Science.gov

Sample records for fibrous bed bioreactor

  1. Continuous propionate production from whey permeate using a novel fibrous bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Yang, S T; Zhu, H; Li, Y; Hong, G

    1994-05-01

    Continuous production of propionate from whey lactose by Propionibacterium acidipropionici immobilized in a novel fibrous bed bioreactor was studied. In conventional batch propionic acid fermentation, whey permeate without nutrient supplementation was unable to support cell growth and failed to give satisfactory fermentation results for over 7 days. However, with the fibrous bed bioreactor, a high fermentation rate and high conversion were obtained with plain whey permeate and de-lactose whey permeate. About 2% (wt/vol) propionic acid was obtained from a 4.2% lactose feed at a retention time of 35 to 45 h. The propionic acid yield was approximately 46% (wt/vol) from lactose. The optimal pH for fementation was 6.5, and lower fermentation rates and yields were obtained at lower pH values. The optimal temperature was 30 degrees C, but the temperature effect was not dramatic in the range of 25 to 35 degrees C. Addition of yeast extract and trypticase to whey permeate hastened reactor startup and increased the fermentation rate and product yields, but the addition was not required for long-term reactor performance. The improved fermentation results with the immobilized cell bioreactor can be attributed to the high cell density, approximately 50 g/L, attained in the bioreactor, Cells were immobilized by loose attachement to fiber surfaces and entrapment in the void spaces within the fibrous matrix, thus allowing constant renewal of cells. Consequently, this bioreactor was able to operate continuously for 6 months without encountering any clogging, degeneration, or contamination problems. Compared to conventional batch fermentors, the new bioreactor offers many advantages for industrial fermentation, including a more than 10-fold increase in productivity, acceptance of low-nutrient feedstocks such as whey permeate, and resistance to contamination. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Propionic acid fermentation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii CCTCC M207015 in a multi-point fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiao-Hai; Chen, Fei; Xu, Hong; Wu, Bo; Yao, Jun; Ying, Han-Jie; Ouyang, Ping-Kai

    2010-11-01

    Propionic acid was produced in a multi-point fibrous-bed (MFB) bioreactor by Propionibacterium freudenreichii CCTCC M207015. The MFB bioreactor, comprising spiral cotton fiber packed in a modified 7.5-l bioreactor, was effective for cell-immobilized propionic acid production compared with conventional free cell fermentation. Batch fermentations at various glucose concentrations were investigated in the MFB bioreactor. Based on analysis of the time course of production, a fed-batch strategy was applied for propionic acid production. The maximum propionic acid concentration was 67.05 g l(-1) after 496 h of fermentation, and the proportion of propionic acid to total organic acids was approximately 78.28% (w/w). The MFB bioreactor exhibited excellent production stability during batch fermentation and the propionic acid productivity remained high after 78 days of fermentation.

  3. Enhanced cellulase production by Trichoderma viride in a rotating fibrous bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tian-Qing; Wei, Dong; Yang, Shang-Tian; Liu, Xiaoguang

    2013-04-01

    Filamentous fungi are widely used to produce cellulase, but how the fermentation conditions affect their production is not well known. In this study, cellulase production by Trichoderma viride in submerged fermentations with free cells in a stirred-tank reactor (STR) and immobilized cells in a rotating fibrous-bed bioreactor (RFBB) were investigated. Compared to free-cell fermentation, immobilized-cell fermentation gave 35.5% higher FPase activity and 69.7% higher saccharification yield of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). The secretory proteins in the fermentation broths were analyzed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry, which identified 24 protein spots with differential expression levels. Among them, cellobiohydrolase CBH II and endoglucanase EG II were highly expressed and secreted in the immobilized-cell fermentation, while the free-cell fermentation produced more CBH І and EG ІV. These results showed that immobilized-cell fermentation with T. viride in the RFBB was advantageous for cellulase production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Kinetics and stability of GM-CSF production by recombinant yeast cells immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Yang, S T; Shu, C H

    1996-01-01

    The continuous production of murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by recombinant yeast cells immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor was studied. A high cell density of approximately 68 g/L and a GM-CSF productivity of approximately 3.5 mg/L.h were attained in the fibrous-bed bioreactor-fed with a rich (nonselective, pH 6.7) medium at a dilution rate of 0.16 h-1. The GM-CSF production was stable even though the fraction of plasmid-carrying cells in the reactor effluent gradually dropped below 5% over a period of 2 weeks. At the end of that period, the immobilized cells in the fibrous matrix still had a high fraction, approximately 26%, of plasmid-carrying cells. Similar results were obtained with reactors operated at 0.05 h-1 dilution rate and pH 4.0. Although the GM-CSF production was lower at pH 4, the reactor was stably operated for over 4 weeks without contamination or significant loss of productivity. The stable long-term GM-CSF production from the fibrous-bed bioreactor was attributed to the effect of cell immobilization on plasmid stability. Because GM-CSF production was growth-associated, as was found in batch fermentation with free cells, this stabilization effect cannot be attributed solely to the reduced cell growth in the immobilized cell environment. Plasmid-carrying cells were preferentially retained in the fibrous matrix, perhaps because their abilities to adhere to the fiber surface and to form cell aggregates were higher than those of plasmid-free cells.

  5. Airlift-driven fibrous-bed bioreactor for continuous production of glucoamylase using immobilized recombinant yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Kilonzo, Peter; Margaritis, Argyrios; Bergougnou, Maurice

    2009-08-10

    Continuous production of a fungal glucoamylase by immobilized recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain C468 containing plasmid pGAC9. Yeast cells were immobilized on hydrophilic cotton cloth in an inverse internal loop airlift-driven bioreactor. Free-cell culture in the airlift and stirred tank bioreactors confirmed the plasmid instability of the recombinant yeast. Enhanced glucoamylase productivity and plasmid stability were observed both in the free and immobilized cell cultures in the airlift bioreactor system. The glucoamylase level of the free-cell culture in the airlift bioreactor was approximately 20% higher than that in the in stirred tank bioreactor due to high cell density (cell dry weight/volume of bioreactor) and fraction of the plasmid-carrying cells. A potentially high glucoamylase activity of 161U/L and a corresponding volumetric productivity of 3.5U/Lh were achieved when a cell density of approximately 85g/L (or 12.3g/g fiber) was attained in the fibrous-bed immobilized cell bioreactor system. The stable glucoamylase production was achieved after five generations, at which time a fraction of approximately 62% of the plasmid-carrying cells was realized in the immobilized cell system. Plasmid stability was increased for the immobilized cells during continuous culture at the operating dilution rate. The volumetric and specific productivities and fraction of plasmid-carrying cells in the immobilized cell system were higher than in the free-cell counterpart, however. This was in part due to the high viability (approximately 80%) in the immobilized cell system and the selective immobilization of the plasmid-carrying cells in the fibrous bed, and perhaps increased plasmid copy number.

  6. Expansion of embryonic stem cells in suspension and fibrous bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Li, Yan; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2014-05-20

    Applications of embryonic stem (ES) cells in cellular transplantation and tissue engineering require scalable processes for mass production of these cells with controlled qualities. The main objective of this work was to evaluate two cell culture processes for long-term expansion of murine embryonic stem (mES) cells. With serial passaging, suspension cultures in spinner flasks were able to expand mES cells as aggregates for 12.5-fold in each passage of 4 days. However, extending the culturing time to 6 days in each passage caused significant loss in cell viability and induced differentiation as indicated by the reduced expression levels of SSEA-1 and Oct-4. Long-term expansion of mES cells in a fibrous bed bioreactor (FBB) was also studied for 30 days in 2 passages, 15 days in each passage. With periodically refreshing the culture medium, a high expansion fold of 60-77 was achieved in each passage. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR were used to analyze key pluripotency and differentiation markers. The results showed that the expanded cells in both suspension and FBB cultures remained in a highly pluripotent state, which was also confirmed with the embryoid body (EB) forming efficiency test. It is concluded that both the suspension and FBB cultures are suitable to support long-term expansion of undifferentiated mES cells. However, the FBB culture can sustain cell growth for a longer period without frequent passaging, requires less media and labor, and is thus more economical to use for mass production of ES cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced butanol production by solvent tolerance Clostridium acetobutylicum SE25 from cassava flour in a fibrous bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Han-Guang; Ma, Xing-Xing; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Luo, Wei; Wu, Ya-Qing; Li, Xun-Hang

    2016-12-01

    To enhance the butanol productivity and reduce the material cost, acetone, butanol, and ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum SE25 was investigated using batch, repeated-batch and continuous cultures in a fibrous bed bioreactor, where cassava flour was used as the substrate. With periodical nutrient supplementation, stable butanol production was maintained for about 360h in a 6-cycle repeated-batch fermentation with an average butanol productivity of 0.28g/L/h and butanol yield of 0.32g/g-starch. In addition, the highest butanol productivity of 0.63g/L/h and butanol yield of 0.36g/g-starch were achieved when the dilution rate were investigated in continuous production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol using a fibrous bed bioreactor, which were 231.6% and 28.6% higher than those of the free-cell fermentation. On the other hand, this study also successfully comfirmed that the biofilm can provide an effective protection for the microbial cells which are growing in stressful environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficient production of l-lactic acid from hydrolysate of Jerusalem artichoke with immobilized cells of Lactococcus lactis in fibrous bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhouming; Wei, Peilian; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Cai, Jin; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zhinan

    2012-10-10

    Hydrolysate of Jerusalem artichoke was applied for the production of l-lactic acid by immobilized Lactococcus lactis cells in a fibrous bed bioreactor system. Preliminary experiments had indicated that the high quality hydrolysate, which was derived from the 40 min acid treatment at 95 °C and pH 1.8, was sufficient to support the cell growth and synthesis of l-lactic acid. With the addition of 5 g/l yeast extract, the fermentative performance of free cell system was evidently improved. After the basal settlement of hydrolysate based fermentation, the batch mode and the fed-batch mode fermentation were carried out in the free cell system and the fibrous bed bioreactor system, respectively. In all cases the immobilized cells presented the superior ability to produce l-lactic acid. The comparison of batch mode and fed-batch mode also indicated that the growth-limiting feeding strategy could reduce the lag phase of fermentation process and enhance the production of l-lactic acid. The achieved maximum concentration of l-lactic acid was 142 g/l in the fed-batch mode. Subsequent repeated-batch fermentation of the fibrous bed bioreactor system had further exhibited the persistence and stability of this system for the high production of l-lactic acid in a long term. Our work suggested the great potential of the fibrous bed bioreactor system and hydrolysate of J. artichoke in the economical production of l-lactic acid at industrial scale. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High efficiency succinic acid production from glycerol via in situ fibrous bed bioreactor with an engineered Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Li, Chong; Yang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Shi; Wang, Huaimin; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2017-02-01

    In this study, in situ fibrous bed bioreactor (isFBB) was developed at the first time for efficient succinic acid (SA) production by Yarrowia lipolytica. After optimization, SA titer, productivity and yield of 51.9g/L, 1.46g/L/h and 0.42g/g were obtained respectively via isFBB fermentation under conditions of 750cm(2) cotton towel, 120g/L initial glycerol and 3L/min aeration rate. By fed batch strategy, SA titer raised up to 198.2g/L was achieved, which was the highest value ever reported. In operation stability study, SA productivity showed no obvious decrease after 12 repeated batches of 460h fermentation, and cell viability even recovered within two repeated batches after intentional interruption. This study successfully attained a highly efficient and stable isFBB for enhanced SA production by Y. lipolytica. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acetate production from whey lactose using co-immobilized cells of homolactic and homoacetic bacteria in a fibrous-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.; Yang, S.T.

    1998-11-20

    Acetate was produced from whey lactose in batch and fed-batch fermentations using co-immobilized cells of Clostridium formicoaceticum and Lactococcus lactis. The cells were immobilized in a spirally wound fibrous sheet packed in a 0.45-L column reactor, with liquid circulated through a 5-L stirred-tank fermentor. Industrial-grade nitrogen sources, including corn steep liquor, casein hydrolysate, and yeast hydrolysate, were studied as inexpensive nutrient supplements to whey permeate and acid whey. Supplementation with either 2.5% (v/v) corn steep liquor or 1.5 g/L casein hydrolysate was adequate for the cocultured fermentation. The overall acetic acid yield from lactose was 0.9 g/g, and the productivity was 0.25 g/(L h). Both lactate and acetate at high concentrations inhibited the homoacetic fermentation. To overcome these inhibitions, fed-batch fermentations were used to keep lactate concentration low and to adapt cells to high-concentration acetate. The final acetate concentration obtained in the fed-batch fermentations were used to keep lactate concentration low and to adapt cells to high-concentration acetate. The final acetate concentration obtained in the fed-batch fermentation was 75 g/L, which was the highest acetate concentration ever produced by C. formicoaceticum. Even at this high acetate concentration, the overall productivity was 0.18 g/(L h) based on the total medium volume and 1.23 g/(L h) based on the fibrous-bed reactor volume. The cells isolated from the fibrous-bed bioreactor at the end of this study were more tolerant to acetic acid than the original culture used to seed the bioreactor, indicating that adaptation and natural selection of acetate-tolerant strains occurred. This cocultured fermentation process could be used to produce a low-cost acetate deicer from whey permeate and acid whey.

  11. Tapered bed bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  12. Enhanced poly(γ-glutamic acid) fermentation by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 immobilized in an aerobic plant fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zongqi; Feng, Xiaohai; Zhang, Dan; Tang, Bao; Lei, Peng; Liang, Jinfeng; Xu, Hong

    2014-03-01

    To enhance poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) production, a novel aerobic plant fibrous-bed bioreactor (APFB) was constructed for immobilized fermentation. Based on the analysis of the kinetics of immobilized-cell fermentation using the APFB and conventional free-cell fermentation, immobilized-cell fermentation exhibited more efficient PGA production. Furthermore, repeated fed-batch cultures for PGA production were conducted to evaluate the stability of the APFB system. Average final PGA concentration and productivity of 71.21±0.83g/L and 1.246±0.008g/L/h were respectively achieved by cells immobilized in bagasse during APFB, which was reused eight times over a period of 457±18h. Analysis of the membrane phospholipids and the key enzyme activities indicated that APFB-adapted cells had better productivity than original cells. Thus, this study demonstrated the significant potential of the APFB culture system in future industrial applications.

  13. Fed-batch fermentation for n-butanol production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate in a fibrous bed bioreactor with continuous gas stripping.

    PubMed

    Lu, Congcong; Zhao, Jingbo; Yang, Shang-Tian; Wei, Dong

    2012-01-01

    Concentrated cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) containing 584.4 g/L glucose was studied for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation with a hyper-butanol-producing Clostridium acetobutylicum strain in a fibrous bed bioreactor with gas stripping for continuous butanol recovery. With periodical nutrient supplementation, stable production of n-butanol from glucose in the CBH was maintained in the fed-batch fermentation over 263 h with an average sugar consumption rate of 1.28 g/L h and butanol productivity of 0.32±0.03 g/L h. A total of 108.5 g/L ABE (butanol: 76.4 g/L, acetone: 27.0 g/L, ethanol: 5.1 g/L) was produced, with an overall yield of 0.32±0.03 g/g glucose for ABE and 0.23±0.01 g/g glucose for butanol. The gas stripping process generated a product containing 10-16% (w/v) of butanol, ~4% (w/v) of acetone, a small amount of ethanol (<0.8%) and almost no acids, resulting in a highly concentrated butanol solution of ~64% (w/v) after phase separation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. D-lactic acid production by Sporolactobacillus inulinus Y2-8 immobilized in fibrous bed bioreactor using corn flour hydrolyzate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Liu, Dong; Ren, Hengfei; Shi, Xinchi; Zhao, Nan; Chen, Yong; Ying, Hanjie

    2014-12-28

    In this study, a fibrous bed bioreactor (FBB) was used for D-lactic acid (D-LA) production by Sporolactobacillus inulinus Y2-8. Corn flour hydrolyzed with α-amylase and saccharifying enzyme was used as a cost-efficient and nutrient-rich substrate for D-LA production. A maximal starch conversion rate of 93.78% was obtained. The optimum pH for D-LA production was determined to be 6.5. Ammonia water was determined to be an ideal neutralizing agent, which improved the D-LA production and purification processes. Batch fermentation and fedbatch fermentation, with both free cells and immobilized cells, were compared to highlight the advantages of FBB fermentation. In batch mode, the D-LA production rate of FBB fermentation was 1.62 g/l/h, which was 37.29% higher than that of free-cell fermentation, and the D-LA optical purities of the two fermentation methods were above 99.00%. In fed-batch mode, the maximum D-LA concentration attained by FBB fermentation was 218.8 g/l, which was 37.67% higher than that of free-cell fermentation. Repeated-batch fermentation was performed to determine the long-term performance of the FBB system, and the data indicated that the average D-LA production rate was 1.62 g/l/h and the average yield was 0.98 g/g. Thus, hydrolyzed corn flour fermented by S. inulinus Y2-8 in a FBB may be used for improving D-LA fermentation by using ammonia water as the neutralizing agent.

  15. Liquid flow residence time in a fibrous fixed bed reactor with recycle.

    PubMed

    Martinov, Martin; Hadjiev, Dimiter; Vlaev, Serafim

    2010-02-01

    Waste removal efficiency of gas-liquid biofilter reactors for waste water treatment depends on its flow regime and residence time distribution (RTD) as key parameters of bio-reactor performance. The present study reports RTD regime in a fibrous fixed bed biofilm reactor related to a fluid velocity range appropriate for biofilm operation. The data from tracer experiments are correlated in terms of the one-parameter "tanks-in-series" model. The aerated fibrous bed reactor RTD function is found to be dependent on net liquid and gas phase superficial velocity U(L) and U(G). Liquid internal recirculation exhibited small effect comparable with the effect of net liquid flow. A power law relationship relating the number of perfectly mixed cells with liquid and gas superficial velocity is elaborated. Assuming similarity of the prototype and real vessels' flow fields, the equation as well as its corresponding range of fluid velocity can be used for bio-reactor design and scale-up. Comparison over the model parameters obtained in fixed bed bubble columns at low fluid velocity shows the results of this study to be comparable with previous data of mesh wire packing.

  16. Bioreactor Scalability: Laboratory-Scale Bioreactor Design Influences Performance, Ecology, and Community Physiology in Expanded Granular Sludge Bed Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Stephanie; Shin, Seung G.; Dillon, Robert J.; Ijaz, Umer Z.; Quince, Christopher; Sloan, William T.; Collins, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating the feasibility of new, or improved, biotechnologies, such as wastewater treatment digesters, inevitably start with laboratory-scale trials. However, it is rarely determined whether laboratory-scale results reflect full-scale performance or microbial ecology. The Expanded Granular Sludge Bed (EGSB) bioreactor, which is a high-rate anaerobic digester configuration, was used as a model to address that knowledge gap in this study. Two laboratory-scale idealizations of the EGSB—a one-dimensional and a three- dimensional scale-down of a full-scale design—were built and operated in triplicate under near-identical conditions to a full-scale EGSB. The laboratory-scale bioreactors were seeded using biomass obtained from the full-scale bioreactor, and, spent water from the distillation of whisky from maize was applied as substrate at both scales. Over 70 days, bioreactor performance, microbial ecology, and microbial community physiology were monitored at various depths in the sludge-beds using 16S rRNA gene sequencing (V4 region), specific methanogenic activity (SMA) assays, and a range of physical and chemical monitoring methods. SMA assays indicated dominance of the hydrogenotrophic pathway at full-scale whilst a more balanced activity profile developed during the laboratory-scale trials. At each scale, Methanobacterium was the dominant methanogenic genus present. Bioreactor performance overall was better at laboratory-scale than full-scale. We observed that bioreactor design at laboratory-scale significantly influenced spatial distribution of microbial community physiology and taxonomy in the bioreactor sludge-bed, with 1-D bioreactor types promoting stratification of each. In the 1-D laboratory bioreactors, increased abundance of Firmicutes was associated with both granule position in the sludge bed and increased activity against acetate and ethanol as substrates. We further observed that stratification in the sludge-bed in 1-D laboratory

  17. Bioreactor Scalability: Laboratory-Scale Bioreactor Design Influences Performance, Ecology, and Community Physiology in Expanded Granular Sludge Bed Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Stephanie; Shin, Seung G; Dillon, Robert J; Ijaz, Umer Z; Quince, Christopher; Sloan, William T; Collins, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating the feasibility of new, or improved, biotechnologies, such as wastewater treatment digesters, inevitably start with laboratory-scale trials. However, it is rarely determined whether laboratory-scale results reflect full-scale performance or microbial ecology. The Expanded Granular Sludge Bed (EGSB) bioreactor, which is a high-rate anaerobic digester configuration, was used as a model to address that knowledge gap in this study. Two laboratory-scale idealizations of the EGSB-a one-dimensional and a three- dimensional scale-down of a full-scale design-were built and operated in triplicate under near-identical conditions to a full-scale EGSB. The laboratory-scale bioreactors were seeded using biomass obtained from the full-scale bioreactor, and, spent water from the distillation of whisky from maize was applied as substrate at both scales. Over 70 days, bioreactor performance, microbial ecology, and microbial community physiology were monitored at various depths in the sludge-beds using 16S rRNA gene sequencing (V4 region), specific methanogenic activity (SMA) assays, and a range of physical and chemical monitoring methods. SMA assays indicated dominance of the hydrogenotrophic pathway at full-scale whilst a more balanced activity profile developed during the laboratory-scale trials. At each scale, Methanobacterium was the dominant methanogenic genus present. Bioreactor performance overall was better at laboratory-scale than full-scale. We observed that bioreactor design at laboratory-scale significantly influenced spatial distribution of microbial community physiology and taxonomy in the bioreactor sludge-bed, with 1-D bioreactor types promoting stratification of each. In the 1-D laboratory bioreactors, increased abundance of Firmicutes was associated with both granule position in the sludge bed and increased activity against acetate and ethanol as substrates. We further observed that stratification in the sludge-bed in 1-D laboratory

  18. A fluidized-bed continuous bioreactor for lactic acid production

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, G.F.; Fonta, J.P.

    1988-05-01

    A laboratory bioreactor consists of a fluidized bed of monosized activated carbon coated with a biofilm of the homolactic fermentative organism Streptococcus thermophilus. Biofilm growth moves the carbon through the bed, and adsorption of substrate and product at the bottom and top of the bed respectively reduces their inhibitory effects on the organism. Theory shows that high reactor productivity and rapid recirculation of carbon through the bed require a biofilm thickness of 25 to 45% of the carbon particle radius on particles fed into the base of the bed. This could not be achieved in practice due to the fragility of the biofilm. Product concentration was higher than expected from measurements of product inhibition, possibly because it is the undissociated form of the acid that both inhibits metabolism and adsorbs on the activated carbon. The observed productivity of 12 gm/1 hr could be greatly increased by ph control. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Fixed-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fixed-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fixed-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the large scale production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fixed-bed bioreactor. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor. 2 figs.

  1. Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubilization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1989-07-11

    This patent describes a fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

  2. Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubiliztion of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Strandberg, Gerald W.

    1989-01-01

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

  3. Tapered fluidized bed bioreactor for environmental control and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C. D.; Hancher, C. W.; Arcuri, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    Fluidized bed bioreactors are under development for use in environmental control and energy production. The most effective systems utilize a tapered portion either throughout the column or at the top of the column. This taper allows a wide range of operating conditions without loss of the fluidized particulates, and in general, results in more stable operation. The system described here utilize fixed films of microorganisms that have attached themselves to the fluidized particles. Preliminary investigations of the attachment indicate that reactor performance is related to film thickness. The biological denitrification of aqueous waste streams is typical of processes under development that utilize fluidized bed bioreactors. This development has progressed to the pilot plant scale where two 20-cm-diam x 800-cm fluidized beds in series accept aqueous wastes with nitrate concentrations as high as 10,000 mg/l and denitrification rates greater than 50 g/l/day using residence times of less than 30 minutes in each reactor. Other applications include aerobic degradation of phenolic wastes at rates greater than 25 g/l/day and the conversion of glucose to ethanol.

  4. Development of a bioreactor based on magnetically stabilized fluidized bed for bioartificial liver.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fei; Chen, Li; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Shan; Wang, Yu; Li, Na; Li, Shen; Guo, Xin; Ma, Xiaojun

    2015-12-01

    Bioartificial liver (BAL) based on microcapsules has been proposed as a potential treatment for acute liver failure. The bioreactors used in such BAL are usually expected to achieve sufficient flow rate and minimized void volume for effective application. Due to the superiorities in bed pressure drop and operation velocity, magnetically stabilized fluidized beds (MSFBs) show the potential to serve as ideal microcapsule-based bioreactors. In the present study, we attempted to develop a microcapsule-based MSFB bioreactor for bioartificial liver device. Compared to conventional-fluidized bed bioreactors, the bioreactor presented here increased perfusion velocity and decreased void volume significantly. Meanwhile, the mechanical stability as well as the immunoisolation property of magnetite microcapsules were well maintained during the fluidization. Besides, the magnetite microcapsules were found no toxicity to cell survival. Therefore, our study might provide a novel approach for the design of microcapsule-based bioartificial liver bioreactors.

  5. Comparison between a moving bed bioreactor and a fixed bed bioreactor for biological phosphate removal and denitrification.

    PubMed

    Choi, H J; Lee, A H; Lee, S M

    2012-01-01

    Moving bed bioreactors (MBBR) and fixed bed bioreactors (FBBR) were compared for biological phosphorus removal and denitrification. The sorption denitrification P-elimination (S-DN-P) process was selected for this study. Results indicated that all nutrients were removed by the FBBR process compared with the MBBR process: 19.8% (total COD), 35.5% (filtered COD), 27.6% (BOD(5)), 62.2% (acetate), 78.5% (PO(4)-P), and 54.2% (NO(3)-N) in MBBR; 49.7% (total COD), 54.0% (filtered COD), 63.2% (BOD(5)), 99.6% (acetate), 98.6% (PO(4)-P), and 75.9% (NO(3)-N) in FBBR. The phosphate uptake and NO(3)-N decomposition in the FBBR process during the denitrification phase were much higher than for the MBBR process despite being of shorter duration. Results obtained from this study are helpful in elucidating the practical implications of using MBBR and FBBR for the removal of bio-P and denitrification from wastewater.

  6. Fluid bed porosity mathematical model for an inverse fluidized bed bioreactor with particles growing biofilm.

    PubMed

    Campos-Díaz, K E; Bandala-González, E R; Limas-Ballesteros, R

    2012-08-15

    A new mathematic model to estimate bed porosity as a function of Reynolds and Archimedes numbers was developed based in experimental data. Experiments were performed using an inverse fluidized bed bioreactor filled with polypropylene particles, Lactobacillus acidophillus as the immobilized strain and fluidized with a Man-Rogosa-Sharpe culture medium under controlled temperature and pH conditions. Bed porosity was measured at different flow rates, starting from 0.95 to 9.5 LPM. The new model has several advantages when compared with previously reported. Among them, advantages such as standard deviation values ≤ 1% between experimental and calculated bed porosity, its applicability in traditional and inverse fluidization, wall effects do not take account, it gives excellent agreement with spherical particles with or without biofilm, and inertial drag coefficient allow extend the new model a non-spherical particles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment of trichloroethene (TCE) with a fluidized-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Foeller, J.R.; Segar, R.L. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBBR`s) offer a promising alternative to existing treatment technologies for the treatment of water contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The objective of this research was to test a laboratory-scale FBBR for removal of trichloroethene (TCE) from groundwater and to study the FBBR kinetic behavior so that field-scale treatment systems could be designed. Phenol was selected as the growth substrate for biofilm-forming microorganisms enriched from activated-sludge because phenol induces enzymes capable of cometabolizing TCE and lesser chlorinated ethenes. The biofilm forming microorganisms were identified as Pseudomonas putida, a common soil bacterium. Experiments with a conventional, single-pass FBBR addressed TCE removal as effected by changes in TCE loading, phenol loading, and media type. In this study, TCE removal using quartz filter sand and garnet filter sand as the biofilm attachment media was measured. Removal ranged from 20 to 60% and was not affected by the media type. Also, removal was not affected by inlet TCE concentration over the range of 100 to 500 {micro}g/L provided the phenol loading was decreased with increasing TCE loading. The FBBR was capable of complete phenol removal at an inlet concentration of 20 to 25 mg/L and an empty-bed contact time of 2.7 minutes. However, the empty-bed contact time was insufficient to sustain greater than 40 to 50% removal of TCE in a nutrient-amended groundwater.

  8. Sulfide oxidation in fluidized bed bioreactor using nylon support material.

    PubMed

    Midha, Varsha; Jha, M K; Dey, Apurba

    2012-01-01

    A continuous fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) with nylon support particles was used to treat synthetic sulfide wastewater at different hydraulic retention time of 25, 50 and 75 min and upflow velocity of 14, 17 and 20 m/hr. The effects of upflow velocity, hydraulic retention time and reactor operation time on sulfide oxidation rate were studied using statistical model. Mixed culture obtained from the activated sludge, taken from tannery effluent treatment plant, was used as a source for microorganisms. The diameter and density of the nylon particles were 2-3 mm and 1140 kg/m3, respectively. Experiments were carried out in the reactor at a temperature of (30 +/- 2) degrees C, at a fixed bed height of 16 cm after the formation of biofilm on the surface of support particles. Biofilm thickness reached (42 +/- 3) microm after 15 days from reactor start-up. The sulfide oxidation, sulfate and sulfur formation is examined at all hydraulic retention times and upflow velocities. The results indicated that almost 90%-92% sulfide oxidation was achieved at all hydraulic retention times. Statistical model could explain 94% of the variability and analysis of variance showed that upflow velocity and hydraulic retention time slightly affected the sulfide oxidation rate. The highest sulfide oxidation of 92% with 70% sulfur was obtained at hydraulic retention time of 75 min and upflow velocity of 14 m/hr.

  9. Continuous, packed-bed, enzymatic bioreactor production and stability of feruloyl soy glycerides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The synthesis of feruloyl soy glycerides was demonstrated on a pilot-scale (1 metric ton/year) in a continuous, four-column series, packed-bed, enzymatic bioreactor (herinafter referred to as the bioreactor). Ethyl ferulate and soybean oil were combined and converted at 3.5 kg/d over Candida antarti...

  10. Intrinsic kinetics for fixed bed bioreactor in hospital wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, Mehrdad; Mahdavianpour, Mostafa; Shirzad-Siboni, Mehdi; Naimi-Joubani, Mohammad; Jamali, Hamzeh Ali

    2016-10-01

    Variation in hospital wastewater (HWW) pollutants and differences with municipal wastewater (MWW), make the use of biokinetic coefficients obtained from activated sludge in the MWW treatment unprofitable for designing, modeling and evaluation of biological processes for HWW treatment. Since this study was conducted to evaluate the performance and biokinetic coefficients of a fixed bed bioreactor (FBBR) using rice husks as fixed media in HWW treatment, a new modified method was also proposed for biokinetic estimation in FBBR processes. For these purposes, five hydraulic retention times along with five sludge retention times were introduced to a pilot setup and the required data were attained. The performance process for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was significant (87.8-97.5%) in different conditions. The values of biokinetic coefficients k, Ks, Y and Kd were obtained as 2.42 (day(-1)), 55.5 (mgCOD/L), 0.2929 (mgBiomass/mgCOD) and 0.0164 (day(-1)), respectively. The rice husks with high surface area and high affinity for biomass accumulation on its surface are promising media for a green and environmentally friendly FBBR process. The kinetics parameters values are utilizable for modeling of FBBR using rice husks as fixed media in HWW treatment.

  11. Removal of toluene in gas streams by a fibrous-bed trickling filter.

    PubMed

    Tseng, D H; Guo, G L; Chang, C H; Huang, S L

    2001-01-01

    A novel fibrous-bed trickling filter was developed to remove toluene present in contaminated air. Pure culture of Pseudomonas putida F1 was attached on fibrous-bed and utilized toluene as the carbon source. Experimental results indicated the removal efficiency decreased with the increase of inlet concentration. In general, the removal efficiency of toluene was greater than 90% when the inlet loading capacity was below 70 g m-3h-3. The elimination capacity increased with increasing inlet loading capacity, but the increased rate decreased gradually. When the inlet loading capacity increased to 300 g m-3h-1, the elimination capacity could approach to 130 g m-3h-1. The first order kinetics model was useful to describe the removal of toluene in this filter and an excellent linear relationship was found between the apparent first order parameter and inlet concentration (ranging from 1.2 g m-3 to 3.5 g m-3). Also, the performance of fibrous-bed trickling filter was relatively stable during the four-month period of continuous operation. Slight clogging phenomena of filters were observed only under high loading capacity.

  12. Assessment of packed bed bioreactor systems in the production of viral vaccines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is believed to be the most effective method for the prevention of infectious diseases. Thus it is imperative to develop cost effective and scalable process for the production of vaccines so as to make them affordable for mass use. In this study, performance of a novel disposable iCELLis fixed bed bioreactor system was investigated for the production of some viral vaccines like Rabies, Hepatitis-A and Chikungunya vaccines in comparison to conventional systems like the commercially available packed bed system and roller bottle system. Vero and MRC-5 cell substrates were evaluated for growth parameters in all the three systems maintaining similar seeding density, multiplicity of infection (MOI) and media components. It was observed that Vero cells showed similar growth in all the three bioreactors whereas MRC-5 cells showed better growth in iCELLis Nano system and roller bottle system. Subsequently, the virus infection and antigen production studies also revealed that for Hepatitis-A and Chikungunya iCELLis Nano bioreactor system was better to the commercial packed bed bioreactor and roller bottle systems. Although for rabies antigen production commercially available packed bed bioreactor system was found to be better. This study shows that different bioreactor platforms may be employed for viral vaccine production and iCELLis Nano is one of such new convenient and a stable platform for production of human viral vaccines. PMID:24949260

  13. Assessment of packed bed bioreactor systems in the production of viral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Ramya; Lingala, Rajendra; Vuppu, Siva Kumar; Bandi, Bala Obulapathi; Manickam, Elaiyaraja; Macherla, Sankar Rao; Dubois, Stéphanie; Havelange, Nicolas; Maithal, Kapil

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is believed to be the most effective method for the prevention of infectious diseases. Thus it is imperative to develop cost effective and scalable process for the production of vaccines so as to make them affordable for mass use. In this study, performance of a novel disposable iCELLis fixed bed bioreactor system was investigated for the production of some viral vaccines like Rabies, Hepatitis-A and Chikungunya vaccines in comparison to conventional systems like the commercially available packed bed system and roller bottle system. Vero and MRC-5 cell substrates were evaluated for growth parameters in all the three systems maintaining similar seeding density, multiplicity of infection (MOI) and media components. It was observed that Vero cells showed similar growth in all the three bioreactors whereas MRC-5 cells showed better growth in iCELLis Nano system and roller bottle system. Subsequently, the virus infection and antigen production studies also revealed that for Hepatitis-A and Chikungunya iCELLis Nano bioreactor system was better to the commercial packed bed bioreactor and roller bottle systems. Although for rabies antigen production commercially available packed bed bioreactor system was found to be better. This study shows that different bioreactor platforms may be employed for viral vaccine production and iCELLis Nano is one of such new convenient and a stable platform for production of human viral vaccines.

  14. Packed Bed Bioreactor for the Isolation and Expansion of Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Osiecki, Michael J; Michl, Thomas D; Kul Babur, Betul; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Atkinson, Kerry; Lott, William B; Griesser, Hans J; Doran, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are required for clinical relevant doses to treat a number of diseases. To economically manufacture these MSCs, an automated bioreactor system will be required. Herein we describe the development of a scalable closed-system, packed bed bioreactor suitable for large-scale MSCs expansion. The packed bed was formed from fused polystyrene pellets that were air plasma treated to endow them with a surface chemistry similar to traditional tissue culture plastic. The packed bed was encased within a gas permeable shell to decouple the medium nutrient supply and gas exchange. This enabled a significant reduction in medium flow rates, thus reducing shear and even facilitating single pass medium exchange. The system was optimised in a small-scale bioreactor format (160 cm2) with murine-derived green fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs, and then scaled-up to a 2800 cm2 format. We demonstrated that placental derived MSCs could be isolated directly within the bioreactor and subsequently expanded. Our results demonstrate that the closed system large-scale packed bed bioreactor is an effective and scalable tool for large-scale isolation and expansion of MSCs.

  15. Packed Bed Bioreactor for the Isolation and Expansion of Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Osiecki, Michael J.; Michl, Thomas D.; Kul Babur, Betul; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Atkinson, Kerry; Lott, William B.; Griesser, Hans J.; Doran, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are required for clinical relevant doses to treat a number of diseases. To economically manufacture these MSCs, an automated bioreactor system will be required. Herein we describe the development of a scalable closed-system, packed bed bioreactor suitable for large-scale MSCs expansion. The packed bed was formed from fused polystyrene pellets that were air plasma treated to endow them with a surface chemistry similar to traditional tissue culture plastic. The packed bed was encased within a gas permeable shell to decouple the medium nutrient supply and gas exchange. This enabled a significant reduction in medium flow rates, thus reducing shear and even facilitating single pass medium exchange. The system was optimised in a small-scale bioreactor format (160 cm2) with murine-derived green fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs, and then scaled-up to a 2800 cm2 format. We demonstrated that placental derived MSCs could be isolated directly within the bioreactor and subsequently expanded. Our results demonstrate that the closed system large-scale packed bed bioreactor is an effective and scalable tool for large-scale isolation and expansion of MSCs. PMID:26660475

  16. Separation of VOC from exhaust gases in the trickle-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchner, K.; Wagner, S.; Rehm, H.J.

    1996-12-31

    The separation efficiency of certain substances, such as acetone and isopropanol in a trickle-bed bioreactor, depends strongly on the oxygen concentration. The results obtained can be described by a mathematical model based on the diffusion of oxygen into the biofilm (diffusion regime of the catalyst). The non-stationary operation of the reactor - interruption of the oxygen stream and strong fluctuation in the exhaust gas stream - showed that other components, such as propionaldehyde and n-propanol, could be eliminated for a certain time without oxygen. Propionic acid is formed. Finally a technical biofilter is compared with a trickle-bed bioreactor. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. A New Fluidized Bed Bioreactor Based on Diversion-Type Microcapsule Suspension for Bioartificial Liver Systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianzhou; Yu, Liang; Chen, Ermei; Zhu, Danhua; Zhang, Yimin; Li, LanJuan

    2016-01-01

    A fluidized bed bioreactor containing encapsulated hepatocytes may be a valuable alternative to a hollow fiber bioreactor for achieving the improved mass transfer and scale-up potential necessary for clinical use. However, a conventional fluidized bed bioreactor (FBB) operating under high perfusion velocity is incapable of providing the desired performance due to the resulting damage to cell-containing microcapsules and large void volume. In this study, we developed a novel diversion-type microcapsule-suspension fluidized bed bioreactor (DMFBB). The void volume in the bioreactor and stability of alginate/chitosan microcapsules were investigated under different flow rates. Cell viability, synthesis and metabolism functions, and expression of metabolizing enzymes at transcriptional levels in an encapsulated hepatocyte line (C3A cells) were determined. The void volume was significantly less in the novel bioreactor than in the conventional FBB. In addition, the microcapsules were less damaged in the DMFBB during the fluidization process as reflected by the results for microcapsule retention rates, swelling, and breakage. Encapsulated C3A cells exhibited greater viability and CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 activity in the DMFBB than in the FBB, although the increases in albumin and urea synthesis were less prominent. The transcription levels of several CYP450-related genes and an albumin-related gene were dramatically greater in cells in the DMFBB than in those in the FBB. Taken together, our results suggest that the DMFBB is a promising alternative for the design of a bioartificial liver system based on a fluidized bed bioreactor with encapsulated hepatocytes for treating patients with acute hepatic failure or other severe liver diseases. PMID:26840840

  18. A New Fluidized Bed Bioreactor Based on Diversion-Type Microcapsule Suspension for Bioartificial Liver Systems.

    PubMed

    Lu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Li, Jianzhou; Yu, Liang; Chen, Ermei; Zhu, Danhua; Zhang, Yimin; Li, LanJuan

    2016-01-01

    A fluidized bed bioreactor containing encapsulated hepatocytes may be a valuable alternative to a hollow fiber bioreactor for achieving the improved mass transfer and scale-up potential necessary for clinical use. However, a conventional fluidized bed bioreactor (FBB) operating under high perfusion velocity is incapable of providing the desired performance due to the resulting damage to cell-containing microcapsules and large void volume. In this study, we developed a novel diversion-type microcapsule-suspension fluidized bed bioreactor (DMFBB). The void volume in the bioreactor and stability of alginate/chitosan microcapsules were investigated under different flow rates. Cell viability, synthesis and metabolism functions, and expression of metabolizing enzymes at transcriptional levels in an encapsulated hepatocyte line (C3A cells) were determined. The void volume was significantly less in the novel bioreactor than in the conventional FBB. In addition, the microcapsules were less damaged in the DMFBB during the fluidization process as reflected by the results for microcapsule retention rates, swelling, and breakage. Encapsulated C3A cells exhibited greater viability and CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 activity in the DMFBB than in the FBB, although the increases in albumin and urea synthesis were less prominent. The transcription levels of several CYP450-related genes and an albumin-related gene were dramatically greater in cells in the DMFBB than in those in the FBB. Taken together, our results suggest that the DMFBB is a promising alternative for the design of a bioartificial liver system based on a fluidized bed bioreactor with encapsulated hepatocytes for treating patients with acute hepatic failure or other severe liver diseases.

  19. Comparison between moving bed-membrane bioreactor (MB-MBR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems: influence of wastewater salinity variation.

    PubMed

    Di Trapani, Daniele; Di Bella, Gaetano; Mannina, Giorgio; Torregrossa, Michele; Viviani, Gaspare

    2014-06-01

    Two pilot plant systems were investigated for the treatment of wastewater subject to a gradual increase of salinity. In particular, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a moving bed biofilm membrane bioreactor (MB-MBR) were analyzed. Carbon and ammonium removal, kinetic constants and membranes fouling rates have been assessed. Both plants showed very high efficiency in terms of carbon and ammonium removal and the gradual salinity increase led to a good acclimation of the biomass, as confirmed by the respirometric tests. Significant biofilm detachments from carriers were experienced, which contributed to increase the irreversible superficial cake deposition. However, this aspect prevented the pore fouling tendency in the membrane module of MB-MBR system. On the contrary, the MBR pilot, even showing a lower irreversible cake deposition, was characterized by a higher pore fouling tendency.

  20. Covalent immobilization of lipase from Candida rugosa onto poly(acrylonitrile-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) electrospun fibrous membranes for potential bioreactor application.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Jun; Yu, An-Guo; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2008-09-01

    A simple way of fabricating enzymatic membrane reactor with high enzyme loading and activity retention from the conjugation between nanofibrous membrane and lipase was devised. Poly(acrylonitrile-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PANCHEMA) was electrospun into fibrous membrane and used as support for enzyme immobilization. The hydroxyl groups on the fibrous membrane surface were activated with epichlorohydrin, cyanuric chloride or p-benzoquinone, respectively. Lipase from Candida rugosa was covalently immobilized on these fibrous membranes. The resulted bioactive fibrous membranes were examined in catalytic efficiency and activity for hydrolysis. The observed enzyme loading on the fibrous membrane with fiber diameter of 80-150 nm was up to 1.6% (wt/wt), which was as thrice as that on the fibrous membrane with fiber diameter of 800-1,000 nm. Activity retention for the immobilized lipase varied between 32.5% and 40.6% with the activation methods of hydroxyl groups. Stabilities of the immobilized lipase were obviously improved. In addition, continuous hydrolysis was carried out with an enzyme-immobilized fibrous membrane bioreactor and a steady hydrolysis conversion (3.6%) was obtained at a 0.23 mL/min flow rate under optimum condition.

  1. Bacterial Community Dynamics during Start-Up of a Trickle-Bed Bioreactor Degrading Aromatic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Stoffels, Marion; Amann, Rudolf; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Hekmat, Dariusch; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz

    1998-01-01

    This study was performed with a laboratory-scale fixed-bed bioreactor degrading a mixture of aromatic compounds (Solvesso100). The starter culture for the bioreactor was prepared in a fermentor with a wastewater sample of a car painting facility as the inoculum and Solvesso100 as the sole carbon source. The bacterial community dynamics in the fermentor and the bioreactor were examined by a conventional isolation procedure and in situ hybridization with fluorescently labeled rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides. Two significant shifts in the bacterial community structure could be demonstrated. The original inoculum from the wastewater of the car factory was rich in proteobacteria of the alpha and beta subclasses, while the final fermentor enrichment was dominated by bacteria closely related to Pseudomonas putida or Pseudomonas mendocina, which both belong to the gamma subclass of the class Proteobacteria. A second significant shift was observed when the fermentor culture was transferred as inoculum to the trickle-bed bioreactor. The community structure in the bioreactor gradually returned to a higher complexity, with the dominance of beta and alpha subclass proteobacteria, whereas the gamma subclass proteobacteria sharply declined. Obviously, the preceded pollutant adaptant did not lead to a significant enrichment of bacteria that finally dominated in the trickle-bed bioreactor. In the course of experiments, three new 16S as well as 23S rRNA-targeted probes for beta subclass proteobacteria were designed, probe SUBU1237 for the genera Burkholderia and Sutterella, probe ALBO34a for the genera Alcaligenes and Bordetella, and probe Bcv13b for Burkholderia cepacia and Burkholderia vietnamiensis. Bacteria hybridizing with the probe Bcv13b represented the main Solvesso100-degrading population in the reactor. PMID:9501433

  2. Start-up of membrane bioreactor and hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor: kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Díaz, J C; Poyatos, J M

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (hybrid MBBR-MBR) system was studied as an alternative solution to conventional activated sludge processes and membrane bioreactors. This paper shows the results obtained from three laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants working in parallel in the start-up and steady states. The first wastewater treatment plant was a MBR, the second one was a hybrid MBBR-MBR system containing carriers both in anoxic and aerobic zones of the bioreactor (hybrid MBBR-MBRa), and the last one was a hybrid MBBR-MBR system which contained carriers only in the aerobic zone (hybrid MBBR-MBRb). The reactors operated with a hydraulic retention time of 30.40 h. A kinetic study for characterizing heterotrophic biomass was carried out and organic matter and nutrients removals were evaluated. The heterotrophic biomass of the hybrid MBBR-MBRb showed the best kinetic performance in the steady state, with yield coefficient for heterotrophic biomass=0.30246 mg volatile suspended solids per mg chemical oxygen demand, maximum specific growth rate for heterotrophic biomass=0.00308 h(-1) and half-saturation coefficient for organic matter=3.54908 mg O2 L(-1). The removal of organic matter was supported by the kinetic study of heterotrophic biomass.

  3. Numerical modelling of the formation of fibrous bedding-parallel veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torremans, Koen; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Bedding-parallel veins with a fibrous infill oriented orthogonal to the vein wall, are often observed in fine-grained metasedimentary sequences. Several mechanisms have been proposed for their formation, mostly with respect to effects of fluid overpressures and anisotropy of the host-rock fabric in order to explain the inferred extensional failure with sub-vertical opening. Abundant pre-folding, bedding-parallel fibrous dolomite veins are found associated with the Nkana-Mindola stratiform Cu-Co deposit in Zambia. The goal of this study is to better understand the formation mechanisms of these veins and to explain their particular spatial and thickness distribution, with respect to failure of transversely isotropic rocks. The spatial distribution and thickness variation of these veins was quantified during a field campaign in thirteen line transects perpendicular to undeformed veins in underground crosscuts. The fibrous dolomite veins studied are not related to lithological contrasts, but to a strong bedding-parallel shaly fabric, typical for the black shale facies of the Copperbelt Orebody Member. The host rock can hence be considered as transversely isotropic. Growth morphologies vary from antitaxial with a pronounced median surface to asymmetric syntaxial, always with small but quantifiable growth competition. A microstructural fabric study reveals that the undeformed dolomite veins show low-tortuosity vein walls and quantifiable growth competition. Here, we use a Discrete Element Method numerical modelling approach with ESyS-Particle (http://launchpad.net/esys-particle) to simulate the observed properties of the veins. Calibrated numerical specimens with a transversely isotropic matrix are repeatedly brought to failure under constant strain rates by changing the effective strain rates at model boundaries. After each fracture event, fractures in the numerical model are filled with cohesive vein material and the experiment is repeated. By systematically varying

  4. Biodegradation of trichloroethylene in continuous-recycle expanded-bed bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, T.J.; Niedzielski, J.J.; Schram, R.M. ); Herbes, S.E.; White, D.C. )

    1990-06-01

    Experimental bioreactors operated as recirculated closed systems were inoculated with bacterial cultures that utilized methane, propane, and tryptone-yeast extract as aerobic carbon and energy sources and degraded trichloroethylene (TCE). Up to 95% removal of TCE was observed after 5 days of incubation. Uninoculated bioreactors inhibited with 0.5% Formalin and 0.2% sodium azide retained greater than 95% of their TCE after 20 days. Each bioreactor consisted of an expanded-bed column through which the liquid phase was recirculated and a gas recharge column which allowed direct headspace sampling. Pulses of TCE (20 mg/liter) were added to bioreactors, and gas chromatography was used to monitor TCE, propane, methane, and carbon dioxide. Pulsed feeding of methane and propane with air resulted in 1 mol of TCE degraded per 55 mol of substrate utilized. Perturbation studies revealed the pH shifts from 7.2 to 7.5 decreased TCE degradation by 85%. The bioreactors recovered to baseline activities within 1 day after the pH returned to neutrality.

  5. Effect of sudden addition of PCE and bioreactor coupling to ZVI filters on performance of fluidized bed bioreactors operated in simultaneous electron acceptor modes.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Medina, C U; Poggi-Varaldo, Hector M; Breton-Deval, L; Rinderknecht-Seijas, N

    2016-08-08

    The present work evaluated the effects of (i) feeding a water contaminated with 80 mg/L PCE to bioreactors seeded with inoculum not acclimated to PCE, (ii) coupling ZVI side filters to bioreactors, and (iii) working in different biological regimes, i.e., simultaneous methanogenic aeration and simultaneous methanogenic-denitrifying regimes, on fluidized bed bioreactor performance. Simultaneous electron acceptors refer to the simultaneous presence of two compounds operating as final electron acceptors in the biological respiratory chain (e.g., use of either O2 or NO3(-) in combination with a methanogenic environment) in a bioreactor or environmental niche. Four lab-scale, mesophilic, fluidized bed bioreactors (bioreactors) were implemented. Two bioreactors were operated as simultaneous methanogenic-denitrifying (MD) units, whereas the other two were operated in partially aerated methanogenic (PAM) mode. In the first period, all bioreactors received a wastewater with 1 g chemical oxygen demand of methanol per liter (COD-methanol/L). In a second period, all the bioreactors received the wastewater plus 80 mg perchloroethylene (PCE)/L; at the start of period 2, one MD and one PAM were coupled to side sand-zero valent iron filters (ZVI). All bioreactors were inoculated with a microbial consortium not acclimated to PCE. In this work, the performance of the full period 1 and the first 60 days of period 2 is reported and discussed. The COD removal efficiency and the nitrate removal efficiency of the bioreactors essentially did not change between period 1 and period 2, i.e., upon PCE addition. On the contrary, specific methanogenic activity in PAM bioreactors (both with and without coupled ZVI filter) significantly decreased. This was consistent with a sharp fall of methane productivity in those bioreactors in period 2. During period 2, PCE removals in the range 86 to 97 % were generally observed; the highest removal corresponded to PAM bioreactors along with the highest

  6. Performance of trickle-bed bioreactors for converting synthesis gas to methane

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmel, D.E.; Klasson, K.T.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1991-12-31

    Carbon monoxide, H{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} in synthesis gas can be converted to CH{sub 4} by employing a triculture of Rhodospirillum rubrum, Methanosarcina barkeri, and Methanobacterium formicicum. Trickle-bed reactors have been found to be effective for this conversion because of their high mass-transfer coefficients. This paper compares results obtained for the conversion of synthesis gas to CH{sub 4} in 5-cm- and 16.5-cm-diameter trickle-bed reactors. Mass-transfer and scale-up parameters are defined, and light requirements for R. rubrum are considered in bioreactor design.

  7. Comparison between a moving bed membrane bioreactor and a conventional membrane bioreactor on organic carbon and nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuai; Yang, Fenglin; Fu, Zhimin; Lei, Ruibo

    2009-04-01

    A membrane bioreactor filled with carriers instead of activated sludge named a moving bed membrane bioreactor (MBMBR) was investigated for simultaneously removing organic carbon and nitrogen in wastewater. Its performance was compared with a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) at various influent COD/TN ratios of 8.9-22.1. The operational parameters were optimized to increase the treatment efficiency. COD removal efficiency averaged at 95.6% and 96.2%, respectively, for MBMBR and CMBR during the 4 months experimental period. The MBMBR system demonstrated good performance on nitrogen removal at different COD/TN ratios. When COD/TN was 8.9 and the total nitrogen (TN) load was 7.58 mg/l h, the TN and ammonium nitrogen removal efficiencies of the MBMBR were maintained over 70.0% and 80.0%, respectively, and the removed total nitrogen (TN) load reached to 5.31 mg/l h. Multifunctional microbial reactions in the carrier, such as simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND), play important roles in nitrogen removal. In comparison, the CMBR did not perform so well. Its TN removal was not stable, and the removed total nitrogen (TN) load was only 1.02 mg/l h at COD/TN ratio 8.9. The specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR) showed that the biofilm has a better microbial activity than an activated sludge. Nevertheless, the membrane fouling behavior was more severe in the MBMBR than in the CMBR due to a thick and dense cake layer formed on the membrane surface, which was speculated to be caused by the filamentous bacteria in the MBMBR.

  8. Modeling of an immobilized-cell three-phase fluidized-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, J.N.; Davison, B.H.

    1991-12-31

    A mathematical model of a three-phase, tapered, fluidized-bed bioreactor has been developed. This model includes the effects of the tapered bed, a variable dispersion coefficient, and the concentration profile inside the biocatalyst bead on the reaction rate within the bed. Parameters in this model were obtained by adjusting them, within a realistic range, such that the square of the difference between the values predicted by the model and those obtained experimentally was minimized. The model was found to predict experimentally obtained concentration profiles quite accurately. It also demonstrates the need to include the effects of variable dispersion in three-phase systems where the gas phase is being generated inside the reactor, as the dispersion coefficient varied by more than an order of magnitude across the bed.

  9. Large-scale Clinical-grade Retroviral Vector Production in a Fixed-Bed Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiuyan; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Qu, Jinrong; Wasielewska, Teresa; Bartido, Shirley; Hermetet, Gregory; Sadelain, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The successful genetic engineering of patient T cells with γ-retroviral vectors expressing chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors for phase II clinical trials and beyond requires the large-scale manufacture of high-titer vector stocks. The production of retroviral vectors from stable packaging cell lines using roller bottles or 10- to 40-layer cell factories is limited by a narrow harvest window, labor intensity, open-system operations, and the requirement for significant incubator space. To circumvent these shortcomings, we optimized the production of vector stocks in a disposable fixed-bed bioreactor using good manufacturing practice–grade packaging cell lines. High-titer vector stocks were harvested over 10 days, representing a much broader harvest window than the 3-day harvest afforded by cell factories. For PG13 and 293Vec packaging cells, the average vector titer and the vector stocks’ yield in the bioreactor were higher by 3.2- to 7.3-fold, and 5.6- to 13.1-fold, respectively, than those obtained in cell factories. The vector production was 10.4 and 18.6 times more efficient than in cell factories for PG13 and 293Vec cells, respectively. Furthermore, the vectors produced from the fixed-bed bioreactors passed the release test assays for clinical applications. Therefore, a single vector lot derived from 293Vec is suitable to transduce up to 500 patients cell doses in the context of large clinical trials using chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors. These findings demonstrate for the first time that a robust fixed-bed bioreactor process can be used to produce γ-retroviral vector stocks scalable up to the commercialization phase. PMID:25751502

  10. Large-scale clinical-grade retroviral vector production in a fixed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuyan; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Qu, Jinrong; Wasielewska, Teresa; Bartido, Shirley; Hermetet, Gregory; Sadelain, Michel; Rivière, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    The successful genetic engineering of patient T cells with γ-retroviral vectors expressing chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors for phase II clinical trials and beyond requires the large-scale manufacture of high-titer vector stocks. The production of retroviral vectors from stable packaging cell lines using roller bottles or 10- to 40-layer cell factories is limited by a narrow harvest window, labor intensity, open-system operations, and the requirement for significant incubator space. To circumvent these shortcomings, we optimized the production of vector stocks in a disposable fixed-bed bioreactor using good manufacturing practice-grade packaging cell lines. High-titer vector stocks were harvested over 10 days, representing a much broader harvest window than the 3-day harvest afforded by cell factories. For PG13 and 293Vec packaging cells, the average vector titer and the vector stocks' yield in the bioreactor were higher by 3.2- to 7.3-fold, and 5.6- to 13.1-fold, respectively, than those obtained in cell factories. The vector production was 10.4 and 18.6 times more efficient than in cell factories for PG13 and 293Vec cells, respectively. Furthermore, the vectors produced from the fixed-bed bioreactors passed the release test assays for clinical applications. Therefore, a single vector lot derived from 293Vec is suitable to transduce up to 500 patients cell doses in the context of large clinical trials using chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors. These findings demonstrate for the first time that a robust fixed-bed bioreactor process can be used to produce γ-retroviral vector stocks scalable up to the commercialization phase.

  11. Quantification of genes and gene transcripts for microbial perchlorate reduction in fixed-bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    De Long, S K; Li, X; Bae, S; Brown, J C; Raskin, L; Kinney, K A; Kirisits, M J

    2012-03-01

    Optimization of full-scale, biological perchlorate treatment processes for drinking water would benefit from knowledge of the location and quantity of perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB) and expression of perchlorate-related genes in bioreactors. The aim of this study was to quantify perchlorate removal and perchlorate-related genes (pcrA and cld) and their transcripts in bioreactors and to determine whether these genes or transcripts could serve as useful biomarkers for perchlorate treatment processes. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting pcrA and cld were applied to two pilot-scale, fixed-bed bioreactors treating perchlorate-contaminated groundwater. pcrA and cld genes per microgram of DNA were two- to threefold higher and three- to fourfold higher, respectively, in the bioreactor showing superior perchlorate-removal performance. In a laboratory-scale bioreactor, quantities of pcrA and cld genes and transcripts were compared under two distinct performance conditions (c.60 and 20% perchlorate removal) for a 5-min empty bed contact time. cld genes per microgram of DNA were approximately threefold higher and cld transcripts per microgram of RNA were approximately sixfold higher under the higher perchlorate-removal condition. No differences in pcrA genes or transcripts per microgram of DNA or RNA, respectively, were detected between the c.60 and 20% perchlorate-removal conditions, possibly because these assays did not accurately quantify pcrA genes and transcripts in the mixed culture present. Quantities of cld genes and transcripts per microgram of DNA and RNA, respectively, were found to be higher when perchlorate removal was higher. However, quantities of pcrA and cld genes or transcripts were not found to directly correlate with perchlorate-removal rates. To our knowledge, this study represents the first application of qPCR assays to quantify perchlorate-related genes and transcripts in continuous-flow bioreactors. The results indicate that cld gene and

  12. Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators

  13. Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators

  14. Treatment of ammonium-rich swine waste in modified porphyritic andesite fixed-bed anaerobic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghong; Yang, Yingnan; Li, Dawei; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhenya

    2012-05-01

    In this study, a modified porphyritic andesite (WRS) was developed as ammonium adsorbent and bed material for the anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine waste. The performance in bioreactors with modified WRS, natural WRS, calcium chloride and no additives was investigated. The bioreactor with modified WRS exhibited the best performance, with start-up time on the 7th day, methane yield of 359.71 ml/g-VS, and COD removal of 67.99% during all 44 days of the experiment at 35°C. The effective ammonium adsorption and essential ions dissociation for microorganisms by modified WRS, as well as the immobilization of microbial on the surface of the modified WRS play a great role on the high efficiency anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine waste.

  15. Field evaluation of a granular activated carbon fluid-bed bioreactor for treatment of chlorobenzene in groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Klecka, G.M.; McDaniel, S.G.; Wilson, P.S.

    1996-12-31

    Although granular activated carbon (GAC), fluidized-bed bioreactors have been used for treatment of groundwater containing readily biodegradable organic compounds, there is only limited experience with treatment of chlorinated organics found at many industrial sites. This paper describes a field evaluation of a GAC fluid-bed bioreactor operated at various chlorobenzene concentrations and organic loading rates over a 7-month period. Microorganisms used to seed the bioreactor were provided by activated sludge form the site, as well as indigenous chlorobenzene-degrading bacteria present in the groundwater. Removal efficiencies exceeding 99.99% were achieved at organic loading rates between 6 and 10 pounds of total oxygen demand (lb TOD) per 25 cubic feet per day. Influent chlorobenzene concentrations ranging form 100 to 170 ppm were consistently reduced to below the detection limit of 10 ppb. Economic evaluation indicates that groundwater treatment costs for the bioreactor were lower than other conventional technologies. 44 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Effects of stratification in a fluidized bed bioreactor during treatment of metalworking wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Schreyer, H.B.; Coughlin, R.W.

    1999-04-20

    During wastewater treatment, biofilm-coated sand particles stratified in a fluidized bed bioreactor (FBB); particles coated by thicker biofilm segregated toward the top of the bed. Stratification was so well developed that at least two co-existing regions of significantly different mean biofilm thickness were visually distinct within the operating FBB. The observed stratification is attributed to differences in forces of drag, buoyancy, shear, and collisional impact, as well as differences of collision rate within the different regions. Particles with thick biofilm near the top of the bed consumed substrate at significantly lower rates per unit biomass than particles with thin biofilm near the bottom of the bed, thereby suggesting that substrate mass-transfer resistance through biofilm may limit biodegradation rates in the upper portion of the FBB. Large agglomerates of biomass floc and sand, which formed at the top of the fluidized bed, and sand particles with thick biofilm were susceptible to washout from the FBB, causing operational and treatment instability. Radial injection of supplemental liquid feed near the top of the bed increased shear and mixing, thereby preventing formation and washout of agglomerates and thickly coated sand particles. Supplemental liquid injection caused the mean specific biomass loading on the sand to increase and also increased the total biomass inventory in the FBB. Rates of biodegradation in the FBB appeared to be limited by penetration of substrates into the biofilm and absorption of oxygen from air into the wastewater.

  17. A novel multi-phase bioreactor for fermentations to produce organic acids from dairy wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.T.; Zhu, H.; Li, Y.; Silva, E.M.

    1993-12-31

    A novel, fibrous bed bioreactor is developed for multi-phase fermentation processes. The microbial cells are immobilized in a spiral-wound, fibrous matrix packed in the bioreactor. This innovative, structured packing design allows good contact between two different moving phases (e.g., gas-liquid or liquid-solid) and has many advantages over conventional immobilized cell bioreactors. Because the reactor bed is not completely filled with the solid matrix, the bioreactor can be operated for a long period without developing problems such as clogging and high pressure drop usually associated with conventional packed bed and membrane bioreactors. This novel bioreactor was studied for its use in several organic acid fermentations. Production of propionate, acetate, and lactate from whey permeate was studied. In all cases studied, use of the fibrous bioreactor resulted in superior reactor performance-indicated by a more than tenfold increase in productivity, reduction or elimination of the requirement for nutrient supplementation to whey permeate, and resistance to contamination-as compared to conventional batch fermentation processes. Also, the reactor maintained high productivity throughout long-term continuous operation. No contamination, degeneration, or clogging problems were experienced during a 10-month period of continuous operation. This new bioreactor is thus suitable for industrial uses to improve fermentation processes which currently use conventional bioreactors.

  18. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by Pseudomonas sp. in a continuous packed bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Maya; Srivastva, Navnita; Singh, Ram Sharan; Upadhyay, Siddh Nath; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos (CP) by Pseudomonas (Iso 1) sp. was investigated in batch as well as continuous bioreactors packed with polyurethane foam pieces. The optimum process parameters for the maximum removal of CP, determined through batch experiments, were found to be: inoculum level, 300×10(6)CfumL(-1); CP concentration, 500mgL(-1); pH 7.5; temperature, 37°C and DO, 5.5mgL(-1). The continuous packed bed bioreactor was operated at various flow rates (10-40mLh(-1)) under the optimum conditions. The steady state CP removal efficiency of more than 91% was observed up to the inlet load of 300mgL(-1)d(-1). The bioreactor was sensitive to flow fluctuations but was able to recover its performance quickly and exhibited the normal plug-flow behavior. Accumulation of TCP (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) affected the reactor performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrogenotrophic denitrification for tertiary nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater using membrane diffusion packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Xing, Wei; Zuo, Jiane; Tang, Lei; Wang, Yajiao; Lin, Jia

    2013-09-01

    A lab-scale membrane diffusion packed-bed bioreactor was used to investigate hydrogenotrophic denitrification for tertiary nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater. After start-up, the bioreactor had been operated for 165 days by stepwise increasing influent loading rates at 30 and 15°C. The results indicated that this bioreactor could achieve relatively high nitrogen removal efficiencies. The denitrification rates reached 0.250 and 0.230 kg N/(m(3)d) at 30 and 15°C respectively. The total nitrogen concentration in effluent was entirely below 2.0 mg/L at the steady operation state. The average increase of total organic carbon in effluent was approximately 0.41 mg/L, suggesting the risk of organic residue can be completely controlled. Dissolved oxygen (DO) did not show obviously negative effects on hydrogenotrophic denitrification. There was only slight decrease of DO concentration in effluent, which demonstrated almost all of the hydrogen was used for nitrate reduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanical properties of alginate beads hosting hepatocytes in a fluidized bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    David, B; Barbe, L; Barthès-Biesel, D; Legallais, C

    2006-08-01

    Fluidized bed bioartificial liver has been proposed as a temporary support to bridge patients suffering from acute liver failure to transplantation. In such a bioreactor, alginate beads hosting hepatocytes are in continuous motion during at least six hours. After having shown in vitro the functionality of such a device, the present study aims at analyzing the potential mechanical alterations of the beads in the bioreactor, perfused by different surrounding media. Compression experiments are performed and coupled for analysis with Hertz theory. They provide qualitative and quantitative data. The average value of the shear modulus, calculated for the different cases studied varied from 2.4 to 10.4 kPa, and could therefore be considered as a quantitative measure of the beads mechanical properties. From the compression experiments and the estimated values of the shear modulus, we could now evaluate the effect of different operating conditions (fluidization, presence of cells, surrounding medium) on the mechanical behavior of alginate beads. On the one hand, the motion during six hours in the bioreactor does not alter the beads significantly. On the other hand, the presence of different substances in the fluid phase might change their mechanical strength. These results can be considered as new encouragements to use such a device as a bioartificial organ.

  1. An analysis of a trickle-bed bioreactor: Carbon disulfide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, R.; Revah, S.; Viveros-Garcia, T.

    1999-04-05

    An analysis of the local processes occurring in a trickle-bed bioreactor (TBB) with a first-order bioreaction shows that the identification of the TBB operating regime requires knowledge of the substrate concentration in the liquid phase. If the substrate liquid concentration is close to 0, the rate-controlling step is mass transfer at the gas-liquid interface; when it is close to the value in equilibrium with the gas phase, the controlling step is the phenomena occurring in the biofilm, CS{sub 2} removal rate data obtained in a TBB with a Thiobacilii consortia biofilm are analyzed to obtain the mass transfer and kinetic parameters, and to show that the bioreactor operates in a regime mainly controlled by mass transfer. A TBB model with two experimentally determined parameters is developed and used to show how the bioreactor size depends on the rate-limiting step, the absorption factor, the substrate fractional conversion, and on the gas and liquid contact pattern. Under certain conditions, the TBB size is independent of the flowing phases` contact pattern. The model effectively describes substrate gas and liquid concentration data for mass transfer and biodegradation rate controlled processes.

  2. An analysis of a trickle-bed bioreactor: carbon disulfide removal.

    PubMed

    Lobo, R; Revah, S; Viveros-García, T

    1999-04-05

    An analysis of the local processes occurring in a trickle-bed bioreactor (TBB) with a first-order bioreaction shows that the identification of the TBB operating regime requires knowledge of the substrate concentration in the liquid phase. If the substrate liquid concentration is close to 0, the rate-controlling step is mass transfer at the gas-liquid interface; when it is close to the value in equilibrium with the gas phase, the controlling step is the phenomena occurring in the biofilm. CS2 removal rate data obtained in a TBB with a Thiobacilii consortia biofilm are analyzed to obtain the mass transfer and kinetic parameters, and to show that the bioreactor operates in a regime mainly controlled by mass transfer. A TBB model with two experimentally determined parameters is developed and used to show how the bioreactor size depends on the rate-limiting step, the absorption factor, the substrate fractional conversion, and on the gas and liquid contact pattern. Under certain conditions, the TBB size is independent of the flowing phases' contact pattern. The model effectively describes substrate gas and liquid concentration data for mass transfer and biodegradation rate controlled processes.

  3. Laboratory-scale biofiltration of acrylonitrile by Rhodococcus rhodochrous DAP 96622 in a trickling bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Pierce, George E

    2009-07-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN), a volatile component of the waste generated during the production of acrylamide, also is often associated with aromatic contaminants such as toluene and styrene. Biofiltration, considered an effective technique for the treatment of volatile hydrocarbons, has not been used to treat volatile nitriles. An experimental laboratory-scale trickling bed bioreactor using cells of Rhodococcus rhodochrous DAP 96622 supported on granular activated carbon (GAC) was developed and evaluated to assess the ability of biofiltration to treat ACN. In addition to following the course of treatability of ACN, kinetics of ACN biodegradation during both recycle batch and open modes of operation by immobilized and free cells were evaluated. For fed-batch mode bioreactor with immobilized cells, almost complete ACN removal (>95%) was achieved at a flow rate of 0.1 microl/min ACN and 0.8 microl/min toluene (TOL) (for comparative purposes this is equivalent to 6.9 mg l(-1) h(-1) ACN and 83.52 mg l(-1) h(-1) TOL). In a single-pass mode bioreactor with immobilized cells, at ACN inlet loads of 100-200 mg l(-1) h(-1) and TOL inlet load of approximately 400 mg l(-1) h(-1), with empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 8 min, ACN removal efficiency was approximately 90%. The three-dimensional structure and characteristics of the biofilm were investigated using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). CLSM images revealed a robust and heterogeneous biofilm, with microcolonies interspersed with voids and channels. Analysis of the precise measurement of biofilm characteristics using COMSTAT agreed with the assumption that both biomass and biofilm thickness increased along the carbon column depth.

  4. Mathematical modeling of wastewater decolorization in a trickle-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Skybová, T; Přibyl, M; Pocedič, J; Hasal, P

    2012-02-20

    This work focuses on mathematical modeling of removal of organic dyes from textile industry waste waters by a white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus in a trickle-bed bioreactor. We developed a mathematical model of biomass and decolorization process dynamics. The model comprises mass balances of glucose and the dye in a fungal biofilm and a liquid film. The biofilm is modeled using a spatially two-dimensional domain. The liquid film is considered as homogeneous in the direction normal to the biofilm surface. The biomass growth, decay and the erosion of the biofilm are taken into account. Using experimental data, we identified values of key model parameters: the dye degradation rate constant, biofilm corrugation factor and liquid velocity. Considering the dye degradation rate constant 1×10⁻⁵ kg m⁻³ s⁻¹, we found optimal values of the corrugation factor 0.853 and 0.59 and values of the liquid velocity 5.23×10⁻³ m s⁻¹ and 6.2×10⁻³ m s⁻¹ at initial dye concentrations 0.09433 kg m⁻³ and 0.05284 kg m⁻³, respectively. A good agreement between the simulated and experimental data using estimated values of the model parameters was achieved. The model can be used to simulate the performance of laboratory scale trickle-bed bioreactor operated in a batch regime or to estimate values of principal parameters of the bioreactor system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous removal from municipal wastewater in a circulating fluidized bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ajay; Zhu, Jesse; Nakhla, George

    2006-11-01

    In this study, the performance of the circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (CFBB) with anoxic and aerobic beds and employing lava rock as a carrier media for the simultaneous removal of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from municipal wastewater at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 0.82 h was discussed. The CFBB was operated without and with bioparticles' recirculation between the anoxic and aerobic bed for 260 and 110 d respectively. Without particles' recirculation, the CFBB was able to achieve carbon (C), total nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) removal efficiencies of 94%, 80% and 65% respectively, whereas with bioparticles' recirculation, 91%, 78% and 85% removals of C, N and P were achieved. The CFBB was operated at long sludge retention time (SRT) of 45-50 d, and achieved a sludge yield of 0.12-0.135 g VSS g COD(-1). A dynamic stress study of the CFBB was carried out at varying feed flow rates and influent ammonia concentrations to determine response to shock loadings. The CFBB responded favourably in terms of TSS and COD removal to quadrupling of the feed flow rate. However, nitrification was more sensitive to hydraulic shock loadings than to doubling of influent nitrogen loading.

  6. Fluid Flow through a High Cell Density Fluidized-Bed during Centrifugal Bioreactor Culture

    PubMed Central

    Detzel, Christopher J.; Van Wie, Bernard J.; Ivory, Cornelius F.

    2010-01-01

    An increasing demand for products such as tissues, proteins, and antibodies from mammalian cell suspension cultures is driving interest in increasing production through high-cell density bioreactors. The centrifugal bioreactor (CCBR) retains cells by balancing settling forces with surface drag forces due to medium throughput and is capable of maintaining cell densities above 108 cells/mL. This article builds on a previous study where the fluid mechanics of an empty CCBR were investigated showing fluid flow is nonuniform and dominated by Coriolis forces, raising concerns about nutrient and cell distribution. In this article, we demonstrate that the previously reported Coriolis forces are still present in the CCBR, but masked by the presence of cells. Experimental dye injection observations during culture of 15 μm hybridoma cells show a continual uniform darkening of the cell bed, indicating the region of the reactor containing cells is well mixed. Simulation results also indicate the cell bed is well mixed during culture of mammalian cells ranging in size from 10 to 20 μm. However, simulations also allow for a slight concentration gradient to be identified and attributed to Coriolis forces. Experimental results show cell density increases from 0.16 to 0.26 when centrifugal force is doubled by increasing RPM from 650 to 920 at a constant inlet velocity of 6.5 cm/s; an effect also observed in the simulation. Results presented in this article indicate cells maintained in the CCBR behave as a high-density fluidized bed of cells providing a homogeneous environment to ensure optimal growth conditions. PMID:20205172

  7. Fluid flow through a high cell density fluidized-bed during centrifugal bioreactor culture.

    PubMed

    Detzel, Christopher J; Van Wie, Bernard J; Ivory, Cornelius F

    2010-01-01

    An increasing demand for products such as tissues, proteins, and antibodies from mammalian cell suspension cultures is driving interest in increasing production through high-cell density bioreactors. The centrifugal bioreactor (CCBR) retains cells by balancing settling forces with surface drag forces due to medium throughput and is capable of maintaining cell densities above 10(8) cells/mL. This article builds on a previous study where the fluid mechanics of an empty CCBR were investigated showing fluid flow is nonuniform and dominated by Coriolis forces, raising concerns about nutrient and cell distribution. In this article, we demonstrate that the previously reported Coriolis forces are still present in the CCBR, but masked by the presence of cells. Experimental dye injection observations during culture of 15 microm hybridoma cells show a continual uniform darkening of the cell bed, indicating the region of the reactor containing cells is well mixed. Simulation results also indicate the cell bed is well mixed during culture of mammalian cells ranging in size from 10 to 20 microm. However, simulations also allow for a slight concentration gradient to be identified and attributed to Coriolis forces. Experimental results show cell density increases from 0.16 to 0.26 when centrifugal force is doubled by increasing RPM from 650 to 920 at a constant inlet velocity of 6.5 cm/s; an effect also observed in the simulation. Results presented in this article indicate cells maintained in the CCBR behave as a high-density fluidized bed of cells providing a homogeneous environment to ensure optimal growth conditions.

  8. Biological nutrient removal from leachate using a pilot liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (LSCFB).

    PubMed

    Eldyasti, Ahmed; Chowdhury, Nabin; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

    2010-09-15

    Biological treatment of landfill leachate is a concern due to toxicity, high ammonia, low biodegradable organic matter concentrations, and low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. To study the reliability and commercial viability of leachate treatment using an integrated liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (LSCFB), a pilot-scale LSCFB was established at the Adelaide Pollution Control Plant, London, Ontario, Canada. Anoxic and aerobic columns were used to optimize carbon and nutrient removal capability from leachate using 600 microm lava rock with a total porosity of 61%, at empty bed contact times (EBCTs) of 0.55, 0.49, and 0.41 d. The LSCFB achieved COD, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal efficiencies of 85%, 80%, and 70%, respectively at a low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of 3:1 and nutrients loading rates of 2.15 kg COD/(m(3) d), 0.70 kg N/(m(3) d), and 0.014 kg P/(m(3) d), as compared with 60-77% COD and 70-79% nitrogen removal efficiencies achieved by upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and moving bed bioreactor (MBBR), respectively. The LSCFB effluent characterized by

  9. Fixed-film, fluidized-bed bioreactors for biooxidation of coal conversion wastewaters. Progress report, October 1, 1983-September 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Worden, R.M.; Hewitt, J.D.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1985-03-01

    Actual coal gasification wastewaters have been treated successfully using a fixed-film, fluidized-bed bioreactor. Phenol removal exceeded 99% and COD removal was typically 75 to 85% for 50% strength wastewater. Batch kinetic tests showed potential for further improvement in bioreactor kinetics. A bioreactor model has been developed to guide further process development. A preliminary economic evaluation of a commercial scale process indicated that there is potential for as much as a 50% reduction in both capital and operating costs by use of fluidized-bed bioreactor technology rather than conventional activated-sludge technology. 9 references, 8 figures, 10 tables.

  10. Design optimization of a self-cleaning moving-bed bioreactor for seawater denitrification.

    PubMed

    Dupla, Marianne; Comeau, Yves; Parent, Serge; Villemur, Richard; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The hydrodynamic behavior and denitrification capacity of a down flow self-cleaning moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) using floating packed-bed carriers were investigated. Water mixing in the MBBR was determined by tracer studies, which showed a completely stirred tank reactor. Eleven different types of patented plastic packed-bed carriers were selected based on their density, shape and specific surface area. Video studies of the carriers were used to determine operating conditions and select the Cascade 1A and Tri-Pack 1 carriers for denitrification experiments. Both carriers showed a similar performance level in terms of the denitrification capacity of the resulting MBBR. The improvement in liquid circulation is thought to explain the high denitrification rates that reached 27 gNm(-2)d(-1) and the maintenance of a thin biofilm. Increasing the overall liquid velocity profile led to an increase of up to 30% in the denitrification rate in conditions with a 1-month-old biofilm. This MBBR design seemed to control biofilm development and could easily be scaled up to denitrify seawater or freshwater systems.

  11. Process Development of Adenoviral Vector Production in Fixed Bed Bioreactor: From Bench to Commercial Scale.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Hanna P; Heikkilä, Kati M; Lipponen, Eevi M; Valonen, Piia; Müller, Achim; Räsänen, Eva; Tuunanen, Tarja; Hassinen, Minna M; Parker, Nigel; Karhinen, Minna; Shaw, Robert; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-08-01

    Large-scale vector manufacturing for phase III and beyond has proven to be challenging. Upscaling the process with suspension cells is increasingly feasible, but many viral production applications are still applicable only in adherent settings. Scaling up the adherent system has proven to be troublesome. The iCELLis(®) disposable fixed-bed bioreactors offer a possible option for viral vector manufacturing in large quantities in an adherent environment. In this study, we have optimized adenovirus serotype 5 manufacturing using iCELLis Nano with a cultivation area up to 4 m(2). HEK293 cell cultivation, infection, and harvest of the virus (by lysing the cells inside the bioreactor) proved possible, reaching total yield of up to 1.6×10(14) viral particles (vp)/batch. The iCELLis 500 is designed to satisfy demand for large-scale requirements. Inoculating a large quantity of cell mass into the iCELLis 500 was achieved by first expanding the cell mass in suspension. Upscaling the process into an iCELLis 500/100 m(2) cultivation area cassette was practical and produced up to 6.1×10(15) vp. Flask productivity per cm(2) in iCELLis Nano and iCELLis 500 was in the same range. As a conclusion, we showed for the first time that iCELLis 500 equipment has provided an effective way to manufacture large batches of adenoviral vectors.

  12. Dynamics of a biological fixed film for phenol degradation in a fluidized-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Worden, R.M.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental and modeling studies were conducted to analyze the dynamic response behavior of a phenol-oxidizing fixed film using a differential, fluidized-bed bioreactor in a recycle loop with a well-mixed reservoir. With the bioreactor at steady state, a pulse of phenol was added to perturb the system, and the phenol concentration was monitored continuously until steady state was again achieved. The experimental dynamics were compared with a dynamic mathematical model based on diffusion and reaction within the biofilm, liquid mixing, and biofilm growth. Constant-pH experiments could be adequately described using an unstructured, double-Monod kinetic expression with substrate inhibition by phenol. However, in dynamic experiments without pH control, the pH of the liquid phase dropped, and damped oscillations were observed in the phenol concentration and reaction rate trajectories. Oscillatory solutions could not be included in the model, even when product inhibition was included, and a linear stability analysis did not reveal tendencies toward instability. The cause of the experimental oscillations remains unknown.

  13. Dynamics of a biological fixed film for phenol degradation in a fluidized-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Worden, R M; Donaldson, T L

    1987-08-20

    Experimental and modeling studies were conducted to analyze the dynamic response behavior of a phenol-oxidizing fixed film using a differential, fluidized-bed bioreactor in a recycle loop with a well-mixed reservoir. With the bioreactor at steady state, a pulse of phenol was added to perturb the system, and the phenol concentration was monitored continuously until steady state was again achieved.The experimental dynamics were compared with a dynamic mathematical model based on diffusion and reaction within the biofilm, liquid mixing, and biofilm growth. Constant-pH experiments could be adequately described using an unstructured, double-Monod kinetic expression with substrate inhibition by phenol.However, in dynamic experiments without pH control, the pH of the liquid phase dropped, and damped oscillations were observed in the phenol concentration and reaction rate trajectories. Oscillatory solutions could not be induced in the model, even when product inhibition was included, and a linear stability analysis did not reveal tendencies toward instability. The cause of the experimental oscillations remains unknown.

  14. Degradation of carbon tetrachloride in a semi-continuous packed-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, W.E.; Korus, R.A.; Crawford, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    Pseudomonas sp. KC degrades carbon tetrachloride (CT) when grown under iron limited conditions. A packed-bed bioreactor was constructed out of glass and Teflon components and contained glass beads as a packing material. Total void volume of the reactor, including the pump reservoir, was approximately 300 mL. Media was recirculated through the reactor with a Teflon diaphragm pump and contained nitrate as terminal electron acceptor. After inoculation with KC and biofilm growth, the pump reservoir was replaced with fresh media and 3.0 mg/L CT was introduced to the reactor. When the initial CT had been degraded, 10% of the reactor volume was replaced with new media and CT was reintroduced. This process was repeated a second time. The initial degradation rate of the reactor increased from 75 {mu}g CT L{sup -1} hr{sup -1} for the first feeding to 109 {mu}g L{sup -1} hr{sup -1} for the third. A second reactor was packed with a Celite (diatomaceous earth) biocarrier and inoculated in a similar manner to the glass bead reactor. Degradation of CT in this reactor appeared to be suppressed, possibly due to the availability of iron to the bacteria from the biocarrier. While these experiments indicate it should be possible to design a bioreactor utilizing Pseudomonas sp. KC to degrade CT in contaminated water, the suppression of degradative activity by iron will require special precautions to be taken in reactor design.

  15. Nitrification in brackish water recirculating aquaculture system integrated with activated packed bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Rejish Kumar, V J; Joseph, Valsamma; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2010-01-01

    Recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) depend on nitrifying biofilters for the maintenance of water quality, increased biosecurity and environmental sustainability. To satisfy these requirements a packed bed bioreactor (PBBR) activated with indigenous nitrifying bacterial consortia has been developed and commercialized for operation under different salinities for instant nitrification in shrimp and prawn hatchery systems. In the present study the nitrification efficiency of the bioreactor was tested in a laboratory level recirculating aquaculture system for the rearing of Penaeus monodon for a period of two months under higher feeding rates and no water exchange. Rapid setting up of nitrification was observed during the operation, as the volumetric total ammonia nitrogen removal rates (VTR) increased with total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) production in the system. The average Volumetric TAN Removal Rates (VTR) at the feeding rate of 160 g/day from 54-60th days of culture was 0.1533+/-0.0045 kg TAN/m(3)/day. The regression between VTR and TAN explained 86% variability in VTR (P<0.001). The laboratory level RAS demonstrated here showed high performance both in terms of shrimp biomass yield and nitrification and environmental quality maintenance. Fluorescent in-situ Hybridization analysis of the reactor biofilm ensured the presence of autotrophic nitrifier groups such as Nitrosococcus mobilis lineage, Nitrobacter spp and phylum Nitrospira, the constituent members present in the original consortia used for activating the reactors. This showed the stability of the consortia on long term operation.

  16. Continuous Ethanol Production Using Immobilized-Cell/Enzyme Biocatalysts in Fluidized-Bed Bioreactor (FBR)

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiem, NP

    2003-11-16

    The immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Previous studies at ORNL using immobilized Zymomonas mobilis in FBR at both laboratory and demonstration scale (4-in-ID by 20-ft-tall) have shown that the system was more than 50 times as productive as industrial benchmarks (batch and fed-batch free cell fermentations for ethanol production from glucose). Economic analysis showed that a continuous process employing the FBR technology to produce ethanol from corn-derived glucose would offer savings of three to six cents per gallon of ethanol compared to a typical batch process. The application of the FBR technology for ethanol production was extended to investigate more complex feedstocks, which included starch and lignocellulosic-derived mixed sugars. Economic analysis and mathematical modeling of the reactor were included in the investigation. This report summarizes the results of these extensive studies.

  17. Kinetic model for a fluidized-bed bioreactor for denitrification of wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Hancher, C. W.; Perona, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor was operated continuously for a period of seven months for nitrate removal from an aqueous stream. The fluidized particles were 30- to 60-mesh anthracite coal supporting a fixed biofilm. The reactor was composed of two vessels in series each 20 cm in diameter and with an operating height of 6.3 m. The nitrate concentration in the reactor feed ranged from 100 to 15,000 g/m/sup 3/. A model for nitrate removal was developed using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Axial dispersion effects were considered to be negligible, and effectiveness factors were greater than 0.9 for most experimental conditions. The effluent nitrite concentration peaked sharply at a feed nitrate concentration of 4400 g/m/sup 3/. At higher concentrations the nitrite decomposition rate depended on the nitrite concentration to about the 0.4 power.

  18. Biodegradation of phenolic wastewaters in a three-phase fluidized bed bioreactor with the KMT{reg_sign} biomass support

    SciTech Connect

    Sokol, W.; Halfini, M.R.

    1996-12-31

    A treatment of wastewater from a local refinery in a three-phase fluidised bed bioreactor with the KMT{sup R} biomass support was investigated. It was found that after adding mineral salts to the wastewater to be treated, a reduction in the COD values increased from about 55% to almost 90%. The reduction in COD was increasing with an increase in both a superficial air velocity and a ratio of bed volume to bioreactor volume (V{sub b}/V{sub r}). The highest value of (V{sub b}/V{sub r}) which could be applied in the experiments was 0.7, because at larger (V{sub b}/V{sub r}) movement of the whole bed was impossible. The bioreactor as operated was not successful in degrading thiocyanates, cyanides, nitrates and ammonia. However, results of independent experiments that have been started to adapt the symbiotic populations of microorganisms that may effectively degrade those compounds are promising. Stratification of the support media coated with the biomass led to their movement to the base of the bioreactor where concentration of organic compounds was highest. This was desirable since the compounds could penetrate far into the biofilm so most of the biomass grown on the support was active. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Comparative modeling of biological nutrient removal from landfill leachate using a circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (CFBBR).

    PubMed

    Eldyasti, Ahmed; Andalib, Mehran; Hafez, Hisham; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

    2011-03-15

    Steady state operational data from a pilot scale circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (CFBBR) during biological treatment of landfill leachate, at empty bed contact times (EBCTs) of 0.49, and 0.41 d and volumetric nutrients loading rates of 2.2-2.6 kg COD/(m(3)d), 0.7-0.8 kg N/(m(3)d), and 0.014-0.016 kg P/(m(3)d), was used to calibrate and compare developed process models in BioWin(®) and AQUIFAS(®). BioWin(®) and AQUIFAS(®) were both capable of predicting most of the performance parameters such as effluent TKN, NH(4)-N, NO(3)-N, TP, PO(4)-P, TSS, and VSS with an average percentage error (APE) of 0-20%. BioWin(®) underpredicted the effluent BOD and SBOD values for various runs by 80% while AQUIFAS(®) predicted effluent BOD and SBOD with an APE of 50%. Although both calibrated models, confirmed the advantages of the CFBBR technology in treating the leachate of high volumetric loading and low biomass yields due to the long solid retention time (SRT), both BioWin(®) and AQUIFAS(®) predicted the total biomass and SRT of CFBBR based on active biomass only, whereas in the CFBBR runs both active as well as inactive biomass accumulated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Wastewater treatment using a novel bioreactor with submerged packing bed of polyethylene tape.

    PubMed

    Mijaylova Nacheva, P; Moeller Chávez, G

    2010-01-01

    The performance of a novel aerobic bioreactor with a specially designed submerged packing bed of high specific surface area density, made of polyethylene tape, was studied for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The reactor has a volume of 0.71 m(3) and the specific area of the packing bed was 1,098 m(2)/m(3). The operation was performed with and without effluent recycling, applying different organic loads in the range of 4.0-17.6 g COD m(-2) d(-1). No back-washings were carried out. Overall BOD(5) removals of 90-95% were obtained with organic loads of 4.0-17.6 g COD m(-2) d(-1) and HRT of 0.2-1.1 h. Overall TN removal of 69-72% was obtained at loads of 0.8-4.6 g TN m(-2) d(-1) when effluent recycling was used. The reactor allowed obtaining high quality water for urban reuse and demonstrated an effective process performance and resistance to load variations. The developed biofilm was completely penetrated by the organic matter, ammonia and oxygen, providing high removal rates. Large biomass quantities, up to 13 g dry VS/m(2), were reached in the reactor and the determined sludge yield coefficient was relatively low, of 0.25 g VSS/g COD. These results allow obtaining compact treatment systems with low sludge production and make the technology a suitable option for small wastewater treatment plants.

  1. [Bacterial diversity in a fluidized bed bioreactor (FBR) treating gasoline-contaminated groundwater].

    PubMed

    Ara-Rojas, S L; Massol-Deyá, A

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in a fluidized bed bioreactor (FBR) treating gasoline-contaminated groundwater. The main objective of this research project was to determine the bacterial diversity during the process of bioremediation of water contaminated with gasoline in a fluidized bed reactor at Mayagüez, PR. Isolation and characterization of bacterial populations from the bioremediation system was performed on R2A medium. Morphological tests included cellular and colonial shape and reaction to Gram coloration. Physiological properties were determined by using carbon utilization profiles (Biolog) and by the ability of axenic cultures to use gasoline as the sole carbon source. Molecular characterization was performed by BOX-PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis (ARDRA). From a total of 162 distinctive isolates, 75% were gram-negative bacilli, 19% gram-positive bacilli, 5% gram-negative cocci and 1% gram-positive cocci. The 162 axenic cultures corresponded to 90 different genetic groups; 53% of which included strains with growth in gasoline as sole carbon source. The 86 strains capable of growing in gasoline corresponded to 52 different amplification patterns in BOX-PCR; which were not metabolically related (Biolog system). The high degree of microbial diversity in the FBR allowed efficient and stable hydrocarbon removal throughout the operation of the system.

  2. Perchlorate remediation using packed-bed bioreactors and electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Booki

    Two pilot-scale fixed bed bioreactors were operated in continuous mode in order to treat groundwater contaminated by perchlorate. The bioreactors were constructed and operated side-by-side at the Texas Street Well Facility in Redlands, California. Each reactor was packed with either sand or plastic media. A perchlorate-reducing bacterium, Dechlorosoma sp. KJ, was used to inoculate the bioreactors. Perchlorate was successfully removed down to a non-detectable level (<4mug/L) in both bioreactors with acetate as a carbon source and nutrients at loading rates less than 0.063 L/s (1 gpm; 0.34 L/m2s). The sand medium bioreactor could achieve complete-perchlorate removal up to flow rate of 0.126 L/s. A regular backwashing cycle (once a week) was an important factor for completely removing perchlorate in groundwater. Power generation directly from pure or mixed organic matter was examined using microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which were run either in batch or continuous mode. In batch experiments, both a pure culture (Geobactor metallireducens) and a mixed culture (wastewater inoculum) were used as the biocatalyst, and acetate was added as substrate in the anode chamber of the MFC. Power output in a membrane MFC with either inoculum was essentially the same, with 40 +/- 1 mW/m2 for G. metallireducens and 38 +/- 1 mW/m2 for mixed culture. A different type of the MFC containing a salt bridge instead of a membrane system was examined to generate power using the same substrate and pure culture as used in the membrane MFC. Power output in the salt bridge MFC was 2.2 mW/m 2. It was found that the lower power output was directly attributed to the higher internal resistance of the salt bridge system (19920 +/- 50 O) in comparison with that of the membrane system (1286 +/- 1 O). Continuous electricity generation was examined in a flat plate microbial fuel cell (FPMFC) using domestic wastewater and specific organic substrates. The FPMFC, containing a combined electrode/proton exchange

  3. Large scale expansion of human umbilical cord cells in a rotating bed system bioreactor for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, Anne; Polchow, Bianca; Shakibaei, Mehdi; Henrich, Wolfgang; Hetzer, Roland; Lueders, Cora

    2013-01-01

    Widespread use of human umbilical cord cells for cardiovascular tissue engineering requires production of large numbers of well-characterized cells under controlled conditions. In current research projects, the expansion of cells to be used to create a tissue construct is usually performed in static cell culture systems which are, however, often not satisfactory due to limitations in nutrient and oxygen supply. To overcome these limitations dynamic cell expansion in bioreactor systems under controllable conditions could be an important tool providing continuous perfusion for the generation of large numbers of viable pre-conditioned cells in a short time period. For this purpose cells derived from human umbilical cord arteries were expanded in a rotating bed system bioreactor for up to 9 days. For a comparative study, cells were cultivated under static conditions in standard culture devices. Our results demonstrated that the microenvironment in the perfusion bioreactor was more favorable than that of the standard cell culture flasks. Data suggested that cells in the bioreactor expanded 39 fold (38.7 ± 6.1 fold) in comparison to statically cultured cells (31.8 ± 3.0 fold). Large-scale production of cells in the bioreactor resulted in more than 3 x 10(8) cells from a single umbilical cord fragment within 9 days. Furthermore cell doubling time was lower in the bioreactor system and production of extracellular matrix components was higher. With this study, we present an appropriate method to expand human umbilical cord artery derived cells with high cellular proliferation rates in a well-defined bioreactor system under GMP conditions.

  4. Gaseous hexane biodegradation by Fusarium solani in two liquid phase packed-bed and stirred-tank bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Sonia; Muñoz, Raúl; Hernández, Sergio; Guieysse, Benoit; Revah, Sergio

    2006-04-01

    Biofiltration of hydrophobic volatile pollutants is intrinsically limited by poor transfer of the pollutants from the gaseous to the liquid biotic phase, where biodegradation occurs. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of silicone oil for enhancing the transport and subsequent biodegradation of hexane by the fungus Fusarium solani in various bioreactor configurations. Silicone oil was first selected among various solvents for its biocompatibility, nonbiodegradability, and good partitioning properties toward hexane. In batch tests, the use of silicone oil improved hexane specific biodegradation by approximately 60%. Subsequent biodegradation experiments were conducted in stirred-tank (1.5 L) and packed-bed (2.5 L) bioreactors fed with a constant gaseous hexane load of 180 g x m(-3)(reactor) x h(-1) and operated for 12 and 40 days, respectively. In the stirred reactors, the maximum hexane elimination capacity (EC) increased from 50 g x m(-3)(reactor) x h(-1) (removal efficiency, RE of 28%) in the control not supplied with silicone oil to 120 g x m(-3)(reactor) x h(-1) in the biphasic system (67% RE). In the packed-bed bioreactors, the maximum EC ranged from 110 (50% RE) to 180 g x m(-3)(reactor) x h(-1) (> 90% RE) in the control and two-liquid-phase systems, respectively. These results represent, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case of fungi use in a two-liquid-phase bioreactor and the highest hexane removal capacities so far reported in biofilters.

  5. Validation of a model describing two-dimensional heat transfer during solid-state fermentation in packed bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Sangsurasak, P; Mitchell, D A

    1998-12-20

    A two-dimensional heat transfer model was validated against two experimental studies from the literature which describe the growth of Aspergillus niger during solid-state fermentation in packed bed bioreactors. With the same set of model parameters, the two-dimensional model was able to describe both radial temperature gradients, which dominated in one of the studies, and axial temperature gradients, which dominated in the other study. The sensitivity of the model predictions to the characteristics of the substrate and the microbe were explored. The temperatures reached in the column are most sensitive to parameters which affect the peak heat load, including the substrate packing density, the maximum specific growth rate, and the maximum biomass concentration. Even though the bed is assumed to be aerated with saturated air, the increase in temperature with bed height increases the water-carrying capacity of the air and therefore enables evaporation to contribute significantly to cooling. The model suggests that evaporation can remove as much as 78% of the heat from the bed during times of peak heat generation. Our model provides a tool which can guide the design and operation of packed bed bioreactors. However, further improvements are necessary to do this effectively, the most important of which is the incorporation of a water balance.

  6. Green and efficient production of octyl hydroxyphenylpropionate using an ultrasound-assisted packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih Chen; Chen, Hsiao Ching; Ju, Hen Yi; Chen, Jiann Hwa; Kuo, Chia Hung; Chung, Yi Lin; Liu, Yung Chuan; Shieh, Chwen Jen

    2012-04-01

    A solvent-free system to produce octyl hydroxyphenylpropionate (OHPP) from p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (HPPA) and octanol using immobilized lipase (Novozym® 435) as a catalyst in an ultrasound-assisted packed-bed bioreactor was investigated. Response-surface methodology (RSM) and a three-level-three-factor Box-Behnken design were employed to evaluate the effects of reaction temperature (x₁), flow rate (x₂) and ultrasonic power (x₃) on the percentage of molar production of OHPP. The results indicate that the reaction temperature and flow rate were the most important variables in optimizing the production of OHPP. Based on a ridge max analysis, the optimum conditions for OHPP synthesis were predicted to consist of a reaction temperature of 65°C, a flow rate of 0.05 ml/min and an ultrasonic power of 1.74 W/cm² with a yield of 99.25%. A reaction was performed under these optimal conditions, and a yield of 99.33 ± 0.1% was obtained.

  7. Decolorization of azo dyes with Enterobacter agglomerans immobilized in different supports by using fluidized bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Moutaouakkil, Adnane; Zeroual, Youssef; Dzayri, Fatima Zohra; Talbi, Mohamed; Lee, Kangmin; Blaghen, Mohamed

    2004-02-01

    Immobilized cells of Enterobacter agglomerans, able to reduce azo dyes enzymatically, were used as a biocatalyst for the decolorization of synthetic medium containing the toxic azo dye methyl red (MR). This bacterial strain exhibits high ability to completely decolorize 100 mg/L of MR after only 6 h of incubation under aerobic conditions. Cells of E. agglomerans were immobilized in calcium alginate, polyacylamide, cooper beech, and vermiculite, and were used for the decolorization of MR from synthetic water by using a fluidized bed bioreactor. The highest specific decolorization rate was obtained when E. agglomerans was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and was of about 3.04 mg MR/g cell/h with a 50% conversion time ( t(1/2)) of about 1.6 h. Moreover, immobilized cells in calcium alginate continuously decolorized MR even after seven repeated experiments without significant loss of activity, while polyacrylamide-, cooper beech-, and vermiculite-immobilized cells retained only 62, 15, and 13% of their original activity, respectively.

  8. Metal precipitation in an ethanol-fed, fixed-bed sulphate-reducing bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kousi, Pavlina; Remoundaki, Emmanouela; Hatzikioseyian, Artin; Battaglia-Brunet, Fabienne; Joulian, Catherine; Kousteni, Vassiliki; Tsezos, Marios

    2011-05-30

    A batch upflow fixed-bed sulphate-reducing bioreactor has been set up and monitored for the treatment of synthetic solutions containing divalent iron (100mg/L and 200mg/L), zinc (100mg/L and 200mg/L), copper (100mg/L and 200mg/L), nickel (100mg/L and 200mg/L) and sulphate (1700 mg/L and 2130 mg/L) at initial pH 3-3.5, using ethanol as the sole electron donor. The reactor has been operated at the theoretical stoichiometric ethanol/sulphate ratio. Complete oxidation of ethanol has been achieved through complete oxidation of the intermediately, microbially produced acetate. This is mainly attributed to the presence of Desulfobacter postgatei species which dominated the sulphate-reducing community in the reactor. The reduction of sulphate was limited to about 85%. Quantitative precipitation of the soluble metal ions has been achieved. XRD and SEM-EDS analyses performed on samples of the produced sludge showed poorly crystalline phases of marcasite, covellite and wurtzite as well as several mixed metal sulphides. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethanol production from dry-mill corn starch in a fluidized-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, M.S.; Nghiem, N.P.; Davison, B.H.

    1998-08-01

    The development of a high-rate process for the production of fuel ethanol from dry-mill corn starch using fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) technology is discussed. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale FBR using immobilized biocatalysts. Two ethanol production process designs were considered in this study. In the first design, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed at 35 C using {kappa}-carageenan beads (1.5 mm to 1.5 mm in diameter) of co-immobilized glucoamylase and Zymomonas mobilis. For dextrin feed concentration of 100 g/L, the single-pass conversion ranged from 54% to 89%. Ethanol concentrations of 23 to 36 g/L were obtained at volumetric productivities of 9 to 15 g/L-h. No accumulation of glucose was observed, indicating that saccharification was the rate-limiting step. In the second design, saccharification and fermentation were carried out sequentially. In the first stage, solutions of 150 to 160 g/L dextrins were pumped through an immobilized glucoamylase packed column maintained at 55 C. Greater than 95% conversion was obtained at a residence time of 1 h, giving a product of 165 to 170 g glucose/L. In the second stage, these glucose solutions were fed to the FBR containing Z. mobilis immobilized in {kappa}-carageenan beads. At a residence time of 2 h, 94% conversion and ethanol concentration of 70 g/L was achieved, giving an overall productivity of 23 g/L-h.

  10. Performance evaluation of Malathion biodegradation in batch and continuous packed bed bioreactor (PBBR).

    PubMed

    Geed, S R; Kureel, M K; Giri, B S; Singh, R S; Rai, B N

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodegradation of Malathion in batch and continuous packed bed (Polyurethane foam; PUF) bioreactor (PBBR). After 10days, 89% Malathion removal was observed in batch PBBR. Continuous PBBR was operated at various flow rates (5-30mL/h) under optimum condition over a period of 75days. Inlet loading rates and elimination capacities were observed in the range of 36-216 and 7.20-145.4mg/L/day with an average removal efficiency of more than 90% under steady state conditions. GC/MS analysis confirms phosphorodithionicacid,O,O,S-trimethylester and diethylmercaptosuccinate as metabolites. Biodegradation of Malathion under inhibitory and non-inhibitory conditions was studied using Monod and Andrew-Haldane models and the kinetic constants were calculated and found to be μmax: 0.271 per day; Ks: 126.3mg/L using Monod and μmax: 0.315 per day; Ks: 151.32mg/L; Ki: 594.75mg/L using Andrew-Haldane models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of settleability of biologically produced solids and biofilm morphology in moving bed bioreactors (MBBRs).

    PubMed

    Karizmeh, Mohsen Soleimani; Delatolla, Robert; Narbaitz, Roberto M

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of surface area loading rates (SALRs) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) in moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) systems on the morphology and thickness of the attached biofilm along with subsequent effects on particle size distribution and the settling characteristics of the biologically produced solids. The morphology of biofilm attached to the MBBR carriers changed from a porous biofilm to a biofilm with a more filamentous structure throughout the study at various operating conditions without observable correlation with SALR and HRT. Although, biofilm morphology did not demonstrate an effect on the biologically produced solids observed in this study, the thinnest biofilms resulted in the highest concentration of solids in the effluent. Furthermore, the particle size distribution analysis demonstrated that both higher SALRs and longer HRTs resulted in a shift towards larger-sized particles. Increases in SALR and HRT, independent of each other, also showed increases in effluent solid concentration and lower settleability of the solids.

  12. Influence of particles properties on biofilm structure and energy consumption in denitrifying fluidized bed bioreactors (DFBBRs).

    PubMed

    Eldyasti, Ahmed; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

    2012-12-01

    The influence of particles properties on biofilm structure, reactor performance, and energy consumption for denitrifying fluidized bed bioreactors (DFBBRs) using maxi-blast plastic (MX), multi-blast plastic (MB), natural zeolite (NZ), and lava rock (LR) was investigated. The work showed that the particles with sphericity of 0.9 (MB and NZ) maintained a fluffy protruding biofilm and achieved slightly higher nutrient removal efficiencies as compared to the particles with sphericity of 0.5 (MX and LR) which exhibited a patchy biofilm at low C/N ratio. As a results, lower detachment rate and biomass yields were observed for MB and NZ of 0.12 g VSS/g COD, as compared to 0.19 g VSS/g COD for both the MX and LR. This study showed that increasing the biofilm thickness, though not significantly impacting nutrient removal efficiencies, would decrease the annualized energy costs and therefore reduce the long-term operational cost. Moreover, MB appears to be the superior media. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Denitrification using PBS as carbon source and biofilm support in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weizhong; Yang, Luhua; Wang, Jianlong

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradable polymer was used as carbon source and biofilm support for nitrate removal from aqueous solution as an attractive alternative for biological denitrification. The objective of this paper was to investigate the denitrification performance and microbial community of a packed-bed bioreactor using poly (butanediol succinate) (PBS), a biodegradable polymer, as carbon source and biofilm support. NO(3)-N concentration was determined by UV spectrophotometer. NO(2)-N concentration was assayed by hydrochloric acid naphthyl ethylenediamine spectrophotometry method. Total organic carbon (TOC) was measured using a TOC analyzer. The morphology of the samples was observed using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The microbial community was analyzed by pyrosequencing method. The experimental results showed that an average removal efficiency of nitrate was 95 %. ESEM observation and FTIR analysis indicated the changes of PBS granules before and after microbial utilization. Pyrosequencing results showed that Betaproteobacteria predominated, and most of PBS-degrading denitrifying bacteria were assigned to the family Comamonadaceae. Denitrifying bacteria accounted for 13.02 % in total population. The PBS granules were suitable support and carbon source for denitrifying bacteria.

  14. Preparation of immobilized whole cell biocatalyst and biodiesel production using a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kyeong, Jin Seon; Yeom, Sung Ho

    2014-11-01

    Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 4697 was selected from among promising candidates as a biocatalyst for biodiesel production. This microorganism was immobilized on to polyurethane foam coated with activated carbon for reuse, and, for biodiesel production. Vacuum drying of the immobilized cells was found to be more efficient than natural or freeze-drying processes. Although the immobilized cells were severely inhibited by a molar ratio of methanol to soybean oil in excess of 2.0, stepwise methanol addition (3 aliquots at 24-h feeding intervals) significantly prevented methanol inhibition. A packed-bed bioreactor (PBB) containing the immobilized whole cell biocatalyst was then operated under circulating batch mode. Stepwise methanol feeding was used to mitigate methanol inhibition of the immobilized cells in the PBB. An increase in the feeding rate (circulating rate) of the reaction mixture barely affected biodiesel production, while an increase in the packing volume of the immobilized cells enhanced biodiesel production noticeably. Finally, repeated circulating batch operation of the PBB was carried out for five consecutive rounds without a noticeable decrease in the performance of the PBB for the three rounds.

  15. Hybrid adaptive optimal control of anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor for the de-icing waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Seok, Jonghyuk

    2003-04-24

    Hybrid adaptive control strategy was developed and tested for the degradation of propylene glycol, a major component in de-icing waste, in an anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor (AFBR). A linearized model with time-varying parameters was first employed to describe the dynamic behavior of the AFBR using a recursive off-line system identification method. A hybrid adaptive control strategy was then tested using a recursive off-line system identification routine followed by an on-line adaptive optimal control algorithm. The objective of the controller was to achieve the desired set point value of the propionate concentration (stand-alone control output variable) by manipulating the dilution rate (control input variable). To do so, the optimal control law was developed by minimizing a cost function with constraint equations. This novel idea was successfully applied to the underlying system for 200 h. The set point (700 mg HPrl(-1)) was achieved even in the case where the feed concentration suddenly increased by 50% (9000 mg HPrl(-1) to 13500 mg HPrl(-1)).

  16. Anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater sludges using anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Nizar; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

    2014-11-01

    The anaerobic digestion of primary sludge (PS) and thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) using an anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor (AnFBR) employing zeolite particles as the carrier media was investigated at different organic loading rates (OLRs). PS was tested at OLRs from 4.2 to 39kgCOD/m(3)-d corresponding to hydraulic retention times (HRTs) from 1.0 to 8.9days. The highest COD removal and VSS destruction efficiencies for primary sludge of 85% and 88%, respectively, were achieved at an HRT of 8.9days and OLR of 4.2kgCOD/m(3)-d. For TWAS, VSS destruction efficiencies varied from 42% at an HRT of 2.6days and OLR of 13.1kgCOD/m(3)-d to 69% at an HRT of 8.8days and an OLR of 4.2kgCOD/m(3)-d. The first-order COD biodegradation rates in the AnFBR for PS and TWAS were 0.4d(-1) and 0.1d(-1), respectively, almost double the rates in conventional high-rate digesters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Low energy single-staged anaerobic fluidized bed ceramic membrane bioreactor (AFCMBR) for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad; McCarty, Perry L; Shin, Chungheon; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2017-03-06

    An aluminum dioxide (Al2O3) ceramic membrane was used in a single-stage anaerobic fluidized bed ceramic membrane bioreactor (AFCMBR) for low-strength wastewater treatment. The AFCMBR was operated continuously for 395days at 25°C using a synthetic wastewater having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) averaging 260mg/L. A membrane net flux as high as 14.5-17L/m(2)h was achieved with only periodic maintenance cleaning, obtained by adding 25mg/L of sodium hypochlorite solution. No adverse effect of the maintenance cleaning on organic removal was observed. An average SCOD in the membrane permeate of 23mg/L was achieved with a 1h hydraulic retention time (HRT). Biosolids production averaged 0.014±0.007gVSS/gCOD removed. The estimated electrical energy required to operate the AFCMBR system was 0.039kWh/m(3), which is only about 17% of the electrical energy that could be generated with the methane produced.

  18. Start-up of two moving bed membrane bioreactors treating saline wastewater contaminated by hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Campo, R; Di Prima, N; Freni, G; Giustra, M G; Di Bella, G

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to assess the acclimation of microorganisms to a gradual increase of salinity and hydrocarbons, during the start-up of two moving bed membrane bioreactors (MB-MBRs) fed with saline oily wastewater. In both systems an ultrafiltration membrane was used and two types of carriers were employed: polyurethane sponge cubes (MB-MBRI) and polyethylene cylindrical carriers (MB-MBRII). A decreasing dilution factor of slops has been adopted in order to allow biomass acclimation. The simultaneous effect of salinity and hydrocarbons played an inhibitory role in biomass growth and this resulted in a decrease of the biological removal efficiencies. A reduction of bound extracellular polymeric substances and a simultaneous release of soluble microbial products (SMPs) were observed, particularly in the MB-MBRII system, probably due to the occurrence of a greater suspended biomass stress as response to the recalcitrance of substrate. On the one hand, a clear attachment of biomass occurred only in MB-MBRI and this affected the fouling deposition on the membrane surface. The processes of detachment and entrapment of biomass, from and into the carriers, significantly influenced the superficial cake deposition and its reversibility. On the other hand, in MB-MBRII, the higher production of SMPs implied a predominance of the pore blocking.

  19. Sulfur-based mixotrophic denitrification corresponding to different electron donors and microbial profiling in anoxic fluidized-bed membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Chengzhi; Liu, Huijuan; Bai, Yaohui; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-11-15

    Sulfur-based mixotrophic denitrifying anoxic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors (AnFB-MBR) were developed for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated groundwater with minimized sulfate production. The nitrate removal rates obtained in the methanol- and ethanol-fed mixotrophic denitrifying AnFB-MBRs reached 1.44-3.84 g NO3 -N/L reactor d at a hydraulic retention time of 0.5 h, which were significantly superior to those reported in packed bed reactors. Compared to methanol, ethanol was found to be a more effective external carbon source for sulfur-based mixotrophic denitrification due to lower sulfate and total organic carbon concentrations in the effluent. Using pyrosequencing, the phylotypes of primary microbial groups in the reactor, including sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic denitrifiers, methanol- or ethanol-supported heterotrophic denitrifiers, were investigated in response to changes in electron donors. Principal component and heatmap analyses indicated that selection of electron donating substrates largely determined the microbial community structure. The abundance of Thiobacillus decreased from 45.1% in the sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic denitrifying reactor to 12.0% and 14.2% in sulfur-based methanol- and ethanol-fed mixotrophic denitrifying bioreactors, respectively. Heterotrophic Methyloversatilis and Thauera bacteria became more dominant in the mixotrophic denitrifying bioreactors, which were possibly responsible for the observed methanol- and ethanol-associated denitrification.

  20. Novel two-stage three-phase fluidized-bed bioreactor with immobilized living cells for waste-water treatment application. Final report, September 1985-September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, L.S.

    1988-10-01

    This research investigated the fundamental, practical design and operation of a novel two-stage three-phase fluidized-bed bioreactor for cost-effective waste-water treatment. Phenol biodegradation was selected as a model biodegradation system for the study. The fundamental studies included bubble wake structure and dynamics, solid mixing, gas-liquid mass transfer, biofilm characteristics, and biodegradation kinetics. Comprehensive mathematical models for steady state and dynamic phenol biodegradation in both draft tube and conventional three-phase fluidized bed bioreactors were developed and experimentally validated. These models provided guidelines for design, control and optimization of biodegradation, processes in three-phase fluidized bed bioreactors. The two-stage bioreactor was demonstrated to successfully integrate immobilization, biofilm development, biodegradation and biofilm control functions into one single unit with the least human intervention. The performance of the two-stage bioreactor in terms of biodegradation rate per unit solid loading was shown to be superior to that of a one-stage three-phase fluidized-bed bioreactor.

  1. Biodegradation of toluene using Candida tropicalis immobilized on polymer matrices in fluidized bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Song, JiHyeon; Namgung, HyeongKyu; Ahmed, Zubair

    2012-11-30

    A yeast strain, Candida tropicalis, was whole-cell-immobilized on polymer matrices of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene glycol/activated carbon/alginate (PACA). The polymer matrices were used as fluidized materials in bubble-column bioreactors for the biodegradation of toluene. Simultaneously, another bubble-column bioreactor using granular activated carbon (GAC) and a conventional compost biofilter were operated for comparison. In the compost biofilter, the toluene removal efficiency gradually deteriorated due to the limitation of microbial activity. The toluene removal in the GAC bioreactor was relatively high because of an increase of toluene mass transfer. However, low toluene removal efficiencies were observed in the PEG bioreactor, presumably because the synthetic polymer alone was not suitable for yeast cell immobilization. In the PACA bioreactor, toluene removal was found to be greater than 95% overall. The CO(2) yield coefficient calculated at the highest toluene loading condition for the PACA bioreactor was found to be higher than those observed in the other bioreactors. Furthermore, almost complete elimination capacities were observed in the PACA bioreactor at short-term toluene loading up to 180 g/m(3)/h. In conclusion, the immobilization of C. tropicalis in the PACA matrix resulted in enhanced toluene biodegradation because of the increases of both mass transfer and microbial activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation of novel benzo[a]anthracene-degrading microorganisms and continuous bioremediation in an expanded-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Rosales, E; Pérez-Paz, A; Vázquez, X; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2012-06-01

    In the present work, several samples from lab waste containers polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were investigated as potential sources of PAH-degrading microorganisms. After isolating, two fungal strains were selected as the best degrading microorganisms. Genetic identification by sequencing was carried out and they were identified as Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Byssochlamys spectabilis. Their degradation ability was determined in liquid cultures with 100 μM of benzo[a]anthracene. T. longibrachiatum cultures showed highest degradation values (around 97%) after 9 days, furthermore in a second batch the time was reduced to 6 days. To analyse the viability of industrial application, a continuous treatment in an expanded-bed bioreactor was developed operating at different residence times with T. longibrachiatum immobilised on cubes of nylon sponge. It is noticeable that the bioreactor working in continuous mode was able to operate without operational problems and attaining high degradation levels depending on the residence time.

  3. Continuous D-tagatose production by immobilized thermostable L-arabinose isomerase in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Se-Ah; Kim, Chang Sup; Kim, Hye-Jung; Baek, Dae Heoun; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2003-01-01

    D-Tagatose was continuously produced using thermostable L-arabinose isomerase immobilized in alginate with D-galactose solution in a packed-bed bioreactor. Bead size, L/D (length/diameter) of reactor, dilution rate, total loaded enzyme amount, and substrate concentration were found to be optimal at 0.8 mm, 520/7 mm, 0.375 h(-1), 5.65 units, and 300 g/L, respectively. Under these conditions, the bioreactor produced about 145 g/L tagatose with an average productivity of 54 g tagatose/L x h and an average conversion yield of 48% (w/w). Operational stability of the immobilized enzyme was demonstrated, with a tagatose production half-life of 24 days.

  4. Nitrous oxide from moving bed based integrated fixed film activated sludge membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Mannina, Giorgio; Capodici, Marco; Cosenza, Alida; Di Trapani, Daniele; Laudicina, Vito Armando; Ødegaard, Hallvard

    2017-02-01

    The present paper reports the results of a nitrous oxide (N2O) production investigation in a moving bed based integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot plant designed in accordance with the University of Cape Town layout for biological phosphorous removal. Gaseous and liquid samples were collected in order to measure the gaseous as well as the dissolved concentration of N2O. Furthermore, the gas flow rate from each reactor was measured and the gas flux was estimated. The results confirmed that the anoxic reactor represents the main source of nitrous oxide production. A significant production of N2O was, however, also found in the anaerobic reactor, thus indicating a probable occurrence of the denitrifying phosphate accumulating organism activity. The highest N2O fluxes were emitted from the aerated reactors (3.09 g N2ON m(-2) h(-1) and 9.87 g N2ON m(-2) h(-1), aerobic and MBR tank, respectively). The emission factor highlighted that only 1% of the total treated nitrogen was emitted from the pilot plant. Furthermore, the measured N2O concentrations in the permeate flow were comparable with other reactors. Nitrous oxide mass balances outlined a moderate production also in the MBR reactor despite the low hydraulic retention time. On the other hand, the mass balance showed that in the aerobic reactor a constant consumption of nitrous oxide (up to almost 15 mg N2O h(-1)) took place, due to the high amount of stripped gas.

  5. Biotic factor does not limit operational pH in packed-bed bioreactor for ferrous iron biooxidation.

    PubMed

    Mazuelos, Alfonso; Moreno, José María; Carranza, Francisco; Palomino, Carmen; Torres, Antonio; Villalobo, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    Ferrous ion biooxidation is a process with many promising industrial applications: mainly regeneration of ferric ion as an oxidizing reagent in bioleaching processes and depuration of acid mine drainage. The flooded packed-bed bioreactor (FPB) is the design that leads to the highest biooxidation rate. In this bioreactor, biomass is immobilized in a biofilm that consists of an inorganic matrix, formed by precipitated ferric compounds, in the pores of which cells are attached. This biofilm covers the surface of particles (siliceous stone) that form the bed. The chemical stability of this inorganic matrix defines the widest possible pH range in FPBs. At pH below 1, ferric matrix is dissolved and cells are washed out. At pH higher than 2, ferric ion precipitates massively, greatly hindering mass transfer to cells. Thus, among other parameters, pH is recognised as a key factor for operational control in FPBs. This paper aims to explain the effect of pH on FPB operation, with an emphasis on microbial population behaviour. FPBs seeded with mixed inocula were assayed in the pH range from 2.3 to 0.8 and the microbial population was characterised. The microbial consortium in the bioreactor is modified by pH; at pH above 1.3 Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is the dominant microorganism, whereas at pH below 1.3 Leptospirillum ferrooxidans dominates. Inoculum can be adapted to acidity during continuous operation by progressively decreasing the pH of the inlet solution. Thus, in the pH range from 2.3 to 1, the biotic factor does not compromise the bioreactor performance.

  6. The effect of biomass immobilization support material and bed porosity on hydrogen production in an upflow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, B S; Saavedra, N K; Maintinguer, S I; Sette, L D; Oliveira, V M; Varesche, M B A; Zaiat, M

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the support material used for biomass attachment and bed porosity on the potential generation of hydrogen gas in an anaerobic bioreactor treating low-strength wastewater. For this purpose, an upflow anaerobic packed-bed (UAPB) reactor fed with sucrose-based synthetic wastewater was used. Three reactors with various support materials (expanded clay, vegetal coal, and low-density polyethylene) were operated for hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 0.5 and 2 h. Based on the results obtained, three further reactors were operated with low-density polyethylene as a material support using various bed porosities (91, 75, and 50 %) for an HRT of 0.5 h. The UAPB reactor was found to be a feasible technology for hydrogen production, reaching a maximum substrate-based hydrogen yield of 7 mol H₂ mol(-1) sucrose for an HRT of 0.5 h. The type of support material used did not affect hydrogen production or the microbial population inside the reactor. Increasing the bed porosity to 91 % provided a continuous and cyclic production of hydrogen, whereas the lower bed porosities resulted in a reduced time of hydrogen production due to biomass accumulation, which resulted in a decreasing working volume.

  7. Characteristics of draft tube gas-liquid-solid fluidized-bed bioreactor with immobilized living cells for phenol degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, L.S.; Fujie, K.; Long, T.R.; Tang, W.T.; Wang, D.I.C.

    1987-09-01

    Biological phenol degradation in a draft tube gas-liquid-solid fluidized bed (DTFB) bioreactor containing a mixed culture immobilized on spherical activated carbon particles was investigated. The characteristics of biofilms including the biofilm dry density and thickness, the volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient, and the phenol removal rates under different operating conditions in the DTFB were evaluated. A phenol degradation rate as high as 18 kg/cubic metre/day with an effluent phenol concentration less than 1 g/cubic m was achieved, signifying the high treatment efficiency of using a DTFB. (Refs. 21).

  8. Continuous anaerobic bioreactor with a fixed-structure bed (ABFSB) for wastewater treatment with low solids and low applied organic loading content.

    PubMed

    Mockaitis, G; Pantoja, J L R; Rodrigues, J A D; Foresti, E; Zaiat, M

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a new type of anaerobic bioreactor with a fixed-structure bed (ABFSB) in which the support for the biomass consists of polyurethane foam strips placed along the length of the bioreactor. This configuration prevents the accumulation of biomass or solids in the bed as well as clogging and channeling effects. In this study, complex synthetic wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand of 404.4 mg O(2) L(-1) is treated by the reactor. The ABFSB, which has a working volume of 4.77 L, was inoculated with anaerobic sludge obtained from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor. A removal efficiency of 78 % for organic matter and an effluent pH of 6.97 were achieved. An analysis of the organic volatile acids produced by the ABFSB indicated that it operated under stable conditions during an experimental run of 36 days. The stable and efficient operation of the bioreactor was compared with the configurations of other anaerobic bioreactors used for complex wastewater treatment. The results of the study indicate that the ABFSB is a technological alternative to packed-bed bioreactors.

  9. Development and Optimization of AAV hFIX Particles by Transient Transfection in an iCELLis(®) Fixed-Bed Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Powers, Alicia D; Piras, Bryan A; Clark, Robert K; Lockey, Timothy D; Meagher, Michael M

    2016-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are increasingly popular in gene therapy because they are unassociated with human disease, replication dependent, and less immunogenic than other viral vectors and can infect a variety of cell types. These vectors have been used in over 130 clinical trials, and one AAV product has been approved for treatment of lipoprotein lipase deficiency in Europe. To meet the demand for the increasing quantities of AAV required for clinical trials and treatment, a scalable high-capacity technology is required. Bioreactors meet these requirements but limited options are available for adherent HEK 293T/17 cells. Here we optimize the transient transfection of HEK293T/17 cells for the production of AAV human factor IX in a disposable fixed-bed bioreactor, the iCELLis(®) Nano (PALL Corporation). A fixed bed in the center of the iCELLis bioreactor is surrounded by culture medium that is pumped through the bed from the bottom of the bioreactor so that a thin film of the medium overflows the bed and is replenished with oxygen and depleted of CO2 as it returns to the surrounding medium reservoir. We show that this fixed-bed bioreactor can support as many as 2.5 × 10(8) cells/ml of fixed bed (1.9 × 10(6) cells/cm(2)). By optimizing culture and transfection parameters such as the concentration of DNA for transfection, day of harvest, size of PEI/DNA particles, and transfection medium, and adding an additional medium change to the process, we increased our yield to as high as 9.0 × 10(14) viral particles per square meter of fixed bed. We also show an average GFP transfection of 97% of cells throughout the fixed bed. These yields make the iCELLis a promising scalable technology for the clinical production of AAV gene therapy products.

  10. Energy conservation and production in a packed-bed anaerobic bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pit, W.W. Jr.; Genung, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing an energy-conserving/ producing wastewater treatment system based on a fixed-film anaerobic bioreactor. The treatment process is based on passing wastewaters upward through the bioreactor for continuous treatment by gravitational settling, biophysical filtration and biological decomposition. A two-year pilot-plant project using a bioreactor designed to treat 5000 gpd has been conducted using raw wastewater on a municipal site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Data obtained for the performance of the bioreactor during this project have been analyzed by ORNL and Associated Water and Air Resources Engineers (AWARE), Inc. of Nashville, Tennessee. From these analyses it was estimated that hydraulic loading rates of 0.25 gpm/ft/sup 2/ and hydraulic residence times of 10 hours could be used in designing such bioreactors for the secondary treatment of municipal wastewaters. Conceptual designs for total treatment systems processing up to one million gallons of wastewater per day were developed based on the performance of the pilot plant bioreactor. These systems were compared to activated sludge treatment systems also operating under secondary treatment requirements and were found to consume as little as 30% of the energy required by the activated sludge systems. Economic advantages of the process result from the elimination of operating energy requirements associated with the aeration of aerobic-based processes and with the significant decrease of sludge-handling costs required with conventional activated sludge treatment systems.Furthermore, methane produced by anaerobic fermentation processes occurring during the biological decomposition of carbonaceous wastes also represented a significant and recoverable energy production. For dilute municipal wastewaters this would completely offset the remaining energy required for treatment, while for concentrated industrial wastewater would result in a net production of energy.

  11. Biological treatment of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrodimethylamine (NTDMA) in a field-scale fluidized bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Hatzinger, Paul B; Lewis, Celeste; Webster, Todd S

    2017-09-23

    The ex situ treatment of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrodimethylamine (NTDMA) in groundwater was evaluated in a field-scale fluidized bed bioreactor (FBR). Both of these compounds, which originally entered groundwater at the test site from the use of liquid rocket propellant, are suspected human carcinogens. The objective of this research was to examine the application of a novel field-scale propane-fed fluidized bed bioreactor as an alternative to ultraviolet irradiation (UV) for treating NDMA and NTDMA to low part-per-trillion (ng/L) concentrations. Previous laboratory studies have shown that the bacterium Rhodococcus ruber ENV425 can biodegrade NDMA and NTDMA during growth on propane as a primary substrate and that the strain can effectively reduce NDMA concentrations in propane-fed bench-scale bioreactors of different design. R. ruber ENV425 was used as a seed culture for the FBR, which operated at a fluidization flow of ∼19 L-per-min (LPM) and received propane, oxygen, and inorganic nutrients in the feed. The reactor effectively treated ∼1 μg/L of influent NDMA to effluent concentrations of less than 10 ng/L at a hydraulic residence time (HRT) of only 10 min. At a 20 min HRT, the FBR reduced NDMA to <4.2 ng/L in the effluent, which was the discharge limit at the test site where the study was conducted. Similarly, NTDMA was consistently treated in the FBR from ∼0.5 μg/L to <10 ng/L at an HRT of 10 min or longer. Based on these removal rates, the average NDMA and NTDMA elimination capacities achieved were 2.1 mg NDMA treated/m(3) of expanded bed/hr of operation and 1.1 mg NTDMA treated/m(3) of expanded bed/hr of operation, respectively. The FBR system was highly resilient to upsets including power outages. Treatment of NDMA, but not NTDMA, was marginally affected when trace co-contaminants including trichloroethene (TCE) and trichlorofluoromethane (Freon 11) were initially added to feed groundwater, but performance recovered over a

  12. Evaluation of biological nutrient removal from wastewater by Twin Circulating Fluidized Bed Bioreactor (TCFBBR) using a predictive fluidization model and AQUIFAS APP.

    PubMed

    Andalib, Mehran; Nakhla, George; Sen, Dipankar; Zhu, Jesse

    2011-02-01

    A two-phase and three-phase predictive fluidization model based on the characteristics of a system such as media type and size, flow rates, and reactor cross sectional area was proposed to calculate bed expansion, solid, liquid and gas hold up and specific surface area (SSA) of the biofilm particles. The model was subsequently linked to 1d AQUIFAS APP software (Aquaregen) to model biological nutrient removal in two phase (anoxic) and three phase (aerobic) fluidized bed bioreactors. The credibility of the proposed model for biological nutrient removal was investigated using the experimental data from a Twin Circulating Fluidized Bed Bioreactors (TCFBBR) treating synthetic and municipal wastewater. The SSA of bio-particles and volume of the expanded bed were simulated as a function of operational parameters. Two-sided t-tests demonstrated that simulated SCOD, NH(4)-N, NO(3)-N, TN, VSS and biomass yields agreed with the experimental values at the 95% confidence level.

  13. Fixed-film, fluidized-bed bioreactors for biooxidation of coal conversion wastewaters. Progress report, October 1, 1984-September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, T.L.; Strandberg, G.W.; Worden, R.M.

    1986-04-01

    The technical feasibility of biooxidation treatment of 50% strength actual wastewater was successfully demonstrated using a fluidized-bed bioreactor. The wastewater was stripped to remove ammonia and sulfides prior to biotreatment. Additional experimental and modeling work confirmed the need to supply substantial oxygen to maintain high reaction rates. The reaction kinetics were shown to depend on the physical characteristics of the biofilms. Dynamic modeling and experimental studies have shown that classical reaction and diffusion concepts used in catalysis are adequate to describe the dynamic behavior of bench-scale bioreactors when the pH is constant. Oscillations in the reaction rate and phenol concentration were seen when the pH was not controlled. A status summary of the fluidized-bed bioreactor process for biooxidation of organics in coal gasification wastewaters is presented.

  14. ADAPTATION OF CLOSTRIDIUM TYROBUTYRICUM FOR ENHANCED TOLERANCE TO BUTYRIC ACID IN A FIBROUS-BED BIOREACTOR. (R829479C016)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. ADAPTATION OF CLOSTRIDIUM TYROBUTYRICUM FOR ENHANCED TOLERANCE TO BUTYRIC ACID IN A FIBROUS-BED BIOREACTOR. (R829479C016)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. Long term performance of an arsenite-oxidizing-chlorate-reducing microbial consortium in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjie; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2011-04-01

    A chlorate (ClO(3)(-)) reducing microbial consortium oxidized arsenite (As(III)) to arsenate (As(V)) in an upflow anaerobic sludge-bed bioreactor over 550 days operation. As(III) was converted with high conversion efficiencies (>98%) at volumetric loadings ranging from 0.45 to 1.92 mmol As/(L(reactor)d). The oxidation of As(III) was linked to the complete reduction of ClO(3)(-) to Cl(-) and H(2)O, as demonstrated by a molar ratio of approximately 3.0 mol As(III) oxidized per mole of Cl(-) formed and by the greatly lowered ClO(3)(-)-reducing capacity without As(III) feeding. An autotrophic enrichment culture was established from the bioreactor biofilm. A 16S rRNA gene clone library indicated that the culture was dominated by Dechloromonas, and Stenotrophomonas as well as genera within the family Comamonadaceae. The results indicate that the oxidation of As(III) to less mobile As(V) utilizing ClO(3)(-) as a terminal electron acceptor provides a sustainable bioremediation strategy for arsenic contamination in anaerobic environments.

  17. Lipid for biodiesel production from attached growth Chlorella vulgaris biomass cultivating in fluidized bed bioreactor packed with polyurethane foam material.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Sahib, Ainur-Assyakirin; Lim, Jun-Wei; Lam, Man-Kee; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Ho, Chii-Dong; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed; Wong, Chung-Yiin; Rosli, Siti-Suhailah

    2017-09-01

    The potential to grow attached microalgae Chlorella vulgaris in fluidized bed bioreactor was materialized in this study, targeting to ease the harvesting process prior to biodiesel production. The proposed thermodynamic mechanism and physical property assessment of various support materials verified polyurethane to be suitable material favouring the spontaneous adhesion by microalgae cells. The 1-L bioreactor packed with only 2.4% (v/v) of 1.00-mL polyurethane foam cubes could achieve the highest attached growth microalgae biomass and lipid weights of 812±122 and 376±37mg, respectively, in comparison with other cube sizes. The maturity of attached growth microalgae biomass for harvesting could also be determined from the growth trend of suspended microalgae biomass. Analysis of FAME composition revealed that the harvested microalgae biomass was dominated by C16-C18 (>60%) and mixture of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (>65%), satiating the biodiesel standard with adequate cold flow property and oxidative stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances and soluble microbial products in moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Duan, Liang; Jiang, Wei; Song, Yonghui; Xia, Siqing; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W

    2013-11-01

    The characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) in conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR) and in moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactors (MBBR-MBR) were investigated in long-term (170 days) experiments. The results showed that all reactors had high removal efficiency of ammonium and COD, despite very different fouling conditions. The MBBR-MBR with media fill ratio of 26.7% had much lower total membrane resistance and no obvious fouling were detected during the whole operation. In contrast, MBR and MBBR-MBR with lower and higher media fill experienced more significant fouling. Low fouling at optimum fill ratio may be due to the higher percentage of small molecular size (<1 kDa) and lower percentage of large molecular size (>100 kDa) of EPS and SMP in the reactor. The composition of EPS and SMP affected fouling due to different O-H bonds in hydroxyl functional groups, and less polysaccharides and lipids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of micropollutant removal and fouling reduction in a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yunlong; Jiang, Qi; Ngo, Huu H; Nghiem, Long D; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Wang, Jie; Guo, Wenshan

    2015-09-01

    A hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) system and a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) were compared in terms of micropollutant removal efficiency and membrane fouling propensity. The results show that the hybrid MBBR-MBR system could effectively remove most of the selected micropollutants. By contrast, the CMBR system showed lower removals of ketoprofen, carbamazepine, primidone, bisphenol A and estriol by 16.2%, 30.1%, 31.9%, 34.5%, and 39.9%, respectively. Mass balance calculations suggest that biological degradation was the primary removal mechanism in the MBBR-MBR system. During operation, the MBBR-MBR system exhibited significantly slower fouling development as compared to the CMBR system, which could be ascribed to the wide disparity in the soluble microbial products (SMP) levels between MBBR-MBR (4.02-6.32 mg/L) and CMBR (21.78 and 33.04 mg/L). It is evident that adding an MBBR process prior to MBR treatment can not only enhance micropollutant elimination but also mitigate membrane fouling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long Term Performance of an Arsenite-Oxidizing-Chlorate-Reducing Microbial Consortium in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenjie; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A.

    2011-01-01

    A chlorate (ClO3−) reducing microbial consortium oxidized arsenite (As(III)) to arsenate (As(V)) in an upflow anaerobic sludge-bed bioreactor over 550 d operation. As(III) was converted with high conversion efficiencies (>98%) at volumetric loadings ranging from 0.45 to 1.92 mmol As/(Lreactor d). The oxidation of As(III) was linked to the complete reduction of ClO3− to Cl− and H2O, as demonstrated by a molar ratio of approximately 3.0 mol As(III) oxidized per mole of Cl− formed and by the greatly lowered ClO3−-reducing capacity without As(III) feeding. An autotrophic enrichment culture was established from the bioreactor biofilm. A 16S rRNA gene clone library indicated that the culture was dominated by Dechloromonas, and Stenotrophomonas as well as genera within the family Comamonadaceae. The results indicate that the oxidation of As(III) to less mobile As(V) utilizing ClO3− as a terminal electron acceptor provides a sustainable bioremediation strategy for arsenic contamination in anaerobic environments. PMID:21333531

  1. Simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal by a novel sequencing batch moving bed membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuai; Yang, Fenglin; Fu, Zhimin; Wang, Tao; Lei, Ruibo

    2010-03-15

    Biological nutrient removal (BNR) was investigated in a sequencing batch membrane bioreactor which used carriers instead of activated sludge named a sequencing batch moving bed membrane bioreactor (SBMBMBR). The SBMBMBR performed well on carbon and nitrogen removal at different COD/TN ratios. COD, TN and ammonium nitrogen removal efficiencies averaged at 93.5%, 82.6% and 95.6%, respectively. The TP removal was closely correlated with the length of anaerobic phase and aerobic phase. When anaerobic time and aerobic time were both 2h, the average TP removal efficiency reached to 84.1% at influent TP concentration of 12.4 mg/L. DO in aerobic phase was an important factor affecting nutrient removal, and the optimal DO was about 3mg/L. There was a small amount of denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) in SBMBMBR which resulted from the anoxic microenvironment existed in the inner of the biofilm. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results of microbes showed the composition and spatial structure of the microbial community in the reactor. Furthermore, sequencing batch mode operation was propitious to retard membrane fouling. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Denitrification performance and microbial diversity in a packed-bed bioreactor using PCL as carbon source and biofilm carrier.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weizhong; Yang, Luhua; Wang, Jianlong

    2013-03-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) was used as both carbon source and biofilm support for denitrifying bacteria in a packed-bed bioreactor. The denitrification performance and microbial diversity were investigated. The microbial community of biofilm developed on the surface of PCL in the reactor was analyzed by pyrosequencing method. The experimental results showed the average nitrate removal efficiency reached 93 % at stable operation. ESEM observation and FTIR analysis were conducted to characterize the PCL structure before and after microbial utilization. For the microbial community, Betaproteobacteria predominated, and most of the PCL-degrading denitrifying bacteria assigned to the family of Comamonadacea. Denitrifying bacteria accounted for more than 20 % in the total population, indicating that PCL is a good carrier and carbon source for biological denitrification.

  3. Development and validation of a bioartificial liver device with fluidized bed bioreactors hosting alginate-encapsulated hepatocyte spheroids.

    PubMed

    Figaro, S; Pereira, U; Rada, H; Semenzato, N; Pouchoulin, D; Legallais, C

    2015-08-01

    Acute and acute-on-chronic liver failure are associated to high mortality when transplantation is not possible. The lack of donors has resulted in an important demand for liver support devices. This paper describes the design and validation of a new bioartificial liver (BAL) device including fluidized bed bioreactors hosting alginate-encapsulated hepatocytes spheroids. To ensure the efficacy of the BAL and the safety of the patients, a complex extracorporeal circulation was designed to be compatible with a commercial medical device, the Prismaflex(®) monitor, already used in intensive care units. Preclinical studies on large animal show that the treatment was well tolerated in terms of hemodynamics considerations. A method using non adhesive coating in petri dish led to the production of large amount of viable spheroids in vitro that were further encapsulated to follow up bioartificial liver activity during four days.

  4. Performance of an anaerobic, static bed, fixed film bioreactor for chlorinated solvent treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles; Graves, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic, fixed film, bioreactors bioaugmented with a dechlorinating microbial consortium were evaluated as a potential technology for cost effective, sustainable, and reliable treatment of mixed chlorinated ethanes and ethenes in groundwater from a large groundwater recovery system. Bench- and pilot-scale testing at about 3 and 13,500 L, respectively, demonstrated that total chlorinated solvent removal to less than the permitted discharge limit of 100 μg/L. Various planned and unexpected upsets, interruptions, and changes demonstrated the robustness and reliability of the bioreactor system, which handled the operational variations with no observable change in performance. Key operating parameters included an adequately long hydraulic retention time for the surface area, a constant supply of electron donor, pH control with a buffer to minimize pH variance, an oxidation reduction potential of approximately −200 millivolts or lower, and a well-adapted biomass capable of degrading the full suite of chlorinated solvents in the groundwater. Results indicated that the current discharge criteria can be met using a bioreactor technology that is less complex and has less downtime than the sorption based technology currently being used to treat the groundwater.

  5. Mouse Fetal Liver Cells in Artificial Capillary Beds in Three-Dimensional Four-Compartment Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Monga, Satdarshan P.S.; Hout, Mariah S.; Baun, Matt J.; Micsenyi, Amanda; Muller, Peggy; Tummalapalli, Lekha; Ranade, Aarati R.; Luo, Jian-Hua; Strom, Stephen C.; Gerlach, Jörg C.

    2005-01-01

    Bioreactors containing porcine or adult human hepatocytes have been used to sustain acute liver failure patients until liver transplantation. However, prolonged function of adult hepatocytes has not been achieved due to compromised proliferation and viability of adult cells in vitro. We investigated the use of fetal hepatocytes as an alternative cell source in bioreactors. Mouse fetal liver cells from gestational day 17 possessed intermediate differentiation and function based on their molecular profile. When cultured in a three-dimensional four-compartment hollow fiber-based bioreactor for 3 to 5 weeks these cells formed neo-tissues that were characterized comprehensively. Albumin liberation, testosterone meta-bolism, and P450 induction were demonstrated. Histology showed predominant ribbon-like three-dimensional structures composed of hepatocytes between hollow fibers. High positivity for proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67 and low positivity for terminal dUTP nick-end labeling indicated robust cell proliferation and survival. Most cells within these ribbon arrangements were albumin-positive. In addition, cells in peripheral zones were simultaneously positive for α-fetoprotein, cytokeratin-19, and c-kit, indicating their progenitor phenotype. Mesenchymal components including endothelial, stellate, and smooth muscle cells were also observed. Thus, fetal liver cells can survive, proliferate, differentiate, and function in a three-dimensional perfusion culture system while maintaining a progenitor pool, reflecting an important advance in hepatic tissue engineering. PMID:16251412

  6. Containment of biogenic sulfide production in continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors with nitrate or nitrite.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Casey; Nemati, Mehdi; Jenneman, Gary; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2003-01-01

    Produced water from the Coleville oil field in Saskatchewan, Canada was used to inoculate continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors. When 7.8 mM sulfate and 25 mM lactate were present in the in-flowing medium, H(2)S production (souring) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was prevented by addition of 17.5 mM nitrate or 20 mM nitrite. Changing the sulfate or lactate concentration of the in-flowing medium indicated that the concentrations of nitrate or nitrite required for containment of souring decreased proportionally with a lowered concentration of the electron donor lactate, while the sulfate concentration of the medium had no effect. Microbial communities were dominated by SRB. Nitrate addition did not give rise to changes in community composition, indicating that lactate oxidation and H(2)S removal were caused by the combined action of SRB and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). Apparently the nitrite concentrations formed by these NR-SOB did not inhibit the SRB sufficiently to cause community shifts. In contrast, significant community shifts were observed upon direct addition of high concentrations (20 mM) of nitrite. Strains NO3A and NO2B, two newly isolated, nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) emerged as major community members. These were found to belong to the epsilon-division of the Proteobacteria, to be most closely related to Campylobacter lari, and to oxidize lactate with nitrate or nitrite as the electron acceptor. Thus the mechanism of microbial H(2)S removal in up-flow packed-bed bioreactors depended on whether nitrate (SRB/NR-SOB) or nitrite (SRB/NR-SOB as well as NRB) was used. However, the amount of nitrate or nitrite needed to completely remove H(2)S was dictated by the electron donor (lactate) concentration, irrespective of mechanism.

  7. Solid-state fermentation of palm kernel cake with Aspergillus flavus in laterally aerated moving bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yoke Phooi; Saw, Horng Yuan; Janaun, Jidon; Krishnaiah, Kamatam; Prabhakar, Auti

    2011-05-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was employed to enhance the nutritive values of palm kernel cake (PKC) for poultry feeding. Aspergillus flavus was isolated from local PKC and utilized to increase the mannose content of PKC via the degradation of β-mannan in PKC; evaluation was done for batch SSF in Erlenmeyer flasks and in a novel laterally aerated moving bed (LAMB) bioreactor. The optimum condition for batch SSF in flasks was 110% initial moisture content, initial pH 6.0, 30 °C, 855 μm particle size, and 120 h of fermentation, yielding 90.91 mg mannose g⁻¹ dry PKC (5.9-fold increase). Batch SSF in the LAMB at the optimum condition yielded 79.61 mg mannose g⁻¹ dry PKC (5.5-fold increase) within just 96 h due to better heat and mass transfer when humidified air flowed radially across the PKC bed. In spite of a compromise of 12% reduction in mannose content when compared with the flasks, the LAMB facilitated good heat and mass transfer, and improved the mannose content of PKC in a shorter fermentation period. These attributes are useful for batch production of fermented PKC feed in an industrial scale.

  8. Ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis in a tapered-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sitchin, R.; Gubanc, P.F.; Tormo, J.V. Jr.

    1981-02-01

    The fermentation of glucose to ethanol by the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis was studied. A tapered bioreactor containing an anion exchange resin, to which bacteria were attached, was fluidized by feed solution at 35/sup 0/C. Short residence times characteristic of the experimental tapered reactor were necessary to model various differential segments of a hypothetical large-scale reactor. A feed concentraton of 10% glucose as well as glucose/ethanol mixtures were studied. Ethanol production ranged from 29 g/liter-h for a feed containing 2% weight per volume glucose to 64 g/liter-h for a 10% glucose feed. Development of biomass concentration-measurement techniques was begun. Caustic stripping, DNA analysis, and dehydrogenase determinations were attemped, but results were inconclusive.

  9. Modeling arsenite oxidation by chemoautotrophic Thiomonas arsenivorans strain b6 in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Dastidar, Aniruddha; Wang, Yi-Tin

    2012-08-15

    Arsenic is a major toxic pollutant of concern for the human health. Biological treatment of arsenic contaminated water is an alternative strategy to the prevalent conventional treatments. The biological treatment involves a pre-oxidation step transforming the most toxic form of arsenic, As (III), to the least toxic form, As (V), respectively. This intermediate process improves the overall efficiency of total arsenic removal from the contaminated water. As (III) oxidation by the chemoautotrophic bacterium Thiomonas arsenivorans strain b6 was investigated in a fixed-film reactor under variable influent As (III) concentrations (500-4000 mg/L) and hydraulic residence times (HRTs) (0.2-1 day) for a duration of 137 days. During the entire operation, seven steady-state conditions were obtained with As (III) oxidation efficiency ranging from 48.2% to 99.3%. The strong resilience of the culture was exhibited by the recovery of the bioreactor from an As (III) overloading of 5300±400 mg As (III)/L day operated at a HRT of 0.2 day. An arsenic mass balance revealed that As (III) was mainly oxidized to As (V) with unaccounted arsenic (≤4%) well within the analytical error of measurement. A modified Monod flux expression was used to determine the biokinetic parameters by fitting the model against the observed steady-state flux data obtained from operating the bioreactor under a range of HRTs (0.2-1 day) and a constant influent As (III) concentration of 500 mg/L. Model parameters, k=0.71±0.1 mg As (III)/mg cells h, and K(s)=13.2±2.8 mg As (III)/L were obtained using a non-linear estimation routine and employing the Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm. Sensitivity analysis revealed k to be more sensitive to model simulations of As (III) oxidation under steady-state conditions than parameter K(s). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in Groundwater Using a Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    DEMONSTRATION N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is present in groundwater and drinking water from industrial , agricultural, water treatment , and military...bed makes it appreciably more efficient for water treatment than many other types of biological reactor systems. This reduces the reactor size and...subsequently, the cost of treatment . The pilot-scale FBR (1-5 gallons per minute [gpm] influent flow) was operated for ~1 year on the actual site water

  11. COD reduction of textile effluent in three-phase fluidized bed bioreactor using Pseudomonas aureofaciens and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sur, Dharmesh H; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi

    2017-06-01

    This paper investigated the effect of mixed cultures of Pseudomonas aureofaciens and Escherichia coli and air as gas on degradation of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in three-phase inverse fluidized beds (TPIFBs) for textile effluents with initial COD of 1200 ppm (effluent 1) and 640 ppm (effluent 2). Investigators focused on the importance of different design of gas spargers of the TPIFB for checking its effect on COD reduction performance. For this purpose, four different gas spargers were fabricated for gas flow entry into bioreactor with different  % open area: Gas sparger 1 (18% open area), sparger 2 (10.42% open area), sparger 3 (8.077% open area) and sparger 4 (1.53% open area). These percentage open area decided the amount of gas flow in a unit time in batch studies, which in turn rely mainly on superficial gas velocity. The reduction in COD was measured at two different superficial gas velocity (0.00343 and 0.004068 m/s) and at two ratio of static bed height to diameter (H/D) of 0.5 and 0.25 in an aerobic mode. Textile effluent 1 resulted in 98.07% COD reduction with sparger 3 and discharged at 23.14 ppm in 28 h. Textile effluent 2 resulted in 96.5% COD reduction with sparger 2 and discharged at 22.4 ppm in 22 h. The resulting COD values of Effluent 1 and effluent 2 were in range of discharge limit and resulted at a low gas velocity of 0.00343 m/s and low H/D ratio of 0.25. The gas holdup correlation was found to be ε g = 0.0064 U g(0.98) .

  12. Load maximization of a liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor for nitrogen removal from synthetic municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Nabin; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

    2008-03-01

    A novel liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (LSCFB) configured with anoxic and aerobic columns and lava rock as the biofilm carrier was used to treat synthetic municipal wastewater. Four different empty bed contact times (EBCTs) of 0.82, 0.65, 0.55, and 0.44 h were examined to optimize nutrient removal capability of the system. The LSCFB demonstrated tertiary effluent quality organic and nitrogen removal efficiencies. Effluent characteristics of the LSCFB were soluble biological oxygen demand (SBOD)10 mg l(-1) and total nitrogen (TN)<10 mg l(-1) at organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.3 kg m(-3)d(-1) and nitrogen loading rate of 0.54 kg Nm(-3)d(-1). Remarkably low yields of 0.14, 0.17, 0.19, and 0.21 g VSS g(-1)COD were observed at OLR of 2.6, 3.2, 4.1 and 5.3 kg COD m(-3)d(-1), where increment of biomass growth and detachment rate were also experienced with increasing OLR. However the system demonstrated only 30% phosphorus removal, and mass balances along the anoxic and aerobic columns showed biological phosphorus removal in the system. Organic mass balance showed that approximately 40% of the influent COD was utilized in the anoxic column and the remaining COD was oxidized in the aerobic column. The system is very efficient in nitrification-denitrification, with more than 90% nitrification of ammonium and overall nitrogen removal in the LSCFB was 70+/-11% even at an EBCT of 0.44 h.

  13. Interlinkages between bacterial populations dynamics and the operational parameters in a moving bed membrane bioreactor treating urban sewage.

    PubMed

    Reboleiro-Rivas, P; Martín-Pascual, J; Morillo, J A; Juárez-Jiménez, B; Poyatos, J M; Rodelas, B; González-López, J

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria are key players in biological wastewater treatments (WWTs), thus a firm knowledge of the bacterial population dynamics is crucial to understand environmental/operational factors affecting the efficiency and stability of the biological depuration process. Unfortunately, little is known about the microbial ecology of the advanced biological WWTs combining suspended biomass (SB) and attached biofilms (AB). This study explored in depth the bacterial community structure and population dynamics in each biomass fraction from a pilot-scale moving bed membrane bioreactor (MBMBR) treating municipal sewage, by means of temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) and 454-pyrosequencing. Eight experimental phases were conducted, combining different carrier filling ratios, hydraulic retention times and concentrations of mixed liquor total suspended solids. The bacterial community, dominated by Proteobacteria (20.9-53.8%) and Actinobacteria (20.6-57.6%), was very similar in both biomass fractions and able to maintain its functional stability under all the operating conditions, ensuring a successful and steady depuration process. Multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that solids concentration, carrier filling ratio, temperature and organic matter concentration in the influent were the significant factors explaining population dynamics. Bacterial diversity increased as carrier filling ratio increased (from 20% to 35%, v/v), and solids concentration was the main factor triggering the shifts of the community structure. These findings provide new insights on the influence of operational parameters on the biology of the innovative MBMBRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigating membrane fouling associated with GAC fluidization on membrane with effluent from anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor in domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2017-08-07

    Effect of mechanical scouring driven by granular activated carbon (GAC) fluidization on membrane fouling was investigated using a laboratory-scaled, fluidized membrane reactor filtering the effluent from anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor (AFBR) in domestic wastewater treatment. The GAC particles were fluidized by recirculating a bulk solution only through the membrane reactor to control membrane fouling. The membrane fouling was compared with two different feed solutions, effluent taken from a pilot-scaled, AFBR treating domestic wastewater and its filtrate through 0.1-μm membrane pore size. The GAC fluidization driven by bulk recirculation through the membrane reactor was very effective to reduce membrane fouling. Membrane scouring under GAC fluidization decreased reversible fouling resistance effectively. Fouling mitigation was more pronounced with bigger GAC particles than smaller ones as fluidized media. Regardless of the fluidized GAC sizes, however, there was limited effect on controlling irreversible fouling caused by colloidal materials which is smaller than 0.1 μm. In addition, the deposit of GAC particles that ranged from 180 to 500 μm in size on membrane surface was very significant and accelerated fouling rate. Biopolymers rejected by the membranes were thought to play a role as binding these small GAC particles on membrane surface strongly.

  15. Membrane fouling mitigation in a moving bed membrane bioreactor combined with anoxic biofilter for treatment of saline wastewater from mariculture.

    PubMed

    Song, Weilong; You, Hong; Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; Qi, Peishi; Wang, Fang; Li, Yizhu

    2017-11-01

    Membrane fouling mitigation in a novel AF-MBMBR system (moving bed membrane bioreactor (10L) coupled with anoxic biofilter (4L)) under high salinity condition (35‰) was systematically investigated. Pre-positioned AF served as a pretreatment induced significant decrease of suspended biomass by 85% and dissolved organic matters by 51.7% in subsequent MBR, which resulted in a reduction of cake layer formation. Based on this, sponge bio-carriers in MBMBR further alleviated the fouling propensity by modifying extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) properties. The protein component in EPS decreased from 181.4 to 116.5mg/g MLSS, with a decline of protein/carbohydrate ratio from 4.6 to 3.4. In particular, elimination of hydrophobic groups like aromatic protein-like substance in EPS was detected. These caused the less biomass deposition on membrane surface, thereby alleviating membrane fouling. In summary, mitigation of membrane fouling in AF-MBMBR should be attributed to contributions from both pre-positioned AF and sponge bio-carriers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Denitrification performance and microbial diversity in a packed-bed bioreactor using biodegradable polymer as carbon source and biofilm support.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Yuexi; Hu, Jun; Wang, Jianlong

    2013-04-15

    A novel kind of biodegradable polymer, i.e., starch/polycaprolactone (SPCL) was prepared and used as carbon source and biofilm support for biological denitrification in a packed-bed bioreactor. The denitrification performances and microbial diversity of biofilm under different operating conditions were investigated. The results showed that the average denitrification rate was 0.64 ± 0.06 kg N/(m(3)d), and NH3-N formation (below 1mg/L) was observed during denitrification. The nitrate removal efficiency at 15°C was only 55.06% of that at 25°C. An initial excess release of DOC could be caused by rapid biodegradation of starch in the surfaces of SPCL granules, then it decreased to 10.08 mg/L. The vast majority of species on SPCL biofilm sample (99.71%) belonged to six major phyla: Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Spirochaetes and Actinobacteria. Proteobacteria were the most abundant phylum (85.50%) and mainly consisted of β-proteobacteria (82.39%). Diaphorobacter and Acidovorax constituted 52.75% of the identified genera which were denitrifying bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of biofilm thickness on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from denitrifying fluidized bed bioreactors (DFBBRs).

    PubMed

    Eldyasti, Ahmed; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

    2014-12-20

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a significant anthropogenic greenhouse gas emitted from biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes. This study tries to get a deeper insight into N2O emissions from denitrifying fluidized bed bioreactors (DFBBRs) and its relationship to the biofilm thickness, diffusivity, and reaction rates. The DFBBR was operated at two different organic and nitrogen loading rates of 5.9–7 kg COD/(m3 d) and 1.2–2 kg N/(m3 d), respectively. Results showed that the N2O conversion rate from the DFBBR at a biofilm thickness of 680 μm was 0.53% of the total influent nitrogen loading while at the limited COD and a biofilm thickness of 230 μm, the N2O conversion rate increased by 196–1.57% of the influent nitrogen loading concomitant with a sevenfold increase in liquid nitrite concentration. Comparing the N2O emissions at different biofilm thickness showed that the N2O emission decreased exponentially with biofilm thickness due to the retention of slow growth denitrifiers and the limited diffusivity of N2O.

  18. Degradation of pharmaceuticals in non-sterile urban wastewater by Trametes versicolor in a fluidized bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Morató, Carles; Ferrando-Climent, Laura; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Vicent, Teresa; Sarrà, Montserrat

    2013-09-15

    The constant detection of pharmaceuticals (PhACs) in the environment demonstrates the inefficiency of conventional wastewater treatment plants to completely remove them from wastewaters. So far, many studies have shown the feasibility of using white rot fungi to remove these contaminants. However, none of them have studied the degradation of several PhACs in real urban wastewater under non-sterile conditions, where mixtures of contaminants presents at low concentrations (ng L(-1) to μg L(-1)) as well as other active microorganisms are present. In this work, a batch fluidized bed bioreactor was used to study, for the first time, the degradation of PhACs present in urban wastewaters at their pre-existent concentrations under non-sterile conditions. Glucose and ammonium tartrate were continuously supplied as carbon and nitrogen source, respectively, and pH was maintained at 4.5. Complete removal of 7 out of the 10 initially detected PhACs was achieved in non-sterile treatment, while only 2 were partially removed and 1 of the PhACs analyzed increased its concentration. In addition, Microtox test showed an important reduction of toxicity in the wastewater after the treatment.

  19. Essential factors of an integrated moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor: Adhesion characteristics and microbial community of the biofilm.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bing; Yu, Chunfei; Bin, Liying; Zhao, Yiliang; Feng, Xianfeng; Huang, Shaosong; Fu, Fenglian; Ding, Jiewei; Chen, Cuiqun; Li, Ping; Chen, Qianyu

    2016-07-01

    This work aims at revealing the adhesion characteristics and microbial community of the biofilm in an integrated moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor, and further evaluating their variations over time. With multiple methods, the adhesion characteristics and microbial community of the biofilm on the carriers were comprehensively illuminated, which showed their dynamic variation along with the operational time. Results indicated that: (1) the roughness of biofilm on the carriers increased very quickly to a maximum value at the start-up stage, then, decreased to become a flat curve, which indicated a layer of smooth biofilm formed on the surface; (2) the tightly-bound protein and polysaccharide was the most important factor influencing the stability of biofilm; (3) the development of biofilm could be divided into three stages, and Gammaproteobacteria were the most dominant microbial species in class level at the last stage, which occupied the largest ratio (51.48%) among all microbes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New functional biocarriers for enhancing the performance of a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lijuan; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Zhang, Xinbo; Wang, Xiaochang C; Zhang, Qionghua; Chen, Rong

    2016-05-01

    In this study, new sponge modified plastic carriers for moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was developed. The performance and membrane fouling behavior of a hybrid MBBR-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) system were also evaluated. Comparing to the MBBR with plastic carriers (MBBR), the MBBR with sponge modified biocarriers (S-MBBR) showed better effluent quality and enhanced nutrient removal at HRTs of 12h and 6h. Regarding fouling issue of the hybrid systems, soluble microbial products (SMP) of the MBR unit greatly influenced membrane fouling. The sponge modified biocarriers could lower the levels of SMP in mixed liquor and extracellular polymeric substances in activated sludge, thereby mitigating cake layer and pore blocking resistances of the membrane. The reduced SMP and biopolymer clusters in membrane cake layer were also observed. The results demonstrated that the sponge modified biocarriers were capable of improving overall MBBR performance and substantially alleviated membrane fouling of the subsequent MBR unit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance and microbial community structure in an integrated anaerobic fluidized-bed membrane bioreactor treating synthetic benzothiazole contaminated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Hu, Qi; Chen, Chun-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Long; Gao, Da-Wen

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the impact of benzothiazole on the performance and microbial community structures in an integrated anaerobic fluidized-bed membrane bioreactor fed with synthetic benzothiazole wastewater (with gradually increasing doses of benzothiazole (1-50mg/L)). The addition of benzothiazole had an adverse effect on volatile fatty acids accumulation (from 10.86mg/L to 57.83mg/L), and membrane fouling (service period from 5.9d to 5.3d). The removal efficiency of benzothiazole was 96.0%. Biodegradation was the major benzothiazole removal route and the biodegradation efficiency obviously improved from 25.7% to 98.3% after adaptation. Sludge 1 (collected on day 58 without benzothiazole) and sludge 2 (collected on day 185 with 50mg/L benzothiazole) were analyzed using the Illumina®MiSeq platform. The most abundant genera were Trichococcus (43.1% in sludge 1) and Clostridium sensu stricto (23.9% in sludge 2). The dominant genus of archaea was Methanosaeta (90.3% in sludge 1 and 80.8% in sludge 2). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring the microbial community shift throughout the shock changes of hydraulic retention time in an anaerobic moving bed membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Win, Theint Theint; Kim, Hyemin; Cho, Kangwoo; Song, Kyung Guen; Park, Joonhong

    2016-02-01

    An anaerobic moving bed membrane bioreactor (AnMBMBR) fed with synthetic domestic wastewater was investigated under hydraulic retention time (HRT) shocks to assess the effects on the microbial (bacteria and archaea) community and reactor performance. 16S rDNA targeted polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) approach was optimized to relate the metabolic and community composition with biogas generation, methane content and COD removal efficiency. From the drastic decrease of HRT (from 8 h to 4 h), the methane production was significantly reduced due to the HRT shock, while the COD removal efficiency was not affected. The enhanced growth of homoacetogenic bacteria, Thermoanaerobacteraceae competes with methanogens under shock period. When the HRT was recovered to 8 h, the methane generation rate was higher than the initial operation before the shock HRT changes, which would be ascribed to the activity of new emerging hydrogenotrophic archaea, Methanocella sp. and Methanofollis sp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid manganese removal from mine waters using an aerated packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Karen L; Younger, Paul L

    2005-01-01

    In the UK, the Environmental Quality Standard for manganese has recently been lowered to 30 microg/L (annual average), which is less than the UK Drinking Water Inspectorate's Maximum Permitted Concentration Value (50 microg/L). Current passive treatment systems for manganese removal operate as open-air gravel-bed filters, designed to maximize either influent light and/or dissolved oxygen. This requires large areas of land. A novel enhanced bioremediation treatment system for manganese removal has been developed that consists of a passively aerated subsurface gravel bed. The provision of air at depth and the use of catalytic substrates help overcome the slow kinetics usually associated with manganese oxidation. With a residence time of only 8 h and an influent manganese concentration of approximately 20 mg/L, >95% of the manganese was removed. The treatment system also operates successfully at temperatures as low as 4 degrees C and in total darkness. These observations have positive implications for manganese treatment using this technique in both colder climates and where large areas of land are unavailable. Furthermore, as the operation of this passive treatment system continually generates fresh manganese oxyhydroxide, which is a powerful sorbent for most pollutant metals, it potentially has major ancillary benefits as a removal process for other metals, such as zinc.

  4. Economic assessment of ethanol production comparing traditional and fluidized-bed bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Harshbarger, D.; Bautz, M.; Davison, B.H.

    1995-12-31

    This study analyzes the economic impact that a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) using immobilized Zymomonas mobilis would have on a plant converting cornstarch into ethanol. The study addresses substituting this new technology into an existing plant or using it for a new plant. We have compared the processing steps required by the FBR with conventional technology, and developed process flow schematics, priced required equipment, and generated plant capital and operating cost estimates. This allowed a cost evaluation between the FBR and traditional technologies, such as well-mixed fed-batch fermentation. The study results indicate that the FBR technology can provide a significant reduction in the production costs of ethanol-a savings of > $0.02/gal if inserted into an existing plant, and a savings of > $0.06/gal if used at a new plant.

  5. The influence of process parameters in production of lipopeptide iturin A using aerated packed bed bioreactors in solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Piedrahíta-Aguirre, C A; Bastos, R G; Carvalho, A L; Monte Alegre, R

    2014-08-01

    The strain Bacillus iso 1 co-produces the lipopeptide iturin A and biopolymer poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) in solid-state fermentation of substrate consisting of soybean meal, wheat bran with rice husks as an inert support. The effects of pressure drop, oxygen consumption, medium permeability and temperature profile were studied in an aerated packed bed bioreactor to produce iturin A, diameter of which was 50 mm and bed height 300 mm. The highest concentrations of iturin A and γ-PGA were 5.58 and 3.58 g/kg-dry substrate, respectively, at 0.4 L/min after 96 h of fermentation. The low oxygen uptake rates, being 23.34 and 22.56 mg O2/kg-dry solid substrate for each air flow rate tested generated 5.75 W/kg-dry substrate that increased the fermentation temperature at 3.7 °C. The highest pressure drop was 561 Pa/m at 0.8 L/min in 24 h. This is the highest concentration of iturin A produced to date in an aerated packed bed bioreactor in solid-state fermentation. The results can be useful to design strategies to scale-up process of iturin A in aerated packed bed bioreactors. Low concentration of γ-PGA affected seriously pressure drop, decreasing the viability of the process due to generation of huge pressure gradients with volumetric air flow rates. Also, the low oxygenation favored the iturin A production due to the reduction of free void by γ-PGA production, and finally, the low oxygen consumption generated low metabolic heat. The results show that it must control the pressure gradients to scale-up the process of iturin A production.

  6. Insect cell entrapment, growth and recovering using a single-use fixed-bed bioreactor. Scaling up and recombinant protein production.

    PubMed

    Ventini-Monteiro, D; Dubois, S; Astray, R M; Castillo, J; Pereira, C A

    2015-12-20

    Insect cells are largely used for industrial production of vaccines, viral vectors and recombinant proteins as well as in research and development as an important tool for biology and bioprocess studies. They grow in suspension and are semi-adherent cells. Among the cell culture systems enabling scalable bioprocess the single-use fixed-bed iCELLis(®) bioreactors offer great advantages. We have established the conditions for Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells entrapment into the fixed-bed, cell growth and recover from the fixed-bed once high cell densities were attained. Our established protocol allowed these cells, at a cell seeding of 2×1E5 cells/microfiber carriers (MC) (3.5×1E6cells/mL; 1.7×1E4cells/cm(2)), to grow inside a 4m(2)/200mL fixed-bed attaining a concentration of 5.3×1E6 cells/MC (9.5×1E7cells/mL; 4.7×1E5 cells/cm(2)) for S2 cells or 4.6×1E6 cells/MC (8×1E7cells/mL; 4.1×1E5cells/cm(2)) for Sf9 cells. By washing the fixed-bed, entrapped cells could then be recovered from the fixed-bed at a high rate (>85%) with high viability (>95%) by increasing the agitation to 1200/1500rpm. Although the cell yields in the fixed-bed bioreactor were comparable to those obtained in a stirred tank (respectively, 1.3×1E10 and 2.5×1E10 total cells), S2 cells stably transfected with a cDNA coding for the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP) showed a 30% higher preserved rRVGP production (2.5±0.1 and 1.9±0.1μg/1E7 cells), as evidenced by a conformational ELISA evaluation. These findings demonstrate not only the possibility to entrap, cultivate to high densities and recover insect cells using a single-use fixed-bed bioreactor, but also that this system provides suitable physiological conditions for the entrapped cells to produce a cell membrane associated recombinant protein with higher specific biological activity as compared to classical suspension cell cultures.

  7. Process parameters study of α-amylase production in a packed-bed bioreactor under solid-state fermentation with possibility of temperature monitoring.

    PubMed

    Derakhti, Sorour; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Hashemi, Maryam; Khajeh, Khosro

    2012-01-01

    Production of α-amylase in a laboratory-scale packed-bed bioreactor by Bacillus sp. KR-8104 under solid-state fermentation (SSF) with possibility of temperature control and monitoring was studied using wheat bran (WB) as a solid substrate. The simultaneous effects of aeration rate, initial substrate moisture, and incubation temperature on α-amylase production were evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a Box-Behnken design. The optimum conditions for attaining the maximum production of α-amylase were 37°C, 72% (w/w) initial substrate moisture, and 0.15 L/min aeration. The average enzyme activity obtained under the optimized conditions was 473.8 U/g dry fermented substrate. In addition, it was observed that the production of enzyme decreased from the bottom of the bioreactor to the top.

  8. Transport in a grooved perfusion flat-bed bioreactor for cell therapy applications.

    PubMed

    Horner, M; Miller, W M; Ottino, J M; Papoutsakis, E T

    1998-01-01

    This study considers the transport of oxygen (a growth-associated solute) and lactate (a metabolic byproduct) in a flat-bed perfusion chamber modified to retain cells through the addition of grooves, perpendicular to the direction of flow, at the chamber bottom. The chamber has been successfully applied to hematopoietic cell culture and may be useful for other basic and applied biomedical applications. The objective of this study is to characterize the culture environment in terms of solute transport under various operational conditions. This will allow one to improve the design and operating strategy of the perfusion system for maximizing cell numbers. The system is numerically simulated using the finite element package FIDAP. The reaction kinetics describing oxygen uptake by cells are simplified to zero order to give an upper bound for the oxygen consumption. A flat-bed chamber without grooves is considered here as a benchmark. We show that the growth environment is not oxygen limited (local oxygen concentration above 10 microM) for a variety of flow rates and culture conditions (qO2 = 0.1 micromol/(10(6) cells h)). With a medium flow rate of 2.5 mL/min through the reactor, the model predicts that the 29-cm2 reactor can support at least 33.4 x 10(6) total cells when the inlet medium is in equilibrium with high (20%) oxygen concentration. The culture becomes oxygen limited however for the same flow rate for low (5%) oxygen concentration and can only support 7.2 x 10(6) total cells. Comparison of grooved vs nongrooved chambers reveals that the presence of grooves only affects solute transport on a local scale. This result is attributed to the small size (200 microgram) of the cavities relative to the chamber dimensions. The comparison also yields an empirical relation that allows for rapid estimation of oxygen and lactate concentrations in the grooves using only the numerical simulation of the simpler nongrooved chamber. Finally, our investigation shows that, while

  9. Treatment of ferrous-NTA-based NO x scrubber solution by an up-flow anaerobic packed bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekhar, B; Sahu, Nidhi; Tabassum, Heena; Pai, Padmaraj; Morone, Amruta; Pandey, R A

    2015-06-01

    A bench scale system consisting of an up-flow packed bed bioreactor (UAPBR) made of polyurethane foam was used for the treatment and regeneration of aqueous solution of ferrous-NTA scrubbed with nitric oxide (NO). The biomass in the UAPBR was sequentially acclimatized under denitrifying and iron reducing conditions using ethanol as electron donor, after which nitric oxide (NO) gas was loaded continuously to the system by absorption. The system was investigated for different parameters viz. pH, removal efficiency of nitric oxide, biological reduction efficiency of Fe(II)NTA-NO and COD utilization. The Fe(II)NTA-NO reduction efficiency reached 87.8 % at a loading rate of 0.24 mmol L(-1) h(-1), while the scrubber efficiency reached more than 75 % with 250 ppm NO. Stover-Kincannon and a Plug-flow kinetic model based on Michaelis-Menten equation were used to describe the UAPBR performance with respect to Fe(II)NTA-NO and COD removal. The Stover-Kincannon model was found capable of describing the Fe(II)NTA-NO reduction (R m = 8.92 mM h(-1) and K NO = 11.46 mM h(-1)) while plug-flow model provided better fit to the COD utilization (U m = 66.62 mg L(-1) h(-1), K COD = 7.28 mg L(-1)). Analyses for pH, Fe(III)NTA, ammonium, nitrite concentration, and FTIR analysis of the medium samples indicated degradation of NTA, which leads to ammonium and nitrite accumulation in the medium, and affect the regeneration process.

  10. Performance of tapered-column packed-bed bioreactor used for ethanol production by immobilized yeast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamamci, H.

    1986-01-01

    The tapered-column packed-bed bioreactor was tested as a solution to the problems of pressure drop and nonuniform flow in immobilized-yeast fermentations. The column operation was simulated using a mathematical model considering the effects of the heterogeneous kinetics, interfacial mass transfer, convective and dispersive flows of the liquid phase. The kinetics of ethanol production by the immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae was determined using shake-flask batch cultures. It was found that there is a shift in the metabolism of the yeast used at glucose concentrations of about 2 to 5 g/l, and due to this effect two sets of V/sub m/ and K/sub m/ values are determined. Maximum rate of fermentation was found to be 0.80 and 0.39 g ethanol/g cell/hr, and the affinity constant was found to be 97 and 11 mM in the medium and low glucose concentration regions respectively. The rate of fermentation went through a maximum at about 70 g glucose/l and the substrate inhibition constant was found to be 0.76 M. The product inhibition constant was also tested and was found to be 113 g ethanol/l. The column performance was simulated effectively at low residence times and low ethanol concentrations, however at the larger residence times and product concentrations better agreement was obtained by changing the ethanol inhibition constant to 85 g/l. In another set of experiments the effect of inert gas flow and oxygen gas feed into the tapered-column was tested. Inert gas feed helps increase the conversion only at very small flow rates. The effect of oxygen was positive at all the flow rates tested.

  11. Production of medium chain fatty acid rich mustard oil using packed bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Avery; Roy, Susmita; Mukherjee, Sohini; Ghosh, Mahua

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study was done on the production of different medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) rich mustard oil using a stirred tank batchreactor (STBR) and packed bed bio reactor (PBBR) using three commercially available immobilised lipases viz. Thermomyces lanuginosus, Candida antarctica and Rhizomucor meihe. Three different MCFAs capric, caprylic and lauric acids were incorporated in the mustard oil. Reaction parameters, such as substrate molar ratio, reaction temperature and enzyme concentration were standardized in the STBR and maintained in the PBBR. To provide equal time of residence between the substrate and enzyme in both the reactors for the same amount of substrates, the substrate flow rate in the PBBR was maintainedat 0.27 ml/min. Gas liquid chromatography was used to monitor the incorporation of MCFA in mustard oil. The study showed that the PBBR was more efficient than the STBR in the synthesis of structured lipids with less migration of acyl groups. The physico-chemical parameters of the product along with fatty acid composition in all positions and sn-2 positions were also determined.

  12. Two-step nitrification in a pure moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment: nitrifying and denitrifying microbial populations and kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Díaz, J C; González-Martínez, A; Muñío, M M; Poyatos, J M

    2015-12-01

    The moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) is a novel solution to conventional activated sludge processes and membrane bioreactors. In this study, a pure MBBR-MBR was studied. The pure MBBR-MBR mainly had attached biomass. The bioreactor operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9.5 h. The kinetic parameters for heterotrophic and autotrophic biomasses, mainly nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), were evaluated. The analysis of the bacterial community structure of the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), NOB, and denitrifying bacteria (DeNB) from the pure MBBR-MBR was carried out by means of pyrosequencing to detect and quantify the contribution of the nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in the total bacterial community. The relative abundance of AOB, NOB, and DeNB were 5, 1, and 3%, respectively, in the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), and these percentages were 18, 5, and 2%, respectively, in the biofilm density (BD) attached to carriers. The pure MBBR-MBR had a high efficiency of total nitrogen (TN) removal of 71.81±16.04%, which could reside in the different bacterial assemblages in the fixed biofilm on the carriers. In this regard, the kinetic parameters for autotrophic biomass had values of YA=2.3465 mg O2 mg N(-1), μm, A=0.7169 h(-1), and KNH=2.0748 mg NL(-1).

  13. Comparative study on membrane fouling between membrane-coupled moving bed biofilm reactor and conventional membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, W; Syed, W; Zhou, H

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the performance between membrane-coupled moving bed biofilm reactor (M-MBBR) and a conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR) in parallel. Extensive tests were conducted in three pilot-scale experimental units over 6 months. Emphasis was placed on the factors that would affect the performance of membrane filtration. The results showed that the concentrations of soluble microbial product (SMP), colloidal total organic carbon and transparent exopolymer particles in the M-MBBR systems were not significantly different from those in the control MBR system. However, the fouling rates were much higher in the M-MBBR systems as compared to the conventional MBR systems. This indicates membrane fouling potential was related not only to the concentration of SMP, but also to their sources and characteristics. The addition of polyaluminum chloride could reduce the fouling rate of the moving bed biofilm reactor unit by 56.4-84.5% at various membrane fluxes.

  14. Experimental studies and two-dimensional modelling of a packed bed bioreactor used for production of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from milk whey.

    PubMed

    Sen, Pramita; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib; Bhattacharya, Pinaki

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, extensive experimental investigations and detailed theoretical analysis of a two-dimensional packed bed bioreactor, employed for the production of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from milk whey were performed. Model equations, in one- and two-dimensions, capable of predicting the substrate concentration distribution in the bioreactor were developed by coupling mass balance equation with appropriate velocity distribution equation and solved numerically. Validation of the proposed model equations was done by a set of experimental data obtained from the bioreactor. The effects of reactor to catalyst particle diameter ratio (d t/d p), feed flowrate (10(-6)-10(-9) m(3) s(-1)), and initial lactose concentration (50-200 kg m(-3)) on substrate concentration distribution were investigated in detail. While, the distribution of substrate concentration in axial direction was independent of d t/d p, it was observed that for d t/d p <40, significant radial concentration distribution existed. It was further observed that the substrate conversion and product yield obtained experimentally showed an excellent agreement (97 ± 2 %) with the results predicted by the two-dimensional model equation, whereas, the results predicted by the one-dimensional model equation did not lie within the desired confidence level (<90 %). The results were confirmed by both curve fitting and statistical analysis. The prediction of substrate concentration distribution in axial and radial directions using the developed two-dimensional model equation is necessary for computing the bioreactor volume to achieve the desired GOS yield.

  15. Enhancing the Bioconversion of Winery and Olive Mill Waste Mixtures into Lignocellulolytic Enzymes and Animal Feed by Aspergillus uvarum Using a Packed-Bed Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Domínguez, José Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2015-10-28

    Wineries and olive oil industries are dominant agro-industrial activities in southern European regions. Olive pomace, exhausted grape marc, and vine shoot trimmings are lignocellulosic residues generated by these industries, which could be valued biotechnologically. In the present work these residues were used as substrate to produce cellulases and xylanases through solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus uvarum MUM 08.01. For that, two factorial designs (3(2)) were first planned to optimize substrate composition, temperature, and initial moisture level. Subsequently, the kinectics of cellulolytic enzyme production, fungal growth, and fermented solid were characterized. Finally, the process was performed in a packed-bed bioreactor. The results showed that cellulase activity improved with the optimization processes, reaching 33.56 U/g, and with the packed-bed bioreactor aeration of 0.2 L/min, reaching 38.51 U/g. The composition of fermented solids indicated their potential use for animal feed because cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and phenolic compounds were partially degraded 28.08, 10.78, 13.3, and 28.32%, respectively, crude protein was increased from 8.47 to 17.08%, and the mineral contents meet the requirements of main livestock.

  16. Dynamics of yeast immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors systems in ethanol fermentation from lactose-hydrolyzed whey and whey permeate.

    PubMed

    Gabardo, Sabrina; Pereira, Gabriela Feix; Klein, Manuela P; Rech, Rosane; Hertz, Plinho F; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2016-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of ethanol production on lactose-hydrolyzed whey (LHW) and lactose-hydrolyzed whey permeate (LHWP) in batch fluidized-bed bioreactors using single and co-cultures of immobilized cells of industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-industrial strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Although the co-culture of S. cerevisiae CAT-1 and K. marxianus CCT 4086 produced two- to fourfold the ethanol productivity of single cultures of S. cerevisiae, the single cultures of the K. marxianus CCT 4086 produced the best results in both media (Y EtOH/S = 0.47-0.49 g g(-1) and Q P = 1.39-1.68 g L(-1) h(-1), in LHW and LHWP, respectively). Ethanol production on concentrated LHWP (180 g L(-1)) reached 79.1 g L(-1), with yields of 0.46 g g(-1) for K. marxianus CCT 4086 cultures. Repeated batches of fluidized-bed bioreactor on concentrated LHWP led to increased ethanol productivity, reaching 2.8 g L(-1) h(-1).

  17. Optimization of lipase production by solid-state fermentation of olive pomace: from flask to laboratory-scale packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Felisbela; Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Domínguez, José M; Venâncio, Armando; Belo, Isabel

    2017-07-01

    Lipases are versatile catalysts with many applications and can be produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using agro-industrial wastes. The aim of this work was to maximize the production of Aspergillus ibericus lipase under SSF of olive pomace (OP) and wheat bran (WB), evaluating the effect on lipase production of C/N ratio, lipids, phenols, content of sugars of substrates and nitrogen source addition. Moreover, the implementation of the SSF process in a packed-bed bioreactor and the improvement of lipase extraction conditions were assessed. Low C/N ratios and high content of lipids led to maximum lipase production. Optimum SSF conditions were achieved with a C/N mass ratio of 25.2 and 10.2% (w/w) lipids in substrate, by the mixture of OP:WB (1:1) and supplemented with 1.33% (w/w) (NH4)2SO4. Studies in a packed-bed bioreactor showed that the lower aeration rates tested prevented substrate dehydration, improving lipase production. In this work, the important role of Triton X-100 on lipase extraction from the fermented solid substrate has been shown. A final lipase activity of 223 ± 5 U g(-1) (dry basis) was obtained after 7 days of fermentation.

  18. Biodegradation of isopropanol in a three phase fixed bed bioreactor: start up and acclimation using a previously-enriched microbial culture.

    PubMed

    Bustard, M T; Meeyoo, V; Wright, P C

    2001-10-01

    The aerobic biodegradation of high liquid phase concentrations of 2-propanol (IPA) by a previously enriched solvent-tolerant bacterial consortium within a 1.9 l fed-batch three phase fixed bed bioreactor was investigated. Solvent concentrations of up to 7.9 g l(-1) were investigated. Previously enriched solvent-tolerant bacterial cells were immobilised onto porous glass cylinders as a means obioprocess intensification. Bioreactor start-up and acclimation was studied anacetone concentration tracked as an indicator of IPA utilization, as the sole carbon source within a minimal salts medium (MSM). The initial batch treatment of IPA exhibited a biodegradation rate of 0.11 g l(-1) h(-1) prior to biofilm formation Biofilm growth during the second batch treatment was consistent with an increase in metabolic activity and an IPA biodegradation rate of 0.34 g l(-1), followed by a reduction of biodegradation rate to a constant value of 0.078 g l(-1) h(-1) after 650 h. A maximum acetone generation rate of 1.3 g l(-1) h(-1) was obtained during the fourth IPA addition although the maximum acetone biodegradation rate of 0.38 g l(-1) h(-1) was observed during the initial IPA addition. It is proposed that the metabolic lag resulting from switching from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetone carboxylase is a major rate-limiting step in the deep oxidation of IPA to acetone. The results demonstrate the potential of a previously enriched solvent-tolerant bacterial consortium in fixed bed bioreactor systems, for the aerobic treatment of concentrated solvent-containing wastestreams.

  19. Decolorization and biosorption for Congo red by system rice hull- Schizophyllum sp. F17 under solid-state condition in a continuous flow packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xudong; Jia, Rong

    2008-10-01

    Synthetic dyes are important chemical pollutants from various industries. This work developed an efficient and relatively simple continuous decolorization system rice hull-Schizophyllum sp. F17 under solid-state condition in a packed-bed bioreactor, for decolorizing Congo red. In the decolorization system, two decolorization mechanisms exist, one is decolorization by Schizophyllum sp. F17, the other is biosorption by rice hull. The decolorization efficiency was greatly affected by dye concentration and hydraulic retention time (HRT), which were quantificationally analyzed and optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). A 2(2) full factorial central composite design (CCD) was performed, and three second order polynomial models were generated to describe the effects of dye concentration and HRT on total decolorization (R2=0.902), decolorization by Schizophyllum sp. F17 (R2=0.866) and biosorption by rice hull (R2=0.890). Response surface contour plots were constructed to show the individual and cumulative effects of dye concentration and HRT, and the optimum values. A maximum total decolorization 89.71% and maximum decolorization by Schizophyllum sp. F17 60.44% was achieved at dye concentration 142.63mg/L, HRT 41h, and dye concentration 110.7mg/L, HRT 29.4h, respectively. Meanwhile, the role of manganese peroxidase (MnP) in the decolorizaion process was investigated. This study proved the feasibility of continuous mode for decolorizing synthetic dyes by white-rot fungi in solid-state fermentation bioreactors.

  20. Isolation and metagenomic characterization of bacteria associated with calcium carbonate and struvite precipitation in a pure moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A; Leyva-Díaz, J C; Rodriguez-Sanchez, A; Muñoz-Palazon, B; Rivadeneyra, A; Poyatos, J M; Rivadeneyra, M A; Martinez-Toledo, M V

    2015-01-01

    A bench-scale pure moving bed bioreactor-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) used for the treatment of urban wastewater was analyzed for the identification of bacterial strains with the potential capacity for calcium carbonate and struvite biomineral formation. Isolation of mineral-forming strains on calcium carbonate and struvite media revealed six major colonies with a carbonate or struvite precipitation capacity in the biofouling on the membrane surface and showed that heterotrophic bacteria with the ability to precipitate calcium carbonate and struvite constituted ~7.5% of the total platable bacteria. These belonged to the genera Lysinibacillus, Trichococcus, Comamomas and Bacillus. Pyrosequencing analysis of the microbial communities in the suspended cells and membrane biofouling showed a high degree of similarity in all the samples collected with respect to bacterial assemblage. The study of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified through pyrosequencing suggested that ~21% of the total bacterial community identified in the biofouling could potentially form calcium carbonate or struvite crystals in the pure MBBR-MBR system used for the treatment of urban wastewater.

  1. Simultaneous removal of chromate and nitrate in a packed-bed bioreactor using biodegradable meal box as carbon source and biofilm carriers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Jin, Ruofei; Liu, Guangfei; Tian, Tian; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Jiti

    2016-05-01

    An up-flow packed-bed bioreactor was constructed to investigate the simultaneous removal of chromate and nitrate using biodegradable meal box as carbon source and biofilm carriers. The bioreactor was operated for 164days with varying influent Cr(VI) concentrations (2.0-50.0mg/L) and hydraulic retention times (HRT, 10-24h). It was shown that complete denitrification and Cr(VI) reduction could be achieved when influent Cr(VI) concentrations were lower than 20mg/L with a HRT of 17h. Shortening the HRT could significantly reduce the effluent CODcr. It was also observed that Cr(III) was mainly immobilized on the biofilm. Further investigation on Cr distribution in the biofilm compartments indicated that Cr(VI) reduction occurred in all compartments and the intercellular Cr was dominant. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant phyla in the biofilm and Cr(VI) stress had a negative effect on the abundance of most bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A feasible enzymatic process for D-tagatose production by an immobilized thermostable L-arabinose isomerase in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Ryu, Se-Ah; Kim, Pil; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2003-01-01

    To develop a feasible enzymatic process for d-tagatose production, a thermostable l-arabinose isomerase, Gali152, was immobilized in alginate, and the galactose isomerization reaction conditions were optimized. The pH and temperature for the maximal galactose isomerization reaction were pH 8.0 and 65 degrees C in the immobilized enzyme system and pH 7.5 and 60 degrees C in the free enzyme system. The presence of manganese ion enhanced galactose isomerization to tagatose in both the free and immobilized enzyme systems. The immobilized enzyme was more stable than the free enzyme at the same pH and temperature. Under stable conditions of pH 8.0 and 60 degrees C, the immobilized enzyme produced 58 g/L of tagatose from 100 g/L galactose in 90 h by batch reaction, whereas the free enzyme produced 37 g/L tagatose due to its lower stability. A packed-bed bioreactor with immobilized Gali152 in alginate beads produced 50 g/L tagatose from 100 g/L galactose in 168 h, with a productivity of 13.3 (g of tagatose)/(L-reactor.h) in continuous mode. The bioreactor produced 230 g/L tagatose from 500 g/L galactose in continuous recycling mode, with a productivity of 9.6 g/(L.h) and a conversion yield of 46%.

  3. Simultaneous removal of nitrate and arsenic from drinking water sources utilizing a fixed-bed bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Giridhar; Jackson, Jeff; Clancy, Tara M; Hyun, Sung Pil; Brown, Jess; Hayes, Kim F; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2010-09-01

    A novel bioreactor system, consisting of two biologically active carbon (BAC) reactors in series, was developed for the simultaneous removal of nitrate and arsenic from a synthetic groundwater supplemented with acetic acid. A mixed biofilm microbial community that developed on the BAC was capable of utilizing dissolved oxygen, nitrate, arsenate, and sulfate as the electron acceptors. Nitrate was removed from a concentration of approximately 50 mg/L in the influent to below the detection limit of 0.2 mg/L. Biologically generated sulfides resulted in the precipitation of the iron sulfides mackinawite and greigite, which concomitantly removed arsenic from an influent concentration of approximately 200 ug/L to below 20 ug/L through arsenic sulfide precipitation and surface precipitation on iron sulfides. This study showed for the first time that arsenic and nitrate can be simultaneously removed from drinking water sources utilizing a bioreactor system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Toxicity and recalcitrant compound removal from bleaching pulp plant effluents by an integrated system: anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor and ozone.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, T R; Botta, C M; Pires, E C

    2010-01-01

    Effluents originated in cellulose pulp manufacturing processes are usually toxic and recalcitrant, specially the bleaching effluents, which exhibit high contents of aromatic compounds (e.g. residual lignin derivates). Although biological processes are normally used, their efficiency for the removal of toxic lignin derivates is low. The toxicity and recalcitrance of a bleached Kraft pulp mill were assessed through bioassays and ultraviolet absorption measurements, i.e. acid soluble lignin (ASL), UV(280), and specific ultraviolet absorption (SUVA), before and after treatment by an integrated system comprised of an anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor and oxidation step with ozone. Furthermore, adsorbable organic halides (AOX) were measured. The results demonstrated not only that the toxic recalcitrant compounds can be removed successfully using integrated system, but also the ultraviolet absorption measurements can be an interesting control-parameter in a wastewater treatment.

  5. Optimization of biobleaching of paper pulp in an expanded bed bioreactor with immobilized alkali stable xylanase by using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Sundar Rajan; Dempsey, Michael; Krishnan, Chandraraj; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2008-11-01

    Purified alkali stable xylanase from Aspergillus fischeri was immobilized on polystyrene beads using diazotization method. An expanded bed bioreactor was developed with these immobilized beads to biobleach the paper pulp in continuous mode. Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the biobleaching conditions. Temperature (degrees C), flow rate of pulp (ml/min) and concentration of the pulp (%) were selected as variables in this study. Optimal conditions for biobleaching process were reaction temperature 60 degrees C, flow rate of 2 ml/min and 5% (w/v) of pulp. The kappa number reduced from 66 in the unbleached pulp to 20 (reduction of 87%). This system proves to be a better option for the conventional chlorine based pulp bleaching.

  6. Effect of air-assisted backwashing on the performance of an anaerobic fixed-bed bioreactor that simultaneously removes nitrate and arsenic from drinking water sources.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Giridhar; Clancy, Tara M; Snyder, Kathryn V; Brown, Jess; Hayes, Kim F; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2012-03-15

    Contaminant removal from drinking water sources under reducing conditions conducive for the growth of denitrifying, arsenate reducing, and sulfate reducing microbes using a fixed-bed bioreactor may require oxygen-free gas (e.g., N2 gas) during backwashing. However, the use of air-assisted backwashing has practical advantages, including simpler operation, improved safety, and lower cost. A study was conducted to evaluate whether replacing N2 gas with air during backwashing would impact performance in a nitrate and arsenic removing anaerobic bioreactor system that consisted of two biologically active carbon reactors in series. Gas-assisted backwashing, comprised of 2 min of gas injection to fluidize the bed and dislodge biomass and solid phase products, was performed in the first reactor (reactor A) every two days. The second reactor (reactor B) was subjected to N2 gas-assisted backwashing every 3-4 months. Complete removal of 50 mg/L NO3- was achieved in reactor A before and after the switch from N2-assisted backwashing (NAB) to air-assisted backwashing (AAB). Substantial sulfate removal was achieved with both backwashing strategies. Prolonged practice of AAB (more than two months), however, diminished sulfate reduction in reactor B somewhat. Arsenic removal in reactor A was impacted slightly by long-term use of AAB, but arsenic removals achieved by the entire system during NAB and AAB periods were not significantly different (p>0.05) and arsenic concentrations were reduced from approximately 200 μg/L to below 20 μg/L. These results indicate that AAB can be implemented in anaerobic nitrate and arsenic removal systems.

  7. Degradation of carbamazepine by Trametes versicolor in an air pulsed fluidized bed bioreactor and identification of intermediates.

    PubMed

    Jelic, Aleksandra; Cruz-Morató, Carles; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Sarrà, Monserrat; Perez, Sandra; Vicent, Teresa; Petrović, Mira; Barcelo, Damia

    2012-03-15

    The paper describes the aerobic degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ), an anti-epileptic drug widely found in aquatic environment, from Erlenmeyer flask to bioreactor by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. In Erlenmeyer flask, CBZ at approximately 9 mg L(-1) was almost completely eliminated (94%) after 6 d, while at near environmentally relevant concentrations of 50 μg L(-1), 61% of the contaminant was degraded in 7 d. Acridone, acridine, 10,11-dihydro-10,11-dihydroxy-CBZ, and 10, 11-epoxy-CBZ were identified as major metabolites, confirming the degradation of CBZ. The degradation process was then carried out in an air pulsed fluidized bioreactor operated in batch and continuous mode. Around 96% of CBZ was removed after 2 days in batch mode operation, and 10,11-dihydro-10,11-epoxycarbamazepine was found as unique metabolite. In bioreactor operated in continuous mode with a hydraulic retention time of 3 d, 54% of the inflow concentration (approx. 200 μg L(-1)) was reduced at the steady state (25 d) with a CBZ degradation rate of 11.9 μg CBZ g(-1) dry weight d(-1). No metabolite was detected in the culture broth. Acute toxicity tests (Microtox) indicated that the final culture broth in both batch and continuous mode operation were non toxic, with 15 min EC50 values of 24% and 77%, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pilot-scale experience with biological nutrient removal and biomass yield reduction in a liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Nabin; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse; Islam, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    A pilot-scale liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed (LSCFB) bioreactor was developed at the Adelaide Pollution Control Plant, London, Ontario, Canada, to study its commercial viability for biological nutrient removal. Lava rock particles of 600 microm were used as a biomass carrier media. The LSCFB removed approximately 90% organic, 80% nitrogen, and 70% phosphorus at loading rates of 4.12 kg COD/m3 x d, 0.26 kg N/m3 x d, and 0.052 kg P/m3 x d, and an empty bed contact time of 1.5 hours. Effluent characterized by < 1.0 mg NH4-N/L, < 5.0 mg NO3-N/ L, < 1.0 mg PO4-P/L, < 10 mg TN/L, < 10 mg SBOD/L, and 10 to 15 mg volatile suspended solids (VSS)/L can easily meet the criteria for nonpotable reuse of treated wastewater. The system removed nutrients without using any chemicals, and the secondary clarifier removed suspended solids removal without chemicals. A significant reduction (approximately 75%) in biomass yield to 0.12 to 0.16 g VSS/g chemical oxygen demand (COD) was observed, primarily because of long biological solids retention time (SRT) of 20 to 39 days and a combination of anoxic and aerobic COD consumption.

  9. Support material dictates the attached biomass characteristics during the immobilization process in anaerobic continuous-flow packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kerčmar, Jasmina; Pintar, Albin

    2017-06-10

    Hydrogen is considered to be an ideal energy alternative to replace environmentally burdensome fossil fuels. For its long-term production the immobilized biofilm system is the most promising and to choose the right support material the most challenging. In this respect, the anaerobic up-flow bioreactors packed with four most used support materials (polyethylene, polyurethane, activated carbon and expanded clay) were tested to investigate the crucial bacteria sensitive period-the immobilization process. Seven-day-operation was necessary and sufficient to reach metabolic and microbial stability regardless of support material used. The support material had an influence on the microbial metabolic activity as well as on quantity and quality characteristics of the immobilized microbial community, being polyethylene and expanded clay more appropriate as supports among the materials evaluated; this could be attributed to pH alteration. The obtained results suggest that the support material dictates the outcome of the immobilization process in the anaerobic continuous-flow bioreactor. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. [Fibrous dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Rödl, R; Götze, C

    2008-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is a tumorlike, benign lesion, caused by sporadic mutation during early embryogenesis. The skeletal involvement becomes increasingly visible during growth. The number and extent of dysplastic lesions increase until the age of 15. The polyostotic form is often associated with endocrine dysfunction, which should be diagnosed and treated early. Malignant transformation of fibrous dysplastic lesions is less than 1%; therefore, treatment or resection of the lesion itself is not necessary. The progress of the lesions during growth can lead to pain, fractures, and deformities. Bisphosphonates are effective for pain relief, but have no assured effect on the natural history of the disease. Fracture healing is not compromised by the disease. Conservative treatment with casts is therefore effective, especially for the upper limbs. The surgical approach with deformity correction and stabilization remains challenging particularly with regard to the proximal femur. Intramedullary devices should be preferred to plates, if possible.

  11. Application of acidogenic fixed-bed reactor prior to anaerobic membrane bioreactor for sustainable slaughterhouse wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Saddoud, Ahlem; Sayadi, Sami

    2007-11-19

    High rate anaerobic treatment systems such as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AMBR) are less popular for slaughterhouse wastewater due to the presence of high fat oil and suspended matters in the effluent. This affects the performance and efficiency of the treatment system. In this work, AMBR has been tried for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment. After the start up period, the reactor was operated with an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 4.37 kg TCODm(-3)d(-1) with gradual increase to an average of 13.27 kg TCODm(-3)d(-1). At stable conditions, the treatment efficiency was high with an average COD and BOD(5) reduction of 93.7 and 93.96%, respectively. However, a reduction in the AMBR performance was shown with the increase of the OLR to 16.32 kg TCODm(-3)d(-1). The removal efficiencies of SCOD and BOD(5) were drastically decreased to below 53.6 and 73.3%, respectively. The decrease of the AMBR performance was due to the accumulation of VFAs. Thus, a new integrated system composed of a FBR for the acidogenesis step followed by the AMBR for methanogenesis step was developed. At high ORL, the integrated system improved the performance of the anaerobic digestion and it successfully overcame the VFA accumulation problem in the AMBR. The anaerobic treatment led to a total removal of all tested pathogens. Thus, the microbiological quality of treated wastewater fits largely with WHO guidelines.

  12. Production of precursors for anti-Alzheimer drugs: Asymmetric bioreduction in a packed-bed bioreactor using immobilized D. carota cells.

    PubMed

    Celik Kazici, Hilal; Bayraktar, Emine; Mehmetoglu, Ülkü

    2017-01-02

    (S)-1-Phenylethanol derivatives, which are the precursors of many pharmacological products, have also been used as anti-Alzheimer drugs. Bioreduction experiments were performed in a batch and packed-bed bioreactor. Then, the kinetics constants were determined by examining the reaction kinetics in the batch system with free and immobilized carrot cells. Also, the effective diffusion coefficient (De) of acetophenone in calcium alginate-immobilized carrot cells was investigated. Kinetics constants for free cells, which are intrinsic values, are reaction rate Vmax = 0.052 mmol L(-1) min(-1), and constants of the Michaelis-Menten KM = 2.31 mmol L(-1). Kinetics constants for immobilized cells, which are considered apparent values, are Vmax, app = 0.0407 mmol L(-1) min(-1), KM, app = 3.0472 mmol L(-1) for 2 mm bead diameter, and Vmax, app = 0.0453 mmol L(-1) min(-1), KM, app = 4.9383 mmol L(-1) for 3 mm bead diameter. Average value of effective diffusion coefficient of acetophenone in immobilized beads was determined as 1.97 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). Using immobilized carrot cells in an up-flow packed-bed reactor, continuous production of (S)-1-phenylethanol through asymmetric bioreduction of acetophenone was performed. The effects of the residence time and concentrations of substrate were investigated at pH 7.6 and 33°C. Enantiomerically pure (S)-1-phenylethanol (ee > 99%) was produced with 75% conversion at 4-hr residence time.

  13. Analysis of bacterial diversity and efficiency of continuous removal of Victoria Blue R from wastewater by using packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Wang, Guey-Horng; Tseng, I-Hung; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2016-02-01

    The characteristics of a packed-bed bioreactor (PBB) for continuously removing Victoria Blue R (VBR) from an aqueous solution were determined. The effects of various factors including liquid retention time (RT), VBR concentration, shock loading, and coexisting compounds on the VBR removal and bacterial community in a continuous system were investigated. The intermediates of degraded VBR and the acute toxicity of the effluent from PBB were analyzed. When the VBR concentration was lower than 400 mg/l for a two-day retention time (RT), 100% removal was achieved. During continuous operation, the efficiency initially varied with the VBR concentration and RT, but gradually increased in one to two days. Furthermore, the acute toxicity of the effluent reduced by a factor of 21.25-49.61, indicating that the PBB can be successfully operated under turbulent environmental conditions. VBR degradation involved stepwise demethylation and yielded partially dealkylated VBR species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the dominant phylum in the PBB was Proteobacteria and that Aeromonas hydrophila dominated during the entire operating period. The characteristics of the identified species showed that the PBB is suitable for processes such as demethylation, aromatic ring opening, carbon oxidation, nitrification, and denitrification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Innovative sponge-based moving bed-osmotic membrane bioreactor hybrid system using a new class of draw solution for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Nguyen, Hau Thi; Ray, Saikat Sinha; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Lin, Po-Hsun

    2016-03-15

    For the first time, an innovative concept of combining sponge-based moving bed (SMB) and an osmotic membrane bioreactor (OsMBR), known as the SMB-OsMBR hybrid system, were investigated using Triton X-114 surfactant coupled with MgCl2 salt as the draw solution. Compared to traditional activated sludge OsMBR, the SMB-OsMBR system was able to remove more nutrients due to the thick-biofilm layer on sponge carriers. Subsequently less membrane fouling was observed during the wastewater treatment process. A water flux of 11.38 L/(m(2) h) and a negligible reverse salt flux were documented when deionized water served as the feed solution and a mixture of 1.5 M MgCl2 and 1.5 mM Triton X-114 was used as the draw solution. The SMB-OsMBR hybrid system indicated that a stable water flux of 10.5 L/(m(2) h) and low salt accumulation were achieved in a 90-day operation. Moreover, the nutrient removal efficiency of the proposed system was close to 100%, confirming the effectiveness of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in the biofilm layer on sponge carriers. The overall performance of the SMB-OsMBR hybrid system using MgCl2 coupled with Triton X-114 as the draw solution demonstrates its potential application in wastewater treatment.

  15. The contrast study of anammox-denitrifying system in two non-woven fixed-bed bioreactors (NFBR) treating different low C/N ratio sewage.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fan; Zhang, Hanmin; Yang, Fenglin; Qiang, Hong; Zhang, Guangyi

    2012-06-01

    Two non-woven fixed-bed bioreactors (NFBR) based on different substrates (nitrite and nitrate) were constructed to study the environmental adaptability for temperature and organic matter of anammox-denitrifying system and nitrogen removal performance. The two reactors were successfully operated for 200 days. The average removal rates of nitrogen and COD of R2 were 81% and 93%, respectively. Besides, the nitrogen removal rate of R1 was 95% under not more than 105 mg/l of COD. The experimental results indicated that the R2 based on nitrate had a good nitrogen removal performance at room temperature (25 °C). Additionally, the analysis results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that the percentage compositions of anammox in R1 and R2 were 84% and 65% on day 189. Finally, the possible nitrogen removal model of anammox-denitrifying system was constructed. According to nitrogen balance and C/N ratios of denitrification, the nitrogen removal approaches of R1 and R2 were obtained.

  16. Involvement of ligninolytic enzymes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in treating the textile effluent containing Astrazon Red FBL in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, M; Karimi, A; Vahabzadeh, F

    2009-09-30

    The effect of Tween80, Mn(II) and veratryl alcohol (VA) on the production of ligninolytic enzymes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a packed-bed bioreactor using small pieces of Kissiris as carrier, was investigated. The results of the enzyme activities were noticeable in terms of decolorization and COD removal of the textile effluent containing an azo dye (Astrazon Red FBL). No dilution was made on the tested textile effluent and it was not sterilized, also. Maximum decolorization of the dye (87%) and COD removal (42%), both occurred when only Tween80 (0.05%, w/v) was added to the effluent. The maximum activities of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) were (U/l): 17 and 52, respectively. The role of MnP was pronounced in the dye decolorization process, while the influence of LiP was noticeable on COD removal. The reusability of the original biomass was examined by replacing undiluted textile effluent (i.e., five times). The cellular performance of the original biomass in repeated-batch operations was promising.

  17. Effect of intermittent aeration cycle on nutrient removal and microbial community in a fluidized bed reactor-membrane bioreactor combo system.

    PubMed

    Guadie, Awoke; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zeleke, Jemaneh; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W

    2014-03-01

    Effect of intermittent aeration cycle (IAC=15/45-60/60min) on nutrient removal and microbial community structure was investigated using a novel fluidized bed reactor-membrane bioreactor (FBR-MBR) combo system. FBR alone was found more efficient for removing PO4-P (>85%) than NH4-N (<40%) and chemical oxygen demand (COD<35%). However, in the combo system, COD and NH4-N removals were almost complete (>98%). Efficient nitrification, stable mixed liquor suspended solid and reduced transmembrane pressure was also achieved. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results of total bacteria 16S rRNA gene copies per mL of mixed-liquor varied from (2.48±0.42)×10(9) initial to (2.74±0.10)×10(8), (6.27±0.16)×10(9) and (9.17±1.78)×10(9) for 15/45, 45/15 and 60/60min of IACs, respectively. The results of clone library analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (59%), Firmicutes (12%) and Bacteroidetes (11%) were the dominant bacterial group in all samples. Overall, the combo system performs optimum nutrient removal and host stable microbial communities at 45/15min of IAC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological transformation pathways of 2,4-dinitro anisole and N-methyl paranitro aniline in anaerobic fluidized-bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Platten, William E; Bailey, David; Suidan, Makram T; Maloney, Stephen W

    2010-11-01

    The US Army is evaluating new, insensitive explosives to produce safer munitions. Two potential new components are 2,4-dinitro anisole (DNAN) and N-methyl paranitro aniline (MNA), which would eventually make their way to waste streams generated in the production and handling of new munitions. The effectiveness of anaerobic fluidized-bed bioreactors (AFBB) was studied for treatment and transformation of these two new chemical components in munitions. Each compound was fed into a separate reactor and monitored for removal and transformation, using ethanol as the electron donor. The results show that both were degradable using the AFBB system. DNAN was found to transform into diaminoanisole and MNA was found to transform into N-methyl-p-phenylenediamine. Both of these by-products appeared to form azobond polymers after exposure to air. To test the resilience of the reactors, the compounds were removed from the feed streams for 3 weeks and then reintroduced. DNAN showed that a re-acclimation period was necessary for it to be degraded again, while MNA was removed immediately upon reintroduction. The AFBB technology was shown here to be an effective means of removing the new munitions, but produce secondary compounds that could potentially be just as harmful and require further study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of C/N ratio on the performance of a hybrid sponge-assisted aerobic moving bed-anaerobic granular membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Guo, W S; Ngo, H H; Chang, S W; Nguyen, D D; Zhang, J; Liang, S; Guo, J B; Zhang, X B

    2017-09-09

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of C/N ratio on the performance of a hybrid sponge-assisted aerobic moving bed-anaerobic granular membrane bioreactor (SAAMB-AnGMBR) in municipal wastewater treatment. The results showed that organic removal efficiencies were above 94% at all C/N conditions. Nutrient removal was over 91% at C/N ratio of 100/5 but was negatively affected when decreasing C/N ratio to 100/10. At lower C/N ratio (100/10), more noticeable membrane fouling was caused by aggravated cake formation and pore clogging, and accumulation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the mixed liquor and sludge cake as a result of deteriorated granular quality. Foulant analysis suggested significant difference existed in the foulant organic compositions under different C/N ratios, and humic substances were dominant when the fastest fouling rate was observed. The performance of the hybrid system was found to recover when gradually increasing C/N ratio from 100/10 to 100/5. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor for the continuous and simultaneous fermentation and purification of lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, E.N.; Cooper, S.P.; Clement, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    A continuous biparticle fluidized-bed reactor is developed for the simultaneous fermentation and purification of lactic acid. In this processing scheme, bacteria are immobilized in gelatin beads and are fluidized in a columnar reactor. Solid particles with sorbent capacity for the product are introduced at the top of the reactor, and fall counter currently to the biocatalyst, effecting in situ removal of the inhibitory product, while also controlling reactor pH at optimal levels. Initial long-term fermentation trials using immobilized Lactobacillus delbreuckii have demonstrated a 12-fold increase in volumetric productivity during absorbent addition as opposed to control fermentations in the same reactor. Unoptimized regeneration of the loaded sorbent has effected at least an eightfold concentration of lactic acid and a 68-fold enhancement in separation from glucose compared to original levels in the fermentation broth. The benefits of this reactor system as opposed to conventional batch fermentation are discussed in terms of productivity and process economics.

  1. Post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluent using a two-stage fluidized bed bioreactor system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a two-stage fluidized bed reactor (FBR) system for the post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents (Shahrak Gharb, Tehran, Iran). The proposed treatment scheme was evaluated using pilot-scale reactors (106-L of capacity) filled with PVC as the fluidized bed (first stage) and gravel for the filtration purpose (second stage). Aluminum sulfate (30 mg/L) and chlorine (1 mg/L) were used for the coagulation and disinfection of the effluent, respectively. To monitor the performance of the FBR system, variation of several parameters (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, total phosphorous, total coliform and fecal coliform) were monitored in the effluent wastewater samples. The results showed that the proposed system could effectively reduce BOD5 and COD below 1.95 and 4.06 mg/L, respectively. Turbidity of the effluent could be achieved below 0.75 NTU, which was lower than those reported for the disinfection purpose. The total phosphorus was reduced to 0.52 mg/L, which was near the present phosphorous standard for the prevention of eutrophication process. Depending on both microorganism concentration and applied surface loading rates (5–10 m/h), about 35 to 75% and 67 to 97% of coliform were removed without and with the chlorine addition, respectively. Findings of this study clearly confirmed the efficiency of the FBR system for the post-treatment of the secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents without any solid problem during the chlorination. PMID:24499570

  2. The relationship between instability of H2 production and compositions of bacterial communities within a dark fermentation fluidized-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Perttu E P; Kaksonen, Anna H; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2007-07-01

    Microbial community composition dynamics was studied during H(2) fermentation from glucose in a fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) aiming at obtaining insight into the H(2) fermentation microbiology and factors resulting in the instability of biofilm processes. FBR H(2) production performance was characterised by an instable pattern of prompt onset of H(2) production followed by rapid decrease. Gradual enrichment of organisms increased the diversity of FBR attached and suspended-growth phase bacterial communities during the operation. FBR bacteria included potential H(2) producers, H(2) consumers and neither H(2) producers nor consumers, and those distantly related to any known organisms. The prompt onset of H(2) production was due to rapid growth of Clostridium butyricum (99-100%) affiliated strains after starting continuous feed. The proportion trend of C. butyricum in FBR attached and suspended-growth phase communities coincided with H(2) and butyrate production. High glucose loading rate favoured the H(2) production by Escherichia coli (100%) affiliated strain. Decrease in H(2) production, associated with a shift from acetate-butyrate to acetate-propionate production, was due to changes in FBR attached and suspended-growth phase bacterial community compositions. During the shift, organisms, including potential propionate producers, were enriched in the communities while the proportion trend of C. butyricum decreased. We suggest that the instability of H(2) fermentation in biofilm reactors is due to enrichment and efficient adhesion of H(2) consumers on the carrier and, therefore, biofilm reactors may not favour mesophilic H(2) fermentation.

  3. A two-stage microbial fuel cell and anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) system for effective domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lijiao; Ahn, Yongtae; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-04-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising technology for energy-efficient domestic wastewater treatment, but the effluent quality has typically not been sufficient for discharge without further treatment. A two-stage laboratory-scale combined treatment process, consisting of microbial fuel cells and an anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR), was examined here to produce high quality effluent with minimal energy demands. The combined system was operated continuously for 50 days at room temperature (∼25 °C) with domestic wastewater having a total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) of 210 ± 11 mg/L. At a combined hydraulic retention time (HRT) for both processes of 9 h, the effluent tCOD was reduced to 16 ± 3 mg/L (92.5% removal), and there was nearly complete removal of total suspended solids (TSS; from 45 ± 10 mg/L to <1 mg/L). The AFMBR was operated at a constant high permeate flux of 16 L/m(2)/h over 50 days, without the need or use of any membrane cleaning or backwashing. Total electrical energy required for the operation of the MFC-AFMBR system was 0.0186 kWh/m(3), which was slightly less than the electrical energy produced by the MFCs (0.0197 kWh/m(3)). The energy in the methane produced in the AFMBR was comparatively negligible (0.005 kWh/m(3)). These results show that a combined MFC-AFMBR system could be used to effectively treat domestic primary effluent at ambient temperatures, producing high effluent quality with low energy requirements.

  4. A Two-Stage Microbial Fuel Cell and Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) System for Effective Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising technology for energy-efficient domestic wastewater treatment, but the effluent quality has typically not been sufficient for discharge without further treatment. A two-stage laboratory-scale combined treatment process, consisting of microbial fuel cells and an anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR), was examined here to produce high quality effluent with minimal energy demands. The combined system was operated continuously for 50 days at room temperature (∼25 °C) with domestic wastewater having a total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) of 210 ± 11 mg/L. At a combined hydraulic retention time (HRT) for both processes of 9 h, the effluent tCOD was reduced to 16 ± 3 mg/L (92.5% removal), and there was nearly complete removal of total suspended solids (TSS; from 45 ± 10 mg/L to <1 mg/L). The AFMBR was operated at a constant high permeate flux of 16 L/m2/h over 50 days, without the need or use of any membrane cleaning or backwashing. Total electrical energy required for the operation of the MFC-AFMBR system was 0.0186 kWh/m3, which was slightly less than the electrical energy produced by the MFCs (0.0197 kWh/m3). The energy in the methane produced in the AFMBR was comparatively negligible (0.005 kWh/m3). These results show that a combined MFC-AFMBR system could be used to effectively treat domestic primary effluent at ambient temperatures, producing high effluent quality with low energy requirements. PMID:24568605

  5. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  6. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  7. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  8. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  9. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator (BTR) holds fixed tissue culture bags at 4 degrees C to preserve them for return to Earth and postflight analysis. The cultures are used in research with the NASA Bioreactor cell science program. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  10. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  11. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  12. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  13. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  14. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  15. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  16. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  17. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  18. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  19. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  20. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  1. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  2. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  3. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  4. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  5. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  6. Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  7. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  8. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  9. Comparison of biomass from integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS), moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating recalcitrant organics: Importance of attached biomass.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunkai; Shi, Yijing; Xue, Jinkai; Zhang, Yanyan; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Liu, Yang

    2017-03-15

    This study compared microbial characteristics and oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) treatment performance of five types of microbial biomass (MBBR-biofilm, IFAS-biofilm, IFAS-floc, MBR-aerobic-floc, and MBR-anoxic-floc) cultivated from three types of bioreactors (MBBR, IFAS, and MBR) in batch experiments. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium, acid extractable fraction (AEF), and naphthenic acids (NAs) removals efficiencies were distinctly different between suspended and attached bacterial aggregates and between aerobic and anoxic suspended flocs. MBR-aerobic-floc and MBR-anoxic-floc demonstrated COD removal efficiencies higher than microbial aggregates obtained from MBBR and IFAS, MBBR and IFAS biofilm had higher AEF removal efficiencies than those obtained using flocs. MBBR-biofilm demonstrated the most efficient NAs removal from OSPW. NAs degradation efficiency was highly dependent on the carbon number and NA cyclization number according to UPLC/HRMS analysis. Mono- and di-oxidized NAs were the dominant oxy-NA species in OSPW samples. Microbial analysis with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) indicated that the bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance was significantly higher in the batch bioreactors with suspended flocs than in those with biofilm, the NSR gene abundance in the MBR-anoxic bioreactor was significantly lower than that in aerobic batch bioreactors, and denitrifiers were more abundant in the suspended phase of the activated sludge flocs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioreactor principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  11. Bioreactor principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  12. Microbial Bioreactor Development in the ALS NSCORT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Cary; Whitaker, Dawn; Banks, M. Katherine; Heber, Albert J.; Turco, Ronald F.; Nies, Loring F.; Alleman, James E.; Sharvelle, Sybil E.; Li, Congna; Heller, Megan

    The NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support (the ALS NSCORT), a partnership of Alabama A & M, Howard, and Purdue Universities, was established by NASA in 2002 to develop technologies that will reduce the Equivalent System Mass (ESM) of regenerative processes within future space life-support systems. A key focus area of NSCORT research has been the development of efficient microbial bioreactors for treatment of human, crop, and food-process wastes while enabling resource recovery. The approach emphasizes optimizing the energy-saving advantages of hydrolytic enzymes for biomass degradation, with focus on treatment of solid wastes including crop residue, paper, food, and human metabolic wastes, treatment of greywater, cabin air, off-gases from other treatment systems, and habitat condensate. This summary includes important findings from those projects, status of technology development, and recommendations for next steps. The Plant-based Anaerobic-Aerobic Bioreactor-Linked Operation (PAABLO) system was developed to reduce crop residue while generating energy and/or food. Plant residues initially were added directly to the bioreactor, and recalcitrant residue was used as a substrate for growing plants or mushrooms. Subsequently, crop residue was first pretreated with fungi to hydrolyze polymers recalcitrant to bacteria, and leachate from the fungal beds was directed to the anaerobic digester. Exoenzymes from the fungi pre-soften fibrous plant materials, improving recovery of materials that are more easily biodegraded to methane that can be used for energy reclamation. An Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) system was developed for biodegradable solid wastes. Objectives were to increase water and nutrient recovery, reduce waste volume, and inactivate pathogens. Operational parameters of the reactor were optimized for degradation and resource recovery while minimizing system requirements and footprint. The start-up behavior

  13. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  14. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

  15. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  16. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  17. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  18. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  19. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  20. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  1. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  2. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  3. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  4. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

  5. Mesothelioma - benign-fibrous

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be called localized fibrous mesothelioma. Causes The exact cause of SFT remains unknown. This type of ... must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  6. Multimembrane Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Toohyon; Shuler, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Set of hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes in bioreactor allows product of reaction to be separated, while nutrients fed to reacting cells and byproducts removed from them. Separation process requires no externally supplied energy; free energy of reaction sufficient. Membranes greatly increase productivity of metabolizing cells by continuously removing product and byproducts, which might otherwise inhibit reaction, and by continuously adding oxygen and organic nutrients.

  7. Multimembrane Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Toohyon; Shuler, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Set of hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes in bioreactor allows product of reaction to be separated, while nutrients fed to reacting cells and byproducts removed from them. Separation process requires no externally supplied energy; free energy of reaction sufficient. Membranes greatly increase productivity of metabolizing cells by continuously removing product and byproducts, which might otherwise inhibit reaction, and by continuously adding oxygen and organic nutrients.

  8. Single-stage versus two-stage anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactors in treating municipal wastewater: Performance, foulant characteristics, and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing; Li, Yifei; Lim, Weikang; Lee, Shi Lin; Guo, Qiming; Fane, Anthony G; Liu, Yu

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the receptive performance, membrane foulant characteristics, and microbial community in the single-stage and two-stage anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor (AFMBR) treating settled raw municipal wastewater with the aims to explore fouling mechanisms and microbial community structure in both systems. Both AFMBRs exhibited comparable organic removal efficiency and membrane performances. In the single-stage AFMBR, less soluble organic substances were removed through biosorption by GAC and biodegradation than those in the two-stage AFMBR. Compared to the two-stage AFMBR, the formation of cake layer was the main cause of the observed membrane fouling in the single-stage AFMBR at the same employed flux. The accumulation rate of the biopolymers was linearly correlated with the membrane fouling rate. In the chemical-cleaned foulants, humic acid-like substances and silicon were identified as the predominant organic and inorganic fouants respectively. As such, the fluidized GAC particles might not be effective in removing these substances from the membrane surfaces. High-throughout pyrosequencing analysis further revealed that beta-Proteobacteria were predominant members in both AFMBRs, which contributed to the development of biofilms on the fluidized GAC and membrane surfaces. However, it was also noted that the abundance of the identified dominant in the membrane surface-associated biofilm seemed to be related to the permeate flux and reactor configuration.

  9. Transgenic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Jänne, J; Alhonen, L; Hyttinen, J M; Peura, T; Tolvanen, M; Korhonen, V P

    1998-01-01

    Since the generation of the first transgenic mice in 1980, transgene technology has also been successfully applied to large farm animals. Although this technology can be employed to improve certain production traits of livestock, this approach has not been very successful so far owing to unwanted effects encountered in the production animals. However, by using tissue-specific targeting of the transgene expression, it is possible to produce heterologous proteins in the extracellular space of large transgenic farm animals. Even though some recombinant proteins, such as human hemoglobin, have been produced in the blood of transgenic pigs, in the majority of the cases mammary gland targeted expression of the transgene has been employed. Using production genes driven by regulatory sequences of milk protein genes a number of valuable therapeutic proteins have been produced in the milk of transgenic bioreactors, ranging from rabbits to dairy cattle. Unlike bacterial fermentors, the mammary gland of transgenic bioreactors appear to carry out proper postsynthetic modifications of human proteins required for full biological activity. In comparison with mammalian cell bioreactors, transgenic livestock with mammary gland targeted expression seems to be able to produce valuable human therapeutic proteins at very low cost. Although not one transgenically produced therapeutic protein is yet on the market, the first such proteins have recently entered or even completed clinical trials required for their approval.

  10. Modelling and dynamic simulation of a pilot-scale moving bed bioreactor for the treatment of municipal wastewater: model concepts and the use of respirometry for the estimation of kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Plattes, M; Fiorelli, D; Gillé, S; Girard, C; Henry, E; Minette, F; O'Nagy, O; Schosseler, P M

    2007-01-01

    A model for the simulation of a moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) used for the treatment of municipal wastewater is proposed. The model includes attachment of particulates to the biofilm and detachment of biofilm into the bulk liquid. The growth kinetics are modelled with the activated sludge model no. 1 (ASM1). Respirometry was used for the estimation of kinetic parameters. The resulting respirograms featured the typical endogenous and exogenous respiration phases and the respirogram shapes were as expected from analogous respirometry with activated sludge. The estimated parameter set was used for modelling and simulation of the pilot-scale MBBR. The main proportion of biomass in the MBBR was found to be attached as biofilm on the carrier elements (4.1 -4.6 g dm-3) and only a small amount was suspended in the bulk liquid (0.15gdm(-3)). Attachment and detachment rates were estimated to be 4.8-7.5g m(-2) d(-1) 1for attachment and 6.5-7.5g m(-2) d(-1) for detachment. The biofilm age was estimated to be 1.8-2.7d. The model was used to predict effluent quality parameters and a good fit of the simulated data to the measured data originating from a four-days-long measurement campaign was obtained.

  11. Fibrous calcite from the Middle Ordovician Holston Formation (east Tennessee)

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.J.; Walker, K.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Fibrous calcite from buildups, which occur near the top of the Middle Ordovician Holston Formation, were examined from two localities near Knoxville, TN (Alcoa Highway and Deanne Quarry). Buildups at these localities were deposited under open-marine conditions, slightly down-slope from the platform edge. Fibrous calcite (mainly radiaxial fibrous) occur most commonly as cements in mainly stromatactis structures present in bioherms and intergranular porosity in beds that flank bioherms. Fibrous calcite is interpreted to have been precipitated in a marine setting. Fibrous calcite is uniformly turbid or banded with interlayered turbid and clearer cement. Fibrous calcite most commonly shows patchy or blotchy dull-non-luminescence under cathodoluminescence. Bands of uniformly non-luminescent and relatively bright luminescent calcite are present. [delta][sup 13]C compositions of fibrous calcite vary little (0.6 to 1.0%) but [delta][sup 18]O values are highly variable ([minus]4.8 to [minus]7.1%). Post-marine cement consists of ferroan and non-ferroan, dull luminescent equant calcite ([delta][sup 13]C = 0.3 to 0.8; [delta][sup 18]O = [minus]8.6 to [minus]11.5) and is interpreted as precipitated in a deep meteoric or burial setting. Depleted [delta][sup 18]O compositions of fibrous calcite reflect addition of post-depositional calcite during stabilization. Most enriched [delta][sup 13]C and [delta][sup 18]O fibrous calcite composition are similar to enriched values from other Middle Ordovician southern Appalachian buildups (other localities of Holston (TN) and Effna (VA) formations) ([delta][sup 13]C = 0.3 to 0.8; [delta][sup 18]O = [minus]3.9 to [minus]4.8) and may reflect fibrous calcite precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with Middle Ordovician sea water.

  12. Paratesticular Fibrous Pseudotumors

    PubMed Central

    Turkan, Sadi; Kalkan, Mehmet; Ekmekcioglu, Ozan; Haltas, Hacer; Sahin, Coskun

    2016-01-01

    Paratesticular fibrous pseudotumors (PFPs) are rare pathologies with quite wide and variable topographic-morphological features. It is difficult to distinguish PFPs from malignant masses. Treatment can be done by resection of the mass. We reported a young patient’s findings about this rare pathology. PMID:27441080

  13. Investigation of fluidized-bed biological denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Acox, T.A.

    1982-12-16

    The performance of the fluidized-bed bioreactor was modelled for denitrification using a multiple linear regression. Reasonable accuracy was obtained; however, this type of analysis did not take into account the hydraulic characteristics of the fluidized-bed. The Mulcahy and LaMotta computer program previously used to model a fluidized-bed bioreactor cannot be used in this case due to the Michaelis-Menton constant k determined in this study, which was one to two orders of magnitude lower. With some additional bioreactor study and computer program modification, this may prove to be of some benefit.

  14. Fungal solid state fermentation on agro-industrial wastes for acid wastewater decolorization in a continuous flow packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Iandolo, Donata; Amore, Antonella; Birolo, Leila; Leo, Gabriella; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Faraco, Vincenza

    2011-08-01

    This study was aimed at developing a process of solid state fermentation (SSF) with the fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor on apple processing residues for wastewater decolorization. Both fungi were able to colonize apple residues without any addition of nutrients, material support or water. P. ostreatus produced the highest levels of laccases (up to 9U g(-1) of dry matter) and xylanases (up to 80U g(-1) of dry matter). A repeated batch decolorization experiment was set up with apple residues colonized by P. ostreatus, achieving 50% decolorization and 100% detoxification after 24h, and, adding fresh wastewater every 24h, a constant decolorization of 50% was measured for at least 1 month. A continuous decolorization experiment was set up by a packed-bed reactor based on colonized apple residues achieving a performance of 100mg dye L(-1)day(-1) at a retention time of 50h. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aerobic biodegradation of 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT: performance characteristics and biofilm composition changes in continuous packed-bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Paca, J; Halecky, M; Barta, J; Bajpai, R

    2009-04-30

    This manuscript deals with continuous experiments for biodegradation of individual dinitrotoluenes by a defined mixed culture in packed-bed reactors (PBRs) containing either poraver or fire-clay as packing material. Removal efficiencies and volumetric biodegradation rates were measured as a function of the loading rate of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) under steady-state conditions. The poraver reactor showed higher removal efficiencies for both the DNTs. The removal efficiency for 2,4-DNT remained greater than 90% in the poraver reactor whereas it dropped steadily from 85 to 65% in the fire-clay reactor as the organic loading rates were increased from 19 to 60 mg L(-1)day(-1). Similar trends were seen for the volumetric degradation rate as well. In both the reactors, 2,4-DNT degraded more effectively than 2,6-DNT. The microbial consortium was characterized both in the inoculum as well as in the operating PBR. Cell numbers per gram dry packing material were similar in the two reactors. However, there was a distinct difference in the nature of microorganisms that were found in the two packings. The fire-clay contained a larger number of cells that were not primary degraders of DNTs.

  16. Effectiveness of an anaerobic granular activated carbon fluidized-bed bioreactor to treat soil wash fluids: a proposed strategy for remediating PCP/PAH contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Koran, K M; Suidan, M T; Khodadoust, A P; Sorial, G A; Brenner, R C

    2001-07-01

    An integrated system has been developed to remediate soils contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This system involves the coupling of two treatment technologies, soil-solvent washing and anaerobic biotreatment of the extract. Specifically, this study evaluated the effectiveness of a granular activated carbon (GAC) fluidized-bed reactor to treat a synthetic-waste stream of PCP and four PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthene, pyrene, and benzo(b)fluoranthene) under anaerobic conditions. This waste stream was intended to simulate the wash fluids from a soil washing process treating soils from a wood-preserving site. The reactor achieved a removal efficiency of greater than 99.8% for PCP with conversion to its dechlorination intermediates averaging 46.5%. Effluent, carbon extraction, and isotherm data also indicate that naphthalene and acenaphthene were removed from the liquid phase with efficiencies of 86 and 93%, respectively. Effluent levels of pyrene and benzo(b)fluoranthene were extremely low due to the high-adsorptive capacity of GAC for these compounds. Experimental evidence does not suggest that the latter two compounds were biochemically transformed within the reactor.

  17. Intraperitoneal Solitary Fibrous Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Benabdejlil, Youssef; Kouach, Jaouad; Babahabib, Abdellah; Elhassani, Moulay Elmehdi; Rharassi, Issam; Boudhas, Adil; Bakkali, Hicham; Elmarjany, Mohammed; Moussaoui, Driss; Dehayni, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors of the pelvis are rare. We report the case of a 32-years-old patient who presented with abdominopelvic mass. The imaging studies showed a right adnexal mass of more than 10 cm. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a 20 cm mass at the Douglas pouch which was adhered to the posterior wall of the uterus. Complete resection of the mass was performed. Histological analysis showed a spindle cell undifferentiated tumor whose morphological and immunohistochemical profile are consistent with solitary fibrous tumor. It is important to know that although these tumors are rare, their evolution can be pejorative. Therefore, long-term followup should be recommended. PMID:25276449

  18. Fibrous mesothelioma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Verniers, P; De Man, R; De Muynck, P; Crolla, D; Coucke, W; Dewaele, G; Tanghe, W

    1989-12-01

    A case of fibrous mesothelioma is presented. Chest films suggested an elevation of the left diaphragm and a limited pleural effusion, which was confirmed on computed tomography. Percutaneous needle biopsy showed mesothelial cells. At thoracotomy the tumor was attached to the pleura of the mediastinum by a pedicle. Complete surgical resection was possible. Clinical, radiological and histological data in literature are summarized. The radiological features of the presented case correspond to those described in the literature.

  19. [Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Couturier, A; Aumaître, O; Mom, T; Gilain, L; André, M

    2016-12-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a benign, uncommon, sporadic, congenital skeletal disorder resulting in deformity. This disease arises from activating somatic mutation in GNAS which encodes the α subunit of the G stimulatory protein associated with proliferation of undifferentiated osteogenic cells resulting in marrow fibrosis, abnormal matrix production, and stimulation of osteoclastic resorption upon overproduction of IL-6 observed in dysplastic cells. Fibrous dysplasia may be monostotic or polyostotic. This mutation affecting many tissues, café au lait skin macules and endocrinopathies (precocious puberty, hyperthyroidism, growth hormone excess, Cushing syndrome) may be associated in McCune-Albright syndrome, but also myxoma in Mazabraud syndrome or phosphate diabetes. Diagnosis of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia should be considered in the presence of headache, neuralgia, sensory disorders (vision, hearing, balance, smelling), functional disorders (nasal obstruction, nasolacrimal duct obstruction, non-matching occlusion), infectious complications (sinusitis, otitis, mastoiditis). Such symptoms should lead to perform craniofacial CT scan completed with MRI. Bone biopsy is not systematic. Surgical treatment is discussed in cases of nervous complication, facial deformity or active lesions. In case of pain resistant to conventional analgesics, intravenous bisphosphonates can be proposed. In non-responder patients, several case reports suggest the efficacy of a monoclonal antibody directed against the IL-6 receptor which requires to be confirmed by randomized studies.

  20. Branching toughens fibrous networks.

    PubMed

    Koh, C T; Oyen, M L

    2012-08-01

    Fibrous collagenous networks are not only stiff but also tough, due to their complex microstructures. This stiff yet tough behavior is desirable for both medical and military applications but it is difficult to reproduce in engineering materials. While the nonlinear hyperelastic behavior of fibrous networks has been extensively studied, the understanding of toughness is still incomplete. Here, we identify a microstructure mimicking the branched bundles of a natural type I collagen network, in which partially cross-linked long fibers give rise to novel combinations of stiffness and toughness. Finite element analysis shows that the stiffness of fully cross-linked fibrous networks is amplified by increasing the fibril length and cross-link density. However, a trade-off of such stiff networks is reduced toughness. By having partially cross-linked networks with long fibrils, the networks have comparable stiffness and improved toughness as compared to the fully cross-linked networks. Further, the partially cross-linked networks avoid the formation of kinks, which cause fibril rupture during deformation. As a result, the branching allows the networks to have stiff yet tough behavior.

  1. Effect of loading types on performance characteristics of a trickle-bed bioreactor and biofilter during styrene/acetone vapor biofiltration.

    PubMed

    Halecky, Martin; Paca, Jan; Kozliak, Evguenii; Jones, Kim

    2016-07-02

    A 2:1 (w/w) mixture of styrene (STY) and acetone (AC) was subjected to lab-scale biofiltration under varied loading in both a trickle bed reactor (TBR) and biofilter (BF) to investigate substrate interactions and determine the limits of biofiltration efficiency of typical binary air pollutant mixtures containing both hydrophobic and polar components. A comparison of the STY/AC mixture degradation in the TBR and BF revealed higher pollutant removal efficiencies and degradation rates in the TBR, with the pollutant concentrations increasing up to the overloading limit. The maximum styrene degradation rates were 12 and 8 gc m(-3) h(-1) for the TBR and BF, respectively. However, the order of performance switched in favor of the BF when the loading was conducted by increasing air flow rate while keeping the inlet styrene concentration (Cin) constant in contrast to loading by increasing Cin. This switch may be due to a drastic difference in the effective surface area between these two reactors, so the biofilter becomes the reactor of choice when the rate-limiting step switches from biochemical processes to mass transfer by changing the loading mode. The presence of acetone in the mixture decreased the efficiency of styrene degradation and its degradation rate at high loadings. When the overloading was lifted by lowering the pollutant inlet concentrations, short-term back-stripping of both substrates in both reactors into the outlet air was observed, with a subsequent gradual recovery taking several hours and days in the BF and TBR, respectively. Removal of excess biomass from the TBR significantly improved the reactor performance. Identification of the cultivable strains, which was performed on Day 763 of continuous operation, showed the presence of 7 G(-) bacteria, 2 G(+) bacteria and 4 fungi. Flies and larvae of Lycoriella nigripes survived half a year of the biofilter operation by feeding on the biofilm resulting in the maintenance of a nearly constant pressure drop.

  2. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  3. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. Production of bacterial cellulose membranes in a modified airlift bioreactor by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Chi; Li, Meng-Hsun

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a novel bioreactor for producing bacterial cellulose (BC) is proposed. Traditional BC production uses static culture conditions and produces a gelatinous membrane. The potential for using various types of bioreactor, including a stirred tank, conventional airlift, and modified airlift with a rectangular wire-mesh draft tube, in large-scale production has been investigated. The BC obtained from these bioreactors is fibrous or in pellet form. Our proposed airlift bioreactor produces a membrane-type BC from Gluconacetobacter xylinus, the water-holding capacity of which is greater than that of cellulose types produced using static cultivation methods. The Young's modulus of the product can be manipulated by varying the number of net plates in the modified airlift bioreactor. The BC membrane produced using the proposed bioreactor exhibits potential for practical application. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fibrous hamartoma of infancy.

    PubMed

    Vinayak, Rohan S; Kumar, Sumit; Chandana, Sudhir; Trivedi, Priti

    2011-01-01

    Fibrous hamartoma of infancy (FHI) is a rare, benign tumor of the subcutis and lower dermis, which usually occurs within the first 2 years of life. Ninety one percent of the tumors occur in the first year of life. The histogenesis of FHI is unclear. The clinical course is typically benign and prognosis excellent. The physical characteristics of the subcutaneous mass in a child may suggest a malignant process; however, FHI should be included in the differential diagnosis. The prognosis of FHI is excellent with local surgical excision and it rarely recurs.

  6. Fibrous dysplasia and cherubism

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Mishra, RK

    2015-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a non-malignant fibro-osseous bony lesion in which the involved bone/bones gradually get converted into expanding cystic and fibrous tissue. The underlying defect in FD is post-natal mutation of GNAS1 gene, which leads to the proliferation and activation of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells arresting the bone development in woven phase and ultimately converting them into fibro-osseous cystic tissue. Cherubism is a hereditary form of fibrous dysplasia in which the causative factor is transmission of autosomal dominant SH3BP2 gene mutation. The disease may present in two distinct forms, a less severe and limited monostotic form, and a more aggressive and more widespread polyostotic form. Polyostotic form may be associated with various endocrine abnormalities, which require active management apart from the management of FD. Management of FD is not free from controversies. While total surgical excision of the involved area and reconstruction using newer micro-vascular technique is the only definitive treatment available from the curative point of view, but this can be only offered to monostotic and very few polyostotic lesions. In polyostotic varieties on many occasions these radical surgeries are very deforming in these slow growing lesions and so their indication is highly debated. The treatment of cranio-facial fibrous dysplasia should be highly individualized, depending on the fact that the clinical behavior of lesion is variable at various ages and in individual patients. A more conservative approach in the form of aesthetic recontouring of deformed bone, orthodontic occlusal correction, and watchful expectancy may be the more accepted form of treatment in young patients. Newer generation real-time imaging guidance during recontouring surgery adds to accuracy and safety of these procedures. Regular clinical and radiological follow up is required to watch for quiescence, regression or reactivation of the disease process. Patients must be

  7. Imaging of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Lisle, D A; Monsour, P A J; Maskiell, C D

    2008-08-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is a relatively common disorder of bone. It may affect the bones of the face and skull and, in so doing, produce a wide variety of clinical presentations. Plain film assessment of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia may be difficult because of varying appearances and complex, overlapping structures. The MRI appearances of fibrous dysplasia are often non-specific and may be confusing. Findings on CT are also variable, but more commonly lead to a specific diagnosis. This is because of the characteristic ground-glass appearance of woven bone, seen on CT in most if not all cases of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia.

  8. [Fibrous dysplasia of bone].

    PubMed

    Orcel, Philippe; Chapurlat, Roland

    2007-10-31

    Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a congenital non hereditary benign bone disease, where normal bone is replaced by a fibrous-like tissue with immature osteogenesis. Prevalence is difficult to estimate, due to frequent asymptomatic lesions. Bone lesions are mono- or polyostotic and may be associated with bone pain and fragility, leading to fractures. In some patients or bone sites, they are hypertrophic, responsible for neurological complications. Imaging and, when necessary, histology are the cornerstones of the diagnosis. A common molecular defect, i.e. activating mutations of the GNAS gene, encoding the a subunit of the Gs protein in target cells, is responsible for bone cell alterations as well as for the involvement of other cells/tissues bearing the same molecular defect (melanocytes, endocrine cells). These mutations affect only somatic cells and are therefore not hereditary: antenatal diagnosis is not appropriate for this disease and genetic counselling is not very useful, except for reassuring the patients. The conventional therapeutic approach is essentially symptomatic (pain killers) and orthopaedic (prevention and treatment of bone complications). Recent publications have focused attention on pamidronate, which rapidly relieves bone pain in most patients, and progressively increases bone mineralization in osteolytic areas in about half of the patients. Tubular phosphate wasting is common and should be treated with phosphate supplement and calcitriol. The prognosis should improve with therapeutic advances, but this remains to be properly evaluated.

  9. Effects of surface treatment and process parameters on immobilization of recombinant yeast cells by adsorption to fibrous matrices.

    PubMed

    Kilonzo, Peter; Margaritis, Argyrios; Bergougnou, Maurice

    2011-02-01

    The effects of surface properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains 468/pGAC9 and 468 on adhesion to polyethyleneimine (PEI) and/glutaraldehyde (GA) pre-treated cotton (CT), polyester (PE), polyester+cotton (PECT), nylon (NL), polyurethane foam (PUF), and cellulose re-enforced polyurethane (CPU) fibers were investigated. Process parameters (circulation velocity, pH, ionic strength, media composition and surfactants) were also examined. 80%, 90%, and 35% of the cells were adsorbed onto unmodified CT, PUF, and PE, respectively. PEI-GA pre-treated CT and alkali treated PE yielded 25% and 60% cell adhesion, respectively. Adsorption rate (K(a)) ranged from 0.06 to 0.17 for CT and 0.06-0.16 for PE at varied pH. Adhesion increased by 15% in the presence of ethanol, low pH and ionic strength, and decreased by 23% in the presence of yeast extract and glucose. Shear flow and 1% Triton X-100 detached 62% and 36% nonviable cells from PE and CT, respectively, suggesting that cell immobilization in fibrous-bed bioreactors can be controlled to optimize cell density for long-term stability.

  10. Bioreactors and Bioseparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Siliang; Cao, Xuejun; Chu, Ju; Qian, Jiangchao; Zhuang, Yingping

    Along with the rapid development of life science, great attention has been increasingly given to the biotechnological products of cell cultivation technology. In the course of industrialization, bioreactor and bioproduct separation techniques are the two essential technical platforms. In this chapter, the current situation and development prospects of bioreactor techniques in China are systematically discussed, starting with the elucidation of bioreactor processes and the principle of process optimization. Separation technology for biological products is also briefly introduced.

  11. Endobronchial solitary fibrous tumor

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Marcelo Padovani Toledo; Colby, Thomas; Oliveira, Gilmar Felisberto; Hasimoto, Erica Nishida; Cataneo, Daniele Cristina; Cataneo, Antônio José Maria; De Faveri, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal neoplasm that appears primarily in the pleura and rarely in intrapulmonary or endobronchial topography. The authors report the case of a 47-year-old woman who presented obstructive respiratory symptoms for 4 years. The chest computed tomography and bronchoscopy showed an obstructive polypoid lesion located between the trachea and the left main bronchus associated with distal atelectasis of the left lung. A resection of the lesion was performed and, macroscopically, the mass was oval, encapsulated, and firm, measuring 2.3 × 1.7 × 1.5 cm. Histology revealed low-grade mesenchymal spindle cell neoplasm, with alternating cellularity, myxoid areas, and mature adipose tissue outbreaks, as well as blood vessels with irregular walls. The immunohistochemical study was positive for CD34, CD99, and BCL2. The diagnosis was SFT in an unusual topography. The patient’s symptoms remitted after tumor excision, and no systemic problems were evident. SFTs primarily affect adults and often follow a benign course; however, their behavior is unpredictable. The presence of necrosis and mitotic activity may portend a poor prognosis. Endobronchial SFTs are rare but should be evaluated and monitored similar to SFTs at other sites, with a long-term follow-up. PMID:28210572

  12. Why fibrous proteins are romantic.

    PubMed

    Cohen, C

    1998-01-01

    Here I give a personal account of the great history of fibrous protein structure. I describe how Astbury first recognized the essential simplicity of fibrous proteins and their paradigmatic role in protein structure. The poor diffraction patterns yielded by these proteins were then deciphered by Pauling, Crick, Ramachandran and others (in part by model building) to reveal alpha-helical coiled coils, beta-sheets, and the collagen triple helical coiled coil-all characterized by different local sequence periodicities. Longer-range sequence periodicities (or "magic numbers") present in diverse fibrous proteins, such as collagen, tropomyosin, paramyosin, myosin, and were then shown to account for the characteristic axial repeats observed in filaments of these proteins. More recently, analysis of fibrous protein structure has been extended in many cases to atomic resolution, and some systems, such as "leucine zippers," are providing a deeper understanding of protein design than similar studies of globular proteins. In the last sections, I provide some dramatic examples of fibrous protein dynamics. One example is the so-called "spring-loaded" mechanism for viral fusion by the hemagglutinin protein of influenza. Another is the possible conformational changes in prion proteins, implicated in "mad cow disease," which may be related to similar transitions in a variety of globular and fibrous proteins.

  13. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  14. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  15. [Stable fibrous subaortic stenosis].

    PubMed

    Attié, F; Dumont, C; Mispireta, J; Kuri, J; Mata, L A

    1975-01-01

    patients, and by means of measuring the gradient between the left ventricle and the aorta, the good surgical results could be demonstrated. 8. The natural evolution of patients with fixed fibrous subaortic stenosis is similar to that of other forms of congenital aortic stenosis. Taking into consideration this concept, and before the low risk (0%) in this type of surgery, this is the treatment of choice.

  16. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  17. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  18. Bioreactors: design and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, C.L.

    1983-02-11

    The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process control, will increasingly reflect the need for cross-disciplinary interaction in the biochemical process industry. This paper examines the strategy for selection and design of bioreactors and identifies the limits and constraints in their use. 25 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Hepatocyte function within a stacked double sandwich culture plate cylindrical bioreactor for bioartificial liver system.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lei; Arooz, Talha; Zhang, Shufang; Tuo, Xiaoye; Xiao, Guangfa; Susanto, Thomas Adi Kurnia; Sundararajan, Janani; Cheng, Tianming; Kang, Yuzhan; Poh, Hee Joo; Leo, Hwa Liang; Yu, Hanry

    2012-11-01

    Bioartificial liver (BAL) system is promising as an alternative treatment for liver failure. We have developed a bioreactor with stacked sandwich culture plates for the application of BAL. This bioreactor design addresses some of the persistent problems in flat-bed bioreactors through increasing cell packing capacity, eliminating dead flow, regulating shear stress, and facilitating the scalability of the bioreactor unit. The bioreactor contained a stack of twelve double-sandwich-culture plates, allowing 100 million hepatocytes to be housed in a single cylindrical bioreactor unit (7 cm of height and 5.5 cm of inner diameter). The serial flow perfusion through the bioreactor increased cell-fluid contact area for effective mass exchange. With the optimal perfusion flow rate, shear stress was minimized to achieve high and uniform cell viabilities across different plates in the bioreactor. Our results demonstrated that hepatocytes cultured in the bioreactor could re-establish cell polarity and maintain liver-specific functions (e.g. albumin and urea synthesis, phase I&II metabolism functions) for seven days. The single bioreactor unit can be readily scaled up to house adequate number of functional hepatocytes for BAL development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of bacterial community diversity in anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactors treating 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and n-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA) using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Clint M; Rodriguez, Giselle; Maloney, Stephen W

    2009-01-01

    Clone libraries were used to evaluate the effects of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and n-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA) on bacterial populations within three anaerobic bioreactors. Prior to the addition of DNAN and MNA greater than 69% of the clones in each reactor were identified as a single Desulfuromonales species. However, after 60 days of treatment the Desulfuromonales distribution decreased to less than 13% of the distribution and a clone identified as a Levilinea sp. became the dominant organism at greater than 27% of the clone distribution in each reactor suggesting the species may play an important roll in the reduction of DNAN and MNA.

  1. Advanced bioreactors for enhanced production of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.

    1993-12-31

    A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids, and other fermentation products. One key approach is immobilization of the biocatalyst, leading to increased rates and yields. In addition, there are processes for simultaneous fermentation and separation to further increase production. For example, ethanol productivity in immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) can increase more than tenfold with 99% conversion and near stoichiometric yields. Two modified FBR configurations offer further improvements by removing the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the addition and removal of solid adsorbent particles to the FBR. This process was demonstrated with the production of lactic acid by immobilized Lactobacillus. The second uses an immiscible organic extractant in the FBR. This increased total butanol yields in the anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

  2. Advanced bioreactors for enhanced production of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Scott, C.D.

    1993-06-01

    A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids and other fermentation products. One key approach is immobilization of the biocatalyst leading to increased rates and yields. In addition, there are processes for simultaneous fermentation and separation to further increase production by the removal of an inhibitory product. For example, ethanol productivity in immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) can increase more than tenfold with 99% conversion and near stoichiometric yields. Two modified FBR configurations offer further improvements by removing the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the addition and removal of solid adsorbent particles to the FBR. This process was demonstrated with the production of lactic acid by immobilized Lactobacillus. The second uses an immiscible organic extractant in the FBR. This increased total butanol yields in the anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

  3. Space Bioreactor Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The first space bioreactor has been designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and a slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small (500 ml) bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption, and control of low shear stress on cells. Applications of microcarrier cultures, development of the first space bioreactor flight system, shear and mixing effects on cells, process control, and methods to monitor cell metabolism and nutrient requirements are among the topics covered.

  4. Bioreactor design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, William

    1987-01-01

    Two parallel lines of work are underway in the bioreactor laboratory. One of the efforts is devoted to the continued development and utilization of a laboratory research system. That system's design is intended to be fluid and dynamic. The sole purpose of such a device is to allow testing and development of equipment concepts and procedures. Some of the results of those processes are discussed. A second effort is designed to produce a flight-like bioreactor contained in a double middeck locker. The result of that effort has been to freeze a particular bioreactor design in order to allow fabrication of the custom parts. The system is expected to be ready for flight in early 1988. However, continued use of the laboratory system will lead to improvements in the space bioreactor. Those improvements can only be integrated after the initial flight series.

  5. BIOREACTOR LANDFILL DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern landfill design entails many elements including foundations, liner systems, leachate collection systems, stormwater control systems, slope stability considerations, leachate management systems, gas extraction systems, and capping and closure. The use of bioreactor technolo...

  6. BIOREACTOR LANDFILL DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern landfill design entails many elements including foundations, liner systems, leachate collection systems, stormwater control systems, slope stability considerations, leachate management systems, gas extraction systems, and capping and closure. The use of bioreactor technolo...

  7. Sarcomatous transformation (Leiomyosarcoma) in polyostotic fibrous dysplagia

    PubMed Central

    Garg, M. K.; Bhardwaj, Reena; Gupta, Srishti; Mann, Navdeep; Kharb, Sandeep; Pandit, Aditi

    2013-01-01

    Malignant changes in polyostotic fibrous dysplasia are very rare. Most common malignancies reported are osteosarcoma and fibrosarcoma, chondrosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Here, we report a previously diagnosed case of fibrous dysplasia who has developed leiomyosarcoma; diagnosis of which was delayed for about one year despite repeated fine needle aspiration and open biopsy. PMID:24381897

  8. Removal of Cyclohexane from a Contaminated Air Stream Using a Dense Phase Membrane Bioreactor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    E.J. Nyns. “Pressure-drops control strategy in a fixed - bed reactor,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, 81: 115-122 (2001). UFC (Unified...21 Carbon Adsorption Systems .....................................................................................21...gases are conventional bioreactor designs including bioscrubbers, biotrickling filters, and packed beds (Min, et al, 2002). Bioscrubbers use

  9. Plastic biofilm carrier after corn cobs reduces nitrate loading in laboratory denitrifying bioreactors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrate-nitrogen removal rates can be increased substantially in denitrifying bioreactors with a corn cob bed medium compared to woodchips; however, additional organic carbon (C) is released into the effluent. This laboratory column experiment was conducted to test the performance of a post-bed cha...

  10. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  11. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  12. Thermoacoustic properties of fibrous materials.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Carl; Raspet, Richard

    2010-06-01

    The thermoacoustic properties of fibrous materials are studied using a computational fluid simulation as a test of proposed analytical models for propagation in porous materials with an ambient temperature gradient. The acoustic properties of porous materials have been understood in terms of microstructural models that approximate the material as an array of pores with empirical shape factors used to fit the pore theory to the material. An extension of these theories of acoustics to the thermoacoustic case with an ambient temperature gradient has been proposed by Roh et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121, 1413-1422 (2007)] and a model based on Wilson's relaxation approximation for porous acoustics [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 1136-1145 (1993)] is proposed herein, but the predictions of these analytical models have not been tested successfully against measurements. Accurately characterizing the effects of the applied temperature gradient in a wide bandwidth laboratory setup have proven difficult; as a result, the authors conducted a numerical simulation of propagation within a fibrous geometry in order to test the predictions of the analytical models. The results for several fibrous samples show that the models yield a reliable prediction of thermoacoustic performance from the shape factors and relaxation times.

  13. Bioreactors and bioseparation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siliang; Cao, Xuejun; Chu, Ju; Qian, Jiangchao; Zhuang, Yingping

    2010-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of life science, great attention has been increasingly given to the biotechnological products of cell cultivation technology. In the course of industrialization, bioreactor and bioproduct separation techniques are the two essential technical platforms. In this chapter, the current situation and development prospects of bioreactor techniques in China are systematically discussed, starting with the elucidation of bioreactor processes and the principle of process optimization. Separation technology for biological products is also briefly introduced.At present, a series of bioreactors made by Chinese enterprises have been widely used for laboratory microbial cultivation, process optimization studies, and large-scale production. In the course of bioprocess optimization studies, the complicated bioprocesses in a bioreactor could be resolved into different reaction processes on three scales, namely genetic, cellular, and bioreactor scales. The structural varieties and nonlinear features of various scales of bioprocess systems was discussed through considering the mutual effects of different scale events, namely material flux, energy flux, and information flux, and the optimization approach for bioprocesses was proposed by taking the analysis of metabolic flux and multiscale consideration as a core strategy.In order to realize such an optimization approach, a bioreactor system based on association analysis of multiscale parameters was elaborated, and process optimization of many biological products were materialized, which resulted in great improvement in production efficiency. In designing and manufacturing large-scale bioreactors, the principle of scaling up a process incorporated with flow field study and physiological features in a bioreactor was suggested according to the criterion for the scale-up of cellular physiological and metabolic traits. The flow field features of a bioreactor were investigated through computational fluid

  14. NASA Classroom Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Exploration of space provides a compelling need for cell-based research into the basic mechanisms that underlie the profound changes that occur in terrestrial life that is transitioned to low gravity environments. Toward that end, NASA developed a rotating bioreactor in which cells are cultured while continuously suspended in a cylinder in which the culture medium rotates with the cylinder. The randomization of the gravity vector accomplished by the continuous rotation, in a low shear environment, provides an analog of microgravity. Because cultures grown in bioreactors develop structures and functions that are much closer to those exhibited by native tissue than can be achieved with traditional culture methods, bioreactors have contributed substantially to advancing research in the fields of cancer, diabetes, infectious disease modeling for vaccine production, drug efficacy, and tissue engineering. NASA has developed a Classroom Bioreactor (CB) that is built from parts that are easily obtained and assembled, user-friendly and versatile. It can be easily used in simple school settings to examine the effect cultures of seeds or cells. An educational brief provides assembly instructions and lesson plans that describes activities in science, math and technology that explore free fall, microgravity, orbits, bioreactors, structure-function relationships and the scientific method.

  15. NASA Bioreactor Schematic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The schematic depicts the major elements and flow patterns inside the NASA Bioreactor system. Waste and fresh medium are contained in plastic bags placed side-by-side so the waste bag fills as the fresh medium bag is depleted. The compliance vessel contains a bladder to accommodate pressure transients that might damage the system. A peristolic pump moves fluid by squeezing the plastic tubing, thus avoiding potential contamination. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  16. NASA Bioreactor Schematic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The schematic depicts the major elements and flow patterns inside the NASA Bioreactor system. Waste and fresh medium are contained in plastic bags placed side-by-side so the waste bag fills as the fresh medium bag is depleted. The compliance vessel contains a bladder to accommodate pressure transients that might damage the system. A peristolic pump moves fluid by squeezing the plastic tubing, thus avoiding potential contamination. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  17. NASA Classroom Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Exploration of space provides a compelling need for cell-based research into the basic mechanisms that underlie the profound changes that occur in terrestrial life that is transitioned to low gravity environments. Toward that end, NASA developed a rotating bioreactor in which cells are cultured while continuously suspended in a cylinder in which the culture medium rotates with the cylinder. The randomization of the gravity vector accomplished by the continuous rotation, in a low shear environment, provides an analog of microgravity. Because cultures grown in bioreactors develop structures and functions that are much closer to those exhibited by native tissue than can be achieved with traditional culture methods, bioreactors have contributed substantially to advancing research in the fields of cancer, diabetes, infectious disease modeling for vaccine production, drug efficacy, and tissue engineering. NASA has developed a Classroom Bioreactor (CB) that is built from parts that are easily obtained and assembled, user-friendly and versatile. It can be easily used in simple school settings to examine the effect cultures of seeds or cells. An educational brief provides assembly instructions and lesson plans that describes activities in science, math and technology that explore free fall, microgravity, orbits, bioreactors, structure-function relationships and the scientific method.

  18. Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Prevent, identify, and treat bed bug infestations using EPA’s step-by-step guides, based on IPM principles. Find pesticides approved for bed bug control, check out the information clearinghouse, and dispel bed bug myths.

  19. Oral benign fibrous histiocytoma: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Fibrous histiocytoma is a benign soft tissue tumour arising as a fibrous mass everywhere in the human body. The involvement of the oral cavity is rare. We report two cases of benign fibrous histiocytoma that localized in the oral cavity. The clinical and histological features of the lesion are reported. Finally, a literature revision of this pathology at the level of the oral cavity is reported. PMID:20066060

  20. Emissivity of layered fibrous materials.

    PubMed

    Golombok, M; Shirvill, L C

    1988-09-15

    The radiant energy properties of fibrous materials may be described by an effective surface emissivity, which is a function of the material construction. The important parameters are porosity and the emissivity of the solid component. The layered construction leads to a unit cell model determining radiant heat transfer through the material to the environment. Geometric absorption cross sections are used as radiation view factors in a pseudoenclosed configuration. The emissivities are obtained by comparison to a material made from black fibers and are in qualitative agreement with experimental measurements.

  1. NASA Bioreactor tissue culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  2. NASA Bioreactor tissue culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  3. Bed bugs.

    PubMed

    Foulke, Galen T; Anderson, Bryan E

    2014-09-01

    The term bed bug is applied to 2 species of genus Cimex: lectularius describes the common or temperate bed bug, and hemipterus its tropical cousin. Cimex lectularius is aptly named; its genus and species derive from the Latin words for bug and bed, respectively. Though the tiny pest is receiving increased public attention and scrutiny, the bed bug is hardly a new problem.

  4. Adsorption with biodegradation for decolorization of reactive black 5 by Funalia trogii 200800 on a fly ash-chitosan medium in a fluidized bed bioreactor-kinetic model and reactor performance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Hui; Lin, Wen-Fan; Jhang, Kai-Ning; Lin, Pei-Yu; Lee, Mong-Chuan

    2013-02-01

    A non-steady-state mathematical model system for the kinetics of adsorption and biodegradation of reactive black 5 (RB5) by Funalia trogii (F. trogii) ATCC 200800 biofilm on fly ash-chitosan bead in the fluidized bed process was derived. The mechanisms in the model system included adsorption by fly ash-chitosan beads, biodegradation by F. trogii cells and mass transport diffusion. Batch kinetic tests were independently performed to determine surface diffusivity of RB5, adsorption parameters for RB5 and biokinetic parameters of F. trogii ATCC 200800. A column test was conducted using a continuous-flow fluidized bed reactor with a recycling pump to approximate a completely-mixed flow reactor for model verification. The experimental results indicated that F. trogii biofilm bioregenerated the fly ash-chitosan beads after attached F. trogii has grown significantly. The removal efficiency of RB5 was about 95 % when RB5 concentration in the effluent was approximately 0.34 mg/L at a steady-state condition. The concentration of suspended F. trogii cells reached up to about 1.74 mg/L while the thickness of attached F. trogii cells was estimated to be 80 μm at a steady-state condition by model prediction. The comparisons of experimental data and model prediction show that the model system for adsorption and biodegradation of RB5 can predict the experimental results well. The approaches of experiments and mathematical modeling in this study can be applied to design a full-scale fluidized bed process to treat reactive dye in textile wastewater.

  5. Rigid fibrous ceramics for entry systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banas, Ronald P.

    1993-01-01

    The topics addressed are: (1) high payoff areas with reusable surface insulation; (2) technology opportunities/gap; (3) coatings for rigid fibrous ceramics; (4) challenges for reusable rigid fibrous ceramics - Lunar/Mars aerobraking heatshield; (5) comparison of LI-900 and HTP properties; and (6) comparison of microstructures.

  6. [Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the eyelid].

    PubMed

    Rossi, P; Ducasse, A; Pluot, M; Brugniart, C; Gotzamanis, A; Jouhaud, F

    2002-12-01

    Fibrous histiocytomas, mostly benign, have often been reported in the orbit, but only four lesions have been described on the eyelids, with only one malignant. The authors present a case of malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the eyelid in a 76-year-old woman with a difficult histological diagnosis. Characteristics of this pathology are explained from data in the literature.

  7. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Qulsoom; Shafique, Khurram; Hurairah, Abu; Grossman, Evan B.

    2017-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that usually originates from the pleura, but has been reported in other extrapleural locations. We report a rare case of a solitary fibrous tumor of the stomach, which was successfully treated with endoscopic mucosal resection. PMID:28286800

  8. BioReactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosiano, John; Roberts, Randy; Cleland, Tim; Gray, Perry

    2003-04-18

    BioReactor is a simulation tool kit for modeling networks of coupled chemical processes (or similar productions rules). The tool kit is implemented in C++ and has the following functionality: 1. Monte Carlo discrete event simulator 2. Solvers for ordinary differential equations 3. Genetic algorithm optimization routines for reverse engineering of models using either Monte Carlo or ODE representation )i.e., 1 or 2)

  9. Fibrous incudostapedial joint in congenital aural atresia.

    PubMed

    Balaker, Ashley E; Roberson, Joseph B; Goldsztein, Hernan

    2014-04-01

    (1) Determine the prevalence of a non-bony or fibrous incudostapedial (IS) joint in the setting of congenital aural atresia. (2) Assess this anomaly's impact on surgical management and associated hearing outcomes. Retrospective chart review. Subspecialty private practice. Operative reports and audiometric data of patients who underwent congenital aural atresia repair by a single surgeon from 2007 to 2011 were reviewed for operative anatomic findings and audiometric outcomes. Two hundred twenty-eight operations on 206 ears were performed. Median age was 5 years old. Fifty-five (26.7%) of these ears had a fibrous IS joint. The severity of this anomaly was graded as mild in 23 ears, moderate in 20 ears, and severe in 12 ears. Mean postoperative pure tone air conduction (PTA2) in the severely fibrous group was 51 compared to 46 in the moderate group (P = .03) and 41 in the mild group (P = .006). Patients with a fibrous IS joint who underwent successful ossicular chain reconstruction (OCR) had a mean postoperative PTA2 of 30, which was a significantly better outcome than in patients with moderately or severely fibrous IS joints who did not have OCR (P < .05). A fibrous IS joint was seen in 27% of patients undergoing repair of congenital aural atresia. The severity of this anomaly has important implications for postoperative hearing results. These findings suggest that ossicular chain reconstruction should be performed in moderately or severely fibrous cases.

  10. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid

  11. Fibrous-Ceramic/Aerogel Composite Insulating Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan M.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Fibrous-ceramic/aerogel composite tiles have been invented to afford combinations of thermal-insulation and mechanical properties superior to those attainable by making tiles of fibrous ceramics alone or aerogels alone. These lightweight tiles can be tailored to a variety of applications that range from insulating cryogenic tanks to protecting spacecraft against re-entry heating. The advantages and disadvantages of fibrous ceramics and aerogels can be summarized as follows: Tiles made of ceramic fibers are known for mechanical strength, toughness, and machinability. Fibrous ceramic tiles are highly effective as thermal insulators in a vacuum. However, undesirably, the porosity of these materials makes them permeable by gases, so that in the presence of air or other gases, convection and gas-phase conduction contribute to the effective thermal conductivity of the tiles. Other disadvantages of the porosity and permeability of fibrous ceramic tiles arise because gases (e.g., water vapor or cryogenic gases) can condense in pores. This condensation contributes to weight, and in the case of cryogenic systems, the heat of condensation undesirably adds to the heat flowing to the objects that one seeks to keep cold. Moreover, there is a risk of explosion associated with vaporization of previously condensed gas upon reheating. Aerogels offer low permeability, low density, and low thermal conductivity, but are mechanically fragile. The basic idea of the present invention is to exploit the best features of fibrous ceramic tiles and aerogels. In a composite tile according to the invention, the fibrous ceramic serves as a matrix that mechanically supports the aerogel, while the aerogel serves as a low-conductivity, low-permeability filling that closes what would otherwise be the open pores of the fibrous ceramic. Because the aerogel eliminates or at least suppresses permeation by gas, gas-phase conduction, and convection, the thermal conductivity of such a composite even at

  12. The "pirate sign" in fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Singnurkar, Amit; Rush, Chris

    2006-11-01

    Fibrous dysplasia commonly involves the skull in both its monostotic and polyostotic variants. We present two cases of fibrous dysplasia involving the sphenoid wing, which were strikingly similar in their bone scan appearance. Both patients demonstrated intense increased uptake of Tc-99m MDP in a pattern reminding us of a "pirate wearing an eyepatch." We propose that this characteristic appearance of fibrous dysplasia of the sphenoid wing be called the "pirate sign." A review of the literature revealed several other pathologic conditions that have been reported to involve the sphenoid bone and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abnormal bone tracer uptake in this region.

  13. Design challenges for space bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Petersen, G. R.

    1989-01-01

    The design of bioreactors for operation under conditions of microgravity presents problems and challenges. Absence of a significant body force such as gravity can have profound consequences for interfacial phenomena. Marangoni convection can no longer be overlooked. Many speculations on the advantages and benefits of microgravity can be found in the literature. Initial bioreactor research considerations for space applications had little regard for the suitability of the designs for conditions of microgravity. Bioreactors can be classified in terms of their function and type of operation. The complex interaction of parameters leading to optimal design and operation of a bioreactor is illustrated by the JSC mammalian cell culture system. The design of a bioreactor is strongly dependent upon its intended use as a production unit for cell mass and/or biologicals or as a research reactor for the study of cell growth and function. Therefore a variety of bioreactor configurations are presented in rapid summary. Following this, a rationale is presented for not attempting to derive key design parameters such as the oxygen transfer coefficient from ground-based data. A set of themes/objectives for flight experiments to develop the expertise for design of space bioreactors is then proposed for discussion. These experiments, carried out systematically, will provide a database from which engineering tools for space bioreactor design will be derived.

  14. Landfill bioreactor design and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, D.R.; Townsend, T.

    1998-12-31

    Landfill Bioreactor Design and Operation covers the history and background of landfill technology, research studies of actual bioreactor landfills, expected leachate and gas yields, specific design criteria, operation guidelines, and reuse of landfill sites to avoid having to establish new sites. For anyone looking for an alternative to large, wasteful landfill sites, this book provides a practical alternative to the problem.

  15. Fibrous Dysplasia in the Epiphysis of the Distal Femur

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jung Ho; Lee, Jae Woo

    2017-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is a common benign skeletal lesion that may involve a single bone or multiple bones. Although fibrous dysplasia can affect any bone, monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the long bone typically occurs in the diaphysis or metaphysis. We report a very rare case of monostotic fibrous dysplasia involving the epiphysis of the distal femur in a young man. PMID:28231652

  16. Removal of dichloromethane from waste gas streams using a hybrid bubble column/biofilter bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a hybrid bubble column/biofilter (HBCB) bioreactor for the removal of dichloromethane (DCM) from waste gas streams was studied in continuous mode for several months. The HBCB bioreactor consisted of two compartments: bubble column bioreactor removing DCM from liquid phase and biofilter removing DCM from gas phase. Effect of inlet DCM concentration on the elimination capacity was examined in the DCM concentration range of 34–359 ppm with loading rates ranged from 2.2 to 22.8 g/m3.h and constant total empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 200 s. In the equal loading rates, the elimination capacity and removal efficiency of the biofilter were higher than the corresponding values of the bubble column bioreactor. The maximum elimination capacity of the HBCB bioreactor was determined to be 15.7 g/m3.h occurred in the highest loading rate of 22.8 g/m3.h with removal efficiency of 69%. The overall mineralization portion of the HBCB bioreactor was in the range of 72-79%. The mixed liquor acidic pH especially below 5.5 inhibited microbial activity and decreased the elimination capacity. Inhibitory effect of high ionic strength was initiated in the mixed liquor electrical conductivity of 12.2 mS/cm. This study indicated that the HBCB bioreactor could benefit from advantages of both bubble column and biofilter reactors and could remove DCM from waste gas streams in a better manner. PMID:24406056

  17. Removal of dichloromethane from waste gas streams using a hybrid bubble column/biofilter bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Abtahi, Mehrnoosh; Naddafi, Kazem; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Jaafarzadeh, Nematollah; Rastkari, Noushin; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Saeedi, Reza

    2014-01-09

    The performance of a hybrid bubble column/biofilter (HBCB) bioreactor for the removal of dichloromethane (DCM) from waste gas streams was studied in continuous mode for several months. The HBCB bioreactor consisted of two compartments: bubble column bioreactor removing DCM from liquid phase and biofilter removing DCM from gas phase. Effect of inlet DCM concentration on the elimination capacity was examined in the DCM concentration range of 34-359 ppm with loading rates ranged from 2.2 to 22.8 g/m3.h and constant total empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 200 s. In the equal loading rates, the elimination capacity and removal efficiency of the biofilter were higher than the corresponding values of the bubble column bioreactor. The maximum elimination capacity of the HBCB bioreactor was determined to be 15.7 g/m3.h occurred in the highest loading rate of 22.8 g/m3.h with removal efficiency of 69%. The overall mineralization portion of the HBCB bioreactor was in the range of 72-79%. The mixed liquor acidic pH especially below 5.5 inhibited microbial activity and decreased the elimination capacity. Inhibitory effect of high ionic strength was initiated in the mixed liquor electrical conductivity of 12.2 mS/cm. This study indicated that the HBCB bioreactor could benefit from advantages of both bubble column and biofilter reactors and could remove DCM from waste gas streams in a better manner.

  18. [Solitary fibrous tumours of the kidney].

    PubMed

    Gres, Pascal; Avances, Christophe; Ben Naoum, Kamel; Chapuis, Héliette; Costa, Pierre

    2004-02-01

    Solitary fibrous tumours (SFT) are mesenchymal tumours that usually arise from the pleura. Renal SFT are exceptional (9 cases reported in the literature). The authors report a new case discovered during assessment of HT and treated by radical right nephrectomy. The histological appearance is characteristic: a tumour with a fibrous centre, composed of a monomorphic proliferation of spindle cells, with positive CD 34, CD 99, and bcl 2 labelling. The prognosis after complete resection is generally favourable.

  19. Primary solitary fibrous tumor of the retroperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Charhi, Hind; Bernoussi, Zakiya; Haddan, Azzouz; Mesmoudi, Siham; Elktaibi, Abderrahim; Mansouri, Fatima; Elktaibi, Rachid; Lahlou, Khalid; Jahid, Ahmed; Mahassini, Najat

    2011-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor is an uncommon neoplasm affecting adults and typically located in the pleura and can also occur in a large number of other extra thoracic sites. We present the case of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the retroperitoneum and describe their histopathological and immunohistochemical features. The identification of SFT in the retroperitoneum is of importance because its clinico-pathological behaviour is still unclear. The pathologist plays a fundamental role in establishing both the positive and differential diagnosis. PMID:24765378

  20. Solitary fibrous tumor of the thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Arantes, M; Honavar, M; Vaz, A R; Resende, M; Pereira, J R

    2009-12-01

    Intraspinal solitary fibrous tumors are rare: to our knowledge, the literature reports only 27 cases. We present a histologically and immunohistochemically confirmed solitary fibrous tumor involving the intradural extramedullary compartment of the thoracic spine. Microsurgical gross-total resection was achieved. A definitive role for adjuvant treatments in this type of tumor has not been established and therefore, they were not used. The patient was well, without clinical or radiological recurrence, 18 months after surgery.

  1. Corrosion Behavior of Steel Fibrous Concrete

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    Crvtaiue wi ,rerse sido it necessaty m’d Identify by block number) steel fibrous concrete corrosion cracked fibrous concrete 20 ABST RACT (Continue...dissolved gas in liq- Although chloride ions affect the rate of steel corro- uids. sion in concrete , corrosion can occur without them. Verbeck has...repcrted that steel subjected to a concrete Corrosion of steel will not occur without water. Not environment normally develops a protective oxide film

  2. Membrane bioreactors: Engineering aspects.

    PubMed

    Chang, H N

    1987-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors have in-situ separation capability lacking in other types of immobilized cell reactors. This makes them very useful for certain systems. Enzyme reactions utilizing cofactors and hydrolysis of macromolecules are advantageous in membrane reactors. Anaerobic cell culture may be efficiently carried out in membrane cell recycle systems, while aerobic cultures work well in dual hollow fiber reactors. Animal and plant cells have much a better chance of success in membrane reactors because of the protective environment of the reactor and the small oxygen uptake rate of these cells.

  3. Perfusion Bioreactor Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1990-01-01

    Perfusion bioreactor module, self-contained, closed-loop cell-culture system that operates in microgravity or on Earth. Equipment supports growth or long-term maintenance of cultures of human or other fragile cells for experiments in basic cell biology or process technology. Designed to support proliferation (initially at exponential rates of growth) of cells in complex growth medium and to maintain confluent cells in defined medium under conditions optimized to permit or encourage selected functions of cells, including secretion of products of cells into medium.

  4. Quantitative analysis of microbial biomass yield in aerobic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Osamu; Isoda, Satoru

    2013-12-01

    We have studied the integrated model of reaction rate equations with thermal energy balance in aerobic bioreactor for food waste decomposition and showed that the integrated model has the capability both of monitoring microbial activity in real time and of analyzing biodegradation kinetics and thermal-hydrodynamic properties. On the other hand, concerning microbial metabolism, it was known that balancing catabolic reactions with anabolic reactions in terms of energy and electron flow provides stoichiometric metabolic reactions and enables the estimation of microbial biomass yield (stoichiometric reaction model). We have studied a method for estimating real-time microbial biomass yield in the bioreactor during food waste decomposition by combining the integrated model with the stoichiometric reaction model. As a result, it was found that the time course of microbial biomass yield in the bioreactor during decomposition can be evaluated using the operational data of the bioreactor (weight of input food waste and bed temperature) by the combined model. The combined model can be applied to manage a food waste decomposition not only for controlling system operation to keep microbial activity stable, but also for producing value-added products such as compost on optimum condition. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioreactors: Waste-water treatment. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of bioreactors for wastewater treatment. References are made to stirred tank, photobio, hollow, nonfluidized bed, biofilm, oxidizing, composting, fluidized bed, porous membrane, and plate column reactors employing chemical, microbiological, and physical technologies. Applications in municipal treatment, food processing, chemical, agricultural, mining, and oil refining industries are reviewed. (Contains a minimum of 167 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Bioreactors: Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of bioreactors for wastewater treatment. References are made to stirred tank, photobio, hollow, nonfluidized bed, biofilm, oxidizing, composting, fluidized bed, porous membrane, and plate column reactors employing chemical, microbiological, and physical technologies. Applications in municipal treatment, food processing, chemical, agricultural, mining, and oil refining industries are reviewed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Microtechnology in space bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Walther, I; van der Schoot, B; Boillat, M; Muller, O; Cogoli, A

    1999-03-01

    Space biology is a young and rapidly developing discipline comprising basic research and biotechnology. In the next decades it will play a prominent role in the International Space Station (ISS). Therefore, there is an increasing demand for sophisticated instrumentation to satisfy the requirements of the future projects in space biology. Bioreactors will be needed to supply fresh living material (cells and tissues) either to study still obscure basic biological mechanisms or to develop profitable bioprocesses which will take advantage of the peculiar microgravity conditions. Since more than twenty years, the Space Biology Group of the ETHZ is carrying out research projects in space (Space Shuttle/Spacelab, MIR Station, satellites, and sounding rockets) that involve also the development of space-qualified instrumentation. In the last ten years we have developed, in collaboration with Mecanex SA, Nyon, and the Institute of Microtechnology of the University of Neuchatel, a space bioreactor for the continuous culture of yeast cells under controlled conditions. Sensors, pH control, nutrients pump and fluid flowmeter are based on state-of-the-art silicon technology. After two successful space flights, a further improved version is presently prepared for a flight in the year 2000.

  8. Sensing in tissue bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, P.

    2006-03-01

    Specialized sensing and measurement instruments are under development to aid the controlled culture of cells in bioreactors for the fabrication of biological tissues. Precisely defined physical and chemical conditions are needed for the correct culture of the many cell-tissue types now being studied, including chondrocytes (cartilage), vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (blood vessels), fibroblasts, hepatocytes (liver) and receptor neurones. Cell and tissue culture processes are dynamic and therefore, optimal control requires monitoring of the key process variables. Chemical and physical sensing is approached in this paper with the aim of enabling automatic optimal control, based on classical cell growth models, to be achieved. Non-invasive sensing is performed via the bioreactor wall, invasive sensing with probes placed inside the cell culture chamber and indirect monitoring using analysis within a shunt or a sampling chamber. Electroanalytical and photonics-based systems are described. Chemical sensing for gases, ions, metabolites, certain hormones and proteins, is under development. Spectroscopic analysis of the culture medium is used for measurement of glucose and for proteins that are markers of cell biosynthetic behaviour. Optical interrogation of cells and tissues is also investigated for structural analysis based on scatter.

  9. Cells growing in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. Shown here, clusters of cells slowly spin inside a bioreactor. On Earth, the cells continually fall through the buffer medium and never hit bottom. In space, they are naturally suspended. Rotation ensures gentle stirring so waste is removed and fresh nutrient and oxygen are supplied. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  10. Cells growing in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. Shown here, clusters of cells slowly spin inside a bioreactor. On Earth, the cells continually fall through the buffer medium and never hit bottom. In space, they are naturally suspended. Rotation ensures gentle stirring so waste is removed and fresh nutrient and oxygen are supplied. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  11. Bioreactors: Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of bioreactors for wastewater treatment. References to stirred tank, photobio, biofilm, oxidizing, composting, fluidized bed, porous membrane, and plate column reactors are presented. Applications in municipal, food processing, chemical, agricultural, mining, and oil-refining wastewater treatment are reviewed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Electrospinning of photocrosslinked and degradable fibrous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Tan, Andrea R; Ifkovits, Jamie L; Baker, Brendon M; Brey, Darren M; Mauck, Robert L; Burdick, Jason A

    2008-12-15

    Electrospun fibrous scaffolds are being developed for the engineering of numerous tissues. Advantages of electrospun scaffolds include the similarity in fiber diameter to elements of the native extracellular matrix and the ability to align fibers within the scaffold to control and direct cellular interactions and matrix deposition. To further expand the range of properties available in fibrous scaffolds, we developed a process to electrospin photocrosslinkable macromers from a library of multifunctional poly(beta-amino ester)s. In this study, we utilized one macromer (A6) from this library for initial examination of fibrous scaffold formation. A carrier polymer [poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)] was used for fiber formation because of limitations in electrospinning A6 alone. Various ratios of A6 and PEO were successfully electrospun and influenced the scaffold fiber diameter and appearance. When electrospun with a photoinitiator and exposed to light, the macromers crosslinked rapidly to high double bond conversions and fibrous scaffolds displayed higher elastic moduli compared to uncrosslinked scaffolds. When these fibers were deposited onto a rotating mandrel and crosslinked, organized fibrous scaffolds were obtained, which possessed higher moduli (approximately 4-fold) in the fiber direction than perpendicular to the fiber direction, as well as higher moduli (approximately 12-fold) than that of nonaligned crosslinked scaffolds. With exposure to water, a significant mass loss and a decrease in mechanical properties were observed, correlating to a rapid initial loss of PEO which reached an equilibrium after 7 days. Overall, these results present a process that allows for formation of fibrous scaffolds from a wide variety of possible photocrosslinkable macromers, increasing the diversity and range of properties achievable in fibrous scaffolds for tissue regeneration.

  13. TREATMENT OF CERCLA (COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT) LEACHATES BY CARBON-ASSISTED ANAEROBIC FLUIDIZED BEDS (Journal)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two anaerobic granular activated carbon (GAC) expanded-bed bioreactors were tested as pretreatment units for the decontamination of hazardous leachates containing volatile and semivolatile synthetic organic chemicals (SOCs). The different characteristics of the two leachate feed...

  14. Denosumab treatment for fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Alison M; Chong, William H; Yao, Jack; Gafni, Rachel I; Kelly, Marilyn H; Chamberlain, Christine E; Bassim, Carol; Cherman, Natasha; Ellsworth, Michelle; Kasa-Vubu, Josephine Z; Farley, Frances A; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Bhattacharyya, Nisan; Collins, Michael T

    2012-07-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a skeletal disease caused by somatic activating mutations of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-regulating protein, α-subunit of the Gs stimulatory protein (G(s) α). These mutations lead to replacement of normal bone by proliferative osteogenic precursors, resulting in deformity, fracture, and pain. Medical treatment has been ineffective in altering the disease course. Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) is a cell-surface protein involved in many cellular processes, including osteoclastogenesis, and is reported to be overexpressed in FD-like bone cells. Denosumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody to RANKL approved for treatment of osteoporosis and prevention of skeletal-related events from bone metastases. We present the case of a 9-year-old boy with severe FD who was treated with denosumab for a rapidly expanding femoral lesion. Immunohistochemical staining on a pretreatment bone biopsy specimen revealed marked RANKL expression. He was started on monthly denosumab, with an initial starting dose of 1 mg/kg and planned 0.25 mg/kg dose escalations every 3 months. Over 7 months of treatment he showed marked reduction in pain, bone turnover markers (BTMs), and tumor growth rate. Denosumab did not appear to impair healing of a femoral fracture that occurred while on treatment. With initiation of treatment he developed hypophosphatemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism, necessitating supplementation with phosphorus, calcium, and calcitriol. BTMs showed rapid and sustained suppression. With discontinuation there was rapid and dramatic rebound of BTMs with cross-linked C-telopeptide (reflecting osteoclast activity) exceeding pretreatment levels, accompanied by severe hypercalcemia. In this child, denosumab lead to dramatic reduction of FD expansion and FD-related bone pain. Denosumab was associated with clinically significant disturbances of mineral metabolism both while on treatment and after discontinuation. Denosumab treatment

  15. Recurrent Monostotic Fibrous Dysplasia in the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Reinaldo José; Takehana, Denise; Deana, Naira Figueiredo

    2016-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a condition in which normal bone marrow is replaced by an abnormal proliferation of new fibrous connective tissue. Female patient, white, 20 years old, attended the dental clinic reporting a slow increase in volume in the right mandible region over the last 5 years. She was examined by imaging: the panoramic X-ray revealed a lesion with the appearance of ground glass while the cone-beam computed tomography showed an extensive lesion in the region of the right hemimandible. The histopathological examination was compatible with fibrous dysplasia. Bone gammagraphy was indicated, plus an endocrinological study to eliminate polyostotic forms, which produced a negative result. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia in the right hemimandible was diagnosed. Conservative surgery was carried out and after 1 year recurrence of the tumour was observed. We may conclude that conservative surgery might not be the best choice for treatment for monostotic fibrous dysplasia in the mandible and that other options must be considered, such as radical surgery or the use of bisphosphonates. In our study, we may also conclude that it is very important to explain to the patient the possibility of recurrence of the lesion and the need for monitoring with periodic imaging studies. PMID:27340572

  16. [Transgenic animals bioreactors].

    PubMed

    Gou, Ke-Mian; An, Xiao-Rong; Tian, Jian-Hui; Chen, Yong-Fu

    2002-01-01

    The production of human recombinant proteins in milk of transgenic farm animals offers a safe, very cost-effective source of commercially important proteins that cannot be produced as efficiently in adequate quantities by other methods. This review has summarized the current status of gene selection, vector construct, transgenic methods, economics, and obvious potential in transgenic animals bioreactors. Recently, a more powerful approach was adopted in the transgenic animals founded on the application of nuclear transfer. As we will illustrate, this strategy presents a breakthrough in the overall efficiency of generating transgenic farm animals, product consistency, and time of product development. The successful adaptation of Cre-/lox P-mediated site-specific DNA recombination systems in farm animals will offer unprecedented possibilities for generating transgenic animals.

  17. Spiral vane bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A spiral vane bioreactor of a perfusion type is described in which a vertical chamber, intended for use in a microgravity condition, has a central rotating filter assembly and has flexible membranes disposed to rotate annularly about the filter assembly. The flexible members have end portions disposed angularly with respect to one another. A fluid replenishment medium is input from a closed loop liquid system to a completely liquid filled chamber containing microcarrier beads, cells and a fluid medium. Output of spent medium is to the closed loop. In the closed loop, the output and input parameters are sensed by sensors. A manifold permits recharging of the nutrients and pH adjustment. Oxygen is supplied and carbon dioxide and bubbles are removed and the system is monitored and controlled by a microprocessor.

  18. Controlled-Turbulence Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David A.; Schwartz, Ray; Trinh, Tinh

    1989-01-01

    Two versions of bioreactor vessel provide steady supplies of oxygen and nutrients with little turbulence. Suspends cells in environment needed for sustenance and growth, while inflicting less damage from agitation and bubbling than do propeller-stirred reactors. Gentle environments in new reactors well suited to delicate mammalian cells. One reactor kept human kidney cells alive for as long as 11 days. Cells grow on carrier beads suspended in liquid culture medium that fills cylindrical housing. Rotating vanes - inside vessel but outside filter - gently circulates nutrient medium. Vessel stationary; magnetic clutch drives filter cylinder and vanes. Another reactor creates even less turbulence. Oxygen-permeable tubing wrapped around rod extending along central axis. Small external pump feeds oxygen to tubing through rotary coupling, and oxygen diffuses into liquid medium.

  19. Membrane Bioreactor With Pressure Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efthymiou, George S.; Shuler, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Improved class of multilayer membrane bioreactors uses convention forced by differences in pressure to overcome some of diffusional limitations of prior bioreactors. In reactor of new class, flow of nutrient solution reduces adverse gradients of concentration, keeps cells supplied with fresh nutrient, and sweeps away products faster than diffusion alone. As result, overall yield and rate of reaction increased. Pressures in sweeping gas and nutrient alternated to force nutrient liquid into and out of biocatalyst layer through hyrophilic membrane.

  20. Fast multipoint immobilized MOF bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Ling; Wu, Cheng-You; Chen, Chien-Yu; Singco, Brenda; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2014-07-14

    An enzyme-NBD@MOF bioreactor with exemplary proteolytic performance, even after successive reuse and storage, was produced through a novel, rapid and simple multipoint immobilization technique without chemical modification of the solid support. Enzyme loading and distribution could be directly monitored from the fluorescence emission of the bioreactor. The dye molecular dimension plays a role in its overall performance. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Bioreactor Mass Transport Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleis, Stanley J.; Begley, Cynthia M.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the proposed research efforts were to develop both a simulation tool and a series of experiments to provide a quantitative assessment of mass transport in the NASA rotating wall perfused vessel (RWPV) bioreactor to be flown on EDU#2. This effort consisted of a literature review of bioreactor mass transport studies, the extension of an existing scalar transport computer simulation to include production and utilization of the scalar, and the evaluation of experimental techniques for determining mass transport in these vessels. Since mass transport at the cell surface is determined primarily by the relative motion of the cell assemblage and the surrounding fluid, a detailed assessment of the relative motion was conducted. Results of the simulations of the motion of spheres in the RWPV under microgravity conditions are compared with flight data from EDU#1 flown on STS-70. The mass transport across the cell membrane depends upon the environment, the cell type, and the biological state of the cell. Results from a literature review of cell requirements of several scalars are presented. As a first approximation, a model with a uniform spatial distribution of utilization or production was developed and results from these simulations are presented. There were two candidate processes considered for the experimental mass transport evaluations. The first was to measure the dissolution rate of solid or gel beads. The second was to measure the induced fluorescence of beads as a stimulant (for example hydrogen peroxide) is infused into the vessel. Either technique would use video taped images of the process for recording the quantitative results. Results of preliminary tests of these techniques are discussed.

  2. Fibrous Dysplasia Characterization Using Lacunarity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Mirna S; Backes, André R; Júnior, Antônio F Durighetto; Gonçalves, Elmar H G; de Oliveira, Jefferson X

    2016-02-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a developmental anomaly in which the normal medullary space of the affected bone is replaced by fibro-osseous tissue. This condition is typically encountered in adolescents and young adults. It affects the maxillofacial region and it can often cause severe deformity and asymmetry. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is critical to determine the appropriate treatment of each case. In this sense, computed tomography (CT) is a relevant resource among the imaging techniques for correct diagnosis of this condition. Thus, in this paper, we propose to analyze fibrous dysplasia through its texture pattern. To accomplish this task, we propose to use lacunarity analysis, a multiscale method for describing patterns of spatial dispersion. Results indicated lower lacunarity values for fibrous dysplasia in comparison to normal bone samples, an indication that their texture images are more homogeneous, and a high separability between the classes when using principal component analysis (PCA) and decision trees for statistical analysis.

  3. Design of fluidized-bed fermentors

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, G.F.; Przezdziecki, J.

    1986-06-01

    Designing a fluidized-bed bioreactor requires choosing the best support particle (if any). Effectiveness factors (proportional to reactor volumetric productivity) are derived for flocs, solid spherical supports, porous supports, and adsorbent supports. The derivation demonstrates a mathematical procedure for reducing the diffusion/uptake equations for many components (substrates and inhibitory products) to a single equation, and for identifying the limiting component. With solid supports there exists a film thickness that maximizes the effectiveness, and the design objective is to keep the film near this optimum throughout the bed. This involves consideration of the effect of support particle density and film growth on bed stratification. Other considerations in packing support particles are obtaining reasonable values for bed height and diameter, minimizing mass transfer resistance between liquid and biomass, and preventing surface shear from stripping off the biomass. 20 references.

  4. Trace elements of fibrous diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Y.; Griffin, W. L.; Navon, O.

    2009-04-01

    Twenty-seven fibrous diamonds from Kankan, Udachnaya, Diavik, DeBeers Pool and Koingnaas were analyzed for their trace element contents using the cellulose calibration LA-ICP-MS method; their major and volatile content were previously determined by EPMA and FTIR. This set of diamonds carries high-Mg carbonatitic, saline and low-Mg carbonatitic to silicic high-density fluid (HDFs) which represent the four end-members found in microinclusion-bearing diamonds. The trapped HDFs in all diamonds are highly enriched in incompatible elements typically reaching levels of a few thousand times the primitive mantle values. The majority of diamonds show similar patterns from Pr towards the more compatible elements, with moderate to high negative anomalies of Sr, Zr, Hf, Ti and Y. These anomalies are found in kimberlitic melts as well as in other metasomatic fluids in the lithospheric mantle. In the low-Mg carbonatitic to silicic HDFs and in the saline ones, two patterns are distinguished in the most incompatible elements (Cs-Ce). The first (designated "Table") has significantly higher Ba, U, Th and LREE compared to Nb, Ta and, in most cases, K, Rb and Cs. The second pattern ("Bench") is flatter with no significant anomalies in this range. The high-Mg carbonatitic HDFs do not show such defined patterns. Still, high-Mg carbonatitic HDFs from Kankan show higher depletion of the alkalis, and to a lesser extent Nb and Ta, compared with Udachnaya high-Mg HDFs. The present database is still limited, but "Table" patterns were found in the coat of a Kankan diamond that carries eclogitic inclusions in its core and in a Diavik diamond with peridotitic micro-mineral inclusions in its coat. Thus, the two patterns are probably not related to the peridotitic or eclogitic rocks that host the diamonds. "Table" and "Bench" patterns of the incompatible elements are found in HDFs of diverse major-element compositions (carbonatitic, silicic and saline). This suggests that the two patterns reflect

  5. Enzymes in bast fibrous plant processing.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Ryszard; Batog, Jolanta; Konczewicz, Wanda; Mackiewicz-Talarczyk, Maria; Muzyczek, Malgorzata; Sedelnik, Natalia; Tanska, Bogumila

    2006-05-01

    The program COST Action 847 Textile Quality and Biotechnology (2000-2005) has given an excellent chance to review the possibilities of the research, aiming at development of the industrial application of enzymes for bast fibrous plant degumming and primary processing. The recent advancements in enzymatic processing of bast fibrous plants (flax, hemp, jute, ramie and alike plants) and related textiles are given. The performance of enzymes in degumming, modification of bast fibres, roving, yarn, related fabrics as well as enzymatic bonding of lignocellulosic composites is provided.

  6. Fibrous Protein Structures: Hierarchy, History and Heroes.

    PubMed

    Squire, John M; Parry, David A D

    2017-01-01

    During the 1930s and 1940s the technique of X-ray diffraction was applied widely by William Astbury and his colleagues to a number of naturally-occurring fibrous materials. On the basis of the diffraction patterns obtained, he observed that the structure of each of the fibres was dominated by one of a small number of different types of molecular conformation. One group of fibres, known as the k-m-e-f group of proteins (keratin - myosin - epidermin - fibrinogen), gave rise to diffraction characteristics that became known as the α-pattern. Others, such as those from a number of silks, gave rise to a different pattern - the β-pattern, while connective tissues yielded a third unique set of diffraction characteristics. At the time of Astbury's work, the structures of these materials were unknown, though the spacings of the main X-ray reflections gave an idea of the axial repeats and the lateral packing distances. In a breakthrough in the early 1950s, the basic structures of all of these fibrous proteins were determined. It was found that the long protein chains, composed of strings of amino acids, could be folded up in a systematic manner to generate a limited number of structures that were consistent with the X-ray data. The most important of these were known as the α-helix, the β-sheet, and the collagen triple helix. These studies provided information about the basic building blocks of all proteins, both fibrous and globular. They did not, however, provide detailed information about how these molecules packed together in three-dimensions to generate the fibres found in vivo. A number of possible packing arrangements were subsequently deduced from the X-ray diffraction and other data, but it is only in the last few years, through the continued improvements of electron microscopy, that the packing details within some fibrous proteins can now be seen directly. Here we outline briefly some of the milestones in fibrous protein structure determination, the role of the

  7. Atypical cutaneous fibrous histiocytoma: an unusual and misleading variant of fibrous histiocytoma.

    PubMed

    Ben Abdelkrim, Soumaya; Belajouza, Colondane; Jomaa, Wafa; Beizig, Nadia; Ben Said, Zeineb; Mokni, Moncef; Nouira, Rafia; Sriha, Badreddine

    2011-01-01

    Atypical fibrous histiocytoma is a distinctive variant of cutaneous fibrous histiocytoma, which is often mistaken histologically for sarcoma and which have a tendency to recur locally and a capacity to metastasize, although very rarely. We report a new case of atypical cutaneous fibrous histiocytoma in a 31-year-old man who presented with a recurrent polypoid nodule on the abdominal wall. The diagnosis was made on the basis of morphological and immunohistochemical findings. We discuss through this case and a review of the literature pathological and evolutive features and diagnostic difficulties of this entity.

  8. Atypical Cutaneous Fibrous Histiocytoma: An Unusual and Misleading Variant of Fibrous Histiocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Ben Abdelkrim, Soumaya; Belajouza, Colondane; Jomaa, Wafa; Beizig, Nadia; Ben Said, Zeineb; Mokni, Moncef; Nouira, Rafia; Sriha, Badreddine

    2011-01-01

    Atypical fibrous histiocytoma is a distinctive variant of cutaneous fibrous histiocytoma, which is often mistaken histologically for sarcoma and which have a tendency to recur locally and a capacity to metastasize, although very rarely. We report a new case of atypical cutaneous fibrous histiocytoma in a 31-year-old man who presented with a recurrent polypoid nodule on the abdominal wall. The diagnosis was made on the basis of morphological and immunohistochemical findings. We discuss through this case and a review of the literature pathological and evolutive features and diagnostic difficulties of this entity. PMID:22937387

  9. Indirect measurement of water content in an aseptic solid substrate cultivation pilot-scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Peña Y Lillo, M; Pérez-Correa, R; Agosin, E; Latrille, E

    2001-01-01

    A lack of models and sensors for describing and monitoring large-scale solid substrate cultivation (SSC) bioreactors has hampered industrial development and application of this type of process. This study presents an indirect dynamic measurement model for a 200-kg-capacity fixed-bed SSC bioreactor under periodic agitation. Growth of the filamentous fungus Gibberella fujikuroi on wheat bran was used as a case study. Real data were preprocessed using previously reported methodology. The model uses CO2 production rate and inlet air conditions to estimate average bed water content and average bed temperature. The model adequately reproduces the evolution of the average bed water content and can therefore be used as an on-line estimator in pilot-scale SSC bioreactors. To obtain a reasonable fit of the bed temperature, however, inlet air humidity measurements will have to be adjusted with a data reconciliation algorithm. Good estimation of temperature is important for the future design of improved water content estimation using state observers. The model also provides insight into understanding the complex behavior of the dynamic system, which could prove useful when establishing advanced model-based operational and control strategies.

  10. Steam Reformer With Fibrous Catalytic Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed steam-reforming reactor derives heat from internal combustion on fibrous catalyst. Supplies of fuel and air to combustor controlled to meet demand for heat for steam-reforming reaction. Enables use of less expensive reactor-tube material by limiting temperature to value safe for material yet not so low as to reduce reactor efficiency.

  11. Solitary fibrous tumour of the vagus nerve.

    PubMed

    Scholsem, Martin; Scholtes, Felix

    2012-04-01

    We describe the complete removal of a foramen magnum solitary fibrous tumour in a 36-year-old woman. It originated on a caudal vagus nerve rootlet, classically described as the 'cranial' accessory nerve root. This ninth case of immunohistologically confirmed cranial or spinal nerve SFT is the first of the vagus nerve.

  12. Research priorities for advanced fibrous composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, K. J.; Swedlow, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Priorities for research in advanced laminated fibrous composite materials are presented. Supporting evidence is presented in two bodies, including a general literature survey and a survey of aerospace composite hardware and service experience. Both surveys were undertaken during 1977-1979. Specific results and conclusions indicate that a significant portion of contemporary published research diverges from recommended priorites.

  13. Development of oxide fibrous monolith systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Goretta, K. C.

    1999-03-02

    Fibrous monolithic ceramics generally have a cellular structure that consists of a strong cell surrounded by a weaker boundary phase [1-5]. Fibrous monoliths (FMs) are produced from powders by conventional ceramic fabrication techniques, such as extrusion [1,2]. When properly engineered, they exhibit fail gracefully [3-5]. Several compositions of ceramics and cermets have been processed successfully in fibrous monolithic form [4]. The most thoroughly investigated fibrous monolith consists of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cells and a BN cell-boundary phase [3-5]. Through appropriate selection of initial powders and extrusion and hot-pressing parameters, very tough final products have been produced. The resultant high toughness is due primarily to delamination during fracture along textured platelike BN grains. The primary objectives of our program are to develop: (1) Oxide-based FMs, including new systems with improved properties; (2) FMs that can be pressureless sintered rather than hot-pressed; (3) Techniques for continuous extrusion of FM filaments, including solid freeform fabrication (SFF) for net-shape fabrication of FMs; (4) Predictive micromechanical models for FM design and performance; and (5) Ties with industrial producers and users of FMs.

  14. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: A 10-case series.

    PubMed

    Couturier, A; Aumaître, O; Gilain, L; Jean, B; Mom, T; André, M

    2017-09-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a rare sporadic benign congenital condition in which normal cancellous bone is replaced by fibro-osseous tissue with immature osteogenesis. Sarcomatous transformation is exceptional. Lesions may involve one bone (monostotic) or several (polyostotic). Fibrous dysplasia may be associated with café-au-lait skin macules and endocrinopathy in McCune-Albright syndrome, or with myxoma in Mazabraud's syndrome. We report ten cases of patients followed up for craniofacial fibrous dysplasia in our center between 2010 and 2015. Mean age was 43 years (range, 10-72 years). Clinical symptoms comprised headache (n=3) and sensorineural disorder: recurrent anterior uveitis (n=1), visual acuity loss, epiphora and vestibular syndrome (n=1), and hearing loss (n=1). All cases were monostotic. The sphenoid bone was most commonly involved (n=5), followed by the ethmoid (n=1), frontal (n=1), fronto-ethmoid (n=1), temporal (n=1) and fronto-ethmoido-sphenoid (n=1) bones. Five patients were treated with intravenous pamidronate, a bisphosphonate: evolution was favorable for 3 of them at 1-6 months after treatment initiation, with resolution of headache or vestibular syndrome; the other 2 patients were stable. Two patients were operated on. Diagnosis of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia should be considered in case of headache, neuralgia, sensory disorder, functional disorder or infectious ENT complications. A medico-surgical approach is useful for these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Prophylactic intramedullary nailing in monostotic fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Demiralp, Bahtiyar; Ozturk, Cagatay; Ozturan, Kutay; Sanisoglu, Yavuz S; Cicek, Ilker E; Erler, Kaan

    2008-06-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of bone is an enigma with no known cure. Treatment currently consists of curettage and bone-grafting in an attempt to eradicate the lesion and to prevent progressive deformity. This study presents the results of prophylactic intramedullary nailing in 10 patients with monostotic fibrous dysplasia, pain increasing with movement, and scintigraphically established activity. Ten patients with monostotic fibrous dysplasia in their upper or lower extremities treated between 2001 and 2003 were included in the study. Seven patients were male and 3 were female; their mean age was 26.9 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 33.5 months. Closed intramedullary nail without reaming was used in all cases. Bone grafting was not performed. Patients were allowed full weight bearing on the affected extremities on the second postoperative day. Mean VAS for functional pain was 5.33 +/- 0.65 preoperatively and 2.26 +/- 0.57 at final follow-up (p < 0.05). Radiographs showed no changes in lesion size, and the intramedullary fixation appeared to be stable. Prophylactic intramedullary nailing appeared to be beneficial in monostotic fibrous dysplasia with scintigraphically proven activity and functional pain. It also avoids problems that may occur following pathological fracture.

  16. Consolidation and densification methods for fibrous monolith processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sutaria, Manish P.; Rigali, Mark J.; Cipriani, Ronald A.; Artz, Gregory J.; Mulligan, Anthony C.

    2006-06-20

    Methods for consolidation and densification of fibrous monolith composite structures are provided. Consolidation and densification of two- and three-dimensional fibrous monolith components having complex geometries can be achieved by pressureless sintering. The fibrous monolith composites are formed from filaments having at least a first material composition generally surrounded by a second material composition. The composites are sintered at a pressure of no more than about 30 psi to provide consolidated and densified fibrous monolith composites.

  17. Progress in bioreactors of bioartificial livers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cheng-Bo; Pan, Xiao-Ping; Li, Lan-Juan

    2009-04-01

    Bioartificial liver support systems are becoming an effective therapy for hepatic failure. Bioreactors, as key devices in these systems, can provide a favorable growth and metabolic environment, mass exchange, and immunological isolation as a platform. Currently, stagnancy in bioreactor research is the main factor restricting the development of bioartificial liver support systems. A PubMed database search of English-language literature was performed to identify relevant articles using the keywords "bioreactor", "bioartificial liver", "hepatocyte", and "liver failure". More than 40 articles related to the bioreactors of bioartificial livers were reviewed. Some progress has been made in the improvement of structures, functions, and modified macromolecular materials related to bioreactors in recent years. The current data on the improvement of bioreactor configurations for bioartificial livers or on the potential of the use of certain scaffold materials in bioreactors, combined with the clinical efficacy and safety evaluation of cultured hepatocytes in vitro, indicate that the AMC (Academic Medical Center) BAL bioreactor and MELS (modular extracorporeal liver support) BAL bioreactor system can partly replace the synthetic and metabolic functions of the liver in phase I clinical studies. In addition, it has been indicated that the microfluidic PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) bioreactor, or SlideBioreactor, and the microfabricated grooved bioreactor are appropriate for hepatocyte culture, which is also promising for bioartificial livers. Similarly, modified scaffolds can promote the adhesion, growth, and function of hepatocytes, and provide reliable materials for bioreactors. Bioreactors, as key devices in bioartificial livers, play an important role in the therapy for liver failure both now and in the future. Bioreactor configurations are indispensable for the development of bioartificial livers used for liver failure, just as the modified scaffold materials available for

  18. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis of cellulosic materials

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.; Scott, Charles D.; Faison, Brendlyn D.; Davison, Brian H.; Woodward, Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified.

  19. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis of cellulosic materials

    DOEpatents

    Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1997-06-10

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified. 1 fig.

  20. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis or cellulosic materials

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.; Scott, Charles D.; Faison, Brendlyn D.; Davison, Brian H.; Woodward, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified.

  1. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis or cellulosic materials

    DOEpatents

    Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1996-04-16

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified. 1 fig.

  2. Space bioreactor: Design/process flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the space bioreactor stems from three considerations. First, and foremost, it must sustain cells in microgravity. Closely related is the ability to take advantage of the weightlessness and microgravity. Lastly, it should fit into a bioprocess. The design of the space bioreactor is described in view of these considerations. A flow chart of the bioreactor is presented and discussed.

  3. [Changes of gene expression and its role in pathogenesis in fibrous and non-fibrous dysplastic bone tissues in women].

    PubMed

    Kiss, János; Balla, Bernadett; Kósa, P János; Borsy, Adrienn; Podani, János; Takács, István; Lazáry, Aron; Nagy, Zsolt; Bácsi, Krisztián; Szlávy, Eszter; Szendrôi, Miklós; Speer, Gábor; Orosz, László; Lakatos, Péter

    2010-10-03

    Fibrous dysplasia is an isolated skeletal disorder caused by a somatic activating mutation of GNAS1 gene with abnormal unmineralized matrix overproduction and extensive undifferentiated bone cell accumulation in fibro-osseous lesions. The aim of the investigation was to identify genes that are differently expressed in fibrous vs. non-fibrous human bone and to describe the relationships between these genes using multivariate data analysis. Six bone tissue samples from fibrous dysplastic female patients and 7 bone tissue samples from non-fibrous dysplastic women were examined. The 6 female fibrous samples were taken from the fibrous dysplastic lesion itself while the control samples of 7 non-fibrous dysplastic females were taken from the femoral neck during the hip replacement procedure. The expression differences of selected 118 genes were analyzed in TaqMan probe based quantitative real-time RT-PCR system. The Mann-Whitney U test indicated significant differences in the expression of 27 genes of fibrous dysplasial and non fibrous dysplasial individuals (p≤0.05). Nine genes were significantly up-regulated in fibrous dysplasial women compared to non fibrous dysplasial ones and eighteen genes showed a down-regulated pattern. These significantly altered genes coding for minor collagen molecules, extracellular matrix digesting enzymes, transcription factors, adhesion molecules, growth factors, pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid metabolism-affected substrates. Canonical variety analysis demonstrated that fibrous dysplastic and non fibrous dysplastic bone tissues can be distinguished by the multiple expression profile analysis of numerous genes controlled via a G-protein coupled pathway and BMP cascade as well as genes coding for extracellular matrix composing molecules. The significantly altered gene expression profile observed in the fibrous dysplastic human bone tissue may provide further insight into the pathogenetic process of fibrous degeneration of bone.

  4. Tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Cells from kidneys lose some of their special features in conventional culture but form spheres replete with specialized cell microvilli (hair) and synthesize hormones that may be clinically useful. Ground-based research studies have demonstrated that both normal and neoplastic cells and tissues recreate many of the characteristics in the NASA bioreactor that they display in vivo. Proximal kidney tubule cells that normally have rich apically oriented microvilli with intercellular clefts in the kidney do not form any of these structures in conventional two-dimensional monolayer culture. However, when normal proximal renal tubule cells are cultured in three-dimensions in the bioreactor, both the microvilli and the intercellular clefts form. This is important because, when the morphology is recreated, the function is more likely also to be rejuvenated. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  5. Tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Cells from kidneys lose some of their special features in conventional culture but form spheres replete with specialized cell microvilli (hair) and synthesize hormones that may be clinically useful. Ground-based research studies have demonstrated that both normal and neoplastic cells and tissues recreate many of the characteristics in the NASA bioreactor that they display in vivo. Proximal kidney tubule cells that normally have rich apically oriented microvilli with intercellular clefts in the kidney do not form any of these structures in conventional two-dimensional monolayer culture. However, when normal proximal renal tubule cells are cultured in three-dimensions in the bioreactor, both the microvilli and the intercellular clefts form. This is important because, when the morphology is recreated, the function is more likely also to be rejuvenated. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  6. Introduction to Bed Bugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... preventing infestations, increased resistance of bed bugs to pesticides, and ineffective pest control practices. The good news ... Bed Bugs — Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control — Pesticides to Control Bed Bugs Bed Bug Information Clearinghouse ...

  7. Simulation of three-phase fluidized bioreactors for denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hamza, A.V.; Dolan, J.F.; Wong, E.W.

    1981-03-01

    Fluidized-bed bioreactors were developed and operated at three scales (diameters of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m) by the Chemical Technology Division. The performance of these reactors in denitrification was simulated using the following modified form of Monod kinetics to describe the reaction kinetics: rate = V/sub max/ (NO/sub 3//sup -//K/sub s/ + NO/sub 3//sup -/) (% biomass). In the fluids-movement portion of the simulation the tanks-in-series approximation to backmixing was used. This approach yielded a V/sub max/ of 3.5 g/m/sup 3/-min (% biomass) and a K/sub s/ of 163 g/m/sup 3/ for the 0.5-m bioreactor. Values of V/sub max/ and K/sub s/ were also determined for data derived from the 0.1-m bioreactor, but inadequate RTD data reduced the confidence level in these results. A complication in denitrification is the multi-step nature of the reduction from nitrate to nitrite to hyponitrite and finally to nitrogen. An experimental study of the effect of biomass loading upon denitrification was begun. It is recommended that the experimental work be continued.

  8. Microbial community succession in a bioreactor modeling a souring low-temperature oil reservoir subjected to nitrate injection.

    PubMed

    Callbeck, Cameron M; Dong, Xiaoli; Chatterjee, Indranil; Agrawal, Akhil; Caffrey, Sean M; Sensen, Christoph W; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2011-08-01

    Injection of up-flow packed-bed bioreactors with excess volatile fatty acids and limiting concentrations of nitrate and sulfate gave complete reduction of nitrate from 0 to 5.5 cm and complete or near-complete reduction of sulfate from 3.2 to 11.5 cm along the bioreactor flow path. Most of the biomass (85%) and most of the genes for nitrate reduction (narG, 96%; napA, 99%) and for sulfate reduction (dsrB, 91%) were present near the inlet (0-5.5 cm) of the 37-cm-long bioreactor. Microbial community analysis by a combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons indicated that nitrate-reducing Arcobacter and Pseudomonas species were located from 0 to 3.2 cm and throughout, respectively. Desulfobulbus species were the main sulfate reducers present and acetotrophic methanogens of the genus Methanosaeta predominated at 20-37 cm. Overall, the results indicated a succession of microbial communities along the bioreactor flow path. In the absence of nitrate, the sulfate reduction zone moved nearer to the bioreactor inlet. The sulfide concentration in the bioreactor effluent was temporarily lowered after nitrate injection was re-started. Hence, the bioreactor sulfide output could be disrupted by pulsed, not by constant nitrate injection, as demonstrated also previously in a low-temperature oil field.

  9. Bone-Grafting in Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Leet, Arabella I.; Boyce, Alison M.; Ibrahim, Khalda A.; Wientroub, Shlomo; Kushner, Harvey; Collins, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia is a skeletal disease that results from somatic activating mutations in the gene GNAS in skeletal stem cells, leading to proliferation of immature osteogenic cells with replacement of normal marrow and bone with fibro-osseous tissue. Lesions may cause bone deformity or fracture. In the surgical care of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, the role of grafting and the optimal grafting material are not clear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term survival of bone-grafting procedures in subjects with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia over time. Methods: The operative reports and radiographs of a cohort of subjects with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia followed in a natural history study were reviewed. Twenty-three subjects (mean age at the time of enrollment, thirteen years [range, two to forty years]) with fifty-two bone-grafting procedures had a mean follow-up time of 19.6 years (range, twenty-nine months to forty-seven years). Kaplan-Meier life table estimates, Cox proportional hazard models, and t tests comparing means were performed to assess various aspects of graft survival. Results: Kaplan-Meier curves showed a 50% estimate of survival of 14.5 years. Cox proportional hazards models showed no advantage comparing allograft with autograft or structural with nonstructural graft materials. The mean age of the patients was significantly greater (p < 0.001) in the subgroup of subjects in whom grafts were maintained over time (20.9 years) compared with the subgroup of patients whose grafts were resorbed over time (9.8 years). Conclusions: Bone-grafting, including both allograft and autograft, is of limited value in ablating the lesions of fibrous dysplasia. The expectations of patients and surgeons should include the high probability of graft resorption over time with return of bone characteristics of fibrous dysplasia, particularly in younger patients. This suggests the maintenance of normal bone mechanics with implant

  10. Use Alkalinity Monitoring to Optimize Bioreactor Performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher S; Kult, Keegan J

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the agricultural community has reduced flow of nitrogen from farmed landscapes to stream networks through the use of woodchip denitrification bioreactors. Although deployment of this practice is becoming more common to treat high-nitrate water from agricultural drainage pipes, information about bioreactor management strategies is sparse. This study focuses on the use of water monitoring, and especially the use of alkalinity monitoring, in five Iowa woodchip bioreactors to provide insights into and to help manage bioreactor chemistry in ways that will produce desirable outcomes. Results reported here for the five bioreactors show average annual nitrate load reductions between 50 and 80%, which is acceptable according to established practice standards. Alkalinity data, however, imply that nitrous oxide formation may have regularly occurred in at least three of the bioreactors that are considered to be closed systems. Nitrous oxide measurements of influent and effluent water provide evidence that alkalinity may be an important indicator of bioreactor performance. Bioreactor chemistry can be managed by manipulation of water throughput in ways that produce adequate nitrate removal while preventing undesirable side effects. We conclude that (i) water should be retained for longer periods of time in bioreactors where nitrous oxide formation is indicated, (ii) measuring only nitrate and sulfate concentrations is insufficient for proper bioreactor operation, and (iii) alkalinity monitoring should be implemented into protocols for bioreactor management. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Mathematical modeling of the integrated process of mercury bioremediation in the industrial bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Głuszcz, Paweł; Petera, Jerzy; Ledakowicz, Stanisław

    2011-03-01

    The mathematical model of the integrated process of mercury contaminated wastewater bioremediation in a fixed-bed industrial bioreactor is presented. An activated carbon packing in the bioreactor plays the role of an adsorbent for ionic mercury and at the same time of a carrier material for immobilization of mercury-reducing bacteria. The model includes three basic stages of the bioremediation process: mass transfer in the liquid phase, adsorption of mercury onto activated carbon and ionic mercury bioreduction to Hg(0) by immobilized microorganisms. Model calculations were verified using experimental data obtained during the process of industrial wastewater bioremediation in the bioreactor of 1 m³ volume. It was found that the presented model reflects the properties of the real system quite well. Numerical simulation of the bioremediation process confirmed the experimentally observed positive effect of the integration of ionic mercury adsorption and bioreduction in one apparatus.

  12. Microbial biosafety of pilot-scale bioreactor treating MTBE and TBA-contaminated drinking water supply.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Radomir; Klemme, David A; Scow, Kate; Hristova, Krassimira

    2012-03-30

    A pilot-scale sand-based fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) was utilized to treat both methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) from a contaminated aquifer. To evaluate the potential for re-use of the treated water, we tested for a panel of water quality indicator microorganisms and potential waterborne pathogens including total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolytica and Mycobacterium avium in both influent and treated waters from the bioreactor. Total bacteria decreased during FBBR treatment. E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., C. jejuni, V. cholerae, Y. enterocolytica and M. avium were not detected in aquifer water or bioreactor treated water samples. For those pathogens detected, including total coliforms, L. pneumophila and A. hydrophila, numbers were usually lower in treated water than influent samples, suggesting removal during treatment. The detection of particular bacterial species reflected their presence or absence in the influent waters.

  13. Development of a small-scale bioreactor: application to in vivo NMR measurement.

    PubMed

    Gmati, Dorra; Chen, Jingkui; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2005-01-20

    A perfused bioreactor allowing in vivo NMR measurement was developed and validated for Eschscholtzia californica cells. The bioreactor was made of a 10-mm NMR tube. NMR measurement of the signal-to-noise ratio was optimized using a sedimented compact bed of cells that were retained in the bioreactor by a supporting filter. Liquid medium flow through the cell bed was characterized from a mass balance on oxygen and a dispersive hydrodynamic model. Cell bed oxygen demand for 4 h perfusion required a minimal medium flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Residence time distribution assays at 0.8-2.6 mL/min suggest that the cells are subjected to a uniform nutrient environment along the cell bed. Cell integrity was maintained for all culture conditions since the release of intracellular esterases was not significant even after 4 h of perfusion. In vivo NMR was performed for (31)P NMR and the spectrum can be recorded after only 10 min of spectral accumulation (500 scans) with peaks identified as G-6P, F-6P, cytoplasmic Pi, vacuolar Pi, ATP(gamma) and ADP(beta), ATP(alpha) and ADP(alpha), NADP and NDPG, NDPG and ATP(beta). Cell viability was shown to be maintained as (31)P chemical shifts were constant with time for all the identified nuclei, thus suggesting constant intracellular pH.

  14. Modulating the behaviors of mesenchymal stem cells via the combination of high-frequency vibratory stimulations and fibrous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhixiang; Duncan, Randall L; Jia, Xinqiao

    2013-08-01

    We are interested in the in vitro engineering of artificial vocal fold tissues via the strategic combination of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), physiologically relevant mechanical stimulations, and biomimetic artificial matrices. We have constructed a vocal fold bioreactor that is capable of imposing vibratory stimulations on the cultured cells at human phonation frequencies. Separately, fibrous poly (ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds emulating the ligamentous structure of the vocal fold were prepared by electrospinning, were incorporated in the vocal fold bioreactor, and were driven into a wave-like motion in an axisymmetrical fashion by the oscillating air. MSC-laden PCL scaffolds were subjected to vibrations at 200 Hz with a normal center displacement of ∼40 μm for a total of 7 days. A continuous (CT) or a 1 h-on-1 h-off (OF) regime with a total dynamic culture time of 12 h per day was applied. The dynamic loading did not cause any physiological trauma to the cells. Immunohistotochemical staining revealed the reinforcement of the actin filament and the enhancement of α5β1 integrin expression under selected dynamic culture conditions. Cellular expression of essential vocal fold extracellular matrix components, such as elastin, hyaluronic acid, and matrix metalloproteinase-1, was significantly elevated as compared with the static controls, and the OF regime is more conducive to matrix production than the CT vibration mode. Analyses of genes of typical fibroblast hallmarks (tenascin-C, collagen III, and procollagen I) as well as markers for MSC differentiation into nonfibroblastic lineages confirmed MSCs' adaptation of fibroblastic behaviors. Overall, the high-frequency vibratory stimulation, when combined with a synthetic fibrous scaffold, serves as a potent modulator of MSC functions. The novel bioreactor system presented here, as a versatile, yet well-controlled model, offers an in vitro platform for understanding vibration

  15. Modulating the Behaviors of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Via the Combination of High-Frequency Vibratory Stimulations and Fibrous Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Zhixiang; Duncan, Randall L.

    2013-01-01

    We are interested in the in vitro engineering of artificial vocal fold tissues via the strategic combination of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), physiologically relevant mechanical stimulations, and biomimetic artificial matrices. We have constructed a vocal fold bioreactor that is capable of imposing vibratory stimulations on the cultured cells at human phonation frequencies. Separately, fibrous poly (ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds emulating the ligamentous structure of the vocal fold were prepared by electrospinning, were incorporated in the vocal fold bioreactor, and were driven into a wave-like motion in an axisymmetrical fashion by the oscillating air. MSC-laden PCL scaffolds were subjected to vibrations at 200 Hz with a normal center displacement of ∼40 μm for a total of 7 days. A continuous (CT) or a 1 h-on-1 h-off (OF) regime with a total dynamic culture time of 12 h per day was applied. The dynamic loading did not cause any physiological trauma to the cells. Immunohistotochemical staining revealed the reinforcement of the actin filament and the enhancement of α5β1 integrin expression under selected dynamic culture conditions. Cellular expression of essential vocal fold extracellular matrix components, such as elastin, hyaluronic acid, and matrix metalloproteinase-1, was significantly elevated as compared with the static controls, and the OF regime is more conducive to matrix production than the CT vibration mode. Analyses of genes of typical fibroblast hallmarks (tenascin-C, collagen III, and procollagen I) as well as markers for MSC differentiation into nonfibroblastic lineages confirmed MSCs' adaptation of fibroblastic behaviors. Overall, the high-frequency vibratory stimulation, when combined with a synthetic fibrous scaffold, serves as a potent modulator of MSC functions. The novel bioreactor system presented here, as a versatile, yet well-controlled model, offers an in vitro platform for understanding vibration

  16. Application of inverse fluidization in wastewater treatment: From laboratory to full-scale bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Karamanev, D.G.; Nikolov, L.N.

    1996-12-31

    The inverse fluidization is a new multiphase gas-liquid or gas-liquid-solid system. The first studies of two phase (liquid-solid) inverse fluidization were originally published independently by Shimodaira et al. [6], Nikolov et al. [5] and Fan et al. [2]. The main difference between the classic and inverse fluidization is that the solid particle density in the inverse fluidized bed is less than the density of the continuous fluid and therefore the bed is fluidized by a downflow of the fluid. Schematic illustration of both classic and inverse fluidized beds is shown in Figure 1. One of the most important recent applications of fluidized beds is in the field of bioreactor engineering. It is well known that almost all types of microorganisms spontaneously attach themselves to any inert solid surface in contact with the liquid growth media. The microorganisms use exopolysaccharide {open_quotes}bridges{close_quotes} to attach themselves to the solid support and to each other. This structure of microorganisms and exopolysaccharides is known as biofilm. The fluidized bed bioreactors are used primarily for processes in which the fluidized particles are used as an inert solid support. There is a problem when the biofilm microorganisms multiply and the biofilm thickness increase. This limits diffusion of oxygen and/or the organic substrate to the deeper layers of the biofilm. Starvation of the microorganisms at the base of the biofilm causes pieces of the biofilm to detach (Figure 2) and leads to ineffective bioreactor operation. The maximal biofilm thickness at which no diffusional limitation is observed (phase 3 in Figure 2), is usually around 100 {mu}m. Therefore, to operate the bioreactor efficiently, the biofilm thickness should be approximately 100 {mu}m. The use of inverse fluidization can solve this problem. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Protease-degradable electrospun fibrous hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Ryan J.; Bassin, Ethan J.; Rodell, Christopher B.; Burdick, Jason A.

    2015-03-01

    Electrospun nanofibres are promising in biomedical applications to replicate features of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). However, nearly all electrospun scaffolds are either non-degradable or degrade hydrolytically, whereas natural ECM degrades proteolytically, often through matrix metalloproteinases. Here we synthesize reactive macromers that contain protease-cleavable and fluorescent peptides and are able to form both isotropic hydrogels and electrospun fibrous hydrogels through a photoinitiated polymerization. These biomimetic scaffolds are susceptible to protease-mediated cleavage in vitro in a protease dose-dependent manner and in vivo in a subcutaneous mouse model using transdermal fluorescent imaging to monitor degradation. Importantly, materials containing an alternate and non-protease-cleavable peptide sequence are stable in both in vitro and in vivo settings. To illustrate the specificity in degradation, scaffolds with mixed fibre populations support selective fibre degradation based on individual fibre degradability. Overall, this represents a novel biomimetic approach to generate protease-sensitive fibrous scaffolds for biomedical applications.

  18. Micromechanical model for fibrous ceramic bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, D. J.; Lange, F. F.

    1982-01-01

    A micromechanical model is presented to relate the mechanical properties of low-density fibrous ceramic bodies to their microstructures and the properties of the fibers. It is found that properties such as the elastic moduli, fracture toughness, and strength depend on the fiber spacing. In particular, it is shown that the critical stress intensity (Kc) depends on the density of the body with respect to the fiber density, the degree of preferred orientation, the fiber strength, and the fiber radius, suggesting ways of increasing K(c). Furthermore, it is predicted that K(c) will be related to the sonic velocity in the material, reflecting variations in the degree of preferred orientation. The model is found to be consistent with the experimental observations on a silica-based fibrous ceramic, which is being used in the thermal protection system of the Space Shuttle.

  19. Dedifferentiated adamantinoma associated with fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Nouri, H; Jaafoura, H; Bouaziz, M; Ouertatani, M; Abid, L; Meherzi, M H; Ladeb, M F; Mestiri, M

    2011-11-01

    A 21-year-old patient presented with an aggressive lesion of the left tibia associated to lymph nodes and lung metastasis. Histological examination revealed a high grade spindle cell sarcoma involving some areas of cytokeratine positive cells. Ultrastructural examination showed the presence of epithelial features in the sarcomatoid cells. The diagnosis of dedifferentiated spindle-celled adamantinoma was established. A second lesion of the right tibia was diagnosed as fibrous dysplasia. The patient had a leg amputation. He died 2 years later with multiple lung and bone metastases. The diagnosis of dedifferentiated adamantinoma should be considered when a clinician is confronted with a tibial biopsy of a "keratin-positive sarcoma". The association with fibrous dysplasia in this case is discussed.

  20. First description of Phanerozoic radiaxial fibrous dolomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, D. K.; Heinrich, F.; Geske, A.; Neuser, R. D.; Gies, H.; Immenhauser, A.

    2014-05-01

    The petrographic analysis and crystallographic analysis of concretionary carbonate cements ("coal balls") from Carboniferous paralic swamp deposits reveal the presence of (length fast) radiaxial fibrous dolomite (RFD), a fabric not previously reported from the Phanerozoic. This finding is of significance as earlier reports of Phanerozoic radiaxial fibrous carbonates are exclusively of calcite mineralogy. Dolomite concretions described here formed beneath marine transgressive intervals within palustrine coal seams. This is of significance as seawater was arguably the main source of Mg2 + ions for dolomite formation. Here, data from optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence, electron backscattered diffraction, X-ray diffraction and geochemical analyses are presented to characterize three paragenetic dolomite phases and one calcite phase in these concretions. The main focus is on the earliest diagenetic, non-stoichiometric (degree of order: 0.41-0.46) phase I, characterized by botryoidal dolomite constructed of fibres up to 110 μm wide with a systematic undulatory extinction and converging crystal axes. Petrographic and crystallographic evidence clearly qualifies phase I dolomite as radiaxial fibrous. Conversely, fascicular optical fabrics were not found. Carbon-isotope ratios (δ13C) are depleted (between - 11.8 and - 22.1‰) as expected for carbonate precipitation from marine pore-fluids in organic-matter-rich, paralic sediment. Oxygen isotope (δ18O) ratios range between - 1.3 and - 6.0‰. The earliest diagenetic nature of these cements is documented by the presence of ubiquitous, non-compacted fossil plant remains encased in phase I dolomite as well as by the complex zoned luminescence patterns in the crystals and is supported by crystallographic and thermodynamic considerations. It is argued that organic matter, and specifically carboxyl groups, reduced thermodynamic barriers for dolomite formation and facilitated Mg/CaCO3 precipitation. The data shown here

  1. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia with Raynaud's phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. V. S. Hari; Aravinda, K.; Narayanan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign bone disorder characterized by alteration in bone morphology. Monostotic FD is the commonest variant and affects the craniofacial bones. Raynaud's phenomenon is recurrent vasospasm of the fingers and toes due to cold exposure. The disease is usually idiopathic or secondary to connective tissue disorders. Raynaud's phenomenon is not described previously with FD. We recently encountered two interesting patients of craniofacial monostotic FD with Raynaud's phenomenon and report the same in this report. PMID:26283854

  2. Toughened uni-piece fibrous insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B (Inventor); Smith, Marnell (Inventor); Churchward, Rex A. (Inventor); Katvala, Victor W. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A porous body of fibrous, low density silica-based insulation material is at least in part impregnated with a reactive boron oxide containing borosilicate glass frit, a silicon tetraboride fluxing agent and a molybdenum silicide emittance agent. The glass frit, fluxing agent and emittance agent are separately milled to reduce their particle size, then mixed together to produce a slurry in ethanol. The slurry is then applied to the insulation material and sintered to produce the porous body.

  3. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia with Raynaud's phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K V S Hari; Aravinda, K; Narayanan, K

    2015-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign bone disorder characterized by alteration in bone morphology. Monostotic FD is the commonest variant and affects the craniofacial bones. Raynaud's phenomenon is recurrent vasospasm of the fingers and toes due to cold exposure. The disease is usually idiopathic or secondary to connective tissue disorders. Raynaud's phenomenon is not described previously with FD. We recently encountered two interesting patients of craniofacial monostotic FD with Raynaud's phenomenon and report the same in this report.

  4. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Avimadje, A M; Goupille, P; Zerkak, D; Begnard, G; Brunais-Besse, J; Valat, J P

    2000-01-01

    Monostotic fibrous dysplasia is exceedingly rare. We report a case in a 61-year-old woman with a history of recurrent low back pain and sciatica since 35 years of age. While walking, she suddenly experienced pain in her right thigh. The pain spread gradually to the buttock and calf on the same side, becoming increasingly severe. The time pattern was mechanical, with exacerbation during straining. Paresthesia developed over the dorsal aspect of the right foot. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs were ineffective. Radiographs of the spine showed an expansile and heterogeneous lesion in the body of L2. Hyperactivity of L3 and L4 was seen on the bone scan. Computed tomography demonstrated heterogeneity of L2, L3, and L4, as well as hypertrophy of the neural arch of L3 and of the right posterior lamina and spinous process of L4. Alterations in L2, L3, and L4 were noted on the magnetic resonance imaging study, which showed no evidence of epidural involvement. Laboratory tests were normal. A surgical biopsy of L3 established the diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia. Since the seminal description of fibrous dysplasia in 1891, only 21 cases of monostotic spinal involvement have been published. The spinal lesions can remain clinically silent or cause spinal pain with or without neurological symptoms. Radiographic findings are variable (heterogeneity, osteolysis, expansion without cortical violation or soft tissue involvement). Calcium and phosphate levels are normal. The diagnosis depends on examination of a vertebral biopsy specimen.

  5. Fibrous zinc anodes for high power batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Gregory

    This paper introduces newly developed solid zinc anodes using fibrous material for high power applications in alkaline and large size zinc-air battery systems. The improved performance of the anodes in these two battery systems is demonstrated. The possibilities for control of electrode porosity and for anode/battery design using fibrous materials are discussed in light of experimental data. Because of its mechanical integrity and connectivity, the fibrous solid anode has good electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and design flexibility for controlling mass distribution, porosity and effective surface area. Experimental data indicated that alkaline cells made of such anodes can have a larger capacity at high discharging currents than commercially available cells. It showed even greater improvement over commercial cells with a non-conventional cell design. Large capacity anodes for a zinc-air battery have also been made and have shown excellent material utilization at various discharge rates. The zinc-air battery was used to power an electric bicycle and demonstrated good results.

  6. Microbial nature of fibrous kerite of Volyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlenko, Vladimir M.; Zhmur, Stanislav I.; Duda, Vitalii I.; Osipov, George A.; Suzina, Natalia; Dmitriev, Vladimir V.

    1999-12-01

    For the last few years there have been a lot of publications in geological literature on the problem of formation of morphologically unique fine fibrous kerites, found in one of the objects of kamera pegmatites of Volyn (1800 - 1750 mln. years). According to the opinion of all researchers who deal with them, they are an excellent example of a biogenic, highly constructive carbon substance. The meeting of objectives set was carried out by means of the study of ultra-thin section and replicas of kerite cryofractures under high resolution electronic microscope. The similarity of fine structured fibrous kerite of Volyn (KV) to prokaryotic microorganisms is proved by availability in KV of clearly exposed cellular ultrastructures: multilayered cell wall, cross septa and cytoplasmatic membrane and `intracytoplasmic' inclusions. Fatty acids obtained from kerites contain a number of components typical of prokaryotic microbial community. Suggestions were made on the formation of fibrous Volyn's kerites as a result of mummification of the cyanobacterial mat components from freshwater thermal spring of moderate temperature. Thus, the detailed fine structure of microfossils and their fatty acid composition can be used to support evidence of biogenic origin of the bacteriomorphic elements in paleo- and space objects.

  7. Calcifying fibrous tumor of the spine.

    PubMed

    Nathoo, Narendra; Viloria, Adolfo; Iwenofu, O Hans; Mendel, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    Calcifying fibrous tumor is a rare, benign soft-tissue tumor of unknown etiology, characterized by hyalinized collagenous fibrous tissue with psammomatous or dystrophic calcification and focal lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate known to involve different organ systems. Involvement of the spine and the presence of metaplastic ossification previously have not been reported. We report a 44-year-old female with progressive nontraumatic flank pain. Imaging revealed a left-sided retroperitoneal calcified mass attached to L5 body with no evidence of extension into the neural foramina, nearby vascular structures, or psoas muscle. The patient had an en bloc resection of the tumor via the transabdominal approach. A pathologic diagnosis of calcifying fibrosis with metaplastic ossification of the spine was reported. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and there is no recurrence after 18 months of follow-up. Calcifying fibrous tumor, a rare benign soft tissue tumor must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a retroperitoneal calcified mass closely associated with the spinal column. Spine surgeons should be aware of this rare pathologic disease entity and although its natural history is not clear, marginal excision is usually adequate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fibrous dysplasia arising from the calcaneus.

    PubMed

    Isefuku, S; Hatori, M; Ehara, S; Hosaka, M; Ito, K; Kokubun, S

    1999-11-01

    A case of an 18-year-old woman with fibrous dysplasia arising in the calcaneus, which is extremely rare, is reported, with the emphasis placed on differential diagnosis from low-grade central osteosarcoma. She had a severe pain in her left ankle after sprain. Plain radiographs showed a radiolucent lesion measuring 6.3 x 2.5 cm with a sclerotic margin in the left calcaneus. CT scans showed a well-defined lytic lesion with disruption of the lateral cortex and an ossification or calcification in its center. On MR imaging, the lesion had isointensities and high intensities on T1 and T2 weighted images, respectively, but its central portions showed lower intensities both on T1 and T2 weighted images. The lesion was enhanced with gadolinium except for the central portions. The specimen obtained by open biopsy consisted of fibrous tissue and foci of irregular woven bone. None of the nuclear atypia, mitoses, longitudinal stream of bone or invasive nature of growth was detected. The diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia was histologically made. The lesion was curetted and packed with autogenous bone chips. No evidence of recurrence was noted postoperatively.

  9. Two new disposable bioreactors for plant cell culture: The wave and undertow bioreactor and the slug bubble bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier; Hénault, Nicolas; Cuvier, Arnaud; Bastin, Maryse; Aknin, Aziz; Dubreuil, Julien; Pétiard, Vincent

    2007-04-01

    The present article describes two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors. The first one, the WU bioreactor, is based on the principle of a wave and undertow mechanism that provides agitation while offering convenient mixing and aeration to the plant cell culture contained within the bioreactor. The second one is a high aspect ratio bubble column bioreactor, where agitation and aeration are achieved through the intermittent generation of large diameter bubbles, "Taylor-like" or "slug bubbles" (SB bioreactor). It allows an easy volume increase from a few liters to larger volumes up to several hundred liters with the use of multiple units. The cultivation of tobacco and soya cells producing isoflavones is described up to 70 and 100 L working volume for the SB bioreactor and WU bioreactor, respectively. The bioreactors being disposable and pre-sterilized before use, cleaning, sterilization, and maintenance operations are strongly reduced or eliminated. Both bioreactors represent efficient and low cost cell culture systems, applicable to various cell cultures at small and medium scale, complementary to traditional stainless-steel bioreactors.

  10. Type I collagen-based fibrous capsule enhances integration of tissue-engineered cartilage with native articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yueh-Hsun; Ard, Mary B; Halper, Jaroslava T; Barabino, Gilda A

    2014-04-01

    Successful integration of engineered constructs with host tissues is crucial for cartilage repair, yet achieving it remains challenging. A collagen I-based fibrous capsule characterized by increased cell density and decreased glycosaminoglycan deposition usually forms at the periphery of tissue-engineered cartilage. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of a solid fibrous capsule on construct integration with native articular cartilage. To this end, capsule-containing (CC) and capsule-free (CF) constructs were grown by culturing chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds with insulin-like growth factor-1 and transforming growth factor-β1, respectively, in a wavy-walled bioreactor that imparts hydrodynamic forces for 4 weeks. The ability of harvested constructs to integrate with native cartilage was determined using a cartilage explant model. Our results revealed that adhesive stress between native cartilage and the CC constructs was 57% higher than that in the CF group, potentially due to the absence of glycosaminoglycans and increased cell density in the capsule region and deposition of denser and thicker collagen fibrils at the integration site. The present work demonstrates that the fibrous capsule can effectively enhance early integration of engineered and native cartilage tissues and thus suggests the need to include the capsule as a variable in the development of cartilage tissue engineering strategies.

  11. CASKAD. Manual Mixing in Bioreactor

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-05

    ISS037-E-005694 (5 Oct. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy, Expedition 37 flight engineer, prepares to manually mix samples in a Bioreactor for the CASKAD experiment in the Poisk Mini-Research Module 2 (MRM2) of the International Space Station.

  12. CASKAD. Manual Mixing in Bioreactor

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-05

    ISS037-E-005692 (5 Oct. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy, Expedition 37 flight engineer, prepares to manually mix samples in a Bioreactor for the CASKAD experiment in the Poisk Mini-Research Module 2 (MRM2) of the International Space Station.

  13. Immobilized yeast bioreactor systems for continuous beer fermentation

    PubMed

    Tata; Bower; Bromberg; Duncombe; Fehring; Lau; Ryder; Stassi

    1999-01-01

    Two different types of immobilized yeast bioreactors were examined for continuous fermentation of high-gravity worts. One of these is a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) that employs porous glass beads for yeast immobilization. The second system is a loop reactor containing a porous silicon carbide cartridge (SCCR) for immobilizing the yeast cells. Although there was some residual fermentable sugar in the SCCR system product, nearly complete attenuation of the wort sugars was achieved in either of the systems when operated as a two-stage process. Fermentation could be completed in these systems in only half the time required for a conventional batch process. Both the systems showed similar kinetics of extract consumption, and therefore similar volumetric productivity. As compared to the batch fermentation, total fusel alcohols were lower; total esters, while variable, were generally higher. The yeast biomass production was similar to that in a conventional fermentation process. As would be expected in an accelerated fermentation system, the levels of vicinal diketones (VDKs) were higher. To remove the VDKs, the young beer was heat-treated to convert the VDK precursors and processed through a packed bed immobilized yeast bioreactor for VDK assimilation. The finished product from the FBR system was found to be quite acceptable from a flavor perspective, albeit different from the product from a conventional batch process. Significantly shortened fermentation times demonstrate the feasibility of this technology for beer production.

  14. Simulation of the inhibition of microbial sulfate reduction in a two-compartment upflow bioreactor subjected to molybdate injection.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, E B; de Andrade Lima, L R P

    2016-08-01

    Souring of oil fields during secondary oil recovery by water injection occurs mainly due to the action of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) adhered to the rock surface in the vicinity of injection wells. Upflow packed-bed bioreactors have been used in petroleum microbiology because of its similarity to the oil field near the injection wells or production. However, these reactors do not realistically describe the regions near the injection wells, which are characterized by the presence of a saturated zone and a void region close to the well. In this study, the hydrodynamics of the two-compartment packing-free/packed-bed pilot bioreactor that mimics an oil reservoir was studied. The packed-free compartment was modeled using a continuous stirred tank model with mass exchange between active and stagnant zones, whereas the packed-bed compartment was modeled using a piston-dispersion-exchange model. The proposed model adequately represents the hydrodynamic of the packed-free/packed-bed bioreactor while the simulations provide important information about the characteristics of the residence time distribution (RTD) curves for different sets of model parameters. Simulations were performed to represent the control of the sulfate-reducing bacteria activity in the bioreactor with the use of molybdate in different scenarios. The simulations show that increased amounts of molybdate cause an effective inhibition of the souring sulfate-reducing bacteria activity.

  15. Space bioreactors and their applications.

    PubMed

    Walther, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    Space biology is a young and rapidly developing discipline comprising basic research and biotechnology. With the prospect of longer space missions and the construction of the International Space Station several aspects of biotechnology will play a prominent role in space. In fact, biotechnological processes allowing the recycling of vital elements, such as oxygen or water, and the in-flight production of food becomes essential when considering the financial and logistic standpoint. Every kilogram which, having been recycled or produced in space, does not have to be uploaded will drastically reduce the cost of space missions. In addition, the scientific community is offered a better opportunity to investigate long-term biotechnological processes performing experiments with a duration ranging from weeks to months. Therefore, there is an increasing demand for sophisticated instrumentation to satisfy the requirements of future projects in space biology. The carryover of knowledge from conventional bioreactor technology to miniature space bioreactors for a monitored and controlled cell culturing is one of the key elements for this new dimension in space life science. The first space bioreactors were developed and flown at the end of the last century. It has been demonstrated that cells of different types, from bacteria to mammalian cells, can be successfully grown in this type of culture vessel. This chapter presents different generations of bioreactors developed so far, their performances in space and their potential for the future, as well as the activities of the European Space Agency (ESA) in this domain. A dedicated chapter by Lisa Freed on the rotating wall vessel reactor and the latest NASA bioreactor research is also part of this volume.

  16. PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

  17. EVALUATION PLAN FOR TWO LARGE-SCALE LANDFILL BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract - Waste Management, Inc., is operating two long-term bioreactor studies at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, including facultative landfill bioreactor and staged aerobic-anaerobic landfill bioreactor demonstrations. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) was p...

  18. PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

  19. Postirradiation sarcoma (malignant fibrous histiocytoma) following cervix cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, J.A.; Sekine, I.

    1982-02-01

    A case of postirradiation sarcoma is described. The tumor, a malignant fibrous histiocytoma, occurred in the radiation field 11 years following postoperative external beam radiation therapy (7000 rad) for carcinoma of the cervix. Reports of postirradiation malignant fibrous histiocytoma are rare, and the occurrence of this neoplasm following treatment of cervix cancer has not previously been described. The literature concerning postirradiation bone and soft tissue sarcomas is briefly reviewed, with special attention to malignant fibrous histiocytomas.

  20. Fibrous composites comprising carbon nanotubes and silica

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Huisheng; Zhu, Yuntian Theodore; Peterson, Dean E.; Jia, Quanxi

    2011-10-11

    Fibrous composite comprising a plurality of carbon nanotubes; and a silica-containing moiety having one of the structures: (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NR.sub.1R.sub.2) or (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NCO; where n is from 1 to 6, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each independently H, CH.sub.3, or C.sub.2H.sub.5.

  1. Chondroblastoma of the acromion mimicking fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Gebert, Carsten; Hardes, Jendrik; Streitbürger, Arne; Vieth, Volker; Bürger, Horst; Winkelmann, Winfried; Gosheger, Georg

    2004-12-01

    The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with an expansive osteolytic lesion in the right acromion, mimicking cystic fibrous dysplasia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lesion with intermediate-signal intensity on T1-weighted images and a high-signal intensity on fat suppressed T2-weighted images. The biopsy led to the diagnosis of chondroblastoma. This tumour is rare in flat bones, and may mimic other benign or malignant lesions. It is therefore essential to perform a biopsy in order to obtain a definite diagnosis. The acromion was excised, and replaced with an iliac crest graft.

  2. Fibrous dysplasia. Clinical review and therapeutic management.

    PubMed

    Florez, Helena; Peris, Pilar; Guañabens, Núria

    2016-12-16

    Fibrous dysplasia is a skeletal disorder that is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including localized asymptomatic forms and extensive severe forms with severe bone deformities and endocrinological alterations, depending on age, location, extent and associated processes. Although the treatment of choice is based on bisphosphonates, the therapeutic efficacy of these agents in the control of disease activity remains uncertain. This article reviews the current data available on the treatment of this disease as well as the preliminary data on new therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Consolidation and densification methods for fibrous monolith processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sutaria, Manish P.; Rigali, Mark J.; Cipriani, Ronald A.; Artz, Gregory J.; Mulligan, Anthony C.

    2004-05-25

    Methods for consolidation and densification of fibrous monolith composite structures are provided. Consolidation and densification of two- and three-dimensional fibrous monolith components having complex geometries can be achieved by pressureless sintering. The fibrous monolith composites are formed from filaments having at least a first material composition generally surrounded by a second material composition. The composites are sintered in an inert gas or nitrogen gas at a pressure of no more than about 30 psi to provide consolidated and densified fibrous monolith composites.

  4. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  5. Methane production in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfill.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiyong; Jin, Xiao; Ma, Zeyu; Tao, Huchun; Ko, Jae Hac

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study a hybrid bioreactor landfill technology for landfill methane production from municipal solid waste. Two laboratory-scale columns were operated for about ten months to simulate an anaerobic and a hybrid landfill bioreactor, respectively. Leachate was recirculated into each column but aeration was conducted in the hybrid bioreactor during the first stage. Results showed that leachate pH in the anaerobic bioreactor maintained below 6.5, while in the hybrid bioreactor quickly increased from 5.6 to 7.0 due to the aeration. The temporary aeration resulted in lowering COD and BOD5 in the leachate. The volume of methane collected from the hybrid bioreactor was 400 times greater than that of the anaerobic bioreactor. Also, the methane production rate of the hybrid bioreactor was improved within a short period of time. After about 10 months' operation, the total methane production in the hybrid bioreactor was 212 L (16 L/kgwaste). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  7. Monolithic Continuous-Flow Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Kornfield, Julia A.; Voecks, Gerald A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic matrices containing many small flow passages useful as continuous-flow bioreactors. Ceramic matrix containing passages made by extruding and firing suitable ceramic. Pores in matrix provide attachment medium for film of cells and allow free movement of solution. Material one not toxic to micro-organisms grown in reactor. In reactor, liquid nutrients flow over, and liquid reaction products flow from, cell culture immobilized in one set of channels while oxygen flows to, and gaseous reaction products flow from, culture in adjacent set of passages. Cells live on inner surfaces containing flowing nutrient and in pores of walls of passages. Ready access to nutrients and oxygen in channels. They generate continuous high yield characteristic of immobilized cells, without large expenditure of energy otherwise incurred if necessary to pump nutrient solution through dense biomass as in bioreactors of other types.

  8. Monolithic Continuous-Flow Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Kornfield, Julia A.; Voecks, Gerald A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic matrices containing many small flow passages useful as continuous-flow bioreactors. Ceramic matrix containing passages made by extruding and firing suitable ceramic. Pores in matrix provide attachment medium for film of cells and allow free movement of solution. Material one not toxic to micro-organisms grown in reactor. In reactor, liquid nutrients flow over, and liquid reaction products flow from, cell culture immobilized in one set of channels while oxygen flows to, and gaseous reaction products flow from, culture in adjacent set of passages. Cells live on inner surfaces containing flowing nutrient and in pores of walls of passages. Ready access to nutrients and oxygen in channels. They generate continuous high yield characteristic of immobilized cells, without large expenditure of energy otherwise incurred if necessary to pump nutrient solution through dense biomass as in bioreactors of other types.

  9. Review of nonconventional bioreactor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Turick, C.E.; Mcllwain, M.E.

    1993-09-01

    Biotechnology will significantly affect many industrial sectors in the future. Industrial sectors that will be affected include pharmaceutical, chemical, fuel, agricultural, and environmental remediation. Future research is needed to improve bioprocessing efficiency and cost-effectiveness in order to compete with traditional technologies. This report describes recent advances in bioprocess technologies and bioreactor designs and relates them to problems encountered in many industrial bioprocessing operations. The primary focus is directed towards increasing gas and vapor transfer for enhanced bioprocess kinetics as well as unproved by-product separation and removal. The advantages and disadvantages of various conceptual designs such as hollow-fiber, gas-phase, hyperbaric/hypobaric, and electrochemical bioreactors are also discussed. Specific applications that are intended for improved bioprocesses include coal desulfurization, coal liquefaction, soil bioremediation, biomass conversion to marketable chemicals, biomining, and biohydrometallurgy as well as bioprocessing of gases and vapors.

  10. Solitary fibrous tumor surrounding the carotid sheath.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Oliveira, Guillermo; Alvarez-Flores, Modesto; Arribas-García, Ignacio; Martínez-Gimeno, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare spindle cell neoplasms that are mostly found arising from the pleura. Although SFTs recently have been reported in other regions, they are rare in the head and neck and have often been misdiagnosed due to their rarity. SFTs are benign in most cases. Clinically, SFTs usually manifest as well-circumscribed, slow-growing, smooth and painless masses. Symptoms are often minimal, although they may include sore throat, difficulty in swallowing, change of voice or trismus. CT-Scan and MRI are the most sensitive imaging procedures used. The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision of the lesion. Because recurrences have been noted up to 30 years after surgery, long-term follow up is mandatory. In this article, we present a case of a Solitary Fibrous Tumor arising in the parapharyngeal space in a 20-year-old man, involving the carotid sheath, treated by surgical excision with no recurrence after 1 year. The clinical presentation, surgical management and pathological findings are described.

  11. Self-Organization of Bioinspired Fibrous Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sung Hoon

    Nature uses fibrous surfaces for a wide range of functions such as sensing, adhesion, structural color, and self-cleaning. However, little is known about how fiber properties enable them to self-organize into diverse and complex functional forms. Using polymeric micro/nanofiber arrays with tunable properties as model systems, we demonstrate how the combination of mechanical and surface properties can be harnessed to transform an array of anchored nanofibers into a variety of complex, hierarchically organized dynamic functional surfaces. We show that the delicate balance between fiber elasticity and surface adhesion plays a critical role in determining the shape, chirality, and hierarchy of the assembled structures. We further report a strategy for controlling the long-range order of fiber assemblies by manipulating the shape and movement of the liquid-vapor interface. Our study provides fundamental understanding of the pattern formation by self-organization of bioinspired fibrous surfaces. Moreover, our new strategies offer a foundation for designing a vast assortment of functional surfaces with adhesive, optical, water-repellent, capture and release, and many more capabilities with the structural and dynamic sophistication of their biological counterparts.

  12. Giant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Orbit.

    PubMed

    Tenekeci, Goktekin; Sari, Alper; Vayisoglu, Yusuf; Serin, Onur

    2015-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) have been reported in various locations in the body. Solitary fibrous tumors are extremely rare tumors, especially when located in the orbit. Diagnosis of SFT cannot be made based on histopathology only because it exhibits a variable microscopic appearance, and necessitates immunohistochemistry to confirm the diagnosis. A 51-year-old man was admitted to our clinic for the evaluation of a mass bulging in his left eye. Clinical examination revealed a painless mass extruding out of the orbital cavity with dimensions of 8 × 7  cm. Exenteration of the left eye including the upper and lower eyelid and reconstruction of the orbital cavity using a temporoparietal fascia flap and a temporal muscle flap was performed. SFT of orbital region is known as a slow growing and painless tumor. Based on previous studies, increased mitotic rate of the tumor gives the impression that the tumor has a malignant nature. Until now a small number or orbital SFTs were reported and none of them presented with a giant mass protruding out of the orbital cavity. We present a unique case of orbital SFT filling the whole orbital cavity and protruding outward as a giant mass. This case has been reported to expand our knowledge in this debated entity.

  13. Thermal conductivity of fibrous insulating materials

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.R.

    1997-03-01

    Fibrous insulation materials have gained increasing popularity in a broad range of applications because their low thermal conductivity and low mass lead to energy savings. Accurate measurement and reporting of thermal conductivity is an important factor in designing insulation systems that balance process requirements with cost. This work is based on experience with refractory ceramic fiber (RCF), but the general principles apply to all synthetic vitreous fiber (also known as man-made vitreous fiber, MMVF) products, including glass and mineral wool. Several test methods have been devised for measuring thermal conductivity. The four methods that have been adopted by ASTM standard methods are: guarded hot plate (ASTM C 17.7); calorimeter (ASTM C 201); heat-flow meter (ASTM C 518); hot wire (ASTM C 1113). With the exception of the hot-wire method, each method works by establishing a steady-state heat flux across a specimen of known geometry. Thermal conductivity is derived from the measured heat flux through fundamental principles of heat flow. The industrial and scientific community generally accepts the guarded-hot-plate method as the most reproducible and best-suited method for use with fibrous insulating materials.

  14. Successful treatment of an MTBE-impacted aquifer using a bioreactor self-colonized by native aquifer bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Kristin A.; Nickelsen, Michael G.; Boyle, Susan L.; Baker, Jeffrey M.; Tornatore, Paul M.; Hristova, Krassimira R.; Scow, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    A field-scale fixed bed bioreactor was used to successfully treat an MTBE-contaminated aquifer in North Hollywood, CA without requiring inoculation with introduced bacteria. Native bacteria from the MTBE-impacted aquifer rapidly colonized the bioreactor, entering the bioreactor in the contaminated groundwater pumped from the site, and biodegraded MTBE with greater than 99 % removal efficiency. DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified MTBE-degrading bacteria Methylibium petroleiphilum in the bioreactor. Quantitative PCR showed M. petroleiphilum enriched by three orders of magnitude in the bioreactor above densities pre-existing in the groundwater. Because treatment was carried out by indigenous rather than introduced organisms, regulatory approval was obtained for implementation of a full-scale bioreactor to continue treatment of the aquifer. In addition, after confirmation of MTBE removal in the bioreactor to below maximum contaminant limit levels (MCL; MTBE = 5 μg L−1), treated water was approved for reinjection back into the aquifer rather than requiring discharge to a water treatment system. This is the first treatment system in California to be approved for reinjection of biologically treated effluent into a drinking water aquifer. This study demonstrated the potential for using native microbial communities already present in the aquifer as an inoculum for ex-situ bioreactors, circumventing the need to establish non-native, non-acclimated and potentially costly inoculants. Understanding and harnessing the metabolic potential of native organisms circumvents some of the issues associated with introducing non-native organisms into drinking water aquifers, and can provide a low-cost and efficient remediation technology that can streamline future bioremediation approval processes. PMID:23613160

  15. Successful treatment of an MTBE-impacted aquifer using a bioreactor self-colonized by native aquifer bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Kristin A; Schmidt, Radomir; Nickelsen, Michael G; Boyle, Susan L; Baker, Jeffrey M; Tornatore, Paul M; Hristova, Krassimira R; Scow, Kate M

    2014-02-01

    A field-scale fixed bed bioreactor was used to successfully treat an MTBE-contaminated aquifer in North Hollywood, CA without requiring inoculation with introduced bacteria. Native bacteria from the MTBE-impacted aquifer rapidly colonized the bioreactor, entering the bioreactor in the contaminated groundwater pumped from the site, and biodegraded MTBE with greater than 99 % removal efficiency. DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified MTBE-degrading bacteria Methylibium petroleiphilum in the bioreactor. Quantitative PCR showed M. petroleiphilum enriched by three orders of magnitude in the bioreactor above densities pre-existing in the groundwater. Because treatment was carried out by indigenous rather than introduced organisms, regulatory approval was obtained for implementation of a full-scale bioreactor to continue treatment of the aquifer. In addition, after confirmation of MTBE removal in the bioreactor to below maximum contaminant limit levels (MCL; MTBE = 5 μg L(-1)), treated water was approved for reinjection back into the aquifer rather than requiring discharge to a water treatment system. This is the first treatment system in California to be approved for reinjection of biologically treated effluent into a drinking water aquifer. This study demonstrated the potential for using native microbial communities already present in the aquifer as an inoculum for ex-situ bioreactors, circumventing the need to establish non-native, non-acclimated and potentially costly inoculants. Understanding and harnessing the metabolic potential of native organisms circumvents some of the issues associated with introducing non-native organisms into drinking water aquifers, and can provide a low-cost and efficient remediation technology that can streamline future bioremediation approval processes.

  16. Fibrous monoliths: Economic ceramic matrix composites from powders [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rigali, Mark; Sutaria, Manish; Mulligan, Anthony; Creegan, Peter; Cipriani, Ron

    1999-05-26

    The project was to develop and perform pilot-scale production of fibrous monolith composites. The principal focus of the program was to develop damage-tolerant, wear-resistant tooling for petroleum drilling applications and generate a basic mechanical properties database on fibrous monolith composites.

  17. Progressive failure analysis of fibrous composite materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahei-El-din, Yehia A.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description is given of the modifications implemented in the PAFAC finite element program for the simulation of progressive failure in fibrous composite materials and structures. Details of the memory allocation, input data, and the new subroutines are given. Also, built-in failure criteria for homogeneous and fibrous composite materials are described.

  18. Fibrous microcapsules and methods of assembly and use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Stupp, Samuel; Rozkiewicz, Dorota

    2015-01-27

    The present invention relates to assembly of peptide amphiphiles and biopolymers into fibrous microcapsules, and uses thereof. In particular, the present invention provides devices, compositions, and methods for interfacial self-assembly of peptide amphiphiles and biopolyments into fibrous microcapsules, and uses thereof.

  19. Biological manganese removal from acid mine drainage in constructed wetlands and prototype bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, Kevin B; Johnson, D Barrie

    2005-02-01

    Mine drainage waters vary considerably in the range and concentration of heavy metals they contain. Besides iron, manganese is frequently present at elevated concentrations in waters draining both coal and metal mines. Passive treatment systems (aerobic wetlands and compost bioreactors) are designed to remove iron by biologically induced oxidation/precipitation. Manganese, however, is problematic as it does not readily form sulfidic minerals and requires elevated pH (>8) for abiotic oxidation of Mn (II) to insoluble Mn (IV). As a result, manganese removal in passive remediation systems is often less effective than removal of iron. This was found to be the case at the pilot passive treatment plant (PPTP) constructed to treat water draining the former Wheal Jane tin mine in Cornwall, UK, where effective removal of manganese occurred only in one of the three rock filter components of the composite systems over a 1-year period of monitoring. Water in the two rock filter systems where manganese removal was relatively poor was generally bioreactors that feed the rock filter units in the composite passive systems at Wheal Jane. An alternative approach for removing soluble manganese from mine waters, using fixed bed bioreactors, was developed. Ferromanganese nodules (about 2 cm diameter), collected from an abandoned mine adit in north Wales, were used to inoculate the bioreactors (working volume ca. 700 ml). Following colonization by manganese-oxidizing microbes, the aerated bioreactor catalysed the removal of soluble manganese, via oxidation of Mn (II) and precipitation of the resultant Mn (IV) in the bioreactor, in synthetic media and mine water from the Wheal Jane PPTP. Such an approach has potential application for removing soluble Mn from mine streams and other Mn

  20. BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

  1. BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS, THEORETICAL ADVANTAGES AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor landfills are municipal solid waste landfills that utilize bulk liquids in an effort to accelerate solid waste degradation. There are few potential benefits for operating a MSW landfill as a bioreactor. These include leachate treatment and management, increase in the s...

  2. BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

  3. Electrospun nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte for secondary lithium battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmaraj, O.; Rao, B. Nageswara; Jena, Paramananda; Venkateswarlu, M.; Satyanarayana, N.

    2014-04-01

    Hybrid nanocomposite [poly(vinylidene fluoride -co- hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)/magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4)] fibrous polymer membranes were prepared by electrospinning method. The prepared pure and nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membranes were soaked into the liquid electrolyte 1M LiPF6 in EC: DEC (1:1,v/v). XRD and SEM are used to study the structural and morphological studies of nanocomposite electrospun fibrous polymer membranes. The nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane with 5 wt.% of MgAl2O4 exhibits high ionic conductivity of 2.80 × 10-3 S/cm at room temperature. The charge-discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO2 coin cells composed of the newly prepared nanocomposite [(16 wt.%) PVdF-co-HFP+(5 wt.%) MgAl2O4] fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane was also studied and compared with commercial Celgard separator.

  4. Evaluation of different configurations of hybrid membrane bioreactors for treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Rodríguez, G; Cervantes-Avilés, P; Torres-Chávez, I; Bernal-Martínez, A

    2015-01-01

    Four membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with the same dimensions were studied for 180 days: three hybrid growth membrane bioreactors with biofilm attached in different packing media and a conventional MBR (C-MBR). The four MBRs had an identical membrane module of hollow fiber with a nominal porous diameter of 0.4 μm. The MBRs were: (1) a C-MBR; (2) a moving bed membrane bioreactor (MB-MBR), which was packed with 2 L of carrier Kaldnes-K1, presenting an exposed surface area of 678.90 m²/m³; (3) a non-submerged organic fixed bed (OFB-MBR) packed with 6.5 L of organic packing media composed of a mixture of cylindrical pieces of wood, providing an exposed surface area of 178.05 m²/m³; and (4) an inorganic fixed bed non-submerged membrane bioreactor (IFB-MBR) packed with 6 L of spherical volcanic pumice stone with an exposed surface area of 526.80 m²/m³. The four MBRs were fed at low organic loading (0.51 ± 0.19 kgCOD/m³ d). The results were recorded according to the behavior of the total resistance, transmembrane pressure (TMP), permeability, and removal percentages of the nutrients during the experimental time. The results showed that the MB-MBR presented the better performance on membrane filtration, while the higher nutrient removals were detected in the OFB-MBR and IFB-MBR.

  5. Study on fibrous materials for brain phantoms.

    PubMed

    Guise, Catarina; Fangueiro, Raul; Nóbrega, João Miguel; Schneider, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Generally, current clinical imaging methods do not provide highly detailed information about location of axonal injury, severity of injury or expected recovery of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). High-Definition Fiber Tractography (HDFT) is a novel imaging modality that allows visualizing and quantifying, directly, the degree of axons damage, predicting functional deficits due to traumatic axonal injury and loss of cortical projections. This imaging modality is based on diffusion technology. Being a novel modality, validation and quality control are essential. Thus this study aims at the development of a brain phantom to mimic the human brain in order to fill some gaps that currently exist in this area. This paper is focused on this novel imaging approach, the role of brain phantoms on its validation and the quality control, as well as, on the materials used in their construction. Furthermore, some important characteristics of fibrous materials for brain phantom are also discussed.

  6. Acoustical properties of highly porous fibrous materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Highly porous, fibrous bulk sound absorbing materials are studied with a view toward understanding their acoustical properties and performance in a wide variety of applications including liners of flow ducts. The basis and criteria for decoupling of acoustic waves in the pores of the frame and compressional waves in the frame structure are established. The equations of motion are recast in a form that elucidates the coupling mechanisms. The normal incidence surface impedance and absorption coefficient of two types of Kevlar 29 and an open celled foam material are studied. Experimental values and theoretical results are brought into agreement when the structure factor is selected to provide a fit to the experimental data. A parametric procedure for achieving that fit is established. Both a bulk material quality factor and a high frequency impedance level are required to characterize the real and imaginary part of the surface impedance and absorption coefficient. A derivation of the concepts of equivalent density and dynamic resistance is presented.

  7. Method of manufacturing fibrous hemostatic bandages

    DOEpatents

    Larsen, Gustavo; Spretz, Ruben; Velarde-Ortiz, Raffet

    2012-09-04

    A method of manufacturing a sturdy and pliable fibrous hemostatic dressing by making fibers that maximally expose surface area per unit weight of active ingredients as a means for aiding in the clot forming process and as a means of minimizing waste of active ingredients. The method uses a rotating object to spin off a liquid biocompatible fiber precursor, which is added at its center. Fibers formed then deposit on a collector located at a distance from the rotating object creating a fiber layer on the collector. An electrical potential difference is maintained between the rotating disk and the collector. Then, a liquid procoagulation species is introduced at the center of the rotating disk such that it spins off the rotating disk and coats the fibers.

  8. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor in retroperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yihong; Chu, Xi; Yi, Ye; Tong, Liang; Dai, Yingbo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal tumor occurs in various sites. Malignant SFT in retroperitoneum is extremely rare. Patient concerns: We report a case of malignant retroperitoneal SFT in a 59-year-old man presented with right flank pain for 1 month. Diagnoses, interventions and outcomes: A laparotomy and resection of the tumor were performed, the histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with malignant retroperitoneal SFT. No adjuvant treatment was performed, and the patient had no signs of recurrence or metastasis at the 12 months follow-up. Lessons: Complete surgical excision is the basic treatment principle for malignant retroperitoneal SFT. The histologic features and the Ki-67 label index are helpful for the diagnosis of malignant SFT. PMID:28296778

  9. Nitrogen removal and spatial distribution of denitrifier and anammox communities in a bioreactor for mine drainage treatment.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Roger B; Winbjörk, Harry; Hellman, Maria; Hallin, Sara

    2014-12-01

    Mine drainage water may contain high levels of nitrate (NO3(-)) due to undetonated nitrogen-based explosives. The removal of NO3(-) and nitrite (NO2(-)) in cold climates through the microbial process of denitrification was evaluated using a pilot-scale fixed-bed bioreactor (27 m(3)). Surface water was diverted into the above-ground bioreactor filled with sawdust, crushed rock, and sewage sludge. At hydraulic residence times of ca.15 h and with the addition of acetate, NO3(-) and NO2(-) were removed to below detection levels at a NO3(-) removal rate of 5-10 g N m(-3) (bioreactor material) d(-1). The functional groups contributing to nitrogen removal in the bioreactor were studied by quantifying nirS and nirK present in denitrifying bacteria, nosZI and nosZII genes from the nitrous oxide - reducing community, and a taxa-specific part of the16S rRNA gene for the anammox community. The abundances of nirS and nirK were almost 2 orders of magnitude greater than the anammox specific 16S rRNA gene, indicating that denitrification was the main process involved in nitrogen removal. The spatial distribution of the quantified genes was heterogeneous in the bioreactor, with trends observed in gene abundance as a function of depth, distance from the bioreactor inlet, and along specific flowpaths. There was a significant relationship between the abundance of nirS, nirK, and nosZI genes and depth in the bioreactor, such that the abundance of organisms containing these genes may be controlled by oxygen diffusion and substrate supply in the partially or completely water-saturated material. Among the investigated microbial functional groups, nirS and anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes exhibited a systematic trend of decreasing and increasing abundance, respectively, with distance from the inlet, which suggested that the functional groups respond differently to changing environmental conditions. The greater abundance of nirK along central flowpaths may indicate that the bioreactor

  10. Bioreactor production of recombinant herpes simplex virus vectors.

    PubMed

    Knop, David R; Harrell, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Serotypical application of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors to gene therapy (type 1) and prophylactic vaccines (types 1 and 2) has garnered substantial clinical interest recently. HSV vectors and amplicons have also been employed as helper virus constructs for manufacture of the dependovirus adeno-associated virus (AAV). Large quantities of infectious HSV stocks are requisite for these therapeutic applications, requiring a scalable vector manufacturing and processing platform comprised of unit operations which accommodate the fragility of HSV. In this study, production of a replication deficient rHSV-1 vector bearing the rep and cap genes of AAV-2 (denoted rHSV-rep2/cap2) was investigated. Adaptation of rHSV production from T225 flasks to a packed bed, fed-batch bioreactor permitted an 1100-fold increment in total vector production without a decrease in specific vector yield (pfu/cell). The fed-batch bioreactor system afforded a rHSV-rep2/cap2 vector recovery of 2.8 x 10(12) pfu. The recovered vector was concentrated by tangential flow filtration (TFF), permitting vector stocks to be formulated at greater than 1.5 x 10(9) pfu/mL.

  11. A novel structured bioreactor for solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongzhang; He, Qin

    2013-02-01

    A novel patented solid-state bioreactor (251 L) with honeycomb loading device was designed and its performance was tested. First, this apparatus gave a 66.87 % of calculated loading coefficient (volume ratio), which was almost twofold compared with conventional fermenters. Next, considering the crucial effect of heat transfer on bed loading and microbial growth, the performance was validated by temperature variance during fermentation and spore viability of Bacillus cereus DM423. Air pressure pulsation or external water jacket was used to control temperature; the maximal temperature variation was 7.7 versus 19.8 °C, respectively during fermentation. The difference was mainly due to the continuous gas phase characterized by solid-state fermentation (SSF). The average living spores of (1.50 ± 0.07) × 10(11) cfu/g at 40 h obtained from the device was higher than (0.70 ± 0.03) × 10(11) cfu/g from flask at 48 h. The results indicated that this new loading bioreactor with air pressure pulsation could be a good prospect for industrialization of SSF employing bacterial cultures.

  12. Strategy of mitigating ammonium-rich waste inhibition on anaerobic digestion by using illuminated bio-zeolite fixed-bed process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Stanislaus, Mishma Silvia; Hu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chenyu; Zhu, Qi; Li, Dawei; Yang, Yingnan

    2016-12-01

    Intermittent illumination combined with bio-zeolite fixed-bed process was utilized to improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion with ammonium-rich substrate. The batch experiments were carried out at NH4(+)-N concentration of 2211mg/L under intermittent illumination and dark (as control) conditions, respectively. The illuminated bioreactor achieved higher methane production (287mL/g-DOC) and ATP value (0.38μmol/L) than that under dark condition. Then the bio-zeolite fixed-bed bioreactor (NH4(+)-N concentration: 3000mg/L) was used to study the additional efficiency on the illuminated ammonium-rich anaerobic digestion process. The result showed that the illuminated fixed-bed bioreactor presented the greatest methane concentration (70%), methane yield (283mL/g-DOC) and quantity of methanogens comparing with no-bed bioreactor. Furthermore, the illuminated fixed-bed bioreactor achieved better performance during 118-day semi-continuous fermentation. The combination of the intermittent illumination and bio-zeolite fixed-bed strategy contributed to the higher efficiency and stability of the ammonium-rich anaerobic digestion process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioreactor concepts for cell culture-based viral vaccine production.

    PubMed

    Gallo-Ramírez, Lilí Esmeralda; Nikolay, Alexander; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Vaccine manufacturing processes are designed to meet present and upcoming challenges associated with a growing vaccine market and to include multi-use facilities offering a broad portfolio and faster reaction times in case of pandemics and emerging diseases. The final products, from whole viruses to recombinant viral proteins, are very diverse, making standard process strategies hardly universally applicable. Numerous factors such as cell substrate, virus strain or expression system, medium, cultivation system, cultivation method, and scale need consideration. Reviewing options for efficient and economical production of human vaccines, this paper discusses basic factors relevant for viral antigen production in mammalian cells, avian cells and insect cells. In addition, bioreactor concepts, including static systems, single-use systems, stirred tanks and packed-beds are addressed. On this basis, methods towards process intensification, in particular operational strategies, the use of perfusion systems for high product yields, and steps to establish continuous processes are introduced.

  14. A two-compartment cell entrapment bioreactor with three different holding times for cells, high and low molecular weight compounds.

    PubMed

    Scholz, M; Hu, W S

    1990-09-01

    A new bioreactor for animal cell cultivation employs two compartments for cells and medium respectively. The two chambers are separated by an ultrafiltration membrane. Cells and solution of collagen or collagen/chitosan mixture were loaded to the cell chamber and were allowed to form gel inside. Contraction of the cell-laden gel occurred subsequently to create a new zone in the cell chamber. In such a bioreactor cells are retained in the reactor, the high molecular product(s) accumulate in the cell chamber, while the small molecular weight nutrients and metabolites are replenished and removed from the medium chamber. By adjusting the flow rates for cell and medium chambers, the resident time for cells, high and low molecular weight components of the system can be manipulated separately. The new bioreactor, in both flat-bed and hollow-fiber configurations, was used to cultivate recombinant human cell, 293, for Protein C production over 60 to 90 days.

  15. Applicability of a novel osmotic membrane bioreactor using a specific draw solution in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Nguyen, Hau Thi; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Hao, Chan Wen; Lin, Po-Hsun

    2015-06-15

    This study aims to develop a new osmotic membrane bioreactor by combining a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (FOMBR) to treat wastewater. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt coupled with polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether was used as an innovative draw solution in this membrane hybrid system (MBBR-OsMBR) for minimizing the reverse salt flux and maintaining a healthy environment for the microorganism community. The results showed that the hybrid system achieved a stable water flux of 6.94 L/m(2) h and low salt accumulation in the bioreactor for 68 days of operation. At a filling rate of 40% (by volume of the bioreactor) of the polyethylene balls used as carriers, NH4(+)-N and PO4(3-)-P were almost removed (>99%) while producing relatively low NO3(-)-N and NO2(-)-N in the effluent (e.g. <0.56 and 0.96 mg/L, respectively). Furthermore, from analysis based on scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and fluorescence emission-excitation matrix spectrophotometry, there was a thin gel-like fouling layer on the FO membrane, which composed of bacteria as well as biopolymers and protein-like substances. Nonetheless, the formation of these fouling layers of the FO membrane in MBBR-OsMBR was reversible and removed by a physical cleaning technique.

  16. Packed Bed Reactor Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The purpose of the Packed Bed Reactor Experiment in low gravity is to determine how a mixture of gas and liquid flows through a packed bed in reduced gravity. A packed bed consists of a metal pipe ...

  17. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  18. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  19. Numerical modeling of experimental human fibrous cap delamination.

    PubMed

    Leng, Xiaochang; Davis, Lindsey A; Deng, Xiaomin; Sutton, Michael A; Lessner, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    Fibrous cap delamination is a critical process during the rupture of atherosclerotic plaque, which often leads to severe life-threatening clinical consequences such as myocardial infarction or stroke. In this study a finite element modeling and simulation approach is presented that enables the study of fibrous cap delamination experiments for the purpose of understanding the fibrous cap delamination process. A cohesive zone model (CZM) approach is applied to simulate delamination of the fibrous cap from the underlying plaque tissue. A viscoelastic anisotropic (VA) model for the bulk arterial material behavior is extended from existing studies so that the hysteresis phenomenon observed in the fibrous cap delamination experiments can be captured. A finite element model is developed for the fibrous cap delamination experiments, in which arterial layers (including the fibrous cap and the underlying plaque tissue) are represented by solid elements based on the VA model and the fibrous cap-underlying plaque tissue interface is characterized by interfacial CZM elements. In the CZM, the delamination process is governed by an exponential traction-separation law which utilizes critical energy release rates obtained directly from the fibrous cap delamination experiments. A set of VA model parameter values and CZM parameter values is determined based on values suggested in the literature and through matching simulation predictions of the load vs. load-point displacement curve with one set of experimental measurements. Using this set of parameter values, simulation predictions for other sets of experimental measurements are obtained and good agreement between simulation predictions and experimental measurements is observed. Results of this study demonstrate the applicability of the viscoelastic anisotropic model and the CZM approach for the simulation of diseased arterial tissue failure processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Removal of nitric oxide in a fungal vapor-phase bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Woertz, J.R.; Kinney, K.A.; McIntosh, N.D.P.; Szaniszlo, P.J.

    1999-07-01

    Stricter emission regulations on ozone precursors have been mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. As a result, more efficient and cost effective treatment methods for nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are needed. One promising new technology for removing both NO{sub x} and VOCs from off-gas streams is biofiltration; a simple process whereby contaminated air is passed through a biologically-active packed bed. In this study, a toluene-degrading fungal biofilm was used to treat an aerobic gas stream contaminated with nitric oxide (NO). The fungal bioreactor removed 93% of the inlet 250 ppmv NO at an empty bed contact time of 1 minute when supplied with 90 g/(m{sup 3} h) toluene. The bioreactor achieved a maximum toluene elimination capacity of 270 g/(m{sup 3} h) and maintained greater than 95% toluene removal efficiencies over the 175-day study period. Adverse operating conditions such as low moisture content and nitrogen limitations did not adversely affect the removal of NO or toluene in the fungal bioreactor.

  1. Fibrous Dysplasia versus Juvenile Ossifying Fibroma: A Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Bhandarkar, Gowri P.; Rai, Manjunath; Naik, Neel; Santhosh, Athul

    2016-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a condition characterized by excessive proliferation of bone forming mesenchymal cells which can affect one bone (monostotic type) or multiple bones (polyostotic type). It is predominantly noticed in adolescents and young adults. Fibrous dysplasia affecting the jaws is an uncommon condition. The most commonly affected facial bone is the maxilla, with facial asymmetry being the chief complaint. The lesion in many instances is confused with ossifying fibroma (OF). Diagnosis of these two lesions has to be done based on clinical, radiographic, and microscopic findings. Here, we present a case of fibrous dysplasia of maxilla in a nine-year-old boy mimicking juvenile ossifying fibroma. PMID:28101383

  2. Fibrous Dysplasia versus Juvenile Ossifying Fibroma: A Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sreelakshmi N; Kini, Raghavendra; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Bhandarkar, Gowri P; Kashyp, Roopashri Rajesh; Rai, Manjunath; Naik, Neel; Santhosh, Athul

    2016-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a condition characterized by excessive proliferation of bone forming mesenchymal cells which can affect one bone (monostotic type) or multiple bones (polyostotic type). It is predominantly noticed in adolescents and young adults. Fibrous dysplasia affecting the jaws is an uncommon condition. The most commonly affected facial bone is the maxilla, with facial asymmetry being the chief complaint. The lesion in many instances is confused with ossifying fibroma (OF). Diagnosis of these two lesions has to be done based on clinical, radiographic, and microscopic findings. Here, we present a case of fibrous dysplasia of maxilla in a nine-year-old boy mimicking juvenile ossifying fibroma.

  3. Tubular membrane bioreactors for biotechnological processes.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Christoph; Beutel, Sascha; Scheper, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    This article is an overview of bioreactors using tubular membranes such as hollow fibers or ceramic capillaries for cultivation processes. This diverse group of bioreactor is described here in regard to the membrane materials used, operational modes, and configurations. The typical advantages of this kind of system such as environments with low shear stress together with high cell densities and also disadvantages like poor oxygen supply are summed up. As the usage of tubular membrane bioreactors is not restricted to a certain organism, a brief overview of various applications covering nearly all types of cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells is also given here.

  4. Bioreactor design considerations for hollow organs.

    PubMed

    Fish, Jeff; Halberstadt, Craig; McCoy, Darell W; Robbins, Neil

    2013-01-01

    There are many important considerations in the design, construction, and use of a bioreactor for growing hollow organs such as vessels, gastrointestinal tissue, esophagus, and others. The growth of new organs requires a specialized container that provides sterility and an environment conducive to cell-seeding and attachment onto a three-dimensional bioabsorbable porous scaffold, incubation, maturation, and shipping for implantation. The materials' selection, dimensions, manufacturing, testing, and use of the bioreactor are all factors that should be considered in designing a bioreactor for the development of hollow organs.

  5. Bioreactor Technology in Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertsching, H.; Hansmann, J.

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering is a fast evolving field of biomedical science and technology to manufacture viable blood vessels, heart valves, myocar-dial substitutes and vascularised complex tissues. In consideration of the specific role of the haemodynamics of human circulation, bioreactors are a fundamental of this field. The development of perfusion bioreactor technology is a consequence of successes in extracorporeal circulation techniques, to provide an in vitro environment mimicking in vivo conditions. The bioreactor system should enable an automatic hydrodynamic regime control. Furthermore, the systematic studies regarding the cellular responses to various mechanical and biochemical cues guarantee the viability, bio-monitoring, testing, storage and transportation of the growing tissue.

  6. Spatial Experiment Technologies Suitable for Unreturnable Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Zheng, Weibo; Tong, Guanghui

    2016-07-01

    The system composition and main function of the bioreactor piggybacked on TZ cargo transport spacecraft are introduced briefly in the paper.The spatial experiment technologies which are suitable for unreturnable bioreactor are described in detail,including multi-channel liquid transportion and management,multi-type animal cells circuit testing,dynamic targets microscopic observation in situ etc..The feasibility and effectiveness of these technologies which will be used in space experiment in bioreactor are verified in tests and experiments on the ground.

  7. 3D perfusion bioreactor-activated porous granules on implant fixation and early bone formation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ming; Henriksen, Susan S; Martinetti, Roberta; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-09-22

    Early fixation of total joint arthroplasties is crucial for ensuring implant survival. An alternative bone graft material in revision surgery is needed to replace the current gold standard, allograft, seeing that the latter is associated with several disadvantages. The incubation of such a construct in a perfusion bioreactor has been shown to produce viable bone graft materials. This study aimed at producing larger amounts of viable bone graft material (hydroxyapatite 70% and β-tricalcium-phosphate 30%) in a novel perfusion bioreactor. The abilities of the bioreactor-activated graft material to induce early implant fixation were tested in a bilateral implant defect model in sheep, with allograft as the control group. Defects were bilaterally created in the distal femurs of the animals, and titanium implants were inserted. The concentric gaps around the implants were randomly filled with either allograft, granules, granules with bone marrow aspirate or bioreactor-activated graft material. Following an observation time of 6 weeks, early implant fixation and bone formation were assessed by micro-CT scanning, mechanical testing, and histomorphometry. Bone formations were seen in all groups, while no significant differences between groups were found regarding early implant fixation. The microarchitecture of the bone formed by the synthetic graft materials resembled that of allograft. Histomorphometry revealed that allograft induced significantly more bone and less fibrous tissue (p < 0.05). In conclusion, bone formation was observed in all groups, while the bioreactor-activated graft material did not reveal additional effects on early implant fixation comparable to allograft in this model. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Development of an energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactors for 2-chlorophenol-contained wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Kun; Pan, Xin-Rong; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Li, Wen-Wei; Shi, Bing-Jing; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-12-01

    A novel energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactor (AnHMBR) with mesh filter, which takes advantage of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and fixed-bed biofilm reactor, is developed for low-strength 2-chlorophenol (2-CP)-contained wastewater treatment. In this system, the anaerobic membrane bioreactor is stuffed with granular activated carbon to construct an anaerobic hybrid fixed-bed biofilm membrane bioreactor. The effluent turbidity from the AnHMBR system was low during most of the operation period, and the chemical oxygen demand and 2-CP removal efficiencies averaged 82.3% and 92.6%, respectively. Furthermore, a low membrane fouling rate was achieved during the operation. During the AnHMBR operation, the only energy consumption was for feed pump. And a low energy demand of 0.0045-0.0063kWhm(-3) was estimated under the current operation conditions. All these results demonstrated that this novel AnHMBR is a sustainable technology for treating 2-CP-contained wastewater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On the lattice Boltzmann method simulation of a two-phase flow bioreactor for artificially grown cartilage cells.

    PubMed

    Hussein, M A; Esterl, S; Pörtner, R; Wiegandt, K; Becker, T

    2008-12-05

    Owing to the growing demand of cartilage tissue repair and transplants, engineered cartilage cells have emerged as a prospective solution. Several bioreactors were built for artificially grown cartilage cells. In this work, a recently designed flow bed bioreactor is numerically investigated and compared with experimental results. The flow field inside the bioreactor was modelled using the lattice Boltzmann method. The flow consists of two phases which are the liquid component (nutrition supply) and gas component (oxygen supply). The flow field is simulated using the multi-phase lattice Boltzmann method, whilst the cell activity is modelled using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The oxygen diffusion level at the exit of the nutrition phase is used as an evaluation process between the numerical and experimental results reporting the possibility of using the proposed model to fully simulate such bioreactors, though greatly saving time and money. Shear stress and pressure distributions are as well compared with published human cartilage load measurements to estimate the dynamic similarity between the bioreactor and the human knee. The predicted oxygen levels proved consistent trends with the experimental work with a 7% difference after 1h measuring time. The shear stress levels recorded 10-11 orders of magnitude lower than in humans and also one order of magnitude lower in the pressure distribution.

  10. Histogenesis of intralesional fibrous septum in chordoma.

    PubMed

    Naka, Takahiko; Boltze, Carsten; Kuester, Doerthe; Samii, Amir; Herold, Christian; Ostertag, Helmut; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Odae, Yoshinao; Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi; Roessner, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Intralesional fibrous septum (IFS), a histologic architecture that is typical of chordoma, consists of proliferating spindle-shaped, fibroblast-like cells with an abundance of collagen fibers. However, the histogenesis of IFS is still controversial. In a series of 122 chordomas, special emphasis was placed on the morphology of host tissues involved in IFS and on a transition between IFS and neighboring tissues. In 23 lesions, IFS was also characterized both histochemically and immunohistochemically. IFS was observed in 79 (64.8%) lesions. Occasionally, IFS contained bone fragments and hyalinized matrix with no lining of osteoblastic cells, suggesting degenerated rather than metaplastic bone tissue. Moreover, IFS occasionally showed a direct transition to host bone trabeculae. Histochemically and immunohistochemically, IFS included calcium deposits positive for Alizarin red S staining and expressed both type I and type III collagen. In extraosseous lesions extending to the adjacent soft tissues, IFS frequently involved muscle fibers or peripheral nerve fibers and displayed a smooth transition to neighboring soft tissues. We believe that IFS is induced by a tumor-host interaction that is based on the host bone trabeculae in intraosseous lesions or on soft tissues in extraosseous lesions.

  11. Treating Fibrous Insulation to Reduce Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinn, Alfred; Tarkanian, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    A chemical treatment reduces the convective and radiative contributions to the effective thermal conductivity of porous fibrous thermal-insulation tile. The net effect of the treatment is to coat the surfaces of fibers with a mixture of transition-metal oxides (TMOs) without filling the pores. The TMO coats reduce the cross-sectional areas available for convection while absorbing and scattering thermal radiation in the pores, thereby rendering the tile largely opaque to thermal radiation. The treatment involves a sol-gel process: A solution containing a mixture of transition-metal-oxide-precursor salts plus a gelling agent (e.g., tetraethylorthosilicate) is partially cured, then, before it visibly gels, is used to impregnate the tile. The solution in the tile is gelled, then dried, and then the tile is fired to convert the precursor salts to the desired mixed TMO phases. The amounts of the various TMOs ultimately incorporated into the tile can be tailored via the concentrations of salts in the solution, and the impregnation depth can be tailored via the viscosity of the solution and/or the volume of the solution relative to that of the tile. The amounts of the TMOs determine the absorption and scattering spectra.

  12. Analytical study of rigidized fibrous materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, B. W.; Bagchi, D.; Kibler, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Insulation systems composed of micrometer-sized fibers bonded together with small amounts of binder have been developed for aerospace applications. The materials have a very high volid content and low density and can be characterized as a rigidized network of fibers randomly oriented in three-dimensional space. Analytical models suitable for the evaluation of the mechanical behavior of rigidized fibrous materials have been developed. The models treat the material as a space frame structure and includes the effects of joint fixity and fiber curvature. The geometrical and material property variabilities are represented by a number of trusses oriented in five planes. Each truss may have different material and geometric properties. Techniques have been developed to describe the continuous material property and geometry functions as a series of descrete quantities that can be used to describe each of the trusses in the model. Parametric studies were performed to show the influence of material variables on the mechanical behavior of the material. Results of calculations show good agreement with measured properties.

  13. Osteogenic sarcoma. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma subtype.

    PubMed

    Ballance, W A; Mendelsohn, G; Carter, J R; Abdul-Karim, F W; Jacobs, G; Makley, J T

    1988-08-15

    A distinctly different entity from the now well-delineated malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of bone is the MFH histopathologic subtype of osteogenic sarcoma. Although uncommon, recently the authors have encountered six cases of this neoplasm, in each of which the soft tissue component was devoid of bone elements and was microscopically indistinguishable from MFH of bone or soft tissue. Neoplastic osteoid and woven bone were present in the osseous component of each tumor, however. Radiologically, the lesions generally were osteoblastic but focally osteolytic with features typical of osteogenic sarcoma. Pain was the most common presenting symptom. There was no age or sex predilection. Immunocytochemical staining showed strong positivity with alpha-1-antichymotrypsin within malignant bizarre giant cells and occasional neoplastic osteoblasts in five cases. The biological behavior followed a very aggressive course. Four of the six patients developed pulmonary metastases 6 to 12 months after initial surgery; one patient presented initially with pulmonary metastases. Adequate tumor sampling as well as optimal correlation with clinical and radiographic information are required to distinguish the MFH subtype of osteogenic sarcoma from MFH of bone, both being high-grade neoplasms, however.

  14. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the ribs.

    PubMed

    Traibi, Akram; El Oueriachi, Faycal; El Hammoumi, Massine; Al Bouzidi, Abderahman; Kabiri, El Hassane

    2012-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a sporadic benign skeletal disorder that can affect one bone (monostotic form) or multiple bones (polyostotic bone). Around 6-20% of monostotic FD occurs in the ribs. The objective of this study was to report our experience in the management of the monostotic FD of the ribs. Between January 2004 and December 2009, seven cases of FD of the rib (six men and one woman, mean age 30.4 years, range 17-40 years) were operated on. The patients were evaluated with plain radiographs and computer tomography (CT). All our patients were symptomatic; two patients presented chest pain and swelling and other patients presented only chest pain. One rib was involved in all our patients (monostotic form): the site was fifth rib (four cases), sixth rib (two cases) or second rib (one case). Radiologically, plain films and CT showed an expansible lesion with a ground-glass centre and thinning of the cortex. Rib resection was performed in all patients; there were no postoperative complications and no recurrence in all cases at mean 43 month follow-up. In symptomatic monostotic FD of ribs, the involved segment of bone may be excised to rule out malignancy and for painful lesions.

  15. Fibrous Tendon Hypertrophy after Gastrocnemius Recession: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jastifer, James R; Coughlin, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Surgical complications after gastrocnemius recession have been rare in published studies. We report a case of symptomatic fibrous tendon hypertrophy requiring revision surgery. Additionally, we have provided a review of the published data on the complications related to this procedure.

  16. [Solitary fibrous tumor of the nose and paranasal sinuses].

    PubMed

    Kyriafinis, G; Constantinidis, J; Karkavelas, G; Triaridis, S; Daniilidis, J

    2006-12-01

    The solitary fibrous tumor is an uncommon, benign lesion with a mesenchymal origin which arises most commonly from the pleura and, in extremely rare cases, from the mucosa of the nose and paranasal sinuses. We describe a case of solitary fibrous tumor in the nasal cavity with an extension into both ethmoid sinuses and destruction of the nasal septum in a 64-year-old woman presenting with nasal obstruction and frontal headache. In the histopathologic examination and by immunohistochemistry, the tumor was composed of spindle cells and nodular collagen, and was confirmed as a solitary fibrous tumor. It was completely removed using an endonasal approach with the patient being free of any complaints and without evidence of disease 2 years after surgery. Solitary fibrous tumor should be included in diagnostic considerations in patients with sinonasal masses, especially in cases with the appearance of spindle cells. Diagnostic procedures, clinicopathological features, therapeutic options and prognosis of the such tumors are discussed.

  17. Failure Analysis and Mechanisms of Failure of Fibrous Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K. (Compiler); Shuart, M. J. (Compiler); Starnes, J. H., Jr. (Compiler); Williams, J. G. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    The state of the art of failure analysis and current design practices, especially as applied to the use of fibrous composite materials in aircraft structures is discussed. Deficiencies in these technologies are identified, as are directions for future research.

  18. Reflective Coating on Fibrous Insulation for Reduced Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, Derek D.; Prasad, B. Durga; Glass, David E.; Wiedemann, Karl E.

    1997-01-01

    Radiative heat transfer through fibrous insulation used in thermal protection systems (TPS) is significant at high temperatures (1200 C). Decreasing the radiative heat transfer through the fibrous insulation can thus have a major impact on the insulating ability of the TPS. Reflective coatings applied directly to the individual fibers in fibrous insulation should decrease the radiative heat transfer leading to an insulation with decreased effective thermal conductivity. Coatings with high infrared reflectance have been developed using sol-gel techniques. Using this technique, uniform coatings can be applied to fibrous insulation without an appreciable increase in insulation weight or density. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, and ellipsometry have been performed to evaluate coating performance.

  19. Pancreatic solitary fibrous tumor causing ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Keigo; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Felizola, Saulo J A; Morimoto, Ryo; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Takanami, Kentaro; Katakami, Hideki; Hirota, Seiichi; Takeda, Yoshiyu; Meguro-Horike, Makiko; Horike, Shin-Ichi; Unno, Michiaki; Sasano, Hironobu

    2016-11-15

    Solitary fibrous tumors occasionally present with hypoglycemia because of the excessive release of insulin-like growth factor II. We report the first case of pancreatic solitary fibrous tumor causing ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome. An 82-year-old Japanese man presented with lower limb edema, uncontrolled hypertension, hypokalemia, and baseline hypercortisolism. Distal pancreatectomy was performed after the clinical diagnosis of a neuroendocrine tumor with ectopic secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone. On histological examination, the tumor showed spindle cells in a fascicular arrangement. The diagnosis of the solitary fibrous tumor was confirmed by the identification of the NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene and positive immuno-histochemical staining for STAT6 and CD34. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, mRNA that encoded proopiomelanocortin, precursor of adrenocorticotropic hormone, was detected. Proopiomelanocortin production through the demethylation of the promoter region Domain IV was detected. Pancreatic solitary fibrous tumors represent a new cause of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome.

  20. A hydrodynamics-reaction kinetics coupled model for evaluating bioreactors derived from CFD simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Ding, Jie; Guo, Wan-Qian; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2010-12-01

    Investigating how a bioreactor functions is a necessary precursor for successful reactor design and operation. Traditional methods used to investigate flow-field cannot meet this challenge accurately and economically. Hydrodynamics model can solve this problem, but to understand a bioreactor in sufficient depth, it is often insufficient. In this paper, a coupled hydrodynamics-reaction kinetics model was formulated from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to simulate a gas-liquid-solid three-phase biotreatment system for the first time. The hydrodynamics model is used to formulate prediction of the flow field and the reaction kinetics model then portrays the reaction conversion process. The coupled model is verified and used to simulate the behavior of an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor for biohydrogen production. The flow patterns were visualized and analyzed. The coupled model also demonstrates a qualitative relationship between hydrodynamics and biohydrogen production. The advantages and limitations of applying this coupled model are discussed.

  1. Bioreactor Design for Tendon/Ligament Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Lin, Zhen; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B.; Wang, Allan; Xu, Jiake

    2013-01-01

    Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a suitable culture environment, which mimics the dynamics of the in vivo environment for tendon/ligament maturation. For clinical settings, bioreactors also have the advantages of less-contamination risk, high reproducibility of cell propagation by minimizing manual operation, and a consistent end product. In this review, we identify the key components, design preferences, and criteria that are required for the development of an ideal bioreactor for engineering tendons and ligaments. PMID:23072472

  2. Efficient proteolysis strategies based on microchip bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Bao, Huimin; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2013-04-26

    In proteome research, proteolysis is an important procedure prior to the mass spectrometric identification of proteins. The typical time of conventional in-solution proteolysis is as long as several hours to half a day. To enhance proteolysis efficiency, a variety of microchip bioreactors have been developed for the rapid digestion and identification of proteins in the past decade. This review mainly focuses on the recent advances and the key strategies of microchip bioreactors in protein digestion. The subjects covered include microchip proteolysis systems, the immobilization of proteases in microchannels, the applications of microchip bioreactors in highly efficient proteolysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip bioreactors will become powerful tools in protein analysis and will find a wide range of applications in high-throughput protein identification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. In vivo bioreactors for mandibular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tatara, A M; Wong, M E; Mikos, A G

    2014-12-01

    Large mandibular defects are difficult to reconstruct with good functional and aesthetic outcomes because of the complex geometry of craniofacial bone. While the current gold standard is free tissue flap transfer, this treatment is limited in fidelity by the shape of the harvested tissue and can result in significant donor site morbidity. To address these problems, in vivo bioreactors have been explored as an approach to generate autologous prefabricated tissue flaps. These bioreactors are implanted in an ectopic site in the body, where ossified tissue grows into the bioreactor in predefined geometries and local vessels are recruited to vascularize the developing construct. The prefabricated flap can then be harvested with vessels and transferred to a mandibular defect for optimal reconstruction. The objective of this review article is to introduce the concept of the in vivo bioreactor, describe important preclinical models in the field, summarize the human cases that have been reported through this strategy, and offer future directions for this exciting approach.

  4. Bioreactor design for tendon/ligament engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Gardiner, Bruce S; Lin, Zhen; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B; Wang, Allan; Xu, Jiake; Smith, David W; Lloyd, David G; Zheng, Ming H

    2013-04-01

    Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a suitable culture environment, which mimics the dynamics of the in vivo environment for tendon/ligament maturation. For clinical settings, bioreactors also have the advantages of less-contamination risk, high reproducibility of cell propagation by minimizing manual operation, and a consistent end product. In this review, we identify the key components, design preferences, and criteria that are required for the development of an ideal bioreactor for engineering tendons and ligaments.

  5. Mobility of power-law and Carreau fluids through fibrous media.

    PubMed

    Shahsavari, Setareh; McKinley, Gareth H

    2015-12-01

    The flow of generalized Newtonian fluids with a rate-dependent viscosity through fibrous media is studied, with a focus on developing relationships for evaluating the effective fluid mobility. Three methods are used here: (i) a numerical solution of the Cauchy momentum equation with the Carreau or power-law constitutive equations for pressure-driven flow in a fiber bed consisting of a periodic array of cylindrical fibers, (ii) an analytical solution for a unit cell model representing the flow characteristics of a periodic fibrous medium, and (iii) a scaling analysis of characteristic bulk parameters such as the effective shear rate, the effective viscosity, geometrical parameters of the system, and the fluid rheology. Our scaling analysis yields simple expressions for evaluating the transverse mobility functions for each model, which can be used for a wide range of medium porosity and fluid rheological parameters. While the dimensionless mobility is, in general, a function of the Carreau number and the medium porosity, our results show that for porosities less than ɛ≃0.65, the dimensionless mobility becomes independent of the Carreau number and the mobility function exhibits power-law characteristics as a result of the high shear rates at the pore scale. We derive a suitable criterion for determining the flow regime and the transition from a constant viscosity Newtonian response to a power-law regime in terms of a new Carreau number rescaled with a dimensionless function which incorporates the medium porosity and the arrangement of fibers.

  6. Mobility of power-law and Carreau fluids through fibrous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahsavari, Setareh; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2015-12-01

    The flow of generalized Newtonian fluids with a rate-dependent viscosity through fibrous media is studied, with a focus on developing relationships for evaluating the effective fluid mobility. Three methods are used here: (i) a numerical solution of the Cauchy momentum equation with the Carreau or power-law constitutive equations for pressure-driven flow in a fiber bed consisting of a periodic array of cylindrical fibers, (ii) an analytical solution for a unit cell model representing the flow characteristics of a periodic fibrous medium, and (iii) a scaling analysis of characteristic bulk parameters such as the effective shear rate, the effective viscosity, geometrical parameters of the system, and the fluid rheology. Our scaling analysis yields simple expressions for evaluating the transverse mobility functions for each model, which can be used for a wide range of medium porosity and fluid rheological parameters. While the dimensionless mobility is, in general, a function of the Carreau number and the medium porosity, our results show that for porosities less than ɛ ≃0.65 , the dimensionless mobility becomes independent of the Carreau number and the mobility function exhibits power-law characteristics as a result of the high shear rates at the pore scale. We derive a suitable criterion for determining the flow regime and the transition from a constant viscosity Newtonian response to a power-law regime in terms of a new Carreau number rescaled with a dimensionless function which incorporates the medium porosity and the arrangement of fibers.

  7. NASA Bioreactors Advance Disease Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is falling. This is no threat to the astronauts onboard, however, because falling is part of the ISS staying in orbit. The absence of gravity beyond the Earth s atmosphere is actually an illusion; at the ISS s orbital altitude of approximately 250 miles above the surface, the planet s gravitational pull is only 12-percent weaker than on the ground. Gravity is constantly pulling the ISS back to Earth, but the space station is also constantly traveling at nearly 18,000 miles per hour. This means that, even though the ISS is falling toward Earth, it is moving sideways fast enough to continually miss impacting the planet. The balance between the force of gravity and the ISS s motion creates a stable orbit, and the fact that the ISS and everything in it including the astronauts are falling at an equal rate creates the condition of weightlessness called microgravity. The constant falling of objects in orbit is not only an important principle in space, but it is also a key element of a revolutionary NASA technology here on Earth that may soon help cure medical ailments from heart disease to diabetes. In the mid-1980s, NASA researchers at Johnson Space Center were investigating the effects of long-term microgravity on human tissues. At the time, the Agency s shuttle fleet was grounded following the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, and researchers had no access to the microgravity conditions of space. To provide a method for recreating such conditions on Earth, Johnson s David Wolf, Tinh Trinh, and Ray Schwarz developed that same year a horizontal, rotating device called a rotating wall bioreactor that allowed the growth of human cells in simulated weightlessness. Previously, cell cultures on Earth could only be grown two-dimensionally in Petri dishes, because gravity would cause the multiplying cells to sink within their growth medium. These cells do not look or function like real human cells, which grow three-dimensionally in

  8. Thin film bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization, and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one inmportant variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would make it possible to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  9. Thin film bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization, and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one inmportant variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would make it possible to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  10. Method for distributing chemicals through a fibrous material using low-headspace dielectric heating

    DOEpatents

    Banerjee, Sujit; Malcolm, Earl

    2002-01-01

    System and method for diffusing chemicals rapidly and evenly into and through fibrous material, such as wood. Chemicals are introduced into the fibrous material by applying the chemicals to the fibrous material. After treating the fibrous material with the chemicals, the fibrous material is maintained under low-headspace conditions. Thermal energy or dielectric heating, such as microwave or radio frequency energy, is applied to the fibrous material. As a result, the chemicals are able to distribute evenly and quickly throughout the fibrous material.

  11. Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Functionally connected heart cells that are capable of transmitting electrical signals are the goal for Freed and Vunjak-Novakovic. Electrophysiological recordings of engineered tissue show spontaneous contractions at a rate of 70 beats per minute (a), and paced contractions at rates of 80, 150, and 200 beats per minute respectively (b, c, and d). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and MIT.

  12. Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Here, a transmission electron micrograph of engineered tissue shows a number of important landmarks present in functional heart tissue: (A) well-organized myofilaments (Mfl), z-lines (Z), and abundant glycogen granules (Gly); and (D) intercalcated disc (ID) and desmosomes (DES). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: MIT

  13. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  14. Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Here, a transmission electron micrograph of engineered tissue shows a number of important landmarks present in functional heart tissue: (A) well-organized myofilaments (Mfl), z-lines (Z), and abundant glycogen granules (Gly); and (D) intercalcated disc (ID) and desmosomes (DES). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: MIT

  15. Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Functionally connected heart cells that are capable of transmitting electrical signals are the goal for Freed and Vunjak-Novakovic. Electrophysiological recordings of engineered tissue show spontaneous contractions at a rate of 70 beats per minute (a), and paced contractions at rates of 80, 150, and 200 beats per minute respectively (b, c, and d). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and MIT.

  16. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  17. Simplified Bioreactor For Growing Mammalian Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F.

    1995-01-01

    Improved bioreactor for growing mammalian cell cultures developed. Designed to support growth of dense volumes of mammalian cells by providing ample, well-distributed flows of nutrient solution with minimal turbulence. Cells relatively delicate and, unlike bacteria, cannot withstand shear forces present in turbulent flows. Bioreactor vessel readily made in larger sizes to accommodate greater cell production quantities. Molding equipment presently used makes cylinders up to 30 centimeters long. Alternative sintered plastic techniques used to vary pore size and quantity, as necessary.

  18. Morphogenesis of the fibrous sheath in the marsupial spermatozoon.

    PubMed

    Ricci, M; Breed, W G

    2005-08-01

    The spermatozoon fibrous sheath contains longitudinal columns and circumferential ribs. It surrounds the axoneme of the principal piece of the mammalian sperm tail, and may be important in sperm stability and motility. Here we describe its assembly during spermiogenesis in a marsupial, the brush-tail possum, and compare its structural organization with that of eutherian mammals, birds and reptiles. Transmission electron microscopy showed that possum fibrous sheath assembly is a multistep process extending in a distal-to-proximal direction along the axoneme from steps 4 to 14 of spermiogenesis. For the most part, assembly of the longitudinal columns occurs before that of the circumferential ribs. Immunohistochemical and immunogold labelling showed that fibrous sheath proteins are first present in the spermatid cytoplasm; at least some of the proteins of the sheath precursors differ from those in the mature fibrous sheath. That immunoreactivity develops after initiation of chromatin condensation suggests that fibrous sheath proteins, or their mRNAs, are stored within the spermatid cytoplasmic lobule prior to their assembly along the axoneme. These findings are similar to those in laboratory rats, and thus suggests that the mode of fibrous sheath assembly evolved in a common ancestor over 125 million years ago, prior to the divergence of marsupial and eutherian lineages.

  19. Morphogenesis of the fibrous sheath in the marsupial spermatozoon

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, M; Breed, WG

    2005-01-01

    The spermatozoon fibrous sheath contains longitudinal columns and circumferential ribs. It surrounds the axoneme of the principal piece of the mammalian sperm tail, and may be important in sperm stability and motility. Here we describe its assembly during spermiogenesis in a marsupial, the brush-tail possum, and compare its structural organization with that of eutherian mammals, birds and reptiles. Transmission electron microscopy showed that possum fibrous sheath assembly is a multistep process extending in a distal-to-proximal direction along the axoneme from steps 4 to 14 of spermiogenesis. For the most part, assembly of the longitudinal columns occurs before that of the circumferential ribs. Immunohistochemical and immunogold labelling showed that fibrous sheath proteins are first present in the spermatid cytoplasm; at least some of the proteins of the sheath precursors differ from those in the mature fibrous sheath. That immunoreactivity develops after initiation of chromatin condensation suggests that fibrous sheath proteins, or their mRNAs, are stored within the spermatid cytoplasmic lobule prior to their assembly along the axoneme. These findings are similar to those in laboratory rats, and thus suggests that the mode of fibrous sheath assembly evolved in a common ancestor over 125 million years ago, prior to the divergence of marsupial and eutherian lineages. PMID:16050902

  20. Holistic Evaluation of Field-Scale Denitrifying Bioreactors as a Basis to Improve Environmental Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Owen; Healy, Mark G; Brennan, Fiona P; Thornton, Steven F; Lanigan, Gary J; Ibrahim, Tristan G

    2016-05-01

    Denitrifying bioreactors convert nitrate-nitrogen (NO-N) to di-nitrogen and protect water quality. Herein, the performance of a pilot-scale bioreactor (10 m long, 5 m wide, 2 m deep) containing seven alternating cells filled with either sandy loam soil or lodgepole pine woodchip and with a novel "zig-zag" flow pattern was investigated. The influent water had an average NO-N concentration of 25 mg L. The performance of the bioreactor was evaluated in two scenarios. In Scenario 1, only NO-N removal was evaluated; in Scenario 2, NO-N removal, ammonium-N (NH-N), and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) generation was considered. These data were used to generate a sustainability index (SI), which evaluated the overall performance taking these parameters into account. In Scenario 1, the bioreactor was a net reducer of contaminants, but it transformed into a net producer of contaminants in Scenario 2. Inquisition of the data using these scenarios meant that an optimum bioreactor design could be identified. This would involve reduction to two cells: a single sandy loam soil cell followed by a woodchip cell, which would remove NO-N and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and DRP losses. An additional post-bed chamber containing media to eliminate NH-N and surface capping to reduce GHG emissions further is advised. Scenario modeling, such as that proposed in this paper, should ideally include GHG in the SI, but because different countries have different emission targets, future work should concentrate on the development of geographically appropriate weightings to facilitate the incorporation of GHG into a SI. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Degradation of trichloroethylene and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene by a methanotrophic consortia in a trickle-type bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Donaldson, T.L.; Bolla, L.L.; Palumbo, A.V.; Eng, W.

    1988-01-01

    A trickle-bed bioreactor containing a consortium of microorganisms utilizing methane as the primary carbon source was used to treat a synthetic groundwater containing trichloroethylene (TCE) and trans-1, 2-dichloroethylene (DCE). With influent concentrations of TCE and DCE of 1 mg/L each and an average residence time of about 50 min, >50% of the TCE and >90% of the DCE was degraded. The reactor exhibited first-order kinetics with respect to TCE degradation. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Estimation of flow and transport parameters for woodchip based bioreactors: I. laboratory-scale bioreactor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In subsurface bioreactors used for tile drainage systems, carbon sources are used to facilitate denitrification. The objective of this study was to estimate hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity, dispersivity, and first-order decay coefficients for a laboratory-scale bioreactor with woodchips a...

  3. TERT promoter mutations and prognosis in solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Armita; Lee, Seungjae; Schaefer, Inga-Marie; Boland, Jennifer M; Patton, Kurt T; Pounds, Stanley; Fletcher, Christopher D

    2016-12-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor is a mesenchymal neoplasm exhibiting a broad spectrum of biological behavior and harboring the NAB2-STAT6 fusion. Clinicopathologic parameters are currently used in risk-prediction models for solitary fibrous tumor, but the molecular determinants of malignancy in solitary fibrous tumors remain unknown. We proposed that the activation of telomere maintenance pathways confers a perpetual malignant phenotype to these tumors. Therefore, we investigated telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) reactivation induced by promoter mutations as a potential molecular mechanism for aggressive clinical behavior in solitary fibrous tumor. The retrospective study included tumor samples from 94 patients with solitary fibrous tumor (31 thoracic and 63 extra-thoracic). Follow-up information was available for 68 patients (median, 46 months). TERT promoter mutation analysis was performed by PCR and Sanger sequencing, and TERT mRNA expression was assessed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Patients were stratified into clinicopathologic subgroups (high-risk (n=20), moderate-risk (n=28), and low-risk (n=46)) according to the risk-stratification model proposed by Demicco et al. TERT promoter mutations were identified in 26 of 94 (28%) solitary fibrous tumors: -124C>T in 23 tumors (88%), -124C>A in 1 tumor (4%), and -146C>T in 2 tumors (8%). Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR revealed that TERT mRNA expression was higher in all solitary fibrous tumors with the mutant TERT promoter than those with the wild-type TERT promoter. TERT promoter mutations were strongly associated with high-risk clinicopathologic characteristics and outcome. An adverse event (relapse, death) occurred in 16 of 68 (24%) patients, 12 with solitary fibrous tumors with TERT promoter mutations and 4 with the wild-type TERT promoter. TERT promoter mutations were strongly associated with older age (P=0.006), larger tumor size (P=0.000002), higher risk classifications

  4. A call to expand regulation to all carcinogenic fibrous minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, F.; Steele, I.; Ambrosi, J.; Carbone, M.

    2013-05-01

    The regulatory term "asbestos" groups only the six fibrous minerals that were commercially used among approximately 400. The carcinogenicity of these six regulated minerals has been largely demonstrated and is related to fiber structure, fiber length/diameter ratio, and bio-persistence. From a public perception, the generic term "asbestos" refers to the fibrous minerals that cause asbestosis, mesothelioma and other cancers. However, other non-regulated fibrous minerals are potentially as dangerous as the regulatory asbestos because they share similar physical and chemical properties, epidemiological studies have demonstrated their relationship with asbestos-related diseases, and both in vitro and in vivo experiments have established the toxicity of these minerals. For example, the non-regulated asbestiform winchite and richterite minerals that contaminated the vermiculite mined from Libby, Montana, (USA) were associated with mesothelioma, lung cancer and asbestosis observed among the area's residents and miners. Many other examples of non-regulated carcinogenic fibrous minerals include, but are not limited to, antigorite, arfvedsonite, balangeroite, carlosturanite, erionite, fluoro-edenite, hornblende, mordenite, palygorskite, and sepiolite. To propose a regulatory definition that would provide protection from all carcinogenic fibers, we have conducted an interdisciplinary literature review to compare the characteristics of "asbestos" and of non-regulated mineral fibers that relate to carcinogenicity. We specifically studied two non-regulated fibrous minerals that are associated with asbestos-related diseases: the serpentine antigorite and the zeolite erionite. Both examples underscore the problem of regulation based on commercial, rather than scientific principles: 1) the occurrence of fibrous antigorite in materials used to pave roads has been correlated with high mesothelioma rates in New Caledonia. Antigorite was also the cause of asbestosis in Poland, and in

  5. Advanced microscale bioreactor system: a representative scale-down model for bench-top bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Ting; Aulakh, Rigzen P S; Traul, Donald L; Yuk, Inn H

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, several automated scale-down bioreactor systems have been developed to increase efficiency in cell culture process development. ambr™ is an automated workstation that provides individual monitoring and control of culture dissolved oxygen and pH in single-use, stirred-tank bioreactors at a working volume of 10-15 mL. To evaluate the ambr™ system, we compared the performance of four recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines in a fed-batch process in parallel ambr™, 2-L bench-top bioreactors, and shake flasks. Cultures in ambr™ matched 2-L bioreactors in controlling the environment (temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH) and in culture performance (growth, viability, glucose, lactate, Na(+), osmolality, titer, and product quality). However, cultures in shake flasks did not show comparable performance to the ambr™ and 2-L bioreactors.

  6. Integrated model of reaction rate equations and thermal energy balance in aerobic bioreactor for food waste decomposition.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Osamu; Isoda, Satoru

    2011-06-01

    The integrated model is composed of two basic parts: one is a reaction rate model of biodegradation in combination with bioenergetics and the other is a thermal engineering model of energy flow and balance in the bioreactor. Integrating these models provides possibility to estimate microbial activity using time course of physicochemical parameters such as bed temperature, bed weight, and/or C02 concentration during decomposition. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 7 CFR 2902.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 2902.15 Section 2902... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that..., bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding....

  8. 7 CFR 3201.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 3201.15 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that..., bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding....

  9. 7 CFR 3201.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 3201.15 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that..., bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding....

  10. 7 CFR 2902.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 2902.15 Section 2902... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that..., bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding....

  11. 7 CFR 3201.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 3201.15 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that..., bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding....

  12. Denitrifying bioreactor clogging potential during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Laura E; Lepine, Christine; Sharrer, Kata L; Summerfelt, Steven T

    2016-11-15

    Chemoheterotrophic denitrification technologies using woodchips as a solid carbon source (i.e., woodchip bioreactors) have been widely trialed for treatment of diffuse-source agricultural nitrogen pollution. There is growing interest in the use of this simple, relatively low-cost biological wastewater treatment option in waters with relatively higher total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) such as aquaculture wastewater. This work: (1) evaluated hydraulic retention time (HRT) impacts on COD/TSS removal, and (2) assessed the potential for woodchip clogging under this wastewater chemistry. Four pilot-scale woodchip denitrification bioreactors operated for 267 d showed excellent TSS removal (>90%) which occurred primarily near the inlet, and that COD removal was maximized at lower HRTs (e.g., 56% removal efficiency and 25 g of COD removed per m(3) of bioreactor per d at a 24 h HRT). However, influent wastewater took progressively longer to move into the woodchips likely due to a combination of (1) woodchip settling, (2) clogging due to removed wastewater solids and/or accumulated bacterial growth, and (3) the pulsed flow system pushing the chips away from the inlet. The bioreactor that received the highest loading rate experienced the most altered hydraulics. Statistically significant increases in woodchip P content over time in woodchip bags placed near the bioreactor outlets (0.03 vs 0.10%P2O5) and along the bioreactor floor (0.04 vs. 0.12%P2O5) confirmed wastewater solids were being removed and may pose a concern for subsequent nutrient mineralization and release. Nevertheless, the excellent nitrate-nitrogen and TSS removal along with notable COD removal indicated woodchip bioreactors are a viable water treatment technology for these types of wastewaters given they are used downstream of a filtration device. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOEpatents

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P.; Matthews, Francis T.

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  14. Water-related absorption in fibrous diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zedgenizov, D. A.; Shiryaev, A. A.; Kagi, H.; Navon, O.

    2003-04-01

    Cubic and coated diamonds from several localities (Brasil, Canada, Yakutia) were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. Special emphasis was put on investigation of water-related features of transmission Infra-red and Raman spectra. Presence of molecular water is inferred from broad absorption bands in IR at 3420 and 1640 cm-1. These bands were observed in many of the investigated samples. It is likely that molecular water is present in microinclusions in liquid state, since no clear indications of solid H_2O (ice VI-VII, Kagi et al., 2000) were found. Comparison of absorption by HOH and OH vibrations shows that diamonds can be separated into two principal groups: those containing liquid water (direct proportionality of OH and HOH absorption) and those with stronger absorption by OH group. Fraction of diamonds in every group depends on their provenance. There might be positive correlation between internal pressure in microinclusions (determined using quartz barometer, Navon et al., 1988) and affiliation with diamonds containing liquid water. In many cases absorption by HOH vibration is considerably lower than absorption by hydroxyl (OH) group. This may be explained if OH groups are partially present in mineral and/or melt inclusions. This hypothesis is supported by following fact: in diamonds with strong absorption by silicates and other minerals shape and position of the OH band differs from that in diamonds with low absorption by minerals. Moreover, in Raman spectra of individual inclusions sometimes the broad band at 3100 cm-1 is observed. This band is OH-related. In some samples water distribution is not homogeneous. Central part of the diamond usually contains more water than outer parts, but this is not a general rule for all the samples. Water absorption usually correlated with absorption of other components (carbonates, silicates and others). At that fibrous diamonds with relatively high content of silicates are characterized by molecular water. OH

  15. Kinetics studies of p-cresol biodegradation by using Pseudomonas putida in batch reactor and in continuous bioreactor packed with calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Mathur, A K; Bala, Shashi; Majumder, C B; Sarkar, S

    2010-01-01

    Present study deals with the biodegradation of p-cresol by using Pseudomonas putida in a batch reactor and a continuous bioreactor packed with calcium alginate beads. The maximum specific growth rate of 0.8121 h(-1) was obtained at 200 mg L(-1) concentration of p-cresol in batch reactor. The maximum p-cresol degradation rate was obtained 6.598 mg L(-1) h(-1) at S(o)=200 mg L(-1) and 62.8 mg L(-1) h(-1) at S(o)=500 mg L(-1) for batch reactor and a continuous bioreactor, respectively. The p-cresol degradation rate of continuous bioreactor was 9 to 10-fold higher than those of the batch reactor. It shows that the continuous bioreactor could tolerate a higher concentration of p-cresol. A Haldane model was also used for p-cresol inhibition in batch reactor and a modified equation similar to Haldane model for continuous bioreactor. The Haldane parameters were obtained as µ(max) 0.3398 h(-1), K(s) 110.9574 mg L(-1), and K(I) 497.6169 mg L(-1) in batch reactor. The parameters used in continuous bioreactor were obtained as D(max) 91.801 mg L(-1) h(-1), K(s) 131.292 mg L(-1), and K(I) 1217.7 mg L(-1). The value K(I) of continuous bioreactor is approximately 2.5 times higher than the batch reactor. Higher K(I) value of continuous bioreactor indicates P. putida can grow at high range of p-cresol concentration. The ability of tolerance of higher p-cresol concentrations may be one reason for biofilm attachment on the packed bed in the continuous operation.

  16. Microbiological Analysis of an Active Pilot-Scale Mobile Bioreactor Treating Organic Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.

    1997-11-26

    Samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a granular activated carbon fluidized bed bioreactor (GAC-FBR). This GAC-FBR was in operation at a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) Site in Augusta Georgia for in situ groundwater bioremediation of organics. The samples included contaminated site groundwater, GAC-FBR effluent, and biofilm coated granular activated carbon at 5, 9, and 13 feet within the GAC-FBR column. The objective of this analysis was to correlate contaminant removal with microbiological activity within the GAC-FBR.

  17. Plant Cell-Based Recombinant Antibody Manufacturing with a 200 L Orbitally Shaken Disposable Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Raven, Nicole; Schillberg, Stefan; Rasche, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco BY-2 cells are an attractive platform for the manufacture of a variety of biopharmaceutical proteins, including antibodies. Here, we describe the scaled-up cultivation of human IgG-secreting BY-2 cells in a 200 L orbitally shaken disposable bioreactor, resulting in cell growth and recombinant protein yields that are proportionately comparable with those obtained from cultivations in 500 mL shake flasks. Furthermore, we present an efficient downstream process for antibody recovery from the viscous spent culture medium using expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography.

  18. Oxidative stress inhibition and oxidant activity by fibrous clays.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Gómez-Vidales, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Fibrous clays (sepiolite, palygorskite) are produced at 1.2m tonnes per year and have a wide range of industrial applications needing to replace long-fibre length asbestos. However, information on the beneficial effects of fibrous clays on health remains scarce. This paper reports on the effect of sepiolite (Vallecas, Spain) and palygorskite (Torrejón El Rubio, Spain) on cell damage via oxidative stress (determined as the progress of lipid peroxidation, LP). The extent of LP was assessed using the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances assay. The oxidant activity by fibrous clays was quantified using Electron-Paramagnetic Resonance. Sepiolite and palygorskite inhibited LP, whereby corresponding IC50 values were 6557±1024 and 4250±289μgmL(-1). As evidenced by dose-response experiments LP inhibition by palygorskite was surface-controlled. Fibrous clay surfaces did not stabilize HO species, except for suspensions containing 5000μgmL(-1). A strong oxidant (or weak anti-oxidant) activity favours the inhibition of LP by fibrous clays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Stress transfer through fibrous materials in wicking experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaenkova, Daria; Andrukh, Taras; Kornev, Konstantin

    2009-11-01

    Due to the recent progress in preparation of fibers and nanofibers with different properties, the idea of smart textiles attracts much attention. In many situations the probes and sensors are designed for bio fluid detection. The liquid penetration in fibrous materials causes their deformations including stretching, twisting, wrinkling, buckling etc. The most of researches on wicking properties of textiles are focused on determination of media permeability and ignore the specific features of fibrous materials. On the other hand the theoretical works on quantitative analysis of the deformation effects in porous materials filled with liquids are mostly focused on deformation of fully saturated samples. The fundamental understanding of the stress transfer through the fiber network is crucial for sensors development, but to the best of our knowledge, the stress analysis in the fibrous materials absorbing liquids has never been discussed in the literature. This paper sets a physical basis for analysis of absorption processes in nanotubular and nanofibrous materials. We study absorption of droplets by yarns and webs made of fibers, develop a theory which explains the stress distribution in fibrous materials and checked this theory on wicking experiments. The reported theory and experiments propose a new area of research on absorption-induced deformations of fibrous materials.

  20. Electrospun nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte for secondary lithium battery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Padmaraj, O.; Rao, B. Nageswara; Jena, Paramananda; Satyanarayana, N.; Venkateswarlu, M.

    2014-04-24

    Hybrid nanocomposite [poly(vinylidene fluoride -co- hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)/magnesium aluminate (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4})] fibrous polymer membranes were prepared by electrospinning method. The prepared pure and nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membranes were soaked into the liquid electrolyte 1M LiPF{sub 6} in EC: DEC (1:1,v/v). XRD and SEM are used to study the structural and morphological studies of nanocomposite electrospun fibrous polymer membranes. The nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane with 5 wt.% of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibits high ionic conductivity of 2.80 × 10{sup −3} S/cm at room temperature. The charge-discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO{sub 2} coin cells composed of the newly prepared nanocomposite [(16 wt.%) PVdF-co-HFP+(5 wt.%) MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}] fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane was also studied and compared with commercial Celgard separator.

  1. [About a case of calcifying fibrous tumor of the pleura].

    PubMed

    Rocas, Delphine; Thivolet-Béjui, Françoise; Tronc, François; Chalabreysse, Lara

    2015-12-01

    Calcifying fibrous tumor is a rare soft tissue benign tumor (OMS 2002). Some pleural localisations are described, which affect slightly older individuals than the other soft tissue forms. The calcifying fibrous tumor is included in the 2004 World Health Organization classification of pleural tumors. A pleural tumor located in the right inferior pulmonary lobe is diagnosed in a 59-year-old man. This pleural tumor is macroscopically well-circumscribed. Histologically, the rare spindle tumoral cells are located between bundles of a collagenous tissue, sometimes hyalinized, with psammomatous or dystrophic calcifications. The tumoral cells have a fibrohistiocytic origin. They stain positively for antibodies against vimentin, factor XIIIa, CD68, CD163, CD34. Antibodies against smooth muscle actin, desmin, PS100, ALK1 and EBV are negative. Main differencial diagnoses are other benign pleural tumors (solitary fibrous tumor, inflammatory myofibroblastique tumor), some malignant tumors (desmoplastic malignant pleural mesothelioma) and pleural pseudotumors (calcified pleural plaques, chronic fibrous pleuritis, amylose, hyalinizing granuloma). Our case is the 15th pleural calcifying fibrous tumor being reported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  3. Open Source Software to Control Bioflo Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Burdge, David A.; Libourel, Igor G. L.

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactors are designed to support highly controlled environments for growth of tissues, cell cultures or microbial cultures. A variety of bioreactors are commercially available, often including sophisticated software to enhance the functionality of the bioreactor. However, experiments that the bioreactor hardware can support, but that were not envisioned during the software design cannot be performed without developing custom software. In addition, support for third party or custom designed auxiliary hardware is often sparse or absent. This work presents flexible open source freeware for the control of bioreactors of the Bioflo product family. The functionality of the software includes setpoint control, data logging, and protocol execution. Auxiliary hardware can be easily integrated and controlled through an integrated plugin interface without altering existing software. Simple experimental protocols can be entered as a CSV scripting file, and a Python-based protocol execution model is included for more demanding conditional experimental control. The software was designed to be a more flexible and free open source alternative to the commercially available solution. The source code and various auxiliary hardware plugins are publicly available for download from https://github.com/LibourelLab/BiofloSoftware. In addition to the source code, the software was compiled and packaged as a self-installing file for 32 and 64 bit windows operating systems. The compiled software will be able to control a Bioflo system, and will not require the installation of LabVIEW. PMID:24667828

  4. Open source software to control Bioflo bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Burdge, David A; Libourel, Igor G L

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactors are designed to support highly controlled environments for growth of tissues, cell cultures or microbial cultures. A variety of bioreactors are commercially available, often including sophisticated software to enhance the functionality of the bioreactor. However, experiments that the bioreactor hardware can support, but that were not envisioned during the software design cannot be performed without developing custom software. In addition, support for third party or custom designed auxiliary hardware is often sparse or absent. This work presents flexible open source freeware for the control of bioreactors of the Bioflo product family. The functionality of the software includes setpoint control, data logging, and protocol execution. Auxiliary hardware can be easily integrated and controlled through an integrated plugin interface without altering existing software. Simple experimental protocols can be entered as a CSV scripting file, and a Python-based protocol execution model is included for more demanding conditional experimental control. The software was designed to be a more flexible and free open source alternative to the commercially available solution. The source code and various auxiliary hardware plugins are publicly available for download from https://github.com/LibourelLab/BiofloSoftware. In addition to the source code, the software was compiled and packaged as a self-installing file for 32 and 64 bit windows operating systems. The compiled software will be able to control a Bioflo system, and will not require the installation of LabVIEW.

  5. Nitrogen management in bioreactor landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Price, G. Alexander; Barlaz, Morton A.; Hater, Gary R

    2003-07-01

    One scenario for long-term nitrogen management in landfills is ex situ nitrification followed by denitrification in the landfill. The objective of this research was to measure the denitrification potential of actively decomposing and well decomposed refuse. A series of 10-l reactors that were actively producing methane were fed 400 mg NO{sub 3}-N /l every 48 h for periods of 19-59 days. Up to 29 nitrate additions were either completely or largely depleted within 48 h of addition and the denitrification reactions did not adversely affect the leachate pH. Nitrate did inhibit methane production, but the reactors recovered their methane-producing activity with the termination of nitrate addition. In well decomposed refuse, the nitrate consumption rate was reduced but was easily stimulated by the addition of either acetate or an overlayer of fresh refuse. Addition of acetate at five times the amount required to reduce nitrate did not lead to the production of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by dissimilatory nitrate reduction. The most probable number of denitrifying bacteria decreased by about five orders of magnitude during refuse decomposition in a reactor that did not receive nitrate. However, rapid denitrification commenced immediately with nitrate addition. This study shows that the use of a landfill as a bioreactor for the conversion of nitrate to a harmless byproduct, nitrogen gas, is technically viable.

  6. Bed Bugs and Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Bed bugs have long been a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. They are successful hitchhikers, and can move from an infested site to furniture, bedding, baggage, boxes, and clothing.

  7. Tumorigenic effect of fibrous dust in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Pott, F.; Huth, F.; Friedrichs, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    Fibrous dusts (chrysotile, glass fibers, nemalite, palygorscite, and gypsum) and granular dusts (actinolite, biotite, hematite, pectolite, sanidine, and talcum) were injected intraperitoneally into rats. The fibrous dusts (other than gypsum) resulted in a high incidence of mesothelioma (30 – 67%). Gypsum produced only 5% and granular dusts none at all. It is suggested that the fibrous shape leads to a high multiplication rate of cells and predisposes to tumor formation. Fibrosis, in the other hand, does not so predispose. Milled chrysotile with 99.8% fibers than 5 μm in length are carcinogenic in our experience. The carcinogenicity of glass fibers in our experiments may have significance for occupational situations. PMID:4377876

  8. Fibrous minerals from Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Manuela; Nestola, Fabrizio; Ghiara, Maria R.; Capitelli, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    A survey on fibrous minerals coming from the densely populated area of Campania around the Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex (Italy) was performed by means of a multi-methodological approach, based on morphological analyses, EMPA/WDS and SEM/EDS applications, and unit-cell determination through X-ray diffraction data. Such mineralogical investigation aims to provide suitable tools to the identification of fibrous natural phases, to improve the knowledge of both geochemical, petrogenetic and regional mineralogy of Somma-Vesuvius area, and to emphasize the presence of minerals with fibrous habit in all volcanic environments. The survey also fits well in the calls of health and environment of Horizon 2020 program of the European Commission (Climate Action, Environment, Resource Efficiency and Raw Materials).

  9. 4D fibrous materials: characterising the deployment of paper architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulakkal, Manu C.; Seddon, Annela M.; Whittell, George; Manners, Ian; Trask, Richard S.

    2016-09-01

    Deployment of folded paper architecture using a fluid medium as the morphing stimulus presents a simple and inexpensive methodology capable of self-actuation; where the underlying principles can be translated to develop smart fibrous materials capable of programmable actuations. In this study we characterise different paper architectures and their stimuli mechanisms for folded deployment; including the influence of porosity, moisture, surfactant concentration, temperature, and hornification. We observe that actuation time decreases with paper grammage; through the addition of surfactants, and when the temperature is increased at the fluid-vapour interface. There is a clear effect of hydration, water transport and the interaction of hydrogen bonds within the fibrous architecture which drives the deployment of the folded regions. The importance of fibre volume fraction and functional fillers in shape recovery was also observed, as well as the effect of a multilayer composite paper system. The design guidelines shown here will inform the development of synthetic fibrous actuators for repeated deployment.

  10. Plastic deformation of silicon nitride/boron nitride fibrous monoliths.

    SciTech Connect

    de Arellano-Lopez, A. R.; Lopez-Pombero, S.; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A.; Routbort, J. L.; Singh, D.; Goretta, K. C.; Energy Technology; Univ. de Sevilla

    2001-02-01

    High-temperature compressive creep of unidirectional Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/BN fibrous monoliths has been investigated at 1300-1500 C in an inert atmosphere. The results were then compared to those for deformation of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and BN base materials. Plasticity of the fibrous monoliths was limited to very low stresses when the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cells were oriented perpendicular to the stress axis because the BN cell boundaries failed, followed by failure of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cells. In the fibrous monolith in which cells were oriented parallel to the stress axis, steady-state deformation controlled by deformation of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cells was achieved.

  11. Solitary fibrous tumor of the tentorium: a case report.

    PubMed

    Alapatt, Jacob Paul; Ajaya, Kumar A; Govindan, Aparna; Rajeev, M P; Radhakrishnan, M

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe the clinical and pathological features of a solitary fibrous tumor of the tentorium, a rare location for the tumor in the CNS. A 52-year-old lady presented to the neurosurgical services with headache of four months and vertigo of one and a half months duration. On examination, she had left-sided cerebellar signs and bilateral papilloedema. Cranial MR imaging showed an enhancing tumor based on the left tentorium. Clinical impression was a meningioma. The patient underwent left suboccipital craniectomy. The tumor was firm and vascular, extending above the tent through a defect. Total excision was achieved. The correct diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor could be made only by histopathology. Solitary fibrous tumors of the tentorium, though rare, should be included in the differential diagnosis of dural based masses.

  12. Making a Bed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Anthony; Stein, Sherman

    2005-01-01

    The origins of this paper lay in making beds by putting pieces of plywood on a frame: If beds need to be 4 feet 6 inches by 6 feet 3 inches, and plywood comes in 4-foot by 8-foot sheets, how should one cut the plywood to minimize waste (and have stable beds)? The problem is of course generalized.

  13. Making a Bed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Anthony; Stein, Sherman

    2005-01-01

    The origins of this paper lay in making beds by putting pieces of plywood on a frame: If beds need to be 4 feet 6 inches by 6 feet 3 inches, and plywood comes in 4-foot by 8-foot sheets, how should one cut the plywood to minimize waste (and have stable beds)? The problem is of course generalized.

  14. Design concepts for bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Peterson, G. R.; Beard, B.; Dunlop, E. H.

    1986-01-01

    Microbial food sources are becoming viable and more efficient alternatives to conventional food sources especially in the context of Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) in space habitats. Since bioreactor designs for terrestrial operation will not readily apply to conditions of microgravity, there is an urgent need to learn about the differences. These differences cannot be easily estimated due to the complex nature of the mass transport and mixing mechanisms in fermenters. Therefore, a systematic and expeditious experimental program must be undertaken to obtain the engineering data necessary to lay down the foundations of designing bioreactors for microgravity. Two bioreactor design concepts presented represent two dissimilar approaches to grappling with the absence of gravity in space habitats and deserve to be tested for adoption as important components of the life support function aboard spacecrafts, space stations and other extra-terrestrial habitats.

  15. A nanoliter microfluidic serial dilution bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gu, Guo-Yue; Lee, Yi-Wei; Chiang, Chih-Chung; Yang, Ya-Tang

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial culture is a basic technique in both fundamental and applied microbiology. The excessive reagent consumption and laborious maintenance of bulk bioreactors for microbial culture have prompted the development of miniaturized on-chip bioreactors. With the minimal choice of two compartments (N = 2) and discrete time, periodic dilution steps, we realize a microfluidic bioreactor that mimics macroscopic serial dilution transfer culture. This device supports automated, long-term microbial cultures with a nanoliter-scale working volume and real-time monitoring of microbial populations at single-cell resolution. Because of the high surface-to-volume ratio, the device also operates as an effective biofilm-flow reactor to support cogrowth of planktonic and biofilm populations. We expect that such devices will open opportunities in many fields of microbiology.

  16. A nanoliter microfluidic serial dilution bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Guo-Yue; Lee, Yi-Wei; Chiang, Chih-Chung; Yang, Ya-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial culture is a basic technique in both fundamental and applied microbiology. The excessive reagent consumption and laborious maintenance of bulk bioreactors for microbial culture have prompted the development of miniaturized on-chip bioreactors. With the minimal choice of two compartments (N = 2) and discrete time, periodic dilution steps, we realize a microfluidic bioreactor that mimics macroscopic serial dilution transfer culture. This device supports automated, long-term microbial cultures with a nanoliter-scale working volume and real-time monitoring of microbial populations at single-cell resolution. Because of the high surface-to-volume ratio, the device also operates as an effective biofilm-flow reactor to support cogrowth of planktonic and biofilm populations. We expect that such devices will open opportunities in many fields of microbiology. PMID:26392828

  17. Heat Transfer in High-Temperature Fibrous Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran

    2002-01-01

    The combined radiation/conduction heat transfer in high-porosity, high-temperature fibrous insulations was investigated experimentally and numerically. The effective thermal conductivity of fibrous insulation samples was measured over the temperature range of 300-1300 K and environmental pressure range of 1.33 x 10(exp -5)-101.32 kPa. The fibrous insulation samples tested had nominal densities of 24, 48, and 72 kilograms per cubic meter and thicknesses of 13.3, 26.6 and 39.9 millimeters. Seven samples were tested such that the applied heat flux vector was aligned with local gravity vector to eliminate natural convection as a mode of heat transfer. Two samples were tested with reverse orientation to investigate natural convection effects. It was determined that for the fibrous insulation densities and thicknesses investigated no heat transfer takes place through natural convection. A finite volume numerical model was developed to solve the governing combined radiation and conduction heat transfer equations. Various methods of modeling the gas/solid conduction interaction in fibrous insulations were investigated. The radiation heat transfer was modeled using the modified two-flux approximation assuming anisotropic scattering and gray medium. A genetic-algorithm based parameter estimation technique was utilized with this model to determine the relevant radiative properties of the fibrous insulation over the temperature range of 300-1300 K. The parameter estimation was performed by least square minimization of the difference between measured and predicted values of effective thermal conductivity at a density of 24 kilograms per cubic meters and at nominal pressures of 1.33 x 10(exp -4) and 99.98 kPa. The numerical model was validated by comparison with steady-state effective thermal conductivity measurements at other densities and pressures. The numerical model was also validated by comparison with a transient thermal test simulating reentry aerodynamic heating

  18. Copper removal using a heavy-metal resistant microbial consortium in a fixed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Isis E Mejias; Machado-Santelli, Glaucia; Sakata, Solange Kazumi; Ferreira Filho, Sidney Seckler; Rodrigues, Debora Frigi

    2014-10-01

    A heavy-metal resistant bacterial consortium was obtained from a contaminated river in São Paulo, Brazil and utilized for the design of a fixed-bed column for the removal of copper. Prior to the design of the fixed-bed bioreactor, the copper removal capacity by the live consortium and the effects of copper in the consortium biofilm formation were investigated. The Langmuir model indicated that the sorption capacity of the consortium for copper was 450.0 mg/g dry cells. The biosorption of copper into the microbial biomass was attributed to carboxyl and hydroxyl groups present in the microbial biomass. The effect of copper in planktonic cells to form biofilm under copper rich conditions was investigated with confocal microscopy. The results revealed that biofilm formed after 72 h exposure to copper presented a reduced thickness by 57% when compared to the control; however 84% of the total cells were still alive. The fixed-bed bioreactor was set up by growing the consortium biofilm on granular activated carbon (GAC) and analyzed for copper removal. The biofilm-GAC (BGAC) column retained 45% of the copper mass present in the influent, as opposed to 17% in the control column that contained GAC only. These findings suggest that native microbial communities in sites contaminated with heavy metals can be immobilized in fixed-bed bioreactors and used to treat metal contaminated water.

  19. Microbial biosafety of pilot-scale bioreactor treating MTBE and TBA-contaminated drinking water supply

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Radomir; Klemme, David A.; Scow, Kate; Hristova, Krassimira

    2012-01-01

    A pilot-scale sand-based fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) was utilized to treat both methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) from a contaminated aquifer. To evaluate the potential for re-use of the treated water, we tested for a panel of water quality indicator microorganisms and potential waterborne pathogens including total coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolytica and Mycobacterium avium in both influent and treated waters from the bioreactor. Total bacteria decreased during FBBR treatment. E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., C. jejuni, V. cholerae, Y. enterocolytica and M. avium were not detected in aquifer water or bioreactor treated water samples. For those pathogens detected, including total coliforms, L. pneumophila and A. hydrophila, numbers were usually lower in treated water than influent samples, suggesting removal during treatment. The detection of particular bacterial species reflected their presence or absence in the influent waters. PMID:22321859

  20. Sulfide response analysis for sulfide control using a pS electrode in sulfate reducing bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Villa-Gomez, D K; Cassidy, J; Keesman, K J; Sampaio, R; Lens, P N L

    2014-03-01

    Step changes in the organic loading rate (OLR) through variations in the influent chemical oxygen demand (CODin) concentration or in the hydraulic retention time (HRT) at constant COD/SO4(2-) ratio (0.67) were applied to create sulfide responses for the design of a sulfide control in sulfate reducing bioreactors. The sulfide was measured using a sulfide ion selective electrode (pS) and the values obtained were used to calculate proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller parameters. The experiments were performed in an inverse fluidized bed bioreactor with automated operation using the LabVIEW software version 2009(®). A rapid response and high sulfide increment was obtained through a stepwise increase in the CODin concentration, while a stepwise decrease to the HRT exhibited a slower response with smaller sulfide increment. Irrespective of the way the OLR was decreased, the pS response showed a time-varying behavior due to sulfide accumulation (HRT change) or utilization of substrate sources that were not accounted for (CODin change). The pS electrode response, however, showed to be informative for applications in sulfate reducing bioreactors. Nevertheless, the recorded pS values need to be corrected for pH variations and high sulfide concentrations (>200 mg/L). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.