to-noise ratio have attracted great scientific and technological interests. In this work, we demonstrate a simple technique of ultrashort pulses characterization with a single semiconductor nanowire. By performing a frequency-resolved optical gating method with a ZnO nanowire coupled to tapered optical microfibers, the phase and amplitude of a pulse series are extracted. The generated signals from the transverse frequency conversion process can be spatially distinguished from the input, so the signal-to-noise ratio is improved and permits lower energy pulses to be identified. Besides, since the nanometer scale of the nonlinear medium provides relaxed phase-matching constraints, a measurement of 300-nm-wide supercontinuum pulses is achieved. This system is highly compatible with standard optical fiber systems, and shows a great potential for applications such as on-chip optical communication. PMID:27609521

  15. Time-frequency analysis in optical coherence tomography for technical objects examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    StrÄ kowski, Marcin R.; Kraszewski, Maciej; Trojanowski, Michał; Pluciński, Jerzy

    2014-05-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is one of the most advanced optical measurement techniques for complex structure visualization. The advantages of OCT have been used for surface and subsurface defect detection in composite materials, polymers, ceramics, non-metallic protective coatings, and many more. Our research activity has been focused on timefrequency spectroscopic analysis in OCT. It is based on time resolved spectral analysis of the backscattered optical signal delivered by the OCT. The time-frequency method gives spectral characteristic of optical radiation backscattered or backreflected from the particular points inside the tested device. This provides more information about the sample, which are useful for further analysis. Nowadays, the applications of spectroscopic analysis for composite layers characterization or tissue recognition have been reported. During our studies we have found new applications of spectroscopic analysis. We have used this method for thickness estimation of thin films, which are under the resolution of OCT. Also, we have combined the spectroscopic analysis with polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT). This approach enables to obtain a multiorder retardation value directly and may become a breakthrough in PS-OCT measurements of highly birefringent media. In this work, we present the time-frequency spectroscopic algorithms and their applications for OCT. Also, the theoretical simulations and measurement validation of this method are shown.

  16. Feasibility of Direct Digital Sampling for Diffuse Optical Frequency Domain Spectroscopy in Tissue.

    PubMed

    Roblyer, Darren; O'Sullivan, Thomas D; Warren, Robert V; Tromberg, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Frequency domain optical spectroscopy in the diffusive regime is currently being investigated for biomedical applications including tumor detection, therapy monitoring, exercise metabolism, and others. Analog homodyne or heterodyne detection of sinusoidally modulated signals have been the predominant method for measuring phase and amplitude of photon density waves that have traversed through tissue. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing direct digital sampling of modulated signals using a 3.6 Gigasample/second 12 bit Analog to Digital Converter. Digitally synthesized modulated signals between 50MHz and 400MHz were measured on tissue simulating phantoms at six near-infrared wavelengths. An amplitude and phase precision of 1% and 0.6 degrees were achieved during drift tests. Amplitude, phase, scattering and absorption values were compared with a well-characterized network analyzer based diffuse optical device. Measured optical properties measured with both systems were within 3.6% for absorption and 2.8% for scattering over a range of biologically relevant values. Direct digital sampling represents a viable method for frequency domain diffuse optical spectroscopy and has the potential to reduce system complexity, size, and cost.

  17. Multi-wavelength coherent transmission using an optical frequency comb as a local oscillator.

    PubMed

    Kemal, Juned N; Pfeifle, Joerg; Marin-Palomo, Pablo; Pascual, M Deseada Gutierrez; Wolf, Stefan; Smyth, Frank; Freude, Wolfgang; Koos, Christian

    2016-10-31

    Steadily increasing data rates of optical interfaces require spectrally efficient coherent transmission using higher-order modulation formats in combination with scalable wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) schemes. At the transmitter, optical frequency combs (OFC) lend themselves to particularly precise multi-wavelength sources for WDM transmission. In this work we demonstrate that these advantages can also be leveraged at the receiver by using an OFC as a highly scalable multi-wavelength local oscillator (LO) for coherent detection. In our experiments, we use a pair of OFC that rely on gain switching of injection-locked semiconductor lasers both for WDM transmission and intradyne reception. We synchronize the center frequency and the free spectral range of the receiver comb to the transmitter, keeping the intradyne frequencies for all data channels below 15 MHz. Using 13 WDM channels, we transmit an aggregate line rate (net data rate) of 1.104 Tbit/s (1.032 Tbit/s) over a 10 km long standard single mode fiber at a spectral efficiency of 5.16 bit/s/Hz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of coherent WDM transmission using synchronized frequency combs as light source at the transmitter and as multi-wavelength LO at the receiver.

  18. Effect of laser pulse repetition frequency on the optical breakdown threshold of quartz glass

    SciTech Connect

    Kononenko, T V; Konov, V I; Schöneseiffen, S; Dausinger, F

    2013-08-31

    The thresholds of optical breakdown in the volume of quartz glass were measured in relation to the number of pulses under irradiation by ultrashort laser pulses with different pulse repetition frequencies (1 – 400 kHz). Increasing this frequency from 10 to 400 kHz was found to substantially lower the breakdown threshold for 500-fs long pulses (at a wavelength of 1030 nm) and to lower to a smaller degree for 5-ps long pulses (515 nm). A strong frequency dependence of the breakdown threshold is observed under the same conditions as a manifold decrease of the breakdown threshold with increase in the number of pulses in a pulse train. The dependence of the optical breakdown on the number of pulses is attributable to the accumulation of point defects under multiple subthreshold irradiation, which affects the mechanism of collisional ionisation. In this case, the frequency dependence of the breakdown threshold of quartz glass is determined by the engagement of shortlived defects in the ionisation mechanism. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  19. Optical Tamm states above the bulk plasma frequency at a Bragg stack/metal interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, S.; Kaliteevski, M. A.; Abram, R. A.

    2009-02-01

    We demonstrate theoretically that surface-plasmon polaritons, a form of optical Tamm state, can occur at the interface between a metal and a Bragg reflector at frequencies above the bulk plasma frequency of the metal. The frequencies of the excitations are within the photonic band gap of the Bragg reflector which provides the required evanescent decay on that side of the interface. At finite in-plane wave vector, the low value of the permittivity of the metal above its plasma frequency can lead to an imaginary normal wave vector component in the metal, which provides the localization on the other side of the interface. It is proposed that the necessary conditions can be realized using a GaAs/AlAs Bragg stack coated with a suitable conducting metal oxide having a bulk plasma frequency of 1 eV, but the concept is valid for other systems given an appropriate plasma frequency and photonic band-gap structure. The dispersion relations of the plasmon polaritons in the structures considered are calculated for both possible polarizations, and it is shown how the excitations result in distinct features in the predicted reflectivity spectra.

  20. A broadband chip-scale optical frequency synthesizer at 2.7 × 10(-16) relative uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Wei; Yang, Jinghui; Yu, Mingbin; McGuyer, Bart H; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Wong, Chee Wei

    2016-04-01

    Optical frequency combs-coherent light sources that connect optical frequencies with microwave oscillations-have become the enabling tool for precision spectroscopy, optical clockwork, and attosecond physics over the past decades. Current benchmark systems are self-referenced femtosecond mode-locked lasers, but Kerr nonlinear dynamics in high-Q solid-state microresonators has recently demonstrated promising features as alternative platforms. The advance not only fosters studies of chip-scale frequency metrology but also extends the realm of optical frequency combs. We report the full stabilization of chip-scale optical frequency combs. The microcomb's two degrees of freedom, one of the comb lines and the native 18-GHz comb spacing, are simultaneously phase-locked to known optical and microwave references. Active comb spacing stabilization improves long-term stability by six orders of magnitude, reaching a record instrument-limited residual instability of [Formula: see text]. Comparing 46 nitride frequency comb lines with a fiber laser frequency comb, we demonstrate the unprecedented microcomb tooth-to-tooth relative frequency uncertainty down to 50 mHz and 2.7 × 10(-16), heralding novel solid-state applications in precision spectroscopy, coherent communications, and astronomical spectrography.