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  1. Ego depletion in visual perception: Ego-depleted viewers experience less ambiguous figure reversal.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Marina C; Stirk, Steven; Hancock, Peter J B

    2017-02-22

    This study examined the effects of ego depletion on ambiguous figure perception. Adults (N = 315) received an ego depletion task and were subsequently tested on their inhibitory control abilities that were indexed by the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and their ability to perceive both interpretations of ambiguous figures that was indexed by reversal (Experiment 2). Ego depletion had a very small effect on reducing inhibitory control (Cohen's d = .15) (Experiment 1). Ego-depleted participants had a tendency to take longer to respond in Stroop trials. In Experiment 2, ego depletion had small to medium effects on the experience of reversal. Ego-depleted viewers tended to take longer to reverse ambiguous figures (duration to first reversal) when naïve of the ambiguity and experienced less reversal both when naïve and informed of the ambiguity. Together, findings suggest that ego depletion has small effects on inhibitory control and small to medium effects on bottom-up and top-down perceptual processes. The depletion of cognitive resources can reduce our visual perceptual experience.

  2. Ego Functioning During Latency

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Milton S.

    1979-01-01

    The latency period is an extremely important transition between the preschool years and adolescence. Normal ego functioning is described, especially cognition, socialization, motor development, and defensive functions. PMID:529320

  3. Ego development in college.

    PubMed

    Loevinger, J; Cohn, L D; Bonneville, L P; Redmore, C D; Streich, D D; Sargent, M

    1985-04-01

    Using the Sentence Completion Test for ego development, we studied several cohorts of students between 1971 and 1979 at a technological institute (Tech) and between 1974 and 1979 at a predominantly liberal arts university (MU). Ego level tended to rise slightly except among women at MU, for whom there was a slight but consistent loss. This particular finding challenges one assumption of a widely accepted version of Piagetian theory: that stage development is irreversible. Women tended to enter MU slightly ahead of men in ego level, but left at the same level. Contrary to expectation, men and women appeared to gain more at Tech than at MU; the difference was significant only for women.

  4. Ego-Resilience through Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Jack

    This paper reports the results of an ongoing study of individuals' ego control and ego resiliency. The study began with 130 subjects in 1969 when the subjects were in nursery school. At the most recent assessment, 104 participants still remained. Ego control is defined as the degree and kind of control individuals exert over their impulses, and…

  5. Totalitarian Egos versus Totalitarian Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Anthony G.

    The roles that totalitarian egos play in political systems are examined. Persons who have totalitarian ego biases function more effectively than do those who lack them. The biases are (1) egocentricity, the tendency to perceive events primarily in terms of their relation to oneself; (2) "beneffectance," the tendency to perceive oneself selectively…

  6. The Pragmatism of Ego Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meers, Dale R.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews conceptual schemata and organizing principles that ego psychology has contributed to our understanding of emotional disturbance. Argues that ego psychology can be converted to testable, pragmatic, and usable precepts for psychotherapeutic practice. Finds theory particularly well suited to practice domain of clinical social work. (JBJ)

  7. The observing ego as voyeur.

    PubMed

    Josephs, Lawrence

    2003-08-01

    A resistance to self-observation and self-reflection is discussed in which there is a perversion of the observing ego. The observing ego has been unconsciously recruited in the service of enacting an unconscious fantasy: the fantasy of being an excited observer of a primal scene who is punished for making forbidden observations. This voyeuristic observing ego is pathologically enmeshed in a love triangle with the patient's seductive superego (i.e. identification with the desired but unfaithful parent) and with the patient's punitive superego (i.e. identification with the rivalrous parent). This unconscious scenario is played out in the clinical situation as the patient unreflectively cycles through phases of denial (i.e. self-seduction) and moral masochism (i.e. self-betrayal). A case study illustrates how humor may be employed to free the observing ego from being enthralled by a perverse superego. Humor may unconsciously enable a rebellious attitude toward the omnipotent sadism of a perversely oppressive superego and thus enable the observing ego to break free from its pathological enmeshment.

  8. Multidimensional Perfectionism and Ego Defenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Wendy L.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and ego defense style among 130 college students. Cluster analysis results facilitated the identification of groups of adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and non-perfectionists. The researchers found that identified maladaptive perfectionists used…

  9. Ego Identity in Mature Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcia, James E.; Miller, Elizabeth C.

    The relationship between psychosocial development and ego identity was explored among a group of 29 married women, 21-59 years old. After being interviewed, subjects were assigned to one of four categories of identity status, based on their statements regarding decision-making and commitment. There were significant differences between identity…

  10. Retirement: An Ego Alien View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Helen

    1977-01-01

    Since knowledge of ego development can be used in professional work, a needed classification of attitudes toward the work ethic is advanced. A radical departure from our retirement policy towards those over 65 years of age requires additional competence on the part of counselors in the field of aging. (Author)

  11. Healthy narcissism and ego state therapy.

    PubMed

    McNeal, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    The term narcissism is often pejorative and associated with the diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder. However, some degree of narcissism can be viewed as essential when considering the ingredients of a healthy personality. The ego state literature contains references to the maturation of ego states, the creation of helpful ego states, transformation of the function of ego states, and the strengthening of healthy ego states as components of the development of a "harmonious family of self." For an individual to develop healthy narcissism and eventually self-esteem, it's assumed that these ego state interventions are involved and produce changes in internal psychic structure. This article explores theories and therapy regarding the development of healthy narcissism, self-esteem, and a well-functioning sense of entitlement. Case material is summarized to illustrate how ego state therapy can be an important part of this process.

  12. Ego depletion impairs implicit learning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kelsey R; Sanchez, Daniel J; Wesley, Abigail H; Reber, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent.

  13. Action orientation overcomes the ego depletion effect.

    PubMed

    Dang, Junhua; Xiao, Shanshan; Shi, Yucai; Mao, Lihua

    2015-04-01

    It has been consistently demonstrated that initial exertion of self-control had negative influence on people's performance on subsequent self-control tasks. This phenomenon is referred to as the ego depletion effect. Based on action control theory, the current research investigated whether the ego depletion effect could be moderated by individuals' action versus state orientation. Our results showed that only state-oriented individuals exhibited ego depletion. For individuals with action orientation, however, their performance was not influenced by initial exertion of self-control. The beneficial effect of action orientation against ego depletion in our experiment results from its facilitation for adapting to the depleting task.

  14. Linking academic social environments, ego-identity formation, ego virtues, and academic success.

    PubMed

    Good, Marie; Adams, Gerald R

    2008-01-01

    This study used Structural Equation Modeling to test an Eriksonian conceptual model linking academic social environments (relationships with faculty and fellow students), ego-identity formation, ego virtues, and academic success. Participants included 765 first-year students at a university in southern Ontario, Canada. Results indicated that supportive relationships with faculty was directly related to higher average grades and perceived academic ability, whereas positive relationships with fellow students was indirectly related to academic success through ego virtues. Positive ego-identity formation (identity achievement) was also indirectly related to academic success through ego virtues.

  15. Ego Identity Formation in Middle Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVoie, Joseph C.

    Assumed determinants of ego identity were investigated in this study using sophomore, junior, and senior high school males and females. Subjects were administered the Marcia Ego Identity Status Scale and measures of sex-role identification, personality development, psychological functioning, self concept, and parental socialization practices. Data…

  16. Art Therapy to Promote Ego Development in Disturbed Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Ellen A.

    The paper discusses the six major ego functions, ego disturbances in mentally retarded children, and case examples of the use of art therapy to promote ego development. Identified are the following ego functions: control and regulation of instinctual drives, autonomous functions, reality testing, object relationships, defense, and synthesis. The…

  17. Ego identity of adolescent children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Teichman, Meir

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the issue of ego identity among adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers. Forty-four adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers, age of 15-18, constituted the sample. They were drawn from public alcohol treatment center in Israel. The control group included 60 adolescents none of their parents is known as an alcoholic, sampled from integrative schools in the same neighborhood and matched by age. Ego identity was measured by Tzuriel's "Adolescent Ego Identity Scale" (AEIS). It was hypothesized that adolescent children of alcoholics will show lower scores of ego identity and of its dimensions. The hypothesis was not confirmed. To the contrary, adolescent children of alcoholics reported higher scores of "ego identity-total" and of four of the seven ego identity dimensions. One possible explanation is that children of alcoholics are maturing early in age compared to their controls. They have developed different coping strategies that facilitate creating a more "stable" ego identity compared to their peers. Another explanation is that children of alcoholics apply defense mechanisms that enhance the development of an "adaptive self."

  18. Ego-Dissolution and Psychedelics: Validation of the Ego-Dissolution Inventory (EDI)

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Matthew M.; Evans, Lisa; Nutt, David; Carhart-Harris, Robin L.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The experience of a compromised sense of “self”, termed ego-dissolution, is a key feature of the psychedelic experience. This study aimed to validate the Ego-Dissolution Inventory (EDI), a new 8-item self-report scale designed to measure ego-dissolution. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the specificity of the relationship between psychedelics and ego-dissolution. Method: Sixteen items relating to altered ego-consciousness were included in an internet questionnaire; eight relating to the experience of ego-dissolution (comprising the EDI), and eight relating to the antithetical experience of increased self-assuredness, termed ego-inflation. Items were rated using a visual analog scale. Participants answered the questionnaire for experiences with classical psychedelic drugs, cocaine and/or alcohol. They also answered the seven questions from the Mystical Experiences Questionnaire (MEQ) relating to the experience of unity with one’s surroundings. Results: Six hundred and ninety-one participants completed the questionnaire, providing data for 1828 drug experiences (1043 psychedelics, 377 cocaine, 408 alcohol). Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that the eight EDI items loaded exclusively onto a single common factor, which was orthogonal to a second factor comprised of the items relating to ego-inflation (rho = −0.110), demonstrating discriminant validity. The EDI correlated strongly with the MEQ-derived measure of unitive experience (rho = 0.735), demonstrating convergent validity. EDI internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach’s alpha 0.93). Three analyses confirmed the specificity of ego-dissolution for experiences occasioned by psychedelic drugs. Firstly, EDI score correlated with drug-dose for psychedelic drugs (rho = 0.371), but not for cocaine (rho = 0.115) or alcohol (rho = −0.055). Secondly, the linear regression line relating the subjective intensity of the experience to ego-dissolution was significantly steeper for psychedelics

  19. Linking Academic Social Environments, Ego-Identity Formation, Ego Virtues, and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Marie; Adams, Gerald R.

    2008-01-01

    This study used Structural Equation Modeling to test an Eriksonian conceptual model linking academic social environments (relationships with faculty and fellow students), ego-identity formation, ego virtues, and academic success. Participants included 765 first-year students at a university in southern Ontario, Canada. Results indicated that…

  20. Ego Development, Ego Strengths, and Ethnic Identity among First Nation Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gfellner, Barbara M.; Armstrong, Helen D.

    2012-01-01

    Three conceptualizations of psychosocial development were investigated among Canadian First Nation adolescents. Loevinger's social cognitive model of ego development reflects the way in which an individual views the self and social reality. From Eriksonian theory, ego strengths refer to the emergent values or outcomes that represent resolution of…

  1. The Id, Ego and Super-Ego in "Pride and Prejudice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Yamin

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly analyses the the id, ego, and super-ego which exists in the main character Elizabeth from several aspects, such as her pursuit for love, her prejudice towards Mr. Darcy, and the changes in her attitudes towards Wickham. This analysis helps readers appreciate this masterpiece from a different aspect which is related to the…

  2. Ego-syntonicity and ego-dystonicity of eating-related intrusive thoughts in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Roncero, María; Belloch, Amparo; Perpiñá, Conxa; Treasure, Janet

    2013-06-30

    The main objective of the present study was to analyse the role of the ego-dystonicity and ego-syntonicity of eating disorder intrusive thoughts (EDITs) in the genesis and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs). Participants were 98 female patients with EDs, 56 Spanish and 42 English (27.19±9.59 years; body mass index (BMI): 18.72±2.87). All of them completed the eating attitudes test, the Eating Attitudes Test, the Eating Intrusive Thoughts Inventory, the Ego-Dystonicity Questionnaire-Reduced version, and the Ego-Syntonicity Questionnaire. Patients indicated that their EDITs were rational and also undesirable and immoral, suggesting that EDITs are not fully ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated no differences in ego-syntonicity and ego-dystonicity across ED subtypes. Path analyses were performed to investigate the mediating role of the EDITs' ego-syntonicity and ego-dystonicity in their interference, dysfunctional appraisals and control strategies. They showed, first, that the more interference an EDIT caused, the more ego-syntonic and the less ego-dystonic it was and, second, that when the EDITs were assessed as ego-syntonic, patients tried to do what they indicated, whereas when they were assessed as ego-dystonic, patients made efforts to neutralise them. Clinical implications for the conceptualisation and treatment of ED are discussed.

  3. egoSlider: Visual Analysis of Egocentric Network Evolution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanhong; Pitipornvivat, Naveen; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Sixiao; Huang, Guowei; Qu, Huamin

    2016-01-01

    Ego-network, which represents relationships between a specific individual, i.e., the ego, and people connected to it, i.e., alters, is a critical target to study in social network analysis. Evolutionary patterns of ego-networks along time provide huge insights to many domains such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. However, the analysis of dynamic ego-networks remains challenging due to its complicated time-varying graph structures, for example: alters come and leave, ties grow stronger and fade away, and alter communities merge and split. Most of the existing dynamic graph visualization techniques mainly focus on topological changes of the entire network, which is not adequate for egocentric analytical tasks. In this paper, we present egoSlider, a visual analysis system for exploring and comparing dynamic ego-networks. egoSlider provides a holistic picture of the data through multiple interactively coordinated views, revealing ego-network evolutionary patterns at three different layers: a macroscopic level for summarizing the entire ego-network data, a mesoscopic level for overviewing specific individuals' ego-network evolutions, and a microscopic level for displaying detailed temporal information of egos and their alters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of egoSlider with a usage scenario with the DBLP publication records. Also, a controlled user study indicates that in general egoSlider outperforms a baseline visualization of dynamic networks for completing egocentric analytical tasks.

  4. Ego depletion increases risk-taking.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Asal, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how the availability of self-control resources affects risk-taking inclinations and behaviors. We proposed that risk-taking often occurs from suboptimal decision processes and heuristic information processing (e.g., when a smoker suppresses or neglects information about the health risks of smoking). Research revealed that depleted self-regulation resources are associated with reduced intellectual performance and reduced abilities to regulate spontaneous and automatic responses (e.g., control aggressive responses in the face of frustration). The present studies transferred these ideas to the area of risk-taking. We propose that risk-taking is increased when individuals find themselves in a state of reduced cognitive self-control resources (ego-depletion). Four studies supported these ideas. In Study 1, ego-depleted participants reported higher levels of sensation seeking than non-depleted participants. In Study 2, ego-depleted participants showed higher levels of risk-tolerance in critical road traffic situations than non-depleted participants. In Study 3, we ruled out two alternative explanations for these results: neither cognitive load nor feelings of anger mediated the effect of ego-depletion on risk-taking. Finally, Study 4 clarified the underlying psychological process: ego-depleted participants feel more cognitively exhausted than non-depleted participants and thus are more willing to take risks. Discussion focuses on the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  5. Self-regulation, ego depletion, and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Roy F

    2014-12-01

    Inhibition is a major form of self-regulation. As such, it depends on self-awareness and comparing oneself to standards and is also susceptible to fluctuations in willpower resources. Ego depletion is the state of reduced willpower caused by prior exertion of self-control. Ego depletion undermines inhibition both because restraints are weaker and because urges are felt more intensely than usual. Conscious inhibition of desires is a pervasive feature of everyday life and may be a requirement of life in civilized, cultural society, and in that sense it goes to the evolved core of human nature. Intentional inhibition not only restrains antisocial impulses but can also facilitate optimal performance, such as during test taking. Self-regulation and ego depletion- may also affect less intentional forms of inhibition, even chronic tendencies to inhibit. Broadly stated, inhibition is necessary for human social life and nearly all societies encourage and enforce it.

  6. Detection of linear ego-acceleration from optic flow.

    PubMed

    Festl, Freya; Recktenwald, Fabian; Yuan, Chunrong; Mallot, Hanspeter A

    2012-07-20

    Human observers are able to estimate various ego-motion parameters from optic flow, including rotation, translational heading, time-to-collision (TTC), time-to-passage (TTP), etc. The perception of linear ego-acceleration or deceleration, i.e., changes of translational velocity, is less well understood. While time-to-passage experiments indicate that ego-acceleration is neglected, subjects are able to keep their (perceived) speed constant under changing conditions, indicating that some sense of ego-acceleration or velocity change must be present. In this paper, we analyze the relation of ego-acceleration estimates and geometrical parameters of the environment using simulated flights through cylindrical and conic (narrowing or widening) corridors. Theoretical analysis shows that a logarithmic ego-acceleration parameter, called the acceleration rate ρ, can be calculated from retinal acceleration measurements. This parameter is independent of the geometrical layout of the scene; if veridical ego-motion is known at some instant in time, acceleration rate allows updating of ego-motion without further depth-velocity calibration. Results indicate, however, that subjects systematically confuse ego-acceleration with corridor narrowing and ego-deceleration with corridor widening, while veridically judging ego-acceleration in straight corridors. We conclude that judgments of ego-acceleration are based on first-order retinal flow and do not make use of acceleration rate or retinal acceleration.

  7. Reliability of the Ego-Grasping Scale.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2012-04-01

    Research using Knoblauch and Falconer's Ego-Grasping Scale is reviewed. Using a sample of 695 undergraduate students, the scale had moderate reliability (Cronbach alpha, odd-even numbered items, and test-retest), but a principal-components analysis with a varimax rotation identified five components, indicating heterogeneity in the content of the items. Lower Ego-Grasping scores appear to be associated with better psychological health. The scale has been translated and used with Korean, Kuwaiti, and Turkish students, indicating that the scale can be useful in cross-cultural studies.

  8. The modality effect of ego depletion: Auditory task modality reduces ego depletion.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiong; Wang, Zhenhong

    2016-08-01

    An initial act of self-control that impairs subsequent acts of self-control is called ego depletion. The ego depletion phenomenon has been observed consistently. The modality effect refers to the effect of the presentation modality on the processing of stimuli. The modality effect was also robustly found in a large body of research. However, no study to date has examined the modality effects of ego depletion. This issue was addressed in the current study. In Experiment 1, after all participants completed a handgrip task, one group's participants completed a visual attention regulation task and the other group's participants completed an auditory attention regulation task, and then all participants again completed a handgrip task. The ego depletion phenomenon was observed in both the visual and the auditory attention regulation task. Moreover, participants who completed the visual task performed worse on the handgrip task than participants who completed the auditory task, which indicated that there was high ego depletion in the visual task condition. In Experiment 2, participants completed an initial task that either did or did not deplete self-control resources, and then they completed a second visual or auditory attention control task. The results indicated that depleted participants performed better on the auditory attention control task than the visual attention control task. These findings suggest that altering task modality may reduce ego depletion.

  9. Sex Differences in Intellectual and Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alishio, Kip C.; Schilling, Karen Maitland

    Perry's scheme of intellectual and ethical development was examined for sex differences with respect to content areas for which sex differences have elsewhere been suggested: occupational choice, interpersonal relationships, and sexual identity. In addition, the content area religion and ego development, as measured by Loevinger's sentence…

  10. Androgyny, Ego Development and Psychosocial Crisis Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Karen J.; Bailey, John M.

    The present study examined the relationship of psychological androgyny with ego development in the context of Loevinger's theory, and with psychosocial crisis resolution from the perspective of Erikson's theory. A sample of 30 male and 30 female adults completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Washington University Sentence Completion Test and the…

  11. Ego Development and Adolescent Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursik, Krisanne; Martin, Timothy A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated ego developmental differences in adolescent academic orientations and academic achievement. A sample of 142 male and female high school students completed the Washington University Sentence Completion Test and self-report measures assessing academic locus of control, learning orientation (LO), and grade orientation (GO).…

  12. Ego Identity of Adolescent Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Teichman, Meir

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the issue of ego identity among adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers. Forty-four adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers, age of 15-18, constituted the sample. They were drawn from public alcohol treatment center in Israel. The control group included 60 adolescents none of their parents is known as an alcoholic, sampled from…

  13. Residual Excitation and Ego-Defensive Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Earle, Walter B.

    It has been suggested that egotistical attributions for success and failure are mediated by the affective reactions resulting from achievement outcomes. To establish the motivational impact of failure-related affect on subsequent ego-defensive attributions, an excitation transfer paradigm was used to manipulate the negative feelings elicited by…

  14. Erikson's concept of ego identity reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, R S

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores and attempts to explain the paradox that Erik Erikson--after Freud, undoubtedly the psychoanalyst best known, most deeply esteemed, and most widely influential in the sociohistorical surround of world culture--has at the same time never been properly integrated into the psychoanalytic mainstream, but has instead been marginalized, consigned to a persisting psychoanalytic limbo. Two successive contexts within the historical unfolding of psychoanalysis in America, the milieu in which Erikson worked, would seem to account for this neglect. First, Erikson's monumental contributions to our understanding of the psychosocial developmental process, of the epigenesis of the ego, of the phase-specific developmental tasks across the eight postulated stages of the life cycle, and of the intergenerational cogwheeling of the life cycles were made during the 1950s and 1960s and could not easily be integrated into the ego psychology metapsychological paradigm then monolithically regnant within American psychoanalysis. And, second, as a major paradigm shift took place in America, beginning in the 1970s, toward a more relational, interpersonal, and intersubjective framework, Erikson's contributions, couched as they were in the structural language of the ego psychology of his time, were overlooked and went unremarked as seminal precursors of the newly emerging emphases. The clear relationship of Erikson's concepts of (ego) identity to emerging conceptions of self in relation to objects was simply not noticed, and his work continues to this day to be neglected and unintegrated within psychoanalysis.

  15. The concept of ego threat in social and personality psychology: is ego threat a viable scientific construct?

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R; Terry, Meredith L; Batts Allen, Ashley; Tate, Eleanor B

    2009-08-01

    Although widely invoked as an explanation for psychological phenomena, ego threat has been conceptualized and induced in a variety of ways. Most contemporary research conceptualizes ego threat as a threat to a person's self-image or self-esteem, but experimental operationalizations of ego threat usually confound threats to self-esteem with threats to public image or decreased control over negative events, leading to an inability to distinguish the effects of threats to people's personal egos from threats to public image or threats to feelings of control. This article reviews research on ego threat, discusses experimental manipulations that confound ego threat with other processes, and makes recommendations regarding the use of ego threat as a construct in personality and social psychology.

  16. The ego according to Klein: return to Freud and beyond.

    PubMed

    Blass, Rachel B

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores fundamental dimensions of Melanie Klein's concept of the ego through a detailed study of the writings of Klein and her early colleagues (Paula Heimann, Susan Isaacs and Joan Riviere). The study examines three central issues: (a) the basic theoretical framework for Klein's conceptualization of the ego, and specifically how her conceptualization builds on Freud's structural and dual instinct models; (b) the processes involved in the development of the ego and its capacities (including the development from id to ego and from ego to superego); and (c) the view of the ego as an object of phantasy. Through this examination, the study demonstrates that Klein's conceptualization of the ego is firmly grounded both in Freud's formulations about the ego and in his theoretical and metapsychological approach to thinking about the ego. This counters the prevalent view that Klein was only focused on clinical understandings, unconcerned with theory and fuzzy in her abstract thinking. More specifically, it counters the view that Klein did not really have a concept of the ego in any well-structured sense of the term (Britton, 2003; Hinshelwood, 1994; Segal, 2001). The study considers the sources of these misconceived views. Finally, it argues that discarding such views allows us to appreciate better the richness of Klein's thinking, her theoretical affinities to Freud, and the role of theory in the development and justification of psychoanalysis.

  17. The ego and the id revisited Freud and Damasio on the body ego/self.

    PubMed

    Sletvold, Jon

    2013-10-01

    Freud's statement in The Ego and the Id (1923) that the ego is first and foremost a bodily ego is well known. This paper tempts to clarify the premises underlying Freud's thesis. Particular attention is paid to Freud's investigation of internal perceptions. Freud argued that internal perceptions are more primordial than perceptions arising externally. In Freud's opinion the roots of the ego, the id, are to be found in body sensations and feelings, but he had to admit that very little was known about these sensations and feelings. Only much later was neuroscience in a position to offer evidence that feelings can be the direct perception of the internal state of the body. Damasio (2010) has recently suggested that the core of the self might be found in what he, like Freud, terms primordial feelings. Not only was Freud able to conceive of the ego as the perception and feeling of our own body but also to conceive of knowing the mental life of another by means of recreating the bodily state of another through imitation.

  18. Critical size of ego communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Zheng; Tian, Hui

    2016-06-01

    With the help of information and communication technologies, studies on the overall social networks have been extensively reported recently. However, investigations on the directed Ego Communication Networks (ECNs) remain insufficient, where an ECN stands for a sub network composed of a centralized individual and his/her direct contacts. In this paper, the directed ECNs are built on the Call Detail Records (CDRs), which cover more than 7 million people of a provincial capital city in China for half a year. Results show that there is a critical size for ECN at about 150, above which the average emotional closeness between ego and alters drops, the balanced relationship between ego and network collapses, and the proportion of strong ties decreases. This paper not only demonstrate the significance of ECN size in affecting its properties, but also shows accordance with the “Dunbar's Number”. These results can be viewed as a cross-culture supportive evidence to the well-known Social Brain Hypothesis (SBH).

  19. Mending fences: repairing boundaries through ego state therapy.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Maggie

    2013-07-01

    Ego state therapy has often been cited as an effective treatment to help repair fragmentation related to posttraumatic stress and dissociative disorders. This article explores how specialized work with ego states can help to clarify and strengthen internal and external boundaries, create greater boundary flexibility, and contribute to containment and self-regulation. Applications of direct and indirect hypnosis to repair boundary issues through ego state therapy are emphasized, and clinical case examples are used to illustrate results.

  20. Ego, drives, and the dynamics of internal objects

    PubMed Central

    Boag, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between the ego, id, and internal objects. While ego psychology views the ego as autonomous of the drives, a less well-known alternative position views the ego as constituted by the drives. Based on Freud’s ego-instinct account, this position has developed into a school of thought which postulates that the drives act as knowers. Given that there are multiple drives, this position proposes that personality is constituted by multiple knowers. Following on from Freud, the ego is viewed as a composite sub-set of the instinctual drives (ego-drives), whereas those drives cut off from expression form the id. The nature of the “self” is developed in terms of identification and the possibility of multiple personalities is also established. This account is then extended to object-relations and the explanatory value of the ego-drive account is discussed in terms of the addressing the nature of ego-structures and the dynamic nature of internal objects. Finally, the impact of psychological conflict and the significance of repression for understanding the nature of splits within the psyche are also discussed. PMID:25071640

  1. Temperament features in adolescents with ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, Carlo; Ampollini, Paolo; DePanfilis, Chiara; Maggini, Carlo

    2008-09-01

    The present study evaluated whether different patterns of temperament may predict a different threshold of acceptability of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in adolescents. OC symptomatology was detected with the Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version (LOI-CV) and temperament was assessed using the tridimensional personality questionnaire in 2,775 high-school students. According to the LOI-CV scores, the adolescents were classified as high interference (interfering, ego-dystonic symptoms) (HI), supernormal (noninterfering, ego-syntonic symptoms) (Sn) and controls (C) HI were 119 (4.3%), Sn 85 (3.1%) and C 2,571 (92.6%). The best predictor of belonging to HI or Sn groups was the temperament configuration of high Harm Avoidance (HA) and high Persistence (P). The feature that mainly distinguishes the two symptomatic groups were Novelty Seeking (NS) levels. Our data suggest that people characterized by pessimistic worry in anticipation of future problems, passive avoidant behaviour, rapid fatigability (high HA) and irresoluteness, ambitiousness, perseverance, perfectionism, enduring feelings of frustration (high P) might develop OC symptoms. Whether OC symptoms become ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic seems to mainly depend on NS levels: low NS might protect people (with the prevention of "exploratory and active behaviours" that may elicit loss of control on symptoms) from the development of interfering OC symptoms.

  2. An Empirical Test of Erikson's Theory of Ego Identity Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, James E.; Levine, Charles G.

    1989-01-01

    This study explores interrelationships among the following components of Erik Erikson's theory of ego identity formation: (1) the identity crisis; (2) the institutionalized moratoria; (3) the ego-superego struggle for dominance of the personality; and (4) the value orientation stages. Humanistically oriented adolescents are more likely to have a…

  3. Racial and Ego Identity Development in Black Caribbean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses among 255 Black Caribbean college students in the Northeast United States. Findings indicated that racial identity attitudes were predictive of ego identity statuses. Specifically, preencounter racial identity attitudes were predictive of lower scores…

  4. RET [Rational Emotive Therapy] Abolishes Most of the Human Ego.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    Rational-emotive therapy (RET) holds that much of what we call the human "ego" has little or no legitimacy and, when conceived of and given a global rating (e.g., the individual gets rated as "worthwhile" or "worthless"), interferes with survival and happiness. Certain aspects of "ego" do have a verifiable existence and lead to beneficial results:…

  5. A study of outflow activity around EGO sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, C.; Paron, S.; Ortega, M.; Astort, A.; Rubio, M.

    2013-06-01

    Extended green objects (EGOs) were identified in Spitzer-IRAC images as they present a particular extended "green" emission at 4.5 μm, hence their name. An EGO is probably a massive young stellar object driving outflows, with the extended emission at 4.5 μm likely due to H2 lines and CO band-heads excited by the shock of the outflow propagating in the interstellar medium. Therefore, the dedicated observation and study of EGOs and their close environments can provide additional insight into our understanding of massive-star formation processes. In this context, based on previous studies we have selected a set of particularly interesting EGOs with the aim of analysing and characterising their outflow activity and its impact on the interstellar medium around them. This is a work in progress in which new observations at molecular and near-infrared wavelengths have recently been carried out towards some of the selected EGOs and more observations will be done in the following semesters. Here we report the results obtained so far from the data analysis of the images towards EGO, G45.47+0.05 and EGO, G35.04-0.47. For these two targets the molecular line observations were acquired using the Atacama Submillimiter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) and the near-infrared images for EGO, G45.47+0.05 were taken with Gemini-NIRI. The near future plans of this project include new images from WHT-LIRIS for EGO, G035.20-0.74 and EGO, G035.03+0.35.

  6. From Self-Disorders to Ego Disorders.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    While the concept of disorders of basic self-experience as the clinical core of schizophrenia spectrum disorders has gained increasing significance and empirical support, several questions remain still unresolved. One major problem is to understand how the basic and prodromal self-disturbances are related to Schneider's first rank symptoms, in particular to the so-called 'ego disorders' found in acute psychotic episodes. The study of the transition from prodromal to first rank symptoms, for example from alienated thoughts to thoughts aloud or thought insertions, is of particular importance for understanding the nature and course of schizophrenia. The paper analyses the emergence of ego disorders from basic self-disorders in phenomenological terms, taking the examples of motor passivity experiences and thought insertion. It is argued that full-blown delusions of alien control are ultimately based on a disturbance of the intentionality of thinking, feeling and acting. This disturbance, for its part, may be traced back to anomalies of self-experience in prodromal stages of schizophrenia.

  7. Investigating ego modules and pathways in osteosarcoma by integrating the EgoNet algorithm and pathway analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X.Y.; Chen, Y.H.; Zhang, L.J.; Wang, Y.; Tong, Z.C.

    2017-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone malignancy, but current therapies are far from effective for all patients. A better understanding of the pathological mechanism of OS may help to achieve new treatments for this tumor. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate ego modules and pathways in OS utilizing EgoNet algorithm and pathway-related analysis, and reveal pathological mechanisms underlying OS. The EgoNet algorithm comprises four steps: constructing background protein-protein interaction (PPI) network (PPIN) based on gene expression data and PPI data; extracting differential expression network (DEN) from the background PPIN; identifying ego genes according to topological features of genes in reweighted DEN; and collecting ego modules using module search by ego gene expansion. Consequently, we obtained 5 ego modules (Modules 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) in total. After applying the permutation test, all presented statistical significance between OS and normal controls. Finally, pathway enrichment analysis combined with Reactome pathway database was performed to investigate pathways, and Fisher's exact test was conducted to capture ego pathways for OS. The ego pathway for Module 2 was CLEC7A/inflammasome pathway, while for Module 3 a tetrasaccharide linker sequence was required for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis, and for Module 6 was the Rho GTPase cycle. Interestingly, genes in Modules 4 and 5 were enriched in the same pathway, the 2-LTR circle formation. In conclusion, the ego modules and pathways might be potential biomarkers for OS therapeutic index, and give great insight of the molecular mechanism underlying this tumor. PMID:28225867

  8. Investigating ego modules and pathways in osteosarcoma by integrating the EgoNet algorithm and pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, X Y; Chen, Y H; Zhang, L J; Wang, Y; Tong, Z C

    2017-02-16

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone malignancy, but current therapies are far from effective for all patients. A better understanding of the pathological mechanism of OS may help to achieve new treatments for this tumor. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate ego modules and pathways in OS utilizing EgoNet algorithm and pathway-related analysis, and reveal pathological mechanisms underlying OS. The EgoNet algorithm comprises four steps: constructing background protein-protein interaction (PPI) network (PPIN) based on gene expression data and PPI data; extracting differential expression network (DEN) from the background PPIN; identifying ego genes according to topological features of genes in reweighted DEN; and collecting ego modules using module search by ego gene expansion. Consequently, we obtained 5 ego modules (Modules 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) in total. After applying the permutation test, all presented statistical significance between OS and normal controls. Finally, pathway enrichment analysis combined with Reactome pathway database was performed to investigate pathways, and Fisher's exact test was conducted to capture ego pathways for OS. The ego pathway for Module 2 was CLEC7A/inflammasome pathway, while for Module 3 a tetrasaccharide linker sequence was required for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis, and for Module 6 was the Rho GTPase cycle. Interestingly, genes in Modules 4 and 5 were enriched in the same pathway, the 2-LTR circle formation. In conclusion, the ego modules and pathways might be potential biomarkers for OS therapeutic index, and give great insight of the molecular mechanism underlying this tumor.

  9. The growth and transformation of American ego psychology.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, Robert S

    2002-01-01

    The roots of ego psychology trace back to Sigmund Freud's The Ego and the Id (1923) and "Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety" (1926), works followed by two additional fundaments, Anna Freud's The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936) and Heinz Hartmann's Ego Psychology and the Problem of Adaptation (1939). It was brought to full flowering in post-World War II America by Hartmann and his many collaborators, and for over two decades it maintained a monolithic hegemony over American psychoanalysis. Within this framework the conceptions of the psychoanalytic psychotherapies evolved as specific modifications of psychoanalytic technique directed to the clinical needs of the spectrum of patients not amenable to psychoanalysis proper. This American consensus on the ego psychology paradigm and its array of technical implementations fragmented several decades ago, with the rise in America of Kohut's self psychology, geared to the narcissistic disorders, and with the importation from Britain of neo-Kleinian and object-relational perspectives, all coinciding with the rapid growth of the varieties of relational psychoanalysis, with its shift in focus to the two-person, interactive, and co-constructed transference-countertransference matrix. Implications of this intermingled theoretical pluralism (as contrasted with the unity of the once dominant ego psychology paradigm) for the evolution of the American ego psychology are spelled out.

  10. Ego development in female-to-male transsexual couples.

    PubMed

    Fleming, M; Costos, D; MacGowan, B

    1984-12-01

    The ego development of 22 postoperative female-to-male transsexuals and their spouses or lovers with whom they had been living for a year or more was investigated. The transsexuals, their spouses, and a control group of 22 couples were administered the Washington University Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development, a projective measure of ego functioning. Ego development refers to the framework of meaning that the individual brings to an experience. The construct of ego development incorporates a series of sequential stages that integrate various frames of reference including cognitive style, interpersonal style, conscious preoccupation, and impulse control. These processes have received little attention in studies on female-to-male transsexuals who have successfully negotiated the social barrier of cross-living to the extent that they are living the male role in a heterosexual relationship. No significant differences in the distribution of ego development scores were found between the transsexuals and the control males, or between the transsexuals' spouses and the control spouses. Over 93% of the transsexuals and their spouses scored above the conformist level of ego development. These findings are discussed in terms of some of the previous literature on conformist thinking by transsexuals.

  11. Dominating sets and ego-centered decompositions in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudourides, M. A.; Lenis, S. T.

    2016-09-01

    Our aim here is to address the problem of decomposing a whole network into a minimal number of ego-centered subnetworks. For this purpose, the network egos are picked out as the members of a minimum dominating set of the network. However, to find such an efficient dominating ego-centered construction, we need to be able to detect all the minimum dominating sets and to compare all the corresponding dominating ego-centered decompositions of the network. To find all the minimum dominating sets of the network, we are developing a computational heuristic, which is based on the partition of the set of nodes of a graph into three subsets, the always dominant vertices, the possible dominant vertices and the never dominant vertices, when the domination number of the network is known. To compare the ensuing dominating ego-centered decompositions of the network, we are introducing a number of structural measures that count the number of nodes and links inside and across the ego-centered subnetworks. Furthermore, we are applying the techniques of graph domination and ego-centered decomposition for six empirical social networks.

  12. Evidence based abreactive ego state therapy for PTSD.

    PubMed

    Barabasz, Arreed

    2013-07-01

    A single 5-6 hours manualized abreactive ego state therapy session has recently been subjected to two placebo-controlled investigations meeting evidence-based criteria. Ego state therapy was found to be a highly effective and durable treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Apparently, ego state therapy works because it is emotion focused, activates sub-cortical structures, and because the supportive, interpretive therapist reconstructs the patient's personality to be resilient and adaptive. In this article the author reviews the treatment procedures and presents the findings of both studies.

  13. If ego depletion cannot be studied using identical tasks, it is not ego depletion.

    PubMed

    Lange, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis that human self-control capacities are fueled by glucose has been challenged on multiple grounds. A recent study by Lange and Eggert adds to this criticism by presenting two powerful but unsuccessful attempts to replicate the effect of sugar drinks on ego depletion. The dual-task paradigms employed in these experiments have been criticized for involving identical self-control tasks, a methodology that has been argued to reduce participants' willingness to exert self-control. The present article addresses this criticism by demonstrating that there is no indication to believe that the study of glucose effects on ego depletion should be restricted to paradigms using dissimilar acts of self-control. Failures to observe such effects in paradigms involving identical tasks pose a serious problem to the proposal that self-control exhaustion might be reversed by rinsing or ingesting glucose. In combination with analyses of statistical credibility, the experiments by Lange and Eggert suggest that the influence of sugar on ego depletion has been systematically overestimated.

  14. A California Q-set alexithymia prototype and its relationship to ego-control and ego-resiliency.

    PubMed

    Haviland, M G; Reise, S P

    1996-12-01

    The primary purposes of the present study were to use the Q-sort method to develop a measure of alexithymia and to locate the construct within a two-dimensional (ego-control and ego-resiliency) model of personality. Thirteen professional judges described the characteristics of the alexithymic personality with the 100-item California Q-set. Scores from the sorts were aggregated to form the Alexithymia Prototype, which had a Spearman-Brown reliability of 0.99. Alexithymic people were described as having difficulties experiencing and expressing emotion, lacking imagination, and being literal, socially conforming, and utilitarian; they lack insight, are humorless, and experience meaninglessness; and anxiety and tension find outlet in bodily symptoms. This description is consistent, for the most part, with modern formulations of the alexithymia construct. In the language of the two-dimensional personality model, alexithymic individuals appear to be overcontrolling and lacking ego-resiliency (i.e., constricted, anxious, rigid, and withdrawn). We, therefore, compared the Alexithymia Prototype with two independently developed prototypes, Overcontrol and Ego-Resiliency. The Q-correlations between alexithymia and overcontrol and between alexithymia and ego-resiliency were 0.45 and -0.70, respectively. Although item analyses confirmed moderate overlap between alexithymia and overcontrol and considerable overlap between alexithymia and lacking ego-resiliency (ego-brittle), item differences suggest that alexithymia, indeed, is a unique personality construct.

  15. Individual differences in dopamine level modulate the ego depletion effect.

    PubMed

    Dang, Junhua; Xiao, Shanshan; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Yumeng; Mao, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Initial exertion of self-control impairs subsequent self-regulatory performance, which is referred to as the ego depletion effect. The current study examined how individual differences in dopamine level, as indexed by eye blink rate (EBR), would moderate ego depletion. An inverted-U-shaped relationship between EBR and subsequent self-regulatory performance was found when participants initially engaged in self-control but such relationship was absent in the control condition where there was no initial exertion, suggesting individuals with a medium dopamine level may be protected from the typical ego depletion effect. These findings are consistent with a cognitive explanation which considers ego depletion as a phenomenon similar to "switch costs" that would be neutralized by factors promoting flexible switching.

  16. A Psychometric Examination of Rasmussen's Ego Identity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Robert D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examines Rasmussen's Ego Identity Scale for internal consistency reliability and construct validity. Subjects included 114 primarily White and middle-class seventh- and twelfth-grade students. Implications for identity assessment are drawn. (Author/RH)

  17. Antenna Design Using the Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-20

    small antennas in a parasitic super directive array configuration. (b) A comparison of the driven super directive gain achievable with these...we discuss antenna design optimization using EGO. The first antenna design is a parasitic super directive array where we compare EGO with a classic...In Section 4 (RESULTS AND DISCUSSION) we present design optimizations for parasitic, super directive arrays; wideband antenna design; and the

  18. Ego, my double. (The Golyadkin phenomenon).

    PubMed

    Markidis, M

    1986-01-01

    A man is haunted by his Double. The great romantic tradition lends Dostoyevsky one of its dearest subjects. The Double, not only the exact physical duplication of the hero, but also a man with the same name, plots against Mr. Golyadkin, impersonates him both at work and in his private life, leads him to madness. This essay represents an attempt to clarify the stages of the adventurous relation of the subject to its Double, starting from the Hegelian "Phenomenology of the Spirit" and the Lacanian "Mirror Stage". If the construction of the human Ego is a narcissistic alienation to the image reflected by the mirror, the potential exit from the alienation lies in the Symbolic Order inhabited by the institution of the language. The Dostoyevskian hero gets into the Order of the language already trapped by the image of his mirror, by his projection. This projection (which constitutes his paranoia) will lead him to his annihilation, because Mr. Golyadkin cannot grasp its inner meaning.

  19. Regret causes ego-depletion and finding benefits in the regrettable events alleviates ego-depletion.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongmei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Yan; Hong, Ying-Yi; Jiang, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that experiencing regret would result in ego-depletion, while finding benefits (i.e., "silver linings") in the regret-eliciting events counteracted the ego-depletion effect. Using a modified gambling paradigm (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and a retrospective method (Experiments 3 and 5), five experiments were conducted to induce regret. Results revealed that experiencing regret undermined performance on subsequent tasks, including a paper-and-pencil calculation task (Experiment 1), a Stroop task (Experiment 2), and a mental arithmetic task (Experiment 3). Furthermore, finding benefits in the regret-eliciting events improved subsequent performance (Experiments 4 and 5), and this improvement was mediated by participants' perceived vitality (Experiment 4). This study extended the depletion model of self-regulation by considering emotions with self-conscious components (in our case, regret). Moreover, it provided a comprehensive understanding of how people felt and performed after experiencing regret and after finding benefits in the events that caused the regret.

  20. The vaded ego state and the invisible bridging induction.

    PubMed

    Emmerson, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Ego state therapy is based on the assumption that personality is composed of parts. When people switch from 1 state to another, they take their ego identification with them, while their levels of affect, intellect, confidence, and skill change. A vaded ego state has become overwhelmed by fear or rejection such that when it becomes executive, it interferes with normal function and emotional stability. The angst these states carry are the root cause of psychological addictions, OCD, panic disorder, PTSD, a sense of unworthiness of love, extreme competitiveness, and much more. The invisible bridge is an induction technique that uses the somatic experience of the vaded state to provide a focus for hypnotic induction and a bridge to the original sensitizing event that vaded the previously normal state. This article contextualizes the vaded state within abnormal psychology and describes the invisible bridge induction.

  1. Ego Network Analysis of Upper Division Physics Student Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewe, Eric

    2017-01-01

    We present the analysis of student networks derived from a survey of upper division physics students. Ego networks focus on the connections that center on one person (the ego). The ego networks in this talk come from a survey that is part of an overall project focused on understanding student retention and persistence. The theory underlying this work is that social and academic integration are essential components to supporting students continued enrollment and ultimately graduation. This work uses network analysis as a way to investigate the role of social and academic interactions in retention and persistence decisions. We focus on student interactions with peers, on mentoring interactions with physics department faculty, and on engagement in physics groups and how they influence persistence. Our results, which are preliminary, will help frame the ongoing research project and identify ways in which departments can support students. This work supported by NSF grant #PHY 1344247.

  2. Nurse faculty members' ego states: transactional analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Keçeci, Ayla; Taşocak, Gülsün

    2009-10-01

    This study uses a Transactional Analysis Approach (TA) to investigate communication between faculty and students in nursing education. The research population was comprised of nurse faculty members (N=33) employed at a school of nursing and students (N=482) registered at the same school. The research sample was comprised of 26 faculty members and 325 students. Data collection was performed via questionnaires, focus group interviews and observation. Qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive analysis methods, and quantitative data were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Pearson moment correlation coefficients technique. Using the Transactional Analysis Approach (TA), faculty members viewed themselves as an Adult and felt they used the Critical Parent ego state the least. Students also perceived that faculty members used the Adult ego state the most and used the Free Child ego state the least.

  3. How Gaining Knowledge and Awareness of Ego Strength Will Assist Teachers in Understanding Learners Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanday, L. A.; Venter, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives a historical overview of the development as well as the current usage of the term ego strength. The factors involved in the development of ego strength, the impact of ego strength on learners and the necessity for teachers' awareness are discussed. A combined quantitative-qualitative research design was followed, where a group…

  4. The Psychosocial Inventory of Ego Strengths: Examination of Theory and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom, Carol A.; Marshall, Sheila K.

    2007-01-01

    The psychosocial inventory of ego strengths (PIES) was devised as a measure of Erikson's eight ego strengths. The present investigation extended previous research through examination of the validity and reliability of the PIES among 502 high school students. The study also included an appraisal of Erikson's ego strengths as indices of psychosocial…

  5. A Multilab Preregistered Replication of the Ego-Depletion Effect.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Alberts, Hugo; Anggono, Calvin Octavianus; Batailler, Cédric; Birt, Angela R; Brand, Ralf; Brandt, Mark J; Brewer, Gene; Bruyneel, Sabrina; Calvillo, Dustin P; Campbell, W Keith; Cannon, Peter R; Carlucci, Marianna; Carruth, Nicholas P; Cheung, Tracy; Crowell, Adrienne; De Ridder, Denise T D; Dewitte, Siegfried; Elson, Malte; Evans, Jacqueline R; Fay, Benjamin A; Fennis, Bob M; Finley, Anna; Francis, Zoë; Heise, Elke; Hoemann, Henrik; Inzlicht, Michael; Koole, Sander L; Koppel, Lina; Kroese, Floor; Lange, Florian; Lau, Kevin; Lynch, Bridget P; Martijn, Carolien; Merckelbach, Harald; Mills, Nicole V; Michirev, Alexej; Miyake, Akira; Mosser, Alexandra E; Muise, Megan; Muller, Dominique; Muzi, Milena; Nalis, Dario; Nurwanti, Ratri; Otgaar, Henry; Philipp, Michael C; Primoceri, Pierpaolo; Rentzsch, Katrin; Ringos, Lara; Schlinkert, Caroline; Schmeichel, Brandon J; Schoch, Sarah F; Schrama, Michel; Schütz, Astrid; Stamos, Angelos; Tinghög, Gustav; Ullrich, Johannes; Dellen, Michelle van; Wimbarti, Supra; Wolff, Wanja; Yusainy, Cleoputri; Zerhouni, Oulmann; Zwienenberg, Maria; Howe, Mark L

    2016-07-01

    Good self-control has been linked to adaptive outcomes such as better health, cohesive personal relationships, success in the workplace and at school, and less susceptibility to crime and addictions. In contrast, self-control failure is linked to maladaptive outcomes. Understanding the mechanisms by which self-control predicts behavior may assist in promoting better regulation and outcomes. A popular approach to understanding self-control is the strength or resource depletion model. Self-control is conceptualized as a limited resource that becomes depleted after a period of exertion resulting in self-control failure. The model has typically been tested using a sequential-task experimental paradigm, in which people completing an initial self-control task have reduced self-control capacity and poorer performance on a subsequent task, a state known as ego depletion Although a meta-analysis of ego-depletion experiments found a medium-sized effect, subsequent meta-analyses have questioned the size and existence of the effect and identified instances of possible bias. The analyses served as a catalyst for the current Registered Replication Report of the ego-depletion effect. Multiple laboratories (k = 23, total N = 2,141) conducted replications of a standardized ego-depletion protocol based on a sequential-task paradigm by Sripada et al. Meta-analysis of the studies revealed that the size of the ego-depletion effect was small with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) that encompassed zero (d = 0.04, 95% CI [-0.07, 0.15]. We discuss implications of the findings for the ego-depletion effect and the resource depletion model of self-control.

  6. Ego Identity, Self Esteem and Substance Use During Adolescence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-24

    RD-A173 665 EGO IDENTITY SELF ESTEEM AND SUBSTANCE USE DURING - /i ADOLESCENCE(U) ARIZONA UNIV TUCSON COLL OF MEDICINE R M JONES ET AL 24 AUG 85 UARZ...Security Classification) Ego Identity, Self Esteem and Substance Use during Adolescence. 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Jnnp5. Randall M-6 Hortmann- Rarhara R 13a...Adolescents. Drinking. Drug Use. 05 J 10 Self - Esteem . Smoking. Drug Abuse. Interpersonal Communi- 06 1 15 lratinn" Tnterprrnna1 Relatinn-hipn Sprnndarv

  7. The mediating role of interpersonal cognition on the relationships between personality and adolescent ego development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yih-Lan

    2013-01-01

    The author investigated whether interpersonal cognition mediated the relationships between defense, social sensitivity, and ego development. Participants (N = 616; M age = 15.66 years, SD = .52 year; 276 boys) from northwestern Taiwan completed a battery of questionnaires. Structural equation modeling and mediation analyses supported the hypothesis that interpersonal cognition would mediate the path between defense and ego development, and the path between social sensitivity and ego development. Defense and social sensitivity were found to have direct effects on ego development. The study provides evidence of the mediating effect of interpersonal cognition on the association between personality and ego development.

  8. Continuity and Change from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Adolescence-Limited vs. Life-Course-Persistent Profound Ego Development Arrests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Rebecca L.; Hauser, Stuart T.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    Participants (n = 36) with consistent Pre-conformist ego development levels during multiple adolescent assessments were studied to determine whether and how their ego levels had changed at age 25. Those (n = 12) whose ego levels remained at the Pre-conformist level were assigned to a "life-course-persistent profound ego development arrest"…

  9. The Influence of Chronic Ego Depletion on Goal Adherence: An Experience Sampling Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin; Wei, Chuguang

    2015-01-01

    Although ego depletion effects have been widely observed in experiments in which participants perform consecutive self-control tasks, the process of ego depletion remains poorly understood. Using the strength model of self-control, we hypothesized that chronic ego depletion adversely affects goal adherence and that mental effort and motivation are involved in the process of ego depletion. In this study, 203 students reported their daily performance, mental effort, and motivation with respect to goal directed behavior across a 3-week time period. People with high levels of chronic ego depletion were less successful in goal adherence than those with less chronic ego depletion. Although daily effort devoted to goal adherence increased with chronic ego depletion, motivation to adhere to goals was not affected. Participants with high levels of chronic ego depletion showed a stronger positive association between mental effort and performance, but chronic ego depletion did not play a regulatory role in the effect of motivation on performance. Chronic ego depletion increased the likelihood of behavior regulation failure, suggesting that it is difficult for people in an ego-depletion state to adhere to goals. We integrate our results with the findings of previous studies and discuss possible theoretical implications. PMID:26562839

  10. Children’s Negative Emotions and Ego-Resiliency: Longitudinal Relations With Social Competence

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the relations of negative emotions in toddlerhood to the development of ego-resiliency and social competence across early childhood. Specifically, we addressed whether fear and anger/frustration in 30-month-old children (N = 213) was associated with the development of ego-resiliency across 4 time points (42 to 84 months), and, in turn, whether ego-resiliency predicted social competence at 84 months. Child anger/frustration negatively predicted the intercept of ego-resiliency at 42 months (controlling for prior ego-resiliency at 18 months) as well as the slope. Fear did not significantly predict either the intercept or slope of ego-resiliency in the structural model, although it was positively correlated with anger/frustration and was negatively related to ego-resiliency in zero-order correlations. The slope of ego-resiliency was positively related to children’s social competence at 84 months; however, the intercept of ego-resiliency (set at 42 months) was not a significant predictor of later social competence. Furthermore, the slope of ego-resiliency mediated the relations between anger/frustration and children’s later social competence. The results suggest that individual differences in anger/frustration might contribute to the development of ego-resiliency, which, in turn, is associated with children’s social competence. PMID:24364850

  11. The Influence of Chronic Ego Depletion on Goal Adherence: An Experience Sampling Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin; Wei, Chuguang

    2015-01-01

    Although ego depletion effects have been widely observed in experiments in which participants perform consecutive self-control tasks, the process of ego depletion remains poorly understood. Using the strength model of self-control, we hypothesized that chronic ego depletion adversely affects goal adherence and that mental effort and motivation are involved in the process of ego depletion. In this study, 203 students reported their daily performance, mental effort, and motivation with respect to goal directed behavior across a 3-week time period. People with high levels of chronic ego depletion were less successful in goal adherence than those with less chronic ego depletion. Although daily effort devoted to goal adherence increased with chronic ego depletion, motivation to adhere to goals was not affected. Participants with high levels of chronic ego depletion showed a stronger positive association between mental effort and performance, but chronic ego depletion did not play a regulatory role in the effect of motivation on performance. Chronic ego depletion increased the likelihood of behavior regulation failure, suggesting that it is difficult for people in an ego-depletion state to adhere to goals. We integrate our results with the findings of previous studies and discuss possible theoretical implications.

  12. Children's negative emotions and ego-resiliency: longitudinal relations with social competence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Zoe E; Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D; Spinrad, Tracy L

    2014-04-01

    We examined the relations of negative emotions in toddlerhood to the development of ego-resiliency and social competence across early childhood. Specifically, we addressed whether fear and anger/frustration in 30-month-old children (N = 213) was associated with the development of ego-resiliency across 4 time points (42 to 84 months), and, in turn, whether ego-resiliency predicted social competence at 84 months. Child anger/frustration negatively predicted the intercept of ego-resiliency at 42 months (controlling for prior ego-resiliency at 18 months) as well as the slope. Fear did not significantly predict either the intercept or slope of ego-resiliency in the structural model, although it was positively correlated with anger/frustration and was negatively related to ego-resiliency in zero-order correlations. The slope of ego-resiliency was positively related to children's social competence at 84 months; however, the intercept of ego-resiliency (set at 42 months) was not a significant predictor of later social competence. Furthermore, the slope of ego-resiliency mediated the relations between anger/frustration and children's later social competence. The results suggest that individual differences in anger/frustration might contribute to the development of ego-resiliency, which, in turn, is associated with children's social competence.

  13. Ego Identity Status: A Step in the Differentiation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick; Buboltz, Walter C., Jr.; Seemann, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationship between identity development and differentiation levels in young adults. A total of 259 participants completed the Extended Version of the Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, the Differentiation of Self Inventory, and demographic questions. Results showed that each identity status had a unique effect on the various…

  14. Ego Develoopment and Psychopathology: A Study of Hospitalized Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noam, Gil G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Achenbach and Edelbrock Child Behavior Checklist factor scores were compared with ego stage through correlational and multiple regression analyses. Findings indicated significant negative correlations with the externalizing and internalizing factors and with a variety of behavioral subscales. A significant relationship was found between the total…

  15. Confronting Task Difficulty in Ego Involvement: Change in Performance Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shamala; Jagacinski, Carolyn M.

    2011-01-01

    Both Dweck (1986) and Nicholls (1984) proposed that when ego-involved individuals encounter difficulty, they would begin to doubt their level of ability, and as a consequence, their commitment to the goal of demonstrating high ability would decline. As difficulty continued, perceived ability would decline, and eventually the goal would be…

  16. Promoting Ego Development and Multicultural Competence during Internship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Edward P.; Frank, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    This research involved an exploratory intervention to determine the effectiveness of using a deliberate psychological education (DPE) approach that incorporated issues of ethics, multicultural competence, oppression and diversity. The study attempted to discern if the DPE model used could make a difference in the promotion of ego development…

  17. Physical Activity Perceptions of Task- and Ego-Oriented Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshanks, Carla M.

    2010-01-01

    Children begin to show sedentary behaviors around the age of 12 and increased mortality is associated with sedentary behaviors in children and adults. This case study examined physical activity (PA) perceptions of task oriented and ego oriented children. Research has addressed perceptions based on goal orientations and how perception of PA changes…

  18. Construct Validity of the Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loevinger, Jane

    1979-01-01

    Evidence for the construct validity of Washington University's Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development is reviewed. The test has adequate validity for research purposes but is neither valid nor reliable enough to be used as a clinical instrument without further confirming data. (BH)

  19. Ego Identity, Self Esteem and Substance Use during Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall M.; Hartmann, Barbara R.

    The similarity of factors which mediate psychosocial maturity and those which are associated with substance use or abuse suggests a reciprocal relationship between ego identity development and behavior. Because substance use has increased in our society, has become socially acceptable in some contexts, and has an effect on the perception of…

  20. Ego Development and Preferred Social Distance from Persons with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaffer, Beverly L.; Sias, Shari M.; Toriello, Paul J.; Cubero, Christopher G.

    2008-01-01

    Bias toward persons with disabilities (PWD) is of particular interest in the rehabilitation counseling and allied health professions since negative attitudes among providers can marginalize the treatment of PWD. This exploratory study examined the influence of socio cognitive development, as measured by ego development (Hy & Loevinger, 1996), on…

  1. Linking psychoanalysis with neuroscience: the concept of ego.

    PubMed

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Semi, Antonio Alberto; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena

    2014-03-01

    Through his whole life Marc Jeannerod was fascinated by Freud's thinking. His interest in Freud is witnessed by several of his writings in which he expresses interest in building a bridge between psychoanalysis and cognitive neuroscience. Following Jeannerod's ideas we discuss here a fundamental point of Freud's construction, the concept of ego, from a neurophysiological point of view. We maintain that, in order both to act coherently and to have a basic, first person, understanding of the behavior of others, it is necessary to posit the existence of a neurophysiological "motor" ego similar to the "rider" of the Freudian metaphor. We review then a series of neurophysiological findings showing that the systems underlying the organization of action and conscious perception are both mediated by a cortical motor network formed by parieto-frontal circuits. In conclusion, we show that the activity of this network has strong similarities to that postulated by Freud for the conscious part of ego. We also propose that the default-mode network might represent that part of ego that is mostly involved in unconscious processes.

  2. Imagery Measures of Ego, Id, Superego, and Identity: Validity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, D.; DeBruin, J.

    1988-01-01

    Five validity studies of the id, ego, superego, and identity scales of the Study of Imagery are reported, using undergraduate students. Multistage Bonferroni procedures are used to evaluate the significance of results. The scales are related to each other and to toughmindedness, self-control, and behavioral conflict. (TJH)

  3. The Role of Ego Networks in Studies of Substance Use Disorder Recovery.

    PubMed

    Stone, Ariel; Jason, Leonard A; Light, John M; Stevens, Edward B

    Those who study treatment and recovery from alcohol use disorder (AUD) and substance use disorder (SUD) generally agree that an individual's social context impacts his or her success (or failure) in recovery. Recently, as the use of social network analysis has increased, studies on SUD recovery and treatment have adopted ego networks as a research tool. This review aims to tie together a thread of research for an efficient and effective summary. We selected peer-reviewed articles on individuals receiving treatment an intervention for SUD or AUD that used ego network measures of individual social networks. Ego networks have been studied as treatment outcomes, predictors of treatment outcomes in general, and how an individual's ego network might be used to predict what specific treatment is most likely to succeed. We discuss relevant findings of studies using ego networks, the strengths and weaknesses of ego network approaches, and how future studies may benefit from the use of ego networks.

  4. The relationship between early ego strength and adolescent responses to the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Andrekus, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Ego resiliency and ego control, measured when subjects were 3 or 4 years old, were related to expectation of war, concern for the future, and activism in response to the threat of nuclear war, measured when subjects were 18 years old. Data from 92 participants in a longitudinal study of ego and cognitive development conducted by Jeanne and Jack Block at the University of California, Berkeley were used to test hypotheses. Assessments with the California Child Q-set, composited across multiple independent observers, provide measures of ego resiliency and ego control. Adolescent interviews regarding the perception of likelihood of nuclear war, how this affects their future, and their antinuclear and general political activism were scaled and rated. Early ego resiliency and ego under control were hypothesized to account for the variance in adolescent nuclear responses and activism. The only significant longitudinal relationships were in the female sample, where ego under control was found to be a significant predictor of both general political activism (p<.01) and ideas of the future being affected by the nuclear threat (p<.05). Among males, the relationship between early ego resiliency and adolescent antinuclear activism approached significance (p<.10). Adolescent personality was significantly related to several measures of nuclear response. In girls, adolescent ego under control related to perception of likelihood of nuclear war (p<.05) and antinuclear activism (p<.05), and the interaction of ego resiliency and ego under control predicted general political activism (p<.0005). In boys, adolescent ego resiliency correlated with antinuclear activism (p<.05). These findings were discussed in terms of antecedent parenting styles, and conceptual links were drawn between children's ego resiliency and security of attachment, perspective taking, and moral development.

  5. Ego-motion based on EM for bionic navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xiaofeng; Wang, L. J.; Liu, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Researches have proved that flying insects such as bees can achieve efficient and robust flight control, and biologists have explored some biomimetic principles regarding how they control flight. Based on those basic studies and principles acquired from the flying insects, this paper proposes a different solution of recovering ego-motion for low level navigation. Firstly, a new type of entropy flow is provided to calculate the motion parameters. Secondly, EKF, which has been used for navigation for some years to correct accumulated error, and estimation-Maximization, which is always used to estimate parameters, are put together to determine the ego-motion estimation of aerial vehicles. Numerical simulation on MATLAB has proved that this navigation system provides more accurate position and smaller mean absolute error than pure optical flow navigation. This paper has done pioneering work in bionic mechanism to space navigation.

  6. Endgame implementations for the Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southall, Hugh L.; O'Donnell, Teresa H.; Kaanta, Bryan

    2009-05-01

    Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) is a competent evolutionary algorithm which can be useful for problems with expensive cost functions [1,2,3,4,5]. The goal is to find the global minimum using as few function evaluations as possible. Our research indicates that EGO requires far fewer evaluations than genetic algorithms (GAs). However, both algorithms do not always drill down to the absolute minimum, therefore the addition of a final local search technique is indicated. In this paper, we introduce three "endgame" techniques. The techniques can improve optimization efficiency (fewer cost function evaluations) and, if required, they can provide very accurate estimates of the global minimum. We also report results using a different cost function than the one previously used [2,3].

  7. Beyond Empathy: The Tree of Compassion With Malevolent Ego States.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Claire

    2016-04-01

    Therapy with seriously dissociated patients requires the transformation and integration of malevolent ego states that produce a wide assortment of negative experiences and behaviors in the patient. During the course of therapy, they can present dangers to both patient and therapist, as well as to the therapeutic process (Watkins & Watkins, 1984). Perhaps the greatest challenges for therapists in this work are the development and the maintenance of empathy for these personality aspects. Without some degree of empathy, a healing therapeutic alliance cannot be formed, and absent a secure, healing, intersubjective experience, it is unlikely that malevolent ego states can undergo sufficient transformation for integration. Essential elements for developing and sustaining both the necessary empathy and the compassion, the altruistic activity that empathy engenders, are presented.

  8. Ego-Vehicle Corridors for Vision-Based Driver Assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ruyi; Klette, Reinhard; Vaudrey, Tobi; Wang, Shigang

    Improving or generalizing lane detection solutions on curved roads with possibly broken lane marks is still a challenging task. This paper proposes a concept of a (virtual) corridor for modeling the space an ego-vehicle is able to drive through, using available (but often incomplete, e.g., due to occlusion, road conditions, or road intersections) information about the lane marks but also about the motion and relative position (with respect to the road) of the ego-vehicle. A corridor is defined in this paper by special features, such as two fixed starting points, a constant width, and a unique relationship with visible lane marks. Robust corridor detection is possible by hypothesis testing based on maximum a posterior (MAP) estimation, followed by boundary selection, and road patch extension. Obstacles are explicitly considered. A corridor tracking method is also discussed. Experimental results are provided.

  9. Toward perception-based navigation using EgoSphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiko; Peters, R. Alan; Wilkes, Don M.; Koku, Ahmet B.; Sekman, Ali

    2002-02-01

    A method for perception-based egocentric navigation of mobile robots is described. Each robot has a local short-term memory structure called the Sensory EgoSphere (SES), which is indexed by azimuth, elevation, and time. Directional sensory processing modules write information on the SES at the location corresponding to the source direction. Each robot has a partial map of its operational area that it has received a priori. The map is populated with landmarks and is not necessarily metrically accurate. Each robot is given a goal location and a route plan. The route plan is a set of via-points that are not used directly. Instead, a robot uses each point to construct a Landmark EgoSphere (LES) a circular projection of the landmarks from the map onto an EgoSphere centered at the via-point. Under normal circumstances, the LES will be mostly unaffected by slight variations in the via-point location. Thus, the route plan is transformed into a set of via-regions each described by an LES. A robot navigates by comparing the next LES in its route plan to the current contents of its SES. It heads toward the indicated landmarks until its SES matches the LES sufficiently to indicate that the robot is near the suggested via-point. The proposed method is particularly useful for enabling the exchange of robust route informa-tion between robots under low data rate communications constraints. An example of such an exchange is given.

  10. Transference and countertransference to medication and its implications for ego function.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Eric R

    2007-01-01

    Transference to medication can provide important information about specific ego dysfunction in sicker patients who often need medication. Whether positive or negative or both in content, the organization of the experience provides one example of the illness' effect on the patients' ego and can therefore be a specific diagnostic assessment strategy. Early resistances to medication may reveal the nature of resistances to the therapeutic alliance and to higher-level ego function. Understanding this can guide verbal and pharmacological interventions to strengthen ego function. Countertransference can similarly be helpful because it, too, can be a highly specific diagnostic indicator.

  11. Ego Depletion and the Strength Model of Self-Control: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagger, Martin S.; Wood, Chantelle; Stiff, Chris; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.

    2010-01-01

    According to the strength model, self-control is a finite resource that determines capacity for effortful control over dominant responses and, once expended, leads to impaired self-control task performance, known as "ego depletion". A meta-analysis of 83 studies tested the effect of ego depletion on task performance and related outcomes,…

  12. Behavioral Problems in Childhood and Adolescence as Predictors of Ego-Level Attainment in Early Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Ullrich, Manuela; Hofmann, Volker; Edelstein, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Examined how externalizing as well as internalizing behavioral problems in childhood and adolescence predict young adults' personalities as represented by Loevinger's (1976) model of ego development. Demonstrated that behavioral problems in childhood and adolescence predict young adults' ego-level attainment in unique and meaningful ways.…

  13. The Skin-Ego: Dyadic Sensuality, Trauma in Infancy, and Adult Narcissistic Issues.

    PubMed

    Anzieu-Premmereur, Christine

    2015-10-01

    The skin-ego is a metaphor created by the French psychoanalyst Didier Anzieu to describe the process by which the infant's emerging ego develops a container for psychic contents and achieves a secure feeling of well-being. The ego encloses the psychic apparatus as the skin encloses the body. The ego becomes able to fix barriers protecting the internal world and to screen exchanges with the id, the superego, and the outside world. The skin-ego is an envelope that contains thoughts and gives to thinking activity some limits, continuity, and a protection against the instincts. The functions of the skin-ego are to maintain thoughts, to contain ideas and affects, to provide a protective shield, to register traces of primary communication with the outside world, to manage inter-sensorial correspondences, to individuate, to support sexual excitation, and to recharge the libido. The skin-ego is the foundation of the container-contained relationship. An important part of psychoanalytic work with borderline patients is the reconstruction of the earliest phases of the skin-ego and their consequences for mental organization.

  14. The Bright Side of Threatened Narcissism: Improved Performance Following Ego Threat.

    PubMed

    Nevicka, Barbora; Baas, Matthijs; Ten Velden, Femke S

    2016-12-01

    Narcissistic individuals have highly positive self-views and overestimate their abilities. Consequently, they tend to react aggressively whenever they receive information that does not match their high self-views (ego threat). We argue that focusing on aggression merely portrays a one-sided view of narcissistic individuals and the manner in which they counter ego threats. We propose that following ego threat, narcissism can also fuel performance. In four studies, we measured nonclinical narcissism and allocated Dutch undergraduate university students (N1  = 175, N2  = 142, N3  = 159, N4  = 174) to either an ego threat or a no ego threat condition. Ego threat involved negative feedback (Studies 1-2) or threat to uniqueness (Studies 3-4). We measured participants' intentions to complete a challenging task (Study 1), their creative performance (Studies 2-3), and their performance on an anagram task (Study 4). Across Studies 1-3, we consistently found that following ego threat, higher nonclinical narcissism was associated with greater willingness to perform tasks that enabled demonstration of abilities and enhanced creative performance. These results were confirmed using a meta-analysis. However, anagram performance was not enhanced following ego threat. We provide additional analyses that might help explain this. Our findings thus reveal a more positive side to the way narcissistic individuals manage threats to their self-image.

  15. Stage of Ego Development and Leadership Capacity: A Study of Twelve Illinois School District Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Christina Kay

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods research study investigated stage of ego development and "leadership capacity" in a purposeful, stratified sample of 12 Illinois school district superintendents. The purpose of this study was to determine the following: 1) are postconventional stages of ego development evidenced in school superintendents; 2) do the…

  16. Ego Depletion Effects on Mathematics Performance in Primary School Students: Why Take the Hard Road?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Deborah Ann; Yates, Gregory C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction in performance level following on from brief periods of self-control is referred to as ego depletion. This study aimed to investigate if a brief ego depletion experience would impact upon primary school students working through an online mathematics exercise involving 40 computational trials. Seventy-two students participated in the…

  17. Ego Strength Development of Adolescents Involved in Adult-Sponsored Structured Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom, Carol A.; Li, Xaioming; Blackshire, Shana L.; Wilfong, Juanita J.

    2005-01-01

    A psychosocial conception of ego strengths is presented in relation to adolescent involvement in adult-sponsored structured youth activities. Five-hundred and seventeen high school students completed measures on their involvement in structured activities and on 8 ego strengths. Gender, age, and SES were controlled in a MANCOVA procedure and it was…

  18. Disparity of Ego-Identity Components in Relation to Psychological Security of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Diyar, Mosaad Abu; Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating the Ego-identity components and the disparity of these components in relation to the psychological security of adolescents in Egypt. The sample of the study consisted of (400) male and female adolescents. The researchers used two main instruments; the psychological security scale and the Ego-identity scale.…

  19. The Role of Socialization, Effortful Control, and Ego Resiliency in French Adolescents' Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Claire; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The relations among effortful control, ego resiliency, socialization, and social functioning were examined with a sample of 182 French adolescents (14-20 years old). Adolescents, their parents, and/or teachers completed questionnaires on these constructs. Effortful control and ego resiliency were correlated with adolescents' social functioning,…

  20. Ego-Centricism and Cognitive Functioning in Iranian Young Adults' Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahimi, Pouria

    2008-01-01

    This introspective paper proves Iranian young adults' ego-centricism and its cognitive functioning an encumbrance in English language learning. Thru a brief look at the initiation of language acquisition in children and the generalizibility to language teaching and learning programs, it is realized that the ego of every learner is the main axis of…

  1. Racial Identity Attitudes and Ego Identity Statuses in Dominican and Puerto Rican College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses in 94 Dominican and Puerto Rican Latino college students in an urban public college setting. Simultaneous regression analyses were conducted to test the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses, and findings indicated that…

  2. Racial Differences in Indices of Ego Functioning Relevant to Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessing, Elise E.

    The following hypotheses were investigated: (1) Negro children have lower academic achievement than whites, (2) the ego variables of sense personal control and willingness to delay gratification are significantly related to academic achievement and (3) Negro children score significantly lower on both ego variables. Subjects included 237 eighth…

  3. Graduate Counseling Students' Levels of Ego Development, Wellness, and Psychological Disturbance: An Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambie, Glenn W.; Smith, Heather L.; Ieva, Kara P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the findings of a descriptive, correlational study of 111 graduate counseling students' levels of ego development (L. X. Hy & J. Loevinger, 1996), wellness (J. E. Myers & T. J. Sweeney, 2005), and psychological disturbance (M. J. Lambert et al., 2004). Higher levels of ego maturity were associated with higher wellness scores.…

  4. Some technical implications of Klein's concept of 'premature ego development'.

    PubMed

    Mitrani, Judith L

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, the author revisits the problem of 'premature ego development' first introduced by Melanie Klein in 1930. She also highlights several developments in post-Kleinian thinking since the publication of that paper, which can be seen as offshoots of or complements to Klein's work. The author proposes a link between this category of precocious development and the absence of the experience of what Bion termed the 'containing object.' She puts forward several technical considerations relevant to analytic work with patients who suffer as a result of early developmental failures and presents various clinical vignettes in order to demonstrate the ways in which these considerations take shape in the analytic setting.

  5. Parental attitudes and ego identity status of Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cakir, S Gulfem; Aydin, Gul

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the differences among 403 middle adolescents regarding Marcia's four identity statuses in terms of perceived parental attitudes and gender. The Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOMEIS-2) and Parental Education Scale (PAS) were used to collect data. Results showed that children of authoritative parents scored significantly higher on identity foreclosure than those of neglectful parents. Children of permissive parents scored significantly higher on identity foreclosure than those of neglectful parents. In addition, female students scored higher on achievement identity status while male students scored higher on identity foreclosure.

  6. Ego depletion results in an increase in spontaneous false memories.

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Alberts, Hugo; Cuppens, Lesly

    2012-12-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to examine whether depleted cognitive resources might have ramifications for the formation of neutral and negative spontaneous false memories. To examine this, participants received neutral and negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott false memory wordlists. Also, for half of the participants, cognitive resources were depleted by use of an ego depletion manipulation (solving difficult calculations while being interfered with auditory noise). Our chief finding was that depleted cognitive resources made participants more vulnerable for the production of false memories. Our results shed light on how depleted cognitive resources affect neutral and negative correct and errant memories.

  7. The function of wisdom dimensions in ego-identity development among Chinese university students.

    PubMed

    Bang, Hyeyoung; Zhou, Yuchun

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between wisdom and ego-identity among university students in China. Using Marcia's ego-identity statuses and Ardelt's wisdom dimensions as the theoretical and conceptual framework, the study investigates 356 university students in China. After exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, four factors from wisdom and five factors from ego-identity were retrieved. A structural equation model was then conducted to analyse the relationships. The findings were: (1) among wisdom dimensions, cognitive, and reflective wisdom, especially perspective-taking best predicted achievement, (2) all three dimensions of wisdom predicted moratorium, but reflective wisdom was the most pronounced predictor, (3) all three dimensions of wisdom predicted diffusion, but resentment items from reflective wisdom were the most pronounced predictors, and (4) gender was a significant predictor of ego-identity achievement and diffusion. These findings suggest that efforts to build reflective wisdom might contribute to healthier ego-identity formation.

  8. The influence of ego depletion on sprint start performance in athletes without track and field experience

    PubMed Central

    Englert, Chris; Persaud, Brittany N.; Oudejans, Raôul R. D.; Bertrams, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We tested the assumption that ego depletion would affect the sprint start in a sample of N = 38 athletes without track and field experience in an experiment by applying a mixed between- (depletion vs. non-depletion) within- (T1: before manipulation of ego depletion vs. T2: after manipulation of ego depletion) subjects design. We assumed that ego depletion would increase the possibility for a false start, as regulating the impulse to initiate the sprinting movement too soon before the starting signal requires self-control. In line with our assumption, we found a significant interaction as there was only a significant increase in the number of false starts from T1 to T2 for the depletion group while this was not the case for the non-depletion group. We conclude that ego depletion has a detrimental influence on the sprint start in athletes without track and field experience. PMID:26347678

  9. Sweet delusion. Glucose drinks fail to counteract ego depletion.

    PubMed

    Lange, Florian; Eggert, Frank

    2014-04-01

    Initial acts of self-control have repeatedly been shown to reduce individuals' performance on a consecutive self-control task. In addition, sugar containing drinks have been demonstrated to counteract this so-called ego-depletion effect, both when being ingested and when merely being sensed in the oral cavity. However, since the underlying evidence is less compelling than suggested, replications are crucially required. In Experiment 1, 70 participants consumed a drink containing either sugar or a non-caloric sweetener between two administrations of delay-discounting tasks. Experiment 2 (N=115) was designed to unravel the psychological function of oral glucose sensing by manipulating the temporal delay between a glucose mouth rinse and the administration of the consecutive self-control task. Despite applying powerful research designs, no effect of sugar sensing or ingestion on ego depletion could be detected. These findings add to previous challenges of the glucose model of self-control and highlight the need for independent replications.

  10. "Ego-dystonic" delusions as a predictor of dangerous behavior.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Zislin; Victor, Kuperman; Rimona, Durst

    2011-06-01

    This paper aims to report a possible warning sign for dangerous behavior in delusional psychotic patients. We demonstrate an association between aggressive or auto-aggressive ideation and "ego-dystonic" grandiose delusions, where the patient believes to possess unique qualities but finds them unbearable. The study is based on the sample of seven interviews with five psychotic in-patients at the Kfar Shaul Mental Health Center, Jerusalem, Israel. All patients experienced an acute psychotic episode, and committed acts of aggression or suicidality. The research method is narrative analysis of semi-structured interviews. Patients report ideas of grandiose self-identification with deities, Biblical figures or celebrities, yet report their reluctance to be in these high positions due to feelings of unworthiness, withdrawal, and social isolation. Resulting frustration arguably leads to aggressive and suicidal ideation or actions. Contrary to the established view, grandiose delusions are not free of association with (auto-)aggression. The patient's ego-dystonic attitude towards his/her delusional identity may serve as the warning sign for dangerous behavior and, as such, should be searched for and recognized by the mental health professionals.

  11. Correlation of Risk Analysis Method Results with Numerical and Limit Equilibrium Methods in Overall Slope Stability Analysis of Southern Wall of Chadormalu Iron Open Pit Mine-Iran / Korelacja wyników analizy ryzyka z wynikami obliczeń numerycznych oraz wynikami uzyskanymi w oparciu o metodę równowagi granicznej zastosowanych do badania stabilności wyrobiska pochyłego na południowej ścianie odkrywkowej kopalni rud żelaza w chadormalu w Iranie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahangari, Kaveh; Paji, Arman Gholinezhad; Behdani, Alireza Siami

    2013-06-01

    trzech spośród tych metod: metody numerycznej, równowagi granicznej oraz metody probabilistycznej, do analizy stabilności wyrobiska pochyłego na południowej ścianie kopalni rud żelaza w Chadormalu w Iranie. Oprogramowanie wykorzystane w badaniach analitycznych to pakiet FLAK przy metodzie numerycznej, oprogramowanie SLIDE oraz wykresy kołowe przy metodzie równowagi granicznej oraz jakościowe drzewa określające występowanie uskoków i pół-jakościowe macierze ryzyka przy metodzie probabilistycznej. Wyniki uzyskane w oparciu o trzy wyżej wymienione metody wykazały wystąpienie zawalenia się skał metasomatycznych na poziomie od 1405 do 1525 m. Głównymi czynnikami warunkującymi zawalenie się skał w tym regionie była obecność licznych pęknięć oraz uskoków. Wskaźniki bezpieczeństwa uzyskane przy pomocy metod numerycznych, wykresu kołowego oraz oprogramowanie SLIDE wyniosły kolejno: 1.16, 1.25, 1.27. W odniesieniu do niestabilności w rejonie skał metasomatycznych, aby uczynić tę strefę bardziej stabilną należy uwzględnić takie czynniki jak kąt nachylenia ławy oraz obniżenie wysokości. Analiza przeprowadzona w oparciu o macierze ryzyka wykazała, że strefa ta jest strefą wysokiego ryzyka, zaś wyniki analizy numerycznej oraz wyników uzyskanych przy pomocy metody równowagi granicznej w pełni ten wniosek potwierdziły.

  12. Finding the self by losing the self: Neural correlates of ego-dissolution under psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Alexander V; Lövdén, Martin; Rosenthal, Gidon; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2015-08-01

    Ego-disturbances have been a topic in schizophrenia research since the earliest clinical descriptions of the disorder. Manifesting as a feeling that one's "self," "ego," or "I" is disintegrating or that the border between one's self and the external world is dissolving, "ego-disintegration" or "dissolution" is also an important feature of the psychedelic experience, such as is produced by psilocybin (a compound found in "magic mushrooms"). Fifteen healthy subjects took part in this placebo-controlled study. Twelve-minute functional MRI scans were acquired on two occasions: subjects received an intravenous infusion of saline on one occasion (placebo) and 2 mg psilocybin on the other. Twenty-two visual analogue scale ratings were completed soon after scanning and the first principal component of these, dominated by items referring to "ego-dissolution", was used as a primary measure of interest in subsequent analyses. Employing methods of connectivity analysis and graph theory, an association was found between psilocybin-induced ego-dissolution and decreased functional connectivity between the medial temporal lobe and high-level cortical regions. Ego-dissolution was also associated with a "disintegration" of the salience network and reduced interhemispheric communication. Addressing baseline brain dynamics as a predictor of drug-response, individuals with lower diversity of executive network nodes were more likely to experience ego-dissolution under psilocybin. These results implicate MTL-cortical decoupling, decreased salience network integrity, and reduced inter-hemispheric communication in psilocybin-induced ego disturbance and suggest that the maintenance of "self"or "ego," as a perceptual phenomenon, may rest on the normal functioning of these systems.

  13. Ego depletion increases ad-lib alcohol consumption: investigating cognitive mediators and moderators.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Paul; Cole, Jon C; Field, Matt

    2012-04-01

    When self-control resources are depleted ("ego depletion"), alcohol-seeking behavior becomes closely associated with automatic alcohol-related processing biases (e.g., Ostafin, Marlatt, & Greenwald, 2008). The current study aimed to replicate and extend these findings, and also to investigate whether the effects of ego depletion on drinking behavior would be mediated by temporary impairments in executive function or increases in impulsivity. Eighty heavy social drinkers (46 female) initially completed measures of automatic approach tendencies (stimulus response compatibility [SRC] task) and attentional bias (visual probe task) elicited by alcohol-related cues. Participants were then exposed to either an ego depletion manipulation or a control manipulation, before completing a bogus taste test in order to assess ad-lib alcohol consumption. In a subsequent testing session, we examined effects of the ego depletion manipulation (vs. control manipulation) on 3 aspects of executive function (inhibitory control, phonemic fluency, and delay discounting). Results indicated that the ego depletion manipulation increased ad-lib drinking, relative to the control manipulation. Automatic approach tendencies, but not attentional bias, predicted ad-lib drinking, although this effect was not moderated by ego depletion. Ego depletion had inconsistent effects on measures of executive function and impulsivity, and none of these measures mediated the effect of ego depletion on ad-lib drinking. However, the effect of ego depletion on ad-lib drinking was mediated by self-reported effort in suppressing emotion and thoughts during the manipulation. Implications for the effects of self-control strength on drinking behavior, and cognitive mediators of these effects, are discussed.

  14. Phenomenological and evidence based research in ego state therapy: recognized and unrecognized successes and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hageman, Joan H; Frederick, Claire

    2013-07-01

    The status of research in ego state therapy is examined against the backdrop of 20th and 21st century developments in the philosophy of science and the emerging recognition of the subjective as a vital element in all science. Attention is paid to the phenomenological method because until recently phenomenological studies have been the basis for the standards of care and training in ego state therapy as well as in many aspects of hypnotically facilitated psychotherapy. The importance of bringing an end to the "science wars" through the integration of the subjective and the objective, of phenomenological studies and evidence-based studies in ego state therapy and hypnosis research, is proposed.

  15. Ego boundary as process: a systemic-contextual approach.

    PubMed

    Polster, S

    1983-08-01

    This paper examines the ego boundary construct, outlining its origin and development within psychoanalytic theory and demonstrating the ways in which its interpretation and use have been affected and circumscribed by the structural model upon which psychoanalytic theory is based. In particular, I will discuss the sequence of reasoning by which the construct boundary became synonymous with barrier at the expense of consideration of its role in maintaining contact and exchange with the world. The contributions and limitations of the mathematical model of Kurt Lewin are also discussed. An alternative systemic-contextual model is proposed, a model which describes boundary not as barrier but as dialectical processes of separation and inclusion which mediate a person's complex relationship with the world.

  16. Healing the wounded self: combining hypnotherapy with ego state therapy.

    PubMed

    Alladin, Assen

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to formulate a theoretical conceptualization for utilizing ego state therapy (EST) as an adjunct with cognitive hypnotherapy (CH) for depression. As the relationship between life events and onset of depression is very complex, it is not clear from current literature how stressors cause depressive symptoms. The notion of "wounded self," derived from the work of Wolfe (2005, 2006), is examined as a potential unifying concept for binding the role of risk factors in the precipitation of depression. By incorporating wounded self, the circular feedback model of depression, on which CH for depression is based, is expanded. This revised version provides conceptual and empirical underpinnings for integrating EST with CH in the management of depression.

  17. The effect of ego depletion on sprint start reaction time.

    PubMed

    Englert, Chris; Bertrams, Alex

    2014-10-01

    In the current study, we consider that optimal sprint start performance requires the self-control of responses. Therefore, start performance should depend on athletes' self-control strength. We assumed that momentary depletion of self-control strength (ego depletion) would either speed up or slow down the initiation of a sprint start, where an initiation that was sped up would carry the increased risk of a false start. Applying a mixed between- (depletion vs. nondepletion) and within- (before vs. after manipulation of depletion) subjects design, we tested the start reaction times of 37 sport students. We found that participants' start reaction times decelerated after finishing a depleting task, whereas it remained constant in the nondepletion condition. These results indicate that sprint start performance can be impaired by unrelated preceding actions that lower momentary self-control strength. We discuss practical implications in terms of optimizing sprint starts and related overall sprint performance.

  18. Nature gives us strength: exposure to nature counteracts ego-depletion.

    PubMed

    Chow, Jason T; Lau, Shun

    2015-01-01

    Previous research rarely investigated the role of physical environment in counteracting ego-depletion. In the present research, we hypothesized that exposure to natural environment counteracts ego-depletion. Three experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. In Experiment 1, initially depleted participants who viewed pictures of nature scenes showed greater persistence on a subsequent anagram task than those who were given a rest period. Experiment 2 expanded upon this finding by showing that natural environment enhanced logical reasoning performance after ego-depleting task. Experiment 3 adopted a two- (depletion vs. no-depletion) -by-two (nature exposure vs. urban exposure) factorial design. We found that nature exposure moderated the effect of depletion on anagram task performance. Taken together, the present studies offer a viable and novel strategy to mitigate the negative impacts of ego-depletion.

  19. Sex role identity in young adults: its parental antecedents and relation to ego development.

    PubMed

    Costos, D

    1986-03-01

    This study, inspired by Block's (1973) work, was designed to enable one to examine how ego development and socialization experience interact in relation to sex role identity. Sex role identity was measured via the Bem Sex Role Inventory, and socialization practices were measured via the Block Child-Rearing Practices Report. Both measures were scaled so as to yield scores on agency, communion, and androgyny. Ego development was assessed via Loevinger's Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development. The sample consisted of 120 young adult men and women, married and single. Analyses revealed that the predictive power of the variables differed by sex. Ego development was predictive of sex role identity in men but not women, whereas socialization practices were predictive of sex role identity in women but not men. The results were seen as supporting Chodorow's (1974) position regarding the differing socialization experiences of men and women.

  20. Relations of parenting style to Chinese children's effortful control, ego resilience, and maladjustment.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Chang, Lei; Ma, Yue; Huang, Xiaorui

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of authoritative parenting and corporal punishment to Chinese first and second graders' effortful control (EC), impulsivity, ego resilience, and maladjustment, as well as mediating relations. A parent and teacher reported on children's EC, impulsivity, and ego resilience; parents reported on children's internalizing symptoms and their own parenting, and teachers and peers reported on children's externalizing symptoms. Authoritative parenting and low corporal punishment predicted high EC, and EC mediated the relation between parenting and externalizing problems. In addition, impulsivity mediated the relation of corporal punishment to externalizing problems. The relation of parenting to children's ego resilience was mediated by EC and/or impulsivity, and ego resilience mediated the relations of EC and impulsivity to internalizing problems.

  1. Relations of parenting style to Chinese children’s effortful control, ego resilience, and maladjustment

    PubMed Central

    EISENBERG, NANCY; CHANG, LEI; MA, YUE; HUANG, XIAORUI

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of authoritative parenting and corporal punishment to Chinese first and second graders’ effortful control (EC), impulsivity, ego resilience, and maladjustment, as well as mediating relations. A parent and teacher reported on children’s EC, impulsivity, and ego resilience; parents reported on children’s internalizing symptoms and their own parenting, and teachers and peers reported on children’s externalizing symptoms. Authoritative parenting and low corporal punishment predicted high EC, and EC mediated the relation between parenting and externalizing problems. In addition, impulsivity mediated the relation of corporal punishment to externalizing problems. The relation of parenting to children’s ego resilience was mediated by EC and/or impulsivity, and ego resilience mediated the relations of EC and impulsivity to internalizing problems. PMID:19338693

  2. Racial Differences in Indices of Ego Functioning Relevant to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessing, Elise E.

    1969-01-01

    This study of eighth graders and eleventh graders found that blacks score lower than whites on academic achievement and on the ego variables of sense of personal control and willingness to delay gratification. (MH)

  3. Ego depletion and the strength model of self-control: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Wood, Chantelle; Stiff, Chris; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2010-07-01

    According to the strength model, self-control is a finite resource that determines capacity for effortful control over dominant responses and, once expended, leads to impaired self-control task performance, known as ego depletion. A meta-analysis of 83 studies tested the effect of ego depletion on task performance and related outcomes, alternative explanations and moderators of the effect, and additional strength model hypotheses. Results revealed a significant effect of ego depletion on self-control task performance. Significant effect sizes were found for ego depletion on effort, perceived difficulty, negative affect, subjective fatigue, and blood glucose levels. Small, nonsignificant effects were found for positive affect and self-efficacy. Moderator analyses indicated minimal variation in the effect across sphere of depleting and dependent task, frequently used depleting and dependent tasks, presentation of tasks as single or separate experiments, type of dependent measure and control condition task, and source laboratory. The effect size was moderated by depleting task duration, task presentation by the same or different experimenters, intertask interim period, dependent task complexity, and use of dependent tasks in the choice and volition and cognitive spheres. Motivational incentives, training on self-control tasks, and glucose supplementation promoted better self-control in ego-depleted samples. Expecting further acts of self-control exacerbated the effect. Findings provide preliminary support for the ego-depletion effect and strength model hypotheses. Support for motivation and fatigue as alternative explanations for ego depletion indicate a need to integrate the strength model with other theories. Findings provide impetus for future investigation testing additional hypotheses and mechanisms of the ego-depletion effect.

  4. Potential contributions of hypnosis to ego-strengthening procedures in EMDR. Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores how hypnotic principles can be systematically incorporated into the standard EMDR protocol to enhance various ego strength capacities during EMDR treatment. Expanding these skill areas can widen the therapeutic window of possibility for clients with a variety of complex clinical issues, including posttraumatic, dissociative or personality disorders, anxiety symptoms, and depressive difficulties. Clinical case examples are used to illustrate ways of integrating hypnotic principles within a proposed EMDR protocol to promote ego strengthening and facilitate therapeutic change.

  5. Reciprocal Relations Between Emotional Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Ego-Resiliency Across Time.

    PubMed

    Milioni, Michela; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Castellani, Valeria; Zuffianò, Antonio; Vecchione, Michele; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal relations of adolescents' self-reported ego-resiliency to their emotional self-efficacy beliefs in expressing positive emotions and in managing negative emotions as they moved into early adulthood. Participants were 239 females and 211 males with a mean age of 17 years (SD = .80) at T1, 19 years (SD = .80) at T2, 21 years (SD = .82) at T3, and 25 years (SD = .80) at T4. A four-wave cross-lagged regression model and mediational analyses were used. In a panel structural equation model controlling for the stability of the constructs, reciprocal relationships across time were found between ego-resiliency and emotional self-efficacy beliefs related to the expression of positive emotions and to the management of negative emotions. Moreover, the relation between ego-resiliency assessed at T1 and T3, and ego-resiliency assessed at T2 and T4, was mediated through emotional self-efficacy beliefs (at T2 and T3, respectively), and vice versa. The posited conceptual model accounted for a significant portion of variance in ego-resiliency and has implications for understanding the development of ego-resiliency.

  6. Evaluation of a program on self-esteem and ego-identity for Korean nursing students.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Jung

    2016-09-01

    Nursing students with high levels of self-esteem and a strong ego-identity maintain a level of self-integrity that enables them to participate successfully in shared group values and interests while simultaneously meeting their own needs. Self-esteem and ego-identity are associated with academic achievement, major (area of study) satisfaction, and life satisfaction in undergraduate students. This study evaluated a brief group program for Korean nursing students that focused on promoting positive self-esteem and ego-identity development. Twenty-three Korean nursing school students participated. Changes in the students' ego-identity and self-esteem were quantitatively examined. Scores for ego-identity and self-esteem increased significantly for the students who participated in the group, while scores in the control group remained the same. The program is judged as an effective method for nursing educators or college mental health providers to utilize in order to promote affirmative ego-identity and self-esteem in nursing students. Additionally, the program contributes to helping students achieve developmental goals during their college life.

  7. Food for thought: ego-dystonicity and fear of self in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Purcell Lalonde, Magali; O'Connor, Kieron; Aardema, Frederick; Coelho, Jennifer S

    2015-05-01

    Degree of ego-dystonicity in obsessions is clinically relevant to the conceptualization and treatment of eating disorders (EDs). Obsessive-compulsive disorder research has suggested that the transformation of intrusive thoughts into obsessions is linked to the degree to which intrusive thoughts threaten core perceptions of the self. This study aims to explore the relationship between the ego-dystonic nature of obsessions in ED patients and a fear of self, the link between ED symptom severity and ego-dystonicity in obsessions, and differences between non-clinical and individuals with EDs in the presence of ego-dystonic thoughts and a fear of self. Ego-dystonicity (Ego-dystonicity Questionnaire (EDQ)) and feared self (Fear of Self Questionnaire (FSQ)) degrees were measured in a clinical sample (n = 57 with EDs) and a non-clinical sample (n = 45). EDQ and FSQ scores were highly correlated in both samples. EDQ scores were not significantly correlated to ED symptom severity with the exception of the EDQ Irrationality subscale, which was strongly related to compulsion severity. Participants with an ED had significantly higher EDQ and FSQ scores compared with controls.

  8. Reciprocal Relations Between Emotional Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Ego-Resiliency across Time

    PubMed Central

    Milioni, Michela; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Castellani, Valeria; Zuffianò, Antonio; Vecchione, Michele; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study examined the longitudinal relations of adolescents’ self-reported ego-resiliency to their emotional self-efficacy beliefs in expressing positive emotions and in managing negative emotions as they moved into early adulthood. Method Participants were 239 females and 211 males with a mean age of 17 years (SD = .80) at T1, 19 years (SD = .80) at T2, 21 years (SD = .82) at T3, and 25 years (SD = .80) at T4. A four-wave cross-lagged regression model and mediational analyses were used. Results In a panel structural equation model controlling for the stability of the constructs, reciprocal relationships across time were found between ego-resiliency and emotional self-efficacy beliefs related to the expression of positive emotions and to the management of negative emotions. Moreover, the relation between ego-resiliency assessed at T1 and T3, and ego-resiliency assessed at T2 and T4 was mediated through emotional self-efficacy beliefs (at T2 and T3, respectively), and vice versa. Conclusions The posited conceptual model accounted for a significant portion of variance in ego-resiliency and has implications for understanding the development of ego-resiliency. PMID:25204666

  9. Impact of Ego-resilience and Family Function on Quality of Life in Childhood Leukemia Survivors

    PubMed Central

    CHO, Ok-Hee; YOO, Yang-Sook; HWANG, Kyung-Hye

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine the impact of ego-resilience and family function on quality of life in childhood leukemia survivors. Methods: This study targeted 100 pediatric leukemia survivors, who visited the Pediatric Hemato-Oncology Center in South Korea from Aug to Dec 2011. A structured questionnaire of ego-resilience, family function and quality of life used to collect data through direct interview with the pediatric patients and their parents. The correlation between the study variables analyzed using the Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and the impact on quality of life analyzed using a stepwise multiple regression. Results: Ego-resilience (r = 0.69, P<0.001) and family function (r =0.46, P< 0.001) had a positive correlation with quality of life and all the sub-categories of quality of life. Ego-resilience was a major factor affecting quality of life in childhood leukemia survivors, with an explanatory power of 48%. The explanatory power for quality of life increased to 53% when age and family function were included. Conclusion: Ego-resilience, age, and family function affect quality of life in childhood leukemia survivors. Hence, strategies are required to construct age-matched programs to improve quality of life, in order to help restore the necessary ego-resilience and to strengthen family function in childhood leukemia survivors. PMID:28032062

  10. Self-concept and ego development in deaf adolescents: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    van Gent, Tiejo; Goedhart, Arnold W; Knoors, Harry E T; Westenberg, P Michiel; Treffers, Philip D A

    2012-01-01

    Self-concept and ego development, two intertwined aspects of self-indicating well-being and social-cognitive maturation, respectively, were examined in a representative sample of deaf adolescents of normal intelligence (N = 68), using translated and adapted versions of Harter's (1988, Manual for the self-perception profile for adolescents. Denver, CO: University of Denver) multidimensional measure of self-concept and Loevinger's (1998, Technical foundations for measuring ego development. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum) measure of ego development. Compared to hearing norm groups, deaf adolescents showed lower levels of self-perceived social acceptance, close friendships and ego development and higher physical appearance. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic variables showed positive associations of global self-worth with support for signing during childhood and quality of parent-child communication and of ego development with attending a regular school. Cluster analysis identified three social competence profiles: uniformly low competence, uniformly high competence, and low social acceptance with high physical appearance. Cluster membership was associated with school type, ego development, and (past) neurological disorder. The results are discussed in reference to interventions aimed at the well-being of deaf youth.

  11. Continuity and Change from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Adolescence-limited vs. Life-course-persistent Profound Ego Development Arrests

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Rebecca L.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Participants (n = 36) with consistent Pre-conformist ego development levels during multiple adolescent assessments were studied to determine whether and how their ego levels had changed at age 25. Those (n = 12) whose ego levels remained at the Pre-conformist level were assigned to a life-course-persistent profound ego development arrest trajectory group; those (n = 24) whose ego levels reached the Conformist or Post-conformist level at age 25 were assigned to an adolescence-limited profound ego development arrest trajectory group. Analysis of predictors and age 25 correlates of group membership revealed that selected age 14 family interaction behaviors differentiated the two groups. At age 25, members of the adolescence-limited group showed superior performance on several measures of interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. PMID:28154436

  12. Personality development from adolescence to emerging adulthood: linking trajectories of ego development to the family context and identity formation.

    PubMed

    Syed, Moin; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2013-02-01

    This longitudinal study analyzed personality development using an individual approach by examining changes in ego development across the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Specifically, the study mapped the heterogeniety in ego development growth trajectories and linked the different trajectories to the family context in adolescence and identity development in emerging adulthood. Participants were 98 families with a child who were followed from age 14 to age 24. Latent class growth analysis identified 4 distinct trajectories of growth in ego development of the children over the 10-year period. The results indicated that growth was more rapid during adolescence and tended to taper off in emerging adulthood. In addition, promotion of personal growth within the family and parents' ego development were particulary instrumental in children's ego developmental gains in adolescence. Finally, youth who demonstrated continued ego development into emerging adulthood also demonstrated heightened levels of identity exploration.

  13. Exponential Gaussian approach for spectral modelling: The EGO algorithm II. Band asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompilio, Loredana; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Cloutis, Edward A.; Craig, Michael A.; Roush, Ted L.

    2010-08-01

    The present investigation is complementary to a previous paper which introduced the EGO approach to spectral modelling of reflectance measurements acquired in the visible and near-IR range (Pompilio, L., Pedrazzi, G., Sgavetti, M., Cloutis, E.A., Craig, M.A., Roush, T.L. [2009]. Icarus, 201 (2), 781-794). Here, we show the performances of the EGO model in attempting to account for temperature-induced variations in spectra, specifically band asymmetry. Our main goals are: (1) to recognize and model thermal-induced band asymmetry in reflectance spectra; (2) to develop a basic approach for decomposition of remotely acquired spectra from planetary surfaces, where effects due to temperature variations are most prevalent; (3) to reduce the uncertainty related to quantitative estimation of band position and depth when band asymmetry is occurring. In order to accomplish these objectives, we tested the EGO algorithm on a number of measurements acquired on powdered pyroxenes at sample temperature ranging from 80 up to 400 K. The main results arising from this study are: (1) EGO model is able to numerically account for the occurrence of band asymmetry on reflectance spectra; (2) the returned set of EGO parameters can suggest the influence of some additional effect other than the electronic transition responsible for the absorption feature; (3) the returned set of EGO parameters can help in estimating the surface temperature of a planetary body; (4) the occurrence of absorptions which are less affected by temperature variations can be mapped for minerals and thus used for compositional estimates. Further work is still required in order to analyze the behaviour of the EGO algorithm with respect to temperature-induced band asymmetry using powdered pyroxene spanning a range of compositions and grain sizes and more complex band shapes.

  14. Deep Very Large Array Radio Continuum Surveys of GLIMPSE Extended Green Objects (EGOs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyganowski, C. J.; Brogan, C. L.; Hunter, T. R.; Churchwell, E.

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of deep, high angular resolution Very Large Array surveys for radio continuum emission toward a sample of 14 GLIMPSE Extended Green Objects (EGOs). Identified as massive young stellar object (MYSO) outflow candidates based on their extended 4.5 μm emission in Spitzer images, the EGOs in our survey sample are also associated with 6.7 GHz Class II and/or 44 GHz Class I CH3OH masers. No continuum is detected at 3.6 or 1.3 cm toward the majority (57%) of our targets (median rms ~0.03 and 0.25 mJy beam-1). Only two EGOs are associated with optically thin emission consistent with ultracompact/compact H II regions. Both of these sources exhibit cm-λ multiplicity, with evidence that one of the less-evolved members may be driving the 4.5 μm outflow. Most of the other cm-λ EGO counterparts are weak (lsim1 mJy), unresolved, undetected at 1.3 cm, and characterized by intermediate spectral indices consistent with hypercompact (HC) H II regions or ionized winds or jets. One EGO centimeter (cm) counterpart, likely an optically thick HC H II region, is detected only at 1.3 cm and is associated with hot core line emission and H2O and 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers. The results of our exceptionally sensitive survey indicate that EGOs signify an early stage of massive star formation, before photoionizing feedback from the central MYSO significantly influences the (proto)cluster environment. Actively driving outflows (and so, presumably, actively accreting), the surveyed EGOs are associated with significant clump-scale gas reservoirs, providing sufficient material for sustained, rapid accretion.

  15. Ego-location and situational awareness in semistructured environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodsell, Thomas G.; Snorrason, Magnus S.; Stevens, Mark R.; Stube, Brian; McBride, Jonah

    2003-09-01

    The success of any potential application for mobile robots depends largely on the specific environment where the application takes place. Practical applications are rarely found in highly structured environments, but unstructured environments (such as natural terrain) pose major challenges to any mobile robot. We believe that semi-structured environments-such as parking lots-provide a good opportunity for successful mobile robot applications. Parking lots tend to be flat and smooth, and cars can be uniquely identified by their license plates. Our scenario is a parking lot where only known vehicles are supposed to park. The robot looks for vehicles that do not belong in the parking lot. It checks both license plates and vehicle types, in case the plate is stolen from an approved vehicle. It operates autonomously, but reports back to a guard who verifies its performance. Our interest is in developing the robot's vision system, which we call Scene Estimation & Situational Awareness Mapping Engine (SESAME). In this paper, we present initial results from the development of two SESAME subsystems, the ego-location and license plate detection systems. While their ultimate goals are obviously quite different, our design demonstrates that by sharing intermediate results, both tasks can be significantly simplified. The inspiration for this design approach comes from the basic tenets of Situational Awareness (SA), where the benefits of holistic perception are clearly demonstrated over the more typical designs that attempt to solve each sensing/perception problem in isolation.

  16. Ego consciousness in the Japanese psyche: culture, myth and disaster.

    PubMed

    Yama, Megumi

    2013-02-01

    With globalization, modern Western consciousness has spread across the world. This influx has affected the Japanese culture but ego consciousness has emerged through a long history and different course from that of the West. At a personal level, I have been interested in the establishment of a subject in a culture that values homogeneity and to understand this, I reflect on my own history of living in both the East and the West and on my experience practising psychotherapy. To show Japanese collective functioning at its best, I describe the human inter-connectedness and collaboration during the 2011 disaster. I explore the 'Nothing' at the centre of the Japanese psyche, through a reading of Japanese myth, especially the most originary and almost pre-human stories that come before the anthropomorphized 'First Parents'. A retelling of this founding story, reveals the multiple iterations over time that manifest in embodied being; this gradual emergence of consciousness is contrasted with Western myths of origin that are more clear and specific. This study attempts to bring awareness of the value and meaning of Eastern consciousness and its centre in the 'Nothing'.

  17. The Nudity of the Ego. An Eckhartian Perspective on the Levinas/Derrida Debate on Alterity.

    PubMed

    Roesner, Martina

    2016-01-02

    The present paper examines the Eckhartian motives in Derrida's critique of Levinas' concept of the "Other". The focus is put on the Husserlian concept of alter ego that is at the core of the debate between Levinas and Derrida. Against Levinas, Derrida argues that alter is not an epithet that expresses a mere accidental modification of the ego, but an indicator of radical exteriority. Interestingly enough, this position is virtually identical with Meister Eckhart's interpretation of the famous proposition from Exodus 3:14 "I am who I am". Eckhart claims that the pronoun ego denotes the absolutely simple substance of the uncreated intellect, which can, by definition, never receive any accidental determination whatsoever. The reduplication of the "I am" is by no means tautological, but expresses the intra-divine dynamic of the Father who engenders the Son as his perfect equal and alter ego. This transcendental conception of egoity also governs the relationships between human beings: the ethical encounter with the "Other" requires that we consider them not primarily in their empirical, contingent existence but in the transcendental purity of their indeclinable ego, which is identical with the incessant act in which God knows himself in the Son as his absolutely Other. Thus, Meister Eckhart's approach proves, against Levinas, that it is possible to develop an "egological" philosophy that avoids the pitfalls of a naturalistic and potentially violent ontology of the subject.

  18. The Nudity of the Ego. An Eckhartian Perspective on the Levinas/Derrida Debate on Alterity

    PubMed Central

    Roesner, Martina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present paper examines the Eckhartian motives in Derrida's critique of Levinas’ concept of the “Other”. The focus is put on the Husserlian concept of alter ego that is at the core of the debate between Levinas and Derrida. Against Levinas, Derrida argues that alter is not an epithet that expresses a mere accidental modification of the ego, but an indicator of radical exteriority. Interestingly enough, this position is virtually identical with Meister Eckhart's interpretation of the famous proposition from Exodus 3:14 “I am who I am”. Eckhart claims that the pronoun ego denotes the absolutely simple substance of the uncreated intellect, which can, by definition, never receive any accidental determination whatsoever. The reduplication of the “I am” is by no means tautological, but expresses the intra-divine dynamic of the Father who engenders the Son as his perfect equal and alter ego. This transcendental conception of egoity also governs the relationships between human beings: the ethical encounter with the “Other” requires that we consider them not primarily in their empirical, contingent existence but in the transcendental purity of their indeclinable ego, which is identical with the incessant act in which God knows himself in the Son as his absolutely Other. Thus, Meister Eckhart's approach proves, against Levinas, that it is possible to develop an “egological” philosophy that avoids the pitfalls of a naturalistic and potentially violent ontology of the subject. PMID:27152029

  19. Ego-resiliency development from late adolescence to emerging adulthood: A ten-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Vecchione, Michele; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Milioni, Michela

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the development of ego-resiliency from late adolescence to emerging adulthood, using a 10-year cohort-sequential design. Participants were 335 Italian adolescents (173 females and 162 males), living, at the time of the study, in Genzano, a small city near to Rome. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that the developmental trajectory of ego-resiliency from 15 to 25 years is adequately described by a piecewise model that included separate growth profiles corresponding to different developmental stages. Essentially, ego-resiliency remained remarkably stable until the end of high school, and then encountered a phase of relative increase. Moreover, the trajectory of ego-resiliency from ages 15 to 19 was predicted by self-efficacy beliefs in managing negative emotions, and the trajectory from age 19 to 25 was predicted by experienced familial support and self-efficacy beliefs in expressing positive emotions at age 15. Experienced stressful life events also accounted for individuals' deviation from the typical ego-resiliency trajectory.

  20. Ego States of nurses working in psychiatric clinics according to transactional analysis theory

    PubMed Central

    Ertem, Melike Yonder; Kececi, Ayla

    2016-01-01

    Objective: An effective interpersonal communication is an essential nursing skill required to help provide quality health care and meet the treatment objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the communication between the psychiatric nurses and the patients in terms of Transactional Analysis Theory ego states. Methods: The quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. The descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation) were used in the data analysis and Kendall’s Tau-c coefficient was used to assess the agreement among the observers. Results: Of the psychiatric nurses, 66.7% (n = 14) had served as a psychiatric nurse for 1-10 years. Among the nurses, 52.4% (n=11) had received training about communication from any institution/organization. The agreement among the opinions of the nurses, the researcher and the charge nurses about the psychiatric nurses’ ego states showed that there was a significant relationship between the researcher’s opinion of the nurses’ ego states and the charge nurses’ opinion of the nurses’ ego states in terms of Critical Parent, Nurturing Parent, Adult, Adapted Child and Natural Child ego states. Conclusion: It is suggested that training be offered in regards to raising awareness about ulterior transactions that can affect communication negatively, patient autonomy and therapeutic communication in particular, and patients requiring the use of special communication methods. PMID:27182267

  1. Delayed Ego Strength Development in Opioid Dependent Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Abramoff, Benjamin A.; Lange, Hannah L. H.; Matson, Steven C.; Cottrill, Casey B.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Bonny, Andrea E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate ego strengths, in the context of Erikson's framework, among adolescents and young adults diagnosed with opioid dependence as compared to non-drug using youth. Methods. Opioid dependent (n = 51) and non-drug using control (n = 31) youth completed the self-administered Psychosocial Inventory of Ego Strengths (PIES). The PIES assesses development in the framework of Erikson's ego strength stages. Multivariate linear regression modeling assessed the independent association of the primary covariate (opioid dependent versus control) as well as potential confounding variables (e.g., psychiatric comorbidities, intelligence) with total PIES score. Results. Mean total PIES score was significantly lower in opioid dependent youth (231.65 ± 30.39 opioid dependent versus 270.67 ± 30.06 control; p < 0.01). Evaluation of the PIES subscores found significant (p < 0.05) delays in all ego strength areas (hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity, love, care, and wisdom). When adjusting for potential confounders, opioid dependence remained a significant (p < 0.001) independent predictor of total PIES score. Conclusion. Adolescents with opioid dependence demonstrated significant delays in ego strength development. A treatment approach acknowledging this delay may be needed in the counseling and treatment of adolescents with opioid dependence. PMID:26664819

  2. The effect of ego-motion on environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Uri; Yacobi, Tamar; Levy, Ilan; Moltchanov, Sharon A; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Fishbain, Barak

    2015-11-15

    Air pollution has a proven impact on public health. Currently, pollutant levels are obtained by high-priced, sizeable, stationary Air Quality Monitoring (AQM) stations. Recent developments in sensory and communication technologies have made relatively low-cost, micro-sensing units (MSUs) feasible. Their lower power consumption and small size enable mobile sensing, deploying single or multiple units simultaneously. Recent studies have reported on measurements acquired by mobile MSUs, mounted on cars, bicycles and pedestrians. While these modes of transportation inherently present different velocity and acceleration regimes, the effect of the sensors' varying movement characteristics have not been previously accounted for. This research assesses the impact of sensor's motion on its functionality through laboratory measurements and a field campaign. The laboratory setup consists of a wind tunnel to assess the effect of air flow on the measurements of nitrogen dioxide and ozone at different velocities in a controlled environment, while the field campaign is based on three cars mounted with MSUs, measuring pollutants and environmental variables at different traveling speeds. In both experimental designs we can regard the MSUs as a moving object in the environment, i.e. having a distinct ego-motion. The results show that MSU's behavior is highly affected by variation in speed and sensor placement with respect to direction of movement, mainly due to the physical properties of installed sensors. This strongly suggests that any future design of MSU must account for the speed effect from the design stage all the way through deployment and results analysis. This is the first report examining the influence of airflow variations on MSU's ability to accurately measure pollutant levels.

  3. Ego depletion decreases trust in economic decision making

    PubMed Central

    Ainsworth, Sarah E.; Baumeister, Roy F.; Vohs, Kathleen D.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments tested the effects of ego depletion on economic decision making. Participants completed a task either requiring self-control or not. Then participants learned about the trust game, in which senders are given an initial allocation of $10 to split between themselves and another person, the receiver. The receiver receives triple the amount given and can send any, all, or none of the tripled money back to the sender. Participants were assigned the role of the sender and decided how to split the initial allocation. Giving less money, and therefore not trusting the receiver, is the safe, less risky response. Participants who had exerted self-control and were depleted gave the receiver less money than those in the non-depletion condition (Experiment 1). This effect was replicated and moderated in two additional experiments. Depletion again led to lower amounts given (less trust), but primarily among participants who were told they would never meet the receiver (Experiment 2) or who were given no information about how similar they were to the receiver (Experiment 3). Amounts given did not differ for depleted and non-depleted participants who either expected to meet the receiver (Experiment 2) or were led to believe that they were very similar to the receiver (Experiment 3). Decreased trust among depleted participants was strongest among neurotics. These results imply that self-control facilitates behavioral trust, especially when no other cues signal decreased social risk in trusting, such as if an actual or possible relationship with the receiver were suggested. PMID:25013237

  4. Human Values and Ego-Involvement: Toward the Conceptual Clarification and Operational Precision of Social Judgment Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaske, Paul C.

    This paper suggests that human values play a central role in communication and in the conceptualization of social judgment theory's fundamental terms: attitude and ego-involvement. It contends that values are the basis of an individual's attitude or category system and that one's level of ego-involvement in an issue is a function of (1) the…

  5. The Interrelationship of Social Anxiety with Anxiety, Depression, Locus of Control, Ways of Coping and Ego Strength amongst University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Robin-Marie; Edelman, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate the interrelationship of social anxiety with the variables anxiety, depression, locus of control, ego strength and ways of coping in a sample of university students. There were high scores of social anxiety which were related to high scores on measures of anxiety and depression, low ego strength, external…

  6. An Investigation of Task and Ego Oriented Goals of the Students Majoring at the Faculty of Sport Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belli, Emre

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the task and ego oriented goals of the students majoring at the Faculty of Sports Sciences at Ataturk University. For data collection, "The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire", which was developed by Duda (1) and adapted into Turkish by Toros and Yetim (2), was used in the current study to…

  7. Promoting Cognitive and Ego Development of African-American Rural Youth: A Program of Deliberate Psychological Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faubert, Marie; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the effects of a role-taking, action-learning program on the cognitive and ego development of African American rural high school students. Main effects were assessed in two related domains: concrete to abstract thinking, and self-concept development. Results indicate significant gains in both abstract thinking and ego stage. (RJM)

  8. Too exhausted to see the truth: ego depletion and the ability to detect deception.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Marc-André; Scharmach, Martin; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2013-12-01

    In two experiments, recent findings showing the detrimental role of regulatory depletion in decision making are extended to the field of deception detection. In both experiments, the state of ego depletion was induced by having judges inhibit versus non-inhibit a dominant response while transcribing a text. Subsequently they judged true or deceptive messages of different stimulus persons with regard to their truthfulness. In both experiments, ego-depleted judges scored significantly lower on detection accuracy than control judges. Signal detection measures showed that this effect was not due to differences in judgmental bias between the two conditions. In Experiment 2, it was shown that the lower detection accuracy in the state of ego depletion was due to a feeling of difficulty of relying on verbal content information. Practical implications of the current findings are discussed.

  9. Applying EGO to large dimensional optimizations: a wideband fragmented patch example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Teresa H.; Southall, Hugh; Santarelli, Scott; Steyskal, Hans

    2010-04-01

    Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) minimizes expensive cost function evaluations by correlating evaluated parameter sets and respective solutions to model the optimization space. For optimizations requiring destructive testing or lengthy simulations, this computational overhead represents a desirable tradeoff. However, the inspection of the predictor space to determine the next evaluation point can be a time-intensive operation. Although DACE predictor evaluation may be conducted for limited parameters by exhaustive sampling, this method is not extendable to large dimensions. We apply EGO here to the 11-dimensional optimization of a wide-band fragmented patch antenna and present an alternative genetic algorithm approach for selecting the next evaluation point. We compare results achieved with EGO on this optimization problem to previous results achieved with a genetic algorithm.

  10. Studying the molecular ambient towards the young stellar object EGO G35.04-0.47

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, Sergio; Ortega, Martín; Astort, Ana; Rubio, Mónica; Fariña, Cecilia

    2014-02-01

    We are performing a systematic study of the interstellar medium around extended green objects (EGOs), likely massive young stellar objects driving outflows. EGO G35.04-0.47 is located towards a dark cloud at the north-western edge of an H II region. Recently, H2 jets were discovered towards this source, mainly towards its south-west, where the H2 1-0 S(1) emission peaks. Therefore, the source was catalogued as the molecular hydrogen emission-line object MHO 2429. In order to study the molecular ambient towards this star-forming site, we observed a region around the aforementioned EGO using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment in the 12CO J = 3-2, 13CO J = 3-2, HCO+ J = 4-3, and CS J = 7-6 lines with an angular and spectral resolution of 22'' and 0.11 km s-1, respectively. The observations revealed a molecular clump where the EGO is embedded at vLSR ˜ 51 km s-1, in coincidence with the velocity of a Class I 95 GHz methanol maser previously detected. Analyzing the 12CO line we discovered high velocity molecular gas in the range from 34 to 47 km s-1, most likely a blueshifted outflow driven by the EGO. The alignment and shape of this molecular structure coincide with those of the south-west lobe of MHO 2429, mainly between 46 and 47 km s-1, confirming that we are mapping its CO counterpart. Performing a spectral energy distribution analysis of EGO G35.04-0.47, we found that its central object should be an intermediate-mass young stellar object accreting mass at a rate similar to those found in some massive YSOs. We suggest that this source can become a massive YSO.

  11. Single-session manualized ego state therapy (EST) for combat stress injury, PTSD, and ASD, part 1: the theory.

    PubMed

    Barabasz, Arreed F; Barabasz, Marianne; Watkins, John G

    2011-01-01

    Ego state therapy (EST) evolved from a psychodynamic understanding of personality as a product of an individual's ego states to a conceptualization of how ego-energized and object-energized elements are bound together to cope with a traumatic event. Neurobiological studies now substantiate Watkins's war neuroses conceptualizations. Because of their severity, trauma memories are encoded in the subcortical-subconscious brain regions that are accessed by the single-session manualized EST procedure but not by the popular cognitive-behavioral management therapies. The imprint of the trauma is not accessible or resolvable by such top-down verbal understanding or reframing; EST is a bottom-up therapy. Abreactive hypnosis facilitates ego state expression at physiologically and psychologically intense levels sufficient to activate subcortical processes to release affect in the presence of the therapist, who adds ego strength to the patient. This is followed by interpretation and reintegration. The result is a reconstructed personality that is adaptive and resilient.

  12. Using the Networked Fire Chief for ego-depletion research: measuring dynamic decision-making effort and performance.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larissa K; Smit, Brandon W

    2014-01-01

    This study replicated ego-depletion predictions from the self-control literature in a computer simulation task that requires ongoing decision-making in relation to constantly changing environmental information: the Network Fire Chief (NFC). Ego-depletion led to decreased self-regulatory effort, but not performance, on the NFC task. These effects were also buffered by task enjoyment so that individuals who enjoyed the dynamic decision-making task did not experience ego-depletion effects. These findings confirm that past ego-depletion effects on decision-making are not limited to static or isolated decision-making tasks and can be extended to dynamic, naturalistic decision-making processes more common to naturalistic settings. Furthermore, the NFC simulation provides a methodological mechanism for independently measuring effort and performance when studying ego-depletion.

  13. Optimum design of antennas using metamaterials with the efficient global optimization (EGO) algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southall, Hugh L.; O'Donnell, Teresa H.; Derov, John S.

    2010-04-01

    EGO is an evolutionary, data-adaptive algorithm which can be useful for optimization problems with expensive cost functions. Many antenna design problems qualify since complex computational electromagnetics (CEM) simulations can take significant resources. This makes evolutionary algorithms such as genetic algorithms (GA) or particle swarm optimization (PSO) problematic since iterations of large populations are required. In this paper we discuss multiparameter optimization of a wideband, single-element antenna over a metamaterial ground plane and the interfacing of EGO (optimization) with a full-wave CEM simulation (cost function evaluation).

  14. Exponential Gaussian approach for spectral modeling: The EGO algorithm I. Band saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompilio, Loredana; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Sgavetti, Maria; Cloutis, Edward A.; Craig, Michael A.; Roush, Ted L.

    2009-06-01

    Curve fitting techniques are a widespread approach to spectral modeling in the VNIR range [Burns, R.G., 1970. Am. Mineral. 55, 1608-1632; Singer, R.B., 1981. J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7967-7982; Roush, T.L., Singer, R.B., 1986. J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10301-10308; Sunshine, J.M., Pieters, C.M., Pratt, S.F., 1990. J. Geophys. Res. 95, 6955-6966]. They have been successfully used to model reflectance spectra of powdered minerals and mixtures, natural rock samples and meteorites, and unknown remote spectra of the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Here, we test a new decomposition algorithm to model VNIR reflectance spectra and call it Exponential Gaussian Optimization (EGO). The EGO algorithm is derived from and complementary to the MGM of Sunshine et al. [Sunshine, J.M., Pieters, C.M., Pratt, S.F., 1990. J. Geophys. Res. 95, 6955-6966]. The general EGO equation has been especially designed to account for absorption bands affected by saturation and asymmetry. Here we present a special case of EGO and address it to model saturated electronic transition bands. Our main goals are: (1) to recognize and model band saturation in reflectance spectra; (2) to develop a basic approach for decomposition of rock spectra, where effects due to saturation are most prevalent; (3) to reduce the uncertainty related to quantitative estimation when band saturation is occurring. In order to accomplish these objectives, we simulate flat bands starting from pure Gaussians and test the EGO algorithm on those simulated spectra first. Then we test the EGO algorithm on a number of measurements acquired on powdered pyroxenes having different compositions and average grain size and binary mixtures of orthopyroxenes with barium sulfate. The main results arising from this study are: (1) EGO model is able to numerically account for the occurrence of saturation effects on reflectance spectra of powdered minerals and mixtures; (2) the systematic dilution of a strong absorber using a bright neutral material is not

  15. G333.466-0.164, An EGO That Is Not Aligned With Its Disk Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Janet P.; Burton, Michael; Cotera, Angela; Cunningham, Maria; Lo, Nadia

    2015-08-01

    The infrared source G333.466-0.164 (IRAS 16175-5002) was discovered to contain a 4.5 micron emission feature (extended green object, EGO) in images taken with Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera in 2004. EGOs appear to define the location of outflows from massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and have been attributed to both emission from molecular hydrogen or CO in the shocked outflow and to scattered light from the outflow cavity. We confirmed that there is a MYSO at the south end of the 15'' long, thin EGO from spectra taken with Spitzer's Infrared Spectrograph in 2009 (Simpson et al. 2012, MNRAS, 419, 211). To further characterize G333.466-0.164 we obtained 12.3 and 24.5 micron images with T-ReCS on Gemini South. Although the MYSO itself is not detected at 12.3 micron, we clearly resolve an elongated source at the location of the MYSO at 24.5 micron with the 0.76" FWHM resolution of Gemini. The elongated region has major and minor axes 2.5'' and 1.5'', respectively, where the position angle of the major axis is 147 pm 5 degrees east of north. For a distance of 3.6 kpc, this corresponds to a size of 9000 AU by 5400 AU. We contrast the position angle of the source to that of the EGO, which is approximately -10 degrees east of north measured from the MYSO. Methanol masers have been measured in G333.466-0.164 by Caswell et al. (2011, MNRAS, 417, 1964) and Voronkov et al. (2014, MNRAS, 439, 258). The 6.7 GHz Class II maser is found at the position of the MYSO and the 36 and 44 GHz Class I masers, which are excited by shocks, are found in positions coinciding with the EGO and also in a line perpendicular to the EGO, in an area obscured by an optically thick dust lane. Voronkov et al. suggest that the actual outflow lies between the two lines of Class I masers in the northeast direction; this is in excellent agreement with the northeast-oriented minor axis of the elongated feature that we observe at 24.5 micron. Thus we identify the 24.5 micron source as the disk of the

  16. Ego Is a Hurdle in Second Language Learning: A Contrastive Study between Adults and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Shumaila; Akhter, Javed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research paper is to find out by comparing and contrasting between the adults and children in second language learning process how language ego of adult learners affects them to learn second language, and how it becomes a barrier for them in second language learning process. Nowadays learning English as foreign and second language…

  17. Is Changing Sexual Orientation a Viable Option for Ego-Dystonic Homosexuality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keener, Dana Ray

    This paper addresses the issue of homosexuals who want to change their sexual orientation. It is noted that many ego-dystonic homosexuals who want to become heterosexual, despite encouragement from psychotherapists to accept their homosexuality, are turning to self-help groups in an effort to change their sexual orientation. Studies that have…

  18. Stigma and Glucose Levels: Testing Ego Depletion and Arousal Explanations of Stereotype Threat Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Andrew M.; Willer, Robb

    2011-01-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that when stigmatized group membership is made salient, group members' cognitive performance is lowered; however, the mechanism through which this effect operates is not well understood. This study tests between arousal and ego depletion accounts of stereotype threat by examining whether stereotype threat effects…

  19. Ego Identity, Social Anxiety, Social Support, and Self-Concealment in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potoczniak, Daniel J.; Aldea, Mirela A.; DeBlaere, Cirleen

    2007-01-01

    This study examined a model in which the relationship between social anxiety and two dimensions of ego identity (commitment and exploration) was expected to be mediated by social support and self-concealment for a sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals (N=347). Statistically significant paths were found from social anxiety to social…

  20. Predictive Power of the Success Tendency and Ego Identity Status of the University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Pepe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to assess the predictive power of the success tendency and ego identity status of the students of Physical Education and Sports Teaching Department. 581 students of Physical Education and Sports Teaching Department in Kayseri, Nigde, Burdur, Bolu and Diyarbakir participated in this research. The acquired results were…

  1. Competence and Affect in Task Involvement and Ego Involvement: The Impact of Social Comparison Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Two studies investigated the impact of information about the effort and performance of others on students' anticipated affects and judgments of competence given success in task-involving and ego-involving contexts. Without social comparison information, competence and positive affects were judged higher when students were asked to imagine…

  2. Conceptions of Ability and Related Affects in Task Involvement and Ego Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.

    1984-01-01

    Five studies were conducted to determine if college students employ different conceptions of ability in self-referenced (task-involving) and interpersonally competitive (ego-involving) situations. Competence and positive affects were associated with higher effort in task-involving situations but negatively associated with higher effort in…

  3. Revising the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index to Accommodate Recent Recommendations about Improving Rorschach Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viglione, Donald J.; Perry, William; Giromini, Luciano; Meyer, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    We used multiple regression to calculate a new Ego Impairment Index (EII-3). The aim was to incorporate changes in the component variables and distribution of the number of responses as found in the new Rorschach Performance Assessment System, while sustaining the validity and reliability of previous EIIs. The EII-3 formula was derived from a…

  4. Ego Integrity of Older People with Physical Disability and Therapeutic Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Shim, Hye-Eun; Sia, Charmin Kathleen M.; Siazon, Wilbart Harvey S.; Sibal, Mary Joyce Ann P.; Siglos, Joanna Brigitte Lorraine C.; Simeon, Francis Marlo C.

    2011-01-01

    Ego integrity, the last developmental task in Erikson's psychological theory, develops naturally among older people. However, the presence of loss-like physical disability-can considerably affect the quality of life, interactions, and well being of older adults. Hence, older people with physical disabilities need more assistance in accomplishing…

  5. Learning to Recognize Ego Defense Mechanisms: Results of a Structured Teaching Experience for Psychiatric Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beresford, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Ego defense mechanism (EDM) recognition can offer a powerful and practical tool in clinical psychiatry. However, recognition skill learning can be difficult to assess and may account for the lack of formal EDM recognition training in residency courses. Method: This study hypothesized that mean test scores would increase significantly…

  6. Too exhausted to remember: ego depletion undermines subsequent event-based prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bin; Nie, Yan-Gang; Zeng, Min-Xia; Huntoon, Meghan; Smith, Jessi L

    2013-01-01

    Past research has consistently found that people are likely to do worse on high-level cognitive tasks after exerting self-control on previous actions. However, little has been unraveled about to what extent ego depletion affects subsequent prospective memory. Drawing upon the self-control strength model and the relationship between self-control resources and executive control, this study proposes that the initial actions of self-control may undermine subsequent event-based prospective memory (EBPM). Ego depletion was manipulated through watching a video requiring visual attention (Experiment 1) or completing an incongruent Stroop task (Experiment 2). Participants were then tested on EBPM embedded in an ongoing task. As predicted, the results showed that after ruling out possible intervening variables (e.g. mood, focal and nonfocal cues, and characteristics of ongoing task and ego depletion task), participants in the high-depletion condition performed significantly worse on EBPM than those in the low-depletion condition. The results suggested that the effect of ego depletion on EBPM was mainly due to an impaired prospective component rather than to a retrospective component.

  7. Reminiscence, Psychological Well-Being, and Ego Integrity in Portuguese Elderly People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afonso, Rosa Maria; Bueno, Belen; Loureiro, Manuel Joachim; Pereira, Henrique

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of a reminiscence program on the psychological well-being and ego integrity of elderly people with depressive symptomatology. Ninety people aged 65 and over participated in a quasi-experimental design with pretest and posttest evaluations. They were assigned to one of three groups: (a) experimental group…

  8. Relations of Temperament to Maladjustment and Ego Resiliency in At-Risk Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Haugen, Rg; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Chassin, Laurie; Zhou, Qing; Kupfer, Anne; Smith, Cynthia L.; Valiente, Carlos; Liew, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The relations of control/regulation-related temperamentally based dispositions (effortful control (EC), impulsivity, and approach/avoidance) to externalizing problems and personality ego resiliency were examined in a sample of 467 children (M age = 7.46 years), some of whom were children of alcoholics (COAs). In addition, we examined if the…

  9. The Changing Nature of Adolescent Friendships: Longitudinal Links with Early Adolescent Ego Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Penny; Allen, Joseph P.; Ho, Martin; Porter, Maryfrances; McFarland, F. Christy

    2006-01-01

    Although success in managing evolving peer relationships is linked to critical adolescent outcomes, little is known about the specific factors that lead to success or failure in peer relationship development across adolescence. This longitudinal study examines the role of adolescents' level of ego development as a predictor of the future course of…

  10. The Contribution of Ego Development Level to Burnout in School Counselors: Implications for Professional School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambie, Glenn W.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a national survey study of school counseling professionals to determine if higher ego development contributed to a lower degree of burnout. Although the primary path analysis model tested did not fit the data observed, a significant positive relationship indicated that participants scoring at higher levels of…

  11. The Relations of Effortful Control and Ego Control to Children's Resiliency and Social Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Fabes, Richard A.; Smith, Cynthia L.; Reiser, Mark; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Guthrie, Ivanna K.; Murphy, Bridget C.; Cumberland, Amanda J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined relations of effortful control and ego control to children's resiliency, social status, and social competence concurrently (Time 3) and over time. Found that at Time 3, resiliency mediated the unique relations of effortful and reactive control to social status, and effortful control directly predicted socially appropriate behavior.…

  12. The Relation of Re-Creation to a Theory of Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Louise Annie

    This study explores the relationship of ego-stage development (based on the theories of Erik Erikson and roughly defined as psychological maturity) to experiences which a group of adults identified as leading to re-creation for them. The author believes that re-creation -- defined as a feeling of heightened well-being or a sense of renewal and…

  13. Female Offenders and Their Guards: A Programme to Promote Moral and Ego Development of Both Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Robert E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a study focusing on a program of dilemma discussion methods for an experimental group of female prisoners and their guards. Concludes that for both the prisoners and staff test scores reflect an increase in moral judgment and ego development. Urges consideration of prison reform from educational and developmental perspectives.…

  14. What's Going on in Your Professor's Head? Demonstrating the Id, Ego, and Superego

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segrist, Dan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an in-class activity designed to demonstrate Freud's structural theory of the psyche, specifically the roles of the id, ego, and superego, as well as the interplay among them. Additionally, the activity visually illustrates Freud's ideas about the levels of consciousness associated with these 3 components. Pre-post quiz…

  15. A Correlation of Barron's Ego Strength Scale and Smith's Non-Conformity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A sample of 76 undergraduate students showed the Nonconformity and Ego Strength Scales to be significantly, but inversely, related. A statistically significant correlation between sex and a measure of conformity suggested that females are more conforming than are males. (Author/CTM)

  16. Longitudinal Relations of Intrusive Parenting and Effortful Control to Ego-Resiliency during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal relations among ego-resiliency (ER), effortful control (EC), and observed intrusive parenting were examined at 18, 30, and 42 months of age ("Ns" = 256, 230, and 210) using structural equation modeling. Intrusive parenting at 18 and 30 months negatively predicted EC a year later, over and above earlier levels. EC at…

  17. Brief quiet ego contemplation reduces oxidative stress and mind-wandering

    PubMed Central

    Wayment, Heidi A.; Collier, Ann F.; Birkett, Melissa; Traustadóttir, Tinna; Till, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive self-concern increases perceptions of threat and defensiveness. In contrast, fostering a more inclusive and expanded sense of self can reduce stress and improve well-being. We developed and tested a novel brief intervention designed to strengthen a student’s compassionate self-identity, an identity that values balance and growth by reminding them of four quiet ego characteristics: detached awareness, inclusive identity, perspective taking, and growth. Students (N = 32) in their first semester of college who reported greater self-protective (e.g., defensive) goals in the first 2 weeks of the semester were invited to participate in the study. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: quiet ego contemplation (QEC), QEC with virtual reality (VR) headset (QEC-VR), and control. Participants came to the lab three times to engage in a 15-min exercise in a 30-days period. The 15-min QEC briefly described each quiet ego characteristic followed by a few minutes time to reflect on what that characteristic meant to them. Those in the QEC condition reported improved quiet ego characteristics and pluralistic thinking, decreases in a urinary marker of oxidative stress, and reduced mind-wandering on a cognitive task. Contrary to expectation, participants who wore the VR headsets while listening to the QEC demonstrated the least improvement. Results suggest that a brief intervention that reduces self-focus and strengthens a more compassionate self-view may offer an additional resource that individuals can use in their everyday lives. PMID:26483734

  18. The Role of Ego Development in Psychosocial Adjustment among Boys with Delayed Puberty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindfors, Kaj; Elovainio, Marko; Wickman, Sanna; Vuorinen, Risto; Sinkkonen, Jari; Dunkel, Leo; Raappana, Aleksi

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of ego development, as measured with the Washington University sentence completion test, in the relationship between pubertal maturation and psychosocial adjustment (self-image and depression) in adolescent boys. The data consisted of 73 boys between 14 and 16 years of age. The results indicated that late maturing boys…

  19. Robust ego-motion estimation and 3-D model refinement using surface parallax.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Amit; Chellappa, Rama

    2006-05-01

    We present an iterative algorithm for robustly estimating the ego-motion and refining and updating a coarse depth map using parametric surface parallax models and brightness derivatives extracted from an image pair. Given a coarse depth map acquired by a range-finder or extracted from a digital elevation map (DEM), ego-motion is estimated by combining a global ego-motion constraint and a local brightness constancy constraint. Using the estimated camera motion and the available depth estimate, motion of the three-dimensional (3-D) points is compensated. We utilize the fact that the resulting surface parallax field is an epipolar field, and knowing its direction from the previous motion estimates, estimate its magnitude and use it to refine the depth map estimate. The parallax magnitude is estimated using a constant parallax model (CPM) which assumes a smooth parallax field and a depth based parallax model (DBPM), which models the parallax magnitude using the given depth map. We obtain confidence measures for determining the accuracy of the estimated depth values which are used to remove regions with potentially incorrect depth estimates for robustly estimating ego-motion in subsequent iterations. Experimental results using both synthetic and real data (both indoor and outdoor sequences) illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  20. An Analysis of University Students' Levels of Self-Control According to Their Ego States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaygusuz, Canani; Ozpolat, Ahmet Ragip

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Although it is well known that parents' methods of raising their children significantly affect their children's personalities and how they face life, this study has been designed because there is a lack of specific research on which ego states of adults are associated with self-control. In the present study, self-control and ego…

  1. Ego defense mechanisms in Pakistani medical students: a cross sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ego defense mechanisms (or factors), defined by Freud as unconscious resources used by the ego to reduce conflict between the id and superego, are a reflection of how an individual deals with conflict and stress. This study assesses the prevalence of various ego defense mechanisms employed by medical students of Karachi, which is a group with higher stress levels than the general population. Methods A questionnaire based cross-sectional study was conducted on 682 students from five major medical colleges of Karachi over 4 weeks in November 2006. Ego defense mechanisms were assessed using the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) individually and as grouped under Mature, Immature, and Neurotic factors. Results Lower mean scores of Immature defense mechanisms (4.78) were identified than those for Neurotic (5.62) and Mature (5.60) mechanisms among medical students of Karachi. Immature mechanisms were more commonly employed by males whereas females employed more Neurotic mechanisms than males. Neurotic and Immature defenses were significantly more prevalent in first and second year students. Mature mechanisms were significantly higher in students enrolled in Government colleges than Private institutions (p < 0.05). Conclusions Immature defense mechanisms were less commonly employed than Neurotic and Mature mechanisms among medical students of Karachi. The greater employment of Neurotic defenses may reflect greater stress levels than the general population. Employment of these mechanisms was associated with female gender, enrollment in a private medical college, and students enrolled in the first 2 years of medical school. PMID:20109240

  2. Multivariate Analysis of the Relationship of Psychosocial Crisis Variables to Ego Identity Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Kenneth M.

    1978-01-01

    Correlations were investigated between Erikson's psychosocial crisis stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, identity, and intimacy) and Marcia's four identity statuses (achievement, moratorium, foreclosure, and diffusion). Erikson's theory of prosocial development and Marcia's ego identity status concept were supported. Coping with the…

  3. Brief quiet ego contemplation reduces oxidative stress and mind-wandering.

    PubMed

    Wayment, Heidi A; Collier, Ann F; Birkett, Melissa; Traustadóttir, Tinna; Till, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Excessive self-concern increases perceptions of threat and defensiveness. In contrast, fostering a more inclusive and expanded sense of self can reduce stress and improve well-being. We developed and tested a novel brief intervention designed to strengthen a student's compassionate self-identity, an identity that values balance and growth by reminding them of four quiet ego characteristics: detached awareness, inclusive identity, perspective taking, and growth. Students (N = 32) in their first semester of college who reported greater self-protective (e.g., defensive) goals in the first 2 weeks of the semester were invited to participate in the study. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: quiet ego contemplation (QEC), QEC with virtual reality (VR) headset (QEC-VR), and control. Participants came to the lab three times to engage in a 15-min exercise in a 30-days period. The 15-min QEC briefly described each quiet ego characteristic followed by a few minutes time to reflect on what that characteristic meant to them. Those in the QEC condition reported improved quiet ego characteristics and pluralistic thinking, decreases in a urinary marker of oxidative stress, and reduced mind-wandering on a cognitive task. Contrary to expectation, participants who wore the VR headsets while listening to the QEC demonstrated the least improvement. Results suggest that a brief intervention that reduces self-focus and strengthens a more compassionate self-view may offer an additional resource that individuals can use in their everyday lives.

  4. Self-Concept and Ego Development in Deaf Adolescents: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gent, Tiejo; Goedhart, Arnold W.; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Westenberg, P. Michiel; Treffers, Philip D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Self-concept and ego development, two intertwined aspects of self-indicating well-being and social-cognitive maturation, respectively, were examined in a representative sample of deaf adolescents of normal intelligence (N = 68), using translated and adapted versions of Harter's (1988, "Manual for the self-perception profile for adolescents".…

  5. A Search for Infall Evidence in EGOs. I. The Northern Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Jing-Jing; Xu, Ye; He, Jin-Hua

    2010-02-01

    We report the first systematic survey of molecular lines (including HCO+ (1-0) and 12CO, 13CO, C18O (1-0) lines at the 3 mm band) toward a new sample of 88 massive young stellar object (MYSO) candidates associated with ongoing outflows (known as extended green objects or EGOs) identified from the Spitzer GLIMPSE survey in the northern hemisphere with the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m radio telescope. By analyzing the asymmetries of the optically thick line HCO+ for 69 of 72 EGOs with HCO+ detection, we found 29 sources with "blue asymmetric profiles" and 19 sources with "red asymmetric profiles." This results in a blue excess of 0.14, seen as a signature of collapsing cores in the observed EGO sample. We found that the sources not associated with infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) show a higher blue excess (0.41) than those associated with IRDCs (-0.08), and "possible" outflow candidates show a higher blue excess (0.29) than "likely" outflow candidates (0.05). A higher blue excess (0.19) and a lower blue excess (0.07) were also measured in ultracompact H II regions and 6.7 GHz class II methanol maser sources, respectively. These suggest that the relatively small blue excess (0.14) in our full sample is due to the fact that the observed EGOs are mostly dominated by outflows and at an earlier evolutionary phase associated with IRDCs and 6.7 GHz methanol masers. The physical properties of clouds surrounding EGOs derived from CO lines are similar to those of massive clumps wherein the massive star-forming cores associated with EGOs possibly embedded. The infall velocities and mass infall rates derived for 20 infall candidates are also consistent with the typical values found in MYSOs. Thus, our observations further support the speculation of Cyganowski et al. that EGOs trace a population with ongoing outflow activity and at the active rapid accretion stage of massive protostellar evolution from a statistical view, although there may be limitations due to a single

  6. A 1 mm Spectral Line Survey Toward GLIMPSE Extended Green Objects (EGOs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J. H.; Takahashi, S.; Chen, X.

    2012-09-01

    A northern subsample of 89 Spitzer GLIMPSE extended green objects (EGOs), the candidate massive young stellar objects, are surveyed for molecular lines in two 1 GHz ranges: 251.5-252.5 and 260.188-261.188 GHz. A comprehensive catalog of observed molecular line data and spectral plots are presented. Eight molecular species are undoubtedly detected: H13CO+, SiO, SO, CH3OH, CH3OCH3, CH3CH2CN, HCOOCH3, and HN13C. The H13CO+ 3-2 line is detected in 70 EGOs, among which 37 also show the SiO 6-5 line, demonstrating their association with dense gas and supporting the outflow interpretation of the extended 4.5 μm excess emission. Our major dense gas and outflow tracers (H13CO+, SiO, SO, and CH3OH) are combined with our previous survey of 13CO, 12CO, and C18O 1-0 toward the same sample of EGOs for a multi-line, multi-cloud analysis of linewidth and luminosity correlations. Good log-linear correlations are found among all considered line luminosities, the explanation of which requires a universal similarity of density and thermal structures and probably of shock properties among all EGO clouds. It also requires that the shocks be produced within the natal clouds of the EGOs. Diverse degrees of correlation are found among the linewidths. However, both the linewidth and luminosity correlations tend to progressively worsen across larger cloud subcomponent size scales, depicting the increase of randomness across cloud subcomponent sizes. Moreover, the linewidth correlations among the three isotopic CO 1-0 lines show data scatter as linear functions of the linewidth itself, indicating that the velocity randomness also increases with whole cloud sizes in a regular way. The SMT observing time was funded by Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei.

  7. Promoting cognitive and ego development of African-American rural youth: a program of deliberate psychological education

    PubMed

    Faubert; Locke; Sprinthall; Howland

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a role-taking, action learning program on the cognitive and ego development of African-American rural high school students. The program employed instruction in scientific problem-solving in relation to past and current contributions of African-American scientists. There were two experimental and two comparison groups during the one semester program. The main effects were assessed in two related domains: (1) concrete to abstract thinking (a Piagetian measure); and (2) self-concept development (Loevinger's Ego Stages). The results indicated statistically significant gains in both abstract thinking and ego stage. Implications for school curriculum modification are also detailed.

  8. The life mission theory II. The structure of the life purpose and the ego.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Merrick, Joav

    2003-12-11

    Pursuing your life mission is often very difficult, and many frustrations are experienced along the way. Major failures to bring out our potential can cause us considerable emotional pain. When this pain is unbearable, we are induced to shift from one intention and talent to another that better allows us to adapt and survive. Thus, we become set on a course that brings out a secondary or tertiary talent instead of the primary talent. This talent displacement may be expressed as a loss of our true nature or true self. The new purpose in life now functions as the core of a new personality: the ego. The ego has a structure similar to that of the true self. It is anchored in a talent and it draws on subtalents. But the person who is centered in his or her ego is not as powerful or talented as the person he or she originally was, living the primary purpose of life. This is because the original personality (the true self or "higher self") is still there, active and alive, behind the ego. Symptoms, disorders, and diseases may be explained by the loss of energy, joy in life, and intuitive competence because of inner conflicts, which may be alleviated or cured in the salutogenetic process of Antonovsky that helps patients find their sense of coherence or their primary purpose in life. Many cases of reduced ability to function, physically as well as psychologically, socially or sexually, can also be explained and alleviated in this way. When a person discovers his true talent and begins to use it with dedication, privately as well as professionally, his life will flourish and he may overcome even serious disease and great adversity in life. The salutogenetic process can also be called personal development or "quality of life as medicine". It is important to note that the plan for personal development laid out by this theory is a plan not for the elimination of the ego, but for its cultivation. An existentially sound person still has a mental ego of course, but it is centered

  9. When do ego threats lead to self-regulation failure? Negative consequences of defensive high self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Lambird, Kathleen Hoffman; Mann, Traci

    2006-09-01

    High self-esteem (HSE) is increasingly recognized as heterogeneous. By measuring subtypes of HSE, the present research reevaluates the finding that HSE individuals show poor self-regulation following ego threat (Baumeister, Heatherton, & Tice, 1993). In Experiment 1, participants with HSE showed poor self-regulation after ego threat only if they also were defensive (high in self-presentation bias). In Experiment 2, two measures--self-presentation bias and implicit self-esteem--were used to subtype HSE individuals as defensive. Both operationalizations of defensive HSE predicted poor self-regulation after ego threat. The results indicate that (a) only defensive HSE individuals are prone to self-regulation failure following ego threat and (b) measures of self-presentation bias and implicit self-esteem can both be used to detect defensiveness.

  10. The narrow use of the term ego in analytical psychology: the 'not-I' is also who I am.

    PubMed

    West, Marcus

    2008-06-01

    This paper(1) explores some aspects of the narrowness of Jung's usage of the term ego and the consequences which are understood to follow there from. Jung is understood to see the ego as a surface phenomenon and, essentially, as the focal point of consciousness, not recognizing its potential to function more broadly, deeply, and unconsciously. Furthermore, although he does recognize the ego as 'the total conscious personality' his use of the term frequently does not reflect that definition. Whilst Jung's analysis of the narrowly functioning ego is enlightening and groundbreaking, he treats this narrow functioning as if it is characteristic of the ego itself, ascribing any 'broad functioning' primarily to the Self. This narrow use of the term ego, and the corresponding use of the term Self, are understood to have significant consequences for clinical practice, including leading the analyst into an over-identification with the patient and a loss of the analyst's sense of self. It is also understood to lead to difficulties dealing with more disturbed individuals, to stuck and broken down analyses, to wear and tear on the analyst and, potentially, splits between the different schools of analytical psychology. These concerns all represent difficulties with working in the transference, and Jung's own experience of this is briefly explored.

  11. C. elegans RNA-dependent RNA polymerases rrf-1 and ego-1 silence Drosophila transgenes by differing mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guowen; Saint, Robert B; Helliwell, Chris A; Behm, Carolyn A; Wang, Ming-Bo; Waterhouse, Peter M; Gordon, Karl H J

    2013-04-01

    Drosophila possesses the core gene silencing machinery but, like all insects, lacks the canonical RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) that in C. elegans either trigger or enhance two major small RNA-dependent gene silencing pathways. Introduction of two different nematode RdRps into Drosophila showed them to be functional, resulting in differing silencing activities. While RRF-1 enhanced transitive dsRNA-dependent silencing, EGO-1 triggered dsRNA-independent silencing, specifically of transgenes. The strain w; da-Gal4; UAST-ego-1, constitutively expressing ego-1, is capable of silencing transgene including dsRNA hairpin upon a single cross, which created a powerful tool for research in Drosophila. In C. elegans, EGO-1 is involved in transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of chromosome regions that are unpaired during meiosis. There was no opportunity for meiotic interactions involving EGO-1 in Drosophila that would explain the observed transgene silencing. Transgene DNA is, however, unpaired during the pairing of chromosomes in embryonic mitosis that is an unusual characteristic of Diptera, suggesting that in Drosophila, EGO-1 triggers transcriptional silencing of unpaired DNA during embryonic mitosis.

  12. Ego identity status and expressive writing among high school and college students.

    PubMed

    Waterman, A S; Archer, S

    1979-09-01

    Several studies were conducted to assess the relationship between expressive writing (poetry writing and journal keeping) and ego identity development among high school and college students. In three independent comparisons, poetry writers were more likely than students not writing poetry to have previously resolved identity crises (i.e., to be in the identity achiever status). There were also indications that students who had never written poetry were more likely to be in the foreclosure and identity diffusion statuses. No differences in identity development were found between students keeping personal journals and those who had not kept journals. A comparison was made of the themes most frequently chosen as the subject for each type of expressive writing and the functions such writings were believed to be serving. Possible explanations for why poetry writing, but not journal keeping, is related to ego identity formation are discussed.

  13. Efficacy of single-session abreactive ego state therapy for combat stress injury, PTSD, and ASD.

    PubMed

    Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne; Christensen, Ciara; French, Brian; Watkins, John G

    2013-01-01

    Using abreactive Ego State Therapy (EST), 36 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR and PTSD checklist (PCL) criteria were exposed to either 5-6 hours of manualized treatment or placebo in a single session. EST emphasizes repeated hypnotically activated abreactive "reliving" of the trauma experience combined with therapists' ego strength. Both the placebo and EST treatment groups showed significant reductions in PTSD checklist scores immediately posttreatment (placebo: mean 17.34 points; EST: mean 53.11 points) but only the EST patients maintained significant treatment effect at 4-week and 16- to 18-week follow-ups. Abreactive EST appears to be an effective and durable treatment for PTSD inclusive of combat stress injury and acute stress disorder.

  14. Ego depletion and positive illusions: does the construction of positivity require regulatory resources?

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Frey, Dieter

    2007-09-01

    Individuals frequently exhibit positive illusions about their own abilities, their possibilities to control their environment, and future expectations. The authors propose that positive illusions require resources of self-control, which is considered to be a limited resource similar to energy or strength. Five studies revealed that people with depleted self-regulatory resources indeed exhibited a less-optimistic sense of their own abilities (Study 1), a lower sense of subjective control (Study 2), and less-optimistic expectations about their future (Study 3). Two further studies shed light on the underlying psychological process: Ego-depleted (compared to nondepleted) individuals generated/retrieved less positive self-relevant attributes (Studies 4 and 5) and reported a lower sense of general self-efficacy (Study 5), which both partially mediated the impact of ego depletion on positive self-views (Study 5).

  15. The center core in ego state therapy and other hypnotically facilitated psychotherapies.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Claire

    2013-07-01

    Center core phenomena have been utilized in the practice of ego state therapy and other forms of hypnotically facilitated psychotherapy for nearly 40 years. Despite the frequency with which they are employed, many confusions, contradictions, and questions remain concerning them. In this article relevant center core phenomena literature is reviewed and an essential differentiation between two different kinds of center core phenomena is clarified. Psychodynamic explanations are offered for the therapeutic benefits of archetypal center core experiences such as inner strength and inner wisdom. The information provided offers clinicians a sturdier platform from which to decide whether to incorporate center core experiences into clinical practice. The persistent question of whether center core phenomena are ego states is revisited and addressed.

  16. Longitudinal relations of intrusive parenting and effortful control to ego-resiliency during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Zoe E; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Widaman, Keith F

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal relations among ego-resiliency (ER), effortful control (EC), and observed intrusive parenting were examined at 18, 30, and 42 months of age (Ns = 256, 230, and 210) using structural equation modeling. Intrusive parenting at 18 and 30 months negatively predicted EC a year later, over and above earlier levels. EC at 30 months mediated the negative relation between 18-month intrusive parenting and ER at 42 months when controlling for stability of the variables. ER did not predict EC. The findings suggest that intrusive parenting may have a negative effect on children's ego-resiliency through its effects on children's abilities to regulate attention and behavior.

  17. Efficacy of abreactive ego state therapy for PTSD: trauma resolution, depression, and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Ciara; Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Using manualized abreactive Ego State Therapy (EST), 30 subjects meeting DSM-IV-TR and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) criteria were exposed to either 5-6 hours of treatment or the Ochberg Counting Method (placebo) in a single session. EST emphasized repeated hypnotically activated abreactive "reliving" of the trauma and ego strengthening by the cotherapists. Posttreatment 1-month and 3-month follow-ups showed EST to be an effective treatment for PTSD. Using the Davidson Trauma Scale, Beck Depression II, and Beck Anxiety Scales, EST subjects showed significant positive effects from pretreatment levels at all posttreatment measurement periods in contrast to the placebo treatment. Most of the EST subjects responded and showed further improvement over time.

  18. Ego-Resiliency Reloaded: A Three-Component Model of General Resiliency

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Dávid; Orosz, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Ego-resiliency (ER) is a capacity that enables individuals to adapt to constantly changing environmental demands. The goal of our research was to identify components of Ego-resiliency, and to test the reliability and the structural and convergent validity of the refined version of the ER11 Ego-resiliency scale. In Study 1 we used a factor analytical approach to assess structural validity and to identify factors of Ego-resiliency. Comparing alternative factor-structures, a hierarchical model was chosen including three factors: Active Engagement with the World (AEW), Repertoire of Problem Solving Strategies (RPSS), and Integrated Performance under Stress (IPS). In Study 2, the convergent and divergent validity of the ER11 scale and its factors and their relationship with resilience were tested. The results suggested that resiliency is a double-faced construct, with one function to keep the personality system stable and intact, and the other function to adjust the personality system in an adaptive way to the dynamically changing environment. The stability function is represented by the RPSS and IPS components of ER. Their relationship pattern is similar to other constructs of resilience, e.g. the Revised Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (R-CD-RISC). The flexibility function is represented by the unit of RPSS and AEW components. In Study 3 we tested ER11 on a Hungarian online representative sample and integrated the results in a model of general resiliency. This framework allows us to grasp both the stability-focused and the plasticity-focused nature of resiliency. PMID:25815881

  19. Ego-resiliency reloaded: a three-component model of general resiliency.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Dávid; Orosz, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Ego-resiliency (ER) is a capacity that enables individuals to adapt to constantly changing environmental demands. The goal of our research was to identify components of Ego-resiliency, and to test the reliability and the structural and convergent validity of the refined version of the ER11 Ego-resiliency scale. In Study 1 we used a factor analytical approach to assess structural validity and to identify factors of Ego-resiliency. Comparing alternative factor-structures, a hierarchical model was chosen including three factors: Active Engagement with the World (AEW), Repertoire of Problem Solving Strategies (RPSS), and Integrated Performance under Stress (IPS). In Study 2, the convergent and divergent validity of the ER11 scale and its factors and their relationship with resilience were tested. The results suggested that resiliency is a double-faced construct, with one function to keep the personality system stable and intact, and the other function to adjust the personality system in an adaptive way to the dynamically changing environment. The stability function is represented by the RPSS and IPS components of ER. Their relationship pattern is similar to other constructs of resilience, e.g. the Revised Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (R-CD-RISC). The flexibility function is represented by the unit of RPSS and AEW components. In Study 3 we tested ER11 on a Hungarian online representative sample and integrated the results in a model of general resiliency. This framework allows us to grasp both the stability-focused and the plasticity-focused nature of resiliency.

  20. Bipolar Molecular Outflows and Hot Cores in Glimpse Extended Green Objects (EGOs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyganowski, C. J.; Brogan, C. L.; Hunter, T. R.; Churchwell, E.; Zhang, Q.

    2011-03-01

    We present high angular resolution Submillimeter Array and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy observations of two GLIMPSE Extended Green Objects (EGOs)—massive young stellar object (MYSO) outflow candidates identified based on their extended 4.5 μm emission in Spitzer images. The millimeter observations reveal bipolar molecular outflows, traced by high-velocity 12CO(2-1) and HCO+(1-0) emission, coincident with the 4.5 μm lobes in both sources. SiO(2-1) emission confirms that the extended 4.5 μm emission traces active outflows. A single dominant outflow is identified in each EGO, with tentative evidence for multiple flows in one source (G11.92-0.61). The outflow driving sources are compact millimeter continuum cores, which exhibit hot core spectral line emission and are associated with 6.7 GHz Class II CH3OH masers. G11.92-0.61 is associated with at least three compact cores: the outflow driving source, and two cores that are largely devoid of line emission. In contrast, G19.01-0.03 appears as a single MYSO. The difference in multiplicity, the comparative weakness of its hot core emission, and the dominance of its extended envelope of molecular gas all suggest that G19.01-0.03 may be in an earlier evolutionary stage than G11.92-0.61. Modeling of the G19.01-0.03 spectral energy distribution suggests that a central (proto)star (M ~ 10 M sun) has formed in the compact millimeter core (M gas ~12-16 M sun), and that accretion is ongoing at a rate of ~10-3 M sun year-1. Our observations confirm that these EGOs are young MYSOs driving massive bipolar molecular outflows and demonstrate that considerable chemical and evolutionary diversity are present within the EGO sample.

  1. A Robust Method for Ego-Motion Estimation in Urban Environment Using Stereo Camera

    PubMed Central

    Ci, Wenyan; Huang, Yingping

    2016-01-01

    Visual odometry estimates the ego-motion of an agent (e.g., vehicle and robot) using image information and is a key component for autonomous vehicles and robotics. This paper proposes a robust and precise method for estimating the 6-DoF ego-motion, using a stereo rig with optical flow analysis. An objective function fitted with a set of feature points is created by establishing the mathematical relationship between optical flow, depth and camera ego-motion parameters through the camera’s 3-dimensional motion and planar imaging model. Accordingly, the six motion parameters are computed by minimizing the objective function, using the iterative Levenberg–Marquard method. One of key points for visual odometry is that the feature points selected for the computation should contain inliers as much as possible. In this work, the feature points and their optical flows are initially detected by using the Kanade–Lucas–Tomasi (KLT) algorithm. A circle matching is followed to remove the outliers caused by the mismatching of the KLT algorithm. A space position constraint is imposed to filter out the moving points from the point set detected by the KLT algorithm. The Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm is employed to further refine the feature point set, i.e., to eliminate the effects of outliers. The remaining points are tracked to estimate the ego-motion parameters in the subsequent frames. The approach presented here is tested on real traffic videos and the results prove the robustness and precision of the method. PMID:27763508

  2. A 95 GHz CLASS I METHANOL MASER SURVEY TOWARD GLIMPSE EXTENDED GREEN OBJECTS (EGOs)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xi; Shen Zhiqiang; Gan Conggui; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Titmarsh, Anita

    2011-09-01

    We report the results of a systematic survey for 95 GHz class I methanol masers toward a new sample of 192 massive young stellar object candidates associated with ongoing outflows (known as extended green objects or EGOs) identified from the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) survey. The observations were made with the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) Mopra 22 m radio telescope and resulted in the detection of 105 new 95 GHz class I methanol masers. For 92 of the sources our observations provide the first identification of a class I maser transition associated with these objects (i.e., they are new class I methanol maser sources). Our survey proves that there is indeed a high detection rate (55%) of class I methanol masers toward EGOs. Comparison of the GLIMPSE point sources associated with EGOs with and without class I methanol maser detections shows that they have similar mid-IR colors, with the majority meeting the color selection criteria -0.6 < [5.8]-[8.0] < 1.4 and 0.5 < [3.6]-[4.5] < 4.0. Investigations of the Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 {mu}m colors and the associated millimeter dust clump properties (mass and density) of the EGOs for the sub-samples based on the class of methanol masers they are associated with suggest that the stellar mass range associated with class I methanol masers extends to lower masses than for class II methanol masers, or alternatively class I methanol masers may be associated with more than one evolutionary phase during the formation of a high-mass star.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New EGOs from Spitzer GLIMPSE II survey. I. (Chen+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Gan, C.-G.; Ellingsen, S. P.; He, J.-H.; Shen, Z.-Q.; Titmarsh, A.

    2013-10-01

    We have adopted methods similar to those used by Cyganowski et al. (2008, Cat. J/AJ/136/2391) to compile a catalog of EGOs in the GLIMPSE II survey region. We displayed the archived GLIMPSE II Image Atlas mosaics (Version 3.5). We have constructed images in each of the IRAC bands (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0um), as well as for the Spitzer Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS) 24um band (from the MIPS Galactic Plane Survey (MIPSGAL survey; Carey et al. 2009PASP..121...76C), and a three-color composite (3.6um-blue, 4.5um-green, and 8.0-m-red) for each of the 98 newly identified EGOs. To investigate the nature of the newly cataloged EGO sample from the GLIMPSE II survey region, we have performed a survey for molecular lines in the 3mm band toward ~60% of the sources with the ATNF Mopra 22m radio telescope. The Mopra observations consisted of a single pointing for each source and were undertaken in the period 2009 August 9-20. (5 data files).

  4. Land-use and land-cover sceneries in China: an application of Dinamica EGO model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang; Li, Zhihua; Chen, Maosi

    2012-10-01

    Land is an indispensable natural resource for human, without which we cannot survive and develop. Land-use change, influenced by both natural environment and human activity, has a close relationship with food security, resource utilization, biodiversity and climate change. In order to understand the process and driving mechanism of land-use change, dynamic models were developed in these years, among which Dinamica EGO is a practical one and has been widely used in the world. In this paper, we aim to use Dinamica EGO to simulate the land-use of China in 2005 with data extracted from SPOT VGT NDVI. The real land-use map was compared with the simulation result so as to verify the feasibility of Dinamica EGO. Then we supposed three sceneries under which we could analyze the land-use change of China in 2020. Results indicated that: on the basis of no extreme natural disasters or exceptional policy fluctuation, the grassland area would reduce by 22.21 million hectares averagely. However forest would increase by 19.81 billion hectares on average. Water and unused land would probably remain stable as there was little change in three sceneries. Farmland areas showed a good agreement under these sceneries whereas the greatest difference in land-use area estimations lies in built-up with an uncertainty accounting for 1.67%.

  5. Frustration, anger, and the significance of alter-ego transferences in group psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Stone, W N

    1995-07-01

    When working with narcissistically vulnerable and angry patients in group psychotherapy one must take into account the entire treatment context. Interaction takes place among the identified patient, the other members, the therapist, and the image of the group as a whole. In members' counter-reactions to the difficult person, group-destructive forces frequently are stimulated. The offending individual may flee, or the group may reach an impasse in which little growth occurs. In this communication, I have focused on alter-ego relationships and transferences as a way of understanding aspects of group formation and destruction. Angry patients may have intense wishes to be like others and to feel part of the human condition. They suffer from feeling alone. Disruption of an alter-ego relationship may result in rage. A self-psychological perspective in concert with knowledge of group dynamics enables the clinician to formulate ways of intervening in problematic group interactions. The therapist's capacity to attend to the vulnerabilities of the self of all persons involved in the group is often severely tested, particularly under circumstances of emotional contagion. Elucidation of twinship and alter-ego transferences may help stabilize difficult patients and enable them to restart their psychological growth.

  6. A quiet ego quiets death anxiety: humility as an existential anxiety buffer.

    PubMed

    Kesebir, Pelin

    2014-04-01

    Five studies tested the hypothesis that a quiet ego, as exemplified by humility, would buffer death anxiety. Humility is characterized by a willingness to accept the self and life without comforting illusions, and by low levels of self-focus. As a consequence, it was expected to render mortality thoughts less threatening and less likely to evoke potentially destructive behavior patterns. In line with this reasoning, Study 1 found that people high in humility do not engage in self-serving moral disengagement following mortality reminders, whereas people low in humility do. Study 2 showed that only people low in humility respond to death reminders with increased fear of death, and established that this effect was driven uniquely by humility and not by some other related personality trait. In Study 3, a low sense of psychological entitlement decreased cultural worldview defense in response to death thoughts, whereas a high sense of entitlement tended to increase it. Study 4 demonstrated that priming humility reduces self-reported death anxiety relative to both a baseline and a pride priming condition. Finally, in Study 5, experimentally induced feelings of humility prevented mortality reminders from leading to depleted self-control. As a whole, these findings obtained from relatively diverse Internet samples illustrate that the dark side of death anxiety is brought about by a noisy ego only and not by a quiet ego, revealing self-transcendence as a sturdier, healthier anxiety buffer than self-enhancement.

  7. Narcissism and other-derogation in the absence of ego threat.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun W; Colvin, C Randall

    2015-06-01

    The relation between narcissism and other-derogation has been examined primarily in the context of ego threat. In three studies, we investigated whether narcissistic individuals derogate others in the absence of ego threat. In Study 1, 79 judges watched four videotaped dyadic interactions and rated the personality of the same four people. In Study 2, 66 judges rated the personality of a friend. In Study 3, 72 judges considered the average Northeastern University student and rated the personality of this hypothetical person. Across the three studies, targets' personality characteristics were described on the 100-item California Adult Q-Sort (CAQ; Block, 2008). Judges' ratings of targets were compared to a CAQ prototype of the optimally adjusted person to assess target-derogation. Judges' narcissism and other-derogation were positively related in Studies 1 and 2. Narcissism positively predicted and self-esteem negatively predicted target-derogation after controlling for each other in Study 3. Narcissistic individuals derogate others more than non-narcissistic individuals regardless of whether ego threat is present or absent.

  8. A New Approach to Identifying Massive Young Stellar Objects: Extended Green Objects (EGOs) from the GLIMPSE Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyganowski, Claudia Jane Klimick

    2010-07-01

    A promising new diagnostic for identifying actively accreting massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) has emerged from large-scale Spitzer Space Telescope surveys of the Galactic plane: extended emission in the IRAC 4.5 micron band, believed to trace shocked molecular gas in active protostellar outflows. I present the GLIMPSE I catalog of extended 4.5 micron sources (called EGOs, Extended Green Objects, for the common coding of the [4.5] band as green in 3-color composite IRAC images) and the evidence that EGOs, as a population, are massive YSOs. I also present the results of high-resolution EVLA surveys of 20 EGOs in the 6.7 GHz Class II and 44 GHz Class I methanol maser transitions, which respectively trace high-mass protostars and molecular outflows, and a JCMT survey in the molecular outflow tracers HCO+ and SiO. High detection rates of all outflow tracers and the spatial distribution of the masers with respect to the midinfrared emission provide convincing evidence that the surveyed EGOs are much-sought MYSOs which are actively accreting and driving outflows. I complement the survey results with detailed case studies of two EGOs using SMA and CARMA data. The high-resolution mm observations reveal bipolar molecular outflows coincident with the 4.5 micron lobes in both sources. A single dominant outflow is identified in each of the studied EGOs, with tentative evidence for multiple flows in one source (G11.92-0.61). Strong SiO(2-1) emission is also detected, confirming that the extended 4.5 micron emission traces recently shocked gas in active outflows. The outflow driving sources are compact mm continuum cores that exhibit hot-core spectral line emission, and are associated with 6.7 GHz methanol masers. The mm data also reveal considerable chemical and evolutionary diversity even within a small EGO subsample. The EGO G11.92-0.61 is associated with at least three compact cores, and is forming a protocluster of intermediate to high-mass stars. Other than the

  9. The Relations of Ego-Resiliency and Emotion Socialization to the Development of Empathy and Prosocial Behavior Across Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Sulik, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored early personality and environmental predictors of the development of young children’s empathy, as well as relations of empathy to prosocial behavior with peers at a later age. How children manage their own emotions and behaviors when under stress—their ego-resiliency—would be expected to affect their responses to others’ emotions. Also, socialization experiences, such as the quality of parenting behaviors, have been associated with individual differences in empathy-related responding. We examined whether mothers’ emotion socialization practices and children’s ego-resiliency at 18 months predicted initial levels and change in empathy across five time points (24, 30, 42, 48, and 54 months; N = 242), and whether empathy in turn predicted prosocial behavior with peers at 72/84 months of age. Ego-resiliency and mothers’ expressive encouragement both uniquely predicted the intercept of empathy. Boys’ empathy was lower than girls’ but improved more with age. Initial levels and growth of empathy positively predicted later prosocial behavior. Children’s ego-resiliency predicted the slope of empathy at near significance (p = .054). We also found that the intercept of empathy mediated the relation between ego-resiliency and prosocial behavior as well as the relation between mothers’ expressive encouragement and prosocial behavior. These findings suggest that both parenting and personality characteristics are relevant to the development of empathy during early childhood and might contribute to children’s later prosocial behavior with peers. PMID:24098930

  10. The relations of ego-resiliency and emotion socialization to the development of empathy and prosocial behavior across early childhood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Zoe E; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eggum, Natalie D; Sulik, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    The present study explored early personality and environmental predictors of the development of young children's empathy, as well as relations of empathy to prosocial behavior with peers at a later age. How children manage their own emotions and behaviors when under stress--their ego-resiliency--would be expected to affect their responses to others' emotions. Also, socialization experiences, such as the quality of parenting behaviors, have been associated with individual differences in empathy-related responding. We examined whether mothers' emotion socialization practices and children's ego-resiliency at 18 months predicted initial levels and change in empathy across five time points (24, 30, 42, 48, and 54 months; N = 242), and whether empathy in turn predicted prosocial behavior with peers at 72/84 months of age. Ego-resiliency and mothers' expressive encouragement both uniquely predicted the intercept of empathy. Boys' empathy was lower than girls' but improved more with age. Initial levels and growth of empathy positively predicted later prosocial behavior. Children's ego-resiliency predicted the slope of empathy at near significance (p = .054). We also found that the intercept of empathy mediated the relation between ego-resiliency and prosocial behavior as well as the relation between mothers' expressive encouragement and prosocial behavior. These findings suggest that both parenting and personality characteristics are relevant to the development of empathy during early childhood and might contribute to children's later prosocial behavior with peers.

  11. No Evidence of the Ego-Depletion Effect across Task Characteristics and Individual Differences: A Pre-Registered Study

    PubMed Central

    Lurquin, John H.; Michaelson, Laura E.; Barker, Jane E.; Gustavson, Daniel E.; von Bastian, Claudia C.; Carruth, Nicholas P.; Miyake, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Ego-depletion, a psychological phenomenon in which participants are less able to engage in self-control after prior exertion of self-control, has become widely popular in the scientific community as well as in the media. However, considerable debate exists among researchers as to the nature of the ego-depletion effect, and growing evidence suggests the effect may not be as strong or robust as the extant literature suggests. We examined the robustness of the ego-depletion effect and aimed to maximize the likelihood of detecting the effect by using one of the most widely used depletion tasks (video-viewing attention control task) and by considering task characteristics and individual differences that potentially moderate the effect. We also sought to make our research plan transparent by pre-registering our hypotheses, procedure, and planned analyses prior to data collection. Contrary to the ego-depletion hypothesis, participants in the depletion condition did not perform worse than control participants on the subsequent self-control task, even after considering moderator variables. These findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting ego-depletion is not a reliable phenomenon, though more research is needed that uses large sample sizes, considers moderator variables, and pre-registers prior to data collection. PMID:26863227

  12. No Evidence of the Ego-Depletion Effect across Task Characteristics and Individual Differences: A Pre-Registered Study.

    PubMed

    Lurquin, John H; Michaelson, Laura E; Barker, Jane E; Gustavson, Daniel E; von Bastian, Claudia C; Carruth, Nicholas P; Miyake, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Ego-depletion, a psychological phenomenon in which participants are less able to engage in self-control after prior exertion of self-control, has become widely popular in the scientific community as well as in the media. However, considerable debate exists among researchers as to the nature of the ego-depletion effect, and growing evidence suggests the effect may not be as strong or robust as the extant literature suggests. We examined the robustness of the ego-depletion effect and aimed to maximize the likelihood of detecting the effect by using one of the most widely used depletion tasks (video-viewing attention control task) and by considering task characteristics and individual differences that potentially moderate the effect. We also sought to make our research plan transparent by pre-registering our hypotheses, procedure, and planned analyses prior to data collection. Contrary to the ego-depletion hypothesis, participants in the depletion condition did not perform worse than control participants on the subsequent self-control task, even after considering moderator variables. These findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting ego-depletion is not a reliable phenomenon, though more research is needed that uses large sample sizes, considers moderator variables, and pre-registers prior to data collection.

  13. Investigating the Relationship between the Perceptions of Taekwondo Athletes towards Coach-Athlete Relationship, Task and Ego Orientation in Sports, and Motivation in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezci, Sakir

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to determine the effect of tasks and egos of taekwondo athletes on the coach-athlete relationship and the effect of coach-athlete relationship on motivation in sports. Thus, "Coach-Athlete Relationship", "Task and Ego Orientation in Sports" and "Motivation in Sports" scales have been applied to the…

  14. Passion and Preparation in the Basic Course: The Influence of Students' Ego-Involvement with Speech Topics and Preparation Time on Public-Speaking Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Joseph P.; Titsworth, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Authors of basic public-speaking course textbooks frequently encourage students to select speech topics in which they have vested interest, care deeply about, and hold strong opinions and beliefs. This study explores students' level of ego-involvement with informative and persuasive speech topics, examines possible ego-involvement predictors of…

  15. Education and Public Outreach at EGO/Virgo: past experiences and future projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzano, Massimiliano

    2015-08-01

    We are approaching the new generation Gravitational Wave (GW) detector Era and in the next months a new exiting period for GW scientists will start enforcing collaboration and interactions among different scientific communities. We aim to reach a wider audience to spread this enthusiasm in the general public about our every day activities and let them know how it will change our understanding of the Universe, once revealed the Gravitational waves. In this talk, we will report about the activities of the last years and about the EGO/Virgo outreach plans for the future. The main goal of the Virgo/EGO outreach activity is to raise awareness and curiosity about the GW research projects. In the past years we informed the general public about science we do at EGO/Virgo site, trying to attract students in doing research, letting them know about the Virgo detector and involving them in small research activities. We run a regular program of site visits, and we often organized astronomical observations and science cafe' events which attracted a large number of people. Efforts were made also to involve kids in understanding our scientific job. We started a series of regular events in which art and science were fused.We are strengthening our outreach activities with common efforts in the Virgo laboratories which are spread all over in Europe.We plan to make available a scientific path within Virgo, where the public can do little experiences of science or for example tile, for a day, the activity of our researchers.

  16. Extrapunitive and Intropunitive Individuals Activate Different Parts of the Prefrontal Cortex under an Ego-Blocking Frustration

    PubMed Central

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Different people make different responses when they face a frustrating situation: some punish others (extrapunitive), while others punish themselves (intropunitive). Few studies have investigated the neural structures that differentiate extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals. The present fMRI study explored these neural structures using two different frustrating situations: an ego-blocking situation which blocks a desire or goal, and a superego-blocking situation which blocks self-esteem. In the ego-blocking condition, the extrapunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation in the bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, indicating that these individuals prefer emotional processing. On the other hand, the intropunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, possibly reflecting an effortful control for anger reduction. Such patterns were not observed in the superego-blocking condition. These results indicate that the prefrontal cortex is the source of individual differences in aggression direction in the ego-blocking situation. PMID:24454951

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Newly EGOs from GLIMPSE II survey. II. MoC (Chen+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Gan, C.-G.; Ellingsen, S. P.; He, J.-H.; Shen, Z.-Q.; Titmarsh, A.

    2013-10-01

    A survey for molecular lines in the 3mm band toward ~60% of the GLIMPSE II EGO catalog (Paper I, Cat. J/ApJS/206/9) was performed with the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) Mopra 22m radio telescope in 2009 august 9-20. Fifty-five sites, which include fifty-seven of the GLIMPSE II EGOs were observed in the survey (the two EGO-pairs G352.52+0.76(a)/G352.52+0.76(b) and G358.46-0.39(a)/G358.46-0.39(b) were covered simultaneously within a single Mopra observation). (11 data files).

  18. [Pervasive developmental disorder in adults; importance of diagnosis in concern to the type of ego structure with PDD].

    PubMed

    Hirosawa, Masataka

    2011-01-01

    Most adult patients with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) who consult with psychiatrists for the first time may have normal intelligence. In diagnosing high-functioning PDD to adult patients, we should pay much attention to psychological consistency which exists between developmental problems in childhood, developed personality, recent problems in social adjustment, and manifested psychiatric symptoms. In order to understand these relationships, considering the patients' type of ego structure ("PDD ego type") seems to be useful. "PDD ego type" is characterized by their unique self-universe image which takes form of grid one (just like a touch panel), which is decisively different from the form of a radial or concentric circle held by most people (Jung, C.G). This self-universe image characterizes adult PDD patients' psychiatric symptoms, unsuitable social performance, and their "personality."

  19. Extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals activate different parts of the prefrontal cortex under an ego-blocking frustration.

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Different people make different responses when they face a frustrating situation: some punish others (extrapunitive), while others punish themselves (intropunitive). Few studies have investigated the neural structures that differentiate extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals. The present fMRI study explored these neural structures using two different frustrating situations: an ego-blocking situation which blocks a desire or goal, and a superego-blocking situation which blocks self-esteem. In the ego-blocking condition, the extrapunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation in the bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, indicating that these individuals prefer emotional processing. On the other hand, the intropunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, possibly reflecting an effortful control for anger reduction. Such patterns were not observed in the superego-blocking condition. These results indicate that the prefrontal cortex is the source of individual differences in aggression direction in the ego-blocking situation.

  20. Minimization of operator-balance interactive warmup by use of an alter ego heat source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braudaway, D. W.

    Operator-equipment interaction is a well-known but frustrating part of many high precision measurements. Deterioration in performance of a high-precision balance required testing to identify the cause of the problem and to establish effectiveness of the solution. An unexpected result of the tests was a clear characterization of a significant operator-balance thermal interaction and verification of the empirically determined warmup requirement. The repeatability of the interactive effect inspired development of a replacement for the operator using an alter ego heat source.

  1. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Ahmed; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual’s personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performance of Pakistani medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done at CMH Lahore Medical College and Fatima Memorial Hospital Medical and Dental College, both in Lahore, Pakistan, from December 1, 2014 to January 15, 2015. Convenience sampling was used and only students who agreed to take part in this study were included. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: 1) Demographics, documenting demographic data and academic scores on participants’ most recent exams; 2) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and 3) Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The data were analyzed with SPSS v. 20. Mean scores and frequencies were calculated for demographic variables and ego defense mechanisms. Bivariate correlations, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression were used to identify associations between academic scores, demographics, ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression. Results: A total of 409 medical students participated, of whom 286 (70%) were females and 123 (30%) were males. Mean percentage score on the most recent exams was 75.6% in medical students. Bivariate correlation revealed a direct association between mature and neurotic ego defense mechanisms and academic performance, and an indirect association between immature mechanisms and academic performance. One-way ANOVA showed that moderate levels of anxiety (P < .05) and low levels of depression (P < .05) were associated with higher academic performance. Conclusion: There was a

  2. Testing Cross-Cultural Generalizability of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire across American and Chinese Samples

    PubMed Central

    Monsma, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the factor structure and measurement invariance of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) across American and Chinese samples. Results based on the mean and covariance structure analyses supported configural invariance, metric invariance and scalar invariance across groups. Latent means analyses revealed that American sample had significantly higher mean scores on task and ego orientations than the Chinese sample. The findings suggest that the TEOSQ is a valid and reliable instrument in assessing achievement motivation across these two diverse populations. PMID:27399869

  3. GATA Factor Regulation in Excess Nitrogen Occurs Independently of Gtr-Ego Complex-Dependent TorC1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Jennifer J.; Georis, Isabelle; Rai, Rajendra; Vierendeels, Fabienne; Dubois, Evelyne; Cooper, Terrance G.

    2015-01-01

    The TorC1 protein kinase complex is a central component in a eukaryotic cell’s response to varying nitrogen availability, with kinase activity being stimulated in nitrogen excess by increased intracellular leucine. This leucine-dependent TorC1 activation requires functional Gtr1/2 and Ego1/3 complexes. Rapamycin inhibition of TorC1 elicits nuclear localization of Gln3, a GATA-family transcription activator responsible for the expression of genes encoding proteins required to transport and degrade poor nitrogen sources, e.g., proline. In nitrogen-replete conditions, Gln3 is cytoplasmic and Gln3-mediated transcription minimal, whereas in nitrogen limiting or starvation conditions, or after rapamycin treatment, Gln3 is nuclear and transcription greatly increased. Increasing evidence supports the idea that TorC1 activation may not be as central to nitrogen-responsive intracellular Gln3 localization as envisioned previously. To test this idea directly, we determined whether Gtr1/2- and Ego1/3-dependent TorC1 activation also was required for cytoplasmic Gln3 sequestration and repressed GATA factor-mediated transcription by abolishing the Gtr-Ego complex proteins. We show that Gln3 is sequestered in the cytoplasm of gtr1Δ, gtr2Δ, ego1Δ, and ego3Δ strains either long term in logarithmically glutamine-grown cells or short term after refeeding glutamine to nitrogen-limited or -starved cells; GATA factor−dependent transcription also was minimal. However, in all but a gtr1Δ, nuclear Gln3 localization in response to nitrogen limitation or starvation was adversely affected. Our data demonstrate: (i) Gtr-Ego-dependent TorC1 activation is not required for cytoplasmic Gln3 sequestration in nitrogen-rich conditions; (ii) a novel Gtr-Ego-TorC1 activation-independent mechanism sequesters Gln3 in the cytoplasm; (iii) Gtr and Ego complex proteins participate in nuclear Gln3-Myc13 localization, heretofore unrecognized functions for these proteins; and (iv) the importance of

  4. The scenic function of the ego and its role in symptom and character formation.

    PubMed

    Argelander, Hermann

    2013-04-01

    The author argues that the scenic function of the ego permits the situationally appropriate representation of an unconscious, infantile configuration - that is, of a relatively stable, personality-based drive scene having the same status as latent dream thoughts. The products of conflict elaboration (symptoms, etc.) are manifested in different ways in accordance with the conditions of the relevant situation. The contents of the drive scene are created by the psychical apparatus on the basis of infantile perceptions and are revealed in screen memories. The capacity for situationally appropriate representation is apparently bound up with the mobile drive, including its narcissistic transformations. Desexualization (in the sense of neutralization) renders scenic elaboration impossible. The drive derivatives withdrawn from the scenic configuration contribute to ego organization and the formation of character traits, which no longer vary according to the situation, but can only be modified by a change in personality structure itself. It is as yet unclear whether a process of resexualization can make them amenable once more to analytic work. The form of narcissistic libido that can assume a scenic configuration is closely related to primary narcissism. Its manifestations, which may likewise emerge in situation-dependent symptom formations, appear accessible to analysis.

  5. Exploring the association of ego defense mechanisms with problematic internet use in a Pakistani medical school.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Aftab, Ramsha; Allah Yar, Aroosa; Allah Yar, Arooj; Rai, Aitzaz Bin Sultan

    2016-09-30

    The present study was designed to analyze association between problematic internet use and use of ego defense mechanisms in medical students. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at CMH Lahore Medical College (CMH LMC) in Lahore, Pakistan from 1st March, 2015 to 30th May, 2015. 522 medical and dental students were included in the study. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: a) demographic characteristics of respondent b) the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40) and c) the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). All data were analyzed in SPSS v20. Chi square, Independent sample t test and One Way ANOVA were run to analyze association of different variables with scores on IAT. Multiple regression analysis was used to delineate ego defenses as predictors of problematic internet use. A total of 32 (6.1%) students reported severe problems with internet usage. Males had higher scores on IAT i.e had more problematic use of internet. Scores on internet addiction test (IAT) were negatively associated with sublimation and positively associated with projection, denial, autistic fantasy, passive aggression and displacement. There was a high prevalence of problematic use of internet among medical and dental students. It had significant associations with several defense mechanisms.

  6. The effect of motivation and positive affect on ego depletion: Replenishment versus release mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ze; Li, Jian; Zhang, Bo; Li, Ye; Zhang, Houcan

    2015-11-12

    In this study, 2 experiments were conducted to investigate whether motivation and positive affect can alleviate ego depletion and to elucidate their possible mechanisms. In Experiment 1, a crossing-out-letter task was adapted to reach an ego depletion state for Chinese participants. Participants were then randomly assigned to the extrinsic motivation group, the positive affect group or the depletion control group. After the experimental treatment, a dumbbell task was used to measure participants' remaining self-regulatory resources. The results showed that participants in the motivation and positive affect groups performed better on the dumbbell task than participants in the depletion control group. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1 except that participants were asked to perform an additional unexpected dumbbell task after a neutral video following the above procedure. The results of Experiment 1 were replicated; however, participants' performance on the additional dumbbell task differed. The positive affect group performed better than the depletion control group, indicating an increase in self-regulatory resources and thus supporting the replenishment effect of positive affect. No significant difference was found between the motivation group and the depletion control group.

  7. Death Anxiety, Locus of Control and Life Satisfaction in the Elderly: Toward a Definition of Ego-Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehrke, Milton F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In order to test Erikson's statements regarding ego integrity vs. despair, 20 men and 20 women from each of three residential settings (general community, public housing and nursing homes) were given life satisfaction, locus of control and death anxiety scales. Erikson's hypothesis was supported only by the public housing data. (Author)

  8. Differential Effects of Hypnosis, Biofeedback Training, and Trophotropic Responses on Anxiety, Ego Strength, and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, John D.

    1980-01-01

    College students were randomly assigned to one of four groups: hypnotic treatment, biofeedback treatment, trophotropic treatment, and control. Results indicated hypnosis was more effective in lowering anxiety levels. With regard to increasing ego strength, both the hypnotic and biofeedback training groups proved to be significant. Presented at the…

  9. The Red Book from a pre-modern perspective: the position of the ego, sacrifice and the dead.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Toshio

    2012-06-01

    This paper tries to investigate The Red Book from a pre-modern point of view especially with reference to a Japanese cultural and clinical perspective. In spite of overwhelming contents from the unconscious, the position of the ego is remarkable as a formal aspect throughout The Red Book. The ego manifests itself as a stable observing agency which results in clear images. In the case of Japan, visions are historically rare because of the much more vague position of the ego. While in Liber Primus the ego manifests itself via suffering and tragedy, in Liber Secundus it has more distance and humour, and takes the form of comedy. Mythological images are internalized as fantasy in Liber Secundus. So the rebirth of God does not need to be performed literally but by way of internalization, which is the origin of Jungian psychology. In its substantial aspect, the references in The Red Book to pre-modern cultural images of sacrifice and redemption of the dead are impressive. The sacrifice may suggest that the numinous cannot be experienced as ritual and symbol but necessitates direct violence and sexuality.

  10. A Comparison of Able-Bodied and Disabled College Students on Erikson's Ego Stages and Maslow's Needs Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriegsman, Kay Harris; Hershenson, David B.

    1987-01-01

    Compared physically disabled and able-bodied college students on Erickson's epigenetic stages of life-span development, and Maslow's motivational needs hierarchy of personality development. The groups were more similar than dissimilar in ego development and needs level. College students with disabilities may be a select population because of their…

  11. Ego Deficiencies in the Areas of Pleasure, Intimacy, and Cooperation: Guidelines in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sexual Dysfunctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levay, Alexander N.; Kagle, Arlene

    1977-01-01

    Psychopathology, in the form of a deficiency in ego functions of pleasure, intimacy, or cooperation, is usually associated with sexual dysfunctions that prove refractory to sex therapy techniques alone. Each deficiency forms a distinct clinical syndrome with specific treatment requirements, necessitating further diagnostic subcategorization of…

  12. Correlation of the Scores on Barron's Ego Strength Scale with the Scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The degree of relationship between scores on the Barron Ego Strength Scale and the scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test was investigated on a sample of college students. Correlations were moderate to low. Racial differences were observed on the Bender-Gestalt Test. (Author/JKS)

  13. Dynamic modelling of future land-use change: a comparison between CLUE-S and Dinamica EGO models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang; Chen, Maosi

    2012-10-01

    Land-use and land-cover change has been a research focus in global environmental change. Recent research found that land-use change could influence the structure of biogeochemical spheres as well as material and energy recycle directly or indirectly. Land-use dynamic models are considered as an effective technique to study the processes of land-use modification. The objective of this paper is to compare two widely use land-use dynamic models, CLUE-S and Dinamica EGO, from the perspective of land-use change amount, spatial characteristics, and their utility. A case study was conducted to examine the ascendants of each model and Kappa coefficient was used to compare the simulation accuracy. The modelling experiments reflected that the predictions of land-use change based on CLUE-S and Dinamica EGO matched broadly with actual situation. CLUE-S was better in overall accuracy whereas the Markov process in Dinamica EGO could precisely predict the amount of land-use change. Moreover, the spatial pattern of simulation map based on Dinamica EGO was more consistent with empirical result. Both results indicate their possible further applicability for forecasting future land-use change and corresponding studies.

  14. Cortisol Reactions in Five-Year-Olds to Parent-Child Interaction: The Moderating Role of Ego-Resiliency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeekens, Sanny; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Bakel, Hedwig J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study with five-year-olds is the first to examine whether low-quality interactions with parents elicit physiological stress in children beyond toddlerhood, as evident from elevated cortisol levels in their saliva. It was hypothesised that particularly children with low levels of ego-resiliency--a personality construct reflecting…

  15. Compassionate Values as a Resource during the Transition to College: Quiet Ego, Compassionate Goals, and Self-Compassion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayment, Heidi A.; West, Taylor N.; Craddock, Emily B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the unique contributions of compassion-related values and skills on stress and life satisfaction in two samples of first-year college students. Quiet ego, a measure of a compassionate self-identity, was associated with using relatively more compassionate interpersonal goals relative to self-image goals. Self-compassion and, to…

  16. Predicting Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement, Social Competence, and Physical Health from Parenting, Ego Resilience, and Engagement Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; O'Brien, T. Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ego resilience and engagement coping as mediators of the relationships between supportive and controlling parenting practices and early adolescents' academic achievement, social competence, and physical health. Participants were 240 predominantly Mexican American early adolescents, their parents, and their teachers. There were…

  17. Ambitions Fulfilled? The Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Goal Attainment on Older Adults' Ego-Integrity and Death Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hiel, Alain; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity, psychological well-being, and death attitudes. Hypotheses were derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Vansteenkiste, Ryan, & Deci, in press). Study 1 (N = 202, Mean age = 68.2 years) indicated that, after…

  18. Effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women. Before participating in Pilates exercise programs, researcher explained the purpose and the intention of the research to elderly women who were willing to participate in this research. A total of 148 elderly women agreed to participate in the program and they filled in ego resiliency and depression questionnaires. Then, the elderly participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program and completed the same questionnaires afterwards. Collected data was analyzed by the SPSS ver. 20.0 program and results of paired t-test were as follows; there were statistically significant differences in all subvariables of the ego resiliency such as self-confidence (t=7.770, P<0.001), communication efficiency (t=2.690, P<0.01), optimistic trait (t=1.996, P<0.05), and anger management (t=4.525, P<0.001) after elderly women participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program, there was a statistically significant difference in depression of elderly women who participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program (t=-6.506, P<0.001) which was statistically lower than before their participation in the program. Consequently, participating in the Pilates exercise program can help improve the ego-resiliency and alleviate depression of the elderly women.

  19. Effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women. Before participating in Pilates exercise programs, researcher explained the purpose and the intention of the research to elderly women who were willing to participate in this research. A total of 148 elderly women agreed to participate in the program and they filled in ego resiliency and depression questionnaires. Then, the elderly participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program and completed the same questionnaires afterwards. Collected data was analyzed by the SPSS ver. 20.0 program and results of paired t-test were as follows; there were statistically significant differences in all subvariables of the ego resiliency such as self-confidence (t=7.770, P<0.001), communication efficiency (t=2.690, P<0.01), optimistic trait (t=1.996, P<0.05), and anger management (t=4.525, P<0.001) after elderly women participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program, there was a statistically significant difference in depression of elderly women who participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program (t=−6.506, P<0.001) which was statistically lower than before their participation in the program. Consequently, participating in the Pilates exercise program can help improve the ego-resiliency and alleviate depression of the elderly women. PMID:27807531

  20. The perception of ego-motion change in environments with varying depth: Interaction of stereo and optic flow.

    PubMed

    Ott, Florian; Pohl, Ladina; Halfmann, Marc; Hardiess, Gregor; Mallot, Hanspeter A

    2016-07-01

    When estimating ego-motion in environments (e.g., tunnels, streets) with varying depth, human subjects confuse ego-acceleration with environment narrowing and ego-deceleration with environment widening. Festl, Recktenwald, Yuan, and Mallot (2012) demonstrated that in nonstereoscopic viewing conditions, this happens despite the fact that retinal measurements of acceleration rate-a variable related to tau-dot-should allow veridical perception. Here we address the question of whether additional depth cues (specifically binocular stereo, object occlusion, or constant average object size) help break the confusion between narrowing and acceleration. Using a forced-choice paradigm, the confusion is shown to persist even if unambiguous stereo information is provided. The confusion can also be demonstrated in an adjustment task in which subjects were asked to keep a constant speed in a tunnel with varying diameter: Subjects increased speed in widening sections and decreased speed in narrowing sections even though stereoscopic depth information was provided. If object-based depth information (stereo, occlusion, constant average object size) is added, the confusion between narrowing and acceleration still remains but may be slightly reduced. All experiments are consistent with a simple matched filter algorithm for ego-motion detection, neglecting both parallactic and stereoscopic depth information, but leave open the possibility of cue combination at a later stage.

  1. If Ego Identity Is the Envelope Then Adaptive Change Is the Note to Self: Scaffolding the Career Choices of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Terence V.; Brindle, Kimberley A.

    2017-01-01

    The first aim of the current article is to primarily propose a model to assist career counsellors in understanding and guiding adolescents towards career commitment. The second aim is to focus on the relationship between career identity and career certainty, and how these positively influence the achievement of ego identity and maturity. Finally,…

  2. Peer Victimization, Self-Esteem, and Ego Resilience Types in Adolescents: A Prospective Analysis of Person-Context Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Zeevalkink, Herma; Vermulst, Ad; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined bidirectional, longitudinal associations between peer victimisation and self-esteem in adolescents, and tested for moderator effects of undercontrolling, overcontrolling, and ego-resilient personality types in these associations. Data were used from 774 adolescents ages 11-16 years who participated in a three-wave (i.e., 2005,…

  3. 12CO J=2-1 and J=3-2 Line Observations of Molecular Clouds toward the Directions of 59 EGOs in the Northern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-guang; He, Jin-hua

    2014-07-01

    In order to investigate the differences between the molecular clouds which are associated with the massive star forming regions and those which are not, we have performed the single-dish simultaneous observations of 12CO J=2-1 and J=3-2 lines toward a sample of 59 Spitzer Extended Green Objects (EGOs) as the massive star forming regions in the northern sky. Combining our results with the data of the 12CO J=1-0 observations toward the same sample EGOs in the literature, we have made the statistical comparisons on the intensities and linewidths of multiple 12CO lines between the molecular clouds associated with EGOs (EGO molecular clouds, in brief) and other non-EGO molecular clouds. On this basis, we have discussed the effects of the gas temperature, density, and velocity field distributions on the statistical characteristics of the two kinds of molecular clouds. It is found that both the EGO molecular clouds and non-EGO molecular clouds have similar mass ranges, hence we conclude that for the formation of massive stars, the key-important factor is probably not the total mass of a giant molecular cloud (GMC), but the volume filling factor of the molecular clumps in the GMC (or the compression extent of the molecular gas in the cloud).

  4. EGO: Towards a global glider infrastructure for the benefit of marine research and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testor, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    In the 1990 s, while gliders were being developed and successfully passing first tests, their potential use for ocean research started to be discussed in international conferences because they could help us improve the cost-effectiveness, sampling, and distribution of the ocean observations (see OceanObs'99 Conference Statement - UNESCO). After the prototype phase, in the 2000 s, one could only witness the growing glider activity throughout the world. The first glider experiments in Europe brought together several teams that were interested in the technology and a consortium formed naturally from these informal collaborations. Since 2006, Everyone's Gliding Observatories (EGO - http://www.ego-network.org) Workshops and Glider Schools have been organized, whilst becoming the international forum for glider activities. Some key challenges have emerged from the expansion of the glider system and require now setting up a sustainable European as well as a global system to operate glider and to ensure a smooth and sustained link to the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Glider technology faces many scientific, technological and logistical issues. In particular, it approaches the challenge of controlling many steerable probes in a variable environment for better sampling. It also needs the development of new formats and procedures in order to build glider observatories at a global level. Several geographically distributed teams of oceanographers now operate gliders, and there is a risk of fragmentation. We will here present results from our consortium who intends to solve most of these issues through scientific and technological coordination and networking. This approach is supported by the ESF through Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST). The COST Action ES0904 "EGO" started in July 2010 aiming to build international cooperation and capacities at the scientific, technological, and organizational levels, for sustained observations of the

  5. The impact of cultural evolution on the ego ideal, depression, psychosis, and suicide: a South India community study of the widow.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Helen E

    2011-01-01

    Cultural factors have a significant impact on the manifestation of psychiatric illness and the development of the ego ideal. The evolution of the widow's cultural role in a South India village provides insight on the ego ideal through several generations. As treatment of widows changed so that their appearance became indistinguishable from other women, they no longer became objects of revulsion. A case study approach documents the interrelationship of changes in the cultural ego ideal on psychiatric illness among widows in a South India village over a period of more than four decades.

  6. A longitudinal study of ego identity development at a liberal arts college.

    PubMed

    Waterman, A S; Goldman, J A

    1976-12-01

    Ego identity development in the areas of occupational choice, religion, and political ideology was studied using Marcia's categorization system. The results indicated a significant increase in the frequency of the identity achiever status for occupational choice and corresponding decreases in the frequency of the moratorium and identity diffusion statuses. A significant decrease in the frequency of foreclosures on religion was also found. In those instances where students underwent an identity crisis, the probability of resolving it successfully was very high. High scores on the Cultural Sophistication scale of the College Student Questionnaire-Part 1 were found to be associated with presence in the identity achievement status. For students not in the achiever status as freshmen, an interest in various literary and art forms was predictive of becoming an achiever while in college.

  7. The Effect of Implicit Preferences on Food Consumption: Moderating Role of Ego Depletion and Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Zhu, Jinglei; Hu, Yi; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Guosen; Cui, Xianghua; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Ego depletion has been found to moderate the effect of implicit preferences on food consumption, such that implicit preferences predict consumption only under a depleted state. The present study tested how trait impulsivity impacts the effect of implicit preferences on food consumption in a depleted condition. Trait impulsivity was measured by means of self-report and a stop signal task. Results showed that both self-reported impulsivity and behavioral impulsivity moderated the ‘depletion and then eating according to implicit preferences’ effect, albeit in different ways. Participants high in self-reported impulsivity and low in behavioral impulsivity were more vulnerable to the effect of depletion on eating. The implications of these results for extant theories are discussed. Future research is needed to verify whether or not trait impulsivity is associated with vulnerability to depletion across different self-control domains. PMID:27881966

  8. The Effect of Implicit Preferences on Food Consumption: Moderating Role of Ego Depletion and Impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhu, Jinglei; Hu, Yi; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Guosen; Cui, Xianghua; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Ego depletion has been found to moderate the effect of implicit preferences on food consumption, such that implicit preferences predict consumption only under a depleted state. The present study tested how trait impulsivity impacts the effect of implicit preferences on food consumption in a depleted condition. Trait impulsivity was measured by means of self-report and a stop signal task. Results showed that both self-reported impulsivity and behavioral impulsivity moderated the 'depletion and then eating according to implicit preferences' effect, albeit in different ways. Participants high in self-reported impulsivity and low in behavioral impulsivity were more vulnerable to the effect of depletion on eating. The implications of these results for extant theories are discussed. Future research is needed to verify whether or not trait impulsivity is associated with vulnerability to depletion across different self-control domains.

  9. Detection of obstacles on runway using Ego-Motion compensation and tracking of significant features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar (Principal Investigator); Camps, Octavia (Principal Investigator); Gandhi, Tarak; Devadiga, Sadashiva

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a method for obstacle detection on a runway for autonomous navigation and landing of an aircraft. Detection is done in the presence of extraneous features such as tiremarks. Suitable features are extracted from the image and warping using approximately known camera and plane parameters is performed in order to compensate ego-motion as far as possible. Residual disparity after warping is estimated using an optical flow algorithm. Features are tracked from frame to frame so as to obtain more reliable estimates of their motion. Corrections are made to motion parameters with the residual disparities using a robust method, and features having large residual disparities are signaled as obstacles. Sensitivity analysis of the procedure is also studied. Nelson's optical flow constraint is proposed to separate moving obstacles from stationary ones. A Bayesian framework is used at every stage so that the confidence in the estimates can be determined.

  10. Ego-rotation and object-rotation in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiu; Yang, Laiqi; Ma, Wentao; Wu, Xingqu; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Dunhong; Liu, Guangxiong; Deng, Zihe; Hua, Zhen; Jia, Ting

    2013-08-30

    Mental rotation (MR) performance provides a direct insight into a prototypical higher-level visuo-spatial cognitive operation. Previous studies suggest that progressive slowing with an increasing angle of orientation indicates a specific wing of object-based mental transformations in the psychomotor retardation that occurs in major depressive disorder (MDD). It is still not known, however, whether the ability of object-rotation is associated with the ability of ego-rotation in MDD. The present study was designed to investigate the level of impairment of mental transformation abilities in MDD. For this purpose we tested 33 MDD (aged 18-52 years, 16 women) and 30 healthy control subjects (15 women, age and education matched) by evaluating the performance of MDD subjects with regard to ego-rotation and object-rotation tasks. First, MDD subjects were significantly slower and made more errors than controls in mentally rotating hands and letters. Second, MDD and control subjects displayed the same pattern of response times to stimuli at various orientations in the letter task but not the hand task. Third, in particular, MDD subjects were significantly slower and made more errors during the mental transformation of hands than letters relative to control subjects and were significantly slower and made more errors in physiologically impossible angles than physiologically possible angles in the mental rotation hand task. In conclusion, MDD subjects present with more serious mental rotation deficits specific to the hand than the letter task. Importantly, deficits were more present during the mental transformation in outward rotation angles, thus suggesting that the mental imagery for hands and letters relies on different processing mechanisms which suggest a module that is more complex for the processing of human hands than for letters during mental rotation tasks. Our study emphasises the necessity of distinguishing different levels of impairment of action in MDD subjects.

  11. A CLASS I AND CLASS II CH{sub 3}OH MASER SURVEY OF EGOs FROM THE GLIMPSE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Cyganowski, C. J.; Churchwell, E.; Brogan, C. L.; Hunter, T. R.

    2009-09-10

    We present the results of a high angular resolution Very Large Array (VLA) Class I 44 GHz and Class II 6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH maser survey of a sample of {approx}20 massive young stellar object (MYSO) outflow candidates selected on the basis of extended 4.5 {mu}m emission in Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire images. These 4.5 {mu}m selected candidates are referred to as extended green objects (EGOs), for the common coding of this band as green in three-color Infrared Array Camera images. The detection rate of 6.7 GHz Class II CH{sub 3}OH masers, which are associated exclusively with massive YSOs, toward EGOs is {approx}>64%-nearly double the detection rate of surveys using other MYSO selection criteria. The detection rate of Class I 44 GHz CH{sub 3}OH masers, which trace molecular outflows, is {approx}89% toward EGOs associated with 6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH masers. The two types of CH{sub 3}OH masers exhibit different spatial distributions: 6.7 GHz masers are centrally concentrated and usually coincide with 24 {mu}m emission, while 44 GHz masers are widely distributed and generally trace diffuse 4.5 {mu}m features. We also present results of a complementary James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) single-pointing molecular line survey of EGOs in the outflow tracers HCO{sup +}(3-2) and SiO(5-4). The HCO{sup +} line profiles and high SiO detection rate (90%) are indicative of the presence of active outflows. No 44 GHz continuum emission is detected at the 5 mJy beam{sup -1} (5{sigma}) level toward 95% of EGOs surveyed, excluding bright ultracompact H II regions as powering sources for the 4.5 {mu}m outflows. The results of our surveys constitute strong evidence that EGOs are young, massive YSOs, with active outflows, presumably powered by ongoing accretion.

  12. Unsuccessful attempts to replicate effects of self control operations and glucose on ego-depletion pose an interesting research question that demands explanation.

    PubMed

    Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Hagger, Martin S

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis that sugar-containing drinks counteract depletion of self-control or ego resources is elegant and provocative because it entails that the origins of ego-energy and self-control operations can be traced to a physiological substrate. However, this hypothesis has not withstood scientific scrutiny. Lange and Eggert presented two unsuccessful attempts to replicate effects of glucose on ego-depletion. Chatzisarantis and Hagger argued that inconsistent findings may be due to experimental designs that expose participants to similar acts of self-control. This methodology may not provide a rigorous test of the counteracting effects of glucose on ego-depletion because it does not control for factors (i.e., motivation) that interfere with glucose effects. In this article, we address Lange's comments and explore the possibility that findings reported by Lange and Eggert's and Hagger and Chatzisarantis' studies are consistent. In addition, we discuss a factor that researchers may wish to take into consideration when designing experiments that aim to test effects of glucose, or glucose rinsing, on ego-depletion. This factor is related to ego-depleting value of self-control tasks.

  13. Single-session manualized ego state therapy (EST) for combat stress injury, PTSD, and ASD, Part 2: the procedure.

    PubMed

    Barabasz, Arreed F; Barabasz, Marianne; Watkins, John G

    2012-01-01

    An abbreviated description of our single-session 5- to 6-hour procedure is provided. In contrast to trauma reframing approaches, such as cognitive processing therapy (CPT) or traditional psychoanalytic interventions, our manualized procedure rapidly demystifies subconscious processes, making them accessible and understandable by the patient. The therapist's supportive ego strength is integrated into the intense repeated emotional and physiological releases of the traumatized ego states. The abreactive component of this 5-phase procedure exhausts the bound-up psychological and physiological reactions but also serves to quickly overcome the trauma and to restructure the personality. The patient becomes empowered to release the trauma memories and to emerge with the ability to be adaptive, assertive, giving, strong, and able to express anger appropriately yet be caring with family/friends.

  14. Prosociality during the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood: the role of effortful control and ego-resiliency.

    PubMed

    Alessandri, Guido; Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette Paula; Eisenberg, Nancy; Zuffianò, Antonio; Milioni, Michela; Vecchione, Michele; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2014-11-01

    The present prospective study examined the prediction of prosociality from effortful control and ego-resiliency from late adolescence to emerging adulthood. Participants were 476 young adults (239 males and 237 females) with a mean age of 16 years (SD = .81) at T1, 18 years (SD = .83) at T2, 20 years (SD = .79) at T3, 22 years (SD = .81) at T4, and 26 years (SD = .81) at T5. Controlling for the stability of the examined variables and the effect of potential confounding variables (i.e., sex, socioeconomic status [SES], and age), results supported a model in which a temperamental dimension, effortful control, positively predicted a specific behavioral tendency (i.e., prosociality) indirectly through mediation by a personality factor (i.e., ego-resiliency). Practical implications of the results are discussed in terms of the importance of early prevention efforts designed to enhance the capacity to cope effectively with emotional reactions and difficult situations.

  15. The ego, the ocular, and the uncanny: why are metaphors of vision central in accounts of the uncanny?

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Sadeq

    2013-06-01

    I am my own twin, Always with me, same as me, and always watching me! From interview with a psychotic patient Every man carries with him through life a mirror, as unique and impossible to get rid of as his shadow W.H. Auden, 1989, p.93 I cannot urge you too strongly to a meditation on optics. Jacques Lacan, 1991, p.76 This paper outlines the basic arguments for a reading of the notion of the uncanny that draws on direct and metaphorical significances of the ocular in the development of human ego. It is argued that a specular-oriented reading of the uncanny as made possible through Lacan's model for ego development introduces a significant analytic device capable of explaining diverse features of the uncanny experience that escaped the traditional phallic/castration-based reading. To examine this claim, evidence is presented from a number of contexts to demonstrate how uncanny experiences are typically constructed through and associated with themes and metaphors of vision, blindness, mirrors and other optical tropes. Evidence is also presented from a historical point of view to demonstrate the strong presence of ocular and specular themes, devices and associations in a tradition of literary and psychological writing out of which the notion of 'the uncanny' (including Freud's own formulation) emerged. It is demonstrated that the main instances of the uncanny, such as doppelgangers, ghosts, déjà vu, alter egos, self-alienations and split personhoods, phantoms, twins, living dolls and many more in the list of 'things of terror' typically share two important features: they are closely tied with visual tropes, and they are variations on the theme of doubling. It is then argued that both of these features are integrally associated with the developmental processes of ego formation and self-identity, thus explaining the strong association of the uncanny accounts and experiences with ocular and specular motifs and metaphors.

  16. Masculinity unraveled: the roots of male gender identity and the shifting of male ego ideals throughout life.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    A model of masculine gender identity development is presented that demonstrates how a male's sense of his masculinity and the ambiguities of his gender are being reworked throughout his life. Of factors shaping the boy's sense of masculinity early on, particular emphasis is placed on the role of the involved father, the nature of the parental relationship, and the mother's recognition and affirmation of her son's maleness. While healthy masculine gender identity is founded predominantly on the boy's unique struggles in separating from his mother, it does not result from what has been traditionally viewed as the boy's disidentification from her (and from the feminine more generally). Indeed, boys who need to violently repudiate their identifications with their mother are more susceptible to a fragile, rigid masculine identity and narcissistic psychopathology. A case example of a young adult man illustrates the impact of identifications with both parents. The interplay of early masculine identity development and later life challenges confronting the adult male is briefly noted. "Masculine" ego ideals shift across developmental junctions until, ultimately, a more mature sense of masculinity emerges: the phallic wish to deny differentiation and maintain unlimited possibility is renounced and mourned and certain real limits concerning sex, gender, and generational differences are accepted. This reshaping of the "masculine" ego ideal consequently involves the transformation of a man's previously adaptive "phallicism" into more realistic, "genital" ego ideals-an achievement involving interplay between masculine and feminine identifications and the integration of antithetical elements no longer so unconsciously gendered.

  17. Ego receptivity and hypnotizability--two pilot studies: a brief communication.

    PubMed

    Goodman, L S; Holroyd, J

    1992-04-01

    Ego receptivity has been described as important for the psychotherapy process and as a characteristic of hypnosis (Deikman, 1974: Dosamantes-Alperson, 1979; Fromm, 1979). Receptivity also has been associated with a measure of absorption (Tellegen, 1981). In the first pilot study with 6 dance/movement therapy students, higher observer ratings of receptivity were associated with greater hypnotizability (r = .79, df = 4, p less than .05, 2-tailed test). In the second pilot study, the correlation was replicated (r = .51, df = 12, p = .06, 2-tailed test) with 14 dance/movement therapy students. In the second pilot study, receptivity did not correlate with absorption. Receptivity and absorption, however, accounted for 54% of hypnotizability population variance in a step-wise multiple regression. Receptivity accounted for a unique part of the variance after the effects of absorption were removed. It was concluded that receptivity should be explored as a potential predictor of hypnotizability, and that a reliable scaled measure of receptivity should be developed.

  18. Evaluation of trait adjectives and ego pathology in schizophrenia: an N400 study.

    PubMed

    Metzler, Sibylle; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Aleksandrowicz, Aleksandra; Müller, Mario; Obermann, Caitriona; Kawohl, Wolfram; Heekeren, Karsten

    2014-03-30

    The N400, an event-related brain potential (ERP), can be triggered by semantic or arithmetic violations in visual or auditory stimulus material. Schizophrenia patients exhibit an altered N400 presumably resulting from impaired semantic memory associative networks. The present study investigates, whether an altered N400 can also be found in semantic violations of the own self-concept. We use simple descriptive sentences to combine semantics with the self-concept in order to explore differences and possible deficits in schizophrenia patients. Schizophrenia patients and controls were shown trait adjectives in reference to themselves. Participants had to decide if the presented trait adjective was congruent or incongruent with their own self-concept. Only in controls, the N400 was significantly more negative in the incongruent compared to the congruent condition. Controls seemed to profit from a stable self-concept as they were faster in judging if a given trait was descriptive for the self than for someone else, which might result from processes related to the self-reference effect. Interestingly, in schizophrenia patients, the higher the scores for ego pathology were, the smaller the N400 effect turned out to be. The diminished N400 effect is probably associated with a disturbed self-concept in schizophrenia.

  19. Increased Global Functional Connectivity Correlates with LSD-Induced Ego Dissolution.

    PubMed

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Orban, Csaba; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Murphy, Kevin; Laufs, Helmut; Leech, Robert; McGonigle, John; Crossley, Nicolas; Bullmore, Edward; Williams, Tim; Bolstridge, Mark; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin

    2016-04-25

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a non-selective serotonin-receptor agonist that was first synthesized in 1938 and identified as (potently) psychoactive in 1943. Psychedelics have been used by indigenous cultures for millennia [1]; however, because of LSD's unique potency and the timing of its discovery (coinciding with a period of major discovery in psychopharmacology), it is generally regarded as the quintessential contemporary psychedelic [2]. LSD has profound modulatory effects on consciousness and was used extensively in psychological research and psychiatric practice in the 1950s and 1960s [3]. In spite of this, however, there have been no modern human imaging studies of its acute effects on the brain. Here we studied the effects of LSD on intrinsic functional connectivity within the human brain using fMRI. High-level association cortices (partially overlapping with the default-mode, salience, and frontoparietal attention networks) and the thalamus showed increased global connectivity under the drug. The cortical areas showing increased global connectivity overlapped significantly with a map of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor densities (the key site of action of psychedelic drugs [4]). LSD also increased global integration by inflating the level of communication between normally distinct brain networks. The increase in global connectivity observed under LSD correlated with subjective reports of "ego dissolution." The present results provide the first evidence that LSD selectively expands global connectivity in the brain, compromising the brain's modular and "rich-club" organization and, simultaneously, the perceptual boundaries between the self and the environment.

  20. Predicting obsessions and compulsions according to superego and ego characteristics: A comparison between scrupulosity and non-religious obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Besharat, Mohammad Ali; Kamali, Zeynab Sadat

    2016-02-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive images or impulses and/or ritualistic and rigid behaviors. Symptoms of OCD have different contents including contamination, harming and symmetry. Religion is one of the themes that has been observed in the context of OCD frequently. The aim of the present study was to examine the power of superego and ego characteristics in predicting scrupulosity and non-religious obsessions and compulsions, as well as comparing the two sets of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Sixty six Iranian (19 men, 47 women) participated in the study. All participants were asked to complete Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity, Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory, the Multidimensional Anger Inventory, and Ego Strength Scale. Results showed that perfectionism and anger were positively correlated with scrupulosity and non-religious obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Ego control was negatively correlated with scrupulosity, while ego resiliency was not correlated with any of these two sets of symptoms. Regression analysis indicated that among these variables, anger was the best predictor of non-religious obsessive-compulsive symptoms, while perfectionism and ego control were the best predictors of scrupulosity.

  1. Early-stage star-forming cloud cores in Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey (GLIMPSE) extended green objects (EGOs) as traced by organic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, J. X.; He, J. H.; Chen, X.; Takahashi, S.

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the physical and chemical properties of massive star-forming cores in the early stages, we analyse the excitation and abundance of four organic species, CH3OH, CH3OCH3, HCOOCH3 and CH3CH2CN, towards 29 extended green object (EGO) cloud cores that were observed by our previous single-dish spectral line survey. The EGO cloud cores are found to have similar methanol J3-J2 rotation temperatures of ˜44 K, a typical linear size of ˜0.036 pc and a typical beam-averaged methanol abundance of several 10-9 (the beam-corrected value could reach several 10-7). The abundances of the latter three species, normalized by that of methanol, are also found to be correlated across a large variety of clouds such as EGO cloud cores, hot corinos, massive hot cores and Galactic Centre clouds. The chemical properties of the EGO cloud cores lie between those of hot cores and hot corinos. However, the abundances and abundance ratios of the four species cannot be explained satisfactorily by recent chemical models, either among EGO cloud cores or among the various types of cloud core from literature.

  2. Stability and change of ego resiliency from late adolescence to young adulthood: a multiperspective study using the ER89-R Scale.

    PubMed

    Vecchione, Michele; Alessandri, Guido; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Gerbino, Maria

    2010-05-01

    In this research, we examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Ego Resiliency 89 Scale (ER89-R; Alessandri, Vecchio, Steca, Caprara, & Caprara, 2008), a brief self-report measure of ego resiliency. The scale has been used to assess the development of ego resiliency from late adolescence to emerging adulthood, focusing on different ways to define continuity and change. We analyzed longitudinal self-report data from 267 late adolescents (44% male) using 4 different approaches: factor analysis for testing construct continuity, correlational analysis for examining differential stability, latent growth modeling for analyzing mean level change, and the reliable change index for studying the occurrence of change at the individual level. Converging evidence points to the marked stability of ego resiliency from 16 to 20 years, both for males and females. The scale predicts externalizing and internalizing problems, both concurrently and at 2 and 4 years of distance. Findings suggest that the ER89-R scale represents a valid and reliable instrument that can be fruitfully suited for studying ego resiliency through various developmental stages.

  3. Sensation seeking, coping with stress, and readiness to engage in therapy: does ego development influence the psychosocial functioning of substance-abusing mothers?

    PubMed

    David, Daryn H; McMahon, Thomas J; Luthar, Suniya L; Suchman, Nancy E

    2012-04-01

    Ego development, the capacity to derive coherent, nuanced meaning from one's life experiences, often has significant impact on psychosocial adjustment during adulthood. Research with nonclinical populations has indicated links between higher ego development and healthy emotional coping and interpersonal relationships. Emerging research with substance-abusing mothers suggests that higher levels of ego development are associated with improved parenting but also with increased rates of psychopathology. Less is known about how ego development is related to other psychosocial factors important for substance-abusing mothers' functioning and capacity to parent, including the proclivity to engage in risky behaviors, adaptive coping behaviors, and readiness to engage in psychotherapy. The present study examines these links. Participants included 182 methadonemaintained women who expressed interest in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of a relational parenting intervention for substance-abusing mothers (Luthar, Suchman, & Altomare, 2007). Data were analyzed using a series of MANCOVAs and ANCOVAs controlling for maternal IQ and depression. Mothers with higher levels of ego development reported more adaptive coping techniques and greater readiness to engage in psychotherapy but also reported a heightened desire for strong sensations. Findings are discussed in light of mothers' psychological processes and parenting capacities. The significance of findings for developing parenting interventions for substance-abusing mothers is also discussed.

  4. Image Mapping and Visual Attention on the Sensory Ego-Sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Katherine Achim; Peters, Richard Alan, II

    2012-01-01

    The Sensory Ego-Sphere (SES) is a short-term memory for a robot in the form of an egocentric, tessellated, spherical, sensory-motor map of the robot s locale. Visual attention enables fast alignment of overlapping images without warping or position optimization, since an attentional point (AP) on the composite typically corresponds to one on each of the collocated regions in the images. Such alignment speeds analysis of the multiple images of the area. Compositing and attention were performed two ways and compared: (1) APs were computed directly on the composite and not on the full-resolution images until the time of retrieval; and (2) the attentional operator was applied to all incoming imagery. It was found that although the second method was slower, it produced consistent and, thereby, more useful APs. The SES is an integral part of a control system that will enable a robot to learn new behaviors based on its previous experiences, and that will enable it to recombine its known behaviors in such a way as to solve related, but novel, task problems with apparent creativity. The approach is to combine sensory-motor data association and dimensionality reduction to learn navigation and manipulation tasks as sequences of basic behaviors that can be implemented with a small set of closed-loop controllers. Over time, the aggregate of behaviors and their transition probabilities form a stochastic network. Then given a task, the robot finds a path in the network that leads from its current state to the goal. The SES provides a short-term memory for the cognitive functions of the robot, association of sensory and motor data via spatio-temporal coincidence, direction of the attention of the robot, navigation through spatial localization with respect to known or discovered landmarks, and structured data sharing between the robot and human team members, the individuals in multi-robot teams, or with a C3 center.

  5. Ego depletion and attention regulation under pressure: is a temporary loss of self-control strength indeed related to impaired attention regulation?

    PubMed

    Englert, Chris; Zwemmer, Kris; Bertrams, Alex; Oudejans, Raôul R

    2015-04-01

    In the current study we investigated whether ego depletion negatively affects attention regulation under pressure in sports by assessing participants' dart throwing performance and accompanying gaze behavior. According to the strength model of self-control, the most important aspect of self-control is attention regulation. Because higher levels of state anxiety are associated with impaired attention regulation, we chose a mixed design with ego depletion (yes vs. no) as between-subjects and anxiety level (high vs. low) as within-subjects factor. Participants performed a perceptual-motor task requiring selective attention, namely, dart throwing. In line with our expectations, depleted participants in the high-anxiety condition performed worse and displayed a shorter final fixation on bull's eye, demonstrating that when one's self-control strength is depleted, attention regulation under pressure cannot be maintained. This is the first study that directly supports the general assumption that ego depletion is a major factor in influencing attention regulation under pressure.

  6. Ambitions fulfilled? The effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity and death attitudes.

    PubMed

    Van Hiel, Alain; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity, psychological well-being, and death attitudes. Hypotheses were derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Vansteenkiste, Ryan, & Deci, in press). Study 1 (N = 202, Mean age = 68.2 years) indicated that, after controlling for extrinsic goal attainment, intrinsic goal attainment contributed positively to subjective well-being and ego-integrity and negatively to despair, whereas extrinsic goal attainment was unrelated to psychological health and contributed positively to despair. Study 2 (N = 213, Mean age = 75.2 years) replicated and extended these results, showing that intrinsic goal attainment contributed to the acceptance of one's own death, lower ill-being, and less death anxiety, whereas extrinsic goal attainment was negatively associated with death acceptance. It is argued that the attainment of intrinsic goals is related to better psychological health, because intrinsic goals are more conducive to the satisfaction of basic psychological needs.

  7. Ego depletion interferes with rule-defined category learning but not non-rule-defined category learning

    PubMed Central

    Minda, John P.; Rabi, Rahel

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research on category learning has suggested that many cognitive and environmental factors can have a differential effect on the learning of rule-defined (RD) categories as opposed to the learning of non-rule-defined (NRD) categories. Prior research has also suggested that ego depletion can temporarily reduce the capacity for executive functioning and cognitive flexibility. The present study examined whether temporarily reducing participants’ executive functioning via a resource depletion manipulation would differentially impact RD and NRD category learning. Participants were either asked to write a story with no restrictions (the control condition), or without using two common letters (the ego depletion condition). Participants were then asked to learn either a set of RD categories or a set of NRD categories. Resource depleted participants performed more poorly than controls on the RD task, but did not differ from controls on the NRD task, suggesting that self regulatory resources are required for successful RD category learning. These results lend support to multiple systems theories and clarify the role of self-regulatory resources within this theory. PMID:25688220

  8. Aerobic Exercise As a Potential Way to Improve Self-Control after Ego-Depletion in Healthy Female College Students

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhiling; Liu, Yang; Xie, Jing; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether aerobic exercise can help build self-control stamina in healthy female young adults. Stamina in this context is defined as the capability to endure ego depletion, which can be measured with a self-control task following another activity also requiring self-control. Methods: Forty-five healthy undergraduate women were randomized to either an experimental group or control group. Participants in the experimental group were required to run in their campus running field for 30 min for a period of 5 weeks. Individuals in the control group were required to do diary entries regarding self-control in their daily lives, also for a period of 5 weeks. Before and after the 5-week intervention, participants completed a pain threshold test, a color word Stroop task and the following Cold Pressor Task (CPT) (with and without a distraction component). Results: There was significant decrease of pain tolerance in session 2 relative to session 1 in the control group, but no such decline was found in the experimental group (though the improvement of pain tolerance was not significant), possibly suggesting successful self-control against this kind of decline. Conclusions: Five weeks of aerobic exercise increased self-control after ego depletion in terms of pain tolerance. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise may serve as a potential effective intervention for enhancing self-control in a college female population. PMID:27148113

  9. The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire: Testing for Measurement Invariance and Latent Mean Differences in Spanish and Portuguese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Isabel; Tomas, Ines; Balaguer, Isabel; Fonseca, Antonio M.; Dias, Claudia; Duda, Joan L.

    2010-01-01

    Within the theoretical framework of achievement goals (Nicholls, 1989), Duda and Nicholls (see Duda, 1989; Duda & Whitehead, 1998) developed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) to assess individual differences in achievement goal orientations. This study searches for validity evidence of the TEOSQ in the case of Spanish…

  10. Infusing the School Counseling Internship with a Global Perspective to Promote Ego Development, Moral Reasoning, and Ethnocultural Empathy: A Deliberate Psychological Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Derek Lane

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized a quasi-experimental, pre and posttest, comparison group design to determine the effects of a semester long deliberate psychological education (DPE), infused with a global perspective to promote ego development, moral reasoning and ethnocultural empathy in an intervention group composed of school counseling interns. The…

  11. Leadership in Two Worlds: Operating in Disparate Realms, One that Pushes Ego and Ambition, the Other that Promotes Personal Values and Principled Acts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goens, George A.

    2011-01-01

    People live in two worlds. The first is the external world of competition, ego, ambition and power. Here they chase the brass ring of success through control and standardized procedures designed to stave off failure. In this context, leaders face politics, conflicting expectations and bottom-line metrics. But in quiet moments of solitude, these…

  12. Serosorting and Sexual Risk for HIV Infection at the Ego-Alter Dyadic Level: An Egocentric Sexual Network Study Among MSM in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Hart, Cristina; Liu, Hongjie; Nowak, Rebecca G; Orazulike, Ifeanyi; Zorowitz, Sam; Crowell, Trevor A; Baral, Stefan D; Blattner, William; Charurat, Man

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this egocentric network study was to investigate engagement in serosorting by HIV status and risk for HIV between seroconcordant and serodiscordant ego-alter dyads. Respondent-driving sampling was used to recruit 433 Nigerian men who have sex with men (MSM) from 2013 to 2014. Participant (ego) characteristics and that of five sex partners (alters) were collected. Seroconcordancy was assessed at the ego level and for each dyad. Among 433 egos, 18 % were seroconcordant with all partners. Among 880 dyads where participants knew their HIV status, 226 (25.7 %) were seroconcordant, with 11.7 % of HIV positive dyads seroconcordant and 37.0 % of HIV negative dyads seroconcordant. Seroconcordant dyads reported fewer casual sex partners, less partner concurrency, and partners who had ever injected drugs, but condom use did not differ significantly. Serosorting may be a viable risk reduction strategy among Nigerian MSM, but awareness of and communication about HIV status should be increased. Future studies should assess serosorting on a partner-by-partner basis.

  13. A Meta-Analysis of the relationship between the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index (EII) and psychiatric severity.

    PubMed

    Diener, Marc J; Hilsenroth, Mark J; Shaffer, Seth A; Sexton, James E

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index (EII) and psychiatric severity. Search procedures yielded 13 independent samples (total N = 1402, average n = 108, standard deviation = 90) for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Inter-rater reliability analyses demonstrated that coding of effect sizes and moderator variables was completed with good to excellent reliability. Results indicated that higher EII scores were associated with greater psychiatric severity, with an overall weighted effect size of r = 0.29, p = 0.000002 (95% confidence interval = 0.17-0.40), supporting the EII's validity as a measure of psychological impairment. Publication bias analyses did not indicate any significant cause for concern regarding the results. The data were demonstrably heterogeneous (Q = 56.82, p = 0.0000001), and results of post-hoc tests indicated that effect sizes with dependent variables obtained via researcher ratings were significantly larger than any of the following: effect sizes with dependent variables obtained via clinician ratings, informant ratings, information about level of treatment or placement status or self-report ratings (p's = 0.0005, 0.003, <0.001, <0.001, respectively). In addition, there was a trend for effect sizes based on performance-based measures to be larger than those based on information about level of treatment or placement status (p = 0.098) as well as those based on self-report measures (p = 0.076). Other moderator analyses were non-significant (p 's > 0.10). Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: • The Rorschach Ego Impairment Index (EII) demonstrated validity in measuring psychiatric severity across a range of normative, outpatient, residential, and inpatient samples. • The degree of the EII's validity in assessing psychiatric severity compared favorably to the overall validity of the Rorschach and the MMPI. • The EII appears to be most valid in capturing psychiatric

  14. When ethical leader behavior breaks bad: How ethical leader behavior can turn abusive via ego depletion and moral licensing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Szu-Han Joanna; Ma, Jingjing; Johnson, Russell E

    2016-06-01

    The literature to date has predominantly focused on the benefits of ethical leader behaviors for recipients (e.g., employees and teams). Adopting an actor-centric perspective, in this study we examined whether exhibiting ethical leader behaviors may come at some cost to leaders. Drawing from ego depletion and moral licensing theories, we explored the potential challenges of ethical leader behavior for actors. Across 2 studies which employed multiwave designs that tracked behaviors over consecutive days, we found that leaders' displays of ethical behavior were positively associated with increases in abusive behavior the following day. This association was mediated by increases in depletion and moral credits owing to their earlier displays of ethical behavior. These results suggest that attention is needed to balance the benefits of ethical leader behaviors for recipients against the challenges that such behaviors pose for actors, which include feelings of mental fatigue and psychological license and ultimately abusive interpersonal behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. The effects of self-esteem and ego threat on interpersonal appraisals of men and women: a naturalistic study.

    PubMed

    Vohs, Kathleen D; Heatherton, Todd F

    2003-11-01

    A naturalistic study examined the effects of self-esteem and threats to the self on interpersonal appraisals. Self-esteem scores, ego threat (operationalized as a substantial decrease in self-esteem across an average of 9 months), and their interaction were used to predict likability and personality perceptions of college men and women. The results revealed a curvilinear function explaining likability: Moderate to low self-esteem men and women were higher in likability when threatened, whereas high self-esteem men were seen as less likable when threatened. Personality ratings indicated that high self-esteem men and women who were threatened were rated highest on Antagonism (i.e., fake, arrogant, unfriendly, rude, and uncooperative). Mediational analyses revealed that differences in Antagonism statistically accounted for differences in likability. These patterns are interpreted with respect to gender and time in interpersonal perceptions as well as naturalistic versus laboratory investigations.

  16. Ego depletion in color priming research: self-control strength moderates the detrimental effect of red on cognitive test performance.

    PubMed

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris; Furley, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Colors have been found to affect psychological functioning. Empirical evidence suggests that, in test situations, brief perceptions of the color red or even the word "red" printed in black ink prime implicit anxious responses and consequently impair cognitive performance. However, we propose that this red effect depends on people's momentary capacity to exert control over their prepotent responses (i.e., self-control). In three experiments (Ns = 66, 78, and 130), first participants' self-control strength was manipulated. Participants were then primed with the color or word red versus gray prior to completing an arithmetic test or an intelligence test. As expected, self-control strength moderated the red effect. While red had a detrimental effect on performance of participants with depleted self-control strength (ego depletion), it did not affect performance of participants with intact self-control strength. We discuss implications of the present findings within the current debate on the robustness of priming results.

  17. Ego depletion--is it all in your head? implicit theories about willpower affect self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Dweck, Carol S; Walton, Gregory M

    2010-11-01

    Much recent research suggests that willpower--the capacity to exert self-control--is a limited resource that is depleted after exertion. We propose that whether depletion takes place or not depends on a person's belief about whether willpower is a limited resource. Study 1 found that individual differences in lay theories about willpower moderate ego-depletion effects: People who viewed the capacity for self-control as not limited did not show diminished self-control after a depleting experience. Study 2 replicated the effect, manipulating lay theories about willpower. Study 3 addressed questions about the mechanism underlying the effect. Study 4, a longitudinal field study, found that theories about willpower predict change in eating behavior, procrastination, and self-regulated goal striving in depleting circumstances. Taken together, the findings suggest that reduced self-control after a depleting task or during demanding periods may reflect people's beliefs about the availability of willpower rather than true resource depletion.

  18. Alter Ego. Drug and brain--information to prevent. Compared analysis of opinions, knowledge and habits among a multicentric sample of secondary school students about drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, M; Gentile, A; Langiano, E; De Vito, E; La Torre, G; Ricciardi, G

    2006-03-01

    Repression and control have been shown to be inadequate for drug addiction issues. Recent history, however has proved that information is one of the most effective measures against the spread of drugs. The wide range of drug circulation and the need for the spread of correct information on the effects of drugs in man, especially his brain, have led the Center for Scientific Culture Diffusion of Cassino University, to widen the scope of "Alter Ego. Drugs and the brain", a touring educational exhibition, which opened in 1994, by dedicating more attention to socially accepted drugs, such as alcohol and tobacco, and to new substances like ecstasy and similar drugs. Concurrently with the Alter Ego touring exhibition, a study was undertaken to obtain information on public awareness of the dangers of psychotropic drug abuse and to assess the effectiveness of the exhibition as an instrument of scientific information about drug addiction among its visitors, during its tour of over 60 Italian towns.

  19. Reality Testing in Children with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia and Normal Children: A Comparison using the Ego Impairment Index on the Rorschach

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Borjali, Ahmad; Mazandarani, Amir Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine reality testing in schizophrenic children and compare it with normal children using minus responses subcomponent in ego impairment index of the Rorschach test. Methods In a descriptive design, 20 accidentally sampled children, including 10 schizophrenic and 10 normal children, were recruited in to two groups and were compared in terms of reality testing subcomponent of Ego Impairment Index (EII). After initial interview, the Rorschach inkblot test was administered on the two groups, and Distorted Quality responses (FQ-) were calculated. The results were then analyzed by independent t-test and Cohen's d for effect size. Results The result of independent t-test revealed that the mean of minus responses in schizophrenic children was significantly higher than that of normal children. In addition, the usefulness of the Rorschach ego impairment index (EII) in evaluating reality testing in schizophrenic children was confirmed. In addition, it was found that defect in reality testing is one of the prominent characteristics of schizophrenic children. Conclusion The higher minus responses in schizophrenic children indicate that schizophrenic children have weaker functioning in reality testing compared with normal children. PMID:23682251

  20. Cross-cultural structures of concentric and diametric dualism in Lévi-Strauss' structural anthropology: structures of relation underlying the self and ego relation?

    PubMed

    Downes, Paul

    2003-02-01

    The parallels between Jung's and Lévi-Strauss' concentric cross-cultural structures of the unconscious are highlighted. Lévi-Strauss' basic contrasts between concentric and diametric dualisms are developed into psychologically relevant differences regarding symmetry, connection and separation, and interaction between foreground and background structures respectively. These contrasts between concentric and diametric structures are applied as a common structural framework for understanding Jungian conceptions of the self, the ego and their relations, Freudian views of compensation and repetition in obsessional neurosis, and Winnicott's conception of a child's transitional object. Developing the contrasts between concentric and diametric structures reveals a compensatory relation between both structures. This supports an argument that concentric structures express the self and diametric structures express the ego in their mutual compensatory interrelation. Contrasting concentric with diametric structures challenges traditional Western logic, including Fordham's view that it is contradictory to treat the self as both centre and totality. It also develops an understanding of Jung's transcendent function which seeks to go beyond the ego-shadow opposition.

  1. The default-mode, ego-functions and free-energy: a neurobiological account of Freudian ideas

    PubMed Central

    Friston, K. J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the notion that Freudian constructs may have neurobiological substrates. Specifically, we propose that Freud’s descriptions of the primary and secondary processes are consistent with self-organized activity in hierarchical cortical systems and that his descriptions of the ego are consistent with the functions of the default-mode and its reciprocal exchanges with subordinate brain systems. This neurobiological account rests on a view of the brain as a hierarchical inference or Helmholtz machine. In this view, large-scale intrinsic networks occupy supraordinate levels of hierarchical brain systems that try to optimize their representation of the sensorium. This optimization has been formulated as minimizing a free-energy; a process that is formally similar to the treatment of energy in Freudian formulations. We substantiate this synthesis by showing that Freud’s descriptions of the primary process are consistent with the phenomenology and neurophysiology of rapid eye movement sleep, the early and acute psychotic state, the aura of temporal lobe epilepsy and hallucinogenic drug states. PMID:20194141

  2. Building a secure internal attachment: an intra-relational approach to ego strengthening and emotional processing with chronically traumatized clients.

    PubMed

    Lamagna, Jerry; Gleiser, Kari A

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce Intra-Relational AEDP (I-R) as an attachment-based experiential approach to trauma treatment. Integrating Accelerated Experiential Dynamic Psychotherapy (AEDP) (Fosha, 2000a,b, 2002, 2003) with ego-state methodology, intra-relational interventions specifically seeks to help clients by (1) fostering capacities for self-regulation through shared states of affective resonance between therapist, client, and dissociated self-states; (2) facilitating authentic, open internal dialogue between self-states which can alter engrained patterns of intra-psychic conflict and self-punishment; (3) developing abilities for self-reflection and emotional processing by co-mingling previously disowned affect and emotional memories with here and now experience; and (4) attending to positive affects evoked through experiences of transformation, self-compassion, and self-affirmation. Drawing from object relations and attachment theory, intra-relational interventions places particular emphasis on internal attachment relationships formed through interactions between the client's subjective selves (internal subjects) and reflective selves (internal objects). Through visual imagery, internal dialogue, and explicit relational techniques, intra-relational interventions aims to develop this subjective-reflective dyad's capacity for reciprocal attunement, resonance, and responsiveness. Such clinical strategies aim to foster healing and psychological integration between the client and heretofore disavowed aspects of self.

  3. Eudaimonic growth: Narrative growth goals predict increases in ego development and subjective well-being 3 years later.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jack J; McAdams, Dan P

    2010-07-01

    We examine (a) the normative course of eudaimonic well-being in emerging adulthood and (b) whether people's narratives of major life goals might prospectively predict eudaimonic growth 3 years later. We define eudaimonic growth as longitudinal increases in eudaimonic well-being, which we define as the combination of psychosocial maturity and subjective well-being (SWB). College freshmen and seniors took measures of ego development (ED; to assess maturity; Loevinger, 1976) and SWB at Time 1 (T1) and again 3 years later (Time 2). ED levels increased longitudinally across that time for men and T1 freshmen, but SWB levels did not change. Participants also wrote narratives of 2 major life goals at T1 that were coded for an explicit emphasis on specific kinds of personal growth. Participants' intellectual-growth goals (especially agentic ones) predicted increases in ED 3 years later, whereas participants' socioemotional-growth goals (especially communal ones) predicted increases in SWB 3 years later. These findings were independent of the effects of Big Five personality traits-notably conscientiousness, which on its own predicted increases in SWB. We discuss (a) emerging adulthood as the last stop for normative eudaimonic growth in modern society and (b) empirical and theoretical issues surrounding the relations among narrative identity, life planning, dispositional traits, eudaimonia, and 2 paths of personal growth.

  4. Transpersonalism: Ego Meets Soul.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohl, James E.

    1998-01-01

    The transpersonal approach has emerged from mainstream psychology to address the effects of spirituality and consciousness on personal transformation and health, and to explore optimal levels of human functioning. This article provides an overview of the historical development, scientific basis, philosophical stance, theoretical principles, and…

  5. Early Adolescent Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)

  6. Research University STEM Faculty Members' Motivation to Engage in Teaching Professional Development: Building the Choir Through an Appeal to Extrinsic Motivation and Ego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwma-Gearhart, Jana

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative, grounded-theory-based study that explored the motivations of science and engineering faculty to engage in teaching professional development at a major research university. Faculty members were motivated to engage in teaching professional development due to extrinsic motivations, mainly a weakened professional ego, and sought to bring their teaching identities in better concordance with their researcher identities. The results pose a challenge to a body of research that has concluded that faculty must be intrinsically motivated to participate in teaching professional development. Results confirmed a pre-espoused theory of motivation, self-determination theory; a discussion of research literature consideration during grounded theory research is offered. A framework for motivating more faculty members at research universities to engage in teaching professional development is provided.

  7. Assessing ego defense mechanisms by questionnaire: psychometric properties and psychopathological correlates of the Greek version of the Plutchik's Life Style Index.

    PubMed

    Hyphantis, Thomas; Goulia, Panagiota; Floros, George D; Iconomou, Gregoris; Pappas, Argiro-Irene; Karaivazoglou, Katerina; Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos

    2011-11-01

    The Life Style Index (LSI; Plutchik, Kellerman, & Conte, 1979 ) was designed to assess defense mechanisms, assuming that their use is related to specific affective states and diagnostic concepts. We aimed to assess the psychometric properties of its Greek version and its relation to psychopathological symptoms. The LSI was back-translated into Greek and was administered to 1,261 participants. Six factors were identified, 5 of them largely corresponding to the original version's defenses (compensation, denial, projection, reaction formation, and repression). The sixth factor, named regressive emotionality, included mainly the original scale's regression and displacement factors. Test-retest reliabilities, internal consistencies, and construct validity were quite satisfactory. Most defenses were able to discriminate psychiatric patients from healthy participants and were associated with specific psychopathological symptoms in a theoretically expected mode, further supporting the validity of the Greek version. Our findings suggest that the LSI, based on both psychoevolutionary and psychoanalytic theory, can provide a solid ground for assessing ego defense mechanisms.

  8. A comprehensive investigation of putative correlates of bulimia among college-age women: object relations, dependency, ego defenses, trait anxiety, and depression.

    PubMed

    Zborowski, M J

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated putative correlates of bulimia, which included measures of object relations impairment, dependency, ego defenses, trait anxiety and depression. Subjects were college-age women drawn from a larger sample (n = 417) and selected on the basis of their scores on the revised version of the Bulimia Test. The bulimia group was composed of those scoring in the top 5% (n = 23), concordant with the base rate of bulimia in this population, whereas controls (n = 23) were conservatively selected from those scoring around the mean (56th-61st percentile). A multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant group difference across dependent variables (p < .05), and univariate Fs uniformly demonstrate predicted group differences. A stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to assess the relative contribution of these variables toward the differentiation between psychometrically defined, bulimic and nonbulimic women, revealing that trait anxiety, dependency, and depression reliably differentiated these groups, accounting for 37% of between-groups variance. In replicating and extending prior research, the results have implications for elucidating the phenomenology and potential etiologic factors associated with bulimia and for informing treatment and future research.

  9. The potential health hazard due to elevated radioactivity in old uranium mines in Dolina Białego, Tatra Mountains, Poland.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Krzysztof; Mazur, Jadwiga; Vaupotič, Janja; Grządziel, Dominik; Kobal, Ivan; Omran, Khaled M H

    2013-06-01

    Natural radioactivity is one of the essential components of the environment. Unlike the Sudety mountains area in Poland, the Tatra Mountains were not the subject of wide survey as regards the levels of natural radioactivity. Especially, the concentrations of radon (natural radioactive gas) have not been investigated there in terms of their possible negative health impact. Within the frame of bilateral cooperation between the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Kraków, Poland, and the Jožef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia, the measurements of natural radioactive elements in old uranium mines in the Tatra National Park were performed in June 2010. The investigated sites were located in Dolina Białego (The Valley of the White). One of the mines is situated near the tourist path. The paper presents the results of complex measurements of natural radioactivity in both uranium drifts. The concentration of radon gas inside the mining drifts exceeded 28,000 Bq m(-3). Also, very high gamma dose rates were observed (up to 5600 nSv h(-1)). The maximum concentrations of natural radioactive elements (potassium (40)K, radium (226)Ra, thorium (232)Th) in rock samples amounted to 535, 2137, and 18 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The effective dose rates due to radon and thoron inhalation have been assessed as 0.013 mSv h(-1) (for the lowest concentration) and 0.121 mSv h(-1) (for the highest concentration).

  10. A suggestion to improve a day keeps your depletion away: Examining promotive and prohibitive voice behaviors within a regulatory focus and ego depletion framework.

    PubMed

    Lin, Szu-Han Joanna; Johnson, Russell E

    2015-09-01

    One way that employees contribute to organizational effectiveness is by expressing voice. They may offer suggestions for how to improve the organization (promotive voice behavior), or express concerns to prevent harmful events from occurring (prohibitive voice behavior). Although promotive and prohibitive voices are thought to be distinct types of behavior, very little is known about their unique antecedents and consequences. In this study we draw on regulatory focus and ego depletion theories to derive a theoretical model that outlines a dynamic process of the antecedents and consequences of voice behavior. Results from 2 multiwave field studies revealed that promotion and prevention foci have unique ties to promotive and prohibitive voice, respectively. Promotive and prohibitive voice, in turn, were associated with decreases and increases, respectively, in depletion. Consistent with the dynamic nature of self-control, depletion was associated with reductions in employees' subsequent voice behavior, regardless of the type of voice (promotive or prohibitive). Results were consistent across 2 studies and remained even after controlling for other established antecedents of voice and alternative mediating mechanisms beside depletion.

  11. Association between the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index and the Level of Personality Organization interview assessment in depressive and anxiety disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Valkonen, Harri; Lindfors, Olavi; Knekt, Paul

    2012-12-30

    The level of personality functioning, relevant for treatment planning, can be evaluated by the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) Ego Impairment Index-2 (EII-2) and by interview assessment of the severity of personality pathology. However, few studies on the association between these assessment methods have been reported. This study examines the strength of association between the EII-2 and its subcomponents with the interview-based Level of Personality Organization (LPO) assessment scale, and investigates their mutual associations with psychiatric symptoms, diagnoses, and history. Altogether, 315 mood or anxiety disorder outpatients without severe personality pathology were assessed with the LPO and tested with the CS, on which the EII-2 and its subcomponents (FQ-, WSum6, Critical contents, M-, PHR, GHR, and R) were calculated. Significant, but weak association between the EII-2 and the LPO was found. The WSum6, a measure of thought disorder, was the only EII-2 subcomponent significantly associated with the LPO. Both measures were consistently associated with psychiatric symptoms, diagnoses and history. The findings partially support the EII-2 and the LPO as consistently associated, relatively independent measures of the severity of personality pathology. More research on the incremental benefits of the measures is needed in clinical populations, covering non-severe and complex psychopathology.

  12. Testing Na+ in blood

    PubMed Central

    Lava, Sebastiano A.G.; Bianchetti, Mario G.; Milani, Gregorio P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Both direct potentiometry and indirect potentiometry are currently used for Na+ testing in blood. These measurement techniques show good agreement as long as protein and lipid concentrations in blood remain normal. In severely ill patients, indirect potentiometry commonly leads to relevant errors in Na+ estimation: 25% of specimens show a disagreement between direct and indirect potentiometry, which is ≥4 mmol/L (mostly spuriously elevated Na+ level due to low circulating albumin concentration). There is a need for increased awareness of the poor performance of indirect potentiometry in some clinical settings.

  13. Na+ coordination at the Na2 site of the Na+/I- symporter.

    PubMed

    Ferrandino, Giuseppe; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Sánchez, Yuly E; Echeverria, Ignacia; Liu, Yunlong; Amzel, L Mario; Carrasco, Nancy

    2016-09-13

    The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) mediates active I(-) transport in the thyroid-the first step in thyroid hormone biosynthesis-with a 2 Na(+): 1 I(-) stoichiometry. The two Na(+) binding sites (Na1 and Na2) and the I(-) binding site interact allosterically: when Na(+) binds to a Na(+) site, the affinity of NIS for the other Na(+) and for I(-) increases significantly. In all Na(+)-dependent transporters with the same fold as NIS, the side chains of two residues, S353 and T354 (NIS numbering), were identified as the Na(+) ligands at Na2. To understand the cooperativity between the substrates, we investigated the coordination at the Na2 site. We determined that four other residues-S66, D191, Q194, and Q263-are also involved in Na(+) coordination at this site. Experiments in whole cells demonstrated that these four residues participate in transport by NIS: mutations at these positions result in proteins that, although expressed at the plasma membrane, transport little or no I(-) These residues are conserved throughout the entire SLC5 family, to which NIS belongs, suggesting that they serve a similar function in the other transporters. Our findings also suggest that the increase in affinity that each site displays when an ion binds to another site may result from changes in the dynamics of the transporter. These mechanistic insights deepen our understanding not only of NIS but also of other transporters, including many that, like NIS, are of great medical relevance.

  14. Ego and Leadership among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thangarajathi, S.

    2010-01-01

    The period of adolescence is designated as the period of storm and stress and age of revolt. This is considered as being one of the most difficult stage in the life of any individual. Thus adolescence is the most critical stage with a distinct phase of rapid physical, psychological and social behavioral changes and emotional disturbances. As Ego…

  15. Na Cauda do Cometa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Quando viam um cometa, os antigos gregos imaginavam uma estrela com uma vasta cabeleira. Não à toa, a palavra deriva do termo koma, que significa cabelo. Constituídos por fragmentos de gelo e gases, os cometas possuem um núcleo sólido, que pode ter vários quilômetros de diâmetro, e uma cauda que sempre aponta na direção contrária ao Sol, devido aos ventos solares. Graças à aparência de pontos luminosos em movimento (ao contrário de outros astros, que parecem estáticos), esses corpos celestes foram interpretados por diferentes povos com muito misticismo, inspirando mitos tanto de boas-novas como de maus presságios. Conheça algumas dessas histórias:

  16. Na+ coordination at the Na2 site of the Na+/I− symporter

    PubMed Central

    Ferrandino, Giuseppe; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Sánchez, Yuly E.; Echeverria, Ignacia; Liu, Yunlong; Amzel, L. Mario; Carrasco, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) mediates active I− transport in the thyroid—the first step in thyroid hormone biosynthesis—with a 2 Na+: 1 I− stoichiometry. The two Na+ binding sites (Na1 and Na2) and the I− binding site interact allosterically: when Na+ binds to a Na+ site, the affinity of NIS for the other Na+ and for I− increases significantly. In all Na+-dependent transporters with the same fold as NIS, the side chains of two residues, S353 and T354 (NIS numbering), were identified as the Na+ ligands at Na2. To understand the cooperativity between the substrates, we investigated the coordination at the Na2 site. We determined that four other residues—S66, D191, Q194, and Q263—are also involved in Na+ coordination at this site. Experiments in whole cells demonstrated that these four residues participate in transport by NIS: mutations at these positions result in proteins that, although expressed at the plasma membrane, transport little or no I−. These residues are conserved throughout the entire SLC5 family, to which NIS belongs, suggesting that they serve a similar function in the other transporters. Our findings also suggest that the increase in affinity that each site displays when an ion binds to another site may result from changes in the dynamics of the transporter. These mechanistic insights deepen our understanding not only of NIS but also of other transporters, including many that, like NIS, are of great medical relevance. PMID:27562170

  17. Solidification of NaCl-NaF eutectic in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Yu, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous NaF fibers, embedded in a NaCl matrix, have been produced in space and on earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convection current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of NaF fibers along the ingot axis.

  18. Na+ recirculation and isosmotic transport.

    PubMed

    Larsen, E H; Møbjerg, N

    2006-01-01

    The Na(+) recirculation theory for solute-coupled fluid absorption is an expansion of the local osmosis concept introduced by Curran and analyzed by Diamond & Bossert. Based on studies on small intestine the theory assumes that the observed recirculation of Na(+) serves regulation of the osmolarity of the absorbate. Mathematical modeling reproducing bioelectric and hydrosmotic properties of small intestine and proximal tubule, respectively, predicts a significant range of observations such as isosmotic transport, hyposmotic transport, solvent drag, anomalous solvent drag, the residual hydraulic permeability in proximal tubule of AQP1 (-/-) mice, and the inverse relationship between hydraulic permeability and the concentration difference needed to reverse transepithelial water flow. The model reproduces the volume responses of cells and lateral intercellular space (lis) following replacement of luminal NaCl by sucrose as well as the linear dependence of volume absorption on luminal NaCl concentration. Analysis of solvent drag on Na(+) in tight junctions provides explanation for the surprisingly high metabolic efficiency of Na(+) reabsorption. The model predicts and explains low metabolic efficiency in diluted external baths. Hyperosmolarity of lis is governed by the hydraulic permeability of the apical plasma membrane and tight junction with 6-7 mOsm in small intestine and < or = 1 mOsm in proximal tubule. Truly isosmotic transport demands a Na(+) recirculation of 50-70% in small intestine but might be barely measurable in proximal tubule. The model fails to reproduce a certain type of observations: The reduced volume absorption at transepithelial osmotic equilibrium in AQP1 knockout mice, and the stimulated water absorption by gallbladder in diluted external solutions. Thus, it indicates cellular regulation of apical Na(+) uptake, which is not included in the mathematical treatment.

  19. Astrocytes generate Na+-mediated metabolic waves.

    PubMed

    Bernardinelli, Yann; Magistretti, Pierre J; Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2004-10-12

    Glutamate-evoked Na+ increase in astrocytes has been identified as a signal coupling synaptic activity to glucose consumption. Astrocytes participate in multicellular signaling by transmitting intercellular Ca2+ waves. Here we show that intercellular Na+ waves are also evoked by activation of single cultured cortical mouse astrocytes in parallel with Ca2+ waves; however, there are spatial and temporal differences. Indeed, maneuvers that inhibit Ca2+ waves also inhibit Na+ waves; however, inhibition of the Na+/glutamate cotransporters or enzymatic degradation of extracellular glutamate selectively inhibit the Na+ wave. Thus, glutamate released by a Ca2+ wave-dependent mechanism is taken up by the Na+/glutamate cotransporters, resulting in a regenerative propagation of cytosolic Na+ increases. The Na+ wave gives rise to a spatially correlated increase in glucose uptake, which is prevented by glutamate transporter inhibition. Therefore, astrocytes appear to function as a network for concerted neurometabolic coupling through the generation of intercellular Na+ and metabolic waves.

  20. Europlanet NA2 Science Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Szego, Karoly; Genzer, Maria; Schmidt, Walter; Krupp, Norbert; Lammer, Helmut; Kallio, Esa; Haukka, Harri

    2013-04-01

    Europlanet RI / NA2 Science Networking [1] focused on determining the major goals of current and future European planetary science, relating them to the Research Infrastructure that the Europlanet RI project [2] developed, and placing them in a more global context. NA2 also enhanced the ability of European planetary scientists to participate on the global scene with their own agenda-setting projects and ideas. The Networking Activity NA2 included five working groups, aimed at identifying key science issues and producing reference books on major science themes that will bridge the gap between the results of present and past missions and the scientific preparation of the future ones. Within the Europlanet RI project (2009-2012) the NA2 and NA2-WGs organized thematic workshops, an expert exchange program and training groups to improve the scientific impact of this Infrastructure. The principal tasks addressed by NA2 were: • Science activities in support to the optimal use of data from past and present space missions, involving the broad planetary science community beyond the "space club" • Science activities in support to the preparation of future planetary missions: Earth-based preparatory observations, laboratory studies, R&D on advanced instrumentation and exploration technologies for the future, theory and modeling etc. • Develop scientific activities, joint publications, dedicated meetings, tools and services, education activities, engaging the public and industries • Update science themes and addressing the two main scientific objectives • Prepare and support workshops of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern and • Support Trans National Activities (TNAs), Joined Research Activities (JRAs) and the Integrated and Distributed Information Service (IDIS) of the Europlanet project These tasks were achieved by WG workshops organized by the NA2 working groups, by ISSI workshops and by an Expert Exchange Program. There were 17 official WG

  1. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; ...

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmospheremore » during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.« less

  2. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Guo, Yu -Guo

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmosphere during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.

  3. Ionic regulation of Na absorption in proximal colon: cation inhibition of electroneutral Na absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Sellin, J.H.; De Soignie, R.

    1987-01-01

    Active Na absorption (J/sub net//sup NA/) in rabbit proximal colon in vitro is paradoxically stimulated as (Na) in the bathing media is lowered with constant osmolarity. J/sub m..-->..s//sup Na/ increases almost linearly from 0 to 50 mM (Na)/sub 0/ but then plateaus and actually decreases from 50 to 140 mM (Na)/sub 0/, consistent with inhibition of an active transport process. Both lithium and Na are equally effective inhibitors of J/sub net//sup Na/, whereas choline and mannitol do not block the high rate of J/sub net//sup Na/ observed in decreased (Na)/sub 0/. Either gluconate or proprionate replacement of Cl inhibits J/sub net//sup Na/. J/sub net//sup Na/ at lowered (Na)/sub 0/ is electrically silent and is accompanied by increased Cl absorption; it is inhibited by 10/sup -3/ M amiloride and 10/sup -3/ theophylline but not by 10/sup -4/ M bumetanide. Epinephrine is equally effective at stimulating Na absorption at 50 and 140 mM (Na). Na gradient experiments are consistent with a predominantly serosal effect of the decreased (Na)/sub 0/. These results suggest that 1) Na absorption in rabbit proximal colon in vitro is stimulated by decreased (Na); 2) the effect is cation specific, both Na and Li blocking the stimulatory effect; 3) the transport is mediated by Na-H exchange and is Cl dependent but 4) is under different regulatory mechanisms than the epinephrine-sensitive Na-Cl cotransport previously described in proximal colon. Under the appropriate conditions, proximal colon absorbs Na extremely efficiently. Na-H exchange in this epithelium is cation inhibitable, either directly or by a secondary regulatory process.

  4. Deliquescence of NaCl-NaNO3 and KNO3-NaNO3 Salt Mixtures at 90C

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S; Craig, L; Wolery, T

    2003-12-29

    We conducted reversed deliquescence experiments in saturated NaCl-NaNO3-H2O and KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O systems at 90 C to determine relative humidity and solution composition. NaCl, NaNO{sub 3}, and KNO{sub 3} represent members of dust salt assemblages that are likely to deliquesce and form concentrated brines on high-level radioactive waste package surfaces in a repository environment at Yucca Mountain, NV, USA. Model predictions agree with experimental results for the NaCl-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O system, but underestimate relative humidity by as much as 8% and solution composition by as much as 50% in the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O system.

  5. Na+ Tolerance and Na+ Transport in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    TESTER, MARK; DAVENPORT, ROMOLA

    2003-01-01

    Tolerance to high soil [Na+] involves processes in many different parts of the plant, and is manifested in a wide range of specializations at disparate levels of organization, such as gross morphology, membrane transport, biochemistry and gene transcription. Multiple adaptations to high [Na+] operate concurrently within a particular plant, and mechanisms of tolerance show large taxonomic variation. These mechanisms can occur in all cells within the plant, or can occur in specific cell types, reflecting adaptations at two major levels of organization: those that confer tolerance to individual cells, and those that contribute to tolerance not of cells per se, but of the whole plant. Salt‐tolerant cells can contribute to salt tolerance of plants; but we suggest that equally important in a wide range of conditions are processes involving the management of Na+ movements within the plant. These require specific cell types in specific locations within the plant catalysing transport in a coordinated manner. For further understanding of whole plant tolerance, we require more knowledge of cell‐specific transport processes and the consequences of manipulation of transporters and signalling elements in specific cell types. PMID:12646496

  6. What's in a Name?FRAMING:Martin-Bradshaw DYSfunctionality = Siegel ``Buzzwordism,Bandwagonism&Sloganeering For: Fun, Profit,Survival,Ego": From SOC to FLT Proof to High-Tc to Spintronics to Giant-Magnetoresistance: Ethics??? SHMETHICS!!! Rampant Sociolog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Edward

    2008-03-01

    Buzzwordism,Bandwagonism,Sloganeering for:Fun,Profit,Survival, Ego=ethics DYSunctionality: Digits log-law: Siegel INVERSION: bosons=digits; Excluded d=0? P(0)=oo V P(1)

  7. Conversion and Distribution of Lead and Tin in NaOH-NaNO3 Fusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingxin; Guo, Xueyi

    2017-04-01

    Oxidizing alkali fusion process has been studied to extract amphoteric metals. Transformation and distribution behaviors of typical amphoteric metals Pb and Sn in the NaOH-NaNO3 fusion process are systemically studied by theoretical analysis and experimental verification done in this work. Functions of NaOH and NaNO3 in the fusion process were also investigated. The results show the fused products, Na2PbO3 and Na2SnO3, are captured in the flux, and Na2PbO4 is speculated to reduce to Pb(II) in the following leaching process. By measuring solubility data of NaOH-Na2SnO3-PbO-H2O system, a strategy of crystallization is proposed to separate Sn with Pb in concentrated alkaline solution, and slice Na2Sn(OH)6 is obtained as a product.

  8. Conversion and Distribution of Lead and Tin in NaOH-NaNO3 Fusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingxin; Guo, Xueyi

    2016-12-01

    Oxidizing alkali fusion process has been studied to extract amphoteric metals. Transformation and distribution behaviors of typical amphoteric metals Pb and Sn in the NaOH-NaNO3 fusion process are systemically studied by theoretical analysis and experimental verification done in this work. Functions of NaOH and NaNO3 in the fusion process were also investigated. The results show the fused products, Na2PbO3 and Na2SnO3, are captured in the flux, and Na2PbO4 is speculated to reduce to Pb(II) in the following leaching process. By measuring solubility data of NaOH-Na2SnO3-PbO-H2O system, a strategy of crystallization is proposed to separate Sn with Pb in concentrated alkaline solution, and slice Na2Sn(OH)6 is obtained as a product.

  9. A long-life Na-air battery based on a soluble NaI catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wen-Wen; Shadike, Zulipiya; Yang, Yin; Ding, Fei; Sang, Lin; Li, Hong; Fu, Zheng-Wen

    2015-02-11

    A Na-air battery with NaI dissolved in a typical organic electrolyte could run up to 150 cycles with a capacity limit of 1000 mA h g(-1). The low charge voltage plateau of 3.2 V vs. Na(+)/Na in a Na-air battery should mainly be attributed to the oxidation reaction of active iodine anions.

  10. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiajie; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2016-09-01

    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954 mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730 mAh/g for the graphene-silicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of \\gt 0.3 {{V}} against the Na{}+/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be \\lt 0.3 {eV}.

  11. Revisiting the hydration structure of aqueous Na().

    PubMed

    Galib, M; Baer, M D; Skinner, L B; Mundy, C J; Huthwelker, T; Schenter, G K; Benmore, C J; Govind, N; Fulton, J L

    2017-02-28

    A combination of theory, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) are used to probe the hydration structure of aqueous Na(+). The high spatial resolution of the XRD measurements corresponds to Qmax = 24 Å(-1) while the first-reported Na K-edge EXAFS measurements have a spatial resolution corresponding to 2k = Qmax = 16 Å(-1). Both provide an accurate measure of the shape and position of the first peak in the Na-O pair distribution function, gNaO(r). The measured Na-O distances of 2.384 ± 0.003 Å (XRD) and 2.37 ± 0.024 Å (EXAFS) are in excellent agreement. These measurements show a much shorter Na-O distance than generally reported in the experimental literature (Na-Oavg ∼ 2.44 Å) although the current measurements are in agreement with recent neutron diffraction measurements. The measured Na-O coordination number from XRD is 5.5 ± 0.3. The measured structure is compared with both classical and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) simulations. Both of the DFT-based methods, revPBE and BLYP, predict a Na-O distance that is too long by about 0.05 Å with respect to the experimental data (EXAFS and XRD). The inclusion of dispersion interactions (-D3 and -D2) significantly worsens the agreement with experiment by further increasing the Na-O distance by 0.07 Å. In contrast, the use of a classical Na-O Lennard-Jones potential with SPC/E water accurately predicts the Na-O distance as 2.39 Å although the Na-O peak is over-structured with respect to experiment.

  12. The effect of Na vapor on the Na content of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, R. Dean; Lofgren, Gary E.; Franzen, Hugo F.; Windom, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    Chondrules contain higher concentrations of volatiles (Na) than expected for melt droplets in the solar nebula. Recent studies have proposed that chondrules may have formed under non-canonical nebular conditions such as in particle/gas-rich clumps. Such chondrule formation areas may have contained significant Na vapor. To test the hypothesis of whether a Na-rich vapor would minimize Na volatilization reaction rates in a chondrule analog and maintain the Na value of the melt, experiments were designed where a Na-rich vapor could be maintained around the sample. A starting material with a melting point lower that typical chondrules was required to keep the logistics of working with Na volatilization from NaCl within the realm of feasibility. The Knippa basalt, a MgO-rich alkali olivine basalt with a melting temperature of 1325 +/- 5 C and a Na2O content of 3.05 wt%, was used as the chondrule analog. Experiments were conducted in a 1 atm, gas-mixing furnace with the fO2 controlled by a CO/CO2 gas mixture and fixed at the I-W buffer curve. To determine the extent of Na loss from the sample, initial experiments were conducted at high temperatures (1300 C - 1350 C) for duration of up to 72 h without a Na-rich vapor present. Almost all (up to 98%) Na was volatilized in runs of 72 h. Subsequent trials were conducted at 1330 C for 16 h in the presence of a Na-rich vapor, supplied by a NaCl-filled crucible placed in the bottom of the furnace. Succeeding Knudsen cell weight-loss mass-spectrometry analysis of NaCl determined the P(sub Na) for these experimental conditions to be in the 10(exp -6) atm range. This value is considered high for nebula conditions but is still plausible for non-canonical environments. In these trials the Na2O content of the glass was maintained or in some cases increased; Na2O values ranged from 2.62% wt to 4.37% wt. The Na content of chondrules may be controlled by the Na vapor pressure in the chondrule formation region. Most heating events capable

  13. Growth of binary organic NLO crystals: m.NA-p.NA and m.NA-CNA system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Henningsen, T.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mazelsky, R.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to grow 3.Nitroaniline (m.NA) crystals doped with 4.Nitroaniline (p.NA) and 2.chloro 4.Nitroaniline (CNA). The measured undercooling for m.NA, p.NA, and CNA were 0.21 tm K, 0.23 tm K, and 0.35 tm K respectively, where tm represents the melting temperature of the pure component. Because of the crystals' large heat of fusion and large undercooling, it was not possible to grow good quality crystals with low thermal gradients. In the conventional two-zone Bridgman furnace we had to raise the temperature of the hot zone above the decomposition temperature of CNA, p.NA, and m.NA to achieve the desired thermal gradient. To avoid decomposition, we used an unconventional Bridgman furnace. Two immiscible liquids, silicone oil and ethylene glycol, were used to build a special two-zone Bridgman furnace. A temperature gradient of 18 K/cm was achieved without exceeding the decomposition temperature of the crystal. The binary crystals, m.NA-p.NA and m.NA-CNA, were grown in centimeter size in this furnace. X-ray and optical characterization showed good optical quality.

  14. Modification of single Na+ channels by batrachotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, F N; Narahashi, T

    1982-01-01

    The modifications in the properties of voltage-gated Na+ channels caused by batrachotoxin were studied by using the patch clamp method for measuring single channel currents from excised membranes of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. The toxin-modified open state of the Na+ channel has a decreased conductance in comparison to that of normal Na+ channels. The lifetime of the modified open state is drastically prolonged, and channels now continue to open during a maintained depolarization so that the probability of a channel being open becomes constant. Modified and normal open states of Na+ channels coexist in batrachotoxin-exposed membrane patches. Unlike the normal condition, Na+ channels exposed to batrachotoxin open spontaneously at large negative potentials. These spontaneous openings apparently cause the toxin-induced increase in Na+ permeability which, in turn, causes membrane depolarization. PMID:6292915

  15. Maintaining the NA atmosphere of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killen, R. M.; Morgan, T. H.

    1993-02-01

    The possible sources of the Na atmosphere of Mercury are calculatively studied. The likely structure, composition, and temperature of the planet's upper crust is examined along with the probable flux of Na from depth by grain boundary diffusion and by Knudsen flow. The creation of fresh regolith is considered along with mechanisms for supplying Na from the surface to the exosphere. The implications of the calculations for the probable abundances in the regolith are discussed.

  16. Maintaining the Na atmosphere of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Morgan, Thomas H.

    1993-01-01

    The possible sources of the Na atmosphere of Mercury are calculatively studied. The likely structure, composition, and temperature of the planet's upper crust is examined along with the probable flux of Na from depth by grain boundary diffusion and by Knudsen flow. The creation of fresh regolith is considered along with mechanisms for supplying Na from the surface to the exosphere. The implications of the calculations for the probable abundances in the regolith are discussed.

  17. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J. . Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Rosener, B. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  18. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J. |; Rosener, B.

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  19. Simulation study of Na-majorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymshits, A.; Vinograd, V.; Paulsen, N.; Winkler, B.; Perchuk, L.; Bobrov, A.

    2009-04-01

    Garnets, which are found as inclusions in diamonds, often have the excess of Na2O and SiO2 [Stachel, 2001]. Experimental studies suggest that Na is incorporated in pyrope-rich garnet via the coupled substitution Mg+Al=Na+Si [Bobrov et al., 2008]. This study is concerned with the determination of the structure and the thermodynamic properties of NaGrt (Na2MgSi5O12), which is assumed to be the end-member of pyrope-rich garnets with the excess of Na2O and SiO2. Static lattice energy calculations were performed with the program GULP [Gale & Rohl, 2003] using the force-field model [Vinograd et al., 2007] for 200 structures of Na2MgSi5O12 composition. These structures were prepared from Ia3-d pyrope Mg3Al2Si3O12 by replacing all octahedral Al atoms with Si and 2/3 of Mg atoms with Na. The distribution of Mg and Na was varied randomly. The static energies of these structures were cluster expanded using 8 pairwise effective cluster interactions (ECI). The ECIs were used to constrain Monte Carlo simulations within a 4×4×4 supercell (NNN exchangeable sites). The annealing experiments have shown that the lowest energy structure has the space group I4

  20. Painful Na-channelopathies: an expanding universe.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Stephen G

    2013-07-01

    The universe of painful Na-channelopathies--human disorders caused by mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels--has recently expanded in three dimensions. We now know that mutations of sodium channels cause not only rare genetic 'model disorders' such as inherited erythromelalgia and channelopathy-associated insensitivity to pain but also common painful neuropathies. We have learned that mutations of NaV1.8, as well as mutations of NaV1.7, can cause painful Na-channelopathies. Moreover, recent studies combining atomic level structural models and pharmacogenomics suggest that the goal of genomically guided pain therapy may not be unrealistic.

  1. Na+/Ca2+ exchange and Na+/K+-ATPase in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Shattock, Michael J; Ottolia, Michela; Bers, Donald M; Blaustein, Mordecai P; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Bossuyt, Julie; Bridge, John H B; Chen-Izu, Ye; Clancy, Colleen E; Edwards, Andrew; Goldhaber, Joshua; Kaplan, Jack; Lingrel, Jerry B; Pavlovic, Davor; Philipson, Kenneth; Sipido, Karin R; Xie, Zi-Jian

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series of reviews published in this issue resulting from the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium 2014: Systems approach to understanding cardiac excitation–contraction coupling and arrhythmias: Na+ channel and Na+ transport. The goal of the symposium was to bring together experts in the field to discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. The present review focuses on cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX) and Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA). While the relevance of Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiac function has been extensively investigated, the role of Na+ regulation in shaping heart function is often overlooked. Small changes in the cytoplasmic Na+ content have multiple effects on the heart by influencing intracellular Ca2+ and pH levels thereby modulating heart contractility. Therefore it is essential for heart cells to maintain Na+ homeostasis. Among the proteins that accomplish this task are the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) and the Na+/K+ pump (NKA). By transporting three Na+ ions into the cytoplasm in exchange for one Ca2+ moved out, NCX is one of the main Na+ influx mechanisms in cardiomyocytes. Acting in the opposite direction, NKA moves Na+ ions from the cytoplasm to the extracellular space against their gradient by utilizing the energy released from ATP hydrolysis. A fine balance between these two processes controls the net amount of intracellular Na+ and aberrations in either of these two systems can have a large impact on cardiac contractility. Due to the relevant role of these two proteins in Na+ homeostasis, the emphasis of this review is on recent developments regarding the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) and Na+/K+ pump and the controversies that still persist in the field. PMID:25772291

  2. Exploration of NaVOPO4 as a cathode for a Na-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Xu, Maowen; Wang, Long; Goodenough, John B

    2013-06-11

    Monoclinic NaVOPO4 is explored as a cathode material for a sodium ion battery. It exhibits electrochemical activity operating at an average potential of 3.6 V (vs. Na(+)/Na) and delivers a reversible capacity of 90 mA h g(-1) at 1/15 C.

  3. Negative electrodes for Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Dahbi, Mouad; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kubota, Kei; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-07

    Research interest in Na-ion batteries has increased rapidly because of the environmental friendliness of sodium compared to lithium. Throughout this Perspective paper, we report and review recent scientific advances in the field of negative electrode materials used for Na-ion batteries. This paper sheds light on negative electrode materials for Na-ion batteries: carbonaceous materials, oxides/phosphates (as sodium insertion materials), sodium alloy/compounds and so on. These electrode materials have different reaction mechanisms for electrochemical sodiation/desodiation processes. Moreover, not only sodiation-active materials but also binders, current collectors, electrolytes and electrode/electrolyte interphase and its stabilization are essential for long cycle life Na-ion batteries. This paper also addresses the prospect of Na-ion batteries as low-cost and long-life batteries with relatively high-energy density as their potential competitive edge over the commercialized Li-ion batteries.

  4. High NA Nicrostepper Final Optical Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudyma, R

    1999-09-24

    The development of a new EUV high NA small-field exposure tool has been proposed for obtaining mask defect printability data in a timeframe several years before beta-tools are available. The imaging system for this new Micro-Exposure Tool (MET), would have a numerical aperture (NA) of about 0.3, similar to the NA for a beta-tool, but substantially larger than the 0.10 NA for the Engineering Test Stand (ETS) and 0.088 NA for the existing 10x Microstepper. This memorandum discusses the development and summarizes the performance of the camera for the MET and includes a listing of the design prescription, detailed analysis of the distortion, and analysis demonstrating the capability to resolution 30 nm features under the conditions of partially coherent illumination.

  5. Na+ binding to the Na(+)-glucose cotransporter is potential dependent.

    PubMed

    Bennett, E; Kimmich, G A

    1992-02-01

    Activity of the Na(+)-glucose cotransporter in LLC-PK1 epithelial cells was assayed by measuring sugar-induced currents (IAMG) using whole cell recording techniques. IAMG was compared among cells by standardizing the measured currents to cell size using cell capacitance measurements. IAMG at a given membrane potential was measured as a function of alpha-methylglucoside (AMG) concentration and can be fit to Michaelis-Menten kinetics. IAMG at varying Na+ concentrations can be described by the Hill equation with a Hill coefficient of 1.6 at all tested potentials. At high external Na+ levels (155 mM), Na+ is at least 90% saturating at all tested potentials. Maximal currents at a given membrane potential (Im) are calculated from the Michaelis-Menten equation fit to data measuring IAMG vs. AMG concentration at a constant Na+ concentration. Im showed potential dependence under all conditions. Potential-dependent Na+ binding rate(s) cannot alone explain the observed potential dependence of Im under saturating Na+ conditions. Therefore, because Im is potential dependent, at least one step of the transport cycle other than external Na+ binding must be potential dependent. Im was also calculated from data taken at 40 mM external Na+. At all potentials studied, Im at 155 mM Na+ is greater than Im calculated at 40 mM Na+. This implies that the rate of external Na+ binding to the transporter at 40 mM also affects the maximal transport rate. Furthermore, Im at 40 mM external Na+ increases with hyperpolarization faster than Im at 155 mM Na+. Together, these facts indicate that the rate at which Na+ binds to the transporter is also potential dependent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Pharmacological modulation of human cardiac Na+ channels.

    PubMed

    Krafte, D S; Davison, K; Dugrenier, N; Estep, K; Josef, K; Barchi, R L; Kallen, R G; Silver, P J; Ezrin, A M

    1994-02-15

    Pharmacological modulation of human sodium current was examined in Xenopus oocytes expressing human heart Na+ channels. Na+ currents activated near -50 mV with maximum current amplitudes observed at -20 mV. Steady-state inactivation was characterized by a V1/2 value of -57 +/- 0.5 mV and a slope factor (k) of 7.3 +/- 0.3 mV. Sodium currents were blocked by tetrodotoxin with an IC50 value of 1.8 microM. These properties are consistent with those of Na+ channels expressed in mammalian myocardial cells. We have investigated the effects of several pharmacological agents which, with the exception of lidocaine, have not been characterized against cRNA-derived Na+ channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Lidocaine, quinidine and flecainide blocked resting Na+ channels with IC50 values of 521 microM, 198 microM, and 41 microM, respectively. Use-dependent block was also observed for all three agents, but concentrations necessary to induce block were higher than expected for quinidine and flecainide. This may reflect differences arising due to expression in the Xenopus oocyte system or could be a true difference in the interaction between human cardiac Na+ channels and these drugs compared to other mammalian Na+ channels. Importantly, however, this result would not have been predicted based upon previous studies of mammalian cardiac Na+ channels. The effects of DPI 201-106, RWJ 24517, and BDF 9148 were also tested and all three agents slowed and/or removed Na+ current inactivation, reduced peak current amplitudes, and induced use-dependent block. These data suggest that the alpha-subunit is the site of interaction between cardiac Na+ channels and Class I antiarrhythmic drugs as well as inactivation modifiers such as DPI 201-106.

  7. Na-doped optical Germanium bulk crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekar, G. S.; Singaevsky, A. F.

    2012-09-01

    In an effort to develop a material for infrared (IR) optics with improved parameters, bulk crystals of optical germanium doped with Na have been first grown and studied. Single-crystalline and coarse-crystalline Ge:Na boules of different shapes and dimensions, up to 10 kg by weight, have been grown. Sodium was incorporated into the Ge crystal during the crystal growing from the melt. Despite the fact that Na contamination in the source material was not strictly controlled, the density of Na in the grown crystals determined by the neutron activation analysis as well as by the glow discharge mass spectrometry did not exceed 1015 cm-3. Just this value may be supposed to be close to the solubility limit of Na incorporated in Ge in the course of bulk crystal growth. A first demonstration of donor behavior of Na in bulk Ge crystals is made by means of a thermoelectric type of testing. An interstitial location of Na impurity has been verified by experiments on donor drift in the dc electric field. The crystals are grown with free electron density in the range from 5ṡ1013 to 4ṡ1014 cm-3 which is optimal for using Ge crystals as an optical material for fabricating passive elements of the IR technique. A comparison between the properties of Ge:Na crystals and Ge crystals doped with Sb, a conventional impurity in optical germanium, grown under the same technological conditions and from the same intrinsic Ge as a source material, revealed a number of advantages of Ge:Na crystals; among them, the higher transparency in the IR region, smaller radiation scattering and higher regular optical transmission, lower dislocation density, more uniform distribution of electrical and optical characteristics over the crystal volume, the identity of optical parameters in the single-crystalline, and coarse-crystalline boules. No degradation of optical elements fabricated from Ge:Na crystals was detected in the course of their commercial application, starting from 1998.

  8. Androgyny and Moral and Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberman, Dov; Gaa, John P.

    Traditionally, "masculine" males and "feminine" females are seen as being the most mentally healthy individuals. Recently this view has been challenged by Sandra Bem and other researchers in the area of sex role identity. Bem (1975) maintains that those individuals whose behavioral and emotional repertoires incorporate aspects…

  9. Digging the Ego State for Communication Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clucas, Eric

    Advertisers have leaned heavily upon researchers to answer the question of what the advertisers get for the money they spend. Researchers have used a wide variety of methods, including a split cable simulated test market. Wilder Penfield's 1950s research may help other researchers better understand what goes on in the mind of consumers as a result…

  10. Personality traits and ego-network dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Centellegher, Simone; López, Eduardo; Saramäki, Jari; Lepri, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Strong and supportive social relationships are fundamental to our well-being. However, there are costs to their maintenance, resulting in a trade-off between quality and quantity, a typical strategy being to put a lot of effort on a few high-intensity relationships while maintaining larger numbers of less close relationships. It has also been shown that there are persistent individual differences in this pattern; some individuals allocate their efforts more uniformly across their networks, while others strongly focus on their closest relationships. Furthermore, some individuals maintain more stable networks than others. Here, we focus on how personality traits of individuals affect this picture, using mobile phone calls records and survey data from the Mobile Territorial Lab (MTL) study. In particular, we look at the relationship between personality traits and the (i) persistence of social signatures, namely the similarity of the social signature shape of an individual measured in different time intervals; (ii) the turnover in egocentric networks, that is, differences in the set of alters present at two consecutive temporal intervals; and (iii) the rank dynamics defined as the variation of alter rankings in egocentric networks in consecutive intervals. We observe that some traits have effects on the stability of the social signatures as well as network turnover and rank dynamics. As an example, individuals who score highly in the Openness to Experience trait tend to have higher levels of network turnover and larger alter rank variations. On broader terms, our study shows that personality traits clearly affect the ways in which individuals maintain their personal networks. PMID:28253333

  11. EPO's alter ego: erythropoietin has multiple actions.

    PubMed

    Lappin, Terence R; Maxwell, A Peter; Johnston, Patrick G

    2002-01-01

    Many cancer patients suffer from anemia, which has a major detrimental effect on their quality of life. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is now widely used in cancer patients, as it improves hematocrit, lowers blood transfusion requirements, and improves quality of life. Recent research indicates that EPO has pleiotropic effects on the body well beyond the maintenance of red cell mass, but the mechanisms involved in relieving fatigue and improving quality of life in cancer patients are poorly understood. EPO receptors (EPO-Rs) have been detected in many different cells and tissues, providing evidence for autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions of EPO. Apart from its endocrine function, EPO may have a generalized role as an antiapoptotic agent that is associated with enhancement of muscle tone, mucosal status, and gonadal and cognitive function. The recent discovery of EPO-Rs in breast tumor vasculature, while raising important questions about the possible effects of pharmacological doses of rHuEPO on tumor cells, also suggests that the receptors could provide a useful target for drugs attached to EPO.

  12. Personality traits and ego-network dynamics.

    PubMed

    Centellegher, Simone; López, Eduardo; Saramäki, Jari; Lepri, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Strong and supportive social relationships are fundamental to our well-being. However, there are costs to their maintenance, resulting in a trade-off between quality and quantity, a typical strategy being to put a lot of effort on a few high-intensity relationships while maintaining larger numbers of less close relationships. It has also been shown that there are persistent individual differences in this pattern; some individuals allocate their efforts more uniformly across their networks, while others strongly focus on their closest relationships. Furthermore, some individuals maintain more stable networks than others. Here, we focus on how personality traits of individuals affect this picture, using mobile phone calls records and survey data from the Mobile Territorial Lab (MTL) study. In particular, we look at the relationship between personality traits and the (i) persistence of social signatures, namely the similarity of the social signature shape of an individual measured in different time intervals; (ii) the turnover in egocentric networks, that is, differences in the set of alters present at two consecutive temporal intervals; and (iii) the rank dynamics defined as the variation of alter rankings in egocentric networks in consecutive intervals. We observe that some traits have effects on the stability of the social signatures as well as network turnover and rank dynamics. As an example, individuals who score highly in the Openness to Experience trait tend to have higher levels of network turnover and larger alter rank variations. On broader terms, our study shows that personality traits clearly affect the ways in which individuals maintain their personal networks.

  13. Are School Districts State Actors (Alter Egos)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagley, David L.; Oldaker, Lawrence Lee

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the eleventh amendment was to protect the states from the federal government by limiting the power of the federal courts. Reviews litigation regarding whether a local school district is cloaked with the state's eleventh amendment immunity. (86 references) (MLF)

  14. Apoptotic death sensor: an organelle's alter ego?

    PubMed

    Bratton, S B; Cohen, G M

    2001-06-01

    Caspases are intracellular cysteine proteases that are primarily responsible for the stereotypic morphological and biochemical changes that are associated with apoptosis. Caspases are often activated by the apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (APAF-1) apoptosome, a complex that is formed following mitochondrial release of cytochrome c in response to many death-inducing stimuli. Both pro- and anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members regulate apoptosis, primarily by their effects on mitochondria, whereas many inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) regulate apoptosis by directly inhibiting distinct caspases. Exposure of cells to chemicals and radiation, as well as loss of trophic stimuli, perturb cellular homeostasis and, depending on the type of cellular stress, particular or multiple organelles appear to 'sense' the damage and signal the cell to undergo apoptosis by stimulating the formation of unique and/or common caspase-activating complexes.

  15. Anxiety, ego depletion, and sports performance.

    PubMed

    Englert, Chris; Bertrams, Alex

    2012-10-01

    In the present article, we analyzed the role of self-control strength and state anxiety in sports performance. We tested the hypothesis that self-control strength and state anxiety interact in predicting sports performance on the basis of two studies, each using a different sports task (Study 1: performance in a basketball free throw task, N = 64; Study 2: performance in a dart task, N = 79). The patterns of results were as expected in both studies: Participants with depleted self-control strength performed worse in the specific tasks as their anxiety increased, whereas there was no significant relation for participants with fully available self-control strength. Furthermore, different degrees of available self-control strength did not predict performance in participants who were low in state anxiety, but did in participants who were high in state anxiety. Thus increasing self-control strength could reduce the negative anxiety effects in sports and improve athletes' performance under pressure.

  16. Anomalously high Na(+) and low Li(+) mobility in intercalated Na2Ti6O13.

    PubMed

    Ling, Chen; Zhang, Ruigang

    2017-04-12

    We report an anomalous diffusion behavior in intercalated Na2Ti6O13. Using first-principles calculations, the direct migration of inserted Na(+) along the tunnel direction is predicted to have a barrier of 0.24-0.44 eV, while the migration of inserted Li(+) along the tunnel direction has a barrier of 0.86-1.15 eV. Although Li(+) can also diffuse along a zig-zag path in the tunnel, the barrier of 0.86-0.99 eV is still much higher than that for Na(+). Our results surprisingly lead to the conclusion that the diffusion of larger Na(+) is 4-8 orders of magnitude faster than Li(+) in the same host lattice, and explain the experimentally observed exceptional rate capability of Na2Ti6O13 as the Na-ion battery anode. The anomalous diffusion behavior is attributed to the geometric features of Na2Ti6O13. For migration of Li(+) it is necessary to weaken Li-O bonds and to overcome the repulsion between Li and host Na ions simultaneously, while for Na(+) diffusion the improved Na-O bonding at the transition state partially compensates for the energy penalty from the repulsion of host Na ions.

  17. Cytosolic Na+ Controls an Epithelial Na+ Channel Via the Go Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Regulatory Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komwatana, P.; Dinudom, A.; Young, J. A.; Cook, D. I.

    1996-07-01

    In tight Na+-absorbing epithelial cells, the rate of Na+ entry through amiloride-sensitive apical membrane Na+ channels is matched to basolateral Na+ extrusion so that cell Na+ concentration and volume remain steady. Control of this process by regulation of apical Na+ channels has been attributed to changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration or pH, secondary to changes in cytosolic Na+ concentration, although cytosolic Cl- seems also to be involved. Using mouse mandibular gland duct cells, we now demonstrate that increasing cytosolic Na+ concentration inhibits apical Na+ channels independent of changes in cytosolic Ca2+, pH, or Cl-, and the effect is blocked by GDP-β -S, pertussis toxin, and antibodies against the α -subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (Go). In contrast, the inhibitory effect of cytosolic anions is blocked by antibodies to inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (Gi1/Gi2. It thus appears that apical Na+ channels are regulated by Go and Gi proteins, the activities of which are controlled, respectively, by cytosolic Na+ and Cl-.

  18. Cytosolic Na+ controls and epithelial Na+ channel via the Go guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein.

    PubMed Central

    Komwatana, P; Dinudom, A; Young, J A; Cook, D I

    1996-01-01

    In tight Na+-absorbing epithelial cells, the fate of Na+ entry through amiloride-sensitive apical membrane Na+ channels is matched to basolateral Na+ extrusion so that cell Na+ concentration and volume remain steady. Control of this process by regulation of apical Na+ channels has been attributed to changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration or pH, secondary to changes in cytosolic Na+ concentration, although cytosolic Cl- seems also to be involved. Using mouse mandibular gland duct cells, we now demonstrate that increasing cytosolic Na+ concentration inhibits apical Na+ channels independent of changes in cytosolic Ca2+, pH, or Cl-, and the effect is blocked by GDP-beta-S, pertussis toxin, and antibodies against the alpha-subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (Go). In contrast, the inhibitory effect of cytosolic anions is blocked by antibodies to inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (Gi1/Gi2. It thus appears that apical Na+ channels are regulated by Go and Gi proteins, the activities of which are controlled, respectively, by cytosolic Na+ and Cl-. Images Fig. 4 PMID:8755611

  19. Laser-induced ionization of Na vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, R.C.Y.; Judge, D.L.; Roussel, F.; Carre, B.; Breger, P.; Spiess, G.

    1982-01-01

    The production of Na/sub 2//sup +/ ions by off-resonant laser excitation in the 5800-6200A region mainly results from two-photon absorption by the Na/sub 2/ molecule to highly excited gerade states followed by (a) direct ionization by absorbing a third photon or (b) coupling to the molecular Na/sub 2/ D/sup 1/PI..mu.. Rydberg state which is subsequently ionized by absorbing a third photon. This mechanism, i.e., a two-photon resonance three photon ionization process, explains a recent experimental observation of Roussel et al. It is suggested that the very same mechanism is also responsible for a similar observation reported by Polak-Dingels et al in their work using two crossed Na beams. In the latter two studies the laser-induced associative ionization processes were reported to be responsible for producing the Na/sub 2//sup +/ ion. From the ratio of molecular to atomic concentration in the crossed beam experiment of Polak-Dingels et al we estimate that the cross section for producing Na/sub 2//sup +/ through laser-induced associative ionization is at least four orders of magnitude smaller than ionization through the two-photon resonance three photon ionization process in Na/sub 2/ molecules.

  20. Laser-induced ionization of Na vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. Y. Robert; Judge, D. L.; Roussel, F.; Carré, B.; Breger, P.; Spiess, G.

    1982-09-01

    The production of Na2+ ions by off-resonant laser excitation in the 5800-6200Å region mainly results from two-photon absorption by the Na2 molecule to highly excited gerade states followed by (a) direct ionization by absorbing a third photon or (b) coupling to the molecular Na2 D1Πu Rydberg state which is subsequently ionized by absorbing a third photon. This mechanism, i.e., a two-photon resonance three photon ionization process, explains a recent experimental observation of Roussel et al. It is suggested that the very same mechanism is also responsible for a similar observation reported by Polak-Dingels et al in their work using two crossed Na beams. In the latter two studies the laser-induced associative ionization processes were reported to be responsible for producing the Na2+ ion. From the ratio of molecular to atomic concentration in the crossed beam experiment of Polak-Dingels et al. we estimate that the cross section for producing Na2+ through laser-induced associative ionization is at least four orders of magnitude smaller than ionization through the two-photon resonance three photon ionization process in Na2 molecules.

  1. NMR studies on Na+ transport in Synechococcus PCC 6311

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitschmann, W. H.; Packer, L.

    1992-01-01

    The freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 6311 is able to adapt to grow after sudden exposure to salt (NaCl) stress. We have investigated the mechanism of Na+ transport in these cells during adaptation to high salinity. Na+ influx under dark aerobic conditions occurred independently of delta pH or delta psi across the cytoplasmic membrane, ATPase activity, and respiratory electron transport. These findings are consistent with the existence of Na+/monovalent anion cotransport or simultaneous Na+/H+ +anion/OH- exchange. Na+ influx was dependent on Cl-, Br-, NO3-, or NO2-. No Na+ uptake occurred after addition of NaI, NaHCO3, or Na2SO4. Na+ extrusion was absolutely dependent on delta pH and on an ATPase activity and/or on respiratory electron transport. This indicates that Na+ extrusion via Na+/H+ exchange is driven by primary H+ pumps in the cytoplasmic membrane. Cells grown for 4 days in 0.5 m NaCl medium, "salt-grown cells," differ from control cells by a lower maximum velocity of Na+ influx and by lower steady-state ratios of [Na+]in/[Na+]out. These results indicate that cells grown in high-salt medium increase their capacity to extrude Na+. During salt adaptation Na+ extrusion driven by respiratory electron transport increased from about 15 to 50%.

  2. Characteristics and pharmacological regulation of epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and epithelial Na+ transport.

    PubMed

    Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial Na(+) transport participates in control of various body functions and conditions: e.g., homeostasis of body fluid content influencing blood pressure, control of amounts of fluids covering the apical surface of alveolar epithelial cells at appropriate levels for normal gas exchange, and prevention of bacterial/viral infection. Epithelial Na(+) transport via the transcellular pathway is mediated by the entry step of Na(+) across the apical membrane via Epithelial Na(+) Channel (ENaC) located at the apical membrane, and the extrusion step of Na(+) across the basolateral membrane via the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase located at the basolateral membrane. The rate-limiting step of the epithelial Na(+) transport via the transcellular pathway is generally recognized to be the entry step of Na(+) across the apical membrane via ENaC. Thus, up-/down-regulation of ENaC essentially participates in regulatory systems of blood pressure and normal gas exchange. Amount of ENaC-mediated Na(+) transport is determined by the number of ENaCs located at the apical membrane, activity (open probability) of individual ENaC located at the apical membrane, single channel conductance of ENaC located at the apical membrane, and driving force for the Na(+) entry via ENaCs across the apical membrane. In the present review article, I discuss the characteristics of ENaC and how these factors are regulated.

  3. Glutathionylation-Dependence of Na(+)-K(+)-Pump Currents Can Mimic Reduced Subsarcolemmal Na(+) Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alvaro; Liu, Chia-Chi; Cornelius, Flemming; Clarke, Ronald J; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2016-03-08

    The existence of a subsarcolemmal space with restricted diffusion for Na(+) in cardiac myocytes has been inferred from a transient peak electrogenic Na(+)-K(+) pump current beyond steady state on reexposure of myocytes to K(+) after a period of exposure to K(+)-free extracellular solution. The transient peak current is attributed to enhanced electrogenic pumping of Na(+) that accumulated in the diffusion-restricted space during pump inhibition in K(+)-free extracellular solution. However, there are no known physical barriers that account for such restricted Na(+) diffusion, and we examined if changes of activity of the Na(+)-K(+) pump itself cause the transient peak current. Reexposure to K(+) reproduced a transient current beyond steady state in voltage-clamped ventricular myocytes as reported by others. Persistence of it when the Na(+) concentration in patch pipette solutions perfusing the intracellular compartment was high and elimination of it with K(+)-free pipette solution could not be reconciled with restricted subsarcolemmal Na(+) diffusion. The pattern of the transient current early after pump activation was dependent on transmembrane Na(+)- and K(+) concentration gradients suggesting the currents were related to the conformational poise imposed on the pump. We examined if the currents might be accounted for by changes in glutathionylation of the β1 Na(+)-K(+) pump subunit, a reversible oxidative modification that inhibits the pump. Susceptibility of the β1 subunit to glutathionylation depends on the conformational poise of the Na(+)-K(+) pump, and glutathionylation with the pump stabilized in conformations equivalent to those expected to be imposed on voltage-clamped myocytes supported this hypothesis. So did elimination of the transient K(+)-induced peak Na(+)-K(+) pump current when we included glutaredoxin 1 in patch pipette solutions to reverse glutathionylation. We conclude that transient K(+)-induced peak Na(+)-K(+) pump current reflects the effect

  4. Interaction between Na+ and H+ ions on Na-H exchange in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers.

    PubMed

    Wu, M L; Vaughan-Jones, R D

    1997-04-01

    The interaction between Na+ and H+ ions upon Na-H exchange (NHE) was examined in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers. Acid equivalent fluxes through NHE were examined using recordings of intracellular pH and Na+ in isolated preparations measured with ion selective microelectrodes. The extent of acid-extrusion by NHE was estimated from pH(i) recovery-rate, multiplied by beta(i) (intracellular buffering power) in response to an internal acid load induced by 20 mm NH4Cl removal (nominally HCO3- free media). A mixed inhibitory effect was found of extracellular H+ on external Na+-activation of NHE (i.e. an increase, at low pH(o), in the apparent Michaelis constant for external Na+ ions [K(Nao)(0.5)] and a decrease in the maximum transport rate [V(Nao)(max)]). In addition, we confirmed that the stoichiometry of Na(o) binding is unaffected by the pH(o) (between 7.5 and 6.5), showing a Hill coefficient close to one. The interaction between Na+ and H+ ions at the internal face of the cardiac NHE was also studied. Our evidence suggests that an increase in the intracellular Na+ ion concentration ([Na+]i) inhibits acid efflux and that this inhibition can be approximated by the decrease in thermodynamic driving force caused by reducing the transmembrane Na+ gradient. It appears, however, that small variations in [Na+]i from the normal resting level (intracellular sodium activity, a(i)Na = 7 to 13 mm) have little or no effect on acid efflux, suggesting that variation of a(i)Na is not a physiologically important controller of NHE activity in heart.

  5. Thermodynamic Model for the Solubility of Cr(OH)(3)(am) in Concentrated NaOH and NaOH-NaNO3 Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Dhanpat ); Hess, Nancy J. ); Rao, Linfeng; Zhang, Zhicheng; Felmy, Andrew R. ); Moore, Dean A. ); Clark, Sue B.; Lumetta, Gregg J. )

    2001-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a reliable thermodynamic model for predicting Cr(III) behavior in concentrated NaOH and in mixed NaOH-NaNO3 solutions for application to effective caustic leaching strategies for high-level tank sludges. To meet these objectives, the solubility of Cr(OH)3(am) was measured in 0.003 to 10.5 m NaOH, 3.0 m es in NaOH concentration...

  6. Hydrogen-fluorine exchange in NaBH4-NaBF4.

    PubMed

    Rude, L H; Filsø, U; D'Anna, V; Spyratou, A; Richter, B; Hino, S; Zavorotynska, O; Baricco, M; Sørby, M H; Hauback, B C; Hagemann, H; Besenbacher, F; Skibsted, J; Jensen, T R

    2013-11-07

    Hydrogen-fluorine exchange in the NaBH4-NaBF4 system is investigated using a range of experimental methods combined with DFT calculations and a possible mechanism for the reactions is proposed. Fluorine substitution is observed using in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) as a new Rock salt type compound with idealized composition NaBF2H2 in the temperature range T = 200 to 215 °C. Combined use of solid-state (19)F MAS NMR, FT-IR and DFT calculations supports the formation of a BF2H2(-) complex ion, reproducing the observation of a (19)F chemical shift at -144.2 ppm, which is different from that of NaBF4 at -159.2 ppm, along with the new absorption bands observed in the IR spectra. After further heating, the fluorine substituted compound becomes X-ray amorphous and decomposes to NaF at ~310 °C. This work shows that fluorine-substituted borohydrides tend to decompose to more stable compounds, e.g. NaF and BF3 or amorphous products such as closo-boranes, e.g. Na2B12H12. The NaBH4-NaBF4 composite decomposes at lower temperatures (300 °C) compared to NaBH4 (476 °C), as observed by thermogravimetric analysis. NaBH4-NaBF4 (1:0.5) preserves 30% of the hydrogen storage capacity after three hydrogen release and uptake cycles compared to 8% for NaBH4 as measured using Sievert's method under identical conditions, but more than 50% using prolonged hydrogen absorption time. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity tends to decrease possibly due to the formation of NaF and Na2B12H12. On the other hand, the additive sodium fluoride appears to facilitate hydrogen uptake, prevent foaming, phase segregation and loss of material from the sample container for samples of NaBH4-NaF.

  7. Deliquescence of NaCl-NaNO3, KNO3-NaNO3, and NaCl-KNO3 Salt Mixtures From 90 to 120?C

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S A; Craig, L; Wolery, T J

    2004-10-20

    We conducted reversed deliquescence experiments in saturated NaCl-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O, KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O, and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O systems from 90 to 120 C as a function of relative humidity and solution composition. NaCl, NaNO{sub 3}, and KNO{sub 3} represent members of dust salt assemblages that are likely to deliquesce and form concentrated brines on high-level radioactive waste package surfaces in a repository environment at Yucca Mountain, NV, USA. Discrepancy between model prediction and experimental code can be as high as 8% for relative humidity and 50% for dissolved ion concentration. The discrepancy is attributed primarily to the use of 25 C models for Cl-NO{sub 3} and K-NO{sub 3} ion interactions in the current Yucca Mountain Project high-temperature Pitzer model to describe the non-ideal behavior of these highly concentrated solutions.

  8. Vascular contractile reactivity in hypotension due to reduced renal reabsorption of Na(+) and restricted dietary Na().

    PubMed

    Alshahrani, Saeed; Rapoport, Robert M; Soleimani, Manoocher

    2017-03-01

    Reduced renal Na(+) reabsorption along with restricted dietary Na(+) depletes intravascular plasma volume which can then result in hypotension. Whether hypotension occurs and the magnitude of hypotension depends in part on compensatory angiotensin II-mediated increased vascular resistance. We investigated whether the ability of vascular resistance to mitigate the hypotension was compromised by decreased contractile reactivity. In vitro reactivity was investigated in aorta from mouse models of reduced renal Na(+) reabsorption and restricted dietary Na(+) associated with considerable hypotension and renin-angiotensin system activation: (1) the Na(+)-Cl(-)-Co-transporter (NCC) knockout (KO) with Na(+) restricted diet (0.1%, 2 weeks) and (2) the relatively more severe pendrin (apical chloride/bicarbonate exchanger) and NCC double KO. Contractile sensitivity to KCl, phenylephrine, and/or U46619 remained unaltered in aorta from both models. Maximal KCl and phenylephrine contraction expressed as force/aorta length from NCC KO with Na(+)-restricted diet remained unaltered, while in pendrin/NCC double KO were reduced to 49 and 64%, respectively. Wet weight of aorta from NCC KO with Na(+)-restricted diet remained unaltered, while pendrin/NCC double KO was reduced to 67%, consistent with decreased medial width determined with Verhoeff-Van Gieson stain. These findings suggest that hypotension associated with severe intravascular volume depletion, as the result of decreased renal Na(+) reabsorption, may in part be due to decreased contractile reactivity as a consequence of reduced vascular hypertrophy.

  9. Glutamate Water Gates in the Ion Binding Pocket of Na(+) Bound Na(+), K(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Han, Minwoo; Kopec, Wojciech; Solov'yov, Ilia A; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2017-01-13

    The dynamically changing protonation states of the six acidic amino acid residues in the ion binding pocket of the Na(+), K(+) -ATPase (NKA) during the ion transport cycle are proposed to drive ion binding, release and possibly determine Na(+) or K(+) selectivity. We use molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) simulations to determine the protonation scheme of the Na(+) bound conformation of NKA. MD simulations of all possible protonation schemes show that the bound Na(+) ions are most stably bound when three or four protons reside in the binding sites, and that Glu954 in site III is always protonated. Glutamic acid residues in the three binding sites act as water gates, and their deprotonation triggers water entry to the binding sites. From DFT calculations of Na(+) binding energies, we conclude that three protons in the binding site are needed to effectively bind Na(+) from water and four are needed to release them in the next step. Protonation of Asp926 in site III will induce Na(+) release, and Glu327, Glu954 and Glu779 are all likely to be protonated in the Na(+) bound occluded conformation. Our data provides key insights into the role of protons in the Na(+) binding and release mechanism of NKA.

  10. Anion-coupled Na efflux mediated by the human red blood cell Na/K pump

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The red cell Na/K pump is known to continue to extrude Na when both Na and K are removed from the external medium. Because this ouabain- sensitive flux occurs in the absence of an exchangeable cation, it is referred to as uncoupled Na efflux. This flux is also known to be inhibited by 5 mM Nao but to a lesser extent than that inhibitable by ouabain. Uncoupled Na efflux via the Na/K pump therefore can be divided into a Nao-sensitive and Nao-insensitive component. We used DIDS- treated, SO4-equilibrated human red blood cells suspended in HEPES- buffered (pHo 7.4) MgSO4 or (Tris)2SO4, in which we measured 22Na efflux, 35SO4 efflux, and changes in the membrane potential with the fluorescent dye, diS-C3 (5). A principal finding is that uncoupled Na efflux occurs electroneurally, in contrast to the pump's normal electrogenic operation when exchanging Nai for Ko. This electroneutral uncoupled efflux of Na was found to be balanced by an efflux of cellular anions. (We were unable to detect any ouabain-sensitive uptake of protons, measured in an unbuffered medium at pH 7.4 with a Radiometer pH-STAT.) The Nao-sensitive efflux of Nai was found to be 1.95 +/- 0.10 times the Nao-sensitive efflux of (SO4)i, indicating that the stoichiometry of this cotransport is two Na+ per SO4=, accounting for 60-80% of the electroneutral Na efflux. The remainder portion, that is, the ouabain-sensitive Nao-insensitive component, has been identified as PO4-coupled Na transport and is the subject of a separate paper. That uncoupled Na efflux occurs as a cotransport with anions is supported by the result, obtained with resealed ghosts, that when internal and external SO4 was substituted by the impermeant anion, tartrate i,o, the efflux of Na was inhibited 60-80%. This inhibition could be relieved by the inclusion, before DIDS treatment, of 5 mM Cli,o. Addition of 10 mM Ko to tartrate i,o ghosts, with or without Cli,o, resulted in full activation of Na/K exchange and the pump's electrogenicity

  11. Glutamate Water Gates in the Ion Binding Pocket of Na+ Bound Na+, K+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Han, Minwoo; Kopec, Wojciech; Solov’yov, Ilia A.; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2017-01-01

    The dynamically changing protonation states of the six acidic amino acid residues in the ion binding pocket of the Na+, K+ -ATPase (NKA) during the ion transport cycle are proposed to drive ion binding, release and possibly determine Na+ or K+ selectivity. We use molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) simulations to determine the protonation scheme of the Na+ bound conformation of NKA. MD simulations of all possible protonation schemes show that the bound Na+ ions are most stably bound when three or four protons reside in the binding sites, and that Glu954 in site III is always protonated. Glutamic acid residues in the three binding sites act as water gates, and their deprotonation triggers water entry to the binding sites. From DFT calculations of Na+ binding energies, we conclude that three protons in the binding site are needed to effectively bind Na+ from water and four are needed to release them in the next step. Protonation of Asp926 in site III will induce Na+ release, and Glu327, Glu954 and Glu779 are all likely to be protonated in the Na+ bound occluded conformation. Our data provides key insights into the role of protons in the Na+ binding and release mechanism of NKA. PMID:28084301

  12. Stoichiometry and Na+ binding cooperativity of rat and flounder renal type II Na+-Pi cotransporters.

    PubMed

    Forster, I C; Loo, D D; Eskandari, S

    1999-04-01

    The stoichiometry of the rat and flounder isoforms of the renal type II sodium-phosphate (Na+-Pi) cotransporter was determined directly by simultaneous measurements of phosphate (Pi)-induced inward current and uptake of radiolabeled Pi and Na+ in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the cotransporters. There was a direct correlation between the Pi-induced inward charge and Pi uptake into the oocytes; the slope indicated that one net inward charge was transported per Pi. There was also a direct correlation between the Pi-induced inward charge and Na+ influx; the slope indicated that the influx of three Na+ ions resulted in one net inward charge. This behavior was similar for both isoforms. We conclude that for both Na+-Pi cotransporter isoforms the Na+:Pi stoichiometry is 3:1 and that divalent Pi is the transported substrate. Steady-state activation of the currents showed that the Hill coefficients for Pi were unity for both isoforms, whereas for Na+, they were 1.8 (flounder) and 2.5 (rat). Therefore, despite significant differences in the apparent Na+ binding cooperativity, the estimated Na+:Pi stoichiometry was the same for both isoforms.

  13. Theoretical study of Na-atom emission from NaCl (100) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchin, Vladimir; Shluger, Alexander; Nakai, Yasuo; Itoh, Noriaki

    1994-04-01

    Several models for the elementary processes causing the emission of alkali atoms by electronic excitation of NaCl (100) surfaces have been investigated theoretically. First, the desorption of a Na atom neighboring an electronically excited F center on the surface is simulated using a quantum-mechanical embedded-cluster technique. It is shown that emission of a Na atom is energetically favorable. The kinetics of this process is shown to be controlled by the probability of a nonradiative transition between the two states: the excited state of the F center and that corresponding to a Na atom desorbing from the surface. The potential barrier for desorption of an excited Na atom from the excited F-center state is found to be 2.1 eV. It is also found that the energy for emission of a Na atom from a cluster of F centers (the F3 center) is considerably reduced (for a certain configuration of the defect) with respect to the similar energy for a single F center. The energy barrier for emission of a Na atom neighboring an F' center on the surface is calculated to be 1 eV. It is shown that the electronic excitation of kinklike sites, with a Na atom at the edge, can lead to a barrierless emission of a Na atom, leaving a Vk-type defect behind. The results of calculations are discussed critically on the basis of existing experimental data.

  14. Influence of sodium halides (NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI) on the photocatalytic performance of hydrothermally synthesized hematite photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsinghai; Huang, Mao-Chia; Hsieh, Yi-Kong; Chang, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Jing-Chie; Lee, Chih-Hao; Wang, Chu-Fang

    2013-08-28

    It has been suggested that a high concentration of Fe(3+) in solution, a low pH, and noncomplexing ions of high ionic strength are all essential for developing a high-quality hematite array. Our curiosity was piqued regarding the role of the electrolyte ions in the hydrothermal synthesis of hematite photoanodes. In this study, we prepared hematite photoanodes hydrothermally from precursor solutions of 0.1 M FeCl3 at pH 1.55 with a background electrolyte of 1.0 M sodium halide (NaF, NaCl, NaBr, or NaI). We compared the structures and properties of the as-obtained hematite photoanodes with those of the material prepared in 1.0 M NaNO3, the most widely adopted electrolyte in previous studies. Among our studied systems, we found that the hematite photoanode prepared in NaCl solution was the only one possessing properties similar to those of the sample obtained from the NaNO3 solution-most importantly in terms of photoelectrochemical performance (ca. 0.2 mA/cm(2) with +0.4 V vs SCE). The hematites obtained from the NaF, NaBr, and NaI solutions exhibited much lower (by approximately 2 orders of magnitude) photocurrent densities under the same conditions, possibly because of their relatively less ordered crystallinity and the absence of rodlike morphologies. Because the synthetic protocol was identical in each case, we believe that these two distinct features reflect the environments in which these hematite photoanodes were formed. Consistent with the latest studies reported in the literature of the X-ray photoelectron spectra of fast-frozen hematite colloids in aqueous solutions, it appears that the degree of surface ion loading at the electrolyte-hematite interface (Stern layer) is critical during the development of hematite photoanodes. We suspect that a lower ion surface loading benefits the hematite developing relatively higher-order and a rodlike texture, thereby improving the photoelectrochemical activity.

  15. Elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G.; Shubhchintak, Chatterjee, R.

    2016-08-01

    Background: 34Na is conjectured to play an important role in the production of seed nuclei in the alternate r -process paths involving light neutron rich nuclei very near the β -stability line, and as such, it is important to know its ground state properties and structure to calculate rates of the reactions it might be involved in, in the stellar plasma. Found in the region of `island of inversion', its ground state might not be in agreement with normal shell model predictions. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb to give us a core of 33Na with a neutron and in the process we try and investigate the one neutron separation energy and the ground state configuration of 34Na. Method: A fully quantum mechanical Coulomb breakup theory within the architecture of post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation extended to include the effects of deformation is used to research the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb at 100 MeV/u. The triple differential cross section calculated for the breakup is integrated over the desired components to find the total cross-section, momentum, and angular distributions as well as the average momenta, along with the energy-angular distributions. Results: The total one neutron removal cross section is calculated to test the possible ground state configurations of 34Na. The average momentum results along with energy-angular calculations indicate 34Na to have a halo structure. The parallel momentum distributions with narrow full widths at half-maxima signify the same. Conclusion: We have attempted to analyze the possible ground state configurations of 34Na and in congruity with the patterns in the `island of inversion' conclude that even without deformation, 34Na should be a neutron halo with a predominant contribution to its ground state most probably coming from 33Na(3 /2+)⊗ 2 p3 /2ν configuration. We also surmise that it would certainly be useful and rewarding to test our

  16. Quasi-solid state rechargeable Na-CO2 batteries with reduced graphene oxide Na anodes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofei; Li, Zifan; Zhao, Yaran; Sun, Jianchao; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Jianbin; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Na-CO2 batteries using earth-abundant Na and greenhouse gas CO2 are promising tools for mobile and stationary energy storage, but they still pose safety risks from leakage of liquid electrolyte and instability of the Na metal anode. These issues result in extremely harsh operating conditions of Na-CO2 batteries and increase the difficulty of scaling up this technology. We report the development of quasi-solid state Na-CO2 batteries with high safety using composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) Na anodes. The CPE of PVDF-HFP [poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)]-4% SiO2/NaClO4-TEGDME (tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether) has high ion conductivity (1.0 mS cm(-1)), robust toughness, a nonflammable matrix, and strong electrolyte-locking ability. In addition, the rGO-Na anode presents fast and nondendritic Na(+) plating/stripping (5.7 to 16.5 mA cm(-2)). The improved kinetics and safety enable the constructed rGO-Na/CPE/CO2 batteries to successfully cycle in wide CO2 partial pressure window (5 to 100%, simulated car exhaust) and especially to run for 400 cycles at 500 mA g(-1) with a fixed capacity of 1000 mA·hour g(-1) in pure CO2. Furthermore, we scaled up the reversible capacity to 1.1 A·hour in pouch-type batteries (20 × 20 cm, 10 g, 232 Wh kg(-1)). This study makes quasi-solid state Na-CO2 batteries an attractive prospect.

  17. Quasi–solid state rechargeable Na-CO2 batteries with reduced graphene oxide Na anodes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaofei; Li, Zifan; Zhao, Yaran; Sun, Jianchao; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Jianbin; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Na-CO2 batteries using earth-abundant Na and greenhouse gas CO2 are promising tools for mobile and stationary energy storage, but they still pose safety risks from leakage of liquid electrolyte and instability of the Na metal anode. These issues result in extremely harsh operating conditions of Na-CO2 batteries and increase the difficulty of scaling up this technology. We report the development of quasi–solid state Na-CO2 batteries with high safety using composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) Na anodes. The CPE of PVDF-HFP [poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)]–4% SiO2/NaClO4–TEGDME (tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether) has high ion conductivity (1.0 mS cm−1), robust toughness, a nonflammable matrix, and strong electrolyte-locking ability. In addition, the rGO-Na anode presents fast and nondendritic Na+ plating/stripping (5.7 to 16.5 mA cm−2). The improved kinetics and safety enable the constructed rGO-Na/CPE/CO2 batteries to successfully cycle in wide CO2 partial pressure window (5 to 100%, simulated car exhaust) and especially to run for 400 cycles at 500 mA g−1 with a fixed capacity of 1000 mA·hour g−1 in pure CO2. Furthermore, we scaled up the reversible capacity to 1.1 A·hour in pouch-type batteries (20 × 20 cm, 10 g, 232 Wh kg−1). This study makes quasi–solid state Na-CO2 batteries an attractive prospect. PMID:28164158

  18. Electrophysiological Determination of Submembrane Na(+) Concentration in Cardiac Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Hegyi, Bence; Bányász, Tamás; Shannon, Thomas R; Chen-Izu, Ye; Izu, Leighton T

    2016-09-20

    In the heart, Na(+) is a key modulator of the action potential, Ca(2+) homeostasis, energetics, and contractility. Because Na(+) currents and cotransport fluxes depend on the Na(+) concentration in the submembrane region, it is necessary to accurately estimate the submembrane Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]sm). Current methods using Na(+)-sensitive fluorescent indicators or Na(+) -sensitive electrodes cannot measure [Na(+)]sm. However, electrophysiology methods are ideal for measuring [Na(+)]sm. In this article, we develop patch-clamp protocols and experimental conditions to determine the upper bound of [Na(+)]sm at the peak of action potential and its lower bound at the resting state. During the cardiac cycle, the value of [Na(+)]sm is constrained within these bounds. We conducted experiments in rabbit ventricular myocytes at body temperature and found that 1) at a low pacing frequency of 0.5 Hz, the upper and lower bounds converge at 9 mM, constraining the [Na(+)]sm value to ∼9 mM; 2) at 2 Hz pacing frequency, [Na(+)]sm is bounded between 9 mM at resting state and 11.5 mM; and 3) the cells can maintain [Na(+)]sm to the above values, despite changes in the pipette Na(+) concentration, showing autoregulation of Na(+) in beating cardiomyocytes.

  19. Voltage dependence of Na translocation by the Na/K pump.

    PubMed

    Nakao, M; Gadsby, D C

    During each complete reaction cycle, the Na/K pump transports three Na ions out across the cell membrane and two K ions in. The resulting net extrusion of positive charge generates outward membrane current but, until now, it was unclear how that net charge movement occurs. Reasonable possibilities included a single positive charge moving outwards during Na translocation; or a single negative charge moving inwards during K translocation; or either positive or negative charges moving during both translocation steps, but in unequal quantities. Any step that involves net charge movement through the membrane must have voltage-dependent transition rates. Here we report measurements of transient, voltage-dependent, displacement currents generated by the pump when its normal Na/K transport cycle has been interrupted by removal of external K and it is thus constrained to carry out Na/Na exchange. The quantity and voltage sensitivity of the charge moved during these transient currents suggests that Na translocation includes a voltage-dependent transition involving movement of one positive charge across the membrane. This single step can thus fully account for the electrogenic nature of Na/K exchange. The result provides important new insight into the molecular mechanism of active cation transport.

  20. Interaction of NaCl(g) and HCl(g) with condensed NA2SO4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.; Miller, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction of Na2SO4(l) with NaCl(g), HCl(g) and H2O(g) was studied in atmospheric pressure flowing air and oxygen at Na2SO4(l) temperatures of 900 and 1000 C. Thermomicrogravimetric and high pressure mass spectrometric sampling techniques were used. Experimental results establish that previously reported enhanced rates of weight loss of Na2SO4(l) in the presence of NaCl(g) are due to the reaction: Na2SO4(c) + 2HCl(g) = 2NaCl(g) + SO2(g) + H2O(g) + 1/2O2(g) being driven to the right in flowing gas systems. The HCl(g) is the product of hydrolysis of NaCl caused by small but significant amounts of H2O(g) present in the system. Thermochemical calculations are used to show that even with sub-ppm levels of H2O(g) present, significant quantities of HCl(g) are produced.

  1. Dynamics of Na(+)(Benzene) + Benzene Association and Ensuing Na(+)(Benzene)2* Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Paul, Amit K; Kolakkandy, Sujitha; Hase, William L

    2015-07-16

    Chemical dynamics simulations were used to study Bz + Na(+)(Bz) → Na(+)(Bz)2* association and the ensuing dissociation of the Na(+)(Bz)2* cluster (Bz = benzene). An interesting and unexpected reaction found from the simulations is direct displacement, for which the colliding Bz molecule displaces the Bz molecule attached to Na(+), forming Na(+)(Bz). The rate constant for Bz + Na(+)(Bz) association was calculated at 750 and 1000 K, and found to decrease with increase in temperature. By contrast, the direct displacement rate constant increases with temperature. The cross section and rate constant for direct displacement are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those for association. The Na(+)(Bz)2* cluster, formed by association, dissociates with a biexponential probability, with the rate constant for the short-time component approximately an order of magnitude larger than that for the longer time component. The latter rate constant agrees with that of Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory, consistent with rapid intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) and intrinsic RRKM dynamics for the Na(+)(Bz)2* cluster. A coupled phase space model was used to analyze the biexponential dissociation probability.

  2. Low-affinity Na+ uptake in the halophyte Suaeda maritima.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suo-Min; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Flowers, Timothy J

    2007-10-01

    Na(+) uptake by plant roots has largely been explored using species that accumulate little Na(+) into their shoots. By way of contrast, the halophyte Suaeda maritima accumulates, without injury, concentrations of the order of 400 mM NaCl in its leaves. Here we report that cAMP and Ca(2+) (blockers of nonselective cation channels) and Li(+) (a competitive inhibitor of Na(+) uptake) did not have any significant effect on the uptake of Na(+) by the halophyte S. maritima when plants were in 25 or 150 mM NaCl (150 mM NaCl is near optimal for growth). However, the inhibitors of K(+) channels, TEA(+) (10 mM), Cs(+) (3 mM), and Ba(2+) (5 mM), significantly reduced the net uptake of Na(+) from 150 mM NaCl over 48 h, by 54%, 24%, and 29%, respectively. TEA(+) (10 mM), Cs(+) (3 mM), and Ba(2+) (1 mm) also significantly reduced (22)Na(+) influx (measured over 2 min in 150 mM external NaCl) by 47%, 30%, and 31%, respectively. In contrast to the situation in 150 mm NaCl, neither TEA(+) (1-10 mM) nor Cs(+) (0.5-10 mM) significantly reduced net Na(+) uptake or (22)Na(+) influx in 25 mM NaCl. Ba(2+) (at 5 mm) did significantly decrease net Na(+) uptake (by 47%) and (22)Na(+) influx (by 36% with 1 mM Ba(2+)) in 25 mM NaCl. K(+) (10 or 50 mM) had no effect on (22)Na(+) influx at concentrations below 75 mM NaCl, but the influx of (22)Na(+) was inhibited by 50 mM K(+) when the external concentration of NaCl was above 75 mM. The data suggest that neither nonselective cation channels nor a low-affinity cation transporter are major pathways for Na(+) entry into root cells. We propose that two distinct low-affinity Na(+) uptake pathways exist in S. maritima: Pathway 1 is insensitive to TEA(+) or Cs(+), but sensitive to Ba(2+) and mediates Na(+) uptake under low salinities (25 mM NaCl); pathway 2 is sensitive to TEA(+), Cs(+), and Ba(2+) and mediates Na(+) uptake under higher external salt concentrations (150 mM NaCl). Pathway 1 might be mediated by a high-affinity K transporter

  3. Anion-coupled Na efflux mediated by the human red blood cell Na/K pump

    SciTech Connect

    Dissing, S.; Hoffman, J.F. )

    1990-07-01

    The red cell Na/K pump is known to continue to extrude Na when both Na and K are removed from the external medium. Because this ouabain-sensitive flux occurs in the absence of an exchangeable cation, it is referred to as uncoupled Na efflux. This flux is also known to be inhibited by 5 mM Nao but to a lesser extent than that inhibitable by ouabain. Uncoupled Na efflux via the Na/K pump therefore can be divided into a Nao-sensitive and Nao-insensitive component. We used DIDS-treated, SO4-equilibrated human red blood cells suspended in HEPES-buffered (pHo 7.4) MgSO4 or (Tris)2SO4, in which we measured 22Na efflux, 35SO4 efflux, and changes in the membrane potential with the fluorescent dye, diS-C3 (5). A principal finding is that uncoupled Na efflux occurs electroneurally, in contrast to the pump's normal electrogenic operation when exchanging Nai for Ko. This electroneutral uncoupled efflux of Na was found to be balanced by an efflux of cellular anions. (We were unable to detect any ouabain-sensitive uptake of protons, measured in an unbuffered medium at pH 7.4 with a Radiometer pH-STAT.) The Nao-sensitive efflux of Nai was found to be 1.95 +/- 0.10 times the Nao-sensitive efflux of (SO4)i, indicating that the stoichiometry of this cotransport is two Na+ per SO4=, accounting for 60-80% of the electroneutral Na efflux. The remainder portion, that is, the ouabain-sensitive Nao-insensitive component, has been identified as PO4-coupled Na transport and is the subject of a separate paper. That uncoupled Na efflux occurs as a cotransport with anions is supported by the result, obtained with resealed ghosts, that when internal and external SO4 was substituted by the impermeant anion, tartrate i,o, the efflux of Na was inhibited 60-80%. This inhibition could be relieved by the inclusion, before DIDS treatment, of 5 mM Cli,o.

  4. A thermochemical explanation for the stability of NaCl3 and NaCl7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes de Farias, Robson

    2017-03-01

    Thermodynamically stable cubic and orthorhombic NaCl3 as well as NaCl7 have been synthesized (Zhang et al., 2013). In the present work, a thermochemical explanation for the stability of such unusual sodium chlorides is provided, based on lattice energy values. Using the Glasser-Jenkins generalized equation (Glasser and Jenkins, 2000) lattice energies (kJ mol-1) of -162.5, -168.9 and -113.1 are calculated for Pm3n NaCl3, Pnma NaCl3 and NaCl7, respectively. It is postulated that any NaxCly compound could be synthesized, if the ionic character of the Nasbnd Cl bond in the prepared compound remains around 80%, and the sodium charge below unit.

  5. Changes in Intracellular Na+ following Enhancement of Late Na+ Current in Virtual Human Ventricular Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Karen; Trenor, Beatriz; Giles, Wayne R

    2016-01-01

    The slowly inactivating or late Na+ current, INa-L, can contribute to the initiation of both atrial and ventricular rhythm disturbances in the human heart. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie these pro-arrhythmic influences are not fully understood. At present, the major working hypothesis is that the Na+ influx corresponding to INa-L significantly increases intracellular Na+, [Na+]i; and the resulting reduction in the electrochemical driving force for Na+ reduces and (may reverse) Na+/Ca2+ exchange. These changes increase intracellular Ca2+, [Ca2+]i; which may further enhance INa-L due to calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of the Na+ channels. This paper is based on mathematical simulations using the O'Hara et al (2011) model of baseline or healthy human ventricular action potential waveforms(s) and its [Ca2+]i homeostasis mechanisms. Somewhat surprisingly, our results reveal only very small changes (≤ 1.5 mM) in [Na+]i even when INa-L is increased 5-fold and steady-state stimulation rate is approximately 2 times the normal human heart rate (i.e. 2 Hz). Previous work done using well-established models of the rabbit and human ventricular action potential in heart failure settings also reported little or no change in [Na+]i when INa-L was increased. Based on our simulations, the major short-term effect of markedly augmenting INa-L is a significant prolongation of the action potential and an associated increase in the likelihood of reactivation of the L-type Ca2+ current, ICa-L. Furthermore, this action potential prolongation does not contribute to [Na+]i increase.

  6. Changes in Intracellular Na+ following Enhancement of Late Na+ Current in Virtual Human Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Wayne R.

    2016-01-01

    The slowly inactivating or late Na+ current, INa-L, can contribute to the initiation of both atrial and ventricular rhythm disturbances in the human heart. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie these pro-arrhythmic influences are not fully understood. At present, the major working hypothesis is that the Na+ influx corresponding to INa-L significantly increases intracellular Na+, [Na+]i; and the resulting reduction in the electrochemical driving force for Na+ reduces and (may reverse) Na+/Ca2+ exchange. These changes increase intracellular Ca2+, [Ca2+]i; which may further enhance INa-L due to calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of the Na+ channels. This paper is based on mathematical simulations using the O’Hara et al (2011) model of baseline or healthy human ventricular action potential waveforms(s) and its [Ca2+]i homeostasis mechanisms. Somewhat surprisingly, our results reveal only very small changes (≤ 1.5 mM) in [Na+]i even when INa-L is increased 5-fold and steady-state stimulation rate is approximately 2 times the normal human heart rate (i.e. 2 Hz). Previous work done using well-established models of the rabbit and human ventricular action potential in heart failure settings also reported little or no change in [Na+]i when INa-L was increased. Based on our simulations, the major short-term effect of markedly augmenting INa-L is a significant prolongation of the action potential and an associated increase in the likelihood of reactivation of the L-type Ca2+ current, ICa-L. Furthermore, this action potential prolongation does not contribute to [Na+]i increase. PMID:27875582

  7. Targeting voltage gated sodium channels NaV1.7, Na V1.8, and Na V1.9 for treatment of pathological cough.

    PubMed

    Muroi, Yukiko; Undem, Bradley J

    2014-02-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) lead to the rational hypothesis that drugs capable of selective blockade of NaV subtypes may be a safe and effective strategy for the treatment of unwanted cough. Among the nine NaV subtypes (NaV1.1-NaV1.9), the afferent nerves involved in initiating cough, in common with nociceptive neurons in the somatosensory system, express mainly NaV1.7, NaV1.8, and NaV1.9. Although knowledge about the effect of selectively blocking these channels on the cough reflex is limited, their biophysical properties indicate that each may contribute to the hypertussive and allotussive state that typifies subacute and chronic nonproductive cough.

  8. Intracellular [Na+], Na+ pathways, and fluid transport in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Kunyan; Li, Yansui; Yiming, Maimaiti; Sánchez, José M; Iserovich, Pavel; Cragoe, E J; Diecke, Friedrich P J; Fischbarg, Jorge

    2004-07-01

    The mechanism of fluid transport across corneal endothelium remains unclear. We examine here the relative contributions of cellular mechanisms of Na+ transport and the homeostasis of intracellular [Na+] in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells, and the influence of ambient Na+ and HCO3- on the deturgescence of rabbit cornea. Bovine corneal endothelial cells plated on glass coverslips were incubated for 60 min with 10 microm of the fluorescent Na+ indicator SBFI precursor in HCO3- HEPES (BH) Ringer's solution. After loading, cells were placed in a perfusion chamber. Indicator fluorescence (490 nm) was determined with a Chance-Legallais time-sharing fluorometer. Its voltage output was the ratio of the emissions excited at 340 and 380 nm. For calibration, cells were treated with gramicidin D. For fluid transport measurements, rabbit corneas were mounted in a Dikstein-Maurice chamber, and stromal thickness was measured with a specular microscope. The steady-state [Na+]i in BH was 14.36+/-0.38 mM (n = mean+/-s.e.). Upon exposure to Na+ -free BH solution (choline substituted), [Na+]i decreased to 1.81+/-0.20mM (n = 19). When going from Na+ -free plus 100 microm ouabain to BH plus ouabain, [Na+]i increased to 46.17+/-2.50 (n = 6) with a half time of 1.26+/-0.04 min; if 0.1 microm phenamil plus ouabain were present, it reached only 21.78+/-1.50mm. The exponential time constants (min-1) were: 0.56+/-0.04 for the Na+ pump; 0.39+/-0.01 for the phenamil sensitive Na+ channel; and 0.17+/-0.02 for the ouabain-phenamil-insensitive pathways. In HCO3- free medium (gluconate substituted), [Na+]i was 14.03+/-0.11mM; upon changing to BH medium, it increased to 30.77+/-0.74 mm. This last [Na+]i increase was inhibited 66% by 100 microm DIDS. Using BH medium, corneal thickness remained nearly constant, increasing at a rate of only 2.9+/-0.9 microm hr-1 during 3 hr. However, stromal thickness increased drastically (swelling rate 36.1+/-2.6 microm hr-1) in corneas superfused with BH

  9. Compact clinical high-NA multiphoton endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Fischer, Peter; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; König, Karsten

    2012-02-01

    Multiphoton imaging methods are excellent for non-invasive imaging of living tissue without any need of additional contrast agents. The increasing demand for endoscopic techniques has forced the development of multiphoton endoscopes for imaging of areas with reduced accessibility like chronic wounds. Gradient index (GRIN) lenses can miniaturize the bulky distal focusing optics of conventional tomographs to a diameter of less than 1.4 mm and a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.8. We combined a high NA clinical multiphoton endoscope with existing multiphoton tomographs like the DermaInspect® and the MPTflex® to enable the examination of wound healing processes.

  10. Sodium-difluoro(oxalato)borate (NaDFOB): a new electrolyte salt for Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juner; Huang, Zhenguo; Wang, Caiyun; Porter, Spencer; Wang, Baofeng; Lie, Wilford; Liu, Hua Kun

    2015-06-18

    A new electrolyte salt, sodium-difluoro(oxalato)borate (NaDFOB), was synthesized and studied, which enables excellent reversible capacity and high rate capability when used in Na/Na0.44MnO2 half cells. NaDFOB has excellent compatibility with various common solvents used in Na-ion batteries, in strong contrast to the solvent dependent performances of NaClO4 and NaPF6. In addition, NaDFOB possesses good stability and generates no toxic or dangerous products when exposed to air and water. All these properties demonstrate that NaDFOB could be used to prepare high performance electrolytes for emerging Na-ion batteries.

  11. Role of the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase in voltage generation and Na(+) extrusion in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Vorburger, Thomas; Nedielkov, Ruslan; Brosig, Alexander; Bok, Eva; Schunke, Emina; Steffen, Wojtek; Mayer, Sonja; Götz, Friedrich; Möller, Heiko M; Steuber, Julia

    2016-04-01

    For Vibrio cholerae, the coordinated import and export of Na(+) is crucial for adaptation to habitats with different osmolarities. We investigated the Na(+)-extruding branch of the sodium cycle in this human pathogen by in vivo (23)Na-NMR spectroscopy. The Na(+) extrusion activity of cells was monitored after adding glucose which stimulated respiration via the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR). In a V. cholerae deletion mutant devoid of the Na(+)-NQR encoding genes (nqrA-F), rates of respiratory Na(+) extrusion were decreased by a factor of four, but the cytoplasmic Na(+) concentration was essentially unchanged. Furthermore, the mutant was impaired in formation of transmembrane voltage (ΔΨ, inside negative) and did not grow under hypoosmotic conditions at pH8.2 or above. This growth defect could be complemented by transformation with the plasmid encoded nqr operon. In an alkaline environment, Na(+)/H(+) antiporters acidify the cytoplasm at the expense of the transmembrane voltage. It is proposed that, at alkaline pH and limiting Na(+) concentrations, the Na(+)-NQR is crucial for generation of a transmembrane voltage to drive the import of H(+) by electrogenic Na(+)/H(+) antiporters. Our study provides the basis to understand the role of the Na(+)-NQR in pathogenicity of V. cholerae and other pathogens relying on this primary Na(+) pump for respiration.

  12. Dialectics of Development: Teacher Identity Formation in the Interplay of Ideal Ego and Ego Ideal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Matthew; Michell, Michael; Ellis, Neville John

    2017-01-01

    This paper results from research examining pre-service teacher development in relation to experiences of mentoring during the Professional Experience component of their programme. The paper focuses on the interplay between pre-service teachers' personal aspirations for their own practice and identity and their perceptions of more socialized and…

  13. Electronic Polarisability of NaNO2-NaNO3 and NaOH-NaNO3 Ionic Melts and Effective Ionic Radius of OH-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwadate, Yasuhiko; Ohnishi, Ryosuke; Ohkubo, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Molar volumes and refractive indexes of molten NaNO2-NaNO3 and NaOH-NaNO3 systems were measured by dilatometry and goniometry, respectively. The molar volumes of both systems increased with increasing temperature. Refractive indexes decreased with a rise of temperature or with increasing wavelength of the incident visible light. Assuming that the electronic polarisability is inherent in an ion, the electronic polarisability of a OH- ion in the melt was estimated from the Lorentz-Lorenz equation to be 1.26×10-30 m3, being comparable with that in the crystal. The effective ionic radius of a OH- ion was evaluated from the obtained electronic polarisability to be 1.34×10-10 m, using the correlation between the third power of the ionic radius and the electronic polarisability of an ion so far reported. The effective ionic radius obtained in this work was in good agreement with that assigned by Shannon.

  14. Recent results and prospects from NA62

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzeti, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    A large sample of charged kaon decays in 2007 has been collected by the NA62 experiment at CERN SPS using the experimental setup of the former NA48 experiment. Its intense kaon beam provides an abundant source of tagged neutral pions in vacuum. A measurement of the electromagnetic transition form factor slope of the neutral pion from 1:05 × 106 fully reconstructed π0 Dalitz decays is presented. The obtained preliminary value a = (3.70 ± 0.53stat ± 0.36syst) × 10-2 is the first 5.8σ observation of a non-zero slope in the time-like region of momentum transfer. K+ → π+ vv¯ is a theoretically very clean decay where indirect effects of new physics may be detectable. The NA62 apparatus has been significantly upgraded between 2008 and 2014 in order to measure the branching ratio of this decay with 10% precision. The NA62 experiment took data with the new setup in pilot runs in 2014 and 2015, reaching the design beam intensity. Results of first data quality studies in view of the 2016-2017 physics runs are presented.

  15. Light-induced drift of Na atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werij, H. G. C.; Woerdman, J. P.

    1988-10-01

    Light can induce a flux of optically absorbing particles immersed in a buffer gas, when these particles have a different mobility in the ground and excited state. This paper presents a study of light-induced drift (LID) of Na atoms in noble gases, which can be regarded as the “canonical” system for experiments in this field. We have experimentally studied the LID effect in the optically thin and the optically thick regimes. Parameters which have been varied are laser frequency, laser intensity, buffer gas pressure and buffer gas species. This work gives the first critical comparison of LID experiments with realistic theory in which the multilevel complications of the Na atom have been incorporated. In the optically thick case (“optical piston”) one can distinguish the open cell and the closed cell regimes. Effects of adsorption and desorption of Na atoms at the surface of the cell wall have been incorporated into the theory. The experimental data are in excellent agreement with the results of a four-level rate-equation model for LID which incorporates the fine and hyperfine structure of the level scheme of the Na absorbers.

  16. Mechanisms contributing to the cardiac inotropic effect of Na pump inhibition and reduction of extracellular Na

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Reduction of the transsarcolemmal [Na] gradient in rabbit cardiac muscle leads to an increase in the force of contraction. This has frequently been attributed to alteration of Ca movements via the sarcolemmal Na/Ca exchange system. However, the specific mechanisms that mediate the increased force at individual contractions have not been clearly established. In the present study, the [Na] gradient was decreased by reduction of extracellular [Na] or inhibition of the Na pump by either the cardioactive steroid acetylstrophanthidin or by reduction of extracellular [K]. Contractile performance and changes in extracellular Ca (sensed by double-barreled Ca-selective microelectrodes) were studied in order to elucidate the underlying basis for the increase in force. In the presence of agents that inhibit sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function (10 mM caffeine, 100-500 nM ryanodine), reduction of the [Na] gradient produced increases in contractile force similar to that observed in the absence of caffeine or ryanodine. It is concluded that an intact, functioning SR is not required for the inotropic effect of [Na] gradient reduction (at least in rabbit ventricle). However, this does not exclude a possible contribution of enhanced SR Ca release in the inotropic response to [Na] gradient reduction in the absence of caffeine or ryanodine. Acetylstrophanthidin (3-5 microM) usually leads to an increase in the magnitude of extracellular Ca depletions associated with individual contractions. However, acetylstrophanthidin can also increase extracellular Ca accumulation during the contraction, especially at potentiated contractions. This extracellular Ca accumulation can be suppressed by ryanodine and it is suggested that this apparent enhancement of Ca efflux is secondary to an enhanced release of Ca from the SR. Under conditions where Ca efflux during contractions is minimized (after a rest interval in the presence of ryanodine), acetylstrophanthidin increased both the rate and the

  17. Intracellular Na(+) and metabolic modulation of Na/K pump and excitability in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Chi; Yang, Jyh-Jeen; Huang, Rong-Chi

    2012-10-01

    Na/K pump activity and metabolic rate are both higher during the day in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that houses the circadian clock. Here we investigated the role of intracellular Na(+) and energy metabolism in regulating Na/K pump activity and neuronal excitability. Removal of extracellular K(+) to block the Na/K pump excited SCN neurons to fire at higher rates and return to normal K(+) to reactivate the pump produced rebound hyperpolarization to inhibit firing. In the presence of tetrodotoxin to block the action potentials, both zero K(+)-induced depolarization and rebound hyperpolarization were blocked by the cardiac glycoside strophanthidin. Ratiometric Na(+) imaging with a Na(+)-sensitive fluorescent dye indicated saturating accumulation of intracellular Na(+) in response to pump blockade with zero K(+). The Na(+) ionophore monensin also induced Na(+) loading and hyperpolarized the membrane potential, with the hyperpolarizing effect of monensin abolished in zero Na(+) or by pump blockade. Conversely, Na(+) depletion with Na(+)-free pipette solution depolarized membrane potential but retained residual Na/K pump activity. Cyanide inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation blocked the Na/K pump to depolarize resting potential and increase spontaneous firing in most cells, and to raise intracellular Na(+) levels in all cells. Nonetheless, the Na/K pump was incompletely blocked by cyanide but completely blocked by iodoacetate to inhibit glycolysis, indicating the involvement of both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in fueling the Na/K pump. Together, the results indicate the importance of intracellular Na(+) and energy metabolism in regulating Na/K pump activity as well as neuronal excitability in the SCN neurons.

  18. [Regulation of the Na/Ca exchanger].

    PubMed

    DiPolo, R; Rojas, H; Beaugé, L

    1993-01-01

    The introduction of the squid giant axon preparation to studies on Ca homeostasis has proven very useful in laying the foundations in the study of Ca regulation. In particular the Na/Ca exchange mechanism has been characterized in terms of its regulatory processes using the well define technique of intracellular dialysis and membrane potential control. The Na/Ca exchange countertransport system plays a critical role in physiological processes including cardiac contractility and photoreception. It has also been implicate in the etiology of essential hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias and cell death. The ability of the Na/Ca exchanger to regulate the intracellular ionized Ca concentration ([Ca2+i]) under physiological conditions, is determined by the direction (net Ca efflux or Ca influx), and magnitude of transport. The direction of Ca transport is decided by the chemical gradient of sodium and calcium. The magnitude of the exchange is regulated by kinetic factors. This kinetic factors are critical since they decide whether the exchanger will mediate a net Ca movement under certain conditions. Recently, a large effort has been put together to characterize the secondary modulation of the Na/Ca exchanger. In particular modulation by MgATP and intracellular Ca2+. In nerve cells we have discover that MgATP regulates the exchanger through as phosphorylation-dephosphorylation processes most probably relate to the action of a kinase-phosphatase system. The other important ligand that regulates the exchange activity is the level of [Ca2+i]. We have found the presence of a regulatory site in the cytoplasmic face of the exchanger different from the transport site and probably responsible for turning the carrier "on" or "off". In this article we will depict some of the processes involved in the metabolic and ionic regulation of the Na/Ca exchanger.

  19. Laser trapping of {sup 21}Na atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zheng-Tian

    1994-09-01

    This thesis describes an experiment in which about four thousand radioactive {sup 21}Na (t{sub l/2} = 22 sec) atoms were trapped in a magneto-optical trap with laser beams. Trapped {sup 21}Na atoms can be used as a beta source in a precision measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter of the decay of {sup 21}Na {yields} {sup 21}Ne + {Beta}{sup +} + v{sub e}, which is a promising way to search for an anomalous right-handed current coupling in charged weak interactions. Although the number o trapped atoms that we have achieved is still about two orders of magnitude lower than what is needed to conduct a measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter at 1% of precision level, the result of this experiment proved the feasibility of trapping short-lived radioactive atoms. In this experiment, {sup 21}Na atoms were produced by bombarding {sup 24}Mg with protons of 25 MeV at the 88 in. Cyclotron of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. A few recently developed techniques of laser manipulation of neutral atoms were applied in this experiment. The {sup 21}Na atoms emerging from a heated oven were first transversely cooled. As a result, the on-axis atomic beam intensity was increased by a factor of 16. The atoms in the beam were then slowed down from thermal speed by applying Zeeman-tuned slowing technique, and subsequently loaded into a magneto-optical trap at the end of the slowing path. The last two chapters of this thesis present two studies on the magneto-optical trap of sodium atoms. In particular, the mechanisms of magneto-optical traps at various laser frequencies and the collisional loss mechanisms of these traps were examined.

  20. The Na4(+3) Clusters in Sodium Sodalite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-15

    ATES COVOIN0i-15-92 Technical 06-01-91 to 05-31-92 4. TITLE ANA SUGTITLE S. RNORNG NUMBER The Na4+ 3 Clusters in Sodium Sodalite NN l14-e0-J-se59a 𔄀...3 [AlSiO 4]3 sodalite prepared by high vacuum deposition of sodium atoms. The samples with a Na 43 +:Na33+ cluster ratio up to 1:10 show a single...absorption feature with -m. = 628 nm (1.99 eV). The absorption originates from the individual sodalite cages containing Na 43+ cluster. For the Na 43+:Na

  1. The solubility of Cr(OH){sub 3}(am) in concentrated NaOH and NaOH-NaNO{sub 3} solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, A.R.; Rai, D.; Fulton, R.W.

    1994-08-01

    Chromium is a major component of the Hanford waste tank sludges, and the presence of Cr in the sludges is a significant concern in the disposal of these sludges because Cr can interfere with the formation of waste glasses. One of the current pretreatment strategies for removing constituents that can interfere with glass formation, such as P and Cr, is to wash/dissolve the sludges in basic NaOH solutions. The solubility of Cr(OH){sub 3}(am) was measured in concentrated NaOH ranging in concentration from 0.1M to 6.0M and in NaOH-NaNO{sub 3} solutions with fixed NaOH concentration and variable NaNO{sub 3} concentration at room temperature (22--23 C). Equilibrium between solids and solutions was approached relatively slowly and required approximately 60--70 days before steady-state concentrations were reached. A thermodynamic model, based upon the Pitzer equations, was developed from the solubility data in NaOH, which includes only two aqueous Cr species (Cr(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} and NaCr(OH){sub 4}(aq)) and ion-interaction parameters for Na{sup +} with Cr(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}}. This model was then tested in the mixed NaOH-NaNO{sub 3} solutions and found to be reliable.

  2. Effects of non-uniform root zone salinity on water use, Na+ recirculation, and Na+ and H+ flux in cotton.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangqiang; Luo, Zhen; Dong, Hezhong; Eneji, A Egrinya; Li, Weijiang

    2012-03-01

    A new split-root system was established through grafting to study cotton response to non-uniform salinity. Each root half was treated with either uniform (100/100 mM) or non-uniform NaCl concentrations (0/200 and 50/150 mM). In contrast to uniform control, non-uniform salinity treatment improved plant growth and water use, with more water absorbed from the non- and low salinity side. Non-uniform treatments decreased Na(+) concentrations in leaves. The [Na(+)] in the '0' side roots of the 0/200 treatment was significantly higher than that in either side of the 0/0 control, but greatly decreased when the '0' side phloem was girdled, suggesting that the increased [Na(+)] in the '0' side roots was possibly due to transportation of foliar Na(+) to roots through phloem. Plants under non-uniform salinity extruded more Na(+) from the root than those under uniform salinity. Root Na(+) efflux in the low salinity side was greatly enhanced by the higher salinity side. NaCl-induced Na(+) efflux and H(+) influx were inhibited by amiloride and sodium orthovanadate, suggesting that root Na(+) extrusion was probably due to active Na(+)/H(+) antiport across the plasma membrane. Improved plant growth under non-uniform salinity was thus attributed to increased water use, reduced leaf Na(+) concentration, transport of excessive foliar Na(+) to the low salinity side, and enhanced Na(+) efflux from the low salinity root.

  3. Synthesis of Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites from carbonized rice husk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuki, Hiroaki; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2009-07-01

    Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were prepared under hydrothermal conditions by NaOH dissolution of silica first from carbonized rice husk followed by addition of NaAlO 2 and in situ crystallization of zeolites i.e., using a two-step process. When a one-step process was used, both Na-A and Na-X zeolites crystallized on the surface of carbon. Na-A or Na-X zeolite crystals were prepared on the porous carbonized rice husk at 90 °C for 2-6 h by changing the SiO 2/Al 2O 3, H 2O/Na 2O and Na 2O/SiO 2 molar ratios of precursors in the two-step process. The surface area and NH 4+-cation exchange capacity (CEC) of Na-A zeolite/porous carbon were found to be 171 m 2/g and 506 meq/100 g, respectively, while those of Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were 676 m 2/g and 317 meq/100 g, respectively. Na-A and Na-X zeolites are well-known microporous and hydrophilic materials while carbonized rice husk was found to be mesoporous (pores of ˜3.9 nm) and hydrophobic. These hybrid microporous-mesoporous and hydrophilic-hydrophobic composites are expected to be useful for decontamination of metal cations as well as organic contaminants simultaneously.

  4. Regulation of cardiac myocyte contractility by phospholemman: Na+/Ca2+ exchange versus Na+ -K+ -ATPase.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Wang, JuFang; Cheskis, Ellina; Chan, Tung O; Feldman, Arthur M; Tucker, Amy L; Cheung, Joseph Y

    2008-10-01

    Phospholemman (PLM) regulates cardiac Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1) and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in cardiac myocytes. PLM, when phosphorylated at Ser(68), disinhibits Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase but inhibits NCX1. PLM regulates cardiac contractility by modulating Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and/or NCX1. In this study, we first demonstrated that adult mouse cardiac myocytes cultured for 48 h had normal surface membrane areas, t-tubules, and NCX1 and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase levels, and retained near normal contractility, but alpha(1)-subunit of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was slightly decreased. Differences in contractility between myocytes isolated from wild-type (WT) and PLM knockout (KO) hearts were preserved after 48 h of culture. Infection with adenovirus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) did not affect contractility at 48 h. When WT PLM was overexpressed in PLM KO myocytes, contractility and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) transients reverted back to those observed in cultured WT myocytes. Both Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase current (I(pump)) and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange current (I(NaCa)) in PLM KO myocytes rescued with WT PLM were depressed compared with PLM KO myocytes. Overexpressing the PLMS68E mutant (phosphomimetic) in PLM KO myocytes resulted in the suppression of I(NaCa) but had no effect on I(pump). Contractility, [Ca(2+)](i) transient amplitudes, and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) contents in PLM KO myocytes overexpressing the PLMS68E mutant were depressed compared with PLM KO myocytes overexpressing GFP. Overexpressing the PLMS68A mutant (mimicking unphosphorylated PLM) in PLM KO myocytes had no effect on I(NaCa) but decreased I(pump). Contractility, [Ca(2+)](i) transient amplitudes, and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) contents in PLM KO myocytes overexpressing the S68A mutant were similar to PLM KO myocytes overexpressing GFP. We conclude that at the single-myocyte level, PLM affects cardiac contractility and [Ca(2+)](i) homeostasis primarily by its direct

  5. Na/beta-alumina/NaAlCl4, Cl2/C circulating cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherng, Jing-Yih; Bennion, Douglas N.

    1987-09-01

    A study was made of a high specific energy battery based on a sodium negative electrode and a chlorine positive electrode with molten AlCl3-NaCl electrolyte and a solid beta alumina separator. The basic performance of a Na beta-alumina NaAlCl4, Cl2/C circulating cell at 200 C was demonstrated. This cell can be started at 150 C. The use of melting sodium chloroaluminate electrolyte overcomes some of the material problems associated with the high working temperatures of present molten salt systems, such as Na/S and LiAl/FeS, and retains the advantages of high energy density and relatively efficient electrode processes. Preliminary investigations were conducted on a sodium-chlorine static cell, material compability, electrode design, wetting, and theoretical calculations to assure a better chance of success before assembling a Na/Cl2 circulating cell. Mathematical models provide a theoretical explanation for the performance of the NaCl2 battery. The results of mathematical models match the experimental results very well. According to the result of the mathematical modeling, an output at 180 mA/sq cm and 3.2 V can be obtained with optimized cell design.

  6. Final-state symmetry of Na 1s core-shell excitons in NaCl and NaF

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, K.P.; Seidler, G.T.; Shirley, E.L.; Fister, T.T.; Bradley, J.A.; Brown, F.C.

    2009-08-13

    We report measurements of the Na 1s contribution to the nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) from NaCl and NaF. Prior x-ray absorption studies have observed two pre-edge excitons in both materials. The momentum-transfer dependence (q dependence) of the measured NRIXS cross section and of real-space full multiple scattering and Bethe-Salpeter calculations determine that the higher-energy core excitons are s type for each material. The lower-energy core excitons contribute at most weakly to the NRIXS signal and we propose that these may be surface core excitons, as have been observed in several other alkali halides. The analysis of the orbital angular momentum of these features leads to a discussion of the limited sensitivity of NRIXS measurements to d-type final states when investigating 1s initial states. In this case the s- and p-type final density of states can be characterized by measurements at a small number of momentum transfers. This is in contrast to the case of more complex initial states for which measurements at a large number of momentum transfers are needed to separate the rich admixture of accessible and contributing final-state symmetries.

  7. Computational interpretation of 23Na MQMAS NMR spectra: A comprehensive investigation of the Na environment in silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambuzzi, Elisa; Charpentier, Thibault; Menziani, Maria Cristina; Pedone, Alfonso

    2014-09-01

    Molecular dynamics, density functional theory calculations and 23Na NMR experiments have been used to inspect the chemical and structural characteristics of the Na environment in soda-lime silicate (CSN) and aluminosilicate (CASN) glasses. The use of an improved 3QMAS pulse sequence has allowed a clear identification of different Na sites. Average coordination numbers have been extracted by fitting the 23Na 3QMAS spectra with the computed NMR parameters. The results show that the 23Na δiso values correlate with the average <Na-O> distances only when the different coordination numbers are explicitly taken into account.

  8. Elementary immunology: Na(+) as a regulator of immunity.

    PubMed

    Schatz, Valentin; Neubert, Patrick; Schröder, Agnes; Binger, Katrina; Gebhard, Matthias; Müller, Dominik N; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens; Jantsch, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    The skin can serve as an interstitial Na(+) reservoir. Local tissue Na(+) accumulation increases with age, inflammation and infection. This increased local Na(+) availability favors pro-inflammatory immune cell function and dampens their anti-inflammatory capacity. In this review, we summarize available data on how NaCl affects various immune cells. We particularly focus on how salt promotes pro-inflammatory macrophage and T cell function and simultaneously curtails their regulatory and anti-inflammatory potential. Overall, these findings demonstrate that local Na(+) availability is a promising novel regulator of immunity. Hence, the modulation of tissue Na(+) levels bears broad therapeutic potential: increasing local Na(+) availability may help in treating infections, while lowering tissue Na(+) levels may be used to treat, for example, autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Mechanisms and regulation of Na(+) uptake by freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Kumai, Yusuke; Perry, Steve F

    2012-12-01

    Mechanisms of ion uptake by freshwater (FW) fish have received considerable attention over the past 80 years. Through an assortment of techniques incorporating whole animal physiology, electrophysiology and molecular biological approaches, three models have been proposed to account for Na(+) uptake. (1) Direct exchange of Na(+) and H(+) via one or more types of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (slc9), (2) uptake of Na(+) through epithelial Na(+) channels energized by an electrical gradient created by H(+)-ATPase and (3) Na(+)/Cl(-) co-transport (slc12). While each mechanism is supported at least in part by theoretical or experimental data, there are several outstanding questions that have not yet been fully resolved. Furthermore, there are few details concerning how these Na(+) uptake mechanisms are fine tuned in response to the fluctuating FW environments. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of these three Na(+) uptake mechanisms and discuss their regulation by endocrine (cortisol and prolactin) and neurohumoral (catecholamines) factors.

  10. An enhancement to the NA4 gear vibration diagnostic parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Harry J.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    1994-01-01

    A new vibration diagnostic parameter for health monitoring of gears, NA4*, is proposed and tested. A recently developed gear vibration diagnostic parameter NA4 outperformed other fault detection methods at indicating the start and initial progression of damage. However, in some cases, as the damage progressed, the sensitivity of the NA4 and FM4 parameters tended to decrease and no longer indicated damage. A new parameter, NA4* was developed by enhancing NA4 to improve the trending of the parameter. This allows for the indication of damage both at initiation and also as the damage progresses. The NA4* parameter was verified and compared to the NA4 and FM4 parameters using experimental data from single mesh spur and spiral bevel gear fatigue rigs. The primary failure mode for the test cases was naturally occurring tooth surface pitting. The NA4* parameter is shown to be a more robust indicator of damage.

  11. U. S. EPA’S NA APPROACH FOR PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most evaluations of NA of petroleum hydrocarbons use geochemical data to document the NA through biodegradation. The expected trends during biodegradation (plume interior vs. background concentrations) are Dissolved oxygen concentrations below background, Nitrate concentrations ...

  12. Inelastic and reactive collisions with polarized excited Na atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, H.; Hertel, I.V.; Lee, Y.T.

    1985-07-01

    Polarization effects in inelastic collisions of laser state-prepared Na(3/sup 2/P, M/sub J/) with Na/sup +/ leading to Na(3/sup 2/D) or Na(3/sup 2/S) are discussed for the energy range E/sub cm/ = 5-47.5eV. Studies with linearly polarized light can be explained with a simple ''locking'' model of the Na(P)-orbital. The investigations employing circularly polarized light are a very sensitive test of the models describing the nonadiabatic angular momentum coupling between electronic and nuclear motion. The dynamical effects of the electronic spin on the angular momentum transfer are discussed. Recent crossed-beam experiments on the Na + O/sub 2/ -> NaO = O reaction in the energy range E/sub cm/ = 0/3-0.8eV show a pronounced dependence on the electric electronic symmetry of Na. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Design of Na(+) -Selective Fluorescent Probes: A Systematic Study of the Na(+) -Complex Stability and the Na(+) /K(+) Selectivity in Acetonitrile and Water.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Thomas; Müller, Holger; Schmidt, Darya; Riemer, Janine; Holdt, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-02-14

    There is a tremendous demand for highly Na(+) -selective fluoroionophores to monitor the top analyte Na(+) in life science. Here, we report a systematic route to develop highly Na(+) /K(+) selective fluorescent probes. Thus, we synthesized a set of fluoroionophores 1, 3, 4, 5, 8 and 9 (see Scheme ) to investigate the Na(+) /K(+) selectivity and Na(+) - complex stability in CH3 CN and H2 O. These Na(+) -probes bear different 15-crown-5 moieties to bind Na(+) stronger than K(+) . In the set of the diethylaminocoumarin-substituted fluoroionophores 1-5, the following trend of fluorescence quenching 1>3>2>4>5 in CH3 CN was observed. Therefore, the flexibility of the aza-15-crown-5 moieties in 1-4 determines the conjugation of the nitrogen lone pair with the aromatic ring. As a consequence, 1 showed in CH3 CN the highest Na(+) -induced fluorescence enhancement (FE) by a factor of 46.5 and a weaker K(+) induced FE of 3.7. The Na(+) -complex stability of 1-4 in CH3 CN is enhanced in the following order of 2>4>3>1, assuming that the O-atom of the methoxy group in the ortho-position, as shown in 2, strengthened the Na(+) -complex formation. Furthermore, we found for the N-(o-methoxyphenyl)aza-15-crown-5 substituted fluoroionophores 2, 8 and 9 in H2 O, an enhanced Na(+) -complex stability in the following order 8>2>9 and an increased Na(+) /K(+) selectivity in the reverse order 9>2>8. Notably, the Na(+) -induced FE of 8 (FEF=10.9), 2 (FEF=5.0) and 9 (FEF=2.0) showed a similar trend associated with a decreased K(+) -induced FE [8 (FEF=2.7)>2 (FEF=1.5)>9 (FEF=1.1)]. Here, the Na(+) -complex stability and Na(+) /K(+) selectivity is also influenced by the fluorophore moiety. Thus, fluorescent probe 8 (Kd =48 mm) allows high-contrast, sensitive, and selective Na(+) measurements over extracellular K(+) levels. A higher Na(+) /K(+) selectivity showed fluorescent probe 9, but also a higher Kd value of 223 mm. Therefore, 9 is a suitable tool to measure Na(+) concentrations up to

  14. Na+-driven bacterial flagellar motors.

    PubMed

    Imae, Y; Atsumi, T

    1989-12-01

    Bacterial flagellar motors are the reversible rotary engine which propels the cell by rotating a helical flagellar filament as a screw propeller. The motors are embedded in the cytoplasmic membrane, and the energy for rotation is supplied by the electrochemical potential of specific ions across the membrane. Thus, the analysis of motor rotation at the molecular level is linked to an understanding of how the living system converts chemical energy into mechanical work. Based on the coupling ions, the motors are divided into two types; one is the H+-driven type found in neutrophiles such as Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli and the other is the Na+-driven type found in alkalophilic Bacillus and marine Vibrio. In this review, we summarize the current status of research on the rotation mechanism of the Na+-driven flagellar motors, which introduces several new aspects in the analysis.

  15. The two C-terminal tyrosines stabilize occluded Na/K pump conformations containing Na or K ions.

    PubMed

    Vedovato, Natascia; Gadsby, David C

    2010-07-01

    Interactions of the three transported Na ions with the Na/K pump remain incompletely understood. Na/K pump crystal structures show that the extended C terminus of the Na,K-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) alpha subunit directly contacts transmembrane helices. Deletion of the last five residues (KETYY in almost all Na/K pumps) markedly lowered the apparent affinity for Na activation of pump phosphorylation from ATP, a reflection of cytoplasmic Na affinity for forming the occluded E1P(Na3) conformation. ATPase assays further suggested that C-terminal truncations also interfere with low affinity Na interactions, which are attributable to extracellular effects. Because extracellular Na ions traverse part of the membrane's electric field to reach their binding sites in the Na/K pump, their movements generate currents that can be monitored with high resolution. We report here electrical measurements to examine how Na/K pump interactions with extracellular Na ions are influenced by C-terminal truncations. We deleted the last two (YY) or five (KESYY) residues in Xenopus laevis alpha1 Na/K pumps made ouabain resistant by either of two kinds of point mutations and measured their currents as 10-mM ouabain-sensitive currents in Xenopus oocytes after silencing endogenous Xenopus Na/K pumps with 1 microM ouabain. We found the low affinity inhibitory influence of extracellular Na on outward Na/K pump current at negative voltages to be impaired in all of the C-terminally truncated pumps. Correspondingly, voltage jump-induced transient charge movements that reflect pump interactions with extracellular Na ions were strongly shifted to more negative potentials; this signals a several-fold reduction of the apparent affinity for extracellular Na in the truncated pumps. Parallel lowering of Na affinity on both sides of the membrane argues that the C-terminal contacts provide important stabilization of the occluded E1P(Na3) conformation, regardless of the route of Na ion entry into the

  16. The NA62 experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venditti, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    The goal of the NA62 experiment at CERN is to collect O(100) events of the ultrarare K+→ π +ν bar {ν } decay in two years. After a long R&D phase and a successful pilot run in 2014, the first data-taking phase took place in 2015. In this paper the importance of the experiment's physics goal, as well as the experimental solutions adopted in order to attain it, will be reviewed.

  17. The complex lightcurve of 1992 NA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisniewski, Wieslaw Z.; Harris, A. W.

    1994-01-01

    Amor asteroid 1992 NA was monitored during three nights at a large phase angle of -65 deg. The lightcurves obtained did not reveal a repeatable curve with two maxima and two minima. However, some features suggested a periodicity with three maxima and three minima. A satisfactory composite lightcurve of this form was obtained by means of an 'eyeball' fit and by Fourier analysis. Individual and composite lightcurves are presented. The observed colors are consistent with the C class.

  18. Spontaneous NA+ transients in individual mitochondria of intact astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Azarias, Guillaume; Van de Ville, Dimitri; Unser, Michael; Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2008-02-01

    Mitochondria in intact cells maintain low Na(+) levels despite the large electrochemical gradient favoring cation influx into the matrix. In addition, they display individual spontaneous transient depolarizations. The authors report here that individual mitochondria in living astrocytes exhibit spontaneous increases in their Na(+) concentration (Na(mit)(+) spiking), as measured using the mitochondrial probe CoroNa Red. In a field of view with approximately 30 astrocytes, up to 1,400 transients per minute were typically detected under resting conditions. Na(mit)(+) spiking was also observed in neurons, but was scarce in two nonneural cell types tested. Astrocytic Na(mit)(+) spikes averaged 12.2 +/- 0.8 s in duration and 35.5 +/- 3.2 mM in amplitude and coincided with brief mitochondrial depolarizations; they were impaired by mitochondrial depolarization and ruthenium red pointing to the involvement of a cation uniporter. Na(mit)(+) spiking activity was significantly inhibited by mitochondrial Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibition and sensitive to cellular pH and Na(+) concentration. Ca(2+) played a permissive role on Na(mit)(+) spiking activity. Finally, the authors present evidence suggesting that Na(mit)(+) spiking frequency was correlated with cellular ATP levels. This study shows that, under physiological conditions, individual mitochondria in living astrocytes exhibit fast Na(+) exchange across their inner membrane, which reveals a new form of highly dynamic and localized functional regulation.

  19. Glial Na(+) -dependent ion transporters in pathophysiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Boscia, Francesca; Begum, Gulnaz; Pignataro, Giuseppe; Sirabella, Rossana; Cuomo, Ornella; Casamassa, Antonella; Sun, Dandan; Annunziato, Lucio

    2016-10-01

    Sodium dynamics are essential for regulating functional processes in glial cells. Indeed, glial Na(+) signaling influences and regulates important glial activities, and plays a role in neuron-glia interaction under physiological conditions or in response to injury of the central nervous system (CNS). Emerging studies indicate that Na(+) pumps and Na(+) -dependent ion transporters in astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes regulate Na(+) homeostasis and play a fundamental role in modulating glial activities in neurological diseases. In this review, we first briefly introduced the emerging roles of each glial cell type in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and myelin diseases. Then, we discussed the current knowledge on the main roles played by the different glial Na(+) -dependent ion transporters, including Na(+) /K(+) ATPase, Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchangers, Na(+) /H(+) exchangers, Na(+) -K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporters, and Na(+) - HCO3- cotransporter in the pathophysiology of the diverse CNS diseases. We highlighted their contributions in cell survival, synaptic pathology, gliotransmission, pH homeostasis, and their role in glial activation, migration, gliosis, inflammation, and tissue repair processes. Therefore, this review summarizes the foundation work for targeting Na(+) -dependent ion transporters in glia as a novel strategy to control important glial activities associated with Na(+) dynamics in different neurological disorders. GLIA 2016;64:1677-1697.

  20. Route, mechanism, and implications of proton import during Na+/K+ exchange by native Na+/K+-ATPase pumps.

    PubMed

    Vedovato, Natascia; Gadsby, David C

    2014-04-01

    A single Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pumps three Na(+) outwards and two K(+) inwards by alternately exposing ion-binding sites to opposite sides of the membrane in a conformational sequence coupled to pump autophosphorylation from ATP and auto-dephosphorylation. The larger flow of Na(+) than K(+) generates outward current across the cell membrane. Less well understood is the ability of Na(+)/K(+) pumps to generate an inward current of protons. Originally noted in pumps deprived of external K(+) and Na(+) ions, as inward current at negative membrane potentials that becomes amplified when external pH is lowered, this proton current is generally viewed as an artifact of those unnatural conditions. We demonstrate here that this inward current also flows at physiological K(+) and Na(+) concentrations. We show that protons exploit ready reversibility of conformational changes associated with extracellular Na(+) release from phosphorylated Na(+)/K(+) pumps. Reversal of a subset of these transitions allows an extracellular proton to bind an acidic side chain and to be subsequently released to the cytoplasm. This back-step of phosphorylated Na(+)/K(+) pumps that enables proton import is not required for completion of the 3 Na(+)/2 K(+) transport cycle. However, the back-step occurs readily during Na(+)/K(+) transport when external K(+) ion binding and occlusion are delayed, and it occurs more frequently when lowered extracellular pH raises the probability of protonation of the externally accessible carboxylate side chain. The proton route passes through the Na(+)-selective binding site III and is distinct from the principal pathway traversed by the majority of transported Na(+) and K(+) ions that passes through binding site II. The inferred occurrence of Na(+)/K(+) exchange and H(+) import during the same conformational cycle of a single molecule identifies the Na(+)/K(+) pump as a hybrid transporter. Whether Na(+)/K(+) pump-mediated proton inflow may have any physiological or

  1. pNaKtide inhibits Na/K-ATPase reactive oxygen species amplification and attenuates adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sodhi, Komal; Maxwell, Kyle; Yan, Yanling; Liu, Jiang; Chaudhry, Muhammad A.; Getty, Morghan; Xie, Zijian; Abraham, Nader G.; Shapiro, Joseph I.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic and is a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Oxidative stress is known to play a role in the generation and maintenance of an obesity phenotype in both isolated adipocytes and intact animals. Because we had identified that the Na/K-ATPase can amplify oxidant signaling, we speculated that a peptide designed to inhibit this pathway, pNaKtide, might ameliorate an obesity phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we first performed studies in isolated murine preadipocytes (3T3L1 cells) and found that pNaKtide attenuated oxidant stress and lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. Complementary experiments in C57Bl6 mice fed a high-fat diet corroborated our in vitro observations. Administration of pNaKtide in these mice reduced body weight gain, restored systemic redox and inflammatory milieu, and, crucially, improved insulin sensitivity. Thus, we propose that inhibition of Na/K-ATPase amplification of oxidative stress may ultimately be a novel way to combat obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26601314

  2. Zero-gravity growth of NaF-NaCl eutectics in the NASA Skylab program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Allen, F. G.; Yu, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous NaF fibers, embedded in a NaCl matrix, were produced in space and on earth. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture is attributed to the absence of convection current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It is shown that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of NaF fibers along the ingot axis. A new concept is advanced to explain the phenomenon of transmittance versus far infrared wavelength of the directionally solidified NaCl-NaF eutectic in terms of the two-dimensional Bragg Scattering and the polarization effect of Rayleigh scattering. This concept can be applied to other eutectic systems as long as the index of refraction of the matrix over a range of wavelengths is known. Experimental data are in agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  3. Plant Defensins NaD1 and NaD2 Induce Different Stress Response Pathways in Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Dracatos, Peter M.; Payne, Jennifer; Di Pietro, Antonio; Anderson, Marilyn A.; Plummer, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotiana alata defensins 1 and 2 (NaD1 and NaD2) are plant defensins from the ornamental tobacco that have antifungal activity against a variety of fungal pathogens. Some plant defensins interact with fungal cell wall O-glycosylated proteins. Therefore, we investigated if this was the case for NaD1 and NaD2, by assessing the sensitivity of the three Aspergillus nidulans (An) O-mannosyltransferase (pmt) knockout (KO) mutants (An∆pmtA, An∆pmtB, and An∆pmtC). An∆pmtA was resistant to both defensins, while An∆pmtC was resistant to NaD2 only, suggesting NaD1 and NaD2 are unlikely to have a general interaction with O-linked side chains. Further evidence of this difference in the antifungal mechanism was provided by the dissimilarity of the NaD1 and NaD2 sensitivities of the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) signalling knockout mutants from the cell wall integrity (CWI) and high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. HOG pathway mutants were sensitive to both NaD1 and NaD2, while CWI pathway mutants only displayed sensitivity to NaD2. PMID:27598152

  4. Effect of Na+ on surface fractal dimension of compacted bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, G. S.; Xu, Y. F.; Jiang, H.

    2015-05-01

    Compacted Tsukinuno bentonite was immersed into NaCl solutions of different concentrations in oedometers, and the surface fractal dimension of bentonite-saline association was measured by nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The application of the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill equation and the Neimark thermodynamic method to nitrogen adsorption isotherms indicated that the surface roughness was greater for the bentonite-saline association. The surface fractal dimension of bentonite increased in the NaCl solution with low Na+ concentration, but decreased at high Na+ concentration. This process was accompanied by the same tendency in specific surface area and microporosity with the presence of Na+ coating in the clay particles.

  5. Na+-K+ pump regulation and skeletal muscle contractility.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Torben

    2003-10-01

    In skeletal muscle, excitation may cause loss of K+, increased extracellular K+ ([K+]o), intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i), and depolarization. Since these events interfere with excitability, the processes of excitation can be self-limiting. During work, therefore, the impending loss of excitability has to be counterbalanced by prompt restoration of Na+-K+ gradients. Since this is the major function of the Na+-K+ pumps, it is crucial that their activity and capacity are adequate. This is achieved in two ways: 1) by acute activation of the Na+-K+ pumps and 2) by long-term regulation of Na+-K+ pump content or capacity. 1) Depending on frequency of stimulation, excitation may activate up to all of the Na+-K+ pumps available within 10 s, causing up to 22-fold increase in Na+ efflux. Activation of the Na+-K+ pumps by hormones is slower and less pronounced. When muscles are inhibited by high [K+]o or low [Na+]o, acute hormone- or excitation-induced activation of the Na+-K+ pumps can restore excitability and contractile force in 10-20 min. Conversely, inhibition of the Na+-K+ pumps by ouabain leads to progressive loss of contractility and endurance. 2) Na+-K+ pump content is upregulated by training, thyroid hormones, insulin, glucocorticoids, and K+ overload. Downregulation is seen during immobilization, K+ deficiency, hypoxia, heart failure, hypothyroidism, starvation, diabetes, alcoholism, myotonic dystrophy, and McArdle disease. Reduced Na+-K+ pump content leads to loss of contractility and endurance, possibly contributing to the fatigue associated with several of these conditions. Increasing excitation-induced Na+ influx by augmenting the open-time or the content of Na+ channels reduces contractile endurance. Excitability and contractility depend on the ratio between passive Na+-K+ leaks and Na+-K+ pump activity, the passive leaks often playing a dominant role. The Na+-K+ pump is a central target for regulation of Na+-K+ distribution and excitability, essential for second

  6. Na+ channel function, regulation, structure, trafficking and sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Izu, Ye; Shaw, Robin M; Pitt, Geoffrey S; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Sack, Jon T; Abriel, Hugues; Aldrich, Richard W; Belardinelli, Luiz; Cannell, Mark B; Catterall, William A; Chazin, Walter J; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Deschenes, Isabelle; Grandi, Eleonora; Hund, Thomas J; Izu, Leighton T; Maier, Lars S; Maltsev, Victor A; Marionneau, Celine; Mohler, Peter J; Rajamani, Sridharan; Rasmusson, Randall L; Sobie, Eric A; Clancy, Colleen E; Bers, Donald M

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the second of a series of three reviews published in this issue resulting from the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium 2014: Systems approach to understanding cardiac excitation–contraction coupling and arrhythmias: Na+ channel and Na+ transport. The goal of the symposium was to bring together experts in the field to discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. The present review focuses on Na+ channel function and regulation, Na+ channel structure and function, and Na+ channel trafficking, sequestration and complexing. PMID:25772290

  7. Jahn–Teller Assisted Na Diffusion for High Performance Na Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin; Wang, Yan; Wu, Di; Liu, Lei; Bo, Shou-Hang; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-08-30

    Na energy storage technology is strategically attractive for large scale applications such as grid energy storage. Here, we show in this paper that there is a clear relation between the Jahn$-$Teller activity of a transition metal ion at the end of charge and the mobility of Na in a cathode material. This is particularly important as mobility at the end of charge limits the capacity of current materials. Consequently, by using this classical piece of physics in the battery world, it is possible to create higher capacity Na-cathode materials. Even more exciting is that the ideal element to impart this effect on cathodes is Fe, which is the least expensive of the transition metal oxides and can therefore enable low cost cathode materials.

  8. Synthesis of Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites from carbonized rice husk

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuki, Hiroaki; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2009-07-15

    Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were prepared under hydrothermal conditions by NaOH dissolution of silica first from carbonized rice husk followed by addition of NaAlO{sub 2} and in situ crystallization of zeolites i.e., using a two-step process. When a one-step process was used, both Na-A and Na-X zeolites crystallized on the surface of carbon. Na-A or Na-X zeolite crystals were prepared on the porous carbonized rice husk at 90 deg. C for 2-6 h by changing the SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O/Na{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} molar ratios of precursors in the two-step process. The surface area and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-cation exchange capacity (CEC) of Na-A zeolite/porous carbon were found to be 171 m{sup 2}/g and 506 meq/100 g, respectively, while those of Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were 676 m{sup 2}/g and 317 meq/100 g, respectively. Na-A and Na-X zeolites are well-known microporous and hydrophilic materials while carbonized rice husk was found to be mesoporous (pores of {approx}3.9 nm) and hydrophobic. These hybrid microporous-mesoporous and hydrophilic-hydrophobic composites are expected to be useful for decontamination of metal cations as well as organic contaminants simultaneously. - Graphical Abstract: Novel Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composite.

  9. Specific oxidation pattern of soluble starch with TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO system.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jie; Lu, Jiaojiao; Xu, Naiyu; Linhardt, Robert J; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2016-08-01

    Oxidized starch, one of the most important starch derivatives, has many different properties and applications. Currently, there are two ways to produce oxidized starch, through specific and nonspecific oxidation. Specific oxidation using the stable nitroxyl radical, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl preparidinloxy (TEMPO), with NaBr and NaClO can produce oxidized starches with different properties under good quality control. In the current study, we examine the products of specifically oxidized starch. As the amount of oxidant and the temperature, two critical factors impacting the oxidation of starch were thoroughly investigated. Analysis of the molecular weight (MW), degree of oxidization (DO) and the detailed structures of corresponding products was accomplished using gel permeation chromatography with multi-angle laser light scattering (GPC-MALLS), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and quadrapole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q/TOF-MS). According to the analytical results, the oxidation patterns of starch treated with specific oxidant TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO were established. When high amounts of oxidant was applied, more glucose residues within starch were oxidized to glucuronic acids (higher DO) and substantial degradation to starch oligosaccharides was observed. By selecting a reaction temperature of 25°C a high DO could be obtained for a given amount of oxidant. The reducing end sugar residue within oxidized starch was itself oxidized and ring opened in all TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO reactions. Furthermore, extra oxidant generated additional novel structures in the reducing end residues of some products, particularly in low temperature reactions.

  10. Neutron spectroscopy of water dynamics in NaX and NaA zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamitakahara, William A.; Wada, Noboru

    2008-04-01

    We have investigated the dynamics of water molecules in zeolites NaA and NaX by high-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering methods. Between 260 and 310 K, the local translational diffusive motion of water in the zeolites is one to two orders of magnitude slower than in bulk water. The Q dependence of the scattering shows effects of confinement and the presence of both relatively mobile and immobile molecules. The speed of the diffusive motion depends strongly on hydration level. Comparison with other hydrated siliceous materials indicates that the host charge per water molecule is a major factor in determining the time scale of diffusion.

  11. Design and implementation of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors output signal generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xu; Liu, Cong-Zhan; Zhao, Jian-Ling; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Fei; Li, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Xu-Fang; Lu, Xue-Feng; Xu, Zhen-Ling; Lu, Fang-Jun

    2014-02-01

    We designed and implemented a signal generator that can simulate the output of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors' pre-amplifier onboard the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). Using the development of the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) with VHDL language and adding a random constituent, we have finally produced the double exponential random pulse signal generator. The statistical distribution of the signal amplitude is programmable. The occurrence time intervals of the adjacent signals contain negative exponential distribution statistically.

  12. FT-IR and XRD analysis of natural Na-bentonite and Cu(II)-loaded Na-bentonite.

    PubMed

    Zhirong, Liu; Azhar Uddin, Md; Zhanxue, Sun

    2011-09-01

    Na-bentonite has been studied extensively because of its strong adsorption capacity and complexation ability. In this work, surface area, total pore volume, mean pore diameter, TG, DTA, FT-IR and XRD were carried out in order to reveal the characteristics of natural Na-bentonite. XRD and FT-IR of natural Na-bentonite (China) and Cu-loaded Na-bentonite as a function of Na-bentonite dosage and temperature using batch technique were characterized in detail, respectively.

  13. FT-IR and XRD analysis of natural Na-bentonite and Cu(II)-loaded Na-bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhirong, Liu; Azhar Uddin, Md.; Zhanxue, Sun

    2011-09-01

    Na-bentonite has been studied extensively because of its strong adsorption capacity and complexation ability. In this work, surface area, total pore volume, mean pore diameter, TG, DTA, FT-IR and XRD were carried out in order to reveal the characteristics of natural Na-bentonite. XRD and FT-IR of natural Na-bentonite (China) and Cu-loaded Na-bentonite as a function of Na-bentonite dosage and temperature using batch technique were characterized in detail, respectively.

  14. The NA62 experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccini, Mauro

    2016-11-01

    The rare decays K → πvv¯ are excellent processes to make tests of new physics at the highest scale complementary to LHC thanks to their theoretically cleanness. The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to collect of the order of 100 events in two years of data taking for the decay K+ → π+vv¯, keeping the background at the level of 10%. Part of the experimental apparatus has been commissioned during a technical run in 2012. The diverse and innovative experimental techniques will be explained and some preliminary results obtained during the 2014 pilot run will be reviewed.

  15. Status of the NA62 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palladino, Vito

    2016-04-01

    The rare decays {{{K}}^ + } to {π ^ + }{{ν bar ν }} are excellent processes to make tests of new physics at the highest scale complementary to LHC thanks to their theoretically cleaness. The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to collect of the order of 100 events in two years of data taking, keeping the background at the level of 10%. Part of the experimental apparatus has been commissioned during a technical run in 2012. The physics prospects and the status of the experiment will be reviewed after the commissioning run of 2014 and the data taking in 2015.

  16. The NA62 Gigatracker pixel detector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, G.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Fiorini, M.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Martin, E.; Martoiu, S.; Noy, M.; Petrucci, F.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Tiuraniemi, S.

    2010-05-01

    The silicon tracker for the NA62 experiment has to provide both a time resolution of 150 ps rms and a space resolution of about 100 μm rms. These challenging specifications require the development of a new readout electronics in order to address the problem of measuring the tracks arrival time with such a high channel density. Moreover, the high particle density (up to 1.5 MHz/mm2 in the center and 0.8-1 GHz in total) requires a high speed measurement and data transmission in order to keep the dead time below 1%.

  17. Novel regulation of cell [Na(+)] in macula densa cells: apical Na(+) recycling by H-K-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Peti-Peterdi, János; Bebok, Zsuzsa; Lapointe, Jean-Yves; Bell, P Darwin

    2002-02-01

    Na-K-ATPase is the nearly ubiquitous enzyme that maintains low-Na(+), high-K(+) concentrations in cells by actively extruding Na(+) in exchange for K(+). The prevailing paradigm in polarized absorbing epithelial cells, including renal nephron segments and intestine, has been that Na-K-ATPase is restricted to the basolateral membrane domain, where it plays a prominent role in Na(+) absorption. We have found, however, that macula densa (MD) cells lack functionally and immunologically detectable amounts of Na-K-ATPase protein. In fact, these cells appear to regulate their cytosolic [Na(+)] via another member of the P-type ATPase family, the colonic form of H-K-ATPase, which is located at the apical membrane in these cells. We now report that this constitutively expressed apical MD colonic H-K-ATPase can function as a Na(H)-K-ATPase and regulate cytosolic [Na(+)] in a novel manner. This apical Na(+)-recycling mechanism may be important as part of the sensor function of MD cells and represents a new paradigm in cell [Na(+)] regulation.

  18. Renovation of Shaft Mining Building No. 2 in Kłodawa Salt Mine/ Renowacja Budynku Nadszybia Nr 2 Na Terenie Kopalni Soli "Kłodawa" S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błaszczyński, Tomasz; Wielentejczyk, Przemysław

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents the renovation process of the shaft mining building No. 2 situated in the Kłodawa Salt Mine. A technical state of the facility required immediate reinforcement of structural elements, which was confirmed by expertise carried out by the authors. A lack of repairs could be the cause of building damage. The progress of corrosion in some steel profiles of columns or floors was very advanced. The state of the building was rapidly worsening due to the very high salinity of the indoor environment, moisture (building not insulated) and vibrating engines of machinery operating on different floors felt throughout the facility. After carrying out the technical expertise, working plans and specifications, and relevant numerical analysis, the modernization process was realized by the reinforcement or rebuilding of structural elements. Referat przedstawia sposób remontu i naprawy konstrukcji nośnej i obudowy budynku nadszybia nr 2 na terenie Kopalni Soli "Kłodawa". Elementy konstrukcyjne budynku wymagały natychmiastowego wzmocnienia, co potwierdziła ekspertyza wykonana przez autorów. Zaniechanie prac remontowych groziło awarią budowlaną pomimo przeprowadzonej wcześniej w 2002 r. naprawy. Postęp korozji w niektórych profilach stalowych słupów czy stropów był bardzo zaawansowany. Stan obiektu pogarszał się szybko ze względu na bardzo duże zasolenie środowiska, wilgoć (budynek nieocieplony) oraz pracujące na poszczególnych poziomach maszyny wytwarzające duże drgania wyczuwalne w każdym miejscu obiektu. Wykonano ekspertyzę i projekt wykonawczy przed przystąpieniem do prac renowacyjnych. Przeprowadzono stosowną analizę numeryczną budynku uwzględniając w obliczeniach osłabione korozją elementy pomniejszając odpowiednio w modelu ich parametry wytrzymałościowe. Na tej podstawie zaproponowano stosowne wzmocnienia. Zastosowano technologie wzmocnień stosując wymianę profili stalowych, wspawywanie dodatkowych profili lub blach

  19. Penning and associative ionization in crossed-beam Na/Na collisions assisted by strong resonant laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, J.; Polak-Dingels, P.

    1981-01-01

    We observe the production of Na/sub 2//sup +/ and Na/sup +/ arising from single collisions between crossed beams of sodium atoms when a laser field is tuned near the Na(3p /sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3p /sup 2/P/sub 1/2/) transitions. Measurements of ion intensity vs laser intensity show that at moderately high power true laser-induced processes dominate over purely collisional effects. Relative intensity of mass-selected ions produced at either member of the Na resonance doublet shows conclusively that Na/sup +/ does not arise simply from photodissociation of Na/sub 2//sup +/ but must result from a direct, laser-induced collisional ionization.

  20. Vanadate sensitivity of Na+, K+-ATPase from Schistosoma mansoni and its modulation by Na+, K+ and Mg2+.

    PubMed

    Noel, F; Pardon, R S

    1989-01-01

    Vanadate inhibitory effects on Na+, K+-ATPases from carcass of Schistosoma mansoni and from lamb kidney outer medulla were compared in the presence of various concentrations of Na+, K+ and Mg2+. Depending on the ionic conditions, the schistosomal Na+, K+-ATPase was 2.4- to 175-fold less sensitive to vanadate than the lamb kidney enzyme. In 100 mM Na+, 3 mM K+ and 3 mM Mg2+, schistosomal Na+, K+-ATPase was surprisingly resistant to vanadate (I50 = 944 microM). The difference in vanadate sensitivity between schistosomal and lamb Na+, K+-ATPases may be due to a species difference in the efficacy of Na+, K+ and Mg2+ in promoting conformational changes between E1 and E2 forms of the enzyme.

  1. NaSrMn2F7, NaCaFe2F7, and NaSrFe2F7: novel single crystal pyrochlore antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, M. B.; Krizan, J. W.; Plumb, K. W.; McQueen, T. M.; Cava, R. J.

    2017-02-01

    The crystal structures and magnetic properties of three previously unreported A2B2F7 pyrochlore materials, NaSrMn2F7, NaCaFe2F7, and NaSrFe2F7 are presented. In these compounds, either S  =  2Fe2+ or S  =  5/2Mn2+ is on the B site, while nonmagnetic Na and Ca (Na and Sr) are disordered on the A site. The materials, which were grown as crystals via the floating zone method, display high effective magnetic moments and large Curie-Weiss thetas. Despite these characteristics, no ordering transition is detected. However, freezing of the magnetic spins, characterized by peaks in the susceptibility or specific heat, is observed at very low temperatures. The empirical frustration index, f  =  -θ CW/T f, for the materials are 36 (NaSrMn2F7), 27 (NaSrFe2F7), and 19 (NaCaFe2F7). AC susceptibility, DC susceptibility, and heat capacity measurements are used to characterize the observed spin glass behavior. The results suggest that the compounds are frustrated pyrochlore antiferromagnets with weak bond disorder. The magnetic phenomena that these fluoride pyrochlores exhibit, in addition to their availability as relatively large single crystals, make them promising candidates for the study of geometric magnetic frustration.

  2. The NA62 GigaTracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglieri Rinella, G.; Feito, D. Alvarez; Arcidiacono, R.; Biino, C.; Bonacini, S.; Ceccucci, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Gil, E. Cortina; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Degrange, J.; Fiorini, M.; Gamberini, E.; Gianoli, A.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Mapelli, A.; Marchetto, F.; Minucci, E.; Morel, M.; Noël, J.; Noy, M.; Perktold, L.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Petagna, P.; Petrucci, F.; Poltorak, K.; Romagnoli, G.; Ruggiero, G.; Velghe, B.; Wahl, H.

    2017-02-01

    The GigaTracker is a hybrid silicon pixel detector built for the NA62 experiment aiming at measuring the branching fraction of the ultra-rare kaon decay K+ →π+ ν ν bar at the CERN SPS. The detector has to track particles in a beam with a flux reaching 1.3 MHz/mm2 and provide single-hit timing with 200 ps RMS resolution for a total material budget of less than 0.5% X0 per station. The tracker comprises three 60.8 mm×27 mm stations installed in vacuum (∼10-6 mbar) and cooled with liquid C6F14 circulating through micro-channels etched inside a few hundred micron thick silicon plates. Each station is composed of a 200 μm thick silicon sensor read out by 2×5 custom 100 μm thick ASICs, called TDCPix. Each chip contains 40×45 asynchronous pixels, 300 μm×300 μm each and is instrumented with 100 ps bin time-to-digital converters. In order to cope with the high rate, the TDCPix is equipped with four 3.2 Gb/s serialisers sending out the data. We will describe the detector and the results from the 2014 and 2015 NA62 runs.

  3. Elevated intracellular Na(+) concentrations in developing spinal neurons.

    PubMed

    Lindsly, Casie; Gonzalez-Islas, Carlos; Wenner, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Over 25 years ago it was first reported that intracellular chloride levels (Cl(-)in ) were higher in developing neurons than in maturity. This finding has had significant implications for understanding the excitability of developing networks and recognizing the underlying causes of hyperexcitability associated with disease and neural injury. While there is some evidence that intracellular sodium levels (Na(+)in ) change during the development of non-neural cells, it has largely been assumed that Na(+)in is the same in developing and mature neurons. Here, using the sodium indicator SBFI, we test this idea and find that Na(+)in is significantly higher in embryonic spinal motoneurons and interneurons than in maturity. We find that Na(+)in reaches ~ 60 mM in mid-embryonic development and is then reduced to ~ 30 mM in late embryonic development. By retrogradely labeling motoneurons with SBFI we can reliably follow Na(+)in levels in vitro for hours. Bursts of spiking activity, and blocking voltage-gated sodium channels did not influence observed motoneuron sodium levels. On the other hand, Na(+)in was reduced by blocking the Na(+) -K(+) -2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1, and was highly sensitive to changes in external Na(+) and a blocker of the Na(+) /K(+) ATPase. Our findings suggest that the Na(+) gradient is weaker in embryonic neuronal development and strengthens in maturity in a manner similar to that of Cl(-) .

  4. Minimizing Load Effects on NA4 Gear Vibration Diagnostic Parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    2001-01-01

    NA4 is a vibration diagnostic parameter, developed by researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center, for health monitoring of gears in helicopter transmissions. The NA4 reacts to the onset of gear pitting damage and continues to react to the damage as it spreads. This research also indicates NA4 reacts similarly to load variations. The sensitivity of NA4 to load changes will substantially affect its performance on a helicopter gearbox that experiences continuously changing load throughout its flight regimes. The parameter NA4 has been used to monitor gear fatigue tests at constant load. At constant load, NA4 effectively detects the onset of pitting damage and tracks damage severity. Previous research also shows that NA4 reacts to changes in load applied to the gears in the same way it reacts to the onset of pitting damage. The method used to calculate NA4 was modified to minimize these load effects. The modified NA4 parameter was applied to four sets of experimental data. Results indicate the modified NA4 is no longer sensitive to load changes, but remains sensitive to pitting damage.

  5. Rydberg States of Na-doped Helium Nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabbels, Marcel

    2008-03-01

    The dynamics of excited states of Na atoms deposited on the surface of helium nanodroplets has been investigated with velocity map ion imaging, photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight mass-spectroscopy. For the first time, the excitation spectra of Na-doped helium nanodroplets corresponding to Rydberg states of Na atoms have been measured from the lowest excited 3p state up to the ionization threshold. All lines in the excitation spectra are shifted and broadened with respect to the corresponding atomic lines. In addition to bare Na* atoms also Na*HeN (N = 1-6) exciplexes are detected upon excitation. Photoelectron spectroscopy reveals the desorption of Na* not only in the initially excited states but also in lower lying states, indicating that relaxation plays an important role. The recorded velocity distributions show interesting characteristics: for the lowest states the mean kinetic energy of Na* increases linearly with excitation energy. The velocity distributions of Na*HeN exciplexes do not manifest such remarkable properties. The observations can be largely explained by assuming that the interaction of Na* with the helium nanodroplet can be described by the sum of Na*-He pair potentials.

  6. Direct interaction of Na-azide with the KATP channel.

    PubMed

    Trapp, S; Ashcroft, F M

    2000-11-01

    1. The effects of the metabolic inhibitor sodium azide were tested on excised macropatches from Xenopus oocytes expressing cloned ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels of the Kir6.2/SUR1 type. 2. In inside-out patches from oocytes expressing Kir6.2 delta C36 (a truncated form of Kir6.2 that expresses in the absence of SUR), intracellular Na-azide inhibited macroscopic currents with an IC50 of 11 mM. The inhibitory effect of Na-azide was mimicked by the same concentration of NaCl, but not by sucrose. 3. Na-azide and NaCl blocked Kir6.2/SUR1 currents with IC50 of 36 mM and 19 mM, respectively. Inhibition was abolished in the absence of intracellular Mg2+. In contrast, Kir6.2 delta C36 currents were inhibited by Na-azide both in the presence or absence of intracellular Mg2+. 4. Kir6.2/SUR1 currents were less sensitive to 3 mM Na-azide in the presence of MgATP. This apparent reduction in sensitivity is caused by a small activatory effect of Na-azide conferred by SUR. 5. We conclude that, in addition to its well-established inhibitory effect on cellular metabolism, which leads to activation of KATP channels in intact cells, intracellular Na-azide has direct effects on the KATP channel. Inhibition is intrinsic to Kir6.2, is mediated by Na+, and is modulated by SUR. There is also a small, ATP-dependent, stimulatory effect of Na-azide mediated by the SUR subunit. The direct effects of 3 mM Na-azide on KATP channels are negligible in comparison to the metabolic activation produced by the same Na-azide concentration.

  7. Theoretical calculation of low-lying states of NaAr and NaXe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laskowski, B. C.; Langhoff, S. R.; Stallcop, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Potential curves as well as dipole moments and linking transition moments are calculated for the ground X 2 Sigma + and low lying excited A 2 Pi, B 2 Sigma +, C 2 Sigma +, (4) 2 Sigma +, (2) 2 Pi and (1) 2 Delta states of NaAr and NaXe. Calculations are performed using a self-consistent field plus configuration-interaction procedure with the core electrons replaced by an ab initio effective core potential. The potential curves obtained are found to be considerably less repulsive than the semiempirical curves of Pascale and Vandeplanque (1974) and to agree well with existing experimental data, although the binding energies of those states having potential minima due to van der Waals interactions are underestimated. Emission bands are also calculated for the X 2 Sigma + - C 2 Sigma + excimer transitions of NaAr and NaXe using the calculated transition moments and potential curves, and shown to agree well with experiment on the short-wavelength side of the maximum.

  8. 24Mg(p, α)21Na reaction study for spectroscopy of 21Na

    DOE PAGES

    Cha, S. M.; Chae, K. Y.; Kim, A.; ...

    2015-11-03

    The Mg-24(p, alpha)Na-21 reaction was measured at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to better constrain the spins and parities of the energy levels in Na-21 for the astrophysically important F-17(alpha, p)Ne-20 reaction rate calculation. 31-MeV proton beams from the 25-MV tandem accelerator and enriched Mg-24 solid targets were used. When recoiling He-4 particles from the Mg-24(p, alpha)Na-21 reaction we used a highly segmented silicon detector array to detect them; it measured the yields of He-4 particles over a range of angles simultaneously. A observed a new level at 6661 ± 5 keVmore » in the present work. The extracted angular distributions for the first four levels of Na-21 and the results from distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations were compared to verify and extract the angular momentum transfer.« less

  9. Regulation of persistent Na current by interactions between beta subunits of voltage-gated Na channels.

    PubMed

    Aman, Teresa K; Grieco-Calub, Tina M; Chen, Chunling; Rusconi, Raffaella; Slat, Emily A; Isom, Lori L; Raman, Indira M

    2009-02-18

    The beta subunits of voltage-gated Na channels (Scnxb) regulate the gating of pore-forming alpha subunits, as well as their trafficking and localization. In heterologous expression systems, beta1, beta2, and beta3 subunits influence inactivation and persistent current in different ways. To test how the beta4 protein regulates Na channel gating, we transfected beta4 into HEK (human embryonic kidney) cells stably expressing Na(V)1.1. Unlike a free peptide with a sequence from the beta4 cytoplasmic domain, the full-length beta4 protein did not block open channels. Instead, beta4 expression favored open states by shifting activation curves negative, decreasing the slope of the inactivation curve, and increasing the percentage of noninactivating current. Consequently, persistent current tripled in amplitude. Expression of beta1 or chimeric subunits including the beta1 extracellular domain, however, favored inactivation. Coexpressing Na(V)1.1 and beta4 with beta1 produced tiny persistent currents, indicating that beta1 overcomes the effects of beta4 in heterotrimeric channels. In contrast, beta1(C121W), which contains an extracellular epilepsy-associated mutation, did not counteract the destabilization of inactivation by beta4 and also required unusually large depolarizations for channel opening. In cultured hippocampal neurons transfected with beta4, persistent current was slightly but significantly increased. Moreover, in beta4-expressing neurons from Scn1b and Scn1b/Scn2b null mice, entry into inactivated states was slowed. These data suggest that beta1 and beta4 have antagonistic roles, the former favoring inactivation, and the latter favoring activation. Because increased Na channel availability may facilitate action potential firing, these results suggest a mechanism for seizure susceptibility of both mice and humans with disrupted beta1 subunits.

  10. [Na] and [K] dependence of the Na/K pump current-voltage relationship in guinea pig ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Na/K pump current was determined between -140 and +60 mV as steady- state, strophanthidin-sensitive, whole-cell current in guinea pig ventricular myocytes, voltage-clamped and internally dialyzed via wide- tipped pipettes. Solutions were designed to minimize all other components of membrane current. A device for exchanging the solution inside the pipette permitted investigation of Na/K pump current-voltage (I-V) relationships at several levels of pipette [Na] [( Na]pip) in a single cell; the effects of changes in external [Na] [( Na]o) or external [K] [( K]o) were also studied. At 50 mM [Na]pip, 5.4 mM [K]o, and approximately 150 mM [Na]o, Na/K pump current was steeply voltage dependent at negative potentials but was approximately constant at positive potentials. Under those conditions, reduction of [Na]o enhanced pump current at negative potentials but had little effect at positive potentials: at zero [Na]o, pump current was only weakly voltage dependent. At 5.4 mM [K]o and approximately 150 mM [Na]o, reduction of [Na]pip from 50 mM scaled down the sigmoid pump I-V relationship and shifted it slightly to the right (toward more positive potentials). Pump current at 0 mV was activated by [Na]pip according to the Hill equation with best-fit K0.5 approximately equal to 11 mM and Hill coefficient nH approximately equal to 1.4. At zero [Na]o, reduction of [Na]pip seemed to simply scale down the relatively flat pump I-V relationship: Hill fit parameters for pump activation by [Na]pip at 0 mV were K0.5 approximately equal to 10 mM, nH approximately equal to 1.4. At 50 mM [Na]pip and high [Na]o, reduction of [K]o from 5.4 mM scaled down the sigmoid I-V relationship and shifted it slightly to the right: at 0 mV, K0.5 approximately equal to 1.5 mM and nH approximately equal to 1.0. At zero [Na]o, lowering [K]o simply scaled down the flat pump I-V relationships yielding, at 0 mV, K0.5 approximately equal to 0.2 mM, nH approximately equal to 1.1. The voltage

  11. Coordinated regulation of cardiac Na(+)/Ca (2+) exchanger and Na (+)-K (+)-ATPase by phospholemman (FXYD1).

    PubMed

    Cheung, Joseph Y; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Song, Jianliang; Gao, Erhe; Chan, Tung O; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Koch, Walter J; Feldman, Arthur M; Wang, JuFang

    2013-01-01

    Phospholemman (PLM) is the founding member of the FXYD family of regulators of ion transport. PLM is a 72-amino acid protein consisting of the signature PFXYD motif in the extracellular N terminus, a single transmembrane (TM) domain, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic tail containing three phosphorylation sites. In the heart, PLM co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, and L-type Ca(2+) channel. The TM domain of PLM interacts with TM9 of the α-subunit of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, while its cytoplasmic tail interacts with two small regions (spanning residues 248-252 and 300-304) of the proximal intracellular loop of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Under stress, catecholamine stimulation phosphorylates PLM at serine(68), resulting in relief of inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase by decreasing K(m) for Na(+) and increasing V(max), and simultaneous inhibition of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Enhanced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity lowers intracellular Na(+), thereby minimizing Ca(2+) overload and risks of arrhythmias. Inhibition of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger reduces Ca(2+) efflux, thereby preserving contractility. Thus, the coordinated actions of PLM during stress serve to minimize arrhythmogenesis and maintain inotropy. In acute cardiac ischemia and chronic heart failure, either expression or phosphorylation of PLM or both are altered. PLM regulates important ion transporters in the heart and offers a tempting target for development of drugs to treat heart failure.

  12. Pyrophosphate-Fueled Na+ and H+ Transport in Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Malinen, Anssi M.; Luoto, Heidi H.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In its early history, life appeared to depend on pyrophosphate rather than ATP as the source of energy. Ancient membrane pyrophosphatases that couple pyrophosphate hydrolysis to active H+ transport across biological membranes (H+-pyrophosphatases) have long been known in prokaryotes, plants, and protists. Recent studies have identified two evolutionarily related and widespread prokaryotic relics that can pump Na+ (Na+-pyrophosphatase) or both Na+ and H+ (Na+,H+-pyrophosphatase). Both these transporters require Na+ for pyrophosphate hydrolysis and are further activated by K+. The determination of the three-dimensional structures of H+- and Na+-pyrophosphatases has been another recent breakthrough in the studies of these cation pumps. Structural and functional studies have highlighted the major determinants of the cation specificities of membrane pyrophosphatases and their potential use in constructing transgenic stress-resistant organisms. PMID:23699258

  13. The paranodal cytoskeleton clusters Na(+) channels at nodes of Ranvier.

    PubMed

    Amor, Veronique; Zhang, Chuansheng; Vainshtein, Anna; Zhang, Ao; Zollinger, Daniel R; Eshed-Eisenbach, Yael; Brophy, Peter J; Rasband, Matthew N; Peles, Elior

    2017-01-30

    A high density of Na(+) channels at nodes of Ranvier is necessary for rapid and efficient action potential propagation in myelinated axons. Na+ channel clustering is thought to depend on two axonal cell adhesion molecules that mediate interactions between the axon and myelinating glia at the nodal gap (i.e., NF186) and the paranodal junction (i.e., Caspr). Here we show that while Na(+) channels cluster at nodes in the absence of NF186, they fail to do so in double conditional knockout mice lacking both NF186 and the paranodal cell adhesion molecule Caspr, demonstrating that a paranodal junction-dependent mechanism can cluster Na(+) channels at nodes. Furthermore, we show that paranode-dependent clustering of nodal Na(+) channels requires axonal βII spectrin which is concentrated at paranodes. Our results reveal that the paranodal junction-dependent mechanism of Na(+)channel clustering is mediated by the spectrin-based paranodal axonal cytoskeleton.

  14. Neutron diffraction studies of the Na-ion battery electrode materials NaCoCr2(PO4)3, NaNiCr2(PO4)3, and Na2Ni2Cr(PO4)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahia, H. Ben; Essehli, R.; Avdeev, M.; Park, J.-B.; Sun, Y.-K.; Al-Maadeed, M. A.; Belharouak, I.

    2016-06-01

    The new compounds NaCoCr2(PO4)3, NaNiCr2(PO4)3, and Na2Ni2Cr(PO4)3 were synthesized by sol-gel method and their crystal structures were determined by using neutron powder diffraction data. These compounds were characterized by galvanometric cycling and cyclic voltammetry. NaCoCr2(PO4)3, NaNiCr2(PO4)3, and Na2Ni2Cr(PO4)3 crystallize with a stuffed α-CrPO4-type structure. The structure consists of a 3D-framework made of octahedra and tetrahedra that are sharing corners and/or edges generating channels along [100] and [010], in which the sodium atoms are located. Of significance, in the structures of NaNiCr2(PO4)3, and Na2Ni2Cr(PO4)3 a statistical disorder Ni2+/Cr3+ was observed on both the 8g and 4a atomic positions, whereas in NaCoCr2(PO4)3 the statistical disorder Co2+/Cr3+ was only observed on the 8g atomic position. When tested as negative electrode materials, NaCoCr2(PO4)3, NaNiCr2(PO4)3, and Na2Ni2Cr(PO4)3 delivered specific capacities of 352, 385, and 368 mA h g-1, respectively, which attests to the electrochemical activity of sodium in these compounds.

  15. Simulation of Na D emission near Europa during eclipse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cassidy, T.A.; Johnson, R.E.; Geissler, P.E.; Leblanc, F.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini imaging science subsystem observed Europa in eclipse during Cassini's Jupiter flyby. The disk-resolved observations revealed a spatially nonuniform emission in the wavelength range of 200-1050 nm (clear filters). By building on observations and simulations of Europa's Na atmosphere and torus we find that electron-excited Na in Europa's tenuous atmosphere can account for the observed emission if the Na is ejected preferentially from Europa's dark terrain. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Magnesium correction to the NaKCa chemical geothermometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Potter, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Equations and graphs have been devised to correct for the adverse effects of magnesium upon the Na-K-Ca chemical geothermometer. Either the equations or graphs can be used to determine appropriate temperature corrections for given waters with calculated NaKCa temperatures > 70??C and R 50 are probably derived from relatively cool aquifers with temperatures approximately equal to the measured spring temperature, irrespective of much higher calculated Na-K-Ca temperatures. ?? 1979.

  17. Kinetic properties and Na+ dependence of rheogenic Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport in frog retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    la Cour, M

    1991-01-01

    1. Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport across the retinal membrane of the frog retinal pigment epithelium was studied by means of double-barrelled pH-selective microelectrodes. Transient changes in the intracellular pH were monitored in response to abrupt changes in the Na+ concentration on the retinal side of the epithelium. 2. The experiments were performed as follows. The Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport was inhibited by perfusing the retinal side of the epithelium with a Na(+)-free solution. The co-transport was then stimulated by changing the perfusate from the Na(+)-free solution to a solution which contained from 5 to 110 mM-Na+. The resulting inward Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport produced an intracellular alkalinization, the initial rate of which was used to calculate the initial rate of Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport, JHCO3-. 3. The Na+ dependence of the Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport was studied at two different values of extracellular pH (7.40 and 7.10), at constant extracellular HCO3- concentration (27.5 mM) and at two different extracellular HCO3- concentrations (27.5 mM and 55 mM) at constant extracellular pH (7.40). In these experiments, the calculated values of JHCO3- followed single Michaelis-Menten kinetics with respect to the extracellular Na+ concentration. 4. The data are consistent with a model in which the co-transporter has a single binding site for the Na+ ion with an apparent affinity constant (apparent Km) of 37 mM. The apparent affinity constant for Na+ was independent of the extracellular concentration of CO3(2-) in the range of 16-65 microM, and of the extracellular HCO3- concentration in the range 27.5-55 mM. 5. The NaCO3- ion-pair hypothesis, in which sodium binds to the co-transporter and is translocated across the cell membrane as the NaCO3- ion pair, was analysed. For stoichiometries 1:2 and 1:3 of the Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport, the NaCO3- ion-pair hypothesis was found incompatible with the data. 6. The intracellular buffer capacity as measured by the CO2 method was

  18. The NA49 large acceptance hadron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasiev, S.; Alber, T.; Appelshäuser, H.; Bächler, J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L. S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R. A.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Bieser, F.; Billmeier, A.; Blyth, C. O.; Bock, R.; Bormann, C.; Bracinik, J.; Brady, F. P.; Brockmann, R.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Caines, H. L.; Cebra, D.; Cooper, G. E.; Cramer, J. G.; Csato, P.; Cyprian, M.; Dunn, J.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Empl, T.; Eschke, J.; Ferguson, M. I.; Fessler, H.; Fischer, H. G.; Flierl, D.; Fodor, Z.; Frankenfeld, U.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Ftacnik, J.; Fuchs, M.; Gabler, F.; Gal, J.; Ganz, R.; Gaździcki, M.; Gładysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Günther, J.; Harris, J. W.; Hegyi, S.; Henkel, T.; Hill, L. A.; Hlinka, V.; Huang, I.; Hümmler, H.; Igo, G.; Irmscher, D.; Ivanov, M.; Janik, R.; Jacobs, P.; Jones, P. G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Lévai, P.; Liebicher, K.; Lynen, U.; Malakhov, A. I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Marks, C.; Mayes, B.; Melkumov, G. L.; Mock, A.; Molnár, J.; Nelson, J. M.; Oldenburg, M.; Odyniec, G.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Pestov, Y.; Petridis, A.; Pikna, M.; Pimpl, W.; Pinsky, L.; Piper, A.; Porter, R. J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Poziombka, S.; Prindle, D. J.; Pühlhofer, F.; Rauch, W.; Reid, J. G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H. G.; Röhrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, H.; Rybicki, A.; Sammer, T.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Schäfer, E.; Schmidt, R.; Schmischke, D.; Schmitz, N.; Schönfelder, S.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Seyboth, J.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Sikler, F.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Squier, G. T. A.; Stelzer, H.; Stock, R.; Strmen, P.; Ströbele, H.; Struck, C.; Susa, T.; Szarka, I.; Szentpetery, I.; Szymański, P.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T. A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wang, F. Q.; Weerasundara, D. D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wienold, T.; Wood, L.; Yates, T. A.; Zimanyi, J.; Zhu, X.-Z.; Zybert, R.

    1999-07-01

    The NA49 detector is a wide acceptance spectrometer for the study of hadron production in p+p, p+A, and A+A collisions at the CERN SPS. The main components are 4 large-volume TPCs for tracking and particle identification via d E/d x. TOF scintillator arrays complement particle identification. Calorimeters for transverse energy determination and triggering, a detector for centrality selection in p+A collisions, and beam definition detectors complete the set-up. A description of all detector components is given with emphasis on new technical realizations. Performance and operational experience are discussed in particular with respect to the high track density environment of central Pb+Pb collisions.

  19. Pion and kaon freezeout in NA44

    SciTech Connect

    NA44 Collaboration

    1994-12-01

    The NA44 spectrometer is optimized for the study of single and two-particle particle spectra near mid-rapidity for transverse momenta below {approx} 1 GeV/c. A large fraction of all pairs in the spectrometer`s acceptance are at low relative momenta, resulting in small statistical uncertainties on the extracted size parameters. In addition, the spectrometer`s clean particle identification allows the authors to measure correlation functions for pions, kaons, and protons. This contribution will concentrate on the source size parameters determined from pion and kaon correlation functions. These size parameters will be compared to calculations from the RQMD event generator and also interpreted in the context of a hydrodynamic model. Finally, the measured single particle spectra will be examined from the viewpoint of hydrodynamics.

  20. Na-Zn liquid metal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junli; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Osen, Karen Sende; Martinez, Ana Maria; Kongstein, Ole Edvard; Haarberg, Geir Martin

    2016-11-01

    A new kind of membrane free liquid metal battery was developed. The battery employs liquid sodium and zinc as electrodes both in liquid state, and NaCl-CaCl2 molten salts as electrolyte. The discharge flat voltage is in the range of about 1.4 V-1.8 V, and the cycle efficiency achieved is about 90% at low discharge current densities (below 40 mA cm-2). Moreover, this battery can also be charged and discharged at high current density with good performance. The discharge flat voltage is above 1.1 V when it is discharged at 100 mA cm-2, while it is about 0.8 V with 100% cycle efficiency when it is discharged at 200 mA cm-2. Compared to other reported liquid metal battery, this battery has lower cost, which suggests broad application prospect in energy storage systems for power grid.

  1. Study of OSL in NaF: Ca,Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Y. K.; Wankhede, S. P.; Moharil, S. V.

    2013-06-01

    Sodium Fluoride containing Cu+ ions was prepared by R.A.P. followed by melt-quenching technique. Results on photo, thermo and optically stimulated luminescence in NaF:Ca,Cu are reported. OSL sensitivity of NaF:Ca,Cu is approximately 2 times than that of standard phosphor LMP. The rate of OSL depletion for 90% decay for NaF:Ca,Cu is 0.3 times as that of OSL phosphor LMP. NaF:Ca,Cu thus deserves much more attention than it has received up till now.

  2. New solid conductors of Na/+/ and K/+/ ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, J.; Fielder, W. L.; Kautz, H. E.; Fordyce, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    About 40 structure types for solid conductors of Na(+) and K(+) ions are surveyed. Five compounds in three structure types are discovered to be good solid conductors of alkali metal ions, capable of ion transport with conductivities in the vicinity of 0.00001/ohm-cm at 25 C. These compounds are a bcc form of NaSbO3, an orthorhombic layer structure of the composition 2M2O.3Nb2O5 with M equal to Na or K, and the Na pyrochlores NaTa2O5F and NaTaWO6. Ion exchange is required to produce each of these Na compounds. Only the 2K2O.3Nb2O5 can so far be synthesized directly from the oxides and thus is the only one which can be sintered readily. The niobate is about as good a conductor of K(+) ion as is K-beta alumina. The NaSbO3 compares well with Na beta at 280 C. A number of phase diagrams are developed.

  3. The Physiological Relevance of Na+-Coupled K+-Transport.

    PubMed Central

    Maathuis, FJM.; Verlin, D.; Smith, F. A.; Sanders, D.; Fernandez, J. A.; Walker, N. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plant roots utilize at least two distinct pathways with high and low affinities to accumulate K+. The system for high-affinity K+ uptake, which takes place against the electrochemical K+ gradient, requires direct energization. Energization of K+ uptake via Na+ coupling has been observed in algae and was recently proposed as a mechanism for K+ uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To investigate whether Na+ coupling has general physiological relevance in energizing K+ transport, we screened a number of species, including Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia, wheat, and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), for the presence of Na+-coupled K+ uptake. Rb+-flux analysis and electrophysiological K+-transport assays were performed in the presence and absence of Na+ and provided evidence for a coupling between K+ and Na+ transport in several aquatic species. However, all investigated terrestrial species were able to sustain growth and K+ uptake in the absence of Na+. Furthermore, the addition of Na+ was either without effect or inhibited K+ absorption. The latter characteristic was independent of growth conditions with respect to Na+ status and pH. Our results suggest that in terrestrial species Na+-coupled K+ transport has no or limited physiological relevance, whereas in certain aquatic angiosperms and algae this type of secondary transport energization plays a significant role. PMID:12226467

  4. Influenza virus neuraminidase (NA): a target for antivirals and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jagadesh, Anitha; Salam, Abdul Ajees Abdul; Mudgal, Piya Paul; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2016-08-01

    Influenza, the most common infectious disease, poses a great threat to human health because of its highly contagious nature and fast transmissibility, often leading to high morbidity and mortality. Effective vaccination strategies may aid in the prevention and control of recurring epidemics and pandemics associated with this infectious disease. However, antigenic shifts and drifts are major concerns with influenza virus, requiring effective global monitoring and updating of vaccines. Current vaccines are standardized primarily based on the amount of hemagglutinin, a major surface antigen, which chiefly constitutes these preparations along with the varying amounts of neuraminidase (NA). Anti-influenza drugs targeting the active site of NA have been in use for more than a decade now. However, NA has not been approved as an effective antigenic component of the influenza vaccine because of standardization issues. Although some studies have suggested that NA antibodies are able to reduce the severity of the disease and induce a long-term and cross-protective immunity, a few major scientific issues need to be addressed prior to launching NA-based vaccines. Interestingly, an increasing number of studies have shown NA to be a promising target for future influenza vaccines. This review is an attempt to consolidate studies that reflect the strength of NA as a suitable vaccine target. The studies discussed in this article highlight NA as a potential influenza vaccine candidate and support taking the process of developing NA vaccines to the next stage.

  5. Tuning NaYF4 Nanoparticles through Alkaline Earth Doping

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xian; Peng, Dengfeng; Wang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Phase and size of lanthanide-doped nanoparticles are the most important characteristics that dictate optical properties of these nanoparticles and affect their technological applications. Herein, we present a systematic study to examine the effect of alkaline earth doping on the formation of NaYF4 upconversion nanoparticles. We show that alkaline earth doping has a dual function of tuning particle size of hexagonal phase NaYF4 nanoparticles and stabilizing cubic phase NaYF4 nanoparticles depending on composition and concentration of the dopant ions. The study described here represents a facile and general strategy to tuning the properties of NaYF4 upconversion nanoparticles. PMID:28348353

  6. Kaolin-based geopolymers with various NaOH concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heah, C. Y.; Kamarudin, H.; Mustafa Al Bakri, A. M.; Bnhussain, M.; Luqman, M.; Khairul Nizar, I.; Ruzaidi, C. M.; Liew, Y. M.

    2013-03-01

    Kaolin geopolymers were produced by the alkali-activation of kaolin with an activator solution (a mixture of NaOH and sodium silicate solutions). The NaOH solution was prepared at a concentration of 6-14 mol/L and was mixed with the sodium silicate solution at a Na2SiO3/NaOH mass ratio of 0.24 to prepare an activator solution. The kaolin-to-activator solution mass ratio used was 0.80. This paper aimed to analyze the effect of NaOH concentration on the compressive strength of kaolin geopolymers at 80°C for 1, 2, and 3 d. Kaolin geopolymers were stable in water, and strength results showed that the kaolin binder had adequate compressive strength with 12 mol/L of NaOH concentration. When the NaOH concentration increased, the SiO2/Na2O decreased. The increased Na2O content enhanced the dissolution of kaolin as shown in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. However, excess in this content was not beneficial for the strength development of kaolin geopolymers. In addition, there was the formation of more geopolymeric gel in 12 mol/L samples. The XRD pattern of the samples showed a higher amorphous content and a more geopolymer bonding existed as proved by FTIR analysis.

  7. Transcriptional regulators of Na,K-ATPase subunits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiqin; Langhans, Sigrid A.

    2015-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase classically serves as an ion pump creating an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane that is essential for transepithelial transport, nutrient uptake and membrane potential. In addition, Na,K-ATPase also functions as a receptor, a signal transducer and a cell adhesion molecule. With such diverse roles, it is understandable that the Na,K-ATPase subunits, the catalytic α-subunit, the β-subunit and the FXYD proteins, are controlled extensively during development and to accommodate physiological needs. The spatial and temporal expression of Na,K-ATPase is partially regulated at the transcriptional level. Numerous transcription factors, hormones, growth factors, lipids, and extracellular stimuli modulate the transcription of the Na,K-ATPase subunits. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression. With the ever growing knowledge about diseases associated with the malfunction of Na,K-ATPase, this review aims at summarizing the best-characterized transcription regulators that modulate Na,K-ATPase subunit levels. As abnormal expression of Na,K-ATPase subunits has been observed in many carcinoma, we will also discuss transcription factors that are associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a crucial step in the progression of many tumors to malignant disease. PMID:26579519

  8. Mercury's Na Exosphere from MESSENGER Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Burger, M. H.; Cassidy, T. A.; Sarantos, M.; Vervack, R. J.; McClintock, W. El; Merkel, A. W.; Sprague, A. L.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    MESSENGER entered orbit about Mercury on March 18, 2011. Since then, the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UWS) channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) has been observing Mercury's exosphere nearly continuously. Daily measurements of Na brightness were fitted with non-uniform exospheric models. With Monte Carlo sampling we traced the trajectories of a representative number of test particles, generally one million per run per source process, until photoionization, escape from the gravitational well, or permanent sticking at the surface removed the atom from the simulation. Atoms were assumed to partially thermally accommodate on each encounter with the surface with accommodation coefficient 0.25. Runs for different assumed source processes are run separately, scaled and co-added. Once these model results were saved onto a 3D grid, we ran lines of sight from the MESSENGER spacecraft :0 infinity using the SPICE kernels and we computed brightness integrals. Note that only particles that contribute to the measurement can be constrained with our method. Atoms and molecules produced on the nightside must escape the shadow in order to scatter light if the excitation process is resonant-light scattering, as assumed here. The aggregate distribution of Na atoms fits a 1200 K gas, with a PSD distribution, along with a hotter component. Our models constrain the hot component, assumed to be impact vaporization, to be emitted with a 2500 K Maxwellian. Most orbits show a dawnside enhancement in the hot component broadly spread over the leading hemisphere. However, on some dates there is no dawn/dusk asymmetry. The portion of the hot/cold source appears to be highly variable.

  9. Mercury's Na Exosphere from MESSENGER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Burger, M. H.; Cassidy, T. A.; Sarantos, M.; Vervack, R. J.; McClintock, W. E.; Merkel, A. W.; Sprague, A. L.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-10-01

    MESSENGER entered orbit about Mercury on March 18, 2011. Since then, the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) has been observing Mercury's exosphere nearly continuously. Daily measurements of Na brightness were fitted with non-uniform exospheric models. With Monte Carlo sampling we traced the trajectories of a representative number of test particles, generally one million per run per source process, until photoionization, escape from the gravitational well, or permanent sticking at the surface removed the atom from the simulation. Atoms were assumed to partially thermally accommodate on each encounter with the surface with accommodation coefficient 0.25. Runs for different assumed source processes are run separately, scaled and co-added. Once these model results were saved onto a 3D grid, we ran lines of sight from the MESSENGER spacecraft to infinity using the SPICE kernels and we computed brightness integrals. Note that only particles that contribute to the measurement can be constrained with our method. Atoms and molecules produced on the nightside must escape the shadow in order to scatter light if the excitation process is resonant-light scattering, as assumed here. The aggregate distribution of Na atoms fits a 1200 K gas, with a PSD distribution, along with a hotter component. Our models constrain the hot component, assumed to be impact vaporization, to be emitted with a 2500 K Maxwellian. Most orbits show a dawnside enhancement in the hot component broadly spread over the leading hemisphere. However, on some dates there is no dawn/dusk asymmetry. The hot portion of the source appears to be highly variable. The authors acknowledge support from NASA through the MESSENGER Participating Scientist Program and Planetary Atmospheres research grants.

  10. Attenuation of Na/K-ATPase Mediated Oxidant Amplification with pNaKtide Ameliorates Experimental Uremic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiang; Tian, Jiang; Chaudhry, Muhammad; Maxwell, Kyle; Yan, Yanling; Wang, Xiaoliang; Shah, Preeya T.; Khawaja, Asad A.; Martin, Rebecca; Robinette, Tylor J.; El-Hamdani, Adee; Dodrill, Michael W.; Sodhi, Komal; Drummond, Christopher A.; Haller, Steven T.; Kennedy, David J.; Abraham, Nader G.; Xie, Zijian; Shapiro, Joseph I.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that the sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na/K-ATPase) can effect the amplification of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we examined whether attenuation of oxidant stress by antagonism of Na/K-ATPase oxidant amplification might ameliorate experimental uremic cardiomyopathy induced by partial nephrectomy (PNx). PNx induced the development of cardiac morphological and biochemical changes consistent with human uremic cardiomyopathy. Both inhibition of Na/K-ATPase oxidant amplification with pNaKtide and induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) with cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) markedly attenuated the development of phenotypical features of uremic cardiomyopathy. In a reversal study, administration of pNaKtide after the induction of uremic cardiomyopathy reversed many of the phenotypical features. Attenuation of Na/K-ATPase oxidant amplification may be a potential strategy for clinical therapy of this disorder. PMID:27698370

  11. Scintillation efficiency measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) below the DAMA/LIBRA energy threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jingke; Shields, Emily; Calaprice, Frank; Westerdale, Shawn; Froborg, Francis; Suerfu, Burkhant; Alexander, Thomas; Aprahamian, Ani; Back, Henning O.; Casarella, Clark; Fang, Xiao; Gupta, Yogesh K.; Ianni, Aldo; Lamere, Edward; Lippincott, W. Hugh; Liu, Qian; Lyons, Stephanie; Siegl, Kevin; Smith, Mallory; Tan, Wanpeng; Kolk, Bryant Vande

    2015-07-01

    The dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal depends on the NaI(Tl) scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoils. Previous measurements for Na recoils have large discrepancies, especially in the DAMA/LIBRA modulation energy region. We report a quenching effect measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) from 3 to 52 keVnr, covering the whole DAMA/LIBRA energy region for dark matter-Na scattering interpretations. By using a low-energy, pulsed neutron beam, a double time-of-flight technique, and pulse-shape discrimination methods, we obtained the most accurate measurement of this kind for NaI(Tl) to date. The results differ significantly from the DAMA reported values at low energies but fall between the other previous measurements. We present the implications of the new quenching results for the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal.

  12. Decomposition reactions for NaAl H4 , Na3 Al H6 , and NaH: First-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Xuezhi; Tanaka, Isao

    2005-01-01

    The electronic properties and lattice dynamics of the sodium alanate phases have been studied by the density functional calculations. The phases include NaAlH4 (space group, I41/a ), Na3AlH6 (space group, P21/n ), and NaH (space group, Fm-3m ). The electronic properties are discussed on the basis of the electronic band structures, the atomic charges, the bond overlap population analysis, and the Born effective charges. The phonon dispersion relations and phonon density of states (DOS) of the phases are calculated by a direct force-constant method. Within the quasiharmonic approximation, the calculated thermodynamic functions including the heat capacity, the vibrational enthalpy, and the vibrational entropy are in good agreement with experimental values. Three decomposition reactions are studied based on the thermodynamic functions. The reactions are (1) NaAlH4→(1)/(3)Na3AlH6+(2)/(3)Al+H2 , (2) (1)/(3)Na3AlH6→NaH+(1)/(3)Al+(1)/(2)H2 , and (3) NaH→Na+(1)/(2)H2 . The reactions (1), (2), and (3) are predicted to take place at 285, 390, and 726K , respectively, which are in good agreement with the experiment (353, 423, and 698K , respectively). The individual contributions to the reactions including the enthalpy and entropy are investigated. We found that the enthalpy for the reaction is almost constant, and the net entropy contribution ( TΔS ) to the reaction is approximately equal to the entropy contribution of the H2 gas molecule (produced in that reaction).

  13. RNA adducts with Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 - Stability and structural features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafisi, Shohreh; Manouchehri, Firouzeh; Montazeri, Maryam

    2011-12-01

    Selenium compounds are widely available in dietary supplements and have been extensively studied for their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Low blood Se levels were found to be associated with an increased incidence and mortality from various types of cancers. Although many in vivo and clinical trials have been conducted using these compounds, their biochemical and chemical mechanisms of efficacy are the focus of much current research. This study was designed to examine the interaction of Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 with RNA in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using a constant RNA concentration (6.25 mM) and various sodium selenate and sodium selenite/polynucleotide (phosphate) ratios of 1/80, 1/40, 1/20, 1/10, 1/5, 1/2 and 1/1. Fourier transform infrared, UV-Visible spectroscopic methods were used to determine the drug binding modes, the binding constants, and the stability of Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3-RNA complexes in aqueous solution. Spectroscopic evidence showed that Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 bind to the major and minor grooves of RNA ( via G, A and U bases) with some degree of the Se-phosphate (PO 2) interaction for both compounds with overall binding constants of K(Na 2SeO 4-RNA) = 8.34 × 10 3 and K(Na 2SeO 3-RNA) = 4.57 × 10 3 M -1. The order of selenium salts-biopolymer stability was Na 2SeO 4-RNA > Na 2SeO 3-RNA. RNA aggregations occurred at higher selenium concentrations. No biopolymer conformational changes were observed upon Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 interactions, while RNA remains in the A-family structure.

  14. A 23Na magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, XANES, and high-temperature X-ray diffraction study of NaUO3, Na4UO5, and Na2U2O7.

    PubMed

    Smith, A L; Raison, P E; Martel, L; Charpentier, T; Farnan, I; Prieur, D; Hennig, C; Scheinost, A C; Konings, R J M; Cheetham, A K

    2014-01-06

    The valence state of uranium has been confirmed for the three sodium uranates NaU(V)O3/[Rn](5f(1)), Na4U(VI)O5/[Rn](5f(0)), and Na2U(VI)2O7/[Rn](5f(0)), using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Solid-state (23)Na magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) measurements have been performed for the first time, yielding chemical shifts at -29.1 (NaUO3), 15.1 (Na4UO5), and -14.1 and -19 ppm (Na1 8-fold coordinated and Na2 7-fold coordinated in Na2U2O7), respectively. The [Rn]5f(1) electronic structure of uranium in NaUO3 causes a paramagnetic shift in comparison to Na4UO5 and Na2U2O7, where the electronic structure is [Rn]5f(0). A (23)Na multi quantum magic angle spinning (MQMAS) study on Na2U2O7 has confirmed a monoclinic rather than rhombohedral structure with evidence for two distinct Na sites. DFT calculations of the NMR parameters on the nonmagnetic compounds Na4UO5 and Na2U2O7 have permitted the differentiation between the two Na sites of the Na2U2O7 structure. The linear thermal expansion coefficients of all three compounds have been determined using high-temperature X-ray diffraction: αa = 22.7 × 10(-6) K(-1), αb = 12.9 × 10(-6) K(-1), αc = 16.2 × 10(-6) K(-1), and αvol = 52.8 × 10(-6) K(-1) for NaUO3 in the range 298-1273 K; αa = 37.1 × 10(-6) K(-1), αc = 6.2 × 10(-6) K(-1), and αvol = 81.8 × 10(-6) K(-1) for Na4UO5 in the range 298-1073 K; αa = 6.7 × 10(-6) K(-1), αb = 14.4 × 10(-6) K(-1), αc = 26.8 × 10(-6) K(-1), αβ = -7.8 × 10(-6) K(-1), and αvol = -217.6 × 10(-6) K(-1) for Na2U2O7 in the range 298-573 K. The α to β phase transition reported for the last compound above about 600 K was not observed in the present studies, either by high-temperature X-ray diffraction or by differential scanning calorimetry.

  15. Limitation of heavy-ion fusion: Fusion of aligned /sup 23/Na with /sup 23/Na

    SciTech Connect

    Blatt, K.; Becker, K.; Heck, B.; Jaensch, H.; Leucker, H.; Fick, D.; Chacekaplar, R.; Butsch, R.; Kraemer, D.; Moebius, K.h.

    1986-08-18

    The excitation function for fusion of /sup 23/Na with /sup 23/Na was measured in the energy range 40 less than or equal to E/sub c.m./less than or equal to 88.5 MeV. Additionally the tensor analyzing power T/sub 20/ was determined to be T/sub 20/ = -0.0060 +- 0.0125 at E/sub c.m./ = 85 MeV. The results are discussed in terms of an entrance-channel versus a compound-nucleus model for the observed limitation of fusion. A typical entrance-channel model, the surface-friction model, which is able to describe all fusion excitation functions leading to /sup 46/Ti, fails to reproduce the observed value of T/sub 20/. The data are consistent, on the other hand, with the compound-nucleus interpretation.

  16. Path integral study of the correlated electronic states of Na4-Na6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Randall W.

    1990-12-01

    Feynman's path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is used to study the correlated electronic states of Na4-Na6. Two types of simulations are performed: in the first, the nuclei are allowed to move at finite temperature in order to find the most stable geometries. In agreement with previous calculations, we find that planar structures are the most stable and that there is significant vibrational amplitude at finite temperatures, indicating that the Born-Oppenheimer surface is relatively flat. In the second type of simulation, the nuclei are held fixed at symmetric and asymmetric geometries and the correlated electron density is found. Our results show that the electrons are localized, rather than delocalized as previous workers have concluded from examination of the single-particle orbitals. We find that the best picture of these clusters is that they contain three-center, two-electron bonds.

  17. Expression of diverse Na+ channel messenger RNAs in rat myocardium. Evidence for a cardiac-specific Na+ channel.

    PubMed Central

    Sills, M N; Xu, Y C; Baracchini, E; Goodman, R H; Cooperman, S S; Mandel, G; Chien, K R

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the diversity of Na+ channel gene expression in intact cardiac tissue and purified myocardial cells. The screening of neonatal rat myocardial cell cDNA libraries with a conserved rat brain Na+ channel cDNA probe, resulted in the isolation and characterization of a putative rat cardiac Na+ channel cDNA probe (pCSC-1). The deduced amino acid sequence of pCSC-1 displayed a striking degree of homology with the eel, rat brain-1, and rat brain-2 Na+ channel, thereby identifying pCSC-1 as a related member of the family of Na+ channel genes. Northern blot analysis revealed the expression of a 7-kb CSC-1 transcript in rat cardiac tissue and purified myocardial cells, but little or no detectable expression of CSC-1 in rat brain, skeletal muscle, denervated skeletal muscle, or liver. Using RNase protection and Northern blot hybridization with specific rat brain Na+ channel gene probes, expression of the rat brain-1 Na+ channel was observed in rat myocardium, but no detectable expression of the rat brain-2 gene was found. This study provides evidence for the expression of diverse Na+ channel mRNAs in rat myocardium and presents the initial characterization of a new, related member of the family of Na+ channel genes, which appears to be expressed in a cardiac-specific manner. Images PMID:2544627

  18. Estimating the hydrogen ion concentration in concentrated NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, D.; Felmy, A.R.; Juracich, S.P.; Rao, F.

    1995-06-01

    Combination glass electrodes were tested for determining H{sup +} concentrations in concentrated pure and mixed NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions, as well as natural brine systems. NaCl, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and mixtures of NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions were analyzed. Correction factors for estimating pC{sub H}{sup +} (negative logarithm of H{sup +} concentration) were determined from measured/observed pH values. Required Gran-type titrations were done with HCl and/or NaOH. The titration method is described and a step-by-step procedure provided; it has been used previously for determining pC{sub H}{sup +} values of synthetic chloride-dominated brines. Precautions are required to determine correction factors for electrolytes that react with H{sup +} or OH{sup {minus}} [sulfate brines for titration with acid; magnesium brines for titration with base because of precipitation of Mg(OH)2]. Correction factors A (pC{sub H}{sup +} = pH{sub ob} + A) from HCl titrations were similar to those from NaOH titrations where the concentration of free H{sup +} was calculated using a thermodynamic model. These values should be applicable to solns with a very large range in measured pH values (2 to 12). Because a large number of solns were titrated with HCl and the A values are similar for HCl and NaOH titrations, the A values for NaCl and Na2SO4 solns were fit as a function of molality to allow extrapolation. For NaCl solns 0 to 6.0 M, A can be obtained by multiplying the molality by 0.159. For Na2SO4 solns 0 to 2.0 M, the values of A can be obtained from (0.221 {minus} 0.549X + 0.201X{sup 2}), where X is the molality of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Orion-Ross electrode evaluations indicated that the A values did not differ significantly for different electrodes. Results suggest that the data in this report can be used to estimate A values for different NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solns even for noncalibrated electrodes.

  19. Temperature-dependent formation of NaCl dihydrate in levitated NaCl and sea salt aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Peckhaus, Andreas; Kiselev, Alexei; Wagner, Robert; Duft, Denis; Leisner, Thomas

    2016-12-28

    Recent laboratory studies indicate that the hydrated form of crystalline NaCl is potentially important for atmospheric processes involving depositional ice nucleation on NaCl dihydrate particles under cirrus cloud conditions. However, recent experimental studies reported a strong discrepancy between the temperature intervals where the efflorescence of NaCl dihydrate has been observed. Here we report the measurements of the volume specific nucleation rate of crystalline NaCl in the aqueous solution droplets of pure NaCl suspended in an electrodynamic balance at constant temperature and humidity in the range from 250 K to 241 K. Based on these measurements, we derive the interfacial energy of crystalline NaCl dihydrate in a supersaturated NaCl solution and determined its temperature dependence. Taking into account both temperature and concentration dependence of nucleation rate coefficients, we explain the difference in the observed fractions of NaCl dihydrate reported in the previous studies. Applying the heterogeneous classical nucleation theory model, we have been able to reproduce the 5 K shift of the NaCl dihydrate efflorescence curve observed for the sea salt aerosol particles, assuming the presence of super-micron solid inclusions (hypothetically gypsum or hemihydrate of CaSO4). These results support the notion that the phase transitions in microscopic droplets of supersaturated solution should be interpreted by accounting for the stochastic nature of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation and cannot be understood on the ground of bulk phase diagrams alone.

  20. Na+ and K+ levels in living cells: do they depend on the rate of outward transport of Na+?

    PubMed

    Ling, G N; Ochsenfeld, M M

    1976-01-01

    At 25 degrees C, frog sartorius muslces rapidly gained Na+ and lost K+ in iodoacetamide and pure nitrogen. Beginning at normal levels, the concentrations of these ions in the cells reached those in the surrounding Ringer solution in 140 min. Yet during that time the Na+ efflux rate showed no sign of the slowing down demanded by Na-pump theory. The data support the view that maintenance and alterations of N1+ levels in frog muslce cells reflect adsorption on protein sites and the solubility property of bulk phase water and are independent of the rate at which Na+ leaves the cell surface.

  1. Kinetics and stoichiometry of coupled Na efflux and Ca influx (Na/Ca exchange) in barnacle muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Coupled Na+ exit/Ca2+ entry (Na/Ca exchange operating in the Ca2+ influx mode) was studied in giant barnacle muscle cells by measuring 22Na+ efflux and 45Ca2+ influx in internally perfused, ATP-fueled cells in which the Na+ pump was poisoned by 0.1 mM ouabain. Internal free Ca2+, [Ca2+]i, was controlled with a Ca-EGTA buffering system containing 8 mM EGTA and varying amounts of Ca2+. Ca2+ sequestration in internal stores was inhibited with caffeine and a mitochondrial uncoupler (FCCP). To maximize conditions for Ca2+ influx mode Na/Ca exchange, and to eliminate tracer Na/Na exchange, all of the external Na+ in the standard Na+ sea water (NaSW) was replaced by Tris or Li+ (Tris-SW or LiSW, respectively). In both Na-free solutions an external Ca2+ (Cao)-dependent Na+ efflux was observed when [Ca2+]i was increased above 10(-8) M; this efflux was half-maximally activated by [Ca2+]i = 0.3 microM (LiSW) to 0.7 microM (Tris-SW). The Cao-dependent Na+ efflux was half-maximally activated by [Ca2+]o = 2.0 mM in LiSW and 7.2 mM in Tris-SW; at saturating [Ca2+]o, [Ca2+]i, and [Na+]i the maximal (calculated) Cao-dependent Na+ efflux was approximately 75 pmol#cm2.s. This efflux was inhibited by external Na+ and La3+ with IC50's of approximately 125 and 0.4 mM, respectively. A Nai-dependent Ca2+ influx was also observed in Tris-SW. This Ca2+ influx also required [Ca2+]i greater than 10(-8) M. Internal Ca2+ activated a Nai-independent Ca2+ influx from LiSW (tracer Ca/Ca exchange), but in Tris-SW virtually all of the Cai-activated Ca2+ influx was Nai-dependent (Na/Ca exchange). Half-maximal activation was observed with [Na+]i = 30 mM. The fact that internal Ca2+ activates both a Cao-dependent Na+ efflux and a Nai- dependent Ca2+ influx in Tris-SW implies that these two fluxes are coupled; the activating (intracellular) Ca2+ does not appear to be transported by the exchanger. The maximal (calculated) Nai-dependent Ca2+ influx was -25 pmol/cm2.s. At various [Na+]i between 6 and 106 m

  2. Clinical and therapeutic significance of the Na+,K+ pump*.

    PubMed

    Clausen, T

    1998-07-01

    1. The Na+,K+-ATPase or Na+,K+-pump, mediating the active transport of Na+ and K+, which was first identified 40 years ago, is a central target for acute and long-term regulation, as well as for therapeutic intervention. Acute stimulation of the Na+,K+-pump in skeletal muscle by insulin, catecholamines, beta2-agonists or theophylline increases the intracellular uptake of K+ and accounts for the hypokalaemia elicited by these agents. Conversely, digitalis intoxication elicits hyperkalaemia via acute inhibition of the Na+, K+-pump. 2. Simple and accurate methods have been developed for the quantification of the total concentration of Na+,K+-pumps in small (0.5-5 mg) fresh or frozen biopsies of human skeletal muscle, myocardium or other tissues. This has allowed the identification of several long-term regulatory changes in the concentration of this transport system in human tissues. In skeletal muscle, upregulation is induced by training, thyroid hormones or glucocorticoids. Downregulation is seen in hypothyroidism, cardiac insufficiency, myotonic dystrophy, McArdle disease, K+ deficiency and after muscle inactivity. 3. Since the skeletal muscles contain one of the major pools of Na+,K+-pumps, these changes are important for the ability to counterregulate the hyperkalaemia elicited by exercise or the ingestion of K+. Moreover, downregulation or inhibition of the Na+, K+-pumps in skeletal muscle interferes with contractile performance. Since digitalis glycosides bind to the Na+,K+-pump, the muscles constitute a large distribution volume for these agents and are therefore an important determinant for their plasma level. 4. In cardiac insufficiency, the decrease in the concentration of Na+, K+-pumps in the myocardium is over a wide range correlated to the concomitant reduction in ejection fraction. The regulatory and pathophysiological changes in the activity and concentration of Na+, K+-pumps are important for the contractile function of skeletal muscle and heart as

  3. North America and South America (NA-SA) neuropathy project.

    PubMed

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Trivedi, Jaya; Wolfe, Gil I; Nations, Sharon; Herbelin, Laura; de Freitas, M G; Quintanilha, Giseli; Khan, Saud; Dimachkie, Mazen; Barohn, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological disorder. There may be important differences and similarities in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy between North America (NA) and South America (SA). Neuromuscular databases were searched for neuropathy diagnosis at two North American sites, University of Kansas Medical Center and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and one South American site, Federal Fluminense University in Brazil. All patients were included into one of the six major categories: immune-mediated, diabetic, hereditary, infectious/inflammatory, systemic/metabolic/toxic (not diabetic) and cryptogenic. A comparison of the number of patients in each category was made between North America and South America databases. Total number of cases in North America was 1090 and in South America was 1034 [immune-mediated: NA 215 (19.7%), SA 191 (18%); diabetic: NA 148 (13.5%), SA 236 (23%); hereditary: NA 292 (26.7%), SA 103 (10%); infectious/inflammatory: NA 53 (4.8%), SA 141 (14%); systemic/metabolic/toxic: NA 71 (6.5%), SA 124 (12%); cryptogenic: NA 311 (28.5%), SA 239 (23%)]. Some specific neuropathy comparisons were hereditary neuropathies [Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) cases] in NA 246/292 (84.2%) and SA 60/103 (58%); familial amyloid neuropathy in SA 31/103 (30%) and none in NA. Among infectious neuropathies, cases of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) neuropathy in SA were 36/141(25%), Chagas disease in SA were 13/141(9%) and none for either in NA; cases of neuropathy due to leprosy in NA were 26/53 (49%) and in SA were 39/141(28%). South American tertiary care centers are more likely to see patients with infectious, diabetic and hereditary disorders such as familial amyloid neuropathies. North American tertiary centers are more likely to see patients with CMT. Immune neuropathies and cryptogenic neuropathies were seen equally in North America and South America.

  4. 33 CFR 147.833 - Na Kika FDS safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Na Kika FDS safety zone. 147.833 Section 147.833 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.833 Na Kika FDS safety zone. (a) Description....

  5. Direct Measurement of {sup 21}Na+{alpha} Stellar Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Binh, D. N.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Kahl, D.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Kume, N.; Kato, S.; Khiem, L. H.; Tho, N. T.; Wakabayashi, Y.

    2010-08-12

    The measurement of the resonant alpha scattering and the {sup 21}Na({alpha}, p) reaction were performed for the first time in inverse kinematics with the thick target method using a {sup 21}Na radioisotope (RI) beam. This paper reports the current result of alpha scattering measurement and its astrophysics implication.

  6. Naïve Bayes classification in R

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Naïve Bayes classification is a kind of simple probabilistic classification methods based on Bayes’ theorem with the assumption of independence between features. The model is trained on training dataset to make predictions by predict() function. This article introduces two functions naiveBayes() and train() for the performance of Naïve Bayes classification. PMID:27429967

  7. Resurgent current of voltage-gated Na+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Amanda H; Raman, Indira M

    2014-01-01

    Resurgent Na+ current results from a distinctive form of Na+ channel gating, originally identified in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. In these neurons, the tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated Na+ channels responsible for action potential firing have specialized mechanisms that reduce the likelihood that they accumulate in fast inactivated states, thereby shortening refractory periods and permitting rapid, repetitive, and/or burst firing. Under voltage clamp, step depolarizations evoke transient Na+ currents that rapidly activate and quickly decay, and step repolarizations elicit slower channel reopening, or a ‘resurgent’ current. The generation of resurgent current depends on a factor in the Na+ channel complex, probably a subunit such as NaVβ4 (Scn4b), which blocks open Na+ channels at positive voltages, competing with the fast inactivation gate, and unblocks at negative voltages, permitting recovery from an open channel block along with a flow of current. Following its initial discovery, resurgent Na+ current has been found in nearly 20 types of neurons. Emerging research suggests that resurgent current is preferentially increased in a variety of clinical conditions associated with altered cellular excitability. Here we review the biophysical, molecular and structural mechanisms of resurgent current and their relation to the normal functions of excitable cells as well as pathophysiology. PMID:25172941

  8. Unidirectional Flux Balance of Monovalent Ions in Cells with Na/Na and Li/Na Exchange: Experimental and Computational Studies on Lymphoid U937 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vereninov, Igor A.; Yurinskaya, Valentina E.; Model, Michael A.; Vereninov, Alexey A.

    2016-01-01

    Monovalent ion traffic across the cell membrane occurs via various pathways. Evaluation of individual fluxes in whole cell is hampered by their strong interdependence. This difficulty can be overcome by computational analysis of the whole cell flux balance. However, the previous computational studies disregarded ion movement of the self-exchange type. We have taken this exchange into account. The developed software allows determination of unidirectional fluxes of all monovalent ions via the major pathways both under the balanced state and during transient processes. We show how the problem of finding the rate coefficients can be solved by measurement of monovalent ion concentrations and some of the fluxes. Interdependence of fluxes due to the mandatory conditions of electroneutrality and osmotic balance and due to specific effects can be discriminated, enabling one to identify specific changes in ion transfer machinery under varied conditions. To test the effectiveness of the developed approach we made use of the fact that Li/Na exchange is known to be an analogue of the coupled Na/Na exchange. Thus, we compared the predicted and experimental data obtained on U937 cells under varied Li+ concentrations and following inhibition of the sodium pump with ouabain. We found that the coupled Na/Na exchange in U937 cells comprises a significant portion of the entire Na+ turnover. The data showed that the loading of the sodium pump by Li/Na exchange involved in the secondary active Li+ transport at 1–10 mM external Li+ is small. This result may be extrapolated to similar Li+ and Na+ flux relationships in erythrocytes and other cells in patients treated with Li+ in therapeutic doses. The developed computational approach is applicable for studying various cells and can be useful in education for demonstrating the effects of individual transporters and channels on ion gradients, cell water content and membrane potential. PMID:27159324

  9. Unidirectional Flux Balance of Monovalent Ions in Cells with Na/Na and Li/Na Exchange: Experimental and Computational Studies on Lymphoid U937 Cells.

    PubMed

    Vereninov, Igor A; Yurinskaya, Valentina E; Model, Michael A; Vereninov, Alexey A

    2016-01-01

    Monovalent ion traffic across the cell membrane occurs via various pathways. Evaluation of individual fluxes in whole cell is hampered by their strong interdependence. This difficulty can be overcome by computational analysis of the whole cell flux balance. However, the previous computational studies disregarded ion movement of the self-exchange type. We have taken this exchange into account. The developed software allows determination of unidirectional fluxes of all monovalent ions via the major pathways both under the balanced state and during transient processes. We show how the problem of finding the rate coefficients can be solved by measurement of monovalent ion concentrations and some of the fluxes. Interdependence of fluxes due to the mandatory conditions of electroneutrality and osmotic balance and due to specific effects can be discriminated, enabling one to identify specific changes in ion transfer machinery under varied conditions. To test the effectiveness of the developed approach we made use of the fact that Li/Na exchange is known to be an analogue of the coupled Na/Na exchange. Thus, we compared the predicted and experimental data obtained on U937 cells under varied Li+ concentrations and following inhibition of the sodium pump with ouabain. We found that the coupled Na/Na exchange in U937 cells comprises a significant portion of the entire Na+ turnover. The data showed that the loading of the sodium pump by Li/Na exchange involved in the secondary active Li+ transport at 1-10 mM external Li+ is small. This result may be extrapolated to similar Li+ and Na+ flux relationships in erythrocytes and other cells in patients treated with Li+ in therapeutic doses. The developed computational approach is applicable for studying various cells and can be useful in education for demonstrating the effects of individual transporters and channels on ion gradients, cell water content and membrane potential.

  10. Interplanetary dust distribution and temporal variability of Mercury's atmospheric Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, Shingo; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Kagitani, Masato; Okano, Shoichi

    2009-08-01

    The interplanetary dust (IPD) distribution in the inner solar system is not yet well understood because of lack of direct dust measurements in the inner solar system and so one needs to rely on zodiacal light observations that are difficult to interpret. Mercury has an unstable atmosphere, and the source processes of Na in its atmosphere are unclear. Results of past observations have revealed that the atmospheric Na density has no or low correlation with the solar flux, sunspot number, heliocentric distance, or solar radiation pressure. We show that the variability of Mercury's atmospheric Na density depends strongly on the IPD distribution. That is, Na density is low (high) when Mercury is far away from (close to) the symmetry plane of IPD, and so one can infer the IPD distribution near Mercury orbit from the temporal variability of Na density in Mercury's atmosphere.

  11. Trisodium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7)

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of anhydrous tris­odium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7), has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional theory (DFT). There are two independent five-coordinate Na+ and one six-coordinate Na+ cations in the asymmetric unit. The [NaO5] and [NaO6] polyhedra share edges and corners to form a three-dimensional framework. There are channels parallel to the a and b axes in which the remainder of the citrate anions reside. The only hydrogen bonds are an intra­molecular one between the hy­droxy group and one of the terminal carboxyl­ate O atoms and an intermolecular one between a methylene group and the hydroxyl O atom. PMID:27308044

  12. Feasibility study for a secondary Na/S battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, K. M.; Schiff, R.; Brummer, S. B.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of a moderate temperature Na battery was studied. This battery is to operate at a temperature in the range of 100-150 C. Two kinds of cathode were investigated: (1) a soluble S cathode consisting of a solution of Na2Sn in an organic solvent and (2) an insoluble S cathode consisting of a transition metal dichalcogenide in contact with a Na(+)ion conducting electrolyte. Four amide solvents, dimethyl acetamide, diethyl acetamide, N-methyl acetamide and acetamide, were investigated as possible solvents for the soluble S cathode. Results of stability and electrochemical studies using these solvents are presented. The dialkyl substituted amides were found to be superior. Although the alcohol 1,3-cyclohexanediol was found to be stable in the presence of Na2Sn at 130 C, its Na2Sn solutions did not appear to have suitable electrochemical properties.

  13. Na-rich layered Na2Ru0.95Zr0.05O3 cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shufeng; Kotobuki, Masashi; Zheng, Feng; Li, Qibin; Xu, Chaohe; Wang, Yu; Li, Wei Dong Z.; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2017-02-01

    Structures and electrochemical performances of Na-rich layered cathode Na2RuO3 are studied by substitution of Zr for Ru. Na2Ru0.95Zr0.05O3 exhibits a combination of disordered and ordered stacking state with a weight fraction of ∼61.57% and 38.43%, respectively. The disordered and ordered Na2Ru0.95Zr0.05O3 exhibits reversible capacity of 137 mAh g-1 that is consistent with the theoretical capacity at a current density of 1 C. In addition, the material shows good cyclability with a capacity retention of 77% after 200 cycles at current density of 1 C, and the Coulombic efficiency remains at about 99% during cycling. The structural evolutions of the Na-rich layered Na2Ru0.95Zr0.05O3 during de(sodiation) have been investigated and found to proceed via a biphasic mechanism.

  14. Role of Na+,K+-pumps and transmembrane Na+,K+-distribution in muscle function. The FEPS lecture - Bratislava 2007.

    PubMed

    Clausen, T

    2008-03-01

    Na(+),K(+)-ATPase situated in the plasma membrane mediates active extrusion of Na(+) and intracellular accumulation of K(+). This transport system the Na(+),K(+)-pump is the major regulator of the transmembrane distribution of Na(+) and K(+), and is itself subject to regulation by a wide variety of factors in skeletal muscles. The excitation of skeletal muscles is elicited by a rapid influx of Na(+), followed by an equivalent efflux of K(+) across sarcolemmal and t-tubular membranes. Due to their size and sudden onset, these events constitute the major transport challenge for the Na(+),K(+)-pumps. Skeletal muscles contain the largest single pool of K(+) in the organism. During intense exercise, the Na(+),K(+)-pumps cannot readily reaccumulate K(+) into the muscle cells. Therefore, the working muscles undergo a net loss of K(+), causing up to a doubling of the K(+) concentration in the arterial blood plasma in less than 1 min and even larger increases in interstitial K(+). This may induce depolarization, loss of excitability and force, in particular in muscles, where the excitation-induced passive Na(+),K(+)-fluxes are large. During continuous stimulation of isolated rat muscles, there is a highly significant correlation between the rise in extracellular K(+) and the rate of force decline. Fortunately, excitation increases the Na(+),K(+)-pumping rate within seconds. Thus, maximum activation of up to 20-fold above the resting transport rate may be reached in 10 s, with utilization of all available Na(+),K(+)-pumps. In muscles, where excitability is reduced by pre-exposure to high [K(+)]o, acute activation of the Na(+),K(+)-pumps by hormones or intermittent electrical stimulation restores excitability and contractility. In working muscles, the Na(+),K(+)-pumps, due to rapid activation of their large transport capacity, play a dynamic regulatory role in the from second to second ongoing restoration and maintenance of excitability and force. Excitation is a self

  15. Single Na+ channels activated by veratridine and batrachotoxin

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Voltage-sensitive Na+ channels from rat skeletal muscle plasma membrane vesicles were inserted into planar lipid bilayers in the presence of either of the alkaloid toxins veratridine (VT) or batrachotoxin (BTX). Both of these toxins are known to cause persistent activation of Na+ channels. With BTX as the channel activator, single channels remain open nearly all the time. Channels activated with VT open and close on a time scale of 1-10 s. Increasing the VT concentration enhances the probability of channel opening, primarily by increasing the rate constant of opening. The kinetics and voltage dependence of channel block by 21-sulfo-11-alpha-hydroxysaxitoxin are identical for VT and BTX, as is the ionic selectivity sequence determined by bi-ionic reversal potential (Na+ approximately Li+ greater than K+ greater than Rb+ greater than Cs+). However, there are striking quantitative differences in open channel conduction for channels in the presence of the two activators. Under symmetrical solution conditions, the single channel conductance for Na+ is about twice as high with BTX as with VT. Furthermore, the symmetrical solution single channel conductances show a different selectivity for BTX (Na+ greater than Li+ greater than K+) than for VT (Na+ greater than K+ greater than Li+). Open channel current-voltage curves in symmetrical Na+ and Li+ are roughly linear, while those in symmetrical K+ are inwardly rectifying. Na+ currents are blocked asymmetrically by K+ with both BTX and VT, but the voltage dependence of K+ block is stronger with BTX than with VT. The results show that the alkaloid neurotoxins not only alter the gating process of the Na+ channel, but also affect the structure of the open channel. We further conclude that the rate-determining step for conduction by Na+ does not occur at the channel's "selectivity filter," where poorly permeating ions like K+ are excluded. PMID:2435846

  16. Endurance testing with Li/Na electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, E.T.; Remick, R.J.; Sishtla, C.I.

    1996-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), under subcontract to M-C Power Corporation under DOE funding, has been operating bench-scale fuel cells to investigate the performance and endurance issues of the Li/Na electrolyte because it offers higher ionic conductivity, higher exchange current densities, lower vapor pressures, and lower cathode dissolution rates than the Li/K electrolyte. These cells have continued to show higher performance and lower decay rates than the Li/K cells since the publication of our two previous papers in 1994. In this paper, test results of two long-term 100-cm{sup 2} bench scale cells are discussed. One cell operated continuously at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 17,000 hours with reference gases (60H{sub 2}/20CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O fuel at 75% utilization and 30CO{sub 2}/70 air oxidant humidified at room temperature at 50% utilization). The other cell operated at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 6900 hours at 3 atm with system gases (64H{sub 2}/16CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O at 75% utilization and an M-C Power system-defined oxidant at 40% utilization). Both cells have shown the highest performance and longest endurance among IGT cells operated to date.

  17. New results from the NA48 collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NA48 Collaboration

    2003-04-01

    The list of new or recent NA48 results is the following: On CP Violation 1) New CP violation measurement in KS to 3 pi0 decays (eta000 parameter) 2) CP Violation measurement in the KL -> pi+pi-e+e- decay channel, where the violation is the maximal observed in the K system (about 15cross-check, no CP violation has been observed in the KS decay into the same final state. Rare KL, KS decays and Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT) 1) First measurement of the BR KS -> pi0 gamma gamma. It gives contraints on ChPT development terms in p**n (see also 2). 2) First precision measurement of KS -> gamma gamma. The result is incompatible with ChPT predictions at p**4 order: it gives indications on the need of a 'big' p**6 contribution. 3) Precision measurement of KL to pi0 gamma gamma; the measurement allows the av parameter (vector coupling constant) extraction used to characterize O(p**6) contributions in ChPT. Other new results from ongoing analyses that might be completed and blessed before your conference: Radiative and S.L. hyperon decays (cascade) KS to pi0 e+e- , KS to pi0 mu+mu- Ke3, Kmu3 form factors KL to 4 leptons Ke3 charge asymmetry

  18. In situ fluorescence imaging of glutamate-evoked mitochondrial Na+ responses in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bernardinelli, Yann; Azarias, Guillaume; Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2006-10-01

    Astrocytes can experience large intracellular Na+ changes following the activation of the Na+-coupled glutamate transport. The present study investigated whether cytosolic Na+ changes are transmitted to mitochondria, which could therefore influence their function and contribute to the overall intracellular Na+ regulation. Mitochondrial Na+ (Na+(mit)) changes were monitored using the Na+-sensitive fluorescent probe CoroNa Red (CR) in intact primary cortical astrocytes, as opposed to the classical isolated mitochondria preparation. The mitochondrial localization and Na+ sensitivity of the dye were first verified and indicated that it can be safely used as a selective Na+(mit) indicator. We found by simultaneously monitoring cytosolic and mitochondrial Na+ using sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate and CR, respectively, that glutamate-evoked cytosolic Na+ elevations are transmitted to mitochondria. The resting Na+(mit) concentration was estimated at 19.0 +/- 0.8 mM, reaching 30.1 +/- 1.2 mM during 200 microM glutamate application. Blockers of conductances potentially mediating Na+ entry (calcium uniporter, monovalent cation conductances, K+(ATP) channels) were not able to prevent the Na+(mit) response to glutamate. However, Ca2+ and its exchange with Na+ appear to play an important role in mediating mitochondrial Na+ entry as chelating intracellular Ca2+ with BAPTA or inhibiting Na+/Ca2+ exchanger with CGP-37157 diminished the Na+(mit) response. Moreover, intracellular Ca2+ increase achieved by photoactivation of caged Ca2+ also induced a Na+(mit) elevation. Inhibition of mitochondrial Na/H antiporter using ethylisopropyl-amiloride caused a steady increase in Na+(mit) without increasing cytosolic Na+, indicating that Na+ extrusion from mitochondria is mediated by these exchangers. Thus, mitochondria in intact astrocytes are equipped to efficiently sense cellular Na+ signals and to dynamically regulate their Na+ content.

  19. Preparation of Al-La Master Alloy by Thermite Reaction in NaF-NaCl-KCl Molten Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Poknam; Li, Hyonmo; Kim, Wenjae; Wang, Zhaowen; Liu, Fengguo

    2015-05-01

    A NaF-NaCl-KCl ternary system containing La2O3 was investigated for the preparation of Al-La master alloy by the thermite reaction method. The solubility of La2O3 in NaF-NaCl-KCl molten salt was determined by the method of isothermal solution saturation. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to consider the content of La2O3 in molten salt and the supernatant composition of molten salt after dissolution of La2O3, respectively. The results showed that the content of NaF had a positive influence on the solubility of La2O3 in NaF-NaCl-KCl molten salts, and the solubility of La2O3 could reach 8.71 wt.% in molten salts of 50 wt.%NaF-50 wt.% (44 wt.%NaCl + 56 wt.%KCl). The XRD pattern of cooling molten salt indicated the formation of LaOF in molten salt, which was probably obtained by the reaction between NaF and La2O3. The kinetic study showed that the thermite reaction was in accord with a first-order reaction model. The main influence factors on La content in the Al-La master alloy product, including molten salt composition, amount of Al, concentration of La2O3, stirring, reduction time and temperature, were investigated by single-factor experimentation. The content of La in the Al-La master alloy could be reached to 10.1 wt.%.

  20. Tetrodotoxin sensitivity of the vertebrate cardiac Na+ current.

    PubMed

    Vornanen, Matti; Hassinen, Minna; Haverinen, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary origin and physiological significance of the tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistance of the vertebrate cardiac Na(+) current (I(Na)) is still unresolved. To this end, TTX sensitivity of the cardiac I(Na) was examined in cardiac myocytes of a cyclostome (lamprey), three teleost fishes (crucian carp, burbot and rainbow trout), a clawed frog, a snake (viper) and a bird (quail). In lamprey, teleost fishes, frog and bird the cardiac I(Na) was highly TTX-sensitive with EC(50)-values between 1.4 and 6.6 nmol·L(-1). In the snake heart, about 80% of the I(Na) was TTX-resistant with EC(50) value of 0.65 μmol·L(-1), the rest being TTX-sensitive (EC(50) = 0.5 nmol·L(-1)). Although TTX-resistance of the cardiac I(Na) appears to be limited to mammals and reptiles, the presence of TTX-resistant isoform of Na(+) channel in the lamprey heart suggest an early evolutionary origin of the TTX-resistance, perhaps in the common ancestor of all vertebrates.

  1. Growth and characterization of struvite-Na crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Chetan K.; Joshi, Mihirkumar J.

    2014-09-01

    Sodium magnesium phosphate heptahydrate [NaMgPO4·7H2O], also known as struvite-Na, is the sodium analog to struvite. Among phosphate containing bio-minerals, struvite has attracted considerable attention, because of its common occurrence in a wide variety of environments. Struvite and family crystals were found as urinary calculi in humans and animals. Struvite-Na crystals were grown by a single diffusion gel growth technique in a silica hydro gel medium. Struvite-Na crystals with different morphologies having transparent to translucent diaphaneity were grown with different growth parameters. The phenomenon of Liesegang rings was also observed with some particular growth parameters. The powder XRD study confirmed the structural similarity of the grown struvite-Na crystals with struvite and found that struvite-Na crystallized in the orthorhombic Pmn21 space group with unit cell parameters such as a= 6.893 Å, b=6.124 Å, c=11.150 Å, and α=β=γ=90°. FT-IR spectra of struvite-Na crystals revealed the presence of functional groups. The TGA, DTA and DSC were carried out simultaneously. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of dehydration/decomposition process were calculated. The variation of dielectric constant with frequency of applied field was studied in the range from 400 Hz to 100 kHz.

  2. Hormonal regulation of Na -K -ATPase in cultured epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.P.; Jones, D.; Wiesmann, W.P.

    1986-08-01

    Aldosterone and insulin stimulate Na transport through mechanisms involving protein synthesis. Na -K -ATPase has been implicated in the action of both hormones. The authors examined the effect of aldosterone and insulin on Na -K -ATPase in epithelial cells in culture derived from toad urinary bladder (TB6C) and toad kidney (A6). Aldosterone, but not insulin, increases short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) in TB6C cells. Aldosterone increases Na -K -(TSP)ATPase activity after 18 h of incubation, but no effect can be seen at 3 and 6 h. Amiloride, which inhibits aldosterone-induced increases in I/sub sc/, has no effect on either basal or aldosterone stimulated enzyme activity. Both aldosterone and insulin increase I/sub sc/ in A6 cells and when added together are synergistic. Aldosterone stimulates enzyme activity in A6 cells, but insulin alone has no effect. However, aldosterone and insulin together stimulate enzyme activity more than aldosterone alone. It appears that stimulation of Na -K -ATPase activity is involved in aldosterone action in both cell lines but does not appear to be due to increased Na entry, since enhanced enzyme activity is not inhibited by amiloride. In contrast, insulin alone has no direct effect on Na -K -ATPase, although the increased enzyme activity following both agents in combination may explain their synergism on I/sub sc/.

  3. Electron scattering in graphene with adsorbed NaCl nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Drabińska, Aneta Kaźmierczak, Piotr; Bożek, Rafał; Karpierz, Ewelina; Wysmołek, Andrzej; Kamińska, Maria; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Krajewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-07

    In this work, the results of contactless magnetoconductance and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed for a graphene sample after its immersion in NaCl solution were presented. The properties of the immersed sample were compared with those of a non-immersed reference sample. Atomic force microscopy and electron spin resonance experiments confirmed the deposition of NaCl nanoparticles on the graphene surface. A weak localization signal observed using contactless magnetoconductance showed the reduction of the coherence length after NaCl treatment of graphene. Temperature dependence of the coherence length indicated a change from ballistic to diffusive regime in electron transport after NaCl treatment. The main inelastic scattering process was of the electron-electron type but the major reason for the reduction of the coherence length at low temperatures was additional, temperature independent, inelastic scattering. We associate it with spin flip scattering, caused by NaCl nanoparticles present on the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the D and D′ bands intensities for graphene after its immersion in NaCl solution. An analysis of the D, D′, and G bands intensities proved that this additional scattering is related to the decoration of vacancies and grain boundaries with NaCl nanoparticles, as well as generation of new on-site defects as a result of the decoration of the graphene surface with NaCl nanoparticles. The observed energy shifts of 2D and G bands indicated that NaCl deposition on the graphene surface did not change carrier concentration, but reduced compressive biaxial strain in the graphene layer.

  4. Na+/H+ and Na+/NH4+ exchange activities of zebrafish NHE3b expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yusuke; Kato, Akira; Hirata, Taku; Hirose, Shigehisa

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish Na+/H+ exchanger 3b (zNHE3b) is highly expressed in the apical membrane of ionocytes where Na+ is absorbed from ion-poor fresh water against a concentration gradient. Much in vivo data indicated that zNHE3b is involved in Na+ absorption but not leakage. However, zNHE3b-mediated Na+ absorption has not been thermodynamically explained, and zNHE3b activity has not been measured. To address this issue, we overexpressed zNHE3b in Xenopus oocytes and characterized its activity by electrophysiology. Exposure of zNHE3b oocytes to Na+-free media resulted in significant decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) and intracellular Na+ activity (aNai). aNai increased significantly when the cytoplasm was acidified by media containing CO2-HCO3− or butyrate. Activity of zNHE3b was inhibited by amiloride or 5-ethylisopropyl amiloride (EIPA). Although the activity was accompanied by a large hyperpolarization of ∼50 mV, voltage-clamp experiments showed that Na+/H+ exchange activity of zNHE3b is electroneutral. Exposure of zNHE3b oocytes to medium containing NH3/NH4+ resulted in significant decreases in pHi and aNai and significant increase in intracellular NH4+ activity, indicating that zNHE3b mediates the Na+/NH4+ exchange. In low-Na+ (0.5 mM) media, zNHE3b oocytes maintained aNai of 1.3 mM, and Na+-influx was observed when pHi was decreased by media containing CO2-HCO3− or butyrate. These results provide thermodynamic evidence that zNHE3b mediates Na+ absorption from ion-poor fresh water by its Na+/H+ and Na+/NH4+ exchange activities. PMID:24401990

  5. Phyla- and Subtype-Selectivity of CgNa, a Na Channel Toxin from the Venom of the Giant Caribbean Sea Anemone Condylactis Gigantea.

    PubMed

    Billen, Bert; Debaveye, Sarah; Béress, Lászlo; Garateix, Anoland; Tytgat, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Because of their prominent role in electro-excitability, voltage-gated sodium (Na(V)) channels have become the foremost important target of animal toxins. These toxins have developed the ability to discriminate between closely related Na(V) subtypes, making them powerful tools to study Na(V) channel function and structure. CgNa is a 47-amino acid residue type I toxin isolated from the venom of the Giant Caribbean Sea Anemone Condylactis gigantea. Previous studies showed that this toxin slows the fast inactivation of tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(V) currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. To illuminate the underlying Na(V) subtype-selectivity pattern, we have assayed the effects of CgNa on a broad range of mammalian isoforms (Na(V)1.2-Na(V)1.8) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. This study demonstrates that CgNa selectively slows the fast inactivation of rNa(V)1.3/β(1), mNa(V)1.6/β(1) and, to a lesser extent, hNa(V)1.5/β(1), while the other mammalian isoforms remain unaffected. Importantly, CgNa was also examined on the insect sodium channel DmNa(V)1/tipE, revealing a clear phyla-selectivity in the efficacious actions of the toxin. CgNa strongly inhibits the inactivation of the insect Na(V) channel, resulting in a dramatic increase in peak current amplitude and complete removal of fast and steady-state inactivation. Together with the previously determined solution structure, the subtype-selective effects revealed in this study make of CgNa an interesting pharmacological probe to investigate the functional role of specific Na(V) channel subtypes. Moreover, further structural studies could provide important information on the molecular mechanism of Na(V) channel inactivation.

  6. 23 Na and 17O NMR studies of hyperkagome Na4Ir3O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shockley, Abigail; Bert, Fabrice; Orain, Jean-Christophe; Okamoto, Yoshihiko; Mendels, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Na4Ir3O8 is a unique case of a 3D corner sharing triangular lattice which can be decorated with quantum spins. It has spurred a lot of theoretical interest as a spin liquid candidate of a new kind where the Hamiltonian might not be thought in terms of a simple Heisenberg case because of spin orbit coupling on the Ir 5d element. We present a comprehensive set of NMR data taken on both the 23Na and 17O sites. We have found that magnetic freezing of all Ir sites sets in below Tf ~ 7.5K ~ 0 . 019 J with a clear hyperfine field transferred from Ir moments and a drastic decrease of 1 /T1 . Above Tf, physical properties are expected to be a landmark of frustration in this exotic geometry. We will discuss our shift and relaxation data in the temperature range of 300K to 7.5 K in the light of published thermodynamic measurements (Y. Okamotoa et al, PRL 99 137207, 2007 and Y. Singh et al, PRB 88 220413(R), 2013) and comment on their implications for the already existing large body of theoretical work.

  7. Structure determination in 55-atom Li-Na and Na-K nanoalloys.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Andrés; López, José M

    2010-09-07

    The structure of 55-atom Li-Na and Na-K nanoalloys is determined through combined empirical potential (EP) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The potential energy surface generated by the EP model is extensively sampled by using the basin hopping technique, and a wide diversity of structural motifs is reoptimized at the DFT level. A composition comparison technique is applied at the DFT level in order to make a final refinement of the global minimum structures. For dilute concentrations of one of the alkali atoms, the structure of the pure metal cluster, namely, a perfect Mackay icosahedron, remains stable, with the minority component atoms entering the host cluster as substitutional impurities. At intermediate concentrations, the nanoalloys adopt instead a core-shell polyicosahedral (p-Ih) packing, where the element with smaller atomic size and larger cohesive energy segregates to the cluster core. The p-Ih structures show a marked prolate deformation, in agreement with the predictions of jelliumlike models. The electronic preference for a prolate cluster shape, which is frustrated in the 55-atom pure clusters due to the icosahedral geometrical shell closing, is therefore realized only in the 55-atom nanoalloys. An analysis of the electronic densities of states suggests that photoelectron spectroscopy would be a sufficiently sensitive technique to assess the structures of nanoalloys with fixed size and varying compositions.

  8. Desensitization by external Na of the cyclic AMP-dependent Na+/H+ antiporter in trout red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Romeu, F; Motais, R; Borgese, F

    1988-04-01

    The erythrocytes of the trout, Salmo gairdneri, react to beta-adrenergic stimulation by activating a cyclic AMP-dependent and amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ antiporter (see Borgese, F., F. Garcia-Romeu, and R. Motais, Journal of General Physiology, 1986, 87:551-566). The present study traces the kinetic behavior of the unidirectional Na fluxes after stimulation by isoproterenol. A very considerable increase (100-fold) of the unidirectional Na influx (JNa(in)) follows the addition of isoproterenol to the erythrocyte suspension. After 1.5 min, JNa(in) falls suddenly, and asymptotically diminishes toward the nonstimulated flux level. The unidirectional Na efflux (JNa(out)) proceeds according to similar kinetics. The decrease of JNa(in) and JNa(out)is not linked to either a change in the driving forces of the transported ions or a decrease of the cyclic AMP concentration but to a desensitization of the Na+/H+ antiporter. This desensitization is dependent on the external Na concentration and is not controlled by internal Na, cell swelling, or external Ca.

  9. (-)-Englerin A-evoked Cytotoxicity Is Mediated by Na+ Influx and Counteracted by Na+/K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Melanie J; Gaunt, Hannah J; Rubaiy, Hussein N; Musialowski, Katie E; Blythe, Nicola M; Vasudev, Naveen S; Muraki, Katsuhiko; Beech, David J

    2017-01-13

    (-)-Englerin A ((-)-EA) has a rapid and potent cytotoxic effect on several types of cancer cell that is mediated by plasma membrane ion channels containing transient receptor potential canonical 4 (TRPC4) protein. Because these channels are Ca(2+)-permeable, it was initially thought that the cytotoxicity arose as a consequence of Ca(2+) overload. Here we show that this is not the case and that the effect of (-)-EA is mediated by a heteromer of TRPC4 and TRPC1 proteins. Both TRPC4 and TRPC1 were required for (-)-EA cytotoxicity; however, although TRPC4 was necessary for the (-)-EA-evoked Ca(2+) elevation, TRPC1 was not. TRPC1 either had no role or was a negative regulator of Ca(2+) entry. By contrast, both TRPC4 and TRPC1 were necessary for monovalent cation entry evoked by (-)-EA, and (-)-EA-evoked cell death was dependent upon entry of the monovalent cation Na(+) We therefore hypothesized that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase might act protectively by counteracting the Na(+) load resulting from sustained Na(+) entry. Indeed, inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by ouabain potently and strongly increased (-)-EA-evoked cytotoxicity. The data suggest that (-)-EA achieves cancer cell cytotoxicity by inducing sustained Na(+) entry through heteromeric TRPC1/TRPC4 channels and that the cytotoxic effect of (-)-EA can be potentiated by Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibition.

  10. Robust NaO2 Electrochemistry in Aprotic Na-O2 Batteries Employing Ethereal Electrolytes with a Protic Additive.

    PubMed

    Abate, Iwnetim I; Thompson, Leslie E; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Aetukuri, Nagaphani B

    2016-06-16

    Aprotic metal-oxygen batteries, such as Li-O2 and Na-O2 batteries, are of topical research interest as high specific energy alternatives to state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. In particular, Na-O2 batteries with NaO2 as the discharge product offer higher practical specific energy with better rechargeability and round-trip energy efficiency when compared to Li-O2 batteries. In this work, we show that the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of NaO2 in Na-O2 batteries is unperturbed by trace water impurities in Na-O2 battery electrolytes, which is desirable for practical battery applications. We find no evidence for the formation of other discharge products such as Na2O2·H2O. Furthermore, the electrochemical efficiency during charge remains near ideal in the presence of trace water in electrolytes. Although sodium anodes react with trace water leading to the formation of a high-impedance solid electrolyte interphase, the increase in discharge overpotential is only ∼100 mV when compared to cells employing nominally anhydrous electrolytes.

  11. Desensitization by external Na of the cyclic AMP-dependent Na+/H+ antiporter in trout red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The erythrocytes of the trout, Salmo gairdneri, react to beta- adrenergic stimulation by activating a cyclic AMP-dependent and amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ antiporter (see Borgese, F., F. Garcia- Romeu, and R. Motais, Journal of General Physiology, 1986, 87:551-566). The present study traces the kinetic behavior of the unidirectional Na fluxes after stimulation by isoproterenol. A very considerable increase (100-fold) of the unidirectional Na influx (JNa(in)) follows the addition of isoproterenol to the erythrocyte suspension. After 1.5 min, JNa(in) falls suddenly, and asymptotically diminishes toward the nonstimulated flux level. The unidirectional Na efflux (JNa(out)) proceeds according to similar kinetics. The decrease of JNa(in) and JNa(out)is not linked to either a change in the driving forces of the transported ions or a decrease of the cyclic AMP concentration but to a desensitization of the Na+/H+ antiporter. This desensitization is dependent on the external Na concentration and is not controlled by internal Na, cell swelling, or external Ca. PMID:2839593

  12. Hole Doping Effects on Spin-gapped Na2Cu2TeO6 via Topochemical Na Deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Kumiko; Itoh, Yutaka; Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi; Kato, Masaki; Hirota, Ken

    2006-08-01

    We report the magnetic susceptibility and NMR studies of a spin-gapped layered compound Na2Cu2TeO6 (the spin gap Δ˜ 250 K), the hole doping effect on the Cu2TeO6 plane via a topochemical Na deficiency by soft chemical treatment, and the static spin vacancy effect by nonmagnetic impurity Zn substitution for Cu. A finite Knight shift at the 125Te site was observed for pure Na2Cu2TeO6. The negative hyperfine coupling constant 125Atr is an evidence for the existence of a superexchange pathway of the Cu-O-Te-O-Cu bond. It turned out that both the Na deficiency and Zn impurities induce a Curie-type magnetism in the uniform spin susceptibility in an external magnetic field of 1 T, but only the Zn impurities enhance the low-temperature 23Na nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate whereas the Na deficiency suppresses it. A spin glass behavior was observed for the Na-deficient samples but not for the Zn-substituted samples. The dynamics of the unpaired moments of the doped holes are different from that of the spin vacancy in the spin-gapped Cu2TeO6 planes.

  13. (−)-Englerin A-evoked Cytotoxicity Is Mediated by Na+ Influx and Counteracted by Na+/K+-ATPase*

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Melanie J.; Gaunt, Hannah J.; Rubaiy, Hussein N.; Musialowski, Katie E.; Blythe, Nicola M.; Vasudev, Naveen S.; Muraki, Katsuhiko; Beech, David J.

    2017-01-01

    (−)-Englerin A ((−)-EA) has a rapid and potent cytotoxic effect on several types of cancer cell that is mediated by plasma membrane ion channels containing transient receptor potential canonical 4 (TRPC4) protein. Because these channels are Ca2+-permeable, it was initially thought that the cytotoxicity arose as a consequence of Ca2+ overload. Here we show that this is not the case and that the effect of (−)-EA is mediated by a heteromer of TRPC4 and TRPC1 proteins. Both TRPC4 and TRPC1 were required for (−)-EA cytotoxicity; however, although TRPC4 was necessary for the (−)-EA-evoked Ca2+ elevation, TRPC1 was not. TRPC1 either had no role or was a negative regulator of Ca2+ entry. By contrast, both TRPC4 and TRPC1 were necessary for monovalent cation entry evoked by (−)-EA, and (−)-EA-evoked cell death was dependent upon entry of the monovalent cation Na+. We therefore hypothesized that Na+/K+-ATPase might act protectively by counteracting the Na+ load resulting from sustained Na+ entry. Indeed, inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase by ouabain potently and strongly increased (−)-EA-evoked cytotoxicity. The data suggest that (−)-EA achieves cancer cell cytotoxicity by inducing sustained Na+ entry through heteromeric TRPC1/TRPC4 channels and that the cytotoxic effect of (−)-EA can be potentiated by Na+/K+-ATPase inhibition. PMID:27875305

  14. K+-induced natriuresis is preserved during Na+ depletion and accompanied by inhibition of the Na+-Cl- cotransporter.

    PubMed

    van der Lubbe, Nils; Moes, Arthur D; Rosenbaek, Lena L; Schoep, Sharon; Meima, Marcel E; Danser, Alexander H J; Fenton, Robert A; Zietse, Robert; Hoorn, Ewout J

    2013-10-15

    During hypovolemia and hyperkalemia, the kidneys defend homeostasis by Na(+) retention and K(+) secretion, respectively. Aldosterone mediates both effects, but it is unclear how the same hormone can evoke such different responses. To address this, we mimicked hypovolemia and hyperkalemia in four groups of rats with a control diet, low-Na(+) diet, high-K(+) diet, or combined diet. The low-Na(+) and combined diets increased plasma and kidney ANG II. The low-Na(+) and high-K(+) diets increased plasma aldosterone to a similar degree (3-fold), whereas the combined diet increased aldosterone to a greater extent (10-fold). Despite similar Na(+) intake and higher aldosterone, the high-K(+) and combined diets caused a greater natriuresis than the control and low-Na(+) diets, respectively (P < 0.001 for both). This K(+)-induced natriuresis was accompanied by a decreased abundance but not phosphorylation of the Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC). In contrast, the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) increased in parallel with aldosterone, showing the highest expression with the combined diet. The high-K(+) and combined diets also increased WNK4 but decreased Nedd4-2 in the kidney. Total and phosphorylated Ste-20-related kinase were also increased but were retained in the cytoplasm of distal convoluted tubule cells. In summary, high dietary K(+) overrides the effects of ANG II and aldosterone on NCC to deliver sufficient Na(+) to ENaC for K(+) secretion. K(+) may inhibit NCC through WNK4 and help activate ENaC through Nedd4-2.

  15. Characterization and antibacterial activity of silver exchanged regenerated NaY zeolite from surfactant-modified NaY zeolite.

    PubMed

    Salim, Mashitah Mad; Malek, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik

    2016-02-01

    The antibacterial activity of regenerated NaY zeolite (thermal treatment from cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-modified NaY zeolite and pretreatment with Na ions) loaded with silver ions were examined using the broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method against Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC 11229) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ATCC 6538). X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and chemical elemental analyses were used to characterize the regenerated NaY and AgY zeolites. The XRD patterns indicated that the calcination and addition of silver ions on regenerated NaY zeolite did not affect the structure of the regenerated NaY zeolite as the characteristic peaks of the NaY zeolite were retained, and no new peaks were observed. The regenerated AgY zeolite showed good antibacterial activity against both bacteria strains in distilled water, and the antibacterial activity of the samples increased with increasing Ag loaded on the regenerated AgY zeolite; the regenerated AgY zeolite was more effective against E. coli than S. aureus. However, the antibacterial activity of the regenerated AgY was not effective in saline solution for both bacteria. The study showed that CTAB-modified NaY zeolite materials could be regenerated to NaY zeolite using thermal treatment (550°C, 5h) and this material has excellent performance as an antibacterial agent after silver ions loading.

  16. Determinants of substrate and cation transport in the human Na+/dicarboxylate cotransporter NaDC3.

    PubMed

    Schlessinger, Avner; Sun, Nina N; Colas, Claire; Pajor, Ana M

    2014-06-13

    Metabolic intermediates, such as succinate and citrate, regulate important processes ranging from energy metabolism to fatty acid synthesis. Cytosolic concentrations of these metabolites are controlled, in part, by members of the SLC13 gene family. The molecular mechanism underlying Na(+)-coupled di- and tricarboxylate transport by this family is understood poorly. The human Na(+)/dicarboxylate cotransporter NaDC3 (SLC13A3) is found in various tissues, including the kidney, liver, and brain. In addition to citric acid cycle intermediates such as α-ketoglutarate and succinate, NaDC3 transports other compounds into cells, including N-acetyl aspartate, mercaptosuccinate, and glutathione, in keeping with its dual roles in cell nutrition and detoxification. In this study, we construct a homology structural model of NaDC3 on the basis of the structure of the Vibrio cholerae homolog vcINDY. Our computations are followed by experimental testing of the predicted NaDC3 structure and mode of interaction with various substrates. The results of this study show that the substrate and cation binding domains of NaDC3 are composed of residues in the opposing hairpin loops and unwound portions of adjacent helices. Furthermore, these results provide a possible explanation for the differential substrate specificity among dicarboxylate transporters that underpin their diverse biological roles in metabolism and detoxification. The structural model of NaDC3 provides a framework for understanding substrate selectivity and the Na(+)-coupled anion transport mechanism by the human SLC13 family and other key solute carrier transporters.

  17. Regulation of the cardiac Na+ channel NaV1.5 by post-translational modifications.

    PubMed

    Marionneau, Céline; Abriel, Hugues

    2015-05-01

    The cardiac voltage-gated Na(+) channel, Na(V)1.5, is responsible for the upstroke of the action potential in cardiomyocytes and for efficient propagation of the electrical impulse in the myocardium. Even subtle alterations of Na(V)1.5 function, as caused by mutations in its gene SCN5A, may lead to many different arrhythmic phenotypes in carrier patients. In addition, acquired malfunctions of Na(V)1.5 that are secondary to cardiac disorders such as heart failure and cardiomyopathies, may also play significant roles in arrhythmogenesis. While it is clear that the regulation of Na(V)1.5 protein expression and function tightly depends on genetic mechanisms, recent studies have demonstrated that Na(V)1.5 is the target of various post-translational modifications that are pivotal not only in physiological conditions, but also in disease. In this review, we examine the recent literature demonstrating glycosylation, phosphorylation by Protein Kinases A and C, Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent protein Kinase II, Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase, Serum- and Glucocorticoid-inducible Kinases, Fyn and Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase, methylation, acetylation, redox modifications, and ubiquitylation of Na(V)1.5. Modern and sensitive mass spectrometry approaches, applied directly to channel proteins that were purified from native cardiac tissues, have enabled the determination of the precise location of post-translational modification sites, thus providing essential information for understanding the mechanistic details of these regulations. The current challenge is first, to understand the roles of these modifications on the expression and the function of Na(V)1.5, and second, to further identify other chemical modifications. It is postulated that the diversity of phenotypes observed with Na(V)1.5-dependent disorders may partially arise from the complex post-translational modifications of channel protein components.

  18. Beyond lithium-ion batteries: A computational study on Na-S and Na-O batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masedi, M. C.; Ngoepe, P. E.; Sithole, H. M.

    2017-02-01

    The first principle pseudopotential calculations based on the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) form of generalized gradient approximation (GGA) within density functional theory (DFT) has been utilized to investigate the stabilities of insoluble discharge products of oxygen and sulphur in the Na-O and Na-S batteries. Their structural, mechanical and electronic properties were determined. The lattice parameters were well reproduced and agree with the available experimental data. The heats of formation predict that all structures are generally stable and Na2S has the lowest value. The elastic constants suggest that all the structures are mechanically stable which in good agreement with the calculated phonon dispersions.

  19. Infrared and SEM analyses of polyethyleneglycol-400 adsorbed on zeolites NaA, CaA, NaX and NaY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztürk, Nuri; Ucun, Fatih; Didem Muhtar, A.; Bahçeli, Semiha

    2009-03-01

    The adsorption of polyethyleneglycol-400 (PEG-400) on zeolites NaA, CaA, NaX and NaY have been investigated by using FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analyses. The spectral data have indicated that the source of adsorption of the PEG-400 on the mentioned zeolites is the interaction between the (OH) group of the liquid adsorbent and the surface silanol groups of the zeolites by means of a hydrogen bond. Shortly, the PEG binds with the silanol groups through the hydrogen bonding where the ethereal oxygen acts as a hydrogen bond accepter. A part of the PEG molecule remains adsorbed on the surface and the rest part remains protruded. So, the most of the silanol groups on the zeolites are masked by the PEG-400.

  20. A Comparative Investigation on the JT Effect in Triangular Compounds of NaMnO2, NaNiO2 and NaTiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Sheng-De; Quan, Ya-Min; Liu, Da-Yong; Zou, Liang-Jian

    2011-06-01

    We present a study on the Jahn—Teller (JT) distortions of the TiO6, NiO6 and MnO6 complexes in NaTiO2, NaNiO2 and NaMnO2 triangular compounds with a C2/m structure. The JT vibronic normal modes are found to be Q3, Q'4 and Q6 by the group symmetry on the C2/m structure. The magnitude of the normal coordinates (Q3, Q'4, Q6) and the structural parameters of distorted octahedra MO6 (M=Ti, Ni, Mn) are obtained and in good agreement with experimental data. The energy level splitting of 3d orbitals and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) character in the MO6 complex are also calculated in accordance with the JT distortions. These results provide a first insight into the groundstate and magnetic properties of distorted triangular compounds AMO2.