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Sample records for fibroblast cell strains

  1. Effects of mechanical strain on human mesenchymal stem cells and ligament fibroblasts in a textured poly(L-lactide) scaffold for ligament tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kreja, Ludwika; Liedert, Astrid; Schlenker, Heiter; Brenner, Rolf E; Fiedler, Jörg; Friemert, Benedikt; Dürselen, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove the effect of cyclic uniaxial intermittent strain on the mRNA expression of ligament-specific marker genes in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and anterior cruciate ligament-derived fibroblasts (ACL-fibroblasts) seeded onto a novel textured poly(L-lactide) scaffold (PLA scaffold). Cell-seeded scaffolds were mechanically stimulated by cyclic uniaxial stretching. The expression of ligament matrix gene markers: collagen types I and III, fibronectin, tenascin C and decorin, as well as the proteolytic enzymes matrix metalloproteinase MMP-1 and MMP-2 and their tissue specific inhibitors TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was investigated by analysing the mRNA expression using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and related to the static control. In ACL-fibroblasts seeded on PLA, mechanical load induced up-regulation of collagen types I and III, fibronectin and tenascin C. No effect of mechanical stimulation on the expression of ligament marker genes was found in undifferentiated MSC seeded on PLA. The results indicated that the new textured PLA scaffold could transfer the mechanical load to the ACL-fibroblasts and improved their ligament phenotype. This scaffold might be suitable as a cell-carrying component of ACL prostheses.

  2. Immortalized tumor derived rat fibroblasts as feeder cells facilitate the cultivation of male embryonic stem cells from the rat strain WKY/Ztm.

    PubMed

    Zschemisch, Nils-Holger; Eisenblätter, Regina; Rudolph, Cornelia; Glage, Silke; Dorsch, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Feeder cells are essential for the establishment and culture of pluripotent rat embryonic stem cells (ESC) in vitro. Therefore, we tested several fibroblast and epithelial cell lines derived from the female genital tract as feeder cells to further improve ESC culture conditions. The immortalized tumor derived rat fibroblast TRF-O3 cells isolated from a Dnd1-deficient teratoma were identified as optimal feeder cells supporting stemness and proliferation of rat ESC. The TRF-O3 cells were characterized as myofibroblasts by expression of fibroblast specific genes alpha-2 type I collagen, collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase alpha (II), vimentin, S100A4, and smooth muscle α-actin. Culture of inner cell masses (ICM) derived from WKY/Ztm rat blastocysts in 2i-LIF medium on TRF-O3 feeder cells lacking LIF, SCF and FGF2 expression resulted in pluripotent and germ-line competent rat ESC lines. Therein, genotyping confirmed up to 26% male ESC lines. On the other hand the TRF-O3 specific BMP4 expression was correlated with transcriptional activity of the mesodermal marker T-brachyury and the ectoderm specific nestin in the ESC line ES21 demonstrating mesodermal or ectodermal cell lineage differentiation processes within the ESC population. Substitution of 2i-LIF by serum-containing YPAC medium supplemented with TGF-β and rho kinase inhibitors or by 4i medium in combination with TRF-O3 feeder cells led to enhanced differentiation of ES21 cells and freshly isolated ICMs. These results suggest that the ESC culture conditions using TRF-O3 feeder cells and 2i-LIF medium supported the establishment of male ESC lines from WKY/Ztm rats, which represent a favored, permissive genetic background for rat ESC culture. PMID:25332888

  3. Engineering human neo-tendon tissue in vitro with human dermal fibroblasts under static mechanical strain.

    PubMed

    Deng, Dan; Liu, Wei; Xu, Feng; Yang, Yang; Zhou, Guangdong; Zhang, Wen Jie; Cui, Lei; Cao, Yilin

    2009-12-01

    Proper cell source is one of the key issues for tendon engineering. Our previous study showed that dermal fibroblasts could be used to successfully engineer tendon in vivo and tenocytes could engineer neo-tendon in vitro with static strain. This study further investigated the possibility of engineering human neo-tendon tissue in vitro using dermal fibroblasts. Human dermal fibroblasts were seeded on polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibers pre-fixed on a U-shape as a mechanical loading group, or simply cultured in a dish as a tension-free group. In addition, human tenocytes were also seeded on PGA fibers with tension as a comparison to human dermal fibroblasts. The results showed that human neo-tendon tissue could be generated using dermal fibroblasts during in vitro culture under static strain and the tissue structure became more mature with the increase of culture time. Longitudinally aligned collagen fibers and spindle shape cells were observed histologically and collagen fibril diameter and tensile strength increased with time and reached a peak at 14 weeks. In contrast, the dermal fibroblast-PGA constructs failed to form neo-tendon, but formed disorganized fibrous tissue in tension-free condition with significantly weaker strength and poor collagen fiber formation. Interestingly, neo-tendon tissues generated with human dermal fibroblasts were indistinguishable from the counterpart engineered with human tenocytes, which supports the viewpoint that human dermal fibroblasts is likely to replace tenocytes for future tendon graft development in vitro with dynamic mechanical loading in a bioreactor system.

  4. Relationship between DNA double-strand break rejoining and cell survival after exposure to ionizing radiation in human fibroblast strains with differing ATM/p53 status: Implications for evaluation of clinical radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzayans, Razmik; Severin, Diane; Murray, David . E-mail: davem@cancerboard.ab.ca

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: To better understand the impact of defects in the DNA damage-surveillance network on the various cell-based assays used for the prediction of patient radiosensitivity. Methods and Materials: We examined noncancerous human fibroblast strains from individuals with ataxia telangiectasia (ataxia telangiectasia mutated [ATM] deficient) or Li-Fraumeni syndrome (p53 deficient) using the neutral comet, H2AX phosphorylation, and clonogenic survival assays. Results: Using the comet assay, we found that, compared with normal fibroblasts, cells lacking either ATM or p53 function exhibited a reduced rate of double-strand break (DSB) rejoining early ({<=}4 h) after exposure to 8 Gy of {gamma}-radiation and also exhibited high levels of unrejoined DSBs later after irradiation. ATM-deficient and p53-deficient fibroblasts also exhibited abnormally increased levels of phosphorylated H2AX ({gamma}-H2AX) at later intervals after irradiation. In the clonogenic assay, ATM-deficient cells exhibited marked radiosensitivity and p53-deficient cells had varying degrees of radioresistance compared with normal fibroblasts. Conclusion: Regardless of whether ataxia telangiectasia and Li-Fraumeni syndrome fibroblasts are DSB-repair deficient per se, it is apparent that p53 and ATM defects greatly influence the cellular phenotype as evidenced by the neutral comet and {gamma}-H2AX assays. Our data suggest that the {gamma}-H2AX levels observed at later intervals after irradiation may represent a reliable measure of the overall DSB rejoining capabilities of human fibroblasts. However, it appears that using this parameter as a predictor of radiosensitivity without knowledge of the cells' p53 status could lead to incorrect conclusions.

  5. Mechanical strain applied to human fibroblasts differentially regulates skeletal myoblast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Michael R.; Cao, Thanh V.; Campbell, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic short-duration stretches (CSDS) such as those resulting from repetitive motion strain increase the risk of musculoskeletal injury. Myofascial release is a common technique used by clinicians that applies an acyclic long-duration stretch (ALDS) to muscle fascia to repair injury. When subjected to mechanical strain, fibroblasts within muscle fascia secrete IL-6, which has been shown to induce myoblast differentiation, essential for muscle repair. We hypothesize that fibroblasts subjected to ALDS following CSDS induce myoblast differentiation through IL-6. Fibroblast conditioned media and fibroblast-myoblast cocultures were used to test fibroblasts' ability to induce myoblast differentiation. The coculture system applies strain to fibroblasts only but still allows for diffusion of potential differentiation mediators to unstrained myoblasts on coverslips. To determine the role of IL-6, we utilized myoblast unicultures ± IL-6 (0–100 ng/ml) and cocultures ± α-IL-6 (0–200 μg/ml). Untreated uniculture myoblasts served as a negative control. After 96 h, coverslips (n = 6–21) were microscopically analyzed and quantified by blinded observer for differentiation endpoints: myotubes per square millimeter (>3 nuclei/cell), nuclei/myotube, and fusion efficiency (%nuclei within myotubes). The presence of fibroblasts and fibroblast conditioned media significantly enhanced myotube number (P < 0.05). However, in coculture, CSDS applied to fibroblasts did not reproduce this effect. ALDS following CSDS increased myotube number by 78% and fusion efficiency by 96% vs. CSDS alone (P < 0.05). Fibroblasts in coculture increase IL-6 secretion; however, IL-6 secretion did not correlate with enhanced differentiation among strain groups. Exogenous IL-6 in myoblast uniculture failed to induce differentiation. However, α-IL-6 attenuated differentiation in all coculture groups (P < 0.05). Fibroblasts secrete soluble mediators that have profound effects on several measures of

  6. Mechanical strain applied to human fibroblasts differentially regulates skeletal myoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Michael R; Cao, Thanh V; Campbell, David H; Standley, Paul R

    2012-08-01

    Cyclic short-duration stretches (CSDS) such as those resulting from repetitive motion strain increase the risk of musculoskeletal injury. Myofascial release is a common technique used by clinicians that applies an acyclic long-duration stretch (ALDS) to muscle fascia to repair injury. When subjected to mechanical strain, fibroblasts within muscle fascia secrete IL-6, which has been shown to induce myoblast differentiation, essential for muscle repair. We hypothesize that fibroblasts subjected to ALDS following CSDS induce myoblast differentiation through IL-6. Fibroblast conditioned media and fibroblast-myoblast cocultures were used to test fibroblasts' ability to induce myoblast differentiation. The coculture system applies strain to fibroblasts only but still allows for diffusion of potential differentiation mediators to unstrained myoblasts on coverslips. To determine the role of IL-6, we utilized myoblast unicultures ± IL-6 (0-100 ng/ml) and cocultures ± α-IL-6 (0-200 μg/ml). Untreated uniculture myoblasts served as a negative control. After 96 h, coverslips (n = 6-21) were microscopically analyzed and quantified by blinded observer for differentiation endpoints: myotubes per square millimeter (>3 nuclei/cell), nuclei/myotube, and fusion efficiency (%nuclei within myotubes). The presence of fibroblasts and fibroblast conditioned media significantly enhanced myotube number (P < 0.05). However, in coculture, CSDS applied to fibroblasts did not reproduce this effect. ALDS following CSDS increased myotube number by 78% and fusion efficiency by 96% vs. CSDS alone (P < 0.05). Fibroblasts in coculture increase IL-6 secretion; however, IL-6 secretion did not correlate with enhanced differentiation among strain groups. Exogenous IL-6 in myoblast uniculture failed to induce differentiation. However, α-IL-6 attenuated differentiation in all coculture groups (P < 0.05). Fibroblasts secrete soluble mediators that have profound effects on several measures of myoblast

  7. Scleroderma fibroblasts show increased responsiveness to endothelial cell-derived IL-1 and bFGF.

    PubMed

    Denton, C P; Xu, S; Black, C M; Pearson, J D

    1997-03-01

    Fibroblasts cultured from lesional skin in scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) demonstrate an activated phenotype that may be important in pathogenesis. Endothelial cell-derived cytokines can modulate fibroblast properties, and endothelial cell changes occur early in scleroderma. Thus, endothelial cell and fibroblast dysfunction may be linked through the paracrine activity of soluble endothelial cell products. We have explored endothelial cell-fibroblast interactions in vitro by investigating the modulation of scleroderma and control fibroblast properties by endothelial cell-conditioned medium (EC-CM). EC-CM caused a concentration-dependent stimulation of fibroblast DNA and protein synthesis and upregulation of cell surface ICAM-1 expression. Scleroderma fibroblasts showed consistently greater responses than control cells. Medium conditioned by mechanically wounded endothelial cells had a greater effect than that from resting endothelial cells. Pre-incubation of EC-CM with anti-bFGF significantly reduced the promotion of fibroblast thymidine incorporation but did not affect endothelial cell-induced leucine incorporation. Conversely, anti-IL-1 antibodies abrogated EC-CM-induced leucine incorporation and ICAM-1 expression but did not diminish thymidine incorporation. Recombinant bFGF or IL-1 modulated fibroblast properties similarly. These data demonstrate that endothelial cell-derived IL-1 and bFGF modulate fibroblast properties independently and that lesional scleroderma strains are more responsive than control fibroblasts to endothelial cell-induced modulation, which supports the hypothesis that altered endothelial cell-fibroblast communication may be involved in the pathogenesis of scleroderma.

  8. Mechanical Strain Causes Adaptive Change in Bronchial Fibroblasts Enhancing Profibrotic and Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Manuyakorn, Wiparat; Smart, David E.; Noto, Antonio; Bucchieri, Fabio; Haitchi, Hans Michael; Holgate, Stephen T.; Howarth, Peter H.; Davies, Donna E.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by periodic episodes of bronchoconstriction and reversible airway obstruction; these symptoms are attributable to a number of factors including increased mass and reactivity of bronchial smooth muscle and extracellular matrix (ECM) in asthmatic airways. Literature has suggested changes in cell responses and signaling can be elicited via modulation of mechanical stress acting upon them, potentially affecting the microenvironment of the cell. In this study, we hypothesized that mechanical strain directly affects the (myo)fibroblast phenotype in asthma. Therefore, we characterized responses of bronchial fibroblasts, from 6 normal and 11 asthmatic non-smoking volunteers, exposed to cyclical mechanical strain using flexible silastic membranes. Samples were analyzed for proteoglycans, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), collagens I and III, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 & 9 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) by qRT-PCR, Western blot, zymography and ELISA. Mechanical strain caused a decrease in αSMA mRNA but no change in either αSMA protein or proteoglycan expression. In contrast the inflammatory mediator IL-8, MMPs and interstitial collagens were increased at both the transcriptional and protein level. The results demonstrate an adaptive response of bronchial fibroblasts to mechanical strain, irrespective of donor. The adaptation involves cytoskeletal rearrangement, matrix remodelling and inflammatory cytokine release. These results suggest that mechanical strain could contribute to disease progression in asthma by promoting inflammation and remodelling responses. PMID:27101406

  9. Comparing biocompatibility of gingival fibroblasts and bacterial strains on a different modified titanium discs.

    PubMed

    Franková, Jana; Pivodová, Veronika; Růžička, Filip; Tománková, Kateřina; Šafářová, Klára; Vrbková, Jana; Ulrichová, Jitka

    2013-10-01

    The modification of implant surface situated in the area of peri-implant sulcus has important role in bacterial and cell adhesion. Six different chemically and physically modified titanium discs were prepared: glazed (Tis-MALP), unglazed (Tis-O), unglazed and alkali-etched (Tis-OA), unglazed and coated with ZrN (Tis-OZ), unglazed, sand blasted, and acid etched (Tis-OPAE), and unglazed, sand blasted, acid, and alkali etched (Tis-OPAAE). Analysis of surface topography was determined using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Biocompatibility of gingival fibroblasts was characterized by the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, collagen I, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24 and 72 h and expression of α3 β1 integrin and vinculin using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or modified ELISA after 6 and 24 h. Microorganism adhesion (five bacterial strains) and biofilm formation was also evaluated. The adhesion of bacteria and gingival fibroblasts was significantly higher on titanium disc Tis-OPAAE and biofilm formation on the same surface for Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii, and Streptococcus intermedius. The gingival fibroblasts on Tis-OPAAE disc had also significantly lower production of MMP-2. The collagen production was significantly lower on all surfaces with roughness higher than 0.2 μm. This study confirmed that the titanium disc with the surface roughness 3.39 μm (Tis-OPAAE) supported the adhesion of bacterial strains as well as gingival fibroblasts.

  10. Growth and infectivity assays of the Israeli vaccine strain of fowl poxvirus in chicken embryo fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Hashavya, Saar; Barchichat, Sabrina; Katz, Ehud

    2002-01-01

    The Israeli vaccine strain of fowl poxvirus grows efficiently in chicken embryo fibroblasts but not in cell lines derived from monkey kidney or human fibroblasts. We developed two assays for the titration of the infectivity of this virus in secondary cultures of chicken embryo fibroblasts. The first is a focus assay, in which minimum essential medium and SeaKem ME agarose were used for the overlay media. Under these conditions, clear virus foci appeared after 5 days of incubation at 37 C. The second assay is a semiautomatic colorimetric test based on the ability of live cells in culture to reduce the yellow tetrazolium salt 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT; thiazolyl blue) to its formazan derivative. The reagent was added to infected chicken embryo fibroblasts in 96-well plates 10 days after infection. The formazan formed during 2 hr was extracted with dimethyl sulfoxide, and its absorbance was read by an automatic microplate spectrophotometer. A good correlation of the infectivity titers of the virus was obtained by the two methods.

  11. Effects of Mechanical Stretch on Cell Proliferation and Matrix Formation of Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Fibroblast

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Ling; Zhu, Rui; Li, Hongguo; Xue, Yingsen; Liu, Xincheng

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and fibroblasts are two major seed cells for ligament tissue engineering. To understand the effects of mechanical stimulation on these cells and to develop effective approaches for cell therapy, it is necessary to investigate the biological effects of various mechanical loading conditions on cells. In this study, fibroblasts and MSCs were tested and compared under a novel Uniflex/Bioflex culture system that might mimic mechanical strain in ligament tissue. The cells were uniaxially or radially stretched with different strains (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 Hz. The cell proliferation and collagen production were compared to find the optimal parameters. The results indicated that uniaxial stretch (15% at 0.5 Hz; 10% at 1.0 Hz) showed positive effects on fibroblast. The uniaxial strains (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 0.5 Hz and 10% strain at 1.0 Hz were favorable for MSCs. Radial strain did not have significant effect on fibroblast. On the contrary, the radial strains (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 0.1 Hz had positive effects on MSCs. This study suggested that fibroblasts and MSCs had their own appropriate mechanical stimulatory parameters. These specific parameters potentially provide fundamental knowledge for future cell-based ligament regeneration. PMID:27525012

  12. Cyclic Stress at mHz Frequencies Aligns Fibroblasts in Direction of Zero Strain

    PubMed Central

    Rubner, Wolfgang; Kirchgeßner, Norbert; Safran, Sam; Hoffmann, Bernd; Merkel, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of external mechanical signals is vital for mammalian cells. Cyclic stretch, e.g. around blood vessels, is one such signal that induces cell reorientation from parallel to almost perpendicular to the direction of stretch. Here, we present quantitative analyses of both, cell and cytoskeletal reorientation of umbilical cord fibroblasts. Cyclic strain of preset amplitudes was applied at mHz frequencies. Elastomeric chambers were specifically designed and characterized to distinguish between zero strain and minimal stress directions and to allow accurate theoretical modeling. Reorientation was only induced when the applied stretch exceeded a specific amplitude, suggesting a non-linear response. However, on very soft substrates no mechanoresponse occurs even for high strain. For all stretch amplitudes, the angular distributions of reoriented cells are in very good agreement with a theory modeling stretched cells as active force dipoles. Cyclic stretch increases the number of stress fibers and the coupling to adhesions. We show that changes in cell shape follow cytoskeletal reorientation with a significant temporal delay. Our data identify the importance of environmental stiffness for cell reorientation, here in direction of zero strain. These in vitro experiments on cultured cells argue for the necessity of rather stiff environmental conditions to induce cellular reorientation in mammalian tissues. PMID:22194961

  13. Assessment of Retrograde Coronary Venous Infusion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Combined with Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor in Canine Myocardial Infarction Using Strain Values Derived from Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi-Wei; Zhen, Lei; Wang, Qin; Sun, Yan; Yang, Jiao; Li, Yi-Jia; Li, Rong-Juan; Ma, Ning; Li, Zhi-An; Wang, Lu-Ya; Nie, Shao-Ping; Yang, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Speckle-tracking echocardiography was used to assess retrograde coronary venous infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in a canine model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). AMI was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Coronary venous retroperfusion was performed at 1 wk after AMI. Twenty-eight animals were randomized into four groups: saline, bFGF+saline, saline+MSCs and bFGF+MSCs. Echocardiography was performed before AMI, at 7 d post-AMI and 40 d after retroperfusion. Apoptotic cardiomyocytes in the border zone of the ischemic region were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling. Vascular endothelial growth factor and factor VIII concentrations were measured by western blotting. The left ventricular end-systolic volume increased significantly, whereas the left ventricular ejection fraction and global and segmental strain values decreased significantly after AMI. After retroperfusion, the strain values of the infarct zone, but not conventional echocardiographic parameters, were significantly different between control and bFGF+MSC groups. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis decreased, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor and factor VIII concentrations were higher in the bFGF+MSC, bFGF and MSC groups. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was well correlated with the strain values. Although retrograde coronary venous infusion of bFGF and MSCs promoted neo-vascularization of the infarcted myocardium and inhibited apoptosis, there was only a slight strain improvement without a substantial increase in global cardiac functions.

  14. Induced pluripotent stem cells from goat fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Li, Hui; Huang, Mingrui; Xu, Dan; Gu, Chenghao; Wang, Ziyu; Dong, Fulu; Wang, Feng

    2013-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a powerful model for genetic engineering, studying developmental biology, and modeling disease. To date, ESCs have been established from the mouse (Evans and Kaufman, 1981, Nature 292:154-156), non-human primates (Thomson et al., , Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 92:7844-7848), humans (Thomson et al., 1998, Science 282:1145-1147), and rats (Buehr et al., , Cell 135:1287-1298); however, the derivation of ESCs from domesticated ungulates such as goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs have not been successful. Alternatively, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated by reprogramming somatic cells with several combinations of genes encoding transcription factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, LIN28, and NANOG). To date, iPSCs have been isolated from various species, but only limited information is available regarding goat iPSCs (Ren et al., 2011, Cell Res 21:849-853). The objectives of this study were to generate goat iPSCs from fetal goat primary ear fibroblasts using lentiviral transduction of four human transcription factors: OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC. The goat iPSCs were successfully generated by co-culture with mitomycin C-treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts using medium supplemented with knockout serum replacement and human basic fibroblast growth factor. The goat iPSCs colonies are flat, compact, and closely resemble human iPSCs. They have a normal karyotype; stain positive for alkaline phosphatase, OCT4, and NANOG; express endogenous pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, cMYC, and NANOG); and can spontaneously differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24123501

  15. Induced pluripotent stem cells from goat fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Li, Hui; Huang, Mingrui; Xu, Dan; Gu, Chenghao; Wang, Ziyu; Dong, Fulu; Wang, Feng

    2013-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a powerful model for genetic engineering, studying developmental biology, and modeling disease. To date, ESCs have been established from the mouse (Evans and Kaufman, 1981, Nature 292:154-156), non-human primates (Thomson et al., , Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 92:7844-7848), humans (Thomson et al., 1998, Science 282:1145-1147), and rats (Buehr et al., , Cell 135:1287-1298); however, the derivation of ESCs from domesticated ungulates such as goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs have not been successful. Alternatively, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated by reprogramming somatic cells with several combinations of genes encoding transcription factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, LIN28, and NANOG). To date, iPSCs have been isolated from various species, but only limited information is available regarding goat iPSCs (Ren et al., 2011, Cell Res 21:849-853). The objectives of this study were to generate goat iPSCs from fetal goat primary ear fibroblasts using lentiviral transduction of four human transcription factors: OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC. The goat iPSCs were successfully generated by co-culture with mitomycin C-treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts using medium supplemented with knockout serum replacement and human basic fibroblast growth factor. The goat iPSCs colonies are flat, compact, and closely resemble human iPSCs. They have a normal karyotype; stain positive for alkaline phosphatase, OCT4, and NANOG; express endogenous pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, cMYC, and NANOG); and can spontaneously differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Identification of Human Fibroblast Cell Lines as a Feeder Layer for Human Corneal Epithelial Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Rong; Bian, Fang; Lin, Jing; Su, Zhitao; Qu, Yangluowa; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Li, De-Quan

    2012-01-01

    There is a great interest in using epithelium generated in vitro for tissue bioengineering. Mouse 3T3 fibroblasts have been used as a feeder layer to cultivate human epithelia including corneal epithelial cells for more than 3 decades. To avoid the use of xeno-components, we evaluated human fibroblasts as an alternative feeder supporting human corneal epithelial regeneration. Five human fibroblast cell lines were used for evaluation with mouse 3T3 fibroblasts as a control. Human epithelial cells isolated from fresh corneal limbal tissue were seeded on these feeders. Colony forming efficiency (CFE) and cell growth capacity were evaluated on days 5–14. The phenotype of the regenerated epithelia was evaluated by morphology and immunostaining with epithelial markers. cDNA microarray was used to analyze the gene expression profile of the supportive human fibroblasts. Among 5 strains of human fibroblasts evaluated, two newborn foreskin fibroblast cell lines, Hs68 and CCD1112Sk, were identified to strongly support human corneal epithelial growth. Tested for 10 passages, these fibroblasts continually showed a comparative efficiency to the 3T3 feeder layer for CFE and growth capacity of human corneal epithelial cells. Limbal epithelial cells seeded at 1×104 in a 35-mm dish (9.6 cm2) grew to confluence (about 1.87–2.41×106 cells) in 12–14 days, representing 187–241 fold expansion with over 7–8 doublings on these human feeders. The regenerated epithelia expressed K3, K12, connexin 43, p63, EGFR and integrin β1, resembling the phenotype of human corneal epithelium. DNA microarray revealed 3 up-regulated and 10 down-regulated genes, which may be involved in the functions of human fibroblast feeders. These findings demonstrate that commercial human fibroblast cell lines support human corneal epithelial regeneration, and have potential use in tissue bioengineering for corneal reconstruction. PMID:22723892

  17. Insertional Inactivation of eap in Staphylococcus aureus Strain Newman Confers Reduced Staphylococcal Binding to Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Muzaffar; Haggar, Axana; Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg; Flock, Jan-Ingmar; Herrmann, Mathias

    2002-01-01

    To initiate invasive infection, Staphylococcus aureus must adhere to host substrates, such as the extracellular matrix or eukaryotic cells, by virtue of different surface proteins (adhesins). Recently, we identified a 60-kDa cell-secreted extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of S. aureus strain Newman with broad-spectrum binding characteristics (M. Palma, A. Haggar, and J. I. Flock, J. Bacteriol. 181:2840-2845, 1999), and we have molecularly confirmed Eap to be an analogue of the previously identified major histocompatibility complex class II analog protein (Map) (M. Hussain, K. Becker, C. von Eiff, G. Peter, and M. Herrmann, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 8:1281-1286, 2001). Previous analyses of the Eap/Map function performed with purified protein did not allow dissection of its precise role in the complex situation of the staphylococcal whole cell presenting several secreted and wall-bound adhesins. Therefore, the role of Eap was investigated by constructing a stable eap::ermB deletion in strain Newman and by complementation of the mutant. Patterns of extracted cell surface proteins analyzed both by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by Western ligand assays with various adhesive matrix molecules clearly confirmed the absence of Eap in the mutant. However, binding and adhesion tests using whole staphylococcal cells demonstrated that both the parent and mutant strains bound equally well to fibronectin- and fibrinogen-coated surfaces, possibly due to their recognition by other staphylococcal adhesins. Furthermore, Eap mediated staphylococcal agglutination of both wild-type and mutant cells. In contrast, the mutant adhered to a significantly lesser extent to cultured fibroblasts (P < 0.001) than did the wild type, while adherence was restorable upon complementation. Furthermore, adherence to both epithelial cells (P < 0.05) and fibroblasts (not significant) could be blocked with antibodies against Eap, whereas preimmune serum was not active

  18. Insertional inactivation of Eap in Staphylococcus aureus strain Newman confers reduced staphylococcal binding to fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Muzaffar; Haggar, Axana; Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg; Flock, Jan-Ingmar; Herrmann, Mathias

    2002-06-01

    To initiate invasive infection, Staphylococcus aureus must adhere to host substrates, such as the extracellular matrix or eukaryotic cells, by virtue of different surface proteins (adhesins). Recently, we identified a 60-kDa cell-secreted extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of S. aureus strain Newman with broad-spectrum binding characteristics (M. Palma, A. Haggar, and J. I. Flock, J. Bacteriol. 181:2840-2845, 1999), and we have molecularly confirmed Eap to be an analogue of the previously identified major histocompatibility complex class II analog protein (Map) (M. Hussain, K. Becker, C. von Eiff, G. Peter, and M. Herrmann, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 8:1281-1286, 2001). Previous analyses of the Eap/Map function performed with purified protein did not allow dissection of its precise role in the complex situation of the staphylococcal whole cell presenting several secreted and wall-bound adhesins. Therefore, the role of Eap was investigated by constructing a stable eap::ermB deletion in strain Newman and by complementation of the mutant. Patterns of extracted cell surface proteins analyzed both by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by Western ligand assays with various adhesive matrix molecules clearly confirmed the absence of Eap in the mutant. However, binding and adhesion tests using whole staphylococcal cells demonstrated that both the parent and mutant strains bound equally well to fibronectin- and fibrinogen-coated surfaces, possibly due to their recognition by other staphylococcal adhesins. Furthermore, Eap mediated staphylococcal agglutination of both wild-type and mutant cells. In contrast, the mutant adhered to a significantly lesser extent to cultured fibroblasts (P < 0.001) than did the wild type, while adherence was restorable upon complementation. Furthermore, adherence to both epithelial cells (P < 0.05) and fibroblasts (not significant) could be blocked with antibodies against Eap, whereas preimmune serum was not active

  19. Adherence of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains to human lung fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Martin, D; Mathieu, L G; Lecomte, J; deRepentigny, J

    1986-01-01

    The adherence to eukaryotic cells of Escherichia coli, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and the yeast Candida albicans was studied by light microscopy with an in vitro micromethod involving different cell lines. The method is inexpensive, consumes little time and material, and is reproducible. It was used to show that the gram-positive Cowan I strain of S. aureus, which naturally forms protein A on its surface, adheres in much larger numbers to human lung fibroblasts than the protein A-free Wood 46 strain, the strain of S. epidermidis, and the encapsulated Smith strain. The presence of a capsule on the latter strain apparently prevented its attachment to the fibroblasts. Among the gram-negative species studied, a piliated clinical isolate of N. gonorrhoeae, displaying the opaque colonial phenotype, adhered in larger numbers than another isolate lacking pili and displaying the transparent phenotype. E. coli K12 attached slightly to the cell line, whereas P. aeruginosa adhered to it moderately. One strain of C. albicans tested did not attach in any detectable numbers. No clear correlation between bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity, as evaluated by the hexadecane assay, and adherence to eukaryotic cells could be demonstrated for these microorganisms. With our method, bacterial attachment proceeded best at 37 degrees C and did not require more than 1 h of contact with the cell monolayer. The method described revealed differences in the adherence to eukaryotic cells, not only among species, but also between strains of the same species.

  20. Lack of complementation in somatic cell hybrids between fibroblasts from patients with different forms of cystinosis

    SciTech Connect

    Pellett, O.L.; Smith, M.L.; Greene, A.A.; Schneider, J.A. )

    1988-05-01

    Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive disease in which three clinical forms are recognized: infantile nephropathic, with renal tubular damage by 1 year of age and progressive glomerular insufficiency; intermediate, with tubular and glomerular insufficiency beginning at a later age; benign, with no kidney damage. Skin fibroblasts cultured from patients with all types of cystinosis show increased intralysosomal free (nonprotein) cystine; however, fibroblasts from heterozygotes have normal free-cystine values. To determine whether genetic complementation occurs between the different forms, somatic cell hybrids were constructed between cells from a patient with infantile nephropathic cystinosis and cells from patients with other types of cystinosis. If complementation occurred, the hybrids would be expected to have normal cystine levels. To construct hybrid cells, a universal parent cell type (TG1-neo), which was hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine (HAT) sensitive and G418 resistant was constructed from an infantile nephropathic cystinosis fibroblast strain. Polyethylene glycol fusion of TG1-neo with other cells that are not HAT sensitive or G418 resistant allowed for selection of hybrid cells in a medium containing HAT and the aminoglycoside G418. As indicated by elevated cystine levels, complementation did not occur between TG1-neo and two different benign cystinosis strains, an intermediate cystinosis strain, or another nephropathic cystinosis cell strain. When a normal fibroblast strain was fused with TG1-neo, all 15 hybrid clones studied contained normal amounts of intracellular free cystine.

  1. Transforming growth factor-beta reverses a posttranscriptional defect in elastin synthesis in a cutis laxa skin fibroblast strain.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, M C; Giro, M; Quaglino, D; Davidson, J M

    1995-01-01

    Skin fibroblasts from two cases of autosomal recessive cutis laxa (CL), having insignificant elastin production and mRNA levels, were challenged with transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta 1). Elastin production was brought from undetectable values to amounts typical of normal human skin fibroblasts in a dose-dependent fashion. Basic fibroblast growth factor (100 ng/ml) alone or in combination with TGF-beta 1 reduced elastin production and mRNA expression in CL skin fibroblasts more extensively than in normal cells. In situ hybridization showed that these effects were at the transcript level. One of the CL strains was examined in detail. Transcription rates for elastin were similar in normal and CL and unchanged by TGF-beta 1 or TGF-beta 2 (10 ng/ml), while in CL elastin mRNA half-life was increased > 10-fold by TGF-beta 2 and reduced 6-fold after TGF-beta 2 withdrawal, as compared with a control strain. Cycloheximide partially reversed elastin mRNA instability. These data are consistent with a defect in elastin mRNA stability that requires synthesis of labile factors or intact translational machinery, resulting in an extremely low steady state level of mRNA present in this strain of CL. Furthermore, TGF-beta can relieve elastin mRNA instability in at least one CL strain and elastin production defects in both CL strains. Images PMID:7884000

  2. Dermal Aged and Fetal Fibroblasts Realign in Response to Mechanical Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Christine; Grymes, Rose; Alvarez, Teresa (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Integrins specifically recognize and bind extracellular matrix components, providing physical anchor points and functional setpoints. Focal adhesion complexes, containing integrin and cytoskeletal proteins, are potential mechanoreceptors, poised to distribute applied forces through the cytoskeleton. Pursuing the hypothesis that cells both perceive and respond to external force, we applied a stretch/relaxation regimen to normal human fetal and aged dermal fibroblast monolayers cultured on flexible membranes. The frequency and magnitude of the applied force is precisely controlled by the Flexercell Unit(Trademark). A protocol of stretch (20% elongation of the monolayer) at a frequency of 6 cycles/min caused a progressive change from a randomly distributed pattern of cells to a symmetric, radial distribution with cells aligned parallel to the applied force. We have coined the term 'orienteering' as the process of active alignment of cells in response to applied force. Cytochalasin D was added in graded doses to investigate the role of the actin cytoskeleton in force perception and transmission. A clear dose response was found; at high concentrations orienteering was abolished; and the drug's impact was reversible. The two cell strains used were similar in their alignment behavior and in their responses to cytochalasin D. Orienteering was influenced by cell density, and the cell strains studied differed in this respect. Fetal cells, unlike their aged counterparts, failed to orient at high cell density. In both cell strains, mid-density cultures aligned rapidly and sparse cultures lagged. These results indicate that both cell-cell adhesion and cytoskeleton integrity are critical in mediating the orienteering response. Differences between these two cell strains may relate to their expression of extracellular matrix molecules (fibronectin, collagen type 1) integrins and their relative binding affinities.

  3. Distribution of fibroblast growth factors and their roles in skin fibroblast cell migration.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong Huan; Zhu, Yu Ting; Ding, Jian; Zhou, Fei Ya; Xue, Ji Xin; Jung, Jin Hee; Li, Zhi Jie; Gao, Wei Yang

    2016-10-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2/basic FGF is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family. Its function in skin wound healing has been well-characterized. However, the function of other FGFs in skin tissues remains to be elucidated. In the present study, FGF expression patterns in heart, liver, skin and kidney tissues were analyzed. Notably, in contrast to other tissues, only four FGFs, FGF2, 7, 10 and 21, were dominant in the skin. To examine FGF function in the wound healing process, mouse NIH3T3 fibroblast cells were treated with FGF2, FGF10 and FGF21, and cell migration was monitored. The results revealed that FGF treatment promoted cell migration, which is an important step in wound healing. In addition, FGF treatment enhanced the activity of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a key regulator of fibroblast cell migration. To analyze its role in cell migration, FGF7 was overexpressed in fibroblast cells via a lentivirus system; however, this did not change cell migration speed. FGF2, 7, 10 and 21 were highly expressed in skin tissue, and all except FGF7 regulated fibroblast cell migration and activated JNK. The results of the present study increase our understanding of the role of FGFs in skin wound healing. PMID:27572477

  4. Mesenchymal stem cells induce dermal fibroblast responses to injury

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Andria N.; Willis, Elise; Chan, Vincent T.; Muffley, Lara A.; Isik, F. Frank; Gibran, Nicole S.; Hocking, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Although bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to promote repair when applied to cutaneous wounds, the mechanism for this response remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of paracrine signaling from mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast responses to injury including proliferation, migration and expression of genes important in wound repair. Dermal fibroblasts were co-cultured with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells grown in inserts, which allowed for paracrine interactions without direct cell contact. In this co-culture model, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells regulate dermal fibroblast proliferation, migration and gene expression. When co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts show increased proliferation and accelerated migration in a scratch assay. A chemotaxis assay also demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts migrate towards bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. A PCR array was used to analyze the effect of mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast gene expression. In response to mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts up-regulate integrin alpha 7 expression and down-regulate expression of ICAM1, VCAM1 and MMP11. These observations suggest that mesenchymal stem cells may provide an important early signal for dermal fibroblast responses to cutaneous injury.

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells induce dermal fibroblast responses to injury.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andria N; Willis, Elise; Chan, Vincent T; Muffley, Lara A; Isik, F Frank; Gibran, Nicole S; Hocking, Anne M

    2010-01-01

    Although bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to promote repair when applied to cutaneous wounds, the mechanism for this response remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of paracrine signaling from mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast responses to injury including proliferation, migration and expression of genes important in wound repair. Dermal fibroblasts were co-cultured with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells grown in inserts, which allowed for paracrine interactions without direct cell contact. In this co-culture model, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells regulate dermal fibroblast proliferation, migration and gene expression. When co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts show increased proliferation and accelerated migration in a scratch assay. A chemotaxis assay also demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts migrate towards bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. A PCR array was used to analyze the effect of mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast gene expression. In response to mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts up-regulate integrin alpha 7 expression and down-regulate expression of ICAM1, VCAM1 and MMP11. These observations suggest that mesenchymal stem cells may provide an important early signal for dermal fibroblast responses to cutaneous injury.

  6. Cholesteatoma Fibroblasts Promote Epithelial Cell Proliferation through Overexpression of Epiregulin

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Mamoru; Kojima, Hiromi; Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Okada, Naoko; Saito, Hirohisa; Moriyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether keratinocytes proliferate in response to epiregulin produced by subepithelial fibroblasts derived from middle ear cholesteatoma. Tissue samples were obtained from patients undergoing tympanoplasty. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were performed to examine epiregulin expression and localization in cholesteatoma tissues and retroauricular skin tissues. Fibroblasts were cultured from cholesteatoma tissues and from normal retroauricular skin. These fibroblasts were used as feeder cells for culture with a human keratinocyte cell line (PHK16-0b). To investigate the role of epiregulin in colony formation by PHK16-0b cells, epiregulin mRNA expression was knocked down in fibroblasts by using short interfering RNA and epiregulin protein was blocked with a neutralizing antibody. Epiregulin mRNA expression was significantly elevated in cholesteatoma tissues compared with that in normal retroauricular skin. Staining for epiregulin was more intense in the epithelial cells and subepithelial fibroblasts of cholesteatoma tissues than in retroauricular skin. When PHK16-0b cells were cultured with cholesteatoma fibroblasts, their colony-forming efficiency was 50% higher than when these cells were cultured with normal skin fibroblasts. Also, knockdown of epiregulin mRNA in cholesteatoma fibroblasts led to greater suppression of colony formation than knockdown in skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, the colony-forming efficiency of PHK16-0b cells was significantly reduced after treatment with an epiregulin neutralizing antibody in co-culture with cholesteatoma fibroblasts, but not in co-culture with skin fibroblasts. These results suggest that keratinocyte hyperproliferation in cholesteatoma is promoted through overexpression of epiregulin by subepithelial fibroblasts via epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, which may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of middle ear cholesteatoma. PMID:23826119

  7. Influence of three laser wavelengths on human fibroblasts cell culture.

    PubMed

    Crisan, Bogdan; Soritau, Olga; Baciut, Mihaela; Campian, Radu; Crisan, Liana; Baciut, Grigore

    2013-02-01

    Although experimental studies in vitro and vivo have been numerous, the effect of laser wavelength irradiation on human fibroblast cell culture is poorly understood. This emphasizes the need of additional cellular and molecular research into laser influence with low energy and power. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of three different laser wavelengths on the human skin fibroblasts cell culture. We wanted to evaluate if near infrared lasers had any influence in healing of wounds by stimulating mitochondrial activity of fibroblasts. The cells were irradiated using 830-, 980- and 2,940-nm laser wavelengths. The irradiated cells were incubated and their mitochondrial activity was assessed by the MTT assay at 24, 48 and 72 h. Simultaneously, an apoptosis assay was assessed on the irradiated fibroblasts. It can be concluded that laser light of the near-infrared region (830 and 980 nm) influences fibroblasts mitochondrial activity compared to the 2,940-nm wavelength which produces apoptosis.

  8. Fibroblasts as Efficient Antigen-Presenting Cells in Lymphoid Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundig, Thomas M.; Bachmann, Martin F.; Dipaolo, Claudio; Simard, John J. L.; Battegay, Manuel; Lother, Heinz; Gessner, Andre; Kuhlcke, Klaus; Ohashi, Pamela S.; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1995-06-01

    Only so-called "professional" antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of hematopoietic origin are believed capable of inducing T lymphocyte responses. However, fibroblasts transfected with viral proteins directly induced antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in vivo, without involvement of host APCs. Fibroblasts induced T cells only in the milieu of lymphoid organs. Thus, antigen localization affects self-nonself discrimination and cell-based vaccine strategies.

  9. Biomechanical strain vehicles for fibroblast-directed skeletal myoblast differentiation and myotube functionality in a novel coculture.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Michael R; Cao, Thanh V; Standley, Paul R

    2014-10-15

    Skeletal muscle functionality is governed by multiple stimuli, including cytokines and biomechanical strain. Fibroblasts embedded within muscle connective tissue respond to biomechanical strain by secreting cytokines that induce myoblast differentiation and, we hypothesize, regulate myotube function. A coculture was established to allow cross talk between fibroblasts in Bioflex wells and myoblasts on nondeformable coverslips situated above Bioflex wells. Cyclic short-duration strain (CSDS) modeling repetitive stress/injury, acyclic long-duration strain (ALDS) modeling manipulative therapy, and combined strain paradigms (CSDS + ALDS) were applied to fibroblasts. Nonstrained myoblasts in uniculture and coculture served as controls. After fibroblasts had induced myoblast differentiation, myotube contraction was assessed by perfusion of ACh (10(-11)-10(-3) M). CSDS-treated fibroblasts increased myotube contractile sensitivity vs. uniculture (P < 0.05). As contraction is dependent on ACh binding, expression and clustering of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) were measured. CSDS-treated fibroblasts increased nAChR expression (P < 0.05), which correlated with myotube contraction. ALDS-treated fibroblasts did not significantly affect contraction or nAChR expression. Agrin-treated myotubes were then used to design a computer algorithm to identify α-bungarotoxin-stained nAChR clusters. ALDS-treated fibroblasts increased nAChR clustering (P < 0.05), while CSDS-treated fibroblasts disrupted cluster formation. CSDS-treated fibroblasts produced nAChRs preferentially located in nonclustered regions (P < 0.05). Strain-activated fibroblasts mediate myotube differentiation with multiple functional phenotypes. Similar to muscle injury, CSDS-treated fibroblasts disrupted nAChR clusters and hypersensitized myotube contraction, while ALDS-treated fibroblasts aggregated nAChRs in large clusters, which may have important clinical implications. Cellular strategies aimed at improving muscle

  10. Reprogramming fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells with Bmi1

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jai-Hee; Heo, June Seok; Kim, Jun Sung; Jun, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Aeree; Kim, Jonggun; Whang, Kwang Youn; Kang, Yong-Kook; Yeo, Seungeun; Lim, Hee-Joung; Han, Dong Wook; Kim, Dong-Wook; Oh, Sejong; Yoon, Byung Sun; Schöler, Hans R; You, Seungkwon

    2011-01-01

    Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by the transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 in combination with c-Myc. Recently, Sox2 plus Oct4 was shown to reprogram fibroblasts and Oct4 alone was able to reprogram mouse and human neural stem cells (NSCs) into iPS cells. Here, we report that Bmi1 leads to the transdifferentiation of mouse fibroblasts into NSC-like cells, and, in combination with Oct4, can replace Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc during the reprogramming of fibroblasts into iPS cells. Furthermore, activation of sonic hedgehog signaling (by Shh, purmorphamine, or oxysterol) compensates for the effects of Bmi1, and, in combination with Oct4, reprograms mouse embryonic and adult fibroblasts into iPS cells. One- and two-factor iPS cells are similar to mouse embryonic stem cells in their global gene expression profile, epigenetic status, and in vitro and in vivo differentiation into all three germ layers, as well as teratoma formation and germline transmission in vivo. These data support that converting fibroblasts with Bmi1 or activation of the sonic hedgehog pathway to an intermediate cell type that expresses Sox2, Klf4, and N-Myc allows iPS generation via the addition of Oct4. PMID:21709693

  11. Fibroblast Cell-Based Therapy for Experimental Autoimmune Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jalili, Reza B; Zhang, Yun; Hosseini-Tabatabaei, Azadeh; Kilani, Ruhangiz T; Khosravi Maharlooei, Mohsen; Li, Yunyuan; Salimi Elizei, Sanam; Warnock, Garth L; Ghahary, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from autoimmune destruction of insulin producing β cells of the pancreatic islets. Curbing autoimmunity at the initiation of T1D can result in recovery of residual β cells and consequently remission of diabetes. Here we report a cell-based therapy for autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice using dermal fibroblasts. This was achieved by a single injection of fibroblasts, expressing the immunoregulatory molecule indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), into peritoneal cavity of NOD mice shortly after the onset of overt hyperglycemia. Mice were then monitored for reversal of hyperglycemia and changes in inflammatory/regulatory T cell profiles. Blood glucose levels dropped into the normal range in 82% of NOD mice after receiving IDO-expressing fibroblasts while all control mice remained diabetic. We found significantly reduced islet inflammation, increased regulatory T cells, and decreased T helper 17 cells and β cell specific autoreactive CD8+ T cells following IDO cell therapy. We further showed that some of intraperitoneal injected fibroblasts migrated to local lymph nodes and expressed co-inhibitory molecules. These findings suggest that IDO fibroblasts therapy can reinstate self-tolerance and alleviate β cell autoreactivity in NOD mice, resulting in remission of autoimmune diabetes. PMID:26765526

  12. Fibroblast nemosis induces angiogenic responses of endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Enzerink, Anna; Rantanen, Ville; Vaheri, Antti

    2010-03-10

    Increasing evidence points to a central link between inflammation and activation of the stroma, especially of fibroblasts therein. However, the mechanisms leading to such activation mostly remain undescribed. We have previously characterized a novel type of fibroblast activation (nemosis) where clustered fibroblasts upregulated the production of cyclooxygenase-2, secretion of prostaglandins, proteinases, chemotactic cytokines, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and displayed activated nuclear factor-{kappa}B. Now we show that nemosis drives angiogenic responses of endothelial cells. In addition to HGF, nemotic fibroblasts secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and conditioned medium from spheroids promoted sprouting and networking of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVEC). The response was partly inhibited by function-blocking antibodies against HGF and VEGF. Conditioned nemotic fibroblast medium promoted closure of HUVEC and human dermal microvascular endothelial cell monolayer wounds, by increasing the motility of the endothelial cells. Wound closure in HUVEC cells was partly inhibited by the antibodies against HGF. The stromal microenvironment regulates wound healing responses and often promotes tumorigenesis. Nemosis offers clues to the activation process of stromal fibroblasts and provides a model to study the part they play in angiogenesis-related conditions, as well as possibilities for therapeutical approaches desiring angiogenesis in tissue.

  13. Host cell reactivation of sunlamp-exposed adenovirus in fibroblasts from patients with Bloom's syndrome, ataxia telangiectasia, and Huntington's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Rainbow, A.J. )

    1991-01-01

    In this study, a sensitive host cell reactivation (HCR) technique was used to examine the repair capacity for DNA damaged by sunlamp exposure in fibroblast strains derived from 5 normal individuals and 8 patients representing three different diseases associated with DNA repair deficiencies. Adenovirus type 2 (Ad 2) was exposed to radiation from a GE 275 W sunlamp and subsequently used to infect fibroblast monolayers. At 48 hr after infection, cells were scored for the presence of viral structural antigens (Vag) using indirect immunofluorescent staining. Previous reports using this technique showed a substantial reduction in the HCR of sunlamp-exposed Ad 2 for infection of excision repair deficient fibroblasts from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. In contrast, the HCR of Vag synthesis for sunlamp-exposed Ad 2 was in the normal range for the three ataxia telangiectasia, three Bloom's syndrome, and two Huntington's disease fibroblasts strains.

  14. Cell proliferation in vitro modulates fibroblast collagenase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lindblad, W.J.; Flood, L.

    1986-05-01

    Collagenase enzyme activity is regulated by numerous control mechanisms which prevent excessive release and activation of this protease. A primary mechanism for regulating enzyme extracellular activity may be linked to cell division, therefore they have examined the release of collagenase by fibroblasts in vitro in response to cellular proliferation. Studies were performed using fibroblasts derived from adult rat dermis maintained in DMEM containing 10% newborn calf serum, 25 mM tricine buffer, and antibiotics. Cells between subculture 10 and 19 were used with enzyme activity determined with a /sup 14/C-labelled soluble Type I collagen substrate with and without trypsin activation. Fibroblasts, trypsinized and plated at low density secreted 8.5 fold more enzyme than those cells at confluence (975 vs. 115 dpm/..mu..g DNA). This diminution occurred gradually as the cells went from logrithmic growth towards confluence. Confluent fibroblast monolayers were scraped in a grid arrangement, stimulating the remaining cells to divide, without exposure to trypsin. Within 24-48 hr postscraping enzyme levels had increased 260-400%, accompanied by enhanced incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 3/H-uridine into cell macromolecules. The burst of enzyme release began to subside 12 hr later. These results support a close relationship between fibroblast proliferation and collagenase secretion.

  15. The effects of acoustic vibration on fibroblast cell migration.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Taybia; Murphy, Mark F; Lilley, Francis; Burton, David R; Bezombes, Frederic

    2016-12-01

    Cells are known to interact and respond to external mechanical cues and recent work has shown that application of mechanical stimulation, delivered via acoustic vibration, can be used to control complex cell behaviours. Fibroblast cells are known to respond to physical cues generated in the extracellular matrix and it is thought that such cues are important regulators of the wound healing process. Many conditions are associated with poor wound healing, so there is need for treatments/interventions, which can help accelerate the wound healing process. The primary aim of this research was to investigate the effects of mechanical stimulation upon the migratory and morphological properties of two different fibroblast cells namely; human lung fibroblast cells (LL24) and subcutaneous areolar/adipose mouse fibroblast cells (L929). Using a speaker-based system, the effects of mechanical stimulation (0-1600Hz for 5min) on the mean cell migration distance (μm) and actin organisation was investigated. The results show that 100Hz acoustic vibration enhanced cell migration for both cell lines whereas acoustic vibration above 100Hz was found to decrease cell migration in a frequency dependent manner. Mechanical stimulation was also found to promote changes to the morphology of both cell lines, particularly the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia. Overall lamellipodia was the most prominent actin structure displayed by the lung cell (LL24), whereas filopodia was the most prominent actin feature displayed by the fibroblast derived from subcutaneous areolar/adipose tissue. Mechanical stimulation at all the frequencies used here was found not to affect cell viability. These results suggest that low-frequency acoustic vibration may be used as a tool to manipulate the mechanosensitivity of cells to promote cell migration. PMID:27612824

  16. Osteoclast-independent bone resorption by fibroblast-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Pap, Thomas; Claus, Anja; Ohtsu, Susumu; Hummel, Klaus M; Schwartz, Peter; Drynda, Susanne; Pap, Géza; Machner, Andreas; Stein, Bernhard; George, Michael; Gay, Renate E; Neumann, Wolfram; Gay, Steffen; Aicher, Wilhelm K

    2003-01-01

    To date, mesenchymal cells have only been associated with bone resorption indirectly, and it has been hypothesized that the degradation of bone is associated exclusively with specific functions of osteoclasts. Here we show, in aseptic prosthesis loosening, that aggressive fibroblasts at the bone surface actively contribute to bone resorption and that this is independent of osteoclasts. In two separate models (a severe combined immunodeficient mouse coimplantation model and a dentin pit formation assay), these cells produce signs of bone resorption that are similar to those in early osteoclastic resorption. In an animal model of aseptic prosthesis loosening (i.e. intracranially self-stimulated rats), it is shown that these fibroblasts acquire their ability to degrade bone early on in their differentiation. Upon stimulation, such fibroblasts readily release acidic components that lower the pH of their pericellular milieu. Through the use of specific inhibitors, pericellular acidification is shown to involve the action of vacuolar type ATPases. Although fibroblasts, as mesenchymal derived cells, are thought to be incapable of resorbing bone, the present study provides the first evidence to challenge this widely held belief. It is demonstrated that fibroblast-like cells, under pathological conditions, may not only enhance but also actively contribute to bone resorption. These cells should therefore be considered novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of bone destructive disorders. PMID:12723988

  17. Gene Signature of Human Oral Mucosa Fibroblasts: Comparison with Dermal Fibroblasts and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Keiko; Horiguchi, Taigo; Tanimura, Ayako; Hagita, Hiroko; Noma, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Oral mucosa is a useful material for regeneration therapy with the advantages of its accessibility and versatility regardless of age and gender. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics of oral mucosa. Here we report the first comparative profiles of the gene signatures of human oral mucosa fibroblasts (hOFs), human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs), and hOF-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (hOF-iPSCs), linking these with biological roles by functional annotation and pathway analyses. As a common feature of fibroblasts, both hOFs and hDFs expressed glycolipid metabolism-related genes at higher levels compared with hOF-iPSCs. Distinct characteristics of hOFs compared with hDFs included a high expression of glycoprotein genes, involved in signaling, extracellular matrix, membrane, and receptor proteins, besides a low expression of HOX genes, the hDFs-markers. The results of the pathway analyses indicated that tissue-reconstructive, proliferative, and signaling pathways are active, whereas senescence-related genes in p53 pathway are inactive in hOFs. Furthermore, more than half of hOF-specific genes were similarly expressed to those of hOF-iPSC genes and might be controlled by WNT signaling. Our findings demonstrated that hOFs have unique cellular characteristics in specificity and plasticity. These data may provide useful insight into application of oral fibroblasts for direct reprograming.

  18. Rho A and the Rho kinase pathway regulate fibroblast contraction: Enhanced contraction in constitutively active Rho A fibroblast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nobe, Koji; Nobe, Hiromi; Yoshida, Hiroko; Kolodney, Michael S.; Paul, Richard J.; Honda, Kazuo

    2010-08-20

    Research highlights: {yields} Mechanisms of fibroblast cell contraction in collagen matrix. {yields} Assessed an isometric force development using 3D-reconstituted-fibroblast fiber. {yields} Constitutively active Rho A induced the over-contraction of fibroblast cells. {yields} Rho A and Rho kinase pathway has a central role in fibroblast cell contraction. -- Abstract: Fibroblast cells play a central role in the proliferation phase of wound healing processes, contributing to force development. The intracellular signaling pathways regulating this non-muscle contraction are only partially understood. To study the relations between Rho A and contractile responses, constitutively active Rho A (CA-Rho A) fibroblast cells were reconstituted into fibers and the effects of calf serum (CS) on isometric force were studied. CS-induced force in CA-Rho A fibroblast fibers was twice as large as that in wild type (NIH 3T3) fibroblast fibers. During this response, the translocation of Rho A from the cytosol to the membrane was detected by Rho A activity assays and Western blot analysis. Pre-treatment with a Rho specific inhibitor (C3-exoenzyme) suppressed translocation as well as contraction. These results indicate that Rho A activation is essential for fibroblast contraction. The Rho kinase inhibitor ( (Y27632)) inhibited both NIH 3T3 and CA-Rho A fibroblast fiber contractions. Activation of Rho A is thus directly coupled with Rho kinase activity. We conclude that the translocation of Rho A from the cytosol to the membrane and the Rho kinase pathway can regulate wound healing processes mediated by fibroblast contraction.

  19. Prophage induction in lysogenic Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans cells co-cultured with human gingival fibroblasts, and its effect on leukotoxin release.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Roy H; de Moura Martins Lobo Dos Santos, Caroline; Zuanazzi, David; de Accioly Mattos, Marcelo Barbosas; Ferreira, Davis Fernandes; Kachlany, Scott C; Tinoco, Eduardo M B

    2013-01-01

    Lysogeny is common among strains of the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Since lysogenic induction is known to result in the increased synthesis and release of bacterial toxins from lysogens, it would be important to elucidate the conditions under which induction of these bacteria may occur. Co-cultures of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains (either lysogenic or non-lysogenic) and human cells (either gingival fibroblasts or pharyngeal epithelial cells) were prepared. Following incubation, bacteriophage titers of up to 6.2 × 10(7) pfu/ml were detected in the cell-free, spent culture media from the co-cultures of the lysogenic A. actinomycetemcomitans strains and the fibroblasts. Little (maximum of 2 × 10(0) pfu/ml) or no titers of phage could be detected in the mono-cultures of the lysogenic A. actinomycetemcomitans strains alone. In contrast, no phage were detectable in the cell-free spent culture media of the lysogens cocultured with the epithelial cells. Futhermore, co-culture of the A. actinomycetemcomitans lysogens with the fibroblasts resulted in enhanced release of the A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin into the culture medium, in comparison with the spent culture media from mono-cultures of the lysogens alone. These results are consistent with the concept that interaction with fibroblasts may mediate prophage induction in lysogenic strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans, and that leukotoxin release is greatly augmented following induction of the lysogens. PMID:23022667

  20. Disentangling the multifactorial contributions of fibronectin, collagen and cyclic strain on MMP expression and extracellular matrix remodeling by fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Lin, Zhe; Foolen, Jasper; Schoen, Ingmar; Santoro, Alberto; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Vogel, Viola

    2014-11-01

    Early wound healing is associated with fibroblasts assembling a provisional fibronectin-rich extracellular matrix (ECM), which is subsequently remodeled and interlaced by type I collagen. This exposes fibroblasts to time-variant sets of matrices during different stages of wound healing. Our goal was thus to gain insight into the ECM-driven functional regulation of human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) being either anchored to a fibronectin (Fn) or to a collagen-decorated matrix, in the absence or presence of cyclic mechanical strain. While the cells reoriented in response to the onset of uniaxial cyclic strain, cells assembled exogenously added Fn with a preferential Fn-fiber alignment along their new orientation. Exposure of HFFs to exogenous Fn resulted in an increase in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression levels, i.e. MMP-15 (RT-qPCR), and MMP-9 activity (zymography), while subsequent exposure to collagen slightly reduced MMP-15 expression and MMP-9 activity compared to Fn-exposure alone. Cyclic strain upregulated Fn fibrillogenesis and actin stress fiber formation, but had comparatively little effect on MMP activity. We thus propose that the appearance of collagen might start to steer HFFs towards homeostasis, as it decreased both MMP secretion and the tension of Fn matrix fibrils as assessed by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer. These results suggest that HFFs might have a high ECM remodeling or repair capacity in contact with Fn alone (early event), which is reduced in the presence of Col1 (later event), thereby down-tuning HFF activity, a processes which would be required in a tissue repair process to finally reach tissue homeostasis.

  1. Long-Term Quiescent Fibroblast Cells Transit into Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Marthandan, Shiva; Priebe, Steffen; Hemmerich, Peter; Klement, Karolin; Diekmann, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is described to be a consequence of telomere erosion during the replicative life span of primary human cells. Quiescence should therefore not contribute to cellular aging but rather extend lifespan. Here we tested this hypothesis and demonstrate that cultured long-term quiescent human fibroblasts transit into senescence due to similar cellular mechanisms with similar dynamics and with a similar maximum life span as proliferating controls, even under physiological oxygen conditions. Both, long-term quiescent and senescent fibroblasts almost completely fail to undergo apoptosis. The transition of long-term quiescent fibroblasts into senescence is also independent of HES1 which protects short-term quiescent cells from becoming senescent. Most significantly, DNA damage accumulates during senescence as well as during long-term quiescence at physiological oxygen levels. We suggest that telomere-independent, potentially maintenance driven gradual induction of cellular senescence during quiescence is a counterbalance to tumor development. PMID:25531649

  2. Pigment-cell-specific genes from fibroblasts are transactivated after chromosomal transfer into melanoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Powers, T P; Shows, T B; Davidson, R L

    1994-01-01

    Human and mouse fibroblast chromosomes carrying tyrosinase or b-locus genes were introduced, by microcell hybridization, into pigmented Syrian hamster melanoma cells, and the microcell hybrids were tested for transactivation of the fibroblast tyrosinase and b-locus genes. By using species-specific PCR amplification to distinguish fibroblast and melanoma cDNAs, it was demonstrated that the previously silent fibroblast tyrosinase and b-locus genes were transactivated following chromosomal transfer into pigmented melanoma cells. However, transactivation of the mouse fibroblast tyrosinase gene was unstable in microcell hybrid subclones and possibly dependent on a second fibroblast locus that could have segregated in the subclones. This second locus was not necessary for transactivation of the fibroblast b-locus gene, thus demonstrating noncoordinate transactivation of fibroblast tyrosinase and b-locus genes. Transactivation of the fibroblast tyrosinase gene in microcell hybrids apparently is dependent on the absence of a putative fibroblast extinguisher locus for tyrosinase gene expression, which presumably is responsible for the extinction of pigmentation in hybrids between karyotypically complete fibroblasts and melanoma cells. Images PMID:8289799

  3. Pigment-cell-specific genes from fibroblasts are transactivated after chromosomal transfer into melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.P.; Davidson, R.L.; Shows, T.B.

    1994-02-01

    Human and mouse fibroblast chromosomes carrying tyrosinase or b-locus genes were introduced, by microcell hybridization, into pigmented Syrian hamster melanoma cells, and the microcell hybrids were tested for transactivation of the fibroblast tyrosinase and b-locus genes. By using species-specific PCR amplification to distinguish fibroblast and melanoma cDNAs, it was demonstrated that the previously silent fibroblast tyrosinase and b-locus genes were transactivated following chromosomal transfer into pigmented melanoma cells. However, transactivation of the mouse fibroblast tyrosinase gene was unstable in microcell hybrid subclones and possibly dependent on a second fibroblast locus that could have segregated in the subclones. This second locus was not necessary for transactivation of the fibroblast b-locus gene, thus demonstrating noncoordinate transactivation of fibroblast tyrosinase and b-locus genes. Transactivation of the fibroblast tyrosinase gene in microcell hybrids apparently is dependent on the absence of a putative fibroblast extinguisher locus for tyrosinase gene expression, which presumably is responsible for the extinction of pigmentation in hybrids between karyotypically complete fibroblasts and melanoma cells. 46 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Effects of metal ions on fibroblasts and spiral ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Paasche, G; Ceschi, P; Löbler, M; Rösl, C; Gomes, P; Hahn, A; Rohm, H W; Sternberg, K; Lenarz, T; Schmitz, K-P; Barcikowski, S; Stöver, T

    2011-04-01

    Degeneration of spiral ganglion cells (SGC) after deafness and fibrous tissue growth around the electrode carrier after cochlear implantation are two of the major challenges in current cochlear implant research. Metal ions are known to possess antimicrobial and antiproliferative potential. The use of metal ions could therefore provide a way to reduce tissue growth around the electrode array after cochlear implantation. Here, we report on in vitro experiments with different concentrations of metal salts with antiproliferative and toxic effects on fibroblasts, PC-12 cells, and freshly isolated spiral ganglion cells, the target cells for electrical stimulation by a cochlear implant. Standard cell lines (NIH/3T3 and L-929 fibroblasts and PC-12 cells) and freshly isolated SGC were incubated with concentrations of metal ions between 0.3 μmol/liter and 10 mmol/liter for 48 hr. Cell survival was investigated by neutral red uptake, CellQuantiBlue assay, or counting of stained surviving neurons. Silver ions exhibited distinct thresholds for proliferating and confluent cells. For zinc ions, the effective concentration was lower for fibroblasts than for PC-12 cells. SGC showed comparable thresholds for reduced cell survival not only for silver and zinc ions but also for copper(II) ions, indicating that these ions might be promising for reducing tissue growth on the surface of CI electrode arrays. These effects were also observed when combinations of two of these ions were investigated. PMID:21312225

  5. Biomechanical strain vehicles for fibroblast-directed skeletal myoblast differentiation and myotube functionality in a novel coculture

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Thanh V.; Standley, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle functionality is governed by multiple stimuli, including cytokines and biomechanical strain. Fibroblasts embedded within muscle connective tissue respond to biomechanical strain by secreting cytokines that induce myoblast differentiation and, we hypothesize, regulate myotube function. A coculture was established to allow cross talk between fibroblasts in Bioflex wells and myoblasts on nondeformable coverslips situated above Bioflex wells. Cyclic short-duration strain (CSDS) modeling repetitive stress/injury, acyclic long-duration strain (ALDS) modeling manipulative therapy, and combined strain paradigms (CSDS + ALDS) were applied to fibroblasts. Nonstrained myoblasts in uniculture and coculture served as controls. After fibroblasts had induced myoblast differentiation, myotube contraction was assessed by perfusion of ACh (10−11–10−3 M). CSDS-treated fibroblasts increased myotube contractile sensitivity vs. uniculture (P < 0.05). As contraction is dependent on ACh binding, expression and clustering of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) were measured. CSDS-treated fibroblasts increased nAChR expression (P < 0.05), which correlated with myotube contraction. ALDS-treated fibroblasts did not significantly affect contraction or nAChR expression. Agrin-treated myotubes were then used to design a computer algorithm to identify α-bungarotoxin-stained nAChR clusters. ALDS-treated fibroblasts increased nAChR clustering (P < 0.05), while CSDS-treated fibroblasts disrupted cluster formation. CSDS-treated fibroblasts produced nAChRs preferentially located in nonclustered regions (P < 0.05). Strain-activated fibroblasts mediate myotube differentiation with multiple functional phenotypes. Similar to muscle injury, CSDS-treated fibroblasts disrupted nAChR clusters and hypersensitized myotube contraction, while ALDS-treated fibroblasts aggregated nAChRs in large clusters, which may have important clinical implications. Cellular strategies aimed at improving

  6. Conversion of monkey fibroblasts to transplantable telencephalic neuroepithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ai, Zongyong; Xiang, Zheng; Li, Yuemin; Liu, Guoku; Wang, Hong; Zheng, Yun; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Shumei; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Li, Yanhua; Ji, Weizhi; Li, Tianqing

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates provide optimal models for the development of stem cell therapies. Although somatic cells have been converted into neural stem/progenitor cells, it is unclear whether telencephalic neuroepithelial stem cells (NESCs) with stable properties can be generated from fibroblasts in primate. Here we report that a combination of transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4) with a new culture medium induces rhesus monkey fibroblasts into NESCs, which can develop into miniature neural tube (NT)-like structures at a cell level. Furthermore, single induced NESCs (iNESCs) can generate later-stage 3D-NTs after grown on matrigel in suspension culture. iNESCs express NT cell markers, have a unique gene expression pattern biasing towards telencephalic patterning, and give rise to cortical neurons. Via transplantation, single iNESCs can extensively survive, regenerate myelinated neuron axons and synapse structures in adult monkey striatum and cortex, and differentiate into cortical neurons. Successful transplantation is closely associated with graft regions and grafted cell identities. The ability to generate defined and transplantable iNESCs from primate fibroblasts under a defined condition with predictable fate choices will facilitate disease modeling and cell therapy.

  7. Responses of fibroblasts and glial cells to nanostructured platinum surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennisi, C. P.; Sevcencu, C.; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A.; Foss, M.; Lundsgaard Hansen, J.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Zachar, V.; Besenbacher, F.; Yoshida, K.

    2009-09-01

    The chronic performance of implantable neural prostheses is affected by the growth of encapsulation tissue onto the stimulation electrodes. Encapsulation is associated with activation of connective tissue cells at the electrode's metallic contacts, usually made of platinum. Since surface nanotopography can modulate the cellular responses to materials, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the 'in vitro' responses of connective tissue cells to platinum strictly by modulating its surface nanoroughness. Using molecular beam epitaxy combined with sputtering, we produced platinum nanostructured substrates consisting of irregularly distributed nanopyramids and investigated their effect on the proliferation, cytoskeletal organization and cellular morphology of primary fibroblasts and transformed glial cells. Cells were cultured on these substrates and their responses to surface roughness were studied. After one day in culture, the fibroblasts were more elongated and their cytoskeleton less mature when cultured on rough substrates. This effect increased as the roughness of the surface increased and was associated with reduced cell proliferation throughout the observation period (4 days). Morphological changes also occurred in glial cells, but they were triggered by a different roughness scale and did not affect cellular proliferation. In conclusion, surface nanotopography modulates the responses of fibroblasts and glial cells to platinum, which may be an important factor in optimizing the tissue response to implanted neural electrodes.

  8. Chitosan Treatment Delays the Induction of Senescence in Human Foreskin Fibroblast Strains.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Wen; Kao, Yu-Ting; Chiang, I-Ni; Wang, Jyh-Horng; Young, Tai-Horng

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblasts have been extensively used as a model to study cellular senescence. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the human foreskin fibroblast aging process could be regulated by using the biomaterial chitosan. Fibroblasts cultured on commercial tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) entered senescence after 55-60 population doublings (PDs), and were accompanied by larger cell shape, higher senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal) activity, lower proliferation capacity, and upregulation of senescence-associated molecular markers p21, p53, retinoblastoma (pRB), and p16. Before senescence was reached, PD48 cells were collected from TCPS and seeded on chitosan for three days (PD48-Cd3) to form multicellular spheroids. The protein expression of senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs) and senescence-associated molecular markers of these cells in PD48-Cd3 spheroids were downregulated significantly. Following chitosan treatment, fibroblasts reseeded on TCPS showed lower SA β-gal activity, increased cellular motility, and a higher proliferation ability of 70-75 PDs. These phenotypic changes were not accompanied by colonies forming in soft agar and a continuous decrease in the senescence-associated proteins p53 and pRB which act as a barrier to tumorigenesis. These results demonstrate that chitosan treatment could delay the induction of senescence which may be useful and safe for future tissue engineering applications.

  9. Human skin fibroblast stromelysin: structure, glycosylation, substrate specificity, and differential expression in normal and tumorigenic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelm, S.M.; Collier, I.E.; Kronberger, A.; Eisen, A.Z.; Marmer, B.L.; Grant, G.A.; Bauer, E.A.; Goldberg, G.I.

    1987-10-01

    The authors have purified and determined the complete primary structure of human stromelysin, a secreted metalloprotease with a wide range of substrate specificities. Human stromelysin is synthesized in a preproenzyme form with a calculated size of 53,977 Da and a 17-amino acid long signal peptide. Prostromelysin is secreted in two forms, with apparent molecular masses on NaDodSO/sub 4//PAGE of 60 and 57 kDa. Human stromelysin is capable of degrading proteoglycan, fibronectin, laminin, and type IV collagen but not interstitial type I collagen. The enzyme is not capable of activating purified human fibroblast procollagenase. Analysis of its primary structure shows that stromelysin is in all likelihood the human analog of rat transin, which is an oncogene transformation-induced protease. The pattern of enzyme expression in normal and tumorigenic cells revealed that human skin fibroblasts in vitro secrete stromelysin constitutively. Human fetal lung fibroblasts transformed with simian virus 40, human bronchial epithelial cells transformed with the ras oncogene, fibrosarcoma cells (HT-1080), and a melanoma cell strain (A 2058), do not express this protease nor can the enzyme be induced in these cells by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The data indicate that the expression and the possible involvement of secreted metalloproteases in tumorigenesis result from a specific interaction between the transforming factor and the target cell, which may vary in different species.

  10. Modulatory Effects of Connexin-43 Expression on Gap Junction Intercellular Communications with Mast Cells and Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Pistorio, Ashey L.; Ehrlich, H. Paul

    2011-01-01

    The influence of mast cells upon aberrant wound repair and excessive fibrosis has supportive evidence, but the mechanism for these mast cell activities is unclear. It is proposed that heterocellular gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) between fibroblasts and mast cells directs some fibroblast activities. An in vitro model was used employing a rodent derived peritoneal mast cell line (RMC-1) and human dermal derived fibroblasts. The influence of the expression of the gap junction channel structural protein, connexin 43 (Cx-43) on heterocellular GJIC, the expression of microtubule β-tubulin and microfilament α smooth muscle actin (SMA) were investigated. The knockdown of Cx-43 by siRNA in RMC-1 cells completely blocked GJIC between RMC-1 cells. SiRNA knockdown of Cx-43 within fibroblasts only dampened GJIC between fibroblasts. It appears Cx-43 is the only expressed connexin in RMC-1 cells. Fibroblasts express other connexins that participate in GJIC between fibroblasts in the absence of Cx-43 expression. Heterocellular GJIC between RMC-1 cells and fibroblasts transformed fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, expressing α SMA within cytoplasmic stress fibers. The knockdown of Cx-43 in RMC-1 cells increased β-tubulin expression, but its knockdown in fibroblasts reduced β-tubulin expression. Knocking down the expression of Cx-43 in fibroblasts limited α SMA expression. Cx-43 participation is critical for heterocellular GJIC between mast cells and fibroblasts, which may herald a novel direction for controlling fibrosis. PMID:21328609

  11. Toxicity of Calcium Hydroxide Nanoparticles on Murine Fibroblast Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Dianat, Omid; Azadnia, Sina; Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the major contributing factors, which may cause failure of endodontic treatment, is the presence of residual microorganisms in the root canal system. For years, most dentists have been using calcium hydroxide (CH) as the intracanal medicament between treatment sessions to eliminate remnant microorganisms. Reducing the size of CH particles into nanoparticles enhances the penetration of this medicament into dentinal tubules and increases their antimicrobial efficacy. This in vitro study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles and conventional CH on fibroblast cell line using the Mosmann’s Tetrazolium Toxicity (MTT) assay. Methods and Materials: This study was conducted on L929 murine fibroblast cell line by cell culture and evaluation of the direct effect of materials on the cultured cells. Materials were evaluated in two groups of 10 samples each at 24, 48 and 72 h. At each time point, 10 samples along with 5 positive and 5 negative controls were evaluated. The samples were transferred into tubes and exposed to fibroblast cells. The viability of cells was then evaluated. The Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Cytotoxicity of both materials decreased over time and for conventional CH was lower than that of nanoparticles. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles was similar to that of conventional CH. PMID:25598810

  12. Comparison of polypeptides from cultured human fibroblasts and sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Vartio, T; Kaelin, H; Vaheri, A

    1978-10-23

    The proteins in cell layers of cultured normal diploid human skin (ES, ER) and lung (WI-38) fibroblasts were compared to those of SV40-transformed human fibroblasts (WI-38/VA-13), human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) and fibrosarcoma (HT-1080) cells using metabolic amino acid and sugar labeling and surface labeling with tritiated sodium borohydride after oxidation with galactose oxidase. The labeled proteins were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography (fluorography). A transformation-associated decrease in the pericellular glycoprotein fibronectin (subunit molecular weight, 220 000) and in the synthesis of a set of polypeptides in the 130 000--180 000 dalton region was seen. Synthesis of a glycosylated 160 000 dalton polypeptide was markedly reduced. In transformed cells distinct increases of several specific polypeptides was detected in both [35S]methionine and [3H] mannose incorporation experiments but not using the surface labeling method.

  13. First cloned swamp buffalo produced from adult ear fibroblast cell.

    PubMed

    Tasripoo, K; Suthikrai, W; Sophon, S; Jintana, R; Nualchuen, W; Usawang, S; Bintvihok, A; Techakumphu, M; Srisakwattana, K

    2014-07-01

    The world's first cloned swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) derived from adult ear skin fibroblast has been reported. Donor fibroblast cells were produced from biopsies taken from adult male ear skin and in vitro matured oocytes obtained from a slaughterhouse were used as cytoplasts. A total of 39 blastocysts and 19 morulae fresh embryos were transferred into 12 recipient buffaloes. Progesterone assays indicated establishment of pregnancy in 10 of the 12 buffaloes (83.3%) after 45 days, with six animals still pregnant at 3 months. One recipient maintained pregnancy to term and naturally delivered a 40 kg male calf after 326 days of gestation. DNA analysis showed that the cloned calf was genetically identical to the donor cells. Genotype analyses, using 12 buffalo microsatellite markers, confirmed that the cloned calf was derived from the donor cell lines. In conclusion, the present study reports, for the first time, the establishment of pregnancy and birth of the first cloned Thai swamp buffalo derived from adult ear skin fibroblast cells.

  14. Characterization of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Vocal Fold Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Summer; Kim, Jaehyup; Quinchia Johnson, Beatriz H.; Bradley, Bridget; Breunig, Melissa; Hematti, Peiman; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective/Hypothesis Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) originally isolated from bone marrow, are fibroblast-looking cells that are now assumed to be present in the stromal component of many tissues. MSCs are characterized by a certain set of criteria including their growth culture characteristics, a combination of cell surface markers, and the ability to differentiate along multiple mesenchymal tissue lineages. We hypothesized that human vocal fold fibroblasts (hVFF) isolated from the lamina propria meet the criteria established to define MSCs and are functionally similar to MSCs derived from BM and adipose tissue. Study Design In vitro study Methods HVFF were previously derived from human vocal fold tissues. MSCs were derived from adipose tissue (AT), and BM of healthy donors, based on their attachment to culture dishes and their morphology, and expanded in culture. Cells were analyzed for standard cell surface markers identified on BM-derived MSCs as well as the ability to differentiate into cells of mesenchymal lineage, i.e. fat, bone and cartilage. We investigated the immunophenotype of these cells before and after interferon-γ (INF- γ) stimulation. Results HVFF displayed cell surface markers and multipotent differentiation capacity characteristic of MSCs. Furthermore, these cells exhibited similar patterns of expression of HLA and co-stimulatory molecules, after stimulation with INF- γ compared to MSCs derived from BM and AT. Conclusions Based on our findings hVFF derived from lamina propria have the same cell surface markers, immunophenotypic characteristics, and differentiation potential as BM- and AT-derived MSCs. We propose VF fibroblasts are MSCs resident in the vocal fold lamina propria. PMID:20131365

  15. Endocytosis, the sorting problem and cell locomotion in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bretscher, M S

    1982-01-01

    Fibroblasts endocytose lipid plus a subset of plasma membrane proteins over their entire surface and reinsert this into the plasma membrane at the cell's leading edge. This process is used to extend the fibroblast forwards. This circulation causes a flow of these endocytosed molecules over the cell's surface. Molecules, such as proteins, sitting in this flow can distribute themselves randomly by Brownian motion, but large objects (or small tethered ones) cannot. These large objects therefore cap. A mechanism is presented whereby this process could be used for locomotion using many weak interactions with the substrate. In addition it is suggested that the observed selectivity of coated pits may be sufficient to sort out proteins during transfer of membrane from one organelle to another so that the specific characters of the parent membranes are maintained.

  16. Genomic instability of gold nanoparticle treated human lung fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jasmine J; Lo, Soo-Ling; Ng, Cheng-Teng; Gurung, Resham Lal; Hartono, Deny; Hande, Manoor Prakash; Ong, Choon-Nam; Bay, Boon-Huat; Yung, Lin-Yue Lanry

    2011-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are one of the most versatile and widely researched materials for novel biomedical applications. However, the current knowledge in their toxicological profile is still incomplete and many on-going investigations aim to understand the potential adverse effects in human body. Here, we employed two dimensional gel electrophoresis to perform a comparative proteomic analysis of AuNP treated MRC-5 lung fibroblast cells. In our findings, we identified 16 proteins that were differentially expressed in MRC-5 lung fibroblasts following exposure to AuNPs. Their expression levels were also verified by western blotting and real time RT-PCR analysis. Of interest was the difference in the oxidative stress related proteins (NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NDUFS1), protein disulfide isomerase associate 3 (PDIA3), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleus protein C1/C2 (hnRNP C1/C2) and thioredoxin-like protein 1 (TXNL1)) as well as proteins associated with cell cycle regulation, cytoskeleton and DNA repair (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleus protein C1/C2 (hnRNP C1/C2) and Secernin-1 (SCN1)). This finding is consistent with the genotoxicity observed in the AuNP treated lung fibroblasts. These results suggest that AuNP treatment can induce oxidative stress-mediated genomic instability.

  17. Intracellular collagen fibrils: evidence of an intracellular source from experiments with tendon fibroblasts and fibroblastic tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Michna, H

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to substantiate one or both of the two hypotheses for the explanation of intracellular collagen fibrils in collagen-producing cells. The more obvious is the phagocytosis of extracellular collagen fibrils by the cell and the other is a form of autophagocytosis of newly synthesised collagenous products. Information was collected on fibroblasts from murine tendons after exercise and simultaneously stimulating collagen synthesis by treatment with an anabolic steroid hormone. Moreover, in vivo and in vitro fibroblastic tumour cells which demonstrate enhanced protein synthesis were also treated with the anabolic steroid. The findings of intracellular collagen fibrils in tendon fibroblasts and the sarcoma cells after experimentally stimulating collagen synthesis are discussed in the light of the hypothesis that the findings may represent steps of autophagocytosis of newly synthesised collagenous products in the absence of a control mechanism to remove collagenous products which cannot be secreted. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:3225213

  18. Fibroblast growth factor-10 is a mitogen for urothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bagai, Shelly; Rubio, Eric; Cheng, Jang-Fang; Sweet, Robert; Thomas, Regi; Fuchs, Elaine; Grady, Richard; Mitchell, Michael; Bassuk, James A.

    2002-02-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF)-10 plays an important role in regulating growth, differentiation, and repair of the urothelium. This process occurs through a paracrine cascade originating in the mesenchyme (lamina propria) and targeting the epithelium (urothelium). In situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that (i) fibroblasts of the human lamina propria were the cell type that synthesized FGF-10 RNA and (ii) the FGF-10 gene is located at the 5p12-p13 locus of chromosome 5. Recombinant (r) preparations of human FGF-10 were found to induce proliferation of human urothelial cells in vitro and of transitional epithelium of wild-type and FGF7-null mice in vivo. Mechanistic studies with human cells indicated two modes of FGF-10 action: (i) translocation of rFGF-10 into urothelial cell nuclei and (ii) a signaling cascade that begins with the heparin-dependent phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of surface transmembrane receptors. The normal urothelial phenotype, that of quiescence, is proposed to be typified by negligible levels of FGF-10. During proliferative phases, levels of FGF-10 rise at the urothelial cell surface and/or within urothelial cell nuclei. An understanding of how FGF-10 works in conjunction with these other processes will lead to better management of many diseases of the bladder and urinary tract.

  19. Stretching Fibroblasts Remodels Fibronectin and Alters Cancer Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Mingfang; Brewer, Bryson M.; Yang, Lijie; Franco Coronel, Omar E.; Hayward, Simon W.; Webb, Donna J.; Li, Deyu

    2015-02-01

    Most investigations of cancer-stroma interactions have focused on biochemical signaling effects, with much less attention being paid to biophysical factors. In this study, we investigated the role of mechanical stimuli on human prostatic fibroblasts using a microfluidic platform that was adapted for our experiments and further developed for both repeatable performance among multiple assays and for compatibility with high-resolution confocal microscopy. Results show that mechanical stretching of normal tissue-associated fibroblasts (NAFs) alters the structure of secreted fibronectin. Specifically, unstretched NAFs deposit and assemble fibronectin in a random, mesh-like arrangement, while stretched NAFs produce matrix with a more organized, linearly aligned structure. Moreover, the stretched NAFs exhibited an enhanced capability for directing co-cultured cancer cell migration in a persistent manner. Furthermore, we show that stretching NAFs triggers complex biochemical signaling events through the observation of increased expression of platelet derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα). A comparison of these behaviors with those of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) indicates that the observed phenotypes of stretched NAFs are similar to those associated with CAFs, suggesting that mechanical stress is a critical factor in NAF activation and CAF genesis.

  20. Lactic Acid Bacteria Convert Human Fibroblasts to Multipotent Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Kunimasa; Kawano, Rie; Ito, Naofumi

    2012-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonized by a vast community of symbionts and commensals. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) form a group of related, low-GC-content, gram-positive bacteria that are considered to offer a number of probiotic benefits to general health. While the role of LAB in gastrointestinal microecology has been the subject of extensive study, little is known about how commensal prokaryotic organisms directly influence eukaryotic cells. Here, we demonstrate the generation of multipotential cells from adult human dermal fibroblast cells by incorporating LAB. LAB-incorporated cell clusters are similar to embryoid bodies derived from embryonic stem cells and can differentiate into endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal cells in vivo and in vitro. LAB-incorporated cell clusters express a set of genes associated with multipotency, and microarray analysis indicates a remarkable increase of NANOG, a multipotency marker, and a notable decrease in HOX gene expression in LAB-incorporated cells. During the cell culture, the LAB-incorporated cell clusters stop cell division and start to express early senescence markers without cell death. Thus, LAB-incorporated cell clusters have potentially wide-ranging implications for cell generation, reprogramming, and cell-based therapy. PMID:23300571

  1. Irradiated fibroblasts promote epithelial–mesenchymal transition and HDGF expression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Ci-Hang; Wang, Xin-Tong; Ma, Wei; Wang, Na-Na; Nesa, Effat un; Wang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Cong; Jia, Yi-Bin; Wang, Kai; Tian, Hui; Cheng, Yu-Feng

    2015-03-06

    Recent evidence suggested that nonirradiated cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promoted aggressive phenotypes of cancer cells through epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a radiosensitive gene of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). This study aimed to investigate the effect of irradiated fibroblasts on EMT and HDGF expression of ESCC. Our study demonstrated that coculture with nonirradiated fibroblasts significantly increased the invasive ability of ESCC cells and the increased invasiveness was further accelerated when they were cocultured with irradiated fibroblasts. Scattering of ESCC cells was also accelerated by the supernatant from irradiated fibroblasts. Exposure of ESCC cells to supernatant from irradiated fibroblasts resulted in decreased E-cadherin, increased vimentin in vitro and β-catenin was demonstrated to localize to the nucleus in tumor cells with irradiated fibroblasts in vivo models. The expression of HDGF and β-catenin were increased in both fibroblasts and ESCC cells of irradiated group in vitro and in vivo models. Interestingly, the tumor cells adjoining the stromal fibroblasts displayed strong nuclear HDGF immunoreactivity, which suggested the occurrence of a paracrine effect of fibroblasts on HDGF expression. These data suggested that irradiated fibroblasts promoted invasion, growth, EMT and HDGF expression of ESCC. - Highlights: • Irradiated CAFs accelerated invasiveness and scattering of ESCC cell lines. • Irradiated CAFs promoted EMT of ESCC cells. • Irradiated fibroblasts induced nuclear β-catenin relocalization in ESCC cells. • Irradiated fibroblasts increased HDGF expression in vitro and in vivo.

  2. The requirement for fibroblasts in angiogenesis: fibroblast-derived matrix proteins are essential for endothelial cell lumen formation

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Andrew C.; Nakatsu, Martin N.; Chou, Wayne; Gershon, Paul D.; Hughes, Christopher C. W.

    2011-01-01

    A role for fibroblasts in physiological and pathological angiogenesis is now well recognized; however, the precise mechanisms underlying their action have not been determined. Using an in vitro angiogenesis model in combination with a candidate gene approach, column chromatography, and mass spectrometry, we identify two classes of fibroblast-derived factors—one that supports vessel sprouting but not lumen formation, and one that promotes lumen formation. In the absence of fibroblasts a combination of angiopoietin-1, angiogenin, hepatocyte growth factor, transforming growth factor-α, and tumor necrosis factor drives robust endothelial cell (EC) sprouting; however, lumens fail to form. Subsequent addition of fibroblast-conditioned medium restores lumenogenesis. Using small interfering RNA–mediated knockdown, we show that five genes expressed in fibroblasts—collagen I, procollagen C endopeptidase enhancer 1, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, transforming growth factor-β–induced protein ig-h3, and insulin growth factor–binding protein 7—are necessary for lumen formation. Moreover, lumen formation can be rescued by addition of purified protein to knockdown cultures. Finally, using rheology, we demonstrate that the presence of these matricellular proteins results in significantly stiffer gels, which correlates with enhanced lumen formation. These findings highlight the critical role that fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix components play in EC lumen formation and provide potential insight into the role of fibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:21865599

  3. Form and Function in Cell Motility: From Fibroblasts to Keratocytes

    PubMed Central

    Herant, Marc; Dembo, Micah

    2010-01-01

    Abstract It is plain enough that a horse is made for running, but similar statements about motile cells are not so obvious. Here the basis for structure-function relations in cell motility is explored by application of a new computational technique that allows realistic three-dimensional simulations of cells migrating on flat substrata. With this approach, some cyber cells spontaneously display the classic irregular protrusion cycles and handmirror morphology of a crawling fibroblast, and others the steady gliding motility and crescent morphology of a fish keratocyte. The keratocyte motif is caused by optimal recycling of the cytoskeleton from the back to the front so that more of the periphery can be devoted to protrusion. These calculations are a step toward bridging the gap between the integrated mechanics and biophysics of whole cells and the microscopic molecular biology of cytoskeletal components. PMID:20409459

  4. Human pancreatic beta-like cells converted from fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Saiyong; Russ, Holger A.; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Mingliang; Ma, Tianhua; Xu, Tao; Tang, Shibing; Hebrok, Matthias; Ding, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic beta cells are of great interest for biomedical research and regenerative medicine. Here we show the conversion of human fibroblasts towards an endodermal cell fate by employing non-integrative episomal reprogramming factors in combination with specific growth factors and chemical compounds. On initial culture, converted definitive endodermal progenitor cells (cDE cells) are specified into posterior foregut-like progenitor cells (cPF cells). The cPF cells and their derivatives, pancreatic endodermal progenitor cells (cPE cells), can be greatly expanded. A screening approach identified chemical compounds that promote the differentiation and maturation of cPE cells into functional pancreatic beta-like cells (cPB cells) in vitro. Transplanted cPB cells exhibit glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vivo and protect mice from chemically induced diabetes. In summary, our study has important implications for future strategies aimed at generating high numbers of functional beta cells, which may help restoring normoglycemia in patients suffering from diabetes. PMID:26733021

  5. Derivation of Human Skin Fibroblast Lines for Feeder Cells of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Unger, Christian; Felldin, Ulrika; Rodin, Sergey; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Dilber, Sirac; Hovatta, Outi

    2016-01-01

    After the first derivations of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines on fetal mouse feeder cell layers, the idea of using human cells instead of mouse cells as feeder cells soon arose. Mouse cells bear a risk of microbial contamination, and nonhuman immunogenic proteins are absorbed from the feeders to hESCs. Human skin fibroblasts can be effectively used as feeder cells for hESCs. The same primary cell line, which can be safely used for up to 15 passages after stock preparations, can be expanded and used for large numbers of hESC derivations and cultures. These cells are relatively easy to handle and maintain. No animal facilities or animal work is needed. Here, we describe the derivation, culture, and cryopreservation procedures for research-grade human skin fibroblast lines. We also describe how to make feeder layers for hESCs using these fibroblasts. PMID:26840224

  6. Role of fibroblast growth factor receptors in astrocytic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Galvez-Contreras, Alma Y.; Gonzalez-Castaneda, Rocio E; Luquin, Sonia; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    There are two well-defined neurogenic regions in the adult brain, the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the lateral wall of the lateral ventricles and, the subgranular zone (SGZ) in the dentate gyrus at the hippocampus. Within these neurogenic regions, there are neural stem cells with astrocytic characteristics, which actively respond to the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF2 or FGF-β) by increasing their proliferation, survival and differentiation, both in vivo and in vitro. FGF2 binds to fibroblast growth factor receptors 1 to 4 (FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, FGFR4). Interestingly, these receptors are differentially expressed in neurogenic progenitors. During development, FGFR-1 and FGFR-2 drive oligodendrocytes and motor neuron specification. In particular, FGFR-1 determines oligodendroglial and neuronal cell fate, whereas FGFR-2 is related to oligodendrocyte specification. In the adult SVZ, FGF-2 promotes oligodendrogliogenesis and myelination. FGF-2 deficient mice show a reduction in the number of new neurons in the SGZ, which suggests that FGFR-1 is important for neuronal cell fate in the adult hippocampus. In human brain, FGF-2 appears to be an important component in the anti-depressive effect of drugs. In summary, FGF2 is an important modulator of the cell fate of neural precursor and, promotes oligodendrogenesis. In this review, we describe the expression pattern of FGFR2 and its role in neural precursors derived from the SVZ and the SGZ. PMID:22347841

  7. A FTIR imaging characterization of fibroblasts stimulated by various breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saroj; Shabi, Thankaraj Salammal; Goormaghtigh, Erik

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the microenvironment plays a major role in breast cancer progression. Yet, the mechanism explaining the transition from normal fibroblasts to cancer-stimulated fibroblasts remains to be elucidated. Here we report a FTIR imaging study of the effects of three different breast cancer cell lines on normal fibroblasts in culture. Fibroblast activation process was monitored by FTIR imaging and spectra compared by multivariate statistical analyses. Principal component analysis evidenced that the fibroblasts stimulated by these cancer cell lines grouped together and remained distinctly separated from normal fibroblasts indicating a modified different chemical composition in the cancer-stimulated fibroblasts. Similar changes in fibroblasts were induced by the various breast cancer cell lines belonging to different sub-types. Most significant changes were observed in the region of 2950 and 1230 cm(-1), possibly related to changes in lipids and in the 1230 cm(-1) area assigned to phosphate vibrations (nucleotides). Interestingly, the cancer-cell induced changes in the fibroblasts also occurred when there was no possible direct contact between the two cell lines in the co-culture. When contact was possible, the spectral changes were similar, suggesting that soluble factors but not direct cell-cell interactions were responsible for fibroblast activation. Overall, the results indicate that IR imaging could be used in the future for analyzing the microenvironment of breast tumors.

  8. Effect of microemulsions on cell viability of human dermal fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juyi; Mironava, Tatsiana; Simon, Marcia; Rafailovich, Miriam; Garti, Nissim

    Microemulsions are optically clear, thermostable and isotropic mixture consisting of water, oil and surfactants. Their advantages of ease preparation, spontaneous formation, long-term stability and enhanced solubility of bioactive materials make them great potentials as vehicles in food and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, comparative in vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed to select a best formulation of microemulsion with the least toxicity for human dermal fibroblasts. Three different kinds of oils and six different kinds of surfactants were used to form microemulsions by different ratios. The effect of oil type and surfactant type as well as their proportions on cell proliferation and viability were tested.

  9. Comparison of actin and cell surface dynamics in motile fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamic behavior of actin in fibroblast lamellipodia using photoactivation of fluorescence. Activated regions of caged resorufin (CR)-labeled actin in lamellipodia of IMR 90 and MC7 3T3 fibroblasts were observed to move centripetally over time. Thus in these cells, actin filaments move centripetally relative to the substrate. Rates were characteristic for each cell type; 0.66 +/- 0.27 microns/min in IMR 90 and 0.36 +/- 0.16 microns/min in MC7 3T3 cells. In neither case was there any correlation between the rate of actin movement and the rate of lamellipodial protrusion. The half-life of the activated CR-actin filaments was approximately 1 min in IMR 90 lamellipodia, and approximately 3 min in MC7 3T3 lamellipodia. Thus continuous filament turnover accompanies centripetal movement. In both cell types, the length of time required for a section of the actin meshwork to traverse the lamellipodium was several times longer than the filament half-life. The dynamic behavior of the dorsal surface of the cell was also observed by tracking lectin-coated beads on the surface and phase-dense features within lamellipodia of MC7 3T3 cells. The movement of these dorsal features occurred at rates approximately three times faster than the rate of movement of the underlying bulk actin cytoskeleton, even when measured in the same individual cells. Thus the transport of these dorsal features must occur by some mechanism other than simple attachment to the moving bulk actin cytoskeleton. PMID:1400580

  10. In vitro cytotoxicity of hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanoparticles on human periodontal ligament fibroblast and mouse dermal fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Seker, Sükran; Elçin, A Eser; Yumak, Tuğrul; Sınağ, Ali; Elçin, Y Murat

    2014-12-01

    The use of metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in industrial applications has been expanding, as a consequence, risk of human exposure increases. In this study, the potential toxic effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs on human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells (hPDLFs) and on mouse dermal fibroblast cells (mDFs) were evaluated in vitro. We synthesized ZnO NPs (particle size; 7-8 nm) by the hydrothermal method. Characterization assays were performed with atomic force microscopy, Braun-Emmet-Teller analysis, and dynamic light scattering. The hPDLFs and mDFs were incubated with the NPs with concentrations of 0.1, 1, 10, 50 and 100 μg/mL for 6, 24 and 48h. Under the control and NP-exposed conditions, we have made different types of measurements for cell viability and morphology, membrane leakage and intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. Also, we monitored cell responses to ZnO NPs using an impedance measurement system in real-time. While the morphological changes were visualized using scanning electron microscopy, the subcellular localization of NPs was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Results indicated that ZnO NPs have significant toxic effects on both of the primary fibroblastic cells at concentrations of ∼50-100 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs on fibroblasts depended on concentration and duration of exposure.

  11. Recombinogenic Telomeres in Diploid Sorex granarius (Soricidae, Eulipotyphla) Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Draskovic, I.; Minina, J. M.; Karamysheva, T. V.; Novo, C. L.; Liu, W.-Y.; Porreca, R. M.; Gibaud, A.; Zvereva, M. E.; Skvortsov, D. A.; Rubtsov, N. B.

    2014-01-01

    The telomere structure in the Iberian shrew Sorex granarius is characterized by unique, striking features, with short arms of acrocentric chromosomes carrying extremely long telomeres (up to 300 kb) with interspersed ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat blocks. In this work, we investigated the telomere physiology of S. granarius fibroblast cells and found that telomere repeats are transcribed on both strands and that there is no telomere-dependent senescence mechanism. Although telomerase activity is detectable throughout cell culture and appears to act on both short and long telomeres, we also discovered that signatures of a recombinogenic activity are omnipresent, including telomere-sister chromatid exchanges, formation of alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT)-associated PML-like bodies, production of telomere circles, and a high frequency of telomeres carrying marks of a DNA damage response. Our results suggest that recombination participates in the maintenance of the very long telomeres in normal S. granarius fibroblasts. We discuss the possible interplay between the interspersed telomere and rDNA repeats in the stabilization of the very long telomeres in this organism. PMID:24842907

  12. Mouse fibroblast cell adhesion studied by neutron reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Hillary L; Hickey, Joseph; Jablin, Michael S; Trujillo, Antoinette; Freyer, James P; Majewski, Jaroslaw

    2010-03-01

    Neutron reflectometry (NR) was used to examine live mouse fibroblast cells adherent on a quartz substrate in a deuterated phosphate-buffered saline environment at room temperature. These measurements represent the first, to our knowledge, successful visualization and quantization of the interface between live cells and a substrate with subnanometer resolution using NR. NR data, attributable to the adhesion of live cells, were observed and compared with data from pure growth medium. Independently of surface cell density, the average distance between the center of the cell membrane region and the quartz substrate was determined to be approximately 180 A. The membrane region ( approximately 80 A thick) contains the membranes of cells that are inhomogeneously distributed or undulating, likely conforming to the nonplanar geometry of the supporting adherence proteins. A second region of cell membranes at a greater distance from the substrate was not detectable by NR due to the resolution limits of the technique employed. Attachment of the live cell samples was confirmed by interaction with both distilled water and trypsin. Distinct changes in the NR data after exposure indicate the removal of cells from the substrate.

  13. Reversible Immortalization Enables Seamless Transdifferentiation of Primary Fibroblasts into Other Lineage Cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fei; Gong, Kerui; Li, Ke; Zhang, Mingliang; Chang, Judy C; Jiang, Shizhong; Ye, Lin; Wang, Jiaming; Tan, Yuting; Kan, Yuet Wai

    2016-08-15

    Fibroblasts can be transdifferentiated directly into other somatic cells such as cardiomyocytes, hematopoietic cells, and neurons. An advantage of somatic cell differentiation without first generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is that it avoids contamination of the differentiated cells with residual iPSCs, which may cause teratoma. However, since primary fibroblasts from biopsy undergo senescence during repeated culture, it may be difficult to grow transdifferentiated cells in sufficient numbers for future therapeutic purposes. To circumvent this problem, we reversibly immortalized primary fibroblasts by using the piggyBac transposon to deliver the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene hTERT plus SV40 Large T. Both approaches enabled fibroblasts to grow continuously without senescence, and neither caused teratoma formation in immunodeficient mice. However, fibroblasts immortalized with hTERT plus SV40 large T antigen accumulated chromosomal rearrangements, whereas fibroblasts immortalized with hTERT retained the normal karyotype. To transdifferentiate hTERT-immortalized fibroblasts into other somatic lineage cells, we transiently transfected them with episomal OCT4 and cultured them under neural cell growth condition with transposase to remove the transposon. Tripotent neural progenitor cells were seamlessly and efficiently generated. Thus, reversible immortalization of primary fibroblasts with hTERT will allow potential autologous cell-based therapeutics that bypass and simulate iPSC generation. PMID:27328768

  14. Biased Allelic Expression in Human Primary Fibroblast Single Cells

    PubMed Central

    Borel, Christelle; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Santoni, Federico; Delaneau, Olivier; Fort, Alexandre; Popadin, Konstantin Y.; Garieri, Marco; Falconnet, Emilie; Ribaux, Pascale; Guipponi, Michel; Padioleau, Ismael; Carninci, Piero; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.

    2015-01-01

    The study of gene expression in mammalian single cells via genomic technologies now provides the possibility to investigate the patterns of allelic gene expression. We used single-cell RNA sequencing to detect the allele-specific mRNA level in 203 single human primary fibroblasts over 133,633 unique heterozygous single-nucleotide variants (hetSNVs). We observed that at the snapshot of analyses, each cell contained mostly transcripts from one allele from the majority of genes; indeed, 76.4% of the hetSNVs displayed stochastic monoallelic expression in single cells. Remarkably, adjacent hetSNVs exhibited a haplotype-consistent allelic ratio; in contrast, distant sites located in two different genes were independent of the haplotype structure. Moreover, the allele-specific expression in single cells correlated with the abundance of the cellular transcript. We observed that genes expressing both alleles in the majority of the single cells at a given time point were rare and enriched with highly expressed genes. The relative abundance of each allele in a cell was controlled by some regulatory mechanisms given that we observed related single-cell allelic profiles according to genes. Overall, these results have direct implications in cellular phenotypic variability. PMID:25557783

  15. Collagen matrix as a tool in studying fibroblastic cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Kanta, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Type I collagen is a fibrillar protein, a member of a large family of collagen proteins. It is present in most body tissues, usually in combination with other collagens and other components of extracellular matrix. Its synthesis is increased in various pathological situations, in healing wounds, in fibrotic tissues and in many tumors. After extraction from collagen-rich tissues it is widely used in studies of cell behavior, especially those of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Cells cultured in a classical way, on planar plastic dishes, lack the third dimension that is characteristic of body tissues. Collagen I forms gel at neutral pH and may become a basis of a 3D matrix that better mimics conditions in tissue than plastic dishes.

  16. Collagen matrix as a tool in studying fibroblastic cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Kanta, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Type I collagen is a fibrillar protein, a member of a large family of collagen proteins. It is present in most body tissues, usually in combination with other collagens and other components of extracellular matrix. Its synthesis is increased in various pathological situations, in healing wounds, in fibrotic tissues and in many tumors. After extraction from collagen-rich tissues it is widely used in studies of cell behavior, especially those of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Cells cultured in a classical way, on planar plastic dishes, lack the third dimension that is characteristic of body tissues. Collagen I forms gel at neutral pH and may become a basis of a 3D matrix that better mimics conditions in tissue than plastic dishes. PMID:25734486

  17. Lysine hydroxylation of collagen in a fibroblast cell culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Yeowell, Heather N.; Yamamoto, Kazushi; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Tanzawa, Hideki; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    The lysine (Lys) hydroxylation pattern of type I collagen produced by human fibroblasts in culture was analyzed and compared. Fibroblasts were cultured from normal human skin (NSF), keloid (KDF), fetal skin (FDF), and skin tissues of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIA and VIB patients (EDS-VIA and -VIB). The type I collagen alpha chains with or without non-helical telopeptides were purified from the insoluble matrix and analyzed. In comparison with NSFs, KDF and FDF showed significantly higher Lys hydroxylation, particularly in the telopeptide domains of both alpha chains. Both EDS-VIA and -VIB showed markedly lower Lys hydroxylation in the helical domains of both alpha chains whereas that in the telopeptides was comparable with those of NSFs. A similar profile was observed in the tissue sample of the EDS-VIB patient. These results demonstrate that the Lys hydroxylation pattern is domain-specific within the collagen molecule and that this method is useful to characterize the cell phenotypes in normal/pathological connective tissues.

  18. Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: Senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Parrinello, Simona; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Campisi, Judith

    2004-07-14

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cells at risk for malignant tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells also secrete molecules that can stimulate premalignant cells to proliferate and form tumors, suggesting the senescence response is antagonistically pleiotropic. We show that premalignant mammary epithelial cells exposed to senescent human fibroblasts in mice irreversibly lose differentiated properties, become invasive and undergo full malignant transformation. Moreover, using cultured mouse or human fibroblasts and non-malignant breast epithelial cells, we show that senescent fibroblasts disrupt epithelial alveolar morphogenesis, functional differentiation, and branching morphogenesis. Further, we identify MMP-3 as the major factor responsible for the effects of senescent fibroblasts on branching morphogenesis. Our findings support the idea that senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology, including cancer, and describe a new property of senescent fibroblasts--the ability to alter epithelial differentiation--that might also explain the loss of tissue function and organization that is a hallmark of aging.

  19. Fibroblasts induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition in breast tumor cells which is prevented by fibroblasts treatment with histamine in high concentration.

    PubMed

    Porretti, Juliana C; Mohamad, Nora A; Martín, Gabriela A; Cricco, Graciela P

    2014-06-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells is an essential process in cancer progression. Cancer cells that undergone EMT loose cell-cell contacts, acquire mesenchymal properties and develop migratory and invasive abilities. In previous studies we have demonstrated that histamine may modify the invasive phenotype of pancreatic and mammary tumor cells. In this work we proposed to investigate whether histamine may also influence the interaction between tumor cells and normal fibroblasts. The potential activation of normal CCD-1059Sk fibroblasts by histamine and EMT phenotypic changes induced in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells by the conditioned media (CM) derived from fibroblasts were evaluated. Initially, we determined the presence of H1, H2 and H4 histamine receptors and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) mRNA in CCD-1059Sk fibroblasts. MMP2 gelatinolytic activity, cell migration and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression were increased in fibroblasts by low doses (<1μM) and decreased by high doses (20μM) of histamine. MCF-7 cells cultured with CM from fibroblasts exhibited spindle-shaped morphology, cell spreading and cytoplasmic expression of β-catenin but there was no change in MMP2 activity and cell migration. MDA-MB-231 cells cultured with CM from fibroblasts showed a more elongated phenotype, cell spreading, cytoplasmic β-catenin, increased MMP2 activity and endogenous TGF-β1 expression, and enhanced cell migration and invasion. Notably, all these features were reversed when mammary tumor cells were cultured with CM from fibroblasts treated with 20μM histamine. In conclusion, high doses of histamine may prevent the activation of fibroblasts and also avert the EMT related changes induced in epithelial tumor cells by fibroblasts CM.

  20. Skin telocytes versus fibroblasts: two distinct dermal cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yuli; Zhu, Zaihua; Zheng, Yonghua; Wan, Weiguo; Manole, Catalin G; Zhang, Qiangqiang

    2015-01-01

    It is already accepted that telocytes (TCs) represent a new type of interstitial cells in human dermis. In normal skin, TCs have particular spatial relations with different dermal structures such as blood vessels, hair follicles, arrector pili muscles or segments of sebaceous and/or eccrine sweat glands. The distribution and the density of TCs is affected in various skin pathological conditions. Previous studies mentioned the particular (ultra)structure of TCs and also their immunophenotype, miR imprint or proteome, genome or secretome features. As fibroblast is the most common intersitital cell (also in human dermis), a dedicated comparison between human skin TCs and fibroblasts (Fbs) was required to be performed. In this study, using different techniques, we document several points of difference between human dermis TCs and Fbs. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we demonstrated TCs with their hallmark cellular prolongations – telopodes. Thus, we showed their ultrastructural distinctiveness from Fbs. By RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array V analyses performed on the supernatant from separately cultured TCs and Fbs, we detected the cytokine profile of both cell types, individually. Two of 79 detected cytokines – epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 – were 1.5 times higher in the supernatant of TCs (comparing with Fbs). On the other hand, 37 cytokines were at least 1.5 higher in Fbs supernatant (comparing with TCs), and among them six cytokines – interleukin 5, monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3), MCP-4, macrophage inflammatory protein-3, angiogenin, thrombopoietin – being 9.5 times higher (results also confirmed by ELISA testing). In summary, using different techniques, we showed that human dermal TCs and Fbs are different in terms of ultrastructure and cytokine profile. PMID:26414534

  1. Skin telocytes versus fibroblasts: two distinct dermal cell populations.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yuli; Zhu, Zaihua; Zheng, Yonghua; Wan, Weiguo; Manole, Catalin G; Zhang, Qiangqiang

    2015-11-01

    It is already accepted that telocytes (TCs) represent a new type of interstitial cells in human dermis. In normal skin, TCs have particular spatial relations with different dermal structures such as blood vessels, hair follicles, arrector pili muscles or segments of sebaceous and/or eccrine sweat glands. The distribution and the density of TCs is affected in various skin pathological conditions. Previous studies mentioned the particular (ultra)structure of TCs and also their immunophenotype, miR imprint or proteome, genome or secretome features. As fibroblast is the most common intersitital cell (also in human dermis), a dedicated comparison between human skin TCs and fibroblasts (Fbs) was required to be performed. In this study, using different techniques, we document several points of difference between human dermis TCs and Fbs. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we demonstrated TCs with their hallmark cellular prolongations - telopodes. Thus, we showed their ultrastructural distinctiveness from Fbs. By RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array V analyses performed on the supernatant from separately cultured TCs and Fbs, we detected the cytokine profile of both cell types, individually. Two of 79 detected cytokines - epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 - were 1.5 times higher in the supernatant of TCs (comparing with Fbs). On the other hand, 37 cytokines were at least 1.5 higher in Fbs supernatant (comparing with TCs), and among them six cytokines - interleukin 5, monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3), MCP-4, macrophage inflammatory protein-3, angiogenin, thrombopoietin - being 9.5 times higher (results also confirmed by ELISA testing). In summary, using different techniques, we showed that human dermal TCs and Fbs are different in terms of ultrastructure and cytokine profile.

  2. Ultrasound Gene Transfer into Fibroblast Cells using Microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yoji; Hirayama, Kota; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Tei, Yuichi; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2009-04-01

    Ultrasound is widely applied in the medical field and offers the strong advantages of non-invasiveness and high-selectivity. Gene transfer using ultrasound, which is called sonoporation, is one application. Ultrasound has the potential to deliver therapeutic materials such as genes, drugs or proteins into cells. Microbubbles are known to be able to improve delivery efficiency. This is attributed to therapeutic materials passing through the cell membrane after permeability is increased by destruction or oscillation of microbubbles. The present study tried to deliver the GFP plasmids into fibroblast cells. Cells were cultured in 6-well culture plates and exposed to ultrasound (frequency, 2.1 MHz; wave pattern, duty cycle 10%; intensity, 0-26 W/cm2; time, 0-200 s) transmitted through medium containing microbubbles (Levovist® (void fraction, 8×10-5) or Sonazoid® (void fraction, 0-24×10-4)) and GFP plasmids at a concentration of 15 μg/mL. Density of microbubbles after ultrasound irradiation was measured. When ultrasound intensity was increased with Levovist® 8×10-4, transfection efficiency increased, cell viability decreased and microbubbles disappeared. With Sonazoid®, transfection efficiency and cell viability were basically unchanged and microbubbles decreased, but did not disappear. Transfection efficiency also improved with increased ultrasound irradiation time or microbubble density. Microbubble destruction appeared to have the main effect on gene transfection under Levovist® and microbubble oscillation had the main effect under Sonazoid®.

  3. Phagocytic activity and hyperpolarizing responses in L-strain mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Y; Tsuchiya, W; Yada, T; Yano, J; Yawo, H

    1981-01-01

    1. Fibroblastic L cells not only respond with a slow hyperpolarizing potential change to a mechanical or electrical stimulus but also show spontaneous, repetitive hyperpolarizations (i.e. membrane potential oscillation). 2. Almost all the cells can actively take up latex beads whose surfaces were treated by U.V. irradiation. 3. Non-phagocytic L cells hardly showed hyperpolarizing responses, while hyperpolarizing responses were obtained in all the phagocytic L cells. The exposure of the cell surface to beads, however, did not trigger the generation of hyperpolarizing responses. 4. Metabolic inhibitors, low temperature and cytochalasin B inhibited both the uptake of beads and the hyperpolarizing responses. 5. Increasing the external concentration of Ca2+ induced a remarkable stimulation of the phagocytosis of beads. Mg2+ and Ba2+, which inhibited hyperpolarizing responses due to competition for Ca2+ sites on the outer surface of the membrane, significantly suppressed the uptake of beads. 6. Verapamil, a Ca2+ channel blocker, inhibited not only hyperpolarizing membrane responses but also ingestion of beads. 7. It is concluded that the Ca2+ inflow on the hyperpolarizing membrane responses is closely associated with the phagocytic activity in L cells, probably through activation of the microfilament assembly. Images Plate 1 PMID:7024506

  4. Modelling Action Potential Generation and Propagation in Fibroblastic Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, J. J.; Cornelisse, L. N.; Harks, E. G. A.; Theuvenet, A. P. R.; Ypey, D. L.

    2003-04-01

    Using a standard Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) formalism, we present a mathematical model for action potential (AP) generation and intercellular AP propagation in quiescent (serum-deprived) normal rat kidney (NRK) fibroblasts [1], based on the recent experimental identification of the ion channels involved [2]. The principal ion channels described are those of an inwardly rectifying K+ conductance (GKIR), an L-type calcium conductance (GCaL), an intracellular calcium activated Cl- conductance (GCl(Ca)), a residual leak conductance Gleak, and gap junctional channels between the cells (Ggj). The role of each one of these components in the particular shape of the AP wave-form has been analyzed and compared with experimental observations. In addition, we have studied the role of subcellular processes like intracellular calcium dynamics and calcium buffering in AP generation. AP propagation between cells was reconstructed in a hexagonal model of cells coupled by Ggj with physiological conductance values. The model revealed an excitability mechanism of quiescent NRK cells with a particular role of intracellular calcium dynamics. It allows further explorations of the mechanism of signal generation and transmission in NRK cell cultures and its dependence on growth conditions.

  5. Microbubble-Enhanced Ultrasound Gene Transfer into Fibroblast Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Kota; Kaneko, Yukio; Tei, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2007-05-01

    Ultrasound finds many applications in the medical field, including ultrasound imaging, non-invasive treatment of tumors and lithotripsy. Ultrasound also has a potential to deliver some therapeutic materials, such as genes, drugs or proteins into cells. It is known that microbubbles can improve the delivery efficiency. It is believed that therapeutic materials can pass through the cell membrane whose permeability is increased by microbubble destruction or the ultrasound pressure. In this study, we investigated the delivery of GFP plasmid gene into the fibroblast cells. Ultrasound (frequency = 2.1 MHz, duty cycle = 10%) was used to irradiate the cultured cells through a medium that contains microbubbles and GFP plasmid. GFP plasmid transfection could be easily observed by fluorescence microscopy. Ultrasound irradiation under a variety of conditions resulted in successful GFP plasmid delivery. Microbubbles enhanced GFP transfection, and conclusions were drawn as to the relationship between gene transfection and various ultrasound exposure parameters. We also investigated the effect of ultrasound intensity on cell viability.

  6. Electrically excitable normal rat kidney fibroblasts: A new model system for cell-semiconductor hybrids.

    PubMed

    Parak, W J; Domke, J; George, M; Kardinal, A; Radmacher, M; Gaub, H E; de Roos, A D; Theuvenet, A P; Wiegand, G; Sackmann, E; Behrends, J C

    1999-03-01

    In testing various designs of cell-semiconductor hybrids, the choice of a suitable type of electrically excitable cell is crucial. Here normal rat kidney (NRK) fibroblasts are presented as a cell line, easily maintained in culture, that may substitute for heart or nerve cells in many experiments. Like heart muscle cells, NRK fibroblasts form electrically coupled confluent cell layers, in which propagating action potentials are spontaneously generated. These, however, are not associated with mechanical disturbances. Here we compare heart muscle cells and NRK fibroblasts with respect to action potential waveform, morphology, and substrate adhesion profile, using the whole-cell variant of the patch-clamp technique, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM), respectively. Our results clearly demonstrate that NRK fibroblasts should provide a highly suitable test system for investigating the signal transfer between electrically excitable cells and extracellular detectors, available at a minimum cost and effort for the experimenters. PMID:10049346

  7. Modulation of Human Valve Interstitial Cell Phenotype and Function Using a Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Najma; Quillon, Alfred; Sarathchandra, Padmini; McCormack, Ann; Lozanoski, Alec; Yacoub, Magdi H.; Chester, Adrian H.

    2015-01-01

    Valve interstitial cells (VICs) are fibroblastic in nature however in culture it is widely accepted that they differentiate into a myofibroblastic phenotype. This study assessed a fibroblast culture media formulation for its ability to maintain the phenotype and function of VICs as in the intact healthy valve. Normal human VICs were cultured separately in standard DMEM and in fibroblast media consisting of FGF2 (10ng/ml), insulin (50ng/ml) and 2% FCS for at least a week. Cell morphology, aspect ratio, size, levels and distribution of protein expression, proliferation, cell cycle, contraction and migration were assessed. Some VICs and some valve endothelial cells expressed FGF2 in valve tissue and this expression was increased in calcified valves. VICs in DMEM exhibited large, spread cells whereas VICs in fibroblast media were smaller, elongated and spindly. Aspect ratio and size were both significantly higher in DMEM (p<0.01). The level of expression of α-SMA was significantly reduced in fibroblast media at day 2 after isolation (p<0.01) and the expression of α-SMA, SM22 and EDA-fibronectin was significantly reduced in fibroblast media at days 7 and 12 post-isolation (p<0.01). Expression of cytoskeletal proteins, bone marker proteins and extracellular matrix proteins was reduced in fibroblast media. Proliferation of VICs in fibroblast media was significantly reduced at weeks 1 (p<0.05) and 2 (p<0.01). Collagen gel contraction was significantly reduced in fibroblast media (p<0.05). VICs were found to have significantly fewer and smaller focal adhesions in fibroblast media (p<0.01) with significantly fewer supermature focal adhesions in fibroblast media (p<0.001). Ultrastructurally, VICs in fibroblast media resembled native VICs from intact valves. VICs in fibroblast media demonstrated a slower migratory ability after wounding at 72 hours (p<0.01). Treatment of human VICs with this fibroblast media formulation has the ability to maintain and to dedifferentiate the

  8. The role of fibroblast Tiam1 in tumor cell invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kun; Rajagopal, Soumitra; Klebba, Ina; Dong, Shumin; Ji, Yuxin; Liu, Jiewei; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Garlick, Jonathan A.; Naber, Stephen P.; Buchsbaum, Rachel J.

    2010-01-01

    The co-evolution of tumors and their microenvironment involves bidirectional communication between tumor cells and tumor-associated stroma. Various cell types are present in tumor-associated stroma, of which fibroblasts are the most abundant. The Rac exchange factor Tiam1 is implicated in multiple signaling pathways in epithelial tumor cells and lack of Tiam1 in tumor cells retards tumor growth in Tiam1 knock-out mouse models. Conversely, tumors arising in Tiam1 knock-out mice have increased invasiveness. We have investigated the role of Tiam1 in tumor-associated fibroblasts as a modulator of tumor cell invasion and metastasis, using retroviral delivery of short hairpin RNA to suppress Tiam1 levels in three different experimental models. In spheroid co-culture of mammary epithelial cells and fibroblasts, Tiam1 silencing in fibroblasts led to increased epithelial cell outgrowth into matrix. In tissue-engineered human skin, Tiam1 silencing in dermal fibroblasts led to increased invasiveness of epidermal keratinocytes with premalignant features. In a model of human breast cancer in mice, co-implantation of mammary fibroblasts inhibited tumor invasion and metastasis, which was reversed by Tiam1 silencing in co-injected fibroblasts. These results suggest that stromal Tiam1 may play a role in modulating the effects of the tumor microenvironment on malignant cell invasion and metastasis. This suggests a set of pathways for further investigation, with implications for future therapeutic targets. PMID:20802514

  9. Inductive role of fibroblastic cell lines in development of the mouse thymus anlage in organ culture.

    PubMed

    Itoi, M; Amagai, T

    1998-01-10

    Previously, we have shown that embryonic day 12 thymus anlage cultured alone cannot develop into the mature organ but degenerates. In the present study, we investigated the cause of this insufficient organogenesis of embryonic day 12 thymus anlage in organ culture. We cocultured embryonic day 12 thymus anlages with various cell lines as pellets formed by centrifugation. In coculture with fibroblastic cell lines, but not with thymic epithelial cell lines, embryonic day 12 thymus anlages developed to support full T cell differentiation, and expressed mature stromal cell markers, Ia and Kb. By pellet culture of thymus anlages and fibroblastic cell lines transfected with a beta-galactosidase expression vector, we analyzed the distribution of added fibroblastic cells in pellets. The added fibroblastic cells constituted neither thymic capsule nor septa but disappeared after about 2 weeks in culture. Moreover, immunohistochemical studies indicated that added fibroblastic cells were adjacent to mesenchymal cells of thymus anlage. Our results strongly suggest that added fibroblastic cells support the development of the thymus anlage through interaction with its mesenchymal cells.

  10. The characterization of fibrocyte-like cells: a novel fibroblastic cell of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Riddell, M R; Winkler-Lowen, B; Chakrabarti, S; Dunk, C; Davidge, S T; Guilbert, L J

    2012-03-01

    The placenta is a highly vascularized organ thus angiogenesis is a key process in placental development. The contribution that different cells in the villous stroma play in placental angiogenesis is largely unknown. In this study we identified a novel stromal cell type in sections of term placenta which is morphologically fibroblastic and expressing the fibroblast marker TE-7 but also positive for the monocytic markers CD115 and CD14 and designated these cells as fibrocyte-like cells. Populations of fibrocyte-like cells from the placenta were isolated by two methods: culture of adherence-selected placental cells and, for higher purity, by CD45 fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Fibrocyte-like cell conditioned medium increased endothelial tubule-like structure formation 2-fold versus control medium. Both pro-angiogenic growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) and the anti-angiogenic factor soluble-Flt were found in the conditioned medium. Neutralizing antibodies against VEGF and b-FGF reduced endothelial cell tubule-like structures to control levels. These data suggests that fibrocyte-like cells, a previously unidentified cell of the villous stroma, may play an important role in the regulation of placental angiogenesis.

  11. Basic fibroblast growth factor support of human embryonic stem cell self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Levenstein, Mark E; Ludwig, Tenneille E; Xu, Ren-He; Llanas, Rachel A; VanDenHeuvel-Kramer, Kaitlyn; Manning, Daisy; Thomson, James A

    2006-03-01

    Human embryonic stem (ES) cells have most commonly been cultured in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) either on fibroblast feeder layers or in fibroblast-conditioned medium. It has recently been reported that elevated concentrations of FGF2 permit the culture of human ES cells in the absence of fibroblasts or fibroblast-conditioned medium. Herein we compare the ability of unconditioned medium (UM) supplemented with 4, 24, 40, 80, 100, and 250 ng/ml FGF2 to sustain low-density human ES cell cultures through multiple passages. In these stringent culture conditions, 4, 24, and 40 ng/ml FGF2 failed to sustain human ES cells through three passages, but 100 ng/ml sustained human ES cells with an effectiveness comparable to conditioned medium (CM). Two human ES cell lines (H1 and H9) were maintained for up to 164 population doublings (7 and 4 months) in UM supplemented with 100 ng/ml FGF2. After prolonged culture, the cells formed teratomas when injected into severe combined immunodeficient beige mice and expressed markers characteristic of undifferentiated human ES cells. We also demonstrate that FGF2 is degraded more rapidly in UM than in CM, partly explaining the need for higher concentrations of FGF2 in UM. These results further facilitate the large-scale, routine culture of human ES cells and suggest that fibroblasts and fibro-blast-conditioned medium sustain human ES cells in part by stabilizing FGF signaling above a critical threshold.

  12. Altered pattern of replication of human chromosomes in a human fibroblast-mouse cell hybrid.

    PubMed Central

    Farber, R A; Davidson, R L

    1978-01-01

    The pattern of terminal replication of the human chromosomes in a clone of hybrids between diploid human fibroblasts and mouse cells was analyzed by autoradiography. An average of 10 human chromosomes was present in the hybrid cells. Several of these chromosomes were found to terminate replication in a different order from the same chromosomes in the parental human fibroblasts. Chromosomes 4 and 5 completed replication later in the hybrid than in the fibroblasts (relative to the other human chromosomes). In contrast, chromosomes 7, 12, and 15 completed replication earlier in the hybrid than in the fibroblasts. These results suggest that the sequence of terminal chromosome replication in human fibroblasts is not irreversibly programmed into each chromosome. Images PMID:274734

  13. Cyclic Strain Anisotropy Regulates Valvular Interstitial Cell Phenotype and Tissue Remodeling in 3D Culture

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Russell A.; Chin, Karen; Santisakultarm, Thom P.; Dropkin, Amanda; Richards, Jennifer M.; Schaffer, Chris B.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Many planar connective tissues exhibit complex anisotropic matrix fiber arrangements that are critical to their biomechanical function. This organized structure is created and modified by resident fibroblasts in response to mechanical forces in their environment. The directionality of applied strain fields change dramatically during development, aging, and disease, but the specific effect of strain direction on matrix remodeling is less clear. Current mechanobiological inquiry of planar tissues is limited to equibiaxial or uniaxial stretch, which inadequately simulate many in vivo environments. In this study, we implement a novel bioreactor system to demonstrate the unique effect of controlled anisotropic strain on fibroblast behavior in 3D engineered tissue environments, using aortic valve interstitial fibroblast cells (VIC) as a model system. Cell seeded 3D collagen hydrogels were subjected to cyclic anisotropic strain profiles maintained at constant areal strain magnitude for up to 96 hours at 1Hz. Increasing anisotropy of biaxial strain resulted in increased cellular orientation and collagen fiber alignment along the principal directions of strain and cell orientation was found to precede fiber reorganization. Cellular proliferation and apoptosis were both significantly enhanced under increasing biaxial strain anisotropy (P < 0.05). While cyclic strain reduced both vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin compared to unstrained controls, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression increased with strain anisotropy and correlated with direction (P < 0.05). Collectively, these results suggest that strain field anisotropy is an independent regulator of fibroblast cell phenotype, turnover, and matrix reorganization, which may inform normal and pathological remodeling in soft tissues. PMID:22281945

  14. Differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into dermal fibroblasts in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yanfu; Chai, Jiake; Sun, Tianjun; Li, Dongjie; Tao, Ran

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential seed cells for tissue-engineered skin. {yields} Tissue-derived umbilical cord MSCs (UCMSCs) can readily be isolated in vitro. {yields} We induce UCMSCs to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts via conditioned medium. {yields} Collagen type I and collagen type III mRNA level was higher in differentiated cells. {yields} UCMSCs-derived fibroblast-like cells strongly express fibroblast-specific protein. -- Abstract: Tissue-derived umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) can be readily obtained, avoid ethical or moral constraints, and show excellent pluripotency and proliferation potential. UCMSCs are considered to be a promising source of stem cells in regenerative medicine. In this study, we collected newborn umbilical cord tissue under sterile conditions and isolated UCMSCs through a tissue attachment method. UCMSC cell surface markers were examined using flow cytometry. On the third passage, UCMSCs were induced to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts in conditioned induction media. The induction results were detected using immunofluorescence with a fibroblast-specific monoclonal antibody and real time PCR for type I and type III collagen. UCMSCs exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and reached 90% confluency 14 to 18 days after primary culture. Cultured UCMSCs showed strong positive staining for CD73, CD29, CD44, CD105, and HLA-I, but not CD34, CD45, CD31, or HLA-DR. After differentiation, immunostaining for collagen type I, type III, fibroblast-specific protein, vimentin, and desmin were all strongly positive in induced cells, and staining was weak or negative in non-induced cells; total transcript production of collagen type I and collagen type III mRNA was higher in induced cells than in non-induced cells. These results demonstrate that UCMSCs can be induced to differentiate into fibroblasts with conditioned induction media and, in turn, could be used as seed cells for tissue

  15. Senescent dermal fibroblasts enhance stem cell migration through CCL2/CCR2 axis.

    PubMed

    Ohgo, Shiro; Hasegawa, Seiji; Hasebe, Yuichi; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru; Akamatsu, Hirohiko

    2015-07-01

    During aging, increases in the number of senescent cells are seen in various tissues. On the other hand, stem cells play crucial roles in tissue repair and homeostasis. Therefore, it is likely that stem cells give rise to new cells that replace senescent cells. However, how stem cells contribute to homeostasis in the dermis has not been elucidated. Here, we investigated the effects of factors secreted from senescent fibroblasts on stem cells. We found that senescent human dermal fibroblast (HDF) conditioned medium (CM) significantly enhanced stem cell migration compared with young HDF CM. The senescent HDF CM strongly secreted chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). Furthermore, CCL2 was found to enhance stem cell migration, and the inhibition of CCR2, a receptor for CCL2, reduced stem cell migration. These results suggest that senescent fibroblasts recruit stem cells by secreting various factors and that the CCL2/CCR2 axis is one of the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon.

  16. FSP1+ fibroblast subpopulation is essential for the maintenance and regeneration of medullary thymic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lina; Sun, Chenming; Liang, Zhanfeng; Li, Hongran; Chen, Lin; Luo, Haiying; Zhang, Hongmei; Ding, Pengbo; Sun, Xiaoning; Qin, Zhihai; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) form a 3-dimentional network supporting thymocyte development and maturation. Besides epithelium and thymocytes, heterogeneous fibroblasts are essential components in maintaining thymic microenvironments. However, thymic fibroblast characteristics, development and function remain to be determined. We herein found that thymic non-hematopoietic CD45-FSP1+ cells represent a unique Fibroblast specific protein 1 (FSP1)—fibroblast-derived cell subset. Deletion of these cells in FSP1-TK transgenic mice caused thymus atrophy due to the loss of TECs, especially mature medullary TECs (MHCIIhigh, CD80+ and Aire+). In a cyclophosphamide-induced thymus injury and regeneration model, lack of non-hematopoietic CD45-FSP1+ fibroblast subpopulation significantly delayed thymus regeneration. In fact, thymic FSP1+ fibroblasts released more IL-6, FGF7 and FSP1 in the culture medium than their FSP1- counterparts. Further experiments showed that the FSP1 protein could directly enhance the proliferation and maturation of TECs in the in vitro culture systems. FSP1 knockout mice had significantly smaller thymus size and less TECs than their control. Collectively, our studies reveal that thymic CD45-FSP1+ cells are a subpopulation of fibroblasts, which is crucial for the maintenance and regeneration of TECs especially medullary TECs through providing IL-6, FGF7 and FSP1. PMID:26445893

  17. Correlating the effects of bone morphogenic protein to secreted soluble factors from fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells in regulating regenerative processes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Kristen M; Ahsan, Tabassum

    2014-12-01

    The capacity to regenerate complex tissue structures after amputation in humans is limited to the digit tip. In a comparable mouse digit model, which includes both distal regeneration-competent and proximal regeneration-incompetent regions, successful regeneration involves precise orchestration of complex microenvironmental cues, including paracrine signaling via heterogeneous cell-cell interactions. Initial cellular processes, such as proliferation and migration, are critical in the formation of an initial stable cell mass and the ultimate regenerative outcome. Hence, the objective of these in vitro studies was to investigate the effect of soluble factors secreted by fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the proliferation and migration of cells from the regeneration-competent (P3) and -incompetent (P2) regions of the mouse digit tip. We found that P2 and P3 cells were more responsive to fibroblasts than MSCs and that the effects were mediated by bi-directional communication. To initiate understanding of the specific soluble factors that may be involved in the fibroblast-mediated changes in migration of P2 and P3 cells, bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) was exogenously added to the medium. We found that changes in migration of P3 cells were similar when exposed to BMP2 or co-cultured with fibroblasts, indicating that BMP signaling may be responsible for the migratory response of P3 cells to the presence of fibroblasts. Furthermore, BMP2 expression in fibroblasts was shown to be responsive to tensile strain, as is present during wound closure. Therefore, these in vitro studies indicate that regenerative processes may be regulated by fibroblast-secreted soluble factors, which, in turn, are modulated by both cross-talk between heterogeneous phenotypes and the physical microenvironment of the healing site.

  18. Regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 production by reciprocal cell-to-cell interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts through IL-1α in ameloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchigami, Takao; Kibe, Toshiro; Koyama, Hirofumi; Kishida, Shosei; Iijima, Mikio; Nishizawa, Yoshiaki; Hijioka, Hiroshi; Fujii, Tomomi; Ueda, Masahiro; Nakamura, Norifumi; Kiyono, Tohru; Kishida, Michiko

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • We studied the interaction between tumor cells and fibroblasts in ameloblastoma. • AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted significantly high IL-1α levels. • IL-1α derived from AM-3 cells promoted IL-6 and IL-8 secretion of fibroblasts. • IL-6 and IL-8 activated the cellular motility and proliferation of AM-3 cells. - Abstract: Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic benign tumor that occurs in the jawbone, which invades bone and reoccurs locally. This tumor is treated by wide surgical excision and causes various problems, including changes in facial countenance and mastication disorders. Ameloblastomas have abundant tumor stroma, including fibroblasts and immune cells. Although cell-to-cell interactions are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, intercellular communications in ameloblastoma have not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts via soluble factors in ameloblastoma. We used a human ameloblastoma cell line (AM-3 ameloblastoma cells), human fibroblasts (HFF-2 fibroblasts), and primary-cultured fibroblasts from human ameloblastoma tissues, and analyzed the effect of ameloblastoma-associated cell-to-cell communications on gene expression, cytokine secretion, cellular motility and proliferation. AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α than HFF-2 fibroblasts. Treatment with conditioned medium from AM-3 ameloblastoma cells upregulated gene expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 of HFF-2 fibroblasts and primary-cultured fibroblast cells from ameloblastoma tissues. The AM3-stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in fibroblasts was neutralized by pretreatment of AM-3 cells with anti-IL-1α antibody and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Reciprocally, cellular motility of AM-3 ameloblastoma cells was stimulated by HFF-2 fibroblasts in IL-6 and IL-8 dependent manner. In conclusion, ameloblastoma cells and stromal fibroblasts behave

  19. Correlating the Effects of Bone Morphogenic Protein to Secreted Soluble Factors from Fibroblasts and Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Regulating Regenerative Processes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Kristen M.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to regenerate complex tissue structures after amputation in humans is limited to the digit tip. In a comparable mouse digit model, which includes both distal regeneration-competent and proximal regeneration-incompetent regions, successful regeneration involves precise orchestration of complex microenvironmental cues, including paracrine signaling via heterogeneous cell–cell interactions. Initial cellular processes, such as proliferation and migration, are critical in the formation of an initial stable cell mass and the ultimate regenerative outcome. Hence, the objective of these in vitro studies was to investigate the effect of soluble factors secreted by fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the proliferation and migration of cells from the regeneration-competent (P3) and -incompetent (P2) regions of the mouse digit tip. We found that P2 and P3 cells were more responsive to fibroblasts than MSCs and that the effects were mediated by bi-directional communication. To initiate understanding of the specific soluble factors that may be involved in the fibroblast-mediated changes in migration of P2 and P3 cells, bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) was exogenously added to the medium. We found that changes in migration of P3 cells were similar when exposed to BMP2 or co-cultured with fibroblasts, indicating that BMP signaling may be responsible for the migratory response of P3 cells to the presence of fibroblasts. Furthermore, BMP2 expression in fibroblasts was shown to be responsive to tensile strain, as is present during wound closure. Therefore, these in vitro studies indicate that regenerative processes may be regulated by fibroblast-secreted soluble factors, which, in turn, are modulated by both cross-talk between heterogeneous phenotypes and the physical microenvironment of the healing site. PMID:24851900

  20. A novel platform for in situ investigation of cells and tissues under mechanical strain

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Wylie W.; Kural, Mehmet H.; Saif, Taher A.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical micro-environment influences cellular responses such as migration, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Cells are subjected to mechanical stretching in vivo, e.g., epithelial cells during embryogenesis. Current methodologies do not allow high resolution in situ observation of cells and tissues under applied strain, which may reveal intracellular dynamics and the origin of cell mechanosensitivity. We have developed a novel polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate capable of applying tensile and compressive strain (up to 45%) to cells and tissues while allowing in situ observation with high resolution optics. The strain field of the substrate was characterized experimentally using digital image correlation (DIC) and the deformation was modeled with finite element method (FEM) using a Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic constitutive relation. The substrate strain was found to be uniform for greater than 95% of the substrate area. As a demonstration of our system, we applied mechanical strain to single fibroblasts transfected with GFP-Actin and whole transgenic Drosophila embryos expressing GFP in all neurons during live imaging. We report three observations of biological responses due to applied strain: (1) dynamic rotation of intact actin stress fibers in fibroblasts; (2) lamellipodia activity and actin polymerization in fibroblasts; (3) active axonal contraction in Drosophila embryo motor neurons. Our novel platform may serve as an important tool in studying the mechanoresponse of cells and tissues including whole embryos. PMID:20188869

  1. Lineage Tracing Reveals Distinctive Fates for Mesothelial Cells and Submesothelial Fibroblasts during Peritoneal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ting; Chang, Yu-Ting; Pan, Szu-Yu; Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Chang, Fan-Chi; Yeh, Pei-Ying; Liu, Yuan-Hung; Chiang, Wen-Chih; Chen, Yung-Ming; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Tsai, Tun-Jun; Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis of the peritoneal cavity remains a serious, life-threatening problem in the treatment of kidney failure with peritoneal dialysis. The mechanism of fibrosis remains unclear partly because the fibrogenic cells have not been identified with certainty. Recent studies have proposed mesothelial cells to be an important source of myofibroblasts through the epithelial–mesenchymal transition; however, confirmatory studies in vivo are lacking. Here, we show by inducible genetic fate mapping that type I collagen–producing submesothelial fibroblasts are specific progenitors of α-smooth muscle actin–positive myofibroblasts that accumulate progressively in models of peritoneal fibrosis induced by sodium hypochlorite, hyperglycemic dialysis solutions, or TGF-β1. Similar genetic mapping of Wilms’ tumor-1–positive mesothelial cells indicated that peritoneal membrane disruption is repaired and replaced by surviving mesothelial cells in peritoneal injury, and not by submesothelial fibroblasts. Although primary cultures of mesothelial cells or submesothelial fibroblasts each expressed α-smooth muscle actin under the influence of TGF-β1, only submesothelial fibroblasts expressed α-smooth muscle actin after induction of peritoneal fibrosis in mice. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of the PDGF receptor, which is expressed by submesothelial fibroblasts but not mesothelial cells, attenuated the peritoneal fibrosis but not the remesothelialization induced by hypochlorite. Thus, our data identify distinctive fates for injured mesothelial cells and submesothelial fibroblasts during peritoneal injury and fibrosis. PMID:24854266

  2. Inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and motility by fibroblasts is both contact and soluble factor dependent

    PubMed Central

    Alkasalias, Twana; Flaberg, Emilie; Kashuba, Vladimir; Alexeyenko, Andrey; Pavlova, Tatiana; Savchenko, Andrii; Szekely, Laszlo; Klein, George; Guven, Hayrettin

    2014-01-01

    Normal human and murine fibroblasts can inhibit proliferation of tumor cells when cocultured in vitro. The inhibitory capacity varies depending on the donor and the site of origin of the fibroblast. We showed previously that effective inhibition requires formation of a morphologically intact fibroblast monolayer before seeding of the tumor cells. Here we show that inhibition is extended to motility of tumor cells and we dissect the factors responsible for these inhibitory functions. We find that inhibition is due to two different sets of molecules: (i) the extracellular matrix (ECM) and other surface proteins of the fibroblasts, which are responsible for contact-dependent inhibition of tumor cell proliferation; and (ii) soluble factors secreted by fibroblasts when confronted with tumor cells (confronted conditioned media, CCM) contribute to inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and motility. However, conditioned media (CM) obtained from fibroblasts alone (nonconfronted conditioned media, NCM) did not inhibit tumor cell proliferation and motility. In addition, quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) data show up-regulation of proinflammatory genes. Moreover, comparison of CCM and NCM with an antibody array for 507 different soluble human proteins revealed differential expression of growth differentiation factor 15, dickkopf-related protein 1, endothelial-monocyte-activating polypeptide II, ectodysplasin A2, Galectin-3, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2, Nidogen1, urokinase, and matrix metalloproteinase 3. PMID:25404301

  3. Effects of activated fibroblasts on phenotype modulation, EGFR signalling and cell cycle regulation in OSCC cells.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Alexander; Büttner, Robert; Gühne, Stefanie; Gleinig, Anna; Richter, Petra; Chen, Yuan; Franz, Marcus; Liebmann, Claus

    2014-04-01

    Crosstalk between carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells is suggested to mediate phenotype transition of cancer cells as a prerequisite for tumour progression, to predict patients' outcome, and to influence the efficacy of EGFR inhibitor therapies. Here we investigate the influence of activated fibroblasts as a model for CAFs on phenotype and EGFR signalling in OSCC cells in vitro. For this, immortalised hTERT-BJ1 fibroblasts were activated with TGFβ1 and PDGFAB to generate a myofibroblast or proliferative phenotype, respectively. Conditioned media (FCMTGF, FCMPDGF) were used to stimulate PE/CA-PJ15 OSCC cells. Results were compared to the effect of conditioned media of non-stimulated fibroblasts (FCMB). FCMTGF stimulation leads to an up-regulation of vimentin in the OSCC cells and an enhancement of invasive behaviour, indicating EMT-like effects. Similarly, FCMTGF≫FCMPDGF induced up-regulation of EGFR, but not of ErbB2/ErbB3. In addition, we detected an increase in basal activities of ERK, PI3K/Akt and Stat3 (FCMTGF>FCMPDGF) accompanied by protein interaction of vimentin with pERK. These effects are correlated with an increased proliferation. In summary, our results suggest that the activated myofibroblast phenotype provides soluble factors which are able to induce EMT-like phenomena and to increase EGFR signalling as well as cell proliferation in OSCC cells. Our results indicate a possible influence of activated myofibroblasts on EGFR-inhibitor therapy. Therefore, CAFs may serve as promising novel targets for combined therapy strategies. PMID:24394543

  4. Nucleus transfer efficiency of ear fibroblast cells isolated from Bama miniature pigs at various ages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Hua; Peng, Yun; Cai, Xin-Yong; Wan, Meng; Liu, Yu; Wei, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT) has been considered the most effective method for conserving endangered animals and expanding the quantity of adult animal models. Bama miniature pigs are genetically stable and share similar biological features to humans. These pigs have been used to establish animal models for human diseases, and for many other applications. However, there is a paucity of studies on the effect of ear fibroblasts derived from different age of adult Bama miniature pigs on nucleus transfer (NT). The present study examined the NT efficiency of ear fibroblasts from fetal, newborn, 1-, 2-, 4-, 6-, 12-month-old miniature pigs by using trypan blue staining, flow cytometry and NT technique, etc., and the cell biological function and SCNT efficiency were compared between groups. The results showed that ear fibroblasts grew well after passage in each group. Spindle-shaped cells initially predominated, and gradually declined with increase of culture time and replaced by polygonal cells. Irregular cell growth occurred in the 2-month-old group and the elder groups. The growth curves of the ear fibroblasts were "S-shaped" in different age groups. The cell proliferation of postnatal ear fibroblasts, especially those from 2-, 4-, 6-, 12-month-old miniature pigs was significantly different from that of fetus ear fibroblasts (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Two-month- and 4-month-old ear fibroblasts had a significantly higher proportion of G1 stage cells (85% to 91%) than those at 6 and 12 months (66% to 74%, P<0.01). The blastocyst rate of reconstructed embryos originating from newborn, 1-, 2-, 4-month-old donor pigs was 6.06% to 7.69% with no significant difference from that in fetus fibroblast group (8.06%). It was concluded that <4-month-old adult Bama miniature pigs represent a better donor cell resource than elder pigs.

  5. Deep dermal fibroblast profibrotic characteristics are enhanced by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie; Ma, Zengshuan; Shankowsky, Heather A; Medina, Abelardo; Tredget, Edward E

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars are a significant fibroproliferative disorder complicating deep injuries to the skin. We hypothesize that activated deep dermal fibroblasts are subject to regulation by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), which leads to the development of excessive fibrosis following deep dermal injury. We found that the expression of fibrotic factors was higher in deep burn wounds compared with superficial burn wounds collected from burn patients with varying depth of skin injury. We characterized deep and superficial dermal fibroblasts, which were cultured from the deep and superficial dermal layers of normal uninjured skin obtained from abdominoplasty patients, and examined the paracrine effects of BM-MSCs on the fibrotic activities of the cells. In vitro, deep dermal fibroblasts were found higher in the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of type 1 collagen, alpha smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor beta, stromal cell-derived factor 1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, an inhibitor of collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase 1). As well, deep dermal fibroblasts had low matrix metalloproteinase 1 mRNA, produced more collagen, and contracted collagen lattices significantly greater than superficial fibroblasts. By co-culturing layered fibroblasts with BM-MSCs in a transwell insert system, BM-MSCs enhanced the fibrotic behavior of deep dermal fibroblasts, which suggests a possible involvement of BM-MSCs in the pathogenesis of hypertrophic scarring.

  6. Fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes with immunosuppressive properties for allogeneic cell-based wound therapy.

    PubMed

    Zuliani, Thomas; Saiagh, Soraya; Knol, Anne-Chantal; Esbelin, Julie; Dréno, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Fetal skin heals rapidly without scar formation early in gestation, conferring to fetal skin cells a high and unique potential for tissue regeneration and scar management. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes to stimulate wound repair and regeneration for further allogeneic cell-based therapy development. From a single fetal skin sample, two clinical batches of keratinocytes and fibroblasts were manufactured and characterized. Tolerogenic properties of the fetal cells were investigated by allogeneic PBMC proliferation tests. In addition, the potential advantage of fibroblasts/keratinocytes co-application for wound healing stimulation has been examined in co-culture experiments with in vitro scratch assays and a multiplex cytokines array system. Based on keratin 14 and prolyl-4-hydroxylase expression analyses, purity of both clinical batches was found to be above 98% and neither melanocytes nor Langerhans cells could be detected. Both cell types demonstrated strong immunosuppressive properties as shown by the dramatic decrease in allogeneic PBMC proliferation when co-cultured with fibroblasts and/or keratinocytes. We further showed that the indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) activity is required for the immunoregulatory activity of fetal skin cells. Co-cultures experiments have also revealed that fibroblasts-keratinocytes interactions strongly enhanced fetal cells secretion of HGF, GM-CSF, IL-8 and to a lesser extent VEGF-A. Accordingly, in the in vitro scratch assays the fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes co-culture accelerated the scratch closure compared to fibroblast or keratinocyte mono-cultures. In conclusion, our data suggest that the combination of fetal keratinocytes and fibroblasts could be of particular interest for the development of a new allogeneic skin substitute with immunomodulatory activity, acting as a reservoir for wound healing growth factors.

  7. Effects of activated fibroblasts on phenotype modulation, EGFR signalling and cell cycle regulation in OSCC cells

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, Alexander; Büttner, Robert; Gühne, Stefanie; Gleinig, Anna; Richter, Petra; Chen, Yuan; Franz, Marcus; Liebmann, Claus

    2014-04-01

    Crosstalk between carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells is suggested to mediate phenotype transition of cancer cells as a prerequisite for tumour progression, to predict patients’ outcome, and to influence the efficacy of EGFR inhibitor therapies. Here we investigate the influence of activated fibroblasts as a model for CAFs on phenotype and EGFR signalling in OSCC cells in vitro. For this, immortalised hTERT-BJ1 fibroblasts were activated with TGFβ1 and PDGFAB to generate a myofibroblast or proliferative phenotype, respectively. Conditioned media (FCM{sub TGF}, FCM{sub PDGF}) were used to stimulate PE/CA-PJ15 OSCC cells. Results were compared to the effect of conditioned media of non-stimulated fibroblasts (FCM{sub B}). FCM{sub TGF} stimulation leads to an up-regulation of vimentin in the OSCC cells and an enhancement of invasive behaviour, indicating EMT-like effects. Similarly, FCM{sub TGF}≫FCM{sub PDGF} induced up-regulation of EGFR, but not of ErbB2/ErbB3. In addition, we detected an increase in basal activities of ERK, PI3K/Akt and Stat3 (FCM{sub TGF}>FCM{sub PDGF}) accompanied by protein interaction of vimentin with pERK. These effects are correlated with an increased proliferation. In summary, our results suggest that the activated myofibroblast phenotype provides soluble factors which are able to induce EMT-like phenomena and to increase EGFR signalling as well as cell proliferation in OSCC cells. Our results indicate a possible influence of activated myofibroblasts on EGFR-inhibitor therapy. Therefore, CAFs may serve as promising novel targets for combined therapy strategies. - Highlights: • A cell culture model for cancer associated fibroblasts is described. • The mutual interaction with OSCC cells leads to up-regulation of EGFR in tumour cells. • mCAF induces EGFR downstream signalling with increased proliferation in OSCC. • Erk activation is associated with protein interaction with vimentin

  8. Cancer: An Oxidative Crosstalk between Solid Tumor Cells and Cancer Associated Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Arcucci, Alessandro; Ruocco, Maria Rosaria; Granato, Giuseppina; Sacco, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Redox balance is associated with the regulation of several cell signalling pathways and functions. In fact, under physiological conditions, cells maintain a balance between oxidant and antioxidant systems, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act as second messengers to regulate cell proliferation, cell death, and other physiological processes. Cancer tissues usually contain higher levels of ROS than normal tissues, and this ROS overproduction is associated with tumor development. Neoplastic tissues are very heterogeneous systems, composed of tumor cells and microenvironment that has a critical role in tumor progression. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) represent the main cell type of tumor microenvironment, and they contribute to tumor growth by undergoing an irreversible activation process. It is known that ROS can be transferred from cancer cells to fibroblasts. In particular, ROS affect the behaviour of CAFs by promoting the conversion of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts that support tumor progression and dissemination. Furthermore, the wrecking of redox homeostasis in cancer cells and tumor microenvironment induces a metabolic reprogramming in tumor cells and cancer associated fibroblasts, giving advantage to cancer growth. This review describes the role of ROS in tumor growth, by focusing on CAFs activation and metabolic interactions between cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts. PMID:27595103

  9. Cancer: An Oxidative Crosstalk between Solid Tumor Cells and Cancer Associated Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Arcucci, Alessandro; Ruocco, Maria Rosaria; Granato, Giuseppina; Sacco, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Redox balance is associated with the regulation of several cell signalling pathways and functions. In fact, under physiological conditions, cells maintain a balance between oxidant and antioxidant systems, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act as second messengers to regulate cell proliferation, cell death, and other physiological processes. Cancer tissues usually contain higher levels of ROS than normal tissues, and this ROS overproduction is associated with tumor development. Neoplastic tissues are very heterogeneous systems, composed of tumor cells and microenvironment that has a critical role in tumor progression. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) represent the main cell type of tumor microenvironment, and they contribute to tumor growth by undergoing an irreversible activation process. It is known that ROS can be transferred from cancer cells to fibroblasts. In particular, ROS affect the behaviour of CAFs by promoting the conversion of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts that support tumor progression and dissemination. Furthermore, the wrecking of redox homeostasis in cancer cells and tumor microenvironment induces a metabolic reprogramming in tumor cells and cancer associated fibroblasts, giving advantage to cancer growth. This review describes the role of ROS in tumor growth, by focusing on CAFs activation and metabolic interactions between cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts.

  10. Cancer: An Oxidative Crosstalk between Solid Tumor Cells and Cancer Associated Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Arcucci, Alessandro; Ruocco, Maria Rosaria; Granato, Giuseppina; Sacco, Anna Maria; Montagnani, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Redox balance is associated with the regulation of several cell signalling pathways and functions. In fact, under physiological conditions, cells maintain a balance between oxidant and antioxidant systems, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act as second messengers to regulate cell proliferation, cell death, and other physiological processes. Cancer tissues usually contain higher levels of ROS than normal tissues, and this ROS overproduction is associated with tumor development. Neoplastic tissues are very heterogeneous systems, composed of tumor cells and microenvironment that has a critical role in tumor progression. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) represent the main cell type of tumor microenvironment, and they contribute to tumor growth by undergoing an irreversible activation process. It is known that ROS can be transferred from cancer cells to fibroblasts. In particular, ROS affect the behaviour of CAFs by promoting the conversion of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts that support tumor progression and dissemination. Furthermore, the wrecking of redox homeostasis in cancer cells and tumor microenvironment induces a metabolic reprogramming in tumor cells and cancer associated fibroblasts, giving advantage to cancer growth. This review describes the role of ROS in tumor growth, by focusing on CAFs activation and metabolic interactions between cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts. PMID:27595103

  11. Estradiol regulation of nucleotidases in female reproductive tract epithelial cells and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zheng; Fahey, John V; Bodwell, Jack E; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Rossoll, Richard M; Crist, Sarah G; Patel, Mickey V; Wira, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The use of topical and oral adenosine derivatives in HIV prevention that need to be maintained in tissues and cells at effective levels to prevent transmission prompted us to ask whether estradiol could influence the regulation of catabolic nucleotidase enzymes in epithelial cells and fibroblasts from the upper and lower female reproductive tract (FRT) as these might affect cellular TFV-DP levels. Epithelial cells and fibroblasts were isolated from endometrium (EM), endocervix (CX) and ectocervix (ECX) tissues from hysterectomy patients, grown to confluence and treated with or without estradiol prior to RNA isolation. The expression of nucleotidase (NT) genes was measurable by RT-PCR in epithelial cells and fibroblasts from all FRT tissues. To determine if sex hormones have the potential to regulate NT, we evaluated NT gene expression and NT biological activity in FRT cells following hormone treatment. Estradiol increased expression of Cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase after 2 or 4 h in endometrial epithelial cells but not epithelial cells or fibroblasts from other sites. In studies using a modified 5'-Nucleotidase biological assay for nucleotidases, estradiol increased NT activity in epithelial cells and fibroblasts from the EM, CX and ECX at 24 and 48 h. In related studies, HUVEC primary cells and a HUVEC cell line were unresponsive to estradiol in terms of nucleotidase expression or biological activity. Our findings of an increase in nucleotidase expression and biological activity induced by estradiol do not directly assess changes in microbicide metabolism. However, they do suggest that when estradiol levels are elevated during the menstrual cycle, FRT epithelial cells and fibroblasts from the EM, CX and ECX have the potential to influence microbicide levels that could enhance protection of HIV-target cells (CD4+T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells) throughout the FRT. PMID:23936114

  12. RT-qPCR-based microneutralization assay for human cytomegalovirus using fibroblasts and epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Peden, Keith; Murata, Haruhiko

    2015-12-16

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a leading cause of congenital infection that can result in serious disabilities in affected children. To facilitate HCMV vaccine development, a microscale neutralization assay based on reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was developed to quantify HCMV-neutralizing antibodies. Our approach relies on the generation of crude lysates from virus-infected cells that are amenable to direct analysis by RT-qPCR, thereby circumventing rate-limiting procedures associated with sample RNA extraction and purification. By serial passaging of the laboratory HCMV strain AD169 in epithelial cells (ARPE-19), a revertant virus with restored epithelial cell tropism, designated AD169(wt131), was obtained. AD169 and AD169(wt131) were evaluated in both epithelial cells (ARPE-19) and fibroblasts (MRC-5) by one-step RT-qPCR targeting the immediate-early gene IE1 transcript of HCMV. Expression kinetics indicated that RT-qPCR assessment could be conducted as early as 6h post-infection. Human serum samples (n=30) from healthy donors were tested for HCMV-specific IgG using a commercially available ELISA and for HCMV-neutralizing activity using our RT-qPCR-based neutralization assay. In agreement with the ELISA results, higher neutralizing activity was observed in the HCMV IgG seropositive group when compared with the HCMV IgG seronegative group. In addition, HCMV IgG seropositive human sera exhibited higher neutralizing titers using epithelial cells compared with using fibroblasts (geometric mean titers of 344 and 8 in ARPE-19 cells and MRC-5 cells, respectively). Our assay was robust to variation in input virus dose. In addition, a simple lysis buffer containing a non-ionic detergent was successfully demonstrated to be a less costly alternative to commercial reagents for cell-lysate preparation. Thus, our rapid HCMV neutralization assay may be a straightforward and flexible high-throughput tool for measuring antibody responses induced by vaccination

  13. Influence of Cyclic Mechanical Stretch and Tissue Constraints on Cellular and Collagen Alignment in Fibroblast-Derived Cell Sheets

    PubMed Central

    Weidenhamer, Nathan K.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical forces play an important role in shaping the organization of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in developing and mature tissues. The resulting organization gives the tissue its unique functional properties. Understanding how mechanical forces influence the alignment of the ECM is important in tissue engineering, where recapitulating the alignment of the native tissue is essential for appropriate mechanical anisotropy. In this work, a novel method was developed to create and stretch tubular cell sheets by seeding neonatal dermal fibroblasts onto a rotating silicone tube. We show the fibroblasts proliferated to create a confluent monolayer around the tube and a collagenous, isotropic tubular tissue over 4 weeks of static culture. These silicone tubes with overlying tubular tissue constructs were mounted into a cyclic distension bioreactor and subjected to cyclic circumferential stretch at 5% strain, 0.5 Hz for 3 weeks. We found that the tissue subjected to cyclic stretch compacted axially over the silicone tube in comparison to static controls, leading to a circumferentially aligned tissue with higher membrane stiffness and maximum tension. In a subsequent study, the tissue constructs were constrained against axial compaction during cyclic stretching. The resulting alignment of fibroblasts and collagen was perpendicular (axial) to the stretch direction (circumferential). When the cells were devitalized with sodium azide before stretching, similarly constrained tissue did not develop strong axial alignment. This work suggests that both mechanical stretching and mechanical constraints are important in determining tissue organization, and that this organization is dependent on an intact cytoskeleton. PMID:23126441

  14. Human cytomegalovirus transcriptome activity differs during replication in human fibroblast, epithelial and astrocyte cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Towler, James C.; Ebrahimi, Bahram; Lane, Brian; Davison, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Broad cell tropism contributes to the pathogenesis of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), but the extent to which cell type influences HCMV gene expression is unclear. A bespoke HCMV DNA microarray was used to monitor the transcriptome activity of the low passage Merlin strain of HCMV at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection, during a single round of replication in human fetal foreskin fibroblast cells (HFFF-2s), human retinal pigmented epithelial cells (RPE-1s) and human astrocytoma cells (U373MGs). In order to correlate transcriptome activity with concurrent biological responses, viral cytopathic effect, growth kinetics and genomic loads were examined in the three cell types. The temporal expression pattern of viral genes was broadly similar in HFFF-2s and RPE-1s, but dramatically different in U373MGs. Of the 165 known HCMV protein-coding genes, 41 and 48 were differentially regulated in RPE-1s and U373MGs, respectively, compared with HFFF-2s, and 22 of these were differentially regulated in both RPE-1s and U373MGs. In RPE-1s, all differentially regulated genes were downregulated, but, in U373MGs, some were down- and others upregulated. Differentially regulated genes were identified among the immediate-early, early, early late and true-late viral gene classes. Grouping of downregulated genes according to function at landmark stages of the replication cycle led to the identification of potential bottleneck stages (genome replication, virion assembly, and virion maturation and release) that may account for cell type-dependent viral growth kinetics. The possibility that cell type-specific differences in expressed cellular factors are responsible for modulation of viral gene expression is discussed. PMID:22258857

  15. Brief Azacytidine Step Allows The Conversion of Suspension Human Fibroblasts into Neural Progenitor-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mirakhori, Fahimeh; Zeynali, Bahman; Kiani, Sahar; Baharvand, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    In recent years transdifferentiation technology has enabled direct conversion of human fibroblasts to become a valuable, abundant and accessible cell source for patient-specific induced cell generation in biomedical research. The majority of transdifferentiation approaches rely upon viral gene delivery which due to random integration with the host genome can cause genome instability and tumorigenesis upon transplantation. Here, we provide a simple way to induce neural progenitor-like cells from human fibroblasts without genetic manipulation by changing physicochemical culture properties from monolayer culture into a suspension in the presence of a chemical DNA methyltransferase inhibitor agent, Azacytidine. We have demonstrated the expression of neural progenitor-like markers, morphology and the ability to spontaneously differentiate into neural-like cells. This approach is simple, inexpensive, lacks genetic manipulation and could be a foundation for future chemical neural transdifferentiation and a safe induction of neural progenitor cells from human fibroblasts for clinical applications. PMID:25870845

  16. Priming cancer cells for drug resistance: role of the fibroblast niche

    PubMed Central

    FANG, Wei Bin; YAO, Min; CHENG, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    Conventional and targeted chemotherapies remain integral strategies to treat solid tumors. Despite the large number of anti-cancer drugs available, chemotherapy does not completely eradicate disease. Disease recurrence and the growth of drug resistant tumors remain significant problems in anti-cancer treatment. To develop more effective treatment strategies, it is important to understand the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of drug resistance. It is generally accepted that cancer cells do not function alone, but evolve through interactions with the surrounding tumor microenvironment. As key cellular components of the tumor microenvironment, fibroblasts regulate the growth and progression of many solid tumors. Emerging studies demonstrate that fibroblasts secrete a multitude of factors that enable cancer cells to become drug resistant. This review will explore how fibroblast secretion of soluble factors act on cancer cells to enhance cancer cell survival and cancer stem cell renewal, contributing to the development of drug resistant cancer. PMID:25045348

  17. The Response of Vocal Fold Fibroblasts and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells to Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Joel; Quinchia Rios, Beatriz; Bartlett, Rebecca; Berchtold, Craig; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Illumination of cellular changes caused by mechanical forces present within the laryngeal microenvironment may well guide strategies for tissue engineering the vocal fold lamina propria. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of human vocal fold fibroblasts (hVFF) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) to vibratory stimulus. In order to study these effects, a bioreactor capable of vibrating two cell seeded substrates was developed. The cell seeded substrates contact each other as a result of the sinusoidal frequency, producing a motion similar to the movement of true vocal folds. Utilizing this bioreactor, hVFF and BM-MSC were subjected to 200 Hz vibration and 20% strain for 8 hours. Immunohistochemistry (Ki-67 and TUNEL) was performed to examine cell proliferation and apoptosis respectively, while semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess extracellular matrix related gene expression. HVFF significantly proliferated (p = 0.011) when subjected to 200 Hz vibration and 20% strain, while BM-MSC did not (p = 1.0). A statistically significant increase in apoptosis of BM-MSC (p = 0.0402) was observed under the experimental conditions; however high cell viability (96%) was maintained. HVFF did not have significantly altered apoptosis (p = 0.7849) when subjected to vibration and strain. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR results show no significant differences in expression levels of collagen I (BM-MSC p = 0.1951, hVFF p = v0.3629), fibronectin (BM-MSC p = 0.1951, hVFF p = 0.2513), and TGF-β1 (BM-MSC p = 0.2534, hVFF p = 0.6029) between vibratory and static conditions in either cell type. Finally, smooth muscle actin mRNA was not present in either vibrated or static samples, indicating that no myofibroblast differentiation occurred for either cell type. Together, these results demonstrate that BM-MSC may be a suitable alternative to hVFF for vocal fold tissue engineering. Further investigation into a larger number of

  18. A GTPase controls cell-substrate adhesion in Xenopus XTC fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Symons, M H; Mitchison, T J

    1992-09-01

    Cell-substrate adhesion is crucial at various stages of development and for the maintenance of normal tissues. Little is known about the regulation of these adhesive interactions. To investigate the role of GTPases in the control of cell morphology and cell-substrate adhesion we have injected guanine nucleotide analogs into Xenopus XTC fibroblasts. Injection of GTP gamma S inhibited ruffling and increased spreading, suggesting an increase in adhesion. To further investigate this, we made use of GRGDSP, a peptide which inhibits binding of integrins to vitronectin and fibronectin. XTC fibroblasts injected with non-hydrolyzable analogs of GTP took much more time to round up than mock-injected cells in response to treatment with GRGDSP, while GDP beta S-injected cells rounded up in less time than controls. Injection with GTP gamma S did not inhibit cell rounding induced by trypsin however, showing that cell contractility is not significantly affected by the activation of GTPases. These data provide evidence for the existence of a GTPase which can control cell-substrate adhesion from the cytoplasm. Treatment of XTC fibroblasts with the phorbol ester 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate reduced cell spreading and accelerated cell rounding in response to GRGDSP, which is essentially opposite to the effect exerted by non-hydrolyzable GTP analogs. These results suggest the existence of at least two distinct pathways controlling cell-substrate adhesion in XTC fibroblasts, one depending on a GTPase and another one involving protein kinase C.

  19. Interaction between head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells and fibroblasts in the biosynthesis of PGE2

    PubMed Central

    Alcolea, Sonia; Antón, Rosa; Camacho, Mercedes; Soler, Marta; Alfranca, Arantzazu; Avilés-Jurado, Francesc-Xavier; Redondo, Juan-Miguel; Quer, Miquel; León, Xavier; Vila, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG)E2 is relevant in tumor biology, and interactions between tumor and stroma cells dramatically influence tumor progression. We tested the hypothesis that cross-talk between head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells and fibroblasts could substantially enhance PGE2 biosynthesis. We observed an enhanced production of PGE2 in cocultures of HNSCC cell lines and fibroblasts, which was consistent with an upregulation of COX-2 and microsomal PGE-synthase-1 (mPGES-1) in fibroblasts. In cultured endothelial cells, medium from fibroblasts treated with tumor cell-conditioned medium induced in vitro angiogenesis, and in tumor cell induced migration and proliferation, these effects were sensitive to PGs inhibition. Proteomic analysis shows that tumor cells released IL-1, and tumor cell-induced COX-2 and mPGES-1 were suppressed by the IL-1-receptor antagonist. IL-1α levels were higher than those of IL-1β in the tumor cell-conditioning medium and in the secretion from samples obtained from 20 patients with HNSCC. Fractionation of tumor cell-conditioning media indicated that tumor cells secreted mature and unprocessed forms of IL-1. Our results support the concept that tumor-associated fibroblasts are a relevant source of PGE2 in the tumor mass. Because mPGES-1 seems to be essential for a substantial biosynthesis of PGE2, these findings also strengthen the concept that mPGES-1 may be \\a target for therapeutic intervention in patients with HNSCC. PMID:22308510

  20. Non-Viral Generation of Neural Precursor-like Cells from Adult Human Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Maucksch, C; Firmin, E; Butler-Munro, C; Montgomery, JM; Dottori, M; Connor, B

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have reported direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to mature neurons by the introduction of defined neural genes. This technology has potential use in the areas of neurological disease modeling and drug development. However, use of induced neurons for large-scale drug screening and cell-based replacement strategies is limited due to their inability to expand once reprogrammed. We propose it would be more desirable to induce expandable neural precursor cells directly from human fibroblasts. To date several pluripotent and neural transcription factors have been shown to be capable of converting mouse fibroblasts to neural stem/precursor-like cells when delivered by viral vectors. Here we extend these findings and demonstrate that transient ectopic insertion of the transcription factors SOX2 and PAX6 to adult human fibroblasts through use of non-viral plasmid transfection or protein transduction allows the generation of induced neural precursor (iNP) colonies expressing a range of neural stem and pro-neural genes. Upon differentiation, iNP cells give rise to neurons exhibiting typical neuronal morphologies and expressing multiple neuronal markers including tyrosine hydroxylase and GAD65/67. Importantly, iNP-derived neurons demonstrate electrophysiological properties of functionally mature neurons with the capacity to generate action potentials. In addition, iNP cells are capable of differentiating into glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing astrocytes. This study represents a novel virusfree approach for direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to a neural precursor fate. PMID:24693194

  1. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Gorlin’s Patients: a Matter of Fibroblasts-Led Protumoral Microenvironment?

    PubMed Central

    Gache, Yannick; Brellier, Florence; Rouanet, Sophie; Al-Qaraghuli, Sahar; Goncalves-Maia, Maria; Burty-Valin, Elodie; Barnay, Stéphanie; Scarzello, Sabine; Ruat, Martial; Sevenet, Nicolas; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Magnaldo, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest tumor in human. About 70% sporadic BCCs bear somatic mutations in the PATCHED1 tumor suppressor gene which encodes the receptor for the Sonic Hedgehog morphogen (SHH). PATCHED1 germinal mutations are associated with the dominant Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS), a major hallmark of which is a high susceptibility to BCCs. Although the vast majority of sporadic BCCs arises exclusively in sun exposed skin areas, 40 to 50% BCCs from NBCCS patients develop in non photo-exposed skin. Since overwhelming evidences indicate that microenvironment may both be modified by- and influence the- epithelial tumor, we hypothesized that NBCCS fibroblasts could contribute to BCCs in NBCCS patients, notably those developing in non photo-exposed skin areas. The functional impact of NBCCS fibroblasts was then assessed in organotypic skin cultures with control keratinocytes. Onset of epidermal differentiation was delayed in the presence of primary NBCCS fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, keratinocyte proliferation was severely reduced and showed high levels of nuclear P53 in both organotypic skin cultures and in fibroblast-led conditioning experiments. However, in spite of increased levels of senescence associated β-galactosidase activity in keratinocytes cultured in the presence of medium conditioned by NBCCS fibroblasts, we failed to observe activation of P16 and P21 and then of bona fide features of senescence. Constitutive extinction of P53 in WT keratinocytes resulted in an invasive phenotype in the presence of NBCCS fibroblasts. Finally, we found that expression of SHH was limited to fibroblasts but was dependent on the presence of keratinocytes. Inhibition of SHH binding resulted in improved epidermal morphogenesis. Altogether, these data suggest that the repertoire of diffusible factors (including SHH) expressed by primary NBCCS fibroblasts generate a stress affecting keratinocytes behavior and epidermal homeostasis. Our findings

  2. Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of Human Foreskin Fibroblasts Infected with the Sylvio and Y Strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Houston-Ludlam, Genevieve A.; Belew, A. Trey; El-Sayed, Najib M.

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas Disease, is phylogeneticaly distributed into nearly identical genetic strains which show divergent clinical presentations including differences in rates of cardiomyopathy in humans, different vector species and transmission cycles, differential congenital transmission in a mouse model, and differing immune and heart inflammation response in dogs. The population structure of these strains divides into two groups, which are geographically and clinically distinct. The aim of this study was to compare the transcriptome of two strains of T. cruzi, Sylvio vs. Y, to identify differences in expression that could account for clinical and biochemical differences. We collected and sequenced RNA from T. cruzi-infected and control Human Foreskin Fibroblasts at three timepoints. Differential expression analysis identified gene expression different timepoints in Sylvio infections, and between Sylvio and Y infections in both parasite and host. The Sylvio strain parasite and the host response to Sylvio infection largely mirrored the host-pathogen interaction seen in our previous Y strain work. IL-8 was more highly expressed in Sylvio-infected HFFs than in Y-infected HFFs. PMID:27505626

  3. Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of Human Foreskin Fibroblasts Infected with the Sylvio and Y Strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Houston-Ludlam, Genevieve A; Belew, A Trey; El-Sayed, Najib M

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas Disease, is phylogeneticaly distributed into nearly identical genetic strains which show divergent clinical presentations including differences in rates of cardiomyopathy in humans, different vector species and transmission cycles, differential congenital transmission in a mouse model, and differing immune and heart inflammation response in dogs. The population structure of these strains divides into two groups, which are geographically and clinically distinct. The aim of this study was to compare the transcriptome of two strains of T. cruzi, Sylvio vs. Y, to identify differences in expression that could account for clinical and biochemical differences. We collected and sequenced RNA from T. cruzi-infected and control Human Foreskin Fibroblasts at three timepoints. Differential expression analysis identified gene expression different timepoints in Sylvio infections, and between Sylvio and Y infections in both parasite and host. The Sylvio strain parasite and the host response to Sylvio infection largely mirrored the host-pathogen interaction seen in our previous Y strain work. IL-8 was more highly expressed in Sylvio-infected HFFs than in Y-infected HFFs. PMID:27505626

  4. Interactions of silver nanoparticles with primary mouse fibroblasts and liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, S.; Jain, J.; Rajwade, J.M.; Paknikar, K.M.

    2009-05-01

    Primary cells are ideal for in vitro toxicity studies since they closely resemble tissue environment. Here, we report a detailed study on the in vitro interactions of 7-20 nm spherical silver nanoparticles (SNP) with primary fibroblasts and primary liver cells isolated from Swiss albino mice. The intended use of silver nanoparticles is in the form of a topical antimicrobial gel formulation for the treatment of burns and wounds. Upon exposure to SNP for 24 h, morphology of primary fibroblasts and primary liver cells remained unaltered up to 25 {mu}g/mL and 100 {mu}g/mL SNP, respectively, although with minor decrease in confluence. IC{sub 50} values for primary fibroblasts and primary liver cells as revealed by XTT assay were 61 {mu}g/mL and 449 {mu}g/mL, respectively. Ultra-thin sections of primary cells exposed to 1/2 IC{sub 50} SNP for 24 h, visualized under Transmission electron microscope showed the presence of dark, electron dense, spherical aggregates inside the mitochondria, and cytoplasm, probably representing the intracellular SNP. When the cells were challenged with {approx} 1/2 IC{sub 50} concentration of SNP (i.e. 30 {mu}g/mL and 225 {mu}g/mL for primary fibroblasts and primary liver cells, respectively), enhancement of GSH ({approx} 1.2 fold) and depletion of lipid peroxidation ({approx} 1.4 fold) were seen in primary fibroblasts which probably protect the cells from functional damage. In case of primary liver cells; increased levels of SOD ({approx} 1.4 fold) and GSH ({approx} 1.1 fold) as compared to unexposed cells were observed. Caspase-3 activity assay indicated that the SNP concentrations required for the onset of apoptosis were found to be much lower (3.12 {mu}g/mL in primary fibroblasts, 12.5 {mu}g/mL in primary liver cells) than the necrotic concentration (100 {mu}g/mL in primary fibroblasts, 500 {mu}g/mL in primary liver cells). These observations were confirmed by CLSM studies by exposure of cells to 1/2 IC{sub 50} SNP (resulting in apoptosis

  5. Interactions of silver nanoparticles with primary mouse fibroblasts and liver cells.

    PubMed

    Arora, S; Jain, J; Rajwade, J M; Paknikar, K M

    2009-05-01

    Primary cells are ideal for in vitro toxicity studies since they closely resemble tissue environment. Here, we report a detailed study on the in vitro interactions of 7-20 nm spherical silver nanoparticles (SNP) with primary fibroblasts and primary liver cells isolated from Swiss albino mice. The intended use of silver nanoparticles is in the form of a topical antimicrobial gel formulation for the treatment of burns and wounds. Upon exposure to SNP for 24 h, morphology of primary fibroblasts and primary liver cells remained unaltered up to 25 microg/mL and 100 microg/mL SNP, respectively, although with minor decrease in confluence. IC(50) values for primary fibroblasts and primary liver cells as revealed by XTT assay were 61 microg/mL and 449 microg/mL, respectively. Ultra-thin sections of primary cells exposed to 1/2 IC(50) SNP for 24 h, visualized under Transmission electron microscope showed the presence of dark, electron dense, spherical aggregates inside the mitochondria, and cytoplasm, probably representing the intracellular SNP. When the cells were challenged with approximately 1/2 IC(50) concentration of SNP (i.e. 30 microg/mL and 225 microg/mL for primary fibroblasts and primary liver cells, respectively), enhancement of GSH (approximately 1.2 fold) and depletion of lipid peroxidation (approximately 1.4 fold) were seen in primary fibroblasts which probably protect the cells from functional damage. In case of primary liver cells; increased levels of SOD ( approximately 1.4 fold) and GSH ( approximately 1.1 fold) as compared to unexposed cells were observed. Caspase-3 activity assay indicated that the SNP concentrations required for the onset of apoptosis were found to be much lower (3.12 microg/mL in primary fibroblasts, 12.5 microg/mL in primary liver cells) than the necrotic concentration (100 microg/mL in primary fibroblasts, 500 microg/mL in primary liver cells). These observations were confirmed by CLSM studies by exposure of cells to 1/2 IC(50) SNP

  6. Radiation induced DNA damage and damage repair in human tumor and fibroblast cell lines assessed by histone H2AX phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahrhofer, Hartmut; Buerger, Susann; Oppitz, Ulrich; Flentje, Michael; Djuzenova, Cholpon S. . E-mail: djuzenova_t@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the radiation-induced levels of {gamma}H2AX and its decay kinetics in 10 human cell lines covering a wide range of cellular radiosensitivity (SF2, 0.06-0.63). Methods and Materials: Five tumor cell lines included Colo-800 melanoma, two glioblastoma (MO59J and MO59K), fibrosarcoma HT 1080, and breast carcinoma MCF7. Five primary skin fibroblasts lines included two normal strains, an ataxia telangiectasia strain, and two fibroblast strains from breast cancer patients with an adverse early skin reaction to radiotherapy. Cellular radiosensitivity was assessed by colony-forming test. Deoxyribonucleic acid damage and repair were analyzed according to nuclear {gamma}H2AX foci intensity, with digital image analysis. Results: The cell lines tested showed a wide degree of variation in the background intensity of immunostained nuclear histone {gamma}H2AX, which was higher for the tumor cell lines compared with the fibroblast strains. It was not possible to predict clonogenic cell survival (SF2) for the 10 cell lines studied from the radiation-induced {gamma}H2AX intensity. In addition, the slopes of the dose-response (0-4 Gy) curves, the rates of {gamma}H2AX disappearance, and its residual expression ({<=}18 h after irradiation) did not correlate with SF2 values. Conclusions: The results from 10 cell lines showed that measurements of immunofluorescence intensity by digital image analysis of phosphorylated histone H2AX as a surrogate marker of DNA double-strand breaks did not allow reliable ranking of cell strains according to their clonogenic survival after irradiation.

  7. Suitability of human Tenon's fibroblasts as feeder cells for culturing human limbal epithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Scafetta, Gaia; Tricoli, Eleonora; Siciliano, Camilla; Napoletano, Chiara; Puca, Rosa; Vingolo, Enzo Maria; Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Polistena, Andrea; Frati, Giacomo; De Falco, Elena

    2013-12-01

    Corneal epithelial regeneration through ex vivo expansion of limbal stem cells (LSCs) on 3T3-J2 fibroblasts has revealed some limitations mainly due to the corneal microenvironment not being properly replicated, thus affecting long term results. Insights into the feeder cells that are used to expand LSCs and the mechanisms underlying the effects of human feeder cells have yet to be fully elucidated. We recently developed a standardized methodology to expand human Tenon's fibroblasts (TFs). Here we aimed to investigate whether TFs can be employed as feeder cells for LSCs, characterizing the phenotype of the co-cultures and assessing what human soluble factors are secreted. The hypothesis that TFs could be employed as alternative human feeder layer has not been explored yet. LSCs were isolated from superior limbus biopsies, co-cultured on TFs, 3T3-J2 or dermal fibroblasts (DFs), then analyzed by immunofluorescence (p63α), colony-forming efficiency (CFE) assay and qPCR for a panel of putative stem cell and epithelial corneal differentiation markers (KRT3). Co-cultures supernatants were screened for a set of soluble factors. Results showed that the percentage of p63α(+)LSCs co-cultured onto TFs was significantly higher than those on DFs (p = 0.032) and 3T3-J2 (p = 0.047). Interestingly, LSCs co-cultures on TFs exhibited both significantly higher CFE and mRNA expression levels of ΔNp63α than on 3T3-J2 and DFs (p < 0.0001), showing also significantly greater levels of soluble factors (IL-6, HGF, b-FGF, G-CSF, TGF-β3) than LSCs on DFs. Therefore, TFs could represent an alternative feeder layer to both 3T3-J2 and DFs, potentially providing a suitable microenvironment for LSCs culture. PMID:23832306

  8. Implanted neonatal human dermal fibroblasts influence the recruitment of endothelial cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro, Susana G.; Brochhausen, Christoph; Negrão, Rita; Barbosa, Mário A.; Unger, Ronald E.; Kirkpatrick, C. James; Soares, Raquel; Granja, Pedro L.

    2012-01-01

    The vascularization of new tissue within a reasonable time is a crucial prerequisite for the success of different cell- and material-based strategies. Considering that angiogenesis is a multi-step process involving humoral and cellular regulatory components, only in vivo assays provide the adequate information about vessel formation and the recruitment of endothelial cells. The present study aimed to investigate if neonatal human dermal fibroblasts could influence in vivo neovascularization. Results obtained showed that fibroblasts were able to recruit endothelial cells to vascularize the implanted matrix, which was further colonized by murine functional blood vessels after one week. The vessels exhibited higher levels of hemoglobin, compared with the control matrix, implanted without fibroblasts, in which no vessel formation could be observed. No significant differences were detected in systemic inflammation. The presence of vessels originated from the host vasculature suggested that host vascular response was involved, which constitutes a fundamental aspect in the process of neovascularization. Fibroblasts implanted within matrigel increased the presence of endothelial cells with positive staining for CD31 and for CD34 and the production of collagen influencing the angiogenic process and promoting the formation of microvessels. New strategies in tissue engineering could be delineated with improved angiogenesis using neonatal fibroblasts. PMID:23507785

  9. Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Diabetic Foot Ulcer Fibroblasts Using a Nonintegrative Sendai Virus.

    PubMed

    Gerami-Naini, Behzad; Smith, Avi; Maione, Anna G; Kashpur, Olga; Carpinito, Gianpaolo; Veves, Aristides; Mooney, David J; Garlick, Jonathan A

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are nonhealing chronic wounds that are a serious complication of diabetes. Since induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may offer a potent source of autologous cells to heal these wounds, we studied if repair-deficient fibroblasts, derived from DFU patients and age- and site-matched control fibroblasts, could be reprogrammed to iPSCs. To establish this, we used Sendai virus to successfully reprogram six primary fibroblast cell lines derived from ulcerated skin of two DFU patients (DFU8, DFU25), nonulcerated foot skin from two diabetic patients (DFF24, DFF9), and healthy foot skin from two nondiabetic patients (NFF12, NFF14). We confirmed reprogramming to a pluripotent state through three independent criteria: immunofluorescent staining for SSEA-4 and TRA-1-81, formation of embryoid bodies with differentiation potential to all three embryonic germ layers in vitro, and formation of teratomas in vivo. All iPSC lines showed normal karyotypes and typical, nonmethylated CpG sites for OCT4 and NANOG. iPSCs derived from DFUs were similar to those derived from site-matched nonulcerated skin from both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. These results have established for the first time that multiple, DFU-derived fibroblast cell lines can be reprogrammed with efficiencies similar to control fibroblasts, thus demonstrating their utility for future regenerative therapy of DFUs. PMID:27328415

  10. Intravitreous transplantation of encapsulated fibroblasts secreting the human fibroblast growth factor 2 delays photoreceptor cell degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons rats

    PubMed Central

    Uteza, Yves; Rouillot, Jean-Sébastien; Kobetz, Alexandra; Marchant, Dominique; Pecqueur, Sèverine; Arnaud, Emmanuelle; Prats, Hervé; Honiger, Jiri; Dufier, Jean-Louis; Abitbol, Marc; Neuner-Jehle, Martin

    1999-01-01

    We developed an experimental approach with genetically engineered and encapsulated mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts to delay the progressive degeneration of photoreceptor cells in dark-eyed Royal College of Surgeons rats. These xenogeneic fibroblasts can survive in 1.5-mm-long microcapsules made of the biocompatible polymer AN69 for at least 90 days under in vitro and in vivo conditions because of their stable transfection with the gene for the 18-kDa form of the human basic fibroblast growth factor (hFGF-2). Furthermore, when transferred surgically into the vitreous cavity of 21-day-old Royal College of Surgeons rats, the microencapsulated hFGF-2-secreting fibroblasts provoked a local delay of photoreceptor cell degeneration, as seen at 45 days and 90 days after transplantation. This effect was limited to 2.08 mm2 (45 days) and 0.95 mm2 (90 days) of the retinal surface. In both untreated eyes and control globes with encapsulated hFGF-2-deficient fibroblasts, the rescued area (of at most 0.08 mm2) was significantly smaller at both time points. Although, in a few ocular globes, surgical trauma induced a reorganization of the retinal cytoarchitecture, neither microcapsule rejection nor hFGF-2-mediated tumor formation were detected in any treated eyes. These findings indicate that encapsulated fibroblasts secreting hFGF-2 or perhaps other agents can be applied as potential therapeutic tools to treat retinal dystrophies. PMID:10077648

  11. Characterization of chitosan films and effects on fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, V; Yuan, Y; Rigney, D A; Puckett, A D; Ong, J L; Yang, Y; Elder, S H; Bumgardner, J D

    2006-12-01

    Chitosan has been researched for implant and wound healing applications. However, there are inconsistencies in reports on the tissue and fibroblast responses to chitosan materials. These inconsistencies may be due to variations in chitosan material characteristics. The aim of this study was to correlate fibroblast responses with known chitosan material characteristics. To achieve this aim, chitosan was characterized for degree of deacetylation (DDA), molecular weight (MW), residual protein and ash contents, and then solution cast into films and characterized for hydrophilicity by water contact angle. The films were seeded with normal human dermal fibroblasts and the number of attached cells was evaluated for after 30 min. Cell proliferation was evaluated over 5 days. This study found no relationship between DDA, contact angle, cell attachment, and or proliferation. General trends were observed for increasing proliferation with increasing residual ash content and decreasing residual protein. These data indicate that chitosan characteristics other than DDA may be important to their biological performance.

  12. Procollagen mRNA metabolism during the fibroblast cell cycle and its synthesis in transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Parker, I; Fitschen, W

    1980-06-25

    Procollagen mRNA was isolated from mouse embryos and used for the synthesis of a highly labelled cDNA probe complementary to collagen mRNA. This probe was used for the investigation of procollagen mRNA metabolism during the cell cycle of 3T6 mouse embryo fibroblasts in culture. Titration hybridization experiments revealed that procollagen mRNA was present throughout the cell cycle following stumulation of confluent monolayers. Procollagen mRNA levels of sparse cultures appeared similar to those of unstimulated monolayers. The fluctuating levels of collagen synthesis during the cell cycle can be ascribed to changes in the amount of collagen mRNA present. In mouse sarcoma virus transformed 3T3 cells only 20--30% of the amount of procollagen mRNA in 3T3 cells is present indicating that the decline in collagen synthesis is due to mRNA availability.

  13. Helium generated cold plasma finely regulates activation of human fibroblast-like primary cells.

    PubMed

    Brun, Paola; Pathak, Surajit; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Palù, Giorgio; Brun, Paola; Zuin, Matteo; Cavazzana, Roberto; Martines, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine) cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and can be considered a

  14. Helium generated cold plasma finely regulates activation of human fibroblast-like primary cells.

    PubMed

    Brun, Paola; Pathak, Surajit; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Palù, Giorgio; Brun, Paola; Zuin, Matteo; Cavazzana, Roberto; Martines, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine) cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and can be considered a

  15. PU.1 and C/EBPalpha/beta convert fibroblasts into macrophage-like cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ru; Desbordes, Sabrina C; Xie, Huafeng; Tillo, Ester Sanchez; Pixley, Fiona; Stanley, E Richard; Graf, Thomas

    2008-04-22

    Earlier work has shown that the transcription factor C/EBPalpha induced a transdifferentiation of committed lymphoid precursors into macrophages in a process requiring endogenous PU.1. Here we have examined the effects of PU.1 and C/EBPalpha on fibroblasts, a cell type distantly related to blood cells and akin to myoblasts, adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondroblasts. The combination of the two factors, as well as PU.1 and C/EBPbeta, induced the up-regulation of macrophage/hematopoietic cell surface markers in a large proportion of NIH 3T3 cells. They also up-regulated these markers in mouse embryo- and adult skin-derived fibroblasts. Based on cell morphology, activation of macrophage-associated genes, and extinction of fibroblast-associated genes, cell lines containing an attenuated form of PU.1 and C/EBPalpha acquired a macrophage-like phenotype. The lines also display macrophage functions: They phagocytose small particles and bacteria, mount a partial inflammatory response, and exhibit strict CSF-1 dependence for growth. The myeloid conversion is primarily induced by PU.1, with C/EBPalpha acting as a modulator of macrophage-specific gene expression. Our data suggest that it might become possible to induce the transdifferentiation of skin-derived fibroblasts into cell types desirable for tissue regeneration.

  16. Human lung fibroblasts express interleukin-6 in response to signaling after mast cell contact.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, S Matthew; Lee, Steven A; Hall, H Kenton; Chi, David S; Krishnaswamy, Guha

    2004-04-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. Mast cell-derived cytokines may mediate both airway inflammation and remodeling. It has also been shown that fibroblasts can be the source of proinflammatory cytokines. In the human airways, mast cell-fibroblast interactions may have pivotal effects on modulating inflammation. To study this further, we cocultured normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF) with a human mast cell line (HMC-1) and assayed for production of interleukin (IL)-6, an important proinflammatory cytokine. When cultured together, NHLF/HMC-1 contact induced IL-6 secretion. Separation of HMC-1 and NHLF cells by a porous membrane inhibited this induction. HMC-1-derived cellular membranes caused an increase in IL-6 production in NHLF. Activation of p38 MAPK was also seen in cocultures by Western blot, whereas IL-6 production in cocultures was significantly inhibited by the p38 inhibitor SB203580. IL-6 production in cocultures was minimally inhibited by a chemical inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (Bay11), indicating that nuclear factor-kappaB may have a minimal role in signaling IL-6 production in mast cell/fibroblasts cocultures. Blockade of inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1, tumor necrosis factor-RI, and surface IL-1beta with neutralizing antibodies failed to significantly decrease IL-6 production in our coculture, indicating that other receptor-ligand associations may be responsible for this activation. These novel studies reveal the importance of cell-cell interactions in the complex milieu of airway inflammation.

  17. Bcl-2+ tonsillar plasma cells are rescued from apoptosis by bone marrow fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Plasma cells represent the final stage of B lymphocyte differentiation. Most plasma cells in secondary lymphoid tissues live for a few days, whereas those in the lamina propria of mucosa and in bone marrow live for several weeks. To investigate the regulation of human plasma cell survival, plasma cells were isolated from tonsils according to high CD38 and low CD20 expression. Tonsillar plasma cells express CD9, CD19, CD24, CD37, CD40, CD74, and HLA-DR, but not CD10, HLA-DQ, CD28, CD56, and Fas/CD95. Although plasma cells express intracytoplasmic Bcl-2, they undergo swift apoptosis in vitro and do not respond to CD40 triggering. Bone marrow fibroblasts and rheumatoid synoviocytes, however, prevented plasma cells from undergoing apoptosis in a contact- dependent fashion. These data indicate that fibroblasts may form a microenvironment favorable for plasma cell survival under normal and pathological conditions. PMID:8551226

  18. Antitumor cell-complex vaccines employing genetically modified tumor cells and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Antonio; Herrero, María José; Sendra, Luis; Botella, Rafael; Diaz, Ana; Algás, Rosa; Aliño, Salvador F

    2014-02-19

    The present study evaluates the immune response mediated by vaccination with cell complexes composed of irradiated B16 tumor cells and mouse fibroblasts genetically modified to produce GM-CSF. The animals were vaccinated with free B16 cells or cell complexes. We employed two gene plasmid constructions: one high producer (pMok) and a low producer (p2F). Tumor transplant was performed by injection of B16 tumor cells. Plasma levels of total IgG and its subtypes were measured by ELISA. Tumor volumes were measured and survival curves were obtained. The study resulted in a cell complex vaccine able to stimulate the immune system to produce specific anti-tumor membrane proteins (TMP) IgG. In the groups vaccinated with cells transfected with the low producer plasmid, IgG production was higher when we used free B16 cell rather than cell complexes. Nonspecific autoimmune response caused by cell complex was not greater than that induced by the tumor cells alone. Groups vaccinated with B16 transfected with low producer plasmid reached a tumor growth delay of 92% (p ≤ 0.01). When vaccinated with cell complex, the best group was that transfected with high producer plasmid, reaching a tumor growth inhibition of 56% (p ≤ 0.05). Significant survival (40%) was only observed in the groups vaccinated with free transfected B16 cells.

  19. Antitumor Cell-Complex Vaccines Employing Genetically Modified Tumor Cells and Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Antonio; Herrero, María José; Sendra, Luis; Botella, Rafael; Diaz, Ana; Algás, Rosa; Aliño, Salvador F.

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the immune response mediated by vaccination with cell complexes composed of irradiated B16 tumor cells and mouse fibroblasts genetically modified to produce GM-CSF. The animals were vaccinated with free B16 cells or cell complexes. We employed two gene plasmid constructions: one high producer (pMok) and a low producer (p2F). Tumor transplant was performed by injection of B16 tumor cells. Plasma levels of total IgG and its subtypes were measured by ELISA. Tumor volumes were measured and survival curves were obtained. The study resulted in a cell complex vaccine able to stimulate the immune system to produce specific anti-tumor membrane proteins (TMP) IgG. In the groups vaccinated with cells transfected with the low producer plasmid, IgG production was higher when we used free B16 cell rather than cell complexes. Nonspecific autoimmune response caused by cell complex was not greater than that induced by the tumor cells alone. Groups vaccinated with B16 transfected with low producer plasmid reached a tumor growth delay of 92% (p ≤ 0.01). When vaccinated with cell complex, the best group was that transfected with high producer plasmid, reaching a tumor growth inhibition of 56% (p ≤ 0.05). Significant survival (40%) was only observed in the groups vaccinated with free transfected B16 cells. PMID:24556729

  20. Direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts into sweat gland-like cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiliang; Xu, Mengyao; Wu, Meng; Ma, Kui; Sun, Mengli; Tian, Xiaocheng; Zhang, Cuiping; Fu, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    The skin of patients with an extensive deep burn injury is repaired by a process that leaves a hypertrophic scar without sweat glands and therefore loses the function of perspiration. The aim of this study was to identify whether the key factors related to sweat gland development could directly reprogram fibroblasts into sweat gland-like cells. After introducing the NF-κB and Lef-1 genes into fibroblasts, we found that stably transfected fibroblasts expressed specific markers of sweat glands, including CEA, CK7, CK14 and CK19, both at the protein and mRNA levels. The immunofluorescence staining also showed positive expression of CEA, CK7, CK14 and CK19 in induced fibroblasts, but there were no positive cells in the control groups. The expression of Shh and Cyclin D1, downstream genes of NF-κB and Lef-1, were also significantly increased during regeneration. The induced fibroblasts were implanted into an animal model. Twenty days later, iodine-starch perspiration tests showed that 7 out of the 10 cell-treated paws were positive for perspiration, with a distinctive black point-like area appearing in the center of the paw. Contralateral paws tested negative. Histological examination of skin biopsies from experimental and control paws revealed that sweat glands were fully reconstructed in the test paws, with integral, secretory and ductal portions, but were not present in the control paws. This is the first report of successful reprogramming of fibroblasts into sweat gland-like cells, which will provide a new cell source for sweat gland regeneration in patients with extensive deep burns. PMID:26566868

  1. Fibroblast contraction of collagen lattices in vitro: inhibition by chronic inflammatory cell mediators.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, H P; Wyler, D J

    1983-09-01

    Fibroblast-populated collagen lattices (FPCL), prepared in petri dishes with serum-containing culture medium and incubated at 37 degrees C, undergo progressive and symmetric contraction (reduction in size) over a period of days. The in vitro contraction process requires viable cells with intact cytoskeletal elements, is associated with cell elongation, and is believed to represent a fibroblast function which also occurs in vivo during wound healing and tissue fibrosis. We report that soluble mediators elaborated by chronic inflammatory cells cultured in vitro, when added to FPCL, inhibit lattice contraction. Granulomas, isolated from the liver of Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice, secrete a factor(s) with an estimated molecular weight between 13,700 and 43,000 daltons (gel filtration: Sephadex G-200) and pI = 6 (preparative isoelectrofocusing in granular gel) which inhibits lattice contraction but is not toxic to fibroblasts. Supernatants (cell-free conditioned culture medium) of cultured macrophages isolated from these granulomas also contain this activity. The contraction inhibitory activity present in granuloma culture supernatants is abrogated by the addition of indomethacin to the lattices, while the addition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) alone to lattices inhibits contraction. Furthermore, culture supernatants interfere with fibroblast elongation in lattices. We propose that the ability of fibroblasts to contract collagen lattices in vitro and a fibrotic mass in vivo may be regulated by soluble products of chronic inflammatory cells, including macrophages. This process may be mediated by fibroblast-derived prostaglandins which alter cytoskeletal functions and has implications for understanding regulation of tissue fibrogenesis in a variety of diseases. PMID:6885932

  2. Fibroblastic reticular cell-derived lysophosphatidic acid regulates confined intranodal T-cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Akira; Kobayashi, Daichi; Aoi, Keita; Sasaki, Naoko; Sugiura, Yuki; Igarashi, Hidemitsu; Tohya, Kazuo; Inoue, Asuka; Hata, Erina; Akahoshi, Noriyuki; Hayasaka, Haruko; Kikuta, Junichi; Scandella, Elke; Ludewig, Burkhard; Ishii, Satoshi; Aoki, Junken; Suematsu, Makoto; Ishii, Masaru; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Miyasaka, Masayuki; Umemoto, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Lymph nodes (LNs) are highly confined environments with a cell-dense three-dimensional meshwork, in which lymphocyte migration is regulated by intracellular contractile proteins. However, the molecular cues directing intranodal cell migration remain poorly characterized. Here we demonstrate that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) produced by LN fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) acts locally to LPA2 to induce T-cell motility. In vivo, either specific ablation of LPA-producing ectoenzyme autotaxin in FRCs or LPA2 deficiency in T cells markedly decreased intranodal T cell motility, and FRC-derived LPA critically affected the LPA2-dependent T-cell motility. In vitro, LPA activated the small GTPase RhoA in T cells and limited T-cell adhesion to the underlying substrate via LPA2. The LPA-LPA2 axis also enhanced T-cell migration through narrow pores in a three-dimensional environment, in a ROCK-myosin II-dependent manner. These results strongly suggest that FRC-derived LPA serves as a cell-extrinsic factor that optimizes T-cell movement through the densely packed LN reticular network. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10561.001 PMID:26830463

  3. Generation of integration-free induced hepatocyte-like cells from mouse fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghun; Kim, Kee-Pyo; Lim, Kyung Tae; Lee, Seung Chan; Yoon, Juyong; Song, Guangqi; Hwang, Seon In; Schöler, Hans R.; Cantz, Tobias; Han, Dong Wook

    2015-01-01

    The ability to generate integration-free induced hepatocyte-like cells (iHeps) from somatic fibroblasts has the potential to advance their clinical application. Here, we have generated integration-free, functional, and expandable iHeps from mouse somatic fibroblasts. To elicit this direct conversion, we took advantage of an oriP/EBNA1-based episomal system to deliver a set of transcription factors, Gata4, Hnf1a, and Foxa3, to the fibroblasts. The established iHeps exhibit similar morphology, marker expression, and functional properties to primary hepatocytes. Furthermore, integration-free iHeps prolong the survival of fumarylacetoacetate-hydrolase-deficient (Fah−/−) mice after cell transplantation. Our study provides a novel concept for generating functional and expandable iHeps using a non-viral, non-integrating, plasmid-based system that could facilitate their pharmaceutical and biomedical application. PMID:26503743

  4. Cyclic strain increases protease-activated receptor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, K. T.; Frye, S. R.; Eskin, S. G.; Patterson, C.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Cyclic strain regulates many vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) functions through changing gene expression. This study investigated the effects of cyclic strain on protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) expression in VSMCs and the possible signaling pathways involved, on the basis of the hypothesis that cyclic strain would enhance PAR-1 expression, reflecting increased thrombin activity. Uniaxial cyclic strain (1 Hz, 20%) of cells cultured on elastic membranes induced a 2-fold increase in both PAR-1 mRNA and protein levels. Functional activity of PAR-1, as assessed by cell proliferation in response to thrombin, was also increased by cyclic strain. In addition, treatment of cells with antioxidants or an NADPH oxidase inhibitor blocked strain-induced PAR-1 expression. Preincubation of cells with protein kinase inhibitors (staurosporine or Ro 31-8220) enhanced strain-increased PAR-1 expression, whereas inhibitors of NO synthase, tyrosine kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinases had no effect. Cyclic strain in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor induced PAR-1 mRNA levels beyond the effect of cyclic strain alone, whereas no additive effect was observed between cyclic strain and platelet-derived growth factor-AB. Our findings that cyclic strain upregulates PAR-1 mRNA expression but that shear stress downregulates this gene in VSMCs provide an opportunity to elucidate signaling differences by which VSMCs respond to different mechanical forces.

  5. Conditioned medium from irradiated bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells stimulates increased protein synthesis by irradiated bovine lung fibroblasts in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, M.P.; Parton, L.A.; Bowman, C.M. )

    1990-09-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis, a potentially fatal consequence of radiation exposure, occurs by unknown mechanisms. The hypothesis that endothelial cells, injured by radiation, could alter the biochemical function of lung fibroblasts, was tested by exposing cultures of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells to 0 or 5 Gy radiation and then incubating them in fresh medium for 48 h. This endothelial cell conditioned medium (ECCM) was then applied to irradiated or nonirradiated cultures of bovine lung fibroblasts. Forty-eight hours later the fibroblasts were analyzed for their ability to synthesize DNA and protein. The ECCM from injured cells stimulated fibroblast protein synthesis twofold to threefold in irradiated fibroblasts without increasing DNA synthesis. It also stimulated a significant but less marked increase in protein synthesis in nonirradiated fibroblasts. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed this increased synthesis to be expressed in less than 10% of the 1100 separable fibroblast proteins. This study shows that endothelial cells injured by radiation produce factors that stimulate injured fibroblasts to markedly increase their synthesis of certain intracellular proteins, while not stimulating fibroblast replication.

  6. Activation of fibroblast and papilla cells by glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Kitagawa, Masaru; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Suzuki, Michiko; Sogabe, Atsushi; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai

    2010-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), the extracellular glycolipids produced from feedstock by yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma, are the most promising biosurfactants known due to its versatile interfacial and biochemical actions. In order to broaden the application in cosmetics, the cell activating property of MELs was investigated using cultured fibroblast and papilla cells, and a three-dimensional cultured human skin model. The di-acetylated MEL (MEL-A) produced from soybean oil significantly increased the viability of the fibroblast cells over 150% compared with that of control cells. On the other hand, no cell activation was observed by the treatment with MEL-A produced from olive oil. The mono-acetylated MEL (MEL-B) hardly increased the cell viability. The viability of the fibroblast cells decreased with the addition of more than 1 microg/L of MELs, whereas the cultured human skin cells showed high viability with 5 microg/L of MELs. Interestingly, the papilla cells were dramatically activated with 0.001 microg/L of MEL-A produced from soybean oil: the cell viability reached at 150% compared with that of control cells. Consequently, the present MEL-A produced from soybean oil should have a potential as a new hair growth agent stimulating the papilla cells. PMID:20625237

  7. Endothelial Cell-Derived Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor: Synthesis and Deposition into Subendothelial Extracellular Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlodavsky, Israel; Folkman, Judah; Sullivan, Robert; Fridman, Rafael; Ishai-Michaeli, Rivka; Sasse, Joachim; Klagsbrun, Michael

    1987-04-01

    Bovine aortic and corneal endothelial cells synthesize a growth factor that remains mostly cell-associated but can also be extracted from the subendothelial extracellular matrix (ECM) deposited by these cells. The endothelial cell-derived growth factors extracted from cell lysates and from the extracellular matrix appear to be structurally related to basic fibroblast growth factor by the criteria that they (i) bind to heparin-Sepharose and are eluted at 1.4-1.6 M NaCl, (ii) have a molecular weight of about 18,400, (iii) cross-react with anti-basic fibroblast growth factor antibodies when analyzed by electrophoretic blotting and immunoprecipitation, and (iv) are potent mitogens for bovine aortic and capillary endothelial cells. It is suggested that endothelium can store growth factors capable of autocrine growth promotion in two ways: by sequestering growth factor within the cell and by incorporating it into the underlying extracellular matrix.

  8. Cell Surface Glycoprotein of Reactive Stromal Fibroblasts as a Potential Antibody Target in Human Epithelial Cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garin-Chesa, Pilar; Old, Lloyd J.; Rettig, Wolfgang J.

    1990-09-01

    The F19 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein (M_r, 95,000) of human sarcomas and proliferating, cultured fibroblasts that is absent from resting fibroblasts in normal adult tissues. Normal and malignant epithelial cells are also F19^-. The present immunohistochemical study describes induction of F19 in the reactive mesenchyme of epithelial tumors. F19^+ fibroblasts were found in primary and metastatic carcinomas, including colorectal (18 of 18 cases studied), breast (14/14), ovarian (21/21), bladder (9/10), and lung carcinomas (13/13). In contrast, the stroma of benign colorectal adenomas, fibrocystic disease and fibroadenomas of breast, benign prostate hyperplasia, in situ bladder carcinomas, and benign ovarian tumors showed no or only moderate numbers of F19^+ fibroblasts. Analysis of dermal incision wounds revealed that F19 is strongly induced during scar formation. Comparison of F19 with the extracellular matrix protein tenascin, a putative marker of tumor mesenchyme, showed a cellular staining pattern for F19 vs. the extracellular matrix pattern for tenascin and widespread expression of tenascin in F19^- normal tissues and benign tumors. Our results suggest that the F19^+ phenotype correlates with specialized fibroblast functions in wound healing and malignant tumor growth. Because of its abundance in tumor mesenchyme, F19 may serve as a target for antibodies labeled with radioisotopes or toxic agents, or inflammatogenic antibodies, in carcinoma patients.

  9. p53/PUMA expression in human pulmonary fibroblasts mediates cell activation and migration in silicosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Haijun; Dai, Xiaoniu; Fang, Shencun; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yingming; Yao, Honghong; Zhang, Xilong; Chao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis of SiO2 into the lung causes an inflammatory cascade that results in fibroblast proliferation and migration, followed by fibrosis. Clinical evidence has indicated that the activation of alveolar macrophages by SiO2 produces rapid and sustained inflammation characterized by the generation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1, which, in turn, induces fibrosis. However, the details of events downstream of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 activity in pulmonary fibroblasts remain unclear. Here, to elucidate the role of p53 in fibrosis induced by silica, both the upstream molecular mechanisms and the functional effects on cell proliferation and migration were investigated. Experiments using primary cultured adult human pulmonary fibroblasts led to the following results: 1) SiO2 treatment resulted in a rapid and sustained increase in p53 and PUMA protein levels; 2) the MAPK and PI3K pathways were involved in the SiO2-induced alteration of p53 and PUMA expression; and 3) RNA interference targeting p53 and PUMA prevented the SiO2-induced increases in fibroblast activation and migration. Our study elucidated a link between SiO2-induced p53/PUMA expression in fibroblasts and cell migration, thereby providing novel insight into the potential use of p53/PUMA in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for silicosis treatment. PMID:26576741

  10. p53/PUMA expression in human pulmonary fibroblasts mediates cell activation and migration in silicosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Haijun; Dai, Xiaoniu; Fang, Shencun; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yingming; Yao, Honghong; Zhang, Xilong; Chao, Jie

    2015-11-18

    Phagocytosis of SiO2 into the lung causes an inflammatory cascade that results in fibroblast proliferation and migration, followed by fibrosis. Clinical evidence has indicated that the activation of alveolar macrophages by SiO2 produces rapid and sustained inflammation characterized by the generation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1, which, in turn, induces fibrosis. However, the details of events downstream of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 activity in pulmonary fibroblasts remain unclear. Here, to elucidate the role of p53 in fibrosis induced by silica, both the upstream molecular mechanisms and the functional effects on cell proliferation and migration were investigated. Experiments using primary cultured adult human pulmonary fibroblasts led to the following results: 1) SiO2 treatment resulted in a rapid and sustained increase in p53 and PUMA protein levels; 2) the MAPK and PI3K pathways were involved in the SiO2-induced alteration of p53 and PUMA expression; and 3) RNA interference targeting p53 and PUMA prevented the SiO2-induced increases in fibroblast activation and migration. Our study elucidated a link between SiO2-induced p53/PUMA expression in fibroblasts and cell migration, thereby providing novel insight into the potential use of p53/PUMA in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for silicosis treatment.

  11. Linkage of extracellular plasminogen activator to the fibroblast cytoskeleton: colocalization of cell surface urokinase with vinculin

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Several cell types display binding sites for [125I]urokinase (Vassalli, J.-D., D. Baccino, D. Belin. 1985. J. Cell Biol. 100:86-92) which in certain cases are occupied with endogenous urokinase. These sites appear to focus urokinase at cell surfaces and hence may participate in tissue matrix destruction and cell invasion. Recently Pollanen et al. (1987) demonstrated that the cell surface urokinase of human fibroblasts and fibrosarcoma cells is deposited underneath the cells in strands, apparently at sites of cell-to-substratum contact. Here, using immunofluorescence double labeling, we show that the urokinase strands present on human foreskin fibroblasts are colocalized with strands of vinculin, an intracellular actin-binding protein that is deposited at cell-to-substratum focal adhesion sites. Thus, this indicates linkage of the plasminogen/plasmin system both to sites of cell adhesion and to the cytoskeleton. The urokinase strands on HT 1080 fibrosarcoma cells are more numerous and have shapes that are more tortuous than those on normal fibroblasts. In intact HT 1080 cells, colocalized vinculin strands are obscured by an intense background of soluble vinculin but are apparent on isolated ventral plasma membranes. Certain properties of the urokinase strands suggest that they are related to the [125I]urokinase-binding sites that have been described by several groups: (a) incubating fibroblasts with dexamethasone for 48 h or at pH 3 at 5 degrees C for 10 min greatly decreases the number and intensity of the urokinase strands; (b) strands reappear when glucocorticoid- treated cells are incubated with exogenous 54-kD (but not 35-kD) urokinase, and this process is inhibited by a previously described 16- amino acid peptide that blocks [125I]urokinase binding to the cells. PMID:3129438

  12. Antigen mRNA-transfected, allogeneic fibroblasts loaded with NKT-cell ligand confer antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shin-ichiro; Goto, Akira; Shimizu, Kanako

    2009-04-30

    The maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) in situ by danger signals plays a central role in linking innate and adaptive immunity. We previously demonstrated that the activation of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells by administration of alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer)-loaded tumor cells can act as a cellular adjuvant through the DC maturation. In the current study, we used allogeneic fibroblasts loaded with alpha-GalCer and transfected with antigen-encoding mRNA, thus combining the adjuvant effects of iNKT-cell activation with delivery of antigen to DCs in vivo. We found that these cells produce antigen protein and activate NK and iNKT cells. When injected into major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched mice, they elicited antigen-specific T-cell responses and provided tumor protection, suggesting that these immune responses depend on host DCs. In addition, antigen-expressing fibroblasts loaded with alpha-GalCer lead to a more potent T-cell response than those expressing NK cell ligands. Thus, glycolipid-loaded, mRNA-transfected allogeneic fibroblasts act as cellular vectors to provide iNKT-cell activation, leading to DC maturation and T-cell immunity. By harnessing the innate immune system and generating an adaptive immune response to a variety of antigens, this unique tool could prove clinically beneficial in the development of immunotherapies against malignant and infectious diseases. PMID:19164596

  13. Melanoma Cells Can Adopt the Phenotype of Stromal Fibroblasts and Macrophages by Spontaneous Cell Fusion in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kemény, Lajos V.; Kurgyis, Zsuzsanna; Buknicz, Tünde; Groma, Gergely; Jakab, Ádám; Zänker, Kurt; Dittmar, Thomas; Kemény, Lajos; Németh, István B.

    2016-01-01

    After the removal of primary cutaneous melanoma some patients develop local recurrences, even after having histologically tumor-free re-excision. A potential explanation behind this phenomenon is that tumor cells switch their phenotype, making their recognition via standard histopathological assessments extremely difficult. Tumor-stromal cell fusion has been proposed as a potential mechanism for tumor cells to acquire mesenchymal traits; therefore, we hypothesized that melanoma cells could acquire fibroblast- and macrophage-like phenotypes via cell fusion. We show that melanoma cells spontaneously fuse with human dermal fibroblasts and human peripheral blood monocytes in vitro. The hybrid cells’ nuclei contain chromosomes from both parental cells and are indistinguishable from the parental fibroblasts or macrophages based on their morphology and immunophenotype, as they could lose the melanoma specific MART1 marker, but express the fibroblast marker smooth muscle actin or the macrophage marker CD68. Our results suggest that, by spontaneous cell fusion in vitro, tumor cells can adopt the morphology and immunophenotype of stromal cells while still carrying oncogenic, tumor-derived genetic information. Therefore, melanoma–stromal cell fusion might play a role in missing tumor cells by routine histopathological assessments. PMID:27271591

  14. Microinjection of fos-specific antibodies blocks DNA synthesis in fibroblast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Riabowol, K.T.; Vosatka, R.J.; Ziff, E.B.; Lamb, N.J.; Feramisco, J.R.

    1988-04-01

    Transcription of the protooncogene c-fos is increased >10-fold within minutes of treatment of fibroblasts with serum or purified growth factors. Recent experiments with mouse 3T3 cell lines containing inducible fos antisense RNA constructs have shown that induced fos antisense RNA transcripts cause either a marked inhibition of growth in continuously proliferating cells or, conversely, a minimal effect except during the transition from a quiescent (G/sub o/) state into the cell cycle. Since intracellular production of large amounts of antisense RNA does not completely block gene expression, the authors microinjected affinity-purified antibodies raised against fos to determine whether and when during the cell cycle c-fos expression was required for cell proliferation. Using this independent method, they found that microinjected fos antibodies efficiently blocked serum-stimulated DNA synthesis when injected up to 6 to 8 h after serum stimulation of quiescent REF-52 fibroblasts. Furthermore, when fos antibodies were injected into asynchronously growing cells, a consistently greater number of cells was prevented from synthesizing DNA than when cells were injected with nonspecific immunoglobulins. Thus, whereas the activity of c-fos may be necessary for transition of fibroblasts from G/sub o/ to G/sub 1/ of the cell cycle, its function is also required during the early G/sub 1/ portion of the cell cycle to allow subsequent DNA synthesis.

  15. Electric field-directed fibroblast locomotion involves cell surface molecular reorganization and is calcium independent

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Directional cellular locomotion is thought to involve localized intracellular calcium changes and the lateral transport of cell surface molecules. We have examined the roles of both calcium and cell surface glycoprotein redistribution in the directional migration of two murine fibroblastic cell lines, NIH 3T3 and SV101. These cell types exhibit persistent, cathode directed motility when exposed to direct current electric fields. Using time lapse phase contrast microscopy and image analysis, we have determined that electric field-directed locomotion in each cell type is a calcium independent process. Both exhibit cathode directed motility in the absence of extracellular calcium, and electric fields cause no detectable elevations or gradients of cytosolic free calcium. We find evidence suggesting that galvanotaxis in these cells involves the lateral redistribution of plasma membrane glycoproteins. Electric fields cause the lateral migration of plasma membrane concanavalin A receptors toward the cathode in both NIH 3T3 and SV101 fibroblasts. Exposure of directionally migrating cells to Con A inhibits the normal change of cell direction following a reversal of electric field polarity. Additionally, when cells are plated on Con A- coated substrata so that Con A receptors mediate cell-substratum adhesion, cathode-directed locomotion and a cathodal accumulation of Con A receptors are observed. Immunofluorescent labeling of the fibronectin receptor in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts suggests the recruitment of integrins from large clusters to form a more diffuse distribution toward the cathode in field-treated cells. Our results indicate that the mechanism of electric field directed locomotion in NIH 3T3 and SV101 fibroblasts involves the lateral redistribution of plasma membrane glycoproteins involved in cell-substratum adhesion. PMID:7929557

  16. Fibroblast cell line establishment, cryopreservation and interspecies embryos reconstruction in red panda ( Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Tao, Yong; Liu, Jianming; Zhang, Yunhai; Zhang, Meiling; Fang, Junshun; Han, Wei; Zhang, Zhizhong; Liu, Ya; Ding, Jianping; Zhang, Xiaorong

    2009-05-01

    In evolution, the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher level phylogeny of arctoides carnivore mammals. The red panda inhabits certain Asian countries only and its numbers are decreasing. Therefore, the development of feasible ways to preserve this species is necessary. Genetic resource cryopreservation and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) have been used extensively to rescue this endangered species. The present study describes the establishment, for the first time, of a red panda ear fibroblast cell line, which was then cryopreserved, thawed and cultured. Through micromanipulation, interspecies embryos were reconstructed using the cryopreserved-thawed fibroblasts of the red panda as the donor and rabbit oocytes as recipients. A total of 194 enucleated rabbit oocytes were reconstructed with red panda ear fibroblasts; enucleated oocytes were activated without fusion as the control. The results show that the fibroblast cell line was established successfully by tissue culture and then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Supplementation with 20% fetal bovine serum and 8% dimethyl sulphoxide in basic medium facilitated the cryopreservation. The interspecies embryos were successfully reconstructed. The cleavage, morulae and blastocyst rates after in vitro culture were 71, 47 and 23% (31/194), respectively. This study indicated that a somatic cell line could be established and cryopreserved from red panda and that rabbit cytoplast supports mitotic cleavage of the red panda karyoplasts and is capable of reprogramming the nucleus to achieve blastocysts.

  17. Trophic effect of a methanol yeast extract on 3T3 fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Dominique; Dillemans, Monique; Allardin, David; Priem, Fabian; Van Nedervelde, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    With regard to the increase of human life expectancy, interest for topical treatments aimed to counteract skin aging is still growing. Hence, research for bioactive compounds able to stimulate skin fibroblast activity is an attractive topic. Having previously described the effects of a new methanol yeast extract on growth and metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we studied its effects on 3T3 fibroblasts to evaluate its potential antiaging property. This investigation demonstrates that this extract increases proliferation as well as migration of 3T3 cells and decreases their entrance in senescence and apoptosis phases. Altogether, these results open new perspectives for the formulation of innovative antiaging topical treatments.

  18. Coculture with BJ fibroblast cells inhibits the adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyun Jeong; Park, Sahng Wook; Kim, Hojeong; Park, Sang-Kyu; Yoon, Dojun

    2010-02-19

    Mouse or human fibroblasts are commonly used as feeder cells to prevent differentiation in stem or primary cell culture. In the present study, we addressed whether fibroblasts can affect the differentiation of adipocytes. We found that the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was strongly suppressed when the cells were cocultured with human fibroblast (BJ) cells. BrdU incorporation analysis indicated that mitotic clonal expansion, an early event required for 3T3-L1 cell adipogenesis, was not affected by BJ cells. The 3T3-L1 cell expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}2, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP{alpha}), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, and Krueppel-like factor 15, but not those of C/EBP{beta} or C/EBP{delta}, were decreased by coculture with BJ cells. When mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cocultured with BJ cells, their lipid contents were significantly reduced, with decreased fatty acid synthase expression and increased phosphorylated form of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1. Our data indicate that coculture with BJ fibroblast cells inhibits the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreases the lipogenesis of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  19. The growth regulatory fibroblast IK channel is the prominent electrophysiological feature of rat prostatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rane, S G

    2000-03-16

    Physiological effectors for mitogenic cell growth control remain to be determined for mammalian tumor cells, particularly those derived from prostatic tissue. One such effector for mitogenic Ras/MAPK signaling in fibroblasts is an intermediate-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel (FIK). In this study patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to show that both AT2.1 and MatLyLu rat prostate cancer cell lines express high levels of a current identified as FIK, based on the following criteria: activation by elevation of intracellular calcium, voltage independence, potassium selectivity, and block by charybdotoxin (ChTX) and the Stichodactyla helianthus potassium channel neurotoxin (StK). FIK current densities in AT2.1 and MatLyLu cells were comparable to the high levels seen in fibroblasts transfected with oncogenic Ras or Raf, suggesting hyperactivity of the Ras/MAPK pathway in prostatic cancer cells. Voltage-gated sodium current was present in most MatLyLu cells but absent from AT2.1 cells, and all AT2.1 cells had voltage-gated potassium currents. Thus, FIK is the main electrophysiological feature of rat prostatic cancer cells as it is for mitogenically active fibroblasts, suggesting it may play a similar growth regulatory role in both. PMID:10708575

  20. Cyclical cell stretching of skin-derived fibroblasts downregulates connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) production.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Yuichiro; Nomura, Jun; Yoshimoto, Shinya; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Kita, Kazuko; Suzuki, Nobuo; Ichinose, Masaharu

    2009-01-01

    Delayed healing of skin wounds can be caused by wound instability, whereas appropriate massage or exercise prevents sclerosis and scar contracture. However, the mechanism by which wound healing is related to mechanical stress has not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to identify whether mechanical stretching of fibroblasts reduces their production of extracellular matrix. We transferred skin fibroblasts into collagen-coated elastic silicone chambers, cultured them on a stretching apparatus, and used RT-PCR to examine the effects of mechanical stretching on the expression levels of 17 genes related to extracellular matrix production and growth factor secretion. We found that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was downregulated after 24 hr of cell stretching. Specifically, the CTGF mRNA and protein levels were 50% and 48% of the control levels, respectively. These findings suggest that cyclic stretching of fibroblasts contributes to anti-fibrotic processes by reducing CTGF production.

  1. In vitro study for laser gene transfer in BHK-21 fibroblast cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Aziz, M.; Salem, D. S.; Salama, M. S.; Badr, Y.

    2009-02-01

    Modifications to our previously introduced system for laser microbeam cell surgery were carried out in the present work to match animal cells. These modifications included: 1- Using other laser system that used before, Excimer laser with 193 and 308 nm wavelengths. The used laser here, is He-Cd with low power and 441.5 nm wavelength in the visible region. 2- Instead of using pulsed laser, we used here CW He-Cd chopped by electrical chopper, which is synchronized with the mechanical motion of the mobile stage with step 40 microns, according to cell dimensions to avoid puncturing the same cell twice. The advantages of the modified here laser setup for gene transfer is: it is less damaging to the sensitive animal cell which has thin cell membrane. The present work aimed to: 1- Design a modified laser microbeam cell surgery, applicable to animal cells, such as fibroblast cells 2- To examine the efficiency of such system. 3- To assure gene transfer and its expression in the used cells. 4- To evaluate the ultra damages produced from using the laser beam as a modality for gene transfer. On the other wards, to introduce: safe, efficient and less damaging modality for gene transfer in animal cells. To achieve these goals, we applied the introduced here home-made laser setup with its synchronized parameters to introduce pBK-CMV phagemid, containing LacZ and neomycin resistance (neor )genes into BHK-21 fibroblast cell line. The results of the present work showed that: 1- Our modified laser microbeam cell surgery setup proved to be useful and efficient tool for gene transfer into fibroblast cells. 2- The presence and expression of LacZ gene was achieved using histochemical LacZ assay. 3- Selection of G418 antibiotic sensitivity assay confirmed the presence and expression towards stability of neor gene with time. 4- Presence of LacZ and neor genes in the genomic DNA of transfected fibroblast cells was indicated using PCR analysis. 5- Transmission electron microscopy indicated

  2. Fibroblasts Cultured on Nanowires Exhibit Low Motility, Impaired Cell Division, and DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Henrik; Købler, Carsten; Mølhave, Kristian; Samuelson, Lars; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O; Oredsson, Stina; Prinz, Christelle N

    2013-01-01

    Nanowires are commonly used as tools for interfacing living cells, acting as biomolecule-delivery vectors or electrodes. It is generally assumed that the small size of the nanowires ensures a minimal cellular perturbation, yet the effects of nanowires on cell migration and proliferation remain largely unknown. Fibroblast behaviour on vertical nanowire arrays is investigated, and it is shown that cell motility and proliferation rate are reduced on nanowires. Fibroblasts cultured on long nanowires exhibit failed cell division, DNA damage, increased ROS content and respiration. Using focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy, highly curved but intact nuclear membranes are observed, showing no direct contact between the nanowires and the DNA. The nanowires possibly induce cellular stress and high respiration rates, which trigger the formation of ROS, which in turn results in DNA damage. These results are important guidelines to the design and interpretation of experiments involving nanowire-based transfection and electrical characterization of living cells. PMID:23813871

  3. Fibroblasts cultured on nanowires exhibit low motility, impaired cell division, and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Persson, Henrik; Købler, Carsten; Mølhave, Kristian; Samuelson, Lars; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O; Oredsson, Stina; Prinz, Christelle N

    2013-12-01

    Nanowires are commonly used as tools for interfacing living cells, acting as biomolecule-delivery vectors or electrodes. It is generally assumed that the small size of the nanowires ensures a minimal cellular perturbation, yet the effects of nanowires on cell migration and proliferation remain largely unknown. Fibroblast behaviour on vertical nanowire arrays is investigated, and it is shown that cell motility and proliferation rate are reduced on nanowires. Fibroblasts cultured on long nanowires exhibit failed cell division, DNA damage, increased ROS content and respiration. Using focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy, highly curved but intact nuclear membranes are observed, showing no direct contact between the nanowires and the DNA. The nanowires possibly induce cellular stress and high respiration rates, which trigger the formation of ROS, which in turn results in DNA damage. These results are important guidelines to the design and interpretation of experiments involving nanowire-based transfection and electrical characterization of living cells.

  4. Establishment of the first humpback whale fibroblast cell lines and their application in chemical risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Burkard, Michael; Whitworth, Deanne; Schirmer, Kristin; Nash, Susan Bengtson

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the first successful derivation and characterization of humpback whale fibroblast cell lines. Primary fibroblasts were isolated from the dermal connective tissue of skin biopsies, cultured at 37 °C and 5% CO2 in the standard mammalian medium DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Of nine initial biopsies, two cell lines were established from two different animals and designated HuWa1 and HuWa2. The cells have a stable karyotype with 2n=44, which has commonly been observed in other baleen whale species. Cells were verified as being fibroblasts based on their spindle-shaped morphology, adherence to plastic and positive immunoreaction to vimentin. Population doubling time was determined to be ∼41 h and cells were successfully cryopreserved and thawed. To date, HuWa1 cells have been propagated 30 times. Cells proliferate at the tested temperatures, 30, 33.5 and 37 °C, but show the highest rate of proliferation at 37 °C. Short-term exposure to para,para'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), a priority compound accumulating in southern hemisphere humpback whales, resulted in a concentration-dependent loss of cell viability. The effective concentration which caused a 50% reduction in HuWa1 cell viability (EC50 value) was approximately six times greater than the EC50 value for the same chemical measured with human dermal fibroblasts. HuWa1 exposed to a natural, p,p'-DDE-containing, chemical mixture extracted from whale blubber showed distinctively higher sensitivity than to p,p'-DDE alone. Thus, we provide the first cytotoxicological data for humpback whales and with establishment of the HuWa cell lines, a unique in vitro model for the study of the whales' sensitivity and cellular response to chemicals and other environmental stressors.

  5. Silk fibroin sponges with cell growth-promoting activity induced by genetically fused basic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kambe, Yusuke; Kojima, Katsura; Tamada, Yasushi; Tomita, Naohide; Kameda, Tsunenori

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic silkworm technology has enabled the biological properties of silk fibroin protein to be altered by fusion to recombinant bioactive proteins. However, few studies have reported the fabrication of genetically modified fibroin proteins into three-dimensional spongy structures to serve as scaffolds for tissue engineering. We generated a transgenic silkworm strain that produces fibroin fused to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and processed the fibroin into a spongy structure using a simple freeze/thaw method. NIH3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts grown on bFGF-fused fibroin sponges proliferated and spread out well, showing half the population doubling time of cells cultured on wild-type fibroin sponges. Furthermore, the number of primary rabbit articular chondrocytes growing on bFGF-fused fibroin sponges was around five-times higher than that of the wild-type control at 3-days post cell-seeding. As the physical properties of wild-type and bFGF-fused fibroin sponges were almost identical, it is suggested that bFGF fused to fibroin retained its biological activity, even after the bFGF-fused fibroin was fabricated into the spongy structure. The bFGF-fused fibroin sponge has the potential for widespread application in the field of tissue engineering, and the method of fabricating this structure could be applicable to other recombinant bioactive fibroin proteins.

  6. Red blood cell lysate modulates the expression of extracellular matrix proteins in dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Amir; Li, Yunyuan; Kilani, Ruhangiz T; Ghahary, Aziz

    2012-11-01

    During the early stage of wound healing process, blood clots can be served as a temporary extracellular matrix (ECM) to let skin cell migration and proliferation. The red blood cells are generally thought as inert bystanders in the early and inflammatory phase of wound healing. Here, we provide evidence that red blood cells (RBC) also play an important role in modulation of key ECM components such as type-I collagen, α-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In this study, we used western blot analysis and showed a significant increase in the level of MMP-1, 2, 3. Furthermore, we found that RBC lysate significantly down-regulates type-I collagen and α-smooth muscle actin while up-regulates fibronectin expression in dermal fibroblasts. To further explore the mechanism by which RBC lysate modulates MMP-1 expression, the effect of inhibitors for three MAPK signaling pathways on RBC inducing MMP-1 expression by dermal fibroblasts were tested. The result showed that the inhibitor of ERK1/2 could abrogate the stimulatory effect of RBC lysate on MMP-1 expression in dermal fibroblasts. Consistently, RBC treatment results in an increase of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in dermal fibroblast. In conclusion, these findings suggest that RBC lysate can modulate the expression of MMPs and key ECM components which are important in healing process.

  7. Maximizing Fibroblast Adhesion on Protein-Coated Surfaces Using Microfluidic Cell Printing

    PubMed Central

    Davidoff, S.N.; Au, D.; Gale, B.K.; Brooks, B.D.; Brooks, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    translation of in vitro cell based assays to in vivo cellular response is imprecise at best. The advent of three-dimensional cell cultures in addition to bioreactor type microfluidics has improved the situation. However, these technical advances cannot be easily combined due to practical limitations. Development of a vertical microfluidic cell printer overcomes this obstacle, providing the ability to more closely recapitulate complex cellular environments and responses. As a proof of concept, we investigated the adhesion of fibroblasts under flow on protein-coated surfaces using a novel vertical microfluidic print head to isolate and manipulate both mechanical and biological factors as a model of fibroblast behavior during the foreign body response following implant insertion. A low flow rate with larger microfluidic channels onto a serum-coated surface has been determined to allow the highest density of viable fibroblasts to attach to the surface. While these insights into fibroblast surface attachment may lead to better material designs, the methods developed herein will certainly be useful as a biomaterials testing platform. PMID:26989480

  8. The renal (myo-)fibroblast: a heterogeneous group of cells.

    PubMed

    Boor, Peter; Floege, Jürgen

    2012-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells have the capacity to reverse acute and chronic kidney injury in different experimental models by paracrine mechanisms. This paracrine action may be accounted for, at least in part, by microvesicles (MVs) released from mesenchymal stem cells, resulting in a horizontal transfer of mRNA, microRNA and proteins. MVs, released as exosomes from the endosomal compartment, or as shedding vesicles from the cell surface, are now recognized as being an integral component of the intercellular microenvironment. By acting as vehicles for information transfer, MVs play a pivotal role in cell-to-cell communication. This exchange of information between the injured cells and stem cells has the potential to be bi-directional. Thus, MVs may either transfer transcripts from injured cells to stem cells, resulting in reprogramming of their phenotype to acquire specific features of the tissue, or conversely, transcripts could be transferred from stem cells to injured cells, restraining tissue injury and inducing cell cycle re-entry of resident cells, leading to tissue self-repair. Upon administration with a therapeutic regimen, MVs mimic the effect of mesenchymal stem cells in various experimental models by inhibiting apoptosis and stimulating cell proliferation. In this review, we discuss whether MVs released from mesenchymal stem cells have the potential to be exploited in novel therapeutic approaches in regenerative medicine to repair damaged tissues, as an alternative to stem cell-based therapy. PMID:22851626

  9. Hyperthermia and thermal tolerance in normal and ataxia telangiectasia human cell strains

    SciTech Connect

    Raaphorst, G.P.; Azzam, E.I.

    1983-06-01

    Three normal human fibroblast strains, two human ataxia telangiectasia heterozygote cell strains, and two human ataxia telangiectasia homozygote cell strains were studied for their thermal responses between 41.0 and 46.0/sup 0/. The heat sensitivities of all cell strains were comparable, and all cell strains were relatively heat resistant compared to Chinese hamster cells. Both normal and ataxia telangiectasia human cells developed thermal tolerance during heating at temperatures less than or equal to 43/sup 0/ and during incubation at 37/sup 0/ after acute heating at 45.0/sup 0/. For survival measured down to the 5 to 10% level, heat survival curves for all seven human cell strains lacked shoulders, indicating the inability of such cells to accumulate sublethal heat damage. Analysis of the cell survival curve data by the method of Arrhenius showed that the thermal inactivation energies for human cells were 127 and 230 kcal/mol above and below the break at 43.5/sup 0/, respectively, and are about the same as for Chinese hamster cells and other animal cells, implying similar mechanisms of heat inactivation. Patients with AT are very radiosensitive, making radiotherapy in such patients difficult. Hyperthermia may provide an alternate means for cancer therapy in such patients.

  10. Formation of bipolar spindles with two centrosomes in tetraploid cells established from normal human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Susumu; Seyama, Atsushi

    2012-09-01

    Tetraploid cells with unstable chromosomes frequently arise as an early step in tumorigenesis and lead to the formation of aneuploid cells. The mechanisms responsible for the chromosome instability of polyploid cells are not fully understood, although the supernumerary centrosomes in polyploid cells have been considered the major cause of chromosomal instability. The aim of this study was to examine the integrity of mitotic spindles and centrosomes in proliferative polyploid cells established from normal human fibroblasts. TIG-1 human fibroblasts were treated with demecolcine (DC) for 4 days to induce polyploidy, and the change in DNA content was monitored. Localization of centrosomes and mitotic spindles in polyploid mitotic cells was examined by immunohistochemistry and laser scanning cytometry. TIG-1 cells treated with DC became almost completely tetraploid at 2 weeks after treatment and grew at the same rate as untreated diploid cells. Most mitotic cells with 8C DNA content had only two centrosomes with bipolar spindles in established tetraploid cells, although they had four or more centrosomes with multipolar spindles at 3 days after DC treatment. The frequency of aneuploid cells increased as established tetraploid cells were propagated. These results indicate that tetraploid cells that form bipolar spindles with two centrosomes in mitosis can proliferate as diploid cells. These cells may serve as a useful model for studying the chromosome instability of polyploid cells. PMID:22696268

  11. Genetic polymorphism directs IL-6 expression in fibroblasts but not selected other cell types.

    PubMed

    Noss, Erika H; Nguyen, Hung N; Chang, Sook Kyung; Watts, Gerald F M; Brenner, Michael B

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 blockade is an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and synovial fibroblasts are a major IL-6 producer in the inflamed joint. We found that human RA and osteoarthritis (OA) synovial fibroblasts derived from independent donors reproducibly segregated into low, medium, and high IL-6 producers, independent of stimulus, cell passage, or disease state. IL-6 expression pattern correlated strongly with total mRNA expression, not mRNA stability, suggesting transcriptional rather than posttranscriptional regulation. High-fibroblast IL-6 expression was significantly associated with the IL-6 proximal promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1800795 minor allele (CC) genotype. In contrast, no association between this SNP and IL-6 production was detected in CD14(+) monocytes, another major producer of synovial IL-6. Luciferase expression assays confirmed that this SNP was associated with differential IL-6 expression in fibroblasts. To date, several association studies examining rs1800795 allele frequency and disease risk have reported seemingly conflicting results ranging from no association to association with either the major or minor allele across a spectrum of conditions, including cancer and autoimmune, cardiovascular, infectious, and metabolic diseases. This study points to a prominent contribution from promoter genetic variation in fibroblast IL-6 regulation, but not in other IL-6-producing cell types. We propose that some of the heterogeneity in these clinical studies likely reflects the cellular source of IL-6 in specific diseases, much of which may be produced by nonhematopoietic cells. These results highlight that functional analysis of disease-associated SNPs on gene expression and pathologic processes must consider variation in diverse cell types.

  12. Roughness threshold for cell attachment and proliferation on plasma micro-nanotextured polymeric surfaces: the case of primary human skin fibroblasts and mouse immortalized 3T3 fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourkoula, A.; Constantoudis, V.; Kontziampasis, D.; Petrou, P. S.; Kakabakos, S. E.; Tserepi, A.; Gogolides, E.

    2016-08-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) surfaces have been micro-nanotextured in oxygen plasmas with increasing ion energy, leading to micro-nanotopography characterized by increased root mean square roughness, correlation length and fractal dimension. Primary human skin fibroblasts and mouse immortalized 3T3 fibroblasts were cultured on these surfaces and the number of adhering cells, their proliferation rate and morphology (cytoplasm and nucleus area) were evaluated as a function of roughness height, correlation length, and fractal dimension. A roughness threshold behavior was observed for both types of cells leading to dramatic cell number decrease above this threshold, which is almost similar for the two types of cells, despite their differences in size and stiffness. The results are discussed based on two theoretical models, which are reconciled and unified when the elastic moduli and the size of the cells are taken into account.

  13. Alterations in cell migration and cell viability of wounded human skin fibroblasts following visible red light exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, Vijendra; Rao, Bola Sadashiva S.; Mahato, Krishna Kishore

    2014-02-01

    The present study intended to examine the effect of visible red light on structural and cellular parameters on wounded skin fibroblast cells. To achieve the stated objective, uniform scratch was created on confluent monolayered human skin fibroblast cells, and were exposed to single dose of He-Ne laser (15 mm spot, 6.6808 mWcm-2) at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 Jcm-2 in the presence and absence of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Beam profile measurements of the expanded laser beam were conducted to ensure the beam uniformity. The influence of laser dose on the change in temperature was recorded using sensitive temperature probe. Additionally, following laser exposure cell migration and cell survival were documented at different time intervals on wounded human skin fibroblast cells grown in vitro. Beam profile measurements indicated more or less uniform power distribution over the whole beam area. Temperature monitoring of sham irradiated control and laser treatment groups displayed negligible temperature change indicating the absence of thermal effect at the tested laser doses. In the absence of 10% FBS, single exposure of different laser doses failed to produce any significant effects on cell migration or cell survival. However, in the presence of serum single exposure of 5 J/cm2 on wounded skin fibroblasts significantly enhanced the cell migration (P<0.05) compared to the other tested doses (1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 J/cm2) and sham irradiated controls. In conclusion, the LLLT acts by improving cell migration and cell proliferation to produce measurable changes in wounded fibroblast cells.

  14. Human amniotic epithelial cells are reprogrammed more efficiently by induced pluripotency than adult fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Easley, Charles A; Miki, Toshio; Castro, Carlos A; Ozolek, John A; Minervini, Crescenzio F; Ben-Yehudah, Ahmi; Schatten, Gerald P

    2012-06-01

    Cellular reprogramming from adult somatic cells into an embryonic cell-like state, termed induced pluripotency, has been achieved in several cell types. However, the ability to reprogram human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs), an abundant cell source derived from discarded placental tissue, has only recently been investigated. Here we show that not only are hAECs easily reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (AE-iPSCs), but hAECs reprogram faster and more efficiently than adult and neonatal somatic dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, AE-iPSCs express higher levels of NANOG and OCT4 compared to human foreskin fibroblast iPSCs (HFF1-iPSCs) and express decreased levels of genes associated with differentiation, including NEUROD1 and SOX17, markers of neuronal differentiation. To elucidate the mechanism behind the higher reprogramming efficiency of hAECs, we analyzed global DNA methylation, global histone acetylation, and the mitochondrial DNA A3243G point mutation. Whereas hAECs show no differences in global histone acetylation or mitochondrial point mutation accumulation compared to adult and neonatal dermal fibroblasts, hAECs demonstrate a decreased global DNA methylation compared to dermal fibroblasts. Likewise, quantitative gene expression analyses show that hAECs endogenously express OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC, all four factors used in cellular reprogramming. Thus, hAECs represent an ideal cell type for testing novel approaches for generating clinically viable iPSCs and offer significant advantages over postnatal cells that more likely may be contaminated by environmental exposures and infectious agents. PMID:22686477

  15. Silibinin prevents prostate cancer cell-mediated differentiation of naïve fibroblasts into cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype by targeting TGF β2.

    PubMed

    Ting, Harold J; Deep, Gagan; Jain, Anil K; Cimic, Adela; Sirintrapun, Joseph; Romero, Lina M; Cramer, Scott D; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2015-09-01

    Tumor microenvironment (TM) is an essential element in prostate cancer (PCA), offering unique opportunities for its prevention. TM includes naïve fibroblasts that are recruited by nascent neoplastic lesion and altered into 'cancer-associated fibroblasts' (CAFs) that promote PCA. A better understanding and targeting of interaction between PCA cells and fibroblasts and inhibiting CAF phenotype through non-toxic agents are novel approaches to prevent PCA progression. One well-studied cancer chemopreventive agent is silibinin, and thus, we examined its efficacy against PCA cells-mediated differentiation of naïve fibroblasts into a myofibroblastic-phenotype similar to that found in CAFs. Silibinin's direct inhibitory effect on the phenotype of CAFs derived directly from PCA patients was also assessed. Human prostate stromal cells (PrSCs) exposed to control conditioned media (CCM) from human PCA PC3 cells showed more invasiveness, with increased alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin expression, and differentiation into a phenotype we identified in CAFs. Importantly, silibinin (at physiologically achievable concentrations) inhibited α-SMA expression and invasiveness in differentiated fibroblasts and prostate CAFs directly, as well as indirectly by targeting PCA cells. The observed increase in α-SMA and CAF-like phenotype was transforming growth factor (TGF) β2 dependent, which was strongly inhibited by silibinin. Furthermore, induction of α-SMA and CAF phenotype by CCM were also strongly inhibited by a TGFβ2-neutralizing antibody. The inhibitory effect of silibinin on TGFβ2 expression and CAF-like biomarkers was also observed in PC3 tumors. Together, these findings highlight the potential usefulness of silibinin in PCA prevention through targeting the CAF phenotype in the prostate TM.

  16. Human Dermal Stem/Progenitor Cell-Derived Conditioned Medium Improves Senescent Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Yong; Shim, Joong Hyun; Choi, Hyun; Lee, Tae Ryong; Shin, Dong Wook

    2015-08-13

    Adult skin stem cells are recognized as potential therapeutics to rejuvenate aged skin. We previously demonstrated that human dermal stem/progenitor cells (hDSPCs) with multipotent capacity could be enriched from human dermal fibroblasts using collagen type IV. However, the effects of hDSPCs on cellular senescence remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether conditioned medium (CM) collected from hDSPC cultures (hDSPC-CM) exhibits beneficial effects on senescent fibroblasts. We found that hDSPC-CM promoted proliferation and decreased the expression level of senescence-associated β-galactosidase in senescent fibroblasts. In addition, p53 phosphorylation and p21 expression were significantly reduced in senescent fibroblasts treated with hDSPC-CM. hDSPC-CM restored the expression levels of collagen type I, collagen type III, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase, and antagonized the increase of matrix metalloproteinase 1 expression. Finally, we demonstrated that hDSPC-CM significantly reduced reactive oxygen species levels by specifically up-regulating the expression level of superoxide dismutase 2. Taken together, these data suggest that hDSPC-CM can be applied as a potential therapeutic agent for improving human aged skin.

  17. Dual role of acetaminophen in promoting hepatoma cell apoptosis and kidney fibroblast proliferation

    PubMed Central

    YU, YUNG-LUEN; YIANG, GIOU-TENG; CHOU, PEI-LUN; TSENG, HSU-HUNG; WU, TSAI-KUN; HUNG, YU-TING; LIN, PEI-SHIUAN; LIN, SHU-YU; LIU, HSIAO-CHUN; CHANG, WEI-JUNG; WEI, CHYOU-WEI

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP), is a safe analgesic and antipyretic drug at therapeutic dose, and is widely used in the clinic. However, high doses of APAP can induce hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Most studies have focused on high-dose APAP-induced acute liver and kidney injury. So far, few studies have investigated the effects of the therapeutic dose (1/10 of the high dose) or of the low dose (1/100 of the high dose) of APAP on the cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular effects of therapeutic- or low-dose APAP treatment on hepatoma cells and kidney fibroblasts. As expected, high-dose APAP treatment inhibited while therapeutic and low-dose treatment did not inhibit cell survival of kidney tubular epithelial cells. In addition, therapeutic-dose treatment induced an increase in the H2O2 level, activated the caspase-9/-3 cascade, and induced cell apoptosis of hepatoma cells. Notably, APAP promoted fibroblast proliferation, even at low doses. This study demonstrates that different cellular effects are exerted upon treatment with different APAP concentrations. Our results indicate that treatment with the therapeutic dose of APAP may exert an antitumor activity on hepatoma, while low-dose treatment may be harmful for patients with fibrosis, since it may cause proliferation of fibroblasts. PMID:24682227

  18. [Radioprotective effect of helium-neon laser radiation for fibroblast cells].

    PubMed

    Voskanian, K Sh; Mitsyn, G V; Gaevskiĭ, V N

    2007-01-01

    Effects of combined exposure to 633-nm laser waves and gamma-radiation, and laser waves and protons with the energy of 150 MeV on survivablilty of mice fibroblast cells C3H10T1/2 were compared. Cell suspension (1 - 5 x 10(5) cells/ml) was distributed in 2-ml plastic vials with 1 cm in diameter time interval between two exposures in a combination was no more than 60 s. immediately after exposure a required quantity of cells was inoculated in special vials for survivability assessment. Based on results of the experiment, preliminary and repeated laser treatment was favorable to survivability of fibroblast cells subjected to gamma- or proton irradiation (dose variation factor was within 1.3 to 2.2). Simultaneous exposure of C3H10T1/2 cells to the laser and proton beams also increased their survivability. The radioprotective effect of the helium-neon laser on fibroblasts earlier exposed to ionizing radiation is of chief interest, as most of the present-day radioprotectors are effective only if introduced into organism prior to exposure.

  19. Different reactivity of primary fibroblasts and endothelial cells towards crystalline silica: A surface radical matter.

    PubMed

    Pozzolini, Marina; Vergani, Laura; Ragazzoni, Milena; Delpiano, Livia; Grasselli, Elena; Voci, Adriana; Giovine, Marco; Scarfì, Sonia

    2016-06-15

    Quartz is a well-known occupational fibrogenic agent able to cause fibrosis and other severe pulmonary diseases such as silicosis and lung cancer. The silicotic pathology owes its severity to the structural and chemo-physical properties of the particles such as shape, size and abundance of surface radicals. In earlier studies, we reported that significant amounts of surface radicals can be generated on crystalline silica by chemical aggression with ascorbic acid (AA), a vitamin naturally abundant in the lung surfactant, and this reaction led to enhanced cytotoxicity and production of inflammatory mediators in a macrophage cell line. However in the lung, other cells acting in the development of silicosis, like fibroblasts and endothelial cells, can come to direct contact with inhaled quartz. We investigated the cytotoxic/pro-inflammatory effects of AA-treated quartz microcrystals (QA) in human primary fibroblasts and endothelial cells as compared to unmodified microcrystals (Q). Our results show that, in fibroblasts, the abundance of surface radicals on quartz microcrystals (Q vs QA) significantly enhanced cell proliferation (with or without co-culture with macrophages), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, NF-κB nuclear translocation, smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, Bcl-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 expression and collagen production. Contrariwise, endothelial cells reacted to the presence of quartz microcrystals independently from the abundance of surface radicals showing similar levels of cytotoxicity, ROS production, cell migration, MCP-1, ICAM-I and fibronectin gene expression when challenged with Q or QA. In conclusion, our in vitro experimental model demonstrates an important and quite unexplored direct contribute of silica surface radicals to fibroblast proliferation and fibrogenic responses. PMID:27381660

  20. Fibroblast cluster formation on 3D collagen matrices requires cell contraction dependent fibronectin matrix organization.

    PubMed

    da Rocha-Azevedo, Bruno; Ho, Chin-Han; Grinnell, Frederick

    2013-02-15

    Fibroblasts incubated on 3D collagen matrices in serum or lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-containing medium self-organize into clusters through a mechanism that requires cell contraction. However, in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-containing medium, cells migrate as individuals and do not form clusters even though they constantly encounter each other. Here, we present evidence that a required function of cell contraction in clustering is formation of fibronectin (FN) fibrillar matrix. We found that in serum or LPA but not in PDGF or basal medium, cells organized FN (both serum and cellular) into a fibrillar, detergent-insoluble matrix. Cell clusters developed concomitant with FN matrix formation. FN fibrils accumulated beneath cells and along the borders of cell clusters in regions of cell-matrix tension. Blocking Rho kinase or myosin II activity prevented FN matrix assembly and cell clustering. Using siRNA silencing and function-blocking antibodies and peptides, we found that cell clustering and FN matrix assembly required α5β1 integrins and fibronectin. Cells were still able to exert contractile force and compact the collagen matrix under the latter conditions, which showed that contraction was not sufficient for cell clustering to occur. Our findings provide new insights into how procontractile (serum/LPA) and promigratory (PDGF) growth factor environments can differentially regulate FN matrix assembly by fibroblasts interacting with collagen matrices and thereby influence mesenchymal cell morphogenetic behavior under physiologic circumstances such as wound repair, morphogenesis and malignancy. PMID:23117111

  1. IDO-Expressing Fibroblasts Protect Islet Beta Cells From Immunological Attack and Reverse Hyperglycemia in Non-Obese Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Jalili, Reza B; Kilani, Ruhangiz T; Elizei, Sanam Salimi; Farrokhi, Ali; Khosravi-Maharlooei, Mohsen; Warnock, Garth L; Ao, Ziliang; Marzban, Lucy; Ghahary, Aziz

    2016-09-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) induces immunological tolerance in physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, we used dermal fibroblasts with stable IDO expression as a cell therapy to: (i) Investigate the factors determining the efficacy of this cell therapy for autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice; (ii) Scrutinize the potential immunological mechanisms. Newly diabetic NOD mice were randomly injected with either 10 × 10(6) (10M) or 15 × 10(6) (15M) IDO-expressing dermal fibroblasts. Blood glucose levels (BGLs), body weight, plasma kynurenine levels, insulitis severity, islet beta cell function, autoreactive CD8(+) T cells, Th17 cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were then investigated in these mice. IL-1β and cleaved caspase-3 levels were assessed in islets co-cultured with IDO-expressing fibroblasts. BGLs in 83% mice treated with 15M IDO-expressing fibroblasts recovered to normal up to 120 days. However, only 17% mice treated with 10M IDO-expressing cells were reversed to normoglycemia. A 15M IDO-expressing fibroblasts significantly reduced infiltrated immune cells in islets and recovered the functionality of remaining islet beta cells in NOD mice. Additionally, they successfully inhibited autoreactive CD8(+) T cells and Th17 cells as well as increased Tregs in different organs of NOD mice. Islet beta cells co-cultured with IDO-expressing fibroblasts had reduced IL-1β levels and cell apoptosis. Both cell number and IDO enzymatic activity contributes to the efficiency of IDO cell therapy. Optimized IDO-expressing fibroblasts successfully reverse the progression of diabetes in NOD mice through induction of Tregs as well as inhibition of beta cell specific autoreactive CD8(+) T cells and Th17 cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1964-1973, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Control of RFM strain endogenous retrovirus in RFM mouse cells.

    PubMed

    Tennant, R W; Otten, J A; Wang, T W; Liou, R S; Brown, A; Yang, W K

    1983-01-01

    RFM/Un mice express an endogenous type C retrovirus throughout their life span in many tissues; primary or established embryo fibroblast cell cultures do not express a virus but can be induced by exposure to 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. All of our sources yielded a single ecotropic virus (RFV) which appeared to be related more closely to the endogenous N-tropic virus (WN1802N) of BALB/c mice than to Gross leukemia virus on the basis of two-dimensional gel electropherograms of virion proteins. No xenotropic or recombinant viruses were isolated by cocultivation techniques. RFV is N-tropic, and RFM/Un cells possess the Fv-1n allele, as indicated by restriction of B-tropic virus and susceptibility to Gross strain N-tropic virus. However, RFM cells are highly resistant to RFV and other endogenous N-tropic viruses. This resistance is expressed by two-hit titration kinetics and by inhibition of viral linear duplex DNA formation. This is similar to the effects of the Fv-1 locus, but preliminary work has shown no apparent genetic linkage between the two restrictions. The relative strength of the restriction, the presence of a single class of ecotropic virus, and the absence of recombinant viruses suggest that in RFM mice virus is expressed only in cells in which it is induced and not by cell-to-cell transmission.

  3. Severe hypoxia and malnutrition collectively contribute to scar fibroblast inhibition and cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Emily C; Xie, Yan; Dawson, Rebecca; Mcgovern, Jacqui; Upton, Zee; Wang, XiQiao

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to investigate whether severe hypoxia and malnutrition in scar tissue play key roles to induce hypertrophic scar regression. And scar-derived fibroblasts were treated with moderate/severe hypoxia and malnutrition to model condition of proliferative and regressive scar (5%O2 +5%FCS and 0.5%O2  + 0.5%FCS), and normoxia with well nutrition as control (10%O2  + 10%FCS). Our results demonstrated that severe hypoxia and malnutrition resulted in significantly reduced cell viability and collagen production, as well as HIF-1, VEGF, TGF-β1, and Bcl-2 protein expression when compared with control, and cell apoptosis occurred. Therefore, the severe hypoxia and malnutrition in scar tissue contribute to fibroblast inhibition and cell apoptosis, which is correlated with scar regression.

  4. Induction of Stem Cell Gene Expression in Adult Human Fibroblasts without Transgenes

    PubMed Central

    Ambady, Sakthikumar; Holmes, William F.; Vilner, Lucy; Kole, Denis; Kashpur, Olga; Huntress, Victoria; Vojtic, Ina; Whitton, Holly; Dominko, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Reprogramming of differentiated somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has potential for derivation of patient-specific cells for therapy as well as for development of models with which to study disease progression. Derivation of iPS cells from human somatic cells has been achieved by viral transduction of human fibroblasts with early developmental genes. Because forced expression of these genes by viral transduction results in transgene integration with unknown and unpredictable potential mutagenic effects, identification of cell culture conditions that can induce endogenous expression of these genes is desirable. Here we show that primary adult human fibroblasts have basal expression of mRNA for OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG. However, translation of these messages into detectable proteins and their subcellular localization depends on cell culture conditions. Manipulation of oxygen concentration and FGF2 supplementation can modulate expression of some pluripotency related genes at the transcriptional, translational, and cellular localization level. Changing cell culture condition parameters led to expression of REX1, potentiation of expression of LIN28, translation of OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG, and translocation of these transcription factors to the cell nucleus. We also show that culture conditions affect the in vitro lifespan of dermal fibroblasts, nearly doubling the number of population doublings before the cells reach replicative senescence. Our results suggest that it is possible to induce and manipulate endogenous expression of stem cell genes in somatic cells without genetic manipulation, but this short-term induction may not be sufficient for acquisition of true pluripotency. Further investigation of the factors involved in inducing this response could lead to discovery of defined culture conditions capable of altering cell fate in vitro. This would alleviate the need for forced expression by transgenesis, thus eliminating the risk of

  5. Cell behavior observation and gene expression analysis of melanoma associated with stromal fibroblasts in a three-dimensional magnetic cell culture array.

    PubMed

    Okochi, Mina; Matsumura, Taku; Yamamoto, And Shuhei; Nakayama, Eiichi; Jimbow, Kowichi; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) multicellular tumor spheroid culture array has been fabricated using a magnetic force-based cell patterning method, analyzing the effect of stromal fibroblast on the invasive capacity of melanoma. Formation of spheroids was observed when array-like multicellular patterns of melanoma were developed using a pin-holder device made of magnetic soft iron and an external magnet, which enables the assembly of the magnetically labeled cells on the collagen gel-coated surface as array-like cell patterns. The interaction of fibroblast on the invasion of melanoma was investigated using three types of cell interaction models: (i) fibroblasts were magnetically labeled and patterned together in array with melanoma spheroids (direct-interaction model), (ii) fibroblasts coexisting in the upper collagen gel (indirect-interaction model) of melanoma spheroids, and (iii) fibroblast-sheets coexisting under melanoma spheroids (fibroblast-sheet model). The fibroblast-sheet model has largely increased the invasive capacity of melanoma, and the promotion of adhesion, migration, and invasion were also observed. In the fibroblast-sheet model, the expression of IL-8 and MMP-2 increased by 24-fold and 2-fold, respectively, in real time RT-PCR compared to the absence of fibroblasts. The results presented in this study demonstrate the importance of fibroblast interaction to invasive capacity of melanoma in the 3D in vitro bioengineered tumor microenvironment.

  6. Cells as strain-cued automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Brian N.; Snead, Malcolm L.

    2016-02-01

    We argue in favor of representing living cells as automata and review demonstrations that autonomous cells can form patterns by responding to local variations in the strain fields that arise from their individual or collective motions. An autonomous cell's response to strain stimuli is assumed to be effected by internally-generated, internally-powered forces, which generally move the cell in directions other than those implied by external energy gradients. Evidence of cells acting as strain-cued automata have been inferred from patterns observed in nature and from experiments conducted in vitro. Simulations that mimic particular cases of pattern forming share the idealization that cells are assumed to pass information among themselves solely via mechanical boundary conditions, i.e., the tractions and displacements present at their membranes. This assumption opens three mechanisms for pattern formation in large cell populations: wavelike behavior, kinematic feedback in cell motility that can lead to sliding and rotational patterns, and directed migration during invasions. Wavelike behavior among ameloblast cells during amelogenesis (the formation of dental enamel) has been inferred from enamel microstructure, while strain waves in populations of epithelial cells have been observed in vitro. One hypothesized kinematic feedback mechanism, "enhanced shear motility", accounts successfully for the spontaneous formation of layered patterns during amelogenesis in the mouse incisor. Directed migration is exemplified by a theory of invader cells that sense and respond to the strains they themselves create in the host population as they invade it: analysis shows that the strain fields contain positional information that could aid the formation of cell network structures, stabilizing the slender geometry of branches and helping govern the frequency of branch bifurcation and branch coalescence (the formation of closed networks). In simulations of pattern formation in

  7. Inhibition of cancer cell epithelial mesenchymal transition by normal fibroblasts via production of 5-methoxytryptophan

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Li-Yi; Chen, Hua-Ling; Kuo, Cheng-Chin; Wu, Kenneth K.

    2016-01-01

    We reported previously that human fibroblasts release 5-methoxytryptophan (5-MTP) which inhibits cancer cell COX-2 overexpression and suppresses cancer cell migration and metastasis. To determine whether fibroblasts block cancer cell epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) via 5-MTP, we evaluated the effect of Hs68 fibroblasts (HsFb) on A549 cancer cell EMT in a two-chamber system. Co-incubation of A549 with HsFb prevented TGF-β1-induced reduction of E-cadherin and increase in Snail and N-cadherin. Transfection of HsFb with tryptophan hydroxylase-1 siRNA, which inhibited tryptophan hydroxylase-1 protein expression and 5-MTP release in HsFb abrogated the effect of HsFb on A549 EMT. Direct addition of pure 5-MTP to cultured A549 cells followed by TGF-β1 prevented TGF-β1-induced reduction of E-cadherin, and elevation of Snail, vimentin and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Administration of 5-MTP to a murine xenograft tumor model reduced vimentin protein expression in the tumor tissues compared to vehicle control which was correlated with reduction of metastasis in the 5-MTP treated mice. Our experimental data suggest that 5-MTP exerted its anti-EMT actions through inhibition of p38 MAPK activation, p65/p50 NF-κB nuclear translocation and transactivation without the involvement of COX-2 or p300 histone acetyltransferase. Our findings indicate that fibroblasts release a tryptophan metabolite, 5-MTP, to reduce cancer cell EMT, migration, invasion and metastasis. PMID:27145282

  8. Characterization of epicardial-derived cardiac interstitial cells: differentiation and mobilization of heart fibroblast progenitors.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Villalba, Adrián; Ziogas, Algirdas; Ehrbar, Martin; Pérez-Pomares, José M

    2013-01-01

    The non-muscular cells that populate the space found between cardiomyocyte fibers are known as 'cardiac interstitial cells' (CICs). CICs are heterogeneous in nature and include different cardiac progenitor/stem cells, cardiac fibroblasts and other cell types. Upon heart damage CICs soon respond by initiating a reparative response that transforms with time into extensive fibrosis and heart failure. Despite the biomedical relevance of CICs, controversy remains on the ontogenetic relationship existing between the different cell kinds homing at the cardiac interstitium, as well as on the molecular signals that regulate their differentiation, maturation, mutual interaction and role in adult cardiac homeostasis and disease. Our work focuses on the analysis of epicardial-derived cells, the first cell type that colonizes the cardiac interstitium. We present here a characterization and an experimental analysis of the differentiation potential and mobilization properties of a new cell line derived from mouse embryonic epicardium (EPIC). Our results indicate that these cells express some markers associated with cardiovascular stemness and retain part of the multipotent properties of embryonic epicardial derivatives, spontaneously differentiating into smooth muscle, and fibroblast/myofibroblast-like cells. Epicardium-derived cells are also shown to initiate a characteristic response to different growth factors, to display a characteristic proteolytic expression profile and to degrade biological matrices in 3D in vitro assays. Taken together, these data indicate that EPICs are relevant to the analysis of epicardial-derived CICs, and are a god model for the research on cardiac fibroblasts and the role these cells play in ventricular remodeling in both ischemic or non/ischemic myocardial disease. PMID:23349729

  9. Chicken stem cell factor enhances primordial germ cell proliferation cooperatively with fibroblast growth factor 2.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Daichi; Oishi, Isao; Makino, Ryuichi; Kurumisawa, Nozomi; Nakaya, Ryuma; Ono, Tamao; Kagami, Hiroshi; Tagami, Takahiro

    2016-04-22

    An in vitro culture system of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has been recently developed, but the growth factor involved in the proliferation of PGCs is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the growth effects of chicken stem cell factor (chSCF) on the in vitro proliferation of chicken PGCs. We established two feeder cell lines (buffalo rat liver cells; BRL cells) that stably express the putative secreted form of chSCF (chSCF1-BRL) and membrane bound form of chSCF (chSCF2-BRL). Cultured PGC lines were incubated on chSCF1 or chSCF2-BRL feeder cells with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and growth effects of each chSCF isoform were investigated. The in vitro proliferation rate of the PGCs cultured on chSCF2-BRL at 20 days of culture was more than threefold higher than those cultured on chSCF1-BRL cells and more than fivefold higher than those cultured on normal BRL cells. Thus, use of chSCF2-BRL feeder layer was effective for in vitro proliferation of chicken PGCs. However, the acceleration of PGC proliferation on chSCF2-BRL was not observed without FGF2, suggesting that chSCF2 would act as a proliferation co-factor of FGF2. We transferred the PGCs cultured on chSCF2-BRL cells to recipient embryos, generated germline chimeric chickens and assessed the germline competency of cultured PGCs by progeny test. Donor-derived progenies were obtained, and the frequency of germline transmission was 3.39%. The results of this study demonstrate that chSCF2 induces hyperproliferation of chicken PGCs retaining germline competency in vitro in cooperation with FGF2. PMID:26727404

  10. Functional melanocytes are readily reprogrammable from multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (muse) cells, distinct stem cells in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiyama, Kenichiro; Wakao, Shohei; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Ogura, Fumitaka; Nojima, Makoto; Sawaya, Natsue; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Aiba, Setsuya; Dezawa, Mari

    2013-10-01

    The induction of melanocytes from easily accessible stem cells has attracted attention for the treatment of melanocyte dysfunctions. We found that multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells, a distinct stem cell type among human dermal fibroblasts, can be readily reprogrammed into functional melanocytes, whereas the remainder of the fibroblasts do not contribute to melanocyte differentiation. Muse cells can be isolated as cells positive for stage-specific embryonic antigen-3, a marker for undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells, and differentiate into cells representative of all three germ layers from a single cell, while also being nontumorigenic. The use of certain combinations of factors induces Muse cells to express melanocyte markers such as tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and to show positivity for the 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine reaction. When Muse cell-derived melanocytes were incorporated into three-dimensional (3D) cultured skin models, they localized themselves in the basal layer of the epidermis and produced melanin in the same manner as authentic melanocytes. They also maintained their melanin production even after the 3D cultured skin was transplanted to immunodeficient mice. This technique may be applicable to the efficient production of melanocytes from accessible human fibroblasts by using Muse cells, thereby contributing to autologous transplantation for melanocyte dysfunctions, such as vitiligo.

  11. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells without Myc from mouse and human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Masato; Koyanagi, Michiyo; Tanabe, Koji; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Ichisaka, Tomoko; Aoi, Takashi; Okita, Keisuke; Mochiduki, Yuji; Takizawa, Nanako; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2008-01-01

    Direct reprogramming of somatic cells provides an opportunity to generate patient- or disease-specific pluripotent stem cells. Such induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from mouse fibroblasts by retroviral transduction of four transcription factors: Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc. Mouse iPS cells are indistinguishable from embryonic stem (ES) cells in many respects and produce germline-competent chimeras. Reactivation of the c-Myc retrovirus, however, increases tumorigenicity in the chimeras and progeny mice, hindering clinical applications. Here we describe a modified protocol for the generation of iPS cells that does not require the Myc retrovirus. With this protocol, we obtained significantly fewer non-iPS background cells, and the iPS cells generated were consistently of high quality. Mice derived from Myc(-) iPS cells did not develop tumors during the study period. The protocol also enabled efficient isolation of iPS cells without drug selection. Furthermore, we generated human iPS cells from adult dermal fibroblasts without MYC.

  12. In vitro generation of pancreatic endocrine cells from human adult fibroblast-like limbal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Criscimanna, Angela; Zito, Giovanni; Taddeo, Annalisa; Richiusa, Pierina; Pitrone, Maria; Morreale, Daniele; Lodato, Gaetano; Pizzolanti, Giuseppe; Citarrella, Roberto; Galluzzo, Aldo; Giordano, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells might provide unlimited supply of transplantable cells for β-cell replacement therapy in diabetes. The human limbus is a highly specialized region hosting a well-recognized population of epithelial stem cells, which sustain the continuous renewal of the cornea, and the recently identified stromal fibroblast-like stem cells (f-LSCs), with apparent broader plasticity. However, the lack of specific molecular markers for the identification of the multipotent limbal subpopulation has so far limited the investigation of their differentiation potential. In this study we show that the human limbus contains uncommitted cells that could be potentially harnessed for the treatment of diabetes. Fourteen limbal biopsies were obtained from patients undergoing surgery for ocular diseases not involving the conjunctiva or corneal surface. We identified a subpopulation of f-LSCs characterized by robust proliferative capacity, expressing several pluripotent stem cell markers and exhibiting self-renewal ability. We then demonstrated the potential of f-LSCs to differentiate in vitro into functional insulin-secreting cells by developing a four-step differentiation protocol that efficiently directed f-LSCs towards the pancreatic endocrine cell fate. The expression of specific endodermal, pancreatic, islet, and β-cell markers, as well as functional properties of f-LSC-derived insulin-producing cells, were evaluated during differentiation. With our stage-specific approach, up to 77% of f-LSCs eventually differentiated into cells expressing insulin (also assessed as C-peptide) and exhibited phenotypic features of mature β-cells, such as expression of critical transcription factors and presence of secretory granules. Although insulin content was about 160-fold lower than what observed in adult islets, differentiated cells processed ∼98% of their proinsulin content, similar to mature β-cells. Moreover, they responded in vitro in a regulated manner to multiple secretory stimuli

  13. Hemolin triggers cell survival on fibroblasts in response to serum deprivation by inhibition of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Rosemary Viola; Alvarez-Flores, Miryam Paola; Maria, Durvanei Augusto; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana Marisa

    2016-08-01

    Fibroblasts are the main cellular component of connective tissues and play important roles in health and disease through the production of collagen, fibronectin and growth factors. Under certain conditions, such as wound healing, fibroblasts intensify their metabolic demand, while the restriction of nutrients affect matrix composition, cell metabolism and behavior. In lepidopterans, wound healing is regulated by ecdysteroid hormones, which upregulate multifunctional proteins such as hemolin. However, the role of hemolin in cell proliferation and wound healing is not clear. rLosac is a recombinant hemolin from the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua whose proliferative and cytoprotective effects on endothelial cells have been described. Here, we show that rLosac induces a marked cell survival effect on fibroblast submitted to serum deprivation, which is observable as early as 24h, as demonstrated through the MTT assay, as well as an increase in migration of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). No effects on cell proliferation or cell cycle distribution of fibroblasts in normal conditions were observed, suggesting that rLosac induces an effect in stressful conditions such serum deprivation but not when nutrient are sufficient. By flow cytometry, rLosac caused an apparent dose-dependent increase in cells in the S phase of the cell cycle and a significant reduction of cells with fragmented DNA. Furthermore, treatment with rLosac results in a significant decrease in the production of reactive oxygen species and in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that a reduction in oxidative stress is involved in rLosac-mediated cytoprotection. Our results also show an up-regulation of Bcl-2 and a down-regulation of Bax protein levels, inhibition of cytochrome c release and a reduction in caspase-3 levels, all considered critical factors for apoptosis. Moreover, rLosac treatment reduces the morphological changes induced by prolonged serum deprivation including the emergence

  14. Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus: interaction with fibroblasts and muscle cells - new insights into parasite-mediated host cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Ricardo Chaves; Benchimol, Marlene

    2012-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic, flagellated protists that inhabit the urogenital tract of humans and bovines, respectively. T. vaginalis causes the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide and has been associated with an increased risk for human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in humans. Infections by T. foetus cause significant losses to the beef industry worldwide due to infertility and spontaneous abortion in cows. Several studies have shown a close association between trichomonads and the epithelium of the urogenital tract. However, little is known concerning the interaction of trichomonads with cells from deeper tissues, such as fibroblasts and muscle cells. Published parasite-host cell interaction studies have reported contradictory results regarding the ability of T. foetus and T. vaginalis to interact with and damage cells of different tissues. In this study, parasite-host cell interactions were examined by culturing primary human fibroblasts obtained from abdominal biopsies performed during plastic surgeries with trichomonads. In addition, mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, primary chick embryo myogenic cells and L6 muscle cells were also used as models of target cells. The parasite-host cell cultures were processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopy and were tested for cell viability and cell death. JC-1 staining, which measures mitochondrial membrane potential, was used to determine whether the parasites induced target cell damage. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling staining was used as an indicator of chromatin damage. The colorimetric crystal violet assay was performed to ana-lyse the cytotoxicity induced by the parasite. The results showed that T. foetus and T. vaginalis adhered to and were cytotoxic to both fibroblasts and muscle cells, indicating that trichomonas infection of the connective and muscle tissues is likely to occur; such infections could cause

  15. Glial cell and fibroblast cytotoxicity study on 4026-cyclotene photosensitive benzocyclobutene (BCB) polymer films.

    PubMed

    Ehteshami, Gholamreza; Singh, Amarjit; Coryell, Gene; Massia, Stephen; He, Jiping; Raupp, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    Photosensitive benzocyclobutene (photo-BCB) is a class of polymers with the trade name Cyclotene. The photoimagable property of Cyclotene makes it suitable for the manufacture of microelectronic devices. The motivation behind this study is that we see an exciting application of photo-BCB as substrates in implantable microelectronic biomedical devices due to several desirable properties distinctive from other polymer materials. To our knowledge, however, photo-BCB has never been tested for biomedical implant applications, as evidenced by the lack reported data on its biocompatibility. This study takes the first step towards assessing photo-BCB biocompatibility by evaluating the cytotoxicity and cell adhesion behavior of Cyclotene 4026 coatings exposed to monolayers of glial and fibroblast cells in vitro. It can be concluded from these studies that photo-BCB films deposited on silicon wafers using microfabrication processes did not adversely affect 3T3 fibroblast and T98-G glial cell function in vitro. We also successfully rendered photo-BCB films non-adhesive (no significant fibroblast or glial cell adhesion) with surface immobilized dextran using methods developed for other biomaterials and applications. Future work will further develop prototype photo-BCB microelectrode devices for chronic neural implant applications. PMID:14661882

  16. Effect of Cold Plasma on Cell Viability and Collagen Synthesis in Cultured Murine Fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xingmin; Cai, Jingfen; Xu, Guimin; Ren, Hongbin; Chen, Sile; Chang, Zhengshi; Liu, Jinren; Huang, Chongya; Zhang, Guanjun; Wu, Xili

    2016-04-01

    An argon atmospheric pressure plasma jet was employed to treat L929 murine fibroblasts cultured in vitro. Experimental results showed that, compared with the control cells, the treatment of fibroblasts with 15 s of plasma led to a significant increase of cell viability and collagen synthesis, while the treatment of 25 s plasma resulted in a remarkable decrease. Exploration of related mechanisms suggested that cold plasma could up-regulate CyclinD1 gene expression and down-regulate p27 gene expression at a low dose, while it could down-regulate CyclinD1 expression and up-regulate p27 expression at a higher dose, thus altering the cell cycle progression, and then affecting cell viability and collagen synthesis of fibroblasts. supported partly by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 81372076, 51307133 and 51221005), China National Funds for Distinguished Young Scientists (No. 51125029), the Sci-Tech Project of Shaanxi Province of China (No. 2010K16-04), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. xkjc2013004)

  17. Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase is a Peroxisomal Enzyme in Human Fibroblast and Hepatoma Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Gilbert-Andre; Warner, Thomas G.; Steimer, Kathelyn S.; Hallewell, Robert A.

    1991-08-01

    The intracellular localization of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) has been examined by immunofluorescence using four monoclonal anti-Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase antibodies raised against a recombinant human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase derivative produced and purified from Escherichia coli. Colocalization with catalase, a peroxisomal matrix enzyme, was used to demonstrate the peroxisomal localization of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase in human fibroblasts and hepatoma cells. In the fibroblasts of Zellweger syndrome patients, the enzyme is not transported to the peroxisomal ghosts but, like catalase, remains in the cytoplasm. In addition, immunocryoelectron microscopy of yeast cells expressing human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase showed that the enzyme is translocated to the peroxisomes.

  18. Autocrine release of TGF-beta by portal fibroblasts regulates cell growth.

    PubMed

    Wells, Rebecca G; Kruglov, Emma; Dranoff, Jonathan A

    2004-02-13

    Portal fibroblasts (PF) are a newly isolated population of fibrogenic cells in the liver postulated to play a significant role in early biliary fibrosis. Because transforming growth factor-beta (TGF)-beta is a key growth factor in fibrosis, we characterized the response of PF to TGF-beta. We demonstrate that PF produce significant amounts of TGF-beta2 and, unlike activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC), express all three TGF-beta receptors and are growth inhibited by TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, but not platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), causes PF proliferation. These data suggest a mechanism whereby HSC eclipse PF as the dominant myofibroblast population in biliary fibrosis.

  19. Binding, internalization, and degradation of basic fibroblast growth factor in human microvascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bikfalvi, A.; Dupuy, E.; Inyang, A.L.; Tobelem, G. ); Fayein, N.; Courtois, Y. ); Leseche, G. )

    1989-03-01

    The binding, internalization, and degradation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in human omental microvascular endothelial cells (HOME cells) were investigated. Binding studies of bFGF in human endothelial cells have not yet been reported. Basic FGF bound to HOME cells. The number of low-affinity binding sites was found to be variable. Washing the cells with 2 M phosphate-buffered saline removed completely {sup 125}I-bFGF bound to low-affinity binding sites but decreased also the high-affinity binding. The majority of the surface-bound {sup 125}I-bFGF was removed by washing the cells with acetic acid buffer at pH 3. At this temperature, degradation of the internalized ligand was followed after 1 hour by the appearance of three major bands of 15,000 10,000, and 8,000 Da and was inhibited by chloroquine. These results demonstrated two classes of binding sites for bFGF in HOME cells; the number of high-affinity binding sites being larger than the number reported for bovine capillary endothelial cells. The intracellular processing of bFGF in HOME cells seems to be different from that of heparin binding growth factor-1 in murine lung capillary endothelial cells and of eye-derived growth factor-1 in Chinese hamster fibroblasts.

  20. 3D culture model of fibroblast-mediated collagen creep to identify abnormal cell behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kureshi, A K; Afoke, A; Wohlert, S; Barker, S; Brown, R A

    2015-11-01

    Native collagen gels are important biomimetic cell support scaffolds, and a plastic compression process can now be used to rapidly remove fluid to any required collagen density, producing strong 3D tissue-like models. This study aimed to measure the mechanical creep properties of such scaffolds and to quantify any enhanced creep occurring in the presence of cells (cell-mediated creep). The test rig developed applies constant creep tension during culture and measures real-time extension due to cell action. This was used to model extracellular matrix creep, implicated in the transversalis fascia (TF) in inguinal hernia. Experiments showed that at an applied tension equivalent to 15% break strength, cell-mediated creep over 24-h culture periods was identified at creep rates of 0.46 and 0.38%/h for normal TF and human dermal fibroblasts, respectively. However, hernia TF fibroblasts produced negligible cell-mediated creep levels under the same conditions. Raising the cell culture temperature from 4 to 37 °C was used to demonstrate live cell dependence of this creep. This represents the first in vitro demonstration of TF cell-mediated collagen creep and to our knowledge the first demonstration of a functional, hernia-related cell abnormality. PMID:25862069

  1. On strain and stress in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Brian N.; Smith, David W.

    2014-11-01

    Recent theoretical simulations of amelogenesis and network formation and new, simple analyses of the basic multicellular unit (BMU) allow estimation of the order of magnitude of the strain energy density in populations of living cells in their natural environment. A similar simple calculation translates recent measurements of the force-displacement relation for contacting cells (cell-cell adhesion energy) into equivalent volume energy densities, which are formed by averaging the changes in contact energy caused by a cell's migration over the cell's volume. The rates of change of these mechanical energy densities (energy density rates) are then compared to the order of magnitude of the metabolic activity of a cell, expressed as a rate of production of metabolic energy per unit volume. The mechanical energy density rates are 4-5 orders of magnitude smaller than the metabolic energy density rate in amelogenesis or bone remodeling in the BMU, which involve modest cell migration velocities, and 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller for innervation of the gut or angiogenesis, where migration rates are among the highest for all cell types. For representative cell-cell adhesion gradients, the mechanical energy density rate is 6 orders of magnitude smaller than the metabolic energy density rate. The results call into question the validity of using simple constitutive laws to represent living cells. They also imply that cells need not migrate as inanimate objects of gradients in an energy field, but are better regarded as self-powered automata that may elect to be guided by such gradients or move otherwise. Thus Ġel=d/dt 1/2 >[(C11+C12)ɛ02+2μγ02]=(C11+C12)ɛ0ɛ˙0+2μγ0γ˙0 or Ġel=ηEɛ0ɛ˙0+η‧Eγ0γ˙0 with 1.4≤η≤3.4 and 0.7≤η‧≤0.8 for Poisson's ratio in the range 0.2≤ν≤0.4 and η=1.95 and η‧=0.75 for ν=0.3. The spatial distribution of shear strains arising within an individual cell as cells slide past one another during amelogenesis is not known

  2. Generation of Footprint-Free Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Human Fibroblasts Using Episomal Plasmid Vectors.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A; Sun, Jane; Wolvetang, Ernst J

    2015-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have provided novel insights into the etiology of disease and are set to transform regenerative medicine and drug screening over the next decade. The generation of human iPSCs free of a genetic footprint of the reprogramming process is crucial for the realization of these potential uses. Here we describe in detail the generation of human iPSC from control and disease-carrying individuals' fibroblasts using episomal plasmids.

  3. Full-Length Fibronectin Drives Fibroblast Accumulation at the Surface of Collagen Microtissues during Cell-Induced Tissue Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Foolen, Jasper; Shiu, Jau-Ye; Mitsi, Maria; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Christopher S.; Vogel, Viola

    2016-01-01

    Generating and maintaining gradients of cell density and extracellular matrix (ECM) components is a prerequisite for the development of functionality of healthy tissue. Therefore, gaining insights into the drivers of spatial organization of cells and the role of ECM during tissue morphogenesis is vital. In a 3D model system of tissue morphogenesis, a fibronectin-FRET sensor recently revealed the existence of two separate fibronectin populations with different conformations in microtissues, i.e. ‘compact and adsorbed to collagen’ versus ‘extended and fibrillar’ fibronectin that does not colocalize with the collagen scaffold. Here we asked how the presence of fibronectin might drive this cell-induced tissue morphogenesis, more specifically the formation of gradients in cell density and ECM composition. Microtissues were engineered in a high-throughput model system containing rectangular microarrays of 12 posts, which constrained fibroblast-populated collagen gels, remodeled by the contractile cells into trampoline-shaped microtissues. Fibronectin’s contribution during the tissue maturation process was assessed using fibronectin-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (Fn-/- MEFs) and floxed equivalents (Fnf/f MEFs), in fibronectin-depleted growth medium with and without exogenously added plasma fibronectin (full-length, or various fragments). In the absence of full-length fibronectin, Fn-/- MEFs remained homogenously distributed throughout the cell-contracted collagen gels. In contrast, in the presence of full-length fibronectin, both cell types produced shell-like tissues with a predominantly cell-free compacted collagen core and a peripheral surface layer rich in cells. Single cell assays then revealed that Fn-/- MEFs applied lower total strain energy on nanopillar arrays coated with either fibronectin or vitronectin when compared to Fnf/f MEFs, but that the presence of exogenously added plasma fibronectin rescued their contractility. While collagen

  4. Full-Length Fibronectin Drives Fibroblast Accumulation at the Surface of Collagen Microtissues during Cell-Induced Tissue Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Foolen, Jasper; Shiu, Jau-Ye; Mitsi, Maria; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Christopher S; Vogel, Viola

    2016-01-01

    Generating and maintaining gradients of cell density and extracellular matrix (ECM) components is a prerequisite for the development of functionality of healthy tissue. Therefore, gaining insights into the drivers of spatial organization of cells and the role of ECM during tissue morphogenesis is vital. In a 3D model system of tissue morphogenesis, a fibronectin-FRET sensor recently revealed the existence of two separate fibronectin populations with different conformations in microtissues, i.e. 'compact and adsorbed to collagen' versus 'extended and fibrillar' fibronectin that does not colocalize with the collagen scaffold. Here we asked how the presence of fibronectin might drive this cell-induced tissue morphogenesis, more specifically the formation of gradients in cell density and ECM composition. Microtissues were engineered in a high-throughput model system containing rectangular microarrays of 12 posts, which constrained fibroblast-populated collagen gels, remodeled by the contractile cells into trampoline-shaped microtissues. Fibronectin's contribution during the tissue maturation process was assessed using fibronectin-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (Fn-/- MEFs) and floxed equivalents (Fnf/f MEFs), in fibronectin-depleted growth medium with and without exogenously added plasma fibronectin (full-length, or various fragments). In the absence of full-length fibronectin, Fn-/- MEFs remained homogenously distributed throughout the cell-contracted collagen gels. In contrast, in the presence of full-length fibronectin, both cell types produced shell-like tissues with a predominantly cell-free compacted collagen core and a peripheral surface layer rich in cells. Single cell assays then revealed that Fn-/- MEFs applied lower total strain energy on nanopillar arrays coated with either fibronectin or vitronectin when compared to Fnf/f MEFs, but that the presence of exogenously added plasma fibronectin rescued their contractility. While collagen decoration of

  5. Raman spectroscopy: a powerful tool for the non-contact discrimination of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudlas, Marieke; Koch, Steffen; Bolwien, Carsten; Hirth, Thomas; Walles, Heike; Schenke-Layland, Katja

    2011-03-01

    Bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are a promising cell source for regenerative medicine. However, it is challenging to determine whether isolated BM-MSC populations are free of fibroblasts. We employed traditional methods and Raman spectroscopy to distinguish BM-MSCs and human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs). Although in vitro differentiation assays revealed the multipotent character of BM-MSCs, long culture periods are a major disadvantage. Using Raman spectroscopy, we could quickly distinguish between BM-MSCs and hDFs. Therefore we conclude that this method is sufficient for the rapid detection of fibroblastic contaminations in BM-MSC cultures.

  6. Whole cell mechanics of contractile fibroblasts: relations between effective cellular and extracellular matrix moduli

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, J. Pablo; Elson, Elliot L.; Genin, Guy M.

    2010-01-01

    While much is known about the subcellular structures responsible for the mechanical functioning of a contractile fibroblast, debate exists about how these components combine to endow a cell with its form and mechanical function. We present an analysis of mechanical characterization experiments performed on bio-artificial tissue constructs, which we believe serve as a more realistic testing environment than two-dimensional cell culture. These model tissues capture many features of real tissues with the advantage that they can be engineered to model different physiological and pathological characteristics. We study here a model tissue consisting of reconstituted type I collagen and varying concentrations of activated contractile fibroblasts that is relevant to modelling different stages of wound healing. We applied this system to assess how cell and extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanics vary with cell concentration. Short-term and long-term moduli of the ECM were estimated through analytical and numerical analysis of two-phase elastic solids containing cell-shaped voids. The relative properties of cells were then deduced from the results of numerical analyses of two-phase elastic solids containing mechanically isotropic cells of varying modulus. With increasing cell concentration, the short-term and long-term tangent moduli of the reconstituted collagen ECM increased sharply from a baseline value, while those of the cells decreased monotonically. PMID:20047943

  7. Role of non-genomic androgen signalling in suppressing proliferation of fibroblasts and fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Castoria, G; Giovannelli, P; Di Donato, M; Ciociola, A; Hayashi, R; Bernal, F; Appella, E; Auricchio, F; Migliaccio, A

    2014-12-04

    The functions of androgen receptor (AR) in stromal cells are still debated in spite of the demonstrated importance of these cells in organ development and diseases. Here, we show that physiological androgen concentration (10 nM R1881 or DHT) fails to induce DNA synthesis, while it consistently stimulates cell migration in mesenchymal and transformed mesenchymal cells. Ten nanomolar R1881 triggers p27 Ser10 phosphorylation and its stabilization in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Activation of Rac and its downstream effector DYRK 1B is responsible for p27 Ser10 phosphorylation and cell quiescence. Ten nanomolar androgen also inhibits transformation induced by oncogenic Ras in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Overexpression of an AR mutant unable to interact with filamin A, use of a small peptide displacing AR/filamin A interaction, and filamin A knockdown indicate that the androgen-triggered AR/filamin A complex regulates the pathway leading to p27 Ser10 phosphorylation and cell cycle arrest. As the AR/filamin A complex is also responsible for migration stimulated by 10 nM androgen, our report shows that the androgen-triggered AR/filamin A complex controls, through Rac 1, the decision of cells to halt cell cycle and migration. This study reveals a new and unexpected role of androgen/AR signalling in coordinating stromal cell functions.

  8. PDGFRβ expression and function in fibroblasts derived from pluripotent cells is linked to DNA demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Kyle J.; Shamis, Yulia; Knight, Elana; Smith, Avi; Maione, Anna; Alt-Holland, Addy; Sheridan, Steven D.; Haggarty, Stephen J.; Garlick, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFRβ) is required for the development of mesenchymal cell types, and plays a diverse role in the function of fibroblasts in tissue homeostasis and regeneration. In this study, we characterized the expression of PDGFRβ in fibroblasts derived from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and showed that this expression is important for cellular functions such as migration, extracellular matrix production and assembly in 3D self-assembled tissues. To determine potential regulatory regions predictive of expression of PDGFRβ following differentiation from ESCs and iPSCs, we analyzed the DNA methylation status of a region of the PDGFRB promoter that contains multiple CpG sites, before and after differentiation. We demonstrated that this promoter region is extensively demethylated following differentiation, and represents a developmentally regulated, differentially methylated region linked to PDGFRβ expression. Understanding the epigenetic regulation of genes such as PDGFRB, and identifying sites of active DNA demethylation, is essential for future applications of iPSC-derived fibroblasts for regenerative medicine. PMID:22344267

  9. Stromal fibroblasts support dendritic cells to maintain IL-23/Th17 responses after exposure to ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Malecka, Anna; Wang, Qunwei; Shah, Sabaria; Sutavani, Ruhcha V.; Spendlove, Ian; Ramage, Judith M.; Greensmith, Julie; Franks, Hester A.; Gough, Michael J.; Saalbach, Anja; Patel, Poulam M.; Jackson, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cell function is modulated by stromal cells, including fibroblasts. Although poorly understood, the signals delivered through this crosstalk substantially alter dendritic cell biology. This is well illustrated with release of TNF-α/IL-1β from activated dendritic cells, promoting PGE2 secretion from stromal fibroblasts. This instructs dendritic cells to up-regulate IL-23, a key Th17-polarizing cytokine. We previously showed that ionizing radiation inhibited IL-23 production by human dendritic cells in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that dendritic cell-fibroblast crosstalk overcomes the suppressive effect of ionizing radiation to support appropriately polarized Th17 responses. Radiation (1–6 Gy) markedly suppressed IL-23 secretion by activated dendritic cells (P < 0.0001) without adversely impacting their viability and consequently, inhibited the generation of Th17 responses. Cytokine suppression by ionizing radiation was selective, as there was no effect on IL-1β, -6, -10, and -27 or TNF-α and only a modest (11%) decrease in IL-12p70 secretion. Coculture with fibroblasts augmented IL-23 secretion by irradiated dendritic cells and increased Th17 responses. Importantly, in contrast to dendritic cells, irradiated fibroblasts maintained their capacity to respond to TNF-α/IL-1β and produce PGE2, thus providing the key intermediary signals for successful dendritic cell-fibroblasts crosstalk. In summary, stromal fibroblasts support Th17-polarizing cytokine production by dendritic cells that would otherwise be suppressed in an irradiated microenvironment. This has potential ramifications for understanding the immune response to local radiotherapy. These findings underscore the need to account for the impact of microenvironmental factors, including stromal cells, in understanding the control of immunity. PMID:27049023

  10. Silibinin Prevents Prostate Cancer Cell-Mediated Differentiation of Naïve Fibroblasts into Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Phenotype by Targeting TGF β2

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Harold; Deep, Gagan; Jain, Anil K.; Cimic, Adela; Sirintrapun, Joseph; Romero, Lina M.; Cramer, Scott D.; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment is an essential element in prostate cancer (PCA), offering unique opportunities for its prevention. Tumor microenvironment includes naïve fibroblasts that are recruited by nascent neoplastic lesion and altered into ‘cancer-associated fibroblasts’ (CAFs) that promote PCA. A better understanding and targeting of interaction between PCA cells and fibroblasts and inhibiting CAF phenotype through non-toxic agents are novel approaches to prevent PCA progression. One well-studied cancer chemopreventive agent is silibinin, and thus, we examined its efficacy against PCA cells-mediated differentiation of naïve fibroblasts into a myofibroblastic-phenotype similar to that found in CAFs. Silibinin’s direct inhibitory effect on the phenotype of CAFs derived directly from PCA patients was also assessed. Human prostate stromal cells (PrSCs) exposed to control conditioned media (CCM) from human PCA PC3 cells showed more invasiveness, with increased α-SMA (alpha-smooth muscle actin) and vimentin expression, and differentiation into a phenotype we identified in CAFs. Importantly, silibinin (at physiologically-achievable concentrations) inhibited α-SMA expression and invasiveness in differentiated fibroblasts and prostate CAFs directly, as well as indirectly by targeting PCA cells. The observed increase in α-SMA and CAF-like phenotype was transforming growth factor (TGF) β2 dependent, which was strongly inhibited by silibinin. Furthermore, induction of ±-SMA and CAF phenotype by CCM were also strongly inhibited by a TGFβ2-neutralizing antibody. The inhibitory effect of silibinin on TGFβ2 expression and CAF-like biomarkers was also observed in PC3 tumors. Together, these findings highlight the potential usefulness of silibinin in PCA prevention through targeting the CAF phenotype in the prostate tumor microenvironment. PMID:24615813

  11. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 negatively regulates cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • LPA{sub 5} inhibits the cell growth and motile activities of 3T3 cells. • LPA{sub 5} suppresses the cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide in 3T3 cells. • Enhancement of LPA{sub 5} on the cell motile activities inhibited by LPA{sub 1} in 3T3 cells. • The expression and activation of Mmp-9 were inhibited by LPA{sub 5} in 3T3 cells. • LPA signaling via LPA{sub 5} acts as a negative regulator of cellular responses in 3T3 cells. - Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA{sub 1}–LPA{sub 6}) mediates a variety of biological functions, including cell migration. Recently, we have reported that LPA{sub 1} inhibited the cell motile activities of mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. In the present study, to evaluate a role of LPA{sub 5} in cellular responses, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3-L5) cells were generated from 3T3 cells. In cell proliferation assays, LPA markedly stimulated the cell proliferation activities of 3T3-L5 cells, compared with control cells. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3-L5 cells were significantly higher than those of control cells. The activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured by gelatin zymography. 3T3-L5 cells stimulated the activation of Mmp-2, correlating with the expression levels of Mmp-2 gene. Moreover, to assess the co-effects of LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 5} on cell motile activities, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3a1-L5) cells were also established from Lpar1 over-expressing (3T3a1) cells. 3T3a1-L5 cells increased the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells, while the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells were significantly lower than those of control cells. These results suggest that LPA{sub 5} may act as a negative regulator of cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells, similar to the case for LPA{sub 1}.

  12. miR-205 Hinders the Malignant Interplay Between Prostate Cancer Cells and Associated Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gandellini, Paolo; Giannoni, Elisa; Casamichele, Anna; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Callari, Maurizio; Piovan, Claudia; Valdagni, Riccardo; Pierotti, Marco Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Tumor microenvironment is a strong determinant for the acquisition of metastatic potential of cancer cells. We have recently demonstrated that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) elicit a redox-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in prostate cancer (PCa) cells, driven by cycloxygenase-2/hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)/nuclear factor-κB pathway and enhancing tumor aggressiveness. Here, we investigated the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in tumor-stroma interplay to identify possible tools to counteract oxidative stress and metastasis dissemination. Results: We found that miR-205 is the most downmodulated miRNA in PCa cells upon CAF stimulation, due to direct transcriptional repression by HIF-1, a known redox-sensitive transcription factor. Rescue experiments demonstrated that ectopic miR-205 overexpression in PCa cells counteracts CAF-induced EMT, thus impairing enhancement of cell invasion, acquisition of stem cell traits, tumorigenicity, and metastatic dissemination. In addition, miR-205 blocks tumor-driven activation of surrounding fibroblasts by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Innovation: Overall, such findings suggest miR-205 as a brake against PCa metastasis by blocking both the afferent and efferent arms of the circuit between tumor cells and associated fibroblasts, thus interrupting the pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory circuitries engaged by reactive stroma. Conclusion: The evidence that miR-205 replacement in PCa cells is able not only to prevent but also to revert the oxidative/pro-inflammatory axis leading to EMT induced by CAFs sets the rationale for developing miRNA-based approaches to prevent and treat metastatic disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1045–1059. PMID:23924028

  13. Periodontal Specific Differentiation of Dental Follicle Stem Cells into Osteoblast, Fibroblast, and Cementoblast.

    PubMed

    Sowmya, S; Chennazhi, K P; Arzate, Higinio; Jayachandran, P; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2015-10-01

    The dental follicle is a source of dental follicle stem cells (DFCs), which have the potential to differentiate into the periodontal lineage. DFCs therefore are of value in dental tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth factor type and concentration on DFC differentiation into periodontal specific lineages. DFCs were isolated from the human dental follicle and characterized for the expression of mesenchymal markers. The cells were positive for CD-73, CD-44, and CD-90; and negative for CD-33, CD-34, and CD-45. The expression of CD-29 and CD-31 was almost negligible. The cells also expressed periodontal ligament and cementum markers such as periodontal ligament-associated protein-1 (PLAP-1), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and cementum protein-1 (CEMP-1), however, the expression of osteoblast markers was absent. Further, the DFCs were cultured in three different induction medium to analyze the osteoblastic, fibroblastic, and cementoblastic differentiation. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin staining, calcium quantification, collagen type-1 (Col-1), and osteopontin (OPN) expression confirmed the osteoblastic differentiation of DFCs. DFCs cultured in recombinant human FGF-2 (rhFGF-2) containing medium showed enhanced PLAP-1, FGF-2, and COL-1 expression with increasing concentration of rhFGF-2 which thereby confirmed periodontal ligament fibroblastic differentiation. Similarly, DFCs cultured in recombinant human cementum protein-1 (rhCEMP-1) containing medium showed enhanced bone sialoprotein-2 (BSP-2), CEMP-1, and COL-1 expression with respect to rhCEMP-1 which confirmed cementoblastic differentiation. The expression of osteoblast, fibroblast, and cementoblast-related genes of DFCs cultured in induction medium was enhanced in comparison to DFCs cultured in noninduction medium. Thus, growth factor-dependent differentiation of DFCs into periodontal specific lineages

  14. Dissecting direct reprogramming from fibroblast to neuron using single-cell RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Treutlein, Barbara; Lee, Qian Yi; Camp, J Gray; Mall, Moritz; Koh, Winston; Shariati, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Sim, Sopheak; Neff, Norma F; Skotheim, Jan M; Wernig, Marius; Quake, Stephen R

    2016-06-16

    Direct lineage reprogramming represents a remarkable conversion of cellular and transcriptome states. However, the intermediate stages through which individual cells progress during reprogramming are largely undefined. Here we use single-cell RNA sequencing at multiple time points to dissect direct reprogramming from mouse embryonic fibroblasts to induced neuronal cells. By deconstructing heterogeneity at each time point and ordering cells by transcriptome similarity, we find that the molecular reprogramming path is remarkably continuous. Overexpression of the proneural pioneer factor Ascl1 results in a well-defined initialization, causing cells to exit the cell cycle and re-focus gene expression through distinct neural transcription factors. The initial transcriptional response is relatively homogeneous among fibroblasts, suggesting that the early steps are not limiting for productive reprogramming. Instead, the later emergence of a competing myogenic program and variable transgene dynamics over time appear to be the major efficiency limits of direct reprogramming. Moreover, a transcriptional state, distinct from donor and target cell programs, is transiently induced in cells undergoing productive reprogramming. Our data provide a high-resolution approach for understanding transcriptome states during lineage differentiation. PMID:27281220

  15. Transient Gene and miRNA Expression Profile Changes of Confluent Human Fibroblast Cells in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao; Wong, Michael; Feiveson, Alan; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity or an altered gravity environment from the static 1 gravitational constant has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells. However, most of the reported studies conducted in space or using simulated microgravity on the ground have focused on the growth or differentiation of the cells. Whether non-dividing cultured cells will sense the presence of microgravity in space has not been specifically addressed. In an experiment conducted on the International Space Station, confluent human fibroblast cells were fixed after being cultured in space for 3 and 14 days for investigations of gene and miRNA (microRNA) expression profile changes in these cells. A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework for tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing and other functions. Results of the experiment showed that on Day 3, both the flown and ground cells were still proliferating slowly even though they were confluent, as measured by the expression of the protein Ki-67 positive cells, and the cells in space grew slightly faster. Gene and miRNA expression data indicated activation of NF(sub kappa)B (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) and other growth related pathways involving HGF and VEGF in the flown cells. On Day 14 when the cells were mostly non-dividing, the gene and miRNA expression profiles between the flight and ground samples were indistinguishable. Comparison of gene and miRNA expressions in the Day 3 samples in respect to Day 14 revealed that most of the changes observed on Day 3 were related to cell growth for both the flown and ground cells. Analysis of cytoskeleton changes by immunohistochemistry staining of the cells with antibodies for alpha-tubulin showed no difference between the flight and ground samples. Results of our study suggest that in true non-dividing human fibroblast cells, microgravity in

  16. Mesenchymal stromal cells reverse hypoxia-mediated suppression of α-smooth muscle actin expression in human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Faulknor, Renea A.; Olekson, Melissa A.; Nativ, Nir I.; Ghodbane, Mehdi; Gray, Andrea J.; Berthiaume, François

    2015-02-27

    During wound healing, fibroblasts deposit extracellular matrix that guides angiogenesis and supports the migration and proliferation of cells that eventually form the scar. They also promote wound closure via differentiation into α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-expressing myofibroblasts, which cause wound contraction. Low oxygen tension typical of chronic nonhealing wounds inhibits fibroblast collagen production and differentiation. It has been suggested that hypoxic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) secrete factors that promote wound healing in animal models; however, it is unclear whether these factors are equally effective on the target cells in a hypoxic wound environment. Here we investigated the impact of MSC-derived soluble factors on the function of fibroblasts cultured in hypoxic fibroblast-populated collagen lattices (FPCLs). Hypoxia alone significantly decreased FPCL contraction and α-SMA expression. MSC-conditioned medium restored hypoxic FPCL contraction and α-SMA expression to levels similar to normoxic FPCLs. (SB431542), an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-β{sub 1} (TGF-β{sub 1})-mediated signaling, blocked most of the MSC effect on FPCL contraction, while exogenous TGF-β{sub 1} at levels similar to that secreted by MSCs reproduced the MSC effect. These results suggest that TGF-β{sub 1} is a major paracrine signal secreted by MSCs that can restore fibroblast functions relevant to the wound healing process and that are impaired in hypoxia. - Highlights: • Fibroblasts were cultured in collagen lattices (FPCLs) as model contracting wounds. • Hypoxia decreased FPCL contraction and fibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression. • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) restored function of hypoxic fibroblasts. • MSCs regulate fibroblast function mainly via secreted transforming growth factor-β{sub 1}.

  17. Dickkopf-1 has an Inhibitory Effect on Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Fibroblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Qiu, Sang-Sang; Shao, Yan; Song, Hong-Huan; Li, Gu-Li; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Li-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are bone marrow stem cells which play an important role in tissue repair. The treatment with MSCs will be likely to aggravate the degree of fibrosis. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in developmental and physiological processes, such as fibrosis. Dickkopfs (DKKs) are considered as an antagonist to block Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by binding the receptor of receptor-related protein (LRP5/6). DKK1 was chosen in attempt to inhibit fibrosis of MSCs by lowering activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Methods: Stable MSCs were randomly divided into four groups: MSCs control, MSCs + transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), MSCs + DKK1, and MSCs + TGF-β + DKK1. Flow cytometry was used to identify MSCs. Cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide test. Immunofluorescence was used to detect protein expression in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. Western blotting analysis was employed to test expression of fibroblast surface markers and, finally, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was employed to test mRNA expression of fibroblast surface markers and Wnt/β-catenin signaling proteins. Results: Cultivated MSCs were found to conform to the characteristics of standard MSCs: expression of cluster of differentiation (CD) 73, 90, and 105, not expression of 34, 45, and 79. We found that DKK1 could maintain the normal cell morphology of MSCs. Western blotting analysis showed that fibroblast surface markers were expressed in high quantities in the group MSCs + TGF-β. However, the expression was lower in the MSCs + TGF-β + DKK1. Immunofluorescence showed high expression of all Wnt/β-catnin molecules in the MSCs + TGF-β group but expressed in lower quantities in MSCs + TGF-β + DKK1 group. Finally, mRNA expression of fibroblast markers vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin and Wnt/β-catenin signaling proteins β-catenin, T-cell factor

  18. IDO expressing fibroblasts promote the expansion of antigen specific regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Curran, Terry-Ann; Jalili, Reza Baradar; Farrokhi, Ali; Ghahary, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells (Tregs) can be induced and expanded by dendritic cells (DCs) in the presence of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Here we report that a possible alternative to DCs are IDO expressing dermal fibroblasts (DFs), which are easier to isolate and sustain in culture compared to DCs. When mouse splenocytes were co-cultured with IDO expressing DFs, a significant increase in frequency and the number of Tregs was found compared to those of control group (13.16%±1.8 vs. 5.53%±1.2, p<0.05). Despite observing a higher total number of dead CD4(+) cells in the IDO group, there was a more abundant live CD4(+)CD25(+) subpopulation in this group. Further analysis reveales that these CD4(+) CD25(+) cells have the capacity to expand in the presence of IDO expressing DFs. Greater number of CTLA-4(+) cells and high expression of TGF-β and IL-10 were found in CD4(+) cells of the IDO group compared to those of the controls. This finding confirmed a suppressive functionality of the expanded Tregs. Furthermore, CD4(+) CD25(+) cells isolated from the IDO group showed an alloantigen specific suppressive effect in a mixed lymphocyte reaction assay. These results confirm that IDO expressing dermal fibroblasts can expand a population of suppressive antigen specific Tregs. In conclusion, IDO expressing dermal fibroblasts have the capacity to stimulate the expansion of a subset of Tregs which can be used to generate antigen-specific immune tolerance.

  19. Sirtuin 1 suppresses nuclear factor κB induced transactivation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in cat fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    ISHIKAWA, Shingo; TAKEMITSU, Hiroshi; HABARA, Makoto; MORI, Nobuko; YAMAMOTO, Ichiro; ARAI, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a key factor in the development of chronic inflammation and is deeply involved in age-related and metabolic diseases development. These diseases have become a serious problem in cats. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is associated with aging and metabolism through maintaining inflammation via NF-κB. In addition, fibroblasts are considered an important factor in the development of chronic inflammation. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effect of cat SIRT1 (cSIRT1) on NF-κB in cat fibroblast cells. The up-regulation of NF-κB transcriptional activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression by p65 subunit of NF-κB and lipopolysaccharide was suppressed by cSIRT1 in cat fibroblast cells. Our findings show that cSIRT1 is involved in the suppression of inflammation in cat fibroblast cells. PMID:26165138

  20. Cytoskeletal architecture and cell motility remain unperturbed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Plk3 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Daniel R; Mun, Kyu-Shik; Ho, Chia-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 3 (Plk3) is best known for its involvement in cell cycle checkpoint regulation following exposure to cytotoxicants or induction of DNA damage. Yet, Plk3 has also been implicated in roles beyond those of cellular responses to DNA damage. Here, we have investigated the proposition, suggested by the Plk literature, that Plk3 regulates cytoskeletal architecture and cell functions mediated by the cytoskeleton. To this end, we have assayed mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) generated from both Plk3 knockout and wild-type mice. In particular, we asked whether Plk3 is involved in actin fiber and microtubule integrity, cell migration, cell attachment, and/or cell invasion. Our results demonstrate that functional Plk3 is not critical for the regulation of cytoskeletal integrity, cell morphology, cell adhesion, or motility in MEFs. PMID:26843517

  1. Fibroblastic Reticular Cells: Organization and Regulation of the T Lymphocyte Life Cycle1

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Flavian D.; Turley, Shannon J.

    2014-01-01

    The connective tissue of any organ in the body is generally referred to as stroma. This complex network is commonly composed of leukocytes, extracellular matrix components, mesenchymal cells and a collection of nerves, blood and lymphoid vessels. Once viewed primarily as a structural entity, stromal cells of mesenchymal origin are now being intensely examined for their ability to directly regulate various components of immune cell function. There is particular interest in the ability of stromal cells to influence the homeostasis, activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes. One example of this regulation occurs in the lymph node (LN) where fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) support the maintenance of naïve T cells, induce antigen-specific tolerance and restrict the expansion of newly activated T cells. In an effort to highlight the varied immunoregulatory properties of FRCs, we have reviewed the most recent advances in this field and provide some insights into potential future directions. PMID:25663676

  2. Establishment, characterization, and toxicological application of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) primary skin fibroblast cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Webb, Sarah J; Zychowski, Gregory V; Bauman, Sandy W; Higgins, Benjamin M; Raudsepp, Terje; Gollahon, Lauren S; Wooten, Kimberly J; Cole, Jennifer M; Godard-Codding, Céline

    2014-12-16

    Pollution is a well-known threat to sea turtles but its impact is poorly understood. In vitro toxicity testing presents a promising avenue to assess and monitor the effects of environmental pollutants in these animals within the legal constraints of their endangered status. Reptilian cell cultures are rare and, in sea turtles, largely derived from animals affected by tumors. Here we describe the full characterization of primary skin fibroblast cell cultures derived from biopsies of multiple healthy loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta), and the subsequent optimization of traditional in vitro toxicity assays to reptilian cells. Characterization included validating fibroblast cells by morphology and immunocytochemistry, and optimizing culture conditions by use of growth curve assays with a fractional factorial experimental design. Two cell viability assays, MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and an assay measuring cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression by quantitative PCR were optimized in the characterized cells. MTT and LDH assays confirmed cytotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid at 500 μM following 72 and 96 h exposures while CYP1A5 induction was detected after 72 h exposure to 0.1-10 μM benzo[a]pyrene. This research demonstrates the validity of in vitro toxicity testing in sea turtles and highlights the need to optimize mammalian assays to reptilian cells.

  3. Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) change their phenotype when cultured with fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Levi-Schaffer, F.; Austen, K.F.; Stevens, R.L.

    1986-03-05

    The heparin-containing mast cells (HP-MC) that reside in the connective tissues of the mouse, but not the chondroitin sulfate containing mast cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa, stain with safranin when exposed to alcian blue/safranin. Mouse BMMC (the presumptive in vitro counterpart of the in vivo differentiated mucosal mast cell) were cultured for 2-14 days with confluent skin-derived 3T3 fibroblasts in RPMI-1640 containing 10% fetal calf serum and 50% WEHI-3 conditioned medium. Although the BMMC adhered to the fibroblast monolayer, they continued to divide, probably due to the presence of interleukin-3 in the conditioned medium. The mast cells remained viable throughout the period of co-culture, since they failed to release LDG and because they increased their histamine content per cell approx.15-fold. After 8-9 days of co-culture, >50% of the BMMC changed histochemically becoming safranin positive. At this time, 30-50% of the (/sup 35/S)glycosaminoglycans on the proteoglycans synthesized by these co-cultured mass cells were heparin, whereas the initial BMMC synthesized proteoglycans containing only chondroitin sulfate E. That interleukin 3-dependent mouse BMMC can be induced to undergo a phenotypic change so as to express characteristics of a HP-MC suggests that the tissue microenvironment determines the differentiated characteristics of these cells.

  4. Establishment, characterization, and toxicological application of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) primary skin fibroblast cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Webb, Sarah J; Zychowski, Gregory V; Bauman, Sandy W; Higgins, Benjamin M; Raudsepp, Terje; Gollahon, Lauren S; Wooten, Kimberly J; Cole, Jennifer M; Godard-Codding, Céline

    2014-12-16

    Pollution is a well-known threat to sea turtles but its impact is poorly understood. In vitro toxicity testing presents a promising avenue to assess and monitor the effects of environmental pollutants in these animals within the legal constraints of their endangered status. Reptilian cell cultures are rare and, in sea turtles, largely derived from animals affected by tumors. Here we describe the full characterization of primary skin fibroblast cell cultures derived from biopsies of multiple healthy loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta), and the subsequent optimization of traditional in vitro toxicity assays to reptilian cells. Characterization included validating fibroblast cells by morphology and immunocytochemistry, and optimizing culture conditions by use of growth curve assays with a fractional factorial experimental design. Two cell viability assays, MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and an assay measuring cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression by quantitative PCR were optimized in the characterized cells. MTT and LDH assays confirmed cytotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid at 500 μM following 72 and 96 h exposures while CYP1A5 induction was detected after 72 h exposure to 0.1-10 μM benzo[a]pyrene. This research demonstrates the validity of in vitro toxicity testing in sea turtles and highlights the need to optimize mammalian assays to reptilian cells. PMID:25384208

  5. Investigation of the phototoxic effect of ZnO nanorods on fibroblasts and melanoma human cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishwar, S.; Siddique, M.; Israr-Qadir, M.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.; Öllinger, K.

    2014-11-01

    Photocytotoxic effects of as-grown and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods coated with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) have been studied on human cells, i.e. melanoma and foreskin fibroblast, under dark and ultraviolet light exposures. Zinc oxide nanorods have been grown on the very sharp tip (diameter = 700 nm) of borosilicate glass pipettes and then were coated by the photosensitizer for targeted investigations inside human cells. The coated glass pipette’s tip with photosensitizer has been inserted inside the cells with the help of a micro-manipulator and irradiated through ultraviolet light (UVA), which reduces the membrane potential of the mitochondria leading to cell death. Cell viability loss has been detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay when exposed to the dissolved ZnO nanorods and the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been detected along with the enhanced cytotoxic effect under UVA irradiation. Additionally, the influence of the lipid soluble antioxidant vitamin E and water-soluble N-acetyl-cysteine toward the enhancement or reduction of the toxicity has been investigated. A comparative analysis of the toxic nature of ZnO nanorods has been drawn between normal human fibroblast and melanoma cells, which can be favorable for understanding the clinical setting for killing tumor cells.

  6. ETM study of electroporation influence on cell morphology in human malignant melanoma and human primary gingival fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Skolucka, Nina; Daczewska, Malgorzata; Saczko, Jolanta; Chwilkowska, Agnieszka; Choromanska, Anna; Kotulska, Malgorzata; Kaminska, Iwona; Kulbacka, Julita

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate electroporation (EP) influence on malignant and normal cells. Methods Two cell lines including human malignant melanoma (Me-45) and normal human gingival fibroblast (HGFs) were used. EP parameters were the following: 250, 1 000, 1 750, 2 500 V/cm; 50 µs by 5 impulses for every case. The viability of cells after EP was estimated by MTT assay. The ultrastructural analysis was observed by transmission electron microscope (Zeiss EM 900). Results In the current study we observed the intracellular effect following EP on Me-45 and HGF cells. At the conditions applied, we did not observe any significant damage of mitochondrial activity in both cell lines treated by EP. Conversely, we showed that EP in some conditions can stimulate cells to proliferation. Some changes induced by EP were only visible in electron microscopy. In fibroblast cells we observed significant changes in lower parameters of EP (250 and 1 000 V/cm). After applying higher electric field intensities (2 500 V/cm) we detected many vacuoles, myelin-like bodies and swallowed endoplasmic reticulum. In melanoma cells such strong pathological modifications after EP were not observed, in comparison with control cells. The ultrastructure of both treated cell lines was changed according to the applied parameters of EP. Conclusions We can claim that EP conditions are cell line dependent. In terms of the intracellular morphology, human fibroblasts are more sensitive to electric field as compared with melanoma cells. Optimal conditions should be determined for each cell line. Summarizing our study, we can conclude that EP is not an invasive method for human normal and malignant cells. This technique can be safely applied in chemotherapy for delivering drugs into tumor cells. PMID:23569735

  7. Fibroblasts induce heparin synthesis in chondroitin sulfate E containing human bone marrow-derived mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gilead, L.; Bibi, O.; Razin, E. )

    1990-09-15

    Human bone marrow-derived mast cells (hBMMCs), differentiated in vitro in suspension culture and under the influence of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells conditioned medium (hCM), were tested for their response to recombinant human interleukin-3 (rhIL-3) and for their behavior in different microenvironments. The hBMMCs were incubated in the presence of rhIL-3 and the changes in their proliferation rate were determined. Recombinant hIL-3 induced a more than sixfold increase in 3H-thymidine uptake into the hBMMC DNA in a dose-dependent manner. Human CM used as a control for proliferation response induced a more than eightfold maximal proliferation rate increase. Rabbit anti-rhIL-3 completely inhibited hBMMC 3H-thymidine uptake induced by rhIL-3 and decreased the hCM-induced proliferation by approximately 50%. These hBMMCs were cocultured with four different mytomicin C-treated cell monolayers and assayed for phenotypic changes. After only 2 days in coculture with either embryonic mouse skin-derived fibroblasts (MESFs) or human skin-derived fibroblasts (HSFs), a marked increase in granule number and density was noted on staining with toluidine blue. Mast cells that initially stained alcian blue+/safranin- at day 0 of coculture became alcian blue+/safranin+ during the coculture period. Human BMMC proteoglycan synthesis shifted from approximately 85% chondroitin sulfate E to approximately 60% heparin within 14 to 19 days of coculture with the MESF monolayer and to approximately 50% heparin within 19 days of coculture with the HSF monolayer. None of the above-mentioned changes were noted in cocultures of hBMMCs with 3T3 cell line fibroblast monolayers or in cocultures with bovine vascular endothelium (BVE) cell monolayers.

  8. Uncoupling between Phenotypic Senescence and Cell Cycle Arrest in Aging p21-Deficient Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Dulić, Vjekoslav; Beney, Georges-Edouard; Frebourg, Guillaume; Drullinger, Linda F.; Stein, Gretchen H.

    2000-01-01

    Irreversible G1 arrest in senescent human fibroblasts is mediated by two inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), p21Cip1/SDI1/WAF1 and p16Ink4A. To determine the physiological and molecular events that specifically require p21, we studied senescence in human diploid fibroblasts expressing the human papillomavirus type 16 E6 oncogene, which confers low p21 levels via enhanced p53 degradation. We show that in late-passage E6 cells, high Cdk activity drives the cell cycle, but population expansion is slowed down by crisis-like events, probably owing to defective cell cycle checkpoints. At the end of lifespan, terminal-passage E6 cells exhibited several aspects of the senescent phenotype and accumulated unphosphorylated pRb and p16. However, both replication and cyclin-Cdk2 kinase activity were still not blocked, demonstrating that phenotypic and replicative senescence are uncoupled in the absence of normal p21 levels. At this stage, E6 cells also failed to upregulate p27 and inactivate cyclin-Cdk complexes in response to serum deprivation. Eventually, irreversible G1 arrest occurred coincident with inactivation of cyclin E-Cdk2 owing to association with p21. Similarly, when p21−/− mouse embryo fibroblasts reached the end of their lifespan, they had the appearance of senescent cells yet, in contrast to their wild-type counterparts, they were deficient in downregulating bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, cyclin E- and cyclin A-Cdk2 activity, and inhibiting pRb hyperphosphorylation. These data support the model that the critical event ensuring G1 arrest in senescence is p21-dependent Cdk inactivation, while other aspects of senescent phenotype appear to occur independently of p21. PMID:10958672

  9. Reprogramming of Human Fibroblasts to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Sleeping Beauty Transposon-Based Stable Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Sebe, Attila; Ivics, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a source of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells and resemble human embryonic stem (ES) cells in gene expression profiles, morphology, pluripotency, and in vitro differentiation potential. iPS cells are applied in disease modeling, drug screenings, toxicology screenings, and autologous cell therapy. In this protocol, we describe how to derive human iPS cells from fibroblasts by Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-mediated gene transfer of reprogramming factors. First, the components of the non-viral Sleeping Beauty transposon system, namely a transposon vector encoding reprogramming transcription factors and a helper plasmid expressing the SB transposase, are electroporated into human fibroblasts. The reprogramming cassette undergoes transposition from the transfected plasmids into the fibroblast genome, thereby resulting in stable delivery of the reprogramming factors. Reprogramming by using this protocol takes ~4 weeks, after which the iPS cells are isolated and clonally propagated.

  10. Reprogramming of Human Fibroblasts to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Sleeping Beauty Transposon-Based Stable Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Sebe, Attila; Ivics, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a source of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells and resemble human embryonic stem (ES) cells in gene expression profiles, morphology, pluripotency, and in vitro differentiation potential. iPS cells are applied in disease modeling, drug screenings, toxicology screenings, and autologous cell therapy. In this protocol, we describe how to derive human iPS cells from fibroblasts by Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-mediated gene transfer of reprogramming factors. First, the components of the non-viral Sleeping Beauty transposon system, namely a transposon vector encoding reprogramming transcription factors and a helper plasmid expressing the SB transposase, are electroporated into human fibroblasts. The reprogramming cassette undergoes transposition from the transfected plasmids into the fibroblast genome, thereby resulting in stable delivery of the reprogramming factors. Reprogramming by using this protocol takes ~4 weeks, after which the iPS cells are isolated and clonally propagated. PMID:26895068

  11. Direct Reprogramming of Mouse Fibroblasts to Neural Stem Cells by Small Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yan-Chuang; Lim, Yoon; Duffieldl, Michael D.; Li, Hua; Liu, Jia; Abdul Manaph, Nimshitha Pavathuparambil; Yang, Miao; Keating, Damien J.; Zhou, Xin-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Although it is possible to generate neural stem cells (NSC) from somatic cells by reprogramming technologies with transcription factors, clinical utilization of patient-specific NSC for the treatment of human diseases remains elusive. The risk hurdles are associated with viral transduction vectors induced mutagenesis, tumor formation from undifferentiated stem cells, and transcription factors-induced genomic instability. Here we describe a viral vector-free and more efficient method to induce mouse fibroblasts into NSC using small molecules. The small molecule-induced neural stem (SMINS) cells closely resemble NSC in morphology, gene expression patterns, self-renewal, excitability, and multipotency. Furthermore, the SMINS cells are able to differentiate into astrocytes, functional neurons, and oligodendrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we have established a novel way to efficiently induce neural stem cells (iNSC) from fibroblasts using only small molecules without altering the genome. Such chemical induction removes the risks associated with current techniques such as the use of viral vectors or the induction of oncogenic factors. This technique may, therefore, enable NSC to be utilized in various applications within clinical medicine. PMID:26788068

  12. Soy milk as a storage medium to preserve human fibroblast cell viability: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Moura, Camilla Christian Gomes; Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira; Reis, Manuella Verdinelli de Paula; Fernandes Neto, Alfredo Júlio; Soares, Carlos José

    2012-01-01

    Soy milk (SM) is widely consumed worldwide as a substitute for cow milk. It is a source of vitamins, carbohydrates and sugars, but its capacity to preserve cell viability has not been evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of SM to maintain the viability of human fibroblasts at short periods compared with different cow milks. Human mouth fibroblasts were cultured and stored in the following media at room temperature: 10% Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) (positive control group); long shelf-life ultra-high temperature whole cow milk (WM); long shelf-life ultra-high temperature skim cow milk (SKM); powdered cow milk (PM); and soy milk (SM). After 5, 15, 30 and 45 min, cell viability was analyzed using the MTT assay. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test with post-analysis using the Dunn's method (α=0.05). SKM showed the lowest capacity to maintain cell viability in all analyzed times (p<0.05). At 30 and 45 min, the absorbance levels in control group (DMEM) and SM were significantly higher than in SKM (p<0.05). Cell viability decreased along the time (5-45 min). The results indicate that SM can be used as a more adequate storage medium for avulsed teeth. SKM was not as effective in preserving cell viability as the cell culture medium and SM.

  13. Epigenetic conversion of adult dog skin fibroblasts into insulin-secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Brevini, T A L; Pennarossa, G; Acocella, F; Brizzola, S; Zenobi, A; Gandolfi, F

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes is among the most frequently diagnosed endocrine disorder in dogs and its prevalence continues to increase. Medical management of this pathology is lifelong and challenging because of the numerous serious complications. A therapy based on the use of autologous viable insulin-producing cells to replace the lost β cell mass would be very advantageous. A protocol to enable the epigenetic conversion of canine dermal fibroblasts, obtained from a skin biopsy, into insulin-producing cells (EpiCC) is described in the present manuscript. Cells were briefly exposed to the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-aza-CR) in order to increase their plasticity. This was followed by a three-step differentiation protocol that directed the cells towards the pancreatic lineage. After 36 days, 38 ± 6.1% of the treated fibroblasts were converted into EpiCC that expressed insulin mRNA and protein. Furthermore, EpiCC were able to release insulin into the medium in response to an increased glucose concentration. This is the first evidence that generating a renewable autologous, functional source of insulin-secreting cells is possible in the dog. This procedure represents a novel and promising potential therapy for diabetes in dogs. PMID:27033591

  14. [Cell growth and motility in culture (in vitro) under microgravity conditions. The Fibroblast Experiment].

    PubMed

    Tairbekov, M G; Margolis, L B; Baĭbakov, B A; Gabova, A V; Dergacheva, G B

    1994-01-01

    The experiment "Fibroblast" was performed in 1992 on biosatellite "Cosmos-2229" in onboard device "Biobox" designed by the order of European Space Agency. The main objective was elucidation of the mechanisms responsible for the effect of space flight factors, mostly microgravity, on cell culture. We studied time-related changes in growth, motility and some morphological characteristics of the cells in monolayer cultures on a solid substrate and in three-dimensional cultures supported by sponge gels. Studies were carried out on connective tissue cells isolated from the mouse embryos. Comparative after-flight analysis of the cell cultures exposed to space flight and of those under the normal gravity conditions (1 g) on the Earth has revealed some differences. The space flight conditions, mainly microgravity, induced marked changes in morphological characteristics and functional activity of the cultured fibroblasts: changes in the nucleus size and shape, retardation of cell growth and division rate. We believe that these changes may be due to weakening of intercellular contacts and cell adhesion to the substrate. These findings are important both for general biology and space medicine, specifically for the problems of tissue regeneration and wound healing under the conditions of long-term space flight.

  15. High-LET Radiation Induced Chromosome Aberrations in Normal and Ataxia Telangiectasia Fibroblast Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Tetsuya; George, Ms Kerry; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Ito, Hisao; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Uno, Takashi

    We investigated the effects of heavy ions beams on chromosomal aberrations in normal and AT cells. Normal and AT fibroblast cells arrested at G0/G1 phase were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays, 490 MeV/u Silicon (LET 55 keV/micron), 500 MeV/u Iron (LET 185 keV/micron) and 200 MeV/u Iron (LET 440 keV/micron) particles, and then cells were allowed to repair for 24 hours at 37 degrees before subculture. Calyculin-A induced PCC method was employed to collect G2/M chromosomes and whole DNA probes 1 and 3 were used to analyze chromosomal aberrations such as color-junctions, deletions, simple exchanges (incomplete and reciprocal exchanges) and complex-type exchanges. The percentages of aberrant cells were higher when normal and AT cells were exposed to heavy ions compared to X-rays, and had a tendency to increase with increasing LET up to 185 keV/micron and then decreased at 440 keV/micron. When the frequency of color-junctions per cell was compared after X-ray exposure, AT cells had around three times higher frequency of color-junctions (mis-rejoining) than normal cells. However, at 185 keV/micron there was no difference in the frequency of color-junctions between two cell lines. It was also found that the frequency of simple exchanges per cell was almost constant in AT cells regardless LET levels, but it was LET dependent for normal cells. Interestingly, the frequency of simple exchanges was higher for normal fibroblast cells when it was compared at 185 keV/micron, but AT cells had more complex-type exchanges at the same LET levels. Heavy ions are more efficient in inducing chromosome aberrations in normal and AT cells compared to X-rays, and the aberration types between normal and AT fibroblast appeared different probably due to difference in the ATM gene function.

  16. Adhesion and morphology of fibroblastic cells cultured on different polymeric biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Lombello, C B; Santos, A R; Malmonge, S M; Barbanti, S H; Wada, M L F; Duek, E A R

    2002-09-01

    Cell adhesion is influenced by the physical and chemical characteristics of the materials used as substrate for cell culturing. In this work, we evaluated the influence of the morphological and chemical characteristics of different polymeric substrates on the adhesion and morphology of fibroblastic cells. Cell growth on poly (L-lactic acid) [PLLA] membranes and poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) [polyHEMA], poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate)-cellulose acetate [polyHEMA-CA] and poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) [polyHEMA-poly(MMA-co-AA)] hydrogels of different densities and pore diameters was examined. Cells adhered preferentially to more negatively charged substrates, with polyHEMA hydrogels being more adhesive than the other substractes. The pores present in PLLA membranes did not interfere with adhesion, but the cells showed a distinctive morphology on each membrane.

  17. Rapid preparation of plasma membranes from avian lymphoid cells and fibroblasts for virus binding studies.

    PubMed

    Nieper, H; Müller, H

    1998-06-01

    A simple and rapid protocol for the preparation of plasma membranes from chicken embryo fibroblasts and chicken lymphoid cells was developed. Characterization of the preparations by morphological, biochemical and serological methods indicated the specific enrichment of the plasma membranes as well as cell surface proteins. Binding of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) particles was demonstrated after immobilization of the plasma membranes, and cell type-specific differences were observed. Although the results of these studies reflect the interaction between IBDV and isolated cells only partially, the advantages of these plasma membrane preparations, the specific enrichment of cell surface proteins, their constant quality and the possibility to store aliquots over several months, make them a useful tool for virus binding studies with avian cells. PMID:9694323

  18. THE PENETRATION OF REOVIRUS RNA AND INITIATION OF ITS GENETIC FUNCTION IN L-STRAIN FIBROBLASTS

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Samuel C.; Dales, Samuel

    1968-01-01

    Reovirus type 3 is phagocytized by L cells and rapidly sequestered inside lysosomes. Hydrolases within these organelles are capable of stripping the viral coat proteins, but they fail to degrade the double-stranded RNA genome. These observations support the view that sojourn of reovirus in lysosomes, when the lytic enzymes uncoat its genome, is an obligatory step in the sequence of infection. Although the mechanism for transferring the uncoated RNA out of lysosomes remains to be elucidated, evidence is presented suggesting that progeny genomes are bound to site(s) possessing the fine structure of viral inclusions or factories. It appears that both the synthesis of single- and double-stranded viral RNA and the morphogenesis of progeny virus particles occur in such factories. PMID:19806702

  19. Dynamic Assessment of Fibroblast Mechanical Activity during Rac-induced Cell Spreading in 3-D Culture

    PubMed Central

    Petroll, W. Matthew; Ma, Lisha; Kim, Areum; Ly, Linda; Vishwanath, Mridula

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the morphological and sub-cellular mechanical effects of Rac activation on fibroblasts within 3-D collagen matrices. Corneal fibroblasts were plated at low density inside 100 μm thick fibrillar collagen matrices and cultured for 1 to 2 days in serum-free media. Time-lapse imaging was then performed using Nomarski DIC. After an acclimation period, perfusion was switched to media containing PDGF. In some experiments, Y-27632 or blebbistatin were used to inhibit Rho-kinase (ROCK) or myosin II, respectively. PDGF activated Rac and induced cell spreading, which resulted in an increase in cell length, cell area, and the number of pseudopodial processes. Tractional forces were generated by extending pseudopodia, as indicated by centripetal displacement and realignment of collagen fibrils. Interestingly, the pattern of pseudopodial extension and local collagen fibril realignment was highly dependent upon the initial orientation of fibrils at the leading edge. Following ROCK or myosin II inhibition, significant ECM relaxation was observed, but small displacements of collagen fibrils continued to be detected at the tips of pseudopodia. Taken together, the data suggests that during Rac-induced cell spreading within 3-D matrices, there is a shift in the distribution of forces from the center to the periphery of corneal fibroblasts. ROCK mediates the generation of large myosin II-based tractional forces during cell spreading within 3-D collagen matrices, however residual forces can be generated at the tips of extending pseudopodia that are both ROCK and myosin II-independent. PMID:18452153

  20. Transient gene and microRNA expression profile changes of confluent human fibroblast cells in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Honglu; Story, Michael; Karouia, Fathi; Stodieck, Louis; Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Microgravity, or an altered gravity environment from the Earth1g, has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells. However, most of the reported studies conducted in space or using simulated microgravity on the ground have focused on the growth or differentiation of these cells. Whether non-proliferating cultured cells will sense the presence of microgravity in space has not been specifically addressed. In an experiment conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS), confluent human fibroblast cells were fixed after being cultured in space for 3 and 14 days, respectively, for investigations of gene and miRNA expression profile changes in these cells. Results of the experiment showed that on Day 3, both the flown and ground cells were still proliferating slowly, as measured by the percentage of Ki-67 positive cells. Gene and miRNA expression data indicated activation of NFkB and other growth related pathways involving HGF and Vegf along with down regulation of the Let-7 miRNA family. On Day 14 when the cells were mostly non-proliferating, the gene and miRNA expression profiles between the flight and ground samples were indistinguishable. Comparison of gene and miRNA expressions in the Day 3 samples with respect to Day 14 revealed that most of the changes observed on Day 3 were related to cell growth for both the flown and ground cells. Analysis of cytoskeletal changes via immunohistochemistry staining of the cells with antibodies for αa-tubulin and fibronectin showed no difference between flown and ground samples. Taken together, our study suggests that in true non-dividing human fibroblast cells in culture, microgravity experienced in space has little effect on the gene and miRNA expression profiles.

  1. Transient Gene and MicroRNA Expression Profile Changes of Confluent Human Fibroblast Cells in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao; Wong, Michael; Wang, Xiaoyu; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Story, Michael; Wu, Honglu

    2016-01-01

    Microgravity, or an altered gravity environment from the Earth1g, has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells. However, most of the reported studies conducted in space or using simulated microgravity on the ground have focused on the growth or differentiation of these cells. Whether non-proliferating cultured cells will sense the presence of microgravity in space has not been specifically addressed. In an experiment conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS), confluent human fibroblast cells were fixed after being cultured in space for 3 and 14 days, respectively, for investigations of gene and miRNA expression profile changes in these cells. Results of the experiment showed that on Day 3, both the flown and ground cells were still proliferating slowly, as measured by the percentage of Ki-67 positive cells. Gene and miRNA expression data indicated activation of NF(kappa)B and other growth related pathways involving HGF and Vegf along with down regulation of the Let-7 miRNA family. On Day 14 when the cells were mostly non-proliferating, the gene and miRNA expression profiles between the flight and ground samples were indistinguishable. Comparison of gene and miRNA expressions in the Day 3 samples with respect to Day 14 revealed that most of the changes observed on Day 3 were related to cell growth for both the flown and ground cells. Analysis of cytoskeletal changes via immunohistochemistry staining of the cells with antibodies for alpha-tubulin and fibronectin showed no difference between flown and ground samples. Taken together, our study suggests that in true non-dividing human fibroblast cells in culture, microgravity experienced in space has little effect on the gene and miRNA expression profiles.

  2. Zinc and propolis reduces cytotoxicity and proliferation in skin fibroblast cell culture: total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of propolis.

    PubMed

    Tyszka-Czochara, Małgorzata; Paśko, Paweł; Reczyński, Witold; Szlósarczyk, Marek; Bystrowska, Beata; Opoka, Włodzimierz

    2014-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that zinc exerts its beneficial influence on skin fibroblasts. Propolis, a complex mixture of plant-derived and bees' products, was reported to stimulate cicatrization processes in skin and prevent infections. The aim of this study was to find out how zinc and propolis influence human skin fibroblasts in cell culture and to compare the effect of individual compounds to the effect of a mixture of zinc and propolis. In this study, zinc, as zinc aspartate, at a concentration of 16 μM, increased human fibroblasts proliferation in cell culture, whereas propolis at a concentration of 0.01% (w/v) revealed antiproliferative and cytotoxic action followed by mild cell necrosis. In culture, zinc was effectively transported into fibroblasts, and propolis inhibited the amount of zinc incorporated into the cells. An addition of propolis to the medium caused a decrease in the Zn(II) amount incorporated into fibroblasts. The obtained results also indicate an appreciable antioxidant property of propolis and revealed its potential as a supplement when applied at doses lower than 0.01% (w/v). In conclusion, the present study showed that zinc had a protective effect on human cultured fibroblasts' viability, although propolis revealed its antiproliferative action and caused mild necrosis.

  3. Immunomodulatory Effects of Bee Venom in Human Synovial Fibroblast Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Vatanpour, Hossein; H Shirazi, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    As in Iranian traditional medicine, bee venom (BV) is a promising treatment for the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) which is considered as a problematic human chronic inflammatory disease in the present time. Smoking is considered to be a major risk factor in RA onset and severity. The main aim of this study is to investigate the effects of BV on cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory response in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and bee venom were determined by the tetrazolium (MTT) method in cultured synovial fibroblastes. The expression of interleukin-1β and sirtuin1 mRNA were analyzed by SYBR green real-time quantitative PCR. Differences between the mean values of treated and untreated groups were assessed by student t-test. Based on MTT assay, CSC and BV did not exert any significant cytotoxic effects up to 40 µg/mL and 10 µg/mL, respectively. Our results showed that interleukin-1β mRNA level was significantly up-regulated by CSC treatments in LPS-stimulated synoviocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, the expressions of IL-1β and Sirt1 were up-regulated even in lower concentrations of BV and attenuated at higher concentrations. Also, BV attenuated the CSC-induced and LPS-induced inflammatory responses in synovial fibroblasts. Our results support the epidemiological studies indicating pro-inflammatory effects of CSC and anti-inflammatory effects of BV on FLS cell line. PMID:25561937

  4. Fibroblast-Like Cells Differentiated from Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Vocal Fold Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rong; Ling, Wei; Xu, Wen; Han, Demin

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering has revealed the potential to regenerate injured vocal folds, and identification of the most suitable seed cells has remained a hot topic of research. The aim of this study was to implant fibroblast-like cells differentiated from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) in a canine acute vocal fold wound model. We then sought to characterize changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins of vocal fold lamina propria. For this purpose, ADSCs were induced to differentiate into fibroblasts under the regulation of connective tissue growth factor in vitro. Cell surface proteins were identified by immunofluorescence staining. Thirty vocal folds of 17 canines were injured by localized resection and injected with fibroblast-like cells (differentiated ADSCs, dADSCs), ADSCs or vocal fold fibroblasts (VFFs). The morphology of vocal folds was observed, and the characteristics of ECM protein components (collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, decorin and fibronectin) were evaluated by immunofluorescence staining from 15 days to 6 months following implantation. The results showed that in vitro, the dADSCs showed morphology and cell surface protein expression similar to those of VFFs. After implantation in vivo, the surfaces of the recipient vocal folds became almost smooth in the dADSCs and ADSCs groups at 6 months but remained slightly concave and stiff in the VFFs group. The elastin fluorescence intensity increased significantly and was maintained at a high level in the dADSCs group. The collagen fluorescence intensity increased slightly in the dADSCs and ADSCs groups, whereas it demonstrated a more irregular arrangement in the VFFs group. The fluorescence intensity of hyaluronic acid, decorin and fibronectin was similar between the three implanted groups. These results indicated that dADSCs may confer an advantage for vocal fold wound healing. Furthermore, dADSCs have the ability to secrete ECM components in vivo, particularly elastin, which may be

  5. Fibroblast-like cells differentiated from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for vocal fold wound healing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong; Ling, Wei; Xu, Wen; Han, Demin

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering has revealed the potential to regenerate injured vocal folds, and identification of the most suitable seed cells has remained a hot topic of research. The aim of this study was to implant fibroblast-like cells differentiated from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) in a canine acute vocal fold wound model. We then sought to characterize changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins of vocal fold lamina propria. For this purpose, ADSCs were induced to differentiate into fibroblasts under the regulation of connective tissue growth factor in vitro. Cell surface proteins were identified by immunofluorescence staining. Thirty vocal folds of 17 canines were injured by localized resection and injected with fibroblast-like cells (differentiated ADSCs, dADSCs), ADSCs or vocal fold fibroblasts (VFFs). The morphology of vocal folds was observed, and the characteristics of ECM protein components (collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, decorin and fibronectin) were evaluated by immunofluorescence staining from 15 days to 6 months following implantation. The results showed that in vitro, the dADSCs showed morphology and cell surface protein expression similar to those of VFFs. After implantation in vivo, the surfaces of the recipient vocal folds became almost smooth in the dADSCs and ADSCs groups at 6 months but remained slightly concave and stiff in the VFFs group. The elastin fluorescence intensity increased significantly and was maintained at a high level in the dADSCs group. The collagen fluorescence intensity increased slightly in the dADSCs and ADSCs groups, whereas it demonstrated a more irregular arrangement in the VFFs group. The fluorescence intensity of hyaluronic acid, decorin and fibronectin was similar between the three implanted groups. These results indicated that dADSCs may confer an advantage for vocal fold wound healing. Furthermore, dADSCs have the ability to secrete ECM components in vivo, particularly elastin, which may be

  6. Reciprocal activation of prostate cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts stimulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stemness.

    PubMed

    Giannoni, Elisa; Bianchini, Francesca; Masieri, Lorenzo; Serni, Sergio; Torre, Eugenio; Calorini, Lido; Chiarugi, Paola

    2010-09-01

    Although cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are key determinants in the malignant progression of cancer, their functional contribution to this process is still unclear. Analysis of the mutual interplay between prostate carcinoma cells and CAFs revealed a mandatory role of carcinoma-derived interleukin-6 in fibroblast activation. In turn, activated fibroblasts through secretion of metalloproteinases elicit in cancer cells a clear epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as well as enhancement of tumor growth and development of spontaneous metastases. CAF-induced EMT leads prostate carcinoma cells to enhance expression of stem cell markers, as well as the ability to form prostaspheres and to self-renew. Hence, the paracrine interplay between CAFs and cancer cells leads to an EMT-driven gain of cancer stem cell properties associated with aggressiveness and metastatic spread.

  7. Transient gene and microRNA expression profile changes of confluent human fibroblast cells in spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao; Wong, Michael; Wang, Xiaoyu; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Story, Michael; Wu, Honglu

    2016-06-01

    Microgravity, or an altered gravity environment different from the 1 g of the Earth, has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells. However, most of the reported studies that have been conducted in space or by using simulated microgravity on the ground have focused on the growth or differentiation of these cells. It has not been specifically addressed whether nonproliferating cultured cells will sense the presence of microgravity in space. In an experiment conducted onboard the International Space Station, confluent human fibroblast cells were fixed after being cultured in space for 3 and 14 d, respectively, to investigate changes in gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in these cells. Results of the experiment showed that on d 3, both the flown and ground cells were still proliferating slowly, as measured by the percentage of Ki-67(+) cells. Gene and miRNA expression data indicated activation of NF-κB and other growth-related pathways that involve hepatocyte growth factor and VEGF as well as the down-regulation of the Let-7 miRNA family. On d 14, when the cells were mostly nonproliferating, the gene and miRNA expression profile of the flight sample was indistinguishable from that of the ground sample. Comparison of gene and miRNA expressions in the d 3 samples, with respect to d 14, revealed that most of the changes observed on d 3 were related to cell growth for both the flown and ground cells. Analysis of cytoskeletal changes via immunohistochemistry staining of the cells with antibodies for α-tubulin and fibronectin showed no difference between the flown and ground samples. Taken together, our study suggests that in true nondividing human fibroblast cells in culture, microgravity experienced in space has little effect on gene and miRNA expression profiles.-Zhang, Y., Lu, T., Wong, M., Wang, X., Stodieck, L., Karouia, F., Story, M., Wu, H. Transient gene and microRNA expression profile changes of

  8. Transient gene and microRNA expression profile changes of confluent human fibroblast cells in spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao; Wong, Michael; Wang, Xiaoyu; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Story, Michael; Wu, Honglu

    2016-06-01

    Microgravity, or an altered gravity environment different from the 1 g of the Earth, has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells. However, most of the reported studies that have been conducted in space or by using simulated microgravity on the ground have focused on the growth or differentiation of these cells. It has not been specifically addressed whether nonproliferating cultured cells will sense the presence of microgravity in space. In an experiment conducted onboard the International Space Station, confluent human fibroblast cells were fixed after being cultured in space for 3 and 14 d, respectively, to investigate changes in gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in these cells. Results of the experiment showed that on d 3, both the flown and ground cells were still proliferating slowly, as measured by the percentage of Ki-67(+) cells. Gene and miRNA expression data indicated activation of NF-κB and other growth-related pathways that involve hepatocyte growth factor and VEGF as well as the down-regulation of the Let-7 miRNA family. On d 14, when the cells were mostly nonproliferating, the gene and miRNA expression profile of the flight sample was indistinguishable from that of the ground sample. Comparison of gene and miRNA expressions in the d 3 samples, with respect to d 14, revealed that most of the changes observed on d 3 were related to cell growth for both the flown and ground cells. Analysis of cytoskeletal changes via immunohistochemistry staining of the cells with antibodies for α-tubulin and fibronectin showed no difference between the flown and ground samples. Taken together, our study suggests that in true nondividing human fibroblast cells in culture, microgravity experienced in space has little effect on gene and miRNA expression profiles.-Zhang, Y., Lu, T., Wong, M., Wang, X., Stodieck, L., Karouia, F., Story, M., Wu, H. Transient gene and microRNA expression profile changes of

  9. A Comparison of Epithelial Cells, Fibroblasts, and Osteoblasts in Dental Implant Titanium Topographies

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Fu-Yuan; Ko, Chia-Ling; Kuo, Hsien-Nan; Hu, Jin-Jia; Lin, Jia-Horng; Lou, Ching-Wen; Hung, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Yin-Lai; Cheng, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Wen-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The major challenge for dental implants is achieving optimal esthetic appearance and a concept to fulfill this criterion is evaluated. The key to an esthetically pleasing appearance lies in the properly manage the soft tissue profile around dental implants. A novel implant restoration technique on the surface was proposed as a way to augment both soft- and hard-tissue profiles at potential implant sites. Different levels of roughness can be attained by sandblasting and acid etching, and a tetracalcium phosphate was used to supply the ions. In particular, the early stage attaching and repopulating abilities of bone cell osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1), fibroblasts (NIH 3T3), and epithelial cells (XB-2) were evaluated. The results showed that XB-2 cell adhesive qualities of a smooth surface were better than those of the roughened surfaces, the proliferative properties were reversed. The effects of roughness on the characteristics of 3T3 cells were opposite to the result for XB-2 cells. E1 proliferative ability did not differ with any statistical significance. These results suggest that a rougher surface which provided calcium and phosphate ions have the ability to enhance the proliferation of osteoblast and the inhibition of fibroblast growth that enhance implant success ratios. PMID:22287942

  10. Locomotory invasion of human cervical epithelium and avian fibroblasts by HeLa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, E M

    1982-10-01

    The locomotory invasive ability of HeLa cells was tested against: (a) embryonic chick heart fibroblasts (CHF); and (b) normal epithelial cells from human cervix (HCE) in explant confrontations. Data for analyses were obtained from replicate cultures fixed 24 h after junction and from 24-h time-lapse films. The mean invasion index for HeLa versus CHF did not indicate significant obstruction but analyses of hourly radial advance and orientation frequencies showed that obstruction eventually developed as postjunctional incubation time increased. Early contacts between HeLa and CHF demonstrated non-reciprocity of type I contact inhibition of locomotion by the tumour cells, which continued moving in their original direction to underlap contact-inhibited fibroblasts and eventually to occupy spaces vacated by them. When CHF population density increased and free space diminished, HeLa cells displayed directional and probably substrate-dependent contact inhibition. The high invasion index of HeLa versus HCE was largely due to occupation of previous HCE territory by tumour cells and only occasionally to actual infiltration of the epithelial sheet. After contact with HeLa, ruffling substrate-adherent marginal epithelial cells displayed contractile, type I contact inhibition of locomotion. After orientation changes, they gradually retreated. Against HCE, HeLa cells exhibited non-reciprocity of type I contact inhibition and continued radially forward, following the retreating epithelial margin. They did not move onto exposed upper surfaces of epithelial cells and did not underlap marginal cells firmly adherent to the substratum. Invasion of the epithelial sheet was seen only when initial access beneath a cell with a non-adherent margin was available. The contact relationships of isolated invading HeLa cells with their epithelial neighbours suggested successive non-reciprocal contact inhibition reactions.

  11. Mechanosensitivity of fibroblast cell shape and movement to anisotropic substratum topography gradients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deok-Ho; Han, Karam; Gupta, Kshitiz; Kwon, Keon Woo

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we describe using ultraviolet (UV)-assisted capillary force lithography (CFL) to create a model substratum of anisotropic micro- and nanotopographic pattern arrays with variable local density for the analysis of cell-substratum interactions. A single cell adhesion substratum with the constant ridge width (1 µm), and depth (400 nm) and variable groove widths (1 µm to 9.1 µm) allowed us to characterize the dependence of cellular responses, including cell shape, orientation, and migration, on the anisotropy and local density of the variable micro- and nanotopographic pattern. We found that fibroblasts adhering to the denser pattern areas aligned and elongated more strongly along the direction of ridges, vs. those on the sparser areas, exhibiting a biphasic dependence of the migration speed on the pattern density. In addition, cells responded to local variations in topography by altering morphology and migrating along the direction of grooves biased by the direction of pattern orientation (short term) and pattern density (long term). Molecular dynamic live cell imaging and immunocytochemical analysis of focal adhesions and actin cytoskeleton suggest that variable substratum topography can result in distinct types of cytoskeleton reorganization. We also demonstrate that fibroblasts cultured as monolayers on the same substratum retain most of the properties displayed by single cells. This result, in addition to demonstrating a more sophisticated method to study aspects of wound healing processes, strongly suggests that even in the presence of considerable cell-cell interactions, the cues provided by the underlying substratum topography continue to exercise substantial influence on cell behavior. The described experimental platform might not only further our understanding of biomechanical regulation of cell-matrix interactions, but also contribute to bioengineering of devices with the optimally structured design of cell-material interface. PMID:19595452

  12. Proliferative effects of angiotensin II and endothelin-1 on guinea pig gingival fibroblast cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Ohuchi, Nozomi; Koike, Katsuo; Sano, Masakazu; Kusama, Tadashi; Kizawa, Yasuo; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Yumiko; Ohsawa, Masami; Iwamoto, Keishi; Murakami, Hajime

    2002-08-01

    We investigated whether phenytoin (PHT) and nifedipine (NIF) induce angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) generation by cultured gingival fibroblasts derived from guinea pigs and whether Ang II and ET-1 induce proliferation of these cells. Immunohistochemical experiments showed that PHT (250 nM) and NIF (250 nM) increased the immunostaining intensities of immunoreactive Ang II and ET-1 (IRET-1) in these cells. Captopril (3 microM), an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, reduced these enhanced intensities to control levels. Ang II (100 nM) enhanced the immunostaining intensity of IRET-1. PHT (250 nM) and NIF (250 nM)-induced cell proliferation. Both PHT- and NIF-induced proliferation was inhibited by captopril (3 microM). Ang II (100 nM) and ET-1 (100 nM) also induced cell proliferation. Ang II-induced proliferation was inhibited by CV11974 (1 microM), an AT(1) receptor antagonist and saralasin (1 microM), an AT(1)/AT(2) receptor antagonist, but not by PD123,319 (1 microM), an AT(2) receptor antagonist. ET-1-induced proliferation was inhibited by BQ123 (10 microM), an ET(A) receptor antagonist, but not by BQ788 (1 microM), an ET(B) receptor antagonist. These findings suggest that PHT- and NIF-induced gingival fibroblast proliferation is mediated indirectly through the induction of Ang II and ET-1 and probably mediated through AT(1) and ET(A) receptors present in or on gingival fibroblasts. PMID:12223201

  13. Induction of cell cycle progression by hepatitis B virus HBx gene expression in quiescent mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Koike, K; Moriya, K; Yotsuyanagi, H; Iino, S; Kurokawa, K

    1994-01-01

    The HBx gene of hepatitis B virus has been shown to induce hepatic tumors in transgenic mice and is implicated in hepatocarcinogenesis in human hepatitis B virus infection. To further characterize the role of HBx gene in carcinogenesis, we established mouse fibroblast cell lines in which the expression of HBx gene could be controlled by glucocorticoid hormone and examined the effect of HBx gene expression on cell growth in vitro. Along with the expression of HBx gene, most cells in the G0/G1 phase moved into the S phase in 24 h, and the cell cycle progressed further toward 48 h. Induction of DNA synthesis was also demonstrated by bromo-deoxyuridine labeling analysis. These results indicate that HBx gene has a function to trigger the synthesis of cellular DNA and suggest that HBx gene may play a role in hepatocarcinogenesis in human infection by driving deregulated cell cycle progression. Images PMID:8040286

  14. Topological Small-World Organization of the Fibroblastic Reticular Cell Network Determines Lymph Node Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Jun; Bomze, David; Cremasco, Viviana; Scandella, Elke; Stein, Jens V.; Turley, Shannon J.; Ludewig, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) form the cellular scaffold of lymph nodes (LNs) and establish distinct microenvironmental niches to provide key molecules that drive innate and adaptive immune responses and control immune regulatory processes. Here, we have used a graph theory-based systems biology approach to determine topological properties and robustness of the LN FRC network in mice. We found that the FRC network exhibits an imprinted small-world topology that is fully regenerated within 4 wk after complete FRC ablation. Moreover, in silico perturbation analysis and in vivo validation revealed that LNs can tolerate a loss of approximately 50% of their FRCs without substantial impairment of immune cell recruitment, intranodal T cell migration, and dendritic cell-mediated activation of antiviral CD8+ T cells. Overall, our study reveals the high topological robustness of the FRC network and the critical role of the network integrity for the activation of adaptive immune responses. PMID:27415420

  15. Topological Small-World Organization of the Fibroblastic Reticular Cell Network Determines Lymph Node Functionality.

    PubMed

    Novkovic, Mario; Onder, Lucas; Cupovic, Jovana; Abe, Jun; Bomze, David; Cremasco, Viviana; Scandella, Elke; Stein, Jens V; Bocharov, Gennady; Turley, Shannon J; Ludewig, Burkhard

    2016-07-01

    Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) form the cellular scaffold of lymph nodes (LNs) and establish distinct microenvironmental niches to provide key molecules that drive innate and adaptive immune responses and control immune regulatory processes. Here, we have used a graph theory-based systems biology approach to determine topological properties and robustness of the LN FRC network in mice. We found that the FRC network exhibits an imprinted small-world topology that is fully regenerated within 4 wk after complete FRC ablation. Moreover, in silico perturbation analysis and in vivo validation revealed that LNs can tolerate a loss of approximately 50% of their FRCs without substantial impairment of immune cell recruitment, intranodal T cell migration, and dendritic cell-mediated activation of antiviral CD8+ T cells. Overall, our study reveals the high topological robustness of the FRC network and the critical role of the network integrity for the activation of adaptive immune responses.

  16. Topological Small-World Organization of the Fibroblastic Reticular Cell Network Determines Lymph Node Functionality.

    PubMed

    Novkovic, Mario; Onder, Lucas; Cupovic, Jovana; Abe, Jun; Bomze, David; Cremasco, Viviana; Scandella, Elke; Stein, Jens V; Bocharov, Gennady; Turley, Shannon J; Ludewig, Burkhard

    2016-07-01

    Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) form the cellular scaffold of lymph nodes (LNs) and establish distinct microenvironmental niches to provide key molecules that drive innate and adaptive immune responses and control immune regulatory processes. Here, we have used a graph theory-based systems biology approach to determine topological properties and robustness of the LN FRC network in mice. We found that the FRC network exhibits an imprinted small-world topology that is fully regenerated within 4 wk after complete FRC ablation. Moreover, in silico perturbation analysis and in vivo validation revealed that LNs can tolerate a loss of approximately 50% of their FRCs without substantial impairment of immune cell recruitment, intranodal T cell migration, and dendritic cell-mediated activation of antiviral CD8+ T cells. Overall, our study reveals the high topological robustness of the FRC network and the critical role of the network integrity for the activation of adaptive immune responses. PMID:27415420

  17. Transcriptional Profiling of Host Gene Expression in Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts Infected with Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Strain HA1101.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ji; Bao, Yanqing; Ye, Jianqiang; Shao, Hongxia; Qian, Kun; Qin, Aijian

    2015-01-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), a member of the Gammaretrovirus genus in the Retroviridae family, causes an immunosuppressive, oncogenic and runting-stunting syndrome in multiple avian hosts. To better understand the host interactions at the transcriptional level, microarray data analysis was performed in chicken embryo fibroblast cells at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after infection with REV. This study identified 1,785 differentially expressed genes that were classified into several functional groups including signal transduction, immune response, biological adhesion and endocytosis. Significant differences were mainly observed in the expression of genes involved in the immune response, especially during the later post-infection time points. These results revealed that differentially expressed genes IL6, STAT1, MyD88, TLRs, NF-κB, IRF-7, and ISGs play important roles in the pathogenicity of REV infection. Our study is the first to use microarray analysis to investigate REV, and these findings provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of the host antiviral response and the molecular basis of viral pathogenesis.

  18. Transcriptional Profiling of Host Gene Expression in Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts Infected with Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Strain HA1101

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Ji; Bao, Yanqing; Ye, Jianqiang; Shao, Hongxia; Qian, Kun; Qin, Aijian

    2015-01-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), a member of the Gammaretrovirus genus in the Retroviridae family, causes an immunosuppressive, oncogenic and runting-stunting syndrome in multiple avian hosts. To better understand the host interactions at the transcriptional level, microarray data analysis was performed in chicken embryo fibroblast cells at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after infection with REV. This study identified 1,785 differentially expressed genes that were classified into several functional groups including signal transduction, immune response, biological adhesion and endocytosis. Significant differences were mainly observed in the expression of genes involved in the immune response, especially during the later post-infection time points. These results revealed that differentially expressed genes IL6, STAT1, MyD88, TLRs, NF-κB, IRF-7, and ISGs play important roles in the pathogenicity of REV infection. Our study is the first to use microarray analysis to investigate REV, and these findings provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of the host antiviral response and the molecular basis of viral pathogenesis. PMID:25973612

  19. Therapeutic transdifferentiation of human fibroblasts into endothelial cells using forced expression of lineage-specific transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wing Tak; Cooke, John P

    2016-01-01

    Transdifferentiation is the direct conversion from one somatic cell type into another desired somatic cell type. This reprogramming method offers an attractive approach for regenerative medicine. Here, we demonstrate that neonatal fibroblasts can be transdifferentiated into endothelial cells using only four endothelial transcription factors, namely, ETV2, FLI1, GATA2, and KLF4. We observed a significant up-regulation of endothelial genes including KDR, CD31, CD144, and vWF in human neonatal foreskin (BJ) fibroblasts infected with the lentiviral construct encoding the open reading frame of the four transcription factors. We observed morphological changes in BJ fibroblasts from the fibroblastic spindle shape into a more endothelial-like cobblestone structures. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed that ~16% of the infected cells with the lentiviral constructs encoding 4F expressed CD31. The sorted cells were allowed to expand for 2 weeks and these cells were immunostained and found to express endothelial markers CD31. The induced endothelial cells also incorporated fluorescence-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein and efficiently formed capillary-like networks when seeded on Matrigel. These results suggested that the induced endothelial cells were functional in vitro. Taken together, we successfully demonstrated the direct conversion of human neonatal fibroblasts into endothelial cells by transduction of lentiviral constructs encoding endothelial lineage-specific transcription factors ETV2, FLI1, GATA2, and KLF4. The directed differentiation of fibroblasts into endothelial cells may have significant utility in diseases characterized by fibrosis and loss of microvasculature. PMID:27081470

  20. The Role of Thrombin and Cell Contractility in Regulating Clustering and Collective Migration of Corneal Fibroblasts in Different ECM Environments

    PubMed Central

    Miron-Mendoza, Miguel; Graham, Eric; Kivanany, Pouriska; Quiring, Jonathan; Petroll, W. Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We previously reported that extracellular matrix composition (fibrin versus collagen) modulates the pattern of corneal fibroblast spreading and migration in 3-D culture. In this study, we investigate the role of thrombin and cell contractility in mediating these differences in cell behavior. Methods. To assess cell spreading, corneal fibroblasts were plated on top of fibrillar collagen and fibrin matrices. To assess 3-dimensional cell migration, compacted collagen matrices seeded with corneal fibroblasts were embedded inside acellular collagen or fibrin matrices. Constructs were cultured in serum-free media containing platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), with or without thrombin, the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632, and/or the myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin. We used 3-dimensional and 4-dimensional imaging to assess cell mechanical behavior, connectivity and cytoskeletal organization. Results. Thrombin stimulated increased contractility of corneal fibroblasts. Thrombin also induced Rho kinase–dependent clustering of cells plated on top of compliant collagen matrices, but not on rigid substrates. In contrast, cells on fibrin matrices coalesced into clusters even when Rho kinase was inhibited. In nested matrices, cells always migrated independently through collagen, even in the presence of thrombin. In contrast, cells migrating into fibrin formed an interconnected network. Both Y-27632 and blebbistatin reduced the migration rate in fibrin, but cells continued to migrate collectively. Conclusions. The results suggest that while thrombin-induced actomyosin contraction can induce clustering of fibroblasts plated on top of compliant collagen matrices, it does not induce collective cell migration inside 3-D collagen constructs. Furthermore, increased contractility is not required for clustering or collective migration of corneal fibroblasts interacting with fibin. PMID:25736789

  1. B lymphocytes and B-cell activating factor promote collagen and profibrotic markers expression by dermal fibroblasts in systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction B lymphocytes might play a pathogenic role in dermal fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc). B-cell activating factor (BAFF), a key cytokine for B-cell activation, is increased in the serum and the skin of patients with SSc. However, the ability of B cells directly to stimulate dermal fibroblasts and the role of BAFF are not fully understood. We therefore investigated the involvement of B cells and BAFF in the expression of collagen and profibrotic markers by dermal fibroblasts. Methods Cocultures of blood B cells from healthy blood donors and normal or SSc dermal fibroblasts stimulated with anti-IgM and BAFF were performed. Alpha-SMA, TIMP1, MMP9, COL1A1, COL1A2, and COL3A1 mRNA expression were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Soluble collagen, BAFF, IL-6, IL-1β, TGF-β1, and CCL2 protein secretion were assessed. Results Coculture of blood B cells and dermal fibroblasts isolated from SSc patients induced IL-6, TGF-β1, CCL2, and collagen secretion, as well as Alpha-SMA, TIMP1, and MMP9 expression in dermal fibroblasts. Transwell assays demonstrated that this induction was dependent on cell-cell contact. Addition of anti-IgM and BAFF to the coculture increased IL-6, CCL2, TGF-β1, and collagen secretion. B cell- and BAFF-induced collagen secretion was highly reduced by anti-TGF-β1 antibodies. Conclusions Our results showed for the first time a direct role of B cells on the production of collagen by dermal fibroblasts, which is further enhanced by BAFF. Thus, these results demonstrate a new pathogenic role of B cells and BAFF in fibrosis and systemic sclerosis. PMID:24289101

  2. Short and prolonged exposure to hyperglycaemia in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells: metabolic and osmotic effects.

    PubMed

    Moruzzi, Noah; Del Sole, Marianna; Fato, Romana; Gerdes, Jantje M; Berggren, Per-Olof; Bergamini, Christian; Brismar, Kerstin

    2014-08-01

    High blood glucose levels are the main feature of diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism linking high glucose concentration to diabetic complications is still not fully elucidated, particularly with regard to human physiology. Excess of glucose is likely to trigger a metabolic response depending on the cell features, activating deleterious pathways involved in the complications of diabetes. In this study, we aim to elucidate how acute and prolonged hyperglycaemia alters the biology and metabolism in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. We found that hyperglycaemia triggers a metabolic switch from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis that is maintained over prolonged time. Moreover, osmotic pressure is a major factor in the early metabolic response, decreasing both mitochondrial transmembrane potential and cellular proliferation. After prolonged exposure to hyperglycaemia we observed decreased mitochondrial steady-state and uncoupled respiration, together with a reduced ATP/ADP ratio. At the same time, we could not detect major changes in mitochondrial transmembrane potential and reactive oxygen species. We suggest that the physiological and metabolic alterations observed in healthy human primary fibroblasts and endothelial cells are an adaptive response to hyperglycaemia. The severity of metabolic and bioenergetics impairment associated with diabetic complications may occur after longer glucose exposure or due to interactions with cell types more sensitive to hyperglycaemia.

  3. Screening of plants acting against Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom activity on fibroblast cell lysis.

    PubMed

    Uawonggul, Nunthawun; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Arkaravichien, Tarinee; Chuachan, Chattong; Daduang, Sakda

    2006-01-16

    The aqueous extracts of 64 plant species, listed as animal- or insect-bite antidotes in old Thai drug recipes were screened for their activity against fibroblast cell lysis after Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom treatment. The venom was preincubated with plant extract for 30 min and furthered treated to confluent fibroblast cells for 30 min. More than 40% efficiency (test/control) was obtained from cell treatment with venom preincubated with extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae), Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Lecythidaceae), Calamus sp. (Palmae), Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Acanthaceae), Euphorbia neriifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), Ipomoea aquatica Forssk (Convolvulaceae), Mesua ferrea L. (Guttiferae), Passiflora laurifolia L. (Passifloraceae), Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Rumex sp. (Polygonaceae) and Sapindus rarak DC. (Sapindaceae), indicating that they had a tendency to be scorpion venom antidotes. However, only Andrographis paniculata and Barringtonia acutangula extracts provided around 50% viable cells from extract treatments without venom preincubation. These two plant extracts are expected to be scorpion venom antidotes with low cytotoxicity. PMID:16169172

  4. Screening of plants acting against Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom activity on fibroblast cell lysis.

    PubMed

    Uawonggul, Nunthawun; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Arkaravichien, Tarinee; Chuachan, Chattong; Daduang, Sakda

    2006-01-16

    The aqueous extracts of 64 plant species, listed as animal- or insect-bite antidotes in old Thai drug recipes were screened for their activity against fibroblast cell lysis after Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom treatment. The venom was preincubated with plant extract for 30 min and furthered treated to confluent fibroblast cells for 30 min. More than 40% efficiency (test/control) was obtained from cell treatment with venom preincubated with extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae), Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Lecythidaceae), Calamus sp. (Palmae), Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Acanthaceae), Euphorbia neriifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), Ipomoea aquatica Forssk (Convolvulaceae), Mesua ferrea L. (Guttiferae), Passiflora laurifolia L. (Passifloraceae), Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Rumex sp. (Polygonaceae) and Sapindus rarak DC. (Sapindaceae), indicating that they had a tendency to be scorpion venom antidotes. However, only Andrographis paniculata and Barringtonia acutangula extracts provided around 50% viable cells from extract treatments without venom preincubation. These two plant extracts are expected to be scorpion venom antidotes with low cytotoxicity.

  5. Functional diversity of gro gene expression in human fibroblasts and mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Anisowicz, A; Zajchowski, D; Stenman, G; Sager, R

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies of gro and related genes that are overexpressed in transformed fibroblasts suggest that gro may encode a specific growth regulator. However, DNA and protein sequence comparisons reveal relatedness to platelet factor 4 and other proteins involved in the inflammatory response. In this paper, both growth-related and cytokine-induced responses in gro gene expression are described. Human foreskin fibroblasts are shown to express approximately 10-fold elevated gro, myc, and fos mRNAs in response to serum and to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulation, with early response kinetics indicative of growth regulation. In response to interleukin 1, however, in growing cells gro mRNA is elevated at least 100-fold but myc remains constant and fos is not expressed, suggesting a second regulatory pathway. In normal cultured mammary epithelial cells, gro is constitutively expressed, and elevated mRNA levels are induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, but not by interleukin 1. However, most carcinoma cell lines examined do not express gro mRNA, suggesting a third function of gro as a negative growth regulator in epithelial cells. Images PMID:3264403

  6. Cell cycle and p53 gate the direct conversion of human fibroblasts to dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Houbo; Xu, Zhimin; Zhong, Ping; Ren, Yong; Liang, Gaoyang; Schilling, Haley A; Hu, Zihua; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xiaomin; Chen, Shengdi; Yan, Zhen; Feng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The direct conversion of fibroblasts to induced dopaminergic (iDA) neurons and other cell types demonstrates the plasticity of cell fate. The low efficiency of these relatively fast conversions suggests that kinetic barriers exist to safeguard cell-type identity. Here we show that suppression of p53, in conjunction with cell cycle arrest at G1 and appropriate extracellular environment, markedly increase the efficiency in the transdifferentiation of human fibroblasts to iDA neurons by Ascl1, Nurr1, Lmx1a and miR124. The conversion is dependent on Tet1, as G1 arrest, p53 knockdown or expression of the reprogramming factors induces Tet1 synergistically. Tet1 knockdown abolishes the transdifferentiation while its overexpression enhances the conversion. The iDA neurons express markers for midbrain DA neurons and have active dopaminergic transmission. Our results suggest that overcoming these kinetic barriers may enable highly efficient epigenetic reprogramming in general and will generate patient-specific midbrain DA neurons for Parkinson's disease research and therapy. PMID:26639555

  7. Derivation and characterization of goat fetal fibroblast cells induced with human telomerase reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ying; Zhao, Xiaoe; Jia, Hongxiang; Ma, Baohua

    2013-01-01

    Fetal fibroblast cells (FFCs) are often used as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) because they are easy to culture and suitable for genetic manipulation. However, through genetic modification process, which required FFCs to be cultured in vitro for several passages, cells tended to age very rapidly and became inappropriate for SCNT. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) possessed the activity of human telomerase and maintains telomere in dividing cells; therefore, hTERT can be transfected into somatic cells to extend their lifespan. In this study, we transfected a Xinong Saanen Dairy Goat FFC line with hTERT. Then, we tested several characteristics of transfected cells, including growth curve, expression and activity of hTERT, tumorigenicity, and expression of oct4 and nanog. The result showed that hTERT could significantly extend the lifespan of transfected cells in vitro. hTERT mRNA was expressed in hTERT-transfected cells. Moreover, hTERT-transfected cells presented enhanced telomerase activity and longer telomere than untransfected cells at the same passage. On the other hand, hTERT-transfected cells can maintain normal karyotype even after several times of subculture in vitro. After inoculation of hTERT-transfected cells in nude mouse, none of them developed tumors on the vaccination site. Interestingly, transfection of hTERT can improve expression of nanog and oct4 in Xinong Saanen Dairy Goat FFCs, especially in low generation after transfection, but with increasing subculture, this effect gradually weakened.

  8. Phagocytosis and solubilization of fixed cells by metastatic hamster embryo fibroblasts, Nil2C2

    SciTech Connect

    Sakiyama, H.; Nishino, Y.; Nishimura, K.; Noda, Y.; Otsu, H.

    1984-05-01

    When Nil2C2, a metastatic clone derived from hamster embryo fibroblasts (Nil), was inoculated over (/sup 3/H)leucine-labeled fixed cells, Nil2C2 cells solubilized and phagocytosed fixed cells, and the radioactivity was released into the culture medium as trichloroacetic acid-soluble fragments. The solubilization of fixed cells was dependent on both the time of incubation of living cells with fixed cells and the number of living cells inoculated. Nil2C2 cells were shown by autoradiographic and electron microscopic studies to peel off fixed cells and ingest them as large fragments. The solubilization of fixed cells was significantly decreased when plasminogen was depleted from the culture medium. Protease inhibitors such as leupeptin, epsilon-aminocaproic acid, and soybean trypsin inhibitor partially inhibited the proteolysis and phagocytosis of Nil2C2 cells. Mouse peritoneal macrophages activated by Salmonella typhimurium solubilized fixed cells after the addition of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. However, they did not phagocytose fixed cells as large fragments.

  9. Load cell having strain gauges of arbitrary location

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry

    2007-03-13

    A load cell utilizes a plurality of strain gauges mounted upon the load cell body such that there are six independent load-strain relations. Load is determined by applying the inverse of a load-strain sensitivity matrix to a measured strain vector. The sensitivity matrix is determined by performing a multivariate regression technique on a set of known loads correlated to the resulting strains. Temperature compensation is achieved by configuring the strain gauges as co-located orthogonal pairs.

  10. Cytotoxic effects of new MTA-based cement formulations on fibroblast-like MDPL-20 cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Santos, Alailson Domingos dos; Moraes, João Carlos Silos; Costa, Carlos Alberto de Souza

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the cytotoxic effects of a novel cement called CER on periodontal fibroblast-like cells of mice (MDPL-20), in comparison with different formulations of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), by means of the cell viability test (MTT) and cell morphology analysis. Thirty-two round-shaped samples were fabricated with the following cements: white MTA, white and gray CER and experimental white MTA. The samples were immersed in serum-free culture medium for 24 hours or 7 days (n = 16). The extracts (culture medium + components released from the cements) were applied for 24 hours to previously cultured cells (40.000 cells/cm2) in the wells of 24-well plates. Cells seeded in complete culture medium were used as a negative control. Cell viability was assessed using the MTT assay. Two samples of each cement were used for cell morphology analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The extracts obtained at the 7-day period presented higher cytotoxicity compared with the 24-hour period (p < 0.05). The gray CER obtained at 24 hours presented the highest cytotoxic effect, whereas the experimental white MTA presented the lowest, similar to the control (p > 0.05). However, at the 7-day period, the experimental white MTA presented no significant difference in comparison with the other cements (p > 0.05). At the 7-day period, CER cement presented cytotoxic effects on fibroblast-like cells, similar to different MTA formulations. However, the immersion period in the culture medium influenced the cytotoxicity of the cements, which was greater for CER cement at 24 hours.

  11. Generation and characterization of LIF-dependent canine induced pluripotent stem cells from adult dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, Deanne J; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A; Wolvetang, Ernst J

    2012-08-10

    Dogs provide a more clinically relevant model of human disease than rodents, particularly with respect to hereditary diseases. Thus, the availability of canine stem cells will greatly facilitate the use of the dog in the development of stem cell-based gene therapies and regenerative medicine. In this study we describe the production of canine induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) from adult dermal fibroblasts. These cells have a morphology resembling previously described canine embryonic stem cells, a normal karyotype, and express pluripotency markers including alkaline phosphatase, Nanog, Oct4, Telomerase, SSEA1, SSEA4, TRA1-60, TRA1-81, and Rex1. Furthermore, the inactive X chromosome is reactivated indicating a ground-state pluripotency. In culture they readily form embryoid bodies, which in turn give rise to cell types from all 3 embryonic germ layers, as indicated by expression of the definitive endoderm markers Cxcr4 and α-fetoprotein, mesoderm markers Collagen IIA and Gata2, and ectoderm markers βIII-tubulin, Enolase, and Nestin. Of particular significance is the observation that these ciPSCs are dependent only on leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), making them similar to mouse and canine embryonic stem cells, but strikingly unlike the ciPSCs recently described in two other studies, which were dependent on both basic fibroblast growth factor and LIF in order to maintain their pluripotency. Thus, our ciPSCs closely resemble mouse ESCs derived from the inner cell mass of preimplantation embryos, while the previously described ciPSCs appear to be more representative of cells from the epiblast of mouse postimplantation embryos.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium accelerates skin wound healing: An in vitro study of fibroblast and keratinocyte scratch assays

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, M.N.M.; Wright, K.T.; Fuller, H.R.; MacNeil, S.; Johnson, W.E.B.

    2010-04-15

    We have used in vitro scratch assays to examine the relative contribution of dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes in the wound repair process and to test the influence of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) secreted factors on both skin cell types. Scratch assays were established using single cell and co-cultures of L929 fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes, with wound closure monitored via time-lapse microscopy. Both in serum supplemented and serum free conditions, wound closure was faster in L929 fibroblast than HaCaT keratinocyte scratch assays, and in co-culture the L929 fibroblasts lead the way in closing the scratches. MSC-CM generated under serum free conditions significantly enhanced the wound closure rate of both skin cell types separately and in co-culture, whereas conditioned medium from L929 or HaCaT cultures had no significant effect. This enhancement of wound closure in the presence of MSC-CM was due to accelerated cell migration rather than increased cell proliferation. A number of wound healing mediators were identified in MSC-CM, including TGF-{beta}1, the chemokines IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES, and collagen type I, fibronectin, SPARC and IGFBP-7. This study suggests that the trophic activity of MSC may play a role in skin wound closure by affecting both dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte migration, along with a contribution to the formation of extracellular matrix.

  13. Acellular porcine corneal matrix as a carrier scaffold for cultivating human corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Can-Wei; Du, Li-Qun; Wu, Xin-Yi

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the feasibility of corneal anterior lamellar reconstruction with human corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts, and an acellular porcine cornea matrix (APCM) in vitro. METHODS The scaffold was prepared from fresh porcine corneas which were treated with 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution and the complete removal of corneal cells was confirmed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. Human corneal fibroblasts and epithelial cells were cultured with leaching liquid extracted from APCM, and then cell proliferative ability was evaluated by MTT assay. To construct a human corneal anterior lamellar replacement, corneal fibroblasts were injected into the APCM and cultured for 3d, followed by culturing corneal epithelial cells on the stroma construction surface for another 10d. The corneal replacement was analyzed by HE staining, and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS Histological examination indicated that there were no cells in the APCM by HE staining, and DAPI staining did not detect any residual DNA. The leaching liquid from APCM had little influence on the proliferation ability of human corneal fibroblasts and epithelial cells. At 10d, a continuous 3 to 5 layers of human corneal epithelial cells covering the surface of the APCM was observed, and the injected corneal fibroblasts distributed within the scaffold. The phenotype of the construction was similar to normal human corneas, with high expression of cytokeratin 12 in the epithelial cell layer and high expression of vimentin in the stroma. CONCLUSION Corneal anterior lamellar replacement can be reconstructed in vitro by cultivating human corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts with an acellular porcine cornea matrix. This laid the foundation for the further transplantation in vivo. PMID:26949602

  14. The Protozoan Neospora caninum Directly Triggers Bovine NK Cells To Produce Gamma Interferon and To Kill Infected Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, Preben; Klevar, Siv; Olsen, Ingrid; Storset, Anne K.

    2006-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are considered to be key players in the early innate responses to protozoan infections, primarily indirectly by producing gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in response to cytokines, like interleukin 12 (IL-12). We demonstrate that live, as well as heat-inactivated, tachyzoites of Neospora caninum, a Toxoplasma-like protozoan, directly trigger production of IFN-γ from purified, IL-2-activated bovine NK cells. This response occurred independently of IL-12 but was increased by the addition of the cytokine. A similar IFN-γ response was measured in cocultures of NK cells and N. caninum-infected autologous fibroblasts. However, no NK cell-derived IFN-γ response was detected when cells were cultured with soluble antigens from the organism, indicating that intact tachyzoites or nonsoluble components are necessary for NK cell triggering. Furthermore, N. caninum-infected autologous fibroblasts had increased susceptibility to NK cell cytotoxicity compared to uninfected fibroblasts. This cytotoxicity was largely mediated by a perforin-mediated mechanism. The activating receptor NKp46 was involved in cytotoxicity against fibroblasts but could not explain the increased cytotoxicity against infected targets. Interestingly, N. caninum tachyzoites were able to infect cultured NK cells, in which tachyzoites proliferated inside parasitophorous vacuoles. Together, these findings underscore the role of NK cells as primary responders during a protozoan infection, describe intracellular protozoan infection of NK cells in vitro for the first time, and represent the first functional study of purified bovine NK cells in response to infection. PMID:16428740

  15. Direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts into dopaminergic neuron-like cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinjian; Li, Fang; Stubblefield, Elizabeth A; Blanchard, Barbara; Richards, Toni L; Larson, Gaynor A; He, Yujun; Huang, Qian; Tan, Aik-Choon; Zhang, Dabing; Benke, Timothy A; Sladek, John R; Zahniser, Nancy R; Li, Chuan-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    Transplantation of exogenous dopaminergic neuron (DA neurons) is a promising approach for treating Parkinson's disease (PD). However, a major stumbling block has been the lack of a reliable source of donor DA neurons. Here we show that a combination of five transcriptional factors Mash1, Ngn2, Sox2, Nurr1, and Pitx3 can directly and effectively reprogram human fibroblasts into DA neuron-like cells. The reprogrammed cells stained positive for various markers for DA neurons. They also showed characteristic DA uptake and production properties. Moreover, they exhibited DA neuron-specific electrophysiological profiles. Finally, they provided symptomatic relief in a rat PD model. Therefore, our directly reprogrammed DA neuron-like cells are a promising source of cell-replacement therapy for PD. PMID:22105488

  16. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression between gingival fibroblast cells from old and young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Su-Jung; Chung, Yong-Koo; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Jeong-Ran; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho Park, Young-Guk

    2009-01-09

    Gingival fibroblast cells (rGF) from aged rats have an age-related decline in proliferative capacity compared with young rats. We investigated G1 phase cell cycle regulation and MMP-9 expression in both young and aged rGF. G1 cell cycle protein levels and activity were significantly reduced in response to interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}) stimulation with increasing in vitro age. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha})-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression was also decreased in aged rGF in comparison with young rGF. Mutational analysis and gel shift assays demonstrated that the lower MMP-9 expression in aged rGF is associated with lower activities of transcription factors NF-{kappa}B and AP-1. These results suggest that cell cycle dysregulation and down-regulation of MMP-9 expression in rGF may play a role in gingival remodeling during in vitro aging.

  17. The CLEC-2–podoplanin axis controls fibroblastic reticular cell contractility and lymph node microarchitecture

    PubMed Central

    Astarita, Jillian L.; Cremasco, Viviana; Fu, Jianxin; Darnell, Max C.; Peck, James R.; Nieves-Bonilla, Janice M.; Song, Kai; Woodruff, Matthew C.; Gogineni, Alvin; Onder, Lucas; Ludewig, Burkhard; Weimer, Robby M.; Carroll, Michael C.; Mooney, David J.; Xia, Lijun; Turley, Shannon J.

    2014-01-01

    In lymph nodes, fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) form a collagen-based reticular network that supports migratory dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells and transports lymph. A hallmark of FRCs is their propensity to contract collagen, yet this function is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that podoplanin (PDPN) regulated actomyosin contractility in FRCs. Under resting conditions, when FRCs are unlikely to encounter mature DCs expressing the PDPN receptor, CLEC-2, PDPN endowed FRCs with contractile function and exerted tension within the reticulum. Upon inflammation, CLEC-2 on mature DCs potently attenuated PDPN-mediated contractility, resulting in FRC relaxation and reduced tissue stiffness. Disrupting PDPN function altered the homeostasis and spacing of FRCs and T cells, resulting in an expanded reticular network and enhanced immunity. PMID:25347465

  18. Production of Pigs by Hand-Made Cloning Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenzhen; Vajta, Gábor; Xu, Ying; Luan, Jing; Lin, Mufei; Liu, Cong; Tian, Jianing; Dou, Hongwei; Li, Yong; Liu, Tianbin; Zhang, Yijie; Li, Lin; Yang, Wenxian; Bolund, Lars; Yang, Huanming; Du, Yutao

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibited self-renewal and less differentiation, making the MSCs promising candidates for adult somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this article, we tried to produce genome identical pigs through hand-made cloning (HMC), with MSCs and adult skin fibroblasts as donor cells. MSCs were derived from either adipose tissue or peripheral blood (aMSCs and bMSCs, respectively). MSCs usually showed the expression pattern of CD29, CD73, CD90, and CD105 together with lack of expression of the hematopoietic markers CD34and CD45. Flow cytometry results demonstrated high expression of CD29 and CD90 in both MSC lines, while CD73, CD34, and CD45 expression were not detected. In contrary, in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, CD73 and CD34 were detected indicating that human antibodies CD73 and CD34 were not suitable to identify porcine cell surface markers and porcine MSC cellular surface markers of CD34 might be different from other species. MSCs also had potential to differentiate successfully into chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes. After HMC, embryos reconstructed with aMSCs had higher blastocyst rate on day 5 and 6 than those reconstructed with bMSCs and fibroblasts (29.6% ± 1.3% and 41.1% ± 1.4% for aMSCs vs. 23.9% ± 1.2% and 35.5% ± 1.6% for bMSCs and 22.1% ± 0.9% and 33.3% ± 1.1% for fibroblasts, respectively). Live birth rate per transferred blastocyst achieved with bMSCs (1.59%) was the highest among the three groups. This article was the first report to compare the efficiency among bMSCs, aMSCs, and fibroblasts for boar cloning, which offered a realistic perspective to use the HMC technology for commercial breeding. PMID:27459584

  19. Nuclear transfer with apoptotic bovine fibroblasts: can programmed cell death be reprogrammed?

    PubMed

    Miranda, Moyses dos Santos; Bressan, Fabiana Fernandes; De Bem, Tiago Henrique Camara; Merighe, Giovana Krempel Fonseca; Ohashi, Otávio Mitio; King, William Alan; Meirelles, Flavio Viera

    2012-06-01

    Cell death by apoptosis is considered to be irreversible. However, reports have indicated that its reversibility is possible if the cells have not yet reached the "point of no return." In order to add new information about this topic, we used cells at different moments of apoptotic process as nuclear donors in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in order to test if programmed cell death can be reversed. Adult bovine fibroblasts were treated with 10 μM of staurosporine (STP) for 3 h and analyzed for phosphatidylserine externalization (Annexin assay) and presence of active caspase-9. Annexin-positive (Anx+) and Caspase-9-positive (Casp-9+) cells were isolated by FACS and immediately transferred into enucleated in vitro matured bovine oocytes. After STP treatment, 89.9% of cells were Anx+ (4.6% in control cells; p<0.01) and 24.9% were Casp-9+ (2.4% in control cells; p<0.01). Fusion and cleavage were not affected by the use apoptotic cells (p>0.05). Also, the use of Anx+ cells did not affect blastocyst production compared to control (26.4% vs. 22.9%, respectively; p>0.05). However, blastocyst formation was affected by the use of Casp-9+ cells (12.3%; p<0.05). These findings contribute to the idea of that apoptosis is reversible only at early stages. Additionally, we hypothesize that the "point of no return" for apoptosis may be located around activation of Caspase-9.

  20. Irradiated Human Dermal Fibroblasts Are as Efficient as Mouse Fibroblasts as a Feeder Layer to Improve Human Epidermal Cell Culture Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Bisson, Francis; Rochefort, Éloise; Lavoie, Amélie; Larouche, Danielle; Zaniolo, Karine; Simard-Bisson, Carolyne; Damour, Odile; Auger, François A.; Guérin, Sylvain L.; Germain, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    A fibroblast feeder layer is currently the best option for large scale expansion of autologous skin keratinocytes that are to be used for the treatment of severely burned patients. In a clinical context, using a human rather than a mouse feeder layer is desirable to reduce the risk of introducing animal antigens and unknown viruses. This study was designed to evaluate if irradiated human fibroblasts can be used in keratinocyte cultures without affecting their morphological and physiological properties. Keratinocytes were grown either with or without a feeder layer in serum-containing medium. Our results showed that keratinocytes grown either on an irradiated human feeder layer or irradiated 3T3 cells (i3T3) can be cultured for a comparable number of passages. The average epithelial cell size and morphology were also similar. On the other hand, keratinocytes grown without a feeder layer showed heavily bloated cells at early passages and stop proliferating after only a few passages. On the molecular aspect, the expression level of the transcription factor Sp1, a useful marker of keratinocytes lifespan, was maintained and stabilized for a high number of passages in keratinocytes grown with feeder layers whereas Sp1 expression dropped quickly without a feeder layer. Furthermore, gene profiling on microarrays identified potential target genes whose expression is differentially regulated in the absence or presence of an i3T3 feeder layer and which may contribute at preserving the growth characteristics of these cells. Irradiated human dermal fibroblasts therefore provide a good human feeder layer for an effective expansion of keratinocytes in vitro that are to be used for clinical purposes. PMID:23443166

  1. Exosomes released by chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells induce the transition of stromal cells into cancer-associated fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Paggetti, Jerome; Haderk, Franziska; Seiffert, Martina; Janji, Bassam; Distler, Ute; Ammerlaan, Wim; Kim, Yeoun Jin; Adam, Julien; Lichter, Peter; Solary, Eric; Berchem, Guy; Moussay, Etienne

    2015-08-27

    Exosomes derived from solid tumor cells are involved in immune suppression, angiogenesis, and metastasis, but the role of leukemia-derived exosomes has been less investigated. The pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is stringently associated with a tumor-supportive microenvironment and a dysfunctional immune system. Here, we explore the role of CLL-derived exosomes in the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which malignant cells create this favorable surrounding. We show that CLL-derived exosomes are actively incorporated by endothelial and mesenchymal stem cells ex vivo and in vivo and that the transfer of exosomal protein and microRNA induces an inflammatory phenotype in the target cells, which resembles the phenotype of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). As a result, stromal cells show enhanced proliferation, migration, and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, contributing to a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Exosome uptake by endothelial cells increased angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo, and coinjection of CLL-derived exosomes and CLL cells promoted tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. Finally, we detected α-smooth actin-positive stromal cells in lymph nodes of CLL patients. These findings demonstrate that CLL-derived exosomes actively promote disease progression by modulating several functions of surrounding stromal cells that acquire features of cancer-associated fibroblasts.

  2. Adenosine signaling inhibits CIITA-mediated MHC class II transactivation in lung fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Mingming; Xia, Jun; Wu, Xiaoyan; Kong, Hui; Wang, Hong; Xie, Weiping; Xu, Yong

    2013-08-01

    Efficient antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules represents a critical process in adaptive immunity. Class II transactivator (CIITA) is considered the master regulator of MHC class II (MHC II) transcription. Previously, we have shown that CIITA expression is upregulated in smooth muscle cells deficient in A2b adenosine receptor. Here, we report that treatment with the adenosine receptor agonist adenosine-5'N-ethylcarboxamide (NECA) attenuated MHC II transcription in lung fibro-blast cells as a result of CIITA repression. Further analysis revealed that NECA preferentially abrogated CIITA transcription through promoters III and IV. Blockade with a selective A2b receptor antagonist MRS-1754 restored CIITA-dependent MHC II transactivation. Forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, achieved the same effect as NECA. A2b signaling repressed CIITA transcription by altering histone modifications and recruitment of key factors on the CIITA promoters in a STAT1-dependent manner. MRS-1754 blocked the antagonism of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in CIITA induction by interferon gamma (IFN-γ), alluding to a potential dialogue between TGF-β and adenosine signaling pathways. Finally, A2b signaling attenuated STAT1 phosphorylation and stimulated TGF-β synthesis. In conclusion, we have identified an adenosine-A2b receptor-adenylyl cyclase axis that influences CIITA-mediated MHC II transactivation in lung fibroblast cells and as such have provided invaluable insights into the development of novel immune-modulatory strategies.

  3. Morphologies of fibroblast cells cultured on surfaces of PHB films implanted by hydroxyl ions.

    PubMed

    Hou, T; Zhang, J Z; Kong, L J; Zhang, X E; Hu, P; Zhang, D M; Li, N

    2006-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films were implanted with 40 keV hydroxyl ions with fluences ranging from 1 x 10(12) to 1 x 10(15) ions/cm2, respectively. The as-implanted PHB films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and water contact angle measurements. The surface structures and properties of the as-implanted PHB films were closely related with hydroxyl ion fluence. They were further investigated by inoculating 3T6 fibroblasts cells on their surfaces. Morphologies of the 3T6 fibroblast cells cultured on surfaces of the as-implanted PHB films were observed by SEM. Characterization of the cultural 3T6 cells was analyzed qualitatively. The preliminary experimental results reveal that the bioactivity of the PHB films modified by hydroxyl ion implantation was improved at different levels, and the fluence of 1 x 10(13) ions/cm2 is optimal for PHB film. PMID:16909942

  4. [Comparison of fibroblastic cell compatibility of type I collagen-immobilized titanium between electrodeposition and immersion].

    PubMed

    Kyuragi, Takeru

    2014-03-01

    Titanium is widely used for medical implants. While many techniques for surface modification have been studied for optimizing its biocompatibility with hard tissues, little work has been undertaken to explore ways of maximizing its biocompatibility with soft tissues. We investigated cell attachment to titanium surfaces modified with bovine Type I collagen immobilized by either electrodeposition or a conventional immersion technique. The apparent thickness and durability of the immobilized collagen layer were evaluated prior to incubation of the collagen-immobilized titanium surfaces with NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The initial cell attachment and expression of actin and vinculin were evaluated. We determined that the immobilized collagen layer was much thicker and more durable when placed using the electrodeposition technique than the immersion technique. Both protocols produced materials that promoted better cell attachment, growth and structural protein expression than titanium alone. However, electrodeposition was ultimately superior to immersion because it is quicker to perform and produces a more durable collagen coating. We conclude that electrodeposition is an effective technique for immobilizing type I collagen on titanium surfaces, thus improving their cytocompatibility with fibroblasts.

  5. Generation of Dopamine Neurons from Rodent Fibroblasts through the Expandable Neural Precursor Cell Stage*

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Mi-Sun; Chang, Mi-Yoon; Kim, Sang-Mi; Yi, Sang-Hoon; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung; Jung, Sung Jun; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Jin Hyuk; Lee, Yong-Sung; Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Dong-Wook; Lee, Sang-Hun; Park, Chang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Recent groundbreaking work has demonstrated that combined expression of the transcription factors Brn2, Ascl1, and Myt1L (BAM; also known as Wernig factors) convert mouse fibroblasts into postmitotic neuronal cells. However, questions remain regarding whether trans-conversion is achieved directly or involves an intermediary precursor stage. Trans-conversion toward expandable neural precursor cells (NPCs) is more useful than direct one-step neuron formation with respect to yielding a sufficient number of cells and the feasibility of manipulating NPC differentiation toward certain neuron subtypes. Here, we show that co-expression of Wernig factors and Bcl-xL induces fibroblast conversion into NPCs (induced NPCs (iNPCs)) that are highly expandable for >100 passages. Gene expression analyses showed that the iNPCs exhibited high expression of common NPC genes but not genes specific to defined embryonic brain regions. This finding indicated that a regional identity of iNPCs was not established. Upon induction, iNPCs predominantly differentiated into astrocytes. However, the differentiation potential was not fixed and could be efficiently manipulated into general or specific subtypes of neurons by expression of additional genes. Specifically, overexpression of Nurr1 and Foxa2, transcription factors specific for midbrain dopamine neuron development, drove iNPCs to yield mature midbrain dopamine neurons equipped with presynaptic DA neuronal functions. We further assessed the therapeutic potential of iNPCs in Parkinson disease model rats. PMID:26023233

  6. Indirect longitudinal cytotoxicity of root canal sealers on L929 cells and human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Araki, K; Suda, H; Spångberg, L S

    1994-02-01

    The cytotoxicity of two root canal sealers was evaluated in vitro. The powder components of both sealers, mainly zinc, were the same. The liquid for one sealer, Canals, was clove oil (included eugenol in more than 80%) and other materials. For the other, Canals-N, the liquid was composed of higher fatty acids and glycol. The experiments included two cell lines, heteroploid L929 mouse fibroblasts and diploid human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Cytotoxicity was assessed using the radiochromium release method with 4-h exposure time. The assay involved using insert chambers in multiwell arrays to produce indirect contact of materials with the cell monolayer at a controlled distance of approximately 1 mm. This model also allowed for the longitudinal study of the same material sample to assess time-dependent changes in toxicity. Freshly mixed Canals was highly toxic (p < 0.01) to both cell lines. On and after 24 h of setting no toxicity was detected. At no time could cytotoxicity be observed when experimenting with Canals-N. These results indicate that both materials have a low content of water diffusible toxic components. Substituting eugenol can further decrease the toxicity of the sealer. PMID:8006567

  7. Effect of basic fibroblast growth factor in mouse embryonic stem cell culture and osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rose, Laura C; Fitzsimmons, Ross; Lee, Poh; Krawetz, Roman; Rancourt, Derrick E; Uludağ, Hasan

    2013-05-01

    Embryonic stem cells are actively explored as a cell source in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine involving bone repair. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has been a valuable growth factor to support the culture of human stem cells as well as their osteogenic differentiation, but the influence of bFGF on mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells is not known. Towards this goal, D3 cells were treated with bFGF during maintenance conditions and during spontaneous and osteogenic differentiation. In feeder-free monolayers, up to 40 ng/ml of exogenous bFGF did not support self-renewal of mES without LIF during cell expansion. During spontaneous differentiation in high-density cultures, bFGF stimulated cell proliferation under certain conditions but did not influence differentiation, as judged by stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 expression. The addition of bFGF reduced the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity associated with osteoblast activity during differentiation induced by osteogenic supplements, although the extent of mineralization was unaffected by bFGF. The bFGF increased the mesenchymal stem cell marker Sca-1 in an mES cell population and led to an enhanced increase in osteocalcin and runx2 expression in combination with BMP-2. These results suggest that bFGF could be utilized to expand the cell population in high-density cultures in addition to enriching the BMP-2 responsiveness of mES cells. PMID:22674886

  8. Genome-wide differential gene expression in immortalized DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblast cell line

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background When compared to primary chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells, the immortal DF-1 CEF line exhibits enhanced growth rates and susceptibility to oxidative stress. Although genes responsible for cell cycle regulation and antioxidant functions have been identified, the genome-wide transcription profile of immortal DF-1 CEF cells has not been previously reported. Global gene expression in primary CEF and DF-1 cells was performed using a 4X44K chicken oligo microarray. Results A total of 3876 differentially expressed genes were identified with a 2 fold level cutoff that included 1706 up-regulated and 2170 down-regulated genes in DF-1 cells. Network and functional analyses using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA, Ingenuity® Systems, http://www.ingenuity.com) revealed that 902 of 3876 differentially expressed genes were classified into a number of functional groups including cellular growth and proliferation, cell cycle, cellular movement, cancer, genetic disorders, and cell death. Also, the top 5 gene networks with intermolecular connections were identified. Bioinformatic analyses suggested that DF-1 cells were characterized by enhanced molecular mechanisms for cell cycle progression and proliferation, suppressing cell death pathways, altered cellular morphogenesis, and accelerated capacity for molecule transport. Key molecules for these functions include E2F1, BRCA1, SRC, CASP3, and the peroxidases. Conclusions The global gene expression profiles provide insight into the cellular mechanisms that regulate the unique characteristics observed in immortal DF-1 CEF cells. PMID:22111699

  9. Establishment and cryopreservation of a fibroblast cell line derived from Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Guan, W J; Liu, C Q; Li, C Y; Liu, D; Zhang, W X; Ma, Y H

    2010-01-01

    The Bengal tiger ear marginal tissue fibroblasts cell line (BTF22), containing 157 tubes of frozen cells, was successfully established by using primary explants technique and cell cryoconservation technology. Biological analysis showed that the population doubling time (PDT) for revival cells was approximately 28 h. Measurement of LDH and MDH isoenzymes showed no cross-contamination among the cells. Karyotyping showed that the frequency of cells with chromosome number 2n = 38 was 90.6-92.2%. Tests for bacteria, fungi, viruses and mycoplasma were negative. Plasmids encoding the fluorescent proteins pEGFP-N3, pEGFP-C1, pECFP-N1, pECFP-mito, pDsRed1-N1, and pEYFP-N1 were transfected into cells to study exogenous gene expression in the cells. The plasmid transfection efficiency was between 4.4% and 31.9%. Every index of the BTF22 cell line meets all the standard quality controls of American type Culture Collection (ATCC). Not only has the germline of this important Bengal tiger species been preserved at the cell level, but also valuable material had been provided for genome, postgenome and somacloning research. Moreover, the establishment of this technical platform would provide both technical and theoretical support for storing the genetic resources of other animals and poultry at the cell level.

  10. Establishment and cryopreservation of a fibroblast cell line derived from Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Guan, W J; Liu, C Q; Li, C Y; Liu, D; Zhang, W X; Ma, Y H

    2010-01-01

    The Bengal tiger ear marginal tissue fibroblasts cell line (BTF22), containing 157 tubes of frozen cells, was successfully established by using primary explants technique and cell cryoconservation technology. Biological analysis showed that the population doubling time (PDT) for revival cells was approximately 28 h. Measurement of LDH and MDH isoenzymes showed no cross-contamination among the cells. Karyotyping showed that the frequency of cells with chromosome number 2n = 38 was 90.6-92.2%. Tests for bacteria, fungi, viruses and mycoplasma were negative. Plasmids encoding the fluorescent proteins pEGFP-N3, pEGFP-C1, pECFP-N1, pECFP-mito, pDsRed1-N1, and pEYFP-N1 were transfected into cells to study exogenous gene expression in the cells. The plasmid transfection efficiency was between 4.4% and 31.9%. Every index of the BTF22 cell line meets all the standard quality controls of American type Culture Collection (ATCC). Not only has the germline of this important Bengal tiger species been preserved at the cell level, but also valuable material had been provided for genome, postgenome and somacloning research. Moreover, the establishment of this technical platform would provide both technical and theoretical support for storing the genetic resources of other animals and poultry at the cell level. PMID:20687455

  11. The effect of platelet-derived growth factor on cell division and glycosaminoglycan synthesis by human skin and scar fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Savage, K; Siebert, E; Swann, D

    1987-07-01

    The effect of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) on cell division and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis by fibroblasts isolated from skin and scar was measured. We found that PDGF stimulates cell division more efficiently in normal skin fibroblasts than in scar fibroblasts and decreases GAG synthesis in skin and scar fibroblasts. Using a 4-h pulse label with [3H]thymidine ([3H]Thd) following a 20-h incubation of confluent monolayer cultures with 0-5 units PDGF/ml Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, we found a concentration-dependent increase in [3H]Thd incorporation. After incubation of fibroblasts with [3H]glucosamine and 35SO4 in the presence or absence of PDGF, labeled constituents were isolated from the extracellular, pericellular, and cellular fractions by pronase digestion and column chromatography on Sepharose CL4B or DEAE-cellulose and analyzed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The presence of PDGF decreased the total amount of 35S incorporated into macromolecules by skin and scar fibroblasts and resulted in an altered distribution of labeled GAGs. Dermal fibroblasts exposed to PDGF for 24 h incorporated a greater percentage of radiolabeled 35S into dermatan sulfate prime (DS') and less into dermatan sulfate (DS) in the extracellular fractions and a greater percentage of 35S into heparan sulfate (HS) in the pericellular fractions than did parallel cultures grown in the absence of PDGF. It is thought than PDGF may have an effect on scar formation by increasing the fibroblast population in the wound tissue and by affecting the total amount and types of matrix components synthesized.

  12. Differentiated fibroblastic progenies of human embryonic stem cells for toxicology screening.

    PubMed

    Cao, Tong; Lu, Kai; Fu, Xin; Heng, Boon Chin

    2008-03-01

    Immortalized cell lines and live animal models are commonly used for cytotoxicity screening of biomedical devices and materials. However, these assays poorly reflect human physiology and have numerous other disadvantages. An alternative may be to utilize differentiated fibroblastic progenies of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) for in vitro toxicology screening. These were generated through random spontaneous differentiation within standard culture media, over several passages. The cytotoxic response of the differentiated hESC fibroblastic progenies (pH9) to mitomycin C was observed to be not only very similar to the L929 cell line, but was, in fact, more sensitive. At an initial seeding density of 1000 cells/well (0.33 cm(2)), the proliferation index was observed to decrease 19.0% from 1.638 to 1.326 for the L929 cell line, as the dosage of mitomycin C was gradually increased from 0 to 1.54 microg/mL. By contrast, pH9 displayed a corresponding 40.5% drop in proliferation index from 3.713 to 2.209. At a higher seeding density of 2000 cells/well (0.33 cm(2)), the proliferation index was observed to decrease 27.0% from 1.213 to 0.885 for the L929 cell line, whereas pH9 displayed a corresponding 43.7% drop in proliferation index from 3.711 to 2.091. Hence, it is apparent that pH9 exhibited a more sensitive dose-response to mitomycin C compared to L929, which could be advantageous for cytotoxicity screening assays. Additionally, this study also demonstrated that a highly purified and well-defined phenotypic population of differentiated hESC progenies is not necessary for high reproducibility and accuracy in cytotoxic response. PMID:18241121

  13. Substrate stiffness-regulated matrix metalloproteinase output in myocardial cells and cardiac fibroblasts: implications for myocardial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jing; Zhang, Quanyou; Zhu, Ting; Zhang, Yanyan; Liu, Bailin; Xu, Jianwen; Zhao, Hucheng

    2014-06-01

    Cardiac fibrosis, an important pathological feature of structural remodeling, contributes to ventricular stiffness, diastolic dysfunction, arrhythmia and may even lead to sudden death. Matrix stiffness, one of the many mechanical factors acting on cells, is increasingly appreciated as an important mediator of myocardial cell behavior. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates were fabricated with different stiffnesses to mimic physiological and pathological heart tissues, and the way in which the elastic modulus of the substrate regulated matrix-degrading gelatinases in myocardial cells and cardiac fibroblasts was explored. Initially, an increase in cell spreading area was observed, concomitant with the increase in PDMS stiffness in both cells. Later, it was demonstrated that the MMP-2 gene expression and protein activity in myocardial cells and cardiac fibroblasts can be enhanced with an increase in PDMS substrate stiffness and, moreover, such gene- and protein-related increases had a significant linear correlation with the elastic modulus. In comparison, the MMP-9 gene and protein expressions were up-regulated in cardiac fibroblasts only, not in myocardial cells. These results implied that myocardial cells and cardiac fibroblasts in the myocardium could sense the stiffness in pathological fibrosis and showed a differential but positive response in the expression of matrix-degrading gelatinases when exposed to an increased stiffening of the matrix in the microenvironment. The phenomenon of cells sensing pathological matrix stiffness can help to increase understanding of the mechanism underlying myocardial fibrosis and may ultimately lead to planning cure strategies.

  14. Protocol for the Direct Conversion of Murine Embryonic Fibroblasts into Trophoblast Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kubaczka, Caroline; Schorle, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) arise as a consequence of the first cell fate decision in mammalian development. They can be cultured in vitro, retaining the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into all subtypes of the trophoblast lineage, equivalent to the in vivo stem cell population giving rise to the fetal portion of the placenta. Therefore, TSCs offer a unique model to study placental development and embryonic versus extra-embryonic cell fate decision in vitro. From the blastocyst stage onwards, a distinct epigenetic barrier consisting of DNA methylation and histone modifications tightly separates both lineages. Here, we describe a protocol to fully overcome this lineage barrier by transient over-expression of trophoblast key regulators Tfap2c, Gata3, Eomes and Ets2 in murine embryonic fibroblasts. The induced trophoblast stem cells are able to self-renew and are almost identical to blastocyst derived trophoblast stem cells in terms of morphology, marker gene expression and methylation pattern. Functional in vitro and in vivo assays confirm that these cells are able to differentiate along the trophoblast lineage generating polyploid trophoblast giant cells and chimerizing the placenta when injected into blastocysts. The induction of trophoblast stem cells from somatic tissue opens new avenues to study genetic and epigenetic characteristics of this extra-embryonic lineage and offers the possibility to generate trophoblast stem cell lines without destroying the respective embryo. PMID:27500445

  15. Transient in vitro epigenetic reprogramming of skin fibroblasts into multipotent cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiang-Qing; Pan, Xing-Hua; Wang, Weibo; Chen, Qiang; Pang, Rong-Qing; Cai, Xue-Min; Hoffman, Andrew R.; Hu, Ji-Fan

    2009-01-01

    Multipotent stem cells have the potential to establish a new field of promising regenerative medicine to treat tissue damage, genetic disorders, and degenerative diseases. However, limited resource of stem cells has turned to be an evitable obstacle in clinical applications. We utilized a simple in vitro epigenetic reprogramming approach to convert skin fibroblasts into multipotent cells. After transient reprogramming, stem cell markers, including Oct4 and Nanog, became activated in the treated cells. The reprogrammed cells were multipotent as demonstrated by their ability to differentiate into a variety of cells and to form teratomas. Genomic imprinting of insulin-like growth factor II (Igf2) and H19 was not affected by this short period of cell reprogramming. This study may provide an alternative strategy to efficiently generate patient-specific stem cells for basic and clinical research, solving major hurdles of virally-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that entail the potential risks of mutation, gene instability, and malignancy. PMID:20044135

  16. Transfer of an expression YAC into goat fetal fibroblasts by cell fusion for mammary gland bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xufeng; Wu Guoxiang; Chen, Jian-Quan; Zhang Aimin; Liu Siguo; Jiao Binghua . E-mail: jiaobh@uninet.com.cn; Cheng Guoxiang . E-mail: Chenggx@cngenon.com

    2005-07-22

    Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) as transgenes in transgenic animals are likely to ensure optimal expression levels. Microinjection of YACs is the exclusive technique used to produce YACs transgenic livestock so far. However, low efficiency and high cost are its critical restrictive factors. In this study, we presented a novel procedure to produce YACs transgenic livestock as mammary gland bioreactor. A targeting vector, containing the gene of interest-a human serum albumin minigene (intron 1, 2), yeast selectable marker (G418R), and mammalian cell resistance marker (neo{sup r}), replaced the {alpha}-lactalbumin gene in a 210 kb human {alpha}-lactalbumin YAC by homogeneous recombination in yeasts. The chimeric YAC was introduced into goat fetal fibroblasts using polyethylene glycol-mediated spheroplast fusion. PCR and Southern analysis showed that intact YAC was integrated in the genome of resistant cells. Perhaps, it may offer a cell-based route by nuclear transfer to produce YACs transgenic livestock.

  17. Fibroblast growth factor 8 increases breast cancer cell growth by promoting cell cycle progression and by protecting against cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, Emeli M.; Brokken, Leon J.S.; Haerkoenen, Pirkko L.

    2010-03-10

    Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF-8) is expressed in a large proportion of breast cancers, whereas its level in normal mammary gland epithelium is low. Previous studies have shown that FGF-8b stimulates breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. To explore the mechanisms by which FGF-8b promotes growth, we studied its effects on cell cycle regulatory proteins and signalling pathways in mouse S115 and human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We also studied the effect of FGF-8b on cell survival. FGF-8b induced cell cycle progression and up-regulated particularly cyclin D1 mRNA and protein in S115 cells. Silencing cyclin D1 with siRNA inhibited most but not all FGF-8b-induced proliferation. Inhibition of the FGF-8b-activated ERK/MAPK pathway decreased FGF-8b-stimulated proliferation. Blocking the constitutively active PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways also lowered FGF-8b-induced cyclin D1 expression and proliferation. Corresponding results were obtained in MCF-7 cells. In S115 and MCF-7 mouse tumours, FGF-8b increased cyclin D1 and Ki67 levels. Moreover, FGF-8b opposed staurosporine-induced S115 cell death which effect was blocked by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway but not the ERK/MAPK pathway. In conclusion, our results suggest that FGF-8b increases breast cancer cell growth both by stimulating cell cycle progression and by protecting against cell death.

  18. Cardiac Niche Influences the Direct Reprogramming of Canine Fibroblasts into Cardiomyocyte-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Palazzolo, Giacomo; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Toelen, Jaan; Dominici, Roberto; Tettamenti, Guido; Barthelemy, Inès; Blot, Stephane; Gijsbers, Rik; Cassano, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies are caused by mutation of dystrophin gene and primarily affect skeletal and cardiac muscles. Cardiac involvement in dystrophic GRMD dogs has been demonstrated by electrocardiographic studies with the onset of a progressive cardiomyopathy similar to the cardiac disease in DMD patients. In this respect, GRMD is a useful model to explore cardiac and skeletal muscle pathogenesis and for developing new therapeutic protocols. Here we describe a protocol to convert GRMD canine fibroblasts isolated from heart and skin into induced cardiac-like myocytes (ciCLMs). We used a mix of transcription factors (GATA4, HAND2, TBX5, and MEF2C), known to be able to differentiate mouse and human somatic cells into ciCLMs. Exogenous gene expression was obtained using four lentiviral vectors carrying transcription factor genes and different resistance genes. Our data demonstrate a direct switch from fibroblast into ciCLMs with no activation of early cardiac genes. ciCLMs were unable to contract spontaneously, suggesting, differently from mouse and human cells, an incomplete differentiation process. However, when transplanted in neonatal hearts of SCID/Beige mice, ciCLMs participate in cardiac myogenesis. PMID:26681949

  19. c-Ski activates cancer-associated fibroblasts to regulate breast cancer cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liyang; Hou, Yixuan; Sun, Yan; Zhao, Liuyang; Tang, Xi; Hu, Ping; Yang, Jiajia; Zeng, Zongyue; Yang, Guanglun; Cui, Xiaojiang; Liu, Manran

    2013-12-01

    Aberrant expression of c-Ski oncoprotein in some tumor cells has been shown to be associated with cancer development. However, the role of c-Ski in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) of tumor microenvironment has not been characterized. In the current study, we found that c-Ski is highly expressed in CAFs derived from breast carcinoma microenvironment and this CAF-associated c-Ski expression is associated with invasion and metastasis of human breast tumors. We showed that c-Ski overexpression in immortalized breast normal fibroblasts (NFs) induces conversion to breast CAFs by repressing p53 and thereby upregulating SDF-1 in NFs. SDF-1 treatment or p53 knockdown in NFs had similar effects on the activation of NFs as c-Ski overexpression. The c-Ski-activated CAFs show increased proliferation, migration, invasion and contraction compared with NFs. Furthermore, c-Ski-activated CAFs facilitated the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Our data suggest that c-Ski is an important regulator in the activation of CAFs and may serve as a potential therapeutic target to block breast cancer progression.

  20. Vitamin D Attenuates Kidney Fibrosis via Reducing Fibroblast Expansion, Inflammation, and Epithelial Cell Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Arfian, Nur; Muflikhah, Khusnul; Soeyono, Sri Kadarsih; Sari, Dwi Cahyani Ratna; Tranggono, Untung; Anggorowati, Nungki; Romi, Muhammad Mansyur

    2016-01-01

    Kidney fibrosis is the common final pathway of chronic kidney diseases (CKD). It is characterized by myofibroblast formation, inflammation, and epithelial architecture damage. Vitamin D is known as a renoprotective agent, although the precise mechanism is not well understood. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of vitamin D in fibroblast expansion, inflammation, and apoptosis in kidney fibrosis. We performed unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in male Swiss-Webster background mice (3 months, 30-40 grams) to induce kidney fibrosis. The mice (n=25) were divided into five groups: UUO, 3 groups treated with different oral vitamin D doses (0.125 µg/kg (UUO+VD1), 0.25 µg/kg (UUO+VD2), and 0.5 µg/kg (UUO+VD3), and a Sham operation (SO) group with ethanol 0.2% supplementation. We sacrificed the mice on day14 after the operation and harvested the kidney. We made paraffin sections for histological analysis. Tubular injury and fibrosis were quantified based on periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Sirius Red (SR) staining. Immunostaining was done for examination of myofibroblasts (αSMA), fibroblasts (PDGFRβ), TLR4, and apoptosis (TUNEL). We did RNA extraction and cDNA for Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) experiment for measuring MCP-1, ICAM-1, TLR4, and collagen 1 expression. TGFβ1 level was quantified using ELISA. We observed a significantly lower levels of fibrosis (p<0.001), tubular injury scores (p<0.001), and myofibroblast areas (p<0.001) in the groups treated with vitamin D compared with the UUO group. The TGFβ1 levels and the fibroblast quantifications were also significantly lower in the former group. However, we did not find any significant difference among the various vitamin D-treated groups. Concerning the dose-independent effect, we only compared the UUO+VD-1 group with SO group and found by TUNEL assay that UUO+VD-1 had a significantly lower epithelial cell apoptosis. RT-PCR analysis showed lower expression of collagen1, as well as inflammation

  1. Uranyl Acetate Induces Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Collapse in the Human Dermal Fibroblast Primary Cells

    PubMed Central

    Daraie, Bahram; Pourahmad, Jalal; Hamidi-Pour, Neda; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Shaki, Fatemeh; Soleimani, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Cytotoxicity of depleted uranium, as a byproduct of military has been came to spotlight in recent decades. DU is known as a chemical rather than radioactive hazard and efforts to illustrating its mechanism is undergo, but the precise complete molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Recent studies showed that uranium induces biological changes in many different target tissues, such as the kidney, brain and skin. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of depleted uranium exposure at the cellular level in the human dermal fibroblast primary cells. The human dermal fibroblast primary cells incubated with different concentration (250-750 μM) of depleted uranium. Cytotoxicity and mitochondrial function in this cell lines were determined with the LDH leakage assay and the MTT test respectively. MDA levels were measured for determination of Lipid peroxidation in DU treated cells. Besides glutathione depletion and apoptosis phenotype detection were also assessed to complete the mechanistic screening. Results showed that the cell viability ameliorates in concentration and time dependent manners following in 24, 48 and 72 h incubation with DU. Moreover the significant increase in lipid peroxidation and significant decrease in cellular GSH recorded in DU treated human dermal fibroblast primary cells suggesting the preoxidant effect of uranyl ions. Cytoprotective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and dramatic decrease of cell viability in buthionin sulfoxamid (BSO) pretreated cells indicated the possibility of a critical role for glutathione system in DU detoxification. Death pattern, in fibroblast cells following DU treatment was varied from apoptosis to necrosis while the time and concentration increased. Since ROS formation is the initiation step for cell apoptosis, the present studies suggest Uranyl-induced toxicity in the human dermal fibroblast primary cells originated from oxidative stress and lead to occurrence of programmed cell death. PMID:24250472

  2. Comparison between fibroblast wound healing and cell random migration assays in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ascione, Flora; Vasaturo, Angela; Caserta, Sergio; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Formisano, Pietro; Guido, Stefano

    2016-09-10

    Cell migration plays a key role in many biological processes, including cancer growth and invasion, embryogenesis, angiogenesis, inflammatory response, and tissue repair. In this work, we compare two well-established experimental approaches for the investigation of cell motility in vitro: the cell random migration (CRM) and the wound healing (WH) assay. In the former, extensive tracking of individual live cells trajectories by time-lapse microscopy and elaborate data processing are used to calculate two intrinsic motility parameters of the cell population under investigation, i.e. the diffusion coefficient and the persistence time. In the WH assay, a scratch is made in a confluent cell monolayer and the closure time of the exposed area is taken as an easy-to-measure, empirical estimate of cell migration. To compare WH and CRM we applied the two assays to investigate the motility of skin fibroblasts isolated from wild type and transgenic mice (TgPED) overexpressing the protein PED/PEA-15, which is highly expressed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our main result is that the cell motility parameters derived from CRM can be also estimated from a time-resolved analysis of the WH assay, thus showing that the latter is also amenable to a quantitative analysis for the characterization of cell migration. To our knowledge this is the first quantitative comparison of these two widely used techniques. PMID:27475838

  3. Comparison between fibroblast wound healing and cell random migration assays in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ascione, Flora; Vasaturo, Angela; Caserta, Sergio; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Formisano, Pietro; Guido, Stefano

    2016-09-10

    Cell migration plays a key role in many biological processes, including cancer growth and invasion, embryogenesis, angiogenesis, inflammatory response, and tissue repair. In this work, we compare two well-established experimental approaches for the investigation of cell motility in vitro: the cell random migration (CRM) and the wound healing (WH) assay. In the former, extensive tracking of individual live cells trajectories by time-lapse microscopy and elaborate data processing are used to calculate two intrinsic motility parameters of the cell population under investigation, i.e. the diffusion coefficient and the persistence time. In the WH assay, a scratch is made in a confluent cell monolayer and the closure time of the exposed area is taken as an easy-to-measure, empirical estimate of cell migration. To compare WH and CRM we applied the two assays to investigate the motility of skin fibroblasts isolated from wild type and transgenic mice (TgPED) overexpressing the protein PED/PEA-15, which is highly expressed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our main result is that the cell motility parameters derived from CRM can be also estimated from a time-resolved analysis of the WH assay, thus showing that the latter is also amenable to a quantitative analysis for the characterization of cell migration. To our knowledge this is the first quantitative comparison of these two widely used techniques.

  4. Enhanced Expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 IIIc Promotes Human Esophageal Carcinoma Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Nobuhiro; Shimizu, Akio; Kanai, Michiyuki; Iwaya, Yugo; Ueda, Shugo; Nakayama, Jun; Seo, Misuzu Kurokawa

    2016-01-01

    Deregulated expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) and their ligands plays critical roles in tumorigenesis. The gene expression of an alternatively spliced isoforms of FGFR3, FGFR3IIIc, was analyzed by RT-PCR in samples from patients with esophageal carcinoma (EC), including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and adenocarcinoma (EAC). The incidence of FGFR3IIIc was higher in EC [12/16 (75%); p=0.073] than in non-cancerous mucosa (NCM) [6/16 (38%)]. Indeed, an immunohistochemical analysis of early-stage ESCC showed that carcinoma cells expressing FGFR3IIIc stained positively with SCC-112, a tumor marker, and Ki67, a cell proliferation marker, suggesting that the expression of FGFR3IIIc promotes cell proliferation. We used EC-GI-10 cells endogenously expressing FGFR3IIIc as a model of ESCC to provide mechanistic insight into the role of FGFR3IIIc in ESCC. The knockdown of endogenous FGFR3 using siRNA treatment significantly abrogated cell proliferation and the overexpression of FGFR3IIIc in cells with enhanced cell proliferation. EC-GI-10 cells and ESCC from patients with EC showed endogenous expression of FGF2, a specific ligand for FGFR3IIIc, suggesting that the upregulated expression of FGFR3IIIc may create autocrine FGF signaling in ESCC. Taken together, FGFR3IIIc may have the potential to be an early-stage tumor marker and a molecular target for ESCC therapy.

  5. CD34+ fibroblast-like cells in the interstitial infiltrates in glomerulonephritis - an immunohistochemical observation.

    PubMed

    Gluhovschi, Cristina; Potencz, Elena; Lazar, Elena; Petrica, Ligia; Bozdog, Gheorghe; Gadalean, Florica; Bob, Flaviu; Gluhovschi, Adrian; Cioca, Daniel; Velciov, Silvia

    2012-12-01

    CD34 cells in the interstitial infiltrates in glomerulonephritis (GN) could be the turning point between regenerative processes and interstitial fibrosis. The aim of our study was to assess the presence of CD34+ cells in the interstitial infiltrates in GN. A cross-sectional study of 33 patients with glomerulonephritis, mean age: 43.3 ±11.31 years, 20 male and 13 female, was conducted. Conventional stains, as well as immunohistochemistry for the CD34 antigen were employed on kidney biopsies. Strength of immunohistochemical reaction was assessed semi-quantitatively. Regarding the percentage of cases with CD34+ cells in the interstitial infiltrates out of 33 patients: cells of interstitial infiltrates were 27.3% positive. The percentage of cases showing CD34+ cells at the level of interstitial infiltrates was: 44.4% in FSGS, 14.3% in membranoproliferative GN, 28.6% in membranous nephropathy, 20% in mesangial proliferative GN, 0% in minimal change disease, and 50% in crescentic GN. With the exception of minimal change disease, CD34+ cells were found in the interstitial infiltrates in all histopathological forms of GN. Some of these cells were spindle-shaped fibroblast-like cells. As inflammation in the tubulointerstitial compartment either resolves or proceeds to fibrosis, aims at reversing this process will benefit from analyses of the interstitial infiltrates harboring CD34+ cells. PMID:23359197

  6. Rat embryo fibroblast cells expressing human papillomavirus 1a genes exhibit altered growth properties and tumorigenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Green, M; Brackmann, K H; Loewenstein, P M

    1986-01-01

    Human papillomavirus 1a (HPV1a) induces benign tumors (papillomas or warts) in humans under natural conditions of infection but has not been found to replicate significantly in cell culture or in experimental animals. To establish model systems to study the oncogenic properties and expression of HPV genes, we established cell lines by cotransfecting the 3Y1 rat fibroblast cell line with HPV1a DNA constructs containing an intact early gene region and the Tn5 neomycin resistance gene. Most cell lines selected for expression of the neomycin resistance gene by treatment with the antibiotic G-418 contained viral DNA in a high-molecular-weight form. The growth characteristics of several cell lines containing high copy numbers of HPV1a DNA were studied further. They were shown to differ from the parental cell line and from G-418-resistant cell lines that did not incorporate viral DNA in the following properties: morphological alteration, increased cell density at confluence, growth in 0.5% serum, efficient anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, and rapid formation of tumors in nude mice. Those cell lines that possessed altered growth properties and tumorigenicity were found to express abundant quantities of polyadenylated virus-specific RNA species in the cytoplasm. Images PMID:3023676

  7. Intestinal trefoil factor promotes invasion in non-tumorigenic Rat-2 fibroblast cell.

    PubMed

    Chan, Victor Y W; Chan, Michael W Y; Leung, Wai-Keung; Leung, Po-Sing; Sung, Joseph J Y; Chan, Francis K L

    2005-04-15

    Intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3) is essential in regulating cell migration and maintaining mucosal integrity in gastrointestinal tract. We previously showed that TFF3 was overexpressed in gastric carcinoma. Whether TFF3 possesses malignant potential is not fully elucidated. We sought to investigate the effects of inducting TFF3 expression in a non-malignant rat fibroblast cell line (Rat-2) on the cell proliferation, invasion and the genes regulating cell invasion. Invasiveness and proliferation of transfected Rat-2 cell line were assessed using in vitro invasion chamber assay and colorimetric MTS assay. Differential mRNA expressions of invasion-related genes, namely, metalloproteinases (MMP-9), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1), beta-catenin and E-cadherin, were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We showed that TFF3 did not inhibit the proliferation of Rat-2 cells. We also demonstrated that transfection of TFF3 significantly promoted invasion of Rat-2 cells by 1.4- to 2.2-folds. There was an upregulation of beta-catenin (13.1-23.0%) and MMP-9 (43.4-92.2%) mRNA expression levels, and downregulation of E-cadherin (25.6-33.8%) and TIMP-1 (31.5-37.8%) in TFF3-transfected cells compared to controls during 48-h incubation. Our results suggested that TFF3 possesses malignant potential through promotion of cell invasiveness and alteration of invasion-related genes.

  8. Mechanics regulates ATP-stimulated collective calcium response in fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Lembong, Josephine; Sabass, Benedikt; Sun, Bo; Rogers, Matthew E.; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-01-01

    Cells constantly sense their chemical and mechanical environments. We study the effect of mechanics on the ATP-induced collective calcium response of fibroblast cells in experiments that mimic various tissue environments. We find that closely packed two-dimensional cell cultures on a soft polyacrylamide gel (Young's modulus E = 690 Pa) contain more cells exhibiting calcium oscillations than cultures on a rigid substrate (E = 36 000 Pa). Calcium responses of cells on soft substrates show a slower decay of calcium level relative to those on rigid substrates. Actin enhancement and disruption experiments for the cell cultures allow us to conclude that actin filaments determine the collective Ca2+ oscillatory behaviour in the culture. Inhibition of gap junctions results in a decrease of the oscillation period and reduced correlation of calcium responses, which suggests additional complexity of signalling upon cell–cell contact. Moreover, the frequency of calcium oscillations is independent of the rigidity of the substrate but depends on ATP concentration. We compare our results with those from similar experiments on individual cells. Overall, our observations show that collective chemical signalling in cell cultures via calcium depends critically on the mechanical environment. PMID:26063818

  9. Enhancing the efficiency of direct reprogramming of human primary fibroblasts into dopaminergic neuron-like cells through p53 suppression.

    PubMed

    Liu, XinJian; Huang, Qian; Li, Fang; Li, Chuan-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neuron-like cells obtained through direct reprogramming of primary human fibroblasts offer exciting opportunities for treatment of Parkinson's disease. A significant obstacle is the low efficiency of conversion during the reprogramming process. Here, we demonstrate that the suppression of p53 significantly enhances the efficiency of transcription factor-mediated conversion of human fibroblasts into functional dopaminergic neurons. In particular, blocking p53 activity using a dominant-negative p53 (p53-DN) in IMR90 cells increases the conversion efficiency by 5-20 fold. The induced DA neuron-like cells exhibit dopamine neuron-specific gene expression, significant dopamine uptake and production capacities, and enables symptomatic relief in a rat Parkinson's disease model. Taken together, our findings suggest that p53 is a critical barrier in direct reprogramming of fibroblast into dopaminergic neurons. PMID:25129808

  10. Characterization of release of basic fibroblast growth factor from bovine retinal endothelial cells in monolayer cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, R A; Burrin, J M; Kohner, E M

    1991-01-01

    Release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was investigated in bovine retinal endothelial cells (BREC) maintained in monolayer culture. Confluent cells released bFGF into serum-free culture medium or medium containing 5% serum at rates of up to 105.2 and 61.3 pM/day respectively. bFGF release coincided with a decrease in monolayer cell number and increases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration and cells and cell-debris particles in the medium, which suggested that cell damage and lysis were responsible for growth-factor release. Maximum bFGF release at 24 h (230 +/- 10 pM) occurred when the cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (10 micrograms/ml), which also produced the greatest changes in parameters of cell damage. Sub-confluent cells showed little overt damage at 24 h, but released bFGF (78 +/- 20 pM) along with LDH, indicating that some cell lysis had occurred. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was also released into serum-free culture medium at a rate of 0.34 nM/day, but not into medium containing serum or when the cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide. This implies that the mechanism of IGF-1 release is different from that of bFGF and is not related to cell damage. Culture medium conditioned by BREC stimulated the proliferation of these cells, as measured by an increase in their incorporation of [methyl-3H]thymidine from 7550 +/- 479 to 10467 +/- 924 d.p.m. These results demonstrate that bFGF is released from damaged BREC and that medium conditioned by these cells can stimulate retinal-endothelial-cell proliferation. This strengthens the case for an involvement of this growth factor in retinal neovascularization. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2039465

  11. CD10 expressed by fibroblasts and melanoma cells degrades endothelin-1 secreted by human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lining; Moroi, Yoichi; Takahara, Masakazu; Tsuji, Gaku; Oba, Junna; Hayashida, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Shan, Baoen; Uchi, Hiroshi; Furue, Masutaka

    2011-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent multifunctional peptide linked to wound healing, pigmentation, carcinogenesis, and fibrosclerotic processes in the skin. Whereas ET-1 was thought to be digested by receptor-mediated endocytosis, it is also reported to be biochemically degraded by the neutral endopeptidase CD10 using kidney homogenates. Although keratinocytes (KC) and fibroblasts (Fb) are sources of both ET-1 and CD10, respectively, there is no report investigating the direct association between CD10 expression and its function in relation to ET-1 degradation in the skin. CD10 expression in melanoma cells is associated with clinical prognosis, suggesting an important role in the invasive and metastatic potential of melanoma cells. Here, cultured KC produced much higher amounts of ET-1 than did cultured Fb or melanoma cells. In contrast, KC and A375 melanoma cells did not express CD10, while Fb, SK-MEL-28 and G361 melanoma cells constitutively expressed CD10. KC-derived ET-1 was down-modulated by both CD10-positive Fb and CD10-positive melanoma cells, and the inhibition was partially reversed under substitution conditions using CD10-knockdown Fb or CD10-knockdown melanoma cells. This indicates that CD10 on cultured Fb and melanoma cells is biochemically active in the degradation or down-modulation of ET-1 secreted from KC. These findings may lead to better understanding of skin homeostasis and of the malignant potential of melanoma.

  12. Key players in pancreatic cancer-stroma interaction: Cancer-associated fibroblasts, endothelial and inflammatory cells

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Michael Friberg Bruun; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Detlefsen, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the most aggressive type of common cancers, and in 2014, nearly 40000 patients died from the disease in the United States. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, which accounts for the majority of PC cases, is characterized by an intense stromal desmoplastic reaction surrounding the cancer cells. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the main effector cells in the desmoplastic reaction, and pancreatic stellate cells are the most important source of CAFs. However, other important components of the PC stroma are inflammatory cells and endothelial cells. The aim of this review is to describe the complex interplay between PC cells and the cellular and non-cellular components of the tumour stroma. Published data have indicated that the desmoplastic stroma protects PC cells against chemotherapy and radiation therapy and that it might promote the proliferation and migration of PC cells. However, in animal studies, experimental depletion of the desmoplastic stroma and CAFs has led to more aggressive cancers. Hence, the precise role of the tumour stroma in PC remains to be elucidated. However, it is likely that a context-dependent therapeutic modification, rather than pure depletion, of the PC stroma holds potential for the development of new treatment strategies for PC patients. PMID:26973408

  13. Effect of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles on Skin Tumor Cells and Dermal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Alili, Lirija; Chapiro, Swetlana; Marten, Gernot U.; Schmidt, Annette M.; Zanger, Klaus; Brenneisen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles have been used in many biomedical approaches. The toxicity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on mammalian cells was published recently. Though, little is known about the viability of human cells after treatment with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Herein, we examined the toxicity, production of reactive oxygen species, and invasive capacity after treatment of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and cells of the squamous tumor cell line (SCL-1) with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. These nanoparticles had an average size of 65 nm. Fe3O4 nanoparticles induced oxidative stress via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent initiation of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, the question was addressed of whether Fe3O4 nanoparticles affect myofibroblast formation, known to be involved in tumor invasion. Herein, Fe3O4 nanoparticles prevent the expression alpha-smooth muscle actin and therefore decrease the number of myofibroblastic cells. Moreover, our data show in vitro that concentrations of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which are nontoxic for normal cells, partially reveal a ROS-triggered cytotoxic but also a pro-invasive effect on the fraction of squamous cancer cells surviving the treatment with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The data herein show that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles appear not to be adequate for use in therapeutic approaches against cancer cells, in contrast to recently published data with cerium oxide nanoparticles. PMID:26090418

  14. Differential Bystander Signaling Between Radioresistant Chondrosarcoma Cells and Fibroblasts After X-Ray, Proton, Iron Ion and Carbon Ion Exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Wakatsuki, Masaru

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Chondrosarcoma is well known as a radioresistant tumor, but the mechanisms underlying that resistance are still unclear. The bystander effect is well documented in the field of radiation biology. We investigated the bystander response induced by X-rays, protons, carbon ions, and iron ions in chondrosarcoma cells using a transwell insert co-culture system that precludes physical contact between targeted and bystander cells. Methods and Materials: Human chondrosarcoma cells were irradiated with 0.1-, 0.5-, 1-, and 2-Gy X-rays, protons, carbon ions or iron ions using a transwell insert co-culture system. Formation of micronuclei and p53 binding protein 1 staining in bystander and irradiated cells were analyzed and bystander signaling between mixed cultures of chondrosarcoma cells, and normal human skin fibroblasts was investigated. Results: In this study, we show that the fraction of cells with DNA damages in irradiated chondrosarcoma cells showed dose-dependent increases with all beams. However, the fraction of cells with DNA damages in all bystander chondrosarcoma cells did not show any change from the levels in control cells. In the bystander signaling between mixed cultures of chondrosarcoma cells and fibroblasts, the amount of micronucleus formation in all bystander chondrosarcoma cells co-cultured with irradiated fibroblasts were the same as the levels for control cells. However, all bystander fibroblasts co-cultured with irradiated chondrosarcoma cells showed significant increases in the fraction of micronucleated cells compared to the rate of control cells. Conclusions: We conclude that chondrosarcoma cells in the transwell insert co-culture system could release bystander stimulations but could not develop bystander responses.

  15. The effects of captan and captafol on different bacterial strains and on c-mitosis in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Rahden-Staroń, I; Szumiło, M; Ziemkiewicz, P

    1994-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of captan and captafol was tested using Ames strains and strains showing an SOS response. Captafol was mutagenic in S. typhimurium strain TA102 (uvr+) and captan in strain TA104 (uvrB). Both captan and captafol elicit damages in DNA recognized by correndonuclease II, as shown by the repair test, and induced the SOS repair system in E. coli PQ37 (uvrA) strain. Only captafol induced the SOS system in PQ35 (uvr+). The lack of induction of beta-galactosidase at nonpermissive temperature in E. coli MD332 (dnaCs uvrA) strain showed that neither chemical was able to produce DNA breaks. In V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts higher induction of c-mitosis by captafol than by captan (22% and 15% over the control, respectively) was accompanied by a higher decrease in nonprotein sulfhydryl groups, mainly GSH (41% and 77%, respectively). The content of protein sulfhydryl groups was decreased by either fungicide to a similar extent.

  16. L1CAM stimulates glioma cell motility and proliferation through the fibroblast growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Mohanan, Vishnu; Temburni, Murali K; Kappes, John C; Galileo, Deni S

    2013-04-01

    The L1CAM cell adhesion/recognition molecule (L1, CD171) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) both are expressed by human high-grade glioma cells, but their potential actions in controlling cell behavior have not been linked. L1 actions in cancer cells have been attributed mainly to integrin receptors, and we demonstrated previously that L1-stimulated glioma cell migration correlates with integrin expression, increased focal adhesion kinase activation and focal complex turnover. Our analyses of datasets revealed FGFR is overexpressed in glioma regardless of grade, while ADAM10 metalloprotease expression increases with glioma grade. Here, we used dominant-negative and short hairpin RNA approaches to inhibit the activation of FGFR1 and expression of L1, respectively. An L1 peptide that inhibits L1-FGFR interaction and PD173074, a chemical inhibitor of FGFR1 activity, also were used to elucidate the involvement of L1-FGFR interactions on glioma cell behavior. Time-lapse cell motility studies and flow cytometry cell cycle analyses showed that L1 operates to increase glioma cell motility and proliferation through FGFR activation. Shutdown of both L1 expression and FGFR activity in glioma cells resulted in a complete termination of cell migration in vitro. These studies show for the first time that soluble L1 ectodomain (L1LE) acts on glioma cells through FGFRs, and that FGFRs are used by glioma cells for increasing motility as well as proliferation in response to activation by L1LE ligand. Thus, effective treatment of high-grade glioma may require simultaneous targeting of L1, FGFRs, and integrin receptors, which would reduce glioma cell motility as well as proliferation.

  17. Adhesion of phospholipid vesicles to Chinese hamster fibroblasts: Role of cell surface proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, RE; Takeichi, M

    1977-01-01

    The adhesion of artificially generated lipid membrane vesicles to Chinese hamster V79 fibroblasts in suspension was used as a model system for studying membrane interactions. Below their gel-liquid crystalline phase transition temperature, vesicles comprised of dipalmitoyl lecithin (DPL) or dimyristoyl lecithin (DML) absorbed to the surfaces of EDTA- dissociated cells. These adherent vesicles could not be removed by repeated washings of the treated cells but could be released into the medium by treatment with trypsin. EM autoradiographic studies of cells treated with[(3)H]DML or [(3)H]DPL vesicles showed that most of the radioactive lipids were confined to the cell periphery. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy further confirmed the presence of adherent vesicles at the cell surface. Adhesion of DML or DPL vesicles to EDTA-dissociated cells modified the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination pattern of the cell surface proteins; the inhibition of labeling of two proteins with an approximately 60,000- dalton mol wt was particularly evident. Incubation of cells wit h (3)H-lipid vesicles followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that some of the (3)H-lipid migrated preferentially with these approximately 60,000-mol wt proteins. Studies of the temperature dependence of vesicle uptake and subsequent release by trypsin showed that DML or DPL vesicle adhesion to EDTA- dissociated cells increased with decreasing temperatures. In contrast, cells trypsinized before incubation with vesicles showed practically no temperature dependence of vesicle uptake. These results suggest two pathways for adhesion of lipid vesicles to the cell surface-a temperature-sensitive one involving cell surface proteins, and a temperature-independent one. These findings are discussed in terms of current models for cell-cell interactions. PMID:407233

  18. Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) with Microelectrode Arrays for Investigation of Cancer Cell-Fibroblasts Interaction.

    PubMed

    Tran, Trong Binh; Baek, Changyoon; Min, Junhong

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment, including stromal cells, surrounding blood vessels and extracellular matrix components, has been defined as a crucial factor that influences the proliferation, drug-resistance, invasion and metastasis of malignant epithelial cells. Among other factors, the communications and interaction between cancer cells and stromal cells have been reported to play pivotal roles in cancer promotion and progression. To investigate these relationships, an on-chip co-culture model was developed to study the cellular interaction between A549-human lung carcinoma cells and MRC-5-human lung epithelial cells in both normal proliferation and treatment conditions. In brief, a co-culture device consisting of 2 individual fluidic chambers in parallel, which were separated by a 100 μm fence was utilized for cell patterning. Microelectrodes arrays were installed within each chamber including electrodes at various distances away from the confrontation line for the electrochemical impedimetric sensing assessment of cell-to-cell influence. After the fence was removed and cell-to-cell contact occurred, by evaluating the impedance signal responses representing cell condition and behavior, both direct and indirect cell-to-cell interactions through conditioned media were investigated. The impact of specific distances that lead to different influences of fibroblast cells on cancer cells in the co-culture environment was also defined. PMID:27088611

  19. Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) with Microelectrode Arrays for Investigation of Cancer CellFibroblasts Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Trong Binh; Baek, Changyoon; Min, Junhong

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment, including stromal cells, surrounding blood vessels and extracellular matrix components, has been defined as a crucial factor that influences the proliferation, drug-resistance, invasion and metastasis of malignant epithelial cells. Among other factors, the communications and interaction between cancer cells and stromal cells have been reported to play pivotal roles in cancer promotion and progression. To investigate these relationships, an on-chip co-culture model was developed to study the cellular interaction between A549—human lung carcinoma cells and MRC-5—human lung epithelial cells in both normal proliferation and treatment conditions. In brief, a co-culture device consisting of 2 individual fluidic chambers in parallel, which were separated by a 100 μm fence was utilized for cell patterning. Microelectrodes arrays were installed within each chamber including electrodes at various distances away from the confrontation line for the electrochemical impedimetric sensing assessment of cell-to-cell influence. After the fence was removed and cell-to-cell contact occurred, by evaluating the impedance signal responses representing cell condition and behavior, both direct and indirect cell-to-cell interactions through conditioned media were investigated. The impact of specific distances that lead to different influences of fibroblast cells on cancer cells in the co-culture environment was also defined. PMID:27088611

  20. Culture of human limbal epithelial stem cells on tenon's fibroblast feeder-layers: a translational approach.

    PubMed

    Scafetta, Gaia; Siciliano, Camilla; Frati, Giacomo; De Falco, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The coculture technique is the standard method to expand ex vivo limbal stem cells (LSCs) by using inactivated embryonic murine feeder layers (3T3). Although alternative techniques such as amniotic membranes or scaffolds have been proposed, feeder layers are still considered to be the best method, due to their ability to preserve some critical properties of LSCs such as cell growth and viability, stemness phenotype, and clonogenic potential. Furthermore, clinical applications of LSCs cultured on 3T3 have taken place. Nevertheless, for an improved Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) compliance, the use of human feeder-layers as well as a fine standardization of the process is strictly encouraged. Here, we describe a translational approach in accordance with GMP regulations to culture LSCs onto human Tenon's fibroblasts (TFs). In this chapter, based on our experience we identify and analyze issues that often are encountered by researchers and discuss solutions to common problems. PMID:25063497

  1. Culture of human limbal epithelial stem cells on tenon's fibroblast feeder-layers: a translational approach.

    PubMed

    Scafetta, Gaia; Siciliano, Camilla; Frati, Giacomo; De Falco, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The coculture technique is the standard method to expand ex vivo limbal stem cells (LSCs) by using inactivated embryonic murine feeder layers (3T3). Although alternative techniques such as amniotic membranes or scaffolds have been proposed, feeder layers are still considered to be the best method, due to their ability to preserve some critical properties of LSCs such as cell growth and viability, stemness phenotype, and clonogenic potential. Furthermore, clinical applications of LSCs cultured on 3T3 have taken place. Nevertheless, for an improved Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) compliance, the use of human feeder-layers as well as a fine standardization of the process is strictly encouraged. Here, we describe a translational approach in accordance with GMP regulations to culture LSCs onto human Tenon's fibroblasts (TFs). In this chapter, based on our experience we identify and analyze issues that often are encountered by researchers and discuss solutions to common problems.

  2. Computational Modeling Predicts Simultaneous Targeting of Fibroblasts and Epithelial Cells Is Necessary for Treatment of Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Warsinske, Hayley C.; Wheaton, Amanda K.; Kim, Kevin K.; Linderman, Jennifer J.; Moore, Bethany B.; Kirschner, Denise E.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is pathologic remodeling of lung tissue that can result in difficulty breathing, reduced quality of life, and a poor prognosis for patients. Fibrosis occurs as a result of insult to lung tissue, though mechanisms of this response are not well-characterized. The disease is driven in part by dysregulation of fibroblast proliferation and differentiation into myofibroblast cells, as well as pro-fibrotic mediator-driven epithelial cell apoptosis. The most well-characterized pro-fibrotic mediator associated with pulmonary fibrosis is TGF-β1. Excessive synthesis of, and sensitivity to, pro-fibrotic mediators as well as insufficient production of and sensitivity to anti-fibrotic mediators has been credited with enabling fibroblast accumulation. Available treatments neither halt nor reverse lung damage. In this study we have two aims: to identify molecular and cellular scale mechanisms driving fibroblast proliferation and differentiation as well as epithelial cell survival in the context of fibrosis, and to predict therapeutic targets and strategies. We combine in vitro studies with a multi-scale hybrid agent-based computational model that describes fibroblasts and epithelial cells in co-culture. Within this model TGF-β1 represents a pro-fibrotic mediator and we include detailed dynamics of TGF-β1 receptor ligand signaling in fibroblasts. PGE2 represents an anti-fibrotic mediator. Using uncertainty and sensitivity analysis we identify TGF-β1 synthesis, TGF-β1 activation, and PGE2 synthesis among the key mechanisms contributing to fibrotic outcomes. We further demonstrate that intervention strategies combining potential therapeutics targeting both fibroblast regulation and epithelial cell survival can promote healthy tissue repair better than individual strategies. Combinations of existing drugs and compounds may provide significant improvements to the current standard of care for pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, a two-hit therapeutic intervention strategy

  3. Computational Modeling Predicts Simultaneous Targeting of Fibroblasts and Epithelial Cells Is Necessary for Treatment of Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Warsinske, Hayley C; Wheaton, Amanda K; Kim, Kevin K; Linderman, Jennifer J; Moore, Bethany B; Kirschner, Denise E

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is pathologic remodeling of lung tissue that can result in difficulty breathing, reduced quality of life, and a poor prognosis for patients. Fibrosis occurs as a result of insult to lung tissue, though mechanisms of this response are not well-characterized. The disease is driven in part by dysregulation of fibroblast proliferation and differentiation into myofibroblast cells, as well as pro-fibrotic mediator-driven epithelial cell apoptosis. The most well-characterized pro-fibrotic mediator associated with pulmonary fibrosis is TGF-β1. Excessive synthesis of, and sensitivity to, pro-fibrotic mediators as well as insufficient production of and sensitivity to anti-fibrotic mediators has been credited with enabling fibroblast accumulation. Available treatments neither halt nor reverse lung damage. In this study we have two aims: to identify molecular and cellular scale mechanisms driving fibroblast proliferation and differentiation as well as epithelial cell survival in the context of fibrosis, and to predict therapeutic targets and strategies. We combine in vitro studies with a multi-scale hybrid agent-based computational model that describes fibroblasts and epithelial cells in co-culture. Within this model TGF-β1 represents a pro-fibrotic mediator and we include detailed dynamics of TGF-β1 receptor ligand signaling in fibroblasts. PGE2 represents an anti-fibrotic mediator. Using uncertainty and sensitivity analysis we identify TGF-β1 synthesis, TGF-β1 activation, and PGE2 synthesis among the key mechanisms contributing to fibrotic outcomes. We further demonstrate that intervention strategies combining potential therapeutics targeting both fibroblast regulation and epithelial cell survival can promote healthy tissue repair better than individual strategies. Combinations of existing drugs and compounds may provide significant improvements to the current standard of care for pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, a two-hit therapeutic intervention strategy

  4. Computational modeling predicts simultaneous targeting of fibroblasts and epithelial cells is necessary for treatment of pulmonary fibrosis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Warsinske, Hayley C.; Wheaton, Amanda K.; Kim, Kevin K.; Linderman, Jennifer J.; Moore, Bethany B.; Kirschner, Denise E.

    2016-06-23

    Pulmonary fibrosis is pathologic remodeling of lung tissue that can result in difficulty breathing, reduced quality of life, and a poor prognosis for patients. Fibrosis occurs as a result of insult to lung tissue, though mechanisms of this response are not well-characterized. The disease is driven in part by dysregulation of fibroblast proliferation and differentiation into myofibroblast cells, as well as pro-fibrotic mediator-driven epithelial cell apoptosis. The most well-characterized pro-fibrotic mediator associated with pulmonary fibrosis is TGF-β1. Excessive synthesis of, and sensitivity to, pro-fibrotic mediators as well as insufficient production of and sensitivity to anti-fibrotic mediators has been credited withmore » enabling fibroblast accumulation. Available treatments neither halt nor reverse lung damage. In this study we have two aims: to identify molecular and cellular scale mechanisms driving fibroblast proliferation and differentiation as well as epithelial cell survival in the context of fibrosis, and to predict therapeutic targets and strategies. We combine in vitro studies with a multi-scale hybrid agent-based computational model that describes fibroblasts and epithelial cells in co-culture. Within this model TGF-β1 represents a pro-fibrotic mediator and we include detailed dynamics of TGFβ1 receptor ligand signaling in fibroblasts. PGE2 represents an anti-fibrotic mediator. Using uncertainty and sensitivity analysis we identify TGF-β1 synthesis, TGF-β1 activation, and PGE2 synthesis among the key mechanisms contributing to fibrotic outcomes. We further demonstrate that intervention strategies combining potential therapeutics targeting both fibroblast regulation and epithelial cell survival can promote healthy tissue repair better than individual strategies. Combinations of existing drugs and compounds may provide significant improvements to the current standard of care for pulmonary fibrosis. In conclusion, a two-hit therapeutic

  5. Cd2+-Induced Alteration of the Global Proteome of Human Skin Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd2+) is a toxic heavy metal and a well-known human carcinogen. The toxic effects of Cd2+ on biological systems are diverse and thought to be exerted through a complex array of mechanisms. Despite the large number of studies aimed to elucidate the toxic mechanisms of action of Cd2+, few have been targeted toward investigating the ability of Cd2+ to disrupt multiple cellular pathways simultaneously and the overall cellular responses toward Cd2+ exposure. In this study, we employed a quantitative proteomic method, relying on stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and LC–MS/MS, to assess the Cd2+-induced simultaneous alterations of multiple cellular pathways in cultured human skin fibroblast cells. By using this approach, we were able to quantify 2931 proteins, and 400 of them displayed significantly changed expression following Cd2+ exposure. Our results unveiled that Cd2+ treatment led to the marked upregulation of several antioxidant enzymes (e.g., metallothionein-1G, superoxide dismutase, pyridoxal kinase, etc.), enzymes associated with glutathione biosynthesis and homeostasis (e.g., glutathione S-transferases, glutathione synthetase, glutathione peroxidase, etc.), and proteins involved in cellular energy metabolism (e.g., glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and the citric acid cycle). Additionally, we found that Cd2+ treatment resulted in the elevated expression of two isoforms of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH I and II), enzymes known to play a key role in regulating nitric oxide biosynthesis. Consistent with these findings, we observed elevated formation of nitric oxide in human skin (GM00637) and lung (IMR-90) fibroblast cells following Cd2+ exposure. The upregulation of DDAH I and II suggests a role of nitric oxide synthesis in Cd2+-induced toxicity in human cells. PMID:24527689

  6. Incorporation and turnover of biotin-labeled actin microinjected into fibroblastic cells: an immunoelectron microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism of turnover of an actin microfilament system in fibroblastic cells on an electron microscopic level. A new derivative of actin was prepared by labeling muscle actin with biotin. Cultured fibroblastic cells were microinjected with biotinylated actin, and incorporated biotin-actin molecules were detected by immunoelectron microscopy using an anti-biotin antibody and a colloidal gold-labeled secondary antibody. We also analyzed the localization of injected biotin-actin molecules on a molecular level by freeze-drying techniques. Incorporation of biotin-actin was rapid in motile peripheral regions, such as lamellipodia and microspikes. At approximately 1 min after injection, biotin-actin molecules were mainly incorporated into the distal part of actin bundles in the microspikes. Heavily labeled actin filaments were also observed at the distal fringe of the densely packed actin networks in the lamellipodium. By 5 min after injection, most actin polymers in microspikes and lamellipodia were labeled uniformly. These findings suggest that actin subunits are added preferentially at the membrane-associated ends of preexisting actin filaments. At earlier times after injection, we often observed that the labeled segments were continuous with unlabeled segments, suggesting the incorporation of new subunits at the ends of preexisting filaments. Actin incorporation into stress fibers was a slower process. At 2-3 min after injection, microfilaments at the surface of stress fibers incorporated biotin-actin, but filaments in the core region of stress fibers did not. At 5-10 min after injection, increasing density of labeling along stress fibers toward their distal ends was observed. Stress fiber termini are generally associated with focal contacts. There was no rapid nucleation of actin filaments off the membrane of focal contacts and the pattern of actin incorporation at focal contacts was essentially identical to that into distal parts of stress fibers

  7. Cooperation by Fibroblasts and Bone Marrow-Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Improve Pancreatic Rat-to-Mouse Islet Xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Meana, Alvaro; Otero, Jesus; Esteban, Manuel M.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental and clinical experiences highlight the need to review some aspects of islet transplantation, especially with regard to site of grafting and control of the immune response. The subcutaneous space could be a good alternative to liver but its sparse vasculature is its main limitation. Induction of graft tolerance by using cells with immunoregulatory properties is a promising approach to avoid graft rejection. Both Fibroblasts and Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have shown pro-angiogenic and immunomodulatory properties. Transplantation of islets into the subcutaneous space using plasma as scaffold and supplemented with fibroblasts and/or Bone Marrow-MSCs could be a promising strategy to achieve a functional extra-hepatic islet graft, without using immunosuppressive drugs. Xenogenic rat islets, autologous fibroblasts and/or allogenic BM-MSCs, were mixed with plasma, and coagulation was induced to constitute a Plasma-based Scaffold containing Islets (PSI), which was transplanted subcutaneously both in immunodeficient and immunocompetent diabetic mice. In immunodeficient diabetic mice, PSI itself allowed hyperglycemia reversion temporarily, but the presence of pro-angiogenic cells (fibroblasts or BM-MSCs) within PSI was necessary to improve graft re-vascularization and, thus, consistently maintain normoglycemia. In immunocompetent diabetic mice, only PSI containing BM-MSCs, but not those containing fibroblasts, normalized glycemia lasting up to one week after transplantation. Interestingly, when PSI contained both fibroblasts and BM-MSCs, the normoglycemia period showed an increase of 4-times with a physiological-like response in functional tests. Histology of immunocompetent mice showed an attenuation of the immune response in those grafts with BM-MSCs, which was improved by co-transplantation with fibroblasts, since they increased BM-MSC survival. In summary, fibroblasts and BM-MSCs showed similar pro-angiogenic properties in this model of islet

  8. Derivation and characterization of goat fetal fibroblast cells induced with human telomerase reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ying; Zhao, Xiaoe; Jia, Hongxiang; Ma, Baohua

    2013-01-01

    Fetal fibroblast cells (FFCs) are often used as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) because they are easy to culture and suitable for genetic manipulation. However, through genetic modification process, which required FFCs to be cultured in vitro for several passages, cells tended to age very rapidly and became inappropriate for SCNT. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) possessed the activity of human telomerase and maintains telomere in dividing cells; therefore, hTERT can be transfected into somatic cells to extend their lifespan. In this study, we transfected a Xinong Saanen Dairy Goat FFC line with hTERT. Then, we tested several characteristics of transfected cells, including growth curve, expression and activity of hTERT, tumorigenicity, and expression of oct4 and nanog. The result showed that hTERT could significantly extend the lifespan of transfected cells in vitro. hTERT mRNA was expressed in hTERT-transfected cells. Moreover, hTERT-transfected cells presented enhanced telomerase activity and longer telomere than untransfected cells at the same passage. On the other hand, hTERT-transfected cells can maintain normal karyotype even after several times of subculture in vitro. After inoculation of hTERT-transfected cells in nude mouse, none of them developed tumors on the vaccination site. Interestingly, transfection of hTERT can improve expression of nanog and oct4 in Xinong Saanen Dairy Goat FFCs, especially in low generation after transfection, but with increasing subculture, this effect gradually weakened. PMID:23271363

  9. Fluid flow releases fibroblast growth factor-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, D. N.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.

    2000-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that fluid shear stress regulates the release of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 is a potent mitogen that is involved in the response to vascular injury and is expressed in a wide variety of cell types. FGF-2 is found in the cytoplasm of cells and outside cells, where it associates with extracellular proteoglycans. To test the hypothesis that shear stress regulates FGF-2 release, cells were exposed to flow, and FGF-2 amounts were measured from the conditioned medium, pericellular fraction (extracted by heparin treatment), and cell lysate. Results from the present study show that after 15 minutes of shear stress at 25 dyne/cm(2) in a parallel-plate flow system, a small but significant fraction (17%) of the total FGF-2 was released from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 levels in the circulating medium increased 10-fold over medium from static controls (P<0.01). A 50% increase in FGF-2 content versus control (P<0.01) was found in the pericellular fraction (extracted by heparin treatment). Furthermore, a significant decrease in FGF-2 was detected in the cell lysate, indicating that FGF-2 was released from inside the cell. Cell permeability studies with fluorescent dextran were performed to examine whether transient membrane disruption caused FGF-2 release. Flow cytometry detected a 50% increase in mean fluorescence of cells exposed to 25 dyne/cm(2) versus control cells. This indicates that the observed FGF-2 release from human aortic smooth muscle cells is likely due to transient membrane disruption on initiation of flow.

  10. Fibroblast growth factor signaling is essential for self-renewal of dental epithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Julia Yu Fong; Wang, Cong; Liu, Junchen; Huang, Yanqing; Jin, Chengliu; Yang, Chaofeng; Hai, Bo; Liu, Fei; D'Souza, Rena N; McKeehan, Wallace L; Wang, Fen

    2013-10-01

    A constant supply of epithelial cells from dental epithelial stem cell (DESC) niches in the cervical loop (CL) enables mouse incisors to grow continuously throughout life. Elucidation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this unlimited growth potential is of broad interest for tooth regenerative therapies. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is essential for the development of mouse incisors and for maintenance of the CL during prenatal development. However, how FGF signaling in DESCs controls the self-renewal and differentiation of the cells is not well understood. Herein, we report that FGF signaling is essential for self-renewal and the prevention of cell differentiation of DESCs in the CL as well as in DESC spheres. Inhibiting the FGF signaling pathway decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of the cells in DESC spheres. Suppressing FGFR or its downstream signal transduction pathways diminished Lgr5-expressing cells in the CL and promoted cell differentiation both in DESC spheres and the CL. Furthermore, disruption of the FGF pathway abrogated Wnt signaling to promote Lgr5 expression in DESCs both in vitro and in vivo. This study sheds new light on understanding the mechanism by which the homeostasis, expansion, and differentiation of DESCs are regulated.

  11. Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ERα)-Associated Fibroblasts Promote Cell Growth in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Da, Jun; Lu, Mujun; Wang, Zhong

    2015-12-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) is expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the stromal compartment of cancerous prostate. However, the effect of ERα in CAF cells on prostate cancer (PCa) cell growth remains unclear. We used lentiviral transduction to stably express ERα in CAF cells isolated from transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model. MTT and 3D colony-formation assays demonstrated that conditioned medium from ERα-expressing CAF cells (CAF-ERα+) promoted cell proliferation and colony growth of various PCa cell lines, such as PC3, LNCaP, 22RV1, and C4-2. We further confirmed the in vitro data by orthotopically co-implanting 22RV1, transfected with firefly luciferase, and CAF-ERα+ cells in vivo using mouse model. Mice co-implanted with CAF-ERα+ exhibited stronger luciferase signals and bigger tumor size compared to animals co-implanted with CAF that do not express ER. Our results demonstrate that ER expressed in CAF might play a pro-proliferative role in PCa. PMID:27259327

  12. Magnetite nanoparticles induced adaptive mechanisms counteract cell death in human pulmonary fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Radu, Mihaela; Dinu, Diana; Sima, Cornelia; Burlacu, Radu; Hermenean, Anca; Ardelean, Aurel; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2015-10-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) have attracted great interest for biomedical applications due to their unique chemical and physical properties, but the MNP impact on human health is not fully known. Consequently, our study proposes to highlight the biochemical mechanisms that underline the toxic effects of MNP on a human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5). The cytotoxicity generated by MNP in MRC-5 cells was dose and time-dependent. MNP-treated MRC-5 cells accumulated large amount of iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exhibited elevated antioxidant scavenger enzymes. Reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion and enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO) processes were also observed. The cellular capacity to counteract the oxidative damage was sustained by high levels of heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60), a protein that confers resistance against ROS attack and inhibition of cell death. While significant augmentations in nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandine E2 (PGE2) levels were detected after 72 h of MNP-exposure only, caspase-1 was activated earlier starting with 24h post-treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that MRC-5 cells have the capacity to develop cell protection mechanisms against MNP. Detailed knowledge of the mechanisms induced by MNP in cell culture could be essential for their prospective use in various in vivo biochemical applications. PMID:26065626

  13. Characterization of Endoneurial Fibroblast-like Cells from Human and Rat Peripheral Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Laurence; Védrenne, Nicolas; Vallat, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Endoneurial fibroblast-like cells (EFLCs) are one of the cell populations present in the peripheral nervous system. The role and immunophenotypic characteristics of EFLCs are not well known and led us to perform a histological and cytological study of EFLCs in normal human and rat peripheral nerves. We found that all EFLCs express CD34, neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2), and prolyl-4-hydrolase-beta. In addition, half of the EFLCs in normal peripheral nerves express platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β) and some also express the intermediate filament nestin in vivo (at a lower level than Schwann cells, which express high levels of nestin). Using cell cultures of purified EFLCs, we characterized subpopulations of EFLCs expressing PDGFR-β alone or PDGFR-β and nestin. Experimental nerve lesions in rat resulted in an increase in nestin-positive EFLCs, which returned to normal levels after 8 days. This suggests that some EFLCs could have a different proliferative and/or regenerative potential than others, and these EFLCs may play a role in the initial phase of nerve repair. These “activated” EFLCs share some immunophenotypic similarities with pericytes and Interstitial cells of Cajal, which have progenitor cell potentials. This raises the questions as to whether a proportion of EFLCs have a possible role as endoneurial progenitor cells. PMID:24670794

  14. Malvidin Protects WI-38 Human Fibroblast Cells Against Stress-induced Premature Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hye Rin; Choi, Mi Jin; Choi, Ji Myung; Ko, Jong Cheol; Ko, Jee Yeon; Cho, Eun Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malvidin is one of the most abundant components in red wines and black rice. The effects of malvidin on aging and lifespan under oxidative stress have not been fully understood. This study focused on the anti-aging effect of malvidin on stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) in WI-38 human lung-derived diploid fibroblasts. Methods: In order to determine the viability of WI-38 cells, MTT assay was conducted, and malondialdehyde level was determined using thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance assay. Protein expression of inflammation-related factors was also evaluated by Western blot analysis. Results: Acute and chronic oxidative stress via hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment led to SIPS in WI-38 cells, which showed decreased cell viability, increased lipid peroxidation, and a shortened lifespan in comparison with non-H2O2-treated WI-38 cells. However, malvidin treatment significantly attenuated H2O2-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increasing cell viability. Furthermore, the lifespan of WI-38 cells was prolonged by malvidin treatment. In addition, malvidin downregulated the expression of oxidative stress-related proteins, including NF-κB, COX-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, protein expression levels of p53, p21, and Bax were also regulated by malvidin treatment in WI-38 cells undergoing SIPS. Conclusions: Malvidin may potentially inhibit the aging process by controlling oxidative stress. PMID:27051647

  15. Genome-wide expression analysis in fibroblast cell lines from probands with Pallister Killian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder; Izumi, Kosuke; Wilkens, Alisha B; Chatfield, Kathryn C; Spinner, Nancy B; Conlin, Laura K; Zhang, Zhe; Krantz, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    Pallister Killian syndrome (OMIM: # 601803) is a rare multisystem disorder typically caused by tissue limited mosaic tetrasomy of chromosome 12p (isochromosome 12p). The clinical manifestations of Pallister Killian syndrome are variable with the most common findings including craniofacial dysmorphia, hypotonia, cognitive impairment, hearing loss, skin pigmentary differences and epilepsy. Isochromosome 12p is identified primarily in skin fibroblast cultures and in chorionic villus and amniotic fluid cell samples and may be identified in blood lymphocytes during the neonatal and early childhood period. We performed genomic expression profiling correlated with interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization and single nucleotide polymorphism array quantification of degree of mosaicism in fibroblasts from 17 Caucasian probands with Pallister Killian syndrome and 9 healthy age, gender and ethnicity matched controls. We identified a characteristic profile of 354 (180 up- and 174 down-regulated) differentially expressed genes in Pallister Killian syndrome probands and supportive evidence for a Pallister Killian syndrome critical region on 12p13.31. The differentially expressed genes were enriched for developmentally important genes such as homeobox genes. Among the differentially expressed genes, we identified several genes whose misexpression may be associated with the clinical phenotype of Pallister Killian syndrome such as downregulation of ZFPM2, GATA6 and SOX9, and overexpression of IGFBP2. PMID:25329894

  16. Genome-Wide Expression Analysis in Fibroblast Cell Lines from Probands with Pallister Killian Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wilkens, Alisha B.; Chatfield, Kathryn C.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Conlin, Laura K.; Zhang, Zhe; Krantz, Ian D.

    2014-01-01

    Pallister Killian syndrome (OMIM: # 601803) is a rare multisystem disorder typically caused by tissue limited mosaic tetrasomy of chromosome 12p (isochromosome 12p). The clinical manifestations of Pallister Killian syndrome are variable with the most common findings including craniofacial dysmorphia, hypotonia, cognitive impairment, hearing loss, skin pigmentary differences and epilepsy. Isochromosome 12p is identified primarily in skin fibroblast cultures and in chorionic villus and amniotic fluid cell samples and may be identified in blood lymphocytes during the neonatal and early childhood period. We performed genomic expression profiling correlated with interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization and single nucleotide polymorphism array quantification of degree of mosaicism in fibroblasts from 17 Caucasian probands with Pallister Killian syndrome and 9 healthy age, gender and ethnicity matched controls. We identified a characteristic profile of 354 (180 up- and 174 down-regulated) differentially expressed genes in Pallister Killian syndrome probands and supportive evidence for a Pallister Killian syndrome critical region on 12p13.31. The differentially expressed genes were enriched for developmentally important genes such as homeobox genes. Among the differentially expressed genes, we identified several genes whose misexpression may be associated with the clinical phenotype of Pallister Killian syndrome such as downregulation of ZFPM2, GATA6 and SOX9, and overexpression of IGFBP2. PMID:25329894

  17. Substrate-mediated reprogramming of human fibroblasts into neural crest stem-like cells and their applications in neural repair.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ting-Chen; Hsieh, Fu-Yu; Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Cell- and gene-based therapies have emerged as promising strategies for treating neurological diseases. The sources of neural stem cells are limited while the induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have risk of tumor formation. Here, we proposed the generation of self-renewable, multipotent, and neural lineage-related neural crest stem-like cells by chitosan substrate-mediated gene transfer of a single factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3) for the use in neural repair. A simple, non-toxic, substrate-mediated method was applied to deliver the naked FOXD3 plasmid into human fibroblasts. The transfection of FOXD3 increased cell proliferation and up-regulated the neural crest marker genes (FOXD3, SOX2, and CD271), stemness marker genes (OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2), and neural lineage-related genes (Nestin, β-tubulin and GFAP). The expression levels of stemness marker genes and neural crest maker genes in the FOXD3-transfected fibroblasts were maintained until the fifth passage. The FOXD3 reprogrammed fibroblasts based on the new method significantly rescued the neural function of the impaired zebrafish. The chitosan substrate-mediated delivery of naked plasmid showed feasibility in reprogramming somatic cells. Particularly, the FOXD3 reprogrammed fibroblasts hold promise as an easily accessible cellular source with neural crest stem-like behavior for treating neural diseases in the future. PMID:27341268

  18. Induction of Neural Progenitor-Like Cells from Human Fibroblasts via a Genetic Material-Free Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mirakhori, Fahimeh; Zeynali, Bahman; Rassouli, Hassan; Shahbazi, Ebrahim; Hashemizadeh, Shiva; Kiani, Sahar; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Baharvand, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background A number of studies generated induced neural progenitor cells (iNPCs) from human fibroblasts by viral delivering defined transcription factors. However, the potential risks associated with gene delivery systems have limited their clinical use. We propose it would be safer to induce neural progenitor-like cells from human adult fibroblasts via a direct non-genetic alternative approach. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we have reported that seven rounds of TAT-SOX2 protein transduction in a defined chemical cocktail under a 3D sphere culture gradually morphed fibroblasts into neuroepithelial-like colonies. We were able to expand these cells for up to 20 passages. These cells could give rise to cells that expressed neurons and glia cell markers both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions/Significance These results show that our approach is beneficial for the genetic material-free generation of iNPCs from human fibroblasts where small chemical molecules can provide a valuable, viable strategy to boost and improve induction in a 3D sphere culture. PMID:26266943

  19. Breast Cancer-associated Fibroblasts Confer AKT1-mediated Epigenetic Silencing of Cystatin M in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huey-Jen L.; Zuo, Tao; Lin, Ching-Hung; Kuo, Chieh Ti; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Sun, Shuying; Shen, Rulong; Deatherage, Daniel E.; Potter, Dustin; Asamoto, Lisa; Lin, Shili; Yan, Pearlly S.; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Ostrowski, Michael C.; Huang, Tim H.-M.

    2010-01-01

    The interplay between histone modifications and promoter hypermethylation provides a causative explanation for epigenetic gene silencing in cancer. Less is known about the upstream initiators that direct this process. Here, we report that the Cystatin M (CST6) tumor suppressor gene is concurrently down-regulated with other loci in breast epithelial cells co-cultured with cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Promoter hypermethylation of CST6 is associated with aberrant AKT1 activation in epithelial cells, as well as the disabled INNP4B regulator resulted from the suppression by CAFs. Repressive chromatin, marked by trimethyl-H3K27 and dimethyl-H3K9, and de novo DNA methylation is established at the promoter. The findings suggest that microenvironmental stimuli are triggers in this epigenetic cascade, leading to the long-term silencing of CST6 in breast tumors. Our present findings implicate a causal mechanism defining how tumor stromal fibroblasts support neoplastic progression by manipulating the epigenome of mammary epithelial cells. The result also highlights the importance of direct cell-cell contract between epithelial cells and the surrounding fibroblasts that confer this epigenetic perturbation. Since this two-way interaction is anticipated, the described co-culture system can be used to determine the effect of epithelial factors on fibroblasts in future studies. PMID:19074894

  20. Reversible effects of sphingomyelin degradation on cholesterol distribution and metabolism in fibroblasts and transformed neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pörn, M I; Slotte, J P

    1990-10-01

    Plasma-membrane sphingomyelin appears to be one of the major determinants of the preferential allocation of cell cholesterol into the plasma-membrane compartment, since removal of sphingomyelin leads to a dramatic redistribution of cholesterol within the cell [Slotte & Bierman (1988) Biochem. J. 250, 653-658]. In the present study we examined the long-term effects of sphingomyelin degradation on cholesterol redistribution in cells and determined the reversibility of the process. In a human lung fibroblast-cell line, removal of 80% of the sphingomyelin led to a rapid and transient up-regulation (3-fold) of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity, and also, within 30 h, to the translocation of about 50% of the cell non-esterified cholesterol from a cholesterol oxidase-susceptible compartment (i.e. the cell surface) to oxidase-resistant compartments. At 49 h after the initial sphingomyelin degradation, the cell sphingomyelin level was back to 45% of the control level, and the direction of cell cholesterol flow was toward the cell surface, although the original distribution was not achieved. In a transformed neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y), the depletion of sphingomyelin led to a similarly rapid and transient up-regulation of ACAT activity, and to the translocation of about 25% of cell-surface cholesterol into internal membranes (within 3 h). The flow of cholesterol back to the cholesterol oxidase-susceptible pool was rapid, and a pretreatment cholesterol distribution was reached within 20-49 h. Also, the resynthesis of sphingomyelin was faster in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and reached control levels within 24 h. The findings of the present study show that the cellular redistribution of cholesterol, as induced by sphingomyelin degradation, is reversible and suggest that the normalization of cellular cholesterol distribution is linked to the re-synthesis of sphingomyelin.

  1. Treatment with TNF-α or bacterial lipopolysaccharide attenuates endocardial endothelial cell-mediated stimulation of cardiac fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, Leena; Kartha, Cheranellore Chandrasekharan

    2009-01-01

    Background The endocardial endothelium that lines the inner cavity of the heart is distinct from the microvascular endothelial cells and modulates cardiac muscle performance in a manner similar to the vascular endothelial modulation of vascular structure and vasomotor tone. Although the modulatory effects of endocardial endothelium (EE) on cardiomyocytes are firmly established, the regulatory effects of endocardial endothelium on the cardiac interstitium and its cellular components remain ill defined. Methods and Results We investigated whether the stimulatory effect of EE on cardiac fibroblasts would be altered when EECs are activated by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or the endotoxin bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Both TNF-α and LPS were found to independently attenuate the stimulatory effect of EE on cardiac fibroblasts. These agents lowered the synthesis or release of ET-1 and increased the secretion of TGF-β and NO. Conclusion The findings of this study using endocardial endothelial cells (EECs) and neonatal cardiac fibroblasts demonstrate that pro-inflammatory cytokines cause altered secretion of paracrine factors by EECs and inhibit proliferation and lower collagen synthesis in fibroblasts. These changes may influence fibroblast response and extra cellular matrix remodeling in pathological conditions of the heart. PMID:19272191

  2. Leukaemia x fibroblast hybrid cells augment the antibody response to sheep red blood cells in inbred mice.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, E P; Hagen, K

    1985-01-01

    ASL-1 x LM(TK-) hybrid cells, an established murine leukaemia x fibroblast hybrid cell line, augment the antibody response to sheep red blood cells in inbred mice, as determined by the plaque assay method. The intraperitoneal injection of viable hybrid cells or of growth medium conditioned by the cells leads to an increase both in the total number as well as the proportion of cells forming antibodies to sheep red blood cells. CSF-1, (M-CSF), is detected by radioimmunoassay in the medium conditioned by the hybrid and LM(TK-) cells, but not ASL-1 parental cells. Prior treatment of the conditioned medium with CSF-1 antiserum reduces its capacity to augment the antibody response, and its proliferative stimulus on cells from the marrow indicating that CSF-1 may be at least partly responsible for the adjuvant effect observed. The intraperitoneal implantation of diffusion chambers containing viable CSF-1 producing hybrid cells, like the cells themselves, also leads to an increase in the number of spleen cells forming antibodies to sheep red blood cells. PMID:3908292

  3. Aberrant DNA methylation in non-small cell lung cancer-associated fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Vizoso, Miguel; Puig, Marta; Carmona, F Javier; Maqueda, María; Velásquez, Adriana; Gómez, Antonio; Labernadie, Anna; Lugo, Roberto; Gabasa, Marta; Rigat-Brugarolas, Luis G; Trepat, Xavier; Ramírez, Josep; Moran, Sebastian; Vidal, Enrique; Reguart, Noemí; Perera, Alexandre; Esteller, Manel; Alcaraz, Jordi

    2015-12-01

    Epigenetic changes through altered DNA methylation have been implicated in critical aspects of tumor progression, and have been extensively studied in a variety of cancer types. In contrast, our current knowledge of the aberrant genomic DNA methylation in tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) or other stromal cells that act as critical coconspirators of tumor progression is very scarce. To address this gap of knowledge, we conducted genome-wide DNA methylation profiling on lung TAFs and paired control fibroblasts (CFs) from non-small cell lung cancer patients using the HumanMethylation450 microarray. We found widespread DNA hypomethylation concomitant with focal gain of DNA methylation in TAFs compared to CFs. The aberrant DNA methylation landscape of TAFs had a global impact on gene expression and a selective impact on the TGF-β pathway. The latter included promoter hypermethylation-associated SMAD3 silencing, which was associated with hyperresponsiveness to exogenous TGF-β1 in terms of contractility and extracellular matrix deposition. In turn, activation of CFs with exogenous TGF-β1 partially mimicked the epigenetic alterations observed in TAFs, suggesting that TGF-β1 may be necessary but not sufficient to elicit such alterations. Moreover, integrated pathway-enrichment analyses of the DNA methylation alterations revealed that a fraction of TAFs may be bone marrow-derived fibrocytes. Finally, survival analyses using DNA methylation and gene expression datasets identified aberrant DNA methylation on the EDARADD promoter sequence as a prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Our findings shed light on the unique origin and molecular alterations underlying the aberrant phenotype of lung TAFs, and identify a stromal biomarker with potential clinical relevance. PMID:26449251

  4. Aberrant DNA methylation in non-small cell lung cancer-associated fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Vizoso, Miguel; Puig, Marta; Carmona, F.Javier; Maqueda, María; Velásquez, Adriana; Gómez, Antonio; Labernadie, Anna; Lugo, Roberto; Gabasa, Marta; Rigat-Brugarolas, Luis G.; Trepat, Xavier; Ramírez, Josep; Moran, Sebastian; Vidal, Enrique; Reguart, Noemí; Perera, Alexandre; Esteller, Manel; Alcaraz, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic changes through altered DNA methylation have been implicated in critical aspects of tumor progression, and have been extensively studied in a variety of cancer types. In contrast, our current knowledge of the aberrant genomic DNA methylation in tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) or other stromal cells that act as critical coconspirators of tumor progression is very scarce. To address this gap of knowledge, we conducted genome-wide DNA methylation profiling on lung TAFs and paired control fibroblasts (CFs) from non-small cell lung cancer patients using the HumanMethylation450 microarray. We found widespread DNA hypomethylation concomitant with focal gain of DNA methylation in TAFs compared to CFs. The aberrant DNA methylation landscape of TAFs had a global impact on gene expression and a selective impact on the TGF-β pathway. The latter included promoter hypermethylation-associated SMAD3 silencing, which was associated with hyperresponsiveness to exogenous TGF-β1 in terms of contractility and extracellular matrix deposition. In turn, activation of CFs with exogenous TGF-β1 partially mimicked the epigenetic alterations observed in TAFs, suggesting that TGF-β1 may be necessary but not sufficient to elicit such alterations. Moreover, integrated pathway-enrichment analyses of the DNA methylation alterations revealed that a fraction of TAFs may be bone marrow-derived fibrocytes. Finally, survival analyses using DNA methylation and gene expression datasets identified aberrant DNA methylation on the EDARADD promoter sequence as a prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Our findings shed light on the unique origin and molecular alterations underlying the aberrant phenotype of lung TAFs, and identify a stromal biomarker with potential clinical relevance. PMID:26449251

  5. Enhanced adherence of mouse fibroblast and vascular cells to plasma modified polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Reznickova, Alena; Novotna, Zdenka; Kolska, Zdenka; Kasalkova, Nikola Slepickova; Rimpelova, Silvie; Svorcik, Vaclav

    2015-01-01

    Since the last decade, tissue engineering has shown a sensational promise in providing more viable alternatives to surgical procedures for harvested tissues, implants and prostheses. Biomedical polymers, such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), were activated by Ar plasma discharge. Degradation of polymer chains was examined by determination of the thickness of ablated layer. The amount of an ablated polymer layer was measured by gravimetry. Contact angle, measured by goniometry, was studied as a function of plasma exposure and post-exposure aging times. Chemical structure of modified polymers was characterized by angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Surface chemistry and polarity of the samples were investigated by electrokinetic analysis. Changes in surface morphology were followed using atomic force microscopy. Cytocompatibility of plasma activated polyethylene foils was studied using two distinct model cell lines; VSMCs (vascular smooth muscle cells) as a model for vascular graft testing and connective tissue cells L929 (mouse fibroblasts) approved for standardized material cytotoxicity testing. Specifically, the cell number, morphology, and metabolic activity of the adhered and proliferated cells on the polyethylene matrices were studied in vitro. It was found that the plasma treatment caused ablation of the polymers, resulting in dramatic changes in their surface morphology and roughness. ARXPS and electrokinetic measurements revealed oxidation of the polymer surface. It was found that plasma activation has a positive effect on the adhesion and proliferation of VSMCs and L929 cells. PMID:25953566

  6. Egg drop syndrome virus enters duck embryonic fibroblast cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingjing; Tan, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Caihong; Xu, Jiamin; Wang, Jingyu

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies of egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) is restricted to serological surveys, disease diagnostics, and complete viral genome analysis. Consequently, the infection characteristics and entry routes of EDSV are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to explore the entry pathway of EDSV into duck embryonic fibroblast (DEF) cells as well as the infection characteristics and proliferation of EDSV in primary DEF and primary chicken embryo liver (CEL) cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the virus triggered DEF cell membrane invagination as early as 10 min post-infection and that integrated endocytic vesicles formed at 20 min post-infection. The virus yield in EDSV-infected DEF cells treated with chlorpromazine (CPZ), sucrose, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), or NH4Cl was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Compared with the mock treatment, CPZ and sucrose greatly inhibited the production of viral progeny in a dose-dependent manner, while MβCD treatment did not result in a significant difference. Furthermore, NH4Cl had a strong inhibitory effect on the production of EDSV progeny. In addition, indirect immunofluorescence demonstrated that virus particles clustered on the surface of DEF cells treated with CPZ or sucrose. These results indicate that EDSV enters DEF cells through clathrin-mediated endocytosis followed by a pH-dependent step, which is similar to the mechanism of entry of human adenovirus types 2 and 5. PMID:26200954

  7. Egg drop syndrome virus enters duck embryonic fibroblast cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingjing; Tan, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Caihong; Xu, Jiamin; Wang, Jingyu

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies of egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) is restricted to serological surveys, disease diagnostics, and complete viral genome analysis. Consequently, the infection characteristics and entry routes of EDSV are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to explore the entry pathway of EDSV into duck embryonic fibroblast (DEF) cells as well as the infection characteristics and proliferation of EDSV in primary DEF and primary chicken embryo liver (CEL) cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the virus triggered DEF cell membrane invagination as early as 10 min post-infection and that integrated endocytic vesicles formed at 20 min post-infection. The virus yield in EDSV-infected DEF cells treated with chlorpromazine (CPZ), sucrose, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), or NH4Cl was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Compared with the mock treatment, CPZ and sucrose greatly inhibited the production of viral progeny in a dose-dependent manner, while MβCD treatment did not result in a significant difference. Furthermore, NH4Cl had a strong inhibitory effect on the production of EDSV progeny. In addition, indirect immunofluorescence demonstrated that virus particles clustered on the surface of DEF cells treated with CPZ or sucrose. These results indicate that EDSV enters DEF cells through clathrin-mediated endocytosis followed by a pH-dependent step, which is similar to the mechanism of entry of human adenovirus types 2 and 5.

  8. Generation of Arbas Cashmere Goat Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Through Fibroblast Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Tai, Dapeng; Liu, Pengxia; Gao, Jing; Jin, Muzi; Xu, Teng; Zuo, Yongchun; Liang, Hao; Liu, Dongjun

    2015-08-01

    Various factors affect the process of obtaining stable Arbas cashmere goat embryonic stem cells (ESCs), for example, the difficulty in isolating cells at the appropriate stage of embryonic development, the in vitro culture environment, and passage methods. With the emergence of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, it has become possible to use specific genes to induce somatic cell differentiation in PSCs. We transferred OCT4, SOX2, c-MYC, and KLF4 into Arbas cashmere goat fetal fibroblasts, then induced and cultured them using a drug-inducible system to obtain Arbas goat iPSCs that morphologically resembled mouse iPSCs. After identification, the obtained goat iPSCs expressed ESC markers, had a normal karyotype, could differentiate into embryoid bodies in vitro, and could differentiate into three germ layer cell types and form teratomas in vivo. We used microarray gene expression profile analysis to elucidate the reprogramming process. Our results provide the experimental basis for establishing cashmere goat iPSC lines and for future in-depth studies on molecular mechanism of cashmere goat somatic cell reprogramming.

  9. Sprouty2 controls proliferation of palate mesenchymal cells via fibroblast growth factor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Kaori; Taketomi, Takaharu; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Arai, Shinsaku; Sanui, Terukazu; Yoshiga, Daigo; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Nakamura, Seiji

    2011-01-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Sprouty2-deficient mice exhibit cleft palate as a result of failure of palatal shelf elevation. {yields} We examined palate cell proliferation in Sprouty2-deficient mice. {yields} Palate mesenchymal cell proliferation was increased in Sprouty2 KO mice. {yields} Sprouty2 plays roles in murine palatogenesis by regulating cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Cleft palate is one of the most common craniofacial deformities. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) plays a central role in reciprocal interactions between adjacent tissues during palatal development, and the FGF signaling pathway has been shown to be inhibited by members of the Sprouty protein family. In this study, we report the incidence of cleft palate, possibly caused by failure of palatal shelf elevation, in Sprouty2-deficient (KO) mice. Sprouty2-deficient palates fused completely in palatal organ culture. However, palate mesenchymal cell proliferation estimated by Ki-67 staining was increased in Sprouty2 KO mice compared with WT mice. Sprouty2-null palates expressed higher levels of FGF target genes, such as Msx1, Etv5, and Ptx1 than WT controls. Furthermore, proliferation and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation in response to FGF was enhanced in palate mesenchymal cells transfected with Sprouty2 small interfering RNA. These results suggest that Sprouty2 regulates palate mesenchymal cell proliferation via FGF signaling and is involved in palatal shelf elevation.

  10. Intracellular Oxidant Activity, Antioxidant Enzyme Defense System, and Cell Senescence in Fibroblasts with Trisomy 21

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Sureda, Víctor; Vilches, Ángel; Sánchez, Olga; Audí, Laura; Domínguez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Down's syndrome (DS) is characterized by a complex phenotype associated with chronic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Overexpression of genes on chromosome-21 is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of the major phenotypic features of DS, such as premature aging. Using cultured fibroblasts with trisomy 21 (T21F), this study aimed to ascertain whether an imbalance exists in activities, mRNA, and protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, glutathione-peroxidase, and catalase during the cell replication process in vitro. T21F had high SOD1 expression and activity which led to an interenzymatic imbalance in the antioxidant defense system, accentuated with replicative senescence. Intracellular ROS production and oxidized protein levels were significantly higher in T21F compared with control cells; furthermore, a significant decline in intracellular ATP content was detected in T21F. Cell senescence was found to appear prematurely in DS cells as shown by SA-β-Gal assay and p21 assessment, though not apoptosis, as neither p53 nor the proapoptotic proteins cytochrome c and caspase 9 were altered in T21F. These novel findings would point to a deleterious role of oxidatively modified molecules in early cell senescence of T21F, thereby linking replicative and stress-induced senescence in cultured cells to premature aging in DS. PMID:25852816

  11. Intracellular oxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme defense system, and cell senescence in fibroblasts with trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sureda, Víctor; Vilches, Ángel; Sánchez, Olga; Audí, Laura; Domínguez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Down's syndrome (DS) is characterized by a complex phenotype associated with chronic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Overexpression of genes on chromosome-21 is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of the major phenotypic features of DS, such as premature aging. Using cultured fibroblasts with trisomy 21 (T21F), this study aimed to ascertain whether an imbalance exists in activities, mRNA, and protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, glutathione-peroxidase, and catalase during the cell replication process in vitro. T21F had high SOD1 expression and activity which led to an interenzymatic imbalance in the antioxidant defense system, accentuated with replicative senescence. Intracellular ROS production and oxidized protein levels were significantly higher in T21F compared with control cells; furthermore, a significant decline in intracellular ATP content was detected in T21F. Cell senescence was found to appear prematurely in DS cells as shown by SA-β-Gal assay and p21 assessment, though not apoptosis, as neither p53 nor the proapoptotic proteins cytochrome c and caspase 9 were altered in T21F. These novel findings would point to a deleterious role of oxidatively modified molecules in early cell senescence of T21F, thereby linking replicative and stress-induced senescence in cultured cells to premature aging in DS.

  12. Toxicity evaluation of ZnO nanostructures on L929 fibroblast cell line using MTS assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo; Mohamed, Azman Seeni; Saifuddin, Siti Nazmin; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2015-04-01

    ZnO has wide applications in medical and dentistry apart from being used as optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Therefore, the toxicity evaluation is important to know the toxicity level on normal cell line. The toxicity of two grades ZnO nanostructures, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 have been carried out using cytotoxicity test of MTS assay on L929 rat fibroblast cell line. Prior to that, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 were characterized for its morphology, structure and optical properties using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, and Photoluminescence respectively. The two groups revealed difference in morphology and exhibit slightly shifted of near band edge emission of Photoluminescence other than having a similar calculated crystallite size of nanostructures. The viability of cells after 72h were obtained and the statistical significance value was calculated using SPSS v20. The p value is more than 0.05 between untreated and treated cell with ZnO. This insignificant value of p>0.05 can be summarized as a non-toxic level of ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 on the L929 cell line.

  13. Distinct Cell Stress Responses Induced by ATP Restriction in Quiescent Human Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Yalamanchili, Nirupama; Kriete, Andres; Alfego, David; Danowski, Kelli M.; Kari, Csaba; Rodeck, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Quiescence is the prevailing state of many cell types under homeostatic conditions. Yet, surprisingly little is known about how quiescent cells respond to energetic and metabolic challenges. To better understand compensatory responses of quiescent cells to metabolic stress, we established, in human primary dermal fibroblasts, an experimental ‘energy restriction’ model. Quiescence was achieved by short-term culture in serum-deprived media and ATP supply restricted using a combination of glucose transport inhibitors and mitochondrial uncouplers. In aggregate, these measures led to markedly reduced intracellular ATP levels while not compromising cell viability over the observation period of 48 h. Analysis of the transcription factor (TF) landscape induced by this treatment revealed alterations in several signal transduction nodes beyond the expected biosynthetic adaptations. These included increased abundance of NF-κB regulated TFs and altered TF subsets regulated by Akt and p53. The observed changes in gene regulation and corresponding alterations in key signaling nodes are likely to contribute to cell survival at intracellular ATP concentrations substantially below those achieved by growth factor deprivation alone. This experimental model provides a benchmark for the investigation of cell survival pathways and related molecular targets that are associated with restricted energy supply associated with biological aging and metabolic diseases. PMID:27757122

  14. Toxicity evaluation of ZnO nanostructures on L929 fibroblast cell line using MTS assay

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo; Mohamed, Azman Seeni; Saifuddin, Siti Nazmin; Masudi, Sam’an Malik; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2015-04-24

    ZnO has wide applications in medical and dentistry apart from being used as optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Therefore, the toxicity evaluation is important to know the toxicity level on normal cell line. The toxicity of two grades ZnO nanostructures, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 have been carried out using cytotoxicity test of MTS assay on L929 rat fibroblast cell line. Prior to that, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 were characterized for its morphology, structure and optical properties using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, and Photoluminescence respectively. The two groups revealed difference in morphology and exhibit slightly shifted of near band edge emission of Photoluminescence other than having a similar calculated crystallite size of nanostructures. The viability of cells after 72h were obtained and the statistical significance value was calculated using SPSS v20. The p value is more than 0.05 between untreated and treated cell with ZnO. This insignificant value of p>0.05 can be summarized as a non-toxic level of ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 on the L929 cell line.

  15. Cooling rate dependent biophysical and viability response shift with attachment state in human dermal fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeunghwan; Bischof, John C

    2011-12-01

    While studies on the freezing of cells in suspension have been carried out extensively, corresponding studies with cells in the attached state and in tissue or tissue-equivalents are less developed. As attachment is a hallmark of the tissue state it is important to understand its impact on biophysics and viability to better apply freezing towards tissue preservation. The current study reports on observed biophysical response changes observed during freezing human dermal fibroblasts in suspension, attached cell, and fibrin tissue-equivalent models. Specifically, intracellular ice formation is shown to increase and dehydration is inferred to increase from suspension to attached systems. Biophysical model parameters fit to these experimental observations reflect the higher kinetics in the attached state. Post-thaw viability values from fast cooling rates were higher for suspension systems, and correlated well with the amount of IIF observed. On the other hand, viability values from slow cooling rates were higher for attached systems, although the degree of dehydration was predicted to be comparable to suspension cells. This disconnect between biophysics and viability predictions at slow rates clearly requires further investigation as it runs counter to our current understanding of dehydration injury in cells. This may suggest a possible protective effect of the attachment state on cell systems.

  16. Enhanced adherence of mouse fibroblast and vascular cells to plasma modified polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Reznickova, Alena; Novotna, Zdenka; Kolska, Zdenka; Kasalkova, Nikola Slepickova; Rimpelova, Silvie; Svorcik, Vaclav

    2015-01-01

    Since the last decade, tissue engineering has shown a sensational promise in providing more viable alternatives to surgical procedures for harvested tissues, implants and prostheses. Biomedical polymers, such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), were activated by Ar plasma discharge. Degradation of polymer chains was examined by determination of the thickness of ablated layer. The amount of an ablated polymer layer was measured by gravimetry. Contact angle, measured by goniometry, was studied as a function of plasma exposure and post-exposure aging times. Chemical structure of modified polymers was characterized by angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Surface chemistry and polarity of the samples were investigated by electrokinetic analysis. Changes in surface morphology were followed using atomic force microscopy. Cytocompatibility of plasma activated polyethylene foils was studied using two distinct model cell lines; VSMCs (vascular smooth muscle cells) as a model for vascular graft testing and connective tissue cells L929 (mouse fibroblasts) approved for standardized material cytotoxicity testing. Specifically, the cell number, morphology, and metabolic activity of the adhered and proliferated cells on the polyethylene matrices were studied in vitro. It was found that the plasma treatment caused ablation of the polymers, resulting in dramatic changes in their surface morphology and roughness. ARXPS and electrokinetic measurements revealed oxidation of the polymer surface. It was found that plasma activation has a positive effect on the adhesion and proliferation of VSMCs and L929 cells.

  17. Application of Antrodia camphorata Promotes Rat's Wound Healing In Vivo and Facilitates Fibroblast Cell Proliferation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Zahra A.; Ali, Hapipah M.; Alshawsh, Mohammed A.; Darvish, Pouya H.; Abdulla, Mahmood A.

    2015-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata is a parasitic fungus from Taiwan, it has been documented to possess a variety of pharmacological and biological activities. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of Antrodia camphorata ethanol extract to accelerate the rate of wound healing closure and histology of wound area in experimental rats. The safety of Antrodia camphorata was determined in vivo by the acute toxicity test and in vitro by fibroblast cell proliferation assay. The scratch assay was used to evaluate the in vitro wound healing in fibroblast cells and the excision model of wound healing was tested in vivo using four groups of adult Sprague Dawley rats. Our results showed that wound treated with Antrodia camphorata extract and intrasite gel significantly accelerates the rate of wound healing closure than those treated with the vehicle. Wounds dressed with Antrodia camphorata extract showed remarkably less scar width at wound closure and granulation tissue contained less inflammatory cell and more fibroblast compared to wounds treated with the vehicle. Masson's trichrom stain showed granulation tissue containing more collagen and less inflammatory cell in Antrodia camphorata treated wounds. In conclusion, Antrodia camphorata extract significantly enhanced the rate of the wound enclosure in rats and promotes the in vitro healing through fibroblast cell proliferation. PMID:26557855

  18. Heterogeneity of stromal cells in the human splenic white pulp. Fibroblastic reticulum cells, follicular dendritic cells and a third superficial stromal cell type

    PubMed Central

    Steiniger, Birte S; Wilhelmi, Verena; Seiler, Anja; Lampp, Katrin; Stachniss, Vitus

    2014-01-01

    At least three phenotypically and morphologically distinguishable types of branched stromal cells are revealed in the human splenic white pulp by subtractive immunohistological double-staining. CD271 is expressed in fibroblastic reticulum cells of T-cell zones and in follicular dendritic cells of follicles. In addition, there is a third CD271− and CD271+/− stromal cell population surrounding T-cell zones and follicles. At the surface of follicles the third population consists of individually variable partially overlapping shells of stromal cells exhibiting CD90 (Thy-1), MAdCAM-1, CD105 (endoglin), CD141 (thrombomodulin) and smooth muscle α-actin (SMA) with expression of CD90 characterizing the broadest shell and SMA the smallest. In addition, CXCL12, CXCL13 and CCL21 are also present in third-population stromal cells and/or along fibres. Not only CD27+ and switched B lymphocytes, but also scattered IgD++ B lymphocytes and variable numbers of CD4+ T lymphocytes often occur close to the third stromal cell population or one of its subpopulations at the surface of the follicles. In contrast to human lymph nodes, neither podoplanin nor RANKL (CD254) were detected in adult human splenic white pulp stromal cells. The superficial stromal cells of the human splenic white pulp belong to a widespread cell type, which is also found at the surface of red pulp arterioles surrounded by a mixed T-cell/B-cell population. Superficial white pulp stromal cells differ from fibroblastic reticulum cells and follicular dendritic cells not only in humans, but apparently also in mice and perhaps in rats. However, the phenotype of white pulp stromal cells is species-specific and more heterogeneous than described so far. PMID:24890772

  19. Extracellular matrix secreted by senescent fibroblasts induced by UVB promotes cell proliferation in HaCaT cells through PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jian; Chen, Wenqi; Xia, Jiping; Li, Yanhua; Yang, Bo; Chen, Bin; Sun, Weiling; Song, Xiuzu; Xiang, Wenzhong; Wang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Fei; Bi, Zhigang; Wan, Yinsheng

    2008-06-01

    Chronic exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) induces photoaging, and ultimately photocarcinogenesis. Senescent human skin fibroblasts (HSFs) in UVB stress-induced premature senescence (UVB-SIPS) share a similar extracellular matrix (ECM) phenotype with other types of senescent fibroblast. ECM from senescent fibroblasts induced by a variety of stresses has been shown to promote preneoplastic and neoplastic epithelial cell growth, a potential mechanism in carcinogenesis. We undertook this study to explore whether the extracellular matrices from UVB-induced senescent fibroblasts have any effect on the proliferation of HaCaT cells. The results showed that ECM secreted from HSFs in UVB-SIPS has 13.15 and 29.27% more stimulatory effect on proliferation than ECM secreted from presenescent HSFs and non-ECM, respectively. ECM from fibroblasts in UVB-SIPS activates FAK, ERK, and AKT in HaCaT cells. ERK and PI3K/AKT inhibitors inhibit ECM-induced ERK, AKT activation and cell proliferation. Cytochalasin D, a destructive agent of the cytoskeleton, inhibits ECM-induced FAK activation and cell proliferation in HaCaT cells. Collectively, we conclude that ECM secreted from HSFs in UVB-SIPS promotes cell proliferation via ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways and modulation of FAK and cytoskeletal proteins in HaCaT cells. Pharmacological manipulation of those signaling components may lead to the prevention and treatment of skin cancer induced by chronic solar exposure.

  20. Polysome profiling shows the identity of human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells in detail and clearly distinguishes them from dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zych, Jaiesa; Spangenberg, Lucia; Stimamiglio, Marco A; Abud, Ana Paula R; Shigunov, Patrícia; Marchini, Fabricio K; Kuligovski, Crisciele; Cofré, Axel R; Schittini, Andressa V; Aguiar, Alessandra M; Senegaglia, Alexandra; Brofman, Paulo R S; Goldenberg, Samuel; Dallagiovanna, Bruno; Naya, Hugo; Correa, Alejandro

    2014-11-15

    Although fibroblasts and multipotent stromal/stem cells, including adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs), have been extensively studied, they cannot be clearly distinguished from each other. We, therefore, investigated the cellular and molecular characteristics of ADSCs and fibroblasts. ADSCs and fibroblasts share several morphological similarities and surface markers, but were clearly found to be different types of cells. Contrary to previous reports, fibroblasts were not able to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, or chondrocytes. Polysome-bound mRNA profiling revealed that ∼ 1,547 genes were differentially expressed (DE) in the two cell types; the genes were related to cell adhesion, the extracellular matrix, differentiation, and proliferation. These findings were confirmed by functional analyses showing that ADSCs had a greater adhesion capacity than fibroblasts; the proliferation rate of fibroblasts was also higher than that of ADSCs. Importantly, 185 DE genes were integral to the plasma membrane and, thus, candidate markers for ADSC isolation and manipulation. We also observed that an established marker of fibroblasts and ADSCs, CD105, was overexpressed in ADSCs at both mRNA and protein levels. CD105 expression seemed to be related to differentiation capacity, at least for adipogenesis. This study shows that ADSCs and fibroblasts are distinct cell types. These findings should be taken into account when using these two cell types in basic and therapeutic studies.

  1. Bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells and peritoneal mast cells as targets of a growth activity secreted by BALB/3T3 fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Jozaki, K.; Kuriu, A.; Hirota, S.; Onoue, H.; Ebi, Y.; Adachi, S.; Ma, J.Y.; Tarui, S.; Kitamura, Y. )

    1991-03-01

    When fibroblast cell lines were cultured in contact with bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (CMC), both NIH/3T3 and BALB/3T3 cell lines supported the proliferation of CMC. In contrast, when contact between fibroblasts and CMC was prohibited by Biopore membranes or soft agar, only BALB/3T3 fibroblasts supported CMC proliferation, suggesting that BALB/3T3 but not NIH/3T3 cells secreted a significant amount of a mast cell growth activity. Moreover, the BALB/3T3-derived growth activity induced the incorporation of (3H)thymidine by CMC and the clonal growth of peritoneal mast cells in methylcellulose. The mast cell growth activity appeared to be different from interleukin 3 (IL-3) and interleukin 4 (IL-4), because mRNAs for these interleukins were not detectable in BALB/3T3 fibroblasts. Although mast cells are genetically deficient in tissues of W/Wv mice, CMC did develop when bone marrow cells of W/Wv mice were cultured with pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen cell-conditioned medium. Because BALB/3T3 fibroblast-conditioned medium (BALB-FCM) did not induce the incorporation of (3H)thymidine by W/Wv CMC, the growth activity in BALB-FCM appeared to be a ligand for the receptor encoded by the W (c-kit) locus. Because CMC and peritoneal mast cells are obtained as homogeneous suspensions rather easily, these cells may be potentially useful as targets for the fibroblast-derived mast cell growth activity.

  2. Application of a novel population of multipotent stem cells derived from skin fibroblasts as donor cells in bovine SCNT.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shaohui; Chen, Wuju; Liu, Xu; Xiao, Jiajia; Wang, Yanqin; Liu, Jun; Du, Yue; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Undifferentiated stem cells are better donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), resulting in more offspring than more differentiated cells. While various stem cell populations have been confirmed to exist in the skin, progress has been restricted due to the lack of a suitable marker for their prospective isolation. To address this fundamental issue, a marker is required that could unambiguously prove the differentiation state of the donor cells. We therefore utilized magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) to separate a homogeneous population of small SSEA-4(+) cells from a heterogeneous population of bovine embryonic skin fibroblasts (BEF). SSEA-4(+) cells were 8-10 μm in diameter and positive for alkaline phosphatase (AP). The percentage of SSEA-4(+) cells within the cultured BEF population was low (2-3%). Immunocytochemistry and PCR analyses revealed that SSEA-4(+) cells expressed pluripotency-related markers, and could differentiate into cells comprising all three germ layers in vitro. They remained undifferentiated over 20 passages in suspension culture. In addition, cloned embryos derived from SSEA-4 cells showed significant differences in cleavage rate and blastocyst development when compared with those from BEF and SSEA-4(-) cells. Moreover, blastocysts derived from SSEA-4(+) cells showed a higher total cell number and lower apoptotic index as compared to BEF and SSEA-4(-) derived cells. It is well known that nuclei from pluripotent stem cells yield a higher cloning efficiency than those from adult somatic cells, however, pluripotent stem cells are relatively difficult to obtain from bovine. The SSEA-4(+) cells described in the current study provide an attractive candidate for SCNT and a promising platform for the generation of transgenic cattle.

  3. Positive and negative regulation of T cell responses by fibroblastic reticular cells within paracortical regions of lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Siegert, Stefanie; Luther, Sanjiv A.

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRC) form the structural backbone of the T cell rich zones in secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), but also actively influence the adaptive immune response. They provide a guidance path for immigrating T lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DC) and are the main local source of the cytokines CCL19, CCL21, and IL-7, all of which are thought to positively regulate T cell homeostasis and T cell interactions with DC. Recently, FRC in lymph nodes (LN) were also described to negatively regulate T cell responses in two distinct ways. During homeostasis they express and present a range of peripheral tissue antigens, thereby participating in peripheral tolerance induction of self-reactive CD8+ T cells. During acute inflammation T cells responding to foreign antigens presented on DC very quickly release pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon γ. These cytokines are sensed by FRC which transiently produce nitric oxide (NO) gas dampening the proliferation of neighboring T cells in a non-cognate fashion. In summary, we propose a model in which FRC engage in a bidirectional crosstalk with both DC and T cells to increase the efficiency of the T cell response. However, during an acute response, FRC limit excessive expansion and inflammatory activity of antigen-specific T cells. This negative feedback loop may help to maintain tissue integrity and function during rapid organ growth. PMID:22973278

  4. Regulation of Hepatic Stellate Cells and Fibrogenesis by Fibroblast Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of growth factors critically involved in developmental, physiological, and pathological processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, wound healing, and endocrine functions. In the liver, several FGFs are produced basally by hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Upon insult to the liver, expression of FGFs in HSCs is greatly upregulated, stimulating hepatocyte regeneration and growth. Various FGF isoforms have also been shown to directly induce HSC proliferation and activation thereby enabling autocrine and paracrine regulation of HSC function. Regulation of HSCs by the endocrine FGFs, namely, FGF15/19 and FGF21, has also recently been identified. With the ability to modulate HSC proliferation and transdifferentiation, targeting FGF signaling pathways constitutes a promising new therapeutic strategy to treat hepatic fibrosis. PMID:27699175

  5. Regulation of Hepatic Stellate Cells and Fibrogenesis by Fibroblast Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of growth factors critically involved in developmental, physiological, and pathological processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, wound healing, and endocrine functions. In the liver, several FGFs are produced basally by hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Upon insult to the liver, expression of FGFs in HSCs is greatly upregulated, stimulating hepatocyte regeneration and growth. Various FGF isoforms have also been shown to directly induce HSC proliferation and activation thereby enabling autocrine and paracrine regulation of HSC function. Regulation of HSCs by the endocrine FGFs, namely, FGF15/19 and FGF21, has also recently been identified. With the ability to modulate HSC proliferation and transdifferentiation, targeting FGF signaling pathways constitutes a promising new therapeutic strategy to treat hepatic fibrosis.

  6. Fibroblast growth factor-2 stimulates adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kakudo, Natsuko . E-mail: kakudon@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Shimotsuma, Ayuko; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2007-07-27

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have demonstrated a capacity for differentiating into a variety of lineages, including bone, cartilage, or fat, depending on the inducing stimuli and specific growth and factors. It is acknowledged that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) promotes chondrogenic and inhibits osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, but thorough investigations of its effects on adipogenic differentiation are lacking. In this study, we demonstrate at the cellular and molecular levels the effect of FGF-2 on adipogenic differentiation of ASCs, as induced by an adipogenic hormonal cocktail consisting of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), dexamethasone, insulin, and indomethacin. FGF-2 significantly enhances the adipogenic differentiation of human ASCs. Furthermore, in cultures receiving FGF-2 before adipogenic induction, mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}2 (PPAR{gamma}2), a key transcription factor in adipogenesis, was upregulated. The results of FGF-2 supplementation suggest the potential applications of FGF-2 and ASCs in adipose tissue regeneration.

  7. Distinctive gene expression signatures in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue fibroblast cells: correlates with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Galligan, C L; Baig, E; Bykerk, V; Keystone, E C; Fish, E N

    2007-09-01

    Gene expression profiling of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) joint tissue samples provides a unique insight into the gene signatures involved in disease development and progression. Fibroblast-like synovial (FLS) cells were obtained from RA, OA and control trauma joint tissues (non-RA, non-OA) and RNA was analyzed by Affymetrix microarray. Thirty-four genes specific to RA and OA FLS cells were identified (P<0.05). HOXD10, HOXD11, HOXD13, CCL8 and LIM homeobox 2 were highly and exclusively expressed in RA and CLU, sarcoglycan-gamma, GPR64, POU3F3, peroxisome proliferative activated receptor-gamma and tripartite motif-containing 2 were expressed only in OA. The data also revealed expression heterogeneity for patients with the same disease. To address disease heterogeneity in RA FLS cells, we examined the effects of clinical disease parameters (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF)) and drug therapies (methotrexate/prednisone) on RA FLS cell gene expression. Eight specific and unique correlations were identified: human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQA2 with HAQ score; Clec12A with RF; MAB21L2, SIAT7E, HAPLN1 and BAIAP2L1 with CRP level; RGMB and OSAP with ESR. Signature RA FLS cell gene expression profiles may provide insights into disease pathogenesis and have utility in diagnosis, prognosis and drug responsiveness. PMID:17568789

  8. Requirements for ingestion of Chlamydia psittaci by mouse fibroblasts (L cells).

    PubMed

    Byrne, G I

    1976-09-01

    Ingestion of 14C-amino acid-labeled Chlamydia psittaci (6BC) by mouse fibroblasts (L cells) was inhibited when the host cells were incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C in Earle salts containing 10 mug of crystalline trypsin per ml. Tryptic digestion also inhibited the ingestion of 1-mum polystrene latex beads. Trypsin-treated L cells almost completely recovered their ability to ingest chlamydiae after 4 h at 37 degrees C in medium 199 with 5% fetal calf serum. Cycloheximide (10 mug/ml) blocked this recovery. Heating 14C-amino acid-labeled C. psittaci for 3 min at 60 degrees C inhibited its ingestion by L cells, whereas inactivating it with ultraviolet light was without effect on the ingestion rate. These results show that efficient ingestion of C. psittaci by L cells involves trypsin-labile sites on the host and heat-sensitive sites on the parasite. The failure of excess unlabeled infectious C. psittaci to promote the ingestion of 14C-labeled heat-inactivated chlamydiae suggests that direct interaction between these two sites must occur for uptake to proceed normally. PMID:965090

  9. Requirements for ingestion of Chlamydia psittaci by mouse fibroblasts (L cells).

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, G I

    1976-01-01

    Ingestion of 14C-amino acid-labeled Chlamydia psittaci (6BC) by mouse fibroblasts (L cells) was inhibited when the host cells were incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C in Earle salts containing 10 mug of crystalline trypsin per ml. Tryptic digestion also inhibited the ingestion of 1-mum polystrene latex beads. Trypsin-treated L cells almost completely recovered their ability to ingest chlamydiae after 4 h at 37 degrees C in medium 199 with 5% fetal calf serum. Cycloheximide (10 mug/ml) blocked this recovery. Heating 14C-amino acid-labeled C. psittaci for 3 min at 60 degrees C inhibited its ingestion by L cells, whereas inactivating it with ultraviolet light was without effect on the ingestion rate. These results show that efficient ingestion of C. psittaci by L cells involves trypsin-labile sites on the host and heat-sensitive sites on the parasite. The failure of excess unlabeled infectious C. psittaci to promote the ingestion of 14C-labeled heat-inactivated chlamydiae suggests that direct interaction between these two sites must occur for uptake to proceed normally. PMID:965090

  10. Novel Regulation of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2)-mediated Cell Growth by Polysialic Acid*

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Sayaka; Hane, Masaya; Kitajima, Ken; Sato, Chihiro

    2012-01-01

    Polysialic acid (polySia) is a unique polysaccharide that modifies neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) spatiotemporally. Recently, we demonstrated that polySia functions as a reservoir for several neurotrophic factors and neurotransmitters. Here, we showed the direct interaction between polySia and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) by native-PAGE, gel filtration, and surface plasmon resonance. The minimum chain length of polySia required for the interaction with FGF2 was 17. Compared with heparan sulfate, a well known glycosaminoglycan capable of forming a complex with FGF2, polySia formed a larger complex with distinct properties in facilitating oligomerization of FGF2, as well as in binding to FGF receptors. In polySia-NCAM-expressing NIH-3T3 cells, which were established by transfecting cells with either of the plasmids for the expression of the polysialyltransferases ST8SiaII/STX and ST8SiaIV/PST that can polysialylate NCAM, FGF2-stimulated cell growth, but not cell survival, was inhibited. Taken together, these results suggest that polySia-NCAM might be involved in the regulation of FGF2-FGF receptor signaling through the direct binding of FGF2 in a manner distinct from heparan sulfate. PMID:22158871

  11. Dendritic cells control fibroblastic reticular network tension and lymph node expansion.

    PubMed

    Acton, Sophie E; Farrugia, Aaron J; Astarita, Jillian L; Mourão-Sá, Diego; Jenkins, Robert P; Nye, Emma; Hooper, Steven; van Blijswijk, Janneke; Rogers, Neil C; Snelgrove, Kathryn J; Rosewell, Ian; Moita, Luis F; Stamp, Gordon; Turley, Shannon J; Sahai, Erik; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2014-10-23

    After immunogenic challenge, infiltrating and dividing lymphocytes markedly increase lymph node cellularity, leading to organ expansion. Here we report that the physical elasticity of lymph nodes is maintained in part by podoplanin (PDPN) signalling in stromal fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) and its modulation by CLEC-2 expressed on dendritic cells. We show in mouse cells that PDPN induces actomyosin contractility in FRCs via activation of RhoA/C and downstream Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK). Engagement by CLEC-2 causes PDPN clustering and rapidly uncouples PDPN from RhoA/C activation, relaxing the actomyosin cytoskeleton and permitting FRC stretching. Notably, administration of CLEC-2 protein to immunized mice augments lymph node expansion. In contrast, lymph node expansion is significantly constrained in mice selectively lacking CLEC-2 expression in dendritic cells. Thus, the same dendritic cells that initiate immunity by presenting antigens to T lymphocytes also initiate remodelling of lymph nodes by delivering CLEC-2 to FRCs. CLEC-2 modulation of PDPN signalling permits FRC network stretching and allows for the rapid lymph node expansion--driven by lymphocyte influx and proliferation--that is the critical hallmark of adaptive immunity.

  12. Mitogenic and chondrogenic effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 in adipose-derived mesenchymal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, Michael; Xu Yue; Longaker, Michael T. . E-mail: Longaker@stanford.edu

    2006-05-05

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal cells (AMCs) have demonstrated a great capacity for differentiating into bone, cartilage, and fat. Studies using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells (BMSCs) have shown that fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, a potent mitogenic factor, plays an important role in tissue engineering due to its effects in proliferation and differentiation for mesenchymal cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of FGF-2 in AMC chondrogenic differentiation and its possible contributions to cell-based therapeutics in skeletal tissue regeneration. Data demonstrated that FGF-2 significantly promoted the proliferation of AMCs and enhanced chondrogenesis in three-dimensional micromass culture. Moreover, priming AMCs with treatment of FGF-2 at 10 ng/ml demonstrated that cells underwent chondrogenic phenotypic differentiation, possibly by inducing N-Cadherin, FGF-receptor 2, and transcription factor Sox9. Our results indicated that FGF-2 potentiates chondrogenesis in AMCs, similar to its functions in BMSCs, suggesting the versatile potential applications of FGF-2 in skeletal regeneration and cartilage repair.

  13. Metabolomic Analysis of Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast Cells in Response to Autophagy Induced by Acute Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Sensen; Weng, Rui; Li, Linnan; Xu, Xinyuan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy-related protein 7 (Atg7) is essential in the formation of the autophagophore and is indispensable for autophagy induction. Autophagy will exist in lower level or even be blocked in cells without Atg7. Even though the possible signaling pathways of Atg7 have been proposed, the metabolomic responses under acute starvation in cells with and without Atg7 have not been elucidated. This study therefore was designed and aimed to reveal the metabolomics of Atg7-dependent autophagy through metabolomic analysis of Atg7−/− mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) and wild-type MEFs along with the starvation time. 30 significantly altered metabolites were identified in response to nutrient stress, which were mainly associated with amino acid, energy, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism. For the wild-type MEFs, the induction of autophagy protected cell survival with some up-regulated lipids during the first two hours’ starvation, while the subsequent apoptosis resulted in the decrease of cell viability after four hours’ starvation. For the Atg7−/− MEFs, apoptosis perhaps led to the deactivation of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle due to the lack of autophagy, which resulted in the immediate drop of cellular viability under starvation. These results contributed to the metabolomic study and provided new insights into the mechanism associated with Atg7-dependent autophagy. PMID:27703171

  14. Suppression of oxidative phosphorylation in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells deficient in apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Suganya, Rangaswamy; Chakraborty, Anirban; Miriyala, Sumitra; Hazra, Tapas K.; Izumi, Tadahide

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 (APE1) is an essential DNA repair/gene regulatory protein. Decrease of APE1 in cells by inducible shRNA knockdown or by conditional gene knockout caused apoptosis. Here we succeeded in establishing a unique mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) line expressing APE1 at a level far lower than those achieved with shRNA knockdown. The cells, named MEFla (MEFlowAPE1), were hypersensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), and showed little activity for repairing AP-sites and MMS induced DNA damage. While these results were consistent with the essential role of APE1 in repair of AP sites, the MEFla cells grew normally and the basal activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases in MEFla was lower than that in the wild-type MEF (MEFwt), indicating the low DNA damage stress in MEFla under the normal growth condition. Oxidative phosphorylation activity in MEFla was lower than in MEFwt, while the glycolysis rates in MEFla were higher than in MEFwt. In addition, we observed decreased intracellular oxidative stress in MEFla. These results suggest that cells with low APE1 reversibly suppress mitochondrial respiration and thereby reduce DNA damage stress and increases the cell viability. PMID:25645679

  15. Suppression of oxidative phosphorylation in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells deficient in apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Suganya, Rangaswamy; Chakraborty, Anirban; Miriyala, Sumitra; Hazra, Tapas K; Izumi, Tadahide

    2015-03-01

    The mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 (APE1) is an essential DNA repair/gene regulatory protein. Decrease of APE1 in cells by inducible shRNA knockdown or by conditional gene knockout caused apoptosis. Here we succeeded in establishing a unique mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) line expressing APE1 at a level far lower than those achieved with shRNA knockdown. The cells, named MEF(la) (MEF(lowAPE1)), were hypersensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), and showed little activity for repairing AP-sites and MMS induced DNA damage. While these results were consistent with the essential role of APE1 in repair of AP sites, the MEF(la) cells grew normally and the basal activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases in MEF(la) was lower than that in the wild-type MEF (MEF(wt)), indicating the low DNA damage stress in MEF(la) under the normal growth condition. Oxidative phosphorylation activity in MEF(la) was lower than in MEF(wt), while the glycolysis rates in MEF(la) were higher than in MEF(wt). In addition, we observed decreased intracellular oxidative stress in MEF(la). These results suggest that cells with low APE1 reversibly suppress mitochondrial respiration and thereby reduce DNA damage stress and increases the cell viability.

  16. RalA Function in Dermal Fibroblasts is Required for the Progression of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Sowalsky, Adam G.; Alt-Holland, Addy; Shamis, Yulia; Garlick, Jonathan A.; Feig, Larry A.

    2011-01-01

    A large body of evidence has shown that stromal cells play a significant role in determining the fate of neighboring tumor cells through the secretion of various cytokines. How cytokine secretion by stromal cells is regulated in this context is poorly understood. In this study, we used a bioengineered human tissue model of skin squamous cell carcinoma progression to reveal that RalA function in dermal fibroblasts is required for tumor progression of neighboring neoplastic keratinocytes. This conclusion is based on the observations that suppression of RalA expression in dermal fibroblasts blocked tumorigenic keratinocytes from invading into the dermal compartment of engineered tissues, and suppressed more advanced tumor progression after these tissues were transplanted onto the dorsum of mice. RalA executes this tumor-promoting function of dermal fibroblasts, at least in part, by mediating HGF secretion through its effector proteins, the Sec5 and Exo84 subunits of the exocyst complex. These findings reveal a new level of HGF regulation and highlight the RalA signaling cascade in dermal fibroblasts as a potential anti-cancer target. PMID:21159665

  17. Effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles on the growth of keratinocytes, fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells in cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Chigurupati, Srinivasulu; Mughal, Mohamed R; Okun, Eitan; Das, Soumen; Kumar, Amit; McCaffery, Michael; Seal, Sudipta; Mattson, Mark P

    2013-03-01

    Rapid and effective wound healing requires a coordinated cellular response involving fibroblasts, keratinocytes and vascular endothelial cells (VECs). Impaired wound healing can result in multiple adverse health outcomes and, although antibiotics can forestall infection, treatments that accelerate wound healing are lacking. We now report that topical application of water soluble cerium oxide nanoparticles (Nanoceria) accelerates the healing of full-thickness dermal wounds in mice by a mechanism that involves enhancement of the proliferation and migration of fibroblasts, keratinocytes and VECs. The Nanoceria penetrated into the wound tissue and reduced oxidative damage to cellular membranes and proteins, suggesting a therapeutic potential for topical treatment of wounds with antioxidant nanoparticles.

  18. Basic fibroblast growth factor induces VEGF expression in chondrosarcoma cells and subsequently promotes endothelial progenitor cell-primed angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Huey-En; Chen, Po-Chun; Lin, Kai-Wei; Lin, Chih-Yang; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Han, Shao-Min; Teng, Chieh-Lin; Hwang, Wen-Li; Wang, Shih-Wei; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2015-07-01

    Chondrosarcoma, a common malignant tumour, develops in bone. Effective adjuvant therapy remains inadequate for treatment, meaning poor prognosis. It is imperative to explore novel remedies. Angiogenesis is a rate-limiting step in progression that explains neovessel formation for blood supply in the tumour microenvironment. Numerous studies indicate that EPCs (endothelial progenitor cells) promote angiogenesis and contribute to tumour growth. bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor), a secreted cytokine, regulates biological activity, including angiogenesis, and correlates with tumorigenesis. However, the role of bFGF in angiogenesis-related tumour progression by recruiting EPCs in human chondrosarcoma is rarely discussed. In the present study, we found that bFGF induced VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) expression via the FGFR1 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 1)/c-Src/p38/NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) signalling pathway in chondrosarcoma cells, thereby triggering angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells. Our in vivo data revealed that tumour-secreted bFGF promotes angiogenesis in both mouse plug and chick CAM (chorioallantoic membrane) assays. Xenograft mouse model data, due to bFGF-regulated angiogenesis, showed the bFGF regulates angiogenesis-linked tumour growth. Finally, bFGF was highly expressed in chondrosarcoma patients compared with normal cartilage, positively correlating with VEGF expression and tumour stage. The present study reveals a novel therapeutic target for chondrosarcoma progression.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells promote matrix metalloproteinase secretion by cardiac fibroblasts and reduce cardiac ventricular fibrosis after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mias, Céline; Lairez, Olivier; Trouche, Elodie; Roncalli, Jérome; Calise, Denis; Seguelas, Marie-Hélène; Ordener, Catherine; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Auge, Nathalie; Salvayre, Anne Negre; Bourin, Philippe; Parini, Angelo; Cussac, Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Recent studies showed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation significantly decreased cardiac fibrosis; however, the mechanisms involved in these effects are still poorly understood. In this work, we investigated whether the antifibrotic properties of MSCs involve the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and matrix metalloproteinase endogenous inhibitor (TIMP) production by cardiac fibroblasts. In vitro experiments showed that conditioned medium from MSCs decreased viability, alpha-smooth muscle actin expression, and collagen secretion of cardiac fibroblasts. These effects were concomitant with the stimulation of MMP-2/MMP-9 activities and membrane type 1 MMP expression. Experiments performed with fibroblasts from MMP2-knockout mice demonstrated that MMP-2 plays a preponderant role in preventing collagen accumulation upon incubation with conditioned medium from MSCs. We found that MSC-conditioned medium also decreased the expression of TIMP2 in cardiac fibroblasts. In vivo studies showed that intracardiac injection of MSCs in a rat model of postischemic heart failure induced a significant decrease in ventricular fibrosis. This effect was associated with the improvement of morphological and functional cardiac parameters. In conclusion, we showed that MSCs modulate the phenotype of cardiac fibroblasts and their ability to degrade extracellular matrix. These properties of MSCs open new perspectives for understanding the mechanisms of action of MSCs and anticipate their potential therapeutic or side effects.

  20. Secreted proteoglycans directly mediate human embryonic stem cell-basic fibroblast growth factor 2 interactions critical for proliferation.

    PubMed

    Levenstein, Mark E; Berggren, W Travis; Lee, Ji Eun; Conard, Kevin R; Llanas, Rachel A; Wagner, Ryan J; Smith, Lloyd M; Thomson, James A

    2008-12-01

    Human embryonic stem (ES) cells can be maintained in an undifferentiated state if the culture medium is first conditioned on a layer of mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder cells. Here we show that human ES cell proliferation is coordinated by MEF-secreted heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) in conditioned medium (CM). These HSPG and other heparinoids can stabilize basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) in unconditioned medium at levels comparable to those observed in CM. They also directly mediate binding of FGF2 to the human ES cell surface, and their removal from CM impairs proliferation. Finally, we have developed a purification scheme for MEF-secreted HSPG in CM. Using column chromatography, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis, we have identified multiple HSPG species in CM. The results demonstrate that HSPG are key signaling cofactors in CM-based human ES cell culture.

  1. EVALUATION OF BENZO[C]CHRYSENE DIHYDRODIOLS IN THE MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLAST C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EVALUATION OF BENZO[c]CHRYSENE DIHYDRODIOLS IN THE MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLAST C3H10T?CL8 CELLS

    Abstract The morphological cell transforming activities of three dihydrodiols of benzo[c]chrysene (B[c]C), trans-B[c]C-7,8-diol, trans-B[c]C-9...

  2. Human iPS cell-derived fibroblast-like cells as feeder layers for iPS cell derivation and expansion.

    PubMed

    Du, Shou-Hui; Tay, Johan Chin-Kang; Chen, Can; Tay, Felix-Chang; Tan, Wee-Kiat; Li, Zhen-Dong; Wang, Shu

    2015-08-01

    Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are commonly used as feeder cells for the generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). However, medical applications of cell derivatives of hiPSCs generated with a MEF feeder system run the risk of having xeno-factor contamination due to long-term cell culturing under an animal factor-containing environment. We developed a new method for the derivation of human fibroblast-like cells (FLCs) from a previously established hiPSC line in an FLC differentiation medium. The method was based on direct differentiation of hiPSCs seeded on Matrigel followed by expansion of differentiating cells on gelatin. Using inactivated FLCs as feeder layers, primary human foreskin fibroblasts were successfully reprogrammed into a state of pluripotency by Oct4, Sox2 Klf4, and c-Myc (OSKM) transcription factor genes, with a reprogramming efficiency under an optimized condition superior to that obtained on MEF feeder layers. Furthermore, the FLCs were more effective in supporting the growth of human pluripotent stem cells. The pluripotency and differentiation capability of the cells cultured on FLC feeder layers were well retained. Our results suggest that FLCs are a safe alternative to MEFs for hiPSC generation and expansion, especially in the clinical settings wherein hiPSC derivatives will be used for medical treatment.

  3. Essential role of TNF-alpha in development of spleen fibroblastic reticular cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lintao; Chen, Junying; Liu, Lina; Gao, Jianbao; Guo, Bo; Zhu, Bo

    2015-02-01

    TNF-alpha plays an important role in the development of secondary lymphoid tissues. Earlier studies showed that fibroblastic reticular cells express TNF-alpha receptor, suggesting that TNF-alpha may affect the development of FRCs. To test this, we analyzed the development and function of FRCs in wild-type or TNF-alpha knockout mice. We found that GP38 expression was down-regulated in the spleen of TNF-alpha knockout mice. Chemokines, mainly secreted by GP38(+) FRCs, were also down-regulated. Additionally, we found that absence of TNF-alpha decreased the homing ability to direct T cells to the spleen. However, absence of TNF-alpha did not affect the development of lymph nodes FRCs. These data reveal that TNF-alpha plays an important role in the development of spleen FRCs. Absence of TNF-alpha could cause abnormality of spleen FRCs, thereby weakening the homing ability of T cells to localize to the spleen T cell zone.

  4. Reprogramming of human fibroblasts to pluripotent stem cells using mRNA of four transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Yakubov, Eduard; Rechavi, Gidi; Rozenblatt, Shmuel; Givol, David

    2010-03-26

    Reprogramming of differentiated cells into induced pluripotent cells (iPS) was accomplished in 2006 by expressing four, or less, embryonic stem cell (ESC)-specific transcription factors. Due to the possible danger of DNA damage and the potential tumorigenicity associated with such DNA damage, attempts were made to minimize DNA integration by the vectors involved in this process without complete success. Here we present a method of using RNA transfection as a tool for reprogramming human fibroblasts to iPS. We used RNA synthesized in vitro from cDNA of the same reprogramming four transcription factors. After transfection of the RNA, we show intracellular expression and nuclear localization of the respective proteins in at least 70% of the cells. We used five consecutive transfections to support continuous protein expression resulting in the formation of iPS colonies that express alkaline phosphatase and several ESC markers and that can be expanded. This method completely avoids DNA integration and may be developed to replace the use of DNA vectors in the formation of iPS.

  5. Decreased cell proliferation and higher oxidative stress in fibroblasts from Down Syndrome fetuses. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Amparo; García-Giménez, José Luis; Audí, Laura; Toran, Nuria; Andaluz, Pilar; Dasí, Francisco; Viña, José; Pallardó, Federico V

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome is the most common chromosomal disease and is also known for its decreased incidence of solid tumors and its progeroid phenotype. Cellular and systemic oxidative stress has been considered as one of the Down Syndrome phenotype causes. We correlated, in a preliminary study, the fibroblast proliferation rate and different cell proliferation key regulators, like Rcan1 and the telomere length from Down Syndrome fetuses, with their oxidative stress profile and the Ribonucleic acid and protein expression of the main antioxidant enzymes together with their activity. Increased oxidized glutathione/glutathione ratio and high peroxide production were found in our cell model. These results correlated with a distorted antioxidant shield. The messenger RNA (SOD1) and protein levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase were increased together with a decreased mRNA expression and protein levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). As a consequence the [Cu/ZnSOD/(catalase+GPx)] activity ratio increases which explains the oxidative stress generated in the cell model. In addition, the expression of thioredoxin 1 and glutaredoxin 1 is decreased. The results obtained show a decreased antioxidant phenotype that correlates with increased levels of Regulator of calcineurin 1 and attrition of telomeres, both related to oxidative stress and cell cycle impairment. Our preliminary results may explain the proneness to a progeroid phenotype. PMID:24184606

  6. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cobalt in human lung fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Leah J; Holmes, Amie L; Kandpal, Sanjeev Kumar; Mason, Michael D; Zheng, Tongzhang; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-08-01

    Cobalt exposure is increasing as cobalt demand rises worldwide due to its use in enhancing rechargeable battery efficiency, super-alloys, and magnetic products. Cobalt is considered a possible human carcinogen with the lung being a primary target. However, few studies have considered cobalt-induced toxicity in human lung cells. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble cobalt in human lung cells. Cobalt oxide and cobalt chloride were used as representative particulate and soluble cobalt compounds, respectively. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ion levels. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found that soluble cobalt was more cytotoxic than particulate cobalt while particulate and soluble cobalt induced similar levels of genotoxicity. However, soluble cobalt induced cell cycle arrest indicated by the lack of metaphases at much lower intracellular cobalt concentrations compared to cobalt oxide. Accordingly, we investigated the role of particle internalization in cobalt oxide-induced toxicity and found that particle-cell contact was necessary to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity after cobalt exposure. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung fibroblasts, and solubility plays a key role in cobalt-induced lung toxicity.

  7. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cobalt in human lung fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Leah J; Holmes, Amie L; Kandpal, Sanjeev Kumar; Mason, Michael D; Zheng, Tongzhang; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-08-01

    Cobalt exposure is increasing as cobalt demand rises worldwide due to its use in enhancing rechargeable battery efficiency, super-alloys, and magnetic products. Cobalt is considered a possible human carcinogen with the lung being a primary target. However, few studies have considered cobalt-induced toxicity in human lung cells. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble cobalt in human lung cells. Cobalt oxide and cobalt chloride were used as representative particulate and soluble cobalt compounds, respectively. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ion levels. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found that soluble cobalt was more cytotoxic than particulate cobalt while particulate and soluble cobalt induced similar levels of genotoxicity. However, soluble cobalt induced cell cycle arrest indicated by the lack of metaphases at much lower intracellular cobalt concentrations compared to cobalt oxide. Accordingly, we investigated the role of particle internalization in cobalt oxide-induced toxicity and found that particle-cell contact was necessary to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity after cobalt exposure. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung fibroblasts, and solubility plays a key role in cobalt-induced lung toxicity. PMID:24823294

  8. Decreased cell proliferation and higher oxidative stress in fibroblasts from Down Syndrome fetuses. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Amparo; García-Giménez, José Luis; Audí, Laura; Toran, Nuria; Andaluz, Pilar; Dasí, Francisco; Viña, José; Pallardó, Federico V

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome is the most common chromosomal disease and is also known for its decreased incidence of solid tumors and its progeroid phenotype. Cellular and systemic oxidative stress has been considered as one of the Down Syndrome phenotype causes. We correlated, in a preliminary study, the fibroblast proliferation rate and different cell proliferation key regulators, like Rcan1 and the telomere length from Down Syndrome fetuses, with their oxidative stress profile and the Ribonucleic acid and protein expression of the main antioxidant enzymes together with their activity. Increased oxidized glutathione/glutathione ratio and high peroxide production were found in our cell model. These results correlated with a distorted antioxidant shield. The messenger RNA (SOD1) and protein levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase were increased together with a decreased mRNA expression and protein levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). As a consequence the [Cu/ZnSOD/(catalase+GPx)] activity ratio increases which explains the oxidative stress generated in the cell model. In addition, the expression of thioredoxin 1 and glutaredoxin 1 is decreased. The results obtained show a decreased antioxidant phenotype that correlates with increased levels of Regulator of calcineurin 1 and attrition of telomeres, both related to oxidative stress and cell cycle impairment. Our preliminary results may explain the proneness to a progeroid phenotype.

  9. Amentoflavone inhibits angiogenesis of endothelial cells and stimulates apoptosis in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinli; Liu, Zhihe; Cao, Wenjuan; Chen, Liying; Xiong, Xifeng; Qin, Shengnan; Zhang, Zhi; Li, Xiaojian; Hu, Chien-an A

    2014-08-01

    Amentoflavone (8-[5-(5,7-dihydroxy-4-oxo-chromen-2-yl)-2-hydroxy-phenyl]-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) chromen-4-one; AF) is a biflavonoid derived from the extracts of Selaginella tamariscina. It has been shown that AF has diverse biological effects such as antitumour, etc. It is well known that high cell proliferation, viability, angiogenesis and low apoptosis are key factors in hypertrophic scar formation. In this study, we report that AF inhibited viability and stimulated apoptosis in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFBs). Incubation of HSFBs with AF showed its inhibitory effect on cell viability and the exhibition of a series of cellular changes that were consistent with apoptosis. By Western-blot analysis, our data indicated significant increases in the amounts of cleaved caspases 3, 8, 9 and Bax, several apoptotic promoters and a significant decrease in translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP), an apoptotic inhibitor, in HSFBs treated with AF. Furthermore, AF showed significant inhibitions on the viability, migration and tube formation of endothelial cells, which are associated with angiogenesis. In conclusion, this study suggests that AF stimulates apoptosis in HSFBs and inhibits angiogenesis of endothelial cells. Therefore, AF is a promising molecule that can be used in hypertrophic scar treatment.

  10. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling is essential for lens fiber cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Haotian; Yang, Tianyu; Madakashira, Bhavani P.; Thiels, Cornelius A.; Bechtle, Chad A.; Garcia, Claudia M.; Zhang, Huiming; Yu, Kai; Ornitz, David M.; Beebe, David C.; Robinson, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    The vertebrate lens provides an excellent model to study the mechanisms that regulate terminal differentiation. Although fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are thought to be important for lens cell differentiation, it is unclear which FGF receptors mediate these processes during different stages of lens development. Deletion of three FGF receptors (Fgfr1-3) early in lens development demonstrated that expression of only a single allele of Fgfr2 or Fgfr3 was sufficient for grossly normal lens development, while mice possessing only a single Fgfr1 allele developed cataracts and microphthalmia. Profound defects were observed in lenses lacking all three Fgfrs. These included lack of fiber cell elongation, abnormal proliferation in prospective lens fiber cells, reduced expression of the cell cycle inhibitors p27kip1 and p57kip2, increased apoptosis and aberrant or reduced expression of Prox1, Pax6, c-Maf, E-cadherin and α-, β- and γ-crystallins. Therefore, while signaling by FGF receptors is essential for lens fiber differentiation, different FGF receptors function redundantly. PMID:18455718

  11. Epigenetic Induction of Definitive and Pancreatic Endoderm Cell Fate in Human Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Faas, Marijke M.; de Vos, Paul; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming can occur by the introduction of key transcription factors (TFs) as well as by epigenetic changes. We demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) Trichostatin A (TSA) combined with a chromatin remodeling medium (CRM) induced expression of a number of definitive endoderm and early and late pancreatic marker genes. When CRM was omitted, endoderm/pancreatic marker genes were not induced. Furthermore, treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (DNMTi) 5-azacytidine (5AZA) CRM did not affect gene expression changes, and when 5AZA was combined with TSA, no further increase in gene expression of endoderm, pancreatic endoderm, and endocrine markers was seen over levels induced with TSA alone. Interestingly, TSA-CRM did not affect expression of pluripotency and hepatocyte genes but induced some mesoderm transcripts. Upon removal of TSA-CRM, the endoderm/pancreatic gene expression profile returned to baseline. Our findings underscore the role epigenetic modification in transdifferentiation of one somatic cell into another. However, full reprogramming of fibroblasts to β-cells will require combination of this approach with TF overexpression and/or culture of the partially reprogrammed cells under β-cell specific conditions. PMID:27403168

  12. Inhibition of the Differentiation of Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells by Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Séguier, Sylvie; Tartour, Eric; Guérin, Coralie; Couty, Ludovic; Lemitre, Mathilde; Lallement, Laetitia; Folliguet, Marysette; Naderi, Samah El; Terme, Magali; Badoual, Cécile; Lafont, Antoine; Coulomb, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether gingival fibroblasts (GFs) can modulate the differentiation and/or maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and analyzed soluble factors that may be involved in this immune modulation. Experiments were performed using human monocytes in co-culture with human GFs in Transwell® chambers or using monocyte cultures treated with conditioned media (CM) from GFs of four donors. The four CM and supernatants from cell culture were assayed by ELISA for cytokines involved in the differentiation of dendritic cells, such as IL-6, VEGF, TGFβ1, IL-13 and IL-10. The maturation of monocyte-derived DCs induced by LPS in presence of CM was also studied. Cell surface phenotype markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. In co-cultures, GFs inhibited the differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs and the strength of this blockade correlated with the GF/monocyte ratio. Conditioned media from GFs showed similar effects, suggesting the involvement of soluble factors produced by GFs. This inhibition was associated with a lower stimulatory activity in MLR of DCs generated with GFs or its CM. Neutralizing antibodies against IL-6 and VEGF significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the inhibitory effect of CM on the differentiation of monocytes-derived DCs and in a dose dependent manner. Our data suggest that IL-6 is the main factor responsible for the inhibition of DCs differentiation mediated by GFs but that VEGF is also involved and constitutes an additional mechanism. PMID:23936476

  13. Genome structure of Abelson murine leukemia virus variants: proviruses in fibroblasts and lymphoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Goff, S P; Witte, O N; Gilboa, E; Rosenberg, N; Baltimore, D

    1981-01-01

    We have prepared full-length DNA clones of the Abelson murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) genome. A specific probe homologous to the central portion of the A-MuLV genome was prepared by nick translation of a subcloned restriction fraction from the cloned DNA. The probe was used to examine the genome structure of several A-MuLV variants. The conclusions are: (i) three viruses coding for Abelson-specific proteins of molecular weight 120,000, 100,000, and 90,000 had genomes indistinguishable in size, suggesting that the shorter proteins are the result of early translational termination; (ii) compared with the genome encoding the 120,000-dalton (120K) protein, a genome coding for a 160K protein was 0.8 kilobase larger in the A-MuLV-specific region; and (iii) a genome coding for a 92K protein had a 700-base pair deletion internal to the coding region. This mutant was transformation defective: its 92K protein lacked the protein kinase activity normally associated with the A-MuLV protein, and cells containing the virus were not morphologically transformed. In addition, we determined the number of A-MuLV proviruses in each of several transformed fibroblast and lymphoid cells prepared by infection in vitro. These experiments show that a single copy of the A-MuLV provirus is sufficient to transform both types of cells and that nonproducer cells generally have only one integrated provirus. Images PMID:6264122

  14. Radiation induced bystander effect by GAP junction channels in human fibroblast cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Y.; Shao, C.; Aoki, M.; Kobayashi, Y.; Funayama, T.; Ando, K.

    The chemical factor involved in bystander effect and its transfer pathway were investigated in a confluent human fibroblast cell (AG1522) population. Micronuclei (MN) and G1-phase arrest were detected in cells irradiated by carbon (~100 keV/μm) ions at HIMAC. A very low dose irradiation showed a high effectiveness in producing MN, suggesting a bystander effect. This effectiveness was enhanced by 8-Br-cAMP treatment that increases gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). On the other hand, the effect was reduced by 5% DMSO treatment, which reduce the reactive oxygen species (ROS), and suppressed by 100 μM lindane treatment, an inhibitor of GJIC. In addition, the radiation-induced G1-phase arrest was also enhanced by cAMP, and reduced or suppressed by DMSO or lindane. A microbeam device (JAERI) was also used for these studies. It was found that exposing one single cell in a confluent cell population to exactly one argon (~1260 keV/μm) or neon (~430 keV/ μm) ion, additional MN could be detected in many other unirradiated cells. The yield of MN increased with the number of irradiated cells. However, there was no significant difference in the MN induction when the cells were irradiated by increasing number of particles. MN induction by bystander effect was partly reduced by DMSO, and effectively suppressed by lindane. Our results obtained from both random irradiation and precise numbered irradiation indicate that both GJIC and ROS contributed to the radiation-induced bystander effect, but the cell gap junction channels likely play an essential role in the release and transfer of radiation-induced chemical factors.

  15. Controlling the Fibroblastic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Via the Combination of Fibrous Scaffolds and Connective Tissue Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Zhixiang; Sant, Shilpa

    2011-01-01

    Controlled differentiation of multi-potent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into vocal fold-specific, fibroblast-like cells in vitro is an attractive strategy for vocal fold repair and regeneration. The goal of the current study was to define experimental parameters that can be used to control the initial fibroblastic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. To this end, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and micro-structured, fibrous scaffolds based on poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) were used to create a three-dimensional, connective tissue-like microenvironment. MSCs readily attached to and elongated along the microfibers, adopting a spindle-shaped morphology during the initial 3 days of preculture in an MSC maintenance medium. The cell-laden scaffolds were subsequently cultivated in a conditioned medium containing CTGF and ascorbic acids for up to 21 days. Cell morphology, proliferation, and differentiation were analyzed collectively by quantitative PCR analyses, and biochemical and immunocytochemical assays. F-actin staining showed that MSCs maintained their fibroblastic morphology during the 3 weeks of culture. The addition of CTGF to the constructs resulted in an enhanced cell proliferation, elevated expression of fibroblast-specific protein-1, and decreased expression of mesenchymal surface epitopes without markedly triggering chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, adipogenesis, or apoptosis. At the mRNA level, CTGF supplement resulted in a decreased expression of collagen I and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, but an increased expression of decorin and hyaluronic acid synthesase 3. At the protein level, collagen I, collagen III, sulfated glycosaminoglycan, and elastin productivity was higher in the conditioned PGS-PCL culture than in the normal culture. These findings collectively demonstrate that the fibrous mesh, when combined with defined biochemical cues, is capable of fostering MSC fibroblastic differentiation in vitro. PMID

  16. The cytoskeletal organization of breast carcinoma and fibroblast cells inside three dimensional (3-D) isotropic silicon microstructures.

    PubMed

    Nikkhah, Mehdi; Strobl, Jeannine S; De Vita, Raffaella; Agah, Masoud

    2010-06-01

    Studying the cytoskeletal organization as cells interact in their local microenvironment is interest of biological science, tissue engineering and cancer diagnosis applications. Herein, we describe the behavior of cell lines obtained from metastatic breast tumor pleural effusions (MDA-MB-231), normal fibrocystic mammary epithelium (MCF10A), and HS68 normal fibroblasts inside three dimensional (3-D) isotropic silicon microstructures fabricated by a single-mask, single-isotropic-etch process. We report differences in adhesion, mechanism of force balance within the cytoskeleton, and deformability among these cell types inside the 3-D microenvironment. HS68 fibroblasts typically stretched and formed vinculin-rich focal adhesions at anchor sites inside the etched cavities. In contrast, MCF10A and MDA-MB-231 cells adopted the curved surfaces of isotropic microstructures and exhibited more diffuse vinculin cytoplasmic staining in addition to vinculin localized in focal adhesions. The measurement of cells elasticity using atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation revealed that HS68 cells are significantly stiffer (p < 0.0001) than MCF10A and MDA-MB-231 cells. Upon microtubule disruption with nocodazole, fibroblasts no longer stretched, but adhesion of MCF10A and MDA-MB-231 within the etched features remained unaltered. Our findings are consistent with tensegrity theory. The 3-D microstructures have the potential to probe cytoskeletal-based differences between healthy and diseased cells that can provide biomarkers for diagnostics purposes. PMID:20207413

  17. Reversine Increases the Plasticity of Long-Term Cryopreserved Fibroblasts to Multipotent Progenitor Cells through Activation of Oct4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangchen; Guo, Yu; Yao, Yaxin; Hua, Jinlian; Ma, Yuehui; Liu, Changqing; Guan, Weijun

    2016-01-01

    Reversine, a purine analog, had been evidenced that it could induce dedifferentiation of differentiated cells into multipotent progenitor cells. Here, we showed that reversine could increase the plasticity of long-term cryopreserved bovine fibroblasts, and reversine-treated cells achieved the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers cells, such as osteoblasts and adipocytes from mesoblast, neurocyte from ectoderm, hepatocytes and smooth muscle cells from endoderm. Moreover, treatment of reversine caused the grow arrest of fibroblasts at G2/M and distinct cell swelling resulting in the formation of polyploid cells. In parallel, reversine treatment induced a multipotency of fibroblasts might be attributed to the activation of histone modifications, especially the degression of DNA methylation. However, molecular and cellular experiments suggested that reversine treatment enhanced selectively the expression of pluripotent marker gene Oct4 and mesenchymal marker genes CD29, CD44 and CD73, but Sox2 and Nanog were not detected. Taken together, these results clearly demonstrate the ability of reversine to dedifferentiation of long-term cryopreserved somatic cells through activation of pluripotent gene Oct4. PMID:26722217

  18. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 regulates Paneth cell lineage allocation and accrual of epithelial stem cells during murine intestinal development.

    PubMed

    Vidrich, Alda; Buzan, Jenny M; Brodrick, Brooks; Ilo, Chibuzo; Bradley, Leigh; Fendig, Kirstin Skaar; Sturgill, Thomas; Cohn, Steven M

    2009-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR-3) is expressed in the lower crypt epithelium, where stem cells of the intestine reside. The role of FGFR-3 signaling in regulating features of intestinal morphogenesis was examined in FGFR-3-null (FGFR-3(-/-)) mice. FGFR-3(-/-) mice had only about half the number of intestinal crypts and a marked decrease in the number of functional clonogenic stem cells, as assessed by an in vivo microcolony-forming assay, compared with wild-type littermates. A marked deficit in allocation of progenitor cells to Paneth cell differentiation was noted, although all the principal epithelial lineages were represented in FGFR-3(-/-) mice. The total cellular content and nuclear localization of beta-catenin protein were reduced in FGFR-3(-/-) mice, as was expression of cyclin D1 and matrix metalloproteinase-7, major downstream targets of beta-catenin/T cell factor-4 (Tcf-4) signaling. Activation of FGFR-3 in Caco-2 cells, an intestinal epithelial cell line, abrogated the fall in beta-catenin/Tcf-4 signaling activity that is normally observed in these cells as cultures become progressively more confluent. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that, during intestinal development, FGFR-3 signaling regulates crypt epithelial stem cell expansion and crypt morphogenesis, as well as Paneth cell lineage specification, through beta-catenin/Tcf-4-dependent and -independent pathways. PMID:19407216

  19. Cell Persistence of Allogeneic Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts Applied in a Fibrin Matrix to Acute, Full Thickness Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Jaime E.; Planz, John V.; Reece, Barry T.; Weedon, Kathy A.; Kirkpatrick, Sandy D.; Slade, Herbert B.

    2013-01-01

    HP802-247 is a living cell suspension of cultured allogeneic growth-arrested human male keratinocytes and fibroblasts (1:9 ratio), intended for spray application to chronic wounds. In this study, a small wound was created on the arms of 28 healthy female volunteers (3-mm punch), followed by a single application of HP802-247. At each subsequent week for 8 weeks, a punch excision of the wounds was performed on a cohort of three subjects. Excised specimens were analyzed for allogeneic fibroblast and keratinocyte DNA determined by Y-chromosome short-tandem repeats using PCR amplification followed by capillary electrophoresis, a method with estimated sensitivity of 1 male cell in a background of 8,000 female cells. A complete haplotype attributable to HP802-247 fibroblasts was detected in three of three samples at 1 week, with one partial and one complete fibroblast haplotype detected at 2 weeks, and one partial keratinocyte haplotype detected at 3 weeks postapplication. The findings indicate that HP802-247 can be expected to persist in an acute wound bed for up to 2 weeks postapplication. PMID:26858859

  20. The use of biomaterials for cell function enhancement: acceleration of fibroblast migration and promotion of stem cell proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Sisi

    Wound healing and tissue regeneration proceed via fibroblast migration along three dimensional scaffolds composed of fibers with different diameters, spacing, and junction angles. In order to understand how each of these factors influences fibroblast migration, a technique for preparation of three dimensional fibrillar scaffolds was developed where the fiber diameters and the angles between adjacent fiber layers could be precisely controlled. In order to study the en-mass migration process, the agarose droplet method was chosen since it enabled accurate determinations of the dependence of the migration speed, focal adhesion distribution, and nuclear deformation on the fiber structures. Results showed that on oriented single fiber layers, if the fiber diameters exceeded 1microm, large focal adhesion complexes formed in a linear arrangement along the fiber axis and cell motion was highly correlated. For fibers 1microm or less, some cell alignment along the fiber direction was measured, but no correlation between the distribution of focal adhesion points and fiber orientation was found. On multi layered scaffolds the focal adhesion sites were found to concentrate at the junction points and the migration speed followed a parabolic function with a distinct minimum at 35°. When compared to fibroblasts plated on 90° fibers, fibroblasts plated on 30° fibers showed a decrease of 25% in the degree of nuclear deformation and an increase of 25% in the number of focal adhesion sites, indicating that cell migration speed was correlated to the angle and distance of approach to the junction point. The time dependence of the migration velocity on oriented fibers was measured for four days and compared to the value measured on flat surfaces. After the initial 24 hour incubation period, the cells on both the 8microm fibers and flat surfaces migrated with a similar speed. During the next three days the migration speed for the cells on the fibrillar surfaces doubled in magnitude

  1. Fibroblast Activation Protein Expression by Stromal Cells and Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Human Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Julia, Tchou; Zhang Paul, J; Yingtao, Bi; Celine, Satija; Rajrupa, Marjumdar; Stephen, TL; Lo, A; Haiying, Chen; Carolyn, Mies; June, Carl H; Jose, Conejo-Garcia; Ellen, Puré

    2013-01-01

    Summary Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) has long been known to be expressed in the stroma of breast cancer. However, very little is known if the magnitude of FAP expression within the stroma may have prognostic value and reflect the heterogeneous biology of the tumor cell. An earlier study had suggested that stromal FAP expression in breast cancer was inversely proportional to prognosis. We, therefore, hypothesized that stromal FAP expression may correlate with clinicopathologic variables and may serve as an adjunct prognostic factor in breast cancer. We evaluated the expression of FAP in a panel of breast cancer tissues (n=52) using a combination of immunostain analyses at the tissue and single cell level using freshly frozen or freshly digested human breast tumor samples respectively. Our results showed that FAP expression was abundantly expressed in the stroma across all breast cancer subtypes without significant correlation with clinicopathologic factors. We further identified a subset of FAP positive or FAP+ stromal cells that also expressed CD45, a pan-leukocyte marker. Using freshly dissociated human breast tumor specimens (n=5), we demonstrated that some of these FAP+ CD45+ cells were CD11b+CD14+MHC-II+ indicating that they were likely tumor associated macrophages (TAMs). Although FAP+CD45+ cells have been demonstrated in the mouse tumor stroma, our results demonstrating that human breast TAMs expressed FAP was novel and suggested that existing and future FAP directed therapy may have dual therapeutic benefits targeting both stromal mesenchymal cells and immune cells such as TAMs. More work is needed to explore the role of FAP as a potential targetable molecule in breast cancer treatment. PMID:24074532

  2. Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) Expression in Chondrosarcoma Cells and Its Regulation by Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Uría, José A.; Balbín, Milagros; López, José M.; Alvarez, Jesús; Vizoso, Francisco; Takigawa, Masaharu; López-Otín, Carlos

    1998-01-01

    Human collagenase-3 (MMP-13) is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family of enzymes that was originally identified in breast carcinomas and subsequently detected during fetal ossification and in arthritic processes. In this work, we have found that collagenase-3 is produced by HCS-2/8 human chondrosarcoma cells. An analysis of the ability of different cytokines and growth factors to induce the expression of collagenase-3 in these cells revealed that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2) strongly up-regulated the expression of this gene. By contrast, other factors, including interleukin-1β and transforming growth factor-β, previously found to induce collagenase-3 expression in other cell types, did not exhibit any effect on the expression of this gene in chondrosarcoma cells. Further analysis of the bFGF-induced expression of collagenase-3 in human chondrosarcoma cells revealed that its effect was time and dose dependent, but independent of the de novo synthesis of proteins. Western blot analysis revealed that the up-regulatory effect of bFGF on collagenase-3 was also reflected at the protein level as demonstrated by the increase of immunoreactive protein in the conditioned medium of HCS-2/8 cells treated with bFGF. Immunohistochemical analysis of the presence of collagenase-3 in a series of 8 benign and 16 malignant cartilage-forming neoplasms revealed that all analyzed malignant chondrosarcomas stained positively for collagenase-3, whereas only 2 of 8 benign lesions produced this protease. In addition, the finding that bFGF was detected in all analyzed chondrosarcomas, together with the above in vitro studies on HCS-2/8 cells, suggest that this growth factor may be an in vivo modulator of collagenase-3 expression in these malignant tumors. These results extend the pattern of tumor types with ability to produce this matrix metalloproteinase and suggest that collagenase-3 up-regulation may contribute to the progression of human chondrosarcomas

  3. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Regulates Persistent ERK Osciliations in Premaligant but not Malignant JB6 Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Thomas J.; Shankaran, Harish; Wiley, H. S.; Opresko, Lee K.; Chrisler, William B.; Quesenberry, Ryan D.

    2010-05-02

    basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF2) plays an important role in epidermal wound healing in vivo and is associated with a persistent increased in the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in vitro. Here we have examined whether bFGF induces the closure of an experimental scratch wound in JB6 mouse epidermal cells and have explored the regulation of the ERK pathway by bFGF in the context of kinase oscillations. bFGF stimulation is associated with increases in cellular phospho-ERK and phospho-c-Jun levels. In addition, bFGF increases cell proliferation and a change in cell morphology (stellate appearance) in a dose-dependent fashion (0.1 – 100 ng/ml). bFGF treatment also promoted the closure of an experimental scratch wound in vitro. JB6 cells were stably transfected with an ERK1-GFP chimera to follow temporal ERK subcellular distribution patterns. We observe a persistent upregulation of the ERK pathway, as evidenced by a significant increase in nuclear ERK1-GFP levels at time points up to 24 hr after bFGF treatment. Interestingly, at the single cell level, ERK is observed to oscillate between nuclear and cytosolic compartments in response to bFGF treatment. Because this oscillatory behavior is asynchronous in the cell population, it is only clearly resolved at the single cell level. Collectively, data presented here are consistent with an important role for bFGF in wound healing and suggest a more complex regulation of the ERK pathway by bFGF than has previously been appreciated.

  4. Targeting Inhibition of Fibroblast Activation Protein-α and Prolyl Oligopeptidase Activities on Cells Common to Metastatic Tumor Microenvironments1

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Victoria J; Jackson, Kenneth W; Lee, Kyung N; Downs, Tamyra D; McKee, Patrick A

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast activation protein (FAP), a membrane prolyl-specific proteinase with both dipeptidase and endopeptidase activities, is overexpressed by reactive stromal fibroblasts during epithelial-derived cancer growth. FAP digests extracellular matrix as tissue is remodeled during cancer expansion and may also promote an immunotolerant tumor microenvironment. Recent studies suggest that nonspecific FAP inhibitors suppress human cancer xenografts in mouse models. Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP), another prolyl-specific serine proteinase, is also elevated in many cancers and may have a regulatory role in angiogenesis promotion. FAP and POP cell-associated activities may be targets for diagnosis and treatment of various cancers, but their accessibilities to highly effective specific inhibitors have not been shown for cells important to cancer growth. Despite their frequent simultaneous expression in many cancers and their overlapping activities toward commonly used substrates, precise, separate measurement of FAP or POP activity has largely been ignored. To distinguish each of the two activities, we synthesized highly specific substrates and inhibitors for FAP or POP based on amino acid sequences surrounding the scissile bonds of their respective putative substrates. We found varying amounts of FAP and POP protein and activities on activated fibroblasts, mesenchymal cells, normal breast cells, and one breast cancer cell line, with some cells exhibiting more POP than FAP activity. Replicating endothelial cells (ECs) expressed POP but not FAP until tubulogenesis began. Targeting FAP-positive cells, especially mesenchymal stem cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts for inactivation or destruction, and inhibiting POP-producing EC may abrogate stromal invasion and angiogenesis simultaneously and thereby diminish cancer growth. PMID:23555181

  5. The Effects of Brazilian Green Propolis against Excessive Light-Induced Cell Damage in Retina and Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Murase, Hiromi; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Kakino, Mamoru; Ichihara, Kenji; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Hara, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Background. We investigated the effects of Brazilian green propolis and its constituents against white light- or UVA-induced cell damage in mouse retinal cone-cell line 661W or human skin-derived fibroblast cells (NB1-RGB). Methods. Cell damage was induced by 3,000lx white light for 24 h or 4/10 J/cm2 UVA exposure. Cell viability was assessed by Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide staining or by tetrazolium salt (WST-8) cell viability assay. The radical scavenging activity of propolis induced by UVA irradiation in NB1-RGB cells was measured using a reactive-oxygen-species- (ROS-) sensitive probe CM-H2DCFDA. Moreover, the effects of propolis on the UVA-induced activation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were examined by immunoblotting. Results. Treatment with propolis and two dicaffeoylquinic acids significantly inhibited the decrease in cell viability induced by white light in 661W. Propolis and its constituents inhibited the decrease in cell viability induced by UVA in NB1-RGB. Moreover, propolis suppressed the intracellular ROS production by UVA irradiation. Propolis also inhibited the levels of phosphorylated-p38 and ERK by UVA irradiation. Conclusion. Brazilian green propolis may become a major therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AMD and skin damage induced by UV irradiation. PMID:24416064

  6. Fibroblast growth factor rescues brain endothelial cells lacking presenilin 1 from apoptotic cell death following serum starvation

    PubMed Central

    Gama Sosa, Miguel A.; De Gasperi, Rita; Hof, Patrick R.; Elder, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    Presenilin 1 (Psen1) is important for vascular brain development and is known to influence cellular stress responses. To understand the role of Psen1 in endothelial stress responses, we investigated the effects of serum withdrawal on wild type (wt) and Psen1−/− embryonic brain endothelial cells. Serum starvation induced apoptosis in Psen1−/− cells but did not affect wt cells. PI3K/AKT signaling was reduced in serum-starved Psen1−/− cells, and this was associated with elevated levels of phospho-p38 consistent with decreased pro-survival AKT signaling in the absence of Psen1. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF1 and FGF2), but not vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) rescued Psen1−/− cells from serum starvation induced apoptosis. Inhibition of FGF signaling induced apoptosis in wt cells under serum withdrawal, while blocking γ-secretase activity had no effect. In the absence of serum, FGF2 immunoreactivity was distributed diffusely in cytoplasmic and nuclear vesicles of wt and Psen1−/− cells, as levels of FGF2 in nuclear and cytosolic fractions were not significantly different. Thus, sensitivity of Psen1−/− cells to serum starvation is not due to lack of FGF synthesis but likely to effects of Psen1 on FGF release onto the cell surface and impaired activation of the PI3K/AKT survival pathway. PMID:27443835

  7. Identification of a Cell-of-Origin for Fibroblasts Comprising the Fibrotic Reticulum in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hong; Bodempudi, Vidya; Benyumov, Alexey; Hergert, Polla; Tank, Damien; Herrera, Jeremy; Braziunas, Jeff; Larsson, Ola; Parker, Matthew; Rossi, Daniel; Smith, Karen; Peterson, Mark; Limper, Andrew; Jessurun, Jose; Connett, John; Ingbar, David; Phan, Sem; Bitterman, Peter B.; Henke, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease of the middle aged and elderly with a prevalence of one million persons worldwide. The fibrosis spreads from affected alveoli into contiguous alveoli, creating a reticular network that leads to death by asphyxiation. Lung fibroblasts from patients with IPF have phenotypic hallmarks, distinguishing them from their normal counterparts: pathologically activated Akt signaling axis, increased collagen and α-smooth muscle actin expression, distinct gene expression profile, and ability to form fibrotic lesions in model organisms. Despite the centrality of these fibroblasts in disease pathogenesis, their origin remains uncertain. Here, we report the identification of cells in the lungs of patients with IPF with the properties of mesenchymal progenitors. In contrast to progenitors isolated from nonfibrotic lungs, IPF mesenchymal progenitor cells produce daughter cells manifesting the full spectrum of IPF hallmarks, including the ability to form fibrotic lesions in zebrafish embryos and mouse lungs, and a transcriptional profile reflecting these properties. Morphological analysis of IPF lung tissue revealed that mesenchymal progenitor cells and cells with the characteristics of their progeny comprised the fibrotic reticulum. These data establish that the lungs of patients with IPF contain pathological mesenchymal progenitor cells that are cells of origin for fibrosis-mediating fibroblasts. These fibrogenic mesenchymal progenitors and their progeny represent an unexplored target for novel therapies to interdict fibrosis. PMID:24631025

  8. Biostimulatory effects of low-level laser therapy on epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts treated with zoledronic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, F. G.; Pansani, T. N.; Turrioni, A. P. S.; Kurachi, C.; Bagnato, V. S.; Hebling, J.; de Souza Costa, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been considered as an adjuvant treatment for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis, presenting positive clinical outcomes. However, there are no data regarding the effect of LLLT on oral tissue cells exposed to bisphosphonates. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of LLLT on epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts exposed to a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate—zoledronic acid (ZA). Cells were seeded in wells of 24-well plates, incubated for 48 h and then exposed to ZA at 5 μM for an additional 48 h. LLLT was performed with a diode laser prototype—LaserTABLE (InGaAsP—780 nm ± 3 nm, 25 mW), at selected energy doses of 0.5, 1.5, 3, 5, and 7 J cm-2 in three irradiation sessions, every 24 h. Cell metabolism, total protein production, gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and collagen type I (Col-I), and cell morphology were evaluated 24 h after the last irradiation. Data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests at 5% significance. Selected LLLT parameters increased the functions of epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts treated with ZA. Gene expression of VEGF and Col-I was also increased. Specific parameters of LLLT biostimulated fibroblasts and epithelial cells treated with ZA. Analysis of these in vitro data may explain the positive in vivo effects of LLLT applied to osteonecrosis lesions.

  9. Molecular biology of cancer-associated fibroblasts: can these cells be targeted in anti-cancer therapy?

    PubMed

    Gonda, Tamas A; Varro, Andrea; Wang, Timothy C; Tycko, Benjamin

    2010-02-01

    It is increasingly recognized that the non-neoplastic stromal compartment in most solid cancers plays an active role in tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are one of the most abundant cell types in the tumor stroma, and these cells are pro-tumorigenic. Evidence that CAFs are epigenetically and possibly also genetically distinct from normal fibroblasts is beginning to define these cells as potential targets of anti-cancer therapy. Here, we review the cell-of-origin and molecular biology of CAFs, arguing that such knowledge provides a rational basis for designing therapeutic strategies to coordinately and synergistically target both the stromal and malignant epithelial component of human cancers.

  10. Histamine Induces ATP Release from Human Subcutaneous Fibroblasts, via Pannexin-1 Hemichannels, Leading to Ca2+ Mobilization and Cell Proliferation*

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Ana Rita; Paramos-de-Carvalho, Diogo; Certal, Mariana; Costa, Maria Adelina; Costa, Cristina; Magalhães-Cardoso, Maria Teresa; Ferreirinha, Fátima; Sévigny, Jean; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the regulation of connective tissue ATP-mediated mechano-transduction and remodeling may be an important link to the pathogenesis of chronic pain. It has been demonstrated that mast cell-derived histamine plays an important role in painful fibrotic diseases. Here we analyzed the involvement of ATP in the response of human subcutaneous fibroblasts to histamine. Acute histamine application caused a rise in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) and ATP release from human subcutaneous fibroblasts via H1 receptor activation. Histamine-induced [Ca2+]i rise was partially attenuated by apyrase, an enzyme that inactivates extracellular ATP, and by blocking P2 purinoceptors with pyridoxal phosphate-6-azo(benzene-2,4-disulfonic acid) tetrasodium salt and reactive blue 2. [Ca2+]i accumulation caused by histamine was also reduced upon blocking pannexin-1 hemichannels with 10Panx, probenecid, or carbenoxolone but not when connexin hemichannels were inhibited with mefloquine or 2-octanol. Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of vesicular exocytosis, also did not block histamine-induced [Ca2+]i mobilization. Prolonged exposure of human subcutaneous fibroblast cultures to histamine favored cell growth and type I collagen synthesis via the activation of H1 receptor. This effect was mimicked by ATP and its metabolite, ADP, whereas the selective P2Y1 receptor antagonist, MRS2179, partially attenuated histamine-induced cell growth and type I collagen production. Expression of pannexin-1 and ADP-sensitive P2Y1 receptor on human subcutaneous fibroblasts was confirmed by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis. In conclusion, histamine induces ATP release from human subcutaneous fibroblasts, via pannexin-1 hemichannels, leading to [Ca2+]i mobilization and cell growth through the cooperation of H1 and P2 (probably P2Y1) receptors. PMID:23918924

  11. Wound healing potential of Spirulina platensis extracts on human dermal fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Syarina, Pauzi Nur Aimi; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Abas, Faridah; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis) is a well renowned nutri-supplement due to its high nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to examine the wound healing efficiency of Spirulina platensis at various solvent extracts using in vitro scratch assay on human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF). Various gradient solvent extracts (50 μg/ml of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts) from Spirulina platensis were treated on HDF cells to acquire its wound healing properties through scratch assay and in this investigation we have used allantoin, as a positive control to compare efficacy among the phytoextracts. Interestingly, aqueous extract were found to stimulate proliferation and migration of HDF cells at given concentrations and enhanced closure rate of wound area within 24 hours after treatment. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts have shown proliferative effect, however these extracts did not aid in the migration and closure of wound area when compared to aqueous extract. Based on phytochemical profile of the plant extracts analyzed by LC-MS/MS, it was shown that compounds supposedly involved in accelerating wound healing are cinnamic acid, narigenin, kaempferol, temsirolimus, phosphatidylserine isomeric derivatives and sulphoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. Our findings concluded that blue-green algae may pose potential biomedical application to treat various chronic wounds especially in diabetes mellitus patients.

  12. Lymph node fibroblastic reticular cell transplants show robust therapeutic efficacy in high-mortality murine sepsis.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Anne L; Elman, Jessica S; Astarita, Jillian; Murray, Ryan; Saeidi, Nima; D'Rozario, Joshua; Knoblich, Konstantin; Brown, Flavian D; Schildberg, Frank A; Nieves, Janice M; Heng, Tracy S P; Boyd, Richard L; Turley, Shannon J; Parekkadan, Biju

    2014-08-13

    Sepsis is an aggressive inflammatory syndrome and a global health burden estimated to kill 7.3 million people annually. Single-target molecular therapies have not addressed the multiple disease pathways triggered by septic injury. Cell therapies might offer a broader set of mechanisms of action that benefit complex, multifocal disease processes. We describe a population of immune-specialized myofibroblasts derived from lymph node tissue, termed fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs). Because FRCs have an immunoregulatory function in lymph nodes, we hypothesized that ex vivo-expanded FRCs would control inflammation when administered therapeutically. Indeed, a single injection of ex vivo-expanded allogeneic FRCs reduced mortality in mouse models of sepsis when administered at early or late time points after septic onset. Mice treated with FRCs exhibited lower local and systemic concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and reduced bacteremia. When administered 4 hours after induction of lipopolysaccharide endotoxemia, or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) sepsis in mice, FRCs reduced deaths by at least 70%. When administered late in disease (16 hours after CLP), FRCs still conveyed a robust survival advantage (44% survival compared to 0% for controls). FRC therapy was dependent on the metabolic activity of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) as the primary molecular mechanism of drug action in the mice. Together, these data describe a new anti-inflammatory cell type and provide preclinical evidence for therapeutic efficacy in severe sepsis that warrants further translational study.

  13. Cell fusion in space: plasma membrane fusion in human fibroblasts during short term microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jongkind, J. F.; Visser, P.; Verkerk, A.

    During short-term microgravity in sounding rocket experiments (6 min.) the cytoskeleton undergoes changes and therefore it is possible that cell processes which are dependent on the structure and function of the cytoskeleton are influenced. A cell fusion experiment, initiated by a short electric pulse, was chosen as a model experiment for this sounding rocket experiment. Confluent monolayers of primary human skin fibroblasts, grown on coverslips, were mounted between two electrodes (distance 0.5 cm) and fused by discharging a capacitor (68 muF 250 V; 10 msec) in a low conductive medium. During a microgravity experiment in which nearly all the requirements for an optimal result were met (only the recovery of the payload was delayed) results were found that indicated that microgravity during 6 minutes did not influence cell fusion since the percentage of fused products did not change during microgravity. Within the limits of discrimination using morphological assays microgravity has no influence on the actin/cortical cytoskeleton just after electrofusion.

  14. Sperm Associated Antigen 6 (SPAG6) Regulates Fibroblast Cell Growth, Morphology, Migration and Ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Mukherjee, Abir; Wu, Jinhua; Zhang, Ling; Teves, Maria E; Li, Hongfei; Nambiar, Shanti; Henderson, Scott C; Horwitz, Alan R; Strauss Iii, Jerome F; Fang, Xianjun; Zhang, Zhibing

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian Spag6 is the orthologue of Chlamydomonas PF16, which encodes a protein localized in the axoneme central apparatus, and regulates flagella/cilia motility. Most Spag6-deficient mice are smaller in size than their littermates. Because SPAG6 decorates microtubules, we hypothesized that SPAG6 has other roles related to microtubule function besides regulating flagellar/cilia motility. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were isolated from Spag6-deficient and wild-type embryos for these studies. Both primary and immortalized Spag6-deficient MEFs proliferated at a much slower rate than the wild-type MEFs, and they had a larger surface area. Re-expression of SPAG6 in the Spag6-deficient MEFs rescued the abnormal cell morphology. Spag6-deficient MEFs were less motile than wild-type MEFs, as shown by both chemotactic analysis and wound-healing assays. Spag6-deficient MEFs also showed reduced adhesion associated with a non-polarized F-actin distribution. Multiple centrosomes were observed in the Spag6-deficient MEF cultures. The percentage of cells with primary cilia was significantly reduced compared to the wild-type MEFs, and some Spag6-deficient MEFs developed multiple cilia. Furthermore, SPAG6 selectively increased expression of acetylated tubulin, a microtubule stability marker. The Spag6-deficient MEFs were more sensitive to paclitaxel, a microtubule stabilizer. Our studies reveal new roles for SPAG6 in modulation of cell morphology, proliferation, migration, and ciliogenesis. PMID:26585507

  15. Biocompatibility effects of biologically synthesized graphene in primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Eppakayala, Vasuki; Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2013-09-01

    Due to unique properties and unlimited possible applications, graphene has attracted abundant interest in the areas of nanobiotechnology. Recently, much work has focused on the synthesis and properties of graphene. Here we show that a successful reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using spinach leaf extract (SLE) as a simultaneous reducing and stabilizing agent. The as-prepared SLE-reduced graphene oxide (S-rGO) was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Dynamic light scattering technique was used to determine the average size of GO and S-rGO. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images provide clear surface morphological evidence for the formation of graphene. The resulting S-rGO has a mostly single-layer structure, is stable, and has significant water solubility. In addition, the biocompatibility of graphene was investigated using cell viability, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity in primary mouse embryonic fibroblast (PMEFs) cells. The results suggest that the biologically synthesized graphene has significant biocompatibility with PMEF cells, even at a higher concentration of 100 μg/mL. This method uses a `green', natural reductant and is free of additional stabilizing reagents; therefore, it is an environmentally friendly, simple, and cost-effective method for the fabrication of soluble graphene. This study could open up a promising view for substitution of hydrazine by a safe, biocompatible, and powerful reduction for the efficient deoxygenation of GO, especially in large-scale production and potential biomedical applications.

  16. Fibroblast growth factor 21 enhances cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells.

    PubMed

    Shang, Wei; Yu, Xuejing; Wang, Honglian; Chen, Tielin; Fang, Ying; Yang, Xianggui; Zhou, Puhui; Nie, Fang; Zhou, Qin; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a novel metabolic regulator. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of FGF21 on cholesterol efflux and the expression of ATP binding cassette (ABC) A1 and G1 in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. Furthermore, the present study aimed to investigate the role of the liver X receptor (LXR) α in this process. A model of oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced foam cells from human THP-1 cells was established. The effect of FGF21 on cholesterol efflux was analyzed using a liquid scintillation counter. The expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. FGF21 was found to enhance apolipoprotein A1- and high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux. FGF21 was also observed to increase the mRNA and protein expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Furthermore, LXRα-short interfering RNA attenuated the stimulatory effects induced by FGF21. These findings suggest that FGF21 may have a protective effect against atherosclerosis by enhancing cholesterol efflux through the induction of LXRα-dependent ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression.

  17. Reprogramming of Mouse, Rat, Pig, and Human Fibroblasts into iPS Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sean M.

    2012-01-01

    The induction of pluripotency in somatic cells by transcription factor overexpression has been widely regarded as one of the major breakthroughs in stem cell biology within this decade. The generation of these induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has enabled investigators to develop in vitro disease models for biological discovery and drug screening, and in the future, patient-specific therapy for tissue or organ regeneration. While new technologies for reprogramming are continually being discovered, the availability of iPSCs from different species is also increasing rapidly. Comparison of iPSCs across species may provide new insights into key aspects of pluripotency and early embryonic development. iPSCs from large animals may enable the generation of genetically-modified large animal models or potentially transplantable donor tissues or organs. In this unit, we describe the procedure for the generation of iPSCs from mouse, rat, pig and human fibroblasts. We focus on lenti- and retroviral infection as the main platform for pluripotent transcription factor overexpression since these reagents are widely-available and remain the most efficient way to generate iPSC colonies. We hope to illustrate the basic process for iPSC generation in these four species in such a way that would enable the lowering of the entry barrier into iPSC biology by new investigators. PMID:22237859

  18. Sperm Associated Antigen 6 (SPAG6) Regulates Fibroblast Cell Growth, Morphology, Migration and Ciliogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Mukherjee, Abir; Wu, Jinhua; Zhang, Ling; Teves, Maria E.; Li, Hongfei; Nambiar, Shanti; Henderson, Scott C.; Horwitz, Alan R.; Strauss III, Jerome F.; Fang, Xianjun; Zhang, Zhibing

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian Spag6 is the orthologue of Chlamydomonas PF16, which encodes a protein localized in the axoneme central apparatus, and regulates flagella/cilia motility. Most Spag6-deficient mice are smaller in size than their littermates. Because SPAG6 decorates microtubules, we hypothesized that SPAG6 has other roles related to microtubule function besides regulating flagellar/cilia motility. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were isolated from Spag6-deficient and wild-type embryos for these studies. Both primary and immortalized Spag6-deficient MEFs proliferated at a much slower rate than the wild-type MEFs, and they had a larger surface area. Re-expression of SPAG6 in the Spag6-deficient MEFs rescued the abnormal cell morphology. Spag6-deficient MEFs were less motile than wild-type MEFs, as shown by both chemotactic analysis and wound-healing assays. Spag6-deficient MEFs also showed reduced adhesion associated with a non-polarized F-actin distribution. Multiple centrosomes were observed in the Spag6-deficient MEF cultures. The percentage of cells with primary cilia was significantly reduced compared to the wild-type MEFs, and some Spag6-deficient MEFs developed multiple cilia. Furthermore, SPAG6 selectively increased expression of acetylated tubulin, a microtubule stability marker. The Spag6-deficient MEFs were more sensitive to paclitaxel, a microtubule stabilizer. Our studies reveal new roles for SPAG6 in modulation of cell morphology, proliferation, migration, and ciliogenesis. PMID:26585507

  19. Wound healing potential of Spirulina platensis extracts on human dermal fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Syarina, Pauzi Nur Aimi; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Abas, Faridah; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis) is a well renowned nutri-supplement due to its high nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to examine the wound healing efficiency of Spirulina platensis at various solvent extracts using in vitro scratch assay on human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF). Various gradient solvent extracts (50 μg/ml of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts) from Spirulina platensis were treated on HDF cells to acquire its wound healing properties through scratch assay and in this investigation we have used allantoin, as a positive control to compare efficacy among the phytoextracts. Interestingly, aqueous extract were found to stimulate proliferation and migration of HDF cells at given concentrations and enhanced closure rate of wound area within 24 hours after treatment. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts have shown proliferative effect, however these extracts did not aid in the migration and closure of wound area when compared to aqueous extract. Based on phytochemical profile of the plant extracts analyzed by LC-MS/MS, it was shown that compounds supposedly involved in accelerating wound healing are cinnamic acid, narigenin, kaempferol, temsirolimus, phosphatidylserine isomeric derivatives and sulphoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. Our findings concluded that blue-green algae may pose potential biomedical application to treat various chronic wounds especially in diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:27004048

  20. Modifications of the endosomal compartment in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and fibroblasts from Alzheimer's disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Corlier, F; Rivals, I; Lagarde, J; Hamelin, L; Corne, H; Dauphinot, L; Ando, K; Cossec, J-C; Fontaine, G; Dorothée, G; Malaplate-Armand, C; Olivier, J-L; Dubois, B; Bottlaender, M; Duyckaerts, C; Sarazin, M; Potier, M-C; Alnajjar-Carpentier, Dr Amer; Logak, Dr Michel; Leder, Dr Sara; Marchal, Dr Dominique; Pitti-Ferandi, Dr Hélène; Brugeilles, Dr Hélene; Roualdes, Dr Brigitte; Michon, Dr Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Identification of blood-based biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains a challenge. Neuropathological studies have identified enlarged endosomes in post-mortem brains as the earliest cellular change associated to AD. Here the presence of enlarged endosomes was investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 48 biologically defined AD patients (25 with mild cognitive impairment and 23 with dementia (AD-D)), and 23 age-matched healthy controls using immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. The volume and number of endosomes were not significantly different between AD and controls. However, the percentage of cells containing enlarged endosomes was significantly higher in the AD-D group as compared with controls. Furthermore, endosomal volumes significantly correlated to [C11]PiB cortical index measured by positron emission tomography in the AD group, independently of the APOE genotype, but not to the levels of amyloid-beta, tau and phosphorylated tau measured in the cerebrospinal fluid. Importantly, we confirmed the presence of enlarged endosomes in fibroblasts from six unrelated AD-D patients as compared with five cognitively normal controls. This study is the first, to our knowledge, to report morphological alterations of the endosomal compartment in peripheral cells from AD patients correlated to amyloid load that will now be evaluated as a possible biomarker. PMID:26151923

  1. Fibroblast growth factor 21 enhances cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells.

    PubMed

    Shang, Wei; Yu, Xuejing; Wang, Honglian; Chen, Tielin; Fang, Ying; Yang, Xianggui; Zhou, Puhui; Nie, Fang; Zhou, Qin; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a novel metabolic regulator. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of FGF21 on cholesterol efflux and the expression of ATP binding cassette (ABC) A1 and G1 in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. Furthermore, the present study aimed to investigate the role of the liver X receptor (LXR) α in this process. A model of oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced foam cells from human THP-1 cells was established. The effect of FGF21 on cholesterol efflux was analyzed using a liquid scintillation counter. The expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. FGF21 was found to enhance apolipoprotein A1- and high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux. FGF21 was also observed to increase the mRNA and protein expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Furthermore, LXRα-short interfering RNA attenuated the stimulatory effects induced by FGF21. These findings suggest that FGF21 may have a protective effect against atherosclerosis by enhancing cholesterol efflux through the induction of LXRα-dependent ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. PMID:25334019

  2. Wound healing potential of Spirulina platensis extracts on human dermal fibroblast cells

    PubMed Cent