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Sample records for fibroepithelial polyp treated

  1. Laparoscopic management of large ureteral fibroepithelial polyp.

    PubMed

    Kijvikai, Kittinut; Maynes, Lincoln J; Herrell, S Duke

    2007-08-01

    Fibroepithelial polyps of the ureter are rare benign mesothelial tumors. Most polyps are small; however, very rare large polyps have also been reported. Currently, most investigators encourage endoscopic management in these patients. Nevertheless, endoscopic resection can be difficult in patients with a long or large polypoid lesion. We describe our experience and laparoscopic technique for treatment of a symptomatic 42-year-old woman who presented with a 17-cm-long fibroepithelial polyp in the proximal ureter associated with ureteral obstruction. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of laparoscopic management of a large ureteral fibroepithelial polyp.

  2. Laser Resection of Fibroepithelial Polyps with Digital Ureteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Demetrius H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fibroepithelial polyps (FEPs) are rare benign upper urinary-tract neoplasms originating from mesodermal components of the ureteral wall covered in normal urothelial epithelium. Historically, these lesions have been treated with endoscopic, laparoscopic, or open means depending on the size, number, and morphology of the polyps. Digital ureteroscopy (DURS) offers many advantages over fiber-optic endoscopy, including superior resolution and potential ergonomic benefits, given the absence of external cameras and light cords. We describe a case involving multiple proximal ureteral FEPs treated with flexible DURS and the holmium (Ho) laser, in which the digital ureteroscope offered exceptional visualization of the FEP stalks allowing for straightforward resection and endoscopic removal. PMID:27579383

  3. Giant fibroepithelial stromal polyp of the vulva: largest case reported

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fibroepithelial stromal polyps are site-specific mesenchymal lesions that are commonly found in the vulvovaginal region in premenopausal females. These polyps usually are less than 5 cm in diameter and are most commonly identified during routine gynecological examination. Although the stromal polyp is benign, its differential diagnosis includes some malignant vulva lesions making it critical to ensure that an accurate pathologic diagnosis is made. Case We present a case of a 21 year old female with a giant fibroepithelial stromal polyp of the vulva. Upon review of the literature this is the largest reported fibroepithelial stromal polyp to date. Conclusion Fibroepithelial stromal polyps can grow as large as 390 grams and can be 18.5-cm in diameter. Microscopic evaluation of the polyp is critical in the exclusion of malignancy with this diagnosis. PMID:23842282

  4. [Case of mid-ureteral fibroepithelial polyps in a child].

    PubMed

    Fukui, Shinji; Watanabe, Masato; Yoshino, Kaoru

    2011-11-01

    A 11-year-old boy showed gross hematuria and left flank pain. Ultrasonography and CT revealed left hydroureteronephrosis, and he was referred to us for the further evaluation. MRI revealed left hydroureteronephrosis with filling defect at the distal end of the dilated ureter suggesting ureteral polyp. Open surgery was performed with the diagnosis of mid-ureteral obstruction. In the operative findings, multiple stalks of ureteral polyps arose from the entire ureteral wall over 5 cm in length at the site of ureteral obstruction. Mid-ureter with polyps was completely resected, and end-to-end anastomosis was performed. The pathological diagnosis was fibroepithelial polyp of the ureter.

  5. Ureteral fibroepithelial polyp causing urinary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Shive, Melissa L; Baskin, Laurence S; Harris, Catherine R; Bonham, Michael; MacKenzie, John D

    2012-07-01

    Ureteral polyps are rare causes of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction, particularly in children. We report a nine year-old boy with UPJ obstruction initially suggestive of an obstructive urinary stone. CT showed intraureteral calcification at the UPJ and hydronephrosis. A retrograde pyelogram showed narrowing at the UPJ and partial obstruction that was found to be a ureteral polyp. This case illustrates a rare cause of UPJ obstruction that should be considered when the imaging findings and presentation are atypical for more common etiologies of ureteral obstruction.

  6. Fibroepithelial Polyp of the Tonsil: Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Ashish, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Pedunculated polyps of the palatine tonsil are rare benign tumours of tonsil. Most of the cases have been reported in adults with varying presenting symptoms. We report a 12-year-old male child who presented with 6 months history of difficulty in swallowing. There was no history of breathing difficulty, change in voice or history of trauma. Clinical examination revealed a 2x1 cm small pedunculated polyp arising from the superior pole of right tonsil which was excised under general anaesthesia. Left tonsil was normal. A diagnosis of fibroepithelial polyp of right palatine tonsil was made based on histopathological findings. An unusual presentation of a rare condition in a paediatric patient has been discussed along with the clinical and histopathological features of this lesion. PMID:26816905

  7. Fibroepithelial Polyp of the Tonsil: Report of a Rare Case.

    PubMed

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Ashish, Gaurav

    2015-12-01

    Pedunculated polyps of the palatine tonsil are rare benign tumours of tonsil. Most of the cases have been reported in adults with varying presenting symptoms. We report a 12-year-old male child who presented with 6 months history of difficulty in swallowing. There was no history of breathing difficulty, change in voice or history of trauma. Clinical examination revealed a 2x1 cm small pedunculated polyp arising from the superior pole of right tonsil which was excised under general anaesthesia. Left tonsil was normal. A diagnosis of fibroepithelial polyp of right palatine tonsil was made based on histopathological findings. An unusual presentation of a rare condition in a paediatric patient has been discussed along with the clinical and histopathological features of this lesion.

  8. Fibroepithelial polyp in an anal fistulous track: a sign of chronic pathology

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Iordanis N; Danias, Nikolaos

    2010-01-01

    Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibroepithelial polyps are benign acquired polypoid lesions of the anal canal. The development and protrusion of a fibroepithelial polyp in an anal fistulous track is described. This is a rare physical sign of chronic anal pathology. PMID:22242043

  9. Utilizing ultrasonography in the diagnosis of pediatric fibroepithelial polyps causing ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao Man; Jia, Li Qun; Wang, Yu; Wang, Ning

    2012-09-01

    Fibroepithelial polyps are a rare cause of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction in children. Preoperative US diagnosis of fibroepithelial polyps is infrequently reported, with intravenous pylogram and retrograde pyelography being most commonly used for diagnosis. To recommend the most accurate process for diagnosing this disease in children by assessing a modified ultrasonographic procedure for the diagnosis of fibroepithelial polyps. A retrospective review of US and IVP imaging studies performed in surgically and histologically confirmed cases of fibroepithelial polyps in children. Each child was asked to drink as much water as possible 30 min before the US testing. For US, the renal pelvis, UPJ and the proximal ureter were inspected for an echogenic mass resulting in hydronephrosis. For IVP studies, abdominal plain films were performed at 7, 15 and 30 min following contrast injection. Thirty-five children, 34 boys and 1 girl, had confirmed fibroepithelial polyps. The children ranged in age from 3 to 14 years (mean age 9 years). Clinical presentation included intermittent vague abdominal pain (100%) and/or hematuria (9.7%) for a period ranging from 1 month to 5 years. Of the 35 children (37 polyps), 21 (23 polyps) were correctly diagnosed preoperatively with US, establishing a 62.2% (23/37) US accuracy rate. Twenty polyps were seen on the left, three on the right and two children had bilateral polyps. The masses were all mildly echogenic with defined edges. Eight children (9 polyps) had an IVP consistent with fibroepithelial polyps giving IVP an accuracy rate of 24.3% (9/37). US is an effective screening tool for identifying fibroepithelial polyps causing UPJ obstruction in children.

  10. Retroperitoneal laparoscopy management for ureteral fibroepithelial polyps causing hydronephrosis in children: a report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Dai, L N; Chen, C D; Lin, X K; Wang, Y B; Xia, L G; Liu, P; Chen, X M; Li, Z R

    2015-10-01

    Hydronephrosis is a common disease in children and may be caused by ureteral fibroepithelial polyps (UFP). Ureteral fibroepithelial polyps are rare in children and are difficult to precisely diagnose before surgery. Surgical treatment for symptomatic UFP is recommended. At the present institution, retroperitoneal laparoscopy has been used to treat five boys with UFP since 2006. To highlight the significance of UFP as an etiological factor of hydronephrosis in children and evaluate the applicative value of retroperitoneal laparoscopy in the treatment of children with UFP. Between 2006 and 2013 five boys underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopy at the present institution. They were identified with UFP by review of the clinical database. Detailed data were collected, including: radiographic studies, gross anatomical pathology, and pathology and radiology reports. All boys had been followed up at least every 6 months. All of the boys were aged between 7 and 16 years (mean 9.8 years). The main symptoms were flank pain (all five) and hematuria (three). Radiographic examination showed that all of the boys presented with incomplete ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis. The ureteral fibroepithelial polyps were located near the left UPJ or the left proximal ureter. All of the boys had the UFP removed: three underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopic dismembered Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty and polypectomy, and two had retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureteral anastomosis. These polyps were all on the left side and between 15 and 35 mm in length (mean 22 mm) (Figure). All of the boys recovered well and were discharged from hospital. The postoperative histological report confirmed that the specimens were UFP. Hydronephrosis was periodically assessed by ultrasonography (using the same method as pre-surgical ultrasonography) after surgery. Mean follow-up was 33 months (range 6-58 months) and no complications were found afterwards. Ureteral fibroepithelial polyps are rare but rather

  11. Ureteral fibroepithelial polyp associated with urolithiasis induced by steroid therapy in a child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Taki, T; Matuura, O; Isobe, Y; Kamihira, O; Yamada, S; Kondo, A; Yamada, Y; Honda, N

    2001-08-01

    A 14-year-old boy complained of left flank pain. He had been given high-dose corticosteroid therapy for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Retrograde pyelography revealed irregular defects at the left ureteropelvic junction (UPJ), and ureteroscopy demonstrated ureteral polyp. The polyp was removed and histologically diagnosed as fibroepithelial polyp. Hypercalciuria due to the corticosteroids and bedridden was assumed to have been a causative factor in the stone formation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a ureteral fibroepithelial polyp in children associated with urolithiasis, and associated with CIDP.

  12. Obstructive ileus due to a giant fibroepithelial polyp of the anus

    PubMed Central

    Galanis, Ioannis; Dragoumis, Dimitrios; Tsolakis, Michail; Zarampoukas, Konstantinos; Zarampoukas, Thomas; Atmatzidis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Fibroepithelial polyps or hypertrophied anal papillae are essentially skin tags that project up from the dentate line and the junction between the skin and the epithelial lining of the anus. They are usually small in size, but sometimes they become enlarged, causing unexpected medical conditions. An extremely rare case of a giant hypertrophied anal papilla complicated by obstructive ileus is reported. Fibroepithelial anal polyp, despite its size, should be included in the differential diagnosis of a smooth mass located near the anal verge, especially in a patient with a history of chronic anal irritation or infection. PMID:19653351

  13. Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Excision of Ureteral and Ureteropelvic Junction Fibroepithelial Polyps in Children.

    PubMed

    Osbun, Nathan; Ellison, Jonathan S; Lendvay, Thomas S

    2016-08-01

    Fibroepithelial polyps of the ureter are a rare cause of asymptomatic and symptomatic upper urinary tract obstruction in children. While these lesions can often be managed endoscopically, large or multifocal polyps may preclude such an approach. We aim to describe our institutional experience with robot-assisted laparoscopic treatment of ureteral polyps and show that a robotic approach is an effective alternative for large or multifocal polyps. Four children were identified with ureteral polyps over a 5-year period and underwent transperitoneal robot-assisted laparoscopic excision. Patients presented with flank pain and/or worsening hydronephrosis. All patients were evaluated preoperatively with ultrasound and Tc99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) diuretic renogram or MR urogram. Retrograde pyelography corroborated the diagnosis of ureteral polyps. We reviewed the charts of these patients and compared the specific robotic approach for each patient, length of hospitalization, surgical complications, need for additional procedures, and resolution of symptoms and hydronephrosis. In one patient, more than 20 polyps were identified over a long ureteral segment and all were excised; for the remaining three patients, 1 to 2 polyps were found. Mean postoperative length of stay was 1.5 days. One patient developed a ureteral stricture requiring repeat ureteroureterostomy, and another patient required repeat retrograde pyelography for gross hematuria that occurred several months after surgery. No polyps or obstruction was observed on retrograde pyelography in these patients. Mean duration of follow-up was 29 months (9-62 months). Symptoms and degree of hydronephrosis have improved in the three patients who have been followed for at least 12 months. Robot-assisted laparoscopy is a safe and feasible alternative to endoscopic treatment of fibroepithelial ureteral polyps. The robotic platform may be preferred in cases of multifocal or large ureteral polyps, or in cases in which a

  14. Diagnosis and management of ureteral fibroepithelial polyps in children: a new treatment algorithm.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Lightfoot, M; Alsyouf, M; Nicolay, L; Baldwin, D D; Chamberlin, D A

    2015-02-01

    Fibroepithelial polyps are benign mesenchymal tumors arising from the urinary tract. With the advent of endoscopy in the pediatric population, more reports of endoscopic diagnosis and treatment have appeared. The present study reports experience with the diagnosis and treatment of fibroepithelial polyps of the upper urinary tract in the pediatric population. Incorporating past experience from literature, we propose an algorithm to guide the clinical diagnosis and treatment plan. Four pediatric patients undergoing pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction were diagnosed with ureteral polyps. Their demographics, radiologic, surgical and pathologic information were reviewed. In addition, a comprehensive literature search using the MEDLINE database yielded 37 reports containing 126 cases of ureteral polyps, including 5 series with 57 cases and 9 cases of synchronous bilateral ureteral polyps. Of 123 pediatric patients undergoing pyeloplasty from 2008 to 2013, four (3.3%) were found to have fibroepithelial polyps of the upper urinary tract. All patients were male and the mean age of presentation was 12 years. Ureteral polyps predominantly occurred unilaterally in the left ureter (75%) and one case of bilateral ureteral polyps was encountered. Along with three other recent case series [1-3], the combined incidence of ureteral polyps in patients undergoing evaluation for ureteral obstruction was 5.2%. Intraoperative retrograde pyelogram was used to identify filling defects in 4 of 5 affected ureters (see Figure). Ureterorenoscopy was performed in all three patients with filling defects for polyp mapping along the ureter and evaluation of the macroscopic polyp appearance. Based on ureteroscopic findings, Holmium laser polypectomy was performed in two patients with single, pedunculated polyps. Anderson-Hynes dismembered pyeloplasty was performed in three patients with broad based, multilobulated polyps too large for endoscopic treatment and in one patient for

  15. Benign Fibroepithelial Polyps: A Rare Cause of Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ezekiel, Anitha; Agrawal, Vaidehi; Romero, Elena; Smith-Harrison, Leon I.

    2015-01-01

    FEPs are rare, benign mucosal growths that may cause urinary tract obstruction in both adults and children. We present the case of a ten year old Hispanic male with recurring urinary tract infections and hydronephrosis diagnosed with fibroepithelial polyps (FEPs). Despite multiple radiographic procedures, we were unable to accurately preoperatively diagnose FEPs. Here we demonstrate the difficulties in preoperative diagnosis and suggest that perhaps a combination of US and MRI in the setting of persistent urinary tract infections and flank pain may be the best approach for early diagnosis and conservative management, including less invasive treatment protocols. PMID:26793521

  16. Treatment of Ureteral Fibroepithelial Polyp by Ureteroscopy Combined with Holmium Laser or Thulium Laser: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Lu; Zhang, Zhong-Yun; Qian, Wei-Qing; Zhang, Hao-Jie; Sun, Zhong-Quan

    2016-10-01

    Ureteral fibroepithelial polyps (UFPs) are rare benign tumors and ureteroscopy has been used for treatment. We compared the effect of UFP by ureteroscopy combined with holmium laser or thulium laser. Twenty-five patients with UFPs were treated in our hospital between May 2003 and April 2013. All patients received ultrasound check and intravenous urography (IVU). We performed ureteroscopy operation and found ureteral polyps, so we resected the polyps with holmium laser (12 cases) or thulium laser (13 cases). During the 3-year follow-up, all patients received IVU 2 or 3 months after the double-J stent was removed, and ultrasonic checks every 3-6 months after that. All patients had UFPs resected. Three patients in the holmium laser group had ureteral perforation during operation, and four patients in the holmium laser group developed ureterostenosis. No patients in thulium laser group experienced any severe complications during the procedure. Further, during follow-up, there was no indication of an increase of hydronephrosis in any patients. These findings lead to conclude there were no developments of ureterostenosis nor an experience of any reoccurrence in thulium laser group. Ureteroscopy operations, combined with holmium or thulium laser resection, are effective methods for treating UFP, but thulium laser does better in reducing the incidence of ureterostenosis.

  17. Endourologic Diagnosis and Robotic Treatment of a Giant Fibroepithelial Polyp of the Ureter

    PubMed Central

    Zattoni, Fabio; Meggiato, Luca; Valotto, Claudio; Dal Moro, Fabrizio; Gardiman, Marina Paola; Beltrami, Paolo; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Fibroepithelial polyps (FEPs) are a rare cause of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction. Radiologists and urologists are not always confident with this disease because of its rarity, complex diagnosis, and heterogeneity of the available treatment options. Case Presentation: We present the endourologic diagnosis and the robotic management of a ureteral polyp close to the left UPJ. A 16-year-old woman with a 12 years history of left lumbar pain was referred to our Center. A computed tomography scan detected a left hydronephrosis with no signs of obstructions at MAG-3 scintigraphy. The endourologic evaluation revealed a giant FEP of the left ureter, which was removed surgically with a videolaparoscopic robot-assisted approach. Conclusion: Considering that conventional radiologic imaging techniques can hardly detect a ureteral FEP, an endourologic study of the urinary tract is mandatory to directly observe the polyp. The mini-invasive treatment of ureteral FEPs is feasible and safe, and should be considered as first option in young patients. PMID:27868092

  18. Real-time, multiplanar computerized tomography: a new diagnostic modality used in the detection and endoscopic removal of a distal ureteral fibroepithelial polyp and adjacent calculus.

    PubMed

    Oesterling, J E; Liu, H Y; Fishman, E K

    1989-12-01

    Ureteral fibroepithelial polyps are rare benign mesodermal tumors that occur predominantly in the upper ureter. We report on a patient with a fibroepithelial polyp in the distal ureter that resulted in entrapment of a calculus and partial obstruction of the collecting system. Preoperatively, diagnosis by standard radiographic methods, such as excretory urogram, retrograde pyelogram and conventional computerized tomography with and without contrast enhancement, was not possible because of the close proximity of the fibroepithelial polyp, the ureteral calculus and calcifications in the adjacent internal iliac artery. The new diagnostic modality of real-time, multiplanar computerized tomography imaging using the Sun/Pixar computer system and the 2D/3D Orthotool software was used to make the correct preoperative assessment. Subsequently, the patient underwent ureteroscopic resection of the polyp and extraction of the calculus. A year later she was free of symptoms and there was no evidence of regrowth of the polyp. To our knowledge this is the first report to describe the use of real-time, multiplanar computerized tomography imaging as an effective diagnostic modality in the genitourinary tract. In addition, this is the first ureteral fibroepithelial polyp reported in the literature to be associated with a ureteral calculus and to be excised endoscopically with no recurrence on long-term followup.

  19. A SEM analysis of DMSO treated hydra polyps.

    PubMed

    Bolzer, A; Melzer, R R; Bosch, T C

    1994-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy revealed that exposure of hydra polyps to DMSO at concentrations used for permeabilizing tissue results in striking changes in epithelial cell morphology. Epithelial cells from treated polyps rounded up in shape and formed numerous large blebs at the cell surface. Along the borders of epithelial cells numerous small projections became detectable. The DMSO-induced changes at the cell surface corresponded to drastic changes in the intracellular organization. No evidence could be found for DMSO induced opening of cell junctions and/or opening of the interstitial space. The results demonstrate that DMSO affects the morphology and intracellular organization of hydra epithelial cells. Thus, caution is necessary in interpreting cell behavior in DMSO treated tissue.

  20. Biopsy - polyps

    MedlinePlus

    Polyp biopsy ... are treated is the colon. How a polyp biopsy is done depends on the location: Colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy explores the large bowel Colposcopy-directed biopsy examines the vagina and cervix Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or ...

  1. Urethral polyp in a 1-month-old child.

    PubMed

    Beluffi, Giampiero; Berton, Francesca; Gola, Giada; Chiari, Giorgio; Romano, Piero; Cassani, Ferdinando

    2005-07-01

    Urethral polyps are a rare finding in children, particularly in the very young. They are suspected by the presence of various clinical signs such as obstruction, voiding dysfunction and haematuria. There is an association with other urinary tract congenital anomalies. They are usually benign fibro-epithelial lesions with no tendency to recur and are treated by surgical ablation, fulguration or laser therapy. We report a 1-month-old boy with an antenatally diagnosed left ectopic pelvic kidney, postnatal urinary tract infection and no clinical signs of obstruction. Voiding cystourethrography to exclude vesico-ureteric reflux showed a trabeculated bladder and a mobile filling defect in the posterior urethra. Owing to its large size, cystotomy was necessary to remove the polyp successfully.

  2. Neonatal urethral polyps associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Yuko; Koshida, Shigeki; Yanagi, Takahide; Johnin, Kazuyoshi; Takeuchi, Yoshihiro

    2013-10-01

    We report the first case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome without urinary obstruction, but with a congenital urethral polyp as a tumor protruding from the external urinary meatus. The present case suggests a possible relation between Beckwith-Wiedemann and the onset of fibroepithelial polyps in the reno-urinary system during the neonatal period.

  3. Expression of p53, Ki-67, and CD31 proteins in endometrial polyps of postmenopausal women treated with tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Sergimar P; Traiman, Paulo; Cândido, Eduardo B; Lages, Elisa L; Freitas, Gustavo F; Lamaita, Rívia Mara; Vidigal, Paula V T; da Silva Filho, Agnaldo Lopes

    2010-12-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the expression of p53, Ki-67, and CD31 proteins in endometrial polyps of postmenopausal women treated with tamoxifen (TAM). Postmenopausal women with endometrial polyps treated with TAM (n = 20), postmenopausal women with endometrial polyps without hormone use (n = 20), postmenopausal women with atrophic endometrium (n = 20), and postmenopausal women with endometrial adenocarcinoma (n = 20) were prospectively investigated. Tissue samples were immunohistochemically evaluated by monoclonal antibodies for p53, Ki-67, and CD31. The data were analyzed using the Student t test, analysis of variance, and χ2 to evaluate significant differences between the groups. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. There was no difference in the expression of p53 between the groups (P = 0.067). The expression of Ki-67 was higher in the polyp samples from TAM-treated women compared with those from the women using no hormone (P = 0.0047) and those from the women with atrophic endometrium (P = 0.008). Samples from the women with endometrial cancer was associated with higher Ki-67 expression compared with the polyp samples from TAM-treated women (P = 0.004). The expression of CD31 was higher in the polyp samples of TAM-treated women compared with that of the samples from the women with atrophic endometrium (P < 0.001) and similar to the polyp samples from the women using no hormone (P = 0.319) and to the samples from the women with endometrial cancer (P = 0.418). The use of TAM in postmenopausal women might be associated with increased cellular proliferation in endometrial polyps without interfering angiogenesis or inactivation of tumor suppressor proteins.

  4. Colonic Polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colonic polyps grow in the large intestine, or colon. Most polyps are not dangerous. However, some polyps ... member with polyps Have a family history of colon cancer Most colon polyps do not cause symptoms. ...

  5. Intravitreal Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor for Treating Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy with Grape-like Polyp Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Young Suk; Kim, Jong Woo; Lee, Tae Gon; Kim, Chul Gu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate 12-month outcomes of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) with grape-like polyp clusters. Methods This retrospective observational study included 23 eyes of 23 patients who were newly diagnosed with PCV with grape-like polyp clusters, and who were subsequently treated with anti-VEGF monotherapy. The study compares the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of the patients at diagnosis, at 3 months, and at 12 months after diagnosis. In addition, 12-month changes in BCVA values were compared between cases with subfoveal or juxtafoveal polyps and cases with extrafoveal polyps. Results The baseline, 3-month, and 12-month logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution BCVA was 0.62 ± 0.35, 0.50 ± 0.43, and 0.58 ± 0.48, respectively. Compared to the baseline, patient BCVA was not significantly different at 12 months after diagnosis (p = 0.764). Six eyes (26.1%) gained ≥0.2 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution BCVA. In cases with subfoveal or juxtafoveal polyps, BCVA values at baseline and at 12 months after diagnosis were 0.66 ± 0.37 and 0.69 ± 0.53, respectively. In cases with extrafoveal polyps, the values were 0.54 ± 0.33 and 0.37 ± 0.31, respectively. Changes in BCVA values were significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.023). Conclusions Although anti-VEGF therapy has favorable short-term efficacy for treating PCV with grape-like polyp clusters, long-term visual improvements are generally limited in the majority of afflicted eyes. The presence of subfoveal or juxtafoveal polyps may suggest unfavorable treatment outcomes. PMID:27478354

  6. Chondroid Metaplasia in a Fibroepithelial Polyp of Gingiva.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, Fernando; Campos, Paola; Paramo, Juan Ignacio; Fuente, Javier De La; Pérez, Nancy

    2016-09-01

    Gingival masses are commonly encountered in clinical practice and can be a result of many conditions one of them could be metaplasia. Metaplasia is defined as the replacement of the lining of an organ with the type of lining normally found at another site. We are reporting a case of a 17-year-old Mexican male who presented with a pedunculated nodule associated to maxillary anterior gingiva. The histopatological examination revealed a chondroid material covered by stratified squamous epithelium and was diagnosed as chondroid metaplasia.

  7. Chondroid Metaplasia in a Fibroepithelial Polyp of Gingiva

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Paola; Paramo, Juan Ignacio; Fuente, Javier De La; Pérez, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Gingival masses are commonly encountered in clinical practice and can be a result of many conditions one of them could be metaplasia. Metaplasia is defined as the replacement of the lining of an organ with the type of lining normally found at another site. We are reporting a case of a 17-year-old Mexican male who presented with a pedunculated nodule associated to maxillary anterior gingiva. The histopatological examination revealed a chondroid material covered by stratified squamous epithelium and was diagnosed as chondroid metaplasia. PMID:27790592

  8. Genomic landscapes of breast fibroepithelial tumors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jing; Ong, Choon Kiat; Lim, Weng Khong; Ng, Cedric Chuan Young; Thike, Aye Aye; Ng, Ley Moy; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Myint, Swe Swe; Nagarajan, Sanjanaa; Thangaraju, Saranya; Dey, Sucharita; Nasir, Nur Diyana Md; Wijaya, Giovani Claresta; Lim, Jing Quan; Huang, Dachuan; Li, Zhimei; Wong, Bernice Huimin; Chan, Jason Yong Sheng; McPherson, John R; Cutcutache, Ioana; Poore, Gregory; Tay, Su Ting; Tan, Wai Jin; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Ahmad, Buhari Shaik; Iau, Philip; Chan, Ching Wan; Tang, Anthony P H; Yong, Wei Sean; Madhukumar, Preetha; Ho, Gay Hui; Tan, Veronique Kiak Mien; Wong, Chow Yin; Hartman, Mikael; Ong, Kong Wee; Tan, Benita K T; Rozen, Steven G; Tan, Patrick; Tan, Puay Hoon; Teh, Bin Tean

    2015-11-01

    Breast fibroepithelial tumors comprise a heterogeneous spectrum of pathological entities, from benign fibroadenomas to malignant phyllodes tumors. Although MED12 mutations have been frequently found in fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors, the landscapes of genetic alterations across the fibroepithelial tumor spectrum remain unclear. Here, by performing exome sequencing of 22 phyllodes tumors followed by targeted sequencing of 100 breast fibroepithelial tumors, we observed three distinct somatic mutation patterns. First, we frequently observed MED12 and RARA mutations in both fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors, emphasizing the importance of these mutations in fibroepithelial tumorigenesis. Second, phyllodes tumors exhibited mutations in FLNA, SETD2 and KMT2D, suggesting a role in driving phyllodes tumor development. Third, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors harbored additional mutations in cancer-associated genes. RARA mutations exhibited clustering in the portion of the gene encoding the ligand-binding domain, functionally suppressed RARA-mediated transcriptional activation and enhanced RARA interactions with transcriptional co-repressors. This study provides insights into the molecular pathogenesis of breast fibroepithelial tumors, with potential clinical implications.

  9. Colon Polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... or family history of colon polyps or colon cancer. Colon polyps often don't cause symptoms. It's important ... removed safely and completely. The best prevention for colon cancer is regular screening for polyps. Colon polyps care ...

  10. Posterior urethral polyp with type I posterior urethral valves: a rare association in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Kesan, Krushnakumar V; Gupta, Rahul Kumar; Kothari, Paras; Gupta, Abhaya; Mudkhedkar, Kedar; Kamble, Ravikiran; Dikshit, K Vishesh

    2014-06-01

    Urethral polyp is a rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction, voiding dysfunction, and hematuria in the pediatric age group. Urethral polyps are rarely associated with other congenital urinary tract anomalies. In this study, we report a case of solitary posterior urethral polyp with type I posterior urethral valve in a 7-day-old neonate presented with urinary retention and deranged renal function. The polyp was diagnosed on cystoscopy. Transurethral resection of the polyp with posterior urethral valve fulguration was performed. Pathologic assessment revealed a fibroepithelial lesion, which was consistent with congenital posterior urethral polyp.

  11. Nasal polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... get rid of nasal polyps. Nasal steroid sprays shrink polyps. They help clear blocked nasal passages and ... is stopped. Corticosteroid pills or liquid may also shrink polyps, and can reduce swelling and nasal congestion. ...

  12. Recurrence of endometrial polyps.

    PubMed

    Paradisi, Roberto; Rossi, Stefania; Scifo, Maria Cristina; Dall'O', Francesca; Battaglia, Cesare; Venturoli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the recurrence rate of patients with endometrial polyps and to evaluate whether the recurrence can be correlated with the histopathologic features of the polyp. Two hundred and eighty-two women with endometrial polyps in both pre- or postmenopausal period and suffering from abnormal uterine bleeding or not were treated by resectoscopic surgery in a tertiary university hospital and were subsequently followed to check for polyp recurrence. Polyp recurrence rate after hysteroscopic surgery and correlation between recurrence and main demographic, hysteroscopic and histopathologic characteristics were analyzed. During mean ± SD follow-up period of 26.3 ± 19.7 months, the overall recurrence rate was high (13.3%) and did not vary (p = NS) with age, parity, weight or other demographic characteristics of the patients or with the hysteroscopic appearance. On the contrary, the histopathologic features showed significant differences between patients with and without polyp recurrence. Recurrence rate was higher (p < 0.001) in women with histopathologically hyperplastic polyps without atypia and lower (p < 0.001) in women with benign polyps. The study shows that after resectoscopic polypectomy, the recurrence rate of endometrial polyps is high (13.3%). Moreover, the hyperplastic polyps without atypia recur more frequently than benign ones. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Cervical polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001494.htm Cervical polyps To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cervical polyps are fingerlike growths on the lower part ...

  14. Stomach Polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... stomach and duodenum. In: Textbook of Gastrointestinal Radiology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed July 28, 2015. Odze RD. Polyps of the stomach. ...

  15. Colorectal polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests at age 50. Those with a family history of colon cancer or colon polyps may need to be screened at an earlier age or more often. Taking aspirin, naproxen, ibuprofen, or similar medicines may help reduce the risk ...

  16. Endometrial polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer is higher if you are postmenopausal, on Tamoxifen, or have heavy or irregular periods. These factors may increase the risk for endometrial polyps: Obesity Tamoxifen, a treatment for breast cancer Postmenopausal hormone replacement ...

  17. Intestinal Polyps (in Children)

    MedlinePlus

    ... likely to develop many polyps (referred to as polyposis syndromes). Some of these polyposis syndromes can result in hamartomatous polyps while others ... to adenomatous polyps. These syndromes include familial adenomatous polyposis, juvenile polyposis syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Bannayan- Riley- ...

  18. Benign and low-grade fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast have low recurrence rate after positive surgical margins.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Morgan L; Argani, Pedram; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley

    2016-03-01

    Breast phyllodes tumors are uncommon fibroepithelial neoplasms with a range of histologic features. Surgical excision is the primary management, but the need for excision to negative margins in benign and borderline phyllodes tumors is unclear. Here, we review the surgical management patterns and outcomes of 90 patients with benign and low-grade fibroepithelial lesions of the breast treated at our institution, including 19 borderline phyllodes tumors, 52 benign phyllodes tumors, and 19 representative neoplasms with overlapping features of fibroadenoma and benign phyllodes tumors, which were classified as 'fibroadenomas with phyllodal features'. In total, 52 (58%) had positive surgical margins on first excision, and of these 17 (33%) underwent re-excision to achieve negative margins. Residual tumor was identified in three (18%) re-excisions. Patients with fibroadenoma with phyllodal features were more likely to have a positive surgical margin than with benign phyllodes tumors or borderline phyllodes tumors (89 vs 49%, P=0.0015), and were less likely to undergo re-excision for positive margins (12 vs 43%, P=0.031). In total, there were three recurrences (3%), with one per fibroadenoma with phyllodal features, benign phyllodes tumor, and borderline phyllodes tumor. There was no statistically significant difference in recurrence rates between patients with positive or negative margins, or between patients with positive margin with or without re-excision. The extent of the positive margin did not predict recurrence. In conclusion, the recurrence rate of benign and low-grade fibroepithelial lesions is low and not associated with the original margin status. Patients with fibroadenomas with phyllodal features, benign phyllodes tumors, or selected borderline phyllodes tumors and positive margins on initial excision may be managed conservatively, with close follow-up and timely re-excision of any potential recurrence.

  19. Polyp Prevention Trial

    Cancer.gov

    The primary objective of the Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is to determine whether a low fat, high fiber, high vegetable and fruit eating plan will decrease the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel.

  20. Endometrial Polyps and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB-P): What is the relationship, how are they diagnosed and how are they treated?

    PubMed

    Clark, T Justin; Stevenson, Helen

    2017-04-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of endometrial polyps will be familiar to most gynaecologists. However, the aetiology and natural history of these focal intrauterine lesions are yet to be elucidated. This lack of clarity is also true with regard to their clinical significance; whilst endometrial polyps are highly prevalent in all types of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), they are also commonly found in women without AUB. These controversies will be discussed along with current thoughts on the diagnosis and treatment of endometrial polyps. Criteria for diagnosis of uterine polyps vary according to the test used, but optimal testing is not yet solidified. Recent data from randomised trials evaluating new and established surgical technologies as well as comparing treatment protocols and settings will be examined. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Semiconductor laser treatment for nasal polyps: clinical analysis of 42 cases (Abstract Only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kai-Hua; You, Jing-Min; Zhang, Men-Liang

    1998-11-01

    The conventional way for the rhinopolypus operation is to use the polyp snare to cut polyp tissue. This method includes many weaknesses. (1) It often leads to polyp residue or even polyp recurrence when using polyp forceps deal with the part of polyp root. (2) Vaseline gauze is used in plugging nasal cavity resulting in an inconvenience of the patient. Since 1996, we have treated nasal polypus 42 cases by using Semi-conductor laser. There are advantages in the treatment: (1) Shortening operation time. (2) Cutting the root part of nasal polyp completely. (3) Resulting 83 percent cure rate. (4) Without plugging nasal cavity.

  2. Congenital urethral polyps in girls: as a differential diagnosis of interlabial masses.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, Aram; Khorramirouz, Reza; Saadat, Seyedehpariya; Hiradfar, Mehran; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    To present the clinical appearance, differential diagnosis, long-term follow-up, and the surgical result of single-center experience with female urethral polyps presenting as an interlabial mass, and to report the common causes of interlabial masses in infants. All 12 girls who presented with an interlabial mass and intermittent bleeding have been included in this study; however, the benign urethral polyps are discussed in detail and are the subject of this study. All patients were referred to our national referral pediatric urology center with initial impression of vaginal bleeding; however, rhabdomyosarcoma of bladder and urethra (n = 2) or vagina (n = 3) and urethral polyp (n = 7) was the final diagnosis. The records of 12 girls who presented with external genitalia bleeding were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, 7 had fibroepithelial polyps and underwent initial polypectomy between 2001 and 2011with mean age of 21.5 months (range: 1-90 mo). All girls underwent endoscopic surgical removal of polyps. No postoperative polyp recurrence was observed following endoscopic polyp resection. The postoperative period was uneventful except in 1 girl who had immediate postoperative urethral bleeding which stopped spontaneously. There was no major complication or polyp recurrence after operation during the long-term follow-up. The interlabial mass must be considered as a urethral polyp and should be differentiated from the vaginal rhabdomyosarcoma with protrusion of vaginal tumor from the vaginal outlet or other benign lesions. Physical examination in frog legged position or examination under anesthesia with urethrocystoscopy may confirm the final diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Significance of histologic criteria for the management of patients with malignant colorectal polyps and polypectomy.

    PubMed

    Netzer, P; Binek, J; Hammer, B; Lange, J; Schmassmann, A

    1997-09-01

    The management of invasive cancer in colorectal polyps (malignant polyps) is controversial, particularly with regard to the different sets of histologic criteria for deciding whether malignant colorectal polyps should be treated by polypectomy alone or be followed by surgical resection. We report on the outcome of patients in accordance with the histologic assessment of their malignant polyps. Malignant polyps were defined as having favourable histology (free margin, grade I or II, and no angiolymphatic invasion) or unfavorable histology (no free margin, grade III, or angiolymphatic invasion). Malignant polyps with favourable histology were treated by endoscopic polypectomy alone, whereas further therapy was recommended for malignant polyps with unfavourable histology. Residual cancer in a resection specimen and local or metastatic recurrence during the follow-up period (mean, 60 months; range, 12 - 120) were defined as adverse outcome. Thirty-seven malignant polyps were detected in 35 (0.5%) of 6605 patients. Five of these 35 patients were treated by primary bowel resection and analysed separately. In the other 30 patients the following unfavourable histologic signs were detected in 20 (62.5%) of 32 malignant polyps; no free margin in 16, grade III in 1, and angiolymphatic invasion in 3 polyps. Twelve polyps with favourable histology had no adverse outcome; in contrast, 5 of 20 polyps with unfavourable histology had an average outcome (P < 0.05). Locally excised malignant polyps without unfavourable histologic signs may not need further surgical treatment; for all other malignant polyps an ensuing bowel resection is recommended.

  4. Infarcted angiomatous nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, Patrick; Crotty, Paul L; Hamilton, Sam; Colreavy, Michael; McShane, Donald

    2005-03-01

    Angiomatous nasal polyps are a rarely reported subtype of inflammatory sinonasal polyps that are characterized by extensive vascular proliferation and ectasia. Compromise of their vascular supply may occasionally lead to infarction, resulting in clinical, radiological and pathological features that simulate a neoplastic process. In the present paper, the salient characteristics of this unusual entity are described. The clinical, radiological and pathological features of two patients with infarcted angiomatous nasal polyps are presented. Grossly, the polyps had an unusual inhomogenous appearance and texture and were associated with a foul odor. CT findings included bony expansion and destruction. MRI findings included markedly inhomogenous contrast enhancement on T1-weighted images. Histopathologically, both cases showed abundant vascular ectasia, with widespread intraluminal thrombosis and necrosis. Recanalization and reparative changes were also present. Angiomatous nasal polyps are poorly documented in the literature. Although entirely benign, they may simulate neoplastic processes, thus awareness of their existence is of considerable importance.

  5. [Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy for the diagnosis of fibroepithelial breast tumors].

    PubMed

    Ricci, Marcos Desidério; Amaral, Paulo Gustavo Tenório do; Aoki, Denis Seiiti; Oliveira Filho, Hélio Rubens de; Pinheiro, Walter da Silva; Filassi, José Roberto; Baracat, Edmund Chada

    2011-01-01

    to evaluate the concordance rate of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy followed by excisional biopsy in palpable breast lumps, suggestive of fibroepithelial tumors. a retrospective study included 70 biopsies with a histological diagnosis of fibroepithelial tumor in 67 out of 531 patients with breast lesions submitted to ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy with a high frequency (7.5 MHz) linear transducer, using an automatic Bard-Magnum gun and a 14-gauge needle. Cases with a diagnosis of fibroepithelial tumor by core needle biopsy or excisional biopsy and with a diagnosis of fibrosclerosis were included in the study. The agreement between the two biopsy methods was assessed using the Kappa coefficient. excisional biopsy revealed 40 cases of fibroadenoma (57.1%), 19 cases of phyllodes tumor (27.2%), and 11 cases of fibrosclerosis (15.7%). The concordance rate for fibroadenoma was substantial (k = 0.68, 95%CI = 0.45 - 0.91), almost perfect for the phyllodes tumor (k = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.57 - 1.0), and moderate for fibrosclerosis (k = 0.58, 95%CI = 0.36 - 0.90). the core needle biopsy is a minimally invasive method that has "substantial" to "almost perfect" concordance rate with excisional biopsy. Fibrosclerosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of fibroepithelial tumors.

  6. [Pharyngeal fibrovascular polyp].

    PubMed

    Dali, Hayet; Barry, Beatrix; Wassef, Michel; Mansouri, Dhouha; Hourseau, Muriel; Hénin, Dominique; Soufan, Ranya

    2011-06-01

    The giant fibrovascular polyp of the hypopharynx is a rare and benign tumor. We report one case in a 46-year-old man. This lesion, usually unique, affects predominantly men with an average age of 53 years. These polyps are located predominantly in the upper esophagus and rarely in the hypopharynx. They are usually asymptomatic and small, detected by endoscopy. They can grow to considerable length and cause digestive or respiratory symptoms. Histologically, fibrovascular polyps consist of a various mixture of fibrous and lipomatous elements with abundant vascularisation and they are covered by normal squamous epithelium. The lack of muscular support and the pressure difference in the peristaltic wave contribute to polyp formation.

  7. Feline nasopharyngeal polyps.

    PubMed

    Muilenburg, Rebecca K; Fry, Thomas R

    2002-07-01

    In summary, an ideal diagnostic plan for cats with suspected FNPs should include a thorough anesthetized oropharyngeal examination, otoscopic examination, and imaging studies, which may consist of a bulla radiographic series or specialized imaging studies such as CT or MR scans. In general, if signs indicative of otitis media are present, ventral bulla osteotomy should be advised. As a result of the distinct appearance of FNPs, a preoperative biopsy is not indicated in all instances but should be considered if there are atypical features to the history or presentation. Traction-avulsion of polyps through the external ear canal or auditory tube from the oropharynx may have a lower success rate than traction-avulsion combined with ventral bulla osteotomy. If the veterinarian opts to treat FNPs by traction-avulsion alone as a result of financial constraints imposed by the client, the client should be strongly cautioned regarding potential recurrence. Postoperative complications are possible with any treatment option, but neurologic impairment, including Horner's syndrome, facial neuropathy, and hypoglossal neuropathy, is significantly more likely after surgical intervention by ventral bulla osteotomy than after traction-avulsion alone. A high percentage of these complications are self-limiting. In all instances, appropriate culture and sensitivity and biopsy specimens should be collected so as to enable provision of appropriate postoperative care. Antibiotic therapy should be provided based on culture and sensitivity test results. The use of postoperative steroids to prevent recurrence is controversial.

  8. Effects of proton pump inhibitors on pediatric inflammatory esophagogastric polyps.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyong Eun; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Ji Hyuk; Lee, Jong Seung; Lee, Jee Hyun; Choe, Yon Ho

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of proton pump inhibitors on symptomatic inflammatory esophagogastric polyps (IEPs) in a pediatric cohort and to determine the optimal duration of treatment. The 11 patients with IEPs were managed with lansoprazole. Follow-up endoscopies were performed at 2 and 6 months after the start of medication. Medication was discontinued when the clinical symptoms completely resolved and the polyp size was reduced by more than 50% compared to the initial size. The initial polyp size was 13.7 ± 3.3 mm. After 2 months of medication, the polyp size was reduced to 8.0 ± 5.8 mm. At 6 months, the polyp size was 4.7 ± 2.2 mm. The mean duration of medication was 4.8 ± 2.1 months. The duration of medication and the change in the polyp size appeared to have a linear correlation (p < 0.001). According to the formula used to calculate polyp size, the optimal duration of treatment was more than 7 months for complete resolution of the polyps. Proton pump inhibitor was effective for the treatment of IEPs. About 5 months of lansoprazole was adequate to treat IEPs in children. The optimal duration for complete resolution of the polyp might be more than 7 months. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Three cases of solitary Peutz-Jeghers-type hamartomatous polyp in the duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Seiyuu; Hirasaki, Shoji; Ikeda, Fusao; Yumoto, Eiichiro; Yamane, Hiromichi; Matsubara, Minoru

    2008-01-01

    A solitary Peutz-Jeghers-type hamartomatous polyp in the duodenum is rare, and few reports have described its characteristic endoscopic features. We describe three cases of solitary Peutz-Jeghers-type hamartomatous polyp and their endoscopic findings in detail. The polyp in all of our three cases showed an irregularly lobular or nodular surface, whereas adenomas often show a regularly nodular or granular surface. The color of the polyp was whitish in all of our cases. In the present cases, close observation by endoscopy revealed that the solitary Peutz-Jeghers-type hamartomatous polyps looked whitish because of the presence of diffusely scattered white spots on the surface of the polyps. Duodenal polyps that exhibit the aforementioned endoscopic characteristics may be diagnosed as Peutz-Jeghers-type hamartomatous polyps and treated by polypectomy because of the malignant potential. PMID:18240356

  10. Second harmonic generation microscopy is a novel technique for differential diagnosis of breast fibroepithelial lesions.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wai Jin; Yan, Jie; Xu, Shuoyu; Thike, Aye Aye; Bay, Boon Huat; Yu, Hanry; Tan, Min-Han; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2015-12-01

    Breast fibroepithelial lesions, including fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours, are commonly encountered in clinical practice. As histological differences between these two related entities may be subtle, resulting in a challenging differential diagnosis, pathological techniques to assist the differential diagnosis of these two entities are of high interest. An accurate diagnosis at biopsy is important given corresponding implications for clinical decision-making including surgical extent and monitoring. Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is a recently developed optical imaging technique capable of robust, powerful and unbiased label-free direct detection of collagen fibril structure in tissue without the use of antibodies. We constructed tissue microarrays emulating limited materials on biopsy to investigate quantitative collagen signal in fibroepithelial lesions using SHG microscopy. Archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded materials of 47 fibroepithelial lesions (14 fibroadenomas and 33 phyllodes tumours) were evaluated. Higher collagen signal on SHG microscopy was observed in fibroadenomas than phyllodes tumours on SHG imaging (p<0.001, area under the curve 0.859). At an automated threshold (2.5 million positive pixels), the sensitivity and specificity of the SHG microscopy for fibroadenoma classification was 71.4% and 84.4%, respectively. To corroborate these findings, we performed immunohistochemistry on tissue array sections using collagen I and III primary antibodies. Both collagen I and III immunohistochemical expressions were also significantly higher in fibroadenomas than in phyllodes tumours (p<0.001). In conclusion, label-free collagen quantitation on SHG microscopy is a novel imaging approach that can aid the differential diagnosis of fibroepithelial lesions.

  11. Determining whether excision of all fibroepithelial lesions of the breast is needed to exclude phyllodes tumor: upgrade rate of fibroepithelial lesions of the breast to phyllodes tumor.

    PubMed

    Van Osdol, Andrew D; Landercasper, Jeffrey; Andersen, Jeremiah J; Ellis, Richard L; Gensch, Erin M; Johnson, Jeanne M; De Maiffe, Brooke; Marcou, Kristen A; Al-Hamadani, Mohammed; Vang, Choua A

    2014-10-01

    Fibroepithelial lesions (FELs) are a common histologic finding on core needle biopsy (CNB) of the breast. Fibroepithelial lesions include fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor, which can be difficult to distinguish with an initial CNB. An institutional experience was reviewed from February 12, 2001, to January 4, 2007, to determine the safety of selective rather than routine excision of FELs and to determine the factors associated with upgrading diagnosis of FELs to phyllodes tumors without definitive phyllodes tumor diagnosis by CNB. Of 313 patients, 261 (83%) with FELs diagnosed by CNB received observation with long-term follow-up (mean, 8 years). Of the observed patients, 3 (1%) were diagnosed with phyllodes tumor on follow-up. Eighteen of 52 patients (35%) who received excision had an upgrade of diagnosis to phyllodes tumor. Sensitivity and specificity of the pathologist's comment of concern for phyllodes tumor on a CNB demonstrating FELs without definitive phyllodes tumor diagnosis were 82% and 93%, respectively. Our policy of selective excision of FELs without definitive phyllodes tumor diagnosis resulted in safe avoidance of many surgical procedures.

  12. Nasopharyngeal polyps in cats.

    PubMed

    Kudnig, Simon T

    2002-11-01

    Nasopharyngeal polyps are non-neoplastic, inflammatory growths that arise from the middle ear or the eustachian tube and extend into the pharynx. The exact etiology of nasopharyngeal polyps is unclear; proposed etiologies include a response to chronic upper respiratory tract infection, chronic otitis media, ascending infection from the nasopharynx, or a congenital origin. Clinical signs usually relate to obstruction of the nasopharynx, with Horner's syndrome and head tilt being consistent with otitis media and otitis interna, respectively. Diagnostic tools include digital or visual examination above the soft palate, flexible fiberoptic caudal rhinoscopy, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Ventral bulla osteotomy combined with traction removal of the polyp is the recommended treatment, although traction only followed by prednisolone therapy can be considered in some cases, especially when there is no evidence of otitis media.

  13. Chapter 6: Nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Settipane, Russell A; Peters, Anju T; Chiu, Alexander G

    2013-01-01

    Nasal polyps occur in 1-4% of the population, usually occurring in the setting of an underlying local or systemic disease. The most common associated condition is chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). A high prevalence of nasal polyps is also seen in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and cystic fibrosis. In the setting of CRS, nasal polyps are not likely to be cured by either medical or surgical therapy; however, control is generally attainable. The best medical evidence supports the use of intranasal corticosteroids for maintenance therapy and short courses of oral corticosteroids for exacerbations. The evidence for short- and long-term antibiotics is much less robust. For patients with symptomatic nasal polyposis nonresponsive to medical therapies, functional endoscopic sinus surgery provides an adjunctive therapeutic option.

  14. [Giant esophageal fibrovascular polyp].

    PubMed

    Palacios, Fernando; Contardo, Carlos; Guevara, Jorge; Vera, Augusto; Aguilar, Luis; Huamán, Manuel; Palomino, Américo; Yabar, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Fibrovascular polyps are extremely rare benign neoplasias of the esophagus, which usually originate in the lower cricoid area. They do not produce any discomfort in the patient for a long time, however it may make itself evident by the patient's regurgitation of the polyp, producing asphyxia or, more frequently, dysphagia. The case of a 58 year old male patient is presented herein, with a 9 month record of dysphagia, weight loss and intermittent melena. The barium x-ray showed a distended esophagus, with a tumor running from the upper esophageal sphincter to the cardia. The endoscopy confirmed the presence of a pediculated tumor, implanted in the cervical esophagus. Surgeons suspected the potential malignancy of the tumor and performed a transhiatal esophagectomy. The final pathologic diagnosis was giant fibrovascular esophageal polyp.

  15. [Ureteral polyp occurring as renal dysfunction with contralateral ureteral calculi: a case report].

    PubMed

    Segawa, Naoki; Abe, Hirokazu; Nishida, Takeshi; Katsuoka, Yoji

    2005-07-01

    A 46-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of macroscopic hematuria with dull pain in the right flank. Laboratory finding showed renal dysfunction and abdominal ultrasound sonograph revealed bilateral hydronephrosis (right > left). Retrograde pyelography showed left ureteral calculi and a filling defect in the middle portion of the right ureter. Renal function improved after bilateral single-J ureteral stent placement. Selective wash cytology of right renal pelvis was class II. Ureteroscopy demonstrated right ureteral obstruction with smooth-surfaced protruded tumor and cold cup biopsy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was a fibroepithelial polyp but with no malignancy. In addition, left transurethral lithotripsy was performed under ureteroscopy. After the endoscopic examination, a double pigtail stent inserted into the right ureter. We performed conservative management by repeat urine cytologies and retrograde pyelography due to thrombocytopenia. The urine cytologies all proved negative and retrograde pyelography showed no abnormal changes. A ureteroscopic procedure is considered to be useful for the diagnosis of ureteral polyps. Transurethral resection of ureteral polyps with a ureteroscope is recommended for treatment.

  16. Predictors of phyllodes tumours on core biopsy specimens of fibroepithelial neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Jara-Lazaro, Ana Richelia; Akhilesh, Meenakshi; Thike, Aye Aye; Lui, Philip Chi-Wai; Tse, Gary Man-Kit; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2010-08-01

    To establish histological and biological parameters that can predict phyllodes tumours on core biopsy specimens of indeterminate fibroepithelial neoplasms. Core biopsy specimens of fibroepithelial lesions diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital from 2002 to 2007 were reviewed. Cases in which phyllodes tumour was favoured, or could not be ruled out, were evaluated for stromal cellularity/distribution, nuclear atypia and mitoses, stromal overgrowth, epithelial fronding, epithelial hyperplasia, configuration of lesional edge, presence of pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia and of adipose tissue. Antibodies to Ki67, topoisomerase IIalpha, CD34, CD117 and Bcl-2 were applied to sections subjected to immunohistochemistry using the streptavidin-biotin method. Findings were correlated with subsequent excisions. Of 261 core biopsy specimens of fibroepithelial lesions, 98 (37%) comprised cases in which phyllodes tumour could not be excluded and 57 (58%) had subsequent open surgical excisions. Marked stromal hypercellularity (5/5; 100%) and nuclear atypia (1/1; 100%), stromal overgrowth (17/17; 100%), mitoses > or =2/10 high-power fields (18/18; 100%) and ill-defined lesional borders (16/16 phyllodes tumours; 100%) were features in core biopsy specimens that exclusively predicted phyllodes tumour on excision. Moderate stromal hypercellularity (20/27 phyllodes tumours; 74%), stromal overgrowth, moderate nuclear atypia (14/16 phyllodes tumours; 87%), pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (19/23 phyllodes tumours; 83%) significantly correlated with their subsequent excisions. Immunohistochemical markers Ki67 > or =5% and topoisomerase IIalpha> or =5%, and reduced or patchy CD34 on core biopsy specimens correlated significantly with a diagnosis of phyllodes. Stromal hypercellularity, combined with key histological features and immunohistochemical markers Ki67, topoisomerase IIalpha and CD34, reinforced by clinical findings, can predict phyllodes

  17. Mammary-type fibroepithelial neoplasms of the vulva: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Carter, James Elliot; Mizell, Kelly N; Tucker, Joseph Allan

    2008-02-01

    Mammary-type fibroepithelial neoplasms of the vulva are rare lesions of uncertain histogenesis. Origin from ectopic breast tissue and from anogenital glandular tissue that shares similar histologic homology with breast tissue has been postulated. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with a vulvar mass of several years duration. Excision of the lesion and subsequent histologic examination showed a mammary-type fibroadenoma with apocrine change. No ectopic breast tissue was identified outside the lesion. The theories of histogenesis of these neoplasms and additional cases of mammary-type lesions of the vulva reported in the medical literature are reviewed.

  18. Oculosporidial polyp infected secondarily by Enterobius vermicularis

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, S.; Bharathi, K.; Khalique, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Oculosporidiosis caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi is a common infectious disease of south India. Here we are reporting a rare case of oculosporidial polyp containing another parasite Enterobius vermicularis as a co infection. This is the first report of its kind in literature. A nine year old school going girl from a rural area presented with a reddish polypoidal lesion from conjunctiva along with complaints of severe itching over it. On examination, the polyp measured 5 mm × 5 mm in size, reddish, granular with a tendency to bleed on touch. Her vision was normal. All the basic investigations were within normal limits. A differential diagnosis of conjunctival papilloma, foreign body granuloma and oculosporidiosis were considered clinically. The polyp was removed completely using electro cautery with healthy margins around the lesion. To our surprise histopathological examination of the swelling revealed the presence of two different parasites in the conjunctival polyp. Sections showed sporangia of Rhinosporidium seeberi, fragments of Enterobius vermicularis and its eggs. She was then treated with anti helminthic drugs. Two months of follow up till now showed no recurrence of the lesion. PMID:25337525

  19. Oculosporidial polyp infected secondarily by Enterobius vermicularis.

    PubMed

    Anuradha, S; Bharathi, K; Khalique, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Oculosporidiosis caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi is a common infectious disease of south India. Here we are reporting a rare case of oculosporidial polyp containing another parasite Enterobius vermicularis as a co infection. This is the first report of its kind in literature. A nine year old school going girl from a rural area presented with a reddish polypoidal lesion from conjunctiva along with complaints of severe itching over it. On examination, the polyp measured 5 mm × 5 mm in size, reddish, granular with a tendency to bleed on touch. Her vision was normal. All the basic investigations were within normal limits. A differential diagnosis of conjunctival papilloma, foreign body granuloma and oculosporidiosis were considered clinically. The polyp was removed completely using electro cautery with healthy margins around the lesion. To our surprise histopathological examination of the swelling revealed the presence of two different parasites in the conjunctival polyp. Sections showed sporangia of Rhinosporidium seeberi, fragments of Enterobius vermicularis and its eggs. She was then treated with anti helminthic drugs. Two months of follow up till now showed no recurrence of the lesion.

  20. Nasal and exhaled nitric oxide in chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Hyeok; Yoo, Han Seok; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Kyung Rae; Yoon, Ho Joo; Kim, Sang Heon

    2014-01-01

    The ciliary epithelial cells in the paranasal sinuses produce nasal nitric oxide (NO) continuously and plays a variety of roles in the paranasal sinuses. The purpose of this study was to assess whether we can use the levels of nasal NO (nNO) and exhaled NO (eNO) as a tool for evaluation in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyp patients. We used chemiluminescent NO analyzer to measure nNO and eNO among normal controls (32) and CRS with polyp (30) and CRS with polyp and allergic rhinitis patients (27) and compared it with various clinical symptoms, laboratory data, and computed tomography (CT) scores. Levels of nNO were significantly lower in patients with CRS with polyps (88.5 ± 54.7 ppb) compared with controls (241.0 ± 89.5 ppb). Levels of nNO in CRS with polyps and allergic rhinitis (167.0 ± 47.6 ppb) were significantly higher than CRS with polyps and lower than controls. A significant inverse relationship was observed between nNO and sinus CT scores, severity of nasal obstruction, and purulent rhinorrhea in CRS with polyps. Low values of nNO separated well patients with CRS with polyps, and the cutoff value of <163 ppb was associated with the best combination of specificity (93%) and sensitivity (81%). A significant positive relationship was observed between eNO and CT scores. The nNO could be used for another screening of CRS with polyps for the more severe phenotypes, which may eventually have to be treated with surgery.

  1. Colorectal polyps and polyposis syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Shussman, Noam; Wexner, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    A polyp is defined as any mass protruding into the lumen of a hollow viscus. Colorectal polyps may be classified by their macroscopic appearance as sessile (flat, arising directly from the mucosal layer) or pedunculated (extending from the mucosa through a fibrovascular stalk). Colorectal polyps may also be histologically classified as neoplastic or as non-neoplastic (hyperplastic, hamartomatous, or inflammatory). The neoplastic polyps are of primary importance because they harbor a malignant potential, which represents a stage in the development of colorectal cancer. For this reason, it is essential to identify these polyps at a sufficiently early stage, when a simple outpatient procedure to remove them can interrupt the development of colorectal cancer and prevent disease and death. When invasive carcinoma arises in a polyp, careful consideration must be given to ensuring the adequacy of treatment. Although most neoplastic polyps do not evolve into cancer, it is well accepted that the majority of colorectal carcinomas evolve from adenomatous polyps; the sequence of events leading to this transformation is referred to as the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence. The presence of a systemic process that promotes the development of multiple gastro-intestinal polyps is termed ‘polyposis’. Hereditary gastro-intestinal polyposis syndromes account for approximately 1% of all cases of colorectal cancer and are associated with a broad spectrum of extra-colonic tumors. Early detection and accurate classification of these syndromes are essential, in order to initiate a surveillance program for the early detection of cancer. Several polyposis syndromes have been described, each having its own genetic basis and characteristic polyp distribution, clinical presentation, and malignancy risk. Diagnostic modalities and treatment options for neoplastic polyps—as well as the most prevalent polyposis syndromes—are reviewed below. PMID:24760231

  2. Giant fibrovascular polyp of the hypopharynx: surgical treatment with the biappoach.

    PubMed

    I, Hoseok; Kim, Jin Sun; Shim, Young Mog

    2006-08-01

    Fibrovascular polyps of the esophagus and hypopharynx are benign tumors of the upper digestive tract. The majority of these polyps are located in the upper part of the esophagus but the hypopharyngeal fibrovascular polyps are only rarely seen. Most of them are surgically treated and this is usually done through a cervical incision, although some of them have been removed endoscopically. The authors report here on a case of a 63-yr-old-man with a giant fibrovascular polyp of the hypopharynx that extended into the stomach; this polyp was removed through simultaneous transcervical and transabdominal approaches because of the huge size of the polyp. The man presented with progressive dysphagia of 1 yr duration. The preoperative assessment revealed a giant polyp arising from the left arytenoid and extending into the stomach. The dimension of the polyp was about 26 x 10 x 4 cm. The complete resection of the polyp with the simultaneous transcervical and transabdominal approaches was successful, and it was diagnosed as a fibrovascular polyp. The patient has been followed up without any recurrence for 6 month postoperatively.

  3. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery for colorectal polyps: single institution experience

    PubMed Central

    Samalavicius, Narimantas Evaldas; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Zabulis, Vaidotas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Because of their difficult location or size, some polyps are impossible to remove with a flexible colonoscope and must be surgically removed. Laparoscopy is a great alternative. Aim To assess outcomes of a laparoscopic approach for the management of difficult colorectal polyps. Material and methods From 2006 to 2014, patients with polyps that could not be treated by endoscopy were included. Demographic data, histology of the biopsy, type of surgery, length of postoperative stay, complications and final pathology were reviewed prospectively. Results Forty-two patients with a mean age of 64.9 ±8.4 underwent laparoscopic polypectomy. Laparoscopic mobilization of the colonic segment and colotomy with removal of the polyp was performed for 12 (28.6%) polyps. Laparoscopic segmental bowel resection was performed in 30 (71.4%) cases: anterior rectal resection with partial total mesorectal excision in 12 (28.6%), left hemicolectomy in 7 (16.6%), sigmoid resection in 6 (14.3%), ileocecal resection in 2 (4.76%), resection of transverse colon in 2 (4.76%) and sigmoid resection with transanal retrieval of specimen in 1 (2.38%). Mean postoperative hospital stay was 5.9 ±2.6 days. There were 4 complications (9.5%). All patients recovered after conservative treatment. Mean polyp size was 3.6 ±2.2 cm. Final pathology revealed polyps (n = 2), tubular adenoma (n = 6), tubulovillous adenoma (n = 20), carcinoma in situ (n = 10) and invasive cancer (n = 4). Two of these patients underwent laparoscopic left hemicolectomies 14 and 10 days after laparoscopic colotomy and polypectomy. Conclusions For the management of endoscopically unresectable polyps, laparoscopic polypectomy is currently the technique of choice. PMID:25960797

  4. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery for colorectal polyps: single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Dulskas, Audrius; Samalavicius, Narimantas Evaldas; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Zabulis, Vaidotas

    2015-04-01

    Because of their difficult location or size, some polyps are impossible to remove with a flexible colonoscope and must be surgically removed. Laparoscopy is a great alternative. To assess outcomes of a laparoscopic approach for the management of difficult colorectal polyps. From 2006 to 2014, patients with polyps that could not be treated by endoscopy were included. Demographic data, histology of the biopsy, type of surgery, length of postoperative stay, complications and final pathology were reviewed prospectively. Forty-two patients with a mean age of 64.9 ±8.4 underwent laparoscopic polypectomy. Laparoscopic mobilization of the colonic segment and colotomy with removal of the polyp was performed for 12 (28.6%) polyps. Laparoscopic segmental bowel resection was performed in 30 (71.4%) cases: anterior rectal resection with partial total mesorectal excision in 12 (28.6%), left hemicolectomy in 7 (16.6%), sigmoid resection in 6 (14.3%), ileocecal resection in 2 (4.76%), resection of transverse colon in 2 (4.76%) and sigmoid resection with transanal retrieval of specimen in 1 (2.38%). Mean postoperative hospital stay was 5.9 ±2.6 days. There were 4 complications (9.5%). All patients recovered after conservative treatment. Mean polyp size was 3.6 ±2.2 cm. Final pathology revealed polyps (n = 2), tubular adenoma (n = 6), tubulovillous adenoma (n = 20), carcinoma in situ (n = 10) and invasive cancer (n = 4). Two of these patients underwent laparoscopic left hemicolectomies 14 and 10 days after laparoscopic colotomy and polypectomy. For the management of endoscopically unresectable polyps, laparoscopic polypectomy is currently the technique of choice.

  5. Lysosomal exoglycosidases in nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Chojnowska, Sylwia; Minarowska, Alina; Knaś, Małgorzata; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Kołodziejczyk, Paweł; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Kępka, Alina; Minarowski, Łukasz; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Nasal polyps are smooth outgrowths assuming a shape of grapes, formed from the nasal mucosa, limiting air flow by projecting into a lumen of a nasal cavity. Up to now the surgical resection is the best method of their treatment, but etiology and pathogenesis of the nasal polyps is not yet fully established. The aim of the study was the assessment of the selected lysosomal exoglycosidases activity in the nasal polyps. In this study the activity of β-galactosidase, α-mannosidase and α-fucosidase was determined in the tissue of the nasal polyps obtained from 40 patients (10F, 30M) and control tissues derived from mucosa of lower nasal conchas obtained during mucotomy from 20 patients (10F, 10M). We observed significant lower values of GAL, FUC and tendency to decrease of MAN and GLU concentration in nasal polyps (P) in comparison to control healthy nasal mucosa (C). In nasal polyp tissue (P) no differences of GAL, MAN and FUC specific activity in comparison to control mucosa (C) were found. Our research supports bioelectrical theory of the nasal polyps pathogenesis and directs attention at research on glycoconjugates and glycosidases of the nasal mucosa extracellular matrix. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for giant polyps of the rectum.

    PubMed

    Levic, K; Bulut, O; Hesselfeldt, P

    2014-06-01

    The potential for malignancy in rectal polyps increases with the size of the polyp, and unexpected malignancy is reported in up to 39 % of large rectal adenomas. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) offers the possibility of an en bloc full-thickness excision for lesions in the rectum. We present our results with TEM in the removal of giant polyps equal or greater than 4 cm in diameter. In the period between 1998 and 2012, TEM was performed in 39 patients with rectal polyps measuring at least 4 cm in diameter. Transrectal ultrasound and/or magnetic resonance imaging of the rectum was used when cancer was suspected. The polyp was removed with en bloc full-thickness excision in 77 % (n = 30). The preoperative diagnosis was benign rectal adenoma in 89.7 % (n = 35). The median size of the polyps was 30 cm(2) (range 16-100 cm(2)). Postoperative complications included bleeding in 4 patients (10.3 %). Histological examination showed unexpected cancer in 4 patients (10.3 %). TEM was curative in 2 of these patients, and the other 2 underwent further surgery. Recurrences occurred in 10 patients (25.6 %) and consisted of 5 adenomas and 5 adenocarcinomas. In 5 patients, these recurrences were treated with endoscopic removal or re-TEM. The remaining 5 underwent total mesorectal excision and/or chemotherapy. Full-thickness TEM provides a safe and efficient treatment for excision of giant polyps. In case of unexpected cancer, TEM can be curative. Local recurrence can be often treated with a second TEM procedure.

  7. Inflammatory Myoglandular Polyps Causing Hematochezia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sook Hee; Park, Young Sook; Jo, Yun Ju; Kim, Seong Hwan; Jun, Dae Won; Cheong, Eun Sun; Lee, Won Mi; Ju, Jong Eun

    2010-01-01

    We report herein three cases of inflammatory myoglandular polyp (IMGP) presenting as hematochezia. The polyps had pedunculated, red, and smooth features, and were 12, 12, and 15 mm in diameter and located in the sigmoid colon, transverse colon, and rectum, respectively. Endoscopic polypectomies were performed. Histologic examination of the recovered specimens revealed inflammatory granulation in the lamina propria mucosa, proliferation of smooth muscle, and hyperplastic glands with cystic dilatation. The three colon polyps were finally diagnosed both clinically and histologically as IMGP. Endoscopists should bear in mind that a polyp featuring endoscopic findings of pedunculation or semipedunculation; a red, smooth, spherical, and hyperemic surface; and patchy mucosa exudation and erosion is likely to be an IMGP. PMID:20479930

  8. Endometrial polyps: when to resect?

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Julia Marques da Rocha; de Azevedo, Ligia Marques da Rocha; Freitas, Fernando; Wender, Maria Celeste Osorio

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of malignant and premalignant endometrial polyps and to investigate the association of malignancy with specific factors. This is a retrospective study of women submitted to hysteroscopic resection of endometrial polyps between January 2005 and July 2013 at a university hospital in southern Brazil. Data regarding clinical characteristics and pathology findings were collected from patient charts. Of 359 patients, 87.2% had benign polyps and 9.9% had hyperplasia without atypia. Atypical hyperplasia was found in 2.6% of the sample. Endometrial adenocarcinoma was found in one woman (0.3%). A correlation was observed between malignant/premalignant polyps and patient age, menopausal status, and uterine bleeding. All patients with malignancies/premalignancies had abnormal uterine bleeding. Higher frequency of malignant polyps was observed in tamoxifen users, however, without statistical significance (p = 0.059%). Malignancy was not correlated with arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hormone therapy, endometrial thickness, and polyp diameter. Malignant/premalignant findings had low prevalence and were absent in asymptomatic patients. From the data of this retrospective study, it is unclear whether routine polypectomy should be performed in asymptomatic patients. Further prospective studies including larger numbers of patients are required to guide treatment recommendations.

  9. Gastric hyperplastic polyps causing upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Secemsky, Brian J; Robinson, Kenika R; Krishnan, Kumar; Matkowskyj, Kristina A; Jung, Barbara H

    2013-04-16

    Here, we report a case of a young man who presented with a significant upper gastrointestinal bleed treated by endoscopic removal of multiple hyperplastic polyps. Gastric hyperplastic polyps are a relatively uncommon cause of overt gastrointestinal bleeding. While most hyperplastic gastric polyps are asymptomatic, they may present with abdominal pain, iron deficiency anemia or gastric outlet obstruction. These polyps are associated with conditions such as Helicobacter pylori gastritis and atrophic autoimmune gastritis, which predispose the epithelium to chronic inflammation and epithelial repair. The patient presented to Northwestern Memorial Hospital in July 2011. The polyps were resected by clip-assisted snare polypectomy. Histopathologic assessment of the resected polyps demonstrated multiple, non-ulcerative hyperplastic polyps measuring 1.3-1.8 cm in size, without evidence of dysplasia or malignancy. This case describes a young adult patient with multiple, large gastric polyps causing overt gastrointestinal bleeding. This is a rare presentation in a young individual, as these polyps are typically identified in patients older than 60 years of age and less commonly, pediatric populations.

  10. [Gastric epithelial polyps (part two)].

    PubMed

    Espejo Romero, Luis Hernán; Navarrete Siancas, Jesús

    2004-01-01

    The following is a statistical report regarding gastric polyps: Frequency determined through endoscopic examinations was 3.6%. The terms hyperplastic polyps and adenomas were used for the classification of epithelial polyps, considering the suprafoveal hyperplasias within the hyperplastic polyps, provided they were elevated lesions. Out of 2,283 polyps, 1,959 were hyperplastic (86%) and 324 were adenomas (14%). When analyzing 780 polyps, 86 (11%) were found to have the Nakamura III category. With regard to topography, in an examination of 2253 polyps, hyperplastic polyps were located as follows: 325 (17%) in the antrum, 1402 (73%) in the body and 202 (10%) in the fundus. Adenomas had a different distribution: 212 (65%) in the antrum, 100 (31%) in the body and 12 (4%) in the fundus. Out of 371 hyperplastic polyps examined, 49% were pediculate and 51% were sessile; on the contrary, 86 % of adenomas were sessile. The average age was 66.2 years in adenoma carriers, 58.5 in those having hyperplastic polyps, and 57.4 for suprafoveal hyperplasias. In 287 adenomas, 94.1% of carriers were over 40 years old. Out of 92 adenomas examined, 21.7% evidenced adenoma metaplasia and 72.8% evidenced metaplasia in adjacent areas. Only 5.5% had no metaplasia. In 105 hyperplastic polyps studied, intestinal metaplasia was found: 16.7% in the polyp and 60% in adjacent areas. No metaplasia was found in the remaining 23.3%. Average size of the adenomas was 14 mm and of hyperplastic polyps, 11 mm. A total of 195 adenomas were smaller than 10 mm. The percentage of malignization in 288 adenomas examined was closely related to their size: 214 (66%) smaller than 20 mm, had a malignization percentage of 7%; 74 (34%) larger than 20 mm, had 51% malignization, and 86.2% malignization was found in adenomas of over 40 mm. Global malignization percentage of adenomas was 18%. However, when adenomas with high grade dysplasia in the 4.1 category of the Viena classification (non-invasive high grade

  11. Management of sessile malignant polyps: is colonoscopic polypectomy enough?

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian-rui; Liang, Jennifer; Church, James M

    2015-10-01

    The role of endoscopy in the management of malignant-pedunculated polyps has been well studied, but endoscopic management of malignant sessile polyps has not. Sometimes patients with malignant sessile polyps have comorbidities that make surgery exceptionally risky, and endoscopy beckons as a definitive management option. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential role of endoscopy in the management of malignant sessile polyps. Patients undergoing colonoscopic polypectomy for malignant sessile polyps by a single endoscopist from 1997 to 2010 were evaluated. Demographic data, clinicopathological variables as well as long-term outcomes were recorded. Sixteen patients had malignant sessile polyps. Six (37.5 %) were male and 10 (62.5 %) were female. Mean age at diagnosis was 72.9 ± 12.2 years. Six polyps were proximal to the splenic flexure (37.5 %) and 10 (62.5 %) were distal. The mean size of the polyps was 30.5 ± 15.9 mm. All polyps were removed endoscopically but 7 patients (43.8 %) had formal colectomy following colonoscopic resection. There were no demographic differences between patients with and without surgery. Piecemeal polypectomy was necessary in 8 patients, 4 from the surgery group, and 4 from the endoscopy group. More patients in the surgery group had poorly differentiated cancers (4/6 vs. 0/6) and incomplete margins (5/6 vs. 1/6) and more patients in the endoscopically treated group had serious comorbidity (5/9 vs. 3/7). There was no procedure-related morbidity or mortality. After a mean follow-up of 48.4 ± 27.2 months, one patient from the polypectomy group patient had a local recurrence and a liver metastasis, after originally declining surgery. In the surgery group, one patient had lung metastasis. The two patients who recurred with distant metastasis died. Endoscopic management of sessile colorectal polyps appears to be feasible and safe in patients with well/moderately differentiated cancer and negative margins. Larger studies are needed

  12. Morphologic reappraisal of serrated colorectal polyps.

    PubMed

    Torlakovic, Emina; Skovlund, Eva; Snover, Dale C; Torlakovic, Goran; Nesland, Jahn M

    2003-01-01

    The "hyperplastic polyp" is considered a benign lesion with no malignant potential, whereas "serrated adenoma" is a precursor of adenocarcinoma. The morphologic complexity of the serrated adenoma varies from being clearly adenomatous to being difficult to distinguish from hyperplastic polyp, which creates a need for more detailed morphologic analysis of all serrated polyps. We evaluated 24 morphologic variables in 289 serrated polyps from the colon and rectum. Cluster analysis and discriminant analysis were performed. A subset of polyps was immunostained for hMLH1 and hMSH2. Major differences were found between right-sided and left-sided polyps. A distinct group of serrated polyps with abnormal proliferation was identified throughout the colon and rectum. These polyps demonstrated decreased expression of hMHL1 and hMSH2 compared with polyps with normal proliferation. Left-sided serrated polyps with normal proliferation further clustered into three groups: vesicular cell-type, goblet cell-type, and mucin-poor-type. We recommend evaluation of the localization, size, and morphologic features when serrated polyps are included in colorectal carcinogenesis research. Polyps with abnormal proliferation are similar to the polyps in "hyperplastic polyposis" and, because of their decreased expression of hMLH1 and hMSH2, may be the subset of polyps associated with the development of colorectal carcinoma via the microsatellite instability pathway.

  13. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery for colorectal polyps: experience of ten years

    PubMed Central

    Dulskas, Audrius; Kuliešius, Žygimantas; E. Samalavičius, Narimantas

    2017-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopy or its combination with endoscopy is the next step for “difficult” polyps. The purpose of the paper was to review the outcomes of the laparoscopic approach to the management of “difficult” colorectal polyps. Materials and methods. From 2006 to 2016, 58 patients who underwent laparoscopic treatment for “difficult” polyps that could not be treated by endoscopy at the National Cancer Institute, Lithuania, were included. The demographic data, the type of surgery, length of post-operative stay, complications, and final pathology were reviewed prospectively. Results. The mean patient was 65.9 ± 8.9 years of age. Laparoscopic mobilization of the colonic segment and colotomy with removal of the polyp was performed in 15 (25.9%) patients, laparoscopic segmental bowel resection in 41 (70.7%) cases: anterior rectal resection with partial total mesorectal excision in 18 (31.0%), sigmoid resection in nine (15.5%), left hemicolectomy in seven (12.1%), right hemicolectomies in two (3.4%), ileocecal resection in two (3.4%), resection of transverse colon in two (3.4%), and sigmoid resection with transanal retrieval of specimen in one (1.7%). Two patients (3.4%) underwent laparoscopic-assisted endoscopic polypectomy. The mean post-operative hospital stay was 5.7 ± 2.4 days. There were four complications (6.9%). All patients recovered after conservative treatment. The mean polyp size was 3.5 ± 1.9 cm. Final histopathology revealed hyperplastic polyps (n = 2), tubular adenoma (n = 9), tubulovillous adenoma (n = 31), carcinoma in situ (n = 12), and invasive cancer (n = 4). Conclusions. For the management of endoscopically unresectable polyps, laparoscopic surgery is currently the technique of choice. PMID:28630589

  14. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery for colorectal polyps: experience of ten years.

    PubMed

    Dulskas, Audrius; Kuliešius, Žygimantas; E Samalavičius, Narimantas

    2017-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopy or its combination with endoscopy is the next step for "difficult" polyps. The purpose of the paper was to review the outcomes of the laparoscopic approach to the management of "difficult" colorectal polyps. Materials and methods. From 2006 to 2016, 58 patients who underwent laparoscopic treatment for "difficult" polyps that could not be treated by endoscopy at the National Cancer Institute, Lithuania, were included. The demographic data, the type of surgery, length of post-operative stay, complications, and final pathology were reviewed prospectively. Results. The mean patient was 65.9 ± 8.9 years of age. Laparoscopic mobilization of the colonic segment and colotomy with removal of the polyp was performed in 15 (25.9%) patients, laparoscopic segmental bowel resection in 41 (70.7%) cases: anterior rectal resection with partial total mesorectal excision in 18 (31.0%), sigmoid resection in nine (15.5%), left hemicolectomy in seven (12.1%), right hemicolectomies in two (3.4%), ileocecal resection in two (3.4%), resection of transverse colon in two (3.4%), and sigmoid resection with transanal retrieval of specimen in one (1.7%). Two patients (3.4%) underwent laparoscopic-assisted endoscopic polypectomy. The mean post-operative hospital stay was 5.7 ± 2.4 days. There were four complications (6.9%). All patients recovered after conservative treatment. The mean polyp size was 3.5 ± 1.9 cm. Final histopathology revealed hyperplastic polyps (n = 2), tubular adenoma (n = 9), tubulovillous adenoma (n = 31), carcinoma in situ (n = 12), and invasive cancer (n = 4). Conclusions. For the management of endoscopically unresectable polyps, laparoscopic surgery is currently the technique of choice.

  15. [Surgical indications in gallbladder polyps].

    PubMed

    Morera-Ocón, Francisco José; Ballestín-Vicente, Javier; Calatayud-Blas, Ana María; de Tursi-Rispoli, Leonardo Cataldo; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    The surgery of gallbladder polyps is not well defined due to the lack of evidence-based clinical guidelines. To analyse the management of polyps in Spain, and a review of the literature and treatment standards. The reports on cholecystectomy with gallbladder polyps (GBP) were extracted from the Pathology data base. Patients subjected to surgery with a diagnosis of GBP were identified in the Surgery data base. A single list was prepared and a review was made of the clinical histories, including, age, gender, clinical data, ultrasound report, and histopathology report. A total of 30 patients, with a median age of 51 years (range 22-83), 21 of whom were female, were included. The ultrasound diagnosis was GBP in 19 patients, GBP and calculi in 7 cases, and calculi with no polyps in 4 cases. Other diagnoses concurrent with GBP were multiple haemangiomas (3), large single simple cyst (1), and multiple simple cysts (1). Eleven patients had typical pain (biliary origin), 5 of which showed no calculi on ultrasound. Eight had non-specific pain, which persisted in 3 cases after the cholecystectomy. Pseudopolyps were found in 20 gallbladders, and true polyps in 4 cases. In 3 cases, polyps were not found in the pathology study. The ultrasound report must specify the size, shape, and number of polyps. Patients with biliary type pain would benefit from a cholecystectomy. The probability of malignancy is minimum if the GBP is less than 10mm and aged under 50 years, and a cholecystectomy is not required. A GBP greater than 10mm should be an indication of cholecystectomy. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical analysis on argon plasma coagulation (APC) under painless colonoscopy for treatment of patients with colorectal polyp canceration.

    PubMed

    Sun, J-Y; Sun, D-J; Li, X-J; Jiao, K; Zhai, Z-W

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the clinical effects of argon plasma coagulation combined high frequency electric knife in treating patients with colorectal polyp canceration. 56 patients diagnosed with colorectal polyp canceration were divided into control group (n=23) and observation group (n=33). Patients in the control group were treated with high frequency electric band ligation electroexcision while patients in observation group were treated with argon coagulation combined high frequency electric knife therapy. The patients were followed up for 6 months and, then, compared for their clinical effects and prognosis. The average diameter of the polyp, the ratios of sessile and flat polyps in observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group with p<0.05. While the differences in the ratio of adenomatous polyp, middle and high differentiated as well as leafless polyps between the two groups had no statistical significance with p>0.05. Further, the differences in operation completion rate and polyp resection rate at one time in observation group was significantly higher than those of control group while operative complication rate and operation time was significantly lower than those in the control group with p<0.05. Also, the differences in recurrence in situ and recurrence time did not differ significantly between the two groups. Treating colorectal polyps by argon plasma coagulation combined high frequency electric knife could extend polyp resection indication, along with improvement in the operation effect and reduction of complications.

  17. Gallbladder Polyps: Can They Be Cancerous?

    MedlinePlus

    ... these polyps, your doctor may suggest follow-up examinations to look for changes that may be an indication of cancer. This can be done using standard abdominal ultrasound or endoscopic ultrasound. Gallbladder polyps larger ...

  18. Polyp Resection - Controversial Practices and Unanswered Questions.

    PubMed

    von Renteln, Daniel; Pohl, Heiko

    2017-03-09

    Detection and complete removal of precancerous neoplastic polyps are central to effective colorectal cancer screening. The prevalence of neoplastic polyps in the screening population in the United States is likely >50%. However, most persons with neoplastic polyps are never destined to develop cancer, and do not benefit for finding and removing polyps, and may only be harmed by the procedure. Further 70-80% of polyps are diminutive (≤5 mm) and such polyps almost never contain cancer. Given the questionable benefit, the high-cost and the potential risk changing our approach to the management of diminutive polyps is currently debated. Deemphasizing diminutive polyps and shifting our efforts to detection and complete removal of larger and higher-risk polyps deserves discussion and study. This article explores three controversies, and emerging concepts related to endoscopic polyp resection. First, we discuss challenges of optical resect-and-discard strategy and possible alternatives. Second, we review recent studies that support the use of cold snare resection for ≥5 mm polyps. Thirdly, we examine current evidence for prophylactic clipping after resection of large polyps.

  19. Giant Antrochoanal Polyp-A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Siddappa, Shruti Malavalli; Shivakumar, Andanooru Mahalingappa

    2017-01-01

    Antrochoanal polyp (ACP), also called as Killian polyp, is an infrequent, benign lesion of maxillary origin in non-atopic patients. The antrochoanal polyp is shaped according to the anatomical constraints of the lateral nasal wall, particularly the middle meatus and antrum, resembling typically a dumbbell. Here presenting a common problem with unusual presentation.

  20. Polyp oriented modelling of coral growth.

    PubMed

    Merks, Roeland M H; Hoekstra, Alfons G; Kaandorp, Jaap A; Sloot, Peter M A

    2004-06-21

    The morphogenesis of colonial stony corals is the result of the collective behaviour of many coral polyps depositing coral skeleton on top of the old skeleton on which they live. Yet, models of coral growth often consider the polyps as a single continuous surface. In the present work, the polyps are modelled individually. Each polyp takes up resources, deposits skeleton, buds off new polyps and dies. In this polyp oriented model, spontaneous branching occurs. We argue that branching is caused by a so called "polyp fanning effect" by which polyps on a convex surface have a competitive advantage relative to polyps on a flat or concave surface. The fanning effect generates a more potent branching mechanism than the Laplacian growth mechanism that we have studied previously. We discuss the application of the polyp oriented model to the study of environmentally driven morphological plasticity in stony corals. In a few examples we show how the properties of the individual polyps influence the whole colony morphology. In our model, the spacing of polyps influences the thickness of coral branches and the overall compactness of the colony. Density variations in the coral skeleton may also be important for the whole colony morphology, which we address by studying two variants of the model. Finally, we discuss the importance of small scale resource translocation in the coral colony and its effects on the morphology of the colony.

  1. [Neoplastic polyps of the colon].

    PubMed

    Gallo Reynoso, S; Candelaria Hernández, M G

    1992-01-01

    We report all patients with neoplastic polyps endoscopically excised during 10 years, performed in different hospitals in Mexico City. All ages, both sexes and socio-economic levels were seen in several endoscopy services both, public and private. We find 190 patients (100 females) with 268 polyps and a mean age of 54.5 (range 18-86). Tubulo-villous adenomas have the less frequency (8%). Villous adenomas were the largest and had a 11% frequency, almost all were confined to recto-sigmoid region its mean age was 6 years. Villous adenomas were the most frequent (69%) distributed in all colonic segments, its mean age was 54.5 years with the widest range (18-80 years); they have highest dysplasia rate (8.1%). Carcinomas arising in polyps were all located in recto-sigmoid region, with female predominance (2.3:1) and oldest mean age of presentation (66.3 years). Neoplastic polyps in Mexico City general population has a low frequency; endoscopic polypectomy is safe and had a low morbi-mortality rate.

  2. [Non-neoplastic polyps of the colon].

    PubMed

    Gallo Reynoso, S; Candelaria Hernández, M G

    1993-01-01

    Non-neoplastic colon polyps are benign lesions with normal histology components, we present our experience with colonoscopy polypectomy in 10 years. We resected 187 polyps in 96 patients (50 males) with medium age of 49.3 years and range 2-82. Most common indication was hemorrhage (37%) taking out the hyperplastic polyps who were found in asymptomatic patients with the highest frequency (41%). Juvenile polyps follows with 25%. 71% polyps were unique but hamaetomatous polyps of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome were multiple (39%). Juvenile (retention) polyps were found among the youngest patients (average 13.2 years) and frequently had hemorrhage (21-25). Lipomas were found in elder patients (range 52.5 years). We had no major complications with hemorrhage or mortality, minor complications were found in 3.09%.

  3. Molecular characteristics of colorectal serrated polyps and hyperplastic polyps

    PubMed Central

    Sambuudash, Otgontuya; Kim, Hee Man; Jo, Hannah; Kim, Hyun Sik; Lee, Kyong Joo; Park, Hong Jun; Kim, Jae Woo; Cho, Mee Yon; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The serrated neoplasia pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis is characterized by BRAF mutation and aberrant DNA methylation, which have not been reported on Korean patients. The aim of this study was to investigate BRAF mutation and DNA methylation in colorectal serrated polyps and the right colon. Between 2005 and 2013, 146 colon polyps (47 tubular adenomas [TAs], 53 traditional serrated adenomas [TSAs], 17 sessile serrated adenomas/polyps [SSAs], and 29 hyperplastic polyps in the proximal colon [PHPs]) were collected from patients. Paraffin-embedded colon polyp tissue was used for DNA extraction. BRAF V600E mutation was identified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing assay. The methylation status of the long interspersed nucleotide element-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), mutL homolog 1 (hMLH1), and CD133 genes were evaluated through disulfite conversion, PCR, and pyrosequencing assay. BRAF V600E mutation was found in 2.1% of TAs, 47.2% of TSAs, 41.2% of SSAs, and 20.7% of PHPs. TSA and SSA had higher BRAF mutation rates than did TA (P < 0.0001). TSA had higher BRAF mutation rates than did PHP (P = 0.018). IGFBP7 hypermethylation was found in 17% of TAs, 37.7% of TSAs, 88.2% of SSAs, and 37.5% of PHPs. TSA and SSA had higher hypermethylation of IGFBP7 than did TA (P = 0.021 and P < 0.0001, respectively). SSA had higher hypermethylation of IGFBP7 than did PHP (P = 0.002). hMLH1 hypermethylation was found in 2.1% of TAs, 5.7% of TSAs, 0% of SSAs, and 0% of PHPs. CD133 hypermethylation was found in 21.3% of TAs, 9.4% of TSAs, 35.3% of SSAs, and 17.4% of PHPs. BRAF mutation and methylation in TSA and SSA are different from those in PHP in Koreans. These findings suggested that PHP may have different molecular characteristics compared with other serrated polyps. PMID:27930579

  4. Laser therapy vs. routine surgical therapy in the treatment of nasal polyps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baoquan

    1993-03-01

    We treated 102 cases of polyps of the nasal cavity and nasal sinuses with Nd:YAG laser surgery or routine surgical removal between January 1987 and August 1988. During a follow up period of 18 - 36 months, the postoperative recurrent rates were 40.6% (24/54) and 66.6% (32/48), respectively, for the laser surgery group and the routine surgical removal group. Laser therapy of nasal polyps has the advantage of less bleeding, no postoperative packing of the nose needed, and lower postoperative recurrence rates. It seems laser surgery may be better than surgical removal alone in the treatment of nasal polyps.

  5. Gallbladder polyps: factors affecting surgical decision.

    PubMed

    Sarkut, Pinar; Kilicturgay, Sadik; Ozer, Ali; Ozturk, Ersin; Yilmazlar, Tuncay

    2013-07-28

    To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG) in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP). Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age of the patients (older or younger than 50 years old) and polyp size (bigger or smaller than 10 mm) and characteristics of the polyps (pseudopolyp or real polyps). χ(2) tests were used for the statistical evaluation of the data. The median age was 50 (26-85) years and 91 of patients were female. Of 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy with GP diagnosis, only 99 had a histopathologically defined polyp; 77 of them had pseudopolyps and 22 had true polyps. Twenty-one patients had adenocarcinoma. Of these 21 patients, 11 were male, their median age was 61 (40-85) years and all malignant polyps had diameters > 10 mm (P < 0.0001). Of 138 patients in whom surgery were performed, 112 had ultrasonographic polyps with diameters < 10 mm. Of the other 26 patients who also had polyps with diameters > 10 mm, 22 had true polyps. The sensitivity of USG was 84.6% for polyps with diameters > 10 mm (P < 0.0001); however it was only 66% in polyps with diameters < 10 mm. The risk of malignancy was high in the patients over 50 years old who had single polyps with diameters > 10 mm.

  6. Gallbladder polyps: Factors affecting surgical decision

    PubMed Central

    Sarkut, Pinar; Kilicturgay, Sadik; Ozer, Ali; Ozturk, Ersin; Yilmazlar, Tuncay

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG) in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP). METHODS: Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age of the patients (older or younger than 50 years old) and polyp size (bigger or smaller than 10 mm) and characteristics of the polyps (pseudopolyp or real polyps). χ2 tests were used for the statistical evaluation of the data. RESULTS: The median age was 50 (26-85) years and 91 of patients were female. Of 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy with GP diagnosis, only 99 had a histopathologically defined polyp; 77 of them had pseudopolyps and 22 had true polyps. Twenty-one patients had adenocarcinoma. Of these 21 patients, 11 were male, their median age was 61 (40-85) years and all malignant polyps had diameters > 10 mm (P < 0.0001). Of 138 patients in whom surgery were performed, 112 had ultrasonographic polyps with diameters < 10 mm. Of the other 26 patients who also had polyps with diameters > 10 mm, 22 had true polyps. The sensitivity of USG was 84.6% for polyps with diameters > 10 mm (P < 0.0001); however it was only 66% in polyps with diameters < 10 mm. CONCLUSION: The risk of malignancy was high in the patients over 50 years old who had single polyps with diameters > 10 mm. PMID:23901228

  7. A phase Ib study of the effects of black raspberries on rectal polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Shu; Burke, Carol A; Hasson, Henrietta; Kuo, Chieh-Ti; Molmenti, Christine L Sardo; Seguin, Claire; Liu, Pengyuan; Huang, Tim H-M; Frankel, Wendy L; Stoner, Gary D

    2014-07-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterized by the early onset of colonic polyposis and a high risk for colorectal cancer. FAP is treated by colectomy followed by lifelong removal of rectal polyps. This study determined whether black raspberries (BRBs) might regress rectal polyps in patients with FAP. Fourteen patients with FAP were treated with BRBs daily for 9 months. Seven patients received BRB powder orally plus two BRB suppositories inserted into the rectum at bedtime. The other 7 received an oral placebo plus the suppositories. Rectal polyp counts and polyp sizes were obtained at time zero and after 9 months of BRB treatment. Polyps and adjacent normal tissue were collected at both time points. The burden (P = 0.036) but not number (P = 0.069) of rectal polyps was significantly decreased. No benefit was noted with the addition of oral BRBs. Three patients were nonresponders. BRBs significantly decreased cellular proliferation, DNA methylation methyl transferase 1 protein expression, and p16 promoter methylation, but not promoter methylation of the Wnt pathway antagonists, SFRP2 and WIF1, in rectal polyps (adenomas) from responders but not from nonresponders. The MBD-seq assay revealed more demethylated transcription start sites (TSS), including those for miRNAs, in BRB-treated adenomas from the responders. In conclusion, BRB suppositories seem sufficient for regressing rectal polyps in patients with FAP. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. A new exploration for gallbladder polyps: gallbladder polypectomy by endolap technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, JingMin; Tan, YuYan; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Dong; Ji, ZhenLing

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Gallbladder polyps are most commonly treated with cholecystectomy, which is associated with various complications. For benign disease, preserving the gallbladder is preferable. Since 1994, we have been exploring percutaneous polypectomy and have recently developed an improved new technique. This study reports a new endoscopic-laparoscopic (Endolap) technique for the removal of polyps and the preservation of the gallbladder. Nine Chinese mini-pigs were used to observe mucosal regeneration. Microwaves of 50-70 mA for 9 seconds were safe, and the gallbladder mucosa of pigs recovered to nearly normal 2 weeks later. In the clinical cases, 60 patients with gallbladder polyps were studied. With the patient under general anesthesia, each polyp stem was coagulated, and then the polyp was removed. All procedures were successful at between 60 and 135 minutes. The success rate was 93.33% (56/60). A retrospective analysis was conducted to assess the recovery of gallbladder function. All patients were followed up and symptom-free, without recurrence of the polyps; 3 months after the operation, the volume and contraction of the gallbladder recovered to preoperative levels. Thus the Endolap technique is reliable for removing benign gallbladder polyps and is applicable to a wider range of clinical situations than percutaneous polypectomy.

  9. Increased ILC2s in the eosinophilic nasal polyp endotype are associated with corticosteroid responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Walford, Hannah H.; Lund, Sean J.; Baum, Rachel E.; White, Andrew A.; Bergeron, Christopher M.; Husseman, Jacob; Bethel, Kelly J.; Scott, David R.; Khorram, Naseem; Miller, Marina; Broide, David H.; Doherty, Taylor A.

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have recently been identified in human nasal polyps, but whether numbers of ILC2s differ by polyp endotype or are influenced by corticosteroid use is unknown. Here, we show that eosinophilic nasal polyps contained double the number of ILC2s vs. non-eosinophilic polyps. Polyp ILC2s were also reduced by 50% in patients treated with systemic corticosteroids. Further, using a fungal allergen challenge mouse model, we detected greatly reduced Th2 cytokine-producing and Ki-67+ proliferating lung ILC2s in mice receiving dexamethasone. Finally, ILC2 Annexin V staining revealed extensive apoptosis after corticosteroid treatment in vivo and in vitro. Thus, ILC2s are elevated in the eosinophilic nasal polyp endotype and systemic corticosteroid treatment correlated with reduced polyp ILC2s. Finally, allergen-challenged mice showed reduced ILC2s and increased ILC2 apoptosis after corticosteroid treatment suggesting that ILC2 may be responsive to corticosteroids in eosinophilic respiratory disease. PMID:25236785

  10. Metamorphosis and acquisition of symbiotic algae in planula larvae and primary polyps of Acropora spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Nonaka, M.

    2008-06-01

    Coral planulae settle, then metamorphose and form polyps. This study examined the morphological process of metamorphosis from planulae into primary polyps in the scleractinian corals Acropora nobilis and Acropora microphthalma, using the cnidarian neuropeptide Hym-248 . These two species release eggs that do not contain Symbiodinium. The mode of acquisition of freshly isolated Symbiodinium (zooxanthellae) (FIZ) by the non-symbiotic polyp was also examined. Non-Hym-248 treated swimming Acropora planulae did not develop blastopore, mesenteries or coelenteron until the induction of metamorphosis 16 days after fertilization. The oral pore was formed by invagination of the epidermal layer after formation of the coelenteron in metamorphosing polyps. At 3 days after settlement and metamorphosis, primary polyps exposed to FIZ established symbioses with the Symbiodinium. Two-four days after exposure to FIZ, the distribution of Symbiodinium was limited to the gastrodermis of the pharynx and basal part of the polyps. Eight-ten days after exposure to FIZ, Symbiodinium were present in gastrodermal cells throughout the polyps.

  11. Juvenile polyp and colonoscopic polypectomy in childhood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Gee; Shin, Sung Hyun; Lee, Young Ah; Wi, Joo Hee; Lee, Yeoun Joo; Park, Jae Hong

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the clinical features of juvenile polyp and the usefulness of polypectomy with entire colonoscopy in children. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 83 children who were diagnosed with having juvenile polyps. The mean age of the patients was 6.5±3.7 (range 1.3-14.5 years) years. The male to female ratio was 2.1: 1. Eighty one patients (97.6%) had hematochezia, of which the observed characteristics included red stool (74.1%), blood on wipe (13.6%). The time interval between the 1st episode of hematochezia and colonoscopy was 8.9±20.4 (ranged 0.1-48.0) months. The most proximal regions of colonoscopic approach were terminal ileum (96.4%). Sixty three patients (75.9%) had a solitary polyp and 20 patients (24.1%) had multiple polyps. The sites of the polyps were rectum (61.4%), sigmoid colon (23.5%). Eighteen polyps (15.1%) were found more proximal locations than rectosigmoid. The polyp size ranged from 0.3 to 5 cm. After the polypectomy, hematochezia recurred in 9 patients. Endoscopic hemostasis was performed in 2 patients due to severe bleeding. All procedures were carried out without using general anesthesia. Juvenile polyp occurred in a wide range locations and had variable sizes and numbers, suggesting that colonoscopy on the entire colon is necessary. Colonoscopic polypectomy is a simple and useful therapeutic method in children with juvenile polyp.

  12. Endometrial polyps in 2 African pygmy hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Irene D; Taylor, Jacqueline J; Allen, Andrew L

    2005-06-01

    Reports of spontaneously occurring endometrial polyps in animals are rare and have only involved a few species. This report is intended to advise veterinarians that older African pygmy hedgehogs may develop endometrial polyps and that these lesions can be a cause of bloody vaginal discharge, sometimes interpreted as hematuria.

  13. Polyps in continent catheterizable bladder channels.

    PubMed

    Groth, Travis W; Mitchell, Michael E; Balcom, Anthony H

    2013-02-01

    We describe our experience with polyps encountered in bladder continent catheterizable channels. An IRB-approved retrospective study was conducted on all patients at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin with continent catheterizable channels managed by a single physician over a 16-year time period. Fifty-five patients were identified with bladder channels. During a median follow-up of 7 years (range 3-16 years), 20% (11/55) of bladder channels developed polyps. The time to diagnosis of a polyp in bladder channels from initial surgery ranged from 3 months to 8 years (median of 29 months). Fifty-five percent (6/11) of patients who developed bladder polyps were symptomatic. All patients' symptoms resolved after treatment by endoscopic resection. Forty-five percent (5/11) of polyps recurred after resection. The time of recurrence ranged from 4 months to 7 years (median of 19 months). Polyps were universally benign inflammatory granulomatous tissue. This is the first series reporting the incidence of polyps in bladder catheterizable channels. Patients with continent catheterizable bladder channels can develop symptomatic polyps in their channels, of unknown long-term significance and risk. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Endometrial polyps in 2 African pygmy hedgehogs

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Reports of spontaneously occurring endometrial polyps in animals are rare and have only involved a few species. This report is intended to advise veterinarians that older African pygmy hedgehogs may develop endometrial polyps and that these lesions can be a cause of bloody vaginal discharge, sometimes interpreted as hematuria. PMID:16048013

  15. Diagnosis and Management of Gallbladder Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Andrén-Sandberg, Åke

    2012-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a rather uncommon disease, when it gives symptoms it has usually reached an incurable stage. Therefore, every attempt must be made to find the asymptomatic stages and look for premalignant gallbladder polyps. Even if gallbladder cancer is a rare disease, gallbladder polyps are common, only a few polyps develop to cancer. This makes gallbladder polyps another problem: which are the polyps that must be surgically removed, which shall be followed-up, or for how long? The author used the keyword “gallbladder polypsn” in PubMed and reviewed the scientific literatures published from January 2000 to December 2011. The present review article has summarized almost all respects of gallbladder polyp, including the risk factors, clinical diagnosis and management, and comments made from the author, in which clinical treatments are recommended. It is author's purpose that the 11-year-knowledge about gallbladder polyps summarized from all worlds’ literatures is enough to know how clinicians will handle the next patient with gallbladder polyp. PMID:22655278

  16. Managing difficult polyps: techniques and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Tholoor, Shareef; Tsagkournis, Orestis; Basford, Peter; Bhandari, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    There is no standardized definition of difficult polyps. However, polyps become difficult and challenging to remove endoscopically when they are large in size, flat in nature, situated in a high-risk location and when access to them is very awkward. Recently, an SMSA (Size, Morphology, Site, Access) classification has been proposed that helps to qualify the degree of difficulty by scoring on the above parameters. This article reviews the features that make polyps difficult to remove and provides some practical tips in managing these difficult polyps. We believe that ‘difficult polyp’ is a relative term and each endoscopist should define their own level of difficulty and what they would be able to handle safely. However, in expert trained hands, most difficult polyps can be safely removed by an endoscopic approach. PMID:24714799

  17. Frequent co-occurrence of high-grade dysplasia in large flat colonic polyps (>20 mm) and synchronous polyps.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Tianzuo; Hahn, Felix; Hielscher, Thomas; Betge, Johannes; Kähler, Georg; Ebert, Matthias P; Belle, Sebastian

    2015-07-10

    Large colonic polyps are associated with advanced dysplasia, but prevalence and characteristics of synchronous polyps in patients with large flat colonic polyps are poorly investigated. This study aims to characterize clinicopathological features of large flat colonic polyps and their impact on occurrence and characteristics of synchronous polyps. A total of 802 patients that underwent endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of flat colonic polyps >20 mm from 2003 to 2014 in an academic endoscopy unit were retrospectively analyzed for size, location and histology of large polyps and synchronous polyps. Average size of large polyps was 34.1 mm (range 20-150 mm, standard deviation 16.1 mm). Histology included 52.5 % adenomas with low-grade dysplasia (LGD), 26.7 % with high-grade dysplasia (HGD), 9.6 % serrated polyps and 11.2 % adenocarcinomas. The majority of large polyps were localized in the proximal colon (61 %). 72.2 % of adenocarcinomas were found in the distal colon, while 80.5 % of all serrated polyps were detected in the proximal colon. Increase in polyp size, advanced age and location in the distal colon were associated with presence of HGD/adenocarcinoma in large polyps, as identified by multivariate analysis. Synchronous polyps were detected in 67.2 % of patients undergoing complete colonoscopy during EMR. Presence of HGD/adenocarcinoma in the large polyp, localization of any synchronous polyp in the rectosigmoid colon and occurrence of multiple synchronous polyps were associated with presence of HGD/adenocarcinoma in synchronous polyps. Synchronous polyps are frequently found in patients with large flat colonic polyps. The prevalence of synchronous polyps with high grade dysplasia is highest in patients with large flat polyps containing HGD/adenocarcinoma.

  18. Computed tomographic features of feline nasopharyngeal polyps.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cintia R; O'Brien, Robert T; Matheson, Jodi S; Carrera, Inés

    2012-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) findings of histopathologically confirmed nasopharyngeal polyps are described in 13 cats. Most polyps were mildly hypoattenuating to adjacent muscles and isoattenuating to soft-tissue (n= 13), homogeneous (n = 12) and with ill-defined borders (n = 10) on precontrast images. After contrast medium administration, the polyps were homogeneous (n = 11), with well-defined borders (n = 13), oval (n = 13), and had rim enhancement (n = 13). Nasopharyngeal polyps were pedunculated in 11 cats with a stalk-like structure connecting the polyp through the auditory tube to an affected tympanic bulla. All cats had at least one tympanic bulla severely affected, with CT images identifying: (1) complete (n = 12) or partial (n = 1) obliteration of either the dorsal or ventral compartments with soft-tissue attenuating material; (2) pathologic expansion (n = 13) with wall thickening (n = 10) that was asymmetric in nine cats; and (3) identification of a polyp-associated stalk-like structure (n = 11). Nine cats had unilateral tympanic bulla disease ipsilateral to the polyp, and four cats had bilateral tympanic bulla disease, most severe ipsilateral to the polyp with milder contralateral pathologic changes. Two cats had minimal osteolysis of the tympanic bulla. Enlargement of the medial retropharyngeal lymph node was seen commonly (n = 8), and in all cats it was ipsilateral to the most affected tympanic bulla. One cat had bilateral lymphadenopathy. CT is an excellent imaging tool for the supportive diagnosis of nasopharyngeal polyps in cats. CT findings of a well-defined mass with strong rim enhancement, mass-associated stalk-like structure, and asymmetric tympanic bulla wall thickening with pathologic expansion of the tympanic bullae are highly indicative of an inflammatory polyp.

  19. Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Whitney W.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Kern, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is an important clinical entity diagnosed by the presence of both subjective and objective evidence of chronic sinonasal inflammation. Symptoms include anterior or posterior rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, hyposmia and/or facial pressure or pain that last for greater than 12 weeks duration. Nasal polyps are inflammatory lesions that project into the nasal airway, are typically bilateral, and originate from the ethmoid sinus. Males are more likely to be affected than females but no specific genetic or environmental factors have been strongly linked to the development of this disorder to date. CRSwNP is frequently associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis but the cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the clinical symptoms are not fully understood. Defects in the sinonasal epithelial cell barrier, increased exposure to pathogenic and colonized bacteria, and dysregulation of the host immune system are all thought to play prominent roles in disease pathogenesis. Additional studies are needed to further explore the clinical and pathophysiological features of CRSwNP so that biomarkers can be identified and novel advances can be made to improve the treatment and management of this disease. PMID:27393770

  20. Chronic Rhinosinusitis without Nasal Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seong H; Kim, Dae Woo; Gevaert, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) is more prevalent than chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Certain diseases predispose to whereas others are associated with CRSsNP. Predisposing diseases include allergic and non-allergic upper and lower airway diseases, epithelial cell disorders, immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and some infectious diseases. Additionally, environmental and host factors, examples of which include smoking, a higher incidence of abnormal biofilms, and innate immune defects play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. CRSsNP is characterized by histologic abnormalities, including basement membrane thickening (fibrosis) and goblet cell hyperplasia. Neutrophils and several chemokines, TGF-β and CXCL-8, play a role in CRSsNP remodeling. However, there are conflicting data about CRSsNP endotypes, e.g., whether it is characterized by neutrophilia or eosinophilia or both. In spite of advancements and the understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease, additional study is necessary to better comprehend its underlying mechanisms, endotypes, and evidence based treatment strategies. PMID:27393771

  1. Treatment of Hemorrhagic Vocal Polyps by Pulsed Dye Laser-Assisted Laryngomicrosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Hyung Kwon; Han, Ji Hyuk; Choi, Byeong Il; Hwang, Hye Jin; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Hong-Shik

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Conventional surgical techniques of laryngomicrosurgery (LMS) on hemorrhagic vocal polyps are often difficult due to obscuration of the surgical field by inadvertent bleeding from the lesion, and there are often significant amounts of mucosal epithelium loss. Here, we introduce our surgical technique using pulsed dye laser (PDL), which can effectively resect the polyp with vocal fold mucosa preservation. Methods. Patients who were diagnosed with hemorrhagic vocal polyp and who were surgically managed using PDL from March 2013 to October 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative and postoperative clinical outcomes and surgical findings were evaluated. Results. A total of 39 patients were treated with PDL-assisted enucleation LMS. The average age was 43.7 years (range 20–73), and there were 20 males and 19 females (17 professional voice users). In all cases, the hemorrhagic polyp was successfully enucleated after application of PDL, thereby preserving the overlying epithelium. Postoperative voice outcomes were favorable with clear preservation of the vocal fold mucosal wave. Conclusion. PDL-assisted enucleation LMS for the treatment of hemorrhagic vocal polyps can be a safe and effective surgical technique. It can be considered a promising treatment option for hemorrhagic vocal polyps. PMID:26557700

  2. Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps, should they be removed during anal fissure surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pravin J.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps are not given due importance in the proctology practice. They are mostly ignored being considered as normal structures. The present study was aimed to demonstrate that hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps could cause symptoms to the patients and that they should be removed in treatment of patients with chronic fissure in anus. METHODS: Two groups of patients were studied. A hundred patients were studied in group A in which the associated fibrous polyp or papillae were removed by radio frequency surgical device after a lateral subcutaneous sphincterotomy for relieving the sphincter spasm. Another group of a hundred patients who also had papillae or fibrous polyps, were treated by lateral sphincterotomy alone. They were followed up for one year. RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent patients from group A expressed their satisfaction with the treatment in comparison to only 64% from group B who underwent sphincterotomy alone with the papillae or anal polyps left untreated. Group A patients showed a marked reduction with regard to pain and irritation during defecation (P = 0.0011), pricking or foreign body sensation in the anus (P = 0.0006) and pruritus or wetness around the anal verge (P = 0.0008). CONCLUSION: Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps should be removed during treatment of chronic anal fissure. This would add to effectiveness and completeness of the procedure. PMID:15285031

  3. Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps, should they be removed during anal fissure surgery?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pravin-J

    2004-08-15

    Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps are not given due importance in the proctology practice. They are mostly ignored being considered as normal structures. The present study was aimed to demonstrate that hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps could cause symptoms to the patients and that they should be removed in treatment of patients with chronic fissure in anus. Two groups of patients were studied. A hundred patients were studied in group A in which the associated fibrous polyp or papillae were removed by radio frequency surgical device after a lateral subcutaneous sphincterotomy for relieving the sphincter spasm. Another group of a hundred patients who also had papillae or fibrous polyps, were treated by lateral sphincterotomy alone. They were followed up for one year. Eighty-nine percent patients from group A expressed their satisfaction with the treatment in comparison to only 64% from group B who underwent sphincterotomy alone with the papillae or anal polyps left untreated. Group A patients showed a marked reduction with regard to pain and irritation during defecation (P = 0.0011), pricking or foreign body sensation in the anus (P = 0.0006) and pruritus or wetness around the anal verge (P = 0.0008). Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps should be removed during treatment of chronic anal fissure. This would add to effectiveness and completeness of the procedure.

  4. Symptomatic colonic polyps in childhood: not so benign.

    PubMed

    Hoffenberg, E J; Sauaia, A; Maltzman, T; Knoll, K; Ahnen, D J

    1999-02-01

    The clinical spectrum of symptomatic polyps and the frequency of familial polyposis is not well defined in children. In the present study, a series of children with juvenile polyposis coli (JPC) and non-JPC polyps were studied. Children with symptomatic colonic polyps and negative family history of polyps were ascertained by review of endoscopic records. Juvenile polyposis coli was defined as 10 or more juvenile polyps or any juvenile polyp in a relative of an index case of JPC. Polyps were tested for Ki-ras mutations, p53 overexpression, and aneuploidy. Seventy-eight children (age range, 0.4-18 years) were identified, all evaluated for lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Nine (12%) had JPC, 66 (84%) had isolated juvenile polyps, and 3 (4%) had other types of polyps. The JPC and non-JPC groups were similar in age (p = 0.4) and symptom duration (p = 0.3). The JPC group had more polyps (p = 0.0001), and greater likelihood of anemia (p = 0.01), polyps with adenomatous change (p = 0.03), and right-colon polyps (p = 0.001). In three of eight JPC families, polyps were identified in asymptomatic first-degree relatives. No abnormalities in Ki-ras, p53, or aneuploidy were identified. Juvenile polyposis coli is common in children with symptomatic polyps, and is associated with anemia, right-colon polyps, and adenomas. The risk of polyps and of colorectal cancer in relatives of persons with JPC requires further study.

  5. Effect of voice training in the voice rehabilitation of patients with vocal cord polyps after surgery

    PubMed Central

    LIN, LI; SUN, NA; YANG, QIUHUA; ZHANG, YA; SHEN, JI; SHI, LIXIN; FANG, QIN; SUN, GUANGBIN

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of voice training on the vocal rehabilitation of patients with vocal cords polyps following phonomicrosurgery. A total of 60 cases of vocal cord polyps treated by laser phonomicrosurgery were randomly divided into training and control groups with 30 cases in each group. The patients were treated with laser phonomicrosurgery, routine postoperative treatment and nursing. The training group were additionally treated with vocal training, including relaxation training, breathing training, basic pronunciation training, chewing voice training and tone sandhi pronunciation training, and attention was paid to the training steps. Subjective and objective voice evaluations of the two groups were compared three months after the surgery and the differences between groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Voice training may significantly improve the postoperative voice quality of patients with vocal cord polyps and support rehabilitation. PMID:24669244

  6. Treatment of colonic polyps--practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Cohen, L B; Waye, J D

    1986-04-01

    The adenomatous colonic polyp, a neoplastic lesion, is the precursor of most if not all carcinomas of the colon and rectum. Confirmatory evidence is derived from epidemiological, histological and clinical data demonstrating a close parallelism between adenomas and cancer of the colon. Based on current knowledge, all colonic polyps should be removed to prevent the development of colonic cancer. However, since the risk of malignancy within an adenoma is related to its size, histology and the degree of dysplasia, practical considerations dictate that all polyps 1 cm in diameter or larger should be removed upon their detection by barium enema or colonoscopy since such adenomas are the ones most likely to contain malignancy. The endoscopic removal of colon polyps can be efficiently and safely accomplished when established principles of colonoscopy and electrosurgery are followed. This technique requires the proper equipment, a skilled endoscopy assistant, and an experienced endoscopist with the ability to adeptly perform colonoscopy, an understanding of the basic concepts of electrocautery and knowledge of the various structural configurations of colonic polyps. Colonoscopic polypectomy will avoid the need for surgical resection in most instances. Management of the malignant colonic polyp remains controversial. The patient with a sessile or pseudo-pedunculated polyp containing invasive cancer should undergo colonic resection. Surgery is not necessary for the majority of patients whose pedunculated adenomas contain invasive cancer, unless the malignancy is poorly differentiated, the cancer invades lymphatics or vascular channels, or tumour is seen at or near the resection margin. Surveillance colonoscopy after endoscopic polypectomy should be performed in most instances within one year to look for recurrent tumour, missed polyps or a metachronous adenoma. Subsequently, colonoscopy should be performed every two years in patients with multiple index polyps, and every three

  7. Automatic polyp detection in colonoscopy videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zijie; IzadyYazdanabadi, Mohammadhassan; Mokkapati, Divya; Panvalkar, Rujuta; Shin, Jae Y.; Tajbakhsh, Nima; Gurudu, Suryakanth; Liang, Jianming

    2017-02-01

    Colon cancer is the second cancer killer in the US [1]. Colonoscopy is the primary method for screening and prevention of colon cancer, but during colonoscopy, a significant number (25% [2]) of polyps (precancerous abnormal growths inside of the colon) are missed; therefore, the goal of our research is to reduce the polyp miss-rate of colonoscopy. This paper presents a method to detect polyp automatically in a colonoscopy video. Our system has two stages: Candidate generation and candidate classification. In candidate generation (stage 1), we chose 3,463 frames (including 1,718 with-polyp frames) from real-time colonoscopy video database. We first applied processing procedures, namely intensity adjustment, edge detection and morphology operations, as pre-preparation. We extracted each connected component (edge contour) as one candidate patch from the pre-processed image. With the help of ground truth (GT) images, 2 constraints were implemented on each candidate patch, dividing and saving them into polyp group and non-polyp group. In candidate classification (stage 2), we trained and tested convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with AlexNet architecture [3] to classify each candidate into with-polyp or non-polyp class. Each with-polyp patch was processed by rotation, translation and scaling for invariant to get a much robust CNNs system. We applied leave-2-patients-out cross-validation on this model (4 of 6 cases were chosen as training set and the rest 2 were as testing set). The system accuracy and sensitivity are 91.47% and 91.76%, respectively.

  8. Cholesterol polyps in the distal common bile duct: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rui; Zhao, Wen-ping; Zhang, Yan-ning; Tong, Xuan; Zeng, Jian-ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Cholesterol polyps are rare in the common bile duct and difficult to diagnose. Patient concerns: The small polypoid lesions often go undetected when using routine imaging methods, such as ultrasonography. Diagnoses: We treated a patient with cholesterol polyps in the common bile duct. After failing to detect choleliths using ultrasonography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed mild dilation of the common bile duct. Choledochoscopy was performed during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which revealed yellowish-white polyps circumferentially distributed across the luminal surface of the distal common bile duct. Histological examination of biopsy specimens indicated cholesterol polyps with characteristic foamy cells. Interventions: The patient was treated with ursodeoxycholic acid, and the number of polyps was found to have been reduced at the 6-week follow-up based on T-tube choledochoscopic examination. Outcomes: Recovery was unremarkable, and the ursodeoxycholic acid treatment was discontinued at the 6-month follow-up. Lessons subsections: Our findings suggest that this rare condition can be treated pharmacologically to avoid potential postsurgical complications following resection of the distal common bile duct. PMID:27828866

  9. Cholesterol polyps in the distal common bile duct: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rui; Zhao, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Yan-Ning; Tong, Xuan; Zeng, Jian-Ping

    2016-11-01

    Cholesterol polyps are rare in the common bile duct and difficult to diagnose. The small polypoid lesions often go undetected when using routine imaging methods, such as ultrasonography. We treated a patient with cholesterol polyps in the common bile duct. After failing to detect choleliths using ultrasonography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed mild dilation of the common bile duct. Choledochoscopy was performed during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which revealed yellowish-white polyps circumferentially distributed across the luminal surface of the distal common bile duct. Histological examination of biopsy specimens indicated cholesterol polyps with characteristic foamy cells. The patient was treated with ursodeoxycholic acid, and the number of polyps was found to have been reduced at the 6-week follow-up based on T-tube choledochoscopic examination. Recovery was unremarkable, and the ursodeoxycholic acid treatment was discontinued at the 6-month follow-up. Our findings suggest that this rare condition can be treated pharmacologically to avoid potential postsurgical complications following resection of the distal common bile duct.

  10. Polyp on ultrasound: now what? The association between gallbladder polyps and cancer.

    PubMed

    Donald, Graham; Sunjaya, Dharma; Donahue, Timothy; Hines, O Joe

    2013-10-01

    The association between gallbladder polyps (GBP) and gallbladder cancer (GBC) is unclear. We sought to determine the association between preoperative diagnosis of GBP on imaging and GBC. A retrospective review of patients over 9 years was conducted using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes for GBP and GBC who underwent cholecystectomy at our institution. Demographics, imaging findings, and pathology results were recorded. A total of 2416 patients underwent cholecystectomy during the study period. Twenty-seven had an operation for GBP either as a result of concern for size or symptoms. Polyp sizes were categorized as less than 1 cm, 1 to 2 cm, or 2 cm or greater. Twenty-four patients in this group (88.9%) had no evidence of high-grade dysplasia or cancer and all of these benign polyps were 2 cm or less on imaging. One patient with a 2.4-cm polyp had high-grade dysplasia, and two patients with polyps over 3 cm had adenocarcinoma. During the same period, 20 patients had an operation for GBC with two patients common to the polyp group. The group of patients with noncancerous polyps was significantly younger than the cancer group (polyps and no polyps). The cancer group was more likely to be symptomatic. Therefore, polyps over 2 cm should be removed given the risk of high-grade dysplasia and cancer above this size. Polyps less than 2 cm were not associated with high-grade dysplasia or cancer and thus surgery may not be required. Intermediate- and small-sized polyps can be monitored with serial ultrasound, especially in younger, asymptomatic patients in whom the risk of malignancy is low.

  11. Miss rate of colorectal neoplastic polyps and risk factors for missed polyps in consecutive colonoscopies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Hee; Jung, Yoon Suk; Jeong, Woo Shin; Yang, Hyo-Joon; Park, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Kyuyong; Park, Dong Il

    2017-07-01

    Colonoscopic polypectomy is the best diagnostic and therapeutic tool to detect and prevent colorectal neoplasms. However, previous studies have reported that 17% to 28% of colorectal polyps are missed during colonoscopy. We investigated the miss rate of neoplastic polyps and the factors associated with missed polyps from quality-adjusted consecutive colonoscopies. We reviewed the medical records of patients who were found to have colorectal polyps at a medical examination center of the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital between March 2012 and February 2013. Patients who were referred to a single tertiary academic medical center and underwent colonoscopic polypectomy on the same day were enrolled in our study. The odds ratios (ORs) associated with polyp-related and patient-related factors were evaluated using logistic regression analyses. A total of 463 patients and 1,294 neoplastic polyps were analyzed. The miss rates for adenomas, advanced adenomas, and carcinomas were 24.1% (312/1,294), 1.2% (15/1,294), and 0% (0/1,294), respectively. Flat/sessile-shaped adenomas (adjusted OR, 3.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.40-5.46) and smaller adenomas (adjusted OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 2.84- 11.15 for ≤5 mm; adjusted OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.60-6.30 for 6-9 mm, respectively) were more frequently missed than pedunculated/sub-pedunculated adenomas and larger adenomas. In patients with 2 or more polyps compared with only one detected (adjusted OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.55-3.61 for 2-4 polyps; adjusted OR, 11.52; 95% CI, 4.61-28.79 for ≥5 polyps, respectively) during the first endoscopy, the risk of missing an additional polyp was significantly higher. One-quarter of neoplastic polyps was missed during colonoscopy. We encourage endoscopists to detect smaller and flat or sessile polyps by using the optimal withdrawal technique.

  12. Postoperative morbidity and mortality among Veterans Health Administration patients undergoing surgical resection for large bowel polyps (bowel resection for polyps).

    PubMed

    Ikard, Robert W; Snyder, Rebecca A; Roumie, Christianne L

    2013-01-01

    Large bowel polyps with malignant characteristics or those that are too large to remove colonoscopically may require bowel resection. We performed a retrospective review of 126 Veterans Health Administration patients who underwent elective resections for colonoscopically unresectable colorectal polyps over a 10-year period. We evaluated the association of patient characteristics and operative management on the composite outcome of 30-day postoperative morbidity and mortality. 98% of patients were males. Mean age was 65.1 years. Most patients had comorbidities, including cardiac or vascular disease (47.4%), diabetes mellitus (54%), and tobacco (41%) or alcohol (32.5%) use. The majority (85.7%) of patients were considered to be in American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classifications III and IV. 92% of resections were completed via laparotomy. Thirty-day postoperative morbidity and mortality occurred among 40 (31.7%) patients. Fifty-six patients (44.4%) had operative specimens with malignant features. The only comorbidity statistically associated with 30-day morbidity and mortality was body mass index >30. Approximately one third of patients had significant postoperative morbidity or mortality. Clinical pathways chosen to treat colonoscopically unresectable polyps should be tailored to patients' conditions and the characteristics of their colorectal lesions. 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Gallbladder Polyp Mimicking an Obstructive Calculus

    PubMed Central

    Bass, James; Fegelman, Ronald H.

    1978-01-01

    The second documented case of obstructing polyp of the gallbladder—an extremely rare lesion—is presented. Symptoms were indistinguishable from those of acute obstructive cholecystitis. The mechanism of obstruction is hypothesized. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:702555

  14. Mutational analysis of MED12 exon 2 in a spectrum of fibroepithelial tumours of the breast: implications for pathogenesis and histogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lien, Huang-Chun; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Yang, Ya-Wen; Jeng, Yung-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Fibroadenomas (FAs) and phyllodes tumours (PTs) are fibroepithelial tumours. Mutations in MED12 exon 2 have been reported in FAs. This study investigated the MED12 mutations in a spectrum of fibroepithelial tumours. Using direct sequencing, we analysed MED12 exon 2 mutations on 121 samples, including PTs and FAs and variants. We found MED12 mutations in 71.4% of PTs. No significant difference in the mutation frequency was observed between benign, borderline and malignant PTs, and a general lack of correlation existed between mutations and pathological factors associated with PT grading. The mutation patterns were similar between PTs and FAs, with codon 44 being involved most frequently. MED12 mutations were identified in 47.1, 52.6 and 50.0% of complex FAs, juvenile FAs and tubular adenomas (TAs), respectively, and the frequency and mutation patterns were similar between these FA variants and usual FAs. The high frequency and similar patterns of MED12 mutations in FAs and various grades of PTs implies that the MED12 mutation is a common and early pathological event in these fibroepithelial tumours. The similar frequency and patterns of the MED12 mutation between FAs and variants suggests that FA variants are bona fide FAs, with identical pathogenesis involving MED12 mutations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Bilateral lymphangiomatous polyps of the palatine tonsils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Henry H; Lovell, Mark A; Chan, Kenny H

    2010-01-01

    Lymphangiomatous polyps of the tonsils are rare with less than 30 cases reported in the literature. All have been unilateral. We report a case of a child with bilateral lymphangiomatous polyps of the palatine tonsils that was suspected on preoperative examination as opposed to an incidental postoperative histologic finding. These findings were also correlated with a further imaging study to establish this entity as a localized rather than a generalized histologic phenomenon. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Endoscopic electroexcision of benign urethral tumors in children].

    PubMed

    Abdullaev, F K; Nikolaev, V V; Kulaev, V D; Nazhimov, V P

    2009-01-01

    Endoscopic treatment was performed in 17 boys aged 4 months-16 years with benign new growths of the posterior urethra: false polyps (n = 11), fibroepithelial polyps (congenital--4, acquired--1), fetal rabdomyoma of the urethra and urinary bladder (n = 1). Acquired fibroepithelial polyp was detected in a patient who previously had resection and urethral anastomosis for posttraumatic stricture and long-term preventive catheterization. A leading symptom of the disease in 8 patients was infravesical obstruction. Most complete diagnostic information was provided by urethroscopy. All the patients were treated with endoscopic electroexcision of the tumors with coagulation of their bases. In a child with fetal rabdomyoma a vesicular part of the tumor was removed transvesically. Histological examination of the false polyps identified epithelium-covered granulation tissue. Fibroepithelial polyps were represented with mature connective tissue covered with urothelium. Recovery was achieved in all the patients. Benign urethral tumors should be considered in differential diagnosis in children as one of rare causes of infravesical obstruction. Most of the neoplasms are represented by congenital and acquired polyps of connective tissue of various maturity covered with transitory epithelium. False polyps may be an initial stage of the development of fibroepithelial acquired polyp. Factors of a higher risk of acquired urethral polyps are secondary trauma of urethral mucosa in device investigations and manipulations as well as chronic inflammation. A method of choice in the treatment of benign urethral neoplasms is endoscopic electroexcision which in some cases can be made with transvesicular approach.

  17. Is gall-bladder polyp equivalent to cancer? An analysis of material from 1196 cholecystectomies--a comparison of the ultrasound and histopathological results.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Piotr; Strzelczyk, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    Polyps of the gall-bladder has long been a serious diagnostic problem. Their detection in routine ultrasound is not yet satisfactory and often does not allow you to select the proper method of operating the gall-bladder. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis of polypoid lesions of the gall-bladder through its verification by histopathology in patients treated with cholecystectomy. In the years 2010-2013, 1196 patients underwent surgery due to diseases of the gall-bladder at the Department of General and Transplant Surgery, Medical University in Łódź. The study evaluated the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting polyps of the gallbladder and histopathological findings of the formulations investigated. Preoperative ultrasound examination (USG) revealed a polypoid lesion in 64 patients; only in 29 of them (44.6%) this diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. In the other cases, cholecystolithiasis or inflammatory lesions were found. The most common histopathological findings included cholesterol polyps, adenomatous polyps, and inflammatory polyps. Malignant lesions (gall-bladder cancer) were found in five patients preoperatively diagnosed with a polypoid lesion, i.e 7.8% of patients preoperatively diagnosed with a polyp and 0.4% of all patients who received surgical treatment. Patients qualified for surgery due to polyps diagnosed by means of ultrasound examination constitued 5.4% of all patients who underwent cholecystectomy. On histopathological examination, the presence of polyps was confirmed in 2.4% patients treated with excision of the gall-bladder. Detection of gall-bladder polyp on ultrasound examination is an indication for cholecystectomy, in particular when the polyp diameter exceeds 10 mm. In each case of a polyp, cholecystolithiasis should also be taken into account and the presence (or absence) of indications for cholecystectomy should be discussed with the patient.

  18. Clipping prevents perforation in large, flat polyps

    PubMed Central

    Luba, Daniel; Raphael, Mona; Zimmerman, Dayna; Luba, Joseph; Detka, Jon; DiSario, James

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine if prophylactic clipping of post-polypectomy endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) mucosal defects of large, flat, right sided polyps prevents perforations. METHODS IRB approved review of all colonoscopies, and prospective data collection of grasp and snare EMR performed by 2 endoscopists between January 1, 2010 and March 31, 2014 in a community ambulatory endoscopy center. The study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, all right-sided, flat polyps greater than or equal to 1.2 cm in size were removed using the grasp and snare technique. Clipping was done at the discretion of the endoscopist. In the second phase, all mucosal defects were closed using resolution clips. Phase 2 of the study was powered to detect a statistically significant difference in perforation rate with 148 EMRs, if less than or equal to 2 perforations occurred. RESULTS In phase 1 of the study, 2121 colonoscopies were performed. Seventy-five patients had 95 large polyps removed. There were 4 perforations in 95 polypectomies (4.2%). The perforations occurred in polyps ranging in size from 1.5 cm to 2.5 cm. In phase 2, there were 2464 colonoscopies performed. One hundred and sixteen patients had 151 large polyps removed, and all mucosal defects were clipped. There were no perforations (P = 0.0016). There were no post-polypectomy hemorrhages in either phase. An average of 2.15 clips were required to close the mucosal defects. The median time to perform the polypectomy and clipping was 13 min, and the median procedure duration was 40 min. Five percent of all patients undergoing colonoscopy in our community based, ambulatory endoscopy center had flat, right sided polyps greater than or equal to 1.2 cm in size. CONCLUSION Prophylactic clipping of the mucosal resection defect of large, right-sided, flat polyps reduces the incidence of perforation. PMID:28360975

  19. Laparoscopic Colectomy in the Management of Large, Sessile, Transformed Colorectal Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Nassiopoulos, Konstantinos; Menenakos, Evangelos; Chanson, Cristian; Zografos, George; Petropoulos, Panajotis

    2005-01-01

    Background: Colonic polyps are usually removed endoscopically. Surgical intervention is reserved for large, inaccessible colorectal polyps that have underdone malignant transformation. Laparoscopic management of colonic polyps has gained a well-defined role. Methods: Since 1993, 650 laparoscopic colectomies have been performed in our department. Twenty-eight patients with large, sessile, polyps that have undergone malignant transformation underwent elective laparoscopic colectomy. Operative procedures included 14 sigmoidectomies, 10 low anterior recto-sigmoid resections, 3 right colectomies, and 1 left colectomy. Central ligation of vessels and lymph node dissection were preformed in all patients. Results: The main outcome measures include conversion rate (11%), morbidity (11%), and mortality (3.5%). The mean return of bowel function was 3.1 days, liquid intake 1.4 days, solid food intake 2.5 days, and mean hospital stay 8 days. The mean specimen length was 23 cm, and the mean number of retrieved lymph nodes was 15. Malignancy according to Dukes classification was in situ, n=4; A, n=15; B, n=4; C, n=4; and D, n=1. During follow-up, 2 patients developed liver metastases. Conclusion: Laparoscopic colectomy is a technically feasible and effective method for treating large colorectal polyps that have undergone malignant transformation. PMID:15791972

  20. Lovastatin, but not orlistat, reduces intestinal polyp volume in an ApcMin/+ mouse model.

    PubMed

    Notarnicola, Maria; Barone, Michele; Francavilla, Antonio; Tutino, Valeria; Bianco, Giusy; Tafaro, Angela; Minoia, Mario; Polimeno, Lorenzo; Napoli, Anna; Scavo, Maria Principia; Caruso, Maria Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    The statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoAR) and orlistat, an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS), inhibit tumor cell growth by restricting cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, respectively. We previously demonstrated that an omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)- or olive oil-enriched diet reduced the polyp number and volume in ApcMin/+ mice. This phenomenon was associated with a significant inhibition of FAS and HMGCoAR, as well as an increase in the estrogen receptor (ER)β/α ratio. Herein, we evaluated the effect of lovastatin and orlistat on polyp development and ER expression in ApcMin/+ mice, in order to confirm previous data obtained with ω‑3-PUFAs and olive oil. As expected, the use of lovastatin and orlistat significantly reduced HMGCoAR and FAS enzymatic activities and gene expression in colonic tissues, but did not affect the number of intestinal polyps, while there was a statistically significant reduction in polyp volume only in the mouse group treated with lovastatin. In the mice receiving orlistat, we observed a significant increase in cell proliferation in the polyp tissue, as well as enhanced expression of ERα. Moreover, the overexpression of ERα was associated with a statistically significant increase in PES1, Shh and Gli1 protein levels, considered ERα-related molecular targets.

  1. Computer assisted optical biopsy for colorectal polyps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Avila, Fernando J.; Saint-Hill-Febles, Yadira; Renner, Janis; Klare, Peter; von Delius, Stefan; Navab, Nassir; Mateus, Diana

    2017-03-01

    We propose a method for computer-assisted optical biopsy for colorectal polyps, with the final goal of assisting the medical expert during the colonoscopy. In particular, we target the problem of automatic classification of polyp images in two classes: adenomatous vs non-adenoma. Our approach is based on recent advancements in convolutional neural networks (CNN) for image representation. In the paper, we describe and compare four different methodologies to address the binary classification task: a baseline with classical features and a Random Forest classifier, two methods based on features obtained from a pre-trained network, and finally, the end-to-end training of a CNN. With the pre-trained network, we show the feasibility of transferring a feature extraction mechanism trained on millions of natural images, to the task of classifying adenomatous polyps. We then demonstrate further performance improvements when training the CNN for our specific classification task. In our study, 776 polyp images were acquired and histologically analyzed after polyp resection. We report a performance increase of the CNN-based approaches with respect to both, the conventional engineered features and to a state-of-the-art method based on videos and 3D shape features.

  2. The patient with multiple intestinal polyps.

    PubMed

    Schulmann, Karsten; Pox, Christian; Tannapfel, Andrea; Schmiegel, Wolff

    2007-01-01

    The management of patients with multiple intestinal polyps may be difficult and greatly depends on the correct classification. Polyposis syndromes account for less than 1% of newly diagnosed colorectal cancers. In addition the risk for extracolonic cancer is increased in most syndromes. Here we report the case of a difficult patient with severe gastric polyposis and we present a review of polyposis syndromes such as classical and attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), MYH-associated polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenile polyposis as well as rare polyposis syndromes. The most practical approach for the diagnostic workup in patients with newly diagnosed gastrointestinal polyposis is based on the histological typing of polyps. In addition, a detailed family history regarding cancer, polyps and congenital abnormalities should be obtained from every polyposis patient. Patients with multiple adenomas are most likely to suffer from FAP, AFAP or MAP. Of these, younger age and higher polyp count are most likely a diagnosis of typical FAP. Older age and fewer polyps favour a diagnosis of AFAP or MAP. Germline testing of the APC gene is suggested, and if negative, MYH gene testing should be done. In patients with hamartomas, extraintestinal features should be evaluated and reference histology should be initiated. In addition panintestinal imaging should be performed with EGD, colonoscopy and small bowel imaging (PE, CE, and MR) enteroclysis. For diagnostic and therapeutic problems a familial colorectal cancer center should be consulted. Using this algorithm, correct classification and adequate treatment should be possible for every polyposis patient.

  3. Novel findings in colorectal polyp surveillance.

    PubMed

    Carballal, Sabela

    2016-09-01

    Colorectal adenomas and serrated polyps are the best characterised premalignant lesions involved in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, the identification and removal of these lesions, as well as post-polypectomy surveillance of affected patients, are key goals in the field of CRC prevention. Current post-polypectomy surveillance strategies differ among the various scientific societies and have several limitations that hamper their application in clinical practice. First, current surveillance intervals are based only on polyp characteristics, excluding other potential clinical conditions, such as diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Second, serrated polyps and adenomas are considered separately, but there is no recommendation in cases of the simultaneous occurrence of both types of lesion. Third, the incorporation of endoscopic technologies implies an increase in polyp detection, whose clinical impact is controversial and directly affects the number of scheduled colonoscopies with an indication of surveillance. Some of the studies presented at the AGA (American Gastroenterological Association) meeting aimed to provide new evidence on the follow-up of colorectal polyps, with a view to optimising the applicability and suitability of current surveillance strategies.

  4. Recurrent giant fibrovascular polyp of the esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ser Yee; Chan, Weng Hoong; Sivanandan, Ranjiv; Lim, Dennis Teck Hock; Wong, Wai Keong

    2009-01-01

    Giant fibrovascular polyps of the esophagus and hypopharynx are rare benign esophageal tumors. They arise most commonly in the upper esophagus and may, rarely, originate in the hypopharynx. They can vary significantly in size. Even though they are benign, they may be lethal due to either bleeding or, rarely, asphyxiation if a large polyp is regurgitated. Patients commonly present with dysphagia or hematemesis. The polyps may not be well visualized on endoscopy and imaging plays a vital role in aiding diagnosis as well as providing important information for pre-operative planning, such as the location of the pedicle, the vascularity of the polyp and the tissue elements of the mass. They can also be recurrent in rare cases, especially if the resection margins of the base are involved. We review the recent literature and report a case of a 61-year-old man with a recurrent giant esophageal fibrovascular polyp with illustrative contrast barium swallow, CT and intra-operative images, who required several surgeries via a combination of endoscopic, trans-oral, trans-cervical, trans-thoracic and trans-abdominal approaches. PMID:19653354

  5. [Pathogenesis and clinical features of polypous rhinosinusitis].

    PubMed

    Trofimenko, S L

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents recommendations of the current European and Russian documents concerning pathogenesis of polypous rhinosinusitis (International Consensus Conference on Nasal Polyposis (2006), European documents EAACI - EP3OS (2007), and Summit of the Russian Society of Rhinologists "Nasal polyposis and inflammation" (2009)). The bilateral polypous process in the nasal cavity is considered to be a "special form of rhinosinusitis" in which bacterial superantigens or fungal infection induce chronic eosinophilic inflammation. Researchers of the ENT Department, Rostov State Medical University, undertook analysis of the results of long-term comprehensive examination of patients with polypous rhinosinusitis that included clinical, bacteriological, histomorphological, and allergological studies as well as evaluation of local and systemic immunity. The data obtained allowed to describe one of the forms of polypous rhinosinusitis as chronic infection-dependent allergic rhinosinusitis with the manifestation of all four types of allergic reactions, formation of the autoimmune component, and development of persistent immune inflammation leading to remodeling of endonasal mucosa. In all these cases, the process progressed parallel to the development of combined secondary immune deficiency (SID). A hypothetical scheme of pathogenesis of chronic polypous allergic rhinosinusitis is proposed.

  6. Gastric hyperplastic polyp with focal cancer.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Adam Roman; Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports a rare case of early adenocarcinoma within the gastric hyperplastic polyp, that was completely resected during an endoscopic procedure, and discusses current recommendations in such cases. Endoscopic resection of polyps with focal dysplasia or cancer is commonly indicated, as long as the procedure can be performed safely. After complete excision of a polyp with atypical focal lesion, endoscopic surveillance is suggested. The frequency of surveillance endoscopy should depend on the precise histopathological diagnosis and possibility of confirming the completeness of the endoscopic resection. If the completeness of the procedure is confirmed both macro- and microscopically, gastric resection does not have to be performed. A follow-up esophago-gastroduodenoscopy should be performed at 1 year and then at 3 years.

  7. Gastric hyperplastic polyp with focal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Markowski, Adam Roman; Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a rare case of early adenocarcinoma within the gastric hyperplastic polyp, that was completely resected during an endoscopic procedure, and discusses current recommendations in such cases. Endoscopic resection of polyps with focal dysplasia or cancer is commonly indicated, as long as the procedure can be performed safely. After complete excision of a polyp with atypical focal lesion, endoscopic surveillance is suggested. The frequency of surveillance endoscopy should depend on the precise histopathological diagnosis and possibility of confirming the completeness of the endoscopic resection. If the completeness of the procedure is confirmed both macro- and microscopically, gastric resection does not have to be performed. A follow-up esophago-gastroduodenoscopy should be performed at 1 year and then at 3 years. PMID:25361760

  8. Increased prevalence of gallbladder polyps in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Anand K; Gayton, Emma L; Webb, Alison; Halsall, David J; Rice, Caiomhe; Ibram, Ferda; Chaudhry, Afzal N; Simpson, Helen L; Berman, Laurence; Gurnell, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Several studies have suggested an increased prevalence of benign and malignant tumors in acromegaly, particularly colonic neoplasms. The gallbladder's epithelial similarity to the colon raises the possibility that gallbladder polyps (GBP) may occur more frequently in acromegaly. Thirty-one patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly (14 females, 17 males; mean age 54.7 yr, range 27-76 yr) were referred to our center between 2004 and 2008. All had pituitary adenomas and were treated with somatostatin analogs prior to transsphenoidal surgery. Biliary ultrasonography was performed at the time of referral. In a retrospective case-cohort study, we compared the prevalence of GBP in these scans with those of 13,234 consecutive patients (age range 20-80 yr) presenting at the hospital for abdominal/biliary ultrasound during the same time interval. Associations between GH and IGF-I levels and GBP in acromegaly were also examined. There was a higher prevalence of GBP in patients with acromegaly compared with controls (29.03 vs 4.62%, P = 0.000008); relative risk was 6.29 (95% confidence interval 3.61-10.96). Eight of nine patients with acromegaly and GBP were older than 50 yr of age. GH levels were higher in those with GBP (median 30.8 μg/liter, interquartile range 10.9-39.1) than those without (8.2 μg/liter, interquartile range 6.0-16.0), but IGF-I levels were comparable. This is the first study to demonstrate an increased prevalence of GBP in patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly. Further studies are required to determine whether these patients are at increased risk of developing gallbladder carcinoma and to define the role, if any, of biliary ultrasound surveillance.

  9. Expression of Annexin A10 in Serrated Polyps Predicts the Development of Metachronous Serrated Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Macaron, Carole; Lopez, Rocio; Pai, Rish K; Burke, Carol A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The ability to differentiate histological characteristics between serrated polyps (SPs) and make a pathological diagnosis of a sessile serrated polyp (SSP) is highly variable. Recent studies have shown that immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of Annexin A10 (ANXA10) is a marker of a SSP. However, the clinical utility of ANXA10 expression in patients with SPs is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of ANXA10 expression in SPs in predicting the development of subsequent polyps at follow-up colonoscopy. Methods: Specimens from patients with SPs assessed in the Department of Pathology between 2006 and 2010 were identified. Patients whose colon harbored only SPs including either an SSP and/or hyperplastic polyp (HP) and who had complete polyp resection, no remaining polyps, and a follow-up colonoscopy were analyzed. ANXA10 IHC expression was performed in all baseline SPs. The rate of metachronous polyps on follow-up colonoscopy based on baseline maximal ANXA10 expression (low vs. high) was determined. Results: One hundred and seventy-nine patients were included. Sixty-seven patients had SPs with low ANXA10 expression (30 SSP and 37 HP) and 112 had polyps with high ANXA10 expression (105 SSP and 7 with HP). Individuals with SPs with high ANXA10 expression had a threefold higher risk of SSP on follow-up colonoscopy (hazard ratio (HR)=2.7; P=0.048) particularly, in the proximal colon (HR=4.0; P=0.02). ANXA10 expression did not predict patients at an increased risk of subsequent adenomas (18.8% vs. 19.4%, P=0.52). Conclusions: Individuals who harbor SPs with high ANXA10 expression are at an increased risk of metachronous serrated neoplasms. ANXA10 may be a reproducible tool to stratify patients with SPs into higher- and lower-risk groups of metachronous serrated neoplasia, allowing a more aggressive colonoscopic surveillance in patients at high risk. PMID:27906163

  10. Matching colonic polyps using correlation optimized warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijun; Yao, Jianhua; Petrick, Nicholas; Summers, Ronald M.

    2010-03-01

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) combined with a computer aided detection system has the potential for improving colonic polyp detection and increasing the use of CTC for colon cancer screening. In the clinical use of CTC, a true colonic polyp will be confirmed with high confidence if a radiologist can find it on both the supine and prone scans. To assist radiologists in CTC reading, we propose a new method for matching polyp findings on the supine and prone scans. The method performs a colon registration using four automatically identified anatomical salient points and correlation optimized warping (COW) of colon centerline features. We first exclude false positive detections using prediction information from a support vector machine (SVM) classifier committee to reduce initial false positive pairs. Then each remaining CAD detection is mapped to the other scan using COW technique applied to the distance along the centerline in each colon. In the last step, a new SVM classifier is applied to the candidate pair dataset to find true polyp pairs between supine and prone scans. Experimental results show that our method can improve the sensitivity to 0.87 at 4 false positive pairs per patient compared with 0.72 for a competing method that uses the normalized distance along the colon centerline (p<0.01).

  11. Fiber as Protective Factor for Colon Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Tantamango, Yessenia M.; Knutsen, Synnove F.; Sabate, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of death in the United States. The change in incidence patterns observed in populations previously considered at low risk for CRC suggests that environmental factors, including those related to diet, contribute to the etiology of this disease. It has been documented that the majority of colorectal cancers arise in adenomatous polyps. Although most colon polyps are harmless, some turn cancerous over time and as many as 30% to 40% of middle-aged and older adults may have one or more colon polyps. It is estimated that as much as one third to one half of colon cancer risk, and one fourth to one third of distal colon adenoma risk, might be avoidable by modification of dietary and life-style habits. Factors that have shown the most consistent protective effect against adenomas in epidemiologic studies include, among others, dietary fiber contained in fruits, vegetables, and grains. Because colonic polyps are so common in the industrialized world, prevention should play an important role. Methods: This is a cohort study to compare the association between fiber intake from fruits, vegetables, and grains, and the risk of physician-diagnosed colon polyps among 2,818 non-Hispanic white cohort members who had undergone colonoscopy. Subjects participated in two cohort studies, the Adventist Health Study-1 (AHS-1) in 1976 and again in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) in 2002–2005. Dietary information was obtained from the self-administered questionnaire from the AHS-1, while outcome was assessed from the AHS-2. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the period risk of incident cases of polyps with adjustment for age, gender, BMI, physical activity, and alcohol and meat intake. Results: A total of 441 incident cases of colon polyps were identified. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI, physical activity, alcohol and meat, total fiber intake was inversely associated with the risk of colon polyps (RR for

  12. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Gastric Hyperplastic Polyps.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Bela; Pai, Rish K

    2016-12-01

    Hyperplastic polyps of the stomach are routinely encountered during upper endoscopy and often arise in the setting of abnormal surrounding mucosa, particularly Helicobacter pylori, autoimmune gastritis, and reactive gastropathy. Not infrequently gastroenterologists fail to biopsy the surrounding mucosa, thus determining the underlying etiology of the gastric hyperplastic polyp can be difficult. Recently, the Rodger C. Haggitt Gastrointestinal Pathology Society published guidelines on the use of special stains. The society guidelines indicate that H pylori are not usually present in hyperplastic polyps and special stains in this setting may have limited utility. We analyzed the histologic features of 32 gastric hyperplastic polyps in which the nonpolypoid mucosa demonstrated H pylori gastritis. A consecutive series of 50 hyperplastic polyps in which no surrounding mucosa was sampled was also analyzed. When H pylori are identified in biopsies of the nonpolypoid mucosa, it is also commonly present within the polyp tissue (22/32, 69%). The majority of H pylori organisms were identified on routine hematoxylin and eosin stain (16/22, 72%). In contrast, H pylori were only seen in 2/50 consecutive hyperplastic polyps in which the surrounding mucosa was not sampled. Compared with the hyperplastic polyps that lack the organisms, H pylori associated hyperplastic polyps more commonly had dense lymphoplasmacytic inflammation (P = .0001) and neutrophils within gastric epithelium (P = .036). Polyp location, number, size, and presence of intestinal metaplasia was not associated with H pylori These results provide empirical data to guide evaluation of hyperplastic polyps for H pylori.

  13. Expression of survivin and enhanced polypogenesis in nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhe-Fu; Han, De-Min; Zhang, Luo; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Er-Zhong; Cui, Shun-Jiu; Huang, Qian; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of nasal polyps still is not clear. This disease is believed to be inflammation related. Previous research has indicated that apoptosis in inflammatory cells is an important factor in the resolution of inflammation. Survivin is regarded as a novel member of the group of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins. It is overexpressed in a number of tumor types. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of the survivin gene in human nasal polyps. We investigated the expression of survivin in nasal polyps of adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Specimens of nasal polyps were harvested during endonasal sinus surgery (n=22), and the normal mucosa surrounding the nasal polyp tissues or inferior turbinate tissues served as control (n=7). Immunohistochemical staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western blotting were performed for detecting the expression of survivin in the nasal polyps. This study has clearly shown that immunoreactivity of survivin significantly increased in the nasal polyp compared with nasal mucosa specimens surrounding nasal polyps (p<0.001). The higher expression of survivin Western blotting and RT-PCR also was observed in the nasal polyp but not in normal nasal mucosa. With a markedly increased expression of survivin in nasal polyps at both the mRNA and the protein levels, we believe the elevated expression of survivin might play an important role of development in nasal polyps.

  14. Computer-aided detection of polyps in optical colonoscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    We present a computer-aided detection algorithm for polyps in optical colonoscopy images. Polyps are the precursors to colon cancer. In the US alone, 14 million optical colonoscopies are performed every year, mostly to screen for polyps. Optical colonoscopy has been shown to have an approximately 25% polyp miss rate due to the convoluted folds and bends present in the colon. In this work, we present an automatic detection algorithm to detect these polyps in the optical colonoscopy images. We use a machine learning algorithm to infer a depth map for a given optical colonoscopy image and then use a detailed pre-built polyp profile to detect and delineate the boundaries of polyps in this given image. We have achieved the best recall of 84.0% and the best specificity value of 83.4%.

  15. Differentiation between sessile serrated adenoma/polyp and non-sessile serrated adenoma/polyp in large hyper plastic polyp: A Japanese collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Shida, Yosuke; Ichikawa, Kazuhito; Fujimori, Takahiro; Fujimori, Yukari; Tomita, Shigeki; Fujii, Takahiro; Sano, Yasushi; Oda, Yasushi; Goto, Hideyo; Ohta, Akihiko; Tanaka, Shinji; Sugai, Tamotsu; Yao, Takashi; Ohkura, Yasuo; Imura, Johji; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    A hyperplastic polyp (HP) >10 mm is described as a large hyperplastic polyp (LHP). Previous studies have considered LHP and sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) as synonymous. Although HP and SSA/P have previously been morphologically distinguished, differences between LHP and SSA/P have not yet been reported. The present study aimed to define the differences between SSA/P and non-SSA/P in LHP using immunohistochemistry for Ki67. Colorectal serrated lesions (>10 mm) that were completely resected by endoscope and derived from 11 institutions in Japan [Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine (Mibu), Takahiro Fujii Clinic (Tokyo), Sano Hospital (Kobe), Oda GI Clinic, Hattori GI Endoscopy and Oncology Clinic (Kumamoto), Ohta Clinic (Nagoya), Hiroshima University (Hiroshima), Iwate Medical University (Morioka), Juntendo and Kyorin Universities (Tokyo) as well as Toyama University (Toyama)] affiliated with the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR) between January 2003 and December 2010 were selected. The histological criteria of the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR, project meeting; editor-in chief, Takashi Yao) were used to distinguish SSA/P and non-SSA/P from LHP. Non-SSA/P comprises both incomplete SSA/P and HP. A total of 154 samples diagnosed as SSA/P or non-SSA/P from 148 patients were used. This study comprised 107 SSA/P and 47 non-SSA/P cases, whereby lesions were located on the right side of the colon (73.2 and 26.8%, respectively). Ki67-positivity in SSA/Ps was significantly higher compared to non-SSA/Ps. A greater number of SSA/Ps in LHP were located on the right side of the colon compared to the left side. SSA/Ps occurring on the right side of the colon may be precursor lesions of colorectal carcinoma in serrated neoplasia pathways. In conclusion, LHPs and SSA/Ps limited to the right side of the colon are suggested to be clinically treated as the same type of lesions.

  16. Differentiation between sessile serrated adenoma/polyp and non-sessile serrated adenoma/polyp in large hyper plastic polyp: A Japanese collaborative study

    PubMed Central

    SHIDA, YOSUKE; ICHIKAWA, KAZUHITO; FUJIMORI, TAKAHIRO; FUJIMORI, YUKARI; TOMITA, SHIGEKI; FUJII, TAKAHIRO; SANO, YASUSHI; ODA, YASUSHI; GOTO, HIDEYO; OHTA, AKIHIKO; TANAKA, SHINJI; SUGAI, TAMOTSU; YAO, TAKASHI; OHKURA, YASUO; IMURA, JOHJI; KATO, HIROYUKI

    2013-01-01

    A hyperplastic polyp (HP) >10 mm is described as a large hyperplastic polyp (LHP). Previous studies have considered LHP and sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) as synonymous. Although HP and SSA/P have previously been morphologically distinguished, differences between LHP and SSA/P have not yet been reported. The present study aimed to define the differences between SSA/P and non-SSA/P in LHP using immunohistochemistry for Ki67. Colorectal serrated lesions (>10 mm) that were completely resected by endoscope and derived from 11 institutions in Japan [Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine (Mibu), Takahiro Fujii Clinic (Tokyo), Sano Hospital (Kobe), Oda GI Clinic, Hattori GI Endoscopy and Oncology Clinic (Kumamoto), Ohta Clinic (Nagoya), Hiroshima University (Hiroshima), Iwate Medical University (Morioka), Juntendo and Kyorin Universities (Tokyo) as well as Toyama University (Toyama)] affiliated with the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR) between January 2003 and December 2010 were selected. The histological criteria of the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR, project meeting; editor-in chief, Takashi Yao) were used to distinguish SSA/P and non-SSA/P from LHP. Non-SSA/P comprises both incomplete SSA/P and HP. A total of 154 samples diagnosed as SSA/P or non-SSA/P from 148 patients were used. This study comprised 107 SSA/P and 47 non-SSA/P cases, whereby lesions were located on the right side of the colon (73.2 and 26.8%, respectively). Ki67-positivity in SSA/Ps was significantly higher compared to non-SSA/Ps. A greater number of SSA/Ps in LHP were located on the right side of the colon compared to the left side. SSA/Ps occurring on the right side of the colon may be precursor lesions of colorectal carcinoma in serrated neoplasia pathways. In conclusion, LHPs and SSA/Ps limited to the right side of the colon are suggested to be clinically treated as the same type of lesions. PMID:24649122

  17. Biopsy forceps is inadequate for the resection of diminutive polyps.

    PubMed

    Efthymiou, M; Taylor, A C; Desmond, P V; Allen, P B; Chen, R Y

    2011-04-01

    Cold biopsy forceps polypectomy (CBP) is often used for the removal of diminutive polyps. The efficacy of the technique has not been thoroughly assessed. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the efficacy of CBP for removing diminutive polyps. This was a prospective study from St Vincent's Hospital, a tertiary referral hospital in Melbourne, Australia. A total of 143 patients were screened and 52 patients with ≥ 1 diminutive polyps were enrolled. CBP was used to resect diminutive polyps until no polyp tissue was visible. The polyp base was then resected using endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) with a 1 - 2-mm margin. The CBP and EMR samples were compared to assess completeness of the resection. Overall 39 % (21 / 54) of diminutive polyps were completely resected using CBP. After binary logistic regression analysis, polyp histology was found to be predictive of resection, with complete resection of 62 % (13 / 21) for adenomas and 24 % (8 / 33) for hyperplastic polyps (odds ratio 5.1; P = 0.008). The size and number of bites taken with the forceps were not predictive of complete response. Within the limitations of a modest sample size, CBP appears to be inadequate treatment for the removal of diminutive polyps. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Are gastric hyperplastic polyps an additional manifestation in celiac disease?

    PubMed Central

    Dore, Maria Pina; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Rocchi, Chiara; Loria, Maria Francesca; Soro, Sara; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Gastric polyps are frequently reported in patients undergoing upper endoscopic procedures. In this retrospective study, the association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease in Northern Sardinia was estimated. Age, gender, body mass index, and medications taken in the 2 preceding months, including proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), H2 receptor blockers (anti-H2), Helicobacter pylori status, endoscopic findings, and histology from charts of patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy were reviewed. Polyps were classified as hyperplastic, fundic gland, inflammatory, and adenomatous. 3.7% (423/11379) patients had celiac disease. Prevalence of gastric polyps was 4.2% (3.8% among celiac vs 4.2% nonceliac patients). Inflammatory polyp was the most common histotype (55.8% and 56.2%) followed by fundic gland polyps (31.4% and 43.7%), hyperplastic (8.7% and 0%), and adenomas, in celiac and nonceliac patients, respectively. Fundic gland polyps were more common in PPI users (odds ratio: 4.06) than in nonusers (2.65, P = 0.001) among celiac and nonceliac patients. Age older than 50, female gender, esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy year, and PPI use were associated with the presence of polyps, whereas active H pylori infection was not. Gastric polyps were common in Sardinian patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy. However, the previously reported association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease was not confirmed in our study. PMID:28151870

  19. The clinical impact of serrated colorectal polyps

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Brendon M; Crockett, Seth D

    2017-01-01

    Serrated polyps (SPs) of the colorectum pose a novel challenge to practicing gastroenterologists. Previously thought benign and unimportant, there is now compelling evidence that SPs are responsible for a significant percentage of incident colorectal cancer worldwide. In contrast to conventional adenomas, which tend to be slow growing and polypoid, SPs have unique features that undermine current screening and surveillance practices. For example, sessile serrated polyps (SSPs) are flat, predominately right-sided, and thought to have the potential for rapid growth. Moreover, SSPs are subject to wide variations in endoscopic detection and pathologic interpretation. Unfortunately, little is known about the natural history of SPs, and current guidelines are based largely on expert opinion. In this review, we outline the current taxonomy, epidemiology, and management of SPs with an emphasis on the clinical and public health impact of these lesions. PMID:28260946

  20. Intestinal lymphangiectasia and colonic polyps: surgical intervention.

    PubMed

    Parsons, H G; Pencharz, P B

    1979-10-01

    A 36-mo-old boy with Milroy's Disease, intestinal lymphangiectasia, and an exudative enteropathy (EE), was shown to have four colonic polyps. A large adenomatous polyp was excised from the transverse colon in an effort to control his EE and hypoalbuminemia (1.95 g/dl). His clinical status then stabilized until age 50 mo when there was a marked exacerbation of his EE. Medical management resulted in a temporary stabilization of his condition. A partial resection (40 cm) of the visually worse affected jejunum was performed. There was no improvement in the EE as measured by 51Cr-tagged albumin study; however, his clinical response was dramatic. In the 10 mo since surgery, he has been well and has shown catchup in linear growth.

  1. Hypertrophic gastropathy with transient sessile polyps.

    PubMed

    Pesce, F; Barabino, A; Dufour, C; Caffarena, P E; Callea, F; Gatti, R

    1992-04-01

    We report an 8-year-old boy with hypertrophic gastropathy (HG) associated with duodenal Giardia lamblia infestation. The follow-up was complicated by the development of gastric polyps at the site of previous biopsies that spontaneously disappeared within 15 months. Despite the histological similarity, the different course between Ménétrier's disease (MD) in adults (chronic, with frequent development of sessile or pedunculate polyps) and HG (uncomplicated and usually spontaneously resolving) suggests a different pathogenesis. Viral (cytomegalovirus) and bacterial (Helicobacter pylori) infections have been described in association with HG and they could play an important pathogenetic role. The term HG better defines the childhood disease in which a conservative management is recommended.

  2. Carcinoma in gastric hyperplastic polyps: A phenotypic study

    SciTech Connect

    Zea-Iriarte, W.L.; Sekine, Ichiro; Itsuno, Minoru

    1996-02-01

    One-hundred twelve hyperplastic polyps were analyzed. The aim was to study their malignant transformation. Among them, four hyperplastic polyps harbored adenocarcinoma; two were from our own institution (1.8%). The majority were pedunculated and located in the antrum with an average of 14.5 mm in diameter. The four polyps bore well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Dysplasia and intestinal metaplasia were detected in two and three polyps, respectively. The cancer and dysplastic foci shared the same type of neutral and acid mucosubstances. p53 oncoprotein was positive in three cancer foci and in the dysplastic areas, and nucleolar organizer region counts were higher in the cancer foci. In conclusion, hyperplastic polyps have malignant potential. Such possibility increases in polyps larger than 14.5 mm. In our cases, the carcinoma foci may have arisen from dysplastic areas. Once the neoplastic changes occur, the cancer cells proliferate and behave as other adenocarcinomas of the stomach. 40 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. [ENDOMETRIAL POLYPS--CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF MALIGNANCY AND THERAPEUTIC ATTITUDE].

    PubMed

    Yamakov, K

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial polyps represent a localized overgrowth of the endometrium, projecting above the epithelium. Endometrialpolyps maybe single or multiple, may measure from a few millimeters to centimeters, and maybe sessile or pedunculated. The use of transvaginal ultrasound is inevitably entailing a significant increase in the number of women diagnosed with endometrial polyps. Endometrial polyps are usually benign although some may be precancerous or cancerous. The prevalence of malignant change in EMPs varies from 0.8 to 8%. Hysteroscopic polypectomy is effective and safe as both a diagnostic and therapeutic intervention. It remains the gold standard for treatment. Given that most polyps are not malignant, there is an option for expectant management with no intervention. It is impotant to evaluate the prevalence of endometrial premalignant and malignant polyps in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, as well as the clinical, ultrasound, and hysteroscopic factors associated with malignancy. Asymptomatic postmenopausal polyps are unlikely to be malignant and observation is an option after discussion with the patient.

  4. A randomised controlled trial of Outpatient versus inpatient Polyp Treatment (OPT) for abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Clark, T Justin; Middleton, Lee J; Cooper, Natalie Am; Diwakar, Lavanya; Denny, Elaine; Smith, Paul; Gennard, Laura; Stobert, Lynda; Roberts, Tracy E; Cheed, Versha; Bingham, Tracey; Jowett, Sue; Brettell, Elizabeth; Connor, Mary; Jones, Sian E; Daniels, Jane P

    2015-07-01

    Uterine polyps cause abnormal bleeding in women and conventional practice is to remove them in hospital under general anaesthetic. Advances in technology make it possible to perform polypectomy in an outpatient setting, yet evidence of effectiveness is limited. To test the hypothesis that in women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) associated with benign uterine polyp(s), outpatient polyp treatment achieved as good, or no more than 25% worse, alleviation of bleeding symptoms at 6 months compared with standard inpatient treatment. The hypothesis that response to uterine polyp treatment differed according to the pattern of AUB, menopausal status and longer-term follow-up was tested. The cost-effectiveness and acceptability of outpatient polypectomy was examined. A multicentre, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial, incorporating a cost-effectiveness analysis and supplemented by a parallel patient preference study. Patient acceptability was evaluated by interview in a qualitative study. Outpatient hysteroscopy clinics and inpatient gynaecology departments within UK NHS hospitals. Women with AUB - defined as heavy menstrual bleeding (formerly known as menorrhagia) (HMB), intermenstrual bleeding or postmenopausal bleeding - and hysteroscopically diagnosed uterine polyps. We randomly assigned 507 women, using a minimisation algorithm, to outpatient polypectomy compared with conventional inpatient polypectomy as a day case in hospital under general anaesthesia. The primary outcome was successful treatment at 6 months, determined by the woman's assessment of her bleeding. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, procedure feasibility, acceptability and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. At 6 months, 73% (166/228) of women who underwent outpatient polypectomy were successfully treated compared with 80% (168/211) following inpatient polypectomy [relative risk (RR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 1.02]. The lower end of the CIs showed

  5. The Polyp Manager: a new tool for optimal polyp documentation during colonoscopy. A pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    van de Meeberg, Maartje M.; Ouwendijk, Rob J. Th.; ter Borg, Pieter C. J.; van den Hazel, Sven J.; van de Meeberg, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Conventional reporting of polyps is often incomplete. We tested the Polyp Manager (PM), a new software application permitting the endoscopist to document polyps in real time during colonoscopy. We studied completeness of polyp descriptions, user-friendliness and the potential time benefit. Patients and methods: In two Dutch hospitals colonoscopies were performed with PM (as a touchscreen endoscopist-operated device or nurse-operated desktop application). Completeness of polyp descriptions was compared to a historical group with conventional reporting (CRH). Prospectively, we compared user-friendliness (VAS-scores) and time benefit of the endoscopist-operated PM to conventional reporting (CR) in one hospital. Duration of colonoscopy and time needed to report polyps and provide a pathology request were measured. Provided that using PM does not prolong colonoscopy, the sum of the latter two was considered as a potential time-benefit if the PM were fully integrated into a digital reporting system. Results: A total of 144 regular colonoscopies were included in the study. Both groups were comparable with regard to patient characteristics, duration of colonoscopy and number of polyps. Using the PM did reduce incomplete documentation of the following items in CRH-reports: location (96 % vs 82 %, P = 0.01), size (95 % vs 89 %, P = 0.03), aspect (71 % vs 36 %, P < 0.001) and completeness of removal (61 % vs 37 %, P < 0.001). In the prospective study 23 PM-colonoscopies where compared to 28 CR-colonoscopies. VAS-scores were significantly higher in the endoscopist-operated PM group. Time to report was 01:27 ± 01:43 minutes (median + interquartile range) in the entire group (PM as CR), reflecting potential time benefit per colonoscopy. Conclusions: The PM is a user-friendly tool that seems to improve completeness of polyp reporting. Once integrated with digital reporting systems, it is probably time saving as

  6. Polymorphisms in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dinarte, Vanessa Ramos Pires; Santos, Anemari Ramos Dinarte Dos; Araújo, Luiza Ferreira de; Reis, Mariah Guieiro Alves Dos; Tamashiro, Edwin; Valera, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira; Silva Júnior, Wilson Araújo da; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma Terezinha

    2017-03-23

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathophysiology involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. The purpose of this work review is to focus on the importance of genetic studies in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps besides the several barriers that exists for its understanding. A systematic review on studies of association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps based on a PubMed/Medline and Periódicos CAPES search of all articles published between January 2005 and January 2015 was made. The search was guided on studies containing the terms polymorphisms, rhinosinusitis, and polyps. Two studies found an association of MMP-9 and MMP-2 polymorphisms and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, but not in patients with recurrent nasal polyps. Other studies found an association of nasal polyps with MMP-9 polymorphisms, but not with MMP-2 ones. There is evidence of an association of LTC4S, NOS2A, PTGDR, MET, COX-2, OSF-2, and LF polymorphisms and the risk of developing nasal polyps, especially when combined with chronic allergic rhinitis and asthma. Genetic studies on chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps are promising and may offer insights into its pathophysiology, which is likely affected by multiple genetic factors. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Combining Statistical and Geometric Features for Colonic Polyp Detection in CTC Based on Multiple Kernel Learning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijun; Yao, Jianhua; Petrick, Nicholas; Summers, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) combined with a computer aided detection system provides a feasible approach for improving colonic polyps detection and increasing the use of CTC for colon cancer screening. To distinguish true polyps from false positives, various features extracted from polyp candidates have been proposed. Most of these traditional features try to capture the shape information of polyp candidates or neighborhood knowledge about the surrounding structures (fold, colon wall, etc.). In this paper, we propose a new set of shape descriptors for polyp candidates based on statistical curvature information. These features called histograms of curvature features are rotation, translation and scale invariant and can be treated as complementing existing feature set. Then in order to make full use of the traditional geometric features (defined as group A) and the new statistical features (group B) which are highly heterogeneous, we employed a multiple kernel learning method based on semi-definite programming to learn an optimized classification kernel from the two groups of features. We conducted leave-one-patient-out test on a CTC dataset which contained scans from 66 patients. Experimental results show that a support vector machine (SVM) based on the combined feature set and the semi-definite optimization kernel achieved higher FROC performance compared to SVMs using the two groups of features separately. At a false positive per scan rate of 5, the sensitivity of the SVM using the combined features improved from 0.77 (Group A) and 0.73 (Group B) to 0.83 (p ≤ 0.01). PMID:20953299

  8. Efficacy and safety of endoscopic mucosal resection of non-ampullary duodenal polyps: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Hasan, Muhammad K.; Lourdusamy, Vennisvasanth; Zhu, Xiang; Hawes, Robert H.; Varadarajulu, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Data on the safety and efficacy of endoscopic resection of non-ampullary duodenal polyps are limited. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of sporadic non-ampullary duodenal polyps. Methods: Relevant studies for the meta-analysis were identified through search of PUBMED and EMBASE databases. Studies employing EMR for the management of sporadic duodenal polyps in the non-ampullary region were included. The primary outcome was the surgical intervention rates due to non-curative endoscopic resection (incomplete removal/recurrence necessitating surgery) and/or management of procedural adverse events. Results: A total of 440 patients (485 duodenal polyps) from 14 studies were included. The mean size of the polyps was 13 mm to 35 mm. Surgical intervention due to non-curative EMR and adverse events was required in 2 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0 – 4 %). EMR was successfully accomplished in 93 % (95 %CI 89 – 97 %). The overall bleeding rate after EMR was 16 % (95 %CI 10 – 23 %), and the pooled delayed bleeding rate was 5 % (95 %CI 2 – 7 %). The overall incidence of perforation was 1 % (95 %CI 1 – 3 %). Over a median follow-up period of 6 – 72 months, the recurrence rate after EMR was 15 % (95 %CI 7 – 23 %). Six studies (pooled recurrence 20 %, 95 %CI 14 – 27 %) reported on the outcomes of managing recurrent polyps, for which endoscopic removal was successful in 62 % (95 %CI 37 – 87 %). There was no procedure related mortality. Conclusion: EMR appears to be a safe and effective therapeutic option for management of sporadic non-ampullary duodenal polyps. Long-term endoscopic surveillance is required to manage and treat recurrent disease. PMID:27556081

  9. Endoscopic resection of large sporadic non-ampullary duodenal polyps: efficacy and long-term recurrence.

    PubMed

    Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Lourdusamy, Dennisdhilak; Mehta, Dhruv; Lourdusamy, Vennisvasanth; Venkatesh, Preethi G K; Sanaka, Madhusudhan R

    2014-09-01

    Endoscopic resection is an alternative to surgery for removal of large duodenal polyps. There are limited data on the safety, efficacy, and long-term recurrence data after endoscopic resection of sporadic, non-ampullary, and large duodenal polyps. Our aim was to evaluate the safety and short-term outcomes of the endoscopic removal of the large sporadic duodenal polyps and to determine long-term risk of recurrence and factors predicting recurrence on follow-up. Patients with large (>10 mm) sporadic non-ampullary duodenal polyps underwent endoscopic resection from 2001 to 2012 at the Cleveland Clinic. Patients underwent endoscopic polypectomy and argon plasma coagulation. The main outcome measurements were complete polypectomy, complications, short- and long-term recurrence. A total of 54 patients were included. The mean patient age was 66.4 years. The mean polyp size was 15.1 ± 5.4 mm. Most polyps (N = 48, 88.9 %) were sessile polyps. The median follow-up time was 10.8 (range 0.5-120) months. Most lesions were located in the second part of the duodenum (N = 41, 75.9 %). Adenomas were found in 46 (85.2 %) of lesions overall. Tubular adenoma was the most common histology type found in 33 cases (71.7 %). Tubulovillous and villous were found in 12 (26.1 %) and 1 (2.2 %) cases, respectively. On follow-up, 50 (92.6 %) achieved complete resection with tumor free margins post resection. The 30-day risk of major complications was 5.6 % (N = 3), 1 with perforation and 2 with delayed bleeding. Recurrence was documented in 29 % (N = 16) of patients. All recurrences were managed endoscopically except for one patient who required surgery. The recurrence rate was higher for patients who had villous component in their adenomas compared to those with tubular alone (p = 0.03). Endoscopic resection is effective for treating large duodenal adenomas. Adenomas with villous features are more likely to recur. Almost all recurrences can be managed endoscopically.

  10. Per-endoscopic trans-tympanic traction for the management of feline aural inflammatory polyps: a case review of 37 cats.

    PubMed

    Greci, Valentina; Vernia, Erika; Mortellaro, Carlo M

    2014-08-01

    Feline aural inflammatory polyps are benign growths originating from the tympanic cavity or the Eustachian tube. They usually occur in young cats, which present either signs of otitis externa and otitis media, or respiratory signs, depending on the direction of polyp growth. Neurological signs are also reported. Simple traction and ventral bulla osteotomy (VBO) are the most common techniques used for treating this condition in cats; corticosteroids are recommended to reduce risk of recurrence given the inflammatory nature of the disease. The most common complications after treatment are Horner's syndrome, polyp recurrence and facial nerve paralysis. The aim of this report is to describe the per-endoscopic trans-tympanic traction (PTT) technique for treating feline aural inflammatory polyps and to report the short- and long-term follow-up of this procedure. PTT allowed resolution of the aural inflammatory polyps in 94% of cats during a mean long-term outcome of 19 months. Three cats (8%) developed Horner's syndrome immediately after the PTT procedure, which resolved within a few weeks, and five cats had polyp recurrence (13.5%). Only two cats had a poor outcome and were diagnosed with chronic otitis media at 22 months, and chronic otitis media and polyp recurrence at 46 months after the PTT procedure, respectively. PTT was shown to be an effective technique for treating aural inflammatory polyps and registered fewer neurological complications (8%) than VBO (57-81%) or simple traction (43%), and a recurrence percentage (13.5%) similar to VBO (0-33%) and much lower than traction alone (57%). © ISFM and AAFP 2013.

  11. Decreased expression of VE-cadherin and claudin-5 and increased phosphorylation of VE-cadherin in vascular endothelium in nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Yukitatsu, Yoriko; Hata, Masaki; Yamanegi, Koji; Yamada, Naoko; Ohyama, Hideki; Nakasho, Keiji; Kojima, Yusuke; Oka, Hideki; Tsuzuki, Kenzo; Sakagami, Masafumi; Terada, Nobuyuki

    2013-06-01

    VE-cadherin and claudin-5 are major components of adherens and tight junctions of vascular endothelial cells and a decrease in their expression and an increase in the tyrosine-phosphorylation of VE-cadherin are associated with an increase in endothelial paracellular permeability. To clarify the mechanism underlying the development of edema in nasal polyps, we studied these molecules in polyp microvessels. Normal inferior turbinate mucosal tissues and nasal polyps from patients treated with or without glucocorticoid were stained for VE-cadherin or claudin-5 and CD31 by a double-immunofluorescence method and the immunofluorescence intensities were graded 1-3 with increasing intensity. To correct for differences in fluorescence intensity attributable to a different endothelial area being exposed in a section or to the thickness of a section, the relative immunofluorescence intensity was estimated by dividing the grade of VE-cadherin or claudin-5 by that of CD31 in each microvessel. Tyrosine-phosphorylation of VE-cadherin was examined by Western blot analysis. The relative intensities of VE-cadherin and claudin-5 in the CD31-positive microvessels significantly decreased in the following order; inferior turbinate mucosa, treated polyps and untreated polyps. The ratio of tyrosine-phosphorylated VE-cadherin to VE-cadherin was significantly higher in untreated polyps than in the inferior turbinate mucosa and treated polyps, between which no significant difference in the ratio was seen. Thus, in nasal polyps, the barrier function of endothelial adherens and tight junctions is weakened, although glucocorticoid treatment improves this weakened barrier function.

  12. Polycystic ovary syndrome and increased polyp numbers as risk factors for malignant transformation of endometrial polyps in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kilicdag, Esra B; Haydardedeoglu, Bulent; Cok, Tayfun; Parlakgumus, Ayse H; Simsek, Erhan; Bolat, Filiz A

    2011-03-01

    To determine the pre-malignant and malignant potential of endometrial polyps and to assess whether different clinical parameters are associated with malignancy in the polyps of premenopausal women. The clinical records of operative office hysteroscopic and resectoscopic procedures for endometrial polyps in 417 premenopausal women who attended Baskent University were examined over a retrospective period of 30 months. Only premenopausal patients were included in the study. In 97.8% of women, histology showed benign endometrial pathology. In 2.2% of women, pre-malignant or malignant conditions were found in the polyp. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the presence of 2 or more polyps were associated with significant pre-malignant or malignant changes. The presence of irregular vaginal bleeding was not a predictor of malignancy in the polyp. Premenopausal women with PCOS and those with 2 or more polyps had an increased prevalence of polyp malignancy. These groups of patients, whether symptomatic or not, should be evaluated by hysteroscopic resection of the polyps. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of Women With an Endometrial Polyp and Heavy Menstrual Bleeding: A Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine Device or Hysteroscopic Polypectomy?

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Myrthe M; van Hanegem, Nehalennia; de Lange, Maria E; Timmermans, Anne

    2015-01-01

    We performed a literature review of reports comparing a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) with transcervical polyp resection (TCRP) as a treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). Our second objective was to investigate the effectiveness of LNG-IUD and TCRP in reducing menstrual bleeding and the patient satisfaction with each technique. No previously reported studies have compared TCRP and LNG-IUD as treatment for HMB in premenopausal women with an endometrial polyp. Likewise, no studies are available on LNG-IUD as a treatment for HMB in the presence of an endometrial polyp. Several studies have found the LNG-IUD to be an effective treatment option for HMB, with high patient satisfaction rates. Evidence of the effectiveness of TCRP as treatment of HMB is scarce. Patient satisfaction is reported relatively good, although persistent or recurrent symptoms appear to be frequent. We conclude that no evidence is available on LNG-IUD as treatment for HMB in women with an endometrial polyp. We hypothesize that LNG-IUD could be a good alternative to TCRP for treating HMB in premenopausal women with a polyp; however, further evidence is needed, and a randomized controlled trial should be performed. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A child with colo-colonic intussusception due to a large colonic polyp: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshiaki; Miyano, Go; Kayano, Hajime; Lane, Geoffrey J; Arakawa, Atsushi; Yamataka, Atsuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Colo-colonic intussusception (CI) due to a colonic polyp is a rarely reported cause of intestinal obstruction in school-aged children. Hydrostatic reduction (HR) and endoscopic polypectomy are minimally invasive and technically feasible for treating CI. We report a case of CI and review the literature, focusing on the diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Clinicopathologic review of polyps biopsied at colonoscopy in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oluyemi, Aderemi; Awolola, Nicholas; Oyedeji, Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal polyps are known precursors of colorectal cancers. The increase in utilization of colonoscopy in Nigeria has meant a rise in the recently reported incidence of these lesions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinicopathological profile of colorectal polyps biopsied during the inaugural 12 month period of colonoscopy from a private endoscopy suite in Nigeria. This is a retrospective review of all the clients who had polyps diagnosed at colonoscopy over a 12 month period (August 2014 -July 2015) at a private endoscopy suite in Lagos, Nigeria. This analysis of prospectively collected data was performed using clinical information from the endoscopy logs and pathology database system of a private endoscopy suite based in Lagos, Nigeria. A total of 125 colonoscopies were carried out over the stated period. Of these, 14 individuals had a total of 18 polyps- 4 clients (28.6% of the persons with polyps) had two polyps each. The polyp detection rate was 11.2% while the polyp per colonoscopy rate was 14.4%. Of these clients, males were 10 in number; giving a male to female ratio of 2.5:1. Their ages ranged from 37 to 77 years (mean= 57.3 years). The presenting complaint at colonoscopy was hematochezia in 11 (78.6%), new onset constipation in 2 (14.2%) and peri-anal pain in 1 patient (7.1%). The polyps were distributed as follows; 2 (11.1%) in the ascending colon, 1 (5.6%) each in the transverse and descending colons, 8 (44.4%) in the sigmoid colon, 6(33.3%) located in the rectum. Hence, there was left sided (15 of 18= 83.3%) preponderance. Pathologically, tubular (adenomatous) polyp with or without low grade dysplastic changes was diagnosed in 6 of the 18 polyps (giving an adenoma detection rate of 4.8%), 4 (22.2%) were inflammatory polyps, 1 (5.6%) was malignant and another had the rare inflammatory fibroid polyp. Five (27.8%) of the specimens were reported as non-specific colitis. The study supports the present wisdom that polyps are clearly less

  16. Transanal Approach to Rectal Polyps and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Vinay; Mishra, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    A transanal approach to rectal polyp and cancer excision is often an appropriate alternative to conventional rectal resection, and has a lower associated morbidity. There has been a steady evolution in the techniques of transanal surgery over the past 30 years. It started with traditional transanal excision and was revolutionized by introduction of transanal endoscopic microsurgery in early 1980s. Introduction of transanal minimally invasive surgery made it more accessible to surgeons around the world. Now robotic platforms are being tried in certain institutions. Concerns have been raised about recurrence rates of cancers with transanal approach and success of subsequent salvage operations. PMID:26929754

  17. Modifiable lifestyle factors associated with risk of sessile serrated polyps, conventional adenomas and hyperplastic polyps.

    PubMed

    Davenport, James R; Su, Timothy; Zhao, Zhiguo; Coleman, Helen G; Smalley, Walter E; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei; Shrubsole, Martha J

    2016-11-15

    To identify modifiable factors associated with sessile serrated polyps (SSPs) and compare the association of these factors with conventional adenomas (ADs) and hyperplastic polyps (HPs). We used data from the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study, a colonoscopy-based case-control study. Included were 214 SSP cases, 1779 AD cases, 560 HP cases and 3851 polyp-free controls. Cigarette smoking was associated with increased risk for all polyps and was stronger for SSPs than for ADs (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.62, for current vs never, ptrend=0.008). Current regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was associated with a 40% reduction in SSP risk in comparison with never users (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.96, ptrend=0.03), similar to the association with AD. Red meat intake was strongly associated with SSP risk (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.41 to 4.74 for highest vs lowest intake, ptrend<0.001) and the association with SSP was stronger than with AD (ptrend=0.003). Obesity, folate intake, fibre intake and fat intake were not associated with SSP risk after adjustment for other factors. Exercise, alcohol use and calcium intake were not associated with risk for SSPs. SSPs share some modifiable risk factors for ADs, some of which are more strongly associated with SSPs than ADs. Thus, preventive efforts to reduce risk for ADs may also be applicable to SSPs. Additionally, SSPs have some distinctive risk factors. Future studies should evaluate the preventive strategies for these factors. The findings from this study also contribute to an understanding of the aetiology and biology of SSPs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Endoscopic Management of Large (≥2 cm) Non-pedunculated Colorectal Polyps: Impact of Polyp Morphology on Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seon Hee; Levenick, John M; Mathew, Abraham; Moyer, Matthew T; Dye, Charles E; McGarrity, Thomas J

    2016-12-01

    Referrals for endoscopic management of large non-pedunculated (NP) colorectal polyps have increased as new techniques have emerged. The outcomes for referred large NP polyps based on the polyp morphology were investigated METHODS: A retrospective review of patients referred for large (≥20 mm) NP polyp management from January 2010 through June 2014 was completed. Polyp morphology was classified as either a NP polyp with depression (M1) or NP polyp with no depression (M0). Differences in treatment, histology, adverse events, outcomes at follow-up including residual disease, and need for surgical treatment were determined by morphology for all NP polyps ≥20 mm in size. One-hundred and sixty-nine M1 and 136 M0 polyps ≥20 mm were removed endoscopically during the review period. Mean size was 31.9 ± 11.0 mm in M1, and 26.8 ± 9.5 mm in M0 group (p < 0.0001). En bloc resection was possible in 18.3 % of M1 and 30.9 % of M0 lesions (p = 0.011) with endoscopic submucosal dissection used in 13 and 2.2 % of polyps, respectively (p < 0.0001). Residual polyp was found in 26.5 % (27/102) of M1 and 13.6 % (12/88) of M0 patients at surveillance colonoscopy (p = 0.029). On multivariate analysis, piecemeal resection and M1 morphology showed significant association with residual polyp (OR 4.23, 95 % CI 1.23-14.59, p = 0.022, and OR 2.15, 95 % CI 1.004-4.62, p = 0.049, respectively). Effective endoscopic management of large NP colorectal polyps, especially polyps without depression (M0), can be accomplished in the great majority of patients. Polyp morphology, particularly the presence or absence of depression, is a useful tool which influenced treatment, histology, and outcomes.

  19. Pathophysiological and clinical aspects of gastric hyperplastic polyps.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Adam Roman; Markowska, Agnieszka; Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-10-28

    Gastric polyps become a major clinical problem because of high prevalence and tendency to malignant transformation of some of them. The development of gastric hyperplastic polyps results from excessive proliferation of foveolar cells accompanied by their increased exfoliation, and they are macroscopically indistinguishable from other polyps with lower or higher malignant potential. Panendoscopy allows detection and differentiation of gastric polyps, usually after obtaining histopathological biopsy specimens. Unremoved gastric hyperplastic polyps may enlarge and sometimes spontaneously undergo a sequential progression to cancer. For this reason, gastric hyperplastic polyps larger than 5 mm in size should be removed in one piece. After excision of polyps with atypical focal lesion, endoscopic surveillance is suggested depending on histopathological diagnosis and possibility of confirming the completeness of endoscopic resection. Because of the risk of cancer development also in gastric mucosa outside the polyp, neighboring fragments of gastric mucosa should undergo microscopic investigations. This procedure allows for identification of patients who can benefit most from oncological endoscopic surveillance. If Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the gastric mucosa is confirmed, treatment strategies should include eradication of bacteria, which may prevent progression of intestinal metaplasia. The efficacy of H. pylori eradication should be checked 3-6 mo later.

  20. Pathophysiological and clinical aspects of gastric hyperplastic polyps

    PubMed Central

    Markowski, Adam Roman; Markowska, Agnieszka; Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Gastric polyps become a major clinical problem because of high prevalence and tendency to malignant transformation of some of them. The development of gastric hyperplastic polyps results from excessive proliferation of foveolar cells accompanied by their increased exfoliation, and they are macroscopically indistinguishable from other polyps with lower or higher malignant potential. Panendoscopy allows detection and differentiation of gastric polyps, usually after obtaining histopathological biopsy specimens. Unremoved gastric hyperplastic polyps may enlarge and sometimes spontaneously undergo a sequential progression to cancer. For this reason, gastric hyperplastic polyps larger than 5 mm in size should be removed in one piece. After excision of polyps with atypical focal lesion, endoscopic surveillance is suggested depending on histopathological diagnosis and possibility of confirming the completeness of endoscopic resection. Because of the risk of cancer development also in gastric mucosa outside the polyp, neighboring fragments of gastric mucosa should undergo microscopic investigations. This procedure allows for identification of patients who can benefit most from oncological endoscopic surveillance. If Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the gastric mucosa is confirmed, treatment strategies should include eradication of bacteria, which may prevent progression of intestinal metaplasia. The efficacy of H. pylori eradication should be checked 3-6 mo later. PMID:27833379

  1. Atypical manifestations of feline inflammatory polyps in three cats.

    PubMed

    MacPhail, Catriona M; Innocenti, Christi M; Kudnig, Simon T; Veir, Julia K; Lappin, Michael R

    2007-06-01

    Inflammatory polyps of the feline middle ear and nasopharynx are non-neoplastic masses that are presumed to originate from the epithelial lining of the tympanic bulla or Eustachian tube. The exact origin and cause are unknown, however, it is thought that inflammatory polyps arise as a result of a prolonged inflammatory process. It is unclear whether this inflammation initiates or potentiates the development and growth of inflammatory polyps. Cats with inflammatory polyps typically present with either signs of otitis externa and otitis media or with signs consistent with upper airway obstruction. Traditional diagnostics involve imaging of the tympanic bulla either with skull radiographs or computed topography (CT). Treatment consists of traction and avulsion of the polyp with or without ventral bulla osteotomy (VBO) to remove the epithelial lining of the tympanic bulla. The three cases described here are unusual manifestations or presentations of feline inflammatory polyps that address the following issues: (1) concurrent otic and nasopharyngeal polyps, (2) potential association with chronic viral infection, (3) polyp development in the contralateral middle ear, (4) CT appearance of the skull following VBO, and (5) development of secondary pulmonary hypertension.

  2. Relation between obesity and adenomatous polyps of the large bowel.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yumi; Nozaki, Ryoichi; Yamada, Kazutaka; Takano, Masahiro; Haruma, Ken

    2009-07-01

    We compared the prevalence of colorectal adenoma (polyps) in men and women and examined the role of body mass index (BMI) on polyp risk according to patient age and gender. The risk of developing colorectal polyps was studied in 15 380 subjects (7155 men and 8225 women) who underwent colonoscopy for the first time from April 1998 to March 2006 at our 'Human Dry Dock', which is the check-up service provided in Japan. Eligible subjects were 20-86 years old (mean age +/- SD, 47.3 +/- 8.5) and were free of invasive cancer, hyperplastic polyps and familial polyposis. Polyps were found in 1590 subjects (1062 men and 528 women). The odds ratio (OR) of detection of polyps in relation to obesity was determined in all cases by multivariate logistic regression analysis after making an adjustment for gender and age. The OR of polyp detection in obese subjects (BMI >or= 25) versus non-obese subjects (BMI < 25, OR = 1) was 1.34 (P < 0.001) in men and 1.13 (P = 0.26) in women. As the BMI increased in increments of one, the OR in men increased significantly to 1.01 (P < 0.001), whereas the OR in women was unchanged at 1.00 (P = 0.23), which was without significance. We conclude that obesity in men is a risk factor for the development of polyps. These results must be confirmed by additional epidemiological studies.

  3. Colonic polyps and polyposis syndromes in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kay, Marsha; Eng, Katharine; Wyllie, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Gastrointestinal polyps are commonly encountered during childhood and are one of the most common causes of rectal bleeding in this age group. Most polyps are benign and located in the colon, with the most frequent type being juvenile polyps. However, in older pediatric patients, if multiple polyps are present, in patients who have a positive family history, or if polyps are located outside of the colon, either adenomatous polyps or polyps associated with genetic abnormalities are more common. Imaging techniques such as ultrasound and computed tomographic colonoscopy have recently been utilized to identify simple juvenile colonic polyps in children with rectal bleeding in whom there is a high index of suspicion. Colonoscopy with polypectomy is still required for histologic evaluation and resection of the polyp. There have been significant advances in genetic testing and management of hereditary gastrointestinal cancer syndromes with onset in childhood or adolescence that may ultimately reduce long-term morbidity and mortality. In addition to enhanced gastrointestinal and extraintestinal malignancy screening for affected individuals, specific gene mutations within a given condition such as adenomatous polyposis coli may predict clinical course and timing of specific interventions such as colectomy. In other conditions such as phosphatase and tensin homolog hamartoma tumor syndrome, phenotype may not be predicted by genotype. Pediatricians, pediatric gastroenterologists, and adult gastroenterologists caring for children should understand how to differentiate benign polyps in the pediatric age group from those associated with a higher risk of complications including recurrence risk and risk of development of intestinal or extraintestinal malignancy. Recent advances in genetic testing, as well as development of consensus guidelines, are key in the identification, screening, and follow-up of children and adolescents with polyposis syndromes.

  4. High definition colonoscopy vs. standard video endoscopy for the detection of colonic polyps: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, V; Mannath, J; Hawkey, C J; Ragunath, K

    2011-06-01

    High definition colonoscopy may improve adenoma detection rates but studies report conflicting results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the diagnostic yield of colonic polyps between high definition colonoscopy and standard video endoscopy (SVE). Various electronic databases were searched for articles reporting on high definition colonoscopy. The pooled incremental yield and pooled weighted mean difference of high definition colonoscopy over SVE for polyp detection was determined. Five studies involving 4422 patients provided data on the total number of polyps detected. The incremental yield of high definition colonoscopy for the detection of any polyp was 3.8 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1 % - 6.7 %) with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 26. For the detection of adenomatous polyps the incremental yield was 3.5 % (95 %CI 0.9 % - 6.1 %) with an NNT of 28. There were no differences between high definition and SVE in the detection of high risk adenomas, with an incremental yield of -0.1 % (95 %CI -1.7 % to 1.6 %). When grouped according to the overall adenoma detection rate of the studies (> 50 % or < 50 %) the pooled weighted mean difference in small adenoma detection was better with high definition colonoscopy ( P = 0.035). There were marginal differences between high definition colonoscopy and SVE for the detection of colonic polyps/adenomas. High definition colonoscopy did not improve the detection of high risk adenomas. Due to differences in the adenoma detection rate between the studies and the nonrandomized study design of three of the five studies, these results need to be interpreted with caution. Prospective randomized trials looking at long term outcomes such as rates of interval or missed cancers are needed to clarify the clinical implications. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Hybrid Laparoendoscopic Approaches to Endoscopically Unresectable Colon Polyps.

    PubMed

    Aslani, Nava; Alkhamesi, Nawar A; Schlachta, Christopher M

    2016-08-01

    Secondary prevention of colorectal cancer relies on effective screening through colonoscopy and polypectomy. Resection of some polyps can present technical challenges particularly when polyps are large, flat, or behind colonic folds. Laparoscopy as an adjunct to endoscopy can aid in removing difficult colonic polyps without subjecting patients to radical segmental colectomy. Hybrid laparoendoscopic techniques are increasingly reported in literature as alternatives to segmental colectomy for the treatment of polyps that have a high likelihood of being benign. Laparoscopic-assisted colonoscopic polypectomy is the most frequently utilized technique; it harnesses the power of laparoscopy to aid endoscopic polypectomy by flattening folds, mobilizing flexures, and providing retraction. Colonoscopy-assisted laparoscopic wedge and transluminal resection are often reported in older studies and use the visualization provided by intraoperative colonoscopy to guide colonic resection that is limited to the area of the polyp. Laparoscopic-assisted endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) is a relatively recent technique that provides laparoscopic monitoring of EFTR of polyp as well as endoscopic closure of the ensuing defect. Minimally invasive segmental colectomy based on oncologic principles should be utilized when none of the previous techniques are suitable or when malignancy is strongly suspected. The combined use of laparoscopy and endoscopy can expand the endoscopist's armamentarium when dealing with the most challenging polyps, while serving the patients' best interest by limiting the extent of colon resection.

  6. Role of high definition colonoscopy in colorectal adenomatous polyp detection

    PubMed Central

    Erim, Tolga; Rivas, John M; Velis, Evelio; Castro, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the rates of polyp detection in a mixed risk population using standard definition (SDC) vs high definition colonoscopes (HDC). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort comparative study of 3 colonoscopists who each consecutively performed 150 SDC (307, 200 pixel) and 150 HDC (792, 576 pixels) in a community teaching hospital. RESULTS: A total of 900 colonoscopies were evaluated (mean age 56, 46.8% men), 450 with each resolution. Polyps of any type were detected in 46.0% of patients using SDC and 43.3% with HDC (P = 0.42). There was no significant difference between the overall number of polyps, HDC (397) and SDC (410), detected among all patients examined, (P = 0.73). One or more adenomatous polyps were detected in 24.2% of patients with HDC and 24.9% of patients with SDC colonoscopy (P = 0.82). There was no significant difference between HDC (M = 0.41) and SDC (M = 0.42) regarding adenomatous polyp (P = 0.88) or advanced adenoma (P = 0.56) detection rate among all patients examined. CONCLUSION: HDC did not improve yield of adenomatous polyp, advanced adenoma or overall polyp detection in a population of individuals with mixed risk for colorectal cancer. PMID:22046088

  7. The utility of routine polyp histopathology after endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Yeh, David H; Wong, Jay; Hoffbauer, Stephanie; Wehrli, Bret; Sommer, Doron; Rotenberg, Brian W

    2014-11-01

    Routine histopathological assessment is standard practice for nasal polyp specimens obtained during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Retrospective studies suggest that routine histopathology of nasal polyps shows few unexpected diagnoses that alter patient management. Our objective was to study the use of routine pathological analysis, and its cost to the healthcare system, in a prospective manner. A multicenter prospective assessment was performed from data collected between 2007 and 2013. Only cases of patients undergoing ESS for bilateral CRS were included. We excluded unilateral disease cases, and cases in which diagnoses other than polyps were suspected either preoperatively or intraoperatively. We then compared the preoperative diagnosis with the final histopathology and identified the rate of unexpected pathologies. A cost analysis was performed. Only 4 of 866 pathological specimens were identified as having a clinically significant unexpected diagnosis. All unexpected pathologies in this series were benign. These 4 cases account for 0.46% of all specimens reviewed. This translates to a number needed to screen of 217 cases of bilateral CRS to discover 1 unexpected pathology. The associated cost for making an unexpected diagnosis was $19,192.73. Routine histopathology of nasal polyps in ESS for bilateral CRS with polyps yields few unexpected and management-altering diagnoses. It carries a significant cost to the healthcare system. In cases of bilateral CRS with no other concerning clinical features, clinicians should exercise judgment in submitting polyp specimens for pathology rather than routinely sending polyps for histopathologic analysis. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  8. Endoscopy and polyps-diagnostic and therapeutic advances in management

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Scott R; Johnson, Eric K; Champagne, Bradley; Davis, Brad; Lee, Sang; Rivadeneira, David; Ross, Howard; Hayden, Dana A; Maykel, Justin A

    2013-01-01

    Despite multiple efforts aimed at early detection through screening, colon cancer remains the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, with an estimated 51000 deaths during 2013 alone. The goal remains to identify and remove benign neoplastic polyps prior to becoming invasive cancers. Polypoid lesions of the colon vary widely from hyperplastic, hamartomatous and inflammatory to neoplastic adenomatous growths. Although these lesions are all benign, they are common, with up to one-quarter of patients over 60 years old will develop pre-malignant adenomatous polyps. Colonoscopy is the most effective screening tool to detect polyps and colon cancer, although several studies have demonstrated missed polyp rates from 6%-29%, largely due to variations in polyp size. This number can be as high as 40%, even with advanced (> 1 cm) adenomas. Other factors including sub-optimal bowel preparation, experience of the endoscopist, and patient anatomical variations all affect the detection rate. Additional challenges in decision-making exist when dealing with more advanced, and typically larger, polyps that have traditionally required formal resection. In this brief review, we will explore the recent advances in polyp detection and therapeutic options. PMID:23885138

  9. Multiple duodenal polyps in uraemia: a little known clinical entity.

    PubMed Central

    Paimela, H; Tallgren, L G; Stenman, S; von Numers, H; Scheinin, T M

    1984-01-01

    Multiple duodenal polyps were found by endoscopy in five out of 33 patients with chronic renal failure and in one of 300 controls. In the uraemic cases the polyps were caused by circumscribed nodular hyperplasia of Brunner's glands. One of these five patients later underwent surgery for duodenal obstruction caused by the polyps; the other patients were asymptomatic. One of the controls had multiple duodenal polyps. The recorded incidence of multiple duodenal polyps was significantly higher among patients with chronic renal failure than in patients without renal disease. Patients with chronic renal failure and polyps did not differ significantly from the other renal patients in the comparison of variables such as gastric acid secretion, serum concentrations of gastrin and group I pepsinogens or mean length of dialysis treatment. The mean pH of gastric resting juice was significantly higher, however, in uraemic patients with polyps than in those without. Uraemic patients displayed a gastric acid secretion capacity within normal range, and significantly raised serum gastrin and group I pepsinogen concentrations. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6698441

  10. Interendoscopist variability in proximal colon polyp detection is twice higher for serrated polyps than adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Bretagne, Jean-François; Hamonic, Stéphanie; Piette, Christine; Viel, Jean-François; Bouguen, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the interendoscopist variability in the detection of colorectal polyps according to their location and histological type. METHODS This study was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from a regional colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program; 2979 complete colonoscopies from 18 endoscopists were included. Variability in performance between endoscopists for detection of at least one adenoma (A), one proximal adenoma (PA), one distal adenoma (DA), and one proximal serrated polyp (PSP) was assessed by using multilevel logistic regression models. RESULTS The observed detection rates among the 18 endoscopists ranged from 24.6% to 47.6% (mean = 35.7%) for A, from 19.1% to 39.0% (mean = 29.4%) for DA, from 6.0% to 22.9% (mean = 12.4%) for PA, and from 1.3% to 19.3% (mean = 6.9%) for PSP. After adjusting for patient-level variables (sex, age), the interendoscopist detection rates variability achieved a significant level for A, PA, and PSP but not for DA (P = 0.03, P = 0.02, P = 0.02 and P = 0.08, respectively). This heterogeneity, as measured by the variance partition coefficient, was approximately threefold higher for PA (6.6%) compared with A (2.1%), and twofold higher for PSP (12.3%) compared with PA. CONCLUSION These results demonstrate significant interendoscopist variability for proximal polyp particularly for serrated polyps, but not for distal adenoma detection. These findings contribute to explain the decreased effectiveness of complete colonoscopies at preventing proximal CRCs and the need to carefully assess the proximal colon during scope procedure. PMID:27784967

  11. Association Between Visceral Adiposity and Colorectal Polyps on CT Colonography

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.; Liu, Jiamin; Sussman, Daniel L.; Dwyer, Andrew J.; Rehani, Bhavya; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Choi, J. Richard; Yao, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if there is an association between visceral adiposity measured on CT colonography (CTC) and colorectal polyps. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was HIPAA-compliant and approved by our Institutional Review Board and Office of Human Subjects Research. 1186 patients who underwent CTC and same day optical colonoscopy were analyzed. Visceral adipose tissue volumes (VAV) and volume percents relative to total internal body volume (VAV%) were measured on slices in the L2–L3 regions on supine CTC scan with validated fully-automated software. Student t-test, odds ratio (OR), logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed. RESULTS For subjects with and without adenomatous polyps, means and s. d. of VAV% were 31.2 ± 10.8% (n=345) and 28.2% ± 11.3% (n=841) (p<0.0001), respectively. For subjects with and without hyperplastic polyps they were 31.8% ± 10.7% (n=244) and 28.3% ± 11.2% (n=942) (p<0.0001), respectively. Comparing the lowest and highest quintiles of VAV%, the ORs for having at least one adenomatous polyp or hyperplastic polyp versus no polyp were 2.06 (95% CI: 1.36–3.13) and 1.71 [1.08, 2.71] and the prevalence of having adenomatous polyps or hyperplastic polyps increased 14% and 8%, respectively. CONCLUSION Subjects with higher visceral adiposity measurements on CTC have a greater risk for the presence of colonic polyps. PMID:22733893

  12. Associations between dietary fiber and colorectal polyp risk differ by polyp type and smoking status.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Smalley, Walter E; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The association of dietary fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk is established. However, the association may differ between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Dietary fiber intakes were estimated by self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs with adjustment for potential confounders. Analysis also was stratified by cigarette smoking and sex. High dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced risk of colorectal polyps (P-trend = 0.003). This association was found to be stronger among cigarette smokers (P-trend = 0.006) than nonsmokers (P-trend = 0.21), although the test for multiplicative interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.11). This pattern of association was more evident for high-risk adenomatous polyps (ADs), defined as advanced or multiple ADs (P-interaction smoking and dietary fiber intake = 0.09). Among cigarette smokers who smoked ≥23 y, a 38% reduced risk of high-risk ADs was found to be associated with high intake of dietary fiber compared with those in the lowest quartile fiber intake group (P-trend = 0.004). No inverse association with dietary fiber intake was observed for low-risk ADs, defined as single nonadvanced ADs. Cigarette smoking may modify the association of dietary fiber intake with the risk of colorectal polyps, especially high-risk ADs, a well-established precursor of colorectal cancer.

  13. Associations between Dietary Fiber and Colorectal Polyp Risk Differ by Polyp Type and Smoking Status12

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Smalley, Walter E.; Ness, Reid M.; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The association of dietary fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk is established. However, the association may differ between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Dietary fiber intakes were estimated by self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs with adjustment for potential confounders. Analysis also was stratified by cigarette smoking and sex. High dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced risk of colorectal polyps (P-trend = 0.003). This association was found to be stronger among cigarette smokers (P-trend = 0.006) than nonsmokers (P-trend = 0.21), although the test for multiplicative interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.11). This pattern of association was more evident for high-risk adenomatous polyps (ADs), defined as advanced or multiple ADs (P-interaction smoking and dietary fiber intake = 0.09). Among cigarette smokers who smoked ≥23 y, a 38% reduced risk of high-risk ADs was found to be associated with high intake of dietary fiber compared with those in the lowest quartile fiber intake group (P-trend = 0.004). No inverse association with dietary fiber intake was observed for low-risk ADs, defined as single nonadvanced ADs. Cigarette smoking may modify the association of dietary fiber intake with the risk of colorectal polyps, especially high-risk ADs, a well-established precursor of colorectal cancer. PMID:24572038

  14. Colonoscopy Atlas of Colon Polyps and Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shou-Jiang; Sones, James Q

    2016-03-01

    Optical colonoscopy is the gold standard for colon cancer screening and adenoma detection and is the only screening option that can potentially provide therapeutic interventions and adenoma removal during the same session. When other screening strategies generate positive results, currently colonoscopy is the next step for definitive diagnosis and potentially curative therapy. For gastrointestinal endoscopists, the ileocecum is the finishing line during colonoscopy, and it is identified by three endoscopic landmarks: terminal ileum, ileocecal valve, and the appendiceal orifice. Careful and systematic examination should be stressed during endoscopic training and practice. In this pictorial review, the authors demonstrate common colon polyps and neoplasms that can be found during colonoscopy. Our aim is to educate gastroenterologists, endoscopy staff other health care providers, and interested patients on certain colon pathologies and common endoscopic interventions.

  15. An aposymbiotic primary coral polyp counteracts acidification by active pH regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Yoshikazu; Iguchi, Akira; Shinzato, Chuya; Inoue, Mayuri; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Corals build their skeletons using extracellular calcifying fluid located in the tissue-skeleton interface. However, the mechanism by which corals control the transport of calcium and other ions from seawater and the mechanism of constant alkalization of calcifying fluid are largely unknown. To address these questions, we performed direct pH imaging at calcification sites (subcalicoblastic medium, SCM) to visualize active pH upregulation in live aposymbiotic primary coral polyps treated with HCl-acidified seawater. Active alkalization was observed in all individuals using vital staining method while the movement of HPTS and Alexa Fluor to SCM suggests that certain ions such as H+ could diffuse via a paracellular pathway to SCM. Among them, we discovered acid-induced oscillations in the pH of SCM (pHSCM), observed in 24% of polyps examined. In addition, we discovered acid-induced pH up-regulation waves in 21% of polyps examined, which propagated among SCMs after exposure to acidified seawater. Our results showed that corals can regulate pHSCM more dynamically than was previously believed. These observations will have important implications for determining how corals regulate pHSCM during calcification. We propose that corals can sense ambient seawater pH via their innate pH-sensitive systems and regulate pHSCM using several unknown pH-regulating ion transporters that coordinate with multicellular signaling occurring in coral tissue.

  16. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome polyps infiltrated with IgG4-positive plasma cells

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ru-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Xue, Li-Jun; An, Ran; Sheng, Jian-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS) is a rare but serious protein-losing enteropathy, but little is known about the mechanism. Further more, misdiagnosis is common due to non-familiarity of its clinical manifestation. A 40-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital because of diarrhea and hypogeusia associated with weight loss for 4 mo. On physical examination, skin pigmentation, dystrophic nail changes and alopecia were noted. He had no alike family history. Laboratory results revealed low levels of serum albumin (30.1 g/L, range: 35.0-55.0 g/L), serum potassium (2.61 mmol/L, range: 3.5-5.5 mmol/L) and blood glucose (2.6 mmol/L, range: 3.9-6.1 mmol/L). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was elevated to 17 mm/h (range: 0-15 mm/h). X-ray of chest and mandible was normal. The endoscopic examination showed multiple sessile polyps in the stomach, small bowel and colorectum. Histopathologic examination of biopsies obtained from those polyps showed hyperplastic change, cystic dilatation and distortion of glands with inflammatory infiltration, eosinophilic predominance and stromal edema. Immune staining for IgG4 plasma cells was positive in polyps of stomach and colon. The patient was diagnosed of CCS and treated with steroid, he had a good response to steroid. Both histologic findings and treatment response to steroid suggested an autoimmune mechanism underling CCS. PMID:27574615

  17. Targeting IL-25 as a novel therapy in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mingyu; Kim, Dae Woo; Shin, Hyun-Woo

    2017-02-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a heterogeneous inflammatory disorder with a poorly understood pathophysiology. Recent findings show that epithelial-derived cytokines, including thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-33, and IL-25, can exacerbate Th2 immune responses, ultimately leading to recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps. Although IL-25 is increased in CRSwNP, the targeting of IL-25 as a therapeutic strategy remains largely unexplored. In this review, we outline the many recent advances in our understanding of the association between IL-25 and CRSwNP. Recently, we demonstrated that IL-25, produced primarily by sinonasal epithelial cells and infiltrating mast cells, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP in Asian patients. Furthermore, IL-25 and IL-25R are elevated in nasal polyps. This cytokine has roles in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP via modulating group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). Similarly, ILC2 enrichment has been reported in CRSwNP patients, and a positive correlation has been shown between ILC2s and CRSwNP. Clinical trials blocking thymic stromal lymphopoietin and IL-33 pathways are ongoing using monoclonal antibodies, AMG157 and AMG282, against CRSwNP, respectively. Studies on the role played by IL-25 in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP are accumulating and suggest the possibility of a novel therapeutic strategy for treating CRSwNP.

  18. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome polyps infiltrated with IgG4-positive plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ru-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Xue, Li-Jun; An, Ran; Sheng, Jian-Qiu

    2016-08-16

    Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS) is a rare but serious protein-losing enteropathy, but little is known about the mechanism. Further more, misdiagnosis is common due to non-familiarity of its clinical manifestation. A 40-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital because of diarrhea and hypogeusia associated with weight loss for 4 mo. On physical examination, skin pigmentation, dystrophic nail changes and alopecia were noted. He had no alike family history. Laboratory results revealed low levels of serum albumin (30.1 g/L, range: 35.0-55.0 g/L), serum potassium (2.61 mmol/L, range: 3.5-5.5 mmol/L) and blood glucose (2.6 mmol/L, range: 3.9-6.1 mmol/L). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was elevated to 17 mm/h (range: 0-15 mm/h). X-ray of chest and mandible was normal. The endoscopic examination showed multiple sessile polyps in the stomach, small bowel and colorectum. Histopathologic examination of biopsies obtained from those polyps showed hyperplastic change, cystic dilatation and distortion of glands with inflammatory infiltration, eosinophilic predominance and stromal edema. Immune staining for IgG4 plasma cells was positive in polyps of stomach and colon. The patient was diagnosed of CCS and treated with steroid, he had a good response to steroid. Both histologic findings and treatment response to steroid suggested an autoimmune mechanism underling CCS.

  19. An aposymbiotic primary coral polyp counteracts acidification by active pH regulation.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoshikazu; Iguchi, Akira; Shinzato, Chuya; Inoue, Mayuri; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Takashi

    2017-01-18

    Corals build their skeletons using extracellular calcifying fluid located in the tissue-skeleton interface. However, the mechanism by which corals control the transport of calcium and other ions from seawater and the mechanism of constant alkalization of calcifying fluid are largely unknown. To address these questions, we performed direct pH imaging at calcification sites (subcalicoblastic medium, SCM) to visualize active pH upregulation in live aposymbiotic primary coral polyps treated with HCl-acidified seawater. Active alkalization was observed in all individuals using vital staining method while the movement of HPTS and Alexa Fluor to SCM suggests that certain ions such as H(+) could diffuse via a paracellular pathway to SCM. Among them, we discovered acid-induced oscillations in the pH of SCM (pHSCM), observed in 24% of polyps examined. In addition, we discovered acid-induced pH up-regulation waves in 21% of polyps examined, which propagated among SCMs after exposure to acidified seawater. Our results showed that corals can regulate pHSCM more dynamically than was previously believed. These observations will have important implications for determining how corals regulate pHSCM during calcification. We propose that corals can sense ambient seawater pH via their innate pH-sensitive systems and regulate pHSCM using several unknown pH-regulating ion transporters that coordinate with multicellular signaling occurring in coral tissue.

  20. Experience with a new micro-applicator for laser surgery of recurrent polypous sinusitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgner, Justus F. R.; Westhofen, Martin

    2003-06-01

    Laser surgical methods as an alternative to conventional surgery for the treatment of recurrent chronic polypous sinusitis have been widely established over the past few years. While feedback-controlled contact laser application causes little disruption to the tissue, the minimal-invasive approach is limited by the accessibility of recurrent polyps. We employ a semi-rigid applicator for the guidance of the laser fiber with an outer diameter of 4 mm, whose tip can be adjusted and fixed in a flexible manner before or while accessing the operative field. In addition to the laser fiber channel, two further integrated channels can be used for laser plume suction and for introducing a flexible micro-endoscope with an outer diameter of 1.3 mm. This new device enables the surgeon to apply laser energy in close proximity to an endoscope and smoke suction channel even in regions with limited accessibility, such as the maxillary sinus bottom or the frontal sinus recess. The single-handed use facilitates maneuvering this device in narrow endonasal cavities. The integrated micro-applicator presented here widens the scope of operative options for endonasal laser surgery. In addition to a better access to all regions of the paranasal sinuses following conventional endonasal sinus surgery, its use for treating locally limited chronic polypous sinusitis via natural drainage pathways as a primary surgical procedure bears considerable potential for further evaluation.

  1. An aposymbiotic primary coral polyp counteracts acidification by active pH regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yoshikazu; Iguchi, Akira; Shinzato, Chuya; Inoue, Mayuri; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Corals build their skeletons using extracellular calcifying fluid located in the tissue–skeleton interface. However, the mechanism by which corals control the transport of calcium and other ions from seawater and the mechanism of constant alkalization of calcifying fluid are largely unknown. To address these questions, we performed direct pH imaging at calcification sites (subcalicoblastic medium, SCM) to visualize active pH upregulation in live aposymbiotic primary coral polyps treated with HCl-acidified seawater. Active alkalization was observed in all individuals using vital staining method while the movement of HPTS and Alexa Fluor to SCM suggests that certain ions such as H+ could diffuse via a paracellular pathway to SCM. Among them, we discovered acid-induced oscillations in the pH of SCM (pHSCM), observed in 24% of polyps examined. In addition, we discovered acid-induced pH up-regulation waves in 21% of polyps examined, which propagated among SCMs after exposure to acidified seawater. Our results showed that corals can regulate pHSCM more dynamically than was previously believed. These observations will have important implications for determining how corals regulate pHSCM during calcification. We propose that corals can sense ambient seawater pH via their innate pH-sensitive systems and regulate pHSCM using several unknown pH-regulating ion transporters that coordinate with multicellular signaling occurring in coral tissue. PMID:28098180

  2. Colonoscopic polyp detection using convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sun Young; Sargent, Dusty

    2016-03-01

    Computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for medical image analysis rely on accurate and efficient feature extraction methods. Regardless of which type of classifier is used, the results will be limited if the input features are not diagnostically relevant and do not properly discriminate between the different classes of images. Thus, a large amount of research has been dedicated to creating feature sets that capture the salient features that physicians are able to observe in the images. Successful feature extraction reduces the semantic gap between the physician's interpretation and the computer representation of images, and helps to reduce the variability in diagnosis between physicians. Due to the complexity of many medical image classification tasks, feature extraction for each problem often requires domainspecific knowledge and a carefully constructed feature set for the specific type of images being classified. In this paper, we describe a method for automatic diagnostic feature extraction from colonoscopy images that may have general application and require a lower level of domain-specific knowledge. The work in this paper expands on our previous CAD algorithm for detecting polyps in colonoscopy video. In that work, we applied an eigenimage model to extract features representing polyps, normal tissue, diverticula, etc. from colonoscopy videos taken from various viewing angles and imaging conditions. Classification was performed using a conditional random field (CRF) model that accounted for the spatial and temporal adjacency relationships present in colonoscopy video. In this paper, we replace the eigenimage feature descriptor with features extracted from a convolutional neural network (CNN) trained to recognize the same image types in colonoscopy video. The CNN-derived features show greater invariance to viewing angles and image quality factors when compared to the eigenimage model. The CNN features are used as input to the CRF classifier as before. We report

  3. Maspin, a Marker of Serrated Colorectal Polyps.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Carlos A; Kaufeldt, Ann; Björk, Jan; Jaramillo, Edgar

    2015-07-01

    The serine proteinase inhibitor maspin is a tumor-suppressor protein that stimulates apoptosis and inhibits motility, invasion and cancer metastasis. Mutant maspin galvanises partial loss of tumor-suppressor function, reducing susceptibility to apoptosis and facilitating malignant progression. Mutant maspin has been reported in many tumor types. We recently analyzed maspin expression in 128 colorectal lesions: 39 hyperplastic polyps (HPs), 29 sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps), three traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs), 20 conventional colorectal adenomas (CCRAs), 5 carcinomas evolving from CCRA, 12 active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 2 ulcerative colitis (UC) in remission, 4 solitary ulcers (rectum) and 12 normal colorectal mucosa. The topographic distribution of maspin in the cytoplasm was classified into i) extensive, ii) focal, or iii) negative. The intensity of maspin expression in the cytoplasm was classified into i) unquestionable or ii) negative. Cases with faint (questionable) maspin expression were also recorded as negative. Extensive maspin expression was recorded in 95% (39/41) of the HPs, in 100% (29/29) of the SSA/Ps (including one carcinoma arising in a SSA/P), in 66% (2/3) of the TSAs, but only in 10% (2/20) of the CCRAs. None of the specimens with carcinoma arising in CCRA, with UC in remission or with solitary ulcer exhibited extensive maspin expression. Importantly, maspin was not expressed in the normal mucosa (including that adjacent to HP, SSA/P, TSA and CCRA). It is submitted that extensive maspin expression might be a manifestation of mutant maspin in lesions central to the serrated pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  4. Aspects of dietary carbohydrate intake are not related to risk of colorectal polyps in the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Helen G; Ness, Reid M; Smalley, Walter E; Zheng, Wei; Shrubsole, Martha J

    2015-08-01

    High digestible carbohydrate intakes can induce hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and collectively have been implicated in colorectal tumor development. Our aim was to explore the association between aspects of dietary carbohydrate intake and risk of colorectal adenomas and hyperplastic polyps in a large case-control study. Colorectal polyp cases (n = 1,315 adenomas only, n = 566 hyperplastic polyps only and n = 394 both) and controls (n = 3,184) undergoing colonoscopy were recruited between 2003 and 2010 in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. Dietary intakes were estimated by a 108-item food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was applied to determine odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for colorectal polyps according to dietary carbohydrate intakes, after adjustment for potential confounders. No significant associations were detected for risk of colorectal adenomas when comparing the highest versus lowest quartiles of intake for total sugars (OR 1.03; 95 % CI 0.84-1.26), starch (OR 1.01; 95 % CI 0.81-1.26), total or available carbohydrate intakes. Similar null associations were observed between dietary carbohydrate intakes and risk of hyperplastic polyps, or concurrent adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. In this US population, digestible carbohydrate intakes were not associated with risk of colorectal polyps, suggesting that dietary carbohydrate does not have an etiological role in the early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  5. Aspects of dietary carbohydrate intake are not related to risk of colorectal polyps in the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Helen G; Ness, Reid M; Smalley, Walter E.; Zheng, Wei; Shrubsole, Martha J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose High digestible carbohydrate intakes can induce hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, and collectively have been implicated in colorectal tumor development. Our aim was to explore the association between aspects of dietary carbohydrate intake and risk of colorectal adenomas and hyperplastic polyps in a large case-control study. Methods Colorectal polyp cases (n=1,315 adenomas only, n=566 hyperplastic polyps only and n=394 both) and controls (n=3,184) undergoing colonoscopy were recruited between 2003 and 2010 in Tennessee, USA. Dietary intakes were estimated by a 108-item food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was applied to determine odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for colorectal polyps according to dietary carbohydrate intakes, after adjustment for potential confounders. Results No significant associations were detected for risk of colorectal adenomas when comparing the highest versus lowest quartiles of intake for total sugars (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.84–1.26), starch (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.81–1.26), total or available carbohydrate intakes. Similar null associations were observed between dietary carbohydrate intakes and risk of hyperplastic polyps, or concurrent adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. Conclusion In this US population, digestible carbohydrate intakes were not associated with risk of colorectal polyps, suggesting that dietary carbohydrate does not have an etiological role in the early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:26054912

  6. Management of malignant colonic polyps: a population-based analysis of colonoscopic polypectomy versus surgery.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Gregory S; Xu, Fang; Barnholtz Sloan, Jill S; Koroukian, Siran M; Schluchter, Mark D

    2012-02-01

    The management of colon polyps containing invasive carcinoma includes surgical resection or colonoscopic polypectomy. To date, there are very limited population-based data comparing outcomes with the 2 management approaches. Using the linked Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database, we identified 2077 patients aged ≥66 years with an initial diagnosis of stage T1N0M0 malignant polyp from 1992-2005. Patients were categorized as surgical or polypectomy depending on the most invasive treatment. To adjust for potential selection bias in treatment assignment, using multivariate analysis, patients were divided into quintiles of likelihood of polypectomy (propensity scores), and outcomes were compared in each quintile. Surgical resection was performed in 1340 (64.5%) patients and polypectomy was performed in 737 (35.5%) patients. Predictors for undergoing polypectomy (P<.001) included older age, greater comorbidity, no history of polyps, diagnosis in 2002 or later, left colon site of cancer, well-differentiated tumors, and colonoscopy performed in an outpatient setting. Both 1-year and 5-year survival were higher in the surgical group (92% and 75%, respectively) than in the polypectomy group (88% and 62%, respectively). The unadjusted hazard ratio was 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-1.74). After adjusting for propensity quintile, the hazard ratio was 1.15 (95% CI, 0.98-1.33). Within each propensity quintile, the risk of death was similar between the 2 groups (interaction test P = .96). In this large, population-based sample, more than one-third of patients with malignant polyps were treated with colonoscopic polypectomy. Outcomes were similar to surgical patients with comparable clinical characteristics and could be offered to patients who meet appropriate clinical criteria. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  7. Nasal polyps and middle turbinates epithelial cells sensitivity to amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Jornot, L; Rochat, T; Lacroix, J S

    2003-12-01

    Intranasal application of the antimycotic agent amphotericin B (AmphoB) has been proposed as an effective treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with polyps. AmphoB is a sterol-binding agent known to modify cell membrane structure. The cytotoxic effects of AmphoB were studied on primary human nasal epithelial cells in vitro. Human epithelial cells were isolated from nasal polyps and middle turbinates of patients suffering from CRS, and grown on collagen-coated polycarbonate filters with an air liquid-interface. After 15 days of culture, cells were exposed apically to 50 microM AmphoB during 4 h daily for 5 days. Some cells were treated during 4 weeks. The bioelectric properties of cells were then studied in Ussing chambers. Integrity of the cell monolayers was assessed by measurement of the transepithelial resistance (R) and immunofluorescent localization of the tight junction protein occludin. Disruption of the epithelial monolayer integrity was observed in all of the nasal polyps cell cultures, as demonstrated by a 60% drop in R. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed significant loss in cell number and disruption in the distribution of occludin. Turbinate cell cultures elicited no change in R and expression of occludin after AmphoB treatment. However, the transepithelial potential, the basal short-circuit current and the amiloride-sensitive current were reduced by 70%. AmphoB was cytotoxic for nasal polyp epithelial cells with disruption of the epithelium integrity and loss of tight junctions. In contrast, integrity of turbinate epithelial cells was conserved despite alterations in transepithelial ion transport. These observations may explain the beneficial effect of intranasal application of AmphoB on CRS observed in clinical trials.

  8. Uterine prolapse complicated with a giant cervical polyp.

    PubMed

    Massinde, Anthony Naju; Mpogoro, Filbert; Rumanyika, Richard Nyerere; Magoma, Moke

    2012-01-01

    Uterine prolapse with giant cervical polyp is a rare combination. Although uterine prolapse is common among elderly and menopausal women, giant cervical polyps are commonly encountered in young reproductive-age adults. A 55-year-old, para 7, Tanzanian woman, 7 months postmenopausal, presented with history of a protruding vaginal mass for 3 months. She also had a third-degree uterine prolapse with the cervix beyond the hymen and a huge, ulcerated, round mass on the anterior lip of the cervix. The mass had a large stalk, bled easily on touch, and measured approximately 6 × 6 cm in its largest diameter. The external cervical os and posterior cervical lip were identified and appeared normal. Transvaginal hysterectomy was performed with unremarkable recovery. Giant cervical polyp associated with uterine prolapse, although rare, can occur in menopausal women. Transvaginal hysterectomy as was done in this patient may be all that is required in benign polyps.

  9. Fully convolutional neural networks for polyp segmentation in colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandao, Patrick; Mazomenos, Evangelos; Ciuti, Gastone; Caliò, Renato; Bianchi, Federico; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Arezzo, Alberto; Stoyanov, Danail

    2017-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common and deadliest forms of cancer, accounting for nearly 10% of all forms of cancer in the world. Even though colonoscopy is considered the most effective method for screening and diagnosis, the success of the procedure is highly dependent on the operator skills and level of hand-eye coordination. In this work, we propose to adapt fully convolution neural networks (FCN), to identify and segment polyps in colonoscopy images. We converted three established networks into a fully convolution architecture and fine-tuned their learned representations to the polyp segmentation task. We validate our framework on the 2015 MICCAI polyp detection challenge dataset, surpassing the state-of-the-art in automated polyp detection. Our method obtained high segmentation accuracy and a detection precision and recall of 73.61% and 86.31%, respectively.

  10. Hypofibrinogenemia Caused by Hemocoagulase After Colon Polyps Excision

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai-Bo

    2017-01-01

    Case series Patient: — Final Diagnosis: Routine use of hemocoagulase for injection for the prevention of late-onset bleeding is not recommended for patients who have undergone excision of colon polyps. Hemocoagulase following excision of colon polyps can cause hypofibrinogenemia and even l Symptoms: Hematochezia Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Three patients also had lower gastrointestinal bleeding Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: In patients with large colon polyps, late-onset bleeding may be more likely to occur because of the larger cutting surface. In these patients, hemostatic agents may be applied to prevent the late-onset bleeding. A total of 7 patients developed hypofibrinogenemia caused by hemocoagulase following excision of colon polyps in our center from November to December 2015. Case Report: Seven patients underwent excision of colon polyps in our center from November to December 2015. The cutting face was large in these patients after surgery; therefore, hemocoagulase was used to prevent potential late-onset bleeding. Evaluation of clotting function showed that the fibrinogen level was normal before surgery in all 7 patients. Hemocoagulase was intravenously administered twice daily beginning from postoperative day 1. Hypofibrinogenemia of varying severity occurred 2–4 d later. Three patients also had lower-gastrointestinal bleeding. After drug withdrawal and infusion of fibrinogen, blood fibrinogen level gradually returned to normal. In contrast, among 13 patients who had not received hemocoagulase treatment for preventing hemorrhage following excision of colon polyps, detection of blood fibrinogen before surgery and 2–4 d after showed normal results. Conclusions: Routine use of Hemocoagulase For Injection for the prevention of late-onset bleeding is not recommended for patients who have undergone excision of colon polyps. Hemocoagulase following excision of colon

  11. Candidate determination for computer aided detection of colon polyps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitter, Ingmar; Aslam, Bushra; Huang, Adam; Summers, Ronald M.

    2005-04-01

    Given a segmented CT scan data of the colon represented as a triangle mesh, our water-plane algorithm will detect polyp candidates. The water-plane method comprises of pouring water into a polyp protrusion from the outside of the colon and in raising the "water-plane" until it cannot be incremented any further without causing water leakage. The method starts at a vertex and uses average normal of all triangles adjacent to the starting vertex to generate the initial water-plane, which will make the starting vertex "wet" but leave its neighboring vertices "dry". The method will continue to wet neighboring vertices one by one and then their neighbors and so on until the water-plane cannot move any further without causing water leakage. The water-plane movement alternates between just raising the water level in completely convex regions and tilting about one or two anchor vertices that have neighbors that would get wet if the water level was raised any more. The final set of wet vertices is a cluster that is an initial polyp candidate. The water-plane method was compared against the current polyp candidate detection method in our Computer Aided Detection of Colon Polyps software pipeline, called the surface curvature method. It finds clusters of connected vertices that all exhibit elliptical curvature. The water-plane method showed multiple improvements in polyp candidate detection. It detected polyp candidates missed by the surface curvature method. It exhibited continuous polyp candidate regions instead of non-uniform or incomplete regions detected by the surface curvature method. And finally, it avoided some false positive detections reported by surface curvature method.

  12. Sonographic Evaluation for Endometrial Polyps: The Interrupted Mucosa Sign.

    PubMed

    Kamaya, Aya; Yu, Pauline Chang; Lloyd, Carla Ramas; Chen, Bertha H; Desser, Terry S; Maturen, Katherine E

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the interrupted mucosa sign for identification of endometrial polyps, using pathologic confirmation as the reference standard, compared to other accepted sonographic findings. We reviewed 195 patients referred for pelvic sonographic evaluations for suspected endometrial polyps in this retrospective Institutional Review Board-approved study. Of these, 82 had tissue sampling of the endometrium and constituted the final study group. Patient data, including age, menopausal status, last menstrual period, and final pathologic diagnosis, were recorded. Sonograms were reviewed by 2 blinded board-certified radiologists for endometrial features, including thickness, echogenicity, vascularity, presence of a mass, and the interrupted mucosa sign. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. The mean age of the patients was 44.99 (SD, 9.88) years, 79.1% of whom were premenopausal. Pathologic diagnosis confirmed polyps in 58 (70.73%). A single feeding vessel was visualized in 36 patients with polyps (62.07%), whereas the interrupted mucosa sign was visualized in 34 (58.62%). The presence of a feeding vessel, the interrupted mucosa sign, or both detected 48 (82.76%) of the polyps. In the multivariate analysis, only the interrupted mucosa sign was a statistically significant predictor of pathologic diagnosis of a polyp (P= .035), with an odds ratio of 3.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-13.29). Other sonographic findings were not independent predictors of a polyp: mass (P = .35), single feeding vessel (P = .31), endometrial thickness (P = .88), and endometrial echogenicity (P = .45). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of the interrupted mucosa sign were 59%, 75%, and 85%, respectively. The interrupted mucosa sign is a promising sonographic sign for identification of endometrial polyps, with greater predictive power than previously described signs. It has the potential to improve the diagnostic performance

  13. A Complete System for Polyps Flagging in Virtual Colonoscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    in this paper) and curvedness as geometric features, applying fuzzy clustering and then using directional gradient concentration to reduce false...with a relative low false positives ( FP ) rate, using heuristic thresholds and texture features. Hong et al., [18], map the 3D surface to a rectangle...polyps submerged in fluid in the database, the results are very promising, achieving 96.4% sensitivity (over 28 polyps) with 1.1 FP per case. However

  14. Surgical versus medical interventions for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Joanne; Fokkens, Wytske; Chong, Lee Yee; Hopkins, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Nasal polyps cause nasal obstruction, discharge and reduction in or loss of sense of smell, but their aetiology is unknown. The management of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, aimed at improving these symptoms, includes both surgical and medical treatments, but there is no universally accepted management protocol. To assess the effectiveness of endonasal/endoscopic surgery versus medical treatment in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. We searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 20 February 2014. Randomised controlled trials of any surgical intervention (e.g. polypectomy, endoscopic sinus surgery) versus any medical treatment (e.g. intranasal and/or systemic steroids), including placebo, in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Meta-analysis was not possible due to the heterogeneity of the studies and the selective (incomplete) outcome reporting by the studies. Four studies (231 participants randomised) are included in the review. No studies were at low risk of bias. The studies compared different types of surgery versus various types and doses of systemic and topical steroids and antibiotics. There were three comparison pairs: (1) endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) versus systemic steroids (one study, n = 109), (2) polypectomy versus systemic steroids (two studies, n = 87); (3) ESS plus topical steroid versus antibiotics plus high-dose topical steroid (one study, n = 35). All participants also received topical steroids but doses and types were the same between the treatment arms of each study, except for the study using antibiotics. In that study, the medical treatment arm had higher

  15. The management of malignant polyps in colorectal cancer screening programmes: A retrospective Italian multi-centre study.

    PubMed

    Fasoli, Renato; Nienstedt, Richard; De Carli, Nicola; Monica, Fabio; Guido, Ennio; Valiante, Flavio; Armelao, Franco; de Pretis, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    Although recognition of colorectal malignant polyps is increasing, treatment plans lack the evidence of randomised trials. To retrospectively evaluate presentation, management and outcomes of screen-detected colorectal malignant polyps, with special focus on the role of histological factors in therapeutic decision-making. We retrospectively analysed data regarding malignant polyps detected during faecal immuno-chemical test-based screening programmes in five centres in North-Eastern Italy between April 2008 and April 2013. 306 malignant polyps in 306 patients were included; 72 patients underwent surgery directly (23.6%). Of 234 patients treated endoscopically, 133 subsequently underwent radicalisation surgery (56.8%) and in 17 there was evidence of residual disease (12.8%). Involved, unsafe (<1mm) or invaluable resection margins and sessile morphology represented the most frequent determinants of subsequent surgery. The mean number of nodes harvested during radicalisation surgery was 7.1±6.4 (range 0-29). Histological diagnosis was re-evaluated according to new guidelines in 125 cases (41%); in 18 this led to modification of the risk class (14.4%). Although the rate of surgical treatment following endoscopic resection is similar to other studies, residual disease at surgery was lower than most international series. Adhering to the new histological reporting system and respecting guidelines on node harvesting may favourably influence prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Myoepithelial and epithelial-myoepithelial, mesenchymal and fibroepithelial breast lesions: updates from the WHO Classification of Tumours of the Breast 2012.

    PubMed

    Tan, Puay Hoon; Ellis, Ian O

    2013-06-01

    In the 4th edition of the WHO Classification of Tumours of the Breast, myoepithelial lesions are retitled myoepithelial and epithelial-myoepithelial lesions in order to better reflect the dual participation of luminal and myoepithelial compartments in some key entities. Malignant myoepithelioma, described as a section within the chapter on myoepithelial lesions in the 3rd edition, is recognised in the 4th edition as part of metaplastic carcinoma. Adenomyoepithelioma with malignancy is categorised in terms of the cellular component undergoing malignant transformation. The list of antibodies that can be used for identifying myoepithelial cells is updated. Among mesenchymal lesions, new additions are nodular fasciitis and atypical vascular lesions, while the haemangiopericytoma is removed. The 3rd edition stated that pathological prediction of behaviour of phyllodes tumours is difficult in the individual case. In the 4th edition, some progress has been made in prioritisation and weighting of histological parameters that can potentially estimate probability of recurrence. The WHO Working Group advocates leaning towards a diagnosis of fibroadenoma in cases where there is histological uncertainty in distinction from a benign phyllodes tumour, or adopting the neutral term 'benign fibroepithelial neoplasm', as the clinical behaviour of fibroadenoma overlaps with that of benign phyllodes tumour. The 3rd edition terminology of 'periductal stromal sarcoma' is revised to 'periductal stromal tumour', akin to the widespread consensus to avoid the use of the term 'cystosarcoma' in the context of phyllodes tumours.

  17. Probability model for estimating colorectal polyp progression rates.

    PubMed

    Gopalappa, Chaitra; Aydogan-Cremaschi, Selen; Das, Tapas K; Orcun, Seza

    2011-03-01

    According to the American Cancer Society, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. Experts estimate that about 85% of CRCs begin as precancerous polyps, early detection and treatment of which can significantly reduce the risk of CRC. Hence, it is imperative to develop population-wide intervention strategies for early detection of polyps. Development of such strategies requires precise values of population-specific rates of incidence of polyp and its progression to cancerous stage. There has been a considerable amount of research in recent years on developing screening based CRC intervention strategies. However, these are not supported by population-specific mathematical estimates of progression rates. This paper addresses this need by developing a probability model that estimates polyp progression rates considering race and family history of CRC; note that, it is ethically infeasible to obtain polyp progression rates through clinical trials. We use the estimated rates to simulate the progression of polyps in the population of the State of Indiana, and also the population of a clinical trial conducted in the State of Minnesota, which was obtained from literature. The results from the simulations are used to validate the probability model.

  18. Automated synthesis, insertion and detection of polyps for CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezille, Nicolas; Sadleir, Robert J. T.; Whelan, Paul F.

    2003-03-01

    CT Colonography (CTC) is a new non-invasive colon imaging technique which has the potential to replace conventional colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. A novel system which facilitates automated detection of colorectal polyps at CTC is introduced. As exhaustive testing of such a system using real patient data is not feasible, more complete testing is achieved through synthesis of artificial polyps and insertion into real datasets. The polyp insertion is semi-automatic: candidate points are manually selected using a custom GUI, suitable points are determined automatically from an analysis of the local neighborhood surrounding each of the candidate points. Local density and orientation information are used to generate polyps based on an elliptical model. Anomalies are identified from the modified dataset by analyzing the axial images. Detected anomalies are classified as potential polyps or natural features using 3D morphological techniques. The final results are flagged for review. The system was evaluated using 15 scenarios. The sensitivity of the system was found to be 65% with 34% false positive detections. Automated diagnosis at CTC is possible and thorough testing is facilitated by augmenting real patient data with computer generated polyps. Ultimately, automated diagnosis will enhance standard CTC and increase performance.

  19. Computer-aided detection of colonic polyps using volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wei; Qiu, Feng; Marino, Joseph; Kaufman, Arie

    2007-03-01

    This work utilizes a novel pipeline for the computer-aided detection (CAD) of colonic polyps, assisting radiologists in locating polyps when using a virtual colonoscopy system. Our CAD pipeline automatically detects polyps while reducing the number of false positives (FPs). It integrates volume rendering and conformal colon flattening with texture and shape analysis. The colon is first digitally cleansed, segmented, and extracted from the CT dataset of the abdomen. The colon surface is then mapped to a 2D rectangle using conformal mapping. Using this colon flattening method, the CAD problem is converted from 3D into 2D. The flattened image is rendered using a direct volume rendering of the 3D colon dataset with a translucent transfer function. Suspicious polyps are detected by applying a clustering method on the 2D volume rendered image. The FPs are reduced by analyzing shape and texture features of the suspicious areas detected by the clustering step. Compared with shape-based methods, ours is much faster and much more efficient as it avoids computing curvature and other shape parameters for the whole colon wall. We tested our method with 178 datasets and found it to be 100% sensitive to adenomatous polyps with a low rate of FPs. The CAD results are seamlessly integrated into a virtual colonoscopy system, providing the radiologists with visual cues and likelihood indicators of areas likely to contain polyps, and allowing them to quickly inspect the suspicious areas and further exploit the flattened colon view for easy navigation and bookmark placement.

  20. Improvement of biochemical methods of polyP quantification

    PubMed Central

    Bru, Samuel; Jiménez, Javier; Canadell, David; Ariño, Joaquín; Clotet, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Polyphosphate (polyP) is an abundant and physiologically important biomolecule for virtually any living cell. Therefore, determination of changes in cellular content of polyP is crucial for its functional characterization. Determination of cellular polyP has been performed by many different methods, and the lack of a standardized procedure is possibly responsible for the large dispersion of results found in the relevant literature. For a relatively simple organism, such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this variation can be up to 12-fold. polyP extraction and determination of free phosphate released by enzymatic degradation of the polymer is a method quite common and relatively straightforward for polyP determination. By using the yeast S. cerevisiae as model, we have experimentally evaluated the different steps in this procedure in order to identify critical issues that might explain the disparate reported results. As the main output of this evaluation we propose a straightforward and robust procedure that can be used as gold standard protocol for cellular polyP purification and determination from unicellular organisms, thus providing consistency to measurements and facilitating inter-laboratory comparisons and biological interpretation of the results. PMID:28357384

  1. Increased expression of intelectin-1 in nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Ho; Park, Se-Jin; Cho, Jung-Sun; Moon, You-Mi; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sang Hag; Lee, Heung-Man

    2012-01-01

    Intelectin-1 is a new type of Ca(2+)-dependant soluble lectin in humans that has affinity for galactofuranose in carbohydrate chains of bacterial cell walls, indicating that intelectin-1 may play a role in immune defense against bacteria. The purpose of the current study was to determine the expression of intelectin-1 mRNA and protein and to localize intelectin-1 protein in nasal polyps and tissues from control subjects. Normal sphenoid sinus mucosa was obtained from 10 patients undergoing surgery for pituitary tumor. Nasal polyp samples were obtained from 10 patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic polypoid rhinosinusitis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for intelectin-1 mRNA. Immunofluorescent staining was done for localization of intelectin-1 and quantitatively analyzed using computer-based image analysis. Western blot analysis was performed. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that intelectin-1 expression in nasal polyps was increased compared with normal sinus mucosa. Using immunofluorescent staining, intelectin-1 was strongly stained in epithelium and submucosa of nasal polyps, and faint staining was found in normal sinus mucosa. Intelectin-1 is expressed in human sinus mucosa and is increased in patients with nasal polyps. These results suggest a possible contribution for intelectin-1 in the pathophysiology of nasal polyps.

  2. [Predictive significance of tissue eosinophilia for nasal polyp recurrence].

    PubMed

    Wang, C S; Lou, H F; Meng, Y F; Piao, Y S; Zhang, L

    2016-04-07

    To evaluate the association between clinical parameters, especially tissue eosinophilia, and chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) recurrence. To identify optimal criteria of tissue eosinophilia as a predictor for recurrence. Two hundred and forty-eight CRSwNP patients were enrolled in this study. The demographic and clinical features were compared between recurrence and no recurrence groups. Mucosal specimens were assessed for the presence of tissue inflammatory cells. Factors associated with polyp recurrence were analyzed by Logistic regression analysis and optimal cutoff point of the predictor for nasal polyp recurrence was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve. SPSS 19.0 software was used to analyze the data. The recurrence rate was 55.6%(138/248 patients) in this cohort. Tissue and peripheral eosinophilia, comorbid asthma, olfactory score and Lund-Mackay score were significantly correlated with polyp recurrence(all P<0.01). As a predictor for recurrence, tissue eosinophil accumulation outweighed other parameters. A cutoff value of 27% for tissue eosinophil percentage was able to predict recurrence with 96.4% sensitivity and 92.7% specificity (AUC=0.971, P<0.001). Tissue eosinophilia provides valuable information regarding to polyp recurrence. Tissue eosinophil proportion equal to or over 27% may be regarded as the prognostic criterion for nasal polyp recurrence.

  3. Ursodeoxycholic acid counteracts celecoxib in reduction of duodenal polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis: a multicentre, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to prophylactic colectomy, mortality in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has changed, with duodenal cancer currently being the main cause of death. Although celecoxib reduces duodenal polyp density in patients with FAP, its long-term use may increase the risk of cardiovascular events and alternatives need to be explored. Preclinical studies suggest that the combination of celecoxib with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a potentially effective strategy. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of celecoxib and UDCA co-treatment on duodenal adenomatosis in patients with FAP. Methods Patients with FAP received celecoxib (400 mg twice daily) and UDCA (1000-2000 mg daily, ~20-30 mg/kg/day, n=19) or celecoxib and placebo (n=18) orally for 6 months. Primary outcome was drug efficacy, assessed by comparing duodenal polyp density at pre- and post-intervention by blinded review of endoscopic recordings. As secondary outcomes, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and COX-2 levels in normal duodenal mucosa were assessed by immunohistochemistry or real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results In intention-to-treat analysis, deceased polyp density was observed after celecoxib/placebo treatment (p=0.029), whereas increased polyp density was observed after celecoxib/UDCA treatment (p=0.014). The difference in change in duodenal polyp density was statistically significant between the groups (p=0.011). No changes in secondary outcomes were observed. Thirty patients (81%) reported one or more adverse events, 16 patients (84%, Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (CTCAE) grade 1–3) treated with celecoxib/UDCA and 14 patients (78%, CTCAE grade 1–2) treated with celecoxib/placebo. Nine patients (24%) discontinued intervention prematurely, 5 patients (26%) treated with celecoxib/UDCA and 4 patients (22%) treated with celecoxib/placebo. Conclusions Celecoxib reduces duodenal

  4. An economic evaluation of outpatient versus inpatient polyp treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, L; Roberts, T E; Cooper, N A M; Middleton, L; Jowett, S; Daniels, J; Smith, P; Clark, T J

    2016-03-01

    To undertake a cost-effectiveness analysis of outpatient uterine polypectomy compared with standard inpatient treatment under general anaesthesia. Economic evaluation carried out alongside the multi-centre, pragmatic, non-inferiority, randomised controlled Outpatient Polyp Treatment (OPT) trial. The UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective was used in the estimation of costs and the interpretation of results. Thirty-one secondary care UK NHS hospitals between April 2008 and July 2011. Five hundred and seven women with abnormal uterine bleeding and hysteroscopically diagnosed endometrial polyps. Outpatient uterine polypectomy versus standard inpatient treatment. Clinicians were free to choose the technique for polypectomy within the allocated setting. Patient-reported effectiveness of the procedure determined by the women's self-assessment of bleeding at 6 months, and QALY gains at 6 and 12 months. Inpatient treatment was slightly more effective but more expensive than outpatient treatment, resulting in relatively high incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Intention-to-treat analysis of the base case at 6 months revealed that it cost an additional £9421 per successfully treated patient in the inpatient group and £ 1,099,167 per additional QALY gained, when compared with outpatient treatment. At 12 months, these costs were £22,293 per additional effectively treated patient and £445,867 per additional QALY gained, respectively. Outpatient treatment of uterine polyps associated with abnormal uterine bleeding appears to be more cost-effective than inpatient treatment at willingness-to-pay thresholds acceptable to the NHS. HTA-funded OPT trial concluded that outpatient uterine polypectomy is cost-effective compared with inpatient polypectomy. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. Risk Factors for Self-Reported Colon Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Henry S; Tatham, Lilith M; Thun, Michael J; Heath, Clark W

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate risk factors for colon polyp using multivariate analyses. DESIGN In a group responding to a 1992 mail survey, we assessed the association between physician-diagnosed colon polyp and possible risk factors reported primarily 10 years earlier. SETTING Survey respondents within the Cancer Prevention Study II. PARTICIPANTS Respondents, 72,868 men and 81,356 women, who reported no polyp diagnosis when questioned in 1982 at ages 40 to 64 years. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS The characteristics of 7,504 men (10.3%) and 5,111 women (6.3%) reporting a first colon polyp were compared with those of participants who did not report a polyp. After adjustments for age, family history of colorectal cancer, and other potential risk factors, polyp occurrence was associated with 1982 histories of smoking, former smoking, alcohol use of at least two drinks per day (odds ratios [ORs] from 1.5 to 1.1; all p < .005), and a body mass index ≥ 28 kg/m 2(men's OR 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00, 1.13; women's OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.99, 1.17). Polyps were also associated with a diagnosis of gallbladder disease or gallstone at any time and with gallbladder surgery up to 1982 (OR from 2.7 to 1.3; all p < .001). Polyp occurrence was inversely associated with 1982 histories of high exercise level (men's OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.76, 0.91; women's OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.78, 1.03), frequent aspirin use in women (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.77, 0.95), and high parity in women (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.75, 0.94). Among participants lacking a clinically normal gallbladder, the polyp risks associated with smoking and high body mass index were reduced (p < .04 for interactions). CONCLUSIONS Despite the limitations and potential biases in these self-reported data, the risk factors described here may be useful for identifying persons at modestly increased risk of having a colon polyp. The effect-modifying role of gallbladder status deserves further investigation. PMID:9613885

  6. Effect of intranasal treatment with capsaicin on the recurrence of polyps after polypectomy and ethmoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, C; Wang, Z; Lacroix, J S

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of five intranasal applications of capsaicin, performed after endoscopic polypectomy associated with partial middle turbinectomy and anterior ethmoidectomy, on the recurrence of nasal polyps and the intensity of nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea. Fifty-one patients (19 females, 32 males, mean age 43 years) suffering from nasal polyposis for more than 1 year were included in this double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. During post-surgical controls, local anaesthesia and vasoconstriction of the middle meatus area were performed in all patients with a cotton pellet soaked with lidocain and adrenaline. In 29 patients, the same type of cotton pellet soaked with capsaicin (3 x 10(-6) mol. dissolved in 70% ethanol) was left into the middle meatus of both nostrils for 20 min. As a control group, 22 patients, matched for age and sex, were treated with the capsaicin vehicle alone (70% ethanol). All patients studied received the intranasal treatment once a week for 5 weeks. Subjective evaluations of nasal airway resistance (NAR) and rhinorrhea were recorded by means of a visual analogue scale. Clinical staging of the nasal polyposis (graded from stage 0 = absence of polyp to stage 3 = polyps occupying the entire nasal cavity) was evaluated by the same ENT specialist (ZW) using a 0 degrees endoscope. All parameters were recorded for each patient 1 week before surgery, then once a month for 9 months. Patients treated by endoscopic surgery followed by intranasal capsaicin application, reported a marked reduction in their NAR compared with the pretreatment evaluation (p<0.001). In contrast, patients treated with the vehicle alone did not have any significant improvement of their subjective NAR. Subjective rhinorrhea was not modified by either treatment. Patients treated with capsaicin showed a significant smaller staging of their nasal polyposis compared with the control group (p<0.001). These observations suggest

  7. Epidemiology and differential diagnosis of nasal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Chaaban, Mohamad R.; Walsh, Erika M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is one of the most common chronic medical conditions, with a significant impact on patient quality of life. CRS is broadly classified into two groups: CRS with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) and CRS without NP (CRSsNP). Clinically, the major subtypes of CRSwNP may be divided into eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (e.g., allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease [AERD]) and nasal polyps associated with neutrophilic inflammation (e.g., cystic fibrosis [CF]). CF is characterized by mutation of the gene encoding the CF transmembrane conductance regulator. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery is usually required for most NP patients with increased frequency in patients with AERD. This study provides a review of the epidemiology and major classification of CRSwNP. Methods: A review was performed of the literature regarding different subtypes of CRSwNP. Results: Many definitions of CRSwNP exist and estimates of prevalence vary. Conclusion: CRSwNP is a clinical syndrome with a heterogeneous inflammatory profile. Of the subtypes associated with eosinophilic inflammation, AERD remains the most recalcitrant to medical and surgical therapeutic interventions. PMID:24274222

  8. Factors Influencing the Recurrence Potential of Benign Endometrial Polyps after Hysteroscopic Polypectomy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jehn-Hsiahn; Chen, Chin-Der; Chen, Shee-Uan; Yang, Yu-Shih; Chen, Mei-Jou

    2015-01-01

    An endometrial polyp is a frequently encountered gynecologic disease with abnormal uterine bleeding and infertility being the two common presenting problems, and hysteroscopic polypectomy is an effective method to remove them. The postoperative polyp recurrence might result in reappearance of abnormal uterine bleeding or infertility, whereas factors influencing the postoperative recurrence potential have limited data. This case-series report included 168 premenopausal women who suffered from endometrial polyps and underwent hysteroscopic polypectomy. All of them were awaiting a future pregnancy. Office hysteroscopy was done before and after hysteroscopic polypectomy, in which preoperative hysteroscopy examined the number, type, and location of endometrial polyps, and postoperative hysteroscopy checked the polyp recurrence. Surgical indications, either infertility or the presentation of abnormal uterine bleeding, and follow-up duration were recorded. Seventy-three out of 168 (43%) women had polyp recurrence after hysteroscopic polypectomy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that more endometrial polyps (P = 0.015) and longer duration of follow-up (P = 0.004) were significantly associated with an increased risk of postoperative polyp recurrence. The type of endometrial polyps was not correlated with polyp recurrence potential, whereas pedunculated type endometrial polyps were closely related to the presentation of abnormal uterine bleeding (P = 0.001). A higher number of endometrial polyps and longer follow-up duration are associated with a greater potential of polyp recurrence after hysteroscopic polypectomy.

  9. A study of oral contrast coating on the surface of polyps: an implication for computer-aided detection and classification of polyps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harmanpreet; Li, Lihong C.; Pomeroy, Marc; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Barish, Matthew A.; Harrington, Donald P.; Liang, Zhengrong

    2017-03-01

    Accurate identification of polyps is the ultimate goal of Computed Tomography Colonography (CTC). While oral contrast agents were originally used to tag stool and fluid for the ultimate goal of CTC, recently their effect on coating the surface of polyps has been observed. This study aims to evaluate (1) the frequency at which the oral contrast adhered to polyp surfaces and (2) if there was a difference in contrast adherence with respect to diverse polyp types. To eliminate gravity as a factor in this study, the polyps in contact with tagged fluid pools, particularly on the bottom of the colon wall were excluded. A total of 150 polyps were selected under the above condition from a CTC database and screened for any adherent contrast on the luminal edge. Among the total, 53% of the screened polyps had adherent contrast. Serrated adenomas and hyperplastic polyps had a higher tagging percentage, 77.80% and 62.50% respectively, than tubular adenomas and tubulovillous adenomas, 44.40% and 43% respectively. Other factors that were analyzed for the effect on coating include size and location of the polyps. The higher tagging percentage of serrated adenomas and hyperplastic polyps may be due to their similar cellular features. The average size of the polyps was 8.9 mm. When the polyps were separated by size into small (5-9mm) and large (10-26mm) groups, the large group had a higher tagging percentage. The polyp types were also classified by location with the major findings being: 1) Tubular adenomas were present in all segments of the colon and 2) that serrated adenomas were present at a higher percentage in the proximal colon. These findings shall facilitate characterizing tagging agents and improve computer aided detection and classification of polyps via CTC.

  10. Middle ear polyps: results of traction avulsion after a lateral approach to the ear canal in 62 cats (2004-2014).

    PubMed

    Janssens, Sara Ds; Haagsman, Annika N; Ter Haar, Gert

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to report the surgical outcome and complication rate of deep traction avulsion (TA) of feline aural inflammatory polyps after a lateral approach (LA) to the ear canal. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of data retrieved from an electronic database of 62 cats treated with TA after an LA (TALA) for removal of ear canal polyps. Long-term outcome was assessed via a telephone questionnaire survey with the owners. Results Domestic shorthair cats (48%) and Maine Coons (37%) were over-represented. The most common presenting clinical signs were otorrhoea, ear scratching and head shaking. Video-otoscopic examination confirmed a polypous mass in the ear canal in all patients. All 62 cats underwent TALA, with a mean surgical time of 33 mins for experienced surgeons (n = 4) and 48 mins (n = 12) for less experienced surgeons. The recurrence rate of polyp regrowth for experienced surgeons was 14.3% vs 35% for the less experienced surgeons. Postoperative complications included Horner's syndrome (11.5%) and facial nerve paralysis (3%). Otitis interna was not observed. Conclusions and relevance A lateral approach to the ear canal in combination with deep TA of an aural inflammatory polyp is an effective first-line technique that results in a low recurrence and complication rate.

  11. Role of allergy in nasal polyps of Thai patients.

    PubMed

    Pumhirun, P; Limitlaohapanth, C; Wasuwat, P

    1999-03-01

    As distinct from many countries, allergy in Thailand is of the perennial type which may play a role in the formation of nasal polyps. Forty consecutive patients with nasal polyps and 30 normal subjects as control were studied at the Allergy Clinic, Department of Otolaryngology, Pramongkutklao Hospital. A positive clinical history and skin allergy testing are diagnostic criteria for allergy. In the nasal polyps group, these were 28 males and 12 females, aged between 12-65 years, with an average age of 38.5 years. In the control group, there were 18 males and 12 females, aged between 15-53 yeas, with an average age of 34 years. All had received prick skin testing with 6 common aeroallergens. The prick skin test was considered positive when the wheal was > or = 3 mm with surrounding erythema. Twenty-four of 40 patients (60%) with nasal polyps had a positive prick skin test, while 6 in the 30 control cases (20%) had a positive prick skin test. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.0019), Odd's ratio = 6.0 which means allergic persons were 6 times more prone to have polyps form than normal persons.

  12. Serrated polyps of right colon: guilty or innocent?

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, George; Tzathas, Charalampos

    2013-01-01

    In recent years a lot of interest has been focused on a specific category of polyps, the so-called serrated polyps which until recently were categorized with the hyperplastic or mixed polyps and were thought to have no risk of malignant transformation. Recently though, the serrated pathway of carcinogenesis was discovered and destroyed this myth. It is believed that up to one third of all colorectal cancers arise through the serrated pathway; these cancers occur more often in the proximal colon and have specific molecular characteristics. Specific subtypes of serrated polyps (mainly the sessile serrated adenomas/polyps) are thought to be precursor lesions of these cancers. The prevention of these cancers is a challenge for gastroenterologists because their location and endoscopic characteristics renders them difficult to detect. Also, although there is a clear need for creating a specific post-polypectomy surveillance program for these lesions, to date there have been no guidelines for surveillance with a high level of evidence. In this article the main molecular, endoscopic, histological and epidemiologic characteristics of these lesions are presented, as well as recommendations for surveillance. PMID:24714424

  13. [Taste and smell senses estimation in patients with nasal polyps].

    PubMed

    Dzaman, Karolina; Pleskacz, Witold A; Wałkanis, Andrzej; Rapiejko, Piotr; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was estimation of taste and smell senses functioning in patients with nasal polyps and the analysis of correlation between taste and smell perception threshold and polyps size. The study included 86 persons. The 35 of them were patients of Otolaryngology Department of Warsaw Military Institute with nasal polyps diagnosis. There were 51 healthy people as a control group. The smell perception examination was performed using Elsberg-Levy method in Pruszewicz modification. The gustatory function was investigated using gustatory method by Börstein and electrogustometry. The Börstein method based on four substances (each of them in three increasing concentrations) related to four basic tastes: sweet (glucose), bitter (chininum hydrochloride), sour (citric acid) and salty (sodium chloride). The taste feeling threshold (POS), that meant the lowest concentration of each solution being correctly recognized by a person, was noticed for each taste. For quantitative estimation of taste perception threshold we included impulse electrogustometry with bipolar electrode. In our study the taste disturbances were observed, depending on kind of taste, in 20-70% cases in gustometry and for 13 patients in electrogustometry. Abnormal olfactory results we diagnosed in more then 57% patients. We did not confirmed correlation between taste perception threshold and polyps size but polyps size influenced on olfactory results. Smell and taste disturbances are very often symptoms of nasal polyposis. The taste and olfactory estimation ought to be integral part of routine patient examination in otolaryngology department.

  14. Visceral Obesity If Associated with Gallbladder Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Kyu; Hahn, Suk Jae; Kang, Hyoun Woo; Jung, Jae Gu; Choi, Han Seok; Lee, Jin Ho; Han, In Woong; Jung, Jin-Hee; Kwon, Jae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Gallbladder polyps (GBP) are a common clinical finding and may possess malignant potential. We conducted this study to determine whether visceral obesity is a risk factor for GBP. Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of subjects who received both ultrasonography and computed tomography with measurements of the areas of visceral adipose tissue and total adipose tissue (TAT) on the same day as health checkups. Results Ninety-three of 1,615 subjects (5.8%) had GBP and were compared with 186 age- and sex-matched controls. VAT (odds ratio [OR], 2.941; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.325 to 6.529; p=0.008 for the highest quartile vs the lowest quartile) and TAT (OR, 3.568; 95% CI, 1.625 to 7.833; p=0.002 for the highest quartile vs the lowest quartile) were independent risk factors together with hypertension (OR, 2.512; 95% CI, 1.381 to 4.569; p=0.003), diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.942; 95% CI, 1.061 to 8.158; p=0.038), hepatitis B virus positivity (OR, 3.548; 95% CI, 1.295 to 9.716; p=0.014), and a higher level of total cholesterol (OR, 2.232; 95% CI, 1.043 to 4.778; p=0.039 for <200 mg/dL vs ≥240 mg/dL). Body mass index and waist circumference were not meaningful variables. Conclusions Visceral obesity measured by VAT and TAT was associated with GBP irrespective of body mass index or waist circumference. PMID:26260756

  15. Phosphohistone H3 expression correlates with manual mitotic counts and aids in identification of "hot spots" in fibroepithelial tumors of the breast.

    PubMed

    Ginter, Paula S; Shin, Sandra J; Liu, Yifang; Chen, Zhengming; D'Alfonso, Timothy M

    2016-03-01

    Classification of mammary fibroepithelial tumors (FETs) relies on assessment of mitotic activity, among other histopathologic parameters. Routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) mitotic counts can be subjective and time consuming. Difficulty may arise in identifying "true" mitoses for a variety of reasons. Phosphorylation of histone H3 protein (PHH3) is correlated with mitotic chromatin condensation. The utility of PHH3 immunohistochemical staining to identify mitoses has been demonstrated in multiple organ systems. In this study, we examined the utility of PHH3 in assessing mitotic activity in FETs and compared PHH3- with H&E-determined mitotic counts. PHH3-stained mitoses were readily identifiable at ×10 magnification and allowed for rapid identification of mitotic "hot spots." Median mitotic counts/10 high-power fields for fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes tumor, borderline phyllodes tumor (BlnPT), and malignant phyllodes tumor (MPT) were 0, 0.5, 4.25, and 9, respectively on H&E, and 0, 0.75, 4.5, and 8, respectively for PHH3. Among all FETs, there was a strong positive correlation between H&E- and PHH3-determined mitotic counts (r=0.91, P<.001). Using PHH3, 2 cases would be reclassified, both from BlnPT to MPT. PHH3-determined counts correlated with H&E-determined counts in FETs. Using PHH3, a small number of cases were reclassified from BlnPT to MPT, for which treatment is similar. Although H&E-determined counts remain the criterion standard for assessing mitotic activity in FETs, PHH3 may be a useful adjunctive tool in some cases and is helpful in identifying mitotic hot spots.

  16. Does hyoscine butylbromide really improve polyp detection during colonoscopy? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Pei-Jing; Yao, Jing; Han, Hua-Zhong; Zhao, Yi-Jun; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the benefits of hyoscine butylbromide in polyp detection during colonoscopy by a meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: Databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the Science Citation Index up to September 2013, were searched. The primary outcome was polyp detection rate, and the secondary outcome was adenoma detection rate. The meta-analysis was performed using the free software Review Manager. Differences observed between the treated and the control groups were expressed as odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). A fixed-effects model was used to pool data when statistical heterogeneity was absent. If statistical heterogeneity was present (P < 0.05), a random-effects model was used. RESULTS: The initial search identified nine articles. After screening, five RCTs with a total of 1998 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Of the five studies, all described a comparison of baseline patient characteristics and showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Among the 1998 patients, 1006 received hyoscine butylbromide and 992 were allocated to the control group, and the polyp detection rate was reported. There were no significant differences between the treated and the control group (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.91-1.31, P = 0.33). Four RCTs included 1882 patients, of whom 948 received hyoscine butylbromide, and the adenoma detection rate was reported. There were no significant differences between the treated and the control group (OR = 1.13, 95%CI: 0.92-1.38, P = 0.24). CONCLUSION: The use of hyoscine butylbromide did not significantly improve the polyp detection rate during colonoscopy. PMID:24944499

  17. Meat and meat-mutagen intake, doneness preference and the risk of colorectal polyps: the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Aesun; Shrubsole, Martha J; Ness, Reid M; Wu, Huiyun; Sinha, Rashmi; Smalley, Walter E; Shyr, Yu; Zheng, Wei

    2007-07-01

    Although meat intake has been fairly consistently linked to the risk of colorectal cancer, only a few studies have evaluated meat intake by doneness level and the heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by high temperature cooking of meat in relation to colorectal adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. We evaluated these associations in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Included in this study were participants with adenomatous polyp only (n = 573), hyperplastic polyp only (n = 256), or both adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps (n = 199), and 1,544 polyp-free controls. In addition to information related to demographic and other lifestyle factors, meat intake by cooking method and doneness preference were obtained through telephone interviews. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for the association between exposures and colorectal polyp risks. Presence of hyperplastic polyp was found to be positively associated with high consumption of total meat (p(trend) = 0.076) or red meat (p(trend) = 0.060), with an approximate 50-60% elevated risk observed in the highest vs. the lowest intake group. High intake of 2-amino-I-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo [4,5]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) were associated with increased risk for hyperplastic polyp (p(trend) = 0.036 and 0.038, respectively). With a possible exception of the intake of total well-done meats (p(trend) = 0.055) or well-done red meats (p(trend) = 0.074) with the risk of large adenomas, no other positive association was found specifically for the risk of adenomas with any of the exposure variables aforementioned. This study provides additional support for a positive association of high intake of red meat with colorectal adenomas, and suggests that high intake of meats and meat carcinogens may also be associated with hyperplastic polyps.

  18. Gastric Polyps: A Review of Clinical, Endoscopic, and Histopathologic Features and Management Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Rafiul Sameer; Patel, Neal C.; Lam-Himlin, Dora

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of endoscopy has led to more discernable abnormalities in the stomach, including polyps. Gastric polyps encompass a spectrum of pathologic conditions that can vary in histology, neoplastic potential, and management. Despite their high prevalence, there is a paucity of literature to support management and treatment decisions for endoscopists. The goal of this review is to summarize clinical, endoscopic, and histopathologic features of various polyps, review syndromes associated with such polyps, and provide management recommendations. PMID:24764778

  19. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection and its eradication on the fate of gastric polyps.

    PubMed

    Nam, Su Youn; Park, Bum Joon; Ryu, Kum Hei; Nam, Ji Hyung

    2016-04-01

    Western guidelines recommend Helicobacter pylori eradication in H. pylori-associated gastric polyps, but Korean medical insurance does not approve its eradication. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of H. pylori eradication on gastric polyps. Participants in a large screening cohort underwent baseline and follow-up esophagogastroduodenoscopy and H. pylori testing. The association between gastric polyps and H. pylori was estimated using odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for confounding factors and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The effect of H. pylori eradication on the fate of polyps was also evaluated. The screening cohort included 7603 participants (605 gastric polyps: 529 hyperplastic polyps, 63 fundic gland polyps, and 13 adenomas). H. pylori infection showed a positive association with hyperplastic polyps (OR 2.01; 95% CI 1.66-2.41), but was inversely related to fundic gland polyps (OR 0.05; 95% CI 0.02-0.17). Removed polyps by biopsy or endoscopic resection or tiny polyps less than 3 mm at baseline and positive conversion of H. pylori at follow-up were excluded. A total of 7060 persons were finally included to evaluate the effect of H. pylori eradication on the gastric polyp. Successful H. pylori eradication (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.35-0.77) and persistent H. pylori-negative status (OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.46-0.76) reduced the risk of hyperplastic polyps compared with the persistent H. pylori-positive group. Successful H. pylori eradication markedly induced the disappearance of hyperplastic polyps compared with the persistent H. pylori-positive group (85.0 vs. 29.0%, P=0.001). H. pylori infection increased the risk of hyperplastic polyps in both cross-sectional and longitudinal settings, and its eradication induced regression of hyperplastic polyps.

  20. Could Eosinophilia predict clinical severity in nasal polyps?

    PubMed

    Aslan, Figen; Altun, Eren; Paksoy, Serpil; Turan, Gulay

    2017-01-01

    Although nasal polyps are one of the most frequent diseases, their etiopathogenesis remains unclear.Since eosinophils are the main inflammatory cells in the substantial proportion of nasal polyp tissues, they are considered potentially responsible for the etiopathogenesis and prognosis of the disease. Aim of this study was to investigate the relation between mucosal and peripheral eosinophilia and their relation with disease severity in nasal polyps. The study included 53 patients with nasal polyps who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. Preoperative Lund-MacKay computed tomography (CT) scores and the Lund-Kennedy endoscopic scores of the patients were recorded. Nasal polyp tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, eosinophil counts were performed using high-power field (HPF, 400×) under the light microscope, and the patients were grouped as those with high mucosal eosinophil count and those with low mucosal eosinophil count. The mean Lund-MacKay CT score and the mean Lund-Kennedy endoscopic score were higher in the patients with high mucosal eosinophil count than in those with low mucosal eosinophil count. Likewise, the mean Lund-MacKay CT score and the mean Lund-Kennedy endoscopic scores were significantly higher in the patients with high peripheral eosinophil count than in those with low peripheral eosinophil count (p < 0.05 for both). Moreover, the mean peripheral eosinophil count was significantly higher in the patients with high mucosal eosinophil count than in those with low mucosal eosinophil count (p < 0.05). Mucosal and peripheral eosinophilia can be used as a marker to predict disease severity in nasal polyps.

  1. Quality of optical diagnosis of diminutive polyps and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Heiko; Bensen, Steve P; Toor, Arifa; Gordon, Stuart R; Levy, L Campbell; Anderson, Peter B; Anderson, Joseph C; Rothstein, Richard I; Robertson, Douglas J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to identify endoscopist-related and procedural factors that may be associated with the quality of optical diagnosis of diminutive polyps using narrow-band imaging (NBI). All subjects who participated in a randomized trial on cap-assisted colonoscopy were eligible for the current study. Optical polyp diagnosis was an a priori outcome of the initial trial. Ten participating endoscopists used NBI to assess all of the diagnosed polyps as adenomatous or non-adenomatous in real-time and provided a degree of diagnostic certainty. The main outcome measures were quality benchmarks of optical diagnosis (negative predictive value [NPV] for diminutive rectosigmoid adenomas, agreement with pathology-based surveillance interval) and assessment of endoscopist-related and procedural factors potentially associated with the quality of optical diagnosis. A total of 1650 polyps were found in 607 patients, with 1311 polyps (79 %) being diminutive, of which 672 (53 %) were adenomatous. The NPV of optical diagnosis for rectosigmoid adenomas was 95 %. The optical diagnosis-based surveillance interval agreed with the pathology-based recommendation in 93 % of patients. Prior experience with image-enhanced endoscopy had no effect on optical diagnosis. Low and high adenoma detectors were not different in achieving the quality benchmarks. Cap-assisted colonoscopy was not associated with quality of optical diagnosis. Quality metrics of optical diagnosis remained similar during the first and second half of the study period. High quality optical diagnosis of diminutive polyps can be achieved and sustained by endoscopists previously inexperienced in this practice with minimal training. None of the examined factors appear to affect the quality of optical diagnosis; particularly, endoscopists' adenoma detection was not associated with optical diagnosis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Treatment for Vocal Polyps: Lips and Tongue Trill.

    PubMed

    de Vasconcelos, Daniela; Gomes, Adriana de Oliveira Camargo; de Araújo, Cláudia Marina Tavares

    2017-03-01

    Vocal polyps do not have a well-defined therapeutic indication. The recommended treatment is often laryngeal microsurgery, followed by postoperative speech therapy. Speech therapy as the initial treatment for polyps is a new concept and aims to modify inappropriate vocal behavior, adjust the voice quality, and encourage regression of the lesion. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the sonorous lips and tongue trill technique in the treatment of vocal polyps. The sample consisted of 10 adults diagnosed with a polyp who were divided into two subgroups: treatment and control. Ten speech therapy sessions were conducted, each lasting 30-45 minutes, based on the sonorous lips and tongue trill technique, accompanied by continuous guidance about vocal health. Speech therapy was effective in three of the five participants. The number of symptoms presented by the participants decreased significantly after voice therapy (P = 0.034) and vocal self-evaluation (P = 0.034). The acoustic evaluation showed improvements in parameters of noise values (P = 0.028) and jitter (P = 0.034). The size of the polyp and the degree of severity of dysphonia, hoarseness, and breathiness showed a significant reduction after treatment (P = 0.043). Among the remaining two participants, one opted out of laryngeal surgery, indicating that the improvement obtained was sufficient to avoid surgery. The sonorous lips and tongue trill technique was thus considered effective in 60% of the participants, and as laryngeal surgery was avoided in 80% of them, it should be considered a treatment option for vocal polyps. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Colorectal polyp model established by transplacental BMP4 RNAi

    PubMed Central

    JIN, XIN; CHEN, ZHONGMEI; XIANG, LI; LUO, QING; GUO, ZHENGHUA; DING, XIONGHUI; JIN, XIANQING

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that disruption of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway is an important cause of intestinal cancer in human and animal models. Thus, the purpose of this study was to construct a Balb/C model of colorectal polyps. Pregnant mice at 9.5 days gestation were injected via the tail vein with the pSES-Si BMP4 plasmid bearing a fluorochrome (DsRed) reporter, in order to silence the BMP4 gene in the first generation (F1); this group of mice was named the pSES-BMP4 group Intestinal fluorescence was detected at 1-, 4- and 8-week-old F1 mice, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western-blotting assays were used to determine changes in the expression of BMP4. A dissecting microscope and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining were used to observe the cell morphology and appearance of the polyps. DsRed fluorescence was observed in the intestines of 1-week-old F1 mice of the pSES-BMP4 group. BMP4 expression at the mRNA and protein level was reduced in 1-, 4- and 8-week-old F1 mice (P<0.05). However, the level of Smad4 mRNA was only reduced in 8-week-old F1 mice (P<0.05). Multiple hyperplasic polyps emerged in the colon and rectum of the intestines of 4-week-old F1 mice in the pSES-BMP4 group. The size of colorectal polyps increased at 8 weeks, when vessels and polyp pedicles became apparent. In conclusion, silencing of the BMP4 gene using transplacental RNAi injection can induce formation of colorectal polyps in mice. PMID:24806485

  4. Aberrant Gene Expression Profile of Unaffected Colon Mucosa from Patients with Unifocal Colon Polyp

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Jingjing; Ma, Lili; Yang, Jiayin; Xu, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate gene expression profiles in unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp to investigate the potential mucosa impairment in normal-appearing colon mucosa from these patients. Material/Methods Colon polyp patients were prospectively recruited. We obtained colon biopsies from the normal-appearing sites and polyp tissue through colonoscopy. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays. Gene ontology and clustering were evaluated by bioinformatics. Results We detected a total of 711 genes (274 up-regulated and 437 down-regulated) in polyp tissue and 256 genes (170 up-regulated and 86 down-regulated) in normal-appearing colon mucosa, with at least a 3-fold of change compared to healthy controls. Heatmapping of the gene expression showed similar gene alteration patterns between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue. Gene ontology analyses confirmed the overlapped molecular functions and pathways of altered gene expression between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp. The most significantly altered genes in normal-appearing tissues in polyp patients include immune response, external side of plasma membrane, nucleus, and cellular response to zinc ion. Conclusions Significant gene expression alterations exist in unaffected colon mucosa from patients with unifocal colon polyp. Unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue share great similarity and overlapping of altered gene expression profiles, indicating the potential possibility of recurrence of colon polyps due to underlying molecular abnormalities of colon mucosa in these patients. PMID:26675397

  5. Identification of non-neoplastic and neoplastic gastric polyps using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shanghai; Kang, Deyong; Xu, Meifang; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2012-12-01

    Gastric polyps can be broadly defined as luminal lesions projecting above the plane of the mucosal surface. They are generally divided into non-neoplastic and neoplastic polyps. Accurate diagnosis of neoplastic polyps is important because of their well-known relationship with gastric cancer. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) is one of the most important recent inventions in biological imaging. In this study, we used MPM to image the microstructure of gastric polyps, including fundic gland polyps, hyperplastic polyps, inflammatory fibroid polyps and adenomas, then compared with gold-standard hematoxylin- eosin(H-E)-stained histopathology. MPM images showed that different gastric polyps have different gland architecture and cell morphology. Dilated, elongated or branch-like hyperplastic polyps are arranged by columnar epithelial cells. Inflammatory fibroid polyps are composed of small, thin-walled blood vessels surrounded by short spindle cells. Fundic glands polyps are lined by parietal cells and chief cells, admixed with normal glands. Gastric adenomas are generally composed of tubules or villi of dysplastic epithelium, which usually show some degree of intestinal-type differentiation toward absorptive cells, goblet cells, endocrine cells. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be used to identify non- neoplastic and neoplastic gastric polyps without the need of any staining procedure.

  6. Pedunculated hamartomatous polyp of the appendix: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Nozoe, Tadahiro; Mori, Emiko; Iguchi, Tomohiro; Kohno, Mayuko; Maeda, Takashi; Matsukuma, Akito; Sueishi, Katsuo; Ezaki, Takahiro

    2013-02-01

    We experienced a rare case of a pedunculated polyp of the appendix, which had been incidentally found by preventive appendectomy performed when providing surgical treatment for rectal carcinoma. A pathological investigation of this polypoid lesion demonstrated branches of fibro-muscular stalks connecting with the lamina muscularis covered by a hyperplastic mucosa, which proved to be consistent with the features of hamartoma. The patient had no external characteristics of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, including mucocutaneous pigmentation and gastrointestinal polyposis, observed by endoscopy. This case is considered to be a Peutz-Jeghers type polyp of the appendix with a pedunculated form, which is very rare.

  7. Irukandji jellyfish polyps exhibit tolerance to interacting climate change stressors.

    PubMed

    Klein, Shannon G; Pitt, Kylie A; Rathjen, Kristen A; Seymour, Jamie E

    2014-01-01

    Increasing ocean temperatures and strengthening boundary currents have caused the poleward migration of many marine species. Cubozoan jellyfish known to cause Irukandji syndrome have historically been confined to tropical waters but may be expanding into subtropical regions. Here, we examine the interactive effects of warming and acidification on the population dynamics of polyps of an Irukandji jellyfish, Alatina nr mordens, and the formation of statoliths in newly metamorphosed medusae, to determine if this jellyfish could tolerate future conditions predicted for southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia. Two experiments, examining the orthogonal factors of temperature and pH, were undertaken. Experiment 1 mimicked the current, ca. 2050 and ca. 2100 summer temperature and pH conditions predicted for SEQ using A1F1 scenarios (temperature: 25, 27, 29 °C; pH: 7.9, 7.8, 7.6) and Experiment 2 mimicked current and future winter conditions (18 and 22 °C, pH 7.9, 7.8, 7.6). All polyps in Experiment 1 survived and budded. Fewer polyps budded in the lower pH treatments; however, patterns varied slightly among temperature treatments. Statoliths at pH 7.6 were 24% narrower than those at pH 7.8 and 7.9. Most polyps survived the winter conditions mimicked by Experiment 2 but only polyps in the 22 °C, pH 7.9 treatment increased significantly. The current absence of A. nr mordens medusae in SEQ, despite the polyps' ability to tolerate the current temperature and pH conditions, suggests that ecological, rather than abiotic factors currently limit their distribution. Observations that budding was lower under low pH treatments suggest that rates of asexual reproduction will likely be much slower in the future. We consider that A. nr mordens polyps are likely to tolerate future conditions but are unlikely to thrive in the long term. However, if polyps can overcome potential ecological boundaries and acidification proceeds slowly A. nr mordens could expand polewards in the short

  8. Association of Gallbladder Polyp and Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Hua; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gallbladder polyp (GP) and stroke share several metabolic disorders as risk factors. We assessed the association between GP and subsequent stroke risk. From 2000 to 2011, patients with GP aged >20 years were identified from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. Of the 15,975 examined patients, 12,780 and 3195 were categorized into the non-GP and GP cohorts, respectively. The relative risks of stroke were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities. The overall incidence of stroke was higher in the GP cohort than in the non-GP cohort (6.66 vs 5.20/1000 person-yr), with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15–1.42). The risk of stroke was 1.32-fold (95% CI = 1.06–1.63) in patients with GP compared with patients without GP after adjusting for age, sex, income level, urbanization level, occupation and comorbidities of gallstone, alcohol-related illness, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obesity, COPD, coronary heart disease, and asthma. Furthermore, the stroke risk was higher among elderly patients (with 1-yr intervals; adjusted HR [aHR] = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.05–1.07), the male sex (aHR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.35–1.96), lower income level (aHR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.02–1.85 for level I; aHR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.25–2.10 for level II), living in second urbanized areas (aHR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.00–1.63), alcohol-related illness (aHR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.07–2.28), diabetes (aHR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.41–2.24), and hypertension (aHR = 2.74, 95% CI = 2.19–3.42). GP is associated with stroke; however, GP may be less influential than other risk factors are, such as male sex, lower income level, alcohol-related illness, diabetes, and hypertension, on stroke development. Additional studies are required to clarify whether GP is a risk factor for or an epiphenomenon of stroke development. PMID

  9. Induction of nasal polyps using house dust mite and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Khalmuratova, R; Lee, M; Kim, D W; Park, J-W; Shin, H-W

    2016-01-01

    The murine polyp model was developed previously using ovalbumin and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB). Here, we established a model mimicking key aspects of chronic eosinophilic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps using the house dust mite (HDM), a clinically relevant aeroallergen, co-administered with SEB. We assessed the inflammatory response and formation of nasal polypoid lesions in an experimental murine model using intranasal delivery of HDM and ovalbumin. After induction of HDM-induced allergic rhinosinusitis in C57BL/6 mice, SEB (10ng) was instilled into the nasal cavity of mice for eight weeks. Phosphate-buffered saline-challenged mice served as control. Histopathological changes were evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin for overall inflammation, Sirius red for eosinophils, and periodic acid-Schiff stain for goblet cells. The distribution of mast cells in mouse nasal tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Serum total IgE was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared to mice treated with HDM only, the HDM+SEB-treated mice demonstrated nasal polypoid lesion formation and a significant increase in the number of secretory cells and eosinophilic infiltration. Moreover, mice challenged intranasally with HDM showed highly abundant mast cells in the nasal mucosa. In contrast, OVA+SEB-challenged mice showed a significantly lower degree of mast cell infiltration. We established an in vivo model of chronic allergic rhinosinusitis with nasal polypoid lesions using HDM aeroallergen. This study demonstrated that the HDM+SEB-induced murine polyp model could be utilised as a suitable model for nasal polyps, especially with both eosinophil and mast cell infiltration. Copyright © 2015 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Hamartomatous polyps - a clinical and molecular genetic study.

    PubMed

    Jelsig, Anne Marie

    2016-08-01

    Hamartomatous polyps (HPs) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are rare compared to other types of GI polyps, yet they are the most common type of polyp in children. The symptoms are usually rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, obstipation, anaemia, and/or small bowel obstruction. The polyps are typically removed concurrently with endoscopy when located in the colon, rectum, or stomach, whereas polyps in the small bowel are removed during push-enteroscopy, device-assisted enteroscopy, or by surgery. HPs can be classified as juvenile polyps or Peutz-Jeghers polyps based on their histopathological appearance. Patients with one or a few juvenile polyps are usually not offered clinical follow-up as the polyp(s) are considered not to harbour any malignant potential. Nevertheless, it is important to note that juvenile polyps and HPs are also found in patients with hereditary hamartomatous polyposis syndromes (HPS). Patients with HPS have an increased risk of cancer, recurrences of polyps, and extraintestinal complications. The syndromes are important to diagnose, as patients should be offered surveillance from childhood or early adolescence. The syndromes include juvenile polyposis syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and the PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome. Currently, the HPS diagnoses are based on clinical criteria and are often assisted with genetic testing as candidate genes have been described for each syndrome. This thesis is based on six scientific papers. The overall aim of the studies was to expand the knowledge on clinical course and molecular genetics in patients with HPs and HPS, and to investigate research participants' attitude towards the results of extensive genetic testing.   Paper I: In the first paper we investigated the occurrence, anatomic distribution, and other demographics of juvenile polyps in the colon and rectum in Denmark in 1995-2014. Based on the Danish Pathology Data Bank we found that 1772 patients had 2108 JPs examined in the period, and we

  11. Low rate of large polyps (>9 mm) within 10 years after an adequate baseline colonoscopy with no polyps

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, David; Holub, Jennifer L.; Morris, Cynthia D.; Logan, Judith; Williams, J. Lucas; Carney, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Guidelines recommend a 10 year interval between screening colonoscopies with negative results for average-risk individuals. However, many patients are examined at shorter intervals. We investigated outcomes of individuals with no polyps who had repeat colonoscopy in less than 10 years. Methods Data were collected using the National Endoscopic Database, from 69 gastroenterology centers, on 264,184 asymptomatic subjects who underwent screening colonoscopies from 2000 through 2006, were found to have no polyps, and received another colonoscopy examination within less than 10 years. Results No polyps were found in 147,375 patients during a baseline colonoscopy; 17,525 patients (11.9%) had a follow-up colonoscopy within less than 10 years, including 1806 (10.3%) who received the follow-up colonoscopy within less than 1 year. The most common reason for repeating the examination within 1 year was that the first was compromised by inadequate bowel preparation or incomplete examination. Of these patients, 6.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.3–7.6) had large polyp(s) >9 mm—a proportion similar to the prevalence in the average-risk screening population. Reasons that examinations were repeated within 1–5 years included average-risk screening (15.7%), family history of colon polyps or cancer (30.1%), bleeding (31.2%), gastrointestinal symptoms (11.8%), or a positive result from a fecal blood test (5.5%). If the baseline exam was adequate, the incidence of large polyps within 1–5 years after baseline colonoscopy was 3.1% (95% CI, 2.7–3.5) and within years 5–10 years was 3.7% (95% CI, 3.3–4.1). Conclusions Repeat colonoscopies within 10 years are of no benefit to patients who had adequate examinations and were found to have no polyps. Repeat colonoscopies are beneficial to patients when the baseline examination was compromised. PMID:24768680

  12. Effects of filtering on colorectal polyp detection in ultra low dose CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonenberg, Gert A.; de Vries, Ayso; Grigorescu, Simona; Peters, Joost; Vilanova, Anna; Truyen, Roel; Stoker, Jaap; Gerritsen, Frans

    2006-03-01

    We have evaluated the feasibility of polyp detection on simulated ultra low dose CT Colonography data by a computer aided polyp detection (CAD) algorithm. We compared the results of ultra low dose to normal dose data. Twenty-three extensively prepared patients were scanned in prone and supine position at 25 to 100 mAs (average 70 mAs) depending on their waist circumference. Noise was added and the scans were reconstructed at 6.25 and 1.39 mAs. To evaluate the performance of the CAD system, polyps detected by an experienced reviewer and confirmed at colonoscopy were used as ground truth. Curvature, concavity and sphericity of the colon surface were used to detect polyp candidates. Bilateral filtering was used to reduce noise. We present the results for 40 polyps of 6 mm or larger as measured during colonoscopy. The by-polyp sensitivity was 80% for medium size polyps (6-9 mm) and 97% for large polyps (10 mm or larger) at an average value of 5 false-positives per scan for normal dose data. The by-polyp sensitivity was 81% for medium size polyps and 85% for large size polyps at an average value of 5 false-positives per scan for low dose data (6.25 mAs). Finally for the ultra low dose data (1.39 mAs) we achieved a by-polyp sensitivity of 75% for medium size polyps and 97% for large polyps at an average value of 5 false-positives per scan. The conclusion of our study is that CAD for polyp detection is feasible on ultra low dose CT colonography data.

  13. Diagnostic value of high-resolution micro-endoscopy for the classification of colon polyps

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Tao; Qu, Ya-Wei; Shu, Juan; Liu, Min-Li; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study a new imaging equipment, high-resolution micro-endoscopy (HRME), in the diagnosis and pathological classification of colon polyps. METHODS: We selected 114 specimens of colon polyps, 30 of which were colon polyps with known pathological types and 84 that were prospective polyp specimens; 10 normal colon mucosa specimens served as controls. We obtained images of 30 colon polyp specimens with known pathological types using HRME and analyzed the characteristics of these images to develop HRME diagnostic criteria for different pathological types of colon polyps. Based on these criteria, we performed a prospective study of 84 colon polyp specimens using HRME and compared the results with those of the pathological examination to evaluate the diagnostic value of HRME in the pathological classification of different types of colon polyps. RESULTS: In the 30 cases of known pathological type of colon polyp samples, there were 21 cases of adenomatous polyps, which comprised nine cases of tubular adenoma, seven cases of villous adenoma and five cases of mixed adenomas. The nine cases of non-adenomatous polyps included four cases of inflammatory polyps and five cases of hyperplastic polyps five. Ten cases of normal colonic mucosa were confirmed pathologically. In a prospective study of 84 cases using HRME, 23 cases were diagnosed as inflammatory polyps, 11 cases as hyperplastic polyps, 18 cases as tubular adenoma, eight cases as villous adenoma and 24 cases as mixed adenomas. After pathological examination, 24 cases were diagnosed as inflammatory polyps, 11 cases as hyperplastic polyps, 19 cases as tubular adenoma, eight cases as villous adenoma and 22 cases as mixed adenomas. Compared with the pathological examinations, the sensitivities, specificities, accuracies, and positive and negative predictive values of HRME in diagnosing inflammatory polyps (87.5%, 96.7%, 94.0%, 91.3% and 95.1%), hyperplastic polyps (72.7%, 95.9%, 92.9%, 72.7% and 95.9%), tubular adenomas

  14. Sporadic adenomatous polyp regression with exisulind is effective but toxic: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, dose‐response study

    PubMed Central

    Arber, N; Kuwada, S; Leshno, M; Sjodahl, R; Hultcrantz, R; Rex, D

    2006-01-01

    Background and aim A 12 month, multicentre, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, phase 3, dose‐response study was carried out. Exisulind inhibits tumour growth by induction of apoptosis. The aim of our study was to investigate if exisulind induces regression of sporadic colonic adenomas. Patients and methods A 12 month multicentre randomised double blind placebo controlled phase 3 dose response study was carried out. At baseline colonoscopy, left sided polyps (3–10 mm) were tattooed, measured, and left in place. Subjects received exisulind 200 or 400 mg, or placebo daily. Follow up sigmoidoscopy was performed after six months, and removal of any remaining polyps at the 12 month colonoscopy. The primary efficacy variable was change in polyp size from baseline. Results A total of 281 patients were enrolled and randomised; 155 (55%) fulfilled the criteria for the intention to treat (ITT) analysis and 114 (41%) fulfilled the criteria for the efficacy evaluation analysis (patients who underwent the 12 month colonoscopy). The decrease in median polyp size was significantly greater (p = 0.03) in patients who received exisulind 400 mg (−10 mm2) compared with those who received placebo (−4 mm2). Complete or partial response was significantly higher in the exisulind 400 mg group (54.6%) compared with the placebo group (30.2%), and disease progression was significantly lower (6.1% v 27.9%) (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Increased liver enzymes (8.4%) and abdominal pain (14.7%) were also reported at a greater frequency in the exisulind 400 mg group. Conclusion Exisulind caused significant regression of sporadic adenomatous polyps but was associated with more toxicity. This model of polyp regression, short in its term and involving a comparatively small patient sample size, may be the best available tool to assess a therapeutic regimen before launching into large preventive clinical studies. PMID:16150858

  15. Real-time optical diagnosis for diminutive colorectal polyps using narrow-band imaging: the VALID randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kaltenbach, Tonya; Rastogi, Amit; Rouse, Robert V; McQuaid, Kenneth R; Sato, Tohru; Bansal, Ajay; Kosek, Jon C; Soetikno, Roy

    2015-10-01

    Diminutive (≤ 5 mm) colorectal polyps are common, and overwhelmingly benign. Routinely, after polypectomy, they are examined pathologically to determine the surveillance intervals. Advances in equipment and techniques, such as narrow-band imaging (NBI) colonoscopy, now permit reliable real-time optical diagnosis. We conducted a randomised single-masked study involving three institutions to determine whether optical diagnosis of diminutive colorectal polyps meets clinical practice standards and reduces the need for histopathology. We randomly assigned eligible patients undergoing routine high-definition colonoscopy to optical diagnosis using near focus versus standard view, using computer-generated block sequence. By validated criteria, we rendered an optical diagnosis and a confidence level (high vs low) for all polyps, using NBI. Our primary endpoint was the number of accurate high-confidence optical diagnoses compared with central blinded pathology in the two groups. We analysed data using intention to treat. We enrolled 558 subjects, and randomly assigned 281 to near focus and 277 to standard view optical diagnosis. We detected 1309 predominantly diminutive (74.5%) and neoplastic (60.0%) polyps. Endoscopists were significantly more likely, OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.0, p<0.0001), to make a high-confidence optical diagnosis with near focus (85.1%) than standard (72.6%) view. High-confidence diagnoses had 96.4% and 92.0% negative predictive value, respectively. Of all polyps, 75.3% (95% CI71.3% to 78.9%) had a high-confidence accurate prediction using near focus, compared with 63.1% (95% CI 58.5% to 67.6%) using standard view. Optical versus histopathological diagnosis showed excellent agreement between the surveillance intervals, 93.5% in near focus and 92.2% in standard view. The median diagnosis time was 14 s. Real-time optical diagnosis using NBI colonoscopy may replace the pathology diagnosis for the majority of diminutive colorectal polyps. Using colonoscopy

  16. Staphylococcal protein A-formulated immune complexes suppress enterotoxin-induced cellular responses in nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Okano, Mitsuhiro; Fujiwara, Tazuko; Kariya, Shin; Haruna, Takenori; Higaki, Takaya; Noyama, Yasuyuki; Makihara, Sei-ichiro; Kanai, Kengo; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have revealed that Staphylococcus aureus and its components participate in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic airway diseases, such as chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. We sought to determine whether staphylococcal protein A (SpA) from S aureus regulated cellular responses in nasal polyps, especially when coupled to immunoglobulins in immune complexes (ICs). Dispersed nasal polyp cells (DNPCs) or peripheral blood monocytes were cultured in vitro with SpA in the presence or absence of IgG, and IL-5, IL-13, IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-10 levels were measured in the supernatants. The effect of SpA exposure on staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced cytokine production by DNPCs in the presence and absence of IgG, IgA, and autologous serum was also examined. Exposure to SpA induced DNPCs to produce significantly higher IL-10, IL-13, and IL-17A levels than DNPCs without SpA, although the magnitude of the IL-17A increase was less than that of IL-10 and IL-13. SpA induced IL-10 production mainly from adherent DNPCs, and this was significantly enhanced in the presence of IgG; similar results were observed in peripheral blood monocytes. IC formation between SpA and IgG (SpA-IgG ICs) was confirmed by using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. SpA-IgG ICs, but not SpA alone, almost completely suppressed staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced IL-5, IL-13, IFN-γ, and IL-17A production by DNPCs; similar inhibition was observed in DNPCs treated with SpA in the presence of either IgA or autologous serum. Our results suggest that SpA can regulate the pathogenesis of enterotoxin-induced inflammation in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps through coupling to immunoglobulins. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Racial variation in colorectal polyp and tumor location.

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Julia Gore; Morris, Arden M.; Thornton, John Daryl; Flowers, Christopher R.; McCashland, Timothy M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer among whites have decreased, but they have remained unchanged among African Americans. To explain this disparity, we used the multicenter endoscopy database of the Clinical Outcomes Research Initiative to compare the prevalence of proximal polyps and tumors among asymptomatic African Americans and whites undergoing routine screening colonoscopy. METHODS: African Americans and whites undergoing colonoscopy between January 1, 2002 and September 30, 2003 were considered for analysis. RESULTS: There were 145,175 index colonoscopy reports on unique patients. After applying exclusion criteria, 46,726 patients remained for analysis. Adjusting for age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists level, bowel preparation and endoscopic setting, African Americans were less likely to have polyps [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.70-0.84]. However, the odds of having proximal polyps was higher in African Americans (OR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.11-1.52) compared to whites. In regards to tumors, African Americans were more likely to have tumors (OR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.14-2.77) and more likely to have proximal tumors than whites (OR = 4.37; 95% CI: 1.16-16.42). CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for confounders, African Americans undergoing screening colonoscopy in multiple practice settings had higher odds of proximal polyps and tumors than whites, suggesting current colorectal cancer screening recommendations in African Americans should be expanded. PMID:17668638

  18. Pulp polyp associated with a natal tooth: case report.

    PubMed

    Vergotine, Rodney J; Hodgson, Brian; Lambert, Lance

    2009-01-01

    Natal teeth are an infrequent occurrence at birth. Often these teeth are extracted because they are very mobile and pose a risk of aspiration. This is a rare case in which a natal tooth was extracted by the pediatrician with his fingers. A root fragment remained and out of this developed a large pulp polyp. This relationship has not been previously reported.

  19. [Sporadic colorectal polyps. Updated guidelines for endoscopic surveillance].

    PubMed

    Björk, Jan; Börjesson, Lars; Hertervig, Erik; Lindmark, Gudrun; Ost, Ake

    2003-08-21

    No surveillance is recommended after radical excision of low-risk adenomas (pedunculated adenoma irrespective of size, sessile adenoma < or = 10 mm, number < or = 2. An endoscopic check-up is recommended 3-6 months after radical excision of high-risk adenomas (sessile adenoma > 10 mm, number > or = 3), as well as after excision of a pedunculated or a sessile adenoma with an unclear resection margin. All above is irrespective of histopathological adenoma classification. An endoscopic check-up is recommended 3 months after radical excision of a highly or moderately differentiated malignant polyp with no sign of invasion into blood or lymph vessels and with a maximum invasion depth stage T1-sm1. Surgical resection is necessary if the malignant polyp is poorly differentiated, and/or invades into blood or lymph vessels, and/or is stage T1-sm3, or is excised with unclear resection margins. Treatment for stage T1-sm2 polyps may be individualized. Individuals with low-risk adenomas and a first degree relative with colorectal cancer, individuals having high-risk adenomas or malignant polyps removed, as well as individuals operated on for colorectal cancer should be subjected to colonoscopy after three years and then every fifth year when < or = 75 years of age.

  20. Aragonite precipitation by "proto-polyps" in coral cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Mass, Tali; Drake, Jeana L; Haramaty, Liti; Rosenthal, Yair; Schofield, Oscar M E; Sherrell, Robert M; Falkowski, Paul G

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of coral calcification at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels are poorly understood. In this study, we examine calcium carbonate precipitation using novel coral tissue cultures that aggregate to form "proto-polyps". Our goal is to establish an experimental system in which calcification is facilitated at the cellular level, while simultaneously allowing in vitro manipulations of the calcifying fluid. This novel coral culturing technique enables us to study the mechanisms of biomineralization and their implications for geochemical proxies. Viable cell cultures of the hermatypic, zooxanthellate coral, Stylophora pistillata, have been maintained for 6 to 8 weeks. Using an enriched seawater medium with aragonite saturation state similar to open ocean surface waters (Ω(arag)~4), the primary cell cultures assemble into "proto-polyps" which form an extracellular organic matrix (ECM) and precipitate aragonite crystals. These extracellular aragonite crystals, about 10 µm in length, are formed on the external face of the proto-polyps and are identified by their distinctive elongated crystallography and X-ray diffraction pattern. The precipitation of aragonite is independent of photosynthesis by the zooxanthellae, and does not occur in control experiments lacking coral cells or when the coral cells are poisoned with sodium azide. Our results demonstrate that proto-polyps, aggregated from primary coral tissue culture, function (from a biomineralization perspective) similarly to whole corals. This approach provides a novel tool for investigating the biophysical mechanism of calcification in these organisms.

  1. Mast cells are an essential hematopoietic component for polyp development

    PubMed Central

    Gounaris, Elias; Erdman, Susan E.; Restaino, Clifford; Gurish, Michael F.; Friend, Daniel S.; Gounari, Fotini; Lee, David M.; Zhang, Guoying; Glickman, Jonathan N.; Shin, Kichul; Rao, Varada P.; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Weissleder, Ralph; McNagny, Kelly M.; Khazaie, Khashayarsha

    2007-01-01

    It is generally agreed that most colon cancers develop from adenomatous polyps, and it is this fact on which screening strategies are based. Although there is overwhelming evidence to link intrinsic genetic lesions with the formation of these preneoplastic lesions, recent data suggest that the tumor stromal environment also plays an essential role in this disease. In particular, it has been suggested that CD34+ immature myeloid precursor cells are required for tumor development and invasion. Here we have used mice conditional for the stabilization of β-catenin or defective for the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene to reinvestigated the identity and importance of tumor-infiltrating hematopoietic cells in polyposis. We show that, from the onset, polyps are infiltrated with proinflammatory mast cells (MC) and their precursors. Depletion of MC either pharmacologically or through the generation of chimeric mice with genetic lesions in MC development leads to a profound remission of existing polyps. Our data suggest that MC are an essential hematopoietic component for preneoplastic polyp development and are a novel target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:18077429

  2. Management of malignant colon polyps: Current status and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Aarons, Cary B; Shanmugan, Skandan; Bleier, Joshua IS

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer remains a significant clinical problem worldwide and in the United States it is the third most common cancer diagnosed in men and women. It is generally accepted that most malignant neoplasms of the colon arise from precursor adenomatous polyps. This stepwise progression of normal epithelium to carcinoma, often with intervening dysplasia, occurs as a result of multiple sequential, genetic mutations-some are inherited while others are acquired. Malignant polyps are defined by the presence of cancer cells invading through the muscularis mucosa into the underlying submucosa (T1). They can appear benign endoscopically but the presence of malignant invasion histologically poses a difficult and often controversial clinical scenario. Emphasis should be initially focused on the endoscopic assessment of these lesions. Suitable polyps should be resected en-bloc, if possible, to facilitate thorough evaluation by pathology. In these cases, proper attention must be given to the risks of residual cancer in the bowel wall or in the surrounding lymph nodes. If resection is not feasible endoscopically, then these patients should be referred for surgical resection. This review will discuss the important prognostic features of malignant polyps that will most profoundly affect this risk profile. Additionally, we will discuss effective strategies for their overall management. PMID:25473171

  3. Primary pulmonary carcinoid tumor with metastasis to endometrial polyp

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Mazdak; Kolev, Valentin; Costin, Dan; Mizrachi, Howard H.; Chuang, Linus; Warner, Richard R.P.; Gretz, Herbert F.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION A carcinoid tumor occurring in the endometrium has been documented in the literature, but there is no report in regard to carcinoid tumor metastasis to endometrium. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of a malignant carcinoid metastasis to an endometrial polyp. Patient underwent hysteroscopy, and polypectomy. The pathology demonstrated an endometrial polyp containing a 4 mm x 5 mm nodule of metastatic carcinoid tumor, consistent with metastasis from patient's known pulmonary carcinoid. The tumor was morphologically similar to the tumors of the right lung, with similar immune-profile. DISCUSSION This patient presented with a suspicious pelvic ultrasound. Due to her age, the first priority was to exclude uterine cancer. The endometrial polyp, which was found, had a small focus of metastatic carcinoid tumor. To the best of our knowledge, this finding has not been previously recorded in the literature. Our patient also had a history of metastatic carcinoid tumor to breast. This finding is also very uncommon. CONCLUSION This is the first case in the literature described a malignant carcinoid metastasis to an endometrial polyp. PMID:23127865

  4. Glycoprotein expression by adenomatous polyps of the colon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roney, Celeste A.; Xie, Jianwu; Xu, Biying; Jabour, Paul; Griffiths, Gary; Summers, Ronald M.

    2008-03-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. Specificity in diagnostic imaging for detecting colorectal adenomas, which have a propensity towards malignancy, is desired. Adenomatous polyp specimens of the colon were obtained from the mouse model of colorectal cancer called adenomatous polyposis coli-multiple intestinal neoplasia (APC Min). Histological evaluation, by the legume protein Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-1), determined expression of the glycoprotein α-L-fucose. FITC-labelled UEA-1 confirmed overexpression of the glycoprotein by the polyps on fluorescence microscopy in 17/17 cases, of which 13/17 included paraffin-fixed mouse polyp specimens. In addition, FITC-UEA-1 ex vivo multispectral optical imaging of 4/17 colonic specimens displayed over-expression of the glycoprotein by the polyps, as compared to non-neoplastic mucosa. Here, we report the surface expression of α-L-fucosyl terminal residues by neoplastic mucosal cells of APC specimens of the mouse. Glycoprotein expression was validated by the carbohydrate binding protein UEA-1. Future applications of this method are the development of agents used to diagnose cancers by biomedical imaging modalities, including computed tomographic colonography (CTC). UEA-1 targeting to colonic adenomas may provide a new avenue for the diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma by CT imaging.

  5. Automated classification of colon polyps in endoscopic image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Sebastian; Palm, Stephan; Tischendorf, Jens J. W.; Behrens, Alexander; Trautwein, Christian; Aach, Til

    2012-03-01

    Colon cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in the US. In recent years, however, early diagnosis and treatment have caused a significant rise in the five year survival rate. Preventive screening is often performed by colonoscopy (endoscopic inspection of the colon mucosa). Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) is a novel diagnostic approach highlighting blood vessel structures on polyps which are an indicator for future cancer risk. In this paper, we review our automated inter- and intra-observer independent system for the automated classification of polyps into hyperplasias and adenomas based on vessel structures to further improve the classification performance. To surpass the performance limitations we derive a novel vessel segmentation approach, extract 22 features to describe complex vessel topologies, and apply three feature selection strategies. Tests are conducted on 286 NBI images with diagnostically important and challenging polyps (10mm or smaller) taken from our representative polyp database. Evaluations are based on ground truth data determined by histopathological analysis. Feature selection by Simulated Annealing yields the best result with a prediction accuracy of 96.2% (sensitivity: 97.6%, specificity: 94.2%) using eight features. Future development aims at implementing a demonstrator platform to begin clinical trials at University Hospital Aachen.

  6. Polyp detection rate and pathological features in patients undergoing a comprehensive colonoscopy screening

    PubMed Central

    Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan; Ashtari, Sara; Pourhoseingholi, Mohmad Amin; Chaleshi, Vahid; Anaraki, Fakhrosadat; Haghazali, Mehrdad; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify the prevalence, and clinical and pathologic characteristic of colonic polyps among Iranian patients undergoing a comprehensive colonoscopy, and determine the polyp detection rate (PDR) and adenoma detection rate (ADR). METHODS In this cross-sectional study, demographics and epidemiologic characteristics of 531 persons who underwent colonoscopies between 2014 and 2015 at Mehrad gastrointestinal clinic were determined. Demographics, indication for colonoscopy, colonoscopy findings, number of polyps, and histopathological characteristics of the polyps were examined for each person. RESULTS Our sample included 295 (55.6%) women and 236 (44.4%) men, with a mean age of 50.25 ± 14.89 years. Overall PDR was 23.5% (125/531). ADR and colorectal cancer detection rate in this study were 12.8% and 1.5%, respectively. Polyps were detected more significantly frequently in men than in women (52.8% vs 47.2%, P < 0.05). Polyps can be seen in most patients after the age of 50. The average age of patients with cancer was significantly higher than that of patients with polyps (61.3 years vs 56.4 years, P < 0.05). The majority of the polyps were adenomatous. More than 50% of the polyps were found in the rectosigmoid part of the colon. CONCLUSION The prevalence of polyps and adenomas in this study is less than that reported in the Western populations. In our patients, distal colon is more susceptible to developing polyps and cancer than proximal colon. PMID:28251034

  7. Preoperative predictive factors for gallbladder cholesterol polyp diagnosed after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for polypoid lesions of gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyojin; Park, Inseok; Cho, Hyunjin; Gwak, Geumhee; Yang, Keunho; Bae, Byung-Noe; Kim, Hong-Ju; Kim, Young Duk

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims We investigated patients' clinical and radiological data to determine preoperative factors that predict cholesterol gallbladder (GB) polyps of large size, which can be helpful for decision on further diagnostic tools. Methods In this study, we retrospectively analyzed 126 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for GB polyps >10 mm diagnosed preoperatively by abdominal ultrasonography between February 2002 and February 2016 in Department of Surgery, Sanggye Paik Hospital. Patients were divided into non-cholesterol polyps group and cholesterol polyps group, based on the postoperative pathologic diagnosis. Clinical and radiological data, such as gender, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), laboratory findings, size, number and shape of the polypoid lesions, and presence of the concurrent GB stone were compared between the two groups. Results Of the 126 cases, 73 had cholesterol polyps (57.9%) and 53 cases were non-cholesterol polyps (42.1%). The younger age (<48.5 years), size of polyp <13.25 mm and multiple polyps were independent predictive variables for cholesterol polyps, with odd ratios (OR) of 2.352 (p=0.045), 5.429 (p<0.001) and 0.472 (p<0.001), respectively. Conclusions Age, size and polyp number were used to predict cholesterol GB polyp among polypoid lesions of the gallbladder >10 mm. For cases in which these factors are not applicable, it is strongly recommended to evaluate further diagnostic tools, such as computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasonography and tumor markers. PMID:28261697

  8. Deep learning for polyp recognition in wireless capsule endoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yixuan; Meng, Max Q-H

    2017-04-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) enables physicians to examine the digestive tract without any surgical operations, at the cost of a large volume of images to be analyzed. In the computer-aided diagnosis of WCE images, the main challenge arises from the difficulty of robust characterization of images. This study aims to provide discriminative description of WCE images and assist physicians to recognize polyp images automatically. We propose a novel deep feature learning method, named stacked sparse autoencoder with image manifold constraint (SSAEIM), to recognize polyps in the WCE images. Our SSAEIM differs from the traditional sparse autoencoder (SAE) by introducing an image manifold constraint, which is constructed by a nearest neighbor graph and represents intrinsic structures of images. The image manifold constraint enforces that images within the same category share similar learned features and images in different categories should be kept far away. Thus, the learned features preserve large intervariances and small intravariances among images. The average overall recognition accuracy (ORA) of our method for WCE images is 98.00%. The accuracies for polyps, bubbles, turbid images, and clear images are 98.00%, 99.50%, 99.00%, and 95.50%, respectively. Moreover, the comparison results show that our SSAEIM outperforms existing polyp recognition methods with relative higher ORA. The comprehensive results have demonstrated that the proposed SSAEIM can provide descriptive characterization for WCE images and recognize polyps in a WCE video accurately. This method could be further utilized in the clinical trials to help physicians from the tedious image reading work. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. Feasibility of coblation versus laser resection in recurrent nasal polyps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgner, Justus; Schramm, Karsten; Duwel, Philip; Donner, Andreas; Westhofen, Martin

    2005-04-01

    Introduction: Chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps is one of the commonest diseases of the upper airways, with a recurrence rate of about 15%. Minimally-invasive endoscopic laser procedures have been established to reduce the need for conventional revision surgery whenever medical follow-up fails. However, laser surgery requires special considerations for surgical, safety and economic aspects. This study evaluates the feasibility of coblation versus laser resection for recurrent nasal polyps. Material and methods: 6 nasal polyps were harvested each from the ostiomeatal complex of patients undergoing microscopic endonasal surgery for chronic sinusitis. 3 were dissected using a Neodymium:YAG laser system (Dornier MediLas 5060N) set at 10, 20 and 30w in cw mode with a 600μm bare fiber in contact mode with negative feedback power control, while further 3 polyps were dissected using a Coblation system (ArthroCare® Coblator® I) with a 30° angled and a 0° straight probe with 2.4 mm outer diameter. The specimens were examined histologically for carbonization and coagulation as well as unaltered tissue. Results: Laser resection resulted in a carbonization zone of 30μm in depth plus a coagulation zone of about 100μm, depending on the water content and type of tissue. While the carbonization zone was smaller with coblation, coagulation zones were comparable, leaving ample amount of unaltered tissue available for further diagnosis. Conclusion: Both resection techniques are generally feasible to be used in day case surgery for recurrent polyps. While the coblation system required no special safety requirements, accessibility of the sinuses was limited by the rigidity of applicators that are available.

  10. A Prospective Multicenter Registry of Patients Undergoing Hysteroscopic Morcellation of Uterine Polyps and Myomas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Serena H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hysteroscopic morcellation removes uterine pathology under direct visualization with continuous real-time tissue fragment removal. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of hysteroscopic morcellation across a diverse set of facilities, including both surgical and office-based settings. Design: This was a prospective, single-arm, multicenter registry development (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). Materials and Methods: Thirty-four U.S. obstetrics and gynecology facilities enrolled subjects into the registry. Inclusion criteria were women ages 18–65 with indications for hysteroscopic myomectomy and/or polypectomy who were treated with the MyoSure® Hysteroscopic Tissue Removal System (Hologic Inc., Marlborough, MA). Intrauterine lesion type/size and removal parameters, adverse events (AEs), and physician satisfaction ratings were recorded. Results: A total of 559 pathologies (187 fibroids; 372 polyps) were removed from 278 registered subjects (mean age: 43.9 ± 9.0 years), with 250 procedures (89.9%) performed in an ambulatory surgery center or hospital outpatient setting and 28 (10.1%) in a gynecologic office setting. Most patients (n = 206, 74.1%) were treated for abnormal uterine bleeding, and 42 (15.1%) were treated for infertility. Mean fibroid diameter was 2.2 ± 1.2 cm. Mean polyp diameter was 1.3 ± 1.0 cm. Overall mean percentage of pathology removed was 95.4% (polyps 99.3%, fibroids 86.8%). Five AEs included four incidents of blunt cervical trauma and a single postoperative case of pedal edema; all were considered mild and resolved spontaneously. Postprocedure surveys indicated that 95% of reporting physicians were “satisfied” or “highly satisfied” with device performance. Conclusions: Hysteroscopic morcellation of intrauterine pathology was accomplished safely with a high degree of physician satisfaction in 278 patients treated in diverse healthcare settings that are

  11. The diagnostic accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonography needs to be considered when managing gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    French, Daniel G; Allen, Philippe D; Ellsmere, James C

    2013-11-01

    Transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS) is the most commonly used modality to diagnose gallbladder (GB) disease. GB polyps are reported in 1-5.6 % of TAUS studies. Histopathologic studies suggest that there is a relationship between GB polyps and GB cancer. Previous literature suggests GB polyps reported on TAUS do not correlate well with histological findings. There have been recent advances in TAUS technology. We hypothesize the recent advances in TAUS technology have improved the accuracy of TAUS for diagnosing GB polyps. Radiology and pathology databases at our tertiary care center were retrospectively searched between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010. Ultrasound reports that suggested a GB polyp was present on TAUS were correlated to histopathology in cases where a cholecystectomy was performed. The pathology reports where a GB polyp was found were correlated with preoperative TAUS reports. There were 102,740 TAUS reports referring to the GB, of which 6,612 (6.4 %) contained search terms suggesting a GB polyp was present. There were 13,278 cholecystectomy pathology reports, of which 159 (1.2 %) included a diagnosis of GB polyp. TAUS detected only 50 % of the polyps identified on histopathology. The sensitivity and specificity of TAUS for diagnosing GB polyps were 50.0 and 98.3 %, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 10.5 and 99.8 %. Despite improvement in TAUS technology, the accuracy for GB polyps remains poor. This needs to be considered when managing patients with TAUS-detected GB polyps. We recommend that the decision to operate on TAUS-detected GB polyps be largely based on symptoms, and following GB polyps with TAUS should be discouraged.

  12. Analysis and evaluation of pyrolysis products collected during in vivo treatment of polyps using the Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waesche, Wolfgang; Knappe, Verena; Linnartz, M.; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1995-01-01

    A common application of the Neodymium:YAG laser (1064 nm) is the treatment of nasal polyps. The polyps are treated endoscopically with laser power settings of 5 to 10 watts delivered via a flexible fiber with a core diameter of 600 micrometers . Coagulation and vaporization are accompanied by a severe development of dust and plume during the treatment. These products are normally aspirated during the treatment together with cooling fluent via the working channel of the endoscope. Due to the rather low efficiency of the aspiration the products are partly aspirated by the patient. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) were adsorbed and evaluated with a gas chromatography system (GC). The calibration of the system together with geometrical considerations of the adsorption allows for a quantitative determination of several products. Among these toluene is used as a marker substance. Besides the plume samples collected during the treatment of polyps investigations of VOCs were carried out of samples received during Nd:YAG laser treatment of nasal warts and CO2 laser treatment of leucoplakia. The evaluated data led to an estimation of the patient's health risk assuming aspiration of the products by the patient. Improvements of the aspiration system are suggested.

  13. Comparison of CO2 laser and conventional laryngomicrosurgery treatments of polyp and leukoplakia of the vocal fold

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya; Liang, Gengtian; Sun, Na; Guan, Linlin; Meng, Yang; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Liu, Li; Sun, Guangbin

    2015-01-01

    The efficacies of CO2 laser and conventional laryngeal microsurgery for vocal cord benign (vocal cord polyp) and precancerous (vocal cord leukoplakia) lesions were compared. Patients with bilateral vocal cord polyps (n = 60) and leukoplakia (n = 30) were divided randomly into two groups. One group was treated with throat microsurgical instruments and underwent routine lesion resection (conventional group) and the other with CO2 laser (laser group). For the subjective assessment, the tools GRABS and VHI were used. The objective assessment, A multi-dimensional voice program module for voice spectrum analysis was used. The laser group was slightly worse than the conventional group 1 week post-surgery by stroboscopic findings. The subjective and objective data of the two groups pre-and post-surgery showed that the voice recovery of the laser group was significantly better than that of the conventional group (P < 0.05). CO2 laser laryngeal microsurgery for vocal cord polyp and leukoplakia can improve significantly the vocal cord morphology and pronunciation quality. The procedure is especially more effective than conventional surgery in patients with vocal cord leukoplakia. PMID:26770428

  14. Association between the location of colon polyps at baseline and surveillance colonoscopy - A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana; Freire, Paulo; Souto, Paulo; Ferreira, Manuela; Mendes, Sofia; Lérias, Clotilde; Amaro, Pedro; Portela, Francisco; Sofia, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Several factors are used to stratify the probability of polyp recurrence. However, there are no studies correlating the location of the initial polyps and the recurrent ones. The aim of this study was to verify whether the polyp location at the surveillance colonoscopy was correlated with the location of the previously excised polyps at the baseline colonoscopy. A retrospective study of patients submitted to colonoscopy with presence and excision of all polyps, followed by a surveillance colonoscopy. Polyp location was divided into proximal/distal to splenic flexure and rectum. Characteristics and recurrent rates at the same colon location were also evaluated. Out of the 346 patients who underwent repeated colonoscopy, 268 (77.4%) had at least 1 polyp detected. For all the segments there was an increased risk of recurrent polyps in the same location and it was about four times higher in proximal (OR 3.5; CI 2.1-6.0) and distal colon segments (OR 3.8; CI 2.1-6.8), followed by three times higher in the rectum (OR 2.6; CI 1.5-4.6). No difference was found between the rates of recurrence at the same segment, taking into consideration the polyp morphology, size, polypectomy technique employed and histological classification. There seems to be a significant association between polyp location at baseline and surveillance colonoscopy.

  15. Are gastric hyperplastic polyps an additional manifestation in celiac disease?: Results from a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Dore, Maria Pina; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Rocchi, Chiara; Loria, Maria Francesca; Soro, Sara; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2017-02-01

    Gastric polyps are frequently reported in patients undergoing upper endoscopic procedures. In this retrospective study, the association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease in Northern Sardinia was estimated.Age, gender, body mass index, and medications taken in the 2 preceding months, including proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), H2 receptor blockers (anti-H2), Helicobacter pylori status, endoscopic findings, and histology from charts of patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy were reviewed. Polyps were classified as hyperplastic, fundic gland, inflammatory, and adenomatous.3.7% (423/11379) patients had celiac disease. Prevalence of gastric polyps was 4.2% (3.8% among celiac vs 4.2% nonceliac patients). Inflammatory polyp was the most common histotype (55.8% and 56.2%) followed by fundic gland polyps (31.4% and 43.7%), hyperplastic (8.7% and 0%), and adenomas, in celiac and nonceliac patients, respectively. Fundic gland polyps were more common in PPI users (odds ratio: 4.06) than in nonusers (2.65, P = 0.001) among celiac and nonceliac patients. Age older than 50, female gender, esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy year, and PPI use were associated with the presence of polyps, whereas active H pylori infection was not.Gastric polyps were common in Sardinian patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy. However, the previously reported association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease was not confirmed in our study.

  16. Crowdsourcing for identification of polyp-free segments in virtual colonoscopy videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji Hwan; Mirhosseini, Seyedkoosha; Nadeem, Saad; Marino, Joseph; Kaufman, Arie; Baker, Kevin; Barish, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    Virtual colonoscopy (VC) allows a physician to virtually navigate within a reconstructed 3D colon model searching for colorectal polyps. Though VC is widely recognized as a highly sensitive and specific test for identifying polyps, one limitation is the reading time, which can take over 30 minutes per patient. Large amounts of the colon are often devoid of polyps, and a way of identifying these polyp-free segments could be of valuable use in reducing the required reading time for the interrogating radiologist. To this end, we have tested the ability of the collective crowd intelligence of non-expert workers to identify polyp candidates and polyp-free regions. We presented twenty short videos flying through a segment of a virtual colon to each worker, and the crowd was asked to determine whether or not a possible polyp was observed within that video segment. We evaluated our framework on Amazon Mechanical Turk and found that the crowd was able to achieve a sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 86.5% in identifying video segments which contained a clinically proven polyp. Since each polyp appeared in multiple consecutive segments, all polyps were in fact identified. Using the crowd results as a first pass, 80% of the video segments could in theory be skipped by the radiologist, equating to a significant time savings and enabling more VC examinations to be performed.

  17. KRAS and BRAF somatic mutations in colonic polyps and the risk of metachronous neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Miriam; Egoavil, Cecilia; Rodríguez-Soler, María; Hernández-Illán, Eva; Guarinos, Carla; García-Martínez, Araceli; Alenda, Cristina; Giner-Calabuig, Mar; Murcia, Oscar; Mangas, Carolina; Payá, Artemio; Aparicio, José R; Ruiz, Francisco A; Martínez, Juan; Casellas, Juan A; Soto, José L; Zapater, Pedro; Jover, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    High-risk features of colonic polyps are based on size, number, and pathologic characteristics. Surveillance colonoscopy is often recommended according to these findings. This study aimed to determine whether the molecular characteristics of polyps might provide information about the risk of metachronous advanced neoplasia. We retrospectively included 308 patients with colonic polyps. A total of 995 polyps were collected and tested for somatic BRAF and KRAS mutations. Patients were classified into 3 subgroups, based on the polyp mutational profile at baseline, as follows: non-mutated polyps (Wild-type), at least one BRAF-mutated polyp, or at least one KRAS-mutated polyp. At surveillance, advanced adenomas were defined as adenomas ≥ 10 mm and/or with high grade dysplasia or a villous component. In contrast, advanced serrated polyps were defined as serrated polyps ≥ 10 mm in any location, located proximal to the splenic flexure with any size or with dysplasia. At baseline, 289 patients could be classified as wild-type (62.3%), BRAF mutated (14.9%), or KRAS mutated (22.8%). In the univariate analysis, KRAS mutations were associated with the development of metachronous advanced polyps (OR: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.22-4.58; P = 0.011), and specifically, advanced adenomas (OR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.13-5.21; P = 0.023). The multivariate analysis, adjusted for age and sex, also showed associations with the development of metachronous advanced polyps (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.15-4.46) and advanced adenomas (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.02-4.85). Our results suggested that somatic KRAS mutations in polyps represent a potential molecular marker for the risk of developing advanced neoplasia.

  18. Quality of life improvement from sinus surgery in chronic rhinosinusitis patients with asthma and nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi; Adappa, Nithin D; Doghramji, Laurel J; Chiu, Alexander G; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Cohen, Noam A; Palmer, James N

    2014-11-01

    It is unclear whether chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients with both nasal polyps and asthma have different quality of life (QOL) improvement after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). We aimed to determine whether CRS patients with asthma and nasal polyps had a greater QOL improvement after FESS compared to patients without asthma or polyps. This retrospective analysis included adult CRS patients who underwent FESS between 2007 and 2011. QOL was measured using the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22). Variables collected included baseline demographics, clinical factors, SNOT-22 scores before FESS, and 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months post-FESS. Groups tested were asthma alone, polyps alone, asthma and polyps, and no asthma or polyps. Linear mixed-effects regression model was performed to calculate β-coefficients, which represent the adjusted mean QOL differences. Among the 376 patients included, 40.16% had both asthma and polyps (n = 151), 14.36% had asthma alone (n = 54), 19.45% had polyps alone (n = 75), and 25.53% had no asthma or polyps (n = 96). After adjusting for all factors, there were significantly more QOL improvements in patients with both asthma and nasal polyps from baseline to 1-month (β-coefficient = -10.05; 95% CI, -15.86 to -4.23; p = 0.001) and 3-month follow-up (β-coefficient = -8.27; 95% CI, -14.98 to -1.56; p = 0.016), and patients with asthma alone from baseline to 6-month follow-up (β-coefficient = -8.78; 95% CI, -17.45 to -0.11; p = 0.047), when compared to patients without asthma or nasal polyps. CRS patients with both asthma and nasal polyps or asthma alone experience a larger QOL benefit from FESS immediately after FESS compared to CRS patients without asthma or polyps. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  19. Predictors of Colorectal Polyp Recurrence after the First Polypectomy in Private Practice Settings: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Viel, Jean-François; Studer, Jean-Marie; Ottignon, Yves; Hirsch, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background Supplementary observational data in the community setting are required to better assess the predictors of colorectal polyp recurrence and the effectiveness of colonoscopy surveillance under real circumstances. Aim The goal of this study was to identify patient characteristics and polyp features at baseline colonoscopy that are associated with the recurrence of colorectal polyps (including hyperplastic polyps) among patients consulting private practice physicians. Patients and Methods This cohort study was conducted from March 2004 to December 2010 in 26 private gastroenterology practices (France). It included 1023 patients with a first-time diagnosis of histologically confirmed polyp removed during a diagnostic or screening colonoscopy. At enrollment, interviews were conducted to obtain data on socio-demographic variables and risk factors. Pathology reports were reviewed to abstract data on polyp features at baseline colonoscopy. Colorectal polyps diagnosed at the surveillance colonoscopy were considered as end points. The time to event was analyzed with an accelerated failure time model assuming a Weibull distribution. Results Among the 1023 patients with colorectal polyp at baseline, 553 underwent a surveillance colonoscopy. The mean time interval from baseline colonoscopy to first surveillance examination was 3.42 (standard deviation, 1.45) years. The recurrence rates were 50.5% and 32.9% for all polyps and adenomas, respectively. In multivariate models, the number of polyps at baseline was the only significant predictor for both polyp recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] 1.19, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.33), and adenoma recurrence (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.34). Conclusion The efficacy of surveillance colonoscopy in community gastroenterology practice compared favorably with academic settings. This study provides further evidence that the number of initial colorectal polyps is useful for predicting the risk of polyp recurrence, even in the community setting. PMID

  20. Predictors of colorectal polyp recurrence after the first polypectomy in private practice settings: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Viel, Jean-François; Studer, Jean-Marie; Ottignon, Yves; Hirsch, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Supplementary observational data in the community setting are required to better assess the predictors of colorectal polyp recurrence and the effectiveness of colonoscopy surveillance under real circumstances. The goal of this study was to identify patient characteristics and polyp features at baseline colonoscopy that are associated with the recurrence of colorectal polyps (including hyperplastic polyps) among patients consulting private practice physicians. This cohort study was conducted from March 2004 to December 2010 in 26 private gastroenterology practices (France). It included 1023 patients with a first-time diagnosis of histologically confirmed polyp removed during a diagnostic or screening colonoscopy. At enrollment, interviews were conducted to obtain data on socio-demographic variables and risk factors. Pathology reports were reviewed to abstract data on polyp features at baseline colonoscopy. Colorectal polyps diagnosed at the surveillance colonoscopy were considered as end points. The time to event was analyzed with an accelerated failure time model assuming a Weibull distribution. Among the 1023 patients with colorectal polyp at baseline, 553 underwent a surveillance colonoscopy. The mean time interval from baseline colonoscopy to first surveillance examination was 3.42 (standard deviation, 1.45) years. The recurrence rates were 50.5% and 32.9% for all polyps and adenomas, respectively. In multivariate models, the number of polyps at baseline was the only significant predictor for both polyp recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] 1.19, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.33), and adenoma recurrence (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.34). The efficacy of surveillance colonoscopy in community gastroenterology practice compared favorably with academic settings. This study provides further evidence that the number of initial colorectal polyps is useful for predicting the risk of polyp recurrence, even in the community setting.

  1. Single-incision assisted laparoscopic surgery (SILS) in the treatment of an intussusception induced by a solitary hamartomatous polyp: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pitiakoudis, Michael; Romanidis, Konstantinos; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Courcoutsakis, Nikos; Nagorni, Eleni-Aikaterini; Foutzitzi, Soultana; Tsaroucha, Alexandra; Zezos, Petros; Kouklakis, Georgios

    2015-06-02

    In this case report, we describe the successful treatment of a small-bowel intussusception, which was caused by a 3 cm solitary hamartomatous polyp, with single-incision laparoscopic surgery. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgical procedure with important advantages that allows the reduction of the intussusception and the resection of the polyp. This case report contributes to the medical literature by describing the advantages of this surgical technique that warrant its consideration as a treatment of choice in similar cases. We report a case of a 19-year-old Greek woman who complained about intermittent, non-specific abdominal pain in her left lateral abdomen. She had been admitted to the hospital because of incomplete obstructive ileus. Ultrasound and computed tomography were carried out, which revealed an intussusception of the small bowel. This pathogenic situation was treated by single-incision laparoscopic surgery. Her pathology report revealed a benign, hamartomatous excised polyp of the Peutz-Jeghers type. The patient had a quick recovery without any post-operative complications. We recommend single-incision laparoscopic surgery for the safe excision of solitary hamartomatous polyps and the management of their complications, as it represents a potential advance in minimally invasive approaches.

  2. Knife-assisted snare resection (KAR) of large and refractory colonic polyps at a Western centre: Feasibility, safety and efficacy study to guide future practice

    PubMed Central

    Chedgy, Fergus JQ; Kandiah, Kesavan; Longcroft-Wheaton, Gaius; Bhandari, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is widely practiced in western countries. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is very effective for treating complex polyps but colonic ESD in the western setting remains challenging. We have developed a novel technique of knife-assisted snare resection (KAR) for the resection of these complex lesions. Here we aim to describe the technique, evaluate its outcomes, identify outcome predictors and define its learning curve. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients who had large and refractory polyps resected by KAR at our institution from 2007 to 2013. Polyp characteristics and procedure details were recorded. Endoscopic follow-up was performed to identify recurrence. Results A total of 170 patients with polyps 20–170 mm in size were treated by KAR and followed up for a mean of 31.5 months (range 12–84 months). 29% of the polyps were >50 mm, 22% had fibrosis from previous unsuccessful interventions and 25% were in the right colon. The perforation rate (1.2%) and bleeding rate (4.7%) were acceptable and managed conservatively in most patients. Recurrence rate after the first attempt was 13.1%. Recurrence was significantly increased by polyp size >50 mm (p = 0.008; OR 5.03, 95% CI 1.54–16.48), presence of fibrosis (p = 0.002; OR 6.59, 95% CI 1.97–22.07) and piecemeal resection (p < 0.001; OR 0.31, CI 0.078–1.12). Cure rates were 87% after the first attempt, improving to 95.6% with further attempts. En bloc resection rate showed a linear increase and reached almost 80% as the endoscopist’s cumulative experience approached 100 cases. Conclusion This is the largest reported Western series on KAR in the colon. We have demonstrated the feasibility, efficacy and safety of this technique in the treatment of complex polyps, with or without fibrosis and at all sites. KAR has shown better outcomes than either EMR or ESD. We have also managed to identify significant outcome predictors

  3. Discriminating dysplasia: Optical tomographic texture analysis of colorectal polyps.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenqi; Coats, Maria; Zhang, Jianguo; McKenna, Stephen J

    2015-12-01

    Optical projection tomography enables 3-D imaging of colorectal polyps at resolutions of 5-10 µm. This paper investigates the ability of image analysis based on 3-D texture features to discriminate diagnostic levels of dysplastic change from such images, specifically, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia and invasive cancer. We build a patch-based recognition system and evaluate both multi-class classification and ordinal regression formulations on a 90 polyp dataset. 3-D texture representations computed with a hand-crafted feature extractor, random projection, and unsupervised image filter learning are compared using a bag-of-words framework. We measure performance in terms of error rates, F-measures, and ROC surfaces. Results demonstrate that randomly projected features are effective. Discrimination was improved by carefully manipulating various important aspects of the system, including class balancing, output calibration and approximation of non-linear kernels.

  4. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-In; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Seong-Eun; Kim, Se Hyung; Hong, Sung Noh; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Sung Jae; Lee, Suck-Ho; Park, Dong Il; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyun Jung; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Hyo Jong; Jeon, Hae Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Now colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in males and the fourth most common cancer in females in Korea. Since most of colorectal cancers occur after the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are one of the most effective methods to prevent colorectal cancer. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish Korean guideline for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The guideline was developed by the Korean Multi-Society Take Force and we tried to establish the guideline by evidence-based methods. Parts of the statements were draw by systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Herein we discussed epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea and optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations. PMID:22741131

  5. [Detection of T-antigen in colorectal adenocarcinoma and polyps].

    PubMed

    Xu, S; Lu, Y; Wang, Q

    1995-10-01

    Galactose oxidase method was employed to detect the beta-D-Gal (1-->3) -D-Gal NAc residue of T-antigen present in the large intestinal mucus of 156 subjects. The positive rates of the test were 84.4%, 29.1%, and 7.2% in the mucus samples obtained from 32 patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas, 55 with polyps and 69 controls respectively. Chi-square test demonstrated that there were significant differences between the group of carcinoma and control (P < 0.001) as well as between also polyp and control (P < 0.01). The test had a high sensitivity (84.4%) and specificity (92.8%) in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and may be used as a practical mass screening test for colorectal neoplasms.

  6. Rare combination of familial adenomatous polyposis and gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yasuhisa; Sato, Norihiro; Matayoshi, Nobutaka; Tamura, Toshihisa; Minagawa, Noritaka; Shibao, Kazunori; Higure, Aiichiro; Nakamoto, Mitsuhiro; Taguchi, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Koji

    2014-12-14

    Familial adenomatous polyposis is associated with a high incidence of malignancies in the upper gastrointestinal tract (particularly ampullary adenocarcinomas). However, few reports have described a correlation between familial adenomatous polyposis and gallbladder neoplasms. We present a case of a 60-year-old woman with familial adenomatous polyposis who presented with an elevated mass in the neck of the gallbladder (measuring 16 mm × 8 mm in diameter) and multiple small cholecystic polyps. She had undergone a total colectomy for ascending colon cancer associated with familial adenomatous polyposis 22 years previously. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy under a preoperative diagnosis of multifocal gallbladder polyps. Pathologic examination of the resected gallbladder revealed more than 70 adenomatous lesions, a feature consistent with adenoma of the gallbladder. This case suggests a requirement for long-term surveillance of the biliary system in addition to the gastrointestinal tract in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

  7. Treatment and prognosis of nasal polyps in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Stern, R C; Boat, T F; Wood, R E; Matthews, L W; Doershuk, C F

    1982-12-01

    Nasal polyposis complicated the course of fibrosis in 157 (26%) of 605 patients. Onset before age 5 years or after age 20 years was rare. Polyposis was the initial symptom of cystic fibrosis in 13 patients. Common symptoms included obstruction to nasal air flow, mouth breathing, epistaxis, and rhinorrhea. Intranasal and oral corticosteroids and antihistamines were ineffective in preventing recurrences but did occasionally afford symptomatic relief of obstruction. Nineteen (31%) of 62 patients who never had surgery had spontaneous and permanent disappearance of polyps. Simple polypectomy was an adequate procedure for patients with substantial nasal symptoms. There were no visual complications. Other surgical complications were rare. Children and adolescents with nasal polyps should have sweat tests by pilocarpine iontophoresis to rule out cystic fibrosis.

  8. [Congenital hairy polyp of the nasopharynx--a case report].

    PubMed

    Baljosević, Ivan; Minić, Predrag; Duricić, Slavisa; Subarević, Vladan

    2007-01-01

    Hairy polyps are very rare benign tumors that can occur anywhere in the body, and they are the most common congenital nasopharyngeal masses. A two-day-old full-term female was admitted to the newborn Special Care Unit with noisy breathing, intermittent upper airway obstruction and feeding difficulty. A 3.4 kg infant was born by spontaneous vaginal delivery to a healthy mother, following a normal pregnancy. On admission, she presented with noisy inspiratory breathing which was louder and more labored in prone position. Flexible endoscopy showed a pale sausage-like mass protruding from nasopharynx just behind the soft palate, to the oropharynx and back. A computed tomography scan showed a 1.8 cm round mass in the right nasopharynx, with central fat density and no intracranial communication. The mass was excised transorally with no evidence of a residual tumor. The infant made a full and uneventful postoperative recovery. Hairy polyps usually occur as isolated defects and they are not associated with other congenital anomalies. Genetic predisposition has not been established. It does not have malignant alteration. However, there is some confusion about the histological classification of these lesions. One theory supports the idea that hairy polyps originate from disturbed development of stomodeum in the 28th week of gestation and regression of the nasopharyngeal membrane. The second theory supports the idea of origin from the first or second bronchial arch. Probably the best assumption would be that it develops as a special and unique entity. Hairy polyp is an unusual malformation that most frequently appears during the first days after birth. Complete resection provides permanent cure.

  9. Endometrial polyp surveillance in premenopausal breast cancer patients using tamoxifen

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Se Jeong; Lee, Jae Il; Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Jae Weon; Park, Noh Hyun; Song, Yong Sang

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the endometrial pathologic lesions in premenopausal breast cancer patients with a history of tamoxifen (TMX) use. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 120 premenopausal breast cancer patients with a history of TMX use that had undergone a gynecological examination. Results Among 120 patients, 44.2% (n=53) were asymptomatic with an endometrial thickness ≥5 mm, as assessed by transvaginal ultrasonography. Of the patients that reported abnormal uterine bleeding, 5% (n=6) had an endometrial thickness <5 mm and 20% (n=24) had an endometrial thickness ≥5 mm by transvaginal ultrasonography. The final group of patients were asymptomatic, but showed an abnormal endometrial lesion, such as an endometrial polyp, by transvaginal ultrasonography (30.8%, n=37). Of the 56 benign lesions that were histologically reviewed, 50 (41.7%) were endometrial polyps, 3 (2.5%) were submucosal myomas, 2 (1.7%) were endometrial hyperplasias, and 1 (0.8%) was chronic endometritis. There were 64 (53.3%) other non-pathologic conditions, including secreting, proliferative, and atrophic endometrium, or in some cases, there was insufficient material for diagnosis. In our data, only one case was reported as a complex hyperplasia without atypia arising from an endometrial polyp, and one patient was diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Conclusion For premenopausal breast cancer patients with a history of TMX use, the majority of the patients were asymptomatic, and endometrial polyps were the most common endometrial pathology observed. Therefore, we believe that endometrial assessment before starting TMX treatment, and regular endometrial screening throughout TMX treatment, are reasonable suggestions for premenopausal breast cancer patients. PMID:28217668

  10. Single-Port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Gall Bladder Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Joong Choi, Chan; Kim, Min Chan; Choi, Hong Jo; Kim, Young Hoon; Jung, Ghap Joong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC) was introduced to improve patients' postoperative quality of life and cosmesis over the conventional approach (CLC). The purpose of this case–control study was to compare the outcome of SPLC with that of CLC in a specific disease: gall bladder (GB) polyps. Methods: Eligible for the study were all patients with GB polyps who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy between June 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011. The 112 patients studied (56 each for SPLC and CLC) were matched by using a propensity score that included gender, age, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, history of previous abdominal operation, and pathology outcome. To avoid selection bias caused by the surgeon's choice (often dependent on the degree of inflammation) and to investigate the efficacy of SPLC for a single disease, GB polyps, we excluded patients with acute or chronic cholecystitis. Results: Characteristics of the patients matched by a propensity score between SPLC and CLC showed no significant difference. Incidentally detected malignancy was in postoperative pathology in cases in both groups. Although operative time was shorter for SPLC, there was no significant difference in time between the 2 groups. There were 3 open conversions in the CLC group, and an additional port was used in the SPLC group. There was no difference between the groups in hospital stay and postoperative complications. Conclusion: In the management of GB polyps, the operative results of SPLC are comparable to those of CLC. We conclude that SPLC is as safe as CLC and has the potential for greater cosmetic satisfaction for patients than CLC. Further trials for objective appraisal of cosmetic outcomes are needed. PMID:26229419

  11. Hyperspectral imaging of colonic polyps in vivo (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, Neil T.; Elson, Daniel S.; Teare, Julian

    2017-02-01

    Standard endoscopic tools restrict clinicians to making subjective visual assessments of lesions detected in the bowel, with classification results depending strongly on experience level and training. Histological examination of resected tissue remains the diagnostic gold standard, meaning that all detected lesions are routinely removed. This subjects the patient to risk of polypectomy-related injury, and places significant workload and economic burdens on the hospital. An objective endoscopic classification method would allow hyperplastic polyps, with no malignant potential, to be left in situ, or low grade adenomas to be resected and discarded without histology. A miniature multimodal flexible endoscope is proposed to obtain hyperspectral reflectance and dual excitation autofluorescence information from polyps in vivo. This is placed inside the working channel of a conventional colonoscope, with the external scanning and detection optics on a bedside trolley. A blue and violet laser diode pair excite endogenous fluorophores in the respiration chain, while the colonoscope's xenon light source provides broadband white light for diffuse reflectance measurements. A push-broom HSI scanner collects the hypercube. System characterisation experiments are presented, defining resolution limits as well as acquisition settings for optimal spectral, spatial and temporal performance. The first in vivo results in human subjects are presented, demonstrating the clinical utility of the device. The optical properties (reflectance and autofluorescence) of imaged polyps are quantified and compared to the histologically-confirmed tissue type as well as the clinician's visual assessment. Further clinical studies will allow construction of a full robust training dataset for development of classification schemes.

  12. Exploring Deep Learning and Transfer Learning for Colonic Polyp Classification.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Eduardo; Uhl, Andreas; Wimmer, Georg; Häfner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Deep Learning, especially through Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) has been widely used to enable the extraction of highly representative features. This is done among the network layers by filtering, selecting, and using these features in the last fully connected layers for pattern classification. However, CNN training for automated endoscopic image classification still provides a challenge due to the lack of large and publicly available annotated databases. In this work we explore Deep Learning for the automated classification of colonic polyps using different configurations for training CNNs from scratch (or full training) and distinct architectures of pretrained CNNs tested on 8-HD-endoscopic image databases acquired using different modalities. We compare our results with some commonly used features for colonic polyp classification and the good results suggest that features learned by CNNs trained from scratch and the "off-the-shelf" CNNs features can be highly relevant for automated classification of colonic polyps. Moreover, we also show that the combination of classical features and "off-the-shelf" CNNs features can be a good approach to further improve the results.

  13. Exploring Deep Learning and Transfer Learning for Colonic Polyp Classification

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Andreas; Wimmer, Georg; Häfner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Deep Learning, especially through Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) has been widely used to enable the extraction of highly representative features. This is done among the network layers by filtering, selecting, and using these features in the last fully connected layers for pattern classification. However, CNN training for automated endoscopic image classification still provides a challenge due to the lack of large and publicly available annotated databases. In this work we explore Deep Learning for the automated classification of colonic polyps using different configurations for training CNNs from scratch (or full training) and distinct architectures of pretrained CNNs tested on 8-HD-endoscopic image databases acquired using different modalities. We compare our results with some commonly used features for colonic polyp classification and the good results suggest that features learned by CNNs trained from scratch and the “off-the-shelf” CNNs features can be highly relevant for automated classification of colonic polyps. Moreover, we also show that the combination of classical features and “off-the-shelf” CNNs features can be a good approach to further improve the results. PMID:27847543

  14. Improving Polyp Detection Algorithms for CT Colonography: Pareto Front Approach

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Adam; Li, Jiang; Summers, Ronald M.; Petrick, Nicholas; Hara, Amy K.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated a Pareto front approach to improving polyp detection algorithms for CT colonography (CTC). A dataset of 56 CTC colon surfaces with 87 proven positive detections of 53 polyps sized 4 to 60 mm was used to evaluate the performance of a one-step and a two-step curvature-based region growing algorithm. The algorithmic performance was statistically evaluated and compared based on the Pareto optimal solutions from 20 experiments by evolutionary algorithms. The false positive rate was lower (p<0.05) by the two-step algorithm than by the one-step for 63% of all possible operating points. While operating at a suitable sensitivity level such as 90.8% (79/87) or 88.5% (77/87), the false positive rate was reduced by 24.4% (95% confidence intervals 17.9–31.0%) or 45.8% (95% confidence intervals 40.1–51.0%) respectively. We demonstrated that, with a proper experimental design, the Pareto optimization process can effectively help in fine-tuning and redesigning polyp detection algorithms. PMID:20548966

  15. Comorbidity of recurrent aphthous stomatitis and polyps ventriculi.

    PubMed

    Pokupec, Josipa Sanja Gruden; Lukenda, Dolores Biocina

    2013-03-01

    As it is known, many diseases of gastric system cause changes in the oral cavity, with either pathological findings or subjective impressions. When these changes are of pathological nature, the most common finding is recurrent aphthous stomatitis on the tongue, which emerges as a consequence of gastric diseases. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is a disorder characterised by recurrent ulcerations limited to the oral mucosa, without any other signs of diseases. According to their clinical form, they may be big, small and hyperform. Etiology of recurrent aphthae is genetic predisposition, systemic diseases (virus, certain vitamin deficiency, gastric disorders), and autoimmune disorder and psychogenesis. The symptoms include a prodromal burning sensation and ulceration emerging within 24-48 hours as round symmetrical lesions inflicting the entire oral cavity except for palate and gingiva. Polyps ventriculi are tumours on the gastric mucosa. They can lie on a broad background or hang on the stem, and may be both individual and clustered at the same time. They are more common with elderly male population. They may have a malignant alteration. According to WHO, they have been classified as hyperplastic and neoplastic polyps. Etiology of polyps is atrophic gastritis or H. pylori.

  16. Surveillance of colonic polyps: Are we getting it right?

    PubMed Central

    Bonnington, Stewart N; Rutter, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. The identification of colonic polyps can reduce CRC mortality through earlier diagnosis of cancers and the removal of polyps: the precursor lesion of CRC. Following the finding and removal of colonic polyps at an initial colonoscopy, some patients are at an increased risk of developing CRC in the future. This is the rationale for post-polypectomy surveillance colonoscopy. However, not all individuals found to have colonic adenomas have a risk of CRC higher than that of the general population. This review examines the literature on post-polypectomy surveillance including current international clinical guidelines. The potential benefits of surveillance procedures must be weighed against the burden of colonoscopy: resource use, the potential for patient discomfort, and the risk of complications. Therefore surveillance colonoscopy is best utilised in a selected group of individuals at a high risk of developing cancer. Further study is needed into the specific factors conferring higher risk as well as the efficacy of surveillance in mitigating this risk. Such evidence will better inform clinicians and patients of the relative benefits of colonoscopic surveillance for the individual. In addition, the decision to continue with surveillance must be informed by the changing profile of risks and benefits of further procedures with the patient’s advancing age. PMID:26877600

  17. [Fungal allergy in chronic rhinosinusitis with or without polyps].

    PubMed

    Erbek, Selim S; Topal, Ozgül; Erbek, Seyra; Cakmak, Ozcan

    2008-01-01

    Fungi, by systemic or local allergic effect, may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We investigated the incidence of fungal allergy in patients with CRS and its effect on the clinical characteristics of the disease. The study included 127 patients, aged 18 years or over, with CRS (42 females, 85 males; mean age 43+/-12 years; range 19 to 78 years). Fungal allergy was determined by skin prick test and its effect was analyzed on blood eosinophil and total immunoglobulin E levels, the presence of polyps, and paranasal sinus computed tomography scores. Eighty-five patients (66.9%) were found to have allergy. The incidence of allergy did not differ between patients with and without polyps (p>0.05). House dust mites (62.2%) were the most frequent allergens. The incidence of fungal allergy was 38.8% in allergic patients. Isolated fungal allergy was detected in two patients (1.6%). The most frequent fungal allergens were Aspergillus, followed by Alternaria, and Penicillium. No association was found between fungal allergy and blood eosinophil and total immunoglobulin E levels, presence of polyps, or paranasal sinus computed tomography scores (p>0.05). The incidence of fungal allergy in patients with CRS was found to be high in this study. Tissue culture studies are required to determine the definitive relationship between fungal allergy and clinical features of CRS.

  18. Automatic identification of colonic polyp in high-resolution CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehmeshki, Jamshid; Amin, Hamdan; Wong, Wing; Ebadian Dehkordi, Mandana; Kamangari, Nahid; Roddie, Mary; Costello, John

    2004-05-01

    Automatic polyp detection is a challenging task as polyps come in different sizes and shape. The detection generally consists of colon segmentation, identification of suspected polyps and classification. Classification involves discriminating polyps from among many suspected regions based on a number of features extracted from the detected regions. This paper presents the work on the first two stages of the detection. For the colon segmentation, the fuzzy connectivity region growing technique is used while for the identification of suspected polyps concave region searching is applied. A rule-based filtering based on 3D volumetric features is used to reduce a large number of non-polyp structures (false positives). The method is fast, robust and validated with a number of high-resolution colon datasets.

  19. Resolution of a metaplastic duodenal polyp after cure of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Yousfi, M M; el-Zimaity, H M; Cole, R A; Genta, R M; Graham, D Y

    1996-07-01

    Although there have been several reports of hyperplastic gastric polyps associated with persistent Helicobacter pylori gastritis, the association of H. pylori infection with metaplastic polyps in the duodenum has not hitherto been described. After a 52-year-old man had a single episode of hematemesis, endoscopy showed a smooth polyp 1 cm in greatest dimension formed by a proliferation of gastric epithelial cells of fundic and antral type found in the duodenal bulb. The outer surface was entirely covered with a single layer of hyperplastic columnar epithelium with many H. pylori organisms. After administration of metronidazole 500 mg, omeprazole 20 mg for 4 weeks, and clarithromycin 250 mg twice a day for 2 weeks, endoscopy showed a decrease in size of the duodenal polyp. At 12 weeks there was complete regression of the polyp. This report documents a new and unusual finding: resolution of a gastric metaplastic polyp in the duodenum associated with cure of H. pylori.

  20. Adenomatous Polyps in Adolescent Girl and Boy: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Maryam; Karami, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    A polyp is defined as a mass of the mucosal surface that protrudes into the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. Neoplastic epithelial polyps are classified histologically as either benign adenoma or malignant carcinoma. The colonic polyps that most commonly present in children occur sporadically and individually and are of the juvenile type; they are most frequently associated with painless rectal hemorrhage (which is the most common symptom). Adenomatous polyps are similar to other nontumoral polyps, and it is very rare for children to have symptoms other than rectal bleeding. This report describes two rare cases of polyps in pediatric patients. An 11-year-old girl presented with tubulovillous adenoma and a 13-year-old boy with tubular adenoma; both patients complained of rectal hemorrhage as well as anemia and abdominal pain. Epithelial adenoma is a tumor that is rarely found in adults or children. Colonoscopic perforation and biopsy are mandatory for establishing a definitive diagnosis and avoiding medical mismanagement. PMID:27833772

  1. Deep learning of contrast-coated serrated polyps for computer-aided detection in CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näppi, Janne J.; Pickhardt, Perry; Kim, David H.; Hironaka, Toru; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Serrated polyps were previously believed to be benign lesions with no cancer potential. However, recent studies have revealed a novel molecular pathway where also serrated polyps can develop into colorectal cancer. CT colonography (CTC) can detect serrated polyps using the radiomic biomarker of contrast coating, but this requires expertise from the reader and current computer-aided detection (CADe) systems have not been designed to detect the contrast coating. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel CADe method that makes use of deep learning to detect serrated polyps based on their contrast-coating biomarker in CTC. In the method, volumetric shape-based features are used to detect polyp sites over soft-tissue and fecal-tagging surfaces of the colon. The detected sites are imaged using multi-angular 2D image patches. A deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) is used to review the image patches for the presence of polyps. The DCNN-based polyp-likelihood estimates are merged into an aggregate likelihood index where highest values indicate the presence of a polyp. For pilot evaluation, the proposed DCNN-CADe method was evaluated with a 10-fold cross-validation scheme using 101 colonoscopy-confirmed cases with 144 biopsy-confirmed serrated polyps from a CTC screening program, where the patients had been prepared for CTC with saline laxative and fecal tagging by barium and iodine-based diatrizoate. The average per-polyp sensitivity for serrated polyps >=6 mm in size was 93+/-7% at 0:8+/-1:8 false positives per patient on average. The detection accuracy was substantially higher that of a conventional CADe system. Our results indicate that serrated polyps can be detected automatically at high accuracy in CTC.

  2. New-generation narrow band imaging improves visibility of polyps: a colonoscopy video evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Ogiso, Kiyoshi; Yoshida, Naohisa; Siah, Kewin Tien Ho; Kitae, Hiroaki; Murakami, Takaaki; Hirose, Ryohei; Inada, Yutaka; Dohi, Osamu; Okayama, Tetsuya; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Handa, Osamu; Konishi, Hideyuki; Naito, Yuji; Yanagisawa, Akio; Itoh, Yoshito

    2016-09-01

    The benefits of narrow band imaging (NBI) in colorectal polyp detection remain questionable. Previous NBI has poorer brightness and resolution than white light (WL). However, recently these factors were improved by the new-generation video processor system (EVIS LUCERA ELITE) in comparison with the previous system (EVIS LUCERA SPECTRUM). The aim of this study was to investigate whether NBI with EVIS LUCERA ELITE could improve the visibility of colorectal polyps compared to WL. We analyzed prospectively 240 colorectal polyps (group 1: ELITE with CF-HQ290 scope, 80 polyps; group 2: ELITE with PCF-Q260AZI scope, 80 polyps; group 3: SPECTRUM with PCF-Q260AZI scope, 80 polyps) whose videos were recorded using NBI and WL at Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine. The videos were evaluated in a randomized order by three experts and three non-experts. Each polyp was assigned a polyp visibility score from 4 (excellent visibility) to 1 (poor visibility). The polyp visibility scores in each mode and their relationship to the clinical characteristics were analyzed. The mean polyp visibility scores of NBI with ELITE system were significantly higher than those of WL (ELITE with CF-HQ290: 3.14 ± 0.87 vs. 2.75 ± 0.98, p < 0.0001, ELITE with PCF-Q260AZI: 3.03 ± 0.92 vs. 2.83 ± 0.93, p = 0.0006). Conversely, the mean polyp visibility score of NBI using SPECTRUM system with PCF-Q260AZI was significantly lower than WL (2.75 ± 1.06 vs. 3.05 ± 0.92, p < 0.0001). Our study showed that NBI using EVIS LUCERA ELITE improved polyp visibility.

  3. Clinical Significance of Colonoscopy in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Polyps and Neoplasms: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhen-Jie; Lin, Yuan; Xiao, Jun; Wu, Liu-Cheng; Liu, Jun-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Background Some authors have studied the relationship between the presence of polyps, adenomas and cancers of upper gastrointestinal tract (stomach and duodenum) and risk of colorectal polyps and neoplasms; however, the results are controversial, which may be due to study sample size, populations, design, clinical features, and so on. No meta-analysis, which can be generalized to a larger population and could provide a quantitative pooled risk estimate of the relationship, of this issue existed so far. Methods We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate risk of colorectal polyps or neoplasms in patients with polyps, adenomas or cancers in upper gastrointestinal tract comparing with controls. A search was conducted through PubMed, EMBASE, reference lists of potentially relevant papers, and practice guidelines up to 27 November 2013 without languages restriction. Odd ratios (ORs) were pooled using random-effects models. Results The search yielded 3 prospective and 21 retrospective case-control studies (n = 37152 participants). The principal findings included: (1) OR for colorectal polyps was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.04–1.26) in the gastric polyps group comparing with control groups; (2) Patients with gastric polyps and neoplasms have higher risk (OR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.06–1.62], and 1.72 [95% CI, 1.42–2.09], respectively) of colorectal neoplasms comparing with their controls; and (3) Positive association was found between the presence of colorectal neoplasms and sporadic duodenal neoplasms (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.64–4.11). Conclusions Findings from present meta-analysis of 24 case-control studies suggest that the prevalence of colorectal polyps was higher in patients with gastric polyps than in those without gastric polyps, and the risk of colorectal neoplasms increases significantly in patients with gastric polyps, neoplasms, and duodenal neoplasms. Therefore, screening colonoscopy should be considered for patients with upper gastrointestinal polyps and neoplasms. PMID

  4. Meat intake, heterocyclic amine exposure, and metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms in relation to colorectal polyp risk

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Aesun; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Rice, Jeffrey M.; Cai, Qiuyin; Doll, Mark A.; Long, Jirong; Smalley, Walter E.; Shyr, Yu; Sinha, Rashmi; Ness, Reid M.; Hein, David W.; Zheng, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Most colorectal cancers arise from adenomatous polyps or certain hyperplastic polyps. Only a few studies have investigated potential genetic modifiers of the associations between meat intake and polyp risk, and results are inconsistent. Using data from the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study (TCPS), a large colonoscopy-based study including 1,002 polyp cases (557 adenoma only, 250 hyperplastic polyp only, 195 both polyps) and 1,493 polyp-free patients, we evaluated the association of colorectal polyp risk with carcinogen exposure from meat and genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in heterocyclic amine (HCA) metabolism including, N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and 2 (NAT2), cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Intake levels of meats by preparation methods, doneness preferences, and other lifestyle factors were obtained. Fourteen SNPs in the AhR, CYP1A2, NAT1 and NAT2 genes were evaluated. No clear association was found for any polymorphisms with polyp risk. However, apparent interactions were found for intake of meat and HCAs with AhR, NAT1, and NAT2 genotypes, and the interactions were statistically significant for the group with both adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. Dose-response relationships with meat or HCA intake were found only among those with the AhR GA/AA (rs2066853) genotype, NAT1 rapid, or NAT2 rapid/intermediate acetylators, but not among those with other genotypes of these genes. This dose-response relationship was more evident among those with both AhR GA/AA and the NAT1 rapid acetylator than those without this genotype combination. These results provide strong evidence for a modifying effect of metabolizing genes on the association of meat intake and HCA exposure with colorectal polyp risk. PMID:18268115

  5. Improved computer-aided detection of small polyps in CT colonography using interpolation for curvature estimationa

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiamin; Kabadi, Suraj; Van Uitert, Robert; Petrick, Nicholas; Deriche, Rachid; Summers, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Surface curvatures are important geometric features for the computer-aided analysis and detection of polyps in CT colonography (CTC). However, the general kernel approach for curvature computation can yield erroneous results for small polyps and for polyps that lie on haustral folds. Those erroneous curvatures will reduce the performance of polyp detection. This paper presents an analysis of interpolation’s effect on curvature estimation for thin structures and its application on computer-aided detection of small polyps in CTC. Methods: The authors demonstrated that a simple technique, image interpolation, can improve the accuracy of curvature estimation for thin structures and thus significantly improve the sensitivity of small polyp detection in CTC. Results: Our experiments showed that the merits of interpolating included more accurate curvature values for simulated data, and isolation of polyps near folds for clinical data. After testing on a large clinical data set, it was observed that sensitivities with linear, quadratic B-spline and cubic B-spline interpolations significantly improved the sensitivity for small polyp detection. Conclusions: The image interpolation can improve the accuracy of curvature estimation for thin structures and thus improve the computer-aided detection of small polyps in CTC. PMID:21859029

  6. False positive reduction for wall thickness-based detection of colonic flat polyps via CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, Marc; Li, Lihong C.; Han, Hao; Wei, Xinzhou; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Liang, Zhengrong

    2017-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) of flat polyps, in contrast to other polyp types, is challenging due to their lack of projections from the colonic surface and limited geometrical features that can be extracted from such polyps. In this paper, we present a new approach for CAD of flat polyps via colon wall thickness mapping, texture feature extraction and analysis. First, we integrated our previous work of detecting flat polyp candidates via colon wall thickness mapping into this study for automated detection of initial polyp candidates (IPCs). The colon wall segmentation is established on a coupled level-set method after the lumen is electronically cleansed by a sophisticated statistical algorithm, which considers the partial volume effect to preserve the mucosa layer details. The IPC detection was performed based on the wall thickness local pattern. From each IPC volume, we extracted the 14 Haralick texture features and 16 additional features that were previously demonstrated to improve polyp classification performance. Then, we adopted the Rpackage "randomForest" to classify the features for false positive (FP) reduction. We evaluated our method via 16 patient datasets. The proposed scheme achieved a high capacity in terms of the well-known area under the curve value of 0.930. The FPs was reduced to less than 3 FPs/per polyp. The experiment results demonstrate the feasibility of our method in achieving computer aided detection of flat polyps, therefore, improving the screening capability of computed tomography cololongraphy.

  7. Gastric neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and type 1 tumours occurring within gastric hyperplastic polyps.

    PubMed

    Chetty, Runjan; Gill, Pelvender; Mugon, Parassar; Shrimankar, Jyotsna; Hughes, Caroline

    2012-11-01

    We wish to highlight the unusual occurrence of gastric neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and type I neuroendocrine tumours within three hyperplastic polyps. In all cases, the neuroendocrine component was present within and between the hyperplastic foveolar glands of the polyps and overall formed the minor part of the polyps. Two of the patients presented with epigastric pain and the other with fatigue from anaemia, and on endoscopy, all three were found to have superficially ulcerated gastric polyps in the body (cases 1 and 2) and fundus (case 3). Two of the cases had serologically proven autoimmune atrophic gastritis, while the third case had histological evidence of an atrophic gastritis, most likely also autoimmune in aetiology. Cases 1 and 3 had single hyperplastic polyps, while case 2 had three polyps. All polyps showed linear neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia within hyperplastic foveolar epithelium both at the surface and within deeper-situated glands. Neuroendocrine immunohistochemistry highlighted the neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia. The bulk of the neuroendocrine component was restricted to hyperplastic mucosa forming the polyps. Non-hyperplastic adjacent mucosa showed less prominent neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia. It is unclear whether the two pathologies occurred simultaneously or independently. The common feature and causal link is atrophic gastritis, which predisposed the gastric mucosa to the development of both neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and tumours, and hyperplastic polyps.

  8. Hyperplastic-like colon polyps that preceded microsatellite-unstable adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Neal S; Bhanot, Punam; Odish, Eva; Hunter, Susan

    2003-06-01

    We compared hyperplastic-like polyps that preceded microsatellite-unstable adenocarcinomas to incidental hyperplastic polyps to identify distinguishing morphologic criteria. The study group included 106 hyperplastic-like, nonadenomatous, serrated polyps, most from the ascending colon in 91 patients; the control group included 106 rectosigmoid hyperplastic polyps from 106 patients in whom adenocarcinoma did not develop. Study group polyps had an expanded crypt proliferative zone, a serrated architectural outline that became apparent in the basilar crypt regions, basilar crypt dilation, inverted crypts, and a predominance of dysmaturational crypts (crypts with minimal cell maturation). In contrast, control group polyps had a proliferative zone confined to the basal crypt region, serrated architecture that became apparent in the superficial crypt region, rare to no basilar crypt dilation, and rare or no dysmaturational crypts. Hyperplastic-like polyps that preceded microsatellite-unstable adenocarcinomas had a distinctive constellation of morphologic features related to altered and decreased cell function and control that resulted in dysmaturational crypts. Dysmaturation constitutes a range of morphologic alterations, some of which overlap with incidental-type innocuous hyperplastic polyps. The morphologic features described herein provide initial guidelines to identify this potentially important subset of premalignant serrated-like polyps.

  9. What Happens With Untreated Nasal Polyps Over Time? A 13-Year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Oscarsson, Martin; Johansson, Leif; Bende, Mats

    2016-09-01

    Nasal polyps are often seen in ENT practice, but little is known about the pathogenesis and the natural development. Our objective was to follow individuals with untreated nasal polyps prospectively, in terms of polyp size, symptoms, and respiratory function. Thirty-three individuals, aged 27 to 87 years, with untreated nasal polyps were identified in a population-based study. Peak nasal inspiratory flow, olfactory function, and size of the nasal polyps were examined. Respiratory symptoms were also registered. Follow-up examinations were performed after 6 and 13 years, with change between visits analyzed. Over time, polyp size as well as occurrence of unilateral or bilateral polyps varied without an obvious pattern, with no consistent trends in respiratory function or symptoms. Twenty-one individuals (64%) were still untreated at the 6-year follow-up, and 12 (36%) remained untreated during the whole 13-year follow-up. Dropouts were due mainly to death. Seven individuals (21%) started treatment during the follow-up and had larger polyps and more subjective respiratory symptoms at baseline compared to the untreated group. Nasal polyps found occasionally are often part of a chronic entity but do not necessarily evolve into a more serious condition over time. Treatment should therefore be based on the patients' subjective problems. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Polyp enhancing level set evolution of colon wall: method and pilot study.

    PubMed

    Konukoglu, Ender; Acar, Burak; Paik, David S; Beaulieu, Christopher F; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Napel, Sandy

    2007-12-01

    Computer aided detection (CAD) in computed tomography colonography (CTC) aims at detecting colonic polyps that are the precursors of colon cancer. In this work, we propose a colon wall evolution algorithm polyp enhancing level sets (PELS) based on the level-set formulation that regularizes and enhances polyps as a preprocessing step to CTC CAD algorithms. The underlying idea is to evolve the polyps towards spherical protrusions on the colon wall while keeping other structures, such as haustral folds, relatively unchanged and, thereby, potentially improve the performance of CTC CAD algorithms, especially for smaller polyps. To evaluate our methods, we conducted a pilot study using an arbitrarily chosen CTC CAD method, the surface normal overlap (SNO) CAD algorithm, on a nine patient CTC data set with 47 polyps of sizes ranging from 2.0 to 17.0 mm in diameter. PELS increased the maximum sensitivity by 8.1% (from 21/37 to 24/37) for small polyps of sizes ranging from 5.0 to 9.0 mm in diameter. This is accompanied by a statistically significant separation between small polyps and false positives. PELS did not change the CTC CAD performance significantly for larger polyps.

  11. Where are the polyps? Molecular identification, distribution and population differentiation of Aurelia aurita jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area.

    PubMed

    van Walraven, Lodewijk; Driessen, Floor; van Bleijswijk, Judith; Bol, Anneke; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C; Coolen, Joop W P; Bos, Oscar G; Gittenberger, Adriaan; Schrieken, Niels; Langenberg, Victor T; van der Veer, Henk W

    For many species of metagenic jellyfish the location of the benthic polyps is unknown. To gain insight in the distribution, species composition and population structure of scyphozoan jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area, polyp samples were collected from natural and artificial substrates (settling plates, marina floats and wrecks) at ten inshore locations in the Netherlands, seven offshore locations in the North Sea and in the Gullmar Fjord in Sweden. Polyps were identified to species level by sequencing both a fragment of 18S rDNA and a fragment of mitochondrial COI, and comparing these sequences to reference sequences available in GenBank and to newly obtained sequences from medusae collected in the area. All polyps sequenced did belong to Aurelia aurita. For this species, molecular diversity in mitochondrial COI was high, with 50 haplotypes among 183 polyps. Population differentiation was detected between the Dogger Bank and other-more coastal-locations, indicating extremely low connectivity. No significant differences were found between coastal samples. The location of polyps of Cyanea capillata, Cyanea lamarckii, Chrysaora hysoscella and Rhizostoma octopus in the study area remains unresolved.

  12. Linked color imaging improves the visibility of colorectal polyps: a video study

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Naohisa; Naito, Yuji; Murakami, Takaaki; Hirose, Ryohei; Ogiso, Kiyoshi; Inada, Yutaka; Dohi, Osamu; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Handa, Osamu; Konishi, Hideyuki; Siah, Kewin Tien Ho; Yagi, Nobuaki; Fujita, Yasuko; Kishimoto, Mitsuo; Yanagisawa, Akio; Itoh, Yoshito

    2017-01-01

    Background/study aim  Linked color imaging (LCI) by a laser endoscope (Fujifilm Co, Tokyo, Japan) is a novel narrow band light observation. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether LCI could improve the visibility of colorectal polyps using endoscopic videos. Patients and methods  We prospectively recorded videos of consecutive polyps 2 – 20 mm in size diagnosed as neoplastic polyps. Three videos, white light (WL), blue laser imaging (BLI)-bright, and LCI, were recorded for each polyp by one expert. After excluding inappropriate videos, all videos were evaluated in random order by two experts and two non-experts according to a published polyp visibility score from four (excellent visibility) to one (poor visibility). Additionally, the relationship between polyp visibility scores in LCI and various clinical characteristics including location, size, histology, morphology, and preparation were analyzed compared to WL and BLI-bright. Results  We analyzed 101 colorectal polyps (94 neoplastic) in 66 patients (303 videos). The mean polyp size was 9.0 ± 8.1 mm and 54 polyps were non-polypoid. The mean polyp visibility scores for LCI (2.86 ± 1.08) were significantly higher than for WL and BLI-bright (2.53 ± 1.15, P  < 0.001; 2.73 ± 1.47, P  < 0.041). The ratio of poor visibility (score 1 and 2) was significantly lower in LCI for experts and non-experts (35.6 %, 33.6 %) compared with WL (49.6 %, P  = 0.015, 50.5 %, P  = 0.046). The polyp visibility scores for LCI were significantly higher than those for WL for all of the factors. With respect to the comparison between BLI-bright and WL, the polyp visibility scores for BLI-bright were not higher than WL for right-sided location, < 10 mm size, sessile serrated adenoma and polyp histology, and poor preparation. For those characteristics, LCI improved the lesions with right-sided location, SSA/P histology, and poor preparation significantly better than BLI

  13. Large colorectal polyps--endoscopic polypectomy as an alternative to surgery.

    PubMed

    Spychalski, Michał; Buczyński, Jarosław; Cywiński, Jarosław; Dziki, Łukasz; Langner, Ewa; Sygut, Andrzej; Trzciński, Radzisław; Dziki, Adam

    2011-10-01

    Endoscopic polypectomy of colorectal polyps is a common procedure. However, endoscopic treatment of large polyps (those with a diameter exceeding 2 cm) remains questionable. There is a serious risk of colorectal carcinoma presence inside these lesions, which eventually would require surgical intervention. Apart from this fact endoscopic polypectomy of large polyps is connected with substantial risk of complications, such as perforation and bleeding. Many patients with large colorectal polyps are qualified for surgical intervention. THE AIM OF THE STUDY was to determine the efficacy and safety of polypectomy of large colorectal polyps. The study presented results of endoscopic treatment in case of patients with large colorectal polyps at the Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University in Łódź. Patients were admitted to the hospital during the period between January, 2008 and January, 2010. The following parameters were analysed: location of polyps, percentage of high grade dysplasia, complete excision rate, and complications connected with polypectomy procedures. During the analyzed period of time 488 endoscopic polypectomies were performed. Forty-three large colorectal polyps were removed (8.8%). Seven (16.3%) of them were classified as flat polyps. Out of 488 removed polyps, 39 were classified as adenomas with high grade dysplasia (7.9%), while 16 were large-exceeding 2 cm (37.2%). Considering the group of large polyps no invasive carcinoma case was detected. The radical excision rate for large pedunculated polyps was obtained in 88.8% (32/36) of cases. In case of flat adenomas the above-mentioned parameter was lower--57.1% (4/7). During polypectomy of large colorectal polyps one perforation was observed during the excision of a flat cecal polyp. In two cases immediate bleeding occurred (2/43). In both cases endoscopic treatment of bleeding proved sufficient. Endoscopic polypectomy of large pedunculated polyps is a safe and efficient method

  14. Frequent gastrointestinal polyps and colorectal adenocarcinomas in prospective series of PTEN mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Heald, Brandie; Mester, Jessica; Rybicki, Lisa; Orloff, Mohammed S.; Burke, Carol A; Eng, Charis

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Germline PTEN mutations cause Cowden syndrome (CS), associated with breast and thyroid cancers. Case reports found 35–85% of CS patients had gastrointestinal (GI) hamartomas. The association of benign and malignant GI neoplasias with CS remains debatable. Our goal is to describe the GI phenotype in a prospective series of PTEN mutation carriers. METHODS Patients who met relaxed International Cowden Consortium criteria (N=2548) or with ≥5 GI polyps, ≥1 of which was hyperplastic or hamartomatous (N=397) were prospectively recruited. Germline PTEN mutation/deletion analysis was performed. Of the 2945, 127 patients having clear pathogenic PTEN mutations (123/2548+4/397) were eligible for this study. EGD and colonoscopy were performed and pathology reports reviewed. Fisher’s 2-tailed exact test, unpaired t-tests, and age- and gender-adjusted SIR were calculated. RESULTS Of 127 PTEN mutation carriers, 67 underwent ≥1 endoscopy with 62 (95%) having polyps, making GI polyps the second most common feature, after macrocephaly (74.8%). Of the 65, half had hyperplastic polyps and ¼ each with hamartomatous, ganglioneuromatous or adenomatous polyps. There were one to “innumerable” polyps in the colorectum, ileum, duodenum, stomach and/or esophagus, with 24 subjects having both upper and lower GI polyps. Nine (13%) subjects had colorectal cancer, all under the age of 50. The adjusted SIR was 224.1 (95%CI 109.3–411.3, p<0.0001). Cancers were commonly associated with adenomatous and/or hyperplastic polyps. One had gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS PTEN-associated CS should be considered a mixed polyp syndrome, with hyperplastic polyps most prevalent, and a risk of early-onset colorectal cancer. Routine colonoscopy should be considered in PTEN-associated CS especially in the context of hyperplastic and/or adenomatous polyps. PMID:20600018

  15. Association of endotoxins and colon polyp: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Kon; Yum, Keun-Sang

    2012-09-01

    Endotoxins are known to be associated with the occurrence of various chronic diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the role of endotoxins in the pathogenesis of colon polyps through a case-control study. A total of 145 subjects (74 subjects in the polyp group and 71 subjects in the control group) had undergone a colonoscopy. Age, body mass index (BMI) and endotoxin levels were found to be significantly higher in the polyp group than in the control group. The endotoxin level was still significantly higher in the polyp group than in the control group, even after age and BMI had been adjusted (polyp group 0.108 ± 0.007 EU/mL, control group 0.049 ± 0.008 EU/mL, P < 0.001). In subgroup analysis, the endotoxin level significantly increased in accordance with the number of colon polyps (one-polyp group, 0.088 ± 0.059 EU/mL; two-polyp group, 0.097 ± 0.071 EU/mL; three-or-more-polyp group, 0.149 ± 0.223 EU/mL). The endotoxin levels also significantly increased in groups with tubular adenoma with high-grade dysplasia (hyperplastic polyp group, 0.109 ± 0.121 EU/mL; tubular adenoma with low grade dysplasia group, 0.103 ± 0.059 EU/mL; tubular adenoma with high grade dysplasia group, 2.915 ± 0.072 EU/mL). In conclusion, the serum level of endotoxins is quantitatively correlated with colon polyps.

  16. Analysis of estrogen- and progesterone-receptor expression in endometrial polyps.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes C; Baracat, Edmund Chada; de Albuquerque Neto, Luiz Cavalcanti; Ramos, José Francisco Dória; Yatabe, Salete; Depesr, Daniela Baptista; Lippi, Umberto Gazi

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the presence of estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) in the glandular epithelium and stroma of endometrial polyps in women who underwent hysteroscopic polypectomy. Prospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-3. Hospital de Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo "Francisco Morato de Oliveira." Forty-eight patients with a solitary endometrial polyp who underwent hysteroscopic polypectomy and resection of an endometrial fragment. The estrogen and progesterone receptor expression, in the polyp, was compared with the endometrial hormone expression of the same patients. The specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The percentage of staining cells was determined as follows: grade I, 0% to 25%; grade II, 26% to 50%; grade III, 51% to 75%; and grade IV, 76% to 100% of stained nuclei. The intensity of nuclear staining was classified as grade I, absent; grade II, weak; grade III, strong; and grade IV, very strong staining. The sum of both grades was the histochemical score. The total scores of polyp and endometrium were statistically compared. The total scores of ER of glandular epithelium were 258 in polyp and 211 in endometrium. As to stroma, it was 155 in polyp and 163 in endometrium. The total scores of PR of glandular epithelium were 286 in polyp and 211 in endometrium. As to stroma, the totals were 76 in polyp and 77 in endometrium. In immunohistochemistry, the concentrations of both ER and PR in glandular epithelium were significantly higher in endometrial polyp than in normal endometrium. The concentrations of ER and PR in the stroma were similar in the polyp and endometrium. The concentrations of these receptors in the glandular epithelium and stroma were similar in postmenopausal and premenopausal patients. The concentrations of ER and PR in glandular epithelium were significantly higher in endometrial polyp than in normal endometrium. The concentrations of these receptors in the glandular epithelium and

  17. Association of Endotoxins and Colon Polyp: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang-Kon

    2012-01-01

    Endotoxins are known to be associated with the occurrence of various chronic diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the role of endotoxins in the pathogenesis of colon polyps through a case-control study. A total of 145 subjects (74 subjects in the polyp group and 71 subjects in the control group) had undergone a colonoscopy. Age, body mass index (BMI) and endotoxin levels were found to be significantly higher in the polyp group than in the control group. The endotoxin level was still significantly higher in the polyp group than in the control group, even after age and BMI had been adjusted (polyp group 0.108 ± 0.007 EU/mL, control group 0.049 ± 0.008 EU/mL, P < 0.001). In subgroup analysis, the endotoxin level significantly increased in accordance with the number of colon polyps (one-polyp group, 0.088 ± 0.059 EU/mL; two-polyp group, 0.097 ± 0.071 EU/mL; three-or-more-polyp group, 0.149 ± 0.223 EU/mL). The endotoxin levels also significantly increased in groups with tubular adenoma with high-grade dysplasia (hyperplastic polyp group, 0.109 ± 0.121 EU/mL; tubular adenoma with low grade dysplasia group, 0.103 ± 0.059 EU/mL; tubular adenoma with high grade dysplasia group, 2.915 ± 0.072 EU/mL). In conclusion, the serum level of endotoxins is quantitatively correlated with colon polyps. PMID:22969253

  18. Dynamic Article: Full-Thickness Excision for Benign Colon Polyps Using Combined Endoscopic Laparoscopic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Anthony Y; O'Mahoney, Paul R A; Milsom, Jeffrey W; Lee, Sang W

    2016-01-01

    Benign colon polyps are commonly encountered but may not always be amenable to endoscopic excision because of their size, shape, location, or scarring from previous attempts. The addition of laparoscopy allows a greater degree of bowel manipulation, but the current technique is still limited when encountering a polyp with inadequate lifting attributed to polyp morphology or scarring. We describe an extension to the existing combined endoscopic laparoscopic surgery technique using a full-thickness approach to increase polyp maneuverability and local excision of difficult but benign polyps. The purpose of this study was to report the technical details and preliminary results of a new approach for full-thickness excision of difficult colon polyps, combined endoscopic laparoscopic surgery full-thickness excision. This study is a retrospective review of our experience from December 2013 to May 2015. The study was conducted at a single academic institution. All of the patients had previous incomplete colonoscopic polypectomy performed at other institutions. Patients were selected for our technique if the polyp had a benign appearance but was unable to be resected by traditional endoscopic or combined endoscopic laparoscopic surgery methods because of polyp morphology or scarring from previous biopsies. The safety and feasibility of this procedure were measured. Three patients underwent combined endoscopic laparoscopic surgery-full-thickness excision for difficult colon polyps. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The length of stay was 1 day for all of the patients. All 3 of the patients had benign final pathology. This study was limited by the small number of patients in a single institution. Full-thickness excision for benign colon polyps using combined endoscopic laparoscopic surgery is safe and feasible. Using this technique, difficult polyps not amenable to traditional endoscopic approaches can be removed and colectomy may be avoided.

  19. High-resolution sonography for distinguishing neoplastic gallbladder polyps and staging gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Lee, Jae Young; Baek, Jee Hyun; Eun, Hyo Won; Kim, Young Jae; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purposes of this study were to compare staging accuracy of high-resolution sonography (HRUS) with combined low- and high-MHz transducers with that of conventional sonography for gallbladder cancer and to investigate the differences in the imaging findings of neoplastic and nonneoplastic gallbladder polyps. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Our study included 37 surgically proven gallbladder cancer (T1a = 7, T1b = 2, T2 = 22, T3 = 6), including 15 malignant neoplastic polyps and 73 surgically proven polyps (neoplastic = 31, nonneoplastic = 42) that underwent HRUS and conventional transabdominal sonography. Two radiologists assessed T-category and predefined polyp findings on HRUS and conventional transabdominal sonography. Statistical analyses were performed using chi-square and McNemar tests. RESULTS. The diagnostic accuracy for the T category was T1a = 92-95%, T1b = 89-95%, T2 = 78-86%, and T3 = 84-89%, all with good agreement (κ = 0.642) using HRUS. The diagnostic accuracy for differentiating T1 from T2 or greater than T2 was 92% and 89% on HRUS and 65% and 70% with conventional transabdominal sonography. Statistically common findings for neoplastic polyps included size greater than 1 cm, single lobular surface, vascular core, hypoechoic polyp, and hypoechoic foci (p < 0.05). The value of HRUS in the differential diagnosis of a gallbladder polyp was more clearly depicted internal echo foci than conventional transabdominal sonography (39 vs 21). A polyp size greater than 1 cm was independently associated with a neoplastic polyp (odds ratio = 7.5, p = 0.02). The AUC of a polyp size greater than 1 cm was 0.877. The sensitivity and specificity were 66.67% and 89.13%, respectively. CONCLUSION. HRUS is a simple method that enables accurate T categorization of gallbladder carcinoma. It provides high-resolution images of gallbladder polyps and may have a role in stratifying the risk for malignancy.

  20. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin activity is increased in nasal polyps of chronic rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Nagarkar, Deepti R.; Poposki, Julie A.; Tan, Bruce K.; Comeau, Michael R.; Peters, Anju T.; Hulse, Kathryn E.; Suh, Lydia A.; Norton, James; Harris, Kathleen E.; Grammer, Leslie C.; Chandra, Rakesh K.; Conley, David B.; Kern, Robert C.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Kato, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is associated with Th2-dominant inflammation. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine that triggers dendritic cell-mediated Th2 inflammatory responses and that enhances IL-1-dependent Th2 cytokine production in mast cells. Although elevated levels of TSLP mRNA have been found in nasal polyps (NPs), expression of TSLP protein and its function in CRS have not been fully explored. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the role of TSLP in CRS. Methods We investigated the presence and stability of TSLP protein in NPs by ELISA and western blot, and the function of TSLP in nasal tissue extracts with a bioassay based upon activation of human mast cells. Results Although TSLP mRNA was significantly increased in NP tissue from patients with CRSwNP compared to uncinate tissue from patients with CRS or control subjects, TSLP protein was significantly decreased in NP tissue as detected by the commercial ELISA kit. We found that recombinant TSLP was time-dependently degraded by NP extracts and this degradation was completely inhibited by a protease inhibitor cocktail, suggesting that TSLP is sensitive to tissue proteases. Interestingly, NP extract-treated TSLP had higher activity in mast cells, although the amount of full length TSLP was reduced up to 85%. NP extracts significantly enhanced IL-1β-dependent IL-5 production in mast cells compared with uncinate tissue homogenates, and responses were significantly inhibited by anti-TSLP, suggesting that NP contain biologically relevant levels of TSLP activity. Conclusion TSLP and its metabolic products may play an important role in the inflammation in CRSwNP. PMID:23688414

  1. Asthma in ear, nose, and throat primary care patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Frendø, Martin; Håkansson, Kåre; Schwer, Susanne; Rix, Iben; Ravn, Andreas T; Backer, Vibeke; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a common inflammatory disorder associated with asthma. This association is well described in patients with CRSwNP undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS); however, some patients are never referred for surgery, and the frequency of asthma in this group is largely unknown. To determine the frequency of asthma in patients with CRSwNP treated in a primary care (PC) setting who have never been referred for surgery and to compare this with ESS patients. Fifty-seven patients with CRSwNP who had never undergone ESS were prospectively recruited from nine PC ear, nose, and throat clinics in the Copenhagen area. CRSwNP was diagnosed according to the European Position Paper on Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps; severity was assessed by using a visual analog scale. Allergy, lung function, and asthma tests (reversibility to β2-agonist, peak expiratory flow variability, and mannitol challenge) were performed. Findings were compared with our previously published data from patients with CRSwNP referred for surgery. Asthma was diagnosed in 25 patients (44%) based on respiratory symptoms and a positive asthma test; of these, 12 (48%) had undiagnosed asthma prior to study onset. Furthermore, when using the same methods, we found a lower frequency of asthma in PC patients compared with ESS patients (44% versus 65%, p = 0.04). A high prevalence of asthma in PC patients with CRSwNP was found. Frequently, asthma was undiagnosed. However, asthma was significantly less prevalent in PC patients compared with patients referred for ESS. The frequent concomitance of asthma, i.e., united airways disease, in PC patients calls for closer collaboration between ear, nose, and throat specialists, and asthma specialists.

  2. Modelling coral polyp calcification in relation to ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohn, S.; Merico, A.

    2012-11-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions induce changes in the carbonate chemistry of the oceans and, ultimately, a drop in ocean pH. This acidification process can harm calcifying organisms like coccolithophores, molluscs, echinoderms, and corals. It is expected that ocean acidification in combination with other anthropogenic stressors will cause a severe decline in coral abundance by the end of this century, with associated disastrous effects on reef ecosystems. Despite the growing importance of the topic, little progress has been made with respect to modelling the impact of acidification on coral calcification. Here we present a model for a coral polyp that simulates the carbonate system in four different compartments: the seawater, the polyp tissue, the coelenteron, and the calcifying fluid. Precipitation of calcium carbonate takes place in the metabolically controlled calcifying fluid beneath the polyp tissue. The model is adjusted to a state of activity as observed by direct microsensor measurements in the calcifying fluid. We find that a transport mechanism for bicarbonate is required to supplement carbon into the calcifying fluid because CO2 diffusion alone is not sufficient to sustain the observed calcification rates. Simulated CO2 perturbation experiments reveal decreasing calcification rates under elevated pCO2 despite the strong metabolic control of the calcifying fluid. Diffusion of CO2 through the tissue into the calcifying fluid increases with increasing seawater pCO2, leading to decreased aragonite saturation in the calcifying fluid. Our modelling study provides important insights into the complexity of the calcification process at the organism level and helps to quantify the effect of ocean acidification on corals.

  3. Alcohol hyper-responsiveness in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    De Schryver, Els; Derycke, Lara; Campo, Paloma; Gabriels, Eline; Joos, Guy F; Van Zele, Thibaut; Bachert, Claus; Hellings, Peter W; Gevaert, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    An important percentage of subjects diagnosed with chronic upper airway disease report alcohol-induced worsening of their symptoms. The prevalence and characteristics of respiratory reactions provoked by alcohol-containing drinks have not been fully investigated yet. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of alcohol hyper-responsiveness in patients with chronic airway disease and healthy controls. Furthermore, nasal inflammation was evaluated in nasal polyp patients with and without hyper-responsiveness. We evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of alcohol-induced respiratory complaints in 1281 subjects. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) patients with and without NSAID exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD), chronic rhinosinusitis patients without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), allergic rhinitis (AR) patients and healthy controls were approached by means of a questionnaire. Inflammatory markers (eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), IL-5, IgE, SAE-specific IgE, IL-17, TNFα and IFNγ) in tissue were then compared between alcohol hyper-responsive and non-hyper-responsive CRSwNP patients. The highest prevalence of nasal and bronchial alcohol hyper-responsiveness was observed in patients with NERD, followed by CRSwNP, and less frequent in CRSsNP, AR and healthy controls. Alcohol hyper-responsiveness is significantly more prevalent in CRSwNP patients suffering from recurrent disease and in patients with severe symptomatology. In nasal tissue of the hyper-responsive CRSwNP group, we observed significantly higher nasal levels of the eosinophilic biomarker ECP. Nasal hyper-responsiveness to alcohol is significantly more prevalent in severe eosinophilic upper airway disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Two inflammatory phenotypes of nasal polyps and comorbid asthma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dawei; Li, Lun; Zhang, Min; Wang, Jianting; Wei, Yongxiang

    2017-03-01

    Nasal polyps and comorbid asthma (NPCA) is a common united airway disease. However, the inflammatory phenotyes of NPCA are not clear. To identify inflammatory phenotypes of NPCA. A total of 106 patients diagnosed with NPCA were recruited from rhinologic clinics. A combined method of biopsies from nasal polyps and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was used to explore inflammatory phenotyes of NPCA. Patients were evaluated with respect to clinical, functional, and inflammatory parameters. Clinical outcomes after medical treatment were also assessed. Two distinct inflammatory phenotypes (eosinophilic [64.15%] and noneosinophilic phenotypes [35.85%]) were identified. Inflammatory patterns of upper and lower airways were consistent in NPCA. Patients with eosinophilic NPCA had a higher nasal polyps recurrence rate than did patients with noneosinophilic NPCA, a more severe asthma phenotype (P < .001), higher exhaled nitric oxide levels (P < .001), higher IgE levels (P < .001), higher Lund-Mackay scores (P < .05), and more blood eosinophilia (P < .001). In addition, eosinophilic NPCA was associated with worse pulmonary function and responded well to an 8-week course of medical treatment based on computed tomographic findings and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity. The total IgE concentration was a marker for eosinophilic NPCA (optimal cutoff, >55.5 kU/L; sensitivity, 86.2%; specificity, 85.4%). Patients with NPCA had 2 inflammatory phenotypes with distinct clinical profiles. Total IgE is a marker of eosinophilic NPCA. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Artificial substrates preference for proliferation and immigration in Aurelia aurita (s. l.) polyps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Song; Lin, Jianing; Sun, Song; Zhang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    The increasing amounts of artificial marine substrates, in many parts of the world have been proposed as a potential driver of Aurelia spp. blooms, on account of providing extra habitats for the settlement and the proliferation of the benthic stage (polyps). Previous experiments have mainly focused on the substrate choices of Aurelia spp. planulae. However, substrate preferences for the proliferation and immigration of polyps have not been reported. We monitored the propagation and immigration of Aurelia aurita (s. l.) polyps on two natural and nine artificial substrates at constant temperature (20±0.5°C) and salinity (30±0.5) in beakers and a glass aquarium in the laboratory, respectively. The results showed that, among artificial substrates, the highest number for polyp proliferation and immigration was found on nets, rigid polyvinyl chloride plates (RPVC), and wood. The lowest density of polyps was present on iron plates. Among natural substrates, the asexual reproduction rate of polyps on Patinopecten yessoensis (Jay, 1857) shells was significantly higher than Azumapecten farreri (Jones & Preston, 1904). On the account of the distinction in the roughness, chemical properties and biofilms of these material surfaces, bare artificial or natural substrates discriminatively affect the proliferation and the immigration of Aurelia spp. polyps at laboratory. These observations suggest that, even in the natural environment, different materials and texture may influence the composition and the abundance of the fouling communities and the assemblages of polyps and, indirectly, have effects on the amounts of released medusae.

  6. Severe gastric impaction secondary to a gastric polyp in a horse

    PubMed Central

    Furness, Mary Catherine; Snyman, Heindrich Nicolaas; Abrahams, Miranda; Moore, Alison; Vince, Andrew; Anderson, Maureen E.C.

    2013-01-01

    A 13-year-old Percheron gelding was presented for refractory gastric impaction. At necropsy a pedunculated 10 cm × 11 cm × 14 cm mass, histologically identified as an inflammatory polyp, was suspected to have been partly obstructing the pylorus. This is the first report of a polyp resulting in gastric outflow obstruction in a horse. PMID:24155420

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Voice before and after Phonosurgery for Removal of a Polyp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stajner-Katusic, Smiljka; Horga, Damir; Zrinski, Karolina Vrban

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the acoustic parameters, perceptual estimation, and self-estimation of voice before, 1 month after, and 6 years after surgical removal of a vocal fold polyp. Subjects were five male patients who came to the Phoniatric Clinic because of breathiness. For all patients, a polyp of one vocal fold was…

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis in CT colonography: detection of polyps based on geometric and texture features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Naeppi, Janne J.; Frimmel, Hans; Dachman, Abraham H.

    2002-05-01

    A computer-aided diagnosis scheme for the detection of colonic polyps in CT colonography has been developed, and its performance has been assessed based on clinical cases with colonoscopy-confirmed polyps. In the scheme, the colon was automatically segmented by use of knowledge-guided segmentation from 3-dimensional isotropic volumes reconstructed from axial CT slices in CT colonography. Polyp candidates are detected by first computing of 3-dimensional geometric features that characterize polyps, and then segmenting of connected components corresponding to suspicious regions by hysteresis thresholding and fuzzy clustering based on these geometric features. False-positive detections are reduced by computation of 3-dimensional texture features characterizing the internal structures of the polyp candidates, followed by application of discriminant analysis to the feature space generated by the geometric and texture features. We applied our scheme to 43 CT colonographic cases with cleansed colon, including 12 polyps larger than 5 mm. In a by-dataset analysis, the CAD scheme yielded a sensitivity of 95% with 1.2 false positives per data set. The false negative was one of the two polyps in a single patient. Consequently, in by-patient analysis, our method yielded 100% sensitivity with 2.0 false positives per patient. The results indicate that our CAD scheme has the potential to detect clinically important polyp cases with a high sensitivity and a relatively low false-positive rate.

  9. A comparison of blood vessel features and local binary patterns for colorectal polyp classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Sebastian; Stehle, Thomas; Behrens, Alexander; Auer, Roland; Aach, Til; Winograd, Ron; Trautwein, Christian; Tischendorf, Jens

    2009-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States of America for both women and men. By means of early detection, the five year survival rate can be up to 90%. Polyps can to be grouped into three different classes: hyperplastic, adenomatous, and carcinomatous polyps. Hyperplastic polyps are benign and are not likely to develop into cancer. Adenomas, on the other hand, are known to grow into cancer (adenoma-carcinoma sequence). Carcinomas are fully developed cancers and can be easily distinguished from adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. A recent narrow band imaging (NBI) study by Tischendorf et al. has shown that hyperplastic polyps and adenomas can be discriminated by their blood vessel structure. We designed a computer-aided system for the differentiation between hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps. Our development aim is to provide the medical practitioner with an additional objective interpretation of the available image data as well as a confidence measure for the classification. We propose classification features calculated on the basis of the extracted blood vessel structure. We use the combined length of the detected blood vessels, the average perimeter of the vessels and their average gray level value. We achieve a successful classification rate of more than 90% on 102 polyps from our polyp data base. The classification results based on these features are compared to the results of Local Binary Patterns (LBP). The results indicate that the implemented features are superior to LBP.

  10. High-definition endoscopy with digital chromoendoscopy for histologic prediction of distal colorectal polyps.

    PubMed

    Rath, Timo; Tontini, Gian E; Nägel, Andreas; Vieth, Michael; Zopf, Steffen; Günther, Claudia; Hoffman, Arthur; Neurath, Markus F; Neumann, Helmut

    2015-10-22

    Distal diminutive colorectal polyps are common and accurate endoscopic prediction of hyperplastic or adenomatous polyp histology could reduce procedural time, costs and potential risks associated with the resection. Within this study we assessed whether digital chromoendoscopy can accurately predict the histology of distal diminutive colorectal polyps according to the ASGE PIVI statement. In this prospective cohort study, 224 consecutive patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy were included. Real time histology of 121 diminutive distal colorectal polyps was evaluated using high-definition endoscopy with digital chromoendoscopy and the accuracy of predicting histology with digital chromoendoscopy was assessed. The overall accuracy of digital chromoendoscopy for prediction of adenomatous polyp histology was 90.1 %. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 93.3, 88.7, 88.7, and 93.2 %, respectively. In high-confidence predictions, the accuracy increased to 96.3 % while sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated as 98.1, 94.4, 94.5, and 98.1 %, respectively. Surveillance intervals with digital chromoendoscopy were correctly predicted with >90 % accuracy. High-definition endoscopy in combination with digital chromoendoscopy allowed real-time in vivo prediction of distal colorectal polyp histology and is accurate enough to leave distal colorectal polyps in place without resection or to resect and discard them without pathologic assessment. This approach has the potential to reduce costs and risks associated with the redundant removal of diminutive colorectal polyps. ClinicalTrials NCT02217449.

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Voice before and after Phonosurgery for Removal of a Polyp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stajner-Katusic, Smiljka; Horga, Damir; Zrinski, Karolina Vrban

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the acoustic parameters, perceptual estimation, and self-estimation of voice before, 1 month after, and 6 years after surgical removal of a vocal fold polyp. Subjects were five male patients who came to the Phoniatric Clinic because of breathiness. For all patients, a polyp of one vocal fold was…

  12. Phenotypic and functional characteristics of IL-21-expressing CD8+ T cells in human nasal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Li; Jia, Lei; Bai, Lu; He, Long; Yang, Binyan; Wu, Changyou; Li, Huabin

    2016-01-01

    Although CD4+ T cells are recognized to play an important role in the inflammatory response of nasal polyps (NPs), the biological functions of CD8+ T cells in polypogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed cell markers, cytokine expression and transcription factors in IL-21-expressing CD8+ T cells in polyp tissues of NP patients. The results showed that the majority of IL-21-producing CD8+ T cells were effector memory cells and they co-expressed IFN-γ. IL-21-expressing CD8+ T cells in polyp tissues expressed higher CXCR5, PD-1, and ICOS levels than cells in control tissues and showed significantly higher T-bet and Bcl-6 expression levels compared with IL-21−CD8+ T cells. Purified polyp CD8+ T cells promoted IgG production from isolated polyp B cells in vitro, and recombinant IL-12 modulated the expression of IL-21, IFN-γ and CD40L in purified polyp CD8+ T cells. Moreover, the percentage of IL-21+CD8+ T cells in polyp tissues was positively correlated with endoscopic and CT scan scores in NP patients. These findings indicated that polyp CD8+ T cells, by co-expressing IL-21 and IFN-γ and other markers, display a Tfh cell functionality, which is associated with the clinical severity of NP patients. PMID:27468819

  13. Severe gastric impaction secondary to a gastric polyp in a horse.

    PubMed

    Furness, Mary Catherine; Snyman, Heindrich Nicolaas; Abrahams, Miranda; Moore, Alison; Vince, Andrew; Anderson, Maureen E C

    2013-10-01

    A 13-year-old Percheron gelding was presented for refractory gastric impaction. At necropsy a pedunculated 10 cm × 11 cm × 14 cm mass, histologically identified as an inflammatory polyp, was suspected to have been partly obstructing the pylorus. This is the first report of a polyp resulting in gastric outflow obstruction in a horse.

  14. WM-DOVA maps for accurate polyp highlighting in colonoscopy: Validation vs. saliency maps from physicians.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Jorge; Sánchez, F Javier; Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria; Gil, Debora; Rodríguez, Cristina; Vilariño, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    We introduce in this paper a novel polyp localization method for colonoscopy videos. Our method is based on a model of appearance for polyps which defines polyp boundaries in terms of valley information. We propose the integration of valley information in a robust way fostering complete, concave and continuous boundaries typically associated to polyps. This integration is done by using a window of radial sectors which accumulate valley information to create WM-DOVA (Window Median Depth of Valleys Accumulation) energy maps related with the likelihood of polyp presence. We perform a double validation of our maps, which include the introduction of two new databases, including the first, up to our knowledge, fully annotated database with clinical metadata associated. First we assess that the highest value corresponds with the location of the polyp in the image. Second, we show that WM-DOVA energy maps can be comparable with saliency maps obtained from physicians' fixations obtained via an eye-tracker. Finally, we prove that our method outperforms state-of-the-art computational saliency results. Our method shows good performance, particularly for small polyps which are reported to be the main sources of polyp miss-rate, which indicates the potential applicability of our method in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Groups travel further: pelagic metamorphosis and polyp clustering allow higher dispersal potential in sun coral propagules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizrahi, Damián; Navarrete, Sergio A.; Flores, Augusto A. V.

    2014-06-01

    We report that planulae produced by Tubastraea coccinea can metamorphose and aggregate in groups of up to eight polyps in the water column, without previous settlement on benthic substrate. We also evaluated the survival of propagules to test whether different levels of aggregation allowed for longer planktonic life and, therefore, higher dispersal potential. Our results show that pelagic polyps live longer than planulae, probably because they can feed and meet the presumably high-energy demands of swimming. Clusters of two or more individuals lived longer than solitary polyps. However, mortality did not differ between small (2-3 polyps) and large (4-8 polyps) clusters, suggesting the existence of an upper limit to cluster size. Most swimming clusters (80 %) remained alive after 6 months, suggesting that pelagic metamorphosis and cluster formation can be a key life-history feature increasing dispersal potential, population connectivity, and the colonization of new habitats in this invasive species.

  16. The Effect of Indigocarmine on Improvement of the Polyp Detection Rate during Colonoscopic Examination with Hood Cap

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Sang Chang; Choi, Sung Won; Choi, Seong Ho; Park, Hee Seung; Lee, Seung Heon; Kim, Bong Gun; Seo, Eun Hee; Jang, Mun; Ryu, Seung Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Young Hoon; Ha, Jun Ouk

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Hood cap-assisted chromocolonoscopy using indigocarmine is expected to improve the detection rate of colorectal polyps, especially adenomatous polyps. Therefore, aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of hood cap-assisted chromocolonoscopy in routine colonoscopic examinations. Methods From January, 2013 through March, 2013, a total of 86 patients were enrolled (M:F=33:53, mean age=60 years). For each patient, hood cap-assisted colonoscopic examination was performed, followed by hood cap-assisted chromocolonoscopy using 0.2% indigocarmine from the cecum to the hepatic flexure. Total numbers and characteristics of polyps were compared before and after indigo carmine dye spraying. Results Prior to dye spraying, 48 polyps were found in 37 patients, and after dye spraying, 53 additional polyps were found in 34 patients. Of these undetected polyps, 45 (85%) were small sized polyps (≤0.5 cm). Histologically, 19 (36%) were adenomatous polyps, and of these, 15 (28%) were tubular adenomas and 4 (8%) were serrated adenomas. As for the polyp detection rate, there was no difference between the expert and the non-expert groups. Conclusion Hood cap-assisted chromocolonoscopic examination using indigocarmine was helpful in detecting cecum and ascending colon polyps, especially small sized polyps (<0.5 cm) and neoplastic polyps. PMID:25349565

  17. Reproductive outcomes following hysteroscopic resection of endometrial polyps of different location, number and size in patients with infertility.

    PubMed

    Karakuş, S S; Özdamar, Ö; Karakuş, R; Gün, I; Sofuoğlu, K; Muhcu, M; Polat, M

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the pregnancy rates after hysteroscopic polypectomy in infertility patients with endometrial polyps and to compare pregnancy rates among subgroups with polyps of different location, size and number. All patients who underwent hysteroscopic evaluation which revealed endometrial polyps were included. Patients with any intrauterine pathology other than polyp and those undergoing frozen embryo transfer (ET) cycles were excluded. Patients were evaluated according to polyp location, size and number. Rates of β-hCG positivity and clinical pregnancy were compared. Clinical pregnancy rates after polypectomy was 41.7% for multiple polyps, 30.8% for isthmus zone polyps, 28.6% for anterior wall polyps, 27.3% for cornual zone, 22.2% for posterior uterine wall polyps and 11.8% for fundal polyps (p = 0.532). There appears no difference regarding reproductive outcomes after hysteroscopic resection of polyps situated in different intrauterine locations. Similarly, chance of conceiving seems not to change after hysteroscopic treatment of polyps of different size and number.

  18. Comparison of effects on voice of diode laser and cold knife microlaryngology techniques for vocal fold polyps.

    PubMed

    Karasu, Mehmet Fatih; Gundogdu, Ramazan; Cagli, Sedat; Aydin, Mesut; Arli, Turan; Aydemir, Samet; Yuce, Imdat

    2014-05-01

    To compare the effects on voice of endolaryngeal microsurgery (EMS) with cold instruments and a new method, "diode laser," for vocal fold polyps. Fifty-one patients with vocal fold polyps suffering from dysphonia who were treated in the Erciyes University Department of Otolaryngology were included in the study. Voice analysis was performed in a soundproof room, holding the microphone 15 cm away from the patients' mouth and by recording a sustained [a] vowel for at least 10 seconds. Fundamental frequency (F0), Jitter, Shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio (NHR) parameters were evaluated in terms of vocal analysis. All patients were asked for to fill in a questionnaire, after being informed about the voice handicap index (VHI). EMS was performed with a diode laser and cold knife on 26 and 25 patients, respectively. Patient follow-up was performed 8 weeks after surgery. Changes in F0, Jitter, Shimmer, and NHR values were measured and recorded. VHI was also completed and reassessed. There was a significant difference in each technique's VHI score between the preoperative and postoperative questionnaire (P < 0.001). Postoperatively, there was no significant difference in VHI scores between two groups (P > 0.05). There was a significant difference in voice analysis values measured preoperatively and at the postoperative controls for both groups (P < 0.05). Postoperatively, there was no significant difference in voice analysis values between two groups (P > 0.05). In the treatment of vocal polyps, EMS with both diode laser and traditional cold knife is effective. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Incomplete polyp resection during colonoscopy-results of the complete adenoma resection (CARE) study.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Heiko; Srivastava, Amitabh; Bensen, Steve P; Anderson, Peter; Rothstein, Richard I; Gordon, Stuart R; Levy, L Campbell; Toor, Arifa; Mackenzie, Todd A; Rosch, Thomas; Robertson, Douglas J

    2013-01-01

    Although the adenoma detection rate is used as a measure of colonoscopy quality, there are limited data on the quality of endoscopic resection of detected adenomas. We determined the rate of incompletely resected neoplastic polyps in clinical practice. We performed a prospective study on 1427 patients who underwent colonoscopy at 2 medical centers and had at least 1 nonpedunculated polyp (5-20 mm). After polyp removal was considered complete macroscopically, biopsies were obtained from the resection margin. The main outcome was the percentage of incompletely resected neoplastic polyps (incomplete resection rate [IRR]) determined by the presence of neoplastic tissue in post-polypectomy biopsies. Associations between IRR and polyp size, morphology, histology, and endoscopist were assessed by regression analysis. Of 346 neoplastic polyps (269 patients; 84.0% men; mean age, 63.4 years) removed by 11 gastroenterologists, 10.1% were incompletely resected. IRR increased with polyp size and was significantly higher for large (10-20 mm) than small (5-9 mm) neoplastic polyps (17.3% vs 6.8%; relative risk = 2.1), and for sessile serrated adenomas/polyps than for conventional adenomas (31.0% vs 7.2%; relative risk = 3.7). The IRR for endoscopists with at least 20 polypectomies ranged from 6.5% to 22.7%; there was a 3.4-fold difference between the highest and lowest IRR after adjusting for size and sessile serrated histology. Neoplastic polyps are often incompletely resected, and the rate of incomplete resection varies broadly among endoscopists. Incomplete resection might contribute to the development of colon cancers after colonoscopy (interval cancers). Efforts are needed to ensure complete resection, especially of larger lesions. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01224444. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Deep ensemble learning of virtual endoluminal views for polyp detection in CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umehara, Kensuke; Näppi, Janne J.; Hironaka, Toru; Regge, Daniele; Ishida, Takayuki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Robust training of a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) requires a very large number of annotated datasets that are currently not available in CT colonography (CTC). We previously demonstrated that deep transfer learning provides an effective approach for robust application of a DCNN in CTC. However, at high detection accuracy, the differentiation of small polyps from non-polyps was still challenging. In this study, we developed and evaluated a deep ensemble learning (DEL) scheme for reviewing of virtual endoluminal images to improve the performance of computer-aided detection (CADe) of polyps in CTC. Nine different types of image renderings were generated from virtual endoluminal images of polyp candidates detected by a conventional CADe system. Eleven DCNNs that represented three types of publically available pre-trained DCNN models were re-trained by transfer learning to identify polyps from the virtual endoluminal images. A DEL scheme that determines the final detected polyps by a review of the nine types of VE images was developed by combining the DCNNs using a random forest classifier as a meta-classifier. For evaluation, we sampled 154 CTC cases from a large CTC screening trial and divided the cases randomly into a training dataset and a test dataset. At 3.9 falsepositive (FP) detections per patient on average, the detection sensitivities of the conventional CADe system, the highestperforming single DCNN, and the DEL scheme were 81.3%, 90.7%, and 93.5%, respectively, for polyps ≥6 mm in size. For small polyps, the DEL scheme reduced the number of false positives by up to 83% over that of using a single DCNN alone. These preliminary results indicate that the DEL scheme provides an effective approach for improving the polyp detection performance of CADe in CTC, especially for small polyps.

  1. Automatic polyp detection and measurement with computed tomographic colonography: A phantom study.

    PubMed

    Virmani, S; Lev-Toaff, As; Ciancibello, Lm

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) software in detecting and measuring polyps for CT Colonography, based on an in vitro phantom study. A colon phantom was constructed with a PVC pipe of 3.8 cm diameter. Nine simulated polyps of various sizes (3.2mm-25.4mm) were affixed inside the phantom that was placed in a water bath. The phantom was scanned on a 64-slice CT scanner with tube voltage of 120 kV and current of 205 mAs. Two separate scans were performed, with different slice thickness and reconstruction interval. The first scan (thin) had a slice thickness of 1mm and reconstruction interval 0.5mm. The second scan (thick) had a slice thickness of 2mm and reconstruction interval of 1mm. Images from both scans were processed using CT Colonography software that automatically segments the colon phantom and applies CAD that automatically highlights and provides the size (maximum and minimum diameters, volume) of each polyp. Two readers independently measured each polyp (two orthogonal diameters) using both 2D and 3D views. Readers' manual measurements (diameters) and automatic measurements from CAD (diameters and volume) were compared to actual polyp sizes as measured by mechanical calipers. All polyps except the smallest (3.2mm) were detected by CAD. CAD achieved 100% sensitivity in detecting polyps ≥6mm. Mean errors in CAD automated volume measurements for thin and thick slice scans were 8.7% and 6.8%, respectively. Almost all CAD and manual readers' 3D measurements overestimated the size of polyps to variable extent. Both over- and underestimation of polyp sizes were observed in the readers' manual 2D measurements. Overall, Reader 1 (expert) had smaller mean error than Reader 2 (non-expert). CAD provided accurate size measurements for all polyps, and results were comparable to the two readers' manual measurements.

  2. A CAD of fully automated colonic polyp detection for contrasted and non-contrasted CT scans.

    PubMed

    Tulum, Gökalp; Bolat, Bülent; Osman, Onur

    2017-04-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems are developed to help radiologists detect colonic polyps over CT scans. It is possible to reduce the detection time and increase the detection accuracy rates by using CAD systems. In this paper, we aimed to develop a fully integrated CAD system for automated detection of polyps that yields a high polyp detection rate with a reasonable number of false positives. The proposed CAD system is a multistage implementation whose main components are: automatic colon segmentation, candidate detection, feature extraction and classification. The first element of the algorithm includes a discrete segmentation for both air and fluid regions. Colon-air regions were determined based on adaptive thresholding, and the volume/length measure was used to detect air regions. To extract the colon-fluid regions, a rule-based connectivity test was used to detect the regions belong to the colon. Potential polyp candidates were detected based on the 3D Laplacian of Gaussian filter. The geometrical features were used to reduce false-positive detections. A 2D projection image was generated to extract discriminative features as the inputs of an artificial neural network classifier. Our CAD system performs at 100% sensitivity for polyps larger than 9 mm, 95.83% sensitivity for polyps 6-10 mm and 85.71% sensitivity for polyps smaller than 6 mm with 5.3 false positives per dataset. Also, clinically relevant polyps ([Formula: see text]6 mm) were identified with 96.67% sensitivity at 1.12 FP/dataset. To the best of our knowledge, the novel polyp candidate detection system which determines polyp candidates with LoG filters is one of the main contributions. We also propose a new 2D projection image calculation scheme to determine the distinctive features. We believe that our CAD system is highly effective for assisting radiologist interpreting CT.

  3. Associations among Pericolonic Fat, Visceral Fat, and Colorectal Polyps on CT Colonography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiamin; Pattanaik, Sanket; Yao, Jianhua; Dwyer, Andrew J.; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Choi, J. Richard; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the association between pericolonic fat and colorectal polyps using CT colonography (CTC). METHODS 1169 patients who underwent CTC and same day optical colonoscopy were assessed. Pericolonic fat was measured on CTC in a band surrounding the colon. Visceral adipose tissue volume was measured at the L2-L3 levels. Student t-tests, odds ratio, logistic regression, binomial statistics and weighted-kappa were performed to ascertain associations with the incidence of colorectal polyps. RESULTS Pericolonic fat volume fractions (PFVF) were 61.5±11.0% versus 58.1±11.5%, 61.6 ±11.1% versus 58.7±11.5%, and 62.4±10.6% versus 58.8±11.5% for patients with and without any polyps, adenomatous polyps, and hyperplastic polyps, respectively (p<0.0001). Similar trends were observed when examining visceral fat volume fractions (VFVF). When patients were ordered by quintiles of PFVF or VFVF, there were 2.49, 2.19 and 2.39-fold increases in odds ratio for the presence of any polyp, adenomatous polyps, or hyperplastic polyps from the first to the fifth quintile for PFVF, and 1.92, 2.00 and 1.71-fold increases in odds ratio for VFVF. Polyps tended to occur more commonly in parts of the colon that had more PFVF than the spatially-adjusted average for patients in the highest quintile of VFVF. CONCLUSION Pericolonic fat accumulations, like visceral fat, are correlated with an increased risk of adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. PMID:25558027

  4. Terminal digit preference biases polyp size measurements at endoscopy, computed tomographic colonography, and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Plumb, Andrew A; Nickerson, Claire; Wooldrage, Katherine; Bassett, Paul; Taylor, Stuart A; Altman, Douglas; Atkin, Wendy; Halligan, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Terminal digit preference bias for "pleasing" numbers has been described in many areas of medicine. The aim of this study was to determine whether endoscopists, radiologists, and pathologists exhibit such bias when measuring colorectal polyp diameters. Colorectal polyp diameters measured at endoscopy, computed tomographic colonography (CTC), and histopathology were collated from a colorectal cancer screening program and two parallel multicenter randomized trials. Smoothing models were fitted to the data to estimate the expected number of polyps at 1-mm increments, assuming no systematic measurement bias. The difference between the expected and observed numbers of polyps was calculated for each terminal digit using statistical modeling. The impact of measurement bias on per-patient detection rates of polyps ≥ 10 mm was estimated for each modality. A total of 92 124 individual polyps were measured by endoscopy (91 670 screening and 454 from trials), 2385 polyps were measured by CTC (1664 screening, 721 trials), and 79 272 were measured by histopathology (78 783 screening, 489 trials). Clustering of polyp diameter measurements at 5-mm intervals was demonstrated for all modalities, both in the screening program and the trials. The statistical models estimated that per-patient detection rates of polyps ≥ 10 mm were over-inflated by 2.4 % for endoscopy, 3.1 % for CTC, and 3.3 % for histopathology in the screening program, with similar trends in the randomized trials. Endoscopists, radiologists, and pathologists all exhibit terminal digit preference when measuring colorectal polyps. This will bias trial data, referral rates for further testing, adenoma surveillance regimens, and comparisons between tests. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Positive predictive value of endometrial polyps in Pipelle aspiration sampling: a histopathological study of 195 cases.

    PubMed

    Seto, Mimi T Y; Ip, Philip P C; Ngu, Siew-Fei; Cheung, Annie N Y; Pun, Ting-Chung

    2016-08-01

    To estimate the positive predictive value of Pipelle endometrial sampling in detecting the presence of an underlying endometrial polyp. The secondary objective is to examine the histologic features that can predict the presence of endometrial polyps. This is a retrospective case review study. 195 women who had undergone diagnostic hysteroscopy and/or polypectomy were identified in a University teaching hospital. All patients had a prior polyp diagnosis in the Pipelle endometrial sample. The histology of these samples were compared and analyzed with subsequent DH findings and final hysteroscopic biopsies. Slides were reviewed by 2 gynaecological pathologists. 162 women were premenopausal (mean age 46.1, SD=4.6) and 33 were postmenopausal (mean age 57.2, SD=8.1). The commonest indication for a Pipelle endometrial sampling was abnormal uterine bleeding. Presence of polyp was confirmed by DH in 56.3% (111/195) cases. Of these, 81.1% (90/111) were confirmed histologically. The positive predictive value of detection of polyps in Pipelle endometrial samples for premenopausal and postmenopausal women was 53.7% and 72.7%, respectively (p=.05). The most reliable histologic features that can predict the presence of an underlying polyp was fibrous stroma (p=.01) and focal glandular clustering (p=.03). The prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma in women who was confirmed to have polyp was 11.7% (13/111). The positive predictive value of Pipelle endometrial samples in detecting endometrial polyps was 56.3%. It was higher in the postmenopausal women (72.7%) compared to premenopausal women (53.7%). The prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma in women who was confirmed to have polyp was consistent with the rate reported in the literature. Using ultrasonography as an adjunct maybe helpful in diagnosing endometrial polyps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Histological quality of polyps resected using the cold versus hot biopsy technique.

    PubMed

    Mönkemüller, K E; Fry, L C; Jones, B H; Wells, C; Mikolaenko, I; Eloubeidi, M

    2004-05-01

    The monopolar hot biopsy technique is a widespread method of removing and cauterizing small colonic polyps. Due to the insulated cups of the biopsy forceps, it also allows adequate histological interpretation of the resected specimen. In our experience, polyps removed using the monopolar hot biopsy technique have been less histologically interpretable in comparison with polyps removed using cold biopsy forceps. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the diagnostic quality of polyps obtained using the hot biopsy and cold biopsy techniques. This was a prospective study of consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy with removal of polyps using either hot biopsy or cold biopsy techniques. One experienced endoscopist using the same techniques carried out the biopsies. An experienced gastrointestinal pathologist, blinded to the technique used, evaluated the specimens for diameter, artifacts, cautery damage, tissue fragmentation, and general histological and diagnostic quality. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t-test. Forty-three consecutive patients (84 % men; mean age 63.8 +/- 15 years) underwent 88 biopsies (45 hot biopsies and 43 cold biopsies). There were no statistically significant differences between the two study groups with regard to demographic data, indications for colonoscopy, endoscopic findings, or polyp size. Cautery damage, architectural distortion, and tissue fragmentation occurred more frequently in polyps resected using the hot biopsy technique ( P < 0.001). The quality of the specimens removed by cold biopsy was generally better than when using hot biopsy technique. Histological evaluation is more difficult in polyps resected with the hot biopsy technique in comparison with the cold biopsy technique. When the nature of polyps affects the patient's management, a biopsy may be obtained before polyp coagulation.

  7. Phenotypic diversity in patients with multiple serrated polyps: a genetics clinic study.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Daniel D; Sweet, Kevin; Drini, Musa; Jenkins, Mark A; Win, Aung Ko; Gattas, Michael; Walsh, Michael D; Clendenning, Mark; McKeone, Diane; Walters, Rhiannon; Roberts, Aedan; Young, Alasdair; Hampel, Heather; Hopper, John L; Goldblatt, Jack; George, Jill; Suthers, Graeme K; Phillips, Kerry; Young, Graeme P; Chow, Elizabeth; Parry, Susan; Woodall, Sonja; Tucker, Kathy; Muir, Amanda; Field, Michael; Greening, Sian; Gallinger, Steven; Green, Jane; Woods, Michael O; Spaetgens, Renee; de la Chapelle, Albert; Macrae, Finlay; Walker, Neal I; Jass, Jeremy R; Young, Joanne P

    2010-06-01

    Hyperplastic polyposis is a colonic polyposis condition of unknown aetiology. The purpose of this study was to examine the spectrum of phenotypic variation in patients with multiple serrated polyps as a basis for gene discovery. One hundred and twenty-six patients with multiple (> or = 5) serrated polyps were recruited to the study. Polyp counts were extracted from histology and colonoscopy reports. Ethnicity was self-reported. Family history of cancer data were derived from pedigrees. Ascertainment status was classified as either index case or identified by screening. The average reported polyp count was 39. Patients with highest polyp numbers were more likely to be male (P = 0.02). Colorectal cancer (CRC) was identified in 49 of 119 patients (41%) and 28% of these patients had multiple CRC. Young onset patients had higher polyp numbers (P = 0.03) and were more likely to have their CRC in the distal colon (P = 0.02). CRC was significantly associated with the presence of adenomas (P = 0.03). Patients were divided into moderate polyposis (5-79 serrated polyps) and dense polyposis (80 or more) categories. The dense polyposis category was associated with a lack of family history for CRC (P = 0.034) and male gender (P = 0.014), independent of ascertainment status and recruitment site. Multiple serrated polyps were associated with an increased personal risk of CRC. A subset of patients with the highest polyp numbers was more likely to be male and to have no family history of CRC. This result suggests heterogeneous modes of inheritance and has implications for studies investigating the genetic basis of multiple serrated polyps.

  8. Confocal laser endomicroscopy features of sessile serrated adenomas/polyps

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Neil D; Gibson, Joanna; Nagar, Anil; Ahmed, Ali A

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) are difficult to differentiate from non-neoplastic tissue on white-light endoscopy. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) provides subcellular imaging and real-time “optical biopsy”. The aim of this study was to prospectively describe CLE features of SSA/Ps. Patients and methods Consecutive patients with SSA/Ps were prospectively evaluated with probe-based CLE imaging. CLE images and polyp histology were independently reviewed by three endoscopists and an expert gastrointestinal (GI) pathologist. Distinguishing CLE features of SSA/Ps were identified in conjunction with pathologic correlation. Results In total, 260 CLE images were generated from nine SSA/Ps evaluated in seven patients. Four consensus CLE features of SSA/P were identified: (1) a mucus cap with a bright, cloud-like appearance; (2) thin, branching crypts; (3) increased number of goblet cells and microvesicular mucin-containing cells; and (4) architectural disarray, with dystrophic goblet cells and lack of regular circular crypts Conclusion This is a novel description of characteristic CLE features of SSA/Ps. The four features we identified are easy to detect and may allow for CLE to serve as a diagnostic modality. PMID:27536371

  9. Nasopharyngeal polyp causing sensory disturbances: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Sabeh, Abrar Majed; Ahmed, Iffat Mirza

    2016-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal polyps are benign abnormal mucosal protrusions associated with nasal and pharyngeal mucosa. They are commonly found in all age groups with various symptoms. This paper presents a case of a 52-year-old male who presented with constant numbness over the dental midline and extending along the right side of the maxilla for the past few weeks. The patient also reported difficulty in breathing, especially lying down. After a comprehensive head and neck examination, including muscle palpation and temporomandibular joint examination, all within normal limits, a CNS lesion was suspected. A cranial nerve screening examination disclosed hyposensitivity in the area of teeth # 7 to 10. A panoramic radiograph demonstrated right sinus abnormality. We determined the need for additional diagnostic testing, including cone beam computed tomography, which showed a thickened sinus membrane with a polypoid structure (extending posterior from the right inferior concha into the oropharynx). The patient was referred to an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist for further evaluation. The ENT diagnosis was a nasal polyp, and the patient was prescribed a steroid spray to be used three times daily. On follow-up, the patient’s symptoms were reduced from constant numbness to intermittent “fading sensation” with no breathing difficulties lying down. Ancillary diagnostic testing, such as Cone Beam CT, is useful and may be required for the diagnosis of sensory disturbances in the Orofacial region. PMID:27279994

  10. Fecal dysbiosis in miniature dachshunds with inflammatory colorectal polyps.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Hirotaka; Ohno, Koichi; Horigome, Ayako; Fujiwara-Igarashi, Aki; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Odamaki, Toshitaka; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2016-04-01

    Chronic gastrointestinal disease is associated with the alteration of gastrointestinal microbiota. Inflammatory colorectal polyps (ICRPs) are commonly observed in miniature dachshunds (MDs) in Japan and are characterized by multiple polyps that are restricted in the colorectal mucosa with severe neutrophil infiltration. This study was aimed to compare the fecal microbiota of ICRP-affected MDs with that of healthy MDs. High-throughput sequencing of amplicons derived from the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was applied using the Illumina MiSeq system. Principal coordinates analysis revealed that fecal microbiota of ICRP-affected MDs was significantly altered compared with that of healthy MDs. Proportions of Fusobacteriaceae, Helicobacteraceae, Porphyromonadaceae, and Turicibacteraceae were significantly more abundant in ICRP-affected MDs, while those of Lachnospiraceae were significantly less abundant in ICRP-affected MDs compared with healthy MDs. These results suggest that the dysbiosis is associated with ICRPs and is a potential therapeutic target, though further investigations are needed.

  11. Nitrite/nitrate and malondialdehyde levels in nasal polyp.

    PubMed

    Bugdayci, G; Kaymakci, M

    2008-10-28

    The aim of this study was to examine the pathophysiological role of NO (nitric oxide) and MDA (malondialdehyde) in tissue in patients with nasal polyposis. We measured nitrite/nitrate (Nitrite/Nitrate; NO2-/NO3-) and MDA in tissue and plasma of NP patients (n=20) and controls (n=20). MDA level expressed as the concentration of substances reacting to thiobarbituric acid and production of NO (concentration of nitrite/nitrate in plasma) by the Griess reaction were determined. The level of NO2- and NO3- in tissue are higher than that of the normal tissue (p<0.05). The level of MDA in tissue are higher than that of the normal tissue (p<0.05). The level of NO2- and NO3- in plasma of two groups are similar (p>0.05). The level of MDA in plasma is higher than that in the normal controls (p<0.05). The change in NO2-/NO3- and MDA levels of nasal polyp patients was demonstrated. Further studies are required concerning the significance of changes in lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels in pathogenesis of nasal polyp.

  12. Distinct characteristics of nasal polyps with and without eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Changzhi; Ouyang, Hong; Luo, Renzhong

    Eosinophilic and noneosinophilic Nasal polyps (NPs) are different subtypes of NPs and require different treatment methods. To compare the histologic characteristics, mRNA and protein expression between Nasal Polyps with and without eosinophilia. NPs tissues were obtained from eighty-six NPs patients during surgery. Eosinophilic and noneosinophilic NPs were distinguished according to immunochemical results of the specimen. The histological, mRNA and protein expression features were compared between the two groups. In eosinophilic NPs, we observed a significantly higher GATA-3, IL-5, IL-4, IL-13 mRNA and protein expression. In noneosinophilic NPs, IL-17, IL-23 and RORc mRNA and protein expression were increased. Immunohistochemistry tests showed, more mast cells and less neutrophils in eosinophilic NPs compared with noneosinophilic NPs. Eosinophilic NPs patient presented more severe symptom scores when compared to noneosinophilic NPs. We demonstrate for the first time that Th2 is the predominant reaction in eosinophilic NPs while Th17 is the predominant reaction in noneosinophilic NPs. Our study may provide new treatment strategy for NPs. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Nasal polyps in patients with asthma: prevalence, impact, and management challenges

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, Cristobal; Mullol, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) often have coexisting asthma under the concept of “United Airway Disease”, being the combination of both diseases, which is one of the most challenging phenotypes to treat. Although clinicians have recognized this difficult-to-treat phenotype for many years, it remained poorly characterized. There is increasing epidemiological evidence linking chronic rhinosinusitis and asthma, but a good understanding of the pathophysiology and the combined management is still lacking. Bronchial asthma is more prevalent in patients who suffer chronic rhinosinusitis, while asthmatic patients have a greater prevalence of CRSwNP than patients without asthma. The effect of CRSwNP treatment, whether medical or surgical, in asthma is today less controversial after some studies have shown improvement of asthma after medical and/or surgical treatment of CRSwNP. However, direct comparisons between surgical and medical treatments are limited. Further randomized clinical trials are, however, still needed to better understand the management when both asthma and CRSwNP occur together. This review aims at summarizing the prevalence, impact, and management challenges regarding both asthma and CRSwNP. PMID:27042129

  14. Utility of a Standardized Protocol for Submitting Clinically Suspected Endometrial Polyps to the Pathology Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Safdar, Nida S.; Giannico, Giovanna; Desouki, Mohamed Mokhtar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess whether a protocol for submitting clinically suspected endometrial polyps will improve the detection rate of polyps and evaluation of the background endometrium. A retrospective review from 1999– 2015 was performed. Cases were divided into: 1) polyps and curetting placed in 2 containers (separate, n=61) and 2) polyps and curettings placed in one container (combined, n=80). Polyps were identified in 100% of cases in the separate compared to 95% in the combined group (p=0.62). The background endometrium was evaluable in 79% in the combined compared to 90% in the separate group (p=0.07). The frequency of hyperplasia without atypia, atypical hyperplasia and carcinoma was 4.4%, 3.6% and 1.5%, respectively. In conclusion, the enhanced rate of polyp detection and evaluation of the background endometrium in the separate group is minimal. This supports the recommendation of submitting endometrial polyps and curetting combined in one container. PMID:27402220

  15. EMPLOYING TOPOGRAPHICAL HEIGHT MAP IN COLONIC POLYP MEASUREMENT AND FALSE POSITIVE REDUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jianhua; Li, Jiang; Summers, Ronald M.

    2008-01-01

    CT Colonography (CTC) is an emerging minimally invasive technique for screening and diagnosing colon cancers. Computer Aided Detection (CAD) techniques can increase sensitivity and reduce false positives. Inspired by the way radiologists detect polyps via 3D virtual fly-through in CTC, we borrowed the idea from geographic information systems to employ topographical height map in colonic polyp measurement and false positive reduction. After a curvature based filtering and a 3D CT feature classifier, a height map is computed for each detection using a ray-casting algorithm. We design a concentric index to characterize the concentric pattern in polyp height map based on the fact that polyps are protrusions from the colon wall and round in shape. The height map is optimized through a multi-scale spiral spherical search to maximize the concentric index. We derive several topographic features from the map and compute texture features based on wavelet decomposition. We then send the features to a committee of support vector machines for classification. We have trained our method on 394 patients (71 polyps) and tested it on 792 patients (226 polyps). Results showed that we can achieve 95% sensitivity at 2.4 false positives per patient and the height map features can reduce false positives by more than 50%. We compute the polyp height and width measurements and correlate them with manual measurements. The Pearson correlations are 0.74 (p=0.11) and 0.75 (p=0.17) for height and width, respectively. PMID:19578483

  16. [Results of dynamic observation of patients with polyps in the stomach].

    PubMed

    Liapunova, V N; Nikiforov, P A; Brekhov, E I; Blokhin, A F; Burkov, S G; Gribunov, Iu P

    2013-01-01

    This work is based on the analysis of data doing 409 patients with polyps in the stomach. Among them 200 men (48.9%) and 209 women (51.1%) aged 18 to 91 years. The average age of men was 67.4 years, and women 66.8 years. All these patients were find 1034 neoplasms of various sizes. At all of this patients polyps were identified on a background of chronic gastritis, as a rule, has the character of atrophic process. Histological research was conducted 775 (74.6%) polyps, of which focal hyperplasia and hyperplastic polyps detected in 49% of cases, and adenomas in 51% (including adenomas with varying degrees of dyspiasia, and prostatic adenocarcinoma cells). Endoscopic polypectomy performed 367 patients, and the remaining 42 was merely the dynamic monitoring of the identified entities. In 79 (28.8%) patients after polypectomy noted relapse formations and in 10 cases (3.65%) diagnosed with cancer in the intervention area. 4 (0.98%) patients from 409 cancer in polyps detected during the initial survey and in 4 patients the cancer originated in the not associated with polyps of stomach. As a result of the research of the dependence of the size of neoplasms on the nature of destruction and histological structure. For most existing polyps characteristic of the stability of their morphological structure and the absence of its transformation.

  17. Measurement of smaller colon polyp in CT colonography images using morphological image processing.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, K N; Siddalingaswamy, P C; Prabhu, G K

    2017-06-01

    Automated measurement of the size and shape of colon polyps is one of the challenges in Computed tomography colonography (CTC). The objective of this retrospective study was to improve the sensitivity and specificity of smaller polyp measurement in CTC using image processing techniques. A domain knowledge-based method has been implemented with hybrid method of colon segmentation, morphological image processing operators for detecting the colonic structures, and the decision-making system for delineating the smaller polyp-based on a priori knowledge. The method was applied on 45 CTC dataset. The key finding was that the smaller polyps were accurately measured. In addition to 6-9 mm range, polyps of even <5 mm were also detected. The results were validated qualitatively and quantitatively using both 2D MPR and 3D view. Implementation was done on a high-performance computer with parallel processing. It takes [Formula: see text] min for measuring the smaller polyp in a dataset of 500 CTC images. With this method, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] were achieved. The domain-based approach with morphological image processing has given good results. The smaller polyps were measured accurately which helps in making right clinical decisions. Qualitatively and quantitatively the results were acceptable when compared to the ground truth at [Formula: see text].

  18. [A Case of Esophageal Polyp Regurgitated into the Pharynx at the Induction of General Anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Haruko; Inagawa, Gaku

    2016-02-01

    We report the case of a mass in the pharynx found at the induction of general anesthesia that vanished postoperatively. A 46-year-old man underwent abdominal surgery. After the induction of general anesthesia, there was a mass occupying his pharynx and we could see neither the vocal cords nor the epiglottis using a Macintosh laryngoscope. Airwayscope (AWS) enabled us to successfully intubate the trachea. On postoperative examination, there was no mass on his pharynx. Imaging studies of the esophagus revealed a polyp suspected as being a fibrovascular polyp (FVP) arising from the upper esophagus. Three months later, excision of the polyp was planned. Awake intubation with AWS was planned so that if the polyp was regurgitated, he could swallow it Intubation was uneventful without regurgitation of the polyp. At the beginning of surgery, the polyp was not found in the pharynx, but was easily regurgitated by air supplied by the endoscope. FVPs are rare benign esophageal tumors and most originate from the cervical esophagus. If a polyp is regurgitated, obstruction of the airway may occur, and asphyxiation and sudden death have been reported. The fatal complication of airway obstruction requires anesthesiologists to be aware of FVP.

  19. Association between Laryngeal Pepsin Levels and the Presence of Vocal Fold Polyps.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Tan, Jia-Jie; Wu, Ting; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Jia-Nuan; Zeng, Fang-Fang; Liu, You-Li; Han, Xiao-Yan; Li, Yan-Fei; Li, Xiang-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine whether pepsin, the main component of refluxed gastric contents, is significantly associated with vocal fold polyps and to evaluate the diagnostic value of pepsin in vocal fold polyps' tissues. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University. Subjects and Methods The study included 32 patients with vocal fold polyps and 16 healthy controls between 2011 and 2012. Reflux symptom index and reflux finding score assessments, 24-hour combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring, and biopsy of the vocal fold polyp tissues or posterior laryngeal mucosa (healthy controls) for immunohistochemical pepsin staining were performed. Results The expression of pepsin was significantly higher in patients with vocal fold polyps than in controls (28/32, 75% vs 5/16, 31.25%; P < .001). The pepsin levels were significantly positively correlated with upright position pharyngeal acid reflux and esophageal reflux parameters adjusted by age. Based on pepsin staining data, the sensitivity and negative predictive values of 24-hour pH monitoring, the reflux symptom index, and the reflux finding score were 70% to 84.62%, whereas their specificity and positive predictive values were relatively low (20%-31.58%). Conclusion Pepsin reflux may be a risk factor for vocal fold polyps formation. In addition, pepsin immunohistochemical analysis of polyp biopsy samples appears to be a more sensitive and effective test for diagnosing laryngopharyngeal reflux than the reflux symptom index, the reflux finding score, and 24-hour pH monitoring in a clinical setting.

  20. Premalignant and malignant lesions in endometrial polyps in patients undergoing hysteroscopic polypectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lenci, Marco Antonio; do Nascimento, Vanessa Alessandra Lui; Grandini, Ana Beatriz; Fahmy, Walid Makin; Depes, Daniella de Batista; Baracat, Fausto Farah; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the incidence of premalignant lesions and cancer in endometrial polyps, in patients undergoing hysteroscopic polypectomy. Methods: The results of 1,020 pathological examinations of patients submitted to hysteroscopic polypectomy were analyzed, as well as their diagnostic and surgical hysteroscopy findings. As to their menstrual status, 295 (28.9%) patients were in menacme. Of the total, 193 (65.4%) presented abnormal uterine bleeding, and 102 (34.6%) were asymptomatic with altered endometrial echo on transvaginal ultrasound. Out of 725 (71.1%) postmenopausal patients, 171 (23.6%) were symptomatic (abnormal uterine bleeding), and 554 (76.4%) were asymptomatic with endometrial echo >5.0mm. Results: Twenty-one (2.0%) patients presented premalignant lesions in the polyps, 13 had simple glandular hyperplasia, of which 5 had no atypia, and eight presented atypia. Eight polyps presented focal area of complex hyperplasia: 4 with atypia and 4 without lesions. Cancer was diagnosed in 5 (0.5%) polyps. Of the 21 polyps that harbored premalignant lesions, 12 were interpreted as benign in diagnostic and surgical hysteroscopy. Of the polyps with cancer, 4 were also histeroscopically interpreted as normal. Conclusion: Symptomatic polyps in menacme and in all postmenopausal women should be resected and submitted to histopathological examination, since they may have a benign aspect, even when harboring areas of cellular atypia or cancer. PMID:24728240

  1. Presentation and Management of Giant Fibrovascular Polyps of the Hypopharynx and Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Ongkasuwan, Julina; Anzalone, C Lane; Salazar, Esperanza; Donovan, Donald T

    2017-01-01

    Fibrovascular polyps of the hypopharynx and esophagus are rare, with few case reports in the literature. In this article, we present our institutional experience with a focus on airway and surgical management. Case series. Tertiary academic institution. A retrospective review was conducted of 4 patients that presented to a tertiary medical center with fibrovascular polyps between 1990 and 2012. Patient demographics, clinical presentation, diagnostic studies, and surgical approaches were reviewed. A review of the published literature was also performed. The average age at presentation was 72 years (range, 59-85 years). Among the 4 patients, 2 presented with airway compromise requiring tracheotomy. All patients had removal of the polyp shortly after presentation; 2 underwent transcervical approaches with lateral pharyngotomy/esophagotomy, and the other 2 had endoscopic removal. The polyps arose from the hypopharynx in 3 patients and upper esophagus in 1. Three patients had complete resolution of their symptoms and remained disease free. One patient had recurrence of the polyp 2 years later and is currently being observed. Fibrovascular polyps are rare tumors of the hypopharynx/esophagus that present in older adults. Although benign, they can cause life-threatening airway compromise that may necessitate tracheotomy. We present 4 cases of fibrovascular polyps and discuss our evolving surgical management, including endoscopic removal. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Volume-based Feature Analysis of Mucosa for Automatic Initial Polyp Detection in Virtual Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Su; Zhu, Hongbin; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a volume-based mucosa-based polyp candidate determination scheme for automatic polyp detection in computed colonography. Different from most of the existing computer-aided detection (CAD) methods where mucosa layer is a one-layer surface, a thick mucosa of 3-5 voxels wide fully reflecting partial volume effect is intentionally extracted, which excludes the direct applications of the traditional geometrical features. In order to address this dilemma, fast marching-based adaptive gradient/curvature and weighted integral curvature along normal directions (WICND) are developed for volume-based mucosa. In doing so, polyp candidates are optimally determined by computing and clustering these fast marching-based adaptive geometrical features. By testing on 52 patients datasets in which 26 patients were found with polyps of size 4-22 mm, both the locations and number of polyp candidates detected by WICND and previously developed linear integral curvature (LIC) were compared. The results were promising that WICND outperformed LIC mainly in two aspects: (1) the number of detected false positives was reduced from 706 to 132 on average, which significantly released our burden of machine learning in the feature space, and (2) both the sensitivity and accuracy of polyp detection have been slightly improved, especially for those polyps smaller than 5mm. PMID:19774204

  3. Automated polyp measurement based on colon structure decomposition for CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huafeng; Li, Lihong C.; Han, Hao; Peng, Hao; Song, Bowen; Wei, Xinzhou; Liang, Zhengrong

    2014-03-01

    Accurate assessment of colorectal polyp size is of great significance for early diagnosis and management of colorectal cancers. Due to the complexity of colon structure, polyps with diverse geometric characteristics grow from different landform surfaces. In this paper, we present a new colon decomposition approach for polyp measurement. We first apply an efficient maximum a posteriori expectation-maximization (MAP-EM) partial volume segmentation algorithm to achieve an effective electronic cleansing on colon. The global colon structure is then decomposed into different kinds of morphological shapes, e.g. haustral folds or haustral wall. Meanwhile, the polyp location is identified by an automatic computer aided detection algorithm. By integrating the colon structure decomposition with the computer aided detection system, a patch volume of colon polyps is extracted. Thus, polyp size assessment can be achieved by finding abnormal protrusion on a relative uniform morphological surface from the decomposed colon landform. We evaluated our method via physical phantom and clinical datasets. Experiment results demonstrate the feasibility of our method in consistently quantifying the size of polyp volume and, therefore, facilitating characterizing for clinical management.

  4. A novel colonic polyp volume segmentation method for computer tomographic colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huafeng; Li, Lihong C.; Han, Hao; Song, Bowen; Peng, Hao; Wang, Yunhong; Wang, Lihua; Liang, Zhengrong

    2014-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer. However, this disease can be prevented by detection and removal of precursor adenomatous polyps after the diagnosis given by experts on computer tomographic colonography (CTC). During CTC diagnosis, the radiologist looks for colon polyps and measures not only the size but also the malignancy. It is a common sense that to segment polyp volumes from their complicated growing environment is of much significance for accomplishing the CTC based early diagnosis task. Previously, the polyp volumes are mainly given from the manually or semi-automatically drawing by the radiologists. As a result, some deviations cannot be avoided since the polyps are usually small (6~9mm) and the radiologists' experience and knowledge are varying from one to another. In order to achieve automatic polyp segmentation carried out by the machine, we proposed a new method based on the colon decomposition strategy. We evaluated our algorithm on both phantom and patient data. Experimental results demonstrate our approach is capable of segment the small polyps from their complicated growing background.

  5. Risk and protective factors for development of colorectal polyps and cancer (Bulgarian experience).

    PubMed

    Kotzev, I; Mirchev, M; Manevska, B; Ivanova, I; Kaneva, M

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer takes third place among all malignancies in the Varna region. The present study aims to determine the typical and distinguishing risk and protective factors for colorectal polyps and cancer formation. 166 patients with large bowel polyps and 107 patients with colorectal cancer were questioned, examined endoscopically and histologically. Logistic regression analysis was used to find a possible correlation between alimentary habits, way of life, and risk for colorectal polyps and cancer formation. The latter have been used to define a strategy for their prevention. Our results showed that fried, preserved, and grilled meat, consumption of animal fats, sugar, and being overweight are positively associated with colorectal polyps. In contrast, consumption of fruit, vegetables, rye- and brown bread, green tea, vegetable food, yoghourt, vegetarian food, fish, lamb, hare, garlic, boiled food, and mineral water, have strong protective effect against large bowel polyps. We have confirmed the role of the well-known risk factors for colorectal cancer, and discovered an association between H. pylori infection, age, villous component in the adenomatous polyps, and family history for any neoplasia and large bowel carcinoma. We suggest the following protective factors for CRC: vegetarian food, plant oil, rural life, aspirin intake, legumes, fish, fruit and vegetable consumption. We observe a similarity between the risk factors for colorectal polyps and cancer formation. They act simultaneously and depend on genetic predisposition. A combination of endoscopic treatment and correction of the alimentary factors could be used as a means of cancer prevention.

  6. PATHOLOGIC BASIS FOR RIM ENHANCEMENT OBSERVED IN COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGES OF FELINE NASOPHARYNGEAL POLYPS.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Christopher R; Sibbing, Kendall; Priestnall, Simon L

    2016-01-01

    In postcontrast computed tomographic (CT) images, feline nasopharyngeal polyps typically demonstrate enhancement of the peripheral rim. Computed tomographic images and histologic specimens of a case series of 22 cats with surgically removed nasopharyngeal polyps were reviewed retrospectively in an attempt to elucidate the origin of rim enhancement. Polyps were present in the tympanic cavity in 15 (68%) cats (three with extension into the nasopharynx), only in the nasopharynx in four (18%) cats, and only in the external ear canal in the remaining three (14%) cats. All polyps had variable degrees of epithelial injury. Hemorrhage and inflammatory infiltration were significantly more marked in the superficial stroma whereas edema was significantly more marked in the core stroma. In noncontrast CT images (n = 22), the tympanic bulla was thickened in all 15 cats with a polyp in the tympanic cavity and enlarged in eight (53%) of these cats. In postcontrast CT images (n = 15), an outer zone of relatively increased attenuation compatible with a rim was observed in 11 (73%) polyps. The magnitude and extent of rim enhancement in CT images was positively correlated with the histologic grade of inflammation in the superficial stroma and negatively correlated with the grade of edema in the superficial stroma. It appears that inflammation is the major determinant of contrast medium accumulation in feline nasopharyngeal polyps, and the tendency for inflammation to affect predominantly the superficial layers explains the frequent observation of a rim in postcontrast CT images.

  7. Advanced colorectal polyps with the molecular and morphological features of serrated polyps and adenomas: concept of a ‘fusion’ pathway to colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jass, J R; Baker, K; Zlobec, I; Higuchi, T; Barker, M; Buchanan, D; Young, J

    2006-01-01

    Jass J R, Baker K, Zlobec I, Higuchi T, Barker M, Buchanan D & Young J (2006) Histopathology 49, 121–131 Advanced colorectal polyps with the molecular and morphological features of serrated polyps and adenomas: concept of a ‘fusion’ pathway to colorectal cancer Aim To establish and explain the pattern of molecular signatures across colorectal polyps. Methods and results Thirty-two sessile serrated adenomas (SSA), 10 mixed polyps (MP), 15 traditional serrated adenomas (SA), 49 hyperplastic polyps (HP) and 84 adenomas were assessed for mutation of KRAS and BRAF and aberrant expression of p53. The findings were correlated with loss of expression of O-6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). KRAS mutation occurred more frequently (26.5%) than BRAF mutation (4.8%) in adenomas (P < 0.001) and particularly in adenomas with villous architecture (50%). Loss of expression of MGMT correlated with KRAS mutation in small tubular adenomas (P < 0.04). BRAF mutation was frequent in HPs (67%) and SSAs (81%), while KRAS mutation was infrequent (4% and 3%, respectively). Of MPs and SAs, 72% had either BRAF or KRAS mutation. Aberrant expression of p53 was uncommon overall, but occurred more frequently in MPs and SAs (12%) than adenomas (1%) (P < 0.04) and there was concordant loss of expression of MGMT. Conclusions Molecular alterations that are characteristic of the serrated pathway and adenoma–carcinoma sequence can co-occur in a minority of advanced colorectal polyps that then show morphological features of both pathways. These lesions account for only 2% of colorectal polyps, but may be relatively aggressive. PMID:16879389

  8. Detection of colonic polyp candidates with level set-based thickness mapping over the colon wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hao; Li, Lihong; Duan, Chaijie; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Huafeng; Liang, Zhengrong

    2015-03-01

    Further improvement of computer-aided detection (CADe) of colonic polyps is vital to advance computed tomographic colonography (CTC) toward a screening modality, where the detection of flat polyps is especially challenging because limited image features can be extracted from flat polyps, and the traditional geometric features-based CADe methods usually fail to detect such polyps. In this paper, we present a novel pipeline to automatically detect initial polyp candidates (IPCs), especially flat polyps, from CTC images. First, the colon wall mucosa was extracted via a partial volume segmentation approach as a volumetric layer, where the inner border of colon wall can be obtained by shrinking the volumetric layer using level set based adaptive convolution. Then the outer border of colon wall (or the colon wall serosa) was segmented via a combined implementation of geodesic active contour and Mumford-Shah functional in a coarse-to-fine manner. Finally, the wall thickness was estimated along a unique path between the segmented inner and outer borders with consideration of the volumetric layers and was mapped onto a patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) colon wall model. The IPC detection results can usually be better visualized in a 2D image flattened from the 3D model, where abnormalities were detected by Z-score transformation of the thickness values. The proposed IPC detection approach was validated on 11 patients with 22 CTC scans, and each scan has at least one flat poly annotation. The above presented novel pipeline was effective to detect some flat polyps that were missed by our CADe system while keeping false detections in a relative low level. This preliminary study indicates that the presented pipeline can be incorporated into an existing CADe system to enhance the polyp detection power, especially for flat polyps.

  9. Time Lapse to Colorectal Cancer: Telomere Dynamics Define the Malignant Potential of Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Druliner, Brooke R; Ruan, Xiaoyang; Johnson, Ruth; Grill, Diane; O'Brien, Daniel; Lai, Tsung-Po; Rashtak, Shahrooz; Felmlee-Devine, Donna; Washechek-Aletto, Jill; Malykh, Andrei; Smyrk, Thomas; Oberg, Ann; Liu, Hongfang; Shay, Jerry W; Ahlquist, David A; Boardman, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Whereas few adenomas become cancer, most colorectal cancers arise from adenomas. Telomere length is a recognized biomarker in multiple cancers, and telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMM) are exploited by malignant cells. We sought to determine whether telomere length and TMM distinguish cancer-associated adenomas from those that are cancer-free. Methods: Tissues were identified as cancer-adjacent polyp (CAP)—residual adenoma contiguous with cancer—and cancer-free polyp (CFP)—adenomas without malignancy. Telomere length, TMM, and expression were measured in 102 tissues including peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs), normal colon epithelium, adenoma, and cancer (in CAP cases) from 31 patients. Telomere length was measured in a separate cohort of 342 PBL from CAP and CFP patients. Results: The mean differences in telomere length between normal and adenoma were greater in CAP than in CFP cases, P=0.001; telomere length in PBL was 91.7 bp greater in CAP than in CFP, P=0.007. Each 100 bp telomere increase was associated with a 1.14 (1.04–1.26) increased odds of being a CAP, P=0.0063. The polyp tissue from CAP patients had shorter telomeres and higher Telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression compared with polyps from CFP patients, P=0.05. There was a greater degree of alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) level difference in CFP polyps than in CAP polyps. The polyp telomere lengths of aggressive CAPs were significantly different from the polyps of non-aggressive CAPs, P=0.01. Conclusions: Adenomas that progress to cancer exhibit distinct telomere length and TMM profiles. We report for the first time that PBL telomeres differ in patients with polyps that become malignant, and therefore may have clinical value in adenoma risk assessment and management. PMID:27584834

  10. Endoscopic Resection of Cecal Polyps Involving the Appendiceal Orifice: A KASID Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Song, Eun Mi; Yang, Hyo-Joon; Lee, Hyun Jung; Lee, Hyun Seok; Cha, Jae Myung; Kim, Hyun Gun; Jung, Yunho; Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Byung Chang; Byeon, Jeong-Sik

    2017-09-21

    Endoscopic resection of polyps located at the appendiceal orifice (AO) is challenging, and the feasibility and outcomes of endoscopic resection for cecal polyps involving AO are unconfirmed. We evaluated the feasibility and outcomes of endoscopic resection for cecal polyps involving AO. In this retrospective, multicenter study involving nine tertiary referral centers, we evaluated 131 patients who underwent endoscopic resection for cecal polyps involving AO. The median size of polyps resected was 10 mm (range 3-60 mm). Endoscopic mucosal resection, endoscopic piecemeal mucosal resection, and endoscopic submucosal dissection were performed in 75 (57.3%), 31 (23.7%), and 5 (3.8%) patients, respectively. The en bloc resection rate was 68.7%. Endoscopic complete resection was achieved in 123 lesions (93.9%). Intraprocedural and delayed bleeding occurred in 14 (10.7%) and three patients (2.3%), respectively, and perforation occurred in two patients (1.5%). Seven patients (5.3%) underwent additional surgery because of treatment failure or recurrence. Polyps of ≥20 mm in size showed significantly higher rates of perforation and additional surgery (p < 0.05), and a lower rate of en bloc resection (p < 0.005). Patients with polyps involving ≥75% of AO circumference exhibited a significantly lower rate of en bloc resection (p < 0.001), and significantly higher rates of surgery and recurrence (p < 0.05). Recurrence during follow-up occurred in 12 patients (15.6%); polyps involving ≥75% of AO circumference were an independent risk factor for recurrence. Endoscopic resection of cecal polyps involving AO is safe and effective in select patients.

  11. Insulated-tip knife endoscopic polypectomy for difficult pedunculated colorectal polyps: a prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lianjun; Zhai, Yaqi; Chai, Ningli; Li, Huikai; Yan, Li; Li, Zhenjuan; Zhang, Xiaobin; Feng, Xiuxue; Linghu, Enqiang

    2017-02-01

    Endoscopic polypectomy is widely used for colorectal polyps. However, for giant pedunculated colorectal polyps (≥3 cm), conventional techniques are so difficult with en bloc resection that patients had to be transferred to surgery. We had firstly reported our first experience with an insulated-tip knife to successfully remove a giant pedunculated polyp in the sigmoid colon. In this study, our aim was to explore safety and feasible of insulated-tip knife endoscopic polypectomy (IT-EP) for difficult pedunculated colorectal polyps. A total of seven consecutive patients with giant pedunculated colorectal polyps (≥3 cm) were prospectively enrolled. IT-EP was conducted with the help of clips for all the seven patients, and data of them was recorded and analyzed. Of seven patients, five were men and two were women with a mean age 61 years (49-72 years). The mean diameter of polyp head and stalk was 36.4 ± 4.9 mm (30-42 mm) and 14.6 ± 3.6 mm (10-20 mm), respectively. All the polyps were successfully removed with IT-EP, with a mean operation time of 14.9 ± 3.5 min (11-20 min). No serious bleeding or perforation was experienced, and no surgery was needed. There was no recurrence or residual of polyps at a mean 8.1-month follow-up. Insulated-tip knife endoscopic polypectomy is a safe and feasible alternative for difficult pedunculated colorectal polyps.

  12. A global analysis of tandem 3'UTRs in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Tian, Peng; Sun, Yu; Li, Yuxin; Liu, Xiang; Wan, Liang; Li, Jie; Ma, Yun; Xu, Anlong; Fu, Yonggui; Zou, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is emerging as a widespread mechanism of gene regulation. The usage of APA sites allows a single gene to encode multiple mRNA transcripts with different 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) lengths. Many disease processes reflect the importance of the regulation of APA site switching. The objective of this study was to explore the profiling of tandem APA sites in nasal polyps compared with nasal uncinate process mucosa. Sequencing of APA sites (SAPAS) based on second-generation sequencing technology was undertaken to investigate the use of tandem APA sites and identify gene expression patterns in samples from the nasal polyps and nasal uncinate process mucosa of two patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. The findings of the SAPAS analysis were validated via quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). First, the results showed a switching of 3'UTR lengths in nasal polyps compared with nasal uncinate process mucosa. From the two patients, 105 genes that were detected in both patients in the nasal polyps were switched to distal poly(A) sites, and 90 such genes were switched to proximal poly(A) sites. Several Gene Ontology terms were enriched in the list of genes with switched APA sites, including transcription regulation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and metabolism. Second, we detected genes that showed differential expression with at least a 3-fold difference between nasal polyp tissue and nasal uncinate process mucosa. Between the two sample types, 627 genes exhibited differential expression. The qRT-PCR results confirmed our SAPAS results. APA site-switching events of 3'UTRs are prevalent in nasal polyp tissue, and the regulation of gene expression mediated by APA may play an important role in the formation and persistence of nasal polyps. Our results may provide new insights into the possible pathophysiologic processes involved in nasal polyps.

  13. A Global Analysis of Tandem 3′UTRs in Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang; Wan, Liang; Li, Jie; Ma, Yun; Xu, Anlong; Fu, Yonggui; Zou, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Background Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is emerging as a widespread mechanism of gene regulation. The usage of APA sites allows a single gene to encode multiple mRNA transcripts with different 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) lengths. Many disease processes reflect the importance of the regulation of APA site switching. The objective of this study was to explore the profiling of tandem APA sites in nasal polyps compared with nasal uncinate process mucosa. Methods Sequencing of APA sites (SAPAS) based on second-generation sequencing technology was undertaken to investigate the use of tandem APA sites and identify gene expression patterns in samples from the nasal polyps and nasal uncinate process mucosa of two patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. The findings of the SAPAS analysis were validated via quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results First, the results showed a switching of 3′UTR lengths in nasal polyps compared with nasal uncinate process mucosa. From the two patients, 105 genes that were detected in both patients in the nasal polyps were switched to distal poly(A) sites, and 90 such genes were switched to proximal poly(A) sites. Several Gene Ontology terms were enriched in the list of genes with switched APA sites, including transcription regulation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and metabolism. Second, we detected genes that showed differential expression with at least a 3-fold difference between nasal polyp tissue and nasal uncinate process mucosa. Between the two sample types, 627 genes exhibited differential expression. The qRT-PCR results confirmed our SAPAS results. Conclusion APA site-switching events of 3′UTRs are prevalent in nasal polyp tissue, and the regulation of gene expression mediated by APA may play an important role in the formation and persistence of nasal polyps. Our results may provide new insights into the possible pathophysiologic processes involved in nasal polyps. PMID

  14. Ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp causing chronic ileocolic intussusception and mimicking cecal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gara, Naveen; Falzarano, John S; Limm, Whitney ML; Namiki, Thomas S; Tom, Laurie KS

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) is a rare, idiopathic pseudotumorous lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. While mostly reported as solitary gastric lesions, multiple cases of small bowel IFPs are also reported. It is a documented cause of intussusception in adults. In the case reports of ileal inflammatory fibroid polyps with intussusception, an emergent presentation with small bowel obstruction has been most often described. Here we depict a case of ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp presenting with chronic intermittent ileocolic intussusception, anemia and weight loss with an endoscopic appearance mimicking necrotic cecal carcinoma. PMID:21160780

  15. Endoscopic mis-sizing of polyps changes colorectal cancer surveillance recommendations.

    PubMed

    Eichenseer, Peter J; Dhanekula, Raja; Jakate, Shriram; Mobarhan, Sohrab; Melson, Joshua E

    2013-03-01

    Adenomatous polyps greater than 1 cm are defined as advanced adenomas. Inaccurate size estimation can lead to inappropriate surveillance recommendations of colorectal adenomas. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of endoscopic polyp mis-sizing on colorectal cancer surveillance recommendations. This is a prospective study. This study was conducted in a gastroenterology practice at a US academic medical center. Patients undergoing colorectal cancer screening and surveillance colonoscopies from 2010 to 2011 were included. Endoscopic size estimates of polyps 10 to 25 mm were compared with postfixation histopathologic polyp measurements for 15 different gastroenterologists. Only adenomatous polyps removed in entirety by snare polypectomy were included in the analysis. Size variation was defined as (endoscopic estimate - histopathologic size)/(histopathologic size). Clinical mis-sizing was defined as a size variation of >33%. The mean size variation, the percentage of clinical mis-sizing, and the percentage of inappropriate surveillance recommendation due to size variation >33% were reported per endoscopist. : Included for analysis were 4990 procedures from 15 gastroenterologists. A total of 230 polyps from 200 patients met inclusion criteria. The average age was 62.6 years (SD 10.1), and 52% were men. The mean size variation between the endoscopic polyp size estimation and the histopathologic polyp was 73.6% (range of mean size variation, 13%-127%). 62.6% (range, 0%-91%) of included polyps had clinical mis-sizing. Of included polypectomies, 35.2% (range, 0%-67%) resulted in an inappropriate surveillance recommendation due to clinical mis-sizing even after considering histology and synchronous polyps. This was a single-center study. There is marked variation in endoscopists' ability to accurately size adenomatous polyps. Some endoscopists rarely mis-size adenomas, and their surveillance recommendations are appropriate in regard to sizing. However, other

  16. Management of Otic and Nasopharyngeal, and Nasal Polyps in Cats and Dogs.

    PubMed

    Greci, Valentina; Mortellaro, Carlo Maria

    2016-07-01

    Feline inflammatory polyps are the most common nonneoplastic lesion of ear and nasopharynx in cats. Minimally invasive techniques for polyp removal, such as traction avulsion combined with curettage of the tympanic cavity and per-endoscopic transtympanic traction, have been successful for long-term resolution. Feline nasal hamartomas are benign lesions of the nasopharynx, and most have a good prognosis after surgical removal. Canine aural and nasopharyngeal inflammatory polyps are rare and have a similar clinical presentation as cats with these lesions. In dogs, it is important to achieve an accurate histologic diagnosis of these masses before appropriate surgical treatment can be planned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance of CT Colonography for Detecting Small Diminutive and Flat Polyps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    following CRC surgery , Togashi and colleagues41 fol- lowed 500 polyps 6 mm or less over an average interval of 3.6 years. They concluded that this practice...00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Performance of CT Colonography for Detecting Small Diminutive and Flat Polyps 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Author’s personal copy Performance of CT Colonography for Detecting Small , Diminutive, and Flat Polyps Perry J

  18. Gastric inverted hyperplastic polyp: A rare cause of iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jin Tak; Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Dong Pil; Choi, Seung Hwa; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Park, Jun Kyu; Jang, Sun Hee; Park, Yun Jung; Sung, Ye Gyu; Sul, Hae Jung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric inverted hyperplastic polyp (IHP) is a rare gastric polyp characterized by the downward growth of hyperplastic mucosal components into the submucosal layer. Macroscopically, a gastric IHP resembles a subepithelial tumor (SET); as a result, accurately diagnosing gastric IHP is difficult. This issue has clinical significance because gastric IHP can be misdiagnosed as SET or as malignant neoplasm In addition, adenocarcinoma can accompany benign gastric IHP. Although in most cases, gastric IHPs are asymptomatic and are found incidentally, these polyps may cause anemia secondary to chronic bleeding. Here, we report one case involving gastric IHP accompanied by chronic iron deficiency anemia that was successfully managed using endoscopic submucosal dissection. PMID:27099452

  19. Antrochoanal polyp arising from benign pseudocyst of maxillary antrum.

    PubMed

    Keshri, Neha; Bansal, Avi; Popli, Gourav; Venkatesh, Arvind; Goel, Siddhartha

    2017-01-01

    Antrochoanal polyps (ACPs) are benign lesions that arise from the mucosa of the maxillary antrum, grow into the maxillary sinus, and reach the choana with nasal obstruction being their main symptom. Most of these lesions are small and clinically silent and found as incidental finding, but large cysts which occupy the entire antrum have also been reported in literature. Nasal endoscopy and computer tomography (CT) are the golden standard in the diagnosis of ACPs, and enucleation by Caldwell-Luc approach is the recommended treatment for larger antral cysts. This article is a report of a 9-year-old male patient diagnosed with ACP arising from a benign cyst of maxillary antrum with characteristic clinical, CT, and histopathological features along with brief review of literature.

  20. Gene Signature in Sessile Serrated Polyps Identifies Colon Cancer Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Kanth, Priyanka; Bronner, Mary P.; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Burt, Randall W.; Neklason, Deborah W.; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Delker, Don A.

    2016-01-01

    Sessile serrated colon adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) are found during routine screening colonoscopy and may account for 20–30% of colon cancers. However, differentiating SSA/Ps from hyperplastic polyps (HP) with little risk of cancer is challenging and complementary molecular markers are needed. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms of colon cancer development from SSA/Ps are poorly understood. RNA sequencing was performed on 21 SSA/Ps, 10 HPs, 10 adenomas, 21 uninvolved colon and 20 control colon specimens. Differential expression and leave-one-out cross validation methods were used to define a unique gene signature of SSA/Ps. Our SSA/P gene signature was evaluated in colon cancer RNA-Seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to identify a subtype of colon cancers that may develop from SSA/Ps. A total of 1422 differentially expressed genes were found in SSA/Ps relative to controls. Serrated polyposis syndrome (n=12) and sporadic SSA/Ps (n=9) exhibited almost complete (96%) gene overlap. A 51-gene panel in SSA/P showed similar expression in a subset of TCGA colon cancers with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H). A smaller seven-gene panel showed high sensitivity and specificity in identifying BRAF mutant, CpG island methylator phenotype high (CIMP-H) and MLH1 silenced colon cancers. We describe a unique gene signature in SSA/Ps that identifies a subset of colon cancers likely to develop through the serrated pathway. These gene panels may be utilized for improved differentiation of SSA/Ps from HPs and provide insights into novel molecular pathways altered in colon cancer arising from the serrated pathway. PMID:27026680

  1. Complete Resolution of Pseudomalignant Erosion in a Reflux Gastroesophageal Polyp with Proton Pump Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Takahiko; Yagi, Haruo; Baba, Hayato; Minamisaka, Takashi; Miwa, Shigeharu; Hayashi, Shinichi; Nishida, Takeshi; Hatta, Hideki; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Imura, Johji

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomalignant erosion is a diagnostic pitfall for pathologists in the differential diagnosis of malignant neoplasms. Here, we present a challenging case of a biopsy specimen from the eroded head of a polyp at the esophagogastric junction. A malignant neoplasm could not be ruled out due to the presence of bizarre stromal cells. A second biopsy performed after the administration of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 4 weeks revealed endoscopic resolution of the polyp along with the complete histological resolution of the bizarre stromal cells and led to the diagnosis of pseudomalignant erosion in a reflux gastroesophageal polyp. In conclusion, histological and endoscopic response to PPI therapy is an important clue for the correct diagnosis of reflux gastroesophageal polyps with pseudomalignant erosion. PMID:26688768

  2. [The effect of smoking and forced use of the voice to development of the vocal polyps].

    PubMed

    Gnjatic, M; Stankovic, P; Djukić, V

    2009-01-01

    Dysphonia is often caused by polyps which are benign changes of pseudotumors. With their presence they are hampering with glotis oclusion. Laryngomicroscopy of general and endotracheal anaesthesia has been preformed on all of the patients. Microsurgical technique has been used to remove the polyps. Bioptic material was analyzed in pathophysiological laboratory of clinic of pathology in Banjaluka. All of the results were presented through tables and graphic representations. Frequency of polyps through age and sex groups, along with the examination of ethyological factors in emergence of polyps of vocal cords. Results are in accordance with the results of other authors who were involved in similar problematics. Through analysis of our data we percieve that the abuse of voice is part of ethiological factors that lead not only to emergence of vocal fold lesions but aswell as other benign changes.

  3. Transvaginal ultrasonography and hysteroscopy as predictors of endometrial polyps in postmenopause.

    PubMed

    de Godoy Borges, Pítia Cárita; Dias, Rogério; Bonassi Machado, Rogério; Borges, João Bosco Ramos; Spadoto Dias, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The study compared ultrasound and ambulatorial hysteroscopy as diagnostic methods detecting endometrial polyps in postmenopause women. 281 women aged 41-82 years who underwent ambulatorial hysteroscopy were analyzed for presence of uterine bleeding and/or altered transvaginal ultrasound (endometrial thickness ≥5 mm). Ultrasonography detected endometrial polyps in 22.8% of patients and endometrial thickening in the other 59.8%. Hysteroscopy diagnosed endometrial polyps in 80.8%. Ultrasonography showed sensitivity of 88.7%, specificity of 25.4%, positive predictive value of 81.7%, negative predictive value of 37.5% and accuracy of 75.4% in diagnosing endometrial polyps. Hysteroscopy showed 96.4% sensitivity, 74.6% specificity, 93.4% positive predictive value, 84.6% negative predictive value and 91.8% accuracy. Hysteroscopy demonstrated more accuracy than ultrasonography, which is not sufficient for accurate diagnosis.

  4. Male and female stem cells and sex reversal in Hydra polyps

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Thomas C. G.; David, Charles N.

    1986-01-01

    Single interstitial stem cells of male polyps of Hydra magnipapillata give rise to clones that differentiate either male or female gametes. To test the sexual stability of these clones, stem cells were recloned. The results indicate that stem cells from female clones are stable in their sexual differentiation capacity; male stem cells, by comparison, switch sexual phenotype at the rate of 10-2 per cell per generation. As a result, female polyps contain only female stem cells; male polyps contain a mixture of male and female stem cells. A model is presented in which the sexual phenotype of Hydra polyps is controlled by (i) the switching rate of male and female stem cells and (ii) the repression of female differentiation by male stem cells. PMID:16593789

  5. Male and female stem cells and sex reversal in Hydra polyps.

    PubMed

    Bosch, T C; David, C N

    1986-12-01

    Single interstitial stem cells of male polyps of Hydra magnipapillata give rise to clones that differentiate either male or female gametes. To test the sexual stability of these clones, stem cells were recloned. The results indicate that stem cells from female clones are stable in their sexual differentiation capacity; male stem cells, by comparison, switch sexual phenotype at the rate of 10(-2) per cell per generation. As a result, female polyps contain only female stem cells; male polyps contain a mixture of male and female stem cells. A model is presented in which the sexual phenotype of Hydra polyps is controlled by (i) the switching rate of male and female stem cells and (ii) the repression of female differentiation by male stem cells.

  6. Ultrasound virtual endoscopy: Polyp detection and reliability of measurement in an in vitro study with pig intestine specimens

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Ya; Chen, Li-Da; Cai, Hua-Song; Liang, Jin-Yu; Xu, Ming; Huang, Yang; Li, Wei; Feng, Shi-Ting; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Lu, Ming-De; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To present our initial experience regarding the feasibility of ultrasound virtual endoscopy (USVE) and its measurement reliability for polyp detection in an in vitro study using pig intestine specimens. METHODS: Six porcine intestine specimens containing 30 synthetic polyps underwent USVE, computed tomography colonography (CTC) and optical colonoscopy (OC) for polyp detection. The polyp measurement defined as the maximum polyp diameter on two-dimensional (2D) multiplanar reformatted (MPR) planes was obtained by USVE, and the absolute measurement error was analyzed using the direct measurement as the reference standard. RESULTS: USVE detected 29 (96.7%) of 30 polyps, remaining a 7-mm one missed. There was one false-positive finding. Twenty-six (89.7%) of 29 reconstructed images were clearly depicted, while 29 (96.7%) of 30 polyps were displayed on CTC with one false-negative finding. In OC, all the polyps were detected. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.876 (95%CI: 0.745-0.940) for measurements obtained with USVE. The pooled absolute measurement errors ± the standard deviations of the depicted polyps with actual sizes ≤ 5 mm, 6-9 mm, and ≥ 10 mm were 1.9 ± 0.8 mm, 0.9 ± 1.2 mm, and 1.0 ± 1.4 mm, respectively. CONCLUSION: USVE is reliable for polyp detection and measurement in in vitro study. PMID:27022217

  7. Role of local allergic inflammation and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins in Chinese patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K-J; Xu, Y-Y; Zhou, M-L; Zhou, S-H; Wang, S-Q

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the role of local allergic inflammation and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. This study included 36 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and 18 controls. Total immunoglobulin E, eosinophil cationic protein, staphylococcal enterotoxin types A and B specific immunoglobulin E, staphylococcal enterotoxin types A and B, and myeloperoxidase levels were determined. Four patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps had a local allergy. All chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps patients tested negative for staphylococcal enterotoxin types A and B specific immunoglobulin E. The chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps group had significantly elevated staphylococcal enterotoxin types A and B levels in the supernatant. Fourteen patients belonged to the eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps group and the others were characterised as having non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. Local allergy may play a role in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, independent of staphylococcal enterotoxin superantigens. Staphylococcal enterotoxins may be important in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps; however, their roles as superantigens were not confirmed in this study. In Chinese subjects, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps usually manifests as a neutrophilic inflammation.

  8. Cold snare piecemeal resection of colonic and duodenal polyps ≥1 cm

    PubMed Central

    Choksi, Neel; Elmunzer, B. Joseph; Stidham, Ryan W.; Shuster, Dmitry; Piraka, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic removal of duodenal and colorectal adenomas is currently considered to be the standard of care for prevention of adenocarcinoma. The use of cautery carries a risk of delayed bleeding, post-polypectomy syndrome, and perforation. We examined the safety and feasibility of removing colonic and duodenal polyps ≥ 1 cm using a piecemeal cold snare polypectomy technique. Patients: The study included 15 patients with duodenal polyps ≥ 1 cm and 15 patients with colonic polyps ≥ 1 cm. Main outcome measurements: Bleeding, perforation, abdominal pain, or hospitalization occurring within 2 weeks of polypectomy. Results: Between 24 August 2011 and 29 April 2013, 15 patients had removal of duodenal polyps ≥ 1 cm. Mean patient age was 64 years and 9/15 patients were male. The mean polyp size was 24 mm (10 – 60 mm). All polyps were removed with a cold snare and some required cold biopsy forceps. One patient required hospitalization for gastrointestinal blood loss 7 days post-polypectomy; this patient was using Coumadin. Between 27 February 2012 and 30 May 2013, 15 patients underwent resection of a ≥ 1 cm colonic polyp. Mean patient age was 68 years and 9/15 were male. The mean polyp size was 20 mm (10 – 45 mm). All polyps were primarily removed with a cold snare. None of the patients required hemostatic clips for control of immediate bleeding. One patient presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain 1 day after initial endoscopy. CT scan showed no abnormalities and the patient was discharged. Conclusions: Cold snare polypectomy for large duodenal and colonic polyps is technically feasible and may have a favorable safety profile compared to standard electrocautery-based endoscopic resection. Comparative trials are required to determine the relative safety and efficacy of cold snare techniques for complete and durable resection of large polyps compared to standard hot snare methods. PMID:26528509

  9. Deep transfer learning of virtual endoluminal views for the detection of polyps in CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näppi, Janne J.; Hironaka, Toru; Regge, Daniele; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    Proper training of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) requires large annotated image databases that are currently not available in CT colonography (CTC). In this study, we employed a deep transfer learning (DETALE) scheme to circumvent this problem in automated polyp detection for CTC. In our method, a DCNN that had been pre-trained with millions of non-medical images was adapted to identify polyps using virtual endoluminal images of the polyp candidates prompted by a computer-aided detection (CADe) system. For evaluation, 154 CTC cases with and without fecal tagging were divided randomly into a development set and an external validation set including 107 polyps >=6 mm in size. A CADe system was trained to detect polyp candidates using the development set, and the virtual endoluminal images of the polyp candidates were labeled manually into true-positive and several false-positive (FP) categories for transfer learning of the DCNN. Next, the trained CADe system was used to detect polyp candidates from the external validation set, and the DCNN reviewed their images to determine the final detections. The detection sensitivity of the standalone CADe system was 93% at 6.4 FPs per patient on average, whereas the DCNN reduced the number of FPs to 2.0 per patient without reducing detection sensitivity. Most of the remaining FP detections were caused by untagged stool. In fecal-tagged CTC cases, the detection sensitivity was 94% at only 0.78 FPs per patient on average. These preliminary results indicate that DETALE can yield substantial improvement in the accuracy of automated polyp detection in CTC.

  10. The Association Between Molecular Markers in Colorectal Sessile Serrated Polyps and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0273 TITLE: The Association between Molecular Markers in Colorectal Sessile Serrated Polyps and Colorectal Cancer...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE August 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Aug 2015 - 31 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Association Between...molecular markers associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in patients with sessile serrated colorectal polyps (SSPs). The project’s

  11. Distributed Human Intelligence for Colonic Polyp Classification in Computer-aided Detection for CT Colonography

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tan B.; Wang, Shijun; Anugu, Vishal; Rose, Natalie; McKenna, Matthew; Petrick, Nicholas; Burns, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic performance of distributed human intelligence for the classification of polyp candidates identified with computer-aided detection (CAD) for computed tomographic (CT) colonography. Materials and Methods: This study was approved by the institutional Office of Human Subjects Research. The requirement for informed consent was waived for this HIPAA-compliant study. CT images from 24 patients, each with at least one polyp of 6 mm or larger, were analyzed by using CAD software to identify 268 polyp candidates. Twenty knowledge workers (KWs) from a crowdsourcing platform labeled each polyp candidate as a true or false polyp. Two trials involving 228 KWs were conducted to assess reproducibility. Performance was assessed by comparing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of KWs with the AUC of CAD for polyp classification. Results: The detection-level AUC for KWs was 0.845 ± 0.045 (standard error) in trial 1 and 0.855 ± 0.044 in trial 2. These were not significantly different from the AUC for CAD, which was 0.859 ± 0.043. When polyp candidates were stratified by difficulty, KWs performed better than CAD on easy detections; AUCs were 0.951 ± 0.032 in trial 1, 0.966 ± 0.027 in trial 2, and 0.877 ± 0.048 for CAD (P = .039 for trial 2). KWs who participated in both trials showed a significant improvement in performance going from trial 1 to trial 2; AUCs were 0.759 ± 0.052 in trial 1 and 0.839 ± 0.046 in trial 2 (P = .041). Conclusion: The performance of distributed human intelligence is not significantly different from that of CAD for colonic polyp classification. © RSNA, 2012 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.11110938/-/DC1 PMID:22274839

  12. Distributed human intelligence for colonic polyp classification in computer-aided detection for CT colonography.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tan B; Wang, Shijun; Anugu, Vishal; Rose, Natalie; McKenna, Matthew; Petrick, Nicholas; Burns, Joseph E; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-03-01

    To assess the diagnostic performance of distributed human intelligence for the classification of polyp candidates identified with computer-aided detection (CAD) for computed tomographic (CT) colonography. This study was approved by the institutional Office of Human Subjects Research. The requirement for informed consent was waived for this HIPAA-compliant study. CT images from 24 patients, each with at least one polyp of 6 mm or larger, were analyzed by using CAD software to identify 268 polyp candidates. Twenty knowledge workers (KWs) from a crowdsourcing platform labeled each polyp candidate as a true or false polyp. Two trials involving 228 KWs were conducted to assess reproducibility. Performance was assessed by comparing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of KWs with the AUC of CAD for polyp classification. The detection-level AUC for KWs was 0.845 ± 0.045 (standard error) in trial 1 and 0.855 ± 0.044 in trial 2. These were not significantly different from the AUC for CAD, which was 0.859 ± 0.043. When polyp candidates were stratified by difficulty, KWs performed better than CAD on easy detections; AUCs were 0.951 ± 0.032 in trial 1, 0.966 ± 0.027 in trial 2, and 0.877 ± 0.048 for CAD (P = .039 for trial 2). KWs who participated in both trials showed a significant improvement in performance going from trial 1 to trial 2; AUCs were 0.759 ± 0.052 in trial 1 and 0.839 ± 0.046 in trial 2 (P = .041). The performance of distributed human intelligence is not significantly different from that of CAD for colonic polyp classification. © RSNA.

  13. Ability of a novel blue laser imaging system for the diagnosis of colorectal polyps.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Naohisa; Yagi, Nobuaki; Inada, Yutaka; Kugai, Munehiro; Okayama, Tetsuya; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Katada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Handa, Osamu; Takagi, Tomohisa; Konishi, Hideyuki; Kokura, Satoshi; Yanagisawa, Akio; Naito, Yuji

    2014-03-01

    A new endoscope system with a laser light source, blue laser imaging (BLI), has been developed by Fujifilm that allows for narrow-band light observation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of BLI for the diagnosis of colorectal polyps. We retrospectively analyzed 314 colorectal polyps that were examined with BLI observation at Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine between September 2011 and January 2013. The surface and vascular patterns of polyps detected by published narrow-band imaging magnification: Hiroshima classification were used. Correlations were determined between the classifications and the histopathological diagnoses. Additionally, the ability of BLI without magnification to differentiate between neoplastic or non-neoplastic polyps was analyzed. A total of 41 hyperplastic polyps, 168 adenomas, 80 intramucosal cancer, 11 shallowly invaded submucosal cancer, and 14 deeply invaded submucosal cancer were analyzed.Hyperplastic polyp was observed in 100% of Type A lesions (39 lesions), adenoma was observed in 89.3% of Type B lesions (159 lesions), intramucosal cancer and shallowly invaded submucosal cancer was observed in 69.6% of Type C1 (92 lesions) and in 84.6% of Type C2 (13 lesions), and deeply invaded submucosal cancer was observed in 81.8% of Type C3 lesions (11 lesions). The overall diagnostic accuracy of BLI with magnification was 84.3%. Additionally, the diagnostic accuracy of BLI without magnification for differentiating between neoplastic and non-neoplastic polyps <10 mm in diameter was 95.2%, which was greater than that of white light (83.2%). BLI was useful for the diagnosis of colorectal polyps. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  14. Does the prevalence of nasal polyps increase in patients using statins?

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Fahrettin; Gunduz, Huseyin; Arinc, Huseyin; Talay, Fahrettin; Ozyildirim, Serhan; Akyurek, Fatma; Uyan, Cihangir

    2007-01-01

    Several statins inhibit T-helper 1 development and induce T-helper 2 polarization and production of T-helper 2 cytokines that promote the activation and chemotaxis of eosinophils. Whether statins promote the development of nasal polyps has so far been uncertain. No studies have evaluated the frequency of the development of nasal polyps in patients using statins. To better define the relationship of statin use to the presence of nasal polyps, the investigators explored the frequency of the development of nasal polyps in patients who were using statins. A total of 200 patients who were using statins and 200 who were not using statins (400 cases) were investigated. All patients were examined for nasal polyps by anterior rhinoscopy or investigation with a fiberoptic endoscope. In addition, immunoglobulin E levels were measured, a skin prick test was performed, and the results from the 2 groups were compared. Nasal polyps were detected in 4 subjects who were using statins, whereas 5 nasal polyps were found in the control group; differences between the 2 groups were statistically insignificant (P>.05). When the atopy status of the 2 groups was compared, prick test positivity and serum immunoglobulin E levels were found to be 15% and 44+/-31 IU/mL in the statin group and 19% and 68+/-23 IU/mL in the control group (P>.05). These results show that nasal polyposis is a multifactorial disease with several different causes; however, the frequency of the development of nasal polyps does not increase in patients who use statins.

  15. A comprehensive study of nondysplastic and dysplastic serrated polyps of the vermiform appendix.

    PubMed

    Yantiss, Rhonda K; Panczykowski, Andrea; Misdraji, Joseph; Hahn, Hejin P; Odze, Robert D; Rennert, Hanna; Chen, Yao-Tseng

    2007-11-01

    Serrated colorectal polyps often show DNA hypermethylation and/or BRAF mutations and have been implicated in the "serrated neoplastic pathway." Although similar lesions occur in the appendix, they have never been systematically investigated. We evaluated a study group of 56 serrated polyps, a control group of 17 mucinous cystadenomas, and 4 adenocarcinomas with adjacent serrated polyps of the appendix to better understand their pathogenesis. The study cases were classified as nondysplastic or dysplastic serrated polyps and evaluated for MLH-1, MSH-2, MGMT, beta-catenin, p53, and Ki-67 expression, BRAF and KRAS mutations, and microsatellite instability. Serrated polyps usually occurred in older adults with no sex predilection. Most (59%) lacked dysplasia, but all showed similar molecular features, regardless of the degree of dysplasia present. Decreased MLH-1 (50%, P<0.001) and/or MGMT (59%, P<0.001) expression and BRAF (29%, P=0.007) mutations were significantly more common in serrated polyps, but BRAF mutations were detected in a minority of the extracted DNA in 15/16 cases. Of the 28 cases with decreased MLH-1 expression, none showed high-frequency microsatellite instability. Loss of MLH-1 (25%) or MGMT (50%) expression and BRAF or KRAS mutations (50%) were inconsistently present in adenocarcinomas and were not identified in combination in any cases. We conclude that molecular features of the "serrated neoplastic pathway" are present with similar frequencies among dysplastic and nondysplastic serrated appendiceal polyps and are not highly prevalent in adjacent carcinomas. These features, including BRAF mutations, may be more closely related to a serrated morphology in appendiceal polyps rather than biologically important changes.

  16. Predictive significance of tissue eosinophilia for nasal polyp recurrence in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lou, Hongfei; Meng, Yifan; Piao, Yingshi; Wang, Chengshuo; Zhang, Luo; Bachert, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) remains a challenging clinical entity with its propensity for recurrence. Tissue eosinophilia is a hallmark of CRSwNP, and its role in polyp recurrence is a subject of much investigation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between clinical parameters, especially tissue eosinophilia and polyp recurrence, and to identify the optimal cutoff value of tissue eosinophilia as a predictor for polyp recurrence in Chinese subjects. Overall, 387 patients with CRSwNP were enrolled in this retrospective analysis and postoperative follow-up for polyp recurrence was over a period that lasted >24 months (mean [standard deviation], 34.03 ± 4.95 months). The baseline demographic and clinical features and the preoperative computed tomography were compared, and mucosal specimens obtained at endoscopic sinus surgery were assessed for inflammatory cells by using histocytologic staining. Predictive factors associated with polyp recurrence were analyzed by logistic regression analysis, and optimal cutoff points of the predictors were determined by receiver operating characteristic curves and the Youden index. A total of 55.3% patients (214/387) experienced recurrence. Tissue eosinophilia markedly outweighed other parameters and correlated with polyp recurrence. Receiver operating characteristic curves indicated that a cutoff value of 27% tissue eosinophils predicted recurrence with 96.7% sensitivity and 92.5% specificity (area under the curve = 0.969; p < 0.001); and an absolute count of 55 eosinophils per high power field predicted recurrence with 87.4% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity (area under the curve = 0.969; p < 0.001). A tissue eosinophil proportion of >27% of total cells or a tissue eosinophil absolute count of >55 eosinophils per high power field may act as a reliable prognostic indicator for nasal polyp recurrence within 2 years after surgery.

  17. Endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps: Clinical outcome and predictive factors of recurrence.

    PubMed

    Veloso-Teles, Rafaela; Cerejeira, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a highly prevalent disease of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus, but its exact etiology is still unclear and remains a difficult-to-treat condition. Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is an effective treatment for medically recalcitrant CRSwNP. There are independent variables that can predict surgical outcomes in patients with CRSwNP. To evaluate ESS efficacy in CRSwNP treatment and to establish prognostic factors for disease recurrence. Eighty-five patients with CRSwNP submitted to ESS, and a minimum follow-up of 9 months was selected. Patient demographics, occupational organic exposure (e.g., cotton, fuel gas, wood dust) and inorganic dust exposure (e.g., bleach, metals, cement), comorbidities, previous nasal surgeries, pre- and postoperative symptoms, ear, nose and throat examination findings, computed tomography results, and medical and surgical treatment information were collected from medical records. Statistical analysis was performed. All rhinologic symptoms improved after surgery, in a statistically significant way, with the best recovery rate for nasal obstruction and the worst for hyposmia. The major and minor complications rates were 1.2 and 15.3%, respectively. Disease recurrence occurred in 31% of the patient, but only 7% required surgical reintervention. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified occupational dust exposure (p = 0.001) and non-immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated asthma (p = 0.012) as independent predictive variables in CRSwNP recurrence, unlike the other tested variables: age, sex, IgE-mediated asthma, allergic rhinitis, smoking habits, nasal polyps endoscopic grade, Lund-Mackay score, and postoperative topical corticoid use. The adjusted logistic model presented a good discriminatory capacity with a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.91; p < 0.001). ESS proved to be an effective treatment in CRSwNP but with a

  18. Efficacy of leflunomide for treatment of refractory inflammatory colorectal polyps in 15 Miniature Dachshunds.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kenjiro; Eguchi, Nozomi; Ohno, Koichi; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Masashi; Igarashi, Hirotaka; Ohmi, Aki; Nakashima, Ko; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2016-02-01

    Inflammatory colorectal polyp (ICRP), common in miniature dachshunds, presents with hematochezia, tenesmus and mucoid feces. Although an 80% response rate has been reported when treated with prednisolone and cyclosporine, effective treatment is needed for the remaining 20% of ICRP dogs. Leflunomide is an immunosuppressive drug reported as effective in several immune-mediated diseases. In the present study, we retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and adverse effects of leflunomide in 15 ICRP dogs that were refractory to treatment with prednisolone and cyclosporine. Treatment efficacy was assessed by endoscopy, clinical symptoms and rectal palpation. Adverse effects were determined by clinical symptoms and blood testing during follow-up. The leflunomide treatment response rate was 93.3%. The median dosage of leflunomide and the median response time were 3 mg/kg (range: 1.7-4.0 mg/kg) and 35 days (range: 20-119 days), respectively. Adverse effects observed included lethargy (3 dogs), anorexia (1 dog), respiratory symptoms (1 dog), leukocytopenia (2 dogs), thrombocytopenia (1 dog), anemia (1 dog) and liver enzyme elevation (8 dogs). Most of the adverse effects improved with symptomatic treatment and leflunomide discontinuation or dosage reduction. In conclusion, leflunomide treatment is effective in ICRP dogs refractory to treatment with prednisolone and cyclosporine. Because several adverse effects were observed, close monitoring is needed during leflunomide treatment follow-up.

  19. [Severe complications in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps with endoscopic sinus surgery].

    PubMed

    Shi, Guang-gang; Li, Xiu-guo; Wang, Zhao-di

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the classification, incidence and influential factors of severe complications occurred in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and how to deal with them. One thousand and one hundred two patients with chronic sinusitis and nasal polyps treated by ESS were analyzed. Twenty-one patients had severe complications. The types of complication included intraorbital hematoma (n=3), medial rectus injury (n=2), blindness (n=1), intracranial, hematoma (n=1), cerebrospinal rhinorrhea (n=3), nasolacrimal duct injury (n=3), nasal septum perforation (n=2), hemorrhage (n=2), thrombosis in legs (n=2) and asthma (n=2). The total incidence of severe complications was 1.91% (21/1102), most of which were complications in orbit (0.54%) and cranium (0.36%). The extent of the lesion, the surgical history of the patients, the technique and experience of the surgeons were the most important influential factors to severe complications. Although there are many influential factors to severe complications in ESS, subjective factors are the more important, especial, the technique and the experience of the surgeon.

  20. Measurement system that improves the accuracy of polyp size determined at colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Leng, Qiang; Jin, Hei-Ying

    2015-02-21

    To assess the accuracy of polyp size using an endoscopic lesion measurement system (ELMS). The accuracy of polyp size assessment was compared among measurements acquired by visual estimation, disposable graduated biopsy forceps (DGBF; used as a "scale-plate") and the ELMS. There were 192 polyps from 166 cases included in this study. The mean diameter of the post polypectomy measurement was 0.85±0.53 cm (range: 0.2-3.0 cm). The mean diameter by visual estimation was 1.10±0.53 cm, which was significantly different compared to the actual size of the polyp (P<0.001). The mean diameters obtained using DGBF (0.87±0.54 cm) and ELMS (0.85±0.53 cm) did not significantly differ from the actual size of the polyp. The difference between the measurements from the ELMS and DGBF was not significant. Unlike visual estimations at colonoscopy, endoscopic graduated biopsy forceps and the endoscopic lesion measurement system are accurate methods to estimate polyp size.

  1. Automatic Polyp Detection via A Novel Unified Bottom-up and Top-down Saliency Approach.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yixuan; Li, Dengwang; Meng, Max Q-H

    2017-07-31

    In this paper, we propose a novel automatic computer-aided method to detect polyps for colonoscopy videos. To find the perceptually and semantically meaningful salient polyp regions, we first segment images into multilevel superpixels. Each level corresponds to different sizes of superpixels. Rather than adopting hand-designed features to describe these superpixels in images, we employ sparse autoencoder (SAE) to learn discriminative features in an unsupervised way. Then a novel unified bottom-up and top-down saliency method is proposed to detect polyps. In the first stage, we propose a weak bottom-up (WBU) saliency map by fusing the contrast based saliency and object-center based saliency together. The contrast based saliency map highlights image parts that show different appearances compared with surrounding areas while the object-center based saliency map emphasizes the center of the salient object. In the second stage, a strong classifier with Multiple Kernel Boosting (MKB) is learned to calculate the strong top-down (STD) saliency map based on samples directly from the obtained multi-level WBU saliency maps. We finally integrate these two stage saliency maps from all levels together to highlight polyps. Experiment results achieve 0.818 recall for saliency calculation, validating the effectiveness of our method. Extensive experiments on public polyp datasets demonstrate that the proposed saliency algorithm performs favorably against state-of-the-art saliency methods to detect polyps.

  2. Seasonality in Polyps of a Tropical Cubozoan: A latina nr mordens

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Robert; Seymour, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    A latina nr mordens have been located in large predictable spawning aggregations near Osprey Reef in the Coral Sea eight to ten days after a full moon; however, polyps have never been located in-situ. The polyp stage contributes to the abundance of medusae through asexual reproduction and metamorphosis, and may influence the periodicity of medusae by metamorphosis of the polyp. To elucidate the relationship between medusae periodicity and polyp ecology, polyps were exposed to thermal and osmotic treatments in order to determine the theoretical environmental limits to their distribution. Maximum fecundity occurred in thermal treatments of 21 to 25ºC and the theoretical minimum thermal requirement for population stability was approximately 17ºC. Polyps were also exposed to five feeding regimes and fecundity was found to be positively correlated with feeding frequency. Thermal and osmotic variations did not induce metamorphosis in this species, however, reduced food did. The implications of asexual reproduction and cues for metamorphosis in relation to population dynamics of this species are discussed. PMID:23922707

  3. Respiratory response to temperature of three populations of Aurelia aurita polyps in northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The benthic life stage (polyp or scyphistoma) of the bloom-forming jellyfish, Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus, 1759), also known as the moon jellyfish, contributes to the seasonal occurrence and abundance of medusa blooms via asexual reproduction. A. aurita is widely distributed in coastal areas in northern Europe, and one of the most studied jellyfish species. While the physiology of the visible medusa is largely understood, understanding of the physiology of the perennial benthic life-stage is scarce. To measure the physiological tolerance of A. aurita, the scyphistoma’s temperature sensitivity across its distributional range was investigated. Respiration rates of polyps from three northern European locations exposed to 11 temperatures between 2 and 22°C were measured. There was a significant difference in respiration rate among the three polyp populations, which may reflect on differences in their thermal tolerance window. A critical temperature was reached at 14°C with the metabolic rate decreasing below and above that temperature. This pattern was less pronounced in the Norwegian population but polyps were able to survive, at least temporarily, those temperatures exceeding their natural range. While polyps collected from northern Norway, with a narrow environmental thermal window, displayed a low baseline metabolism with a Q10 value of 1.2, polyps from southern England and Scotland had Q10 values of 1.6 and 2.5, respectively. Differences in polyps’ respiration rates across their distributional range suggest that populations have evolved adaptations to local environmental thermal conditions. PMID:28545145

  4. Expression and distribution of epithelial sodium channel in nasal polyp and nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yiming; Xu, Ji; Chen, Yanqing; Shi, Jiali; Zhang, Chun; Li, Jiping

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the expression and location of epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) in human nasal polyp and normal nasal mucosa, and to characterize the relevance of ENaCs to the development of NPs. Nasal polyp tissue from 17 patients and nasal mucosa from ten patients were obtained through endoscopic sinus surgery. The mRNA concentrations of ENaC-α, β, and γ were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of ENaC-α was detected using western blot and immunofluorescence techniques. The distribution of ENaC-α in mucosal tissue was observed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. The transcriptional expression of three subunits of ENaC was in the following order: α > β > γ, in both groups. The transcriptional expression of α, β, and γ subunits of ENaC was elevated in nasal polyp compared to nasal mucosa (p < 0.01). ENaC-α expression was higher in nasal polyp than in nasal mucosa (p < 0.05). Immunofluorescent staining indicated that ENaC-α protein was distributed in the epithelial cell apical membrane. The expression of ENaC is upregulated in human nasal polyp, which might in turn facilitate the formation and development of nasal polyp.

  5. Eigenvalue-weighting and feature selection for computer-aided polyp detection in CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongbin; Wang, Su; Fan, Yi; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2010-03-01

    With the development of computer-aided polyp detection towards virtual colonoscopy screening, the trade-off between detection sensitivity and specificity has gained increasing attention. An optimum detection, with least number of false positives and highest true positive rate, is desirable and involves interdisciplinary knowledge, such as feature extraction, feature selection as well as machine learning. Toward that goal, various geometrical and textural features, associated with each suspicious polyp candidate, have been individually extracted and stacked together as a feature vector. However, directly inputting these high-dimensional feature vectors into a learning machine, e.g., neural network, for polyp detection may introduce redundant information due to feature correlation and induce the curse of dimensionality. In this paper, we explored an indispensable building block of computer-aided polyp detection, i.e., principal component analysis (PCA)-weighted feature selection for neural network classifier of true and false positives. The major concepts proposed in this paper include (1) the use of PCA to reduce the feature correlation, (2) the scheme of adaptively weighting each principal component (PC) by the associated eigenvalue, and (3) the selection of feature combinations via the genetic algorithm. As such, the eigenvalue is also taken as part of the characterizing feature, and the necessary number of features can be exposed to mitigate the curse of dimensionality. Learned and tested by radial basis neural network, the proposed computer-aided polyp detection has achieved 95% sensitivity at a cost of average 2.99 false positives per polyp.

  6. Long-term risk of colorectal cancer in individuals with serrated polyps.

    PubMed

    Holme, Øyvind; Bretthauer, Michael; Eide, Tor J; Løberg, Else Marit; Grzyb, Krzysztof; Løberg, Magnus; Kalager, Mette; Adami, Hans-Olov; Kjellevold, Øystein; Hoff, Geir

    2015-06-01

    Although serrated polyps may be precursors of colorectal cancer (CRC), prospective data on the long-term CRC risk in individuals with serrated polyps are lacking. In a population-based randomised trial, 12,955 individuals aged 50-64 years were screened with flexible sigmoidoscopy, while 78 220 individuals comprised the control arm. We used Cox models to estimate HRs with 95% CIs for CRC among individuals with ≥1 large serrated polyp (≥10 mm in diameter), compared with individuals with adenomas at screening, and to population controls, and multivariate logistic regression to assess polyp risk factors for CRC. A total of 103 individuals had large serrated polyps, of which 81 were included in the analyses. Non-advanced adenomas were found in 1488 individuals, advanced adenomas in 701. Median follow-up was 10.9 years. Compared with the control arm, the HR for CRC was 2.5 (95% CI 0.8 to 7.8) in individuals with large serrated polyps, 2.0 (95% CI 1.3 to 2.9) in individuals with advanced adenomas and 0.6 (95% CI 0.4 to 1.1) in individuals with non-advanced adenomas. A large serrated polyp was an independent risk factor for CRC, adjusted for histology, size and multiplicity of concomitant adenomas (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.3 to 8.6). Twenty-three large serrated polyps found at screening were left in situ for a median of 11.0 years. None developed into a malignant tumour. Individuals with large serrated polyps have an increased risk of CRC, comparable with individuals with advanced adenomas. However, this risk may not be related to malignant growth of the serrated polyp. The Norwegian Colorectal Cancer Screening trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00119912). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. The role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the pathogenesis of sinonasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Muluk, N Bayar; Arikan, O K; Atasoy, P; Kiliç, R; Yalçinozan, E Tuna

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of sinonasal polyps has not been known completely. We investigated the role of endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) in the pathogenesis of sinonasal polyps. Study group (Groups 1-3) consisted of nasal polyp samples of patients with sinonasal polyps; and control group consisted of inferior turbinate samples of patients without nasal polyp. In Group 1: 14 specimens from ethmoid sinus; in Group 2: 10 specimens from nasal cavity; in Group 3: 10 specimens from maxillary sinus; and in Group 4 (Control): 9 specimens from inferior turbinate were included. By immunohistochemical staining technique, eNOS Positivity Index in mucosal layers; and in the inflammatory cells were assessed. eNOS Positivity Index was higher at apical layer of epithelium; and perivascular and glandular parts of subepithelial layer. As a rate of mononuclear cells increased, eNOS positivity increased at basal part of epithelium. In eNOS Positivity Index of mononuclear cells increased ones, eNOS values also increased at glands of subepithelial layer. In nasal cavity, eNOS positivity index of all cells was significantly higher than that of the control group. Increased eNOS all cells positivity index values were seen with decreased glandular and endothelial eNOS values. In all cells group, fibroblasts were seen beside the mononuclear cells. It was observed that eNOS was not expressed in PMNC (mainly neutrophils), growing more in acute inflammatory process; and was expressed in MNCs and all cells group with fibroblasts which were the cells of chronic inflammatory process. Especially MNCs and fibroblasts may play a role in the polyp formation process. In males and in patients with longer polyp duration, eNOS values decreased. We concluded that eNOS Positivity Index was higher at apical layer of epithelium; and perivascular and glandular parts of subepithelial layer. eNOS plays role in vascular dilatation, increases in vascular permeability; increases in nasal secretion due to glandular

  8. Upregulation of COX‐1 and COX‐2 in nasal polyps in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Roca‐Ferrer, J; Pujols, L; Gartner, S; Moreno, A; Pumarola, F; Mullol, J; Cobos, N; Picado, C

    2006-01-01

    Background Since abnormalities in prostanoid metabolism occur in the lower airway of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), it is likely that they could also be detected in the nose. Methods The degree of mRNA and protein expression of cyclo‐oxygenase (COX) enzymes 1 (COX‐1) and 2 (COX‐2) was examined using quantitative reverse competitive polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) and Western blot analysis in the nasal polyps from 10 patients with CF, nasal polyps from 10 non‐CF patients and 11 nasal mucosa specimens. The results are presented as 106 cDNA molecules/μg total RNA and the densitometric ratio between protein and β‐actin. Results COX‐1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in CF nasal polyps (median 2.34, 25–75th percentiles 1.6–3.2) than in the nasal mucosa (0.78, 0.11–1.21), while there was no difference with non‐CF nasal polyps (1.11, 0.80–3.15). COX‐1 protein levels were significantly higher in CF nasal polyps (3.63, 2.71–4.27) than in nasal mucosa (1.55, 0.66–2.33) and non‐CF nasal polyps (2.19, 1.72–3.68). COX‐2 mRNA was significantly higher in CF nasal polyps (3.34, 2.42–7.05) than in nasal mucosa (1.69, 0.19–3.50). No differences were found in COX‐2 mRNA expression between CF and non‐CF polyps (1.38, 0.12–6.07). COX‐2 protein levels were also significantly higher in CF nasal polyps (0.23, 0.04–0.34) than in non‐CF nasal polyps (0.011, 0.009–0.016) or nasal mucosa (0.014, 0.014–0.016). Conclusions Upregulation in the expression of COX‐1 and COX‐2 could explain the high production of prostanoids reported in CF. These findings raise questions regarding the potential use of selective or non‐selective COX‐2 non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory treatment in CF. PMID:16517580

  9. A comparison of high definition-image enhanced colonoscopy and standard white-light colonoscopy for colorectal polyp detection.

    PubMed

    Gross, S A; Buchner, A M; Crook, J E; Cangemi, J R; Picco, M F; Wolfsen, H C; DeVault, K R; Loeb, D S; Raimondo, M; Woodward, T A; Wallace, M B

    2011-12-01

    Colonoscopy is widely used to detect and remove precancerous polyps, but fails to detect some polyps. Recent studies evaluating different image-enhanced methods have revealed conflicting results. The efficacy of colonoscopy imaging with simultaneous use of commercially available improvements, including high definition narrow band imaging (HD-NBI), and monochromatic charge-coupled device (CCD) video, was compared with a widely used standard definition white light (SDWL) colonoscopy system for detecting colorectal polyps. The primary aim was to determine whether the combination of image-enhanced colonoscopy systems resulted in fewer missed polyps compared with conventional colonoscopy. In a randomized controlled trial (Clinicaltrials.gov. study number NCT00825292) patients having routine screening and surveillance underwent tandem colonoscopies with SDWL and image-enhanced (HD-NBI) colonoscopy. The main outcome measurement was the per-polyp false-negative ("miss") rate. Secondary outcomes were adenoma miss rate, and per-patient polyp and adenoma miss rates. 100 patients were randomized and 96 were included in the analysis. In total, 177 polyps were detected; of these, 72 (41 %) were adenomatous. Polyp and adenoma miss rates for SDWL colonoscopy were 57 % (60/105) and 49 % (19/39); those for image-enhanced colonoscopy were 31 % (22/72) and 27 % (9/33) (P = 0.005 and P = 0.036 for polyps and adenomas, respectively). Image-enhanced and SDWL approaches had similar per-patient miss rates for polyps (6/35 vs. 9/32, P = 0.27) and adenomas (4/22 vs. 8/20, P = 0.11). Utilization of multiple recent improvements in image-enhanced colonoscopy was associated with a reduced miss rate for all polyps and for adenomatous polyps. It is not known which individual feature or combination of image-enhancement features led to the improvement. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. THE PREVALENCE OF COLONIC POLYPS IN PATIENTS WITH ACROMEGALY: A CASE-CONTROL, NESTED IN A COHORT COLONOSCOPIC STUDY.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Baldomero; Vargas, Guadalupe; Mendoza, Victoria; Nava, Mariana; Rojas, Moisés; Mercado, Moisés

    2017-05-01

    Acromegaly is associated with an increased risk of colonic polyps. The magnitude of such risk is controversial, and the characteristics that distinguish patients who develop polyps from those who do not are not well established. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of colonic polyps upon the diagnosis of acromegaly and to compare the clinical and biochemical features of patients with and without polyps. Out of 165 patients who underwent a full colonoscopy upon diagnosis of acromegaly, 53 were found to harbor colonic lesions (cases), whereas the remaining 112 were used as controls. Demographic, clinical, and biochemical characteristics were compared between the 2 groups. The prevalence of colonic polyps was 32%, with an estimated relative risk of 6.21 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.08-9.48). Adenomatous and nonadenomatous polyps were found in 22 and 31 patients, respectively. The most common location was the descending colon. Compared to patients without polyps, subjects with polyps were somewhat older and had significantly higher insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels and a higher prevalence of diabetes. Upon multivariate analysis, only IGF-1 level at diagnosis remained significantly associated with colonic polyps in general and with hyperplastic polyps in particular. Acromegaly is associated with an elevated risk of developing colonic polyps, particularly, distally located hyperplastic lesions. Except for a higher IGF-1 level at diagnosis, no distinctive clinical or biochemical features can be found among those who develop polyps compared to those who do not. CI = confidence interval GH = growth hormone IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor 1 IQR = inter-quartile range RR = relative risk ULN = upper limit of normal.

  11. Evaluation of magnifying colonoscopy in the diagnosis of serrated polyps

    PubMed Central

    Ishigooka, Shinya; Nomoto, Masahito; Obinata, Nobuyuki; Oishi, Yoshichika; Sato, Yoshinori; Nakatsu, Satoko; Suzuki, Midori; Ikeda, Yoshiko; Maehata, Tadateru; Kimura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Nakajima, Takashi; Yamano, Hiro-o; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Itoh, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the colonoscopic features of serrated lesions of the colorectum using magnifying colonoscopy. METHODS: Broad division of serrated lesions of the colorectum into hyperplastic polyps (HPs), traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs), and sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) has been proposed on the basis of recent molecular biological studies. However, few reports have examined the colonoscopic features of these divisions, including magnified colonoscopic findings. This study examined 118 lesions excised in our hospital as suspected serrated lesions after magnified observation between January 2008 and September 2011. Patient characteristics (sex, age), conventional colonoscopic findings (location, size, morphology, color, mucin) and magnified colonoscopic findings (pit pattern diagnosis) were interpreted by five colonoscopists with experience in over 1000 colonoscopies, and were compared with histopathological diagnoses. The pit patterns were categorized according to Kudo’s classification, but a more detailed investigation was also performed using the subclassification [type II-Open (type II-O), type II-Long (type II-L), or type IV-Serrated (type IV-S)] proposed by Kimura T and Yamano H. RESULTS: Lesions comprised 23 HPs (23/118: 19.5%), 39 TSAs (39/118: 33.1%: with cancer in one case), 50 SSA/Ps (50/118: 42.4%: complicated with cancer in three cases), and six others (6/118: 5.1%). We excluded six others, including three regular adenomas, one hamartoma, one inflammatory polyp, and one juvenile polyp for further analysis. Conventional colonoscopy showed that SSA/Ps were characterized as larger in diameter than TSAs and HPs (SSA/P vs HP, 13.62 ± 8.62 mm vs 7.74 ± 3.24 mm, P < 0.001; SSA/Ps vs TSA, 13.62 ± 8.62 mm vs 9.89 ± 5.73 mm, P < 0.01); common in the right side of the colon [HPs, 30.4% (7/23): TSAs, 20.5% (8/39): SSA/P, 84.0% (42/50), P < 0.001]; flat-elevated lesion [HPs, 30.4% (7/23): TSAs, 5.1% (2/39): SSA/Ps, 90.0% (45/50), P < 0

  12. Histological and immunological features of non-eosinophilic nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Whun; Hong, Sung-Lyong; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Lee, Chul Hee; Min, Yang-Gi; Rhee, Chae-Seo

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the histoimmunological features of non-eosinophilic nasal polyps (NPs). Thirty patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and NPs were included in this study. NPs were grouped into eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic types according to the amount of eosinophils in the NPs. The amount of serum total IgE and peripheral blood eosinophils were measured. Basement membrane (BM) thickness was measured, along with the expression of chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) in NP lymphocytes. Non-eosinophilic NPs comprised 66.7% of the total NPs included in this study. The amount of eosinophils in NPs was related to eosinophilia of the peripheral blood, but not to elevated serum IgE. BM was significantly thinner in non-eosinophilic than in eosinophilic NPs. Lymphocytes expressing CCR5 or CCR3 were less frequently found in non-eosinophilic than in eosinophilic NPs. Histoimmunological characteristics of non-eosinophilic NPs differ from those of eosinophilic NPs; non-eosinophilic NPs may be featured by thinner BM and fewer CCR5- and CCR3-positive lymphocytes.

  13. CT and MR imaging findings of sinonasal angiomatous polyps.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jing; Man, Fengyuan; Deng, Kai; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Hao, Dapeng; Xu, Wenjian

    2014-03-01

    To characterize the CT and MR imaging findings of patients with sinonasal angiomatous polyps (SAPs) and evaluate their respective clinical value in the diagnosis of SAP. CT and MR imaging findings of 15 patients with pathologically proven SAP were examined. Assessed image features included location, size, margin, attenuation, and change of the bony walls of the sinonasal cavity on CT, and signal intensity and enhancement pattern on MR. On CT, the SAP was mostly isoattenuated with patches of slight hyperattenuation. Most lesions caused changes in the adjacent bone, including expansile remodeling (n=8), defect or destruction (n=7), and hyperostosis (n=6). All lesions examined by MR showed heterogeneous isointense signal intensity on T1-weighted images and mixed obvious hyperintense and hypointense signal intensity with linear hypointense septum internally (n=10), and hypointense peripheral rim on T2-weighted images (n=10). Postcontrast MR images demonstrated areas of heterogeneous and marked enhancement with an unenhanced hypointense rim and septa (n=7). CT and MR imaging have respective advantages in the diagnosis of SAP. Combined application of CT and MR examinations is necessary for patients with suspected SAP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Types and Patterns of Colonic Polyps Encountered at a Tertiary Care Center in a Developing Country in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Wickramasinghe, Dakshitha Praneeth; Samaranayaka, Sanjeev F.; Lakmal, Chamila; Mathotaarachchi, Sashi; Kanishka Lal, Chula; Keppetiyagama, Chathuranga; Samarasekera, Dharmabandhu Nandadeva

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To identify the prevalence, types, and patterns of colonic polyps in a cohort of patients presenting to a tertiary care referral center in Sri Lanka. Methods. Endoscopy and pathology reports of a single unit from 2006 to 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Spearman's correlation coefficient and chi-square test were used to identify correlations. Results. There were a total of 158 patients (M : F, 10 : 57) who had polyps encountered on colonoscopy (n = 1408) and flexible sigmoidoscopy (n = 2402) with an incidence of 4.1%. Mean age was 56.5 years (SD 16.4) and the incidence of polyps increased with age. The majority (81.6%) had one polyp. A total of 188 polyps were assessed and most were seen in the rectum (33.5%) followed by sigmoid colon (22.9%). The commonest histological type was tubulovillous adenoma (33.5%) followed by tubular adenoma (24.5%). Most polyps were benign (91.5%). There was no statistically significant correlation with age or gender with malignancy, site, or histology. Discussion and Conclusion. The incidence of colorectal polyps was lower than the values reported in the west. More polyps were identified in males. There was no statistically significant association between age, gender, or multiplicity and malignant change in the polyps. PMID:25763316

  15. PPAR Ligand MCC-555 Suppresses Intestinal Polyps in APCMin+ Mice via ERK and PPAR Dependent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi; Cekanova, Maria; McEntee, Michael F.; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Fischer, Susan M.; Renes, Ingrid B.; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Baek, Seung Joon

    2008-01-01

    A large body of studies has suggested that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) ligands, such as thiazolidinedione, are potent candidates for chemopreventive agents. MCC-555 is a PPARγ/α dual agonist and has been previously shown to induce apoptosis in vitro; however, the molecular mechanisms by which MCC-555 affects anti-tumorigenesis in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, we explored the anti-tumorigenic effects of MCC-555 both in cell culture and in Apc-deficient mice, an animal model for human familial adenomatous polyposis. MCC-555 increased MUC2 expression in colorectal and lung cancer cells, and treatment with the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 revealed that MUC2 induction by MCC-555 was mediated in a PPARγ-dependent manner. Moreover, MCC-555 increased transcriptional activity of human and mouse MUC2 promoters. Subsequently, treatment with MCC-555 (30 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks reduced the number of small intestinal polyps to 54.8% of that in control mice. In agreement with in vitro studies, enhanced Muc2 expression was observed in the small intestinal tumors of Min mice treated with MCC-555, suggesting that MUC2 expression may be associated at least in part with the anti-tumorigenic action of MCC-555. In addition, highly phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was found in the intestinal tumors of MCC-555-treated Min mice, and inhibition of the ERK pathway by a specific inhibitor markedly suppressed MCC-555-induced Muc2 expression in vitro. Overall, these results indicate that MCC-555 has a potent tumor suppressor activity in intestinal tumorigenesis, likely involving MUC2 up-regulation by ERK and PPARγ pathways. PMID:18790758

  16. Clinical outcomes of gastric polyps and neoplasms in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Keiko; Nonaka, Satoru; Nakajima, Takeshi; Yachida, Tatsuo; Abe, Seiichiro; Sakamoto, Taku; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Oda, Ichiro; Matsuda, Takahisa; Sekine, Shigeki; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Katai, Hitoshi; Saito, Yutaka; Hirota, Seiichi

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant syndrome caused by a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, characterized by the presence of more than 100 adenomatous polyps in the colorectum. The upper gastrointestinal tract is an extracolonic site for malignancy in patients with FAP. The frequency of death in Japanese patients with FAP because of gastric cancer is 2.8 % and that because of colon cancer is 60.6 %. Few studies have reported upper gastrointestinal diseases in patients with FAP. In the present study, we investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with FAP diagnosed with gastric neoplasms. Patients and methods We enrolled 80 patients with FAP who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy from October 1997 to December 2011. We investigated patient characteristics, endoscopic findings of gastric lesions, treatment outcomes, and long-term courses. Results Fundic gland polyposis was observed in 51 patients (64 %) and gastric neoplasms in 22 patients (28 %), including 20 with non-invasive and 2 with invasive neoplasm. Of the 26 neoplasms, 11 were treated by endoscopic resection (ER) and 4 by surgical resection. Metachronous gastric neoplasms were observed in 7 patients (15 lesions) and treated by ER, except for in 1 patient. No patients died of gastric lesions during a median follow-up period of 6.5 years (range, 0 – 14). Conclusion Because gastric lesions including gastric cancers in patients with FAP did not cause any deaths, they can be considered to have favorable prognoses. Early detection of gastric neoplasms through an appropriate follow-up interval may have contributed to these good outcomes. PMID:28271094

  17. Clinical outcomes of gastric polyps and neoplasms in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Keiko; Nonaka, Satoru; Nakajima, Takeshi; Yachida, Tatsuo; Abe, Seiichiro; Sakamoto, Taku; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Oda, Ichiro; Matsuda, Takahisa; Sekine, Shigeki; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Katai, Hitoshi; Saito, Yutaka; Hirota, Seiichi

    2017-03-01

    Background and study aims Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant syndrome caused by a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, characterized by the presence of more than 100 adenomatous polyps in the colorectum. The upper gastrointestinal tract is an extracolonic site for malignancy in patients with FAP. The frequency of death in Japanese patients with FAP because of gastric cancer is 2.8 % and that because of colon cancer is 60.6 %. Few studies have reported upper gastrointestinal diseases in patients with FAP. In the present study, we investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with FAP diagnosed with gastric neoplasms. Patients and methods We enrolled 80 patients with FAP who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy from October 1997 to December 2011. We investigated patient characteristics, endoscopic findings of gastric lesions, treatment outcomes, and long-term courses. Results Fundic gland polyposis was observed in 51 patients (64 %) and gastric neoplasms in 22 patients (28 %), including 20 with non-invasive and 2 with invasive neoplasm. Of the 26 neoplasms, 11 were treated by endoscopic resection (ER) and 4 by surgical resection. Metachronous gastric neoplasms were observed in 7 patients (15 lesions) and treated by ER, except for in 1 patient. No patients died of gastric lesions during a median follow-up period of 6.5 years (range, 0 - 14). Conclusion Because gastric lesions including gastric cancers in patients with FAP did not cause any deaths, they can be considered to have favorable prognoses. Early detection of gastric neoplasms through an appropriate follow-up interval may have contributed to these good outcomes.

  18. Outcome of EMR as an alternative to surgery in patients with complex colon polyps.

    PubMed

    Raju, Gottumukkala S; Lum, Phillip J; Ross, William A; Thirumurthi, Selvi; Miller, Ethan; Lynch, Patrick M; Lee, Jeffrey H; Bhutani, Manoop S; Shafi, Mehnaz A; Weston, Brian R; Pande, Mala; Bresalier, Robert S; Rashid, Asif; Mishra, Lopa; Davila, Marta L; Stroehlein, John R

    2016-08-01

    Patients with complex colon polyps were traditionally referred for surgery to avoid adverse events associated with endoscopic resection. Recent advances in endoscopic imaging as well as endoscopic hemostasis and clip closure allow for the use of EMR as an alternative to surgery for such lesions. To determine the outcome of treatment of complex colon polyps with EMR as an alternative to surgery, we conducted a retrospective observational study. Two hundred three patients with complex colon polyps were referred to an EMR center as an alternative to surgery. Patients underwent a protocol-driven EMR. The primary endpoint was the complete resection rate. Secondary endpoints were safety, residual adenoma rate, and incidence of missed synchronous polyps. EMR was performed in 155 patients and was deferred in 48 patients who were referred to surgery. EMR specimens revealed benign polyps in 149 and cancer in 6 patients. EMR adverse events occurred in 7 patients, requiring hospitalization in 5 of them. None of the patients died as a result of their adverse events. Surveillance colonoscopy at 4 to 6 months after resection of a benign lesion in 137 patients revealed residual adenoma at the scar site in 6 patients and additional synchronous precancerous lesions in 117 patients that were not removed by the referring endoscopist. None underwent surgery for failure of EMR. The overall precancerous lesion burden was 2.83 per patient, the adenoma burden was 2.13 per patient, and the serrated polyp burden was .69 per patient. EMR can be used instead of surgery for complex colon polyps in 75% of patients with few adverse events and few residual adenomas at resection sites. In addition, careful repeat examination of the entire colon for synchronous lesions overlooked by the referring endoscopist is required for most patients. ( NCT01827241.). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Low plasma selenium concentration is associated with elevated risk to neoplastic polyps of the colon

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L.C.; Hixson, L.G.; Sampliner, R.E. ); Combs, G.F. Jr. )

    1991-03-11

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the relationship of selenium (Se) status and polyps incidence in a sequential series of 100 patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopies at the Tucson VA Hospital. Se was measured in plasma samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry with Zeeman background correction using a reduced palladium matrix modified. The activities of the Se-dependent enzyme glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) were measured using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as substrate in all plasma samples and in colonic mucosal biopsies obtained from some patients. The mean plasma Se concentration of patients without polyps was 134 ng/ml. Mean plasma Se levels of patients with only diminutive or large polyps were 127 ng/ml and 125 ng/ml; while patients with polyps of both sizes had a mean plasma Se level of 121 ng/ml. Patients with no reported history of cancer, neoplastic polyps or prior colonoscopy, showed an inverse association of plasma Se level and risk of benign colonic neoplasms. The age-adjusted odds ratio for neoplastic polyps was 3.8 for patients with plasma Se levels below vs. above the median value. This association was stronger for patients under 68 yrs of age than for older patients. Activities of SeGSHpx in plasma or colonic mucosa were not related to plasma Se level; however, smokers showed greater SeGSHpx activities than non-smokers. This study is the first to detect an association of Se status and risk to neoplastic polyps of the colon.

  20. Increased phosphorylation of STAT5b, but not STAT5a, in nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Linke, Robert; Pries, Ralph; Könnecke, Michael; Bruchhage, Karl-Ludwig; Böscke, Robert; Gebhard, Maximilian; Wollenberg, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a recurrent, benign, extensively proliferating disease that is triggered by inflammation. The signaling pathways in sinusitis and the regulation by intracellular signaling peptides and proteins are not fully understood. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5a and STAT5b are two closely related phosphokinases involved in the regulation of diverse cellular functions, including proliferation and apoptosis. The objective of the study was to investigate the expression, activation, and distribution of STAT5 Transcription factor in CRSwNP. We studied these transcription factors in tissue samples of nasal polyps and inferior turbinates from a total of 35 patients with CRSwNP and compared them with healthy nasal mucosa. The samples were analyzed by using a DNA microarray, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, a protein array, immunoblot, immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry. We found equivalent overall expression of STAT5a in all tissue types. We observed an increase in the expression of STAT5b protein in both polyps and turbinates of patients with CRSwNP. In addition, STAT5b, but not STAT5a, was activated by phosphorylation in nasal polyps. Phosphorylated STAT5a/b was not detectable in the epithelium of turbinates from either patients with CRSwNP or patients with healthy mucosa, but it was clearly expressed in the epithelium of nasal polyps. Analysis of these data indicates distinct expression and activation of STAT5a and STAT5b in nasal polyps, particularly the activation of STAT5b. It is possible that STAT5b may contribute to the development of nasal polyps.

  1. Elevated expression of CC Chemokine ligand 23 in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Poposki, Julie A.; Uzzaman, Ashraf; Nagarkar, Deepti R.; Chustz, Regina T.; Peters, Anju T.; Suh, Lydia A.; Carter, Roderick; Norton, James; Harris, Kathleen E.; Grammer, Leslie C.; Tan, Bruce K.; Chandra, Rakesh K.; Conley, David B.; Kern, Robert C.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Kato, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous chronic disease characterized by local inflammation of the sinonasal tissues. The pathogenesis of CRS remains controversial but it has been associated with the accumulation of various immune and inflammatory cells in sinus tissue. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of chemokine CCL23, known to bind to CCR1 and recruit monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, in patients with CRS. Methods We collected nasal tissue from patients with CRS and control subjects. We assayed mRNA for CCL23 by using real-time PCR and measured CCL23 protein by ELISA, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Results CCL23 mRNA was significantly elevated in nasal polyps from patients with polypoid CRS (CRSwNP) (p<0.05) compared to inferior turbinate and uncinate tissue from patients with CRS or control subjects. CCL23 protein was also elevated in nasal polyps, although these levels were not statistically significant. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed CCL23 expression in mucosal epithelial cells and inflammatory cells, but accumulation of CCL23 positive inflammatory cells occurred only in nasal polyps. Immunofluorescence data showed CCL23 co-localization with ECP positive eosinophils. The concentration of CCL23 in nasal polyps positively correlated with the concentration of ECP, suggesting that eosinophils are major CCL23 producing cells in nasal polyps. Finally, we found that CCL23 protein was significantly elevated in nasal polyps from patients with CRSwNP with aspirin sensitivity. Conclusion Overproduction of CCL23 in nasal polyps may contribute to the pathogenesis of eosinophilic CRSwNP via the recruitment of CCR1 positive inflammatory cells including monocytes and macrophages, and the amplification of local inflammation. PMID:21497884

  2. Endoscopic sinus surgery in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (PolypESS): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lourijsen, Evelijn S; de Borgie, Corianne A J M; Vleming, Marleen; Fokkens, Wytske J

    2017-01-23

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is a chronic disease frequently seen in otorhinolaryngological practice. Along with its chronic disease burden it creates high societal costs. Therapy consists of long-term use of medication and, if insufficient, endoscopic sinus surgery. No consensus exists on the right timing and extent of disease that warrants surgery. Furthermore, there is lack of clinical knowledge about the benefit of surgery over medication only. The current trial evaluates the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endoscopic sinus surgery in addition to drug treatment versus medication exclusively in the adult patient group with nasal polyps. A prospective, multicentre, superiority, randomised controlled (PolypESS) trial in 238 patients aged 18 years or older selected for primary or revision endoscopic sinus surgery by the otorhinolaryngologist was designed. Patients will be randomised to either endoscopic sinus surgery in addition to medication or medical therapy only. Relevant data will be collected prior to randomisation, at baseline and 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after start of treatment. Complete follow-up will be 24 months. Primary outcome is disease-specific Health-related Quality of Life quantified by the SNOT-22 after 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes are generic Health-related Quality of Life, cost-effectiveness, objective signs of disease and adverse effects of treatment. Subgroup analyses will be performed to verify whether treatment effects differ among patient phenotypes. The PolypESS trial will investigate tailored care in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and will result in improved clinical pathways to help to determine in which circumstances to perform surgery. Dutch Trial Register, NTR4978 . Registered on 27 November 2014.

  3. Roles of sonography and hysteroscopy in the detection of premalignant and malignant polyps in women presenting with postmenopausal bleeding and thickened endometrium.

    PubMed

    Cavkaytar, Sabri; Kokanali, Mahmut Kuntay; Ceran, Ufuk; Topcu, Hasan Onur; Sirvan, Levent; Doganay, Melike

    2014-01-01

    To assess the role of sonographic endometrial thickness and hysteroscopic polyp size in predicting premalignant and malignant polyps in postmenopausal women. A total of 328 postmenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding and thickened endometrium underwent operative hysteroscopy due to detection of endometrial polyps were included in this retrospective study. Preoperative endometrial thickness measured by transvaginal ultrasonography and polyp size on hysteroscopy were noted. Hysteroscopic resection with histology was performed for endometrial polyps. Endometrial thickness and polyp size were evaluated on the basis of final diagnosis established by histologic examination. Receiver operator characteristic curves were calculated to assess the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of endometrial thickness and polyp size for detecting premalignant and malignant polyps. Premalignant and malignant polyps were identified in 26 (7.9%) of cases. Sonographic measurement showed a greater endometrial thickness in cases of premalignant and malignant polyps when compared to benign polyps. On surgical hysteroscopy, premalignant and malignant polyps were also larger. Endometrial thickness demonstrated a sensitivity of 53.8%, specificity of 85.8%, PPV of 24.6% and NPV of 95.6% at a cut-off limit of 11.5 mm with diagnostic accuracy of 83.2%. Polyp size has a diagnostic accuracy of 94.8% with a sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity of 95.0%, PPV of 61.5% and NPV of 99.3% at a cut-off point of 19.5mm. Endometrial thickness measured by transvaginal ultrasonography is not sufficient in predicting premalignant and malignant endometrial polyps in postmenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding and thickened endometrium. Polyp size on hysteroscopy is a more accurate parameter, because of better sensitivity and specificity. However, while polyp size ≥ 19.5mm seems to have a great accuracy for predicting premalignancy and

  4. Heuristic Classifier for Observe Accuracy of Cancer Polyp Using Video Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed

    K, Geetha; C, Rajan

    2017-06-25

    Methods: Colonoscopy is a technique for examine colon cancer, polyps. In endoscopy, video capsule is universally used mechanism for finding gastrointestinal stages. But both the mechanisms are used to find the colon cancer or colorectal polyp. The Automatic Polyp Detection sub-challenge conducted as part of the Endoscopic Vision Challenge (http://endovis.grand-challenge.org). Method: Colonoscopy may be primary way of improve the ability of colon cancer detection especially flat lesions. Which otherwise may be difficult to detect. Recently, automatic polyp detection algorithms have been proposed with various degrees of success. Though polyp detection in colonoscopy and other traditional endoscopy procedure based images is becoming a mature field, due to its unique imaging characteristics, detecting polyps automatically in colonoscopy is a hard problem. So the proposed video capsule cam supports to diagnose the polyps accurate and easy to identify its pattern. Existing methodology mainly concentrated on high accuracy and less time consumption and it uses many different types of data mining techniques. To analyse these high resolution video scale image we have to take segmentation of image in pixel level binary pattern with the help of a mid-pass filter and relative gray level of neighbours. This work consists of three major steps to improve the accuracy of video capsule endoscopy such as missing data imputation, high dimensionality reduction or feature selection and classification. The above steps are performed using a dataset called endoscopy polyp disease dataset with 500 patients. Our binary classification algorithm relieves human analyses using the video frames. SVM has given major contribution to process the dataset. Results: In this paper the key aspect of proposed results provide segmentation, binary pattern approach with Genetic Fuzzy based Improved Kernel Support Vector machine (GF-IKSVM) classifier. The segmented images all are mostly round shape. The

  5. Cellular comparison of sinus mucosa vs polyp tissue from a single sinus cavity in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jacqueline; Bailey, Michelle; Zaunders, John; Mrad, Nadine; Sacks, Raymond; Sewell, William; Harvey, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Nasal polyposis is a common development in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and sinus mucosa and polyp tissue have been used interchangeably in studies investigating CRS. However, potential differences may exist between these 2 tissue types, which have not been entirely characterized. A cross-sectional study of CRS with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery was conducted. Sinus mucosal biopsies and corresponding polyp tissue were obtained from the same sinus cavity via flow cytometry, single-cell suspensions identified type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), CD4 and CD8 T cells, activated CD4 and CD8 T cells, plasma cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), regulatory T cells, T follicular helper cells, B cells, and immunoglobulin A (IgA)(+) and IgG(+) B cells. Cells were measured as a percentage of CD45(+) cells. Paired nonparametric comparisons between sinus and polyp tissue were performed. Ten patients (50% female; age 48 ± 16 years) were recruited. Significantly elevated ILC2 levels were found in polyp tissue compared to sinus mucosa (0.12 [0.07 to 0.23] vs 0.07 [0.04 to 0.16], p = 0.02), as well as plasma cells (2.25 [0.84 to 3.68] vs 1.18 [0.74 to 2.41], p = 0.01); pDCs (0.15 [0.12 to 0.50[ vs 0.04 [0.02 to 0.17], p = 0.03); activated CD8 T cells (29.22 [17.60 to 41.43] vs 16.32 [10.07 to 36.16], p = 0.04) and IgG(+) B cells (6.96 [0.06 to 11.82] vs 1.51 [0.38 to 5.13], p = 0.04). Other cell populations showed no significant differences. Polyps have a similar cellular composition to that of mucosa. Higher levels of ILC2s, plasma cells, pDCs, activated CD8 T cells, and IgG(+) B cells in polyp tissue may be reflective of cell populations driving nasal polyp development. The cellular machinery of CRS is present in polyps and representative of the disease process. This pilot study strongly suggests that a larger study would provide significant insights into the relationship of sinus mucosa to pathogenesis of nasal polyps. © 2014 ARS

  6. Carcinoma in situ in a 7 mm gallbladder polyp: Time to change current practice?

    PubMed

    Kasle, David; Rahnemai-Azar, Amir A; Bibi, Shahida; Gaduputi, Vinaya; Gilchrist, Brian F; Farkas, Daniel T

    2015-07-25

    Detection of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder is increasing in conjunction with better imaging modalities. Accepted management of these lesions depends on their size and symptomatology. Polyps that are symptomatic and/or greater than 10 mm are generally removed, while smaller, asymptomatic polyps simply monitored. Here, a case of carcinoma-in-situ is presented in a 7 mm gallbladder polyp. A 25-year-old woman, who had undergone a routine cholecystectomy, was found to have an incidental 7 mm polyp containing carcinoma in situ. She had few to no risk factors to alert to her condition. There are few reported cases of cancer transformation in gallbladder polyps smaller than 10 mm reported in the literature. The overwhelming consensus, barring significant risk factors for cancer being present, is that such lesions should be monitored until they become symptomatic or develop signs suspicious for malignancy. In our patient's case this could have led to the possibility of missing a neoplastic lesion, which could then have gone on to develop invasive cancer. As gallbladder carcinoma is an aggressive cancer, this may have led to a tragic outcome.

  7. Exploring Metabolic Profile Differences between Colorectal Polyp Patients and Controls Using Seemingly Unrelated Regression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Deng, Lingli; Wei, Siwei; Nagana Gowda, G A; Gu, Haiwei; Chiorean, Elena G; Abu Zaid, Mohammad; Harrison, Marietta L; Pekny, Joseph F; Loehrer, Patrick J; Zhang, Dabao; Zhang, Min; Raftery, Daniel

    2015-06-05

    Despite the fact that colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent and deadly cancers in the world, the development of improved and robust biomarkers to enable screening, surveillance, and therapy monitoring of CRC continues to be evasive. In particular, patients with colon polyps are at higher risk of developing colon cancer; however, noninvasive methods to identify these patients suffer from poor performance. In consideration of the challenges involved in identifying metabolite biomarkers in individuals with high risk for colon cancer, we have investigated NMR-based metabolite profiling in combination with numerous demographic parameters to investigate the ability of serum metabolites to differentiate polyp patients from healthy subjects. We also investigated the effect of disease risk on different groups of biologically related metabolites. A powerful statistical approach, seemingly unrelated regression (SUR), was used to model the correlated levels of metabolites in the same biological group. The metabolites were found to be significantly affected by demographic covariates such as gender, BMI, BMI(2), and smoking status. After accounting for the effects of the confounding factors, we then investigated potential of metabolites from serum to differentiate patients with polyps and age matched healthy controls. Our results showed that while only valine was slightly associated, individually, with polyp patients, a number of biologically related groups of metabolites were significantly associated with polyps. These results may explain some of the challenges and promise a novel avenue for future metabolite profiling methodologies.

  8. Antioxidant enzymes in women with endometrial polyps: relation with sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Pejić, Snežana A; Kasapović, Jelena D; Todorović, Ana U; Stojiljković, Vesna R; Gavrilović, Ljubica V; Popović, Nataša M; Pajović, Snežana B

    2013-09-01

    To investigate whether antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) and lipid hydroperoxide levels in patients with endometrial polyps are influenced by the changes in sex hormones (estradiol, progesterone, FSH, and LH) during the menstrual cycle and in postmenopause. The material consisted of blood and endometrial tissue specimens from women diagnosed with endometrial polyps. Patients were divided into groups depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle--follicular or luteal--and the postmenopause. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and the lipid hydroperoxide levels were compared among the phases and a linear regression model was used to evaluate the associations between hormones and antioxidant/oxidant variables. In the blood of examined women, a significant difference in superoxide dismutase activity and lipid hydroperoxide levels was recorded among the phases. There was also a positive correlation between the estradiol concentration and superoxide dismutase. In polyp tissue, we recorded a phase-related difference in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as in the lipid hydroperoxide levels. A negative correlation was observed between FSH/LH and glutathione peroxidase, and between LH and superoxide dismutase. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid hydroperoxide levels in patients with endometrial polyps are influenced by the changes in sex hormones during the menstrual cycle and after the menopause, pointing to a role of the observed relationship in polyp etiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrating Online and Offline 3D Deep Learning for Automated Polyp Detection in Colonoscopy Videos.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lequan; Chen, Hao; Dou, Qi; Qin, Jing; Heng, Pheng Ann

    2016-12-07

    Automated polyp detection in colonoscopy videos has been demonstrated to be a promising way for colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention and diagnosis. Traditional manual screening is time-consuming, operator-dependent and error-prone; hence, automated detection approach is highly demanded in clinical practice. However, automated polyp detection is very challenging due to high intra-class variations in polyp size, color, shape and texture and low inter-class variations between polyps and hard mimics. In this paper, we propose a novel offline and online 3D deep learning integration framework by leveraging the 3D fully convolutional network (3D-FCN) to tackle this challenging problem. Compared with previous methods employing hand-crafted features or 2D-CNNs, the 3D-FCN is capable of learning more representative spatio-temporal features from colonoscopy videos, and hence has more powerful discrimination capability. More importantly, we propose a novel online learning scheme to deal with the problem of limited training data by harnessing the specific information of an input video in the learning process. We integrate offline and online learning to effectively reduce the number of false positives generated by the offline network and further improve the detection performance. Extensive experiments on the dataset of MICCAI 2015 Challenge on Polyp Detection demonstrated the better performance of our method when compared with other competitors.

  10. Lymphocytopenia, T-lymphocyte subsets, and colorectal polyps in automotive pattern and model makers.

    PubMed

    Robins, T G; Weinstein, R J; Demers, R Y

    1991-04-01

    Several studies have found pattern and model makers to be at increased risk for colorectal polyps and colorectal cancers. One study found an increased prevalence of lymphocytopenia. The association of total lymphocyte, CD4 (T-helper cell), CD8 (T-suppressor cell), CD2 (total T-cell), and CD16 (natural killer cell) counts with biopsy-proved colorectal polyp status was investigated in 70 patternmakers participating in one or more of four sequential screenings. In logistic regression analyses after adjusting for age or trade years, pack-years smoked, and material worked with most, a history of any type of polyp was significantly associated with total lymphocyte count (odds ratio of 2.01 for a 500 cell/cc decrease, P = 0.03), and somewhat associated with decreased CD4 and CD2 counts (P values of 0.06 and 0.07, respectively). In linear regression models adjusted for age, pattern and model makers had (regardless of polyp status) significantly lower CD4, CD8, CD2, and CD16 counts than did laboratory reference controls (P value less than 0.01 for each comparison). These findings appear consistent with a sequence of carcinogenesis initiated by pattern and model makers' work-place exposures that depress immune surveillance thus promoting the development of colorectal polyps as a precursor of carcinoma.

  11. Investigating the Three-dimensional Flow Separation Induced by a Model Vocal Fold Polyp

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Kelley C.; Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    The fluid-structure energy exchange process for normal speech has been studied extensively, but it is not well understood for pathological conditions. Polyps and nodules, which are geometric abnormalities that form on the medial surface of the vocal folds, can disrupt vocal fold dynamics and thus can have devastating consequences on a patient's ability to communicate. Our laboratory has reported particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements, within an investigation of a model polyp located on the medial surface of an in vitro driven vocal fold model, which show that such a geometric abnormality considerably disrupts the glottal jet behavior. This flow field adjustment is a likely reason for the severe degradation of the vocal quality in patients with polyps. A more complete understanding of the formation and propagation of vortical structures from a geometric protuberance, such as a vocal fold polyp, and the resulting influence on the aerodynamic loadings that drive the vocal fold dynamics, is necessary for advancing the treatment of this pathological condition. The present investigation concerns the three-dimensional flow separation induced by a wall-mounted prolate hemispheroid with a 2:1 aspect ratio in cross flow, i.e. a model vocal fold polyp, using an oil-film visualization technique. Unsteady, three-dimensional flow separation and its impact of the wall pressure loading are examined using skin friction line visualization and wall pressure measurements. PMID:24513707

  12. DNA methylation patterns in blood of patients with colorectal cancer and adenomatous colorectal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Cassinotti, Elisa; Melson, Joshua; Liggett, Thomas; Melnikov, Anatoliy; Yi, Qilong; Replogle, Charles; Mobarhan, Sohrab; Boni, Luigi; Segato, Sergio; Levenson, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are currently suboptimal. Blood-based screening could improve rates of earlier detection for CRC and adenomatous colorectal polyps. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of plasma-based detection of early CRC and adenomatous polyps using array-mediated analysis methylation profiling of 56 genes implicated in carcinogenesis. Methylation of 56 genes in patients with stage I and II CRC (N=30) and those with adenomatous polyps (N=30) were compared to individuals who underwent colonoscopy and were found to have neither adenomatous changes nor CRC. Composite biomarkers were developed for adenomatous polyps and CRC, and their sensitivity and specificity was estimated using five-fold cross validation. Six promoters (CYCD2, HIC1, PAX 5, RASSF1A, RB1, and SRBC) were selected for the biomarker, which differentiated CRC patients and controls with 84% sensitivity and 68% specificity. Three promoters (HIC1, MDG1, and RASSF1A) were selected for the biomarker, which differentiated patients with adenomatous polyps and controls with sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 65%. Methylation profiling of plasma DNA can detect early CRC with significant accuracy and shows promise as a methodology to develop biomarkers for CRC screening. PMID:22020530

  13. DNA methylation patterns in blood of patients with colorectal cancer and adenomatous colorectal polyps.

    PubMed

    Cassinotti, Elisa; Melson, Joshua; Liggett, Thomas; Melnikov, Anatoliy; Yi, Qilong; Replogle, Charles; Mobarhan, Sohrab; Boni, Luigi; Segato, Sergio; Levenson, Victor

    2012-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are currently suboptimal. Blood-based screening could improve rates of earlier detection for CRC and adenomatous colorectal polyps. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of plasma-based detection of early CRC and adenomatous polyps using array-mediated analysis methylation profiling of 56 genes implicated in carcinogenesis. Methylation of 56 genes in patients with Stages I and II CRC (N=30) and those with adenomatous polyps (N=30) were compared with individuals who underwent colonoscopy and were found to have neither adenomatous changes nor CRC. Composite biomarkers were developed for adenomatous polyps and CRC, and their sensitivity and specificity was estimated using five-fold cross validation. Six promoters (CYCD2, HIC1, PAX 5, RASSF1A, RB1 and SRBC) were selected for the biomarker, which differentiated CRC patients and controls with 84% sensitivity and 68% specificity. Three promoters (HIC1, MDG1 and RASSF1A) were selected for the biomarker, which differentiated patients with adenomatous polyps and controls with sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 65%. Methylation profiling of plasma DNA can detect early CRC with significant accuracy and shows promise as a methodology to develop biomarkers for CRC screening. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  14. Long-Term Outcome and Surveillance Colonoscopy after Successful Endoscopic Treatment of Large Sessile Colorectal Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bun; Choi, A Ra; Park, Soo Jung; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although there is a consensus about the need for surveillance colonoscopy after endoscopic resection, the interval remains controversial for large sessile colorectal polyps. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome and the adequate surveillance colonoscopy interval required for sessile and flat colorectal polyps larger than 20 mm. Materials and Methods A total of 204 patients with large sessile and flat polyps who received endoscopic treatment from May 2005 to November 2011 in a tertiary referral center were included. Results The mean age was 65.1 years and 62.7% of the patients were male. The mean follow-up duration was 44.2 months and the median tumor size was 25 mm. One hundred and ten patients (53.9%) received a short interval surveillance colonoscopy (median interval of 6.3 months with range of 1-11 months) and 94 patients (46.1%) received a long interval surveillance colonoscopy (median interval of 13.6 months with range of 12-66 months). There were 14 patients (6.9%) who had local recurrence at the surveillance colonoscopy. Using multivariate regression analysis, a polyp size greater than 40 mm was shown to be independent risk factor for local recurrence. However, piecemeal resection and surveillance colonoscopy interval did not significantly influence local recurrence. Conclusion Endoscopic treatment of large sessile colorectal polyps shows a favorable long-term outcome. Further prospective study is mandatory to define an adequate interval of surveillance colonoscopy. PMID:27401640

  15. Effects of surgery on the phonation threshold pressure in patients with vocal fold polyps.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tyng-Guey; Shau, Yio-Wha; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu

    2010-01-01

    There are few objective measurements to assess the results of surgery for vocal fold polyps. This study investigated the effects of surgery on the phonation threshold pressure (PTP) in patients with vocal fold polyps. Prospectively, 32 consecutive patients with vocal fold polyps were enrolled. PTP was measured 1 day before and 6 weeks after laryngomicrosurgery, by means of an airflow interruption method. An accelerometer was used to detect the vocal fold vibration instead of using an acoustic signal. In all 32 patients, the average preoperative PTP was 0.51 +/- 0.23 kPa, and 6 weeks after surgery, it was 0.28 +/- 0.17 kPa; this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Individually, PTP decreased in 31 patients after surgery. PTP increased after surgery in only one patient, from 0.74 to 0.75 kPa. Subjectively, all patients could phonate with less effort after surgery. Use of an accelerometer to sense vocal fold vibration was feasible and made it easier to identify the time point of cessation of vocal fold vibration, which is important for PTP measurement. Laryngomicrosurgery can lower PTP in patients with vocal fold polyps and improve the ease of phonation. PTP is one of the objective measurements for assessing the effects of surgery in patients with vocal fold polyps. Use of an accelerometer to detect vocal fold vibration improved the measurement of PTP.

  16. Comparison of vocal outcomes after angiolytic laser surgery and microflap surgery for vocal polyps.

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Masanobu; Hiwatashi, Nao; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Kaneko, Mami; Tateya, Ichiro; Hirano, Shigeru

    2015-12-01

    The microflap technique is a standard procedure for the treatment of vocal fold polyps. Angiolytic laser surgery carried out under topical anesthesia is an alternative method for vocal polyp removal. However, it is not clear whether angiolytic laser surgery has the same effects on vocal outcomes as the microflap technique because of a lack of studies comparing both procedures. In the current study, vocal outcomes after both procedures were compared to clarify the effects of angiolytic laser surgery for vocal polyp removal. Vocal outcomes were reviewed for patients who underwent angiolytic laser surgery (n=20, laser group) or microflap surgery (n=34, microflap group) for vocal polyp removal. The data analyzed included patient and lesion characteristics, number of surgeries required for complete resolution, and aerodynamic and acoustic examinations before and after surgery. In the laser surgery group, complete resolution of the lesion was achieved with a single procedure in 17 cases (85%) and with two procedures in 3 cases (15%). Postoperative aerodynamic and acoustic parameters demonstrated significant improvement compared to preoperative parameters in both the laser surgery group and the microflap surgery group. There were no significant differences in any postoperative aerodynamic and acoustic parameters between the two groups. The current retrospective study demonstrated that angiolytic laser surgery achieved complete resolution of vocal polyps within two procedures. Postoperative effects on aerodynamic and acoustic functions were similar to those after microflap surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of Angiotensin-Modulating Antihypertensives on Time Interval to Revision Surgery for Nasal Polyps.

    PubMed

    Brook, Christopher D; Maxfield, Alice Z; Stankovic, Konstantina; Metson, Ralph B

    2016-12-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to suppress expression of periostin, a matricellular protein that is markedly elevated in nasal polyp tissue. The purpose of this study was to determine whether use of these antihypertensive agents affects the time to revision sinus surgery in patients with polyp regrowth. Case series with chart review. Academic medical center. Records were reviewed for 330 patients who underwent ≥2 operations for chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps from April 1987 through August 2015. The time between surgical interventions was compared with patient demographics and clinical characteristics, including use of ACEIs and ARBs. Sixty patients were taking ACEIs or ARBs during the study period, of which 32 had concurrent asthma. The mean interval between polyp operations was 61.0 ± 45.2 months (range, 2-228.6 months). Among patients with asthma (n = 197), the mean time to revision surgery was prolonged by >2 years for those taking ACEIs or ARBs (81.0 vs 54.5 months, P = .006). A similar impact on time to revision surgery was not observed for nonasthmatics taking these medications (61.0 vs 65.2 months, P = .655). Use of ACEIs and ARBs is associated with an increased time to revision sinus surgery among patients with concurrent nasal polyps and asthma. A possible mechanism of this observed effect is suppression of periostin expression through inhibition of the angiotensin pathway. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  18. Quantitative Diagnosis of Colorectal Polyps by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Zhang, Qinqin; Wu, Xiaojing; Tang, Tao; Liu, Hong; Zhu, S. W.; Gao, Bruce Z.; Yuan, X.-C.

    2014-01-01

    The principal aim of this study is to investigate the scattering coefficient of colorectal polyp tissues using an optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique. It combines the existing scattering coefficient model and spectral domain OCT to achieve method of early diagnosis of colorectal polyp in hospitals. Seventeen patients were studied, and a total of 1456 data points were extracted by curve-fitting the OCT signals into a confocal single-backscattering model. The results show that the mean scattering coefficient value for colorectal polyps is 1.91 mm−1 (std: ±0.54 mm−1), which is between the values for normal and malignant tissues. In addition, we studied the difference between adenomatous polyps (n = 15) and inflammatory polyps (n = 2) quantitatively and found that the adenomatous tissues had lower scattering coefficients than the inflammatory ones. The quantitative measurements confirmed that OCT can be used in primary diagnosis to compensate for the deficiencies in methods of pathological diagnosis, with a great potential for early diagnosis of tissues. PMID:24818145

  19. Computer-aided detection of polyps in CT colonography based on geometric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Masutani, Yoshitaka; MacEneaney, Peter; Dachman, Abraham H.

    2001-05-01

    CT colonography is a promising technique with a long-term goal to provide mass screening for colorectal carcinoma. Colorectal screening by CT colonography requires that the examination be cost-effective. The correct interpretation time is excessive for a screening test. Therefore, a computerized detection method capable of indicating regions of suspicion is attractive as a diagnostic aid for radiologists. We have developed a new CAD scheme for automated detection of polyps based on CT colonographic data sets. Our method characterizes polyps by geometric features of volumetric data including the volumetric shape index and curvedness. Polyps were detected by fuzzy clustering in a feature space generated by the feature values and spatial coordinates, followed by a rule-based test in the feature space. In an analysis of 41 patients, 9 of whom had at least one biopsy-proved polyp, our CAD scheme detected 100% of polyps with 2.5 false positives per patient. Our preliminary result indicates that the CAD scheme is potentially useful for highlighting areas of suspicion in the colon and, therefore, facilitates widespread screening by reducing the reading time substantially.

  20. A study of hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous polyps associated with chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pravin J

    2004-06-01

    Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps are not given due importance in the proctology practice. However, they do cause a few disturbing symptoms. This study describes the advantages of the removal of such pathologies associated with chronic anal fissure. Following lateral anal sphincterotomy, the polyps or papillae were removed using a radio frequency device. A comparison before and after removal of the papillae or polyps was carried out for the associated complaints such as like pruritus, pricking sensation, wetness, crawling in the anus etc. In a separated randomized and prospective study, 80 patients were divided into two groups. 40 patients underwent only sphincterotomy, while in the remaining 40 patients, the papillae or polyps were removed after sphincterotomy. Symptom comparison was made before and after the procedure at 6- month follow-up. After one month of the procedure, the associated symptoms were significantly reduced, with a near total decline in the primary complaints of pain and bleeding. There was significant reduction in conditions like pruritus (p=0.0001), discharge per anus (p=0.0001), crawling sensation in the anus (p= 0.0006) and sense of incomplete evacuation (p= 0.0001). The prospective study confirmed the above findings. The above study establishes that removal of hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous polyps should be routinely carried out during surgical treatment of anal fissure to add to effectiveness and completeness of the procedure.

  1. Morphologic characterization of hamartomatous gastrointestinal polyps in Cowden syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and juvenile polyposis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shaco-Levy, Ruthy; Jasperson, Kory W; Martin, Katie; Samadder, N Jewel; Burt, Randall W; Ying, Jian; Bronner, Mary P

    2016-03-01

    The morphologic features of the gastrointestinal polyps in hamartomatous polyposis syndromes are poorly defined. Our aim was to better characterize the gastrointestinal hamartomas in these syndromes. A blinded review was performed regarding many histologic features for every polyp. The study included 15 Cowden syndrome, 13 Peutz-Jeghers (PJS), 12 juvenile polyposis (JuvPS) patients, and 32 cases of sporadic hamartomatous polyps. A total of 375 polyps were examined. Cowden syndrome polyps were characteristically colonic, sessile, small, without surface erosion, and showing mildly inflamed fibrotic lamina propria with smooth muscle proliferation and lymphoid follicles. They showed the least degree of cystic glands and had no thick mucin. Uncommon but specific features were ganglion cells and nerve fibers within the lamina propria and mucosal fat. PJS polyps were typically of small or large bowel origin, often exophytic, seldom eroded, with inflamed edematous and fibrotic lamina propria and dilated cystic glands filled with often thick mucin. All PJS polyps showed smooth muscle proliferation, frequently widespread. The polyps of JuvPS were typically colonic, large, exophytic, eroded, with strikingly edematous, fibrotic markedly inflamed lamina propria, cystic glands filled with frequently thick mucin, and the least degree of smooth muscle proliferation. Nonsyndromic hamartomatous polyps were similar to JuvPS polyps; however, they were more often colonic, were smaller, showed more widespread smooth muscle proliferation, and were less likely to contain thick mucin. In conclusion, we were able to define the characteristic hamartomatous polyp for each hamartomatous polyposis syndrome. Awareness to these features may aid in the diagnosis of these rare syndromes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Shifts in the Fecal Microbiota Associated with Adenomatous Polyps.

    PubMed

    Hale, Vanessa L; Chen, Jun; Johnson, Stephen; Harrington, Sean C; Yab, Tracy C; Smyrk, Thomas C; Nelson, Heidi; Boardman, Lisa A; Druliner, Brooke R; Levin, Theodore R; Rex, Douglas K; Ahnen, Dennis J; Lance, Peter; Ahlquist, David A; Chia, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Adenomatous polyps are the most common precursor to colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. We sought to learn more about early events of carcinogenesis by investigating shifts in the gut microbiota of patients with adenomas. We analyzed 16S rRNA gene sequences from the fecal microbiota of patients with adenomas (n = 233) and without (n = 547). Multiple taxa were significantly more abundant in patients with adenomas, including Bilophila, Desulfovibrio, proinflammatory bacteria in the genus Mogibacterium, and multiple Bacteroidetes species. Patients without adenomas had greater abundances of Veillonella, Firmicutes (Order Clostridia), and Actinobacteria (family Bifidobacteriales). Our findings were consistent with previously reported shifts in the gut microbiota of colorectal cancer patients. Importantly, the altered adenoma profile is predicted to increase primary and secondary bile acid production, as well as starch, sucrose, lipid, and phenylpropanoid metabolism. These data hint that increased sugar, protein, and lipid metabolism along with increased bile acid production could promote a colonic environment that supports the growth of bile-tolerant microbes such as Bilophilia and Desulfovibrio In turn, these microbes may produce genotoxic or inflammatory metabolites such as H2S and secondary bile acids, which could play a role in catalyzing adenoma development and eventually colorectal cancer. This study suggests a plausible biological mechanism to explain the links between shifts in the microbiota and colorectal cancer. This represents a first step toward resolving the complex interactions that shape the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of colorectal cancer and may facilitate personalized therapeutics focused on the microbiota. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 85-94. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Sinonasal Angiomatous Polyp: Evaluation With 2-Phase Helical Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Changwei; Wang, Qiushi; Guo, Qiyong; Wang, Zhenhai; Lu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sinonasal angiomatous polyp (SAP) is a rare benign nontumorous lesion and previously considered lack of characteristic computed tomography (CT) findings. This study aimed to evaluate 2-phase helical CT for characterization of SAP. Twelve patients with pathologically confirmed SAP underwent 2-phase helical CT preoperatively. After injection of 80 mL contrast material at a rate of 3 mL/s, early and delayed phases were obtained with delays of 30 and 120 s, respectively. The degree and pattern of enhancement were visually analyzed. The attenuation changes were also analyzed quantitatively by measuring CT values and compared with those of the internal maxillary artery (IMA). All 12 cases showed vessel-like marked heterogeneous enhancement at both early and delayed phases. An irregular linear, nodular, and patchy enhancement pattern was found at the early phase, and enlarged and fused together, that is, progressive enhancement pattern was found at the delayed phase. There was no significant difference between the CT values of SAP and those of the IMA at the plain, arterial phase, and delayed phase (53 ± 6 Hounsfield units [HU] vs 56 ± 7 HU, 187 ± 56 HU vs 209 ± 71 HU, and 143 ± 22 HU vs 139 ± 19 HU, respectively, P = 0.361, 0.429, and 0.613, respectively). Vessel-like marked heterogeneous enhancement was a characteristic CT feature of SAP, and progressive enhancement on 2-phase helical CT could further convince the diagnosis. PMID:26200632

  4. Expression of nitric oxide synthases in leukocytes in nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Moon, Tae Chul; St Laurent, Chris D; Puttagunta, Lakshmi; Chung, Kerri; Wright, Erin; Yoshikawa, Mamoru; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Befus, A Dean

    2012-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has various roles in airway physiology and pathophysiology. Monitoring exhaled NO levels is increasingly common to measure airways inflammation and inhaled NO studied for its therapeutic value in premature infants and adult respiratory distress syndrome. NO is produced by 3 isoforms of NO synthase (NOS1, 2, 3), and each can play distinct and perhaps overlapping roles in the airways. However, the distribution, regulation, and functions of NOS in various cells in the upper airways, particularly in leukocytes, are incompletely understood. To characterize the expression of NOS isoforms in leukocytes in normal middle turbinate tissues (MT) and in inflammatory nasal tissue (nasal polyps, NP). Normal MT tissue was collected from surgical specimens that were to be discarded. The NP samples were from surgical tissue archives of 15 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Isoforms of NOS in cells were identified by double immunostaining using NOS isoform-specific and leukocyte-specific (mast cell, eosinophil, macrophage, neutrophil, or T cell) antibodies. The proportion of total cells below the epithelium that were positive for each isoform of NOS was higher in NP than in MT. Each isoform of NOS was found in all leukocyte populations studied, and there were significant differences in the percentage of leukocytes expressing NOS isoforms between MT and NP. All isoforms of NOS are expressed in leukocytes in MT and NP, and their expression varies among leukocyte types. Our data provide a basis to investigate the regulation, cell distribution, and distinct functions of NOS isoforms in normal and inflamed nasal tissues. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The polyps of Oceania armata identified by DNA barcoding (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Schuchert, Peter

    2016-10-18

    The polyps of the widely distributed medusa Oceania armata have never been found in nature and only the primary polyp is known from breeding experiments. The fully developed colony is so far unknown. This report shows that DNA sequence data of the medusa stage of O. armata permits to identify several hydroid colonies from different geographic origins as the most likely polyp stage of this medusa. These hydroids had previously been misidentified as Turritopsis species, a closely related genus which also produces medusae resembling Oceania armata. It is concluded that most Turritopsis hydroids are not reliably identifiable to species level using morphological traits only. However, DNA barcodes, particularly 16S sequences, are an excellent tool to identify the species, although we still lack information on a few nominal species and the identities of some sequence-delimited clades need to be corroborated by the addition of topotype samples.

  6. Calcification in the planula and polyp of the hydroid Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Rogers, C L; Thomas, M B

    2001-08-01

    This study examines calcification in planulae and polyps of the hydroid Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus. We observed that established colonies produce a crystalline mat on their substratum and that crystals visible by polarized light microscopy occur in the vacuoles of the gastrodermal cells of both polyps and planulae. The crystalline mat was found by infrared spectroscopy to contain calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite. The composition of the vacuolar crystals and the cellular mechanisms for manufacturing them were explored by alteration of calcium levels in the environment and by the use of pharmacological agents (acetazolamide, caffeine, DIDS, diltiazem, nifedipine, procaine, Ruthenium Red, ryanodine and verapamil) that affect cellular uptake and transport of calcium and bicarbonate. The results indicated that the crystals in the vacuoles contained calcium carbonate. The gastrodermal cells are hypothesized to serve as a physiological sink for excess calcium that enters the organism during motility, secretion and metamorphosis of the planula, and to create a crystalline substratum for the colony of polyps.

  7. A rare cause of tonsil mass in a child: Lymphoid polyp

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hongzhao; Ulualp, Seckin O; Sengupta, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Solitary mass lesions of the palatine tonsils are rare in children. While a tonsillar mass can be concerning for a neoplasm, benign conditions may present with a mass arising from the surface of the palatine tonsils in children. We describe clinical and histopathological characteristics of a lymphoid polyp in a child with unilateral tonsillar mass. Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: A 6-year-old girl presented for evaluation of recurrent acute tonsillitis and a mass on the left palatine tonsil. A pedunculated mass with the base attached to the left palatine tonsil was observed. The mass was completely removed by tonsillectomy. The final diagnosis was lymphoid polyp. Conclusion: Pediatricians, otolaryngologists, and pathologists should be aware of the occurrence of tonsillar lymphoid polyp in the pediatric age group. PMID:28228963

  8. An Automatic Gastrointestinal Polyp Detection System in Video Endoscopy Using Fusion of Color Wavelet and Convolutional Neural Network Features

    PubMed Central

    Waheed, Sajjad; Rahman, Mohammad Motiur

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal polyps are considered to be the precursors of cancer development in most of the cases. Therefore, early detection and removal of polyps can reduce the possibility of cancer. Video endoscopy is the most used diagnostic modality for gastrointestinal polyps. But, because it is an operator dependent procedure, several human factors can lead to misdetection of polyps. Computer aided polyp detection can reduce polyp miss detection rate and assists doctors in finding the most important regions to pay attention to. In this paper, an automatic system has been proposed as a support to gastrointestinal polyp detection. This system captures the video streams from endoscopic video and, in the output, it shows the identified polyps. Color wavelet (CW) features and convolutional neural network (CNN) features of video frames are extracted and combined together which are used to train a linear support vector machine (SVM). Evaluations on standard public databases show that the proposed system outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, gaining accuracy of 98.65%, sensitivity of 98.79%, and specificity of 98.52%. PMID:28894460

  9. An Automatic Gastrointestinal Polyp Detection System in Video Endoscopy Using Fusion of Color Wavelet and Convolutional Neural Network Features.

    PubMed

    Billah, Mustain; Waheed, Sajjad; Rahman, Mohammad Motiur

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal polyps are considered to be the precursors of cancer development in most of the cases. Therefore, early detection and removal of polyps can reduce the possibility of cancer. Video endoscopy is the most used diagnostic modality for gastrointestinal polyps. But, because it is an operator dependent procedure, several human factors can lead to misdetection of polyps. Computer aided polyp detection can reduce polyp miss detection rate and assists doctors in finding the most important regions to pay attention to. In this paper, an automatic system has been proposed as a support to gastrointestinal polyp detection. This system captures the video streams from endoscopic video and, in the output, it shows the identified polyps. Color wavelet (CW) features and convolutional neural network (CNN) features of video frames are extracted and combined together which are used to train a linear support vector machine (SVM). Evaluations on standard public databases show that the proposed system outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, gaining accuracy of 98.65%, sensitivity of 98.79%, and specificity of 98.52%.

  10. The submucosal cushion does not improve the histologic evaluation of adenomatous colon polyps resected by snare polypectomy.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Ivan; Caro, Carlos; Neumann, Helmut; Lux, Anke; Kuester, Doerthe; Fry, Lucia C; Malfertheiner, Peter; Mönkemüller, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    Although the "submucosal cushion" technique or injection-assisted polypectomy (IAP) is often used to resect colon polyps, little is known on the influence of this technique on histologic interpretation. We aimed to evaluate whether the use of a submucosal cushion improves the histologic and margin evaluation of colon polyps. Consecutive patients undergoing polypectomy with and without IAP were included. An experienced blinded gastrointestinal pathologist evaluated the specimens using standardized criteria. One hundred eleven sessile colon adenomas were analyzed (IAP, n = 65, standard, n = 46). Two-thirds of polyps ranged in size from 10 to 20 mm; the average polyp size was 13.2 mm for IAP and 9.9 mm for standard snare polypectomy (P = .001). The cautery degree, cautery amount, and margin evaluability, did not differ substantially with regard to the resection technique. For polyps ≥10-20 mm, the overall architecture quality was better in polyps resected with standard technique as compared with IAP. The utilization of IAP did not result in a better margin evaluability of the resected polyp. Overall, IAP does not result in a better histologic polyp evaluability. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Recently Established Murine Model of Nasal Polyps Demonstrates Activation of B Cells, as Occurs in Human Nasal Polyps.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Young; Lee, Sun Hye; Carter, Roderick G; Kato, Atsushi; Schleimer, Robert P; Cho, Seong H

    2016-08-01

    Animal model systems are invaluable for examining human diseases. Our laboratory recently established a mouse model of nasal polyps (NPs) and investigated similarities and differences between this mouse model and human NPs. We especially focus on the hypothesis that B cell activation occurs during NP generation in the murine model. After induction of ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinosinusitis, 6% ovalbumin and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (10 ng) were instilled into the nasal cavity of mice three times per week for 8 weeks. The development of structures that somewhat resemble NPs (which we will refer to as NPs) was confirmed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The mRNA and protein levels of various inflammatory cell markers and mediators were measured by real-time PCR in nasal tissue and by ELISA in nasal lavage fluid (NLF), respectively. Total Ig isotype levels in NLF were also quantitated using the Mouse Ig Isotyping Multiplex kit (EMD Millipore, Billerica, MA) on a Luminex 200 instrument (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY). Similar to human NPs, there were significant increases in gene expression of inflammatory cell markers, such as CD19, CD138, CD11c, and mast cell protease-6 in nasal tissue samples of the NP group compared with those of the control group. In further investigations of B cell activation, mRNA expressions of B cell activating factor and a proliferation-inducing ligand were found to be significantly increased in mouse NP tissue. B cell-activating factor protein concentration and IgA and IgG1 levels in NLF were significantly higher in the NP group compared with the control group. In this study, the NP mouse model demonstrated enhanced B cell responses, which are reminiscent of B cell responses in human NPs.

  12. Interaction of cigarette smoking and carcinogen-metabolizing polymorphisms in the risk of colorectal polyps.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Li, Guoliang; Smalley, Walter E; Hein, David W; Cai, Qiuyin; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei

    2013-04-01

    The causal role of cigarette smoking in the risk of colorectal neoplasm has been suggested but not established. In a case-control study including 2060 colorectal polyp patients and 3336 polyp-free controls, we evaluated 21 functional genetic variants to construct a tobacco-carcinogen-metabolizing genetic risk score. Data regarding cigarette smoking were obtained through telephone interviews. Cigarette smoking was associated with an elevated risk of both adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. The association with smoking was stronger in participants with a high carcinogen-metabolizing risk score than those with a low risk score. Smoking 30 or more cigarettes per day was associated with a 1.7-fold elevated risk of any polyps (95% confidence interval = 1.3-2.2) among those with a low genetic risk score and 2.9-fold elevated risk (95% confidence interval = 1.8-4.8) among those with a high genetic risk score (P interaction = 0.025). A similar pattern of interaction was observed in analyses conducted separately for those with adenomas only (P interaction = 0.039) and hyperplastic polyps only (P interaction = 0.024). Interaction between carcinogen-metabolizing genetic risk and cigarette smoking was found in relation to high-risk adenomas (P interaction = 0.010) but not low-risk adenomas (P interaction = 0.791). No apparent interaction was found for duration of smoking. This study shows that the association between cigarette smoking and colorectal polyp risk is modified by tobacco-carcinogen-metabolizing polymorphisms, providing support for a causal role of cigarette smoking in the etiology of colorectal tumors.

  13. Nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin occurs commonly in the epithelial cells of juvenile polyps.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Michiko; Hoffenberg, Edward J; Carethers, John M; Doctolero, Ryan; Tajima, Akihiro; Sugano, Kentaro; Franklin, Wilbur A; Ahnen, Dennis J

    2005-01-01

    In the two conditions juvenile polyps (JPs) and juvenile polyposis coli (JPC), colonic polyps may have overlapping histologic and phenotypic appearance, but JPC confers a significant risk for colon adenocarcinoma. Although not thought to contain adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations, the status of beta-catenin and full-length APC protein expression in JPs is not known. We evaluated beta-catenin and full-length APC protein expression in JPs from children with JPs and JPC. Cases were identified through endoscopic procedure records. Immunohistochemistry was performed for beta-catenin and full-length APC protein. Loss of heterozygosity at the APC gene locus on chromosome 5 was assessed using two APC-linked microsatellite markers. Polyp and normal colonic tissue were analyzed from 36 children with JPs and 9 with JPC. Both APC and beta-catenin immunoreactivity were present in epithelial cells from all samples but in different patterns. In all normal colon and polyp samples, APC expression was cytoplasmic with maximal immunoreactivity in the goblet cells. In contrast, beta-catenin immunoreactivity in epithelial cells was limited to the plasma membrane in normal colon but was both cytoplasmic and nuclear in all 45 JPs. No evidence of APC gene loss of heterozygosity was found. In polyps from children with JPs and JPC, nuclear beta-catenin accumulation is a consistent feature, and it is not due to APC gene mutation or loss of full-length APC protein expression. Thus, beta-catenin accumulation may be intrinsic to the formation of juvenile-type polyps through an as-yet-undefined mechanism.

  14. Association Between Dietary Fiber and Incident Cases of Colon Polyps: The Adventist Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Tantamango, Yessenia M.; Knutsen, Synnove F.; Beeson, Larry; Fraser, Gary; Sabate, Joan

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Most cases of CRC arise in adenomatous polyps. It has been estimated that 25%–35% of colon adenoma risk could be avoidable by modification of dietary and life-style habits. Methods: We estimated the association between total dietary fiber and fiber intake from fruits, vegetables, and grains, and the risk of physician-diagnosed colon polyps among 2818 men and women who had undergone colonoscopy. Data were drawn from 2 cohort studies—the Adventist Health Study-1 (AHS-1) of 1976 and the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) conducted from 2002 to 2005. Dietary information was obtained from the self-administered questionnaire from AHS-1, while outcome was assessed from AHS-2 data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the period risk of incident cases of polyps. Results: A total of 441 incident cases of colon polyps were identified. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, education, and alcohol and meat consumption, total fiber intake was inversely associated with the risk of colon polyps (odds ratio [OR] for highest vs lowest quartile = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51–0.99). This association showed a dose-response effect (p = .04). Analyses of various sources of fiber showed the most clear effect of fiber from vegetables including legumes (OR for highest vs lowest quartile = 0.65; 95% CI 0.47–0.90; p = .02). Conclusions: In this population comprising a high proportion of vegetarians, persons who consumed low amounts of fiber, especially fiber contained in vegetables, had a higher risk of developing colon polyps. PMID:22295127

  15. Colorectal polyp type and the association with charred meat consumption, smoking, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Mandelson, Margaret T.; Adams, Scott V.; Wernli, Karen J.; Shadman, Mazyar; Wurscher, Michelle A.; Makar, Karen W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We determined the association between charred meat consumption, cigarette smoking, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) polymorphisms [rs1051740 and rs2234922], and colorectal adenomas and hyperplastic polyps (HPs) and explored gene-environment interactions. Methods Men and women with colorectal adenomas (n=519), HPs (n=691), or concurrently with both types of polyps (n=227) and polyp-free controls (n=772) receiving a colonoscopy from 12/04-9/07 were recruited. Participants completed telephone interviews and provided buccal cell samples; genotyping of mEH was completed using Taqman assays. We conducted polytomous regression and calculated odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. Interactions were evaluated using Wald chi-square tests. Results Consumption of >3 servings of charred meat per week was associated with distal HPs (OR=2.0, 1.2–3.4) but not adenomas nor either type of proximal polyp. Heavy cigarette smoking (≥22 pack-years) was associated with an increased risk for colorectal adenomas (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.4), HPs (OR=2.4, 95% CI 1.7–3.3), and both types (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.8–4.3) with the strongest association for distal polyps. There was no association between mEH genotype and colorectal polyps, nor were any statistically significant gene-environment interactions identified. Discussion Future investigation of BaP exposure and colorectal neoplasia should analyze whether associations are dependent upon anatomic location. PMID:21598178

  16. Accurate Identification of Colonoscopy Quality and Polyp Findings Using Natural Language Processing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeffrey K; Jensen, Christopher D; Levin, Theodore R; Zauber, Ann G; Doubeni, Chyke A; Zhao, Wei K; Corley, Douglas A

    2017-09-12

    The aim of this study was to test the ability of a commercially available natural language processing (NLP) tool to accurately extract examination quality-related and large polyp information from colonoscopy reports with varying report formats. Colonoscopy quality reporting often requires manual data abstraction. NLP is another option for extracting information; however, limited data exist on its ability to accurately extract examination quality and polyp findings from unstructured text in colonoscopy reports with different reporting formats. NLP strategies were developed using 500 colonoscopy reports from Kaiser Permanente Northern California and then tested using 300 separate colonoscopy reports that underwent manual chart review. Using findings from manual review as the reference standard, we evaluated the NLP tool's sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and accuracy for identifying colonoscopy examination indication, cecal intubation, bowel preparation adequacy, and polyps ≥10 mm. The NLP tool was highly accurate in identifying examination quality-related variables from colonoscopy reports. Compared with manual review, sensitivity for screening indication was 100% (95% confidence interval: 95.3%-100%), PPV was 90.6% (82.3%-95.8%), and accuracy was 98.2% (97.0%-99.4%). For cecal intubation, sensitivity was 99.6% (98.0%-100%), PPV was 100% (98.5%-100%), and accuracy was 99.8% (99.5%-100%). For bowel preparation adequacy, sensitivity was 100% (98.5%-100%), PPV was 100% (98.5%-100%), and accuracy was 100% (100%-100%). For polyp(s) ≥10 mm, sensitivity was 90.5% (69.6%-98.8%), PPV was 100% (82.4%-100%), and accuracy was 95.2% (88.8%-100%). NLP yielded a high degree of accuracy for identifying examination quality-related and large polyp information from diverse types of colonoscopy reports.

  17. Factors affecting time to revision sinus surgery for nasal polyps: a 25-year experience.

    PubMed

    Wu, Arthur W; Ting, Jonathan Y; Platt, Michael P; Tierney, Hien T; Metson, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Surgical treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is often followed by polyp regrowth with return of symptoms. The purpose of this study is to identify clinical factors that influence the time interval to revision sinus surgery in patients with nasal polyps. Retrospective cohort study. Records of 299 individuals who underwent two or more surgeries for the diagnosis of nasal polyps by the senior author (RM) from 1987 through 2011 were reviewed. The time between surgical interventions were compared to patient demographics, comorbidities, endoscopic examination, computed tomography (CT) stage, extent of surgery, and pathologic findings. The mean time interval between polyp surgeries was 4.87 ± 3.61 years (range 0.7-18.6 years). The median time to revision surgery was shorter in patients who smoked compared to nonsmokers (2.82 vs. 4.31 years, respectively, P = .022) and longer in patients who underwent middle turbinate resection rather than preservation (4.56 vs. 3.93 years, respectively, P = .048). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis confirmed these findings, but the beneficial effect of turbinectomy appeared to dissipate by 8 years. Neither a history of asthma nor advanced CT stage influenced the time to revision surgery. The time course between sinus surgeries in patients with regrowth of nasal polyps appears to be affected by certain modifiable extrinsic factors, including smoking on the part of the patient and operative technique on the part of the surgeon. The performance of middle turbinate resection during sinus surgery appears to extend the time interval until a revision procedure is required. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Interaction of cigarette smoking and carcinogen-metabolizing polymorphisms in the risk of colorectal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The causal role of cigarette smoking in the risk of colorectal neoplasm has been suggested but not established. In a case–control study including 2060 colorectal polyp patients and 3336 polyp-free controls, we evaluated 21 functional genetic variants to construct a tobacco-carcinogen-metabolizing genetic risk score. Data regarding cigarette smoking were obtained through telephone interviews. Cigarette smoking was associated with an elevated risk of both adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. The association with smoking was stronger in participants with a high carcinogen-metabolizing risk score than those with a low risk score. Smoking 30 or more cigarettes per day was associated with a 1.7-fold elevated risk of any polyps (95% confidence interval = 1.3–2.2) among those with a low genetic risk score and 2.9-fold elevated risk (95% confidence interval = 1.8–4.8) among those with a high genetic risk score (P interaction = 0.025). A similar pattern of interaction was observed in analyses conducted separately for those with adenomas only (P interaction = 0.039) and hyperplastic polyps only (P interaction = 0.024). Interaction between carcinogen-metabolizing genetic risk and cigarette smoking was found in relation to high-risk adenomas (P interaction = 0.010) but not low-risk adenomas (P interaction = 0.791). No apparent interaction was found for duration of smoking. This study shows that the association between cigarette smoking and colorectal polyp risk is modified by tobacco-carcinogen-metabolizing polymorphisms, providing support for a causal role of cigarette smoking in the etiology of colorectal tumors. PMID:23299405

  19. Association between dietary fiber and incident cases of colon polyps: the adventist health study.

    PubMed

    Tantamango, Yessenia M; Knutsen, Synnove F; Beeson, Larry; Fraser, Gary; Sabate, Joan

    2011-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Most cases of CRC arise in adenomatous polyps. It has been estimated that 25%-35% of colon adenoma risk could be avoidable by modification of dietary and life-style habits. We estimated the association between total dietary fiber and fiber intake from fruits, vegetables, and grains, and the risk of physician-diagnosed colon polyps among 2818 men and women who had undergone colonoscopy. Data were drawn from 2 cohort studies-the Adventist Health Study-1 (AHS-1) of 1976 and the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) conducted from 2002 to 2005. Dietary information was obtained from the self-administered questionnaire from AHS-1, while outcome was assessed from AHS-2 data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the period risk of incident cases of polyps. A total of 441 incident cases of colon polyps were identified. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, education, and alcohol and meat consumption, total fiber intake was inversely associated with the risk of colon polyps (odds ratio [OR] for highest vs lowest quartile = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.99). This association showed a dose-response effect (p = .04). Analyses of various sources of fiber showed the most clear effect of fiber from vegetables including legumes (OR for highest vs lowest quartile = 0.65; 95% CI 0.47-0.90; p = .02). In this population comprising a high proportion of vegetarians, persons who consumed low amounts of fiber, especially fiber contained in vegetables, had a higher risk of developing colon polyps.

  20. Role of CD146 Enrichment in Purification of Stem Cells Derived from Dental Pulp Polyp

    PubMed Central

    Tavangar, Maryam Sadat; Hosseini, Seyed-Mojtaba; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali; Monabati, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hyperplastic pulpitis (pulp polyp) tissues contains cells with stem cell properties similar to that of the dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). It has also been shown that CD146 enrichment can homogenize the cultures of DPSCs and enhance the colony forming potentials of their cultures. This study determines whether CD146 enrichment can help purifying the stem cells from heterogeneous cultures of the pulp polyp derived stem cells (PPSCs). Methods and Materials: Healthy dental pulps and pulp polyp tissues were enzymatically digested and the harvested single cells were sorted according to the presence of CD146 marker. The sorted cells were seeded directly for colony forming unit (CFU) assays of the negative and positive portions. Flowcytometric antigen panel and differentiation assays were used to see if these cells conform with mesenchymal stems cells (MSCs) definition. Differences between the between groups was assessed using independent t-test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Normal pulp tissue derived cells formed higher colonies (42.5±16.8 per 104 cells) than the pulp polyp (17.75±8.9 per 104 cells) (P=0.015). The CD146 positive portion of the polyp derived cells formed an average of 91.5±29.7 per 104 cells per CFU. On the other hand, CD146 negative portion did not show any colonies (P<0.001). Both resources showed cells with flowcytometric antigen panel and differentiation potentials conforming to MSC definition. Conclusion: The entire CFU of PPSCs were formed within CD146 enriched portion. It seems that CD146 enrichment may reduce the number of possible fibroblasts of the pulp polyps and may further homogenize the culture of the PPSCs. PMID:28179933

  1. Evidence for intranasal anti-nuclear autoantibodies in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bruce K.; Li, Quan-Zhen; Suh, Lydia; Kato, Atsushi; Conley, David B.; Chandra, Rakesh K.; Zhou, Jinchun; Norton, James; Carter, Roderick; Hinchcliff, Monique; Harris, Kathleen; Peters, Anju; Grammer, Leslie C.; Kern, Robert C.; Mohan, Chandra; Schleimer, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is an inflammatory condition of the nasal passage and paranasal sinuses characterized by Th2 biased inflammation with elevated levels of BAFF, B-lymphocytes, and immunoglobulins. Since high levels of BAFF are associated with autoimmune diseases, we assessed for evidence of autoimmunity in patients with CRS. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to investigate for the presence of autoantibodies in sinonasal tissue from patients with CRS. METHODS Standardized nasal tissue specimens were collected from patients with CRS and control subjects and assayed for immunoglobulin production, autoantibody levels, tissue distribution of immunoglobulins and binding potential of antibodies in nasal tissue using a multiplexed autoantibody microarray, ELISA and immunofluoresence. RESULTS Elevated levels of several specific autoantibodies were found in nasal polyp tissue in comparison with control tissue and inflamed tissue from non-polypoid CRS (CRSsNP) (p<0.05). In particular, nuclear-targeted autoantibodies such as anti-dsDNA IgG and IgA antibodies were found at elevated levels in nasal polyps (p<0.05) and particularly in nasal polyps from patients requiring revision surgery for recurrence. Direct immunofluorescence staining demonstrated diffuse epithelial and sub-epithelial deposition of IgG and increased numbers of IgA secreting plasma cells not seen in control nasal tissue. CONCLUSIONS Autoantibodies, particularly those against nuclear antigens, are present at locally elevated levels in nasal polyps. The presence of autoantibodies suggests that the microenvironment of a nasal polyp promotes the expansion of self-reactive B-cell clones. While the pathogenicity of these antibodies remains to be elucidated, the presence of elevated anti-dsDNA antibodies is associated with a clinically more aggressive form of CRSwNP requiring repeated surgery. PMID:21996343

  2. T regulatory and Th17 cells in chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps.

    PubMed