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Sample records for fibrous bed bioreactor

  1. Design and performance of a fibrous bed bioreactor for odor treatment.

    PubMed

    Chua, H; Li, X Z; Yu, P H; Tam, C Y; Huang, Y L; Yang, S T

    2000-01-01

    Biological processes have become popular for odor treatment. In this study, a novel fibrous bed bioreactor was applied for treatment of odorous gas. The column reactor was packed with spirally wound fibrous sheet material on which a consortium of microorganisms selected from activated sludge was immobilized. The first stage of this work comprised a preliminary study that aimed at investigating the feasibility of the fibrous bed bioreactor for treatment of odorous volatile fatty acids (VFAs). In this stage, the performance of a fibrous bed bioreactor at increasing mass loadings ranging from 9.7 to 104.2 g/(m3.h) was studied. VFA removal efficiencies above 90% were achieved at mass loadings up to 50.3 g/(m3.h). At a mass loading of 104.2 g/(m3.h), removal efficiency was found to be 87.7%. In the second stage of the work, the process was scaled up with design and operational considerations, namely, packing medium, process condition, and configuration selections. A trickling biofilter with synthetic fibrous packing medium was selected. It was operated under countercurrent flow of gas and liquid streams. The effects of inlet concentration and empty bed retention time on bioreactor performance were studied. The bioreactor was effective in treating odorous VFAs at mass loadings up to 32 g/(m3.h), at which VFAs started to accumulate in the recirculation liquid, indicating that the biofilm was unable to degrade all the VFAs introduced. Although VFAs accumulated in the liquid phase, the removal efficiency remained above 99%, implying that the biochemical reaction rate, rather than gas-to-liquid mass transfer rate, was the limiting factor of this process. The bioreactor was stable for long-term operation; no clogging and degeneration of the packing medium was observed during the 4-mo operation.

  2. Butyric acid fermentation in a fibrous bed bioreactor with immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum from cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jufang; Liang, Shizhong; Wang, Xiaoning; Cen, Peilin; Xu, Zhinan

    2009-07-01

    Butyrate fermentation by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum was successfully carried out in a fibrous bed bioreactor using cane molasses. Batch fermentations were conducted to investigate the influence of pH on the metabolism of the strain, and the results showed that the fermentation gave a highest butyrate production of 26.2 g l(-1) with yield of 0.47 g g(-1) and reactor productivity up to 4.13 g l(-1)h(-1) at pH 6.0. When repeated-batch fermentation was carried out, long-term operation with high butyrate yield, volumetric productivity was achieved. Several cane molasses pretreatment techniques were investigated, and it was found that sulfuric acid treatment gave better results regarding butyrate concentration (34.6+/-0.8 g l(-1)), yield (0.58+/-0.01 g g(-1)), and sugar utilization (90.8+/-0.9%). Also, fed-batch fermentation from cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was performed to further increase the concentration of butyrate up to 55.2 g l(-1).

  3. Expansion of embryonic stem cells in suspension and fibrous bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Li, Yan; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2014-05-20

    Applications of embryonic stem (ES) cells in cellular transplantation and tissue engineering require scalable processes for mass production of these cells with controlled qualities. The main objective of this work was to evaluate two cell culture processes for long-term expansion of murine embryonic stem (mES) cells. With serial passaging, suspension cultures in spinner flasks were able to expand mES cells as aggregates for 12.5-fold in each passage of 4 days. However, extending the culturing time to 6 days in each passage caused significant loss in cell viability and induced differentiation as indicated by the reduced expression levels of SSEA-1 and Oct-4. Long-term expansion of mES cells in a fibrous bed bioreactor (FBB) was also studied for 30 days in 2 passages, 15 days in each passage. With periodically refreshing the culture medium, a high expansion fold of 60-77 was achieved in each passage. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR were used to analyze key pluripotency and differentiation markers. The results showed that the expanded cells in both suspension and FBB cultures remained in a highly pluripotent state, which was also confirmed with the embryoid body (EB) forming efficiency test. It is concluded that both the suspension and FBB cultures are suitable to support long-term expansion of undifferentiated mES cells. However, the FBB culture can sustain cell growth for a longer period without frequent passaging, requires less media and labor, and is thus more economical to use for mass production of ES cells.

  4. Efficient production of l-lactic acid from hydrolysate of Jerusalem artichoke with immobilized cells of Lactococcus lactis in fibrous bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhouming; Wei, Peilian; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Cai, Jin; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zhinan

    2012-10-10

    Hydrolysate of Jerusalem artichoke was applied for the production of l-lactic acid by immobilized Lactococcus lactis cells in a fibrous bed bioreactor system. Preliminary experiments had indicated that the high quality hydrolysate, which was derived from the 40 min acid treatment at 95 °C and pH 1.8, was sufficient to support the cell growth and synthesis of l-lactic acid. With the addition of 5 g/l yeast extract, the fermentative performance of free cell system was evidently improved. After the basal settlement of hydrolysate based fermentation, the batch mode and the fed-batch mode fermentation were carried out in the free cell system and the fibrous bed bioreactor system, respectively. In all cases the immobilized cells presented the superior ability to produce l-lactic acid. The comparison of batch mode and fed-batch mode also indicated that the growth-limiting feeding strategy could reduce the lag phase of fermentation process and enhance the production of l-lactic acid. The achieved maximum concentration of l-lactic acid was 142 g/l in the fed-batch mode. Subsequent repeated-batch fermentation of the fibrous bed bioreactor system had further exhibited the persistence and stability of this system for the high production of l-lactic acid in a long term. Our work suggested the great potential of the fibrous bed bioreactor system and hydrolysate of J. artichoke in the economical production of l-lactic acid at industrial scale. PMID:22975123

  5. Propionic acid production in a plant fibrous-bed bioreactor with immobilized Propionibacterium freudenreichii CCTCC M207015.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Dan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2012-12-15

    A plant fibrous-bed bioreactor (PFB) was constructed for propionic acid production. Sugar cane bagasse was applied to the PFB as immobilizing material. Starting at a concentration of 80g/L of glucose, Propionibacterium freudenreichii CCTCC M207015 produced 41.20±2.03g/L of propionic acid at 108h in the PFB. The value was 21.07% higher than that produced by free cell fermentation. Intermittent and constant fed-batch fermentations were performed in the PFB to optimize the fermentation results. The highest propionic acid concentration obtained from constant fed-batch fermentation was 136.23±6.77g/L, which is 1.40 times higher than the highest concentration (97.00g/L) previously reported. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that cells exhibited striking changes in morphology after PFB domestication. Compared with free cell fermentation, the fluxes of propionic acid synthesis and the pentose phosphate pathway in PFB fermentation increased by 84.65% and 227.62%, respectively. On the other hand, a decrease in succinic and acetic acid fluxes was also observed. The metabolic flux distributions of the two PFB fed-batch fermentation strategies also demonstrated that constant fed-batch fermentation is a more beneficial method for the immobilized production of propionic acid. The relevant key enzyme activities and metabolic flux variations of the batch cultures showed good consistency. These results suggest that the PFB was effective in high-concentration propionic acid production. PMID:22982366

  6. Acetate production from whey lactose using co-immobilized cells of homolactic and homoacetic bacteria in a fibrous-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.; Yang, S.T.

    1998-11-20

    Acetate was produced from whey lactose in batch and fed-batch fermentations using co-immobilized cells of Clostridium formicoaceticum and Lactococcus lactis. The cells were immobilized in a spirally wound fibrous sheet packed in a 0.45-L column reactor, with liquid circulated through a 5-L stirred-tank fermentor. Industrial-grade nitrogen sources, including corn steep liquor, casein hydrolysate, and yeast hydrolysate, were studied as inexpensive nutrient supplements to whey permeate and acid whey. Supplementation with either 2.5% (v/v) corn steep liquor or 1.5 g/L casein hydrolysate was adequate for the cocultured fermentation. The overall acetic acid yield from lactose was 0.9 g/g, and the productivity was 0.25 g/(L h). Both lactate and acetate at high concentrations inhibited the homoacetic fermentation. To overcome these inhibitions, fed-batch fermentations were used to keep lactate concentration low and to adapt cells to high-concentration acetate. The final acetate concentration obtained in the fed-batch fermentations were used to keep lactate concentration low and to adapt cells to high-concentration acetate. The final acetate concentration obtained in the fed-batch fermentation was 75 g/L, which was the highest acetate concentration ever produced by C. formicoaceticum. Even at this high acetate concentration, the overall productivity was 0.18 g/(L h) based on the total medium volume and 1.23 g/(L h) based on the fibrous-bed reactor volume. The cells isolated from the fibrous-bed bioreactor at the end of this study were more tolerant to acetic acid than the original culture used to seed the bioreactor, indicating that adaptation and natural selection of acetate-tolerant strains occurred. This cocultured fermentation process could be used to produce a low-cost acetate deicer from whey permeate and acid whey.

  7. Acetate production from whey lactose using co-immobilized cells of homolactic and homoacetic bacteria in a fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Yang, S T

    1998-11-20

    Acetate was produced from whey lactose in batch and fed-batch fermentations using co-immobilized cells of Clostridium formicoaceticum and Lactococcus lactis. The cells were immobilized in a spirally wound fibrous sheet packed in a 0.45-L column reactor, with liquid circulated through a 5-L stirred-tank fermentor. Industrial-grade nitrogen sources, including corn steep liquor, casein hydrolysate, and yeast hydrolysate, were studied as inexpensive nutrient supplements to whey permeate and acid whey. Supplementation with either 2.5% (v/v) corn steep liquor or 1.5 g/L casein hydrolysate was adequate for the cocultured fermentation. The overall acetic acid yield from lactose was 0.9 g/g, and the productivity was 0.25 g/(L h). Both lactate and acetate at high concentrations inhibited the homoacetic fermentation. To overcome these inhibitions, fed-batch fermentations were used to keep lactate concentration low and to adapt cells to high-concentration acetate. The final acetate concentration obtained in the fed-batch fermentation was 75 g/L, which was the highest acetate concentration ever produced by C. formicoaceticum. Even at this high acetate concentration, the overall productivity was 0.18 g/(L h) based on the total medium volume and 1.23 g/(L h) based on the fibrous-bed reactor volume. The cells isolated from the fibrous-bed bioreactor at the end of this study were more tolerant to acetic acid than the original culture used to seed the bioreactor, indicating that adaptation and natural selection of acetate-tolerant strains occurred. This cocultured fermentation process could be used to produce a low-cost acetate deicer from whey permeate and acid whey.

  8. Tapered bed bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  9. Efficient treatment of garbage slurry in methanogenic bioreactor packed by fibrous sponge with high porosity.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Sasaki, Daisuke; Morita, Masahiko; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Matsumoto, Norio; Ohmura, Naoya; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2010-05-01

    Adding a supporting material to a methanogenic bioreactor treating garbage slurry can improve efficiency of methane production. However, little is known on how characteristics (e.g., porosity and hydrophobicity) of the supporting material affect the bioreactor degrading garbage slurry. We describe the reactor performances and microbial communities in bioreactors containing hydrophilic or hydrophobic sheets, or fibrous hydrophilic or hydrophobic sponges. The porosity affected the efficiency of methane production and solid waste removal more than the hydrophilic or hydrophobic nature of the supporting material. When the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was used at a lower organic loading rate (OLR), microbial diversities in the suspended fraction were retained on the hydrophobic, but not the hydrophilic, sheets. Moreover, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed at a higher OLR revealed that the excellent performance of reactors containing fibrous sponges with high porosity (98%) was supported by a clear increase in the numbers of methanogens on these sponges, resulting in larger total numbers of methanogens in the reactors. In addition, the bacterial communities in fractions retained on both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibrous sponges differed from those in the suspended fraction, thus increasing bacterial diversity in the reactor. Thus, higher porosity of the supporting material improves the bioreactor performance by increasing the amount of methanogens and bacterial diversity; surface hydrophobicity contributes to maintaining the suspended microbial community. PMID:20162271

  10. Efficient treatment of garbage slurry in methanogenic bioreactor packed by fibrous sponge with high porosity.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Sasaki, Daisuke; Morita, Masahiko; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Matsumoto, Norio; Ohmura, Naoya; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2010-05-01

    Adding a supporting material to a methanogenic bioreactor treating garbage slurry can improve efficiency of methane production. However, little is known on how characteristics (e.g., porosity and hydrophobicity) of the supporting material affect the bioreactor degrading garbage slurry. We describe the reactor performances and microbial communities in bioreactors containing hydrophilic or hydrophobic sheets, or fibrous hydrophilic or hydrophobic sponges. The porosity affected the efficiency of methane production and solid waste removal more than the hydrophilic or hydrophobic nature of the supporting material. When the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was used at a lower organic loading rate (OLR), microbial diversities in the suspended fraction were retained on the hydrophobic, but not the hydrophilic, sheets. Moreover, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed at a higher OLR revealed that the excellent performance of reactors containing fibrous sponges with high porosity (98%) was supported by a clear increase in the numbers of methanogens on these sponges, resulting in larger total numbers of methanogens in the reactors. In addition, the bacterial communities in fractions retained on both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibrous sponges differed from those in the suspended fraction, thus increasing bacterial diversity in the reactor. Thus, higher porosity of the supporting material improves the bioreactor performance by increasing the amount of methanogens and bacterial diversity; surface hydrophobicity contributes to maintaining the suspended microbial community.

  11. A fluidized-bed continuous bioreactor for lactic acid production

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, G.F.; Fonta, J.P.

    1988-05-01

    A laboratory bioreactor consists of a fluidized bed of monosized activated carbon coated with a biofilm of the homolactic fermentative organism Streptococcus thermophilus. Biofilm growth moves the carbon through the bed, and adsorption of substrate and product at the bottom and top of the bed respectively reduces their inhibitory effects on the organism. Theory shows that high reactor productivity and rapid recirculation of carbon through the bed require a biofilm thickness of 25 to 45% of the carbon particle radius on particles fed into the base of the bed. This could not be achieved in practice due to the fragility of the biofilm. Product concentration was higher than expected from measurements of product inhibition, possibly because it is the undissociated form of the acid that both inhibits metabolism and adsorbs on the activated carbon. The observed productivity of 12 gm/1 hr could be greatly increased by ph control. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Fixed-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fixed-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fixed-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the large scale production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fixed-bed bioreactor. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor. 2 figs.

  14. Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubiliztion of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Strandberg, Gerald W.

    1989-01-01

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

  15. Biological reduction of nitrate wastewater using fluidized-bed bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Hancher, C.W.; Patton, B.D.; Kowalchuk, M.

    1981-01-01

    There are a number of nitrate-containing wastewater sources, as concentrated as 30 wt % NO/sub 3//sup -/ and as large as 2000 m/sup 3//d, in the nuclear fuel cycle as well as in many commercial processes such as fertilizer production, paper manufacturing, and metal finishing. These nitrate-containing wastewater sources can be successfully biologically denitrified to meet discharge standards in the range of 10 to 20 gN(NO/sub 3//sup -/)/m/sup 3/ by the use of a fluidized-bed bioreactor. The major strain of denitrification bacteria is Pseudomonas which was derived from garden soil. In the fluidized-bed bioreactor the bacteria are allowed to attach to 0.25 to 0.50-mm-diam coal particles, which are fluidized by the upward flow of influent wastewater. Maintaining the bacteria-to-coal weight ratio at approximately 1:10 results in a bioreactor bacteria loading of greater than 20,000 g/m/sup 3/. A description is given of the results of two biodenitrification R and D pilot plant programs based on the use of fluidized bioreactors capable of operating at nitrate levels up to 7000 g/m/sup 3/ and achieving denitrification rates as high as 80 gN(NO/sub 3//sup -/)/d per liter of empty bioreactor volume. The first of these pilot plant programs consisted of two 0.2-m-diam bioreactors, each with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 208 liters, operating in series. The second pilot plant was used to determine the diameter dependence of the reactors by using a 0.5-m-diam reactor with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 1200 liters. These pilot plants operated for a period of six months and two months respectively, while using both a synthetic waste and the actual waste from a gaseous diffusion plant operated by Goodyear Atomic Corporation.

  16. Tapered fluidized bed bioreactor for environmental control and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C. D.; Hancher, C. W.; Arcuri, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    Fluidized bed bioreactors are under development for use in environmental control and energy production. The most effective systems utilize a tapered portion either throughout the column or at the top of the column. This taper allows a wide range of operating conditions without loss of the fluidized particulates, and in general, results in more stable operation. The system described here utilize fixed films of microorganisms that have attached themselves to the fluidized particles. Preliminary investigations of the attachment indicate that reactor performance is related to film thickness. The biological denitrification of aqueous waste streams is typical of processes under development that utilize fluidized bed bioreactors. This development has progressed to the pilot plant scale where two 20-cm-diam x 800-cm fluidized beds in series accept aqueous wastes with nitrate concentrations as high as 10,000 mg/l and denitrification rates greater than 50 g/l/day using residence times of less than 30 minutes in each reactor. Other applications include aerobic degradation of phenolic wastes at rates greater than 25 g/l/day and the conversion of glucose to ethanol.

  17. Development of a bioreactor based on magnetically stabilized fluidized bed for bioartificial liver.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fei; Chen, Li; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Shan; Wang, Yu; Li, Na; Li, Shen; Guo, Xin; Ma, Xiaojun

    2015-12-01

    Bioartificial liver (BAL) based on microcapsules has been proposed as a potential treatment for acute liver failure. The bioreactors used in such BAL are usually expected to achieve sufficient flow rate and minimized void volume for effective application. Due to the superiorities in bed pressure drop and operation velocity, magnetically stabilized fluidized beds (MSFBs) show the potential to serve as ideal microcapsule-based bioreactors. In the present study, we attempted to develop a microcapsule-based MSFB bioreactor for bioartificial liver device. Compared to conventional-fluidized bed bioreactors, the bioreactor presented here increased perfusion velocity and decreased void volume significantly. Meanwhile, the mechanical stability as well as the immunoisolation property of magnetite microcapsules were well maintained during the fluidization. Besides, the magnetite microcapsules were found no toxicity to cell survival. Therefore, our study might provide a novel approach for the design of microcapsule-based bioartificial liver bioreactors.

  18. Arsenic removal in a sulfidogenic fixed-bed column bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Altun, Muslum; Sahinkaya, Erkan; Durukan, Ilknur; Bektas, Sema; Komnitsas, Kostas

    2014-03-30

    In the present study, the bioremoval of arsenic from synthetic acidic wastewater containing arsenate (As(5+)) (0.5-20mg/L), ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) (100-200mg/L) and sulfate (2,000 mg/L) was investigated in an ethanol fed (780-1,560 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD)) anaerobic up-flow fixed bed column bioreactor at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9.6h. Arsenic removal efficiency was low and averaged 8% in case iron was not supplemented to the synthetic wastewater. Neutral to slightly alkaline pH and high sulfide concentration in the bioreactor retarded the precipitation of arsenic. Addition of 100mg/L Fe(2+) increased arsenic removal efficiency to 63%. Further increase of influent Fe(2+) concentration to 200mg/L improved arsenic removal to 85%. Decrease of influent COD concentration to its half, 780 mg/L, resulted in further increase of As removal to 96% when Fe(2+) and As(5+) concentrations remained at 200mg/L and 20mg/L, respectively. As a result of the sulfidogenic activity in the bioreactor the effluent pH and alkalinity concentration averaged 7.4 ± 0.2 and 1,736 ± 239 mg CaCO3/L respectively. Electron flow from ethanol to sulfate averaged 72 ± 10%. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were carried out to identify the nature of the precipitate generated by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) activity. Precipitation of arsenic in the form of As2S3 (orpiment) and co-precipitation with ferrous sulfide (FeS), pyrite (FeS2) or arsenopyrite (FeAsS) were the main arsenic removal mechanisms.

  19. Sulfide oxidation in fluidized bed bioreactor using nylon support material.

    PubMed

    Midha, Varsha; Jha, M K; Dey, Apurba

    2012-01-01

    A continuous fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) with nylon support particles was used to treat synthetic sulfide wastewater at different hydraulic retention time of 25, 50 and 75 min and upflow velocity of 14, 17 and 20 m/hr. The effects of upflow velocity, hydraulic retention time and reactor operation time on sulfide oxidation rate were studied using statistical model. Mixed culture obtained from the activated sludge, taken from tannery effluent treatment plant, was used as a source for microorganisms. The diameter and density of the nylon particles were 2-3 mm and 1140 kg/m3, respectively. Experiments were carried out in the reactor at a temperature of (30 +/- 2) degrees C, at a fixed bed height of 16 cm after the formation of biofilm on the surface of support particles. Biofilm thickness reached (42 +/- 3) microm after 15 days from reactor start-up. The sulfide oxidation, sulfate and sulfur formation is examined at all hydraulic retention times and upflow velocities. The results indicated that almost 90%-92% sulfide oxidation was achieved at all hydraulic retention times. Statistical model could explain 94% of the variability and analysis of variance showed that upflow velocity and hydraulic retention time slightly affected the sulfide oxidation rate. The highest sulfide oxidation of 92% with 70% sulfur was obtained at hydraulic retention time of 75 min and upflow velocity of 14 m/hr.

  20. Efficacy of Aspergillus sp. for degradation of chlorpyrifos in batch and continuous aerated packed bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Maya; Srivastva, Navnita; Shukla, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ram Sharan; Upadhyay, Siddh Nath; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic biodegradation of chlorpyrifos (CP) by Aspergillus sp. was investigated in batch and continuous packed bed bioreactors. The optimal process parameters for achieving the maximum removal efficiency (RE), determined using a batch bioreactor packed with polyurethane foam pieces, were inoculum level: 2.5 mg (wet weight) mL(-1), pH 7.0, temperature 28 °C, DO 5.8 mg L(-1), and CP concentration 300 mg L(-1). The continuous packed bed bioreactor was operated at flow rates ranging from 10 to 40 mL h(-1) while keeping other parameters at their optimal level. Steady-state CP removal efficiencies greater than 85 % were obtained up to the inlet loading of 180 mg L(-1) d(-1). The continuous bioreactor behaved as a plug flow unit and was able to stabilize quickly after perturbation in the inlet loading.

  1. Concentration multiplicity in a draft tube fluidized-bed bioreactor involving two limiting substrates.

    PubMed

    Tong, C C; Fan, L S

    1988-01-01

    Concentration multiplicity in a two-phase or three-phase draft tube fluidized-bed bioreactor containing biofloc particles is studied. The kinetics of biological reactions considered involve two limiting substrates. The necessary and sufficient conditions for concentration multiplicity in both the biofilm and bioreactor are examined in terms of effectiveness factor, inlet and bulk concentration of substrates, and liquid flow rate. Hysteresis behavior in both the biofilm and bioreactor and multiplicity of concentration profiles in the biofilm are also discussed. PMID:18581559

  2. Packed Bed Bioreactor for the Isolation and Expansion of Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Osiecki, Michael J.; Michl, Thomas D.; Kul Babur, Betul; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Atkinson, Kerry; Lott, William B.; Griesser, Hans J.; Doran, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are required for clinical relevant doses to treat a number of diseases. To economically manufacture these MSCs, an automated bioreactor system will be required. Herein we describe the development of a scalable closed-system, packed bed bioreactor suitable for large-scale MSCs expansion. The packed bed was formed from fused polystyrene pellets that were air plasma treated to endow them with a surface chemistry similar to traditional tissue culture plastic. The packed bed was encased within a gas permeable shell to decouple the medium nutrient supply and gas exchange. This enabled a significant reduction in medium flow rates, thus reducing shear and even facilitating single pass medium exchange. The system was optimised in a small-scale bioreactor format (160 cm2) with murine-derived green fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs, and then scaled-up to a 2800 cm2 format. We demonstrated that placental derived MSCs could be isolated directly within the bioreactor and subsequently expanded. Our results demonstrate that the closed system large-scale packed bed bioreactor is an effective and scalable tool for large-scale isolation and expansion of MSCs. PMID:26660475

  3. Packed Bed Bioreactor for the Isolation and Expansion of Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Osiecki, Michael J; Michl, Thomas D; Kul Babur, Betul; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Atkinson, Kerry; Lott, William B; Griesser, Hans J; Doran, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are required for clinical relevant doses to treat a number of diseases. To economically manufacture these MSCs, an automated bioreactor system will be required. Herein we describe the development of a scalable closed-system, packed bed bioreactor suitable for large-scale MSCs expansion. The packed bed was formed from fused polystyrene pellets that were air plasma treated to endow them with a surface chemistry similar to traditional tissue culture plastic. The packed bed was encased within a gas permeable shell to decouple the medium nutrient supply and gas exchange. This enabled a significant reduction in medium flow rates, thus reducing shear and even facilitating single pass medium exchange. The system was optimised in a small-scale bioreactor format (160 cm2) with murine-derived green fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs, and then scaled-up to a 2800 cm2 format. We demonstrated that placental derived MSCs could be isolated directly within the bioreactor and subsequently expanded. Our results demonstrate that the closed system large-scale packed bed bioreactor is an effective and scalable tool for large-scale isolation and expansion of MSCs.

  4. Packed Bed Bioreactor for the Isolation and Expansion of Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Osiecki, Michael J; Michl, Thomas D; Kul Babur, Betul; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Atkinson, Kerry; Lott, William B; Griesser, Hans J; Doran, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are required for clinical relevant doses to treat a number of diseases. To economically manufacture these MSCs, an automated bioreactor system will be required. Herein we describe the development of a scalable closed-system, packed bed bioreactor suitable for large-scale MSCs expansion. The packed bed was formed from fused polystyrene pellets that were air plasma treated to endow them with a surface chemistry similar to traditional tissue culture plastic. The packed bed was encased within a gas permeable shell to decouple the medium nutrient supply and gas exchange. This enabled a significant reduction in medium flow rates, thus reducing shear and even facilitating single pass medium exchange. The system was optimised in a small-scale bioreactor format (160 cm2) with murine-derived green fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs, and then scaled-up to a 2800 cm2 format. We demonstrated that placental derived MSCs could be isolated directly within the bioreactor and subsequently expanded. Our results demonstrate that the closed system large-scale packed bed bioreactor is an effective and scalable tool for large-scale isolation and expansion of MSCs. PMID:26660475

  5. A New Fluidized Bed Bioreactor Based on Diversion-Type Microcapsule Suspension for Bioartificial Liver Systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianzhou; Yu, Liang; Chen, Ermei; Zhu, Danhua; Zhang, Yimin; Li, LanJuan

    2016-01-01

    A fluidized bed bioreactor containing encapsulated hepatocytes may be a valuable alternative to a hollow fiber bioreactor for achieving the improved mass transfer and scale-up potential necessary for clinical use. However, a conventional fluidized bed bioreactor (FBB) operating under high perfusion velocity is incapable of providing the desired performance due to the resulting damage to cell-containing microcapsules and large void volume. In this study, we developed a novel diversion-type microcapsule-suspension fluidized bed bioreactor (DMFBB). The void volume in the bioreactor and stability of alginate/chitosan microcapsules were investigated under different flow rates. Cell viability, synthesis and metabolism functions, and expression of metabolizing enzymes at transcriptional levels in an encapsulated hepatocyte line (C3A cells) were determined. The void volume was significantly less in the novel bioreactor than in the conventional FBB. In addition, the microcapsules were less damaged in the DMFBB during the fluidization process as reflected by the results for microcapsule retention rates, swelling, and breakage. Encapsulated C3A cells exhibited greater viability and CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 activity in the DMFBB than in the FBB, although the increases in albumin and urea synthesis were less prominent. The transcription levels of several CYP450-related genes and an albumin-related gene were dramatically greater in cells in the DMFBB than in those in the FBB. Taken together, our results suggest that the DMFBB is a promising alternative for the design of a bioartificial liver system based on a fluidized bed bioreactor with encapsulated hepatocytes for treating patients with acute hepatic failure or other severe liver diseases. PMID:26840840

  6. A New Fluidized Bed Bioreactor Based on Diversion-Type Microcapsule Suspension for Bioartificial Liver Systems.

    PubMed

    Lu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Li, Jianzhou; Yu, Liang; Chen, Ermei; Zhu, Danhua; Zhang, Yimin; Li, LanJuan

    2016-01-01

    A fluidized bed bioreactor containing encapsulated hepatocytes may be a valuable alternative to a hollow fiber bioreactor for achieving the improved mass transfer and scale-up potential necessary for clinical use. However, a conventional fluidized bed bioreactor (FBB) operating under high perfusion velocity is incapable of providing the desired performance due to the resulting damage to cell-containing microcapsules and large void volume. In this study, we developed a novel diversion-type microcapsule-suspension fluidized bed bioreactor (DMFBB). The void volume in the bioreactor and stability of alginate/chitosan microcapsules were investigated under different flow rates. Cell viability, synthesis and metabolism functions, and expression of metabolizing enzymes at transcriptional levels in an encapsulated hepatocyte line (C3A cells) were determined. The void volume was significantly less in the novel bioreactor than in the conventional FBB. In addition, the microcapsules were less damaged in the DMFBB during the fluidization process as reflected by the results for microcapsule retention rates, swelling, and breakage. Encapsulated C3A cells exhibited greater viability and CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 activity in the DMFBB than in the FBB, although the increases in albumin and urea synthesis were less prominent. The transcription levels of several CYP450-related genes and an albumin-related gene were dramatically greater in cells in the DMFBB than in those in the FBB. Taken together, our results suggest that the DMFBB is a promising alternative for the design of a bioartificial liver system based on a fluidized bed bioreactor with encapsulated hepatocytes for treating patients with acute hepatic failure or other severe liver diseases.

  7. Comparison between moving bed-membrane bioreactor (MB-MBR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems: influence of wastewater salinity variation.

    PubMed

    Di Trapani, Daniele; Di Bella, Gaetano; Mannina, Giorgio; Torregrossa, Michele; Viviani, Gaspare

    2014-06-01

    Two pilot plant systems were investigated for the treatment of wastewater subject to a gradual increase of salinity. In particular, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a moving bed biofilm membrane bioreactor (MB-MBR) were analyzed. Carbon and ammonium removal, kinetic constants and membranes fouling rates have been assessed. Both plants showed very high efficiency in terms of carbon and ammonium removal and the gradual salinity increase led to a good acclimation of the biomass, as confirmed by the respirometric tests. Significant biofilm detachments from carriers were experienced, which contributed to increase the irreversible superficial cake deposition. However, this aspect prevented the pore fouling tendency in the membrane module of MB-MBR system. On the contrary, the MBR pilot, even showing a lower irreversible cake deposition, was characterized by a higher pore fouling tendency. PMID:24747383

  8. Continuous, packed-bed, enzymatic bioreactor production and stability of feruloyl soy glycerides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthesis of feruloyl soy glycerides was demonstrated on a pilot-scale (1 metric ton/year) in a continuous, four-column series, packed-bed, enzymatic bioreactor. Ethyl ferulate and soybean oil were combined and converted at 3.5 kg/d over Candida antartica lipase B immobilized on an acrylic rein ...

  9. Biological treatment of mining wastewaters by fixed-bed bioreactors at high organic loading.

    PubMed

    Bratkova, Svetlana; Koumanova, Bogdana; Beschkov, Venko

    2013-06-01

    Acid wastewaters contaminated with Fe - 1000 mg L(-1) and Cu - 100 mg L(-1) were remediated by microbial sulfate-reduction at high organic loading (theoretical TOC/SO4(2-) ratio 1.1) in a laboratory installation. The installation design includes a fixed-bed anaerobic bioreactor for sulfate-reduction, a chemical reactor, a settler and a three-sectional bioreactor for residual organic compounds and hydrogen sulfide removal. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are immobilized on saturated zeolite in the fixed-bed bioreactor. The source of carbon and energy for bacteria was concentrated solution, containing ethanol, glycerol, lactate and citrate. Heavy metals removal was achieved by produced H2S at sulfate loading rate 88 mg L(-1)h(-1). The effluent of the anaerobic bioreactor was characterized with high concentrations of acetate and ethanol. The design of the second bioreactor (presence of two aerobic and an anoxic zones) makes possible the occurrence of nitrification and denitrification as well as the efficiently removal of residual organic compounds and H2S.

  10. Bacterial Community Dynamics during Start-Up of a Trickle-Bed Bioreactor Degrading Aromatic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Stoffels, Marion; Amann, Rudolf; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Hekmat, Dariusch; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz

    1998-01-01

    This study was performed with a laboratory-scale fixed-bed bioreactor degrading a mixture of aromatic compounds (Solvesso100). The starter culture for the bioreactor was prepared in a fermentor with a wastewater sample of a car painting facility as the inoculum and Solvesso100 as the sole carbon source. The bacterial community dynamics in the fermentor and the bioreactor were examined by a conventional isolation procedure and in situ hybridization with fluorescently labeled rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides. Two significant shifts in the bacterial community structure could be demonstrated. The original inoculum from the wastewater of the car factory was rich in proteobacteria of the alpha and beta subclasses, while the final fermentor enrichment was dominated by bacteria closely related to Pseudomonas putida or Pseudomonas mendocina, which both belong to the gamma subclass of the class Proteobacteria. A second significant shift was observed when the fermentor culture was transferred as inoculum to the trickle-bed bioreactor. The community structure in the bioreactor gradually returned to a higher complexity, with the dominance of beta and alpha subclass proteobacteria, whereas the gamma subclass proteobacteria sharply declined. Obviously, the preceded pollutant adaptant did not lead to a significant enrichment of bacteria that finally dominated in the trickle-bed bioreactor. In the course of experiments, three new 16S as well as 23S rRNA-targeted probes for beta subclass proteobacteria were designed, probe SUBU1237 for the genera Burkholderia and Sutterella, probe ALBO34a for the genera Alcaligenes and Bordetella, and probe Bcv13b for Burkholderia cepacia and Burkholderia vietnamiensis. Bacteria hybridizing with the probe Bcv13b represented the main Solvesso100-degrading population in the reactor. PMID:9501433

  11. Bacterial community dynamics during start-up of a trickle-bed bioreactor degrading aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Stoffels, M; Amann, R; Ludwig, W; Hekmat, D; Schleifer, K H

    1998-03-01

    This study was performed with a laboratory-scale fixed-bed bioreactor degrading a mixture of aromatic compounds (Solvesso100). The starter culture for the bioreactor was prepared in a fermentor with a wastewater sample of a care painting facility as the inoculum and Solvesso100 as the sole carbon source. The bacterial community dynamics in the fermentor and the bioreactor were examined by a conventional isolation procedure and in situ hybridization with fluorescently labeled rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides. Two significant shifts in the bacterial community structure could be demonstrated. The original inoculum from the wastewater of the car factory was rich in proteobacteria of the alpha and beta subclasses, while the final fermentor enrichment was dominated by bacteria closely related to Pseudomonas putida or Pseudomonas mendocina, which both belong to the gamma subclass of the class Proteobacteria. A second significant shift was observed when the fermentor culture was transferred as inoculum to the trickle-bed bioreactor. The community structure in the bioreactor gradually returned to a higher complexity, with the dominance of beta and alpha subclass proteobacteria, whereas the gamma subclass proteobacteria sharply declined. Obviously, the preceded pollutant adaptant did not lead to a significant enrichment of bacteria that finally dominated in the trickle-bed bioreactor. In the course of experiments, three new 16S as well as 23S rRNA-targeted probes for beta subclass proteobacteria were designed, probe SUBU1237 for the genera Burkholderia and Sutterella, probe ALBO34a for the genera Alcaligenes and Bordetella, and probe Bcv13b for Burkholderia cepacia and Burkholderia vietnamiensis. Bacteria hybridizing with the probe Bcv13b represented the main Solvesso100-degrading population in the reactor.

  12. Start-up of membrane bioreactor and hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor: kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Díaz, J C; Poyatos, J M

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (hybrid MBBR-MBR) system was studied as an alternative solution to conventional activated sludge processes and membrane bioreactors. This paper shows the results obtained from three laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants working in parallel in the start-up and steady states. The first wastewater treatment plant was a MBR, the second one was a hybrid MBBR-MBR system containing carriers both in anoxic and aerobic zones of the bioreactor (hybrid MBBR-MBRa), and the last one was a hybrid MBBR-MBR system which contained carriers only in the aerobic zone (hybrid MBBR-MBRb). The reactors operated with a hydraulic retention time of 30.40 h. A kinetic study for characterizing heterotrophic biomass was carried out and organic matter and nutrients removals were evaluated. The heterotrophic biomass of the hybrid MBBR-MBRb showed the best kinetic performance in the steady state, with yield coefficient for heterotrophic biomass=0.30246 mg volatile suspended solids per mg chemical oxygen demand, maximum specific growth rate for heterotrophic biomass=0.00308 h(-1) and half-saturation coefficient for organic matter=3.54908 mg O2 L(-1). The removal of organic matter was supported by the kinetic study of heterotrophic biomass.

  13. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by Pseudomonas sp. in a continuous packed bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Maya; Srivastva, Navnita; Singh, Ram Sharan; Upadhyay, Siddh Nath; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos (CP) by Pseudomonas (Iso 1) sp. was investigated in batch as well as continuous bioreactors packed with polyurethane foam pieces. The optimum process parameters for the maximum removal of CP, determined through batch experiments, were found to be: inoculum level, 300×10(6)CfumL(-1); CP concentration, 500mgL(-1); pH 7.5; temperature, 37°C and DO, 5.5mgL(-1). The continuous packed bed bioreactor was operated at various flow rates (10-40mLh(-1)) under the optimum conditions. The steady state CP removal efficiency of more than 91% was observed up to the inlet load of 300mgL(-1)d(-1). The bioreactor was sensitive to flow fluctuations but was able to recover its performance quickly and exhibited the normal plug-flow behavior. Accumulation of TCP (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) affected the reactor performance.

  14. Aerobic digestion of starch wastewater in a fluidized bed bioreactor with low density biomass support.

    PubMed

    Rajasimman, M; Karthikeyan, C

    2007-05-01

    A solid-liquid-gas, multiphase, fluidized bed bioreactor with low density particles was used in this study to treat the high organic content starch industry wastewater. The characteristics of starch wastewater were studied. It shows high organic content and acidic nature. The performance of a three phase fluidized bed bioreactor with low density biomass support was studied under various average initial substrate concentrations, by varying COD values (2250, 4475, 6730 and 8910 mg/L) and for various hydraulic retention times (8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 h) based on COD removal efficiency. The optimum bed height for the maximum COD reduction was found to be 80 cm. Experiments were carried out in the bioreactor at an optimized bed height, after the formation of biofilm on the surface of low-density particles (density=870 kg/m(3)). Mixed culture obtained from the sludge, taken from starch industry effluent treatment plant, was used as the source for microorganisms. From the results it was observed that increase in initial substrate concentration leads to decrease in COD reduction and COD reduction increases with increase in hydraulic retention time. The optimum COD removal of 93.8% occurs at an initial substrate concentration of 2250 mg/L and for the hydraulic retention time of 24h.

  15. Production of rhEPO with a serum-free medium in the packed bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Deng, J; Yang, Q; Cheng, X; Li, L; Zhou, J

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant CHO (C2) cells producing human erythropoietin (rhEPO) were cultured with DMEM:F12 media containing 5% FBS for 8-10 days in a packed bed bioreactor, then rhEPO was produced with a serum-free medium (SFM-p) which was prepared in our laboratory. The SFM-p medium can support the growth of C2 cells and the production of rhEPO, and furthermore, it easily separates rhEPO from the culture supernatant. The cell culture in a packed bed bioreactor system using SFM-p was maintained in a stable condition for 20-25 days. The expression level of rhEPO was 12-28.4 mg/L. The bioreactor productivity was 71.0 mg/L.d and increased by 12-14 fold over that of the roller bottle. The glucose consumption rate was 21 g/L.d. At the end of 30 days of perfusion circulation, a final cell density of over 3.0 x 10(7)/ml of culture volume was achieved. Since the cells were entrapped in the polyester disk, the culture supernatant contained only a few detachment cells. Variations in lactate and ammonia production in the reactor were observed, and results showed that the productions of lactate and ammonia by the bioreactor were 3.5 g/L and 5 mmol/L, respectively, and did not affect the expression of interest protein. This experiment demonstrates that SFM-p is suitable for the growth and rhEPO production of recombinant C2 in the packed bed bioreactor.

  16. Performance of trickle-bed bioreactors for converting synthesis gas to methane

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmel, D.E.; Klasson, K.T.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1991-12-31

    Carbon monoxide, H{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} in synthesis gas can be converted to CH{sub 4} by employing a triculture of Rhodospirillum rubrum, Methanosarcina barkeri, and Methanobacterium formicicum. Trickle-bed reactors have been found to be effective for this conversion because of their high mass-transfer coefficients. This paper compares results obtained for the conversion of synthesis gas to CH{sub 4} in 5-cm- and 16.5-cm-diameter trickle-bed reactors. Mass-transfer and scale-up parameters are defined, and light requirements for R. rubrum are considered in bioreactor design.

  17. Novel type of adsorbing fluidized bed bioreactor for the continuous production of ethanol and lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Fonta, J.P.J.

    1987-01-01

    A new continuous bioreactor for anaerobic product inhibited fermentations is proposed, analyzed, and tested. It consists of a fluidized bed of monosized activated carbon coated with flocculent biomass. As the biomass grows, the product adsorbs, thus reducing inhibition, and the particle moves upwards to keep the bed properly stratified. Particles removed from the top of the bed are treated to remove product and excess biomass and then recycled. A mathematical model shows that the amount of biomass on the recycled carbon is a critical parameter, and that a compromise is required between volumetric productivity and bed stratification. Experiments in a laboratory-scale bioreactor are conducted for the production of ethanol (using a flocculent strain of Zymomonas mobilis) and for the production of lactic acid (using a mutant strain of Streptococcus thermophilus). The results from the ethanol experiments show that the bed does stratify but that gas bubbles tend to strip biomass from the particle. In the case of lactic acid production, the results of the experiment confirm that the reactor works and show that it performed even better than expected. The theoretical and experimental results are presented and discussed.

  18. Numerical modelling of the formation of fibrous bedding-parallel veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torremans, Koen; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Bedding-parallel veins with a fibrous infill oriented orthogonal to the vein wall, are often observed in fine-grained metasedimentary sequences. Several mechanisms have been proposed for their formation, mostly with respect to effects of fluid overpressures and anisotropy of the host-rock fabric in order to explain the inferred extensional failure with sub-vertical opening. Abundant pre-folding, bedding-parallel fibrous dolomite veins are found associated with the Nkana-Mindola stratiform Cu-Co deposit in Zambia. The goal of this study is to better understand the formation mechanisms of these veins and to explain their particular spatial and thickness distribution, with respect to failure of transversely isotropic rocks. The spatial distribution and thickness variation of these veins was quantified during a field campaign in thirteen line transects perpendicular to undeformed veins in underground crosscuts. The fibrous dolomite veins studied are not related to lithological contrasts, but to a strong bedding-parallel shaly fabric, typical for the black shale facies of the Copperbelt Orebody Member. The host rock can hence be considered as transversely isotropic. Growth morphologies vary from antitaxial with a pronounced median surface to asymmetric syntaxial, always with small but quantifiable growth competition. A microstructural fabric study reveals that the undeformed dolomite veins show low-tortuosity vein walls and quantifiable growth competition. Here, we use a Discrete Element Method numerical modelling approach with ESyS-Particle (http://launchpad.net/esys-particle) to simulate the observed properties of the veins. Calibrated numerical specimens with a transversely isotropic matrix are repeatedly brought to failure under constant strain rates by changing the effective strain rates at model boundaries. After each fracture event, fractures in the numerical model are filled with cohesive vein material and the experiment is repeated. By systematically varying

  19. Large-scale clinical-grade retroviral vector production in a fixed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuyan; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Qu, Jinrong; Wasielewska, Teresa; Bartido, Shirley; Hermetet, Gregory; Sadelain, Michel; Rivière, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    The successful genetic engineering of patient T cells with γ-retroviral vectors expressing chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors for phase II clinical trials and beyond requires the large-scale manufacture of high-titer vector stocks. The production of retroviral vectors from stable packaging cell lines using roller bottles or 10- to 40-layer cell factories is limited by a narrow harvest window, labor intensity, open-system operations, and the requirement for significant incubator space. To circumvent these shortcomings, we optimized the production of vector stocks in a disposable fixed-bed bioreactor using good manufacturing practice-grade packaging cell lines. High-titer vector stocks were harvested over 10 days, representing a much broader harvest window than the 3-day harvest afforded by cell factories. For PG13 and 293Vec packaging cells, the average vector titer and the vector stocks' yield in the bioreactor were higher by 3.2- to 7.3-fold, and 5.6- to 13.1-fold, respectively, than those obtained in cell factories. The vector production was 10.4 and 18.6 times more efficient than in cell factories for PG13 and 293Vec cells, respectively. Furthermore, the vectors produced from the fixed-bed bioreactors passed the release test assays for clinical applications. Therefore, a single vector lot derived from 293Vec is suitable to transduce up to 500 patients cell doses in the context of large clinical trials using chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors. These findings demonstrate for the first time that a robust fixed-bed bioreactor process can be used to produce γ-retroviral vector stocks scalable up to the commercialization phase.

  20. Large-scale Clinical-grade Retroviral Vector Production in a Fixed-Bed Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiuyan; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Qu, Jinrong; Wasielewska, Teresa; Bartido, Shirley; Hermetet, Gregory; Sadelain, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The successful genetic engineering of patient T cells with γ-retroviral vectors expressing chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors for phase II clinical trials and beyond requires the large-scale manufacture of high-titer vector stocks. The production of retroviral vectors from stable packaging cell lines using roller bottles or 10- to 40-layer cell factories is limited by a narrow harvest window, labor intensity, open-system operations, and the requirement for significant incubator space. To circumvent these shortcomings, we optimized the production of vector stocks in a disposable fixed-bed bioreactor using good manufacturing practice–grade packaging cell lines. High-titer vector stocks were harvested over 10 days, representing a much broader harvest window than the 3-day harvest afforded by cell factories. For PG13 and 293Vec packaging cells, the average vector titer and the vector stocks’ yield in the bioreactor were higher by 3.2- to 7.3-fold, and 5.6- to 13.1-fold, respectively, than those obtained in cell factories. The vector production was 10.4 and 18.6 times more efficient than in cell factories for PG13 and 293Vec cells, respectively. Furthermore, the vectors produced from the fixed-bed bioreactors passed the release test assays for clinical applications. Therefore, a single vector lot derived from 293Vec is suitable to transduce up to 500 patients cell doses in the context of large clinical trials using chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors. These findings demonstrate for the first time that a robust fixed-bed bioreactor process can be used to produce γ-retroviral vector stocks scalable up to the commercialization phase. PMID:25751502

  1. Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators

  2. Continuous acetonitrile degradation in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Manolov, Taras; Kristina, Håkansson; Benoit, Guieysse

    2005-02-01

    A 20-l packed-bed reactor filled with foamed glass beads was tested for the treatment of acetonitrile HPLC wastes. Aeration was provided by recirculating a portion of the reactor liquid phase through an aeration tank, where the dissolved oxygen concentration was kept at 6 mg/l. At a feeding rate of 0.77 g acetonitrile l(-1) reactor day(-1), 99% of the acetonitrile was removed; and 86% of the nitrogen present in acetonitrile was released as NH3, confirming that acetonitrile volatilization was not significant. Increasing the acetonitrile loading resulted in lower removal efficiencies, but a maximum removal capacity of 1.0 g acetonitrile l(-1) reactor day(-1) was achieved at a feeding rate of 1.6 g acetonitrile l(-1) reactor day(-1). The removal capacity of the system was well correlated with the oxygenation capacity, showing that acetonitrile removal was likely to be limited by oxygen supply. Microbial characterization of the biofilm resulted in the isolation of a Comamonas sp. able to mineralize acetonitrile as sole carbon, nitrogen and energy source. This organism was closely related to C. testosteroni (91.2%) and might represent a new species in the Comamonas genus. This study confirms the potential of packed-bed reactors for the treatment of a concentrated mixture of volatile pollutants.

  3. Treatment of ammonium-rich swine waste in modified porphyritic andesite fixed-bed anaerobic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghong; Yang, Yingnan; Li, Dawei; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhenya

    2012-05-01

    In this study, a modified porphyritic andesite (WRS) was developed as ammonium adsorbent and bed material for the anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine waste. The performance in bioreactors with modified WRS, natural WRS, calcium chloride and no additives was investigated. The bioreactor with modified WRS exhibited the best performance, with start-up time on the 7th day, methane yield of 359.71 ml/g-VS, and COD removal of 67.99% during all 44 days of the experiment at 35°C. The effective ammonium adsorption and essential ions dissociation for microorganisms by modified WRS, as well as the immobilization of microbial on the surface of the modified WRS play a great role on the high efficiency anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine waste.

  4. Biocatalytic methanation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in a fixed bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Alitalo, Anni; Niskanen, Marko; Aura, Erkki

    2015-11-01

    Biocatalytic methanation of H2 and CO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor system consisting of two solid state bioreactors in series connected to a recirculation system. Bioreactors were packed with a mixture of vermiculite shales and granular perlite material as a support material. A maximal methane productivity of 6.35l/lreactord was achieved at a hydrogen feed rate of 25.2l/lreactord, while hydrogen conversion rate was 100%. However, stable operation of the reactor at this efficiency remains to be achieved. Very simple reactor design, constructed from low cost materials, and the idea of exploiting waste material as a robust source of nutrients for methanogens makes this study very interesting regarding the overall usability and suitability of the system as part of a decentralized energy system. PMID:26298404

  5. Treatment of ammonium-rich swine waste in modified porphyritic andesite fixed-bed anaerobic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghong; Yang, Yingnan; Li, Dawei; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhenya

    2012-05-01

    In this study, a modified porphyritic andesite (WRS) was developed as ammonium adsorbent and bed material for the anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine waste. The performance in bioreactors with modified WRS, natural WRS, calcium chloride and no additives was investigated. The bioreactor with modified WRS exhibited the best performance, with start-up time on the 7th day, methane yield of 359.71 ml/g-VS, and COD removal of 67.99% during all 44 days of the experiment at 35°C. The effective ammonium adsorption and essential ions dissociation for microorganisms by modified WRS, as well as the immobilization of microbial on the surface of the modified WRS play a great role on the high efficiency anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine waste. PMID:22366608

  6. Modeling the microbial growth and temperature profile in a fixed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Christian L; Mazutti, Marcio A; Salau, Nina P G

    2014-10-01

    Aiming to scale up and apply control and optimization strategies, currently is required the development of accurate plant models to forecast the process nonlinear dynamics. In this work, a mathematical model to predict the growth of the Kluyveromyces marxianus and temperature profile in a fixed-bed bioreactor for solid-state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as substrate was built up. A parameter estimation technique was performed to fit the mathematical model to the experimental data. The estimated parameters and the model fitness were evaluated with statistical analyses. The results have shown the estimated parameters significance, with 95 % confidence intervals, and the good quality of process model to reproduce the experimental data.

  7. An analysis of a trickle-bed bioreactor: Carbon disulfide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, R.; Revah, S.; Viveros-Garcia, T.

    1999-04-05

    An analysis of the local processes occurring in a trickle-bed bioreactor (TBB) with a first-order bioreaction shows that the identification of the TBB operating regime requires knowledge of the substrate concentration in the liquid phase. If the substrate liquid concentration is close to 0, the rate-controlling step is mass transfer at the gas-liquid interface; when it is close to the value in equilibrium with the gas phase, the controlling step is the phenomena occurring in the biofilm, CS{sub 2} removal rate data obtained in a TBB with a Thiobacilii consortia biofilm are analyzed to obtain the mass transfer and kinetic parameters, and to show that the bioreactor operates in a regime mainly controlled by mass transfer. A TBB model with two experimentally determined parameters is developed and used to show how the bioreactor size depends on the rate-limiting step, the absorption factor, the substrate fractional conversion, and on the gas and liquid contact pattern. Under certain conditions, the TBB size is independent of the flowing phases` contact pattern. The model effectively describes substrate gas and liquid concentration data for mass transfer and biodegradation rate controlled processes.

  8. An analysis of a trickle-bed bioreactor: carbon disulfide removal.

    PubMed

    Lobo, R; Revah, S; Viveros-García, T

    1999-04-01

    An analysis of the local processes occurring in a trickle-bed bioreactor (TBB) with a first-order bioreaction shows that the identification of the TBB operating regime requires knowledge of the substrate concentration in the liquid phase. If the substrate liquid concentration is close to 0, the rate-controlling step is mass transfer at the gas-liquid interface; when it is close to the value in equilibrium with the gas phase, the controlling step is the phenomena occurring in the biofilm. CS2 removal rate data obtained in a TBB with a Thiobacilii consortia biofilm are analyzed to obtain the mass transfer and kinetic parameters, and to show that the bioreactor operates in a regime mainly controlled by mass transfer. A TBB model with two experimentally determined parameters is developed and used to show how the bioreactor size depends on the rate-limiting step, the absorption factor, the substrate fractional conversion, and on the gas and liquid contact pattern. Under certain conditions, the TBB size is independent of the flowing phases' contact pattern. The model effectively describes substrate gas and liquid concentration data for mass transfer and biodegradation rate controlled processes.

  9. Simultaneous carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous removal from municipal wastewater in a circulating fluidized bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ajay; Zhu, Jesse; Nakhla, George

    2006-11-01

    In this study, the performance of the circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (CFBB) with anoxic and aerobic beds and employing lava rock as a carrier media for the simultaneous removal of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from municipal wastewater at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 0.82 h was discussed. The CFBB was operated without and with bioparticles' recirculation between the anoxic and aerobic bed for 260 and 110 d respectively. Without particles' recirculation, the CFBB was able to achieve carbon (C), total nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) removal efficiencies of 94%, 80% and 65% respectively, whereas with bioparticles' recirculation, 91%, 78% and 85% removals of C, N and P were achieved. The CFBB was operated at long sludge retention time (SRT) of 45-50 d, and achieved a sludge yield of 0.12-0.135 g VSS g COD(-1). A dynamic stress study of the CFBB was carried out at varying feed flow rates and influent ammonia concentrations to determine response to shock loadings. The CFBB responded favourably in terms of TSS and COD removal to quadrupling of the feed flow rate. However, nitrification was more sensitive to hydraulic shock loadings than to doubling of influent nitrogen loading. PMID:16762392

  10. Fluid Flow through a High Cell Density Fluidized-Bed during Centrifugal Bioreactor Culture

    PubMed Central

    Detzel, Christopher J.; Van Wie, Bernard J.; Ivory, Cornelius F.

    2010-01-01

    An increasing demand for products such as tissues, proteins, and antibodies from mammalian cell suspension cultures is driving interest in increasing production through high-cell density bioreactors. The centrifugal bioreactor (CCBR) retains cells by balancing settling forces with surface drag forces due to medium throughput and is capable of maintaining cell densities above 108 cells/mL. This article builds on a previous study where the fluid mechanics of an empty CCBR were investigated showing fluid flow is nonuniform and dominated by Coriolis forces, raising concerns about nutrient and cell distribution. In this article, we demonstrate that the previously reported Coriolis forces are still present in the CCBR, but masked by the presence of cells. Experimental dye injection observations during culture of 15 μm hybridoma cells show a continual uniform darkening of the cell bed, indicating the region of the reactor containing cells is well mixed. Simulation results also indicate the cell bed is well mixed during culture of mammalian cells ranging in size from 10 to 20 μm. However, simulations also allow for a slight concentration gradient to be identified and attributed to Coriolis forces. Experimental results show cell density increases from 0.16 to 0.26 when centrifugal force is doubled by increasing RPM from 650 to 920 at a constant inlet velocity of 6.5 cm/s; an effect also observed in the simulation. Results presented in this article indicate cells maintained in the CCBR behave as a high-density fluidized bed of cells providing a homogeneous environment to ensure optimal growth conditions. PMID:20205172

  11. Fluidized-bed adsorption bioreactor for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with solvents at low concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Miyares, P.H.; Teeter, C.V.; Martel, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a major source of water contamination in the US. They pose a threat to the environment and are a potential hazard to human health. Trichloroethylene (TCE) is the most common of these pollutants. TCE is usually remediated through pumping and treating it, using either air stripping or granular activated carbon. Bioremediation is an alternative treatment that uses microbes to convert hazardous substances into nonhazardous compounds. A fluidized bed adsorption bioreactor is examined here for the treatment of groundwater contaminated at low concentrations. This pilot study showed that the packed adsorbent bed could be loaded in approximately 36 hours at a flow rate of 120 mL/min. The remediation phase of the process took approximately 13 days. The reduction in the TCE concentration in the sorbent during each round indicated that it was being remediated by the microbiological process. Areas that need to be improved are the rate of remediation and the loading capacity of the adsorption beds. Currently, each complete cycle of loading and remediating requires 2 weeks while only mineralizing 58 mg of TCE per column.

  12. Degradation of carbon tetrachloride in a semi-continuous packed-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, W.E.; Korus, R.A.; Crawford, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    Pseudomonas sp. KC degrades carbon tetrachloride (CT) when grown under iron limited conditions. A packed-bed bioreactor was constructed out of glass and Teflon components and contained glass beads as a packing material. Total void volume of the reactor, including the pump reservoir, was approximately 300 mL. Media was recirculated through the reactor with a Teflon diaphragm pump and contained nitrate as terminal electron acceptor. After inoculation with KC and biofilm growth, the pump reservoir was replaced with fresh media and 3.0 mg/L CT was introduced to the reactor. When the initial CT had been degraded, 10% of the reactor volume was replaced with new media and CT was reintroduced. This process was repeated a second time. The initial degradation rate of the reactor increased from 75 {mu}g CT L{sup -1} hr{sup -1} for the first feeding to 109 {mu}g L{sup -1} hr{sup -1} for the third. A second reactor was packed with a Celite (diatomaceous earth) biocarrier and inoculated in a similar manner to the glass bead reactor. Degradation of CT in this reactor appeared to be suppressed, possibly due to the availability of iron to the bacteria from the biocarrier. While these experiments indicate it should be possible to design a bioreactor utilizing Pseudomonas sp. KC to degrade CT in contaminated water, the suppression of degradative activity by iron will require special precautions to be taken in reactor design.

  13. Process Development of Adenoviral Vector Production in Fixed Bed Bioreactor: From Bench to Commercial Scale.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Hanna P; Heikkilä, Kati M; Lipponen, Eevi M; Valonen, Piia; Müller, Achim; Räsänen, Eva; Tuunanen, Tarja; Hassinen, Minna M; Parker, Nigel; Karhinen, Minna; Shaw, Robert; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-08-01

    Large-scale vector manufacturing for phase III and beyond has proven to be challenging. Upscaling the process with suspension cells is increasingly feasible, but many viral production applications are still applicable only in adherent settings. Scaling up the adherent system has proven to be troublesome. The iCELLis(®) disposable fixed-bed bioreactors offer a possible option for viral vector manufacturing in large quantities in an adherent environment. In this study, we have optimized adenovirus serotype 5 manufacturing using iCELLis Nano with a cultivation area up to 4 m(2). HEK293 cell cultivation, infection, and harvest of the virus (by lysing the cells inside the bioreactor) proved possible, reaching total yield of up to 1.6×10(14) viral particles (vp)/batch. The iCELLis 500 is designed to satisfy demand for large-scale requirements. Inoculating a large quantity of cell mass into the iCELLis 500 was achieved by first expanding the cell mass in suspension. Upscaling the process into an iCELLis 500/100 m(2) cultivation area cassette was practical and produced up to 6.1×10(15) vp. Flask productivity per cm(2) in iCELLis Nano and iCELLis 500 was in the same range. As a conclusion, we showed for the first time that iCELLis 500 equipment has provided an effective way to manufacture large batches of adenoviral vectors. PMID:26176404

  14. Continuous Ethanol Production Using Immobilized-Cell/Enzyme Biocatalysts in Fluidized-Bed Bioreactor (FBR)

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiem, NP

    2003-11-16

    The immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Previous studies at ORNL using immobilized Zymomonas mobilis in FBR at both laboratory and demonstration scale (4-in-ID by 20-ft-tall) have shown that the system was more than 50 times as productive as industrial benchmarks (batch and fed-batch free cell fermentations for ethanol production from glucose). Economic analysis showed that a continuous process employing the FBR technology to produce ethanol from corn-derived glucose would offer savings of three to six cents per gallon of ethanol compared to a typical batch process. The application of the FBR technology for ethanol production was extended to investigate more complex feedstocks, which included starch and lignocellulosic-derived mixed sugars. Economic analysis and mathematical modeling of the reactor were included in the investigation. This report summarizes the results of these extensive studies.

  15. A catalytic multistage fixed-bed tower bioreactor in an industrial-scale pilot plant for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Bakoyianis, V.; Koutinas, A.A.

    1996-01-20

    This article describes the development of an industrial-scale, multistage fixed-bed tower (MFBT) bioreactor using the promoter mineral kissiris for industrial alcohol producing using free cells. Specifically, the authors examined the parameters needed to maintain operational stability from batch to batch for long periods. Pilot plant operations used one- and two-stage fixed-bed, 7,000-L bioreactors. Likewise a 100,000-L, multistage fixed-bed tower system containing layered kissiris confirmed the laboratory results. Compared with a continuous stirred tank fermentor (CSTF) with recycle, a 30% reduction of energy demand and 10%--20% of the production costs are obtained. The latter are attributed to the increased ethanol concentration and alcohol productivity.

  16. Perchlorate remediation using packed-bed bioreactors and electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Booki

    Two pilot-scale fixed bed bioreactors were operated in continuous mode in order to treat groundwater contaminated by perchlorate. The bioreactors were constructed and operated side-by-side at the Texas Street Well Facility in Redlands, California. Each reactor was packed with either sand or plastic media. A perchlorate-reducing bacterium, Dechlorosoma sp. KJ, was used to inoculate the bioreactors. Perchlorate was successfully removed down to a non-detectable level (<4mug/L) in both bioreactors with acetate as a carbon source and nutrients at loading rates less than 0.063 L/s (1 gpm; 0.34 L/m2s). The sand medium bioreactor could achieve complete-perchlorate removal up to flow rate of 0.126 L/s. A regular backwashing cycle (once a week) was an important factor for completely removing perchlorate in groundwater. Power generation directly from pure or mixed organic matter was examined using microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which were run either in batch or continuous mode. In batch experiments, both a pure culture (Geobactor metallireducens) and a mixed culture (wastewater inoculum) were used as the biocatalyst, and acetate was added as substrate in the anode chamber of the MFC. Power output in a membrane MFC with either inoculum was essentially the same, with 40 +/- 1 mW/m2 for G. metallireducens and 38 +/- 1 mW/m2 for mixed culture. A different type of the MFC containing a salt bridge instead of a membrane system was examined to generate power using the same substrate and pure culture as used in the membrane MFC. Power output in the salt bridge MFC was 2.2 mW/m 2. It was found that the lower power output was directly attributed to the higher internal resistance of the salt bridge system (19920 +/- 50 O) in comparison with that of the membrane system (1286 +/- 1 O). Continuous electricity generation was examined in a flat plate microbial fuel cell (FPMFC) using domestic wastewater and specific organic substrates. The FPMFC, containing a combined electrode/proton exchange

  17. Gaseous hexane biodegradation by Fusarium solani in two liquid phase packed-bed and stirred-tank bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Sonia; Muñoz, Raúl; Hernández, Sergio; Guieysse, Benoit; Revah, Sergio

    2006-04-01

    Biofiltration of hydrophobic volatile pollutants is intrinsically limited by poor transfer of the pollutants from the gaseous to the liquid biotic phase, where biodegradation occurs. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of silicone oil for enhancing the transport and subsequent biodegradation of hexane by the fungus Fusarium solani in various bioreactor configurations. Silicone oil was first selected among various solvents for its biocompatibility, nonbiodegradability, and good partitioning properties toward hexane. In batch tests, the use of silicone oil improved hexane specific biodegradation by approximately 60%. Subsequent biodegradation experiments were conducted in stirred-tank (1.5 L) and packed-bed (2.5 L) bioreactors fed with a constant gaseous hexane load of 180 g x m(-3)(reactor) x h(-1) and operated for 12 and 40 days, respectively. In the stirred reactors, the maximum hexane elimination capacity (EC) increased from 50 g x m(-3)(reactor) x h(-1) (removal efficiency, RE of 28%) in the control not supplied with silicone oil to 120 g x m(-3)(reactor) x h(-1) in the biphasic system (67% RE). In the packed-bed bioreactors, the maximum EC ranged from 110 (50% RE) to 180 g x m(-3)(reactor) x h(-1) (> 90% RE) in the control and two-liquid-phase systems, respectively. These results represent, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case of fungi use in a two-liquid-phase bioreactor and the highest hexane removal capacities so far reported in biofilters. PMID:16646479

  18. Gaseous hexane biodegradation by Fusarium solani in two liquid phase packed-bed and stirred-tank bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Sonia; Muñoz, Raúl; Hernández, Sergio; Guieysse, Benoit; Revah, Sergio

    2006-04-01

    Biofiltration of hydrophobic volatile pollutants is intrinsically limited by poor transfer of the pollutants from the gaseous to the liquid biotic phase, where biodegradation occurs. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of silicone oil for enhancing the transport and subsequent biodegradation of hexane by the fungus Fusarium solani in various bioreactor configurations. Silicone oil was first selected among various solvents for its biocompatibility, nonbiodegradability, and good partitioning properties toward hexane. In batch tests, the use of silicone oil improved hexane specific biodegradation by approximately 60%. Subsequent biodegradation experiments were conducted in stirred-tank (1.5 L) and packed-bed (2.5 L) bioreactors fed with a constant gaseous hexane load of 180 g x m(-3)(reactor) x h(-1) and operated for 12 and 40 days, respectively. In the stirred reactors, the maximum hexane elimination capacity (EC) increased from 50 g x m(-3)(reactor) x h(-1) (removal efficiency, RE of 28%) in the control not supplied with silicone oil to 120 g x m(-3)(reactor) x h(-1) in the biphasic system (67% RE). In the packed-bed bioreactors, the maximum EC ranged from 110 (50% RE) to 180 g x m(-3)(reactor) x h(-1) (> 90% RE) in the control and two-liquid-phase systems, respectively. These results represent, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case of fungi use in a two-liquid-phase bioreactor and the highest hexane removal capacities so far reported in biofilters.

  19. Lipase production by solid-state fermentation: cultivation conditions and operation of tray and packed-bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gutarra, Melissa L E; Cavalcanti, Elisa D C; Castilho, Leda R; Freire, Denise M G; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L

    2005-01-01

    The production of lipase by Penicillium simplicissimum in solid-state fermentation was studied using babassu cake as the basal medium. Tray-type and packed-bed bioreactors were employed. In the former, the influence of temperature; content of the medium, and medium supplementation with olive oil, sugarcane molasses, corn steep liquor, and yeast hydrolysate was studied. For all combinations of supplements, a temperature of 30 degrees C, a moisture content of 70%, and a concentration of carbon source of 6.25% (m/m, dry basis) provided optimum conditions for lipase production. When used as single supplements olive oil and molasses also were able to provide high lipase activities (20 U/g). Using packed-bed bioreactors and molasses-supplemented medium, optimum conditions for enzyme production were air superficial velocities above 55 cm/min and temperatures below 28 degrees C. The lower temperature optimum found for these reactors is probably related to radial heat gradient formation inside the packed bed. Maximum lipase activities obtained in these bioreactors (26.4 U/g) were 30% higher than in tray-type reactors.

  20. Start-up of two moving bed membrane bioreactors treating saline wastewater contaminated by hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Campo, R; Di Prima, N; Freni, G; Giustra, M G; Di Bella, G

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to assess the acclimation of microorganisms to a gradual increase of salinity and hydrocarbons, during the start-up of two moving bed membrane bioreactors (MB-MBRs) fed with saline oily wastewater. In both systems an ultrafiltration membrane was used and two types of carriers were employed: polyurethane sponge cubes (MB-MBRI) and polyethylene cylindrical carriers (MB-MBRII). A decreasing dilution factor of slops has been adopted in order to allow biomass acclimation. The simultaneous effect of salinity and hydrocarbons played an inhibitory role in biomass growth and this resulted in a decrease of the biological removal efficiencies. A reduction of bound extracellular polymeric substances and a simultaneous release of soluble microbial products (SMPs) were observed, particularly in the MB-MBRII system, probably due to the occurrence of a greater suspended biomass stress as response to the recalcitrance of substrate. On the one hand, a clear attachment of biomass occurred only in MB-MBRI and this affected the fouling deposition on the membrane surface. The processes of detachment and entrapment of biomass, from and into the carriers, significantly influenced the superficial cake deposition and its reversibility. On the other hand, in MB-MBRII, the higher production of SMPs implied a predominance of the pore blocking.

  1. Combination of photoreactor and packed bed bioreactor for the removal of ethyl violet from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Yen, Shao-Hsiung; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2014-12-01

    An efficient treatment system that combines a photoreactor and packed bed bioreactor (PBR) was developed and evaluated for treating ethyl violet (EV)-containing wastewater. Initial experiments demonstrated that the optimal operating parameters for the photoreactor in treating EV-containing wastewater were 2h reaction time, pH of 7, and 2 min liquid retention time. Under these conditions, the photocatalytic reaction achieved a 61% EV removal efficiency and resulted in a significant BOD/COD increase in the solution. The results displayed by the coupled photobiological system achieved a removal efficiency of 85% and EC50 of the solution increased by 19 times in a semi-continuous mode when the EV concentration was <150 mg +L(-)(1). The effect of shock loading on the EV removal was temporary but coexisting substrate (glucose and crystal violet) at specific levels would affect the EV removal efficiency of the PBR. Phylogenetic analysis in the PBR indicated that the major bacteria species were Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, Ralstonia pickettii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Comamonas sp. Furthermore, the possible degrading mechanisms of this coupled system were demethylation, deethylation, aromatic ring opening, nitrification, and carbon oxidation. The intermediates were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. These results indicated that the coupled photobiological system provides an effective method of EV removal. PMID:25259784

  2. Investigation of settleability of biologically produced solids and biofilm morphology in moving bed bioreactors (MBBRs).

    PubMed

    Karizmeh, Mohsen Soleimani; Delatolla, Robert; Narbaitz, Roberto M

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of surface area loading rates (SALRs) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) in moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) systems on the morphology and thickness of the attached biofilm along with subsequent effects on particle size distribution and the settling characteristics of the biologically produced solids. The morphology of biofilm attached to the MBBR carriers changed from a porous biofilm to a biofilm with a more filamentous structure throughout the study at various operating conditions without observable correlation with SALR and HRT. Although, biofilm morphology did not demonstrate an effect on the biologically produced solids observed in this study, the thinnest biofilms resulted in the highest concentration of solids in the effluent. Furthermore, the particle size distribution analysis demonstrated that both higher SALRs and longer HRTs resulted in a shift towards larger-sized particles. Increases in SALR and HRT, independent of each other, also showed increases in effluent solid concentration and lower settleability of the solids.

  3. Fructose Production by Inulinase Covalently Immobilized on Sepabeads in Batch and Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Ricca, Emanuele; Calabrò, Vincenza; Curcio, Stefano; Basso, Alessandra; Gardossi, Lucia; Iorio, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    The present work is an experimental study of the performance of a recently designed immobilized enzyme: inulinase from Aspergillus sp. covalently immobilized on Sepabeads. The aim of the work is to test the new biocatalyst in conditions of industrial interest and to assess the feasibility of the process in a fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR). The catalyst was first tested in a batch reactor at standard conditions and in various sets of conditions of interest for the process. Once the response of the catalyst to different operating conditions was tested and the operational stability assessed, one of the sets of conditions tested in batch was chosen for tests in FBBR. Prior to reaction tests, preliminary fluidization tests were realized in order to define an operating range of admissible flow rates. As a result, the FBR was run at different feed flow rates in a closed cycle configuration and its performance was compared to that of the batch system. The FBBR proved to be performing and suitable for scale up to large fructose production. PMID:20480008

  4. Monitoring endocrine activity in kraft mill effluent treated by aerobic moving bed bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, S; Pozo, G; Jarpa, M; Hernandez, V; Becerra, J; Vidal, G

    2010-01-01

    A Moving Bed Bioreactor (MBBR) was operated at three different hydraulic retention times for a period of 414 days. The fate of the extractive compounds and the estrogenic activity of the Pinus radiata kraft mill effluents were evaluated using Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. Results show that the MBBR reactor is able to remove between 80-83% of estrogenic activity present in the kraft mill Pinus radiata influent, where the values of the effluent's estrogenic activity ranged between 0.123-0.411 ng L(-1), expressed as estrogenic equivalent (EEqs) of 17-a-ethynylestradiol (EE2 eq.). Additionally, the biomass of the MBBR reactor accumulated estrogenic activity ranging between 0.29-0.37 ng EEqs EE2 during the different Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) operations. The main groups present in pulp mills effluents, corresponding to fatty acids, hydrocarbons, phenols, sterols and triterpenes, were detected by solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results suggest that the sterols produce the estrogenic activity in the evaluated effluent. PMID:20595766

  5. Effect of C/N shock variation on the performances of a moving bed membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Di Trapani, Daniele; Di Bella, Gaetano; Mannina, Giorgio; Torregrossa, Michele; Viviani, Gaspare

    2015-08-01

    The effect of a sharp variation of C/N ratio in a moving bed membrane bioreactor (MB-MBR) pilot plant treating high strength wastewater has been investigated. The experimental campaign was divided into two periods, each characterized by a different C/N ratio (namely, 2.5 and 15, Period 1 and Period 2, respectively). The MB-MBR system was analyzed in terms of organic carbon removal, nitrification efficiency, biokinetic activity and fouling behavior. The results showed that the nitrification process was severely affected by lower C/N value and by high concentration of ammonia. It was noticed an extensive stress effect on the autotrophic bacteria. Furthermore, it was observed an increase of the resistance related to particle deposition into membrane pores, likely due to a worsening of the cake layer features, with a reduction of the "pre-filter" effect, also related to the increase of the total Extracellular Polymeric Substances production with the C/N ratio.

  6. Ethanol production from dry-mill corn starch in a fluidized-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, M.S.; Nghiem, N.P.; Davison, B.H.

    1998-08-01

    The development of a high-rate process for the production of fuel ethanol from dry-mill corn starch using fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) technology is discussed. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale FBR using immobilized biocatalysts. Two ethanol production process designs were considered in this study. In the first design, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed at 35 C using {kappa}-carageenan beads (1.5 mm to 1.5 mm in diameter) of co-immobilized glucoamylase and Zymomonas mobilis. For dextrin feed concentration of 100 g/L, the single-pass conversion ranged from 54% to 89%. Ethanol concentrations of 23 to 36 g/L were obtained at volumetric productivities of 9 to 15 g/L-h. No accumulation of glucose was observed, indicating that saccharification was the rate-limiting step. In the second design, saccharification and fermentation were carried out sequentially. In the first stage, solutions of 150 to 160 g/L dextrins were pumped through an immobilized glucoamylase packed column maintained at 55 C. Greater than 95% conversion was obtained at a residence time of 1 h, giving a product of 165 to 170 g glucose/L. In the second stage, these glucose solutions were fed to the FBR containing Z. mobilis immobilized in {kappa}-carageenan beads. At a residence time of 2 h, 94% conversion and ethanol concentration of 70 g/L was achieved, giving an overall productivity of 23 g/L-h.

  7. Removal and fate of micropollutants in a sponge-based moving bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yunlong; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Nghiem, Long Duc; Hai, Faisal Ibney; Kang, Jinguo; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Price, William Evan

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the removal of micropollutants using polyurethane sponge as attached-growth carrier. Batch experiments demonstrated that micropollutants could adsorb to non-acclimatized sponge cubes to varying extents. Acclimatized sponge showed significantly enhanced removal of some less hydrophobic compounds (log D<2.5), such as ibuprofen, acetaminophen, naproxen, and estriol, as compared with non-acclimatized sponge. The results for bench-scale sponge-based moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) system elucidated compound-specific variation in removal, ranging from 25.9% (carbamazepine) to 96.8% (β-Estradiol 17-acetate) on average. In the MBBR system, biodegradation served as a major removal pathway for most compounds. However, sorption to sludge phase was also a notable removal mechanism of some persistent micropollutants. Particularly, carbamazepine, ketoprofen and pentachlorophenol were found at high concentrations (7.87, 6.05 and 5.55 μg/g, respectively) on suspended biosolids. As a whole, the effectiveness of MBBR for micropollutant removal was comparable with those of activated sludge processes and MBRs. PMID:24658104

  8. Comparison of bioreactors with different kinds of submerged packed beds for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Nacheva, P Mijaylova; Moeller Chávez, G; Bustos, C; Garzón Zúñiga, M A; Hornelas Orozco, Y

    2008-01-01

    The performance of aerobic submerged packed bed reactors was studied for the treatment of domestic wastewater using different kinds of packing materials with high specific areas (760-1,200 m(2)/m(3)). The tested materials were ceramic spheres, crushed tezontle, grains of high density polyethylene (HDPE), of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and of polypropylene (PP), cubes of polyurethane (PU) and polyethylene tape (SESSIL). The bioreactors were operated in continuous regime, applying organic loads in the range of 0.8-6.0 g COD.m(-2).d(-1). The obtained specific COD removal rates were very similar in all the reactors when they were operated at organic loads up to 2.0 g COD.m(-2).d(-1), after which differences in effectiveness appeared and the best results were determined in the reactors with SESSIL, LDPE and PU. Very low TSS, O&G and turbidity were obtained in all the effluents. The NH(3)-N and TN removals were dependent on the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and the removals at DO of 5 mg/l were 84-99% and 61-74% respectively. The best removals were determined in the reactors with PU, SESSIL and LDPE. The reactor with tezontle had also a good performance when operated with loads up to 1.0 g TN.m(-2).d(-1). The best phosphate removals (38-49%) were obtained in the reactors with PU, tezontle, ceramic sheres and SESSIL.

  9. Start-up of two moving bed membrane bioreactors treating saline wastewater contaminated by hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Campo, R; Di Prima, N; Freni, G; Giustra, M G; Di Bella, G

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to assess the acclimation of microorganisms to a gradual increase of salinity and hydrocarbons, during the start-up of two moving bed membrane bioreactors (MB-MBRs) fed with saline oily wastewater. In both systems an ultrafiltration membrane was used and two types of carriers were employed: polyurethane sponge cubes (MB-MBRI) and polyethylene cylindrical carriers (MB-MBRII). A decreasing dilution factor of slops has been adopted in order to allow biomass acclimation. The simultaneous effect of salinity and hydrocarbons played an inhibitory role in biomass growth and this resulted in a decrease of the biological removal efficiencies. A reduction of bound extracellular polymeric substances and a simultaneous release of soluble microbial products (SMPs) were observed, particularly in the MB-MBRII system, probably due to the occurrence of a greater suspended biomass stress as response to the recalcitrance of substrate. On the one hand, a clear attachment of biomass occurred only in MB-MBRI and this affected the fouling deposition on the membrane surface. The processes of detachment and entrapment of biomass, from and into the carriers, significantly influenced the superficial cake deposition and its reversibility. On the other hand, in MB-MBRII, the higher production of SMPs implied a predominance of the pore blocking. PMID:26901712

  10. Continuous Operation of Fluidized Bed Bioreactor for Biogenic Sulfide Oxidation Using Immobilized Cells of Thiobacillus sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandra, P.; Mugeraya, Gopal; Gangagni Rao, A.; Ramakrishna, M.; Jetty, Annapurna

    In the present study, obligate autotrophic Thiobacillus sp. was isolated from aerobic sludge distillery effluent treatment plant and the experiments were conducted in a fluidized bed bioreactor for the biological oxidation of sulfide using Ca-alginate immobilized Thiobacillus sp. All the experiments were conducted in continuous mode at different sulfide loading rates 0.018, 0.02475, 0.03375, 0.03825 and 0.054 and different hydraulic retention times 5, 3.67, 2.67, 2.35 and 1.67 h by varying flow rates 2.4x10-4, 3.3x10-4, 4.5x10-4, 5.1x10-4 and 7.2x10-4. Sulfide conversions higher than 90% were obtained at almost all sulfide loading rates and hydraulic retention times. All the experiments were conducted at constant pH of around 6 and temperature of 30±5°C.

  11. Green and efficient production of octyl hydroxyphenylpropionate using an ultrasound-assisted packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih Chen; Chen, Hsiao Ching; Ju, Hen Yi; Chen, Jiann Hwa; Kuo, Chia Hung; Chung, Yi Lin; Liu, Yung Chuan; Shieh, Chwen Jen

    2012-04-01

    A solvent-free system to produce octyl hydroxyphenylpropionate (OHPP) from p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (HPPA) and octanol using immobilized lipase (Novozym® 435) as a catalyst in an ultrasound-assisted packed-bed bioreactor was investigated. Response-surface methodology (RSM) and a three-level-three-factor Box-Behnken design were employed to evaluate the effects of reaction temperature (x₁), flow rate (x₂) and ultrasonic power (x₃) on the percentage of molar production of OHPP. The results indicate that the reaction temperature and flow rate were the most important variables in optimizing the production of OHPP. Based on a ridge max analysis, the optimum conditions for OHPP synthesis were predicted to consist of a reaction temperature of 65°C, a flow rate of 0.05 ml/min and an ultrasonic power of 1.74 W/cm² with a yield of 99.25%. A reaction was performed under these optimal conditions, and a yield of 99.33 ± 0.1% was obtained. PMID:22120649

  12. Sulfur-based mixotrophic denitrification corresponding to different electron donors and microbial profiling in anoxic fluidized-bed membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Chengzhi; Liu, Huijuan; Bai, Yaohui; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-11-15

    Sulfur-based mixotrophic denitrifying anoxic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors (AnFB-MBR) were developed for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated groundwater with minimized sulfate production. The nitrate removal rates obtained in the methanol- and ethanol-fed mixotrophic denitrifying AnFB-MBRs reached 1.44-3.84 g NO3 -N/L reactor d at a hydraulic retention time of 0.5 h, which were significantly superior to those reported in packed bed reactors. Compared to methanol, ethanol was found to be a more effective external carbon source for sulfur-based mixotrophic denitrification due to lower sulfate and total organic carbon concentrations in the effluent. Using pyrosequencing, the phylotypes of primary microbial groups in the reactor, including sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic denitrifiers, methanol- or ethanol-supported heterotrophic denitrifiers, were investigated in response to changes in electron donors. Principal component and heatmap analyses indicated that selection of electron donating substrates largely determined the microbial community structure. The abundance of Thiobacillus decreased from 45.1% in the sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic denitrifying reactor to 12.0% and 14.2% in sulfur-based methanol- and ethanol-fed mixotrophic denitrifying bioreactors, respectively. Heterotrophic Methyloversatilis and Thauera bacteria became more dominant in the mixotrophic denitrifying bioreactors, which were possibly responsible for the observed methanol- and ethanol-associated denitrification.

  13. Biodegradation of toluene using Candida tropicalis immobilized on polymer matrices in fluidized bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Song, JiHyeon; Namgung, HyeongKyu; Ahmed, Zubair

    2012-11-30

    A yeast strain, Candida tropicalis, was whole-cell-immobilized on polymer matrices of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene glycol/activated carbon/alginate (PACA). The polymer matrices were used as fluidized materials in bubble-column bioreactors for the biodegradation of toluene. Simultaneously, another bubble-column bioreactor using granular activated carbon (GAC) and a conventional compost biofilter were operated for comparison. In the compost biofilter, the toluene removal efficiency gradually deteriorated due to the limitation of microbial activity. The toluene removal in the GAC bioreactor was relatively high because of an increase of toluene mass transfer. However, low toluene removal efficiencies were observed in the PEG bioreactor, presumably because the synthetic polymer alone was not suitable for yeast cell immobilization. In the PACA bioreactor, toluene removal was found to be greater than 95% overall. The CO(2) yield coefficient calculated at the highest toluene loading condition for the PACA bioreactor was found to be higher than those observed in the other bioreactors. Furthermore, almost complete elimination capacities were observed in the PACA bioreactor at short-term toluene loading up to 180 g/m(3)/h. In conclusion, the immobilization of C. tropicalis in the PACA matrix resulted in enhanced toluene biodegradation because of the increases of both mass transfer and microbial activity.

  14. Isolation of novel benzo[a]anthracene-degrading microorganisms and continuous bioremediation in an expanded-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Rosales, E; Pérez-Paz, A; Vázquez, X; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2012-06-01

    In the present work, several samples from lab waste containers polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were investigated as potential sources of PAH-degrading microorganisms. After isolating, two fungal strains were selected as the best degrading microorganisms. Genetic identification by sequencing was carried out and they were identified as Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Byssochlamys spectabilis. Their degradation ability was determined in liquid cultures with 100 μM of benzo[a]anthracene. T. longibrachiatum cultures showed highest degradation values (around 97%) after 9 days, furthermore in a second batch the time was reduced to 6 days. To analyse the viability of industrial application, a continuous treatment in an expanded-bed bioreactor was developed operating at different residence times with T. longibrachiatum immobilised on cubes of nylon sponge. It is noticeable that the bioreactor working in continuous mode was able to operate without operational problems and attaining high degradation levels depending on the residence time.

  15. Microbial sulfate reduction under sequentially acidic conditions in an upflow anaerobic packed bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Jong, Tony; Parry, David L

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to operate an upflow anaerobic packed bed reactor (UAPB) containing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) under acidic conditions similar to those found in acid mine drainage (AMD). The UAPB was filled with sand and operated under continuous flow at progressively lower pH and was shown to be capable of supporting sulfate reduction at pH values of 6.0, 5.0, 4.5, 4.0 and 3.5 in a synthetic medium containing 53.5 mmol l(-1) lactate. Sulfate reduction rates of 553-1,052 mmol m(-3) d(-1) were obtained when the influent solution pH was progressively lowered from pH 6.0 to 4.0, under an optimal flow rate of 2.61 ml min(-1). When the influent pH was further lowered to pH 3.5, sulfate reduction was substantially reduced with only about 1% sulfate removed at a rate of 3.35 mmol m(-3) d(-1) after 20 days of operation. However, viable SRB were recovered from the column, indicating that the SRB population was capable of surviving and metabolizing at low levels even at pH 3.5 conditions for at least 20 days. The changes in conductivity in the SRB column did not always occur with changes in pH and redox potential, suggesting that conductivity measurements may be more sensitive to SRB activity and could be used as an additional tool for monitoring SRB activity. The bioreactor containing SRB was able to reduce sulfate and generate alkalinity even when challenged with influent as low as pH 3.5, indicating that such treatment systems have potential for bioremediating highly acidic, sulfate contaminated waste waters.

  16. Continuous anaerobic bioreactor with a fixed-structure bed (ABFSB) for wastewater treatment with low solids and low applied organic loading content.

    PubMed

    Mockaitis, G; Pantoja, J L R; Rodrigues, J A D; Foresti, E; Zaiat, M

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a new type of anaerobic bioreactor with a fixed-structure bed (ABFSB) in which the support for the biomass consists of polyurethane foam strips placed along the length of the bioreactor. This configuration prevents the accumulation of biomass or solids in the bed as well as clogging and channeling effects. In this study, complex synthetic wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand of 404.4 mg O(2) L(-1) is treated by the reactor. The ABFSB, which has a working volume of 4.77 L, was inoculated with anaerobic sludge obtained from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor. A removal efficiency of 78 % for organic matter and an effluent pH of 6.97 were achieved. An analysis of the organic volatile acids produced by the ABFSB indicated that it operated under stable conditions during an experimental run of 36 days. The stable and efficient operation of the bioreactor was compared with the configurations of other anaerobic bioreactors used for complex wastewater treatment. The results of the study indicate that the ABFSB is a technological alternative to packed-bed bioreactors.

  17. Anaerobic treatment of low-strength wastewater: a comparison between single and staged anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jaeho; Shin, Chungheon; Lee, Eunyoung; Kim, Jeonghwan; McCarty, Perry L

    2014-08-01

    Performance of a single anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor (AFMBR) was compared with that of a staged anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor system (SAF-MBR) that consisted of an anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor (AFBR) followed by an AFMBR. Both systems were fed with an equal COD mixture (200mg/L) of acetate and propionate at 25°C. COD removals of 93-96% were obtained by both systems, independent of the hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 2-4h. Over more than 200d of continuous operation, trans-membrane pressure (TMP) in both systems was less than 0.2bar without significant membrane fouling as a result of the scouring of membrane surfaces by the moving granular activated carbon particles. Results of bulk liquid suspended solids, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and soluble microbial products (SMP) analyses also revealed no significant differences between the two systems, indicating the single AFMBR is an effective alternative to the SAF-MBR system. PMID:24630367

  18. Development and Optimization of AAV hFIX Particles by Transient Transfection in an iCELLis(®) Fixed-Bed Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Powers, Alicia D; Piras, Bryan A; Clark, Robert K; Lockey, Timothy D; Meagher, Michael M

    2016-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are increasingly popular in gene therapy because they are unassociated with human disease, replication dependent, and less immunogenic than other viral vectors and can infect a variety of cell types. These vectors have been used in over 130 clinical trials, and one AAV product has been approved for treatment of lipoprotein lipase deficiency in Europe. To meet the demand for the increasing quantities of AAV required for clinical trials and treatment, a scalable high-capacity technology is required. Bioreactors meet these requirements but limited options are available for adherent HEK 293T/17 cells. Here we optimize the transient transfection of HEK293T/17 cells for the production of AAV human factor IX in a disposable fixed-bed bioreactor, the iCELLis(®) Nano (PALL Corporation). A fixed bed in the center of the iCELLis bioreactor is surrounded by culture medium that is pumped through the bed from the bottom of the bioreactor so that a thin film of the medium overflows the bed and is replenished with oxygen and depleted of CO2 as it returns to the surrounding medium reservoir. We show that this fixed-bed bioreactor can support as many as 2.5 × 10(8) cells/ml of fixed bed (1.9 × 10(6) cells/cm(2)). By optimizing culture and transfection parameters such as the concentration of DNA for transfection, day of harvest, size of PEI/DNA particles, and transfection medium, and adding an additional medium change to the process, we increased our yield to as high as 9.0 × 10(14) viral particles per square meter of fixed bed. We also show an average GFP transfection of 97% of cells throughout the fixed bed. These yields make the iCELLis a promising scalable technology for the clinical production of AAV gene therapy products.

  19. Continuous production of monoclonal antibody in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Golmakany, Naghmeh; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad; Furouzandeh, Mehdi; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Kashanian, Soheila; Omidfar, Kobra

    2005-06-01

    In the present study the growth and MAb (monoclonal antibody) production of a mouse x mouse hybridoma cell producing anti-digoxin MAb was evaluated. The hybridoma cells entrapped within the support matrix Fibra-Cel were cultured in batch and continuous mode following special protocols. Cell-culture studies were performed in a 1-litre spinner basket containing 3 g.litre-1 support matrix. Batch culture was operated with the cell density of 42x10(6) cells. During the 7 days of culture, the medium was sampled daily in order to assess glucose and MAb concentrations and the lactate dehydrogenase released into the culture medium. After a culture period of 72 h, the cell density and MAb concentration were found to be 10.4x10(7) cells/3 g of NWPF (non-woven polyester fibre) discs and 250 microg/ml respectively. This yield gradually decreased to 0.55x10(6) cells/3 g of packaging material and 60 microg/ml respectively at the end of the batch culture. In the continuous-culture studies, the batch culture was initially operated for 64.5 h and then continuous flow was started at the dilution rates of 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3 day-1 and finally stabilized at 0.25 day-1 within 288 h (12 days). The MAb concentration at steady state was found to be 116-120 microg/day per ml, and the yield of operation was 62.5 mg/day per ml, which was 3.5 times higher than that of batch culture. In conclusion, a packed-bed bioreactor with the support matrix Fibra-Cel, operated in continuous-feeding mode, is more efficient for large-scale MAb production than a batch culture. On the other hand, by using a continuous-culture system, a better supply of nutrients and removal of inhibitory metabolites and proteolytic enzymes was obtained.

  20. Energy conservation and production in a packed-bed anaerobic bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pit, W.W. Jr.; Genung, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing an energy-conserving/ producing wastewater treatment system based on a fixed-film anaerobic bioreactor. The treatment process is based on passing wastewaters upward through the bioreactor for continuous treatment by gravitational settling, biophysical filtration and biological decomposition. A two-year pilot-plant project using a bioreactor designed to treat 5000 gpd has been conducted using raw wastewater on a municipal site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Data obtained for the performance of the bioreactor during this project have been analyzed by ORNL and Associated Water and Air Resources Engineers (AWARE), Inc. of Nashville, Tennessee. From these analyses it was estimated that hydraulic loading rates of 0.25 gpm/ft/sup 2/ and hydraulic residence times of 10 hours could be used in designing such bioreactors for the secondary treatment of municipal wastewaters. Conceptual designs for total treatment systems processing up to one million gallons of wastewater per day were developed based on the performance of the pilot plant bioreactor. These systems were compared to activated sludge treatment systems also operating under secondary treatment requirements and were found to consume as little as 30% of the energy required by the activated sludge systems. Economic advantages of the process result from the elimination of operating energy requirements associated with the aeration of aerobic-based processes and with the significant decrease of sludge-handling costs required with conventional activated sludge treatment systems.Furthermore, methane produced by anaerobic fermentation processes occurring during the biological decomposition of carbonaceous wastes also represented a significant and recoverable energy production. For dilute municipal wastewaters this would completely offset the remaining energy required for treatment, while for concentrated industrial wastewater would result in a net production of energy.

  1. Evaluation of biological nutrient removal from wastewater by Twin Circulating Fluidized Bed Bioreactor (TCFBBR) using a predictive fluidization model and AQUIFAS APP.

    PubMed

    Andalib, Mehran; Nakhla, George; Sen, Dipankar; Zhu, Jesse

    2011-02-01

    A two-phase and three-phase predictive fluidization model based on the characteristics of a system such as media type and size, flow rates, and reactor cross sectional area was proposed to calculate bed expansion, solid, liquid and gas hold up and specific surface area (SSA) of the biofilm particles. The model was subsequently linked to 1d AQUIFAS APP software (Aquaregen) to model biological nutrient removal in two phase (anoxic) and three phase (aerobic) fluidized bed bioreactors. The credibility of the proposed model for biological nutrient removal was investigated using the experimental data from a Twin Circulating Fluidized Bed Bioreactors (TCFBBR) treating synthetic and municipal wastewater. The SSA of bio-particles and volume of the expanded bed were simulated as a function of operational parameters. Two-sided t-tests demonstrated that simulated SCOD, NH(4)-N, NO(3)-N, TN, VSS and biomass yields agreed with the experimental values at the 95% confidence level. PMID:21075620

  2. Evaluation of micropollutant removal and fouling reduction in a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yunlong; Jiang, Qi; Ngo, Huu H; Nghiem, Long D; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Wang, Jie; Guo, Wenshan

    2015-09-01

    A hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) system and a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) were compared in terms of micropollutant removal efficiency and membrane fouling propensity. The results show that the hybrid MBBR-MBR system could effectively remove most of the selected micropollutants. By contrast, the CMBR system showed lower removals of ketoprofen, carbamazepine, primidone, bisphenol A and estriol by 16.2%, 30.1%, 31.9%, 34.5%, and 39.9%, respectively. Mass balance calculations suggest that biological degradation was the primary removal mechanism in the MBBR-MBR system. During operation, the MBBR-MBR system exhibited significantly slower fouling development as compared to the CMBR system, which could be ascribed to the wide disparity in the soluble microbial products (SMP) levels between MBBR-MBR (4.02-6.32 mg/L) and CMBR (21.78 and 33.04 mg/L). It is evident that adding an MBBR process prior to MBR treatment can not only enhance micropollutant elimination but also mitigate membrane fouling. PMID:26031758

  3. The characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances and soluble microbial products in moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Duan, Liang; Jiang, Wei; Song, Yonghui; Xia, Siqing; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W

    2013-11-01

    The characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) in conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR) and in moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactors (MBBR-MBR) were investigated in long-term (170 days) experiments. The results showed that all reactors had high removal efficiency of ammonium and COD, despite very different fouling conditions. The MBBR-MBR with media fill ratio of 26.7% had much lower total membrane resistance and no obvious fouling were detected during the whole operation. In contrast, MBR and MBBR-MBR with lower and higher media fill experienced more significant fouling. Low fouling at optimum fill ratio may be due to the higher percentage of small molecular size (<1 kDa) and lower percentage of large molecular size (>100 kDa) of EPS and SMP in the reactor. The composition of EPS and SMP affected fouling due to different O-H bonds in hydroxyl functional groups, and less polysaccharides and lipids.

  4. Evaluation of micropollutant removal and fouling reduction in a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yunlong; Jiang, Qi; Ngo, Huu H; Nghiem, Long D; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Wang, Jie; Guo, Wenshan

    2015-09-01

    A hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) system and a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) were compared in terms of micropollutant removal efficiency and membrane fouling propensity. The results show that the hybrid MBBR-MBR system could effectively remove most of the selected micropollutants. By contrast, the CMBR system showed lower removals of ketoprofen, carbamazepine, primidone, bisphenol A and estriol by 16.2%, 30.1%, 31.9%, 34.5%, and 39.9%, respectively. Mass balance calculations suggest that biological degradation was the primary removal mechanism in the MBBR-MBR system. During operation, the MBBR-MBR system exhibited significantly slower fouling development as compared to the CMBR system, which could be ascribed to the wide disparity in the soluble microbial products (SMP) levels between MBBR-MBR (4.02-6.32 mg/L) and CMBR (21.78 and 33.04 mg/L). It is evident that adding an MBBR process prior to MBR treatment can not only enhance micropollutant elimination but also mitigate membrane fouling.

  5. New functional biocarriers for enhancing the performance of a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lijuan; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Zhang, Xinbo; Wang, Xiaochang C; Zhang, Qionghua; Chen, Rong

    2016-05-01

    In this study, new sponge modified plastic carriers for moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was developed. The performance and membrane fouling behavior of a hybrid MBBR-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) system were also evaluated. Comparing to the MBBR with plastic carriers (MBBR), the MBBR with sponge modified biocarriers (S-MBBR) showed better effluent quality and enhanced nutrient removal at HRTs of 12h and 6h. Regarding fouling issue of the hybrid systems, soluble microbial products (SMP) of the MBR unit greatly influenced membrane fouling. The sponge modified biocarriers could lower the levels of SMP in mixed liquor and extracellular polymeric substances in activated sludge, thereby mitigating cake layer and pore blocking resistances of the membrane. The reduced SMP and biopolymer clusters in membrane cake layer were also observed. The results demonstrated that the sponge modified biocarriers were capable of improving overall MBBR performance and substantially alleviated membrane fouling of the subsequent MBR unit.

  6. Essential factors of an integrated moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor: Adhesion characteristics and microbial community of the biofilm.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bing; Yu, Chunfei; Bin, Liying; Zhao, Yiliang; Feng, Xianfeng; Huang, Shaosong; Fu, Fenglian; Ding, Jiewei; Chen, Cuiqun; Li, Ping; Chen, Qianyu

    2016-07-01

    This work aims at revealing the adhesion characteristics and microbial community of the biofilm in an integrated moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor, and further evaluating their variations over time. With multiple methods, the adhesion characteristics and microbial community of the biofilm on the carriers were comprehensively illuminated, which showed their dynamic variation along with the operational time. Results indicated that: (1) the roughness of biofilm on the carriers increased very quickly to a maximum value at the start-up stage, then, decreased to become a flat curve, which indicated a layer of smooth biofilm formed on the surface; (2) the tightly-bound protein and polysaccharide was the most important factor influencing the stability of biofilm; (3) the development of biofilm could be divided into three stages, and Gammaproteobacteria were the most dominant microbial species in class level at the last stage, which occupied the largest ratio (51.48%) among all microbes.

  7. Performance of an anaerobic, static bed, fixed film bioreactor for chlorinated solvent treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles; Graves, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic, fixed film, bioreactors bioaugmented with a dechlorinating microbial consortium were evaluated as a potential technology for cost effective, sustainable, and reliable treatment of mixed chlorinated ethanes and ethenes in groundwater from a large groundwater recovery system. Bench- and pilot-scale testing at about 3 and 13,500 L, respectively, demonstrated that total chlorinated solvent removal to less than the permitted discharge limit of 100 μg/L. Various planned and unexpected upsets, interruptions, and changes demonstrated the robustness and reliability of the bioreactor system, which handled the operational variations with no observable change in performance. Key operating parameters included an adequately long hydraulic retention time for the surface area, a constant supply of electron donor, pH control with a buffer to minimize pH variance, an oxidation reduction potential of approximately −200 millivolts or lower, and a well-adapted biomass capable of degrading the full suite of chlorinated solvents in the groundwater. Results indicated that the current discharge criteria can be met using a bioreactor technology that is less complex and has less downtime than the sorption based technology currently being used to treat the groundwater.

  8. Performance of an anaerobic, static bed, fixed film bioreactor for chlorinated solvent treatment.

    PubMed

    Lorah, Michelle M; Walker, Charles; Graves, Duane

    2015-09-01

    Anaerobic, fixed film, bioreactors bioaugmented with a dechlorinating microbial consortium were evaluated as a potential technology for cost effective, sustainable, and reliable treatment of mixed chlorinated ethanes and ethenes in groundwater from a large groundwater recovery system. Bench- and pilot-scale testing at about 3 and 13,500 L, respectively, demonstrated that total chlorinated solvent removal to less than the permitted discharge limit of 100 μg/L. Various planned and unexpected upsets, interruptions, and changes demonstrated the robustness and reliability of the bioreactor system, which handled the operational variations with no observable change in performance. Key operating parameters included an adequately long hydraulic retention time for the surface area, a constant supply of electron donor, pH control with a buffer to minimize pH variance, an oxidation reduction potential of approximately -200 millivolts or lower, and a well-adapted biomass capable of degrading the full suite of chlorinated solvents in the groundwater. Results indicated that the current discharge criteria can be met using a bioreactor technology that is less complex and has less downtime than the sorption based technology currently being used to treat the groundwater.

  9. Conidia production by Beauveria bassiana (for the biocontrol of a diamondback moth) during solid-state fermentation in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kang, S W; Lee, S H; Yoon, C S; Kim, S W

    2005-01-01

    Conidia of Beauveria bassiana CS-1, which have the potential for the control of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), were produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using a packed-bed bioreactor with rice straw and wheat bran. As the packing density and the bed height were increased, the production of conidia decreased. In a packed-bed bioreactor under no aeration and no addition of polypropylene (PP) foam (control), the total average of conidia was 4.9 x 10(8) g-1. The production of conidia was affected more by the addition of PP foam as an inert support than forced aeration and was approx. 23 times higher than that of the control. The total average of conidia produced by B. bassiana was 1.1-1.2 x 10(10) g-1 .

  10. Hydrogen production with immobilized sewage sludge in three-phase fluidized-bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Yii; Lin, Chi-Num; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge was immobilized with a modified alginate gel entrapment method, and the immobilized cells were used to produce hydrogen gas in a three-phase fluidized bed. The hydrogen-producing fluidized beds were operated at different liquid velocity (U(0)) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The results show that in response to operating liquid velocities, the fluidized-bed system had three flow regimes, namely, plug flow, slug flow, and free bubbling. Pressure fluctuation analysis was used to analyze the hydrodynamic properties in this three-phase fluidized bed when it was under a steady-state production of biogas. With a steady-state biogas production rate (U(g)) of 0.196 mL/s/L, a transition state occurred at a liquid velocity (U(0)) of 0.85 cm/s. As U(0) < 0.85 cm/s, the system was basically a nonhomogeneous fluidized bed, whereas the bed became homogeneous when U(0) was higher than 0.85 cm/s. The fluidized bed can be stably carried out at high loading rates (HRT as low as 2 h). Hydrogen fermentation results show that the maximal hydrogen production rate was 0.93 L/h/L and the best yield (Y(H)2(/sucrose)) was 2.67 mol H(2)/mol sucrose.

  11. ADAPTATION OF CLOSTRIDIUM TYROBUTYRICUM FOR ENHANCED TOLERANCE TO BUTYRIC ACID IN A FIBROUS-BED BIOREACTOR. (R829479C016)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. Development and Optimization of AAV hFIX Particles by Transient Transfection in an iCELLis(®) Fixed-Bed Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Powers, Alicia D; Piras, Bryan A; Clark, Robert K; Lockey, Timothy D; Meagher, Michael M

    2016-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are increasingly popular in gene therapy because they are unassociated with human disease, replication dependent, and less immunogenic than other viral vectors and can infect a variety of cell types. These vectors have been used in over 130 clinical trials, and one AAV product has been approved for treatment of lipoprotein lipase deficiency in Europe. To meet the demand for the increasing quantities of AAV required for clinical trials and treatment, a scalable high-capacity technology is required. Bioreactors meet these requirements but limited options are available for adherent HEK 293T/17 cells. Here we optimize the transient transfection of HEK293T/17 cells for the production of AAV human factor IX in a disposable fixed-bed bioreactor, the iCELLis(®) Nano (PALL Corporation). A fixed bed in the center of the iCELLis bioreactor is surrounded by culture medium that is pumped through the bed from the bottom of the bioreactor so that a thin film of the medium overflows the bed and is replenished with oxygen and depleted of CO2 as it returns to the surrounding medium reservoir. We show that this fixed-bed bioreactor can support as many as 2.5 × 10(8) cells/ml of fixed bed (1.9 × 10(6) cells/cm(2)). By optimizing culture and transfection parameters such as the concentration of DNA for transfection, day of harvest, size of PEI/DNA particles, and transfection medium, and adding an additional medium change to the process, we increased our yield to as high as 9.0 × 10(14) viral particles per square meter of fixed bed. We also show an average GFP transfection of 97% of cells throughout the fixed bed. These yields make the iCELLis a promising scalable technology for the clinical production of AAV gene therapy products. PMID:27229773

  13. Treatment of trichloroethene-contaminated water with a fluidized-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Segar, R L; Leung, S Y; Vivek, S A

    1997-11-21

    Biological systems are a potentially attractive means of treatment for groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents. In this research, a bench-scale fluidized-bed biological reactor (FBBR) was used to treat water contaminated by trichloroethene (TCE). The bed volume was 2.4 L and the flow rate was 0.8 L/min. Applications of the reactor are primarily for treatment of groundwater extracted during aquifer remediation. Reactor feed water was amended with phenol and nutrients to stimulate the growth of bioparticles with the ability to cometabolize TCE. The FBBR was operated in a bed growth mode for two weeks followed by a TCE removal period of two weeks during which TCE and phenol were fed simultaneously. Experiments were conducted to determine the removal of 0.1 mg/L TCE for phenol loading rates ranging from 3 to 9 mg/min. Higher phenol loading inhibited TCE degradation and resulted in phenol not being completely removed by the reactor. Phenol was not detected in the reactor effluent at loadings below 6 mg/min (3.6 g/L/d). A phenol to TCE mass ratio of 75:1 provided an average 60% removal of 0.1 mg/L TCE at an empty bed contact time of 3 minutes. Higher removal of TCE may be possible in field-scale reactors where the FBBR height (bed-depth) may be extended.

  14. Removal of gaseous toluene using immobilized Candida tropicalis in a fluidized bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zubair; Song, Jihyeon

    2011-09-01

    A pure yeast strain Candida tropicalis was immobilized on the matrix of powdered activated carbon, sodium alginate, and polyethylene glycol (PSP beads). The immobilized beads were used as fluidized material in a bioreactor to remove toluene from gaseous stream. Applied toluene loadings were 15.4 and 29.8 g/m(3) h in Step 1 and Step 2, respectively, and toluene removal was found above 95% during the entire operation. A continuous pH decline was observed and pH of the suspension was just above 6 in Step 2 but no adverse effects on treatment efficiency were observed. The CO(2) yield values were found to be 0.57 and 0.62 g-[Formula: see text] in Step 1 and Step 2, respectively. These values indicate that a major portion of toluene-carbon was channeled to yeast respiration even at higher toluene loading. In conclusion, immobilized C. tropicalis can be used as a fluidized material for enhanced degradation of gaseous toluene. PMID:22582151

  15. Load maximization of a liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor for nitrogen removal from synthetic municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Nabin; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

    2008-03-01

    A novel liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (LSCFB) configured with anoxic and aerobic columns and lava rock as the biofilm carrier was used to treat synthetic municipal wastewater. Four different empty bed contact times (EBCTs) of 0.82, 0.65, 0.55, and 0.44 h were examined to optimize nutrient removal capability of the system. The LSCFB demonstrated tertiary effluent quality organic and nitrogen removal efficiencies. Effluent characteristics of the LSCFB were soluble biological oxygen demand (SBOD)10 mg l(-1) and total nitrogen (TN)<10 mg l(-1) at organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.3 kg m(-3)d(-1) and nitrogen loading rate of 0.54 kg Nm(-3)d(-1). Remarkably low yields of 0.14, 0.17, 0.19, and 0.21 g VSS g(-1)COD were observed at OLR of 2.6, 3.2, 4.1 and 5.3 kg COD m(-3)d(-1), where increment of biomass growth and detachment rate were also experienced with increasing OLR. However the system demonstrated only 30% phosphorus removal, and mass balances along the anoxic and aerobic columns showed biological phosphorus removal in the system. Organic mass balance showed that approximately 40% of the influent COD was utilized in the anoxic column and the remaining COD was oxidized in the aerobic column. The system is very efficient in nitrification-denitrification, with more than 90% nitrification of ammonium and overall nitrogen removal in the LSCFB was 70+/-11% even at an EBCT of 0.44 h. PMID:18262217

  16. Decolorization of the anthraquinone dye Cibacron Blue 3G-A with immobilized Coprinus cinereus in fluidized bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Moutaouakkil, A; Blaghen, M

    2011-01-01

    Coprinus cinereus, which was able to decolorize the anthraquinone dye Cibacron Blue 3G-A (CB) enzymatically, was used as a biocatalyst for the decolorization of synthetic solutions containing this reactive dye. Coprinus cinereus was immobilized in both calcium alginate and polyacrylamide gels, and was used for the decolorization of CB from synthetic water by using a fluidized bed bioreactor. The highest specific decolorization rate was obtained when Coprinus cinereus was entrapped in calcium alginate beads, and was of about 3.84 mg g(-1) h(-1) with a 50% conversion time (t1/2) of about 2.60 h. Moreover, immobilized fungal biomass in calcium alginate continuously decolorized CB even after 7 repeated experiments without significant loss of activity, while polyacrylamide-immobilized fungal biomass retained only 67% of its original activity. The effects of some physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH and dye concentration on decolorization performance of isolated fungal strain were also investigated. PMID:21438473

  17. Evaluation of an integrated sponge--granular activated carbon fluidized bed bioreactor for treating primary treated sewage effluent.

    PubMed

    Xing, W; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Listowski, A; Cullum, P

    2011-05-01

    An integrated fluidized bed bioreactor (iFBBR) was designed to incorporate an aerobic sponge FBBR (ASB-FBBR) into an anoxic granular activated carbon FBBR (GAC-FBBR). This iFBBR was operated with and without adding a new starch based flocculant (NSBF) to treat synthetic primary treated sewage effluent (PTSE). The NSBF contains starch based cationic flocculants and trace nutrients. The results indicate that the iFBBR with NSBF addition could remove more than 93% dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 61% total nitrogen (T-N) and 60% total phosphorus (T-P) at just a very short hydraulic retention time of 50 min. The optimum frequency of adding NSBF to the iFFBR is four times per day. As a pretreatment to microfiltration, the iFFBR could increase 5L/m(2)h of critical flux thus reducing the membrane fouling. In addition, better microbial activity was also observed with high DO consumption (>66%) and specific oxygen uptake rate (>35 mg O(2)/g VSS h).

  18. Influence of operational parameters on the fluid-side mass transfer resistance observed in a packed bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Amir; Kangwa, Martin; Abo-Elwafa, Ahmed Gad; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The influence of mass transfer on productivity as well as the performance of packed bed bioreactor was determined by varying a number of parameters; flow rate, glucose concentration and polymers (chitosan). Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were immobilized in chitosan and non-chitosan coated alginate beads to demonstrate the effect on external mass transfer by substrate consumption time, lag phase and ethanol production. The results indicate that coating has a significant effect on the lag phase duration, being 30-40 min higher than non-coated beads. After lag phase, no significant change was observed in both types of beads on consumption of glucose with the same flow rate. It was observed that by increasing flow rates; lag phase and glucose consumption time decreased. The reason is due to the reduction of external mass transfer as a result of increase in flow rate as glucose is easily transported to and from the beads surface by diffusion. It is observed that chitosan acts as barrier for transfer of substrate and products, in and out of beads, at initial time of fermentation as it shows longer lag phase for chitosan coated beads than non-coated. Glucose consumption at low flow rate was lower as compared to higher flow rates. The optimum combination of parameters consisting of higher flow rates 30-90 ml/min and between 10 and 20 g/l of glucose was found for maximum production of ethanol.

  19. Degradation of pharmaceuticals in non-sterile urban wastewater by Trametes versicolor in a fluidized bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Morató, Carles; Ferrando-Climent, Laura; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Vicent, Teresa; Sarrà, Montserrat

    2013-09-15

    The constant detection of pharmaceuticals (PhACs) in the environment demonstrates the inefficiency of conventional wastewater treatment plants to completely remove them from wastewaters. So far, many studies have shown the feasibility of using white rot fungi to remove these contaminants. However, none of them have studied the degradation of several PhACs in real urban wastewater under non-sterile conditions, where mixtures of contaminants presents at low concentrations (ng L(-1) to μg L(-1)) as well as other active microorganisms are present. In this work, a batch fluidized bed bioreactor was used to study, for the first time, the degradation of PhACs present in urban wastewaters at their pre-existent concentrations under non-sterile conditions. Glucose and ammonium tartrate were continuously supplied as carbon and nitrogen source, respectively, and pH was maintained at 4.5. Complete removal of 7 out of the 10 initially detected PhACs was achieved in non-sterile treatment, while only 2 were partially removed and 1 of the PhACs analyzed increased its concentration. In addition, Microtox test showed an important reduction of toxicity in the wastewater after the treatment.

  20. Influence of biofilm thickness on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from denitrifying fluidized bed bioreactors (DFBBRs).

    PubMed

    Eldyasti, Ahmed; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

    2014-12-20

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a significant anthropogenic greenhouse gas emitted from biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes. This study tries to get a deeper insight into N2O emissions from denitrifying fluidized bed bioreactors (DFBBRs) and its relationship to the biofilm thickness, diffusivity, and reaction rates. The DFBBR was operated at two different organic and nitrogen loading rates of 5.9–7 kg COD/(m3 d) and 1.2–2 kg N/(m3 d), respectively. Results showed that the N2O conversion rate from the DFBBR at a biofilm thickness of 680 μm was 0.53% of the total influent nitrogen loading while at the limited COD and a biofilm thickness of 230 μm, the N2O conversion rate increased by 196–1.57% of the influent nitrogen loading concomitant with a sevenfold increase in liquid nitrite concentration. Comparing the N2O emissions at different biofilm thickness showed that the N2O emission decreased exponentially with biofilm thickness due to the retention of slow growth denitrifiers and the limited diffusivity of N2O.

  1. Interlinkages between bacterial populations dynamics and the operational parameters in a moving bed membrane bioreactor treating urban sewage.

    PubMed

    Reboleiro-Rivas, P; Martín-Pascual, J; Morillo, J A; Juárez-Jiménez, B; Poyatos, J M; Rodelas, B; González-López, J

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria are key players in biological wastewater treatments (WWTs), thus a firm knowledge of the bacterial population dynamics is crucial to understand environmental/operational factors affecting the efficiency and stability of the biological depuration process. Unfortunately, little is known about the microbial ecology of the advanced biological WWTs combining suspended biomass (SB) and attached biofilms (AB). This study explored in depth the bacterial community structure and population dynamics in each biomass fraction from a pilot-scale moving bed membrane bioreactor (MBMBR) treating municipal sewage, by means of temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) and 454-pyrosequencing. Eight experimental phases were conducted, combining different carrier filling ratios, hydraulic retention times and concentrations of mixed liquor total suspended solids. The bacterial community, dominated by Proteobacteria (20.9-53.8%) and Actinobacteria (20.6-57.6%), was very similar in both biomass fractions and able to maintain its functional stability under all the operating conditions, ensuring a successful and steady depuration process. Multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that solids concentration, carrier filling ratio, temperature and organic matter concentration in the influent were the significant factors explaining population dynamics. Bacterial diversity increased as carrier filling ratio increased (from 20% to 35%, v/v), and solids concentration was the main factor triggering the shifts of the community structure. These findings provide new insights on the influence of operational parameters on the biology of the innovative MBMBRs.

  2. Interlinkages between bacterial populations dynamics and the operational parameters in a moving bed membrane bioreactor treating urban sewage.

    PubMed

    Reboleiro-Rivas, P; Martín-Pascual, J; Morillo, J A; Juárez-Jiménez, B; Poyatos, J M; Rodelas, B; González-López, J

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria are key players in biological wastewater treatments (WWTs), thus a firm knowledge of the bacterial population dynamics is crucial to understand environmental/operational factors affecting the efficiency and stability of the biological depuration process. Unfortunately, little is known about the microbial ecology of the advanced biological WWTs combining suspended biomass (SB) and attached biofilms (AB). This study explored in depth the bacterial community structure and population dynamics in each biomass fraction from a pilot-scale moving bed membrane bioreactor (MBMBR) treating municipal sewage, by means of temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) and 454-pyrosequencing. Eight experimental phases were conducted, combining different carrier filling ratios, hydraulic retention times and concentrations of mixed liquor total suspended solids. The bacterial community, dominated by Proteobacteria (20.9-53.8%) and Actinobacteria (20.6-57.6%), was very similar in both biomass fractions and able to maintain its functional stability under all the operating conditions, ensuring a successful and steady depuration process. Multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that solids concentration, carrier filling ratio, temperature and organic matter concentration in the influent were the significant factors explaining population dynamics. Bacterial diversity increased as carrier filling ratio increased (from 20% to 35%, v/v), and solids concentration was the main factor triggering the shifts of the community structure. These findings provide new insights on the influence of operational parameters on the biology of the innovative MBMBRs. PMID:26599433

  3. Insect cell entrapment, growth and recovering using a single-use fixed-bed bioreactor. Scaling up and recombinant protein production.

    PubMed

    Ventini-Monteiro, D; Dubois, S; Astray, R M; Castillo, J; Pereira, C A

    2015-12-20

    Insect cells are largely used for industrial production of vaccines, viral vectors and recombinant proteins as well as in research and development as an important tool for biology and bioprocess studies. They grow in suspension and are semi-adherent cells. Among the cell culture systems enabling scalable bioprocess the single-use fixed-bed iCELLis(®) bioreactors offer great advantages. We have established the conditions for Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells entrapment into the fixed-bed, cell growth and recover from the fixed-bed once high cell densities were attained. Our established protocol allowed these cells, at a cell seeding of 2×1E5 cells/microfiber carriers (MC) (3.5×1E6cells/mL; 1.7×1E4cells/cm(2)), to grow inside a 4m(2)/200mL fixed-bed attaining a concentration of 5.3×1E6 cells/MC (9.5×1E7cells/mL; 4.7×1E5 cells/cm(2)) for S2 cells or 4.6×1E6 cells/MC (8×1E7cells/mL; 4.1×1E5cells/cm(2)) for Sf9 cells. By washing the fixed-bed, entrapped cells could then be recovered from the fixed-bed at a high rate (>85%) with high viability (>95%) by increasing the agitation to 1200/1500rpm. Although the cell yields in the fixed-bed bioreactor were comparable to those obtained in a stirred tank (respectively, 1.3×1E10 and 2.5×1E10 total cells), S2 cells stably transfected with a cDNA coding for the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP) showed a 30% higher preserved rRVGP production (2.5±0.1 and 1.9±0.1μg/1E7 cells), as evidenced by a conformational ELISA evaluation. These findings demonstrate not only the possibility to entrap, cultivate to high densities and recover insect cells using a single-use fixed-bed bioreactor, but also that this system provides suitable physiological conditions for the entrapped cells to produce a cell membrane associated recombinant protein with higher specific biological activity as compared to classical suspension cell cultures.

  4. Insect cell entrapment, growth and recovering using a single-use fixed-bed bioreactor. Scaling up and recombinant protein production.

    PubMed

    Ventini-Monteiro, D; Dubois, S; Astray, R M; Castillo, J; Pereira, C A

    2015-12-20

    Insect cells are largely used for industrial production of vaccines, viral vectors and recombinant proteins as well as in research and development as an important tool for biology and bioprocess studies. They grow in suspension and are semi-adherent cells. Among the cell culture systems enabling scalable bioprocess the single-use fixed-bed iCELLis(®) bioreactors offer great advantages. We have established the conditions for Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells entrapment into the fixed-bed, cell growth and recover from the fixed-bed once high cell densities were attained. Our established protocol allowed these cells, at a cell seeding of 2×1E5 cells/microfiber carriers (MC) (3.5×1E6cells/mL; 1.7×1E4cells/cm(2)), to grow inside a 4m(2)/200mL fixed-bed attaining a concentration of 5.3×1E6 cells/MC (9.5×1E7cells/mL; 4.7×1E5 cells/cm(2)) for S2 cells or 4.6×1E6 cells/MC (8×1E7cells/mL; 4.1×1E5cells/cm(2)) for Sf9 cells. By washing the fixed-bed, entrapped cells could then be recovered from the fixed-bed at a high rate (>85%) with high viability (>95%) by increasing the agitation to 1200/1500rpm. Although the cell yields in the fixed-bed bioreactor were comparable to those obtained in a stirred tank (respectively, 1.3×1E10 and 2.5×1E10 total cells), S2 cells stably transfected with a cDNA coding for the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP) showed a 30% higher preserved rRVGP production (2.5±0.1 and 1.9±0.1μg/1E7 cells), as evidenced by a conformational ELISA evaluation. These findings demonstrate not only the possibility to entrap, cultivate to high densities and recover insect cells using a single-use fixed-bed bioreactor, but also that this system provides suitable physiological conditions for the entrapped cells to produce a cell membrane associated recombinant protein with higher specific biological activity as compared to classical suspension cell cultures. PMID:26481831

  5. Process parameters study of α-amylase production in a packed-bed bioreactor under solid-state fermentation with possibility of temperature monitoring.

    PubMed

    Derakhti, Sorour; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Hashemi, Maryam; Khajeh, Khosro

    2012-01-01

    Production of α-amylase in a laboratory-scale packed-bed bioreactor by Bacillus sp. KR-8104 under solid-state fermentation (SSF) with possibility of temperature control and monitoring was studied using wheat bran (WB) as a solid substrate. The simultaneous effects of aeration rate, initial substrate moisture, and incubation temperature on α-amylase production were evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a Box-Behnken design. The optimum conditions for attaining the maximum production of α-amylase were 37°C, 72% (w/w) initial substrate moisture, and 0.15 L/min aeration. The average enzyme activity obtained under the optimized conditions was 473.8 U/g dry fermented substrate. In addition, it was observed that the production of enzyme decreased from the bottom of the bioreactor to the top.

  6. Transport in a grooved perfusion flat-bed bioreactor for cell therapy applications.

    PubMed

    Horner, M; Miller, W M; Ottino, J M; Papoutsakis, E T

    1998-01-01

    This study considers the transport of oxygen (a growth-associated solute) and lactate (a metabolic byproduct) in a flat-bed perfusion chamber modified to retain cells through the addition of grooves, perpendicular to the direction of flow, at the chamber bottom. The chamber has been successfully applied to hematopoietic cell culture and may be useful for other basic and applied biomedical applications. The objective of this study is to characterize the culture environment in terms of solute transport under various operational conditions. This will allow one to improve the design and operating strategy of the perfusion system for maximizing cell numbers. The system is numerically simulated using the finite element package FIDAP. The reaction kinetics describing oxygen uptake by cells are simplified to zero order to give an upper bound for the oxygen consumption. A flat-bed chamber without grooves is considered here as a benchmark. We show that the growth environment is not oxygen limited (local oxygen concentration above 10 microM) for a variety of flow rates and culture conditions (qO2 = 0.1 micromol/(10(6) cells h)). With a medium flow rate of 2.5 mL/min through the reactor, the model predicts that the 29-cm2 reactor can support at least 33.4 x 10(6) total cells when the inlet medium is in equilibrium with high (20%) oxygen concentration. The culture becomes oxygen limited however for the same flow rate for low (5%) oxygen concentration and can only support 7.2 x 10(6) total cells. Comparison of grooved vs nongrooved chambers reveals that the presence of grooves only affects solute transport on a local scale. This result is attributed to the small size (200 microgram) of the cavities relative to the chamber dimensions. The comparison also yields an empirical relation that allows for rapid estimation of oxygen and lactate concentrations in the grooves using only the numerical simulation of the simpler nongrooved chamber. Finally, our investigation shows that, while

  7. Operational parameters and their influence on particle-side mass transfer resistance in a packed bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Amir; Kangwa, Martin; Yumnam, Nivedita; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    The influence of internal mass transfer on productivity as well as the performance of packed bed bioreactor was determined by varying a number of parameters; chitosan coating, flow rate, glucose concentration and particle size. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were immobilized in chitosan and non-chitosan coated alginate beads to demonstrate the effect on particle side mass transfer on substrate consumption time, lag phase and ethanol production. The results indicate that chitosan coating, beads size, glucose concentration and flow rate have a significant effect on lag phase duration. The duration of lag phase for different size of beads (0.8, 2 and 4 mm) decreases by increasing flow rate and by decreasing the size of beads. Moreover, longer lag phase were found at higher glucose medium concentration and also with chitosan coated beads. It was observed that by increasing flow rates; lag phase and glucose consumption time decreased. The reason is due to the reduction of external (fluid side) mass transfer as a result of increase in flow rate as glucose is easily transported to the surface of the beads. Varying the size of beads is an additional factor: as it reduces the internal (particle side) mass transfer by reducing the size of beads. The reason behind this is the distance for reactants to reach active site of catalyst (cells) and the thickness of fluid created layer around alginate beads is reduced. The optimum combination of parameters consisting of smaller beads size (0.8 mm), higher flow rate of 90 ml/min and glucose concentration of 10 g/l were found to be the maximum condition for ethanol production.

  8. Two-step nitrification in a pure moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment: nitrifying and denitrifying microbial populations and kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Díaz, J C; González-Martínez, A; Muñío, M M; Poyatos, J M

    2015-12-01

    The moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) is a novel solution to conventional activated sludge processes and membrane bioreactors. In this study, a pure MBBR-MBR was studied. The pure MBBR-MBR mainly had attached biomass. The bioreactor operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9.5 h. The kinetic parameters for heterotrophic and autotrophic biomasses, mainly nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), were evaluated. The analysis of the bacterial community structure of the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), NOB, and denitrifying bacteria (DeNB) from the pure MBBR-MBR was carried out by means of pyrosequencing to detect and quantify the contribution of the nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in the total bacterial community. The relative abundance of AOB, NOB, and DeNB were 5, 1, and 3%, respectively, in the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), and these percentages were 18, 5, and 2%, respectively, in the biofilm density (BD) attached to carriers. The pure MBBR-MBR had a high efficiency of total nitrogen (TN) removal of 71.81±16.04%, which could reside in the different bacterial assemblages in the fixed biofilm on the carriers. In this regard, the kinetic parameters for autotrophic biomass had values of YA=2.3465 mg O2 mg N(-1), μm, A=0.7169 h(-1), and KNH=2.0748 mg NL(-1).

  9. Comparative study on membrane fouling between membrane-coupled moving bed biofilm reactor and conventional membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, W; Syed, W; Zhou, H

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the performance between membrane-coupled moving bed biofilm reactor (M-MBBR) and a conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR) in parallel. Extensive tests were conducted in three pilot-scale experimental units over 6 months. Emphasis was placed on the factors that would affect the performance of membrane filtration. The results showed that the concentrations of soluble microbial product (SMP), colloidal total organic carbon and transparent exopolymer particles in the M-MBBR systems were not significantly different from those in the control MBR system. However, the fouling rates were much higher in the M-MBBR systems as compared to the conventional MBR systems. This indicates membrane fouling potential was related not only to the concentration of SMP, but also to their sources and characteristics. The addition of polyaluminum chloride could reduce the fouling rate of the moving bed biofilm reactor unit by 56.4-84.5% at various membrane fluxes.

  10. Experimental studies and two-dimensional modelling of a packed bed bioreactor used for production of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from milk whey.

    PubMed

    Sen, Pramita; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib; Bhattacharya, Pinaki

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, extensive experimental investigations and detailed theoretical analysis of a two-dimensional packed bed bioreactor, employed for the production of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from milk whey were performed. Model equations, in one- and two-dimensions, capable of predicting the substrate concentration distribution in the bioreactor were developed by coupling mass balance equation with appropriate velocity distribution equation and solved numerically. Validation of the proposed model equations was done by a set of experimental data obtained from the bioreactor. The effects of reactor to catalyst particle diameter ratio (d t/d p), feed flowrate (10(-6)-10(-9) m(3) s(-1)), and initial lactose concentration (50-200 kg m(-3)) on substrate concentration distribution were investigated in detail. While, the distribution of substrate concentration in axial direction was independent of d t/d p, it was observed that for d t/d p <40, significant radial concentration distribution existed. It was further observed that the substrate conversion and product yield obtained experimentally showed an excellent agreement (97 ± 2 %) with the results predicted by the two-dimensional model equation, whereas, the results predicted by the one-dimensional model equation did not lie within the desired confidence level (<90 %). The results were confirmed by both curve fitting and statistical analysis. The prediction of substrate concentration distribution in axial and radial directions using the developed two-dimensional model equation is necessary for computing the bioreactor volume to achieve the desired GOS yield.

  11. Experimental studies and two-dimensional modelling of a packed bed bioreactor used for production of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from milk whey.

    PubMed

    Sen, Pramita; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib; Bhattacharya, Pinaki

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, extensive experimental investigations and detailed theoretical analysis of a two-dimensional packed bed bioreactor, employed for the production of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from milk whey were performed. Model equations, in one- and two-dimensions, capable of predicting the substrate concentration distribution in the bioreactor were developed by coupling mass balance equation with appropriate velocity distribution equation and solved numerically. Validation of the proposed model equations was done by a set of experimental data obtained from the bioreactor. The effects of reactor to catalyst particle diameter ratio (d t/d p), feed flowrate (10(-6)-10(-9) m(3) s(-1)), and initial lactose concentration (50-200 kg m(-3)) on substrate concentration distribution were investigated in detail. While, the distribution of substrate concentration in axial direction was independent of d t/d p, it was observed that for d t/d p <40, significant radial concentration distribution existed. It was further observed that the substrate conversion and product yield obtained experimentally showed an excellent agreement (97 ± 2 %) with the results predicted by the two-dimensional model equation, whereas, the results predicted by the one-dimensional model equation did not lie within the desired confidence level (<90 %). The results were confirmed by both curve fitting and statistical analysis. The prediction of substrate concentration distribution in axial and radial directions using the developed two-dimensional model equation is necessary for computing the bioreactor volume to achieve the desired GOS yield. PMID:26758713

  12. Biodegradation of isopropanol in a three phase fixed bed bioreactor: start up and acclimation using a previously-enriched microbial culture.

    PubMed

    Bustard, M T; Meeyoo, V; Wright, P C

    2001-10-01

    The aerobic biodegradation of high liquid phase concentrations of 2-propanol (IPA) by a previously enriched solvent-tolerant bacterial consortium within a 1.9 l fed-batch three phase fixed bed bioreactor was investigated. Solvent concentrations of up to 7.9 g l(-1) were investigated. Previously enriched solvent-tolerant bacterial cells were immobilised onto porous glass cylinders as a means obioprocess intensification. Bioreactor start-up and acclimation was studied anacetone concentration tracked as an indicator of IPA utilization, as the sole carbon source within a minimal salts medium (MSM). The initial batch treatment of IPA exhibited a biodegradation rate of 0.11 g l(-1) h(-1) prior to biofilm formation Biofilm growth during the second batch treatment was consistent with an increase in metabolic activity and an IPA biodegradation rate of 0.34 g l(-1), followed by a reduction of biodegradation rate to a constant value of 0.078 g l(-1) h(-1) after 650 h. A maximum acetone generation rate of 1.3 g l(-1) h(-1) was obtained during the fourth IPA addition although the maximum acetone biodegradation rate of 0.38 g l(-1) h(-1) was observed during the initial IPA addition. It is proposed that the metabolic lag resulting from switching from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetone carboxylase is a major rate-limiting step in the deep oxidation of IPA to acetone. The results demonstrate the potential of a previously enriched solvent-tolerant bacterial consortium in fixed bed bioreactor systems, for the aerobic treatment of concentrated solvent-containing wastestreams. PMID:11766041

  13. Biodegradation of isopropanol in a three phase fixed bed bioreactor: start up and acclimation using a previously-enriched microbial culture.

    PubMed

    Bustard, M T; Meeyoo, V; Wright, P C

    2001-10-01

    The aerobic biodegradation of high liquid phase concentrations of 2-propanol (IPA) by a previously enriched solvent-tolerant bacterial consortium within a 1.9 l fed-batch three phase fixed bed bioreactor was investigated. Solvent concentrations of up to 7.9 g l(-1) were investigated. Previously enriched solvent-tolerant bacterial cells were immobilised onto porous glass cylinders as a means obioprocess intensification. Bioreactor start-up and acclimation was studied anacetone concentration tracked as an indicator of IPA utilization, as the sole carbon source within a minimal salts medium (MSM). The initial batch treatment of IPA exhibited a biodegradation rate of 0.11 g l(-1) h(-1) prior to biofilm formation Biofilm growth during the second batch treatment was consistent with an increase in metabolic activity and an IPA biodegradation rate of 0.34 g l(-1), followed by a reduction of biodegradation rate to a constant value of 0.078 g l(-1) h(-1) after 650 h. A maximum acetone generation rate of 1.3 g l(-1) h(-1) was obtained during the fourth IPA addition although the maximum acetone biodegradation rate of 0.38 g l(-1) h(-1) was observed during the initial IPA addition. It is proposed that the metabolic lag resulting from switching from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetone carboxylase is a major rate-limiting step in the deep oxidation of IPA to acetone. The results demonstrate the potential of a previously enriched solvent-tolerant bacterial consortium in fixed bed bioreactor systems, for the aerobic treatment of concentrated solvent-containing wastestreams.

  14. Dynamics of yeast immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors systems in ethanol fermentation from lactose-hydrolyzed whey and whey permeate.

    PubMed

    Gabardo, Sabrina; Pereira, Gabriela Feix; Klein, Manuela P; Rech, Rosane; Hertz, Plinho F; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2016-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of ethanol production on lactose-hydrolyzed whey (LHW) and lactose-hydrolyzed whey permeate (LHWP) in batch fluidized-bed bioreactors using single and co-cultures of immobilized cells of industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-industrial strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Although the co-culture of S. cerevisiae CAT-1 and K. marxianus CCT 4086 produced two- to fourfold the ethanol productivity of single cultures of S. cerevisiae, the single cultures of the K. marxianus CCT 4086 produced the best results in both media (Y EtOH/S = 0.47-0.49 g g(-1) and Q P = 1.39-1.68 g L(-1) h(-1), in LHW and LHWP, respectively). Ethanol production on concentrated LHWP (180 g L(-1)) reached 79.1 g L(-1), with yields of 0.46 g g(-1) for K. marxianus CCT 4086 cultures. Repeated batches of fluidized-bed bioreactor on concentrated LHWP led to increased ethanol productivity, reaching 2.8 g L(-1) h(-1).

  15. Dynamics of yeast immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors systems in ethanol fermentation from lactose-hydrolyzed whey and whey permeate.

    PubMed

    Gabardo, Sabrina; Pereira, Gabriela Feix; Klein, Manuela P; Rech, Rosane; Hertz, Plinho F; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2016-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of ethanol production on lactose-hydrolyzed whey (LHW) and lactose-hydrolyzed whey permeate (LHWP) in batch fluidized-bed bioreactors using single and co-cultures of immobilized cells of industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-industrial strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Although the co-culture of S. cerevisiae CAT-1 and K. marxianus CCT 4086 produced two- to fourfold the ethanol productivity of single cultures of S. cerevisiae, the single cultures of the K. marxianus CCT 4086 produced the best results in both media (Y EtOH/S = 0.47-0.49 g g(-1) and Q P = 1.39-1.68 g L(-1) h(-1), in LHW and LHWP, respectively). Ethanol production on concentrated LHWP (180 g L(-1)) reached 79.1 g L(-1), with yields of 0.46 g g(-1) for K. marxianus CCT 4086 cultures. Repeated batches of fluidized-bed bioreactor on concentrated LHWP led to increased ethanol productivity, reaching 2.8 g L(-1) h(-1). PMID:26527573

  16. Enhancing the Bioconversion of Winery and Olive Mill Waste Mixtures into Lignocellulolytic Enzymes and Animal Feed by Aspergillus uvarum Using a Packed-Bed Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Domínguez, José Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2015-10-28

    Wineries and olive oil industries are dominant agro-industrial activities in southern European regions. Olive pomace, exhausted grape marc, and vine shoot trimmings are lignocellulosic residues generated by these industries, which could be valued biotechnologically. In the present work these residues were used as substrate to produce cellulases and xylanases through solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus uvarum MUM 08.01. For that, two factorial designs (3(2)) were first planned to optimize substrate composition, temperature, and initial moisture level. Subsequently, the kinectics of cellulolytic enzyme production, fungal growth, and fermented solid were characterized. Finally, the process was performed in a packed-bed bioreactor. The results showed that cellulase activity improved with the optimization processes, reaching 33.56 U/g, and with the packed-bed bioreactor aeration of 0.2 L/min, reaching 38.51 U/g. The composition of fermented solids indicated their potential use for animal feed because cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and phenolic compounds were partially degraded 28.08, 10.78, 13.3, and 28.32%, respectively, crude protein was increased from 8.47 to 17.08%, and the mineral contents meet the requirements of main livestock.

  17. Performance of a membrane-dialysis bioreactor with a radial-flow fixed bed for the cultivation of a hybridoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Bohmann, A; Pörtner, R; Märkl, H

    1995-10-01

    A bioreactor system for the continuous cultivation of animal cells with a high potential for scale-up is presented. This reactor system consists of radial-flow fixed-bed units coupled with a dialysis module The dialysis membrane enables the supply of low-molecular-weight nutrients and removal of toxic metabolites, while high-molecular-weight nutrients and products (e.g., monoclonal antibodies) are retained and accumulated. This concept was investigated on the laboratory scale in a bioreactor with an integrated dialysis membrane. The efficiency of the reactor system and the reproducibility of the cell activity (hybridoma cells) under certain process conditions could be demonstrated in fermentations up to 77 days. Based on model calculations, an optimized fermentation strategy was formulated and experimentally confirmed. Compared to chemostat cultures with suspended cells, a ten-times higher mAb concentration (383 mg1(-1)) could be obtained. The highest volumetric specific mAb production rate determined was 6.1 mg mAb (1 fixed bed)-1h-1.

  18. Isolation and metagenomic characterization of bacteria associated with calcium carbonate and struvite precipitation in a pure moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A; Leyva-Díaz, J C; Rodriguez-Sanchez, A; Muñoz-Palazon, B; Rivadeneyra, A; Poyatos, J M; Rivadeneyra, M A; Martinez-Toledo, M V

    2015-01-01

    A bench-scale pure moving bed bioreactor-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) used for the treatment of urban wastewater was analyzed for the identification of bacterial strains with the potential capacity for calcium carbonate and struvite biomineral formation. Isolation of mineral-forming strains on calcium carbonate and struvite media revealed six major colonies with a carbonate or struvite precipitation capacity in the biofouling on the membrane surface and showed that heterotrophic bacteria with the ability to precipitate calcium carbonate and struvite constituted ~7.5% of the total platable bacteria. These belonged to the genera Lysinibacillus, Trichococcus, Comamomas and Bacillus. Pyrosequencing analysis of the microbial communities in the suspended cells and membrane biofouling showed a high degree of similarity in all the samples collected with respect to bacterial assemblage. The study of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified through pyrosequencing suggested that ~21% of the total bacterial community identified in the biofouling could potentially form calcium carbonate or struvite crystals in the pure MBBR-MBR system used for the treatment of urban wastewater.

  19. Effect of organic load and nutrient ratio on the operation stability of the moving bed bioreactor for kraft mill wastewater treatment and the incidence of polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pozo, G; Villamar, C A; Martínez, M; Vidal, G

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of organic load rate (OLR) and nutrient ratio on operation stability of the moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) for kraft mill wastewater treatment, analyzing the incidence of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production. The MBBR operating strategy was to increase OLR from 0.25 ± 0.05 to 2.41 ± 0.19 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) between phases I and IV. The BOD(5):N:P ratio (100:5:1 and 100:1:0.2) was evaluated as an operation strategy for phases IV to V. A stable MBBR operation was found when the OLR was increased during 225 days in five phases. The maximum absolute fluorescence against the proportion of cells accumulating PHA was obtained for an OLR of 2.41 ± 0.19 kg COD m(-3)d(-1) and a BOD(5):N:P relationship of 100:1:0.2. The increase of PHA biosynthesis is due to the increased OLR and is not attributable to the increased cell concentration, which is maintained constant in stationary status during bioreactor biosynthesis. PMID:22699342

  20. Isolation and metagenomic characterization of bacteria associated with calcium carbonate and struvite precipitation in a pure moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A; Leyva-Díaz, J C; Rodriguez-Sanchez, A; Muñoz-Palazon, B; Rivadeneyra, A; Poyatos, J M; Rivadeneyra, M A; Martinez-Toledo, M V

    2015-01-01

    A bench-scale pure moving bed bioreactor-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) used for the treatment of urban wastewater was analyzed for the identification of bacterial strains with the potential capacity for calcium carbonate and struvite biomineral formation. Isolation of mineral-forming strains on calcium carbonate and struvite media revealed six major colonies with a carbonate or struvite precipitation capacity in the biofouling on the membrane surface and showed that heterotrophic bacteria with the ability to precipitate calcium carbonate and struvite constituted ~7.5% of the total platable bacteria. These belonged to the genera Lysinibacillus, Trichococcus, Comamomas and Bacillus. Pyrosequencing analysis of the microbial communities in the suspended cells and membrane biofouling showed a high degree of similarity in all the samples collected with respect to bacterial assemblage. The study of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified through pyrosequencing suggested that ~21% of the total bacterial community identified in the biofouling could potentially form calcium carbonate or struvite crystals in the pure MBBR-MBR system used for the treatment of urban wastewater. PMID:26000766

  1. Simultaneous removal of chromate and nitrate in a packed-bed bioreactor using biodegradable meal box as carbon source and biofilm carriers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Jin, Ruofei; Liu, Guangfei; Tian, Tian; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Jiti

    2016-05-01

    An up-flow packed-bed bioreactor was constructed to investigate the simultaneous removal of chromate and nitrate using biodegradable meal box as carbon source and biofilm carriers. The bioreactor was operated for 164days with varying influent Cr(VI) concentrations (2.0-50.0mg/L) and hydraulic retention times (HRT, 10-24h). It was shown that complete denitrification and Cr(VI) reduction could be achieved when influent Cr(VI) concentrations were lower than 20mg/L with a HRT of 17h. Shortening the HRT could significantly reduce the effluent CODcr. It was also observed that Cr(III) was mainly immobilized on the biofilm. Further investigation on Cr distribution in the biofilm compartments indicated that Cr(VI) reduction occurred in all compartments and the intercellular Cr was dominant. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant phyla in the biofilm and Cr(VI) stress had a negative effect on the abundance of most bacteria. PMID:26896715

  2. Fibrous dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. Fibrous dysplasia is a bone disease that destroys and replaces normal bone with fibrous ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Bone Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  3. Effect of air-assisted backwashing on the performance of an anaerobic fixed-bed bioreactor that simultaneously removes nitrate and arsenic from drinking water sources.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Giridhar; Clancy, Tara M; Snyder, Kathryn V; Brown, Jess; Hayes, Kim F; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2012-03-15

    Contaminant removal from drinking water sources under reducing conditions conducive for the growth of denitrifying, arsenate reducing, and sulfate reducing microbes using a fixed-bed bioreactor may require oxygen-free gas (e.g., N2 gas) during backwashing. However, the use of air-assisted backwashing has practical advantages, including simpler operation, improved safety, and lower cost. A study was conducted to evaluate whether replacing N2 gas with air during backwashing would impact performance in a nitrate and arsenic removing anaerobic bioreactor system that consisted of two biologically active carbon reactors in series. Gas-assisted backwashing, comprised of 2 min of gas injection to fluidize the bed and dislodge biomass and solid phase products, was performed in the first reactor (reactor A) every two days. The second reactor (reactor B) was subjected to N2 gas-assisted backwashing every 3-4 months. Complete removal of 50 mg/L NO3- was achieved in reactor A before and after the switch from N2-assisted backwashing (NAB) to air-assisted backwashing (AAB). Substantial sulfate removal was achieved with both backwashing strategies. Prolonged practice of AAB (more than two months), however, diminished sulfate reduction in reactor B somewhat. Arsenic removal in reactor A was impacted slightly by long-term use of AAB, but arsenic removals achieved by the entire system during NAB and AAB periods were not significantly different (p>0.05) and arsenic concentrations were reduced from approximately 200 μg/L to below 20 μg/L. These results indicate that AAB can be implemented in anaerobic nitrate and arsenic removal systems.

  4. Involvement of ligninolytic enzymes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in treating the textile effluent containing Astrazon Red FBL in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, M; Karimi, A; Vahabzadeh, F

    2009-09-30

    The effect of Tween80, Mn(II) and veratryl alcohol (VA) on the production of ligninolytic enzymes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a packed-bed bioreactor using small pieces of Kissiris as carrier, was investigated. The results of the enzyme activities were noticeable in terms of decolorization and COD removal of the textile effluent containing an azo dye (Astrazon Red FBL). No dilution was made on the tested textile effluent and it was not sterilized, also. Maximum decolorization of the dye (87%) and COD removal (42%), both occurred when only Tween80 (0.05%, w/v) was added to the effluent. The maximum activities of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) were (U/l): 17 and 52, respectively. The role of MnP was pronounced in the dye decolorization process, while the influence of LiP was noticeable on COD removal. The reusability of the original biomass was examined by replacing undiluted textile effluent (i.e., five times). The cellular performance of the original biomass in repeated-batch operations was promising.

  5. Quantitative analysis of a high-rate hydrogen-producing microbial community in anaerobic agitated granular sludge bed bioreactors using glucose as substrate.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chun-Hsiung; Lee, Kuo-Shing; Cheng, Lu-Hsiu; Huang, Yu-Hsin; Lin, Ping-Jei; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2007-06-01

    Fermentative H(2) production microbial structure in an agitated granular sludge bed bioreactor was analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction-denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). This hydrogen-producing system was operated at four different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 4, 2, 1, and 0.5 h and with an influent glucose concentration of 20 g chemical oxygen demand/l. According to the PCR-DGGE analysis, bacterial community structures were mainly composed of Clostridium sp. (possibly Clostridium pasteurianum), Klebsiella oxytoca, and Streptococcus sp. Significant increase of Clostridium/total cell ratio (68%) was observed when the reactor was operated under higher influent flow rate. The existence of Streptococcus sp. in the reactor became more important when operated under a short HRT as indicated by the ratio of Streptococcus probe-positive cells to Clostridium probe-positive cells changing from 21% (HRT 4 h) to 38% (HRT 0.5 h). FISH images suggested that Streptococcus cells probably acted as seeds for self-flocculated granule formation. Furthermore, combining the inspections with hydrogen production under different HRTs and their corresponding FISH analysis indicated that K. oxytoca did not directly contribute to H(2) production but possibly played a role in consuming O(2) to create an anaerobic environment for the hydrogen-producing Clostridium.

  6. Innovative sponge-based moving bed-osmotic membrane bioreactor hybrid system using a new class of draw solution for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Nguyen, Hau Thi; Ray, Saikat Sinha; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Lin, Po-Hsun

    2016-03-15

    For the first time, an innovative concept of combining sponge-based moving bed (SMB) and an osmotic membrane bioreactor (OsMBR), known as the SMB-OsMBR hybrid system, were investigated using Triton X-114 surfactant coupled with MgCl2 salt as the draw solution. Compared to traditional activated sludge OsMBR, the SMB-OsMBR system was able to remove more nutrients due to the thick-biofilm layer on sponge carriers. Subsequently less membrane fouling was observed during the wastewater treatment process. A water flux of 11.38 L/(m(2) h) and a negligible reverse salt flux were documented when deionized water served as the feed solution and a mixture of 1.5 M MgCl2 and 1.5 mM Triton X-114 was used as the draw solution. The SMB-OsMBR hybrid system indicated that a stable water flux of 10.5 L/(m(2) h) and low salt accumulation were achieved in a 90-day operation. Moreover, the nutrient removal efficiency of the proposed system was close to 100%, confirming the effectiveness of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in the biofilm layer on sponge carriers. The overall performance of the SMB-OsMBR hybrid system using MgCl2 coupled with Triton X-114 as the draw solution demonstrates its potential application in wastewater treatment.

  7. Effect of intermittent aeration cycle on nutrient removal and microbial community in a fluidized bed reactor-membrane bioreactor combo system.

    PubMed

    Guadie, Awoke; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zeleke, Jemaneh; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W

    2014-03-01

    Effect of intermittent aeration cycle (IAC=15/45-60/60min) on nutrient removal and microbial community structure was investigated using a novel fluidized bed reactor-membrane bioreactor (FBR-MBR) combo system. FBR alone was found more efficient for removing PO4-P (>85%) than NH4-N (<40%) and chemical oxygen demand (COD<35%). However, in the combo system, COD and NH4-N removals were almost complete (>98%). Efficient nitrification, stable mixed liquor suspended solid and reduced transmembrane pressure was also achieved. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results of total bacteria 16S rRNA gene copies per mL of mixed-liquor varied from (2.48±0.42)×10(9) initial to (2.74±0.10)×10(8), (6.27±0.16)×10(9) and (9.17±1.78)×10(9) for 15/45, 45/15 and 60/60min of IACs, respectively. The results of clone library analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (59%), Firmicutes (12%) and Bacteroidetes (11%) were the dominant bacterial group in all samples. Overall, the combo system performs optimum nutrient removal and host stable microbial communities at 45/15min of IAC. PMID:24508900

  8. The contrast study of anammox-denitrifying system in two non-woven fixed-bed bioreactors (NFBR) treating different low C/N ratio sewage.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fan; Zhang, Hanmin; Yang, Fenglin; Qiang, Hong; Zhang, Guangyi

    2012-06-01

    Two non-woven fixed-bed bioreactors (NFBR) based on different substrates (nitrite and nitrate) were constructed to study the environmental adaptability for temperature and organic matter of anammox-denitrifying system and nitrogen removal performance. The two reactors were successfully operated for 200 days. The average removal rates of nitrogen and COD of R2 were 81% and 93%, respectively. Besides, the nitrogen removal rate of R1 was 95% under not more than 105 mg/l of COD. The experimental results indicated that the R2 based on nitrate had a good nitrogen removal performance at room temperature (25 °C). Additionally, the analysis results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that the percentage compositions of anammox in R1 and R2 were 84% and 65% on day 189. Finally, the possible nitrogen removal model of anammox-denitrifying system was constructed. According to nitrogen balance and C/N ratios of denitrification, the nitrogen removal approaches of R1 and R2 were obtained.

  9. Aerobic moving bed bioreactor performance: a comparative study of removal efficiencies of kraft mill effluents from Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus as raw material.

    PubMed

    Villamar, C A; Jarpa, M; Decap, J; Vidal, G

    2009-01-01

    A Moving Bed Bioreactor (MBBR) was operated during 333 days. Two different effluents were fed in six different phases. Phases I and II were fed with effluent where Pinus radiata was used as raw material, while phases III to VI were fed with effluent where Eucalyptus globulus was used as raw material. The HRT was reduced from 85 to 4 h, and the BOD(5):N:P ratio (100:5:1, 100:3:1 and 100:1:1) was also simultaneously evaluated as an operation strategy. When MBBR was operated with Pinus radiata influent, the performance presents a high BOD(5) removal level (above 95%), although COD removal is below 60%. Most of the recalcitrant COD contained in the effluent has a molecular weight higher than 10,000 Da. When MBBR was operated with Eucalyptus globulus influent, the performance is around 97.9-97.6% and 68.6-65.1% for BOD(5) and COD, respectively (with HRT up to 17 h). In the Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globus effluents, the color was mainly found in the molecular weight fraction up to 10,000 Daltons. PMID:19214005

  10. Analysis of bacterial diversity and efficiency of continuous removal of Victoria Blue R from wastewater by using packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Wang, Guey-Horng; Tseng, I-Hung; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2016-02-01

    The characteristics of a packed-bed bioreactor (PBB) for continuously removing Victoria Blue R (VBR) from an aqueous solution were determined. The effects of various factors including liquid retention time (RT), VBR concentration, shock loading, and coexisting compounds on the VBR removal and bacterial community in a continuous system were investigated. The intermediates of degraded VBR and the acute toxicity of the effluent from PBB were analyzed. When the VBR concentration was lower than 400 mg/l for a two-day retention time (RT), 100% removal was achieved. During continuous operation, the efficiency initially varied with the VBR concentration and RT, but gradually increased in one to two days. Furthermore, the acute toxicity of the effluent reduced by a factor of 21.25-49.61, indicating that the PBB can be successfully operated under turbulent environmental conditions. VBR degradation involved stepwise demethylation and yielded partially dealkylated VBR species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the dominant phylum in the PBB was Proteobacteria and that Aeromonas hydrophila dominated during the entire operating period. The characteristics of the identified species showed that the PBB is suitable for processes such as demethylation, aromatic ring opening, carbon oxidation, nitrification, and denitrification.

  11. Biological transformation pathways of 2,4-dinitro anisole and N-methyl paranitro aniline in anaerobic fluidized-bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Platten, William E; Bailey, David; Suidan, Makram T; Maloney, Stephen W

    2010-11-01

    The US Army is evaluating new, insensitive explosives to produce safer munitions. Two potential new components are 2,4-dinitro anisole (DNAN) and N-methyl paranitro aniline (MNA), which would eventually make their way to waste streams generated in the production and handling of new munitions. The effectiveness of anaerobic fluidized-bed bioreactors (AFBB) was studied for treatment and transformation of these two new chemical components in munitions. Each compound was fed into a separate reactor and monitored for removal and transformation, using ethanol as the electron donor. The results show that both were degradable using the AFBB system. DNAN was found to transform into diaminoanisole and MNA was found to transform into N-methyl-p-phenylenediamine. Both of these by-products appeared to form azobond polymers after exposure to air. To test the resilience of the reactors, the compounds were removed from the feed streams for 3 weeks and then reintroduced. DNAN showed that a re-acclimation period was necessary for it to be degraded again, while MNA was removed immediately upon reintroduction. The AFBB technology was shown here to be an effective means of removing the new munitions, but produce secondary compounds that could potentially be just as harmful and require further study.

  12. Analysis of bacterial diversity and efficiency of continuous removal of Victoria Blue R from wastewater by using packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Wang, Guey-Horng; Tseng, I-Hung; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2016-02-01

    The characteristics of a packed-bed bioreactor (PBB) for continuously removing Victoria Blue R (VBR) from an aqueous solution were determined. The effects of various factors including liquid retention time (RT), VBR concentration, shock loading, and coexisting compounds on the VBR removal and bacterial community in a continuous system were investigated. The intermediates of degraded VBR and the acute toxicity of the effluent from PBB were analyzed. When the VBR concentration was lower than 400 mg/l for a two-day retention time (RT), 100% removal was achieved. During continuous operation, the efficiency initially varied with the VBR concentration and RT, but gradually increased in one to two days. Furthermore, the acute toxicity of the effluent reduced by a factor of 21.25-49.61, indicating that the PBB can be successfully operated under turbulent environmental conditions. VBR degradation involved stepwise demethylation and yielded partially dealkylated VBR species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the dominant phylum in the PBB was Proteobacteria and that Aeromonas hydrophila dominated during the entire operating period. The characteristics of the identified species showed that the PBB is suitable for processes such as demethylation, aromatic ring opening, carbon oxidation, nitrification, and denitrification. PMID:26657084

  13. Use of a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor for the continuous and simultaneous fermentation and purification of lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, E.N.; Cooper, S.P.; Clement, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    A continuous biparticle fluidized-bed reactor is developed for the simultaneous fermentation and purification of lactic acid. In this processing scheme, bacteria are immobilized in gelatin beads and are fluidized in a columnar reactor. Solid particles with sorbent capacity for the product are introduced at the top of the reactor, and fall counter currently to the biocatalyst, effecting in situ removal of the inhibitory product, while also controlling reactor pH at optimal levels. Initial long-term fermentation trials using immobilized Lactobacillus delbreuckii have demonstrated a 12-fold increase in volumetric productivity during absorbent addition as opposed to control fermentations in the same reactor. Unoptimized regeneration of the loaded sorbent has effected at least an eightfold concentration of lactic acid and a 68-fold enhancement in separation from glucose compared to original levels in the fermentation broth. The benefits of this reactor system as opposed to conventional batch fermentation are discussed in terms of productivity and process economics.

  14. Post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluent using a two-stage fluidized bed bioreactor system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a two-stage fluidized bed reactor (FBR) system for the post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents (Shahrak Gharb, Tehran, Iran). The proposed treatment scheme was evaluated using pilot-scale reactors (106-L of capacity) filled with PVC as the fluidized bed (first stage) and gravel for the filtration purpose (second stage). Aluminum sulfate (30 mg/L) and chlorine (1 mg/L) were used for the coagulation and disinfection of the effluent, respectively. To monitor the performance of the FBR system, variation of several parameters (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, total phosphorous, total coliform and fecal coliform) were monitored in the effluent wastewater samples. The results showed that the proposed system could effectively reduce BOD5 and COD below 1.95 and 4.06 mg/L, respectively. Turbidity of the effluent could be achieved below 0.75 NTU, which was lower than those reported for the disinfection purpose. The total phosphorus was reduced to 0.52 mg/L, which was near the present phosphorous standard for the prevention of eutrophication process. Depending on both microorganism concentration and applied surface loading rates (5–10 m/h), about 35 to 75% and 67 to 97% of coliform were removed without and with the chlorine addition, respectively. Findings of this study clearly confirmed the efficiency of the FBR system for the post-treatment of the secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents without any solid problem during the chlorination. PMID:24499570

  15. A Two-Stage Microbial Fuel Cell and Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) System for Effective Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising technology for energy-efficient domestic wastewater treatment, but the effluent quality has typically not been sufficient for discharge without further treatment. A two-stage laboratory-scale combined treatment process, consisting of microbial fuel cells and an anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR), was examined here to produce high quality effluent with minimal energy demands. The combined system was operated continuously for 50 days at room temperature (∼25 °C) with domestic wastewater having a total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) of 210 ± 11 mg/L. At a combined hydraulic retention time (HRT) for both processes of 9 h, the effluent tCOD was reduced to 16 ± 3 mg/L (92.5% removal), and there was nearly complete removal of total suspended solids (TSS; from 45 ± 10 mg/L to <1 mg/L). The AFMBR was operated at a constant high permeate flux of 16 L/m2/h over 50 days, without the need or use of any membrane cleaning or backwashing. Total electrical energy required for the operation of the MFC-AFMBR system was 0.0186 kWh/m3, which was slightly less than the electrical energy produced by the MFCs (0.0197 kWh/m3). The energy in the methane produced in the AFMBR was comparatively negligible (0.005 kWh/m3). These results show that a combined MFC-AFMBR system could be used to effectively treat domestic primary effluent at ambient temperatures, producing high effluent quality with low energy requirements. PMID:24568605

  16. Methanospirillum stamsii sp. nov., a psychrotolerant, hydrogenotrophic, methanogenic archaeon isolated from an anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed bioreactor operated at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Parshina, Sofiya N; Ermakova, Anna V; Bomberg, Malin; Detkova, Ekaterina N

    2014-01-01

    A psychrotolerant hydrogenotrophic methanogen, strain Pt1, was isolated from a syntrophic propionate-oxidizing methanogenic consortium obtained from granulated biomass of a two-stage low-temperature (3-8 °C) anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) bioreactor, fed with a mixture of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) (acetate, propionate and butyrate). The strain was strictly anaerobic, and cells were curved rods, 0.4-0.5×7.5-25 µm, that sometimes formed wavy filaments from 25 to several hundred micrometres in length. Cells stained Gram-negative and were non-sporulating. They were gently motile by means of tufted flagella. The strain grew at 5-37 °C (optimum at 20-30 °C), at pH 6.0-10 (optimum 7.0-7.5) and with 0-0.3 M NaCl (optimum 0 M NaCl). Growth and methane production was found with H2/CO2 and very weak growth with formate. Acetate and yeast extract stimulated growth, but were not essential. The G+C content of the DNA of strain Pt1 was 40 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain Pt1 was a member of the genus Methanospirillum and showed 97.5 % sequence similarity to Methanospirillum hungatei JF1(T) and 94 % sequence similarity to Methanospirillum lacunae Ki8-1(T). DNA-DNA hybridization of strain Pt1 with Methanospirillum hungatei JF1(T) revealed 39 % relatedness. On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic position, strain Pt1 is a representative of a novel species of the genus Methanospirillum, for which the name Methanospirillum stamsii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Pt1(T) ( = DSM 26304(T) = VKM B-2808(T)). PMID:24048867

  17. A high-rate secondary treatment based on a moving bed bioreactor and multimedia filters for small wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Liao, Z; Rasmussen, V; Odegaard, H

    2003-01-01

    For small wastewater treatment plants (WWPTs), high-rate secondary treatment systems with good treatment efficiency and easy, stable, and robust operation are called for. In this paper an experimental study on a high rate secondary treatment based on moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and multimedia filters is presented. A high rate MBBR converts easily biodegradable SCOD in short HRT (0.5 h) directly after screening, then a Kaldnes-Filtralite-Sand (KFS) filter removes the particulate COD and detached biofilms at filtration rates of 10-20 m/h. The whole system gave effluent SS and COD less than 30 mg/L and 100 mg/L when total detention time is less than 1 h and small dosage of chemicals (iron and/or cationic polymer) is used. A new scenario of high rate secondary system with a primary Kaldnes coarse media filter in front of high rate MBBR and the KFS filter is proposed and discussed. This scenario with total HRT less than 2h is more suitable for high influent SS concentrations and may also be extended for nitrogen and phosphorous removal. Compared to conventional secondary treatment, the high rate secondary treatment will be using only 1/5-1/10 of the space, resulting in considerable savings for construction, energy and operation. PMID:14524687

  18. Human embryonic stem cell-derived mesodermal progenitors display substantially increased tissue formation compared to human mesenchymal stem cells under dynamic culture conditions in a packed bed/column bioreactor.

    PubMed

    de Peppo, Giuseppe Maria; Sladkova, Martina; Sjövall, Peter; Palmquist, Anders; Oudina, Karim; Hyllner, Johan; Thomsen, Peter; Petite, Hervé; Karlsson, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering represents a promising strategy to obviate bone deficiencies, allowing the ex vivo construction of bone substitutes with unprecedented potential in the clinical practice. Considering that in the human body cells are constantly stimulated by chemical and mechanical stimuli, the use of bioreactor is emerging as an essential factor for providing the proper environment for the reproducible and large-scale production of the engineered substitutes. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are experimentally relevant cells but, regardless the encouraging results reported after culture under dynamic conditions in bioreactors, show important limitations for tissue engineering applications, especially considering their limited proliferative potential, loss of functionality following protracted expansion, and decline in cellular fitness associated with aging. On the other hand, we previously demonstrated that human embryonic stem cell-derived mesodermal progenitors (hES-MPs) hold great potential to provide a homogenous and unlimited source of cells for bone engineering applications. Based on prior scientific evidence using different types of stem cells, in the present study we hypothesized that dynamic culture of hES-MPs in a packed bed/column bioreactor had the potential to affect proliferation, expression of genes involved in osteogenic differentiation, and matrix mineralization, therefore resulting in increased bone-like tissue formation. The reported findings suggest that hES-MPs constitute a suitable alternative cell source to hMSCs and hold great potential for the construction of bone substitutes for tissue engineering applications in clinical settings.

  19. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  20. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  1. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  2. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  3. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  4. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  5. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  6. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  7. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  8. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator (BTR) holds fixed tissue culture bags at 4 degrees C to preserve them for return to Earth and postflight analysis. The cultures are used in research with the NASA Bioreactor cell science program. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  9. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  10. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  11. Bioreactor principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  12. Microbial Bioreactor Development in the ALS NSCORT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Cary; Whitaker, Dawn; Banks, M. Katherine; Heber, Albert J.; Turco, Ronald F.; Nies, Loring F.; Alleman, James E.; Sharvelle, Sybil E.; Li, Congna; Heller, Megan

    The NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support (the ALS NSCORT), a partnership of Alabama A & M, Howard, and Purdue Universities, was established by NASA in 2002 to develop technologies that will reduce the Equivalent System Mass (ESM) of regenerative processes within future space life-support systems. A key focus area of NSCORT research has been the development of efficient microbial bioreactors for treatment of human, crop, and food-process wastes while enabling resource recovery. The approach emphasizes optimizing the energy-saving advantages of hydrolytic enzymes for biomass degradation, with focus on treatment of solid wastes including crop residue, paper, food, and human metabolic wastes, treatment of greywater, cabin air, off-gases from other treatment systems, and habitat condensate. This summary includes important findings from those projects, status of technology development, and recommendations for next steps. The Plant-based Anaerobic-Aerobic Bioreactor-Linked Operation (PAABLO) system was developed to reduce crop residue while generating energy and/or food. Plant residues initially were added directly to the bioreactor, and recalcitrant residue was used as a substrate for growing plants or mushrooms. Subsequently, crop residue was first pretreated with fungi to hydrolyze polymers recalcitrant to bacteria, and leachate from the fungal beds was directed to the anaerobic digester. Exoenzymes from the fungi pre-soften fibrous plant materials, improving recovery of materials that are more easily biodegraded to methane that can be used for energy reclamation. An Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) system was developed for biodegradable solid wastes. Objectives were to increase water and nutrient recovery, reduce waste volume, and inactivate pathogens. Operational parameters of the reactor were optimized for degradation and resource recovery while minimizing system requirements and footprint. The start-up behavior

  13. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  14. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  15. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  16. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  17. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

  18. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  19. Multimembrane Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Toohyon; Shuler, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Set of hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes in bioreactor allows product of reaction to be separated, while nutrients fed to reacting cells and byproducts removed from them. Separation process requires no externally supplied energy; free energy of reaction sufficient. Membranes greatly increase productivity of metabolizing cells by continuously removing product and byproducts, which might otherwise inhibit reaction, and by continuously adding oxygen and organic nutrients.

  20. Bioreactor performance and methanogenic population dynamics in a low-temperature (5-18 °C) anaerobic fixed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongdong; Zhu, Wanbin; Tang, Can; Suo, Yali; Gao, Lijuan; Yuan, Xufeng; Wang, Xiaofen; Cui, Zongjun

    2012-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the functionality of microbial community structure in a low temperature, anaerobic fixed-bed reactor was studied by decreasing the operating temperature from 18 °C to 5 °C. The reactor was productive within 20 days and produced stable methane content in biogas (above 77%) throughout the trial period. At 17 °C and 15 °C, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and biogas production of reactor were significantly reduced. These might be temperature thresholds when fixed-bed reactors are operated under low temperatures. The methanogen community composition was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone library screening and quantitative PCR. At low ambient temperatures, Methanomicrobiales were dominant methanogens, and they preferentially adhered to the carbon fiber carrier. The results indicated that 16S rRNA levels of Methanomicrobiales and Methanosaetaceae in adhering sludge were higher than in deposited sludge, and they all contributed to the efficient performance of the fixed-bed reactor at low operating temperatures. PMID:22137750

  1. Advanced bioreactor concepts for coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    The development of advanced bioreactor systems for the processing of coal should follow some basic principles. Continuous operation is preferred, with maximum bioreagent concentrations and enhanced mass transfer. Although conventional stirred-tank bioreactors will be more appropriate for some processing concepts, columnar reactors with retained bioreagents could be the system of choice for most of the applications. Serious consideration must now be given to process development of some biological coal processing concepts. Process biology and biochemistry will continue to be very important, but efficient bioreactor systems will be necessary for economic feasibility. Conventional bioreactor concepts will be useful for some applications, but columnar systems represent an innovative approach to the design of continuous bioreactors with high productivity and good operational control. Fluidized and packed beds are the most promising configurations, especially where three-phase operation is required and where interphase mass transport is a likely controlling mechanism. Although the biocatalyst must be immobilized into or onto particles to be retained in the bioreactors, this also results in a very high biocatalyst concentration without washout and a significant enhancement in bioconversion rates. The multistage nature of these types of bioreactors also contributes to higher efficiencies for many types of biocatalytic processes. 25 refs.

  2. Investigation of fluidized-bed biological denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Acox, T.A.

    1982-12-16

    The performance of the fluidized-bed bioreactor was modelled for denitrification using a multiple linear regression. Reasonable accuracy was obtained; however, this type of analysis did not take into account the hydraulic characteristics of the fluidized-bed. The Mulcahy and LaMotta computer program previously used to model a fluidized-bed bioreactor cannot be used in this case due to the Michaelis-Menton constant k determined in this study, which was one to two orders of magnitude lower. With some additional bioreactor study and computer program modification, this may prove to be of some benefit.

  3. Fibrous calcite from the Middle Ordovician Holston Formation (east Tennessee)

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.J.; Walker, K.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Fibrous calcite from buildups, which occur near the top of the Middle Ordovician Holston Formation, were examined from two localities near Knoxville, TN (Alcoa Highway and Deanne Quarry). Buildups at these localities were deposited under open-marine conditions, slightly down-slope from the platform edge. Fibrous calcite (mainly radiaxial fibrous) occur most commonly as cements in mainly stromatactis structures present in bioherms and intergranular porosity in beds that flank bioherms. Fibrous calcite is interpreted to have been precipitated in a marine setting. Fibrous calcite is uniformly turbid or banded with interlayered turbid and clearer cement. Fibrous calcite most commonly shows patchy or blotchy dull-non-luminescence under cathodoluminescence. Bands of uniformly non-luminescent and relatively bright luminescent calcite are present. [delta][sup 13]C compositions of fibrous calcite vary little (0.6 to 1.0%) but [delta][sup 18]O values are highly variable ([minus]4.8 to [minus]7.1%). Post-marine cement consists of ferroan and non-ferroan, dull luminescent equant calcite ([delta][sup 13]C = 0.3 to 0.8; [delta][sup 18]O = [minus]8.6 to [minus]11.5) and is interpreted as precipitated in a deep meteoric or burial setting. Depleted [delta][sup 18]O compositions of fibrous calcite reflect addition of post-depositional calcite during stabilization. Most enriched [delta][sup 13]C and [delta][sup 18]O fibrous calcite composition are similar to enriched values from other Middle Ordovician southern Appalachian buildups (other localities of Holston (TN) and Effna (VA) formations) ([delta][sup 13]C = 0.3 to 0.8; [delta][sup 18]O = [minus]3.9 to [minus]4.8) and may reflect fibrous calcite precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with Middle Ordovician sea water.

  4. Production of bacterial cellulose membranes in a modified airlift bioreactor by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Chi; Li, Meng-Hsun

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a novel bioreactor for producing bacterial cellulose (BC) is proposed. Traditional BC production uses static culture conditions and produces a gelatinous membrane. The potential for using various types of bioreactor, including a stirred tank, conventional airlift, and modified airlift with a rectangular wire-mesh draft tube, in large-scale production has been investigated. The BC obtained from these bioreactors is fibrous or in pellet form. Our proposed airlift bioreactor produces a membrane-type BC from Gluconacetobacter xylinus, the water-holding capacity of which is greater than that of cellulose types produced using static cultivation methods. The Young's modulus of the product can be manipulated by varying the number of net plates in the modified airlift bioreactor. The BC membrane produced using the proposed bioreactor exhibits potential for practical application.

  5. Production of bacterial cellulose membranes in a modified airlift bioreactor by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Chi; Li, Meng-Hsun

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a novel bioreactor for producing bacterial cellulose (BC) is proposed. Traditional BC production uses static culture conditions and produces a gelatinous membrane. The potential for using various types of bioreactor, including a stirred tank, conventional airlift, and modified airlift with a rectangular wire-mesh draft tube, in large-scale production has been investigated. The BC obtained from these bioreactors is fibrous or in pellet form. Our proposed airlift bioreactor produces a membrane-type BC from Gluconacetobacter xylinus, the water-holding capacity of which is greater than that of cellulose types produced using static cultivation methods. The Young's modulus of the product can be manipulated by varying the number of net plates in the modified airlift bioreactor. The BC membrane produced using the proposed bioreactor exhibits potential for practical application. PMID:25823854

  6. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  7. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  8. Bio-reactor chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Joseph A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A bioreactor for cell culture is disclosed which provides for the introduction of fresh medium without excessive turbulent action. The fresh medium enters the bioreactor through a filter with a backwash action which prevents the cells from settling on the filter. The bioreactor is sealed and depleted medium is forced out of the container as fresh medium is added.

  9. Paratesticular Fibrous Pseudotumors

    PubMed Central

    Turkan, Sadi; Kalkan, Mehmet; Ekmekcioglu, Ozan; Haltas, Hacer; Sahin, Coskun

    2016-01-01

    Paratesticular fibrous pseudotumors (PFPs) are rare pathologies with quite wide and variable topographic-morphological features. It is difficult to distinguish PFPs from malignant masses. Treatment can be done by resection of the mass. We reported a young patient’s findings about this rare pathology. PMID:27441080

  10. Mesothelioma - benign-fibrous

    MedlinePlus

    ... fibroma; Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura Images Respiratory system References Broaddus VC, Robinson BWS. Tumors of the pleura. In: Mason RJ, Broaddus VC, Martin TR, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010: ...

  11. Gastric calcifying fibrous tumour

    PubMed Central

    Attila, Tan; Chen, Dean; Gardiner, Geoffrey W; Ptak, Theadore W; Marcon, Norman E

    2006-01-01

    Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours); however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases. PMID:16858502

  12. Subcutaneous solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Kubota, Yumiko; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Juichiro

    2004-12-01

    We describe a unique case of subcutaneous solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) in a 56-year-old female patient. The patient had been aware of a painless soft mass in her back for ten years. The lesion was surgically excised. Histological examination revealed that the well-defined mass was composed of a proliferation of spindle-shaped fibroblastic cells and polygonal cells embedded in a fibrous matrix corresponding to the so-called "patternless pattern". A prominent pericytomatous pattern (hemangiopericytoma-like structures), focal myxoid changes, and thick hyalinized collagen fibers were also observed. Immunohistochemical stainings for CD34 and bcl-2 were positive in the tumor cells. These features are compatible with SFT. We suggest that SFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous spindle cell tumors.

  13. [Intrapulmonary Solitary Fibrous Tumor].

    PubMed

    Komori, Kazuyuki; Tabata, Toshiharu; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Minowa, Muneo; Fujimura, Shigefumi

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor( SFT). A 34-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to an abnormal shadow on a chest roentgenogram without symptom. Computed tomography showed a circumscribed intrapulmonary tumor with mild uptake on fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography( PET) in the left lower lobe( S6). Frozen examination revealed a mesenchymal tumor. Based on the pathological and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as intrapulmonary SFT.

  14. [Intrapulmonary Solitary Fibrous Tumor].

    PubMed

    Komori, Kazuyuki; Tabata, Toshiharu; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Minowa, Muneo; Fujimura, Shigefumi

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor( SFT). A 34-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to an abnormal shadow on a chest roentgenogram without symptom. Computed tomography showed a circumscribed intrapulmonary tumor with mild uptake on fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography( PET) in the left lower lobe( S6). Frozen examination revealed a mesenchymal tumor. Based on the pathological and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as intrapulmonary SFT. PMID:26329708

  15. Bioreactors for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huang-Chi; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2006-09-01

    Bioreactors are essential in tissue engineering, not only because they provide an in vitro environment mimicking in vivo conditions for the growth of tissue substitutes, but also because they enable systematic studies of the responses of living tissues to various mechanical and biochemical cues. The basic principles of bioreactor design are reviewed, the bioreactors commonly used for the tissue engineering of cartilage, bone and cardiovascular systems are assessed in terms of their performance and usefulness. Several novel bioreactor types are also reviewed. PMID:16955350

  16. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Ricalde, Pat; Magliocca, Kelly R; Lee, Janice S

    2012-08-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of the natural history and molecular abnormalities, many questions remain surrounding the progression and management of fibrous dysplasia (FD). In the absence of comorbidities, the expected behavior of craniofacial FD (CFD) is to be slow growing and without functional consequence. Understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms contributing to the various phenotypes of this condition, as well as the predictors of the different behaviors of FD lesions, must be improved. Long-term follow-up of patients with CFD is vital because spontaneous recovery is unlikely, and the course of disease can be unpredictable. PMID:22771278

  17. Intramasseteric solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Ersoy; Erdag, Taner Kemal; Ikiz, Ahmet Omer; Guneri, Ataman; Sarioglu, Sulen

    2013-03-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell neoplasm that usually arises from the pleura. SFTs occurring within the head and neck region are uncommon. Recently, it has been described in various head and neck sites such as oral cavity, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands, thyroid, buccal space, and larynx. Here, we report a case of SFT originating in the masseter muscle of a 27-year-old woman. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a SFT of the head and neck region, arising within the masseter muscle. We present the clinical history, radiologic and histopathologic findings as well as immunoreactivity of this tumor.

  18. Fibrous dysplasia and cherubism

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Mishra, RK

    2015-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a non-malignant fibro-osseous bony lesion in which the involved bone/bones gradually get converted into expanding cystic and fibrous tissue. The underlying defect in FD is post-natal mutation of GNAS1 gene, which leads to the proliferation and activation of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells arresting the bone development in woven phase and ultimately converting them into fibro-osseous cystic tissue. Cherubism is a hereditary form of fibrous dysplasia in which the causative factor is transmission of autosomal dominant SH3BP2 gene mutation. The disease may present in two distinct forms, a less severe and limited monostotic form, and a more aggressive and more widespread polyostotic form. Polyostotic form may be associated with various endocrine abnormalities, which require active management apart from the management of FD. Management of FD is not free from controversies. While total surgical excision of the involved area and reconstruction using newer micro-vascular technique is the only definitive treatment available from the curative point of view, but this can be only offered to monostotic and very few polyostotic lesions. In polyostotic varieties on many occasions these radical surgeries are very deforming in these slow growing lesions and so their indication is highly debated. The treatment of cranio-facial fibrous dysplasia should be highly individualized, depending on the fact that the clinical behavior of lesion is variable at various ages and in individual patients. A more conservative approach in the form of aesthetic recontouring of deformed bone, orthodontic occlusal correction, and watchful expectancy may be the more accepted form of treatment in young patients. Newer generation real-time imaging guidance during recontouring surgery adds to accuracy and safety of these procedures. Regular clinical and radiological follow up is required to watch for quiescence, regression or reactivation of the disease process. Patients must be

  19. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  20. Disposable polymeric cryogel bioreactor matrix for therapeutic protein production.

    PubMed

    Jain, Era; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-05-01

    Low cost and high efficiency make disposable bioreactors feasible for small-scale therapeutic development and initial clinical trials. We have developed a cryogel-based disposable bioreactor matrix, which has been used for production of protein therapeutics such as urokinase and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The protocol discusses the application of a cryogel bioreactor for mAb production. Cryogels composed of either polyacrylamide (PAAm) coupled to gelatin or semi-interpenetrating PAAm-chitosan are synthesized by free-radical polymerization at -12 °C. Hybridoma cells are immobilized over the cryogel bioreactor and incubated for 48 h. Medium is circulated thereafter at 0.2 ml min(-1) and bioreactors can be run continuously for 60 d. The cryogel-based packed-bed bioreactor can be formulated as a monolith or as beads; it also has an efficiency four times what can be obtained using a tissue-culture flask, a high surface-to-volume ratio and effective nutrient transport. After incubation, the bioreactor setup will take about 60 min using a pre-prepared sterilized cryogel.

  1. Laryngeal solitary fibrous tumour.

    PubMed

    Stomeo, Francesco; Padovani, Davide; Bozzo, Corrado; Pastore, Antonio

    2007-09-01

    Solitary fibrous tumours (SFT) are rare neoplasms, with an uncommon laryngeal involvement. Only five cases of laryngeal localization have been described in literature. The following is a case of a 75-year-old man with a supraglottic neoplasm of the larynx; after the biopsy immunohistochemical study demonstrated a strong positivity for vimentin, CD34 and Bcl-2. The neoplasm was consequently classified as a SFT. CO(2) laser surgery of the supraglottic larynx, with a wide excision of the neoplasm, was performed. Twenty-four months on, the patient is alive, well and free of disease. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for laryngeal SFT, but tumour-free resection margins must be achieved to prevent the possibility of local recurrence. Endoscopic resection by means of the CO(2) laser must be accurately planned with MRI or CT imaging to confirm of this kind of surgery.

  2. Solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Cem; Kabatas, Serdar; Ozen, Ozlem Isiksacan; Gulsen, Salih; Caner, Hakan; Altinors, Nur

    2009-12-01

    Intracranial solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) are typically dural based, CD34-positive neoplasms of mesenchymal origin. Since they were first described in 1996 at the meninges, fewer than 100 SFT had been reported in both cranial and spinal compartments of the central nervous system. SFT can resemble other spindle cell tumors both radiologically and histopathologically, and differentiation can be best achieved through viewing their ultrastructure and using immunohistochemical techniques. In this report, we present four patients with SFT. Upon diagnosing two patients with SFT located in the cerebellopontine angle and parasagittal areas, we reviewed our pathological files and found two more patients; one having a parasagittal tumor and the other having a convexity tumor, that had been diagnosed with hemangiopericytoma. These tumours proved to be SFT after an immunohistochemical re-examination.

  3. Solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, Andrea; Varaldo, Marco; Ferrarazzo, Claudia; Tunesi, Gianni; Mencoboni, Manlio

    2010-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm which may be found everywhere in the body. It is now distinguished into two forms, pleural and extrapleural, which morphologically resemble each other. Abdominal localizations are quite rare, with 10 cases only reported in bladder; rarely they can be source of paraneoplastic syndromes (i.e., hypoglycemia secondary to insulin-like growth factor). In April 2006 a 74-year-old white male presented with chills, diaphoresis and acute abdominal pain with hematuria. At admission in emergency he underwent an abdominal Xray (no pathological findings) and an ultrasound examination of the kidneys and urinary tract, which revealed a pelvic hyperechogenic neoformation measuring approximately 10×8×7 cm, compressing the bladder. Blood chemistry at admission revealed only a mild neutrophilic leucocytosis (WBC 16600, N 80%, L 11%), elevated fibrinogen and ESR, and hypoglycemia (38 mg/dL). Macro scopic hematuria was evident, while urinocolture was negative. Contrast enhanced CT scan of the abdomen and pelvic region revealed a large round neoformation dislocating the bladder, with an evident contrast-enhanced periphery and a central necrotic area. Continuous infusion of glucose 5% solution was necessary in order to maintain blood glucose levels above 50 mg/dL. The patient underwent complete surgical resection of an ovoidal mass coated by adipose tissue, with well delimited margins; histological findings were consistent with solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Hypoglycemia resolved completely with removal of the growth. In this case report we describe a SFT growing in the bladder, a quite rare localization, which presented a unique hypoglycemia. In contrast to the majority of cases reported in the literature, the behavior of this SFT was not aggressive, and, since the patient is still alive, surgical resection was considered conclusive.

  4. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  5. Computed tomography of fibrous dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Daffner, R.H.; Kirks, D.R.; Gehweiler, J.A. Jr.; Heaston, D.K.

    1982-11-01

    Skeletal fibrous dysplasia produces changes that are usually readily recognized on plain radiographs. Occasionally, routine radiography may not demonstrate the characteristic appearance of the disease. The density of abormal bone in craniofacial fibrous dysplasia may preclude adequate assessment of areas where soft-tissue impingement may occur. Computed tomography (CT) is useful in demonstrating the amorphous ''ground-glass'' texture of the lesion and in defining the extent of craniofacial disease including impingement upon orbital structures. CT was useful in five patients with fibrous dysplasia in whom the nature or extent of involvement was not entirely clear.

  6. Configuration of bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Martens, Dirk E; van den End, Evert J; Streefland, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Lab-scale stirred-tank bioreactors (0.2-20 l) are used for fundamental research on animal cells and in process development and troubleshooting for large-scale production. In this chapter, different configurations of bioreactor systems are shortly discussed and setting up these different configurations is described. In addition, online measurement and control of bioreactor parameters is described, with special attention to controller settings (PID) and online measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Finally, methods for determining the oxygen transfer coefficient are described.

  7. Bioreactors: design and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, C.L.

    1983-02-11

    The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process control, will increasingly reflect the need for cross-disciplinary interaction in the biochemical process industry. This paper examines the strategy for selection and design of bioreactors and identifies the limits and constraints in their use. 25 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Scale up of fuel ethanol production from sugar beet juice using loofa sponge immobilized bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ogbonna, J C; Mashima, H; Tanaka, H

    2001-01-01

    Production of fuel ethanol from sugar beet juice, using cells immobilized on loofa sponge was investigated. Based on ethanol productivity and ease of cell immobilization, a flocculating yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae IR2 was selected for ethanol production from sugar beet juice. It was found that raw sugar beet juice was an optimal substrate for ethanol production, requiring neither pH adjustment nor nitrogen source supplement. When compared with a 2 l bubble column bioreactor, mixing was not sufficient in an 8 l bioreactor containing a bed of sliced loofa sponges and consequently, the immobilized cells were not uniformly distributed within the bed. Most of the cells were immobilized in the lower part of the bed and this resulted in decreased ethanol productivity. By using an external loop bioreactor, constructing the fixed bed with cylindrical loofa sponges, dividing the bed into upper, middle and lower sections with approximately 1 cm spaces between them and circulating the broth through the loop during the immobilization, uniform cell distribution within the bed was achieved. Using this method, the system was scaled up to 50 l and when compared with the 2 l bubble column bioreactor, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in ethanol productivity and yield. By using external loop bioreactor to immobilize the cells uniformly on the loofa sponge beds, efficient large scale ethanol production systems can be constructed.

  9. Hepatocyte function within a stacked double sandwich culture plate cylindrical bioreactor for bioartificial liver system.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lei; Arooz, Talha; Zhang, Shufang; Tuo, Xiaoye; Xiao, Guangfa; Susanto, Thomas Adi Kurnia; Sundararajan, Janani; Cheng, Tianming; Kang, Yuzhan; Poh, Hee Joo; Leo, Hwa Liang; Yu, Hanry

    2012-11-01

    Bioartificial liver (BAL) system is promising as an alternative treatment for liver failure. We have developed a bioreactor with stacked sandwich culture plates for the application of BAL. This bioreactor design addresses some of the persistent problems in flat-bed bioreactors through increasing cell packing capacity, eliminating dead flow, regulating shear stress, and facilitating the scalability of the bioreactor unit. The bioreactor contained a stack of twelve double-sandwich-culture plates, allowing 100 million hepatocytes to be housed in a single cylindrical bioreactor unit (7 cm of height and 5.5 cm of inner diameter). The serial flow perfusion through the bioreactor increased cell-fluid contact area for effective mass exchange. With the optimal perfusion flow rate, shear stress was minimized to achieve high and uniform cell viabilities across different plates in the bioreactor. Our results demonstrated that hepatocytes cultured in the bioreactor could re-establish cell polarity and maintain liver-specific functions (e.g. albumin and urea synthesis, phase I&II metabolism functions) for seven days. The single bioreactor unit can be readily scaled up to house adequate number of functional hepatocytes for BAL development.

  10. Space Bioreactor Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The first space bioreactor has been designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and a slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small (500 ml) bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption, and control of low shear stress on cells. Applications of microcarrier cultures, development of the first space bioreactor flight system, shear and mixing effects on cells, process control, and methods to monitor cell metabolism and nutrient requirements are among the topics covered.

  11. Bioreactor design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, William

    1987-01-01

    Two parallel lines of work are underway in the bioreactor laboratory. One of the efforts is devoted to the continued development and utilization of a laboratory research system. That system's design is intended to be fluid and dynamic. The sole purpose of such a device is to allow testing and development of equipment concepts and procedures. Some of the results of those processes are discussed. A second effort is designed to produce a flight-like bioreactor contained in a double middeck locker. The result of that effort has been to freeze a particular bioreactor design in order to allow fabrication of the custom parts. The system is expected to be ready for flight in early 1988. However, continued use of the laboratory system will lead to improvements in the space bioreactor. Those improvements can only be integrated after the initial flight series.

  12. BIOREACTOR LANDFILL DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern landfill design entails many elements including foundations, liner systems, leachate collection systems, stormwater control systems, slope stability considerations, leachate management systems, gas extraction systems, and capping and closure. The use of bioreactor technolo...

  13. Advanced bioreactors for enhanced production of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.

    1993-12-31

    A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids, and other fermentation products. One key approach is immobilization of the biocatalyst, leading to increased rates and yields. In addition, there are processes for simultaneous fermentation and separation to further increase production. For example, ethanol productivity in immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) can increase more than tenfold with 99% conversion and near stoichiometric yields. Two modified FBR configurations offer further improvements by removing the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the addition and removal of solid adsorbent particles to the FBR. This process was demonstrated with the production of lactic acid by immobilized Lactobacillus. The second uses an immiscible organic extractant in the FBR. This increased total butanol yields in the anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

  14. Advanced bioreactors for enhanced production of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Scott, C.D.

    1993-06-01

    A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids and other fermentation products. One key approach is immobilization of the biocatalyst leading to increased rates and yields. In addition, there are processes for simultaneous fermentation and separation to further increase production by the removal of an inhibitory product. For example, ethanol productivity in immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) can increase more than tenfold with 99% conversion and near stoichiometric yields. Two modified FBR configurations offer further improvements by removing the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the addition and removal of solid adsorbent particles to the FBR. This process was demonstrated with the production of lactic acid by immobilized Lactobacillus. The second uses an immiscible organic extractant in the FBR. This increased total butanol yields in the anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

  15. Calcifying Fibrous Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Chorti, Angeliki; Papavramidis, Theodossis S.; Michalopoulos, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Calcifying fibrous tumor (CFT) is a benign lesion characterized by its specific histological findings and is found as solitary or multiple lesions in several locations of the human body. The aim of the present systematic review is to give a detailed account of all reported cases of CFT in the literature and to analyze the available data, to completely characterize the entity from epidemiological, medical, and surgical aspects. A bibliographic research was performed from 1988 until 2015. A database with the patients’ characteristics was made, including sex, age, location of the tumor, symptoms, symptoms duration, size of the tumor, diagnostic methods, treatment, metastasis, and follow-up. A total of 104 articles were identified, reporting 157 cases of CFT. Mean age of patients was 33.58 years and the ratio between men and women was 1:1.27. The most common locations of CFT were stomach (18%), small intestine (8.7%), pleura (9.9%), mesentery (5%), and peritoneum (6.8%). Mean diameter of the tumor was estimated 4.6 cm. The correlations proceeded showed that as age increases, size decreases (P = 0.001) and that the tumor is larger in females (P = 0.027). Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the larger tumors appear in the neck and adrenal gland (P = 0.001). The percentage of asymptomatic patients was 30.57%. Computed tomography and biopsy were the most common tests for the diagnosis of CFT. Open surgical procedure was performed in the majority of cases. The median hospitalization was 6.06 days and the mean follow-up period was 29.97 months. Recurrences were mentioned in 10 of 96 patients with available data. No deaths owing to CFT were mentioned in the literature. CFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of enlarging mass revealed by clinical or imaging examination either incidentally or after specific acute or chronic symptomatology. PMID:27196478

  16. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  17. Bioreactors and bioseparation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siliang; Cao, Xuejun; Chu, Ju; Qian, Jiangchao; Zhuang, Yingping

    2010-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of life science, great attention has been increasingly given to the biotechnological products of cell cultivation technology. In the course of industrialization, bioreactor and bioproduct separation techniques are the two essential technical platforms. In this chapter, the current situation and development prospects of bioreactor techniques in China are systematically discussed, starting with the elucidation of bioreactor processes and the principle of process optimization. Separation technology for biological products is also briefly introduced.At present, a series of bioreactors made by Chinese enterprises have been widely used for laboratory microbial cultivation, process optimization studies, and large-scale production. In the course of bioprocess optimization studies, the complicated bioprocesses in a bioreactor could be resolved into different reaction processes on three scales, namely genetic, cellular, and bioreactor scales. The structural varieties and nonlinear features of various scales of bioprocess systems was discussed through considering the mutual effects of different scale events, namely material flux, energy flux, and information flux, and the optimization approach for bioprocesses was proposed by taking the analysis of metabolic flux and multiscale consideration as a core strategy.In order to realize such an optimization approach, a bioreactor system based on association analysis of multiscale parameters was elaborated, and process optimization of many biological products were materialized, which resulted in great improvement in production efficiency. In designing and manufacturing large-scale bioreactors, the principle of scaling up a process incorporated with flow field study and physiological features in a bioreactor was suggested according to the criterion for the scale-up of cellular physiological and metabolic traits. The flow field features of a bioreactor were investigated through computational fluid

  18. Bioreactors and bioseparation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siliang; Cao, Xuejun; Chu, Ju; Qian, Jiangchao; Zhuang, Yingping

    2010-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of life science, great attention has been increasingly given to the biotechnological products of cell cultivation technology. In the course of industrialization, bioreactor and bioproduct separation techniques are the two essential technical platforms. In this chapter, the current situation and development prospects of bioreactor techniques in China are systematically discussed, starting with the elucidation of bioreactor processes and the principle of process optimization. Separation technology for biological products is also briefly introduced.At present, a series of bioreactors made by Chinese enterprises have been widely used for laboratory microbial cultivation, process optimization studies, and large-scale production. In the course of bioprocess optimization studies, the complicated bioprocesses in a bioreactor could be resolved into different reaction processes on three scales, namely genetic, cellular, and bioreactor scales. The structural varieties and nonlinear features of various scales of bioprocess systems was discussed through considering the mutual effects of different scale events, namely material flux, energy flux, and information flux, and the optimization approach for bioprocesses was proposed by taking the analysis of metabolic flux and multiscale consideration as a core strategy.In order to realize such an optimization approach, a bioreactor system based on association analysis of multiscale parameters was elaborated, and process optimization of many biological products were materialized, which resulted in great improvement in production efficiency. In designing and manufacturing large-scale bioreactors, the principle of scaling up a process incorporated with flow field study and physiological features in a bioreactor was suggested according to the criterion for the scale-up of cellular physiological and metabolic traits. The flow field features of a bioreactor were investigated through computational fluid

  19. Bioreactor boats high BTEX removal rate

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, R.

    1994-04-01

    The oil and gas industries face formidable challenges in treating process wastes to federally mandated standards. The sheer magnitude of the job is daunting: 1,200 Superfund sites and 11,000 military installations have been identified for toxic cleanup. EPA assessments place petroleum as the point source of contamination for fully 50 percent of all identified hazardous waste sites. A new treatment technolgy is a fluidized-bed bioreactor that combines the advantages of a physical carbon adsorption system with bioremediation. The system has been effective in treating tank botton wastes, brines, groundwater contaminated with benzene, toluene, xylene, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  20. NASA Classroom Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Exploration of space provides a compelling need for cell-based research into the basic mechanisms that underlie the profound changes that occur in terrestrial life that is transitioned to low gravity environments. Toward that end, NASA developed a rotating bioreactor in which cells are cultured while continuously suspended in a cylinder in which the culture medium rotates with the cylinder. The randomization of the gravity vector accomplished by the continuous rotation, in a low shear environment, provides an analog of microgravity. Because cultures grown in bioreactors develop structures and functions that are much closer to those exhibited by native tissue than can be achieved with traditional culture methods, bioreactors have contributed substantially to advancing research in the fields of cancer, diabetes, infectious disease modeling for vaccine production, drug efficacy, and tissue engineering. NASA has developed a Classroom Bioreactor (CB) that is built from parts that are easily obtained and assembled, user-friendly and versatile. It can be easily used in simple school settings to examine the effect cultures of seeds or cells. An educational brief provides assembly instructions and lesson plans that describes activities in science, math and technology that explore free fall, microgravity, orbits, bioreactors, structure-function relationships and the scientific method.

  1. NASA Bioreactor Schematic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The schematic depicts the major elements and flow patterns inside the NASA Bioreactor system. Waste and fresh medium are contained in plastic bags placed side-by-side so the waste bag fills as the fresh medium bag is depleted. The compliance vessel contains a bladder to accommodate pressure transients that might damage the system. A peristolic pump moves fluid by squeezing the plastic tubing, thus avoiding potential contamination. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  2. Primary Cardiac Solitary Fibrous Tumors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Primary cardiac solitary fibrous tumors were reviewed. They are classified as pericardial tumors. Their incidences are very rare. Only 16 cases were reported in the literature. Basically, surgical treatments are performed. Their prognoses are generally good, although malignant cases are also reported. PMID:26156195

  3. NASA Bioreactor tissue culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  4. Adsorption with biodegradation for decolorization of reactive black 5 by Funalia trogii 200800 on a fly ash-chitosan medium in a fluidized bed bioreactor-kinetic model and reactor performance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Hui; Lin, Wen-Fan; Jhang, Kai-Ning; Lin, Pei-Yu; Lee, Mong-Chuan

    2013-02-01

    A non-steady-state mathematical model system for the kinetics of adsorption and biodegradation of reactive black 5 (RB5) by Funalia trogii (F. trogii) ATCC 200800 biofilm on fly ash-chitosan bead in the fluidized bed process was derived. The mechanisms in the model system included adsorption by fly ash-chitosan beads, biodegradation by F. trogii cells and mass transport diffusion. Batch kinetic tests were independently performed to determine surface diffusivity of RB5, adsorption parameters for RB5 and biokinetic parameters of F. trogii ATCC 200800. A column test was conducted using a continuous-flow fluidized bed reactor with a recycling pump to approximate a completely-mixed flow reactor for model verification. The experimental results indicated that F. trogii biofilm bioregenerated the fly ash-chitosan beads after attached F. trogii has grown significantly. The removal efficiency of RB5 was about 95 % when RB5 concentration in the effluent was approximately 0.34 mg/L at a steady-state condition. The concentration of suspended F. trogii cells reached up to about 1.74 mg/L while the thickness of attached F. trogii cells was estimated to be 80 μm at a steady-state condition by model prediction. The comparisons of experimental data and model prediction show that the model system for adsorption and biodegradation of RB5 can predict the experimental results well. The approaches of experiments and mathematical modeling in this study can be applied to design a full-scale fluidized bed process to treat reactive dye in textile wastewater.

  5. Orbital fibrous hamartoma of infancy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Se Hyun; Hwang, Jeong-Min; Kim, Namju

    2016-02-01

    Fibrous hamartoma of infancy is a rare, benign lesion of the superficial soft tissue, typically presenting within the first 2 years of life, and usually located on the upper extremities, axilla, and upper back. Lesions affecting the orbit have not been reported previously. We report the case of a 7-month-old boy with orbital fibrous hamartoma of infancy. He had a right hypertropia and a limitation of infraduction in the right eye. A mass on the right anteroinferior orbit involving the inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles was seen on magnetic resonance imaging. Hamartoma of infancy was confirmed through pathologic examination. Right hypertropia and limitation of infraduction moderately improved after surgery.

  6. Protease degradable electrospun fibrous hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Ryan J.; Bassin, Ethan J.; Rodell, Christopher B.; Burdick, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibers are promising in biomedical applications to replicate features of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). However, nearly all electrospun scaffolds are either non-degradable or degrade hydrolytically, whereas natural ECM degrades proteolytically, often through matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Here, we synthesize reactive macromers that contain protease-cleavable and fluorescent peptides and are able to form both isotropic hydrogels and electrospun fibrous hydrogels through a photoinitiated polymerization. These biomimetic scaffolds are susceptible to protease-mediated cleavage in vitro in a protease dose dependent manner and in vivo in a subcutaneous mouse model using transdermal fluorescent imaging to monitor degradation. Importantly, materials containing an alternate and non-protease-cleavable peptide sequence are stable in both in vitro and in vivo settings. To illustrate the specificity in degradation, scaffolds with mixed fiber populations support selective fiber degradation based on individual fiber degradability. Overall, this represents a novel biomimetic approach to generate protease-sensitive fibrous scaffolds for biomedical applications. PMID:25799370

  7. BioReactor

    2003-04-18

    BioReactor is a simulation tool kit for modeling networks of coupled chemical processes (or similar productions rules). The tool kit is implemented in C++ and has the following functionality: 1. Monte Carlo discrete event simulator 2. Solvers for ordinary differential equations 3. Genetic algorithm optimization routines for reverse engineering of models using either Monte Carlo or ODE representation )i.e., 1 or 2)

  8. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid

  9. Design challenges for space bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Petersen, G. R.

    1989-01-01

    The design of bioreactors for operation under conditions of microgravity presents problems and challenges. Absence of a significant body force such as gravity can have profound consequences for interfacial phenomena. Marangoni convection can no longer be overlooked. Many speculations on the advantages and benefits of microgravity can be found in the literature. Initial bioreactor research considerations for space applications had little regard for the suitability of the designs for conditions of microgravity. Bioreactors can be classified in terms of their function and type of operation. The complex interaction of parameters leading to optimal design and operation of a bioreactor is illustrated by the JSC mammalian cell culture system. The design of a bioreactor is strongly dependent upon its intended use as a production unit for cell mass and/or biologicals or as a research reactor for the study of cell growth and function. Therefore a variety of bioreactor configurations are presented in rapid summary. Following this, a rationale is presented for not attempting to derive key design parameters such as the oxygen transfer coefficient from ground-based data. A set of themes/objectives for flight experiments to develop the expertise for design of space bioreactors is then proposed for discussion. These experiments, carried out systematically, will provide a database from which engineering tools for space bioreactor design will be derived.

  10. Modelling fracture in fibrous microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Beyerlein, I.

    1998-04-01

    This work describes some complementary studies directed towards micromechanical modeling and simulation of the statistical fracture process in composites with fibrous microstructures. A few studies involve combining efficient computational stress analyses and piezospectroscopic measurement techniques to quantify interface deformation around a single break in model composites. It is shown how estimated interface parameters can be used to predict activity around more complex break arrangement in much larger composites. The final studies involve incorporating these experimentally refined stress analyses into large scale simulation for statistical predictions and subsequent analytical modeling of composite fracture.

  11. Flame resistant fibrous structures development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coskren, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the current program was (1) to investigate potentially useful new polymers, both for fire safety and mechanical properties, (2) to produce fibers from these polymers if necessary, and (3) to produce sufficient quantities of qualified fibrous structures, composites, or laminates for use in various areas of the Space Shuttle and Space Station Programs. During the past six years, development efforts have been expended in several major areas in support of Space Shuttle missions and Space Station Freedom projects. The summarized results of several of these major efforts are included in this report.

  12. Removal of dichloromethane from waste gas streams using a hybrid bubble column/biofilter bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a hybrid bubble column/biofilter (HBCB) bioreactor for the removal of dichloromethane (DCM) from waste gas streams was studied in continuous mode for several months. The HBCB bioreactor consisted of two compartments: bubble column bioreactor removing DCM from liquid phase and biofilter removing DCM from gas phase. Effect of inlet DCM concentration on the elimination capacity was examined in the DCM concentration range of 34–359 ppm with loading rates ranged from 2.2 to 22.8 g/m3.h and constant total empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 200 s. In the equal loading rates, the elimination capacity and removal efficiency of the biofilter were higher than the corresponding values of the bubble column bioreactor. The maximum elimination capacity of the HBCB bioreactor was determined to be 15.7 g/m3.h occurred in the highest loading rate of 22.8 g/m3.h with removal efficiency of 69%. The overall mineralization portion of the HBCB bioreactor was in the range of 72-79%. The mixed liquor acidic pH especially below 5.5 inhibited microbial activity and decreased the elimination capacity. Inhibitory effect of high ionic strength was initiated in the mixed liquor electrical conductivity of 12.2 mS/cm. This study indicated that the HBCB bioreactor could benefit from advantages of both bubble column and biofilter reactors and could remove DCM from waste gas streams in a better manner. PMID:24406056

  13. Perfusion Bioreactor Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1990-01-01

    Perfusion bioreactor module, self-contained, closed-loop cell-culture system that operates in microgravity or on Earth. Equipment supports growth or long-term maintenance of cultures of human or other fragile cells for experiments in basic cell biology or process technology. Designed to support proliferation (initially at exponential rates of growth) of cells in complex growth medium and to maintain confluent cells in defined medium under conditions optimized to permit or encourage selected functions of cells, including secretion of products of cells into medium.

  14. A multi-level bioreactor to remove organic matter and metals, together with its associated bacterial diversity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yonghong; Hu, Zhengyi; Kerr, Philip G; Yang, Linzhang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to treat complex wastewater consisting of domestic wastewater, tobacco processing and building materials washings. The proposed multi-level bioreactor consists of a biopond-biofilter, anoxic/aerobic (A/O) fluidized beds and a photoautotrophic system. The results show that when the hydraulic load of the bioreactor was 200 m3/d, it successfully and simultaneously removed the organic matter and metals. When the bioreactor was in a relatively steady-state condition, the overall average organic matter and metals removal efficiencies are as follows, COD (89%), UV245 nm-matter (91%), Cu (78%), Zn (79%) and Fe (84%). The growth conditions of the native bacterial habitat were improved, which resulted from the increase of the in bacterial diversity under the rejuvenated conditions induced by the bioreactor. The results demonstrate that the multi-level bioreactor, without a sludge treatment system, can remove heterogeneous organic matter and metals from wastewater.

  15. Bed bugs.

    PubMed

    Foulke, Galen T; Anderson, Bryan E

    2014-09-01

    The term bed bug is applied to 2 species of genus Cimex: lectularius describes the common or temperate bed bug, and hemipterus its tropical cousin. Cimex lectularius is aptly named; its genus and species derive from the Latin words for bug and bed, respectively. Though the tiny pest is receiving increased public attention and scrutiny, the bed bug is hardly a new problem. PMID:25577850

  16. Quantitative analysis of microbial biomass yield in aerobic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Osamu; Isoda, Satoru

    2013-12-01

    We have studied the integrated model of reaction rate equations with thermal energy balance in aerobic bioreactor for food waste decomposition and showed that the integrated model has the capability both of monitoring microbial activity in real time and of analyzing biodegradation kinetics and thermal-hydrodynamic properties. On the other hand, concerning microbial metabolism, it was known that balancing catabolic reactions with anabolic reactions in terms of energy and electron flow provides stoichiometric metabolic reactions and enables the estimation of microbial biomass yield (stoichiometric reaction model). We have studied a method for estimating real-time microbial biomass yield in the bioreactor during food waste decomposition by combining the integrated model with the stoichiometric reaction model. As a result, it was found that the time course of microbial biomass yield in the bioreactor during decomposition can be evaluated using the operational data of the bioreactor (weight of input food waste and bed temperature) by the combined model. The combined model can be applied to manage a food waste decomposition not only for controlling system operation to keep microbial activity stable, but also for producing value-added products such as compost on optimum condition. PMID:25078821

  17. Microtechnology in space bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Walther, I; van der Schoot, B; Boillat, M; Muller, O; Cogoli, A

    1999-03-01

    Space biology is a young and rapidly developing discipline comprising basic research and biotechnology. In the next decades it will play a prominent role in the International Space Station (ISS). Therefore, there is an increasing demand for sophisticated instrumentation to satisfy the requirements of the future projects in space biology. Bioreactors will be needed to supply fresh living material (cells and tissues) either to study still obscure basic biological mechanisms or to develop profitable bioprocesses which will take advantage of the peculiar microgravity conditions. Since more than twenty years, the Space Biology Group of the ETHZ is carrying out research projects in space (Space Shuttle/Spacelab, MIR Station, satellites, and sounding rockets) that involve also the development of space-qualified instrumentation. In the last ten years we have developed, in collaboration with Mecanex SA, Nyon, and the Institute of Microtechnology of the University of Neuchatel, a space bioreactor for the continuous culture of yeast cells under controlled conditions. Sensors, pH control, nutrients pump and fluid flowmeter are based on state-of-the-art silicon technology. After two successful space flights, a further improved version is presently prepared for a flight in the year 2000.

  18. Sensing in tissue bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, P.

    2006-03-01

    Specialized sensing and measurement instruments are under development to aid the controlled culture of cells in bioreactors for the fabrication of biological tissues. Precisely defined physical and chemical conditions are needed for the correct culture of the many cell-tissue types now being studied, including chondrocytes (cartilage), vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (blood vessels), fibroblasts, hepatocytes (liver) and receptor neurones. Cell and tissue culture processes are dynamic and therefore, optimal control requires monitoring of the key process variables. Chemical and physical sensing is approached in this paper with the aim of enabling automatic optimal control, based on classical cell growth models, to be achieved. Non-invasive sensing is performed via the bioreactor wall, invasive sensing with probes placed inside the cell culture chamber and indirect monitoring using analysis within a shunt or a sampling chamber. Electroanalytical and photonics-based systems are described. Chemical sensing for gases, ions, metabolites, certain hormones and proteins, is under development. Spectroscopic analysis of the culture medium is used for measurement of glucose and for proteins that are markers of cell biosynthetic behaviour. Optical interrogation of cells and tissues is also investigated for structural analysis based on scatter.

  19. Cells growing in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. Shown here, clusters of cells slowly spin inside a bioreactor. On Earth, the cells continually fall through the buffer medium and never hit bottom. In space, they are naturally suspended. Rotation ensures gentle stirring so waste is removed and fresh nutrient and oxygen are supplied. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  20. Bioreactors: Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of bioreactors for wastewater treatment. References are made to stirred tank, photobio, hollow, nonfluidized bed, biofilm, oxidizing, composting, fluidized bed, porous membrane, and plate column reactors employing chemical, microbiological, and physical technologies. Applications in municipal treatment, food processing, chemical, agricultural, mining, and oil refining industries are reviewed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Bioreactors: Waste-water treatment. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of bioreactors for wastewater treatment. References are made to stirred tank, photobio, hollow, nonfluidized bed, biofilm, oxidizing, composting, fluidized bed, porous membrane, and plate column reactors employing chemical, microbiological, and physical technologies. Applications in municipal treatment, food processing, chemical, agricultural, mining, and oil refining industries are reviewed. (Contains a minimum of 167 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Bioreactors: Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of bioreactors for wastewater treatment. References to stirred tank, photobio, biofilm, oxidizing, composting, fluidized bed, porous membrane, and plate column reactors are presented. Applications in municipal, food processing, chemical, agricultural, mining, and oil-refining wastewater treatment are reviewed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. TREATMENT OF CERCLA (COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT) LEACHATES BY CARBON-ASSISTED ANAEROBIC FLUIDIZED BEDS (Journal)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two anaerobic granular activated carbon (GAC) expanded-bed bioreactors were tested as pretreatment units for the decontamination of hazardous leachates containing volatile and semivolatile synthetic organic chemicals (SOCs). The different characteristics of the two leachate feed...

  4. Spiral vane bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A spiral vane bioreactor of a perfusion type is described in which a vertical chamber, intended for use in a microgravity condition, has a central rotating filter assembly and has flexible membranes disposed to rotate annularly about the filter assembly. The flexible members have end portions disposed angularly with respect to one another. A fluid replenishment medium is input from a closed loop liquid system to a completely liquid filled chamber containing microcarrier beads, cells and a fluid medium. Output of spent medium is to the closed loop. In the closed loop, the output and input parameters are sensed by sensors. A manifold permits recharging of the nutrients and pH adjustment. Oxygen is supplied and carbon dioxide and bubbles are removed and the system is monitored and controlled by a microprocessor.

  5. Controlled-Turbulence Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David A.; Schwartz, Ray; Trinh, Tinh

    1989-01-01

    Two versions of bioreactor vessel provide steady supplies of oxygen and nutrients with little turbulence. Suspends cells in environment needed for sustenance and growth, while inflicting less damage from agitation and bubbling than do propeller-stirred reactors. Gentle environments in new reactors well suited to delicate mammalian cells. One reactor kept human kidney cells alive for as long as 11 days. Cells grow on carrier beads suspended in liquid culture medium that fills cylindrical housing. Rotating vanes - inside vessel but outside filter - gently circulates nutrient medium. Vessel stationary; magnetic clutch drives filter cylinder and vanes. Another reactor creates even less turbulence. Oxygen-permeable tubing wrapped around rod extending along central axis. Small external pump feeds oxygen to tubing through rotary coupling, and oxygen diffuses into liquid medium.

  6. Membrane Bioreactor With Pressure Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efthymiou, George S.; Shuler, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Improved class of multilayer membrane bioreactors uses convention forced by differences in pressure to overcome some of diffusional limitations of prior bioreactors. In reactor of new class, flow of nutrient solution reduces adverse gradients of concentration, keeps cells supplied with fresh nutrient, and sweeps away products faster than diffusion alone. As result, overall yield and rate of reaction increased. Pressures in sweeping gas and nutrient alternated to force nutrient liquid into and out of biocatalyst layer through hyrophilic membrane.

  7. Bioreactor Mass Transport Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleis, Stanley J.; Begley, Cynthia M.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the proposed research efforts were to develop both a simulation tool and a series of experiments to provide a quantitative assessment of mass transport in the NASA rotating wall perfused vessel (RWPV) bioreactor to be flown on EDU#2. This effort consisted of a literature review of bioreactor mass transport studies, the extension of an existing scalar transport computer simulation to include production and utilization of the scalar, and the evaluation of experimental techniques for determining mass transport in these vessels. Since mass transport at the cell surface is determined primarily by the relative motion of the cell assemblage and the surrounding fluid, a detailed assessment of the relative motion was conducted. Results of the simulations of the motion of spheres in the RWPV under microgravity conditions are compared with flight data from EDU#1 flown on STS-70. The mass transport across the cell membrane depends upon the environment, the cell type, and the biological state of the cell. Results from a literature review of cell requirements of several scalars are presented. As a first approximation, a model with a uniform spatial distribution of utilization or production was developed and results from these simulations are presented. There were two candidate processes considered for the experimental mass transport evaluations. The first was to measure the dissolution rate of solid or gel beads. The second was to measure the induced fluorescence of beads as a stimulant (for example hydrogen peroxide) is infused into the vessel. Either technique would use video taped images of the process for recording the quantitative results. Results of preliminary tests of these techniques are discussed.

  8. Fibrous-Ceramic/Aerogel Composite Insulating Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan M.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Fibrous-ceramic/aerogel composite tiles have been invented to afford combinations of thermal-insulation and mechanical properties superior to those attainable by making tiles of fibrous ceramics alone or aerogels alone. These lightweight tiles can be tailored to a variety of applications that range from insulating cryogenic tanks to protecting spacecraft against re-entry heating. The advantages and disadvantages of fibrous ceramics and aerogels can be summarized as follows: Tiles made of ceramic fibers are known for mechanical strength, toughness, and machinability. Fibrous ceramic tiles are highly effective as thermal insulators in a vacuum. However, undesirably, the porosity of these materials makes them permeable by gases, so that in the presence of air or other gases, convection and gas-phase conduction contribute to the effective thermal conductivity of the tiles. Other disadvantages of the porosity and permeability of fibrous ceramic tiles arise because gases (e.g., water vapor or cryogenic gases) can condense in pores. This condensation contributes to weight, and in the case of cryogenic systems, the heat of condensation undesirably adds to the heat flowing to the objects that one seeks to keep cold. Moreover, there is a risk of explosion associated with vaporization of previously condensed gas upon reheating. Aerogels offer low permeability, low density, and low thermal conductivity, but are mechanically fragile. The basic idea of the present invention is to exploit the best features of fibrous ceramic tiles and aerogels. In a composite tile according to the invention, the fibrous ceramic serves as a matrix that mechanically supports the aerogel, while the aerogel serves as a low-conductivity, low-permeability filling that closes what would otherwise be the open pores of the fibrous ceramic. Because the aerogel eliminates or at least suppresses permeation by gas, gas-phase conduction, and convection, the thermal conductivity of such a composite even at

  9. [Solitary fibrous tumor of the meninges].

    PubMed

    Gentil Perret, A; Mosnier, J F; Duthel, R; Brunon, J; Barral, F; Boucheron, S

    1999-12-01

    We report a case of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the meninges. SFTs have been initially described in the pleura. SFTs show similar histological findings as in other locations. SFTs show a diffuse positive staining for vimentin and CD34. Meningeal SFTs have usually a favourable outcome. These tumors have to be essentially distinguished from hemangiopericytomas and fibrous meningiomas. Immunostaining for CD34 is of value for this purpose. CD34 expression is often patchy and weaker in hemangiopericytomas whereas it is rarely observed in fibrous meningiomas. It is of great interest to isolate SFTs from hemangiopericytomas because of their favourable outcome.

  10. A Case of Craniofacial Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Justin; Carson, William

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with craniofacial polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia is relatively rare and usually presents in late childhood/early adulthood. It is occasionally associated with endocrine disorders such as McCune-Albright syndrome. The benign pathology of this bone tumor belies its implications in the region of the skull base. Craniofacial polyostotic fibrous dysplasia can have devastating complications depending on which ostia are involved, including vision loss. Our patient was already beginning to experience visual field deficits from ischemic neuropathy. He was treated surgically with optic nerve decompression; however, the efficacy of this approach is currently being debated. PMID:22470752

  11. Fibrous capsule formation around titanium and copper.

    PubMed

    Suska, Felicia; Emanuelsson, Lena; Johansson, Anna; Tengvall, Pentti; Thomsen, Peter

    2008-06-15

    Previous studies suggest that implant material properties influence the quality and quantity of fibrous capsule around the implant. However, the precise relation between material surface chemistry, early inflammatory response, and fibrous subsequent repair outcome is still unknown. Titanium (Ti) and copper (Cu), surfaces with different inflammatory potential, were implanted subcutaneously in rats and retrieved fibrous capsules were analyzed after 28 and 56 days. Histological examinations show pronounced differences in capsule morphology. The fibrous capsule around Ti was thinner than that around Cu, with less number of the inflammatory cells in the layer close to the implant surface, and less and smaller blood vessels. The capsule around Cu was thick, with a large number of the inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages and giant cells, and increased number of blood vessels. Our study suggests that material surface properties, which initiate early, multiple cellular inflammatory events, are also associated with increased fibrosis and angiogenesis during repair phase. PMID:17896778

  12. Fibrous dysplasia of the temporal bone.

    PubMed

    Mallina, S; Philip, R; Chong, A W; Gurdeep, S

    2007-06-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is a benign disease characterized by a progressive replacement of normal bone elements with fibrous tissue and the temporal bone involvement is uncommon. It has a male:female ratio of 2:1 and is seen more commonly in the first two decades of life. Diagnosis is made based on radiological findings and the modality of treatment is mainly conservative. However, surgery is reserved for preserving function and preventing complications. Fibrous dysplasia in the region of craniofacial bones is of particular interest to the otolaryngologist as it causes deformity and dysfunction that can be debilitating. We present a 49 year old Chinese gentleman with complaints of chronic dizziness over the last one year and had no obvious hearing impairment. Computed tomography of the mastoid revealed fibrous dysplasia of the right temporal bone. This case is of particular interest due to the late presentation as it is more commonly seen in the first two decades of life.

  13. The evaluation of empty bed contact time on the biodegradation of pentachlorophenol using an anaerobic GAC fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G.J.; Khodadoust, A.P.; Suidan, M.T.; Wagner, J.A.; Brenner, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this research is to evaluate the effects of decreasing the empty-bed contact time (EBCT) on pentachlorophenol and its intermediates utilizing an anaerobic granular activated carbon (GAC) fluidized bed. The bioreactor A was fed an 100 mg/l influent concentration of PCP. EBCTs of 1.167 to 0.292 days for reactor A resulted in a PCP reduction greater than 99%. In addition, an equimolar conversion of PCP to monochlorophenol was observed.

  14. [Solitary fibrous tumours of the kidney].

    PubMed

    Gres, Pascal; Avances, Christophe; Ben Naoum, Kamel; Chapuis, Héliette; Costa, Pierre

    2004-02-01

    Solitary fibrous tumours (SFT) are mesenchymal tumours that usually arise from the pleura. Renal SFT are exceptional (9 cases reported in the literature). The authors report a new case discovered during assessment of HT and treated by radical right nephrectomy. The histological appearance is characteristic: a tumour with a fibrous centre, composed of a monomorphic proliferation of spindle cells, with positive CD 34, CD 99, and bcl 2 labelling. The prognosis after complete resection is generally favourable.

  15. Primary solitary fibrous tumor of the retroperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Charhi, Hind; Bernoussi, Zakiya; Haddan, Azzouz; Mesmoudi, Siham; Elktaibi, Abderrahim; Mansouri, Fatima; Elktaibi, Rachid; Lahlou, Khalid; Jahid, Ahmed; Mahassini, Najat

    2011-09-28

    Solitary fibrous tumor is an uncommon neoplasm affecting adults and typically located in the pleura and can also occur in a large number of other extra thoracic sites. We present the case of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the retroperitoneum and describe their histopathological and immunohistochemical features. The identification of SFT in the retroperitoneum is of importance because its clinico-pathological behaviour is still unclear. The pathologist plays a fundamental role in establishing both the positive and differential diagnosis.

  16. Solitary fibrous tumor of filum terminale.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanping; Huang, Biao; Liang, Changhong

    2012-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal neoplasm that most commonly arises from the visceral or parietal pleura. Solitary fibrous tumor with a primary site in the filum terminale has not been reported previously in the literature. Here we report a case of SFT occurring in the filum terminale. The characteristic imaging feature of this tumor is hypointensity on T2-weighted images. Even though rare, SFT should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors occurring intraspinally, even in the filum terminale.

  17. Variable Solitary Fibrous Tumor Locations

    PubMed Central

    Zhanlong, Ma; Haibin, Shi; Xiangshan, Fang; Jiacheng, Song; Yicheng, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study is to describe the radiological imaging features of different solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) locations and present histopathological correlations. From 2007 to 2013, 20 cases of histologically confirmed that SFTs were retrospectively analyzed with computed tomography (CT; 9/20), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; 5/20), or both CT and MRI (6/20). All 20 SFTs were well defined, lobular, soft-tissue masses, and 60% were located outside of the pleura. One pleural case invaded to the 10th thoracic vertebra and had lung metastases. Images revealed 11 heterogeneous lesions that exceeded 3.0 ± 0.203 cm along the greatest axis with patchy necrotic foci, and 9 homogeneous lesions <3.0 ± 0.203. Microscopically, all SFTs were proliferative spindle cells with varying degrees of fibrosis and interspersed vessel branching. Cells were strongly immunopositive for CD34. Here we review variable imaging findings of SFTs, which can be within the pleura as well as within other serosal tissues such as the meninges and postperitoneum. SFTs > 3.0 ± 0.203 cm along the greatest axis appeared to be mixed patterns, whereas SFTs < 3.0 ± 0.203 cm had isodense appearances. SFTs cells were CD34 immunopositive and surgery was a first-line treatment choice. PMID:27043668

  18. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis or cellulosic materials

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.; Scott, Charles D.; Faison, Brendlyn D.; Davison, Brian H.; Woodward, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified.

  19. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis or cellulosic materials

    DOEpatents

    Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1996-04-16

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified. 1 fig.

  20. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis of cellulosic materials

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.; Scott, Charles D.; Faison, Brendlyn D.; Davison, Brian H.; Woodward, Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified.

  1. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis of cellulosic materials

    DOEpatents

    Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1997-06-10

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified. 1 fig.

  2. Space bioreactor: Design/process flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the space bioreactor stems from three considerations. First, and foremost, it must sustain cells in microgravity. Closely related is the ability to take advantage of the weightlessness and microgravity. Lastly, it should fit into a bioprocess. The design of the space bioreactor is described in view of these considerations. A flow chart of the bioreactor is presented and discussed.

  3. Tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Cells from kidneys lose some of their special features in conventional culture but form spheres replete with specialized cell microvilli (hair) and synthesize hormones that may be clinically useful. Ground-based research studies have demonstrated that both normal and neoplastic cells and tissues recreate many of the characteristics in the NASA bioreactor that they display in vivo. Proximal kidney tubule cells that normally have rich apically oriented microvilli with intercellular clefts in the kidney do not form any of these structures in conventional two-dimensional monolayer culture. However, when normal proximal renal tubule cells are cultured in three-dimensions in the bioreactor, both the microvilli and the intercellular clefts form. This is important because, when the morphology is recreated, the function is more likely also to be rejuvenated. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  4. Simulation of three-phase fluidized bioreactors for denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hamza, A.V.; Dolan, J.F.; Wong, E.W.

    1981-03-01

    Fluidized-bed bioreactors were developed and operated at three scales (diameters of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m) by the Chemical Technology Division. The performance of these reactors in denitrification was simulated using the following modified form of Monod kinetics to describe the reaction kinetics: rate = V/sub max/ (NO/sub 3//sup -//K/sub s/ + NO/sub 3//sup -/) (% biomass). In the fluids-movement portion of the simulation the tanks-in-series approximation to backmixing was used. This approach yielded a V/sub max/ of 3.5 g/m/sup 3/-min (% biomass) and a K/sub s/ of 163 g/m/sup 3/ for the 0.5-m bioreactor. Values of V/sub max/ and K/sub s/ were also determined for data derived from the 0.1-m bioreactor, but inadequate RTD data reduced the confidence level in these results. A complication in denitrification is the multi-step nature of the reduction from nitrate to nitrite to hyponitrite and finally to nitrogen. An experimental study of the effect of biomass loading upon denitrification was begun. It is recommended that the experimental work be continued.

  5. Denosumab Treatment for Fibrous Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, AM; Chong, WH; Yao, J; Gafni, RI; Kelly, MH; Chamberlain, CE; Bassim, C; Cherman, N; Ellsworth, M; Kasa-Vubu, JZ; Farley, FA; Molinolo, AA; Bhattacharyya, N; Collins, MT

    2012-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a skeletal disease caused by somatic activating mutations of the cAMP-regulating protein, Gsα. These mutations lead to replacement of normal bone by proliferative osteogenic precursors, resulting in deformity, fracture, and pain. Medical treatment has been ineffective in altering the disease course. RANK ligand (RANKL) is a cell surface protein involved in many cellular processes, including osteoclastogenesis, and is reported to be overexpressed in FD-like bone cells. Denosumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody to RANKL approved for treatment of osteoporosis and prevention of skeletal-related events from bone metastases. We present the case of a 9-year-old boy with severe FD who was treated with denosumab for a rapidly expanding femoral lesion. Immunohistochemical staining on a pre-treatment bone biopsy specimen revealed marked RANKL expression. He was started on monthly denosumab, with an initial starting dose of 1 mg/kg and planned 0.25 mg/kg dose escalations every three months. Over seven months of treatment he showed marked reduction in pain, bone turnover markers, and tumor growth rate. Denosumab did not appear to impair healing of a femoral fracture that occurred while on treatment. With initiation of treatment he developed hypophosphatemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism, necessitating supplementation with phosphorus, calcium and calcitriol. Bone turnover markers (BTM) showed rapid and sustained suppression. With discontinuation there was rapid and dramatic rebound of BTM) with CTX (reflecting osteoclast activity) exceeding pre-treatment levels, and accompanied by severe hypercalcemia. In this child, denosumab lead to dramatic reduction of FD expansion and FD-related bone pain. Denosumab was associated with clinically significant disturbances of mineral metabolism both while on treatment and after discontinuation. Denosumab treatment of FD warrants further study to confirm efficacy and determine potential morbidity, as well as

  6. Use Alkalinity Monitoring to Optimize Bioreactor Performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher S; Kult, Keegan J

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the agricultural community has reduced flow of nitrogen from farmed landscapes to stream networks through the use of woodchip denitrification bioreactors. Although deployment of this practice is becoming more common to treat high-nitrate water from agricultural drainage pipes, information about bioreactor management strategies is sparse. This study focuses on the use of water monitoring, and especially the use of alkalinity monitoring, in five Iowa woodchip bioreactors to provide insights into and to help manage bioreactor chemistry in ways that will produce desirable outcomes. Results reported here for the five bioreactors show average annual nitrate load reductions between 50 and 80%, which is acceptable according to established practice standards. Alkalinity data, however, imply that nitrous oxide formation may have regularly occurred in at least three of the bioreactors that are considered to be closed systems. Nitrous oxide measurements of influent and effluent water provide evidence that alkalinity may be an important indicator of bioreactor performance. Bioreactor chemistry can be managed by manipulation of water throughput in ways that produce adequate nitrate removal while preventing undesirable side effects. We conclude that (i) water should be retained for longer periods of time in bioreactors where nitrous oxide formation is indicated, (ii) measuring only nitrate and sulfate concentrations is insufficient for proper bioreactor operation, and (iii) alkalinity monitoring should be implemented into protocols for bioreactor management. PMID:27136151

  7. Use Alkalinity Monitoring to Optimize Bioreactor Performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher S; Kult, Keegan J

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the agricultural community has reduced flow of nitrogen from farmed landscapes to stream networks through the use of woodchip denitrification bioreactors. Although deployment of this practice is becoming more common to treat high-nitrate water from agricultural drainage pipes, information about bioreactor management strategies is sparse. This study focuses on the use of water monitoring, and especially the use of alkalinity monitoring, in five Iowa woodchip bioreactors to provide insights into and to help manage bioreactor chemistry in ways that will produce desirable outcomes. Results reported here for the five bioreactors show average annual nitrate load reductions between 50 and 80%, which is acceptable according to established practice standards. Alkalinity data, however, imply that nitrous oxide formation may have regularly occurred in at least three of the bioreactors that are considered to be closed systems. Nitrous oxide measurements of influent and effluent water provide evidence that alkalinity may be an important indicator of bioreactor performance. Bioreactor chemistry can be managed by manipulation of water throughput in ways that produce adequate nitrate removal while preventing undesirable side effects. We conclude that (i) water should be retained for longer periods of time in bioreactors where nitrous oxide formation is indicated, (ii) measuring only nitrate and sulfate concentrations is insufficient for proper bioreactor operation, and (iii) alkalinity monitoring should be implemented into protocols for bioreactor management.

  8. Recurrent Monostotic Fibrous Dysplasia in the Mandible.

    PubMed

    Alves, Nilton; de Oliveira, Reinaldo José; Takehana, Denise; Deana, Naira Figueiredo

    2016-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a condition in which normal bone marrow is replaced by an abnormal proliferation of new fibrous connective tissue. Female patient, white, 20 years old, attended the dental clinic reporting a slow increase in volume in the right mandible region over the last 5 years. She was examined by imaging: the panoramic X-ray revealed a lesion with the appearance of ground glass while the cone-beam computed tomography showed an extensive lesion in the region of the right hemimandible. The histopathological examination was compatible with fibrous dysplasia. Bone gammagraphy was indicated, plus an endocrinological study to eliminate polyostotic forms, which produced a negative result. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia in the right hemimandible was diagnosed. Conservative surgery was carried out and after 1 year recurrence of the tumour was observed. We may conclude that conservative surgery might not be the best choice for treatment for monostotic fibrous dysplasia in the mandible and that other options must be considered, such as radical surgery or the use of bisphosphonates. In our study, we may also conclude that it is very important to explain to the patient the possibility of recurrence of the lesion and the need for monitoring with periodic imaging studies. PMID:27340572

  9. Recurrent Monostotic Fibrous Dysplasia in the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Reinaldo José; Takehana, Denise; Deana, Naira Figueiredo

    2016-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a condition in which normal bone marrow is replaced by an abnormal proliferation of new fibrous connective tissue. Female patient, white, 20 years old, attended the dental clinic reporting a slow increase in volume in the right mandible region over the last 5 years. She was examined by imaging: the panoramic X-ray revealed a lesion with the appearance of ground glass while the cone-beam computed tomography showed an extensive lesion in the region of the right hemimandible. The histopathological examination was compatible with fibrous dysplasia. Bone gammagraphy was indicated, plus an endocrinological study to eliminate polyostotic forms, which produced a negative result. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia in the right hemimandible was diagnosed. Conservative surgery was carried out and after 1 year recurrence of the tumour was observed. We may conclude that conservative surgery might not be the best choice for treatment for monostotic fibrous dysplasia in the mandible and that other options must be considered, such as radical surgery or the use of bisphosphonates. In our study, we may also conclude that it is very important to explain to the patient the possibility of recurrence of the lesion and the need for monitoring with periodic imaging studies. PMID:27340572

  10. Two new disposable bioreactors for plant cell culture: The wave and undertow bioreactor and the slug bubble bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier; Hénault, Nicolas; Cuvier, Arnaud; Bastin, Maryse; Aknin, Aziz; Dubreuil, Julien; Pétiard, Vincent

    2007-04-01

    The present article describes two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors. The first one, the WU bioreactor, is based on the principle of a wave and undertow mechanism that provides agitation while offering convenient mixing and aeration to the plant cell culture contained within the bioreactor. The second one is a high aspect ratio bubble column bioreactor, where agitation and aeration are achieved through the intermittent generation of large diameter bubbles, "Taylor-like" or "slug bubbles" (SB bioreactor). It allows an easy volume increase from a few liters to larger volumes up to several hundred liters with the use of multiple units. The cultivation of tobacco and soya cells producing isoflavones is described up to 70 and 100 L working volume for the SB bioreactor and WU bioreactor, respectively. The bioreactors being disposable and pre-sterilized before use, cleaning, sterilization, and maintenance operations are strongly reduced or eliminated. Both bioreactors represent efficient and low cost cell culture systems, applicable to various cell cultures at small and medium scale, complementary to traditional stainless-steel bioreactors.

  11. Integrated model of reaction rate equations and thermal energy balance in aerobic bioreactor for food waste decomposition.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Osamu; Isoda, Satoru

    2011-06-01

    The integrated model is composed of two basic parts: one is a reaction rate model of biodegradation in combination with bioenergetics and the other is a thermal engineering model of energy flow and balance in the bioreactor. Integrating these models provides possibility to estimate microbial activity using time course of physicochemical parameters such as bed temperature, bed weight, and/or C02 concentration during decomposition.

  12. A rare solitary fibrous tumour of kidney.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Tilak Bahadur; Nepal, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    A solitary fibrous tumour is an unusual spindle cell neoplasm. It frequently arises from the serosal surface of pleural cavity but has recently been described in diverse extrapleural sites. Urogenital localization is rare and only 36 cases of solitary fibrous tumours of the kidney have been described on published report. We report a case of a large solitary fibrous tumour clinically and radiologically thought to be renal cell carcinoma arising in the kidney of a 30 year old female. The radical nephrectomy was performed. The tumour was a well- circumscribed, solid mass attached to the renal pelvis without necrosis and haemorrhage. Histopathologically, a spindle cell neoplasia with alternating hypo and hypercellular areas, storiform, fascicular and hemangipericytoma like growth pattern and less cellular dense collagen deposits were observed. Immunohistochemical studies revealed reactivity for CD34, CD99 and Bcl-2 protein. PMID:24362666

  13. Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sumiti; Verma, Renuka; Sen, Rajeev; Singh, Ishwar; Marwah, Nisha; Kohli, Rachneet

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle-cell neoplasm originating from the mesenchyme. It was originally thought to occur exclusively in the intrathoracic region but has been recently described in extrapleural sites including the orbit. SFT of the orbit is a rare lesion, which can be misdiagnosed as hemangiopericytoma, fibrous histiocytoma, meningioma, or neurofibroma. Immunohistochemistry plays an important role. We report an orbital SFT in a 39-year-old female presented with painless, progressive proptosis, and diminished vision in the right eye for the duration of 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated well-defined enhancing mass lesion. The patient underwent complete tumor removal through a right fronto-orbital approach, and a pathological diagnosis of the solitary fibrous tumor was made. Postoperatively, the patient was symptom-free. Clinical and pathological findings including immunohistochemistry are presented along with a brief discussion of literature. PMID:26889300

  14. Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sumiti; Verma, Renuka; Sen, Rajeev; Singh, Ishwar; Marwah, Nisha; Kohli, Rachneet

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle-cell neoplasm originating from the mesenchyme. It was originally thought to occur exclusively in the intrathoracic region but has been recently described in extrapleural sites including the orbit. SFT of the orbit is a rare lesion, which can be misdiagnosed as hemangiopericytoma, fibrous histiocytoma, meningioma, or neurofibroma. Immunohistochemistry plays an important role. We report an orbital SFT in a 39-year-old female presented with painless, progressive proptosis, and diminished vision in the right eye for the duration of 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated well-defined enhancing mass lesion. The patient underwent complete tumor removal through a right fronto-orbital approach, and a pathological diagnosis of the solitary fibrous tumor was made. Postoperatively, the patient was symptom-free. Clinical and pathological findings including immunohistochemistry are presented along with a brief discussion of literature.

  15. Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sumiti; Verma, Renuka; Sen, Rajeev; Singh, Ishwar; Marwah, Nisha; Kohli, Rachneet

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle-cell neoplasm originating from the mesenchyme. It was originally thought to occur exclusively in the intrathoracic region but has been recently described in extrapleural sites including the orbit. SFT of the orbit is a rare lesion, which can be misdiagnosed as hemangiopericytoma, fibrous histiocytoma, meningioma, or neurofibroma. Immunohistochemistry plays an important role. We report an orbital SFT in a 39-year-old female presented with painless, progressive proptosis, and diminished vision in the right eye for the duration of 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated well-defined enhancing mass lesion. The patient underwent complete tumor removal through a right fronto-orbital approach, and a pathological diagnosis of the solitary fibrous tumor was made. Postoperatively, the patient was symptom-free. Clinical and pathological findings including immunohistochemistry are presented along with a brief discussion of literature. PMID:26889300

  16. Solitary fibrous tumor of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Thiemo; Braun, Hannes; Köle, Wolfgang; Beham, Alfred

    2002-10-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) are generally benign, well-circumscribed soft-tissue tumors of mesenchymal origin. CD34 antigen expression is characteristic for this tumor. A rare subgroup shows malignant histological patterns with aggressive behavior. The common site of occurrence is the pleura, but various other sites, including the head and neck, have been described. We present a 56-year-old, white, female patient with a solitary fibrous tumor developing in the right submandibular salivary gland. The tumor was surgically removed, and no recurrence or metastases have occurred during the 43 months of follow-up. All solitary fibrous tumors reported in the salivary glands were benign. However, new cases should be presented and followed up carefully to monitor their biological behavior.

  17. Simulation of the inhibition of microbial sulfate reduction in a two-compartment upflow bioreactor subjected to molybdate injection.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, E B; de Andrade Lima, L R P

    2016-08-01

    Souring of oil fields during secondary oil recovery by water injection occurs mainly due to the action of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) adhered to the rock surface in the vicinity of injection wells. Upflow packed-bed bioreactors have been used in petroleum microbiology because of its similarity to the oil field near the injection wells or production. However, these reactors do not realistically describe the regions near the injection wells, which are characterized by the presence of a saturated zone and a void region close to the well. In this study, the hydrodynamics of the two-compartment packing-free/packed-bed pilot bioreactor that mimics an oil reservoir was studied. The packed-free compartment was modeled using a continuous stirred tank model with mass exchange between active and stagnant zones, whereas the packed-bed compartment was modeled using a piston-dispersion-exchange model. The proposed model adequately represents the hydrodynamic of the packed-free/packed-bed bioreactor while the simulations provide important information about the characteristics of the residence time distribution (RTD) curves for different sets of model parameters. Simulations were performed to represent the control of the sulfate-reducing bacteria activity in the bioreactor with the use of molybdate in different scenarios. The simulations show that increased amounts of molybdate cause an effective inhibition of the souring sulfate-reducing bacteria activity. PMID:27126499

  18. Maxillofacial fibrous dysplasia: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Markov, Peter; Syed, Ali Zakir; Markova, Christiana; Mendes, Rui Amaral

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented for orthodontic treatment, with a chief symptom of a 'shifting bite' and concurrent facial asymmetry with aesthetic concerns. The patient had previously received treatment from several general dentists and several specialists, without accurate diagnosis. Radiological investigation coupled with biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia. Proper diagnosis led to changes in the treatment plan and gave the patient realistic expectations about the options she had for the outcome of treatment. Prompt diagnosis by dental practitioners is critical to patient satisfaction and successful outcome; therefore, it is important to familiarise ourselves with the signs, symptoms and proper course of management of fibrous dysplasia. PMID:27358102

  19. Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Scalp.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Brett M; Kang, David R; Sakamoto, Aya Hamao

    2016-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are an uncommon slow growing benign neoplasm originally described as a pleural neoplasm but can also be found in the lung, mediastinum, peritoneum, or any other sites including the head and neck. Malignant solitary fibrous tumors (MSFT) are extremely rare and only few cases have been published in the literature. There have been 19 cases reported of MSFT in the head and neck, but there are no reports of MSFT located within the scalp in the English language literature. We present a case of MSFT arising in the scalp and describe our experience with the clinical presentation, surgical management, and outcome in this pathological condition. PMID:27408445

  20. Benign fibrous xanthoma of the parotid gland: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, R; Lind, O

    1978-11-01

    A fibrous xanthoma of the parotid gland is reported, the literature is reviewed with a discussion of the classification of such tumours. The present case is possibly the first report of a typical benign fibrous xanthoma of the parotid gland.

  1. Consolidation and densification methods for fibrous monolith processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sutaria, Manish P.; Rigali, Mark J.; Cipriani, Ronald A.; Artz, Gregory J.; Mulligan, Anthony C.

    2006-06-20

    Methods for consolidation and densification of fibrous monolith composite structures are provided. Consolidation and densification of two- and three-dimensional fibrous monolith components having complex geometries can be achieved by pressureless sintering. The fibrous monolith composites are formed from filaments having at least a first material composition generally surrounded by a second material composition. The composites are sintered at a pressure of no more than about 30 psi to provide consolidated and densified fibrous monolith composites.

  2. PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

  3. Solitary fibrous tumour of the vagus nerve.

    PubMed

    Scholsem, Martin; Scholtes, Felix

    2012-04-01

    We describe the complete removal of a foramen magnum solitary fibrous tumour in a 36-year-old woman. It originated on a caudal vagus nerve rootlet, classically described as the 'cranial' accessory nerve root. This ninth case of immunohistologically confirmed cranial or spinal nerve SFT is the first of the vagus nerve.

  4. Solitary fibrous tumor of the vagina.

    PubMed

    Vadmal, M S; Pellegrini, A E

    2000-02-01

    We report of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the vagina and discuss the differential diagnosis. This is the first SFT documented, to our knowledge. SFTs should be included in the differential diagnosis of fibroblastic, myofibroblastic, and neural lesions of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and mucosa and can be distinguished from other spindle cell neoplasms at those sites.

  5. Solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Papi, Giampaolo; Corrado, Stefania; Uberti, Ettore Degli; Roti, Elio

    2007-02-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle-cell neoplasm more commonly involving the pleura, but recognized also in other tissues. Nineteen patients with SFT arising from the thyroid gland have been reported in the literature. The present report reviews these cases and discusses epidemiology, etio-pathogenesis, clinical-pathologic characteristics, differential diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of thyroid SFT.

  6. Research priorities for advanced fibrous composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, K. J.; Swedlow, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Priorities for research in advanced laminated fibrous composite materials are presented. Supporting evidence is presented in two bodies, including a general literature survey and a survey of aerospace composite hardware and service experience. Both surveys were undertaken during 1977-1979. Specific results and conclusions indicate that a significant portion of contemporary published research diverges from recommended priorites.

  7. Development of oxide fibrous monolith systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Goretta, K. C.

    1999-03-02

    Fibrous monolithic ceramics generally have a cellular structure that consists of a strong cell surrounded by a weaker boundary phase [1-5]. Fibrous monoliths (FMs) are produced from powders by conventional ceramic fabrication techniques, such as extrusion [1,2]. When properly engineered, they exhibit fail gracefully [3-5]. Several compositions of ceramics and cermets have been processed successfully in fibrous monolithic form [4]. The most thoroughly investigated fibrous monolith consists of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cells and a BN cell-boundary phase [3-5]. Through appropriate selection of initial powders and extrusion and hot-pressing parameters, very tough final products have been produced. The resultant high toughness is due primarily to delamination during fracture along textured platelike BN grains. The primary objectives of our program are to develop: (1) Oxide-based FMs, including new systems with improved properties; (2) FMs that can be pressureless sintered rather than hot-pressed; (3) Techniques for continuous extrusion of FM filaments, including solid freeform fabrication (SFF) for net-shape fabrication of FMs; (4) Predictive micromechanical models for FM design and performance; and (5) Ties with industrial producers and users of FMs.

  8. Steam Reformer With Fibrous Catalytic Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed steam-reforming reactor derives heat from internal combustion on fibrous catalyst. Supplies of fuel and air to combustor controlled to meet demand for heat for steam-reforming reaction. Enables use of less expensive reactor-tube material by limiting temperature to value safe for material yet not so low as to reduce reactor efficiency.

  9. Modulating the Behaviors of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Via the Combination of High-Frequency Vibratory Stimulations and Fibrous Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Zhixiang; Duncan, Randall L.

    2013-01-01

    We are interested in the in vitro engineering of artificial vocal fold tissues via the strategic combination of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), physiologically relevant mechanical stimulations, and biomimetic artificial matrices. We have constructed a vocal fold bioreactor that is capable of imposing vibratory stimulations on the cultured cells at human phonation frequencies. Separately, fibrous poly (ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds emulating the ligamentous structure of the vocal fold were prepared by electrospinning, were incorporated in the vocal fold bioreactor, and were driven into a wave-like motion in an axisymmetrical fashion by the oscillating air. MSC-laden PCL scaffolds were subjected to vibrations at 200 Hz with a normal center displacement of ∼40 μm for a total of 7 days. A continuous (CT) or a 1 h-on-1 h-off (OF) regime with a total dynamic culture time of 12 h per day was applied. The dynamic loading did not cause any physiological trauma to the cells. Immunohistotochemical staining revealed the reinforcement of the actin filament and the enhancement of α5β1 integrin expression under selected dynamic culture conditions. Cellular expression of essential vocal fold extracellular matrix components, such as elastin, hyaluronic acid, and matrix metalloproteinase-1, was significantly elevated as compared with the static controls, and the OF regime is more conducive to matrix production than the CT vibration mode. Analyses of genes of typical fibroblast hallmarks (tenascin-C, collagen III, and procollagen I) as well as markers for MSC differentiation into nonfibroblastic lineages confirmed MSCs' adaptation of fibroblastic behaviors. Overall, the high-frequency vibratory stimulation, when combined with a synthetic fibrous scaffold, serves as a potent modulator of MSC functions. The novel bioreactor system presented here, as a versatile, yet well-controlled model, offers an in vitro platform for understanding vibration

  10. Methane production in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfill.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiyong; Jin, Xiao; Ma, Zeyu; Tao, Huchun; Ko, Jae Hac

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study a hybrid bioreactor landfill technology for landfill methane production from municipal solid waste. Two laboratory-scale columns were operated for about ten months to simulate an anaerobic and a hybrid landfill bioreactor, respectively. Leachate was recirculated into each column but aeration was conducted in the hybrid bioreactor during the first stage. Results showed that leachate pH in the anaerobic bioreactor maintained below 6.5, while in the hybrid bioreactor quickly increased from 5.6 to 7.0 due to the aeration. The temporary aeration resulted in lowering COD and BOD5 in the leachate. The volume of methane collected from the hybrid bioreactor was 400 times greater than that of the anaerobic bioreactor. Also, the methane production rate of the hybrid bioreactor was improved within a short period of time. After about 10 months' operation, the total methane production in the hybrid bioreactor was 212 L (16 L/kgwaste).

  11. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  12. Monolithic Continuous-Flow Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Kornfield, Julia A.; Voecks, Gerald A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic matrices containing many small flow passages useful as continuous-flow bioreactors. Ceramic matrix containing passages made by extruding and firing suitable ceramic. Pores in matrix provide attachment medium for film of cells and allow free movement of solution. Material one not toxic to micro-organisms grown in reactor. In reactor, liquid nutrients flow over, and liquid reaction products flow from, cell culture immobilized in one set of channels while oxygen flows to, and gaseous reaction products flow from, culture in adjacent set of passages. Cells live on inner surfaces containing flowing nutrient and in pores of walls of passages. Ready access to nutrients and oxygen in channels. They generate continuous high yield characteristic of immobilized cells, without large expenditure of energy otherwise incurred if necessary to pump nutrient solution through dense biomass as in bioreactors of other types.

  13. Review of nonconventional bioreactor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Turick, C.E.; Mcllwain, M.E.

    1993-09-01

    Biotechnology will significantly affect many industrial sectors in the future. Industrial sectors that will be affected include pharmaceutical, chemical, fuel, agricultural, and environmental remediation. Future research is needed to improve bioprocessing efficiency and cost-effectiveness in order to compete with traditional technologies. This report describes recent advances in bioprocess technologies and bioreactor designs and relates them to problems encountered in many industrial bioprocessing operations. The primary focus is directed towards increasing gas and vapor transfer for enhanced bioprocess kinetics as well as unproved by-product separation and removal. The advantages and disadvantages of various conceptual designs such as hollow-fiber, gas-phase, hyperbaric/hypobaric, and electrochemical bioreactors are also discussed. Specific applications that are intended for improved bioprocesses include coal desulfurization, coal liquefaction, soil bioremediation, biomass conversion to marketable chemicals, biomining, and biohydrometallurgy as well as bioprocessing of gases and vapors.

  14. Bed Bugs FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Bed Bugs FAQs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... are bed bugs treated and prevented? What are bed bugs? Bed bugs ( Cimex lectularius ) are small, flat, parasitic ...

  15. Successful treatment of an MTBE-impacted aquifer using a bioreactor self-colonized by native aquifer bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Kristin A.; Nickelsen, Michael G.; Boyle, Susan L.; Baker, Jeffrey M.; Tornatore, Paul M.; Hristova, Krassimira R.; Scow, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    A field-scale fixed bed bioreactor was used to successfully treat an MTBE-contaminated aquifer in North Hollywood, CA without requiring inoculation with introduced bacteria. Native bacteria from the MTBE-impacted aquifer rapidly colonized the bioreactor, entering the bioreactor in the contaminated groundwater pumped from the site, and biodegraded MTBE with greater than 99 % removal efficiency. DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified MTBE-degrading bacteria Methylibium petroleiphilum in the bioreactor. Quantitative PCR showed M. petroleiphilum enriched by three orders of magnitude in the bioreactor above densities pre-existing in the groundwater. Because treatment was carried out by indigenous rather than introduced organisms, regulatory approval was obtained for implementation of a full-scale bioreactor to continue treatment of the aquifer. In addition, after confirmation of MTBE removal in the bioreactor to below maximum contaminant limit levels (MCL; MTBE = 5 μg L−1), treated water was approved for reinjection back into the aquifer rather than requiring discharge to a water treatment system. This is the first treatment system in California to be approved for reinjection of biologically treated effluent into a drinking water aquifer. This study demonstrated the potential for using native microbial communities already present in the aquifer as an inoculum for ex-situ bioreactors, circumventing the need to establish non-native, non-acclimated and potentially costly inoculants. Understanding and harnessing the metabolic potential of native organisms circumvents some of the issues associated with introducing non-native organisms into drinking water aquifers, and can provide a low-cost and efficient remediation technology that can streamline future bioremediation approval processes. PMID:23613160

  16. Successful treatment of an MTBE-impacted aquifer using a bioreactor self-colonized by native aquifer bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Kristin A; Schmidt, Radomir; Nickelsen, Michael G; Boyle, Susan L; Baker, Jeffrey M; Tornatore, Paul M; Hristova, Krassimira R; Scow, Kate M

    2014-02-01

    A field-scale fixed bed bioreactor was used to successfully treat an MTBE-contaminated aquifer in North Hollywood, CA without requiring inoculation with introduced bacteria. Native bacteria from the MTBE-impacted aquifer rapidly colonized the bioreactor, entering the bioreactor in the contaminated groundwater pumped from the site, and biodegraded MTBE with greater than 99 % removal efficiency. DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified MTBE-degrading bacteria Methylibium petroleiphilum in the bioreactor. Quantitative PCR showed M. petroleiphilum enriched by three orders of magnitude in the bioreactor above densities pre-existing in the groundwater. Because treatment was carried out by indigenous rather than introduced organisms, regulatory approval was obtained for implementation of a full-scale bioreactor to continue treatment of the aquifer. In addition, after confirmation of MTBE removal in the bioreactor to below maximum contaminant limit levels (MCL; MTBE = 5 μg L(-1)), treated water was approved for reinjection back into the aquifer rather than requiring discharge to a water treatment system. This is the first treatment system in California to be approved for reinjection of biologically treated effluent into a drinking water aquifer. This study demonstrated the potential for using native microbial communities already present in the aquifer as an inoculum for ex-situ bioreactors, circumventing the need to establish non-native, non-acclimated and potentially costly inoculants. Understanding and harnessing the metabolic potential of native organisms circumvents some of the issues associated with introducing non-native organisms into drinking water aquifers, and can provide a low-cost and efficient remediation technology that can streamline future bioremediation approval processes.

  17. Supermacroporous polymer-based cryogel bioreactor for monoclonal antibody production in continuous culture using hybridoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jain, Era; Karande, Anjali A; Kumar, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Cryogel matrices composed of different polymeric blends were synthesized, yielding a unique combination of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity with the presence or absence of charged surface. Four such cryogel matrices composed of polyacrylamide-chitosan (PAAC), poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-chitosan, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) were tested for growth of different hybridoma cell lines and production of antibody in static culture. All the matrices were capable for the adherence of hybridoma cell lines 6A4D7, B7B10, and H9E10 to the polymeric surfaces as well as for the efficient monoclonal antibody (mAb) production. PAAC proved to be relatively better in terms of both mAb production and cell growth. Further, PAAC cryogel was designed into three different formats, monolith, disks, and beads, and used as packing material for packed-bed bioreactor. Long-term cultivation of 6A4D7 cell line on PAAC cryogel scaffold in all the three formats could be successfully done for a period of 6 weeks under static conditions. Continuous packed-bed bioreactor was setup using 6A4D7 hybridoma cell line in the three reactor formats. The reactors ran continuously for a period of 60 days during which mAb production and metabolism of cells in the bioreactors were monitored periodically. The monolith bioreactor performed most efficiently over a period of 60 days and produced a total of 57.5 mg of antibody in the first 30 days (in 500 mL) with a highest concentration of 115 μg mL(-1) , which is fourfold higher than t-flask culture. The results demonstrate that appropriate chemistry and geometry of the bioreactor matrix for cell growth and immobilization can enhance the reactor productivity. PMID:20865749

  18. CELLULAR FIBROUS DERMATOFIBROMA OF THE SOLE.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Schönlebe, J; Nowak, A

    2016-07-01

    Cellular fibrous dermatofibroma is a rare variant of dermatofibroma/histiocytoma. We present a 61 years old female with a slow-growing, firm tumor on the sole of her right foot. The tumor was removed by slow Mohs surgery within 2 cm negative margin. Histopathologic investigation revealed a nodular encapsulated tumor composed of spindle and some epithelioid cells in a storiform growth pattern. Minimal mitotic activity was reported, however without evidence of atypical mitoses. Tumor cells expressed CD10, focally smooth muscle antigen and desmin, but remained negative for S100 protein and CD34. The diagnosis of cellular fibrous dermatofibroma was confirmed. The defect was closed by full thickness skin graft. PMID:27661268

  19. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Lococo, Filippo; Cesario, Alfredo; Mulè, Antonino; Margaritora, Stefano

    2011-04-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the esophagus has been very rarely reported in literature. Herein, we report a case of a successful surgically treated malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the esophagus. A 36-year-old woman was admitted at our hospital with an erroneous ultrasound-based diagnosis of cervico-mediastinal goiter. Surprisingly, the preoperative diagnostic work-up, including a computed tomographic chest scan, endoscopy, and endoscopic ultrasonography, revealed a pedunculated intraluminal mass in the esophagus. The tumor was radically removed through left antero-lateral cervicotomy. Pathologic and immunohistochemical examination was concluded for a malignant SFT, a rare variant not previously described in relation to the esophagus. The patient underwent adjuvant radiotherapy and is alive with no signs of tumor recurrence 32 months after surgery.

  20. Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Ing, E B; Kennerdell, J S; Olson, P R; Ogino, S; Rothfus, W E

    1998-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the orbit is a very rare lesion that may be misdiagnosed as fibrous histiocytoma, hemangiopericytoma, or other orbital tumors. We present a 62-year-old man who presented with painless proptosis, 20 years following left eye enucleation for a presumed neurofibroma. On T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a hypointense tumor almost filled his entire left orbit. There was no intracranial extension. The specimen obtained at orbital exenteration was consistent with the histologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic findings of SFT. The tumor was positive for vimentin and CD34 staining but negative for S-100 protein and epithelial membrane antigen. Only nine other cases of SFT of the orbit have been documented in the literature. Recognition of SFT of the orbit as a distinct pathologic entity and further follow-up of published cases are needed to determine the prognosis of this rare lesion.

  1. Retroperitoneal malignant fibrous histiocytoma without histological atypias.

    PubMed

    Laky, D; Penciu, M; Rădulescu, D

    1993-01-01

    A case of a 36-year-old woman suspected of hepatic hydatid cyst with dyseptic symptoms, hepatomegalia, profound pains in the right hypochondrium is presented. During the operation a 15/12/17 cm well-incapsulated tumour is extirpated. The tumour stretched from the upper right renal pole behind the right hepatic lobe as far as the diaphragm and while sectioning it was grey and orange. Histopathologically we found a fibrous histiocytoma with zones of storiform fascicular pattern alternating with areas of histocytic cells with vacuolar-foamy cytoplasm, rich in lipids and without atypias or mitoses. We report the frequency, histological aspects of the fibrous histiocytomas as well as some particularities of their retroperitoneal location.

  2. Protease-degradable electrospun fibrous hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Ryan J.; Bassin, Ethan J.; Rodell, Christopher B.; Burdick, Jason A.

    2015-03-01

    Electrospun nanofibres are promising in biomedical applications to replicate features of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). However, nearly all electrospun scaffolds are either non-degradable or degrade hydrolytically, whereas natural ECM degrades proteolytically, often through matrix metalloproteinases. Here we synthesize reactive macromers that contain protease-cleavable and fluorescent peptides and are able to form both isotropic hydrogels and electrospun fibrous hydrogels through a photoinitiated polymerization. These biomimetic scaffolds are susceptible to protease-mediated cleavage in vitro in a protease dose-dependent manner and in vivo in a subcutaneous mouse model using transdermal fluorescent imaging to monitor degradation. Importantly, materials containing an alternate and non-protease-cleavable peptide sequence are stable in both in vitro and in vivo settings. To illustrate the specificity in degradation, scaffolds with mixed fibre populations support selective fibre degradation based on individual fibre degradability. Overall, this represents a novel biomimetic approach to generate protease-sensitive fibrous scaffolds for biomedical applications.

  3. BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS, THEORETICAL ADVANTAGES AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor landfills are municipal solid waste landfills that utilize bulk liquids in an effort to accelerate solid waste degradation. There are few potential benefits for operating a MSW landfill as a bioreactor. These include leachate treatment and management, increase in the s...

  4. BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

  5. Bioreactors for Plant Embryogenesis and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Fei, Liwen; Weathers, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    A variety of different bioreactors have been developed for use in initiating and cultivating somatic embryos. The various designs for embryogenesis and culture are critically evaluated here. Bioreactor optimization and operation methods are also described along with recommendations for use based on desired outcome.

  6. First description of Phanerozoic radiaxial fibrous dolomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, D. K.; Heinrich, F.; Geske, A.; Neuser, R. D.; Gies, H.; Immenhauser, A.

    2014-05-01

    The petrographic analysis and crystallographic analysis of concretionary carbonate cements ("coal balls") from Carboniferous paralic swamp deposits reveal the presence of (length fast) radiaxial fibrous dolomite (RFD), a fabric not previously reported from the Phanerozoic. This finding is of significance as earlier reports of Phanerozoic radiaxial fibrous carbonates are exclusively of calcite mineralogy. Dolomite concretions described here formed beneath marine transgressive intervals within palustrine coal seams. This is of significance as seawater was arguably the main source of Mg2 + ions for dolomite formation. Here, data from optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence, electron backscattered diffraction, X-ray diffraction and geochemical analyses are presented to characterize three paragenetic dolomite phases and one calcite phase in these concretions. The main focus is on the earliest diagenetic, non-stoichiometric (degree of order: 0.41-0.46) phase I, characterized by botryoidal dolomite constructed of fibres up to 110 μm wide with a systematic undulatory extinction and converging crystal axes. Petrographic and crystallographic evidence clearly qualifies phase I dolomite as radiaxial fibrous. Conversely, fascicular optical fabrics were not found. Carbon-isotope ratios (δ13C) are depleted (between - 11.8 and - 22.1‰) as expected for carbonate precipitation from marine pore-fluids in organic-matter-rich, paralic sediment. Oxygen isotope (δ18O) ratios range between - 1.3 and - 6.0‰. The earliest diagenetic nature of these cements is documented by the presence of ubiquitous, non-compacted fossil plant remains encased in phase I dolomite as well as by the complex zoned luminescence patterns in the crystals and is supported by crystallographic and thermodynamic considerations. It is argued that organic matter, and specifically carboxyl groups, reduced thermodynamic barriers for dolomite formation and facilitated Mg/CaCO3 precipitation. The data shown here

  7. Chromosomal aberrations in oral solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Manor, Esther; Bodner, Lipa

    2007-04-15

    The results of cytogenetic analysis of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the oral cavity in a 43-year-old man is reported. The abnormal cells carried a complex translocation with the karyotype 46,XY [15 cells]/46,XYt(1;17;18)(p13;q11.2;q21)[5 cells]. This is the first case reporting chromosomal aberrations in an oral SFT.

  8. Solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Tritschler, P; Coulier, B; Gielen, I

    2014-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an unusual spindle cell neoplasm rarely described in the kidney. Usually occurring in the pleura, it has also been described in various extrapleural sites. We report a rare case of SFT of the kidney fortuitously found in a 55-year-old patient. The imaging features are illustrated. The definite diagnosis was made through histological and immunohistochemical study after radical nephrectomy.

  9. Solitary fibrous tumour of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Piattelli, A; Fioroni, M; Rubini, C

    1998-09-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a neoplasm most often localised in the pleura and peritoneum. The tumour is composed of spindled fibroblastic cells arranged in a haphazard way. Recently SFT has been described in many locations. Only one case of oral SFT has been described in the cheek: this is the second case of an oral SFT located in the tongue. The differential diagnosis must be made from many soft tissue tumours. SFTs stain strongly, in almost all cases, for CD34.

  10. Cervical intra-/extramedullary solitary fibrous tumour.

    PubMed

    Ogungbo, B; Prakash, S; Kulkarni, G; Bradey, N; Marks, S M; Scoones, D

    2005-06-01

    A 53-year-old man presented with a 9-month history of symptoms of right-sided weakness, tingling and hypersentivity to clothes on both sides of the body. MRI revealed a large intraspinal intradural tumour at the level of C3-C4 in the cervical cord. The final histology was a solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) of the cervical spinal cord. The radiological diagnosis, surgical management and histology are reviewed.

  11. Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pelvis.

    PubMed

    Wat, Shiu Yan J; Sur, Monalisa; Dhamanaskar, Kavita

    2008-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are well recognized in the pleura, but their occurrence at other sites has only become appreciated in recent years, as a consequence of which extrapleural examples often go unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Because of their rarity, overall experience concerning this tumor has not been significant and reports detailing radiological findings are few. We herein report an unusual case of a large retroperitoneal pelvic SFT with features of high vascularity negating successful surgical resection.

  12. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia with Raynaud's phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K V S Hari; Aravinda, K; Narayanan, K

    2015-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign bone disorder characterized by alteration in bone morphology. Monostotic FD is the commonest variant and affects the craniofacial bones. Raynaud's phenomenon is recurrent vasospasm of the fingers and toes due to cold exposure. The disease is usually idiopathic or secondary to connective tissue disorders. Raynaud's phenomenon is not described previously with FD. We recently encountered two interesting patients of craniofacial monostotic FD with Raynaud's phenomenon and report the same in this report.

  13. Fibrous zinc anodes for high power batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Gregory

    This paper introduces newly developed solid zinc anodes using fibrous material for high power applications in alkaline and large size zinc-air battery systems. The improved performance of the anodes in these two battery systems is demonstrated. The possibilities for control of electrode porosity and for anode/battery design using fibrous materials are discussed in light of experimental data. Because of its mechanical integrity and connectivity, the fibrous solid anode has good electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and design flexibility for controlling mass distribution, porosity and effective surface area. Experimental data indicated that alkaline cells made of such anodes can have a larger capacity at high discharging currents than commercially available cells. It showed even greater improvement over commercial cells with a non-conventional cell design. Large capacity anodes for a zinc-air battery have also been made and have shown excellent material utilization at various discharge rates. The zinc-air battery was used to power an electric bicycle and demonstrated good results.

  14. Permeability of Rigid Fibrous Refractory Insulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marschall, J.; Milos, F. S.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Rigid fibrous refractory insulations (TPS tiles) are integral components of many spacecraft thermal protection systems. These materials are composed of refractory fibers With diameters on the order of 1 to 15 micrometers. They are lightweight and have an open, highly porous microstructure. Typical densities are less than 500 kilograms per cubic meters, and porosities generally exceed 0.8. Because of their open porosity, these materials are permeable to gas glow. There are numerous instances in which internal gas transport in a thermal protection system could be important; examples include the penetration of hot boundary-layer gases into the insulation, the flow of decomposition (pyrolysis) products from the interior, the use of convective flows to mitigate ice formation caused by cryopumping, and the design of refractory vents for pressure equilibration during atmospheric entry. Computational analysis of gas flow through porous media requires values of permeability which have not previously been available for the rigid fibrous insulations used in thermal protection systems. This paper will document measurements of permeability for a variety of insulations from NASA's LI, FRCI, and AETB families of lightweight ceramic ablators. The directional anisotropy of permeability and its dependence on gas pressure and material density will be presented. It will be shown that rarified-flow effects are significant in the flow through such materials. Connections will be drawn between the insulation microstructure and permeability. The paper will also include representative computations of flow through rigid fibrous insulations.

  15. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Kidney Developing Local Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Usuba, Wataru; Sasaki, Hideo; Yoshie, Hidekazu; Kitajima, Kazuki; Kudo, Hiroya; Nakazawa, Ryuto; Sato, Yuichi; Takagi, Masayuki; Chikaraishi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the kidney is a rare entity and usually displays a favorable prognosis. We herein report a second case of renal SFT developing local recurrence. A 50-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of a left renal mass. An abdominal CT detected a large renal tumor and radical nephrectomy was performed with a possible diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. The resected tumor size was measured at 17 × 11 × 8 cm. Grossly, necrosis was observed in central lesion of the tumor but hemorrhage was not observed. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of spindle-shaped cells with scant cytoplasm accompanied by hyalinized collagenous tissue, which displayed hemangiopericytomatous patterns. The cellularity was normal and nuclear pleomorphism was not observed. Ki-67 labeling index was less than 3%. The pathological diagnosis of SFT was made without obvious malignant findings. Three years after the surgery, a follow-up CT scan detected a mass lesion in the tumor bed. Surgical resection was performed and the resected tumor was compatible with local recurrence of the SFT without obvious malignant findings. Renal SFT should be carefully monitored even in the absence of obvious malignant findings. PMID:27239363

  16. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Kidney Developing Local Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Usuba, Wataru; Sasaki, Hideo; Yoshie, Hidekazu; Kitajima, Kazuki; Kudo, Hiroya; Nakazawa, Ryuto; Sato, Yuichi; Takagi, Masayuki; Chikaraishi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the kidney is a rare entity and usually displays a favorable prognosis. We herein report a second case of renal SFT developing local recurrence. A 50-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of a left renal mass. An abdominal CT detected a large renal tumor and radical nephrectomy was performed with a possible diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. The resected tumor size was measured at 17 × 11 × 8 cm. Grossly, necrosis was observed in central lesion of the tumor but hemorrhage was not observed. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of spindle-shaped cells with scant cytoplasm accompanied by hyalinized collagenous tissue, which displayed hemangiopericytomatous patterns. The cellularity was normal and nuclear pleomorphism was not observed. Ki-67 labeling index was less than 3%. The pathological diagnosis of SFT was made without obvious malignant findings. Three years after the surgery, a follow-up CT scan detected a mass lesion in the tumor bed. Surgical resection was performed and the resected tumor was compatible with local recurrence of the SFT without obvious malignant findings. Renal SFT should be carefully monitored even in the absence of obvious malignant findings. PMID:27239363

  17. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Kidney Developing Local Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Usuba, Wataru; Sasaki, Hideo; Yoshie, Hidekazu; Kitajima, Kazuki; Kudo, Hiroya; Nakazawa, Ryuto; Sato, Yuichi; Takagi, Masayuki; Chikaraishi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the kidney is a rare entity and usually displays a favorable prognosis. We herein report a second case of renal SFT developing local recurrence. A 50-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of a left renal mass. An abdominal CT detected a large renal tumor and radical nephrectomy was performed with a possible diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. The resected tumor size was measured at 17 × 11 × 8 cm. Grossly, necrosis was observed in central lesion of the tumor but hemorrhage was not observed. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of spindle-shaped cells with scant cytoplasm accompanied by hyalinized collagenous tissue, which displayed hemangiopericytomatous patterns. The cellularity was normal and nuclear pleomorphism was not observed. Ki-67 labeling index was less than 3%. The pathological diagnosis of SFT was made without obvious malignant findings. Three years after the surgery, a follow-up CT scan detected a mass lesion in the tumor bed. Surgical resection was performed and the resected tumor was compatible with local recurrence of the SFT without obvious malignant findings. Renal SFT should be carefully monitored even in the absence of obvious malignant findings.

  18. Evaluation of different configurations of hybrid membrane bioreactors for treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Rodríguez, G; Cervantes-Avilés, P; Torres-Chávez, I; Bernal-Martínez, A

    2015-01-01

    Four membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with the same dimensions were studied for 180 days: three hybrid growth membrane bioreactors with biofilm attached in different packing media and a conventional MBR (C-MBR). The four MBRs had an identical membrane module of hollow fiber with a nominal porous diameter of 0.4 μm. The MBRs were: (1) a C-MBR; (2) a moving bed membrane bioreactor (MB-MBR), which was packed with 2 L of carrier Kaldnes-K1, presenting an exposed surface area of 678.90 m²/m³; (3) a non-submerged organic fixed bed (OFB-MBR) packed with 6.5 L of organic packing media composed of a mixture of cylindrical pieces of wood, providing an exposed surface area of 178.05 m²/m³; and (4) an inorganic fixed bed non-submerged membrane bioreactor (IFB-MBR) packed with 6 L of spherical volcanic pumice stone with an exposed surface area of 526.80 m²/m³. The four MBRs were fed at low organic loading (0.51 ± 0.19 kgCOD/m³ d). The results were recorded according to the behavior of the total resistance, transmembrane pressure (TMP), permeability, and removal percentages of the nutrients during the experimental time. The results showed that the MB-MBR presented the better performance on membrane filtration, while the higher nutrient removals were detected in the OFB-MBR and IFB-MBR.

  19. Evaluation of different configurations of hybrid membrane bioreactors for treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Rodríguez, G; Cervantes-Avilés, P; Torres-Chávez, I; Bernal-Martínez, A

    2015-01-01

    Four membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with the same dimensions were studied for 180 days: three hybrid growth membrane bioreactors with biofilm attached in different packing media and a conventional MBR (C-MBR). The four MBRs had an identical membrane module of hollow fiber with a nominal porous diameter of 0.4 μm. The MBRs were: (1) a C-MBR; (2) a moving bed membrane bioreactor (MB-MBR), which was packed with 2 L of carrier Kaldnes-K1, presenting an exposed surface area of 678.90 m²/m³; (3) a non-submerged organic fixed bed (OFB-MBR) packed with 6.5 L of organic packing media composed of a mixture of cylindrical pieces of wood, providing an exposed surface area of 178.05 m²/m³; and (4) an inorganic fixed bed non-submerged membrane bioreactor (IFB-MBR) packed with 6 L of spherical volcanic pumice stone with an exposed surface area of 526.80 m²/m³. The four MBRs were fed at low organic loading (0.51 ± 0.19 kgCOD/m³ d). The results were recorded according to the behavior of the total resistance, transmembrane pressure (TMP), permeability, and removal percentages of the nutrients during the experimental time. The results showed that the MB-MBR presented the better performance on membrane filtration, while the higher nutrient removals were detected in the OFB-MBR and IFB-MBR. PMID:25714631

  20. Nitrogen removal and spatial distribution of denitrifier and anammox communities in a bioreactor for mine drainage treatment.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Roger B; Winbjörk, Harry; Hellman, Maria; Hallin, Sara

    2014-12-01

    Mine drainage water may contain high levels of nitrate (NO3(-)) due to undetonated nitrogen-based explosives. The removal of NO3(-) and nitrite (NO2(-)) in cold climates through the microbial process of denitrification was evaluated using a pilot-scale fixed-bed bioreactor (27 m(3)). Surface water was diverted into the above-ground bioreactor filled with sawdust, crushed rock, and sewage sludge. At hydraulic residence times of ca.15 h and with the addition of acetate, NO3(-) and NO2(-) were removed to below detection levels at a NO3(-) removal rate of 5-10 g N m(-3) (bioreactor material) d(-1). The functional groups contributing to nitrogen removal in the bioreactor were studied by quantifying nirS and nirK present in denitrifying bacteria, nosZI and nosZII genes from the nitrous oxide - reducing community, and a taxa-specific part of the16S rRNA gene for the anammox community. The abundances of nirS and nirK were almost 2 orders of magnitude greater than the anammox specific 16S rRNA gene, indicating that denitrification was the main process involved in nitrogen removal. The spatial distribution of the quantified genes was heterogeneous in the bioreactor, with trends observed in gene abundance as a function of depth, distance from the bioreactor inlet, and along specific flowpaths. There was a significant relationship between the abundance of nirS, nirK, and nosZI genes and depth in the bioreactor, such that the abundance of organisms containing these genes may be controlled by oxygen diffusion and substrate supply in the partially or completely water-saturated material. Among the investigated microbial functional groups, nirS and anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes exhibited a systematic trend of decreasing and increasing abundance, respectively, with distance from the inlet, which suggested that the functional groups respond differently to changing environmental conditions. The greater abundance of nirK along central flowpaths may indicate that the bioreactor

  1. Nitrogen removal and spatial distribution of denitrifier and anammox communities in a bioreactor for mine drainage treatment.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Roger B; Winbjörk, Harry; Hellman, Maria; Hallin, Sara

    2014-12-01

    Mine drainage water may contain high levels of nitrate (NO3(-)) due to undetonated nitrogen-based explosives. The removal of NO3(-) and nitrite (NO2(-)) in cold climates through the microbial process of denitrification was evaluated using a pilot-scale fixed-bed bioreactor (27 m(3)). Surface water was diverted into the above-ground bioreactor filled with sawdust, crushed rock, and sewage sludge. At hydraulic residence times of ca.15 h and with the addition of acetate, NO3(-) and NO2(-) were removed to below detection levels at a NO3(-) removal rate of 5-10 g N m(-3) (bioreactor material) d(-1). The functional groups contributing to nitrogen removal in the bioreactor were studied by quantifying nirS and nirK present in denitrifying bacteria, nosZI and nosZII genes from the nitrous oxide - reducing community, and a taxa-specific part of the16S rRNA gene for the anammox community. The abundances of nirS and nirK were almost 2 orders of magnitude greater than the anammox specific 16S rRNA gene, indicating that denitrification was the main process involved in nitrogen removal. The spatial distribution of the quantified genes was heterogeneous in the bioreactor, with trends observed in gene abundance as a function of depth, distance from the bioreactor inlet, and along specific flowpaths. There was a significant relationship between the abundance of nirS, nirK, and nosZI genes and depth in the bioreactor, such that the abundance of organisms containing these genes may be controlled by oxygen diffusion and substrate supply in the partially or completely water-saturated material. Among the investigated microbial functional groups, nirS and anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes exhibited a systematic trend of decreasing and increasing abundance, respectively, with distance from the inlet, which suggested that the functional groups respond differently to changing environmental conditions. The greater abundance of nirK along central flowpaths may indicate that the bioreactor

  2. Measuring Water in Bioreactor Landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, B.; Gallagher, V. N.; Imhoff, P. T.; Yazdani, R.; Chiu, P.

    2004-12-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas, and landfills are the largest anthropogenic source in many developed countries. Bioreactor landfills have been proposed as one means of abating greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Here, the decomposition of organic wastes is enhanced by the controlled addition of water or leachate to maintain optimal conditions for waste decomposition. Greenhouse gas abatement is accomplished by sequestration of photosynthetically derived carbon in wastes, CO2 offsets from energy use of waste derived gas, and mitigation of methane emission from the wastes. Maintaining optimal moisture conditions for waste degradation is perhaps the most important operational parameter in bioreactor landfills. To determine how much water is needed and where to add it, methods are required to measure water within solid waste. However, there is no reliable method that can measure moisture content simply and accurately in the heterogeneous environment typical of landfills. While well drilling and analysis of solid waste samples is sometimes used to determine moisture content, this is an expensive, time-consuming, and destructive procedure. To overcome these problems, a new technology recently developed by hydrologists for measuring water in the vadose zone --- the partitioning tracer test (PTT) --- was evaluated for measuring water in solid waste in a full-scale bioreactor landfill in Yolo County, CA. Two field tests were conducted in different regions of an aerobic bioreactor landfill, with each test measuring water in ≈ 250 ft3 of solid waste. Tracers were injected through existing tubes inserted in the landfill, and tracer breakthrough curves were measured through time from the landfill's gas collection system. Gas samples were analyzed on site using a field-portable gas chromatograph and shipped offsite for more accurate laboratory analysis. In the center of the landfill, PTT measurements indicated that the fraction of the pore space filled with water

  3. Bioreactor concepts for cell culture-based viral vaccine production.

    PubMed

    Gallo-Ramírez, Lilí Esmeralda; Nikolay, Alexander; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Vaccine manufacturing processes are designed to meet present and upcoming challenges associated with a growing vaccine market and to include multi-use facilities offering a broad portfolio and faster reaction times in case of pandemics and emerging diseases. The final products, from whole viruses to recombinant viral proteins, are very diverse, making standard process strategies hardly universally applicable. Numerous factors such as cell substrate, virus strain or expression system, medium, cultivation system, cultivation method, and scale need consideration. Reviewing options for efficient and economical production of human vaccines, this paper discusses basic factors relevant for viral antigen production in mammalian cells, avian cells and insect cells. In addition, bioreactor concepts, including static systems, single-use systems, stirred tanks and packed-beds are addressed. On this basis, methods towards process intensification, in particular operational strategies, the use of perfusion systems for high product yields, and steps to establish continuous processes are introduced.

  4. Conjunctival fibrous histiocytoma in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Austen N; Samara, Wasim A; Shields, Carol L; Shields, Jerry A; Eagle, Ralph C

    2016-08-01

    An 8-year-old healthy boy underwent surgery for excision of a painless, enlarging vascularized conjunctival tumor. Histopathology disclosed a mass comprised of interweaving spindle cells and scattered histiocytes in a fibrous matrix, consistent with benign fibrous histiocytoma. This rare tumor can resemble several conditions, including scleritis/episcleritis, inflamed pterygium, juvenile xanthogranuloma, foreign body granuloma, solitary fibrous tumor, amelanotic melanoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. Applicability of a novel osmotic membrane bioreactor using a specific draw solution in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Nguyen, Hau Thi; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Hao, Chan Wen; Lin, Po-Hsun

    2015-06-15

    This study aims to develop a new osmotic membrane bioreactor by combining a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (FOMBR) to treat wastewater. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt coupled with polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether was used as an innovative draw solution in this membrane hybrid system (MBBR-OsMBR) for minimizing the reverse salt flux and maintaining a healthy environment for the microorganism community. The results showed that the hybrid system achieved a stable water flux of 6.94 L/m(2) h and low salt accumulation in the bioreactor for 68 days of operation. At a filling rate of 40% (by volume of the bioreactor) of the polyethylene balls used as carriers, NH4(+)-N and PO4(3-)-P were almost removed (>99%) while producing relatively low NO3(-)-N and NO2(-)-N in the effluent (e.g. <0.56 and 0.96 mg/L, respectively). Furthermore, from analysis based on scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and fluorescence emission-excitation matrix spectrophotometry, there was a thin gel-like fouling layer on the FO membrane, which composed of bacteria as well as biopolymers and protein-like substances. Nonetheless, the formation of these fouling layers of the FO membrane in MBBR-OsMBR was reversible and removed by a physical cleaning technique.

  6. Solid-state fermentation in rotating drum bioreactors: operating variables affect performance through their effects on transport phenomena.

    PubMed

    Stuart, D M; Mitchell, D A; Johns, M R; Litster, J D

    1999-05-20

    Aspergillus oryzae ACM 4996 was grown on an artificial gel-based substrate and on steamed wheat bran during solid-state fermentations in 18.7 L rotating drum bioreactors. For gel fermentations fungal growth decreased as rotational speed increased, presumably due to increased shear. For wheat bran fermentations fungal growth improved under agitated compared to static culture conditions, due to superior heat and mass transfer. We conclude that the effects of operational variables on the performance of SSF bioreactors are mediated by their effects on transport phenomena such as mixing, shear, heat transfer, and mass transfer within the substrate bed. In addition, the substrate characteristics affect the need for and the rates of these transport processes. Different transport phenomena may be rate limiting with different substrates. This work improves understanding of the effects of bioreactor operation on SSF performance. PMID:10099618

  7. Moisture diffusivity in structure of random fractal fiber bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fanglong; Zhou, Yu; Feng, Qianqian; Xia, Dehong

    2013-11-01

    A theoretical expression related to effective moisture diffusivity to random fiber bed is derived by using fractal theory and considering both parallel and perpendicular channels to diffusion flow direction. In this Letter, macroporous structure of hydrophobic nonwoven material is investigated, and Knudsen diffusion and surface diffusion are neglected. The effective moisture diffusivity predicted by the present fractal model are compared with water vapor transfer rate (WVTR) experiment data and calculated values obtained from other theoretical models. This verifies the validity of the present fractal diffusivity of fibrous structural beds.

  8. Consolidation and densification methods for fibrous monolith processing

    DOEpatents

    Sutaria, Manish P.; Rigali, Mark J.; Cipriani, Ronald A.; Artz, Gregory J.; Mulligan, Anthony C.

    2004-05-25

    Methods for consolidation and densification of fibrous monolith composite structures are provided. Consolidation and densification of two- and three-dimensional fibrous monolith components having complex geometries can be achieved by pressureless sintering. The fibrous monolith composites are formed from filaments having at least a first material composition generally surrounded by a second material composition. The composites are sintered in an inert gas or nitrogen gas at a pressure of no more than about 30 psi to provide consolidated and densified fibrous monolith composites.

  9. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  10. Spatial Experiment Technologies Suitable for Unreturnable Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Zheng, Weibo; Tong, Guanghui

    2016-07-01

    The system composition and main function of the bioreactor piggybacked on TZ cargo transport spacecraft are introduced briefly in the paper.The spatial experiment technologies which are suitable for unreturnable bioreactor are described in detail,including multi-channel liquid transportion and management,multi-type animal cells circuit testing,dynamic targets microscopic observation in situ etc..The feasibility and effectiveness of these technologies which will be used in space experiment in bioreactor are verified in tests and experiments on the ground.

  11. Development of Fundamental Technologies for Micro Bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kiichi; Kitamori, Takehiko

    This chapter reviews the development of fundamental technologies required for microchip-based bioreactors utilizing living mammalian cells and pressure driven flow. The most important factor in the bioreactor is the cell culture. For proper cell culturing, continuous medium supply from a microfluidic channel and appropriate modification of the channel surface to accommodate cell attachment is required. Moreover, the medium flow rate should be chosen carefully, because shear stress affects cell activity. The techniques presented here could be applied to the development of micro bioreactors such as microlivers, pigment production by plant cells, and artificial insemination.

  12. Tubular membrane bioreactors for biotechnological processes.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Christoph; Beutel, Sascha; Scheper, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    This article is an overview of bioreactors using tubular membranes such as hollow fibers or ceramic capillaries for cultivation processes. This diverse group of bioreactor is described here in regard to the membrane materials used, operational modes, and configurations. The typical advantages of this kind of system such as environments with low shear stress together with high cell densities and also disadvantages like poor oxygen supply are summed up. As the usage of tubular membrane bioreactors is not restricted to a certain organism, a brief overview of various applications covering nearly all types of cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells is also given here. PMID:23224587

  13. Bioreactor Technology in Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertsching, H.; Hansmann, J.

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering is a fast evolving field of biomedical science and technology to manufacture viable blood vessels, heart valves, myocar-dial substitutes and vascularised complex tissues. In consideration of the specific role of the haemodynamics of human circulation, bioreactors are a fundamental of this field. The development of perfusion bioreactor technology is a consequence of successes in extracorporeal circulation techniques, to provide an in vitro environment mimicking in vivo conditions. The bioreactor system should enable an automatic hydrodynamic regime control. Furthermore, the systematic studies regarding the cellular responses to various mechanical and biochemical cues guarantee the viability, bio-monitoring, testing, storage and transportation of the growing tissue.

  14. Elasto-capillarity in fibrous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaenkova, Daria

    Current advances in the manufacture of nanoporous and nanofibrous materials with high absorption capacity open up new opportunities for the development of fiber-based probes and sensors. Pore structures of these materials can be designed to provide high suction pressure and fast wicking. During wicking, due to the strong capillary action, the liquids exert stresses on the fiber network, thus the stressed state of dry and wet parts of the material differs. In this work the effect of stress reduction in fibrous materials due to the presence of wetting liquid in the pore structure is studied in details for both static and dynamic cases. It is suggested that this effect can be used for liquid monitoring and the examples of one and two dimensional probes are provided. To open a discussion an illustrative example of a single capillary is considered and the effect of a moving meniscus on the stress distribution along capillary walls is demonstrated. Then the similar effects are analyzed in yarns and fabrics. A yarn that can capture an aerosol droplet is considered as a promising sensing element that could monitor the stresses caused by wetting fronts. It is shown that the stress transfer between dry and wet parts of the yarn upon liquid wicking significantly depends on the boundary conditions. The stress distribution in the yarn with clamped ends is discussed. The elasto-capillary problem is resolved for 2-D case of a freely suspended self-reconfigurable material. It is shown that the classical Bernoulli problem of a freely suspended fabric can be used for the analysis of stresses in the fibrous matrix. The theoretical conclusions on elasto-capillarity are supported by experimental results on tensile testing of fibrous materials. The results show that the elasto-capillary effect is pronounced in the porous samples with the pore sizes smaller than 10 microm.

  15. Solitary fibrous tumor of the skin.

    PubMed

    Cowper, S E; Kilpatrick, T; Proper, S; Morgan, M B

    1999-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon mesenchymal tumor that typically arises in the pleural cavity. Comprised of spindled cells characteristically arranged in diverse architectural patterns, SFT histologically simulates a variety of benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors. The diagnosis of SFT has been refined by the availability of newer immunohistochemical markers such as CD-34 and factor XIIIa, facilitating the identification of SFTs arising in multiple extrapleural sites, including the skin. We describe three cases of primary cutaneous SFT, review the literature, and discuss the histologic and immunohistochemical differential of other cutaneous tumors that SFT can mimic.

  16. Solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Cameselle-Teijeiro, J; Varela-Duran, J; Fonseca, E; Villanueva, J P; Sobrinho-Simoes, M

    1994-04-01

    A case of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the thyroid in a 43-year-old woman with a multinodular goiter is reported. This is the first case of SFT described in the thyroid. On histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural examination, the tumor was identical to SFT of the pleura and other organs. Despite its rarity, SFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of spindle-cell tumors of the thyroid, along with anaplastic carcinoma, spindle-cell medullary carcinoma, and several types of mesenchymal tumors.

  17. [Retroperitoneal solitary fibrous tumor: a case report].

    PubMed

    Nukui, Akinori; Ochi, Masanori; Suzuki, Kazumi; Yuzawa, Masayuki; Morita, Tatsuo

    2009-08-01

    A 63-year-old man with a retroperitoneal tumor found incidentally was referred to our hospital. Computed tomography showed a tumor ventrally adjacent to urinary bladder and prostate. Pathological examination of retroperitoneal tumor specimens obtained by percutaneous needle biopsy revealed hypercellularity of spindle cells positive for CD 34. Under the suspicion of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) or stromal tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP), we performed en bloc resection of tumor, urinary bladder and prostate because tumor was firmly fixed to urinary bladder and prostate. The final diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor was SFT because pathological findings of the surgical specimen were the same as those of the biopsy specimens.

  18. Solitary fibrous tumor of the auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Rezk, Sherif; Yousef, Mohammad; Zamansky, Marshall; Khan, Ashraf

    2004-12-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon spindle cell neoplasm of increasing incidence that was originally described to be of pleural origin; however, more recently, SFT has been reported in extrapleural sites, including the orbit, liver, salivary glands, tongue, nose, paranasal sinuses, larynx, retroperitoneum, meninges, and thyroid. The increase in the number of SFTs does not necessarily mean increased incidence of this tumor but rather an increased understanding of this tumor, especially recognition of this tumor in extrapleural locations, which has been aided by immunohistochemical analysis. We report a case of SFT in the auditory canal, which to our knowledge has not been previously reported, as evident by morphologic findings and immunophenotype.

  19. [Extraconal solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit].

    PubMed

    von Lovenberg, E; Kedziora, O; Wolf, H K; Bankfalvi, A

    2013-04-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) are rare spindle cell neoplasms derived from specialized fibroblasts. This tumor was first described in the pleura and later in the whole body including the orbit. Although an SFT is generally a benign tumor malignant transformation and metastasization have also been observed in a few cases. Complete excision is the therapy of choice. Here we report on a 50-year-old male patient whose orbital SFT was removed by transconjunctival anterior orbitotomy and 1.5 years after the operation the patient is recurrence and complaint-free.

  20. Malignant transformation of orbital solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangning; Qian, Jiang; Bi, Yingwen; Ping, Bo; Zhang, Rui

    2013-06-01

    Orbital solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare tumor and may recur or undergo malignant transformation without complete excision. We present a case of orbital SFT which recurred twice and underwent malignant transformation. The patient was treated with en bloc excision via a lateral orbitotomy. The postoperative histopathologic diagnosis of this case was an adult fibrosarcoma. Postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy was given. In 18 months of further follow-up, there has been no evidence of recurrence, both clinically and in regular imaging studies.

  1. Extrapericardial solitary fibrous tumour of the pericardium.

    PubMed

    Andreani, S M; Tavecchio, L; Giardini, R; Bedini, A V

    1998-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) occurs most commonly in the pleura and is extremely rare in the pericardium. The authors report a case of a 60-year-old man in whom a large mediastinal mass was accidentally discovered. Computed tomography showed involvement of the left anterosuperior mediastinum with displacement of the trachea, large vessels and oesophagus; histopathological findings after complete resection of the neoplasia demonstrated an SFT of the pericardium, the first reported case with extrapericardial pattern of growth. A review of the literature on SFTs of the pericardium is provided.

  2. Atypical solitary fibrous tumor of the vulva.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, M

    2000-04-01

    An atypical solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) was encountered as a slow-growing, 15-cm, well-demarcated, vulvar tumor in a 70-year-old woman. The tumor was highly cellular and composed predominantly of hemangiopericytomatous and capillary hemangioma-like proliferations and short fascicular arrangements of spindled cells. Multinucleated giant cells and tumor necrosis also were present. The tumor cells were positive for vimentin, CD34, progesterone receptors, and bcl-2 and were diploid by flow cytometry. The patient was well without disease 9 months after surgery. Awareness of the occurrence of atypical SFT in the vulva is important so that confusion with other neoplasms can be avoided.

  3. Solitary fibrous tumor of the periosteum.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, J X; Logan, P M; Beauchamp, C P

    1995-04-01

    We report a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the leg that presented as a pedunculated encapsulated soft tissue mass attached to the periosteum of the posterior tibia. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of an SFT in an extremity. In addition to having the typical gross and microscopic appearance of a usual SFT, this SFT also contained abundant elastic tissue, suggesting an origin from periosteal fibroblasts. This report further extends the anatomic range of the SFT, a neoplasm once thought to be of mesothelial origin but now recognized as a mesenchymal tumor of probable fibroblastic lineage. To date the behavior of the this periosteal SFT has been benign.

  4. [Single fibrous tumor of the parapharyngeal space].

    PubMed

    Galera-Ruiz, H; Martínez-Pozo, A; Alos, L L; Cardesa, A; Traserra, J

    2000-01-01

    A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the parapharyngeal space presented with local symptoms (hearing loss, nasal obstruction, and paralysis of the soft palate and tongue). SFT, originally described as a mesothelial tumor of the pleura, now is recognized as a mesenchymal tumor that occurs in different locations. In the head and neck region, about 50 cases have been reported. This is the fifth published report of an SFT of the parapharyngeal space. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical (positivity for vimentin, CD34, and CD99) and ultrastructural markers (fibroblastic characteristics).

  5. Solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura.

    PubMed

    Sikri, V; Chawla, R

    2013-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) of the pleura is a rare, usually benign primary tumour of the pleura. Spectrum of presentation can vary from an incidental finding on chest radiograph done for some other purpose, features of compression of surrounding structures to symptoms resulting from the tumour per se. We report a case of a female who presented with complaints of cough and chest pain in whom a diagnosis of SFT was confirmed on tru-cut biopsy and immunohistochemistry studies. The patient underwent thoracotomy and successful removal of the tumour.

  6. Chondroblastoma of the acromion mimicking fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Gebert, Carsten; Hardes, Jendrik; Streitbürger, Arne; Vieth, Volker; Bürger, Horst; Winkelmann, Winfried; Gosheger, Georg

    2004-12-01

    The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with an expansive osteolytic lesion in the right acromion, mimicking cystic fibrous dysplasia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lesion with intermediate-signal intensity on T1-weighted images and a high-signal intensity on fat suppressed T2-weighted images. The biopsy led to the diagnosis of chondroblastoma. This tumour is rare in flat bones, and may mimic other benign or malignant lesions. It is therefore essential to perform a biopsy in order to obtain a definite diagnosis. The acromion was excised, and replaced with an iliac crest graft. PMID:15669467

  7. Fibrous composites comprising carbon nanotubes and silica

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Huisheng; Zhu, Yuntian Theodore; Peterson, Dean E.; Jia, Quanxi

    2011-10-11

    Fibrous composite comprising a plurality of carbon nanotubes; and a silica-containing moiety having one of the structures: (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NR.sub.1R.sub.2) or (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NCO; where n is from 1 to 6, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each independently H, CH.sub.3, or C.sub.2H.sub.5.

  8. Malignant fibrous histiocytomas of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, E; Wells, S; Fox, H; Reeve, N L; Knox, F

    1982-09-01

    The light microscopic, immunohistological and ultrastructural findings in two cases of malignant fibrous histiocytoma arising in salivary glands are presented and the features of seven previously reported cases are reviewed. This neoplasm is extremely rare in this site and may pose problems in diagnosis. It has to be distinguished from other spindled cell tumours, in particular from epithelial tumours of predominantly spindled cell pattern; immunohistological markers for histiocytic cells may be of value. The histogenesis of this neoplasm is controversial but our electron microscopic findings support an origin from mesenchymal cells which differentiate along a broad fibrohistiocytic spectrum.

  9. Approach to designing rotating drum bioreactors for solid-state fermentation on the basis of dimensionless design factors.

    PubMed

    Hardin, M T; Mitchell, D A; Howes, T

    2000-02-01

    The development of large-scale solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes is hampered by the lack of simple tools for the design of SSF bioreactors. The use of semifundamental mathematical models to design and operate SSF bioreactors can be complex. In this work, dimensionless design factors are used to predict the effects of scale and of operational variables on the performance of rotating drum bioreactors. The dimensionless design factor (DDF) is a ratio of the rate of heat generation to the rate of heat removal at the time of peak heat production. It can be used to predict maximum temperatures reached within the substrate bed for given operational variables. Alternatively, given the maximum temperature that can be tolerated during the fermentation, it can be used to explore the combinations of operating variables that prevent that temperature from being exceeded. Comparison of the predictions of the DDF approach with literature data for operation of rotating drums suggests that the DDF is a useful tool. The DDF approach was used to explore the consequences of three scale-up strategies on the required air flow rates and maximum temperatures achieved in the substrate bed as the bioreactor size was increased on the basis of geometric similarity. The first of these strategies was to maintain the superficial flow rate of the process air through the drum constant. The second was to maintain the ratio of volumes of air per volume of bioreactor constant. The third strategy was to adjust the air flow rate with increase in scale in such a manner as to maintain constant the maximum temperature attained in the substrate bed during the fermentation. PMID:10620257

  10. Packed Bed Reactor Experiment

    NASA Video Gallery

    The purpose of the Packed Bed Reactor Experiment in low gravity is to determine how a mixture of gas and liquid flows through a packed bed in reduced gravity. A packed bed consists of a metal pipe ...

  11. Development of an energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactors for 2-chlorophenol-contained wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Kun; Pan, Xin-Rong; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Li, Wen-Wei; Shi, Bing-Jing; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-12-01

    A novel energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactor (AnHMBR) with mesh filter, which takes advantage of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and fixed-bed biofilm reactor, is developed for low-strength 2-chlorophenol (2-CP)-contained wastewater treatment. In this system, the anaerobic membrane bioreactor is stuffed with granular activated carbon to construct an anaerobic hybrid fixed-bed biofilm membrane bioreactor. The effluent turbidity from the AnHMBR system was low during most of the operation period, and the chemical oxygen demand and 2-CP removal efficiencies averaged 82.3% and 92.6%, respectively. Furthermore, a low membrane fouling rate was achieved during the operation. During the AnHMBR operation, the only energy consumption was for feed pump. And a low energy demand of 0.0045-0.0063kWhm(-3) was estimated under the current operation conditions. All these results demonstrated that this novel AnHMBR is a sustainable technology for treating 2-CP-contained wastewater.

  12. An innovative membrane bioreactor for methane biohydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Pen, N; Soussan, L; Belleville, M-P; Sanchez, J; Charmette, C; Paolucci-Jeanjean, D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was developed for efficient, safe microbial methane hydroxylation with Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. This innovative MBR, which couples a bioreactor with two gas/liquid macroporous membrane contactors supplying the two gaseous substrates (methane and oxygen) was operated in fed-batch mode. The feasibility and the reproducibility of this new biohydroxylation process were first demonstrated. The mass transfer within this MBR was twice that observed in a batch reactor in similar conditions. The productivity reached with this MBR was 75±25mgmethanol(gdrycell)(-1)h(-1). Compared to the literature, this value is 35times higher than that obtained with the only other fed-batch membrane bioreactor reported, which was run with dense membranes, and is comparable to those obtained with bioreactors fed by bubble-spargers. However, in the latter case, an explosive gas mixture can be formed, a problem that is avoided with the MBR.

  13. In vivo bioreactors for mandibular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tatara, A M; Wong, M E; Mikos, A G

    2014-12-01

    Large mandibular defects are difficult to reconstruct with good functional and aesthetic outcomes because of the complex geometry of craniofacial bone. While the current gold standard is free tissue flap transfer, this treatment is limited in fidelity by the shape of the harvested tissue and can result in significant donor site morbidity. To address these problems, in vivo bioreactors have been explored as an approach to generate autologous prefabricated tissue flaps. These bioreactors are implanted in an ectopic site in the body, where ossified tissue grows into the bioreactor in predefined geometries and local vessels are recruited to vascularize the developing construct. The prefabricated flap can then be harvested with vessels and transferred to a mandibular defect for optimal reconstruction. The objective of this review article is to introduce the concept of the in vivo bioreactor, describe important preclinical models in the field, summarize the human cases that have been reported through this strategy, and offer future directions for this exciting approach.

  14. Bioreactor Design for Tendon/Ligament Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Lin, Zhen; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B.; Wang, Allan; Xu, Jiake

    2013-01-01

    Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a suitable culture environment, which mimics the dynamics of the in vivo environment for tendon/ligament maturation. For clinical settings, bioreactors also have the advantages of less-contamination risk, high reproducibility of cell propagation by minimizing manual operation, and a consistent end product. In this review, we identify the key components, design preferences, and criteria that are required for the development of an ideal bioreactor for engineering tendons and ligaments. PMID:23072472

  15. Solitary fibrous tumor surrounding the carotid sheath.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Oliveira, Guillermo; Alvarez-Flores, Modesto; Arribas-García, Ignacio; Martínez-Gimeno, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare spindle cell neoplasms that are mostly found arising from the pleura. Although SFTs recently have been reported in other regions, they are rare in the head and neck and have often been misdiagnosed due to their rarity. SFTs are benign in most cases. Clinically, SFTs usually manifest as well-circumscribed, slow-growing, smooth and painless masses. Symptoms are often minimal, although they may include sore throat, difficulty in swallowing, change of voice or trismus. CT-Scan and MRI are the most sensitive imaging procedures used. The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision of the lesion. Because recurrences have been noted up to 30 years after surgery, long-term follow up is mandatory. In this article, we present a case of a Solitary Fibrous Tumor arising in the parapharyngeal space in a 20-year-old man, involving the carotid sheath, treated by surgical excision with no recurrence after 1 year. The clinical presentation, surgical management and pathological findings are described.

  16. Giant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Orbit.

    PubMed

    Tenekeci, Goktekin; Sari, Alper; Vayisoglu, Yusuf; Serin, Onur

    2015-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) have been reported in various locations in the body. Solitary fibrous tumors are extremely rare tumors, especially when located in the orbit. Diagnosis of SFT cannot be made based on histopathology only because it exhibits a variable microscopic appearance, and necessitates immunohistochemistry to confirm the diagnosis. A 51-year-old man was admitted to our clinic for the evaluation of a mass bulging in his left eye. Clinical examination revealed a painless mass extruding out of the orbital cavity with dimensions of 8 × 7  cm. Exenteration of the left eye including the upper and lower eyelid and reconstruction of the orbital cavity using a temporoparietal fascia flap and a temporal muscle flap was performed. SFT of orbital region is known as a slow growing and painless tumor. Based on previous studies, increased mitotic rate of the tumor gives the impression that the tumor has a malignant nature. Until now a small number or orbital SFTs were reported and none of them presented with a giant mass protruding out of the orbital cavity. We present a unique case of orbital SFT filling the whole orbital cavity and protruding outward as a giant mass. This case has been reported to expand our knowledge in this debated entity. PMID:26102546

  17. [Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. A clinical case report].

    PubMed

    Gallesio, C; Tagliabue, M; Mazzeo, R; De Gioanni, P P

    1996-11-01

    The authors present a severe case of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia in which there was considerable involvement of cranial bone and facial skeleton. Numerous lesions were present at the level of the long bones of limbs. Endocrine dysfunction was also present in the form of a hypophyseal adenoma secreting prolactin and ACTH. The concomitance of acromegaly or gigantism and/or hyperprolactinemia and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia has only been reported to date in a few cases in literature. The authors describe the appearance of the subject, correlating clinical photographs with X-rays. They report the clinical excursus of the patient characterised by the gradual increase in deformities which seriously jeopardized the patient's relational life, in particular the appearance of a bulk on the forehead and checks and the deformation of the symphyseal portion of the mandible with presence of interdental diastemata. The patient also complained diplopia, difficulty in chewing owing to the mobilisation of teeth, and increasing bone pain probably due to nerve compression by exuberant bone. It was not possible to perform corrective surgery owing to the patient's overall poor health conditions. In fact, dilatative cardiomyopathy which continued to worsen in spite of numerous forms of medical treatment resulted in the patient's death owing to cardiac decompensation. Even the attempt to treat the patient's primary endocrine dysfunction using bromocryptine and subsequently octreotide failed to produce positive results owing to the onset of collateral effects which led to the early suspension of treatment.

  18. Self-Organization of Bioinspired Fibrous Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sung Hoon

    Nature uses fibrous surfaces for a wide range of functions such as sensing, adhesion, structural color, and self-cleaning. However, little is known about how fiber properties enable them to self-organize into diverse and complex functional forms. Using polymeric micro/nanofiber arrays with tunable properties as model systems, we demonstrate how the combination of mechanical and surface properties can be harnessed to transform an array of anchored nanofibers into a variety of complex, hierarchically organized dynamic functional surfaces. We show that the delicate balance between fiber elasticity and surface adhesion plays a critical role in determining the shape, chirality, and hierarchy of the assembled structures. We further report a strategy for controlling the long-range order of fiber assemblies by manipulating the shape and movement of the liquid-vapor interface. Our study provides fundamental understanding of the pattern formation by self-organization of bioinspired fibrous surfaces. Moreover, our new strategies offer a foundation for designing a vast assortment of functional surfaces with adhesive, optical, water-repellent, capture and release, and many more capabilities with the structural and dynamic sophistication of their biological counterparts.

  19. Giant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Orbit.

    PubMed

    Tenekeci, Goktekin; Sari, Alper; Vayisoglu, Yusuf; Serin, Onur

    2015-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) have been reported in various locations in the body. Solitary fibrous tumors are extremely rare tumors, especially when located in the orbit. Diagnosis of SFT cannot be made based on histopathology only because it exhibits a variable microscopic appearance, and necessitates immunohistochemistry to confirm the diagnosis. A 51-year-old man was admitted to our clinic for the evaluation of a mass bulging in his left eye. Clinical examination revealed a painless mass extruding out of the orbital cavity with dimensions of 8 × 7  cm. Exenteration of the left eye including the upper and lower eyelid and reconstruction of the orbital cavity using a temporoparietal fascia flap and a temporal muscle flap was performed. SFT of orbital region is known as a slow growing and painless tumor. Based on previous studies, increased mitotic rate of the tumor gives the impression that the tumor has a malignant nature. Until now a small number or orbital SFTs were reported and none of them presented with a giant mass protruding out of the orbital cavity. We present a unique case of orbital SFT filling the whole orbital cavity and protruding outward as a giant mass. This case has been reported to expand our knowledge in this debated entity.

  20. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: Surgery and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Suresh; Venkatswamy, Srihari; Ramu, Veena; Banu, Khurshida; Ehtaih, Sham; Kashyap, Vinay M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To highlight the clinical and radiologic features and management of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia with review of literature. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 6 patients who underwent surgical treatment in a tertiary healthcare centre was done using the parameters of patients' details, clinical features, radiological findings, management and postoperative review. Results: Of the six patients, 3 females and 2 males were in the 2nd decade of life and 1 male in the 1st decade of life. The disease was restricted to maxilla in 3 patients, involved the temporal and frontal bones in addition to maxilla in one, involved the frontal bone in one patient and involved frontal and parietal bones in one patient. The primary reason for seeking treatment in all the 6 cases was facial deformity. There was absence of pain in all 6 cases. For surgical treatment in all three cases involving the maxilla, the approach was intraoral while bicoronal approach was used for the other three cases. Treatment consisted of surgical contouring and reshaping the area. All cases were followed up over a period of 2 years with no signs of recurrence. Conclusion: Treatment of craniofacial fibro-osseous lesions is highly individualized. Most cases of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia manifest as swellings that cause facial deformity and surgical recontouring after cessation of growth seems to provide the best results. PMID:23662263

  1. [Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. A clinical case report].

    PubMed

    Gallesio, C; Tagliabue, M; Mazzeo, R; De Gioanni, P P

    1996-11-01

    The authors present a severe case of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia in which there was considerable involvement of cranial bone and facial skeleton. Numerous lesions were present at the level of the long bones of limbs. Endocrine dysfunction was also present in the form of a hypophyseal adenoma secreting prolactin and ACTH. The concomitance of acromegaly or gigantism and/or hyperprolactinemia and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia has only been reported to date in a few cases in literature. The authors describe the appearance of the subject, correlating clinical photographs with X-rays. They report the clinical excursus of the patient characterised by the gradual increase in deformities which seriously jeopardized the patient's relational life, in particular the appearance of a bulk on the forehead and checks and the deformation of the symphyseal portion of the mandible with presence of interdental diastemata. The patient also complained diplopia, difficulty in chewing owing to the mobilisation of teeth, and increasing bone pain probably due to nerve compression by exuberant bone. It was not possible to perform corrective surgery owing to the patient's overall poor health conditions. In fact, dilatative cardiomyopathy which continued to worsen in spite of numerous forms of medical treatment resulted in the patient's death owing to cardiac decompensation. Even the attempt to treat the patient's primary endocrine dysfunction using bromocryptine and subsequently octreotide failed to produce positive results owing to the onset of collateral effects which led to the early suspension of treatment. PMID:9026699

  2. Elasticity of fibrous networks under uniaxial prestress.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Mahsa; Sharma, Abhinav; Licup, Albert James; van Oosten, Anne S G; Galie, Peter A; Janmey, Paul A; MacKintosh, Fred C

    2016-06-14

    We present theoretical and experimental studies of the elastic response of fibrous networks subjected to uniaxial strain. Uniaxial compression or extension is applied to extracellular networks of fibrin and collagen using a shear rheometer with free water in/outflow. Both uniaxial stress and the network shear modulus are measured. Prior work [van Oosten, et al., Sci. Rep., 2015, 6, 19270] has shown softening/stiffening of these networks under compression/extension, together with a nonlinear response to shear, but the origin of such behaviour remains poorly understood. Here, we study how uniaxial strain influences the nonlinear mechanics of fibrous networks. Using a computational network model with bendable and stretchable fibres, we show that the softening/stiffening behaviour can be understood for fixed lateral boundaries in 2D and 3D networks with comparable average connectivities to the experimental extracellular networks. Moreover, we show that the onset of stiffening depends strongly on the imposed uniaxial strain. Our study highlights the importance of both uniaxial strain and boundary conditions in determining the mechanical response of hydrogels. PMID:27174568

  3. Thin film bioreactors in space.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Fulford, M; Scheld, H W

    1989-01-01

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers us an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one important variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would enable us to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  4. Thin film bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization, and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one inmportant variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would make it possible to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  5. NASA Bioreactors Advance Disease Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is falling. This is no threat to the astronauts onboard, however, because falling is part of the ISS staying in orbit. The absence of gravity beyond the Earth s atmosphere is actually an illusion; at the ISS s orbital altitude of approximately 250 miles above the surface, the planet s gravitational pull is only 12-percent weaker than on the ground. Gravity is constantly pulling the ISS back to Earth, but the space station is also constantly traveling at nearly 18,000 miles per hour. This means that, even though the ISS is falling toward Earth, it is moving sideways fast enough to continually miss impacting the planet. The balance between the force of gravity and the ISS s motion creates a stable orbit, and the fact that the ISS and everything in it including the astronauts are falling at an equal rate creates the condition of weightlessness called microgravity. The constant falling of objects in orbit is not only an important principle in space, but it is also a key element of a revolutionary NASA technology here on Earth that may soon help cure medical ailments from heart disease to diabetes. In the mid-1980s, NASA researchers at Johnson Space Center were investigating the effects of long-term microgravity on human tissues. At the time, the Agency s shuttle fleet was grounded following the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, and researchers had no access to the microgravity conditions of space. To provide a method for recreating such conditions on Earth, Johnson s David Wolf, Tinh Trinh, and Ray Schwarz developed that same year a horizontal, rotating device called a rotating wall bioreactor that allowed the growth of human cells in simulated weightlessness. Previously, cell cultures on Earth could only be grown two-dimensionally in Petri dishes, because gravity would cause the multiplying cells to sink within their growth medium. These cells do not look or function like real human cells, which grow three-dimensionally in

  6. Energy efficiency in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Barillon, B; Martin Ruel, S; Langlais, C; Lazarova, V

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption remains the key factor for the optimisation of the performance of membrane bioreactors (MBRs). This paper presents the results of the detailed energy audits of six full-scale MBRs operated by Suez Environnement in France, Spain and the USA based on on-site energy measurement and analysis of plant operation parameters and treatment performance. Specific energy consumption is compared for two different MBR configurations (flat sheet and hollow fibre membranes) and for plants with different design, loads and operation parameters. The aim of this project was to understand how the energy is consumed in MBR facilities and under which operating conditions, in order to finally provide guidelines and recommended practices for optimisation of MBR operation and design to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts.

  7. Fibrous microcapsules and methods of assembly and use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Stupp, Samuel; Rozkiewicz, Dorota

    2015-01-27

    The present invention relates to assembly of peptide amphiphiles and biopolymers into fibrous microcapsules, and uses thereof. In particular, the present invention provides devices, compositions, and methods for interfacial self-assembly of peptide amphiphiles and biopolyments into fibrous microcapsules, and uses thereof.

  8. Fibrous monoliths: Economic ceramic matrix composites from powders [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rigali, Mark; Sutaria, Manish; Mulligan, Anthony; Creegan, Peter; Cipriani, Ron

    1999-05-26

    The project was to develop and perform pilot-scale production of fibrous monolith composites. The principal focus of the program was to develop damage-tolerant, wear-resistant tooling for petroleum drilling applications and generate a basic mechanical properties database on fibrous monolith composites.

  9. Ceramic-Fibrous-Insulation Thermal-Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel; Churchward, Rex; Katvala, Victor; Stewart, David; Balter, Aliza

    1992-01-01

    New composite thermal-protection system developed in which glass-ceramic impregnated into surface of fibrous insulation. Called TUFI for toughened unipiece fibrous insulation developed as replacement for tiles with reaction-cured-glass (RCG) coating. Impregnation of glass-ceramic results in thermal protection system with insulating properties comparable to existing system but with 20 to 100 times more resistance to impact.

  10. Simplified Bioreactor For Growing Mammalian Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F.

    1995-01-01

    Improved bioreactor for growing mammalian cell cultures developed. Designed to support growth of dense volumes of mammalian cells by providing ample, well-distributed flows of nutrient solution with minimal turbulence. Cells relatively delicate and, unlike bacteria, cannot withstand shear forces present in turbulent flows. Bioreactor vessel readily made in larger sizes to accommodate greater cell production quantities. Molding equipment presently used makes cylinders up to 30 centimeters long. Alternative sintered plastic techniques used to vary pore size and quantity, as necessary.

  11. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  12. Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Functionally connected heart cells that are capable of transmitting electrical signals are the goal for Freed and Vunjak-Novakovic. Electrophysiological recordings of engineered tissue show spontaneous contractions at a rate of 70 beats per minute (a), and paced contractions at rates of 80, 150, and 200 beats per minute respectively (b, c, and d). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and MIT.

  13. Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Here, a transmission electron micrograph of engineered tissue shows a number of important landmarks present in functional heart tissue: (A) well-organized myofilaments (Mfl), z-lines (Z), and abundant glycogen granules (Gly); and (D) intercalcated disc (ID) and desmosomes (DES). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: MIT

  14. Estimation of flow and transport parameters for woodchip based bioreactors: I. laboratory-scale bioreactor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In subsurface bioreactors used for tile drainage systems, carbon sources are used to facilitate denitrification. The objective of this study was to estimate hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity, dispersivity, and first-order decay coefficients for a laboratory-scale bioreactor with woodchips a...

  15. Advanced microscale bioreactor system: a representative scale-down model for bench-top bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Ting; Aulakh, Rigzen P S; Traul, Donald L; Yuk, Inn H

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, several automated scale-down bioreactor systems have been developed to increase efficiency in cell culture process development. ambr™ is an automated workstation that provides individual monitoring and control of culture dissolved oxygen and pH in single-use, stirred-tank bioreactors at a working volume of 10-15 mL. To evaluate the ambr™ system, we compared the performance of four recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines in a fed-batch process in parallel ambr™, 2-L bench-top bioreactors, and shake flasks. Cultures in ambr™ matched 2-L bioreactors in controlling the environment (temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH) and in culture performance (growth, viability, glucose, lactate, Na(+), osmolality, titer, and product quality). However, cultures in shake flasks did not show comparable performance to the ambr™ and 2-L bioreactors.

  16. Fibrous lung tumor: a peculiar case.

    PubMed

    Barrettara, Barbara; Napoli, Gaetano; Lacitignola, Angelo; Sardelli, Paolo

    2013-08-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pleura and the lung is an uncommon spindle cell neoplasm arising from the visceral pleura in the majority of the cases. However there are some extrapleural sites including the lung. Current considerations were raised by a peculiar recent case: an 81-year-old female, no smoker, presented with undefined left thoracic pain. Radiographic findings of a large solid lung mass (10 cm × 9 cm). Computed tomography (CT) confirmed the thoracic mass showing characteristics of a well defined mass with capsule, the position of the mass in proximity of the postero-basal and lateral-basal wall. No secondary lesions were found. Through a left inferior lobectomy and ilo-mediastinal lymph node sampling, the entire mass was resected. Histopathological examination revealed a SFT. In conclusion STF is a rare lesion and this case showed a peculiar extremely large lesion never described before in literature. PMID:23991334

  17. Solitary fibrous tumor of the skin.

    PubMed

    Okamura, J M; Barr, R J; Battifora, H

    1997-10-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that most commonly involves the pleura, but is increasingly more often observed in extrapleural locations. A 37-year-old woman presented with an SFT involving the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the scalp. Histologically, SFT is well circumscribed and composed of uniform spindle cells arranged in interlacing fascicles. It exhibits alternating hypercellular and hypocellular areas with abundant thick, often keloid-like, hyalinized collagen. Hemangiopericytoma-like areas are frequently prominent. Immunohistochemical markers for smooth muscle, neural, and epithelial differentiation are negative, but generalized positivity for CD-34 is characteristic. Because of the expanding spectrum of anatomic involvement of SFT, it is not surprising that on rare occasions this tumor may involve the skin.

  18. Solitary fibrous tumor of the mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Suehisa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Motohiro; Komori, Eisaku; Sawada, Shigeki; Teramoto, Norihiro

    2010-04-01

    An 18-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further evaluation of a right anterior mediastinal tumor that measured 6 cm in diameter. Computed tomography-guided transcutaneous aspiration biopsy was performed, but no definitive diagnosis could be obtained. Because the tumor did not appear to be a high-grade malignant tumor, we undertook resection of the tumor to obtain a definitive diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment. Total thymectomy with tumor resection was performed through a median sternotomy. The tumor was solid, measuring 5.2 x 4.2 x 3.5 cm. The histological diagnosis was solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) arising from the mediastinum. Most extrathoracic SFTs appear to pursue a benign course, although careful long-term follow-up of these patients is necessary because the tumors have been reported to recur or metastasize in some cases.

  19. Fibrous lung tumor: a peculiar case.

    PubMed

    Barrettara, Barbara; Napoli, Gaetano; Lacitignola, Angelo; Sardelli, Paolo

    2013-08-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pleura and the lung is an uncommon spindle cell neoplasm arising from the visceral pleura in the majority of the cases. However there are some extrapleural sites including the lung. Current considerations were raised by a peculiar recent case: an 81-year-old female, no smoker, presented with undefined left thoracic pain. Radiographic findings of a large solid lung mass (10 cm × 9 cm). Computed tomography (CT) confirmed the thoracic mass showing characteristics of a well defined mass with capsule, the position of the mass in proximity of the postero-basal and lateral-basal wall. No secondary lesions were found. Through a left inferior lobectomy and ilo-mediastinal lymph node sampling, the entire mass was resected. Histopathological examination revealed a SFT. In conclusion STF is a rare lesion and this case showed a peculiar extremely large lesion never described before in literature.

  20. A solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Abeygunasekera, Anuruddha M; Ginige, Anusha P; Liyanage, Indika S H; Hareendra, Kalana

    2015-01-01

    A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon spindle cell neoplasm that usually occurs in the pleura, but may occur in extrapleural sites. Its occurrence in the kidney is rare. We report a SFT, clinically thought to be a renal cell carcinoma arising in the kidney of a 68-year-old female. The tumor was well-circumscribed and composed of a mixture of spindle cells and dense collagenous bands. Immunohistochemical studies revealed reactivity for CD34, CD99, and Bcl-2 protein, with no staining for keratin or muscle markers, confirming the diagnosis. The immunohistochemical study was the key to diagnosis. Several younger members of her family had colorectal and lung cancers suggesting the possibility of a familial or genetic susceptibility.

  1. [Solitary fibrous tumor of the liver].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, C; Mourra, N; Tubiana, J-M; Arrivé, L

    2006-02-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is commonly found on serosal surfaces, and is rarely localized in the liver. There are benign and malignant variants of hepatic SFT. We report a new case of benign SFT. Our patient, a 63-year old woman, who has been followed for 5 years for an asymptomatic liver mass, was admitted for abdominal pain. Ultrasonography (US), CT, MR Imaging and angiography showed the liver mass with typical imaging features, situated in the right hepatic lobe with blood supply from the hepatic artery. Histopathological examination demonstrated a highly vascularized tumor, composed of short spindle cells alternating with hypocellular collagenous regions, with a hemangiopericytoma-like vascular pattern. The immunohistochemical staining was positive for CD 34. Tumor resection was performed. Follow-up 8 years after the resection showed no tumor recurrence or metastasis, thus confirming the initial diagnosis of benign SFT.

  2. Intraorbital metastasis from solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mrinali M; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Zakka, Fouad R; Du, Rose; Annino, Donald J; Borboli-Gerogiannis, Sheila; Daniels, Anthony B

    2013-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell tumor of mesenchymal origin that usually arises from pleura or pericardium but can also arise from many extraserosal sites. Although more than 50 cases of primary SFT of the orbit have been reported, there are no reports to date of a malignant nonophthalmic SFT metastasizing in the orbital soft tissues (although sphenoid wing bony involvement has been reported). The authors report here the first case of a patient with intraorbital metastasis of a CD34-positive malignant SFT. The patient was a 57-year-old man with a history of malignant pleural SFT and a prior kidney metastasis. He presented with the rapid appearance of proptosis and massive conjunctival chemosis preventing eyelid closure, and he was found to have a well-circumscribed metastasis to his lateral rectus muscle. Surgical excision cured his ocular symptoms, although he died 3 months later from brain and widespread metastases.

  3. Case of retroperitoneal solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shinichi; Tochigi, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Sadafumi; Aoki, Hiroshi; Tateno, Hiroo; Kuwahara, Masaaki

    2007-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the retroperitoneal space is rare. We report a case of retroperitoneal tumor, diagnosed as SFT. A 69-year-old woman presented with right lower abdominal swelling, and was referred to our hospital with suspicion of right renal tumor. Abdominal ultrasound and computerized tomography (CT) showed a mass (about 15 x 14 x 10 cm) in the right abdomen. The tumor was thought to be right renal rumor, and right radical nephrectomy was performed. In the excised specimen the tumor was not connected to gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, or right kidney. The histological and immunohistochemical examination of the specimen revealed SFT. The tumor has malignant potential with partially increased mitotic activity and cellularity in the histological examination. The patient is healthy and without evidence of recurrence or metastasis 26 months from surgery.

  4. Chromosomal imbalances in meningeal solitary fibrous tumors.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew J; Summersgill, Brenda M; Fisher, Cyril; Shipley, Janet M; Dean, Andrew F

    2002-06-01

    We present the results of a comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis of three meningeal solitary fibrous tumors (SFT). One case showed loss of chromosome 3 and two tumors had deletions of the region 3p21-p26. Other chromosomal losses included 4p15, 8q22-q24, 10, 11q14-q25, 17q11- q23, 20, and 21 in one case each. In addition, there were gains of 18p11-p13 in one case, and 1p11-p36 and 20q11-q13 in another. To our knowledge, there are no previous CGH or cytogenetic data on meningeal SFT, and loss of material on chromosome 3 has not been described in SFT at other sites. Our findings are discussed in relation to published molecular genetic and cytogenetic data on meningioma and hemangiopericytoma, the two lesions with which meningeal SFT are most likely to be confused.

  5. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Andrew R; Newman, Elliot; Hajdu, Cristina H

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of fibroblastic origin. Most commonly they affect the pleura but they been described in other viscera. SFT of the pancreas is extremely rare, and only eight cases have been reported to date. We perform a literature review and report a ninth case. The patient is a 54-year-old African-American female who presented with several months of abdominal pain. Abdominal radiography demonstrated a lesion in the head of the pancreas, and she underwent a Whipple operation. Pathology demonstrated SFT of the pancreas. She is alive and well 1 year post-operatively. SFT of the pancreas predominately affects middle-aged women. These tumors are difficult to distinguish radiologically from neuroendocrine tumors. While SFT of the pancreas tend to have an indolent course, there is the potential for malignancy. We recommend complete surgical excision.

  6. Solitary fibrous tumour of the renal peripelvis.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, M; Nikaido, T

    1997-05-01

    Solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs) are rare spindle cell neoplasms generally associated with the serosal surface, especially the pleura. This report describes two SFTs arising in the renal peripelvis, occurring in 33- and 36-year-old females. The lesions lacked the characteristic features of other recognized neoplasms that occur in the kidney. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells were diffusely and strongly positive for vimentin and CD34, and some tumour cells expressed alpha-smooth muscle actin. Both tumours were diploid by flow cytometry. Both patients have had benign clinical courses with 7.5- and 1-year follow-up. The findings suggest that the SFTs may originate from peripelvic mesenchymal cells, a new location for SFT. SFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of spindle cell tumours arising in the renal pelvis and peripelvis.

  7. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Sakai, Shinya; Aono, Shoji; Takahashi, Tadaaki; Inoue, Takeshi; Ohta, Koji; Tanada, Minoru; Teramoto, Norihiro

    2010-07-01

    A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) originating in the pancreas is rare. We report a 55-year-old woman with an asymptomatic pancreatic mass incidentally discovered on abdominal ultrasonography. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a well-demarcated exophytic mass in the pancreatic head with prolonged and delayed enhancement. The mass showed hypointensity on T1-weighted images and heterogeneous hypointensity with spotty hyperintensity foci on T2-weighted images. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT showed no significant FDG uptake. The resected mass was composed of spindle cells that were positive for CD34; and hemangiopericytomatous vessels were focally detected. The mass was finally diagnosed as an SFT of the pancreas.

  8. Solitary fibrous tumor of renal pelvis.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, T; Satoh, S; Iizumi, T; Umeda, T; Yamaguchi, Y

    2001-09-01

    A 70-year-old Japanese man was referred because of a right renal mass of 2 years in duration. Imaging studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, revealed an ovoid mass, with relatively abundant vascularity, in the right renal pelvis. Right radical nephrectomy was done and a tumor measuring 6.0 x 4.5 x 4.0 cm was found in the renal pelvis. Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) was highly suspected by histology. Immunohistochemical study using a monoclonal antibody directed against the human hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen (CD34) stain confirmed SFT. This is the first case of SFT of the renal pelvis. Although SFT is extremely rare in urogenital organs, this tumor must be included in the differential diagnosis when we encounter urogenital tumors consisting of mesenchymal elements.

  9. Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shyh-Hwa; Kao, Shine C S; Pan, Chih-Shin

    2003-10-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal neoplasm that most frequently arises in the pleura and uncommonly involves the orbit. We report the clinical and pathological features of an orbital SFT in a 50-year-old woman. The patient presented with an 8-year history of painless, slow-growing, visible mass in the right caruncle. Computed tomography showed a well-circumscribed, homogenous, soft tissue mass in the inferomedial aspect of the orbit. The tumor was totally excised via anterior orbitotomy. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluation identified the mass as an SFT. The patient was free of tumor recurrence at 1-year follow-up. Orbital SFT can present as a visible mass in the caruncle and may recur if not excised completely. Long-term follow-up of patients is necessary because SFT may recur many years after operation.

  10. Solitary fibrous tumor of the skin.

    PubMed

    Hardisson, David; Cuevas-Santos, Jesús; Contreras, Félix

    2002-02-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon tumor initially reported in the pleura but recently described in other sites of the body. We report a SFT of the skin that presented as painless nodule located in the right cheek in a 56-year-old woman. Histologically, the tumor was composed of spindle-shaped cells arranged in a patternless pattern of short and narrow fascicles with interspersed bundles of thick collagen, and numerous blood vessels with a focally hemangiopericytoma-like appearance. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells strongly expressed vimentin, CD34 and bcl-2. The lesion was excised and the patient remains well at 16-month follow-up. This case presented some diagnostic difficulty because of its unusual location, and had to be distinguished from other superficial soft tissue tumors. Recognition of SFT in the skin is important to avoid possible confusion with a variety of spindle cell neoplasms with different biologic potential.

  11. Parasagittal solitary fibrous tumor resembling hemangiopericytoma.

    PubMed

    Shidoh, Satoka; Yoshida, Kazunari; Takahashi, Satoshi; Mikami, Shuji; Mukai, Makio; Kawase, Takeshi

    2010-04-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal tumor in the central nervous system, and the clinical behavior of this tumor is similar to that of meningioma. We report the case of a Japanese woman with parasagittal SFT that resembled hemangiopericytoma (HPC). Histological examination revealed that the tumor was highly cellular, with cells containing oval- or spindle-shaped nuclei arranged in sheets or a pattern-less growth mode. Focal vascular proliferation was also observed. Some areas showed intercellular stroma containing remarkable eosinophilic collagens. Tumor cells showed a strong immunoreactivity for CD34 but were negative for S-100 protein and epithelial membrane antigen. MIB-1 labeling index of the tumor was 6.6%. Owing to the high cellularity, high MIB-1 labeling index, and focal vascular proliferation, it was difficult to distinguish this lesion from HPC. However, the tumor was finally diagnosed as SFT on the basis of the strong immunostaining for CD34 and absence of pericellular reticulin.

  12. Solitary fibrous tumor in the mental region.

    PubMed

    Hirano, M; Tanuma, J; Shimoda, T; Sugihara, K; Tsuneyoshi, M; Kitano, M

    2001-11-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare, benign, soft tissue tumor that most commonly occurs in the pleura; however, it has recently been described in other sites of the body. To date, eight examples of oral SFT have been reported. This paper is a description of the first case of an SFT occurring as a soft tissue tumor in the mental region. Histologically, the tumor was composed predominantly of rather uniform spindle-shaped fibroblastic cells arranged in vague fascicles or in a haphazard fashion, intermingled with abundant collagen fibers. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for CD34 and vimentin, and weakly positive for muscle actin and alpha-smooth muscle actin. The diagnosis of SFT may be difficult as this tumor shares a number of histological features with other soft tissue tumors. Awareness of its occurrence in the oral cavity is important so that confusion with other spindle cell neoplasms can be avoided.

  13. Insulin receptor activation in solitary fibrous tumours.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Chang, Q; Rubin, B P; Fletcher, C D M; Morgan, T W; Mentzer, S J; Sugarbaker, D J; Fletcher, J A; Xiao, S

    2007-04-01

    Solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs) are known to overexpress insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2). The down-stream oncogenic pathways of IGF-2, however, are not clear. Here we report uniform activation of the insulin receptor (IR) pathway in SFTs, which are mesenchymal tumours frequently associated with hypoglycaemia. Whereas the IR and its downstream signalling pathways were constitutively activated in SFTs, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) was not expressed in these tumours. We also find that SFT cells secrete IGF-2 and proliferate in serum-free medium, consistent with an IGF-2/IR autocrine loop. The aetiological relevance of IGF-2 is supported by expression of IR-A, the IR isoform with high affinity for IGF-2, in all SFTs. Our studies suggest that IR activation plays an oncogenic role in SFTs.

  14. Solitary fibrous tumor of the abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Migita, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Akihiko; Nakagawa, Kenji; Ohyama, Takao; Sekigawa, Susumu

    2009-12-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are uncommon neoplasms of mesenchymal origin that usually arise from the pleura. SFTs of the abdominal wall are extremely rare, and only 12 cases have been reported in the English language literature. This report presents a new case of SFT of the abdominal wall in a 74-year-old female. Positron emission tomography demonstrated the heterogeneous 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake of the tumor (the maximum standardized uptake value was 2.8). Histologically, the mitotic count was 1 to 2/10 high-power fields. The patient is alive without recurrence at 10 months after undergoing a surgical excision. We discuss the clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis and present a review of the pertinent literature.

  15. Solitary fibrous tumor of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Kurosh; Shaw, Patricia A; Chetty, Runjan

    2010-03-01

    A 68-year-old woman with stage pT1b1 N0 cervical squamous carcinoma had an incidental cervical polyp. The polyp measured 1.7 cm in maximal diameter and histologic evaluation showed it to be composed of spindle-shaped cells with hypercellular and hypocellular foci. The stroma was collagenized and contained several dilated vascular channels that imparted a hemangiopericytic pattern to the lesion. Immunohistochemistry showed the spindle cells to be positive for vimentin, CD99, CD34, bcl-2, ER, PR, and beta-catenin (cytoplasmic) but negative for EMA, S100, factor XIIIa, AE1/AE3, caldesmon, desmin, CD31, and smooth muscle actin. The morphology and immunophenotype was in keeping with a diagnosis of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). SFT shares several histologic features of a superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma; the cellular variability, pattern and distribution of vessels, stromal collagenization, and desmin negativity favors SFT.

  16. Solitary fibrous tumor in the pelvic space.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tomomoto; Kawabata, Gaku; Terakawa, Tomoaki; Kamidono, Sadao; Fujisawa, Masato

    2004-02-01

    A case of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pelvic space in a 64-year-old man is reported herein. Computed tomography (CT) of the pelvis showed a large mass enhanced heterogeneously left paracentral and posterior to the bladder and intimately associated with prostate. The site of origin of the mass could not be defined on CT because margins blended with the bladder, prostate, and rectum. A tumorectomy was performed and has remained well with no evidence of recurrence during the last 3 months. The tumor was 12.5 x 9.5 x 8.3 cm in size, solid with a fibromuscular capsule, and gray-tan in color. Histologically, the neoplasms were well circumscribed and composed of short spindle cells arranged without an obvious pattern. Immunohistochemically, these cells were strongly positive for CD 34 and negative for S-100, alpha SMA, and AE1/AE3.

  17. Solitary fibrous tumor of the mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Weidner, N

    1991-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman presented with an asymptomatic anterior mediastinal mass. Clinically considered to be a thymoma, the tumor was solid, firm, and composed of hypocellular dense collagen and cytologically bland, spindled fibroblastlike cells growing in a patternless pattern. There was no apparent connection to pleura or pericardium, yet the clinicopathologic features clearly fit with solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of mediastinum. SFTs occur most commonly in pleura but have been reported in other locations, including the mediastinum, where aggressive behavior has been more common when these tumors are compared to those occurring in pleura. Although it is difficult to predict behavior for all cases of SFT occurring in the mediastinum by cytologic features alone, morphologic criteria for benign and malignant forms have been described. Roughly half the malignant forms will progress, yet the single most important indicator of clinical outcome is whether the tumor can be initially totally excised.

  18. Solitary fibrous tumour: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Shet, Tanuja M; Chinoy, R F; Kane, S V

    2007-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare spindle cell neoplasm arising at pleural and extrapleural sites. Five cases of SFT diagnosed at our institution over a five year period were reviewed. Haematoxylin and eosin stained histological sections, immuno-histochemical markers including CD34 and electron microscopy were the different methods used to study these tumours. Three histological features were consistently observed in all the tumours: the tumours were composed of short spindle cells separated by dense collagen bands and arranged in alternate hypocellular and hypercellular areas. CD34 positivity was seen in all the cases. SFT's have been reported to behave in an unpredictable fashion and hence prolonged follow up is essential. Histology, CD34 positivity and electron microscopy are useful tools in diagnosing SFT. While the pleural tumours can be diagnosed based on histology, this must be substantiated by ancillary techniques in case of extrapleural tumours.

  19. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Andrew R; Newman, Elliot; Hajdu, Cristina H

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of fibroblastic origin. Most commonly they affect the pleura but they been described in other viscera. SFT of the pancreas is extremely rare, and only eight cases have been reported to date. We perform a literature review and report a ninth case. The patient is a 54-year-old African-American female who presented with several months of abdominal pain. Abdominal radiography demonstrated a lesion in the head of the pancreas, and she underwent a Whipple operation. Pathology demonstrated SFT of the pancreas. She is alive and well 1 year post-operatively. SFT of the pancreas predominately affects middle-aged women. These tumors are difficult to distinguish radiologically from neuroendocrine tumors. While SFT of the pancreas tend to have an indolent course, there is the potential for malignancy. We recommend complete surgical excision. PMID:26628714

  20. A solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Abeygunasekera, Anuruddha M; Ginige, Anusha P; Liyanage, Indika S H; Hareendra, Kalana

    2015-01-01

    A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon spindle cell neoplasm that usually occurs in the pleura, but may occur in extrapleural sites. Its occurrence in the kidney is rare. We report a SFT, clinically thought to be a renal cell carcinoma arising in the kidney of a 68-year-old female. The tumor was well-circumscribed and composed of a mixture of spindle cells and dense collagenous bands. Immunohistochemical studies revealed reactivity for CD34, CD99, and Bcl-2 protein, with no staining for keratin or muscle markers, confirming the diagnosis. The immunohistochemical study was the key to diagnosis. Several younger members of her family had colorectal and lung cancers suggesting the possibility of a familial or genetic susceptibility. PMID:26458681

  1. Method of manufacturing fibrous hemostatic bandages

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Gustavo; Spretz, Ruben; Velarde-Ortiz, Raffet

    2012-09-04

    A method of manufacturing a sturdy and pliable fibrous hemostatic dressing by making fibers that maximally expose surface area per unit weight of active ingredients as a means for aiding in the clot forming process and as a means of minimizing waste of active ingredients. The method uses a rotating object to spin off a liquid biocompatible fiber precursor, which is added at its center. Fibers formed then deposit on a collector located at a distance from the rotating object creating a fiber layer on the collector. An electrical potential difference is maintained between the rotating disk and the collector. Then, a liquid procoagulation species is introduced at the center of the rotating disk such that it spins off the rotating disk and coats the fibers.

  2. Acoustical properties of highly porous fibrous materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Highly porous, fibrous bulk sound absorbing materials are studied with a view toward understanding their acoustical properties and performance in a wide variety of applications including liners of flow ducts. The basis and criteria for decoupling of acoustic waves in the pores of the frame and compressional waves in the frame structure are established. The equations of motion are recast in a form that elucidates the coupling mechanisms. The normal incidence surface impedance and absorption coefficient of two types of Kevlar 29 and an open celled foam material are studied. Experimental values and theoretical results are brought into agreement when the structure factor is selected to provide a fit to the experimental data. A parametric procedure for achieving that fit is established. Both a bulk material quality factor and a high frequency impedance level are required to characterize the real and imaginary part of the surface impedance and absorption coefficient. A derivation of the concepts of equivalent density and dynamic resistance is presented.

  3. [A case of retroperitoneal solitary fibrous tumor].

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Akira; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Koike, Hiroshi

    2010-06-01

    A 96-year-old female visited our hospital with a complaint of right flank pain. She was under treatment for diabetes mellitus, hypertension and moderate renal dysfunction in the department of internal medicine. Computer tomographic (CT) scan showed a mass 12 cm in diameter compressing the right kidney and inferior vena cava. We diagnosed the right renal cyst. Eight weeks later, CT scan revealed a gradual increase of the mass. We punctured the tumor in order to reduce her complaint and investigate the rumor. Because contrast material could not be infused into the mass, needle biopsy was performed. Pathological examination revealed hypercellularity of spindle cells, that showed positive for CD34, vimentin, desmin and Mic-2, and negative for S100, alphaSMA, c-kit, AE1/3, p53 and bcl-2. The tumor was finally diagnosed as solitary fibrous tumor.

  4. Inflammatory malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the retroperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Cvjetko, Ivan; Kocman, Branko; Sitić, Sanda

    2011-03-01

    The authors present a case of inflammatory malignant fibrous histiocytoma located in the left retroperitoneum. The tumor was resected enblock with kidney and suprarenal gland. During the resection the system of retractors called the pillars of Kocman was used which allowed wide exposure of the abdominal cavity. The tumor measured 23 x 17 x 10 cm with the left kidney and suprarenal incorporated. The tumor was centrally pseudocystic made of xanthomatous cells, foamy cells and rare giant cells with storiform formations and infiltrated with neutrophils. Imunohistochemically, the tumor cells were vimentin and CD 68 positive and CD 20, CD3, EMA, S-100, HMB 45, CD 34 and CD 1a negative. Neutrophils were CD 15 positive.

  5. Cutaneous balloon cell dermatofibroma (fibrous histiocytoma).

    PubMed

    Tran, Tien Anh; Hayner-Buchan, Alida; Jones, David M; McRorie, Duane; Carlson, J Andrew

    2007-04-01

    Dermatofibroma (DF) or cutaneous fibrous histiocytoma is a common benign skin tumor that exhibits multiple, distinct histologic variants. Although clear cell DF has been described in the literature, balloon cell degeneration causing a clear cell DF phenotype has been not been reported to date. Herein, we describe the clinicopathologic findings of balloon cell DF arising on the heel of a 43-year-old man. Clinically, it presented as enlarging tan-white, ulcerated, firm 1.5 cm nodule, clinically suspected to be pyogenic granuloma. Excisional biopsy revealed a circumscribed fibrous tumor populated by mostly clear and spindle cells. A zonal arrangement separated the varied tumor cells where the most superficial, polypoid area showed large, clear polygonal balloon cells; the mid-dermal zone demonstrated a transition between balloon cells, epithelioid cells, and spindle cells; and the deep dermal zone had storiform arrangement of spindle cells, with the fascicles separated by coarse collagen bundles. A CD10+ > CD68+ > Factor XIIIa+ immunophenotype was identified with negative immunolabeling for S-100 protein, HMB-45, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, desmin, smooth muscle actin, lysozyme, and leukocyte common antigen (LCA). Ultrastructurally, the clear tumor cells were filled with multiple, empty, nonmembrane bound vacuoles of varying size. No recurrence has been described after complete excision and 7 months of follow up. DF with balloon cell change, likely secondary to persistent irritation, should be added to the differential diagnosis of cutaneous primary and metastatic neoplasms showing balloon cell degeneration such as balloon cell melanocytic nevi and renal cell carcinoma, respectively.

  6. Kinetics studies of p-cresol biodegradation by using Pseudomonas putida in batch reactor and in continuous bioreactor packed with calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Mathur, A K; Bala, Shashi; Majumder, C B; Sarkar, S

    2010-01-01

    Present study deals with the biodegradation of p-cresol by using Pseudomonas putida in a batch reactor and a continuous bioreactor packed with calcium alginate beads. The maximum specific growth rate of 0.8121 h(-1) was obtained at 200 mg L(-1) concentration of p-cresol in batch reactor. The maximum p-cresol degradation rate was obtained 6.598 mg L(-1) h(-1) at S(o)=200 mg L(-1) and 62.8 mg L(-1) h(-1) at S(o)=500 mg L(-1) for batch reactor and a continuous bioreactor, respectively. The p-cresol degradation rate of continuous bioreactor was 9 to 10-fold higher than those of the batch reactor. It shows that the continuous bioreactor could tolerate a higher concentration of p-cresol. A Haldane model was also used for p-cresol inhibition in batch reactor and a modified equation similar to Haldane model for continuous bioreactor. The Haldane parameters were obtained as µ(max) 0.3398 h(-1), K(s) 110.9574 mg L(-1), and K(I) 497.6169 mg L(-1) in batch reactor. The parameters used in continuous bioreactor were obtained as D(max) 91.801 mg L(-1) h(-1), K(s) 131.292 mg L(-1), and K(I) 1217.7 mg L(-1). The value K(I) of continuous bioreactor is approximately 2.5 times higher than the batch reactor. Higher K(I) value of continuous bioreactor indicates P. putida can grow at high range of p-cresol concentration. The ability of tolerance of higher p-cresol concentrations may be one reason for biofilm attachment on the packed bed in the continuous operation.

  7. Pedunculated solitary fibrous tumours arising from the pleura.

    PubMed

    Poyraz, A; Kilic, D; Hatipoglu, A; Bakirci, T; Bilezikci, B

    2006-09-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is one of the rare tumours which arise from visceral pleura. Klemperer and Rabin first described SFT as a distinct clinical entity among primary pleural tumoUrs in 1931. Approximately 820 cases have been reported in literature to date. The management of patients with SFT is complete resection of the tumour and follow up of the patient to detect any possible late recurrence. In the present paper, we report two cases of pedunculated solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura that appeared as a wandering chest nodule to which surgical resection undertaken at our hospital. The aim is to summarise our experience in the management of solitary fibrous tumour.

  8. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Cerebello-Pontine Angle

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Nigel D.; Fagan, Paul A.; Turner, Jennifer J.; Doust, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    A case is presented of solitary fibrous tumor occurring in the cerebello-pontine angle. There have been only two other reported cases of a solitary fibrous tumors in this region. Imaging studies showed the tumor to be characteristic in shape and position of an acoustic tumor. However, at surgery the tumor was found to have a “rock hard” consistency. Solitary fibrous tumor differs from acoustic schwannoma and meningioma in its histopathological features and in this case, regrowth, after incomplete excision, was extremely rapid. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:17171119

  9. Plant Cell-Based Recombinant Antibody Manufacturing with a 200 L Orbitally Shaken Disposable Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Raven, Nicole; Schillberg, Stefan; Rasche, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco BY-2 cells are an attractive platform for the manufacture of a variety of biopharmaceutical proteins, including antibodies. Here, we describe the scaled-up cultivation of human IgG-secreting BY-2 cells in a 200 L orbitally shaken disposable bioreactor, resulting in cell growth and recombinant protein yields that are proportionately comparable with those obtained from cultivations in 500 mL shake flasks. Furthermore, we present an efficient downstream process for antibody recovery from the viscous spent culture medium using expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography. PMID:26614289

  10. Microbiological Analysis of an Active Pilot-Scale Mobile Bioreactor Treating Organic Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.

    1997-11-26

    Samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a granular activated carbon fluidized bed bioreactor (GAC-FBR). This GAC-FBR was in operation at a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) Site in Augusta Georgia for in situ groundwater bioremediation of organics. The samples included contaminated site groundwater, GAC-FBR effluent, and biofilm coated granular activated carbon at 5, 9, and 13 feet within the GAC-FBR column. The objective of this analysis was to correlate contaminant removal with microbiological activity within the GAC-FBR.

  11. Open source software to control Bioflo bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Burdge, David A; Libourel, Igor G L

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactors are designed to support highly controlled environments for growth of tissues, cell cultures or microbial cultures. A variety of bioreactors are commercially available, often including sophisticated software to enhance the functionality of the bioreactor. However, experiments that the bioreactor hardware can support, but that were not envisioned during the software design cannot be performed without developing custom software. In addition, support for third party or custom designed auxiliary hardware is often sparse or absent. This work presents flexible open source freeware for the control of bioreactors of the Bioflo product family. The functionality of the software includes setpoint control, data logging, and protocol execution. Auxiliary hardware can be easily integrated and controlled through an integrated plugin interface without altering existing software. Simple experimental protocols can be entered as a CSV scripting file, and a Python-based protocol execution model is included for more demanding conditional experimental control. The software was designed to be a more flexible and free open source alternative to the commercially available solution. The source code and various auxiliary hardware plugins are publicly available for download from https://github.com/LibourelLab/BiofloSoftware. In addition to the source code, the software was compiled and packaged as a self-installing file for 32 and 64 bit windows operating systems. The compiled software will be able to control a Bioflo system, and will not require the installation of LabVIEW. PMID:24667828

  12. Open source software to control Bioflo bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Burdge, David A; Libourel, Igor G L

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactors are designed to support highly controlled environments for growth of tissues, cell cultures or microbial cultures. A variety of bioreactors are commercially available, often including sophisticated software to enhance the functionality of the bioreactor. However, experiments that the bioreactor hardware can support, but that were not envisioned during the software design cannot be performed without developing custom software. In addition, support for third party or custom designed auxiliary hardware is often sparse or absent. This work presents flexible open source freeware for the control of bioreactors of the Bioflo product family. The functionality of the software includes setpoint control, data logging, and protocol execution. Auxiliary hardware can be easily integrated and controlled through an integrated plugin interface without altering existing software. Simple experimental protocols can be entered as a CSV scripting file, and a Python-based protocol execution model is included for more demanding conditional experimental control. The software was designed to be a more flexible and free open source alternative to the commercially available solution. The source code and various auxiliary hardware plugins are publicly available for download from https://github.com/LibourelLab/BiofloSoftware. In addition to the source code, the software was compiled and packaged as a self-installing file for 32 and 64 bit windows operating systems. The compiled software will be able to control a Bioflo system, and will not require the installation of LabVIEW.

  13. Open Source Software to Control Bioflo Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Burdge, David A.; Libourel, Igor G. L.

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactors are designed to support highly controlled environments for growth of tissues, cell cultures or microbial cultures. A variety of bioreactors are commercially available, often including sophisticated software to enhance the functionality of the bioreactor. However, experiments that the bioreactor hardware can support, but that were not envisioned during the software design cannot be performed without developing custom software. In addition, support for third party or custom designed auxiliary hardware is often sparse or absent. This work presents flexible open source freeware for the control of bioreactors of the Bioflo product family. The functionality of the software includes setpoint control, data logging, and protocol execution. Auxiliary hardware can be easily integrated and controlled through an integrated plugin interface without altering existing software. Simple experimental protocols can be entered as a CSV scripting file, and a Python-based protocol execution model is included for more demanding conditional experimental control. The software was designed to be a more flexible and free open source alternative to the commercially available solution. The source code and various auxiliary hardware plugins are publicly available for download from https://github.com/LibourelLab/BiofloSoftware. In addition to the source code, the software was compiled and packaged as a self-installing file for 32 and 64 bit windows operating systems. The compiled software will be able to control a Bioflo system, and will not require the installation of LabVIEW. PMID:24667828

  14. Nitrogen management in bioreactor landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Price, G. Alexander; Barlaz, Morton A.; Hater, Gary R

    2003-07-01

    One scenario for long-term nitrogen management in landfills is ex situ nitrification followed by denitrification in the landfill. The objective of this research was to measure the denitrification potential of actively decomposing and well decomposed refuse. A series of 10-l reactors that were actively producing methane were fed 400 mg NO{sub 3}-N /l every 48 h for periods of 19-59 days. Up to 29 nitrate additions were either completely or largely depleted within 48 h of addition and the denitrification reactions did not adversely affect the leachate pH. Nitrate did inhibit methane production, but the reactors recovered their methane-producing activity with the termination of nitrate addition. In well decomposed refuse, the nitrate consumption rate was reduced but was easily stimulated by the addition of either acetate or an overlayer of fresh refuse. Addition of acetate at five times the amount required to reduce nitrate did not lead to the production of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by dissimilatory nitrate reduction. The most probable number of denitrifying bacteria decreased by about five orders of magnitude during refuse decomposition in a reactor that did not receive nitrate. However, rapid denitrification commenced immediately with nitrate addition. This study shows that the use of a landfill as a bioreactor for the conversion of nitrate to a harmless byproduct, nitrogen gas, is technically viable.

  15. Bioreactor control improves bioprocess performance.

    PubMed

    Simutis, Rimvydas; Lübbert, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    The performance of bioreactors is not only determined by productivity but also by process quality, which is mainly determined by variances in the process variables. As fluctuations in these quantities directly affect the variability in the product properties, combatting distortions is the main task of practical quality assurance. The straightforward way of reducing this variability is keeping the product formation process tightly under control. Purpose of this keynote is to show that there is enough evidence in literature showing that the performance of the fermentation processes can significantly be improved by feedback control. Most of the currently used open loop control procedures can be replaced by relatively simple feedback techniques. It is shown by practical examples that such a retrofitting does not require significant changes in the well-established equipment. Feedback techniques are best in assuring high reproducibility of the industrial cultivation processes and thus in assuring the quality of their products. Many developments in supervising and controlling industrial fermentations can directly be taken over in manufacturing processes. Even simple feedback controllers can efficiently improve the product quality. It's the time now that manufacturers follow the developments in most other industries and improve process quality by automatic feedback control. PMID:26228573

  16. Bioreactor control improves bioprocess performance.

    PubMed

    Simutis, Rimvydas; Lübbert, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    The performance of bioreactors is not only determined by productivity but also by process quality, which is mainly determined by variances in the process variables. As fluctuations in these quantities directly affect the variability in the product properties, combatting distortions is the main task of practical quality assurance. The straightforward way of reducing this variability is keeping the product formation process tightly under control. Purpose of this keynote is to show that there is enough evidence in literature showing that the performance of the fermentation processes can significantly be improved by feedback control. Most of the currently used open loop control procedures can be replaced by relatively simple feedback techniques. It is shown by practical examples that such a retrofitting does not require significant changes in the well-established equipment. Feedback techniques are best in assuring high reproducibility of the industrial cultivation processes and thus in assuring the quality of their products. Many developments in supervising and controlling industrial fermentations can directly be taken over in manufacturing processes. Even simple feedback controllers can efficiently improve the product quality. It's the time now that manufacturers follow the developments in most other industries and improve process quality by automatic feedback control.

  17. 7 CFR 2902.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 2902.15 Section 2902... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that group of woven cloth products used as coverings on a bed. Bedding includes products such as...

  18. Mobility of power-law and Carreau fluids through fibrous media.

    PubMed

    Shahsavari, Setareh; McKinley, Gareth H

    2015-12-01

    The flow of generalized Newtonian fluids with a rate-dependent viscosity through fibrous media is studied, with a focus on developing relationships for evaluating the effective fluid mobility. Three methods are used here: (i) a numerical solution of the Cauchy momentum equation with the Carreau or power-law constitutive equations for pressure-driven flow in a fiber bed consisting of a periodic array of cylindrical fibers, (ii) an analytical solution for a unit cell model representing the flow characteristics of a periodic fibrous medium, and (iii) a scaling analysis of characteristic bulk parameters such as the effective shear rate, the effective viscosity, geometrical parameters of the system, and the fluid rheology. Our scaling analysis yields simple expressions for evaluating the transverse mobility functions for each model, which can be used for a wide range of medium porosity and fluid rheological parameters. While the dimensionless mobility is, in general, a function of the Carreau number and the medium porosity, our results show that for porosities less than ɛ≃0.65, the dimensionless mobility becomes independent of the Carreau number and the mobility function exhibits power-law characteristics as a result of the high shear rates at the pore scale. We derive a suitable criterion for determining the flow regime and the transition from a constant viscosity Newtonian response to a power-law regime in terms of a new Carreau number rescaled with a dimensionless function which incorporates the medium porosity and the arrangement of fibers.

  19. Mobility of power-law and Carreau fluids through fibrous media.

    PubMed

    Shahsavari, Setareh; McKinley, Gareth H

    2015-12-01

    The flow of generalized Newtonian fluids with a rate-dependent viscosity through fibrous media is studied, with a focus on developing relationships for evaluating the effective fluid mobility. Three methods are used here: (i) a numerical solution of the Cauchy momentum equation with the Carreau or power-law constitutive equations for pressure-driven flow in a fiber bed consisting of a periodic array of cylindrical fibers, (ii) an analytical solution for a unit cell model representing the flow characteristics of a periodic fibrous medium, and (iii) a scaling analysis of characteristic bulk parameters such as the effective shear rate, the effective viscosity, geometrical parameters of the system, and the fluid rheology. Our scaling analysis yields simple expressions for evaluating the transverse mobility functions for each model, which can be used for a wide range of medium porosity and fluid rheological parameters. While the dimensionless mobility is, in general, a function of the Carreau number and the medium porosity, our results show that for porosities less than ɛ≃0.65, the dimensionless mobility becomes independent of the Carreau number and the mobility function exhibits power-law characteristics as a result of the high shear rates at the pore scale. We derive a suitable criterion for determining the flow regime and the transition from a constant viscosity Newtonian response to a power-law regime in terms of a new Carreau number rescaled with a dimensionless function which incorporates the medium porosity and the arrangement of fibers. PMID:26764809

  20. Mobility of power-law and Carreau fluids through fibrous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahsavari, Setareh; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2015-12-01

    The flow of generalized Newtonian fluids with a rate-dependent viscosity through fibrous media is studied, with a focus on developing relationships for evaluating the effective fluid mobility. Three methods are used here: (i) a numerical solution of the Cauchy momentum equation with the Carreau or power-law constitutive equations for pressure-driven flow in a fiber bed consisting of a periodic array of cylindrical fibers, (ii) an analytical solution for a unit cell model representing the flow characteristics of a periodic fibrous medium, and (iii) a scaling analysis of characteristic bulk parameters such as the effective shear rate, the effective viscosity, geometrical parameters of the system, and the fluid rheology. Our scaling analysis yields simple expressions for evaluating the transverse mobility functions for each model, which can be used for a wide range of medium porosity and fluid rheological parameters. While the dimensionless mobility is, in general, a function of the Carreau number and the medium porosity, our results show that for porosities less than ɛ ≃0.65 , the dimensionless mobility becomes independent of the Carreau number and the mobility function exhibits power-law characteristics as a result of the high shear rates at the pore scale. We derive a suitable criterion for determining the flow regime and the transition from a constant viscosity Newtonian response to a power-law regime in terms of a new Carreau number rescaled with a dimensionless function which incorporates the medium porosity and the arrangement of fibers.

  1. Method for distributing chemicals through a fibrous material using low-headspace dielectric heating

    DOEpatents

    Banerjee, Sujit; Malcolm, Earl

    2002-01-01

    System and method for diffusing chemicals rapidly and evenly into and through fibrous material, such as wood. Chemicals are introduced into the fibrous material by applying the chemicals to the fibrous material. After treating the fibrous material with the chemicals, the fibrous material is maintained under low-headspace conditions. Thermal energy or dielectric heating, such as microwave or radio frequency energy, is applied to the fibrous material. As a result, the chemicals are able to distribute evenly and quickly throughout the fibrous material.

  2. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOEpatents

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P.; Matthews, Francis T.

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  3. Design concepts for bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Peterson, G. R.; Beard, B.; Dunlop, E. H.

    1986-01-01

    Microbial food sources are becoming viable and more efficient alternatives to conventional food sources especially in the context of Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) in space habitats. Since bioreactor designs for terrestrial operation will not readily apply to conditions of microgravity, there is an urgent need to learn about the differences. These differences cannot be easily estimated due to the complex nature of the mass transport and mixing mechanisms in fermenters. Therefore, a systematic and expeditious experimental program must be undertaken to obtain the engineering data necessary to lay down the foundations of designing bioreactors for microgravity. Two bioreactor design concepts presented represent two dissimilar approaches to grappling with the absence of gravity in space habitats and deserve to be tested for adoption as important components of the life support function aboard spacecrafts, space stations and other extra-terrestrial habitats.

  4. A nanoliter microfluidic serial dilution bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gu, Guo-Yue; Lee, Yi-Wei; Chiang, Chih-Chung; Yang, Ya-Tang

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial culture is a basic technique in both fundamental and applied microbiology. The excessive reagent consumption and laborious maintenance of bulk bioreactors for microbial culture have prompted the development of miniaturized on-chip bioreactors. With the minimal choice of two compartments (N = 2) and discrete time, periodic dilution steps, we realize a microfluidic bioreactor that mimics macroscopic serial dilution transfer culture. This device supports automated, long-term microbial cultures with a nanoliter-scale working volume and real-time monitoring of microbial populations at single-cell resolution. Because of the high surface-to-volume ratio, the device also operates as an effective biofilm-flow reactor to support cogrowth of planktonic and biofilm populations. We expect that such devices will open opportunities in many fields of microbiology.

  5. Reflective Coating on Fibrous Insulation for Reduced Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, Derek D.; Prasad, B. Durga; Glass, David E.; Wiedemann, Karl E.

    1997-01-01

    Radiative heat transfer through fibrous insulation used in thermal protection systems (TPS) is significant at high temperatures (1200 C). Decreasing the radiative heat transfer through the fibrous insulation can thus have a major impact on the insulating ability of the TPS. Reflective coatings applied directly to the individual fibers in fibrous insulation should decrease the radiative heat transfer leading to an insulation with decreased effective thermal conductivity. Coatings with high infrared reflectance have been developed using sol-gel techniques. Using this technique, uniform coatings can be applied to fibrous insulation without an appreciable increase in insulation weight or density. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, and ellipsometry have been performed to evaluate coating performance.

  6. General Information about Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone

    MedlinePlus

    ... Histiocytoma of Bone Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone ... the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  7. Synchronous abdominal and thoracic solitary fibrous tumour: a case report.

    PubMed

    Maassarani, F; Leroy, C; Dekeuleneer, R

    2010-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumours (SFT), described for the first time by Klemperer and Rabin in 1931, are uncommon mesenchymal tumours that have been known to mainly affect the pleura and mediastinum. More recently, solitary fibrous tumours affecting other anatomical sites are being increasingly reported. Clinically, these tumours are asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally. Diagnosis is established at pathology by positive staining for CD34. Their prognosis depends on complete surgical resection and lack of histological signs of malignancy. We report here the case of a 63-year-old woman with double localisation of malignant solitary fibrous tumour who underwent complete removal of her lesions. To the best of our knowledge, this observation is the first description of a primary solitary fibrous tumour totally asymptomatic but already metastatic.

  8. Solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney. Case report.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Suheyla Uyar; Ahiskali, Rengin; Kaya, Handan; Demir, Aslan; Ilker, Yalcin

    2007-03-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are rare spindle cell neoplasms usually arising in the pleura. They have, however, also been reported at extrapleural locations. Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the kidney is rare. Despite its rarity, histological diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor is crucial to avoid misdiagnosis with other more aggressive tumors arising in the kidney. We report a solitary fibrous tumor of the left kidney that presented as a malignant tumor in a 51-year-old woman, and include clinical and radiographic findings. The tumor was well circumscribed and composed of spindle cells in a collagenous stroma. Immunohistochemistry showed reactivity for vimentin, CD 34, BCL-2 protein and CD99. Immunohistochemical stains for cytokeratin, S-100, desmin, alpha-smooth muscle actin and HMB-45 were negative. A diagnosis of SFT was made based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry.

  9. Pancreatic solitary fibrous tumor causing ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Keigo; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Felizola, Saulo J A; Morimoto, Ryo; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Takanami, Kentaro; Katakami, Hideki; Hirota, Seiichi; Takeda, Yoshiyu; Meguro-Horike, Makiko; Horike, Shin-Ichi; Unno, Michiaki; Sasano, Hironobu

    2016-11-15

    Solitary fibrous tumors occasionally present with hypoglycemia because of the excessive release of insulin-like growth factor II. We report the first case of pancreatic solitary fibrous tumor causing ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome. An 82-year-old Japanese man presented with lower limb edema, uncontrolled hypertension, hypokalemia, and baseline hypercortisolism. Distal pancreatectomy was performed after the clinical diagnosis of a neuroendocrine tumor with ectopic secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone. On histological examination, the tumor showed spindle cells in a fascicular arrangement. The diagnosis of the solitary fibrous tumor was confirmed by the identification of the NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene and positive immuno-histochemical staining for STAT6 and CD34. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, mRNA that encoded proopiomelanocortin, precursor of adrenocorticotropic hormone, was detected. Proopiomelanocortin production through the demethylation of the promoter region Domain IV was detected. Pancreatic solitary fibrous tumors represent a new cause of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome. PMID:27585487

  10. Localised fibrous mesothelioma arising in an intralobar pulmonary sequestration.

    PubMed Central

    Paksoy, N; Demircan, A; Altiner, M; Artvinli, M

    1992-01-01

    A localised fibrous mesothelioma arising from an intralobar lung sequestration occurred in a 64 year old Turkish woman. This appears to be the first report of a mesothelioma occurring within a pulmonary sequestration. Images PMID:1481189

  11. Failure Analysis and Mechanisms of Failure of Fibrous Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K. (Compiler); Shuart, M. J. (Compiler); Starnes, J. H., Jr. (Compiler); Williams, J. G. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    The state of the art of failure analysis and current design practices, especially as applied to the use of fibrous composite materials in aircraft structures is discussed. Deficiencies in these technologies are identified, as are directions for future research.

  12. A case report of an intracaval extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumour

    PubMed Central

    Tiong, HY; Wang, S; Madhavan, K

    2013-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumours are infrequent neoplasms based in the pleura that are predominantly benign with malignant pathology and behaviour described in 10–36% of cases. Extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumours (ESFTs) have been considered separately to their intrathoracic counterparts and comprise a third of all solitary fibrous tumours. The extrathoracic location was identified as an adverse prognostic factor for local recurrence but not for metastatic disease. So far, there have not been any reports of solitary fibrous tumours demonstrating caval infiltration. We present a case of a benign ESFT infiltrating into the perirenal inferior vena cava. Together with extrauterine leiomyomas, ESFTs should also be considered as a differential diagnosis for the rare benign lesions invading the inferior vena cava. PMID:23676804

  13. Microbial biosafety of pilot-scale bioreactor treating MTBE and TBA-contaminated drinking water supply

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Radomir; Klemme, David A.; Scow, Kate; Hristova, Krassimira

    2012-01-01

    A pilot-scale sand-based fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) was utilized to treat both methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) from a contaminated aquifer. To evaluate the potential for re-use of the treated water, we tested for a panel of water quality indicator microorganisms and potential waterborne pathogens including total coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolytica and Mycobacterium avium in both influent and treated waters from the bioreactor. Total bacteria decreased during FBBR treatment. E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., C. jejuni, V. cholerae, Y. enterocolytica and M. avium were not detected in aquifer water or bioreactor treated water samples. For those pathogens detected, including total coliforms, L. pneumophila and A. hydrophila, numbers were usually lower in treated water than influent samples, suggesting removal during treatment. The detection of particular bacterial species reflected their presence or absence in the influent waters. PMID:22321859

  14. Two-stage bioreactor to destroy chlorinated and nonchlorinated organic groundwater contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Folsom, B.R.; Bohner, A.K.; Burick, T.; Guarini, W.J.

    1995-12-31

    Both chlorinated and nonchlorinated volatile organic compounds are found as common contaminants of groundwater across the nation. Two field-pilot bioreactors successfully treated contaminated groundwater at Robins Air Force Base (AFB). The fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) effectively removed >97% of the 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB) and >95% of the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene(s) (BTEX) from more than 210,000 gal of contaminated groundwater. The FBR removed 84% of the trichloroethylene (TCE), also found in this groundwater, based on a total mass balance beyond carbon adsorption. Enhanced operational stability was demonstrated for the gas-phase reactor (GPR) with 10 months of continuous operation in the laboratory and 2 months in the field. TCE concentrations in contaminated air entering the pilot GPR were reduced by 75% on average. Capital and operating costs for the FBR system were compared to other treatment options including ultraviolet (UV)-peroxidation, air stripping with carbon adsorption, and wet carbon adsorption. GPR economics were compared to carbon adsorption at two TCE concentrations. These bioreactor systems provide economical, destructive technologies for treating either contaminated water or contaminated air originating from air stripping, air sparging, or soil vapor extraction operations and will be effective remedial options at many sites.

  15. Comparison of microbial communities in pilot-scale bioreactors treating Bayer liquor organic wastes.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, Naomi J; Plumb, Jason J; Tilbury, Amanda L; Nyeboer, Hugh J; Sumich, Matt E; McKinnon, Anthony J; Franzmann, Peter D; Sutton, David C; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2011-04-01

    Western Australian bauxite deposits are naturally associated with high amounts of humic and fulvic materials that co-digest during Bayer processing. Sodium oxalate remains soluble and can co-precipitate with aluminium hydroxide unless it is removed. Removal of sodium oxalate requires a secondary crystallisation step followed by storage. Bioreactors treating oxalate wastes have been developed as economically and environmentally viable treatment alternatives but the microbial ecology and physiology of these treatment processes are poorly understood. Analysis of samples obtained from two pilot-scale moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) and one aerobic suspended growth bioreactor (ASGB) using polymerase chain reaction- denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA genes showed that members of the α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria subgroups were prominent in all three processes. Despite differing operating conditions, the composition of the microbial communities in the three reactors was conserved. MBBR2 was the only configuration that showed complete degradation of oxalate from the influent and the ASGB had the highest degradation rate of all three configurations. Several strains of the genus Halomonas were isolated from the bioreactors and their morphology and physiology was also determined.

  16. Bioreactor and methods for producing synchronous cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmstetter, Charles E. (Inventor); Thornton, Maureen (Inventor); Gonda, Steve (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Apparatus and methods are directed to a perfusion culture system in which a rotating bioreactor is used to grow cells in a liquid culture medium, while these cells are attached to an adhesive-treated porous surface. As a result of this arrangement and its rotation, the attached cells divide, with one cell remaining attached to the substrate, while the other cell, a newborn cell is released. These newborn cells are of approximately the same age, that are collected upon leaving the bioreactor. The populations of newborn cells collected are of synchronous and are minimally, if at all, disturbed metabolically.

  17. Development of a Space Bioreactor using Microtechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arquint, Philippe; Boillat, Marc A.; deRooij, Nico F.; Jeanneret, Sylvain; vanderSchoot, Bart H.; Bechler, Birgitt; Cogoli, Augusto; Walther, Isabelle; Gass, Volker; Ivorra, Marie-Therese

    1995-01-01

    A miniature bio-reactor for the cultivation of cells aboard Spacelab is presented. Yeast cells are grown in a 3 milliliter reactor chamber. A supply of fresh nutrient medium is provided by a piezo-electric silicon micro-pump. In the reactor, pH, temperature, and redox potential are monitored and the pH is regulated at a constant value. The complete instrument is fitted in a standard experiment container of 63 x 63 x 85 mm. The bioreactor was used on the IML-2 mission in July 1994 and is being refurbished for a reflight in the spring of 1996.

  18. Transport and kinetics in sandwiched membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Y S; Vieth, W R; Matsuura, T

    1991-01-01

    A bioreactor in which living yeast cells are sandwiched between an ultrafiltration membrane and a reverse osmosis membrane was constructed, and experiments were performed for the conversion of substrate glucose to product ethanol. A set of equations that include both transport through a series of barrier layers and bioreaction rate were developed to predict the performance of the sandwich bioreactor. The above equations were solved by using numerical values for the transport parameter and the bioreaction rate constant, and the results are compared with the experimental data.

  19. Monostotic Fibrous Dysplasia of the Rib: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevappa, Asha; Patel, Sapna; Ravishankar, Sunila; Manjunath, Gubbanna V.

    2012-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is a noninherited bone disease in which abnormal differentiation of osteoblasts leads to replacement of normal marrow and cancellous bone by immature bone with fibrous stroma. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia accounts for 28% in the ribs. It is often asymptomatic and incidentally detected on radiographs. As with many bone abnormalities, it can be superimposed by the formation of aneurysmal bone cysts. We report a case of a 70-year-old lady who presented with swelling on the chest wall of 20-ear duration and sudden increase in size for 8 months. Radiologically, X-ray and CT scan showed an expansible lesion of the medullary cavity with a ground-glass centre and thinning of cortex of the 5th rib. The resected lesion was a firm, well-defined solid, grey-white expansile mass replacing the medullary cavity. Histopathologically, benign fibrous spindle areas with disorganized irregular bony trabeculae were seen. Hemorrhagic spaces lined by osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells were also noted. The diagnosis was fibrous dysplasia with aneurysmal bone cyst changes. Although fibrous dysplasia with aneurysmal bone cyst is rare, it should be taken into account in differential diagnosis of the rapidly growing solitary rib lesion. PMID:23304592

  20. Copper removal using a heavy-metal resistant microbial consortium in a fixed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Isis E Mejias; Machado-Santelli, Glaucia; Sakata, Solange Kazumi; Ferreira Filho, Sidney Seckler; Rodrigues, Debora Frigi

    2014-10-01

    A heavy-metal resistant bacterial consortium was obtained from a contaminated river in São Paulo, Brazil and utilized for the design of a fixed-bed column for the removal of copper. Prior to the design of the fixed-bed bioreactor, the copper removal capacity by the live consortium and the effects of copper in the consortium biofilm formation were investigated. The Langmuir model indicated that the sorption capacity of the consortium for copper was 450.0 mg/g dry cells. The biosorption of copper into the microbial biomass was attributed to carboxyl and hydroxyl groups present in the microbial biomass. The effect of copper in planktonic cells to form biofilm under copper rich conditions was investigated with confocal microscopy. The results revealed that biofilm formed after 72 h exposure to copper presented a reduced thickness by 57% when compared to the control; however 84% of the total cells were still alive. The fixed-bed bioreactor was set up by growing the consortium biofilm on granular activated carbon (GAC) and analyzed for copper removal. The biofilm-GAC (BGAC) column retained 45% of the copper mass present in the influent, as opposed to 17% in the control column that contained GAC only. These findings suggest that native microbial communities in sites contaminated with heavy metals can be immobilized in fixed-bed bioreactors and used to treat metal contaminated water. PMID:24952346

  1. Practice Hospital Bed Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bed? Todd says that there is no standard definition for hospital beds, a fact that consumers shopping ... in retail stores that don’t meet the definition of medical devices under the law, but which ...

  2. Enuresis (Bed-Wetting)

    MedlinePlus

    ... their development. Bed-wetting is more common among boys than girls. What causes bed-wetting? A number of things ... valves in boys or in the ureter in girls or boys Abnormalities in the spinal cord A small bladder ...

  3. Kinematics of fibrous vein growth: insights from stable isotopes and trace element data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, M. P.; Lefticariu, L.; Romanek, C.; Perry, E. C.

    2005-12-01

    Veins are important recorders of thermal, hydrological, structural, and geochemical conditions during deformation. Fibrous or bladed veins are particularly useful, because the mineral fibers are believed to grow continuously or episodically over what may be a significant geologic time period. Thus, individual mineral fibers document the complex, dynamic changes occurring coeval with vein growth and mineral precipitation. Geochemical and structural analyses have been used to constrain the kinematic history of a bed-parallel fibrous calcite vein from the Upper Jurassic La Casita Formation, Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico. The La Casita Formation, correlative with the Smackover Formation of the northern US Gulf Coast, consists of shale and is part of a sedimentary succession that unconformably overlies evaporites of the Minas Viejas Formation. The fibrous vein examined in this study was taken from the backlimb of the frontal fold of the Monterrey salient near Saltillo. Optical petrographic observation reveals that the calcite fibers have blade or tapering lath shapes with widths from 0.1-1.0 mm. Other minerals present in the vein are pyrite, gypsum, bitumen, and iron oxides. High-resolution, closely spaced stable isotope and elemental analyses were carried out along five traverses across the vein width. The d18O values vary in a narrow range, with an average value of +20.8 permil (VSMOW). The d13C values increase systematically along the fibers, from the walls of the vein toward the suture plane. In all five traverses, the d13C increase is relatively constant, with lower values next to the vein wall (+1.2 to +1.6 permil PDB) and higher values along the suture line (+3.6 to +4.1 permil PDB). The vein minerals, fibrous calcite and accessory pyrite, are interpreted to be the products of high temperature reactions between light hydrocarbons and dissolved sulfate, known as thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Reactants such as light hydrocarbons and products such as CO2

  4. A multicommutated tester of bioreactors for flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Pokrzywnicka, Marta; Kamiński, Jacek; Michalec, Michał; Koncki, Robert; Tymecki, Łukasz

    2016-11-01

    Enzymes are often used in the modern analytical procedures allowing selective recognition and conversion of target analytes into easily detected products. In flow analysis systems, enzymes are predominantly applied in the immobilized forms as flow-through bioreactors. In this research the multicommutated flow analysis (MCFA) system for evaluation and comparison of analytical parameters of bioreactors has been developed. The MCFA manifold allows simultaneous testing up to four bioreactors, but if necessary their number can be easily increased. The system allows comparison of several parameters of tested bioreactors including activity, repeatability, reproducibility, operational and storage stability. The performance of developed bioreactor tester is presented using urea-urease model system based on plastic open-tubular bioreactor with covalently immobilized enzyme. Product of enzymatic reaction is detected using two different chemical methods and by dedicated optoelectronic ammonium detectors. Moreover, the utility of developed MCFA manifold for evaluation of other enzyme bioreactors is demonstrated. PMID:27591609

  5. Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Jeannelyn S; Wang, Huamin; Bhosale, Priya R; Evans, Harry L; Abraham, Susan C

    2015-08-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) arising in the pancreas is exceedingly rare, with only 11 cases reported in the English literature. All cases described thus far have exhibited benign histology. We report the first case of malignant SFT of the pancreas. The patient was a 52-year-old woman who presented with obstructive jaundice and a 15-cm pancreatic head mass. The mass showed areas with typical histologic features for SFT including small fibroblastlike cells arranged in the well-characterized "patternless pattern" of architecture, hemangiopericytomalike vessels, areas with dense collagen and infrequent mitoses (0-2 per 10 high-power fields [HPFs]). In addition, multiple areas with an overtly sarcomatous morphology were present, containing large spindle and epithelioid cells with nuclear pleomorphism, marked cellularity, up to17 mitoses per 10 HPFs, and necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for CD34 and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in both benign and malignant components and showed strong, diffuse p53 and p16 staining in the malignant component. At last follow-up (40 months), the patient was alive and well without evidence of disease. However, given that the presence of a malignant component in extrapancreatic SFT has been associated with recurrence/metastasis and death, complete surgical resection and close long-term follow-up is required.

  6. [Solitary fibrous tumor of the epicardium].

    PubMed

    Flemming, P; Maschek, H; Werner, M; Kreft, A; Graeter, T; Georgii, A

    1996-03-01

    A giant Solitary Fibrous Tumor (SFT) arising in the pericardium is described. A 53 year old woman was suspected to have a lung tumor and thoracotomy was performed. Intraoperatively the child-head sized mass was found to be localized in the pericardial sac. The histopathological interpretation of a small wedge-biopsy was 'endothelioma of uncertain malignancy' and heart-transplantation was performed two months later. The patient died of postoperative infection. Post mortem examination could exclude tumor rest or metastasis. The explanted heart revealed a large bulk of 2800 grams arising from the epicardium of the left chamber and enveloping the heart without invading the underlying myocardium. The histopathological pattern varied between cell-rich and -poor fibromatous areas and well capillarized endothelioma-like zones. Immunohistochemistry revealed positive reactions with monoclonal antibodies against Vimentin and CD 34 and no reactions against Cytokeratins and Faktor VIII. This pattern was confirmed in 7 SFT's of the pleura from our archives. A second control group of 7 mesotheliomas was positive for cytokeratins and vimentin but not for CD 34 and Faktor VIII. Diagnosis of SFT might be difficult because of its variability in histopathology, sometimes mimicking a hemangiopericytoma or endothelioma. Recent reports of tumor localizations devoiding serosal surfaces illustrate the diagnostic and histogenetic dilemma of this tumor. The differentiation of SFT from mesothelioma and endothelioma can be achieved by immunophenotyping including CD 34.

  7. A large retroperitoneal malignant solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Yoh, Tomoaki; Sata, Ritsuko; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Wada, Seidai; Nakamura, Yuya; Kato, Tatsushi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Okamura, Ryuji

    2014-01-01

    We report on a large, retroperitoneal, malignant, solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) with high proliferation activity. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our department complaining of a palpable mass. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large retroperitoneal tumor occupying the entire abdominal cavity. A laparotomy was performed for diagnosis and treatment, which revealed a tumor in the retroperitoneum but with no invasion to the surrounding organs, thereby allowing safe macroscopic excision. Histologically, the tumor was composed of spindle-shaped cells with patternless pattern and a hemangiopericytomatous appearance. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining was positive for CD34, vimentin, Bcl-2, and CD99 and negative for desmin, S-100p, and smooth muscle actin (AMA). The tumor exhibited high cellularity, moderate mitotic activity, pleomorphism, necrosis, and hemorrhagic changes. In addition, the Ki-67 labeling index was 37%. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of malignant SFT with high proliferation activity. Subsequently, adjuvant doxorubicin plus ifosfamide chemotherapy was performed. No signs of recurrence were observed 12 months after the surgery.

  8. Solitary fibrous tumor arising in gastric serosa.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Ae; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jeen, Yoon Mi; Kie, Jeong-Hae; Chung, Jae-Joon; Yun, Seong Hyeon

    2004-06-01

    The solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of peritoneum, especially arising in gastric serosa, is extremely rare. A case of SFT arising in gastric serosa of a 70-year-old man is reported. On abdominal computed tomography scan, an approximate 8.0 x 5.3 cm-sized solid mass with multiple nodular calcifications was noted in the omentomesentery of right upper abdomen, which was abutting to the gastric antral wall. At laparotomy the tumor was tightly attached to the gastric serosa and was completely excised by wedge resection of the stomach. The cut surfaces of the tumor were pale brown to pale yellow, firm, with multifocal yellowish, gritty, stony-hard nodules and cystic changes. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of mildly cellular benign-appearing spindle-shaped cells and bands of hyalinized collagen in varying proportions. The tumor revealed predominantly sclerosing pattern with extensive hyalinized fibrosis and multifocal dystrophic calcifications. The tumor was mainly located at the gastric serosa and subserosa, and its growth pattern was expansile with entrapping of muscularis propria and submucosa in the periphery of the tumor. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were diffusely positive for CD34 and vimentin but negative for cytokeratin, desmin, smooth muscle actin, CD99 and c-kit. Although its occurrence is rare, SFT should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mesenchymal tumors of the stomach.

  9. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the meninges.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kumiko; Tada, Toyohiro; Takahashi, Satoru; Sugiyama, Naotake; Inaguma, Shingo; Takahashi, Seishiro S; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2004-05-01

    Increasing numbers of solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) in the meninges have been reported since this entity was first recognized. While most cases previously reported were considered to be benign, the malignant potential of extrathoracic SFTs has not been excluded. The authors report a rare case of a meningeal SFT with malignant behavior occurring in a Japanese female patient, initially resected when she was 44 years old and recurring in the same place four times during a 26-year follow-up period. A metastatic tumor to the right lung arose 25 years after the resection of the first meningeal tumor and focal invasion into the cerebellum was also observed with her last (5th) meningeal tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis showed all tumors to be diffusely positive for CD34 and negative for EMA, with a so-called "patternless" histological pattern, featuring thin collagen fibers between tumor cells. A focal "staghorn" vascular pattern was also observed. Ki67 (MIB-1) labeling indices and mitosis rates were 3.1+/-1.2% and less than 1/10 high power fields (HPF) in the first meningeal tumor and 16.1+/-6.4% and 6/10HPF in the last (5th) one, respectively. Thus, the present case suggests that meningeal SFTs possess malignant potential so that careful long-term follow up is required.

  10. An intracranial malignant solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chan-Young; Han, Seong-Rok; Yee, Gi-Taek; Joo, Mee

    2011-04-01

    Intracranial malignant solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is very rare. It was identified in a 39-year-old female patient who underwent malignant transformation over 6 months. MRI revealed an 8 × 5 × 6 cm mass with heterogenous strong enhancement in the left occipital lobe. Histologic findings and immunophenotype (positive for CD34, bcl-2 and vimentin, and negative for epithelial membrane antigen or S100 protein) of the primary tumor were typical of SFT. However, there was a focal area (<10% of tumor volume) showing hypercellularity, nuclear pleomorphism and increased Ki-67 labeling index (LI) of 10% (average, 1%). At the second operation, the recurrent tumor revealed full-blown histologic features of malignant SFT, such as infiltrative brain invasion, marked nuclear pleomorphism, frequent mitotic figures (15/10 high power fields), and high Ki-67 LI (25%). The presence of atypical histologic finding or increased Ki-67 LI in the typical SFT, although it is focal, needs to be mentioned in the diagnosis and also may require more aggressive surgical management.

  11. Solitary fibrous tumor of the vagina.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Y; Nabeshima, K; Koita, H; Yamanaka, M; Koono, M

    2000-04-01

    The solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare tumor that most commonly arises in the pleura. Recent evidence has indicated that this tumor originates from mesenchymal, probably fibroblastic, cells and is not restricted to the pleura. However, its occurrence in the female genital tract is extremely rare. We report a case of primary SFT that originated from the vagina in a 34-year-old female. It was a pedunculated polypoid tumor and occurred at the site of scar tissue, caused by laceration during her last labor 7 years previously. Histologically, the tumor was predominantly composed of a random proliferation of spindle cells, intimately admixed with collagen. Immunohistochemically, the cells were strongly positive for CD34, vimentin and bcl-2, but were negative for S-100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, smooth muscle actin, desmin, CD68, cytokeratins and epithelial membrane antigen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a primary vaginal SFT in the English literature. Our report suggests to include SFT in the differential diagnosis of a spindle cell neoplasm originating from the vagina.

  12. [A case of retroperitoneal solitary fibrous tumor].

    PubMed

    Anchi, Takashi; Tamura, Kenji; Inoue, Keiji; Fukata, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Moriki, Toshiaki; Shuin, Taro

    2009-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a common neoplasm of the pleura and rarely arises from the retroperitoneal space. We report a case of retroperitoneal SFT. A 54-year-old woman was admitted to the department of dermatology in our hospital for examination and treatment of malignant melanoma of the right lower leg. Computerized tomography (CT) showed the left adrenal mass measuring 6.0 x 4.5 x 10 cm. Because the tumor was thought to be left adrenal tumor or left adrenal metastasis of the malignant melanoma, she admitted to our department. Left radical adrenalectomy was performed. The histological examination of the specimen revealed that the spindle or oval cells proliferated patternless with hyalinized collagen cells and there were few mitotic figures. The tumor was not connected to the adrenal gland. The immunohistochemical examination showed that the tumor cells were diffusely positive for CD34, bcl-2 and vimentin. According to these findings, we diagnosed SFT arising from the retroperitoneum. At 5 years follow up she had no evidence of local recurrence and no distant metastasis.

  13. Solitary fibrous tumour of the chest wall.

    PubMed

    Mohtarrudin, N; Nor Hanipah, Z; Mohd Dusa, N

    2016-04-01

    Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs) are rare tumours characterized by patternless spindle cells with haemangiopericytoma-like vascular spaces. Previously the tumours have been classified as haemangiopericytoma, an entity that is now considered obsolete. We report a case of extrapleural SFT arising in the soft tissue of the chest wall. The patient was a 31-year-old Malay lady presenting with a mobile swelling of the right chest wall for more than five years. During excision the tumour was noted to be well-circumscribed and yellowish in colour, giving an impression of lipoma. Microscopically, the tumour had patternless architecture, characterized by hypocellular and hypercellular areas. It was composed of uniform, spindle-shaped cells displaying oval nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli, pale cytoplasm and indistinct cell borders. The mitotic count was 2 per 10 HPF. Branching, medium-sized thin-walled blood vessels in a haemangiopericytomatous growth pattern, some with hyalinised wall were identified. The neoplastic cells were immunoreactive to CD99 and CD34 and were non-immunoreactive to Desmin, Smooth Muscle Actin, S100 protein and EMA. We elucidate the challenges in diagnosing this tumour in this unusual location.

  14. Solitary fibrous tumor of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Hoon; Cha, Kyung Bin; Choi, Young Deuk; Cho, Nam Hoon

    2004-06-30

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a distinct spindle cell tumor arising mainly in the pleura, however, SFT of extra-pleural sites had been reported. To our knowledge, five cases of the urinary bladder SFT had been reported. We have recently experienced a case of SFT of the urinary bladder in a 56-year- old man who was admitted to the hospital with a 4-month history of voiding difficulty, frequency, and residual urine sensation. A computerized tomography scan revealed a 12cm sized intravesical mass. The mass was marginally excised under the impression of it being a benign spindle cell tumor by pre-operative needle biopsy. On gross examination, the mass was multinodular, creamy white, and the cut surface was fibrotic with a rubbery consistency. Microscopic examination revealed haphazardly arranged spindle cells with a lace-like deposition of inter- and pericellular collagen. Areas of increased cellularity show nuclear atypia and occasional mitoses (2-3/10HPF). The immunohistochemical staining revealed an intense CD34 and bcl-2 immunoreactivity. Although the exact biologic behavior of these tumors has not been clarified, most of the reported cases have undergone a benign clinical course.

  15. Hierarchically engineered fibrous scaffolds for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sachot, Nadège; Castaño, Oscar; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A.; Engel, Elisabeth; Planell, Josep A.

    2013-01-01

    Surface properties of biomaterials play a major role in the governing of cell functionalities. It is well known that mechanical, chemical and nanotopographic cues, for example, influence cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we present a novel coating protocol to produce hierarchically engineered fibrous scaffolds with tailorable surface characteristics, which mimic bone extracellular matrix. Based on the sol–gel method and a succession of surface treatments, hollow electrospun polylactic acid fibres were coated with a silicon–calcium–phosphate bioactive organic–inorganic glass. Compared with pure polymeric fibres that showed a completely smooth surface, the coated fibres exhibited a nanostructured topography and greater roughness. They also showed improved hydrophilic properties and a Young's modulus sixfold higher than non-coated ones, while remaining fully flexible and easy to handle. Rat mesenchymal stem cells cultured on these fibres showed great cellular spreading and interactions with the material. This protocol can be transferred to other structures and glasses, allowing the fabrication of various materials with well-defined features. This novel approach represents therefore a valuable improvement in the production of artificial matrices able to direct stem cell fate through physical and chemical interactions. PMID:23985738

  16. Solitary fibrous tumour of the chest wall.

    PubMed

    Mohtarrudin, N; Nor Hanipah, Z; Mohd Dusa, N

    2016-04-01

    Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs) are rare tumours characterized by patternless spindle cells with haemangiopericytoma-like vascular spaces. Previously the tumours have been classified as haemangiopericytoma, an entity that is now considered obsolete. We report a case of extrapleural SFT arising in the soft tissue of the chest wall. The patient was a 31-year-old Malay lady presenting with a mobile swelling of the right chest wall for more than five years. During excision the tumour was noted to be well-circumscribed and yellowish in colour, giving an impression of lipoma. Microscopically, the tumour had patternless architecture, characterized by hypocellular and hypercellular areas. It was composed of uniform, spindle-shaped cells displaying oval nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli, pale cytoplasm and indistinct cell borders. The mitotic count was 2 per 10 HPF. Branching, medium-sized thin-walled blood vessels in a haemangiopericytomatous growth pattern, some with hyalinised wall were identified. The neoplastic cells were immunoreactive to CD99 and CD34 and were non-immunoreactive to Desmin, Smooth Muscle Actin, S100 protein and EMA. We elucidate the challenges in diagnosing this tumour in this unusual location. PMID:27126667

  17. Solitary fibrous tumour of the supraglottic larynx.

    PubMed

    Grammatica, A; Bolzoni Villaret, A; Ravanelli, M; Nicolai, P

    2016-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare, benign, mesenchymal neoplasm that usually arises in the pleura, but rarely involves other sites outside the serosal space (mediastinum, lung, liver, thyroid gland); larynx involvement is very rare with only sporadic cases reported in the literature. We report a case of SFT in a 41-year-old woman with supraglottic laryngeal invovlement; symptoms included dysphonia and mild odynophagia lasting 2 years, and fibre-optic laryngeal evaluation showed a sub-mucosal mass involving the left supraglottis and medial wall of the pyriform sinus. MRI represents the gold standard tool for differential diagnosis (with schwannoma, paraganglioma and haemangioma) and correct staging, while immunohistochemical and cytomorphologic analysis (bcl-2 and CD34 positivity in 90% of cases) is needed for definitive diagnosis. Surgery is the main treatment (endoscopic and open conservative technique), and its goal is a balance between safe oncological resection and good preservation of laryngeal functions; in this particular case an open laryngeal approach was scheduled due to the size of the tumour. Prognosis is good and in only a few cases (especially in pleural SFT) does the biological behaviour take a malignant course. PMID:27070539

  18. Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Jeannelyn S; Wang, Huamin; Bhosale, Priya R; Evans, Harry L; Abraham, Susan C

    2015-08-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) arising in the pancreas is exceedingly rare, with only 11 cases reported in the English literature. All cases described thus far have exhibited benign histology. We report the first case of malignant SFT of the pancreas. The patient was a 52-year-old woman who presented with obstructive jaundice and a 15-cm pancreatic head mass. The mass showed areas with typical histologic features for SFT including small fibroblastlike cells arranged in the well-characterized "patternless pattern" of architecture, hemangiopericytomalike vessels, areas with dense collagen and infrequent mitoses (0-2 per 10 high-power fields [HPFs]). In addition, multiple areas with an overtly sarcomatous morphology were present, containing large spindle and epithelioid cells with nuclear pleomorphism, marked cellularity, up to17 mitoses per 10 HPFs, and necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for CD34 and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in both benign and malignant components and showed strong, diffuse p53 and p16 staining in the malignant component. At last follow-up (40 months), the patient was alive and well without evidence of disease. However, given that the presence of a malignant component in extrapancreatic SFT has been associated with recurrence/metastasis and death, complete surgical resection and close long-term follow-up is required. PMID:26166470

  19. Preconcentration of phenols by fibrous sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, I.Yu.; Kuvaldina, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    Phenols are among the most toxic contaminants of natural and waste waters. There are standard procedures for determining them in low concentrations. However, the samples cannot be preserved at phenol concentrations of 50 {mu}g/L or lower, and the determination of phenols must be performed no later than 2 h after sampling. This is not always possible. Because of this, the preconcentration of phenols at the site of sampling, followed by analysis of the concentrate in a stationary chemical laboratory after a time, is of interest. The technique of phenol preconcentration with active carbon, recommended in the standard procedure, is unsuitable for these purposes because the adsorption and desorption of phenols are too prolonged. At the same time, a fibrous carbon sorbent provides for a high rate of adsorption and desorption of some organic substances (humic acids, fulvic acids, and surfactants) it can be easily regenerated and repeatedly used. In this work, the authors investigated the possibility of using two fibers-namely, a carbon fiber and a polyethylene-polyamine-modified polyacrylonitrile-based fiber (PAN-PEA) containing amino groups with different numbers of substituents-for the preconcentration of phenols.

  20. Solitary fibrous tumour of the supraglottic larynx.

    PubMed

    Grammatica, A; Bolzoni Villaret, A; Ravanelli, M; Nicolai, P

    2016-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare, benign, mesenchymal neoplasm that usually arises in the pleura, but rarely involves other sites outside the serosal space (mediastinum, lung, liver, thyroid gland); larynx involvement is very rare with only sporadic cases reported in the literature. We report a case of SFT in a 41-year-old woman with supraglottic laryngeal invovlement; symptoms included dysphonia and mild odynophagia lasting 2 years, and fibre-optic laryngeal evaluation showed a sub-mucosal mass involving the left supraglottis and medial wall of the pyriform sinus. MRI represents the gold standard tool for differential diagnosis (with schwannoma, paraganglioma and haemangioma) and correct staging, while immunohistochemical and cytomorphologic analysis (bcl-2 and CD34 positivity in 90% of cases) is needed for definitive diagnosis. Surgery is the main treatment (endoscopic and open conservative technique), and its goal is a balance between safe oncological resection and good preservation of laryngeal functions; in this particular case an open laryngeal approach was scheduled due to the size of the tumour. Prognosis is good and in only a few cases (especially in pleural SFT) does the biological behaviour take a malignant course.

  1. [Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the penis].

    PubMed

    Crisman, G; Margiotta, G; Calabresi, M; Discepoli, S; Leocata, P

    2015-07-01

    According to the most recent World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines a diagnosis of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) should be made only for lesions composed of tumor cells without evidence of a specific line of differentiation. This is therefore a diagnosis by exclusion which is why the name of undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) should be preferred. Soft tissue sarcomas currently have an incidence in all body regions of approximately 20 cases per 1 million inhabitants per year. Soft tissue tumors of the penis represent approximately 5 % of all penile tumors and the incidence of penile sarcomas is estimated to be approximately 0.6-1 case per 100,000 patients. Only seven cases have so far been reported in the literature. This article describes the case of a 61-year-old Caucasian male who presented with a painless mass sited in the upper part of the corpus cavernosa. An incisional biopsy with a subsequent investigation using an extensive immunohistochemical panel were performed and a high-grade undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma or pleomorphic storiform MFH was diagnosed. In addition to the case report a literature review is presented to elaborate the discussion on the differential diagnoses of these kinds of lesions.

  2. Treating Fibrous Insulation to Reduce Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinn, Alfred; Tarkanian, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    A chemical treatment reduces the convective and radiative contributions to the effective thermal conductivity of porous fibrous thermal-insulation tile. The net effect of the treatment is to coat the surfaces of fibers with a mixture of transition-metal oxides (TMOs) without filling the pores. The TMO coats reduce the cross-sectional areas available for convection while absorbing and scattering thermal radiation in the pores, thereby rendering the tile largely opaque to thermal radiation. The treatment involves a sol-gel process: A solution containing a mixture of transition-metal-oxide-precursor salts plus a gelling agent (e.g., tetraethylorthosilicate) is partially cured, then, before it visibly gels, is used to impregnate the tile. The solution in the tile is gelled, then dried, and then the tile is fired to convert the precursor salts to the desired mixed TMO phases. The amounts of the various TMOs ultimately incorporated into the tile can be tailored via the concentrations of salts in the solution, and the impregnation depth can be tailored via the viscosity of the solution and/or the volume of the solution relative to that of the tile. The amounts of the TMOs determine the absorption and scattering spectra.

  3. Making a Bed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Anthony; Stein, Sherman

    2005-01-01

    The origins of this paper lay in making beds by putting pieces of plywood on a frame: If beds need to be 4 feet 6 inches by 6 feet 3 inches, and plywood comes in 4-foot by 8-foot sheets, how should one cut the plywood to minimize waste (and have stable beds)? The problem is of course generalized.

  4. Small-scale, hydrogen-oxidizing-denitrifying bioreactor for treatment of nitrate-contaminated drinking water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Buckwalter, S.P.; Repert, D.A.; Miller, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    Nitrate removal by hydrogen-coupled denitrification was examined using flow-through, packed-bed bioreactors to develop a small-scale, cost effective system for treating nitrate-contaminated drinking-water supplies. Nitrate removal was accomplished using a Rhodocyclus sp., strain HOD 5, isolated from a sole-source drinking-water aquifer. The autotrophic capacity of the purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium made it particularly adept for this purpose. Initial tests used a commercial bioreactor filled with glass beads and countercurrent, non-sterile flow of an autotrophic, air-saturated, growth medium and hydrogen gas. Complete removal of 2 mM nitrate was achieved for more than 300 days of operation at a 2-h retention time. A low-cost hydrogen generator/bioreactor system was then constructed from readily available materials as a water treatment approach using the Rhodocyclus strain. After initial tests with the growth medium, the constructed system was tested using nitrate-amended drinking water obtained from fractured granite and sandstone aquifers, with moderate and low TDS loads, respectively. Incomplete nitrate removal was evident in both water types, with high-nitrite concentrations in the bioreactor output, due to a pH increase, which inhibited nitrite reduction. This was rectified by including carbon dioxide in the hydrogen stream. Additionally, complete nitrate removal was accomplished with wastewater-impacted surface water, with a concurrent decrease in dissolved organic carbon. The results of this study using three chemically distinct water supplies demonstrate that hydrogen-coupled denitrification can serve as the basis for small-scale remediation and that pilot-scale testing might be the next logical step.

  5. Small-scale, hydrogen-oxidizing-denitrifying bioreactor for treatment of nitrate-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard L; Buckwalter, Seanne P; Repert, Deborah A; Miller, Daniel N

    2005-05-01

    Nitrate removal by hydrogen-coupled denitrification was examined using flow-through, packed-bed bioreactors to develop a small-scale, cost effective system for treating nitrate-contaminated drinking-water supplies. Nitrate removal was accomplished using a Rhodocyclus sp., strain HOD 5, isolated from a sole-source drinking-water aquifer. The autotrophic capacity of the purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium made it particularly adept for this purpose. Initial tests used a commercial bioreactor filled with glass beads and countercurrent, non-sterile flow of an autotrophic, air-saturated, growth medium and hydrogen gas. Complete removal of 2 mM nitrate was achieved for more than 300 days of operation at a 2-h retention time. A low-cost hydrogen generator/bioreactor system was then constructed from readily available materials as a water treatment approach using the Rhodocyclus strain. After initial tests with the growth medium, the constructed system was tested using nitrate-amended drinking water obtained from fractured granite and sandstone aquifers, with moderate and low TDS loads, respectively. Incomplete nitrate removal was evident in both water types, with high-nitrite concentrations in the bioreactor output, due to a pH increase, which inhibited nitrite reduction. This was rectified by including carbon dioxide in the hydrogen stream. Additionally, complete nitrate removal was accomplished with wastewater-impacted surface water, with a concurrent decrease in dissolved organic carbon. The results of this study using three chemically distinct water supplies demonstrate that hydrogen-coupled denitrification can serve as the basis for small-scale remediation and that pilot-scale testing might be the next logical step.

  6. A call to expand regulation to all carcinogenic fibrous minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, F.; Steele, I.; Ambrosi, J.; Carbone, M.

    2013-05-01

    The regulatory term "asbestos" groups only the six fibrous minerals that were commercially used among approximately 400. The carcinogenicity of these six regulated minerals has been largely demonstrated and is related to fiber structure, fiber length/diameter ratio, and bio-persistence. From a public perception, the generic term "asbestos" refers to the fibrous minerals that cause asbestosis, mesothelioma and other cancers. However, other non-regulated fibrous minerals are potentially as dangerous as the regulatory asbestos because they share similar physical and chemical properties, epidemiological studies have demonstrated their relationship with asbestos-related diseases, and both in vitro and in vivo experiments have established the toxicity of these minerals. For example, the non-regulated asbestiform winchite and richterite minerals that contaminated the vermiculite mined from Libby, Montana, (USA) were associated with mesothelioma, lung cancer and asbestosis observed among the area's residents and miners. Many other examples of non-regulated carcinogenic fibrous minerals include, but are not limited to, antigorite, arfvedsonite, balangeroite, carlosturanite, erionite, fluoro-edenite, hornblende, mordenite, palygorskite, and sepiolite. To propose a regulatory definition that would provide protection from all carcinogenic fibers, we have conducted an interdisciplinary literature review to compare the characteristics of "asbestos" and of non-regulated mineral fibers that relate to carcinogenicity. We specifically studied two non-regulated fibrous minerals that are associated with asbestos-related diseases: the serpentine antigorite and the zeolite erionite. Both examples underscore the problem of regulation based on commercial, rather than scientific principles: 1) the occurrence of fibrous antigorite in materials used to pave roads has been correlated with high mesothelioma rates in New Caledonia. Antigorite was also the cause of asbestosis in Poland, and in

  7. Aggressive CD34-positive fibrous scalp lesion of childhood: extrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Ramdial, P K; Madaree, A

    2001-01-01

    Although solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) was originally described as a pleural tumor, an increasing number of extrapleural sites of SFTs have been documented. This has been attributed not only to the heightened awareness of the spectrum of histopathological features that characterizes SFTs but also to the recognition of the role of CD34 immunostaining in soft tissue tumors in general, and in SFTs in particular. Despite the large number of documented extrapleural SFTs in adults, cranial SFTs are rare, having been documented in the meninges, scalp, and infratemporal fossa. Extrapleural SFTs are, to date, an unrecognized entity in children. We document an aggressive fibrous scalp lesion in a 30-month-old female child that demonstrated features common to benign cranial fasciitis and SFT. However, based on bright, diffuse CD34 antigen immunopositivity, a diagnosis of SFT was made. The need to include the CD34 antigen stain in a panel of immunohistochemical markers used to assess spindle cell lesions of childhood is emphasized.

  8. Establishing Liver Bioreactors for In Vitro Research.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Sofia P; Costa, Rita; Sousa, Marcos F Q; Brito, Catarina; Alves, Paula M

    2015-01-01

    In vitro systems that can effectively model liver function for long periods of time are fundamental tools for preclinical research. Nevertheless, the adoption of in vitro research tools at the earliest stages of drug development has been hampered by the lack of culture systems that offer the robustness, scalability, and flexibility necessary to meet industry's demands. Bioreactor-based technologies, such as stirred tank bioreactors, constitute a feasible approach to aggregate hepatic cells and maintain long-term three-dimensional cultures. These three-dimensional cultures sustain the polarity, differentiated phenotype, and metabolic performance of human hepatocytes. Culture in computer-controlled stirred tank bioreactors allows the maintenance of physiological conditions, such as pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature, with minimal fluctuations. Moreover, by operating in perfusion mode, gradients of soluble factors and metabolic by-products can be established, aiming at resembling the in vivo microenvironment. This chapter provides a protocol for the aggregation and culture of hepatocyte spheroids in stirred tank bioreactors by applying perfusion mode for the long-term culture of human hepatocytes. This in vitro culture system is compatible with feeding high-throughput screening platforms for the assessment of drug elimination pathways, being a useful tool for toxicology research and drug development in the preclinical phase.

  9. Engineering stem cell niches in bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meimei; Liu, Ning; Zang, Ru; Li, Yan; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and amniotic fluid stem cells have the potential to be expanded and differentiated into various cell types in the body. Efficient differentiation of stem cells with the desired tissue-specific function is critical for stem cell-based cell therapy, tissue engineering, drug discovery and disease modeling. Bioreactors provide a great platform to regulate the stem cell microenvironment, known as “niches”, to impact stem cell fate decision. The niche factors include the regulatory factors such as oxygen, extracellular matrix (synthetic and decellularized), paracrine/autocrine signaling and physical forces (i.e., mechanical force, electrical force and flow shear). The use of novel bioreactors with precise control and recapitulation of niche factors through modulating reactor operation parameters can enable efficient stem cell expansion and differentiation. Recently, the development of microfluidic devices and microbioreactors also provides powerful tools to manipulate the stem cell microenvironment by adjusting flow rate and cytokine gradients. In general, bioreactor engineering can be used to better modulate stem cell niches critical for stem cell expansion, differentiation and applications as novel cell-based biomedicines. This paper reviews important factors that can be more precisely controlled in bioreactors and their effects on stem cell engineering. PMID:24179601

  10. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  11. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  12. Continuous-Flow Gas-Phase Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Donald L.; Trantolo, Debra J.

    1994-01-01

    Continuous-flow gas-phase bioreactors proposed for biochemical, food-processing, and related industries. Reactor contains one or more selected enzymes dehydrated or otherwise immobilized on solid carrier. Selected reactant gases fed into reactor, wherein chemical reactions catalyzed by enzyme(s) yield product biochemicals. Concept based on discovery that enzymes not necessarily placed in traditional aqueous environments to function as biocatalysts.

  13. Human cell culture in a space bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    Microgravity offers new ways of handling fluids, gases, and growing mammalian cells in efficient suspension cultures. In 1976 bioreactor engineers designed a system using a cylindrical reactor vessel in which the cells and medium are slowly mixed. The reaction chamber is interchangeable and can be used for several types of cell cultures. NASA has methodically developed unique suspension type cell and recovery apparatus culture systems for bioprocess technology experiments and production of biological products in microgravity. The first Space Bioreactor was designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small Bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle Middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption and control of low shear stress on cells.

  14. In Vivo Bioreactors for Mandibular Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Tatara, A.M.; Wong, M.E.; Mikos, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Large mandibular defects are difficult to reconstruct with good functional and aesthetic outcomes because of the complex geometry of craniofacial bone. While the current gold standard is free tissue flap transfer, this treatment is limited in fidelity by the shape of the harvested tissue and can result in significant donor site morbidity. To address these problems, in vivo bioreactors have been explored as an approach to generate autologous prefabricated tissue flaps. These bioreactors are implanted in an ectopic site in the body, where ossified tissue grows into the bioreactor in predefined geometries and local vessels are recruited to vascularize the developing construct. The prefabricated flap can then be harvested with vessels and transferred to a mandibular defect for optimal reconstruction. The objective of this review article is to introduce the concept of the in vivo bioreactor, describe important preclinical models in the field, summarize the human cases that have been reported through this strategy, and offer future directions for this exciting approach. PMID:25139360

  15. Denitrifying bioreactor clogging potential during wastewater treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemoheterotrophic denitrification technologies using woodchips as a solid carbon source (i.e., woodchip bioreactors) have been widely trialed for treatment of diffuse-source agricultural nitrogen pollution. There is growing interest in the use of this simple, relatively low-cost biological wastewat...

  16. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bed Bugs — Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control — Pesticides to Control Bed Bugs Bed Bug Information Clearinghouse ... Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems ...

  17. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of fibrous proteins.

    PubMed

    Millington, Keith R

    2012-09-01

    UV-visible diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra of the fibrous proteins wool and feather keratin, silk fibroin and bovine skin collagen are presented. Natural wool contains much higher levels of visible chromophores across the whole visible range (700-400 nm) than the other proteins and only those above 450 nm are effectively removed by bleaching. Both oxidative and reductive bleaching are inefficient for removing yellow chromophores (450-400 nm absorbers) from wool. The DR spectra of the four UV-absorbing amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine, cystine and phenylalanine were recorded as finely ground powders. In contrast to their UV-visible spectra in aqueous solution where tryptophan and tyrosine are the major UV absorbing species, surprisingly the disulphide chromophore of solid cystine has the strongest UV absorbance measured using the DR remission function F(R)(∞). The DR spectra of unpigmented feather and wool keratin appear to be dominated by cystine absorption near 290 nm, whereas silk fibroin appears similar to tyrosine. Because cystine has a flat reflectance spectrum in the visible region from 700 to 400 nm and the powder therefore appears white, cystine absorption does not contribute to the cream colour of wool despite the high concentration of cystine residues near the cuticle surface. The disulphide absorption of solid L: -cystine in the DR spectrum at 290 nm is significantly red shifted by ~40 nm relative to its wavelength in solution, whereas homocystine and lipoic acid showed smaller red shifts of 20 nm. The large red shift observed for cystine and the large difference in intensity of absorption in its UV-visible and DR spectra may be due to differences in the dihedral angle between the crystalline solid and the solvated molecules in solution. PMID:22218994

  18. Solitary fibrous tumor of the liver.

    PubMed

    Vennarecci, Giovanni; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Giovannelli, Luca; Del Nonno, Franca; Perracchio, Letizia; Visca, Paolo; Corazza, Valerio; Vidiri, Antonello; Visco, Giuseppe; Santoro, Eugenio

    2005-01-01

    We report a new case of benign solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the liver. A 65-year-old man presented to our unit with upper right abdominal discomfort. On examination abdominal distension was present and palpation showed a large firm mass in the right hypochondrium and epigastrium. The patient's past medical history was not significant and laboratory tests were normal. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a large tumor, 20 cm in diameter, in the right lobe of the liver. An extended right hepatectomy was performed. The tumor measured 30 x 28 x 14 cm and weighed 4725 g. Microscopic evaluation showed a benign SFT of the liver with tumor cells typically positive for vimentin and CD34. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient is alive 30 months after surgery. This is a rare neoplasm of mesenchymal origin that occasionally involves the liver in adult patients. Most SFTs are benign, but some may have malignant histological features and recur locally or metastasize. Because of their rarity, overall experience has not been significant and little has been published concerning this tumor, Including the present one, 28 cases have been reported in the English literature. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment. Little can be said about the benefits of adjuvant radiochemotherapy in these patients. As SFT of the liver is often a benign neoplasm, chemotherapy or radiotherapy should not be necessary, and should be reserved for when resection is incomplete and/or histological examination reveals features of malignancy. Surgeons must be aware of SFT of the liver, and this neoplasm should be included in the differential diagnosis of a single large hepatic mass.

  19. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of fibrous proteins.

    PubMed

    Millington, Keith R

    2012-09-01

    UV-visible diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra of the fibrous proteins wool and feather keratin, silk fibroin and bovine skin collagen are presented. Natural wool contains much higher levels of visible chromophores across the whole visible range (700-400 nm) than the other proteins and only those above 450 nm are effectively removed by bleaching. Both oxidative and reductive bleaching are inefficient for removing yellow chromophores (450-400 nm absorbers) from wool. The DR spectra of the four UV-absorbing amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine, cystine and phenylalanine were recorded as finely ground powders. In contrast to their UV-visible spectra in aqueous solution where tryptophan and tyrosine are the major UV absorbing species, surprisingly the disulphide chromophore of solid cystine has the strongest UV absorbance measured using the DR remission function F(R)(∞). The DR spectra of unpigmented feather and wool keratin appear to be dominated by cystine absorption near 290 nm, whereas silk fibroin appears similar to tyrosine. Because cystine has a flat reflectance spectrum in the visible region from 700 to 400 nm and the powder therefore appears white, cystine absorption does not contribute to the cream colour of wool despite the high concentration of cystine residues near the cuticle surface. The disulphide absorption of solid L: -cystine in the DR spectrum at 290 nm is significantly red shifted by ~40 nm relative to its wavelength in solution, whereas homocystine and lipoic acid showed smaller red shifts of 20 nm. The large red shift observed for cystine and the large difference in intensity of absorption in its UV-visible and DR spectra may be due to differences in the dihedral angle between the crystalline solid and the solvated molecules in solution.

  20. Bioreactors in tissue engineering - principles, applications and commercial constraints.

    PubMed

    Hansmann, Jan; Groeber, Florian; Kahlig, Alexander; Kleinhans, Claudia; Walles, Heike

    2013-03-01

    Bioreactor technology is vital for tissue engineering. Usually, bioreactors are used to provide a tissue-specific physiological in vitro environment during tissue maturation. In addition to this most obvious application, bioreactors have the potential to improve the efficiency of the overall tissue-engineering concept. To date, a variety of bioreactor systems for tissue-specific applications have been developed. Of these, some systems are already commercially available. With bioreactor technology, various functional tissues of different types were generated and cultured in vitro. Nevertheless, these efforts and achievements alone have not yet led to many clinically successful tissue-engineered implants. We review possible applications for bioreactor systems within a tissue-engineering process and present basic principles and requirements for bioreactor development. Moreover, the use of bioreactor systems for the expansion of clinically relevant cell types is addressed. In contrast to cell expansion, for the generation of functional three-dimensional tissue equivalents, additional physical cues must be provided. Therefore, bioreactors for musculoskeletal tissue engineering are discussed. Finally, bioreactor technology is reviewed in the context of commercial constraints.

  1. Oxidative stress inhibition and oxidant activity by fibrous clays.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Gómez-Vidales, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Fibrous clays (sepiolite, palygorskite) are produced at 1.2m tonnes per year and have a wide range of industrial applications needing to replace long-fibre length asbestos. However, information on the beneficial effects of fibrous clays on health remains scarce. This paper reports on the effect of sepiolite (Vallecas, Spain) and palygorskite (Torrejón El Rubio, Spain) on cell damage via oxidative stress (determined as the progress of lipid peroxidation, LP). The extent of LP was assessed using the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances assay. The oxidant activity by fibrous clays was quantified using Electron-Paramagnetic Resonance. Sepiolite and palygorskite inhibited LP, whereby corresponding IC50 values were 6557±1024 and 4250±289μgmL(-1). As evidenced by dose-response experiments LP inhibition by palygorskite was surface-controlled. Fibrous clay surfaces did not stabilize HO species, except for suspensions containing 5000μgmL(-1). A strong oxidant (or weak anti-oxidant) activity favours the inhibition of LP by fibrous clays.

  2. Oxidative stress inhibition and oxidant activity by fibrous clays.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Gómez-Vidales, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Fibrous clays (sepiolite, palygorskite) are produced at 1.2m tonnes per year and have a wide range of industrial applications needing to replace long-fibre length asbestos. However, information on the beneficial effects of fibrous clays on health remains scarce. This paper reports on the effect of sepiolite (Vallecas, Spain) and palygorskite (Torrejón El Rubio, Spain) on cell damage via oxidative stress (determined as the progress of lipid peroxidation, LP). The extent of LP was assessed using the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances assay. The oxidant activity by fibrous clays was quantified using Electron-Paramagnetic Resonance. Sepiolite and palygorskite inhibited LP, whereby corresponding IC50 values were 6557±1024 and 4250±289μgmL(-1). As evidenced by dose-response experiments LP inhibition by palygorskite was surface-controlled. Fibrous clay surfaces did not stabilize HO species, except for suspensions containing 5000μgmL(-1). A strong oxidant (or weak anti-oxidant) activity favours the inhibition of LP by fibrous clays. PMID:26071933

  3. [About a case of calcifying fibrous tumor of the pleura].

    PubMed

    Rocas, Delphine; Thivolet-Béjui, Françoise; Tronc, François; Chalabreysse, Lara

    2015-12-01

    Calcifying fibrous tumor is a rare soft tissue benign tumor (OMS 2002). Some pleural localisations are described, which affect slightly older individuals than the other soft tissue forms. The calcifying fibrous tumor is included in the 2004 World Health Organization classification of pleural tumors. A pleural tumor located in the right inferior pulmonary lobe is diagnosed in a 59-year-old man. This pleural tumor is macroscopically well-circumscribed. Histologically, the rare spindle tumoral cells are located between bundles of a collagenous tissue, sometimes hyalinized, with psammomatous or dystrophic calcifications. The tumoral cells have a fibrohistiocytic origin. They stain positively for antibodies against vimentin, factor XIIIa, CD68, CD163, CD34. Antibodies against smooth muscle actin, desmin, PS100, ALK1 and EBV are negative. Main differencial diagnoses are other benign pleural tumors (solitary fibrous tumor, inflammatory myofibroblastique tumor), some malignant tumors (desmoplastic malignant pleural mesothelioma) and pleural pseudotumors (calcified pleural plaques, chronic fibrous pleuritis, amylose, hyalinizing granuloma). Our case is the 15th pleural calcifying fibrous tumor being reported. PMID:26608111

  4. Stress transfer through fibrous materials in wicking experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaenkova, Daria; Andrukh, Taras; Kornev, Konstantin

    2009-11-01

    Due to the recent progress in preparation of fibers and nanofibers with different properties, the idea of smart textiles attracts much attention. In many situations the probes and sensors are designed for bio fluid detection. The liquid penetration in fibrous materials causes their deformations including stretching, twisting, wrinkling, buckling etc. The most of researches on wicking properties of textiles are focused on determination of media permeability and ignore the specific features of fibrous materials. On the other hand the theoretical works on quantitative analysis of the deformation effects in porous materials filled with liquids are mostly focused on deformation of fully saturated samples. The fundamental understanding of the stress transfer through the fiber network is crucial for sensors development, but to the best of our knowledge, the stress analysis in the fibrous materials absorbing liquids has never been discussed in the literature. This paper sets a physical basis for analysis of absorption processes in nanotubular and nanofibrous materials. We study absorption of droplets by yarns and webs made of fibers, develop a theory which explains the stress distribution in fibrous materials and checked this theory on wicking experiments. The reported theory and experiments propose a new area of research on absorption-induced deformations of fibrous materials.

  5. Electrospun nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte for secondary lithium battery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Padmaraj, O.; Rao, B. Nageswara; Jena, Paramananda; Satyanarayana, N.; Venkateswarlu, M.

    2014-04-24

    Hybrid nanocomposite [poly(vinylidene fluoride -co- hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)/magnesium aluminate (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4})] fibrous polymer membranes were prepared by electrospinning method. The prepared pure and nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membranes were soaked into the liquid electrolyte 1M LiPF{sub 6} in EC: DEC (1:1,v/v). XRD and SEM are used to study the structural and morphological studies of nanocomposite electrospun fibrous polymer membranes. The nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane with 5 wt.% of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibits high ionic conductivity of 2.80 × 10{sup −3} S/cm at room temperature. The charge-discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO{sub 2} coin cells composed of the newly prepared nanocomposite [(16 wt.%) PVdF-co-HFP+(5 wt.%) MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}] fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane was also studied and compared with commercial Celgard separator.

  6. CD-34 and keratin expression distinguishes solitary fibrous tumor (fibrous mesothelioma) of pleura from desmoplastic mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Flint, A; Weiss, S W

    1995-04-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) often involve the pleura and also may encompass the peritoneum and nonserosal sites. On occasion SFTs mimics other neoplasms, including desmoplastic mesothelioma. CD-34, initially characterized as a hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen, recently has been identified in a small number of SFTs. Based on this observation, we compared the keratin, vimentin, and CD-34 expression of 19 SFTs and eight desmoplastic mesotheliomas. Fifteen of 19 SFTs (78.9%) expressed CD-34, whereas keratin expression was absent in all SFTs. In contrast, none of the desmoplastic mesotheliomas expressed CD-34 and keratin expression was found in seven of eight (87.5%). Vimentin expression was noted in 18 of 19 SFTs and in seven of eight desmoplastic mesotheliomas. We conclude that CD-34 expression distinguishes SFT from desmoplastic mesothelioma. Additionally, the results of our study support the idea that SFT is not derived from or related to conventional mesothelium.

  7. Bioreactor Development for Lung Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Much recent interest in lung bioengineering by pulmonary investigators, industry and the organ transplant field has seen a rapid growth of bioreactor development ranging from the microfluidic scale to the human-sized whole lung systems. A comprehension of the findings from these models is needed to provide the basis for further bioreactor development. Objective The goal was to comprehensively review the current state of bioreactor development for the lung. Methods A search using PubMed was done for published, peer-reviewed papers using the keywords “lung” AND “bioreactor” or “bioengineering” or “tissue engineering” or “ex vivo perfusion”. Main Results Many new bioreactors ranging from the microfluidic scale to the human-sized whole lung systems have been developed by both academic and commercial entities. Microfluidic, lung-mimic and lung slice cultures have the advantages of cost-efficiency and high throughput analyses ideal for pharmaceutical and toxicity studies. Perfused/ventilated rodent whole lung systems can be adapted for mid-throughput studies of lung stem/progenitor cell development, cell behavior, understanding and treating lung injury and for preliminary work that can be translated to human lung bioengineering. Human-sized ex vivo whole lung bioreactors incorporating perfusion and ventilation are amenable to automation and have been used for whole lung decellularization and recellularization. Clinical scale ex vivo lung perfusion systems have been developed for lung preservation and reconditioning and are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Conclusions Significant advances in bioreactors for lung engineering have been made at both the microfluidic and the macro scale. The most advanced are closed systems that incorporate pressure-controlled perfusion and ventilation and are amenable to automation. Ex vivo lung perfusion systems have advanced to clinical trials for lung preservation and reconditioning. The biggest

  8. Hollow fiber bioreactor technology for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Eghbali, Hadis; Nava, Michele M; Mohebbi-Kalhori, Davod; Raimondi, Manuela T

    2016-01-01

    Hollow fiber bioreactors are the focus of scientific research aiming to mimic physiological vascular networks and engineer organs and tissues in vitro. The reason for this lies in the interesting features of this bioreactor type, including excellent mass transport properties. Indeed, hollow fiber bioreactors allow limitations to be overcome in nutrient transport by diffusion, which is often an obstacle to engineer sizable constructs in vitro. This work reviews the existing literature relevant to hollow fiber bioreactors in organ and tissue engineering applications. To this purpose, we first classify the hollow fiber bioreactors into 2 categories: cylindrical and rectangular. For each category, we summarize their main applications both at the tissue and at the organ level, focusing on experimental models and computational studies as predictive tools for designing innovative, dynamic culture systems. Finally, we discuss future perspectives on hollow fiber bioreactors as in vitro models for tissue and organ engineering applications.

  9. Water-related absorption in fibrous diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zedgenizov, D. A.; Shiryaev, A. A.; Kagi, H.; Navon, O.

    2003-04-01

    Cubic and coated diamonds from several localities (Brasil, Canada, Yakutia) were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. Special emphasis was put on investigation of water-related features of transmission Infra-red and Raman spectra. Presence of molecular water is inferred from broad absorption bands in IR at 3420 and 1640 cm-1. These bands were observed in many of the investigated samples. It is likely that molecular water is present in microinclusions in liquid state, since no clear indications of solid H_2O (ice VI-VII, Kagi et al., 2000) were found. Comparison of absorption by HOH and OH vibrations shows that diamonds can be separated into two principal groups: those containing liquid water (direct proportionality of OH and HOH absorption) and those with stronger absorption by OH group. Fraction of diamonds in every group depends on their provenance. There might be positive correlation between internal pressure in microinclusions (determined using quartz barometer, Navon et al., 1988) and affiliation with diamonds containing liquid water. In many cases absorption by HOH vibration is considerably lower than absorption by hydroxyl (OH) group. This may be explained if OH groups are partially present in mineral and/or melt inclusions. This hypothesis is supported by following fact: in diamonds with strong absorption by silicates and other minerals shape and position of the OH band differs from that in diamonds with low absorption by minerals. Moreover, in Raman spectra of individual inclusions sometimes the broad band at 3100 cm-1 is observed. This band is OH-related. In some samples water distribution is not homogeneous. Central part of the diamond usually contains more water than outer parts, but this is not a general rule for all the samples. Water absorption usually correlated with absorption of other components (carbonates, silicates and others). At that fibrous diamonds with relatively high content of silicates are characterized by molecular water. OH

  10. Fermentation in a fluidized-bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.

    1983-06-01

    A laboratory-scale fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the production of ethanol from a glucose solution using flocculating Zymomonas mobilis was studied. Although the results are preliminary, 2.5- to 3.8-cm-diameter systems were operated for more than 300 h using fluidized floc particles that are 1-2 mm in diameter. The ethanol production rate in the lower portion of the fluidized bed operating at 30/sup 0/C routinely exceeded 200 g/L x h and under some conditions was as high as 400 g/ L x h with a reactor residence time of a few minutes. This far surpasses the results obtained with a batch, stirred-tank reactor using yeast. Ethanol productivity based on the total reactor volume approached 100 g/L x h, and glucose conversion exceeded 95%. With continued research, even higher production rates will be possible as conditions are optimized and scale-up to larger systems will allow the establishment of technical feasibility.

  11. Structural characteristics, dispersion, and modification of fibrous brucite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xi; Chuan, Xiu-yun

    2014-01-01

    Fibrous brucite has very unique structure and physical properties. Brucite fibers were exfoliated into single nanofibers by using dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) as a dispersant through mechanical agitation and ultrasonic dispersion; and then, the nanofibers were modified by stearic acid and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (γ-APS) compound modification agent. The nanofibers were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermal gravimetric analysis. It is found that AOT has good effect on the dispersion. The single fiber has a consistent morphology, and fibrous brucite is dispersed and modified without destroying the crystal structure. Infrared and thermal analysis shows that the surface modification of fibrous brucite is achieved by forming chemical bonds between the coupling agent and magnesium hydroxide.

  12. Magnetoelectric effects in multiferroic fibrous composite with imperfect interface

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Pan, E.

    2007-12-01

    This paper investigates the magnetoelectroelastic responses of multiferroic fibrous composites with imperfectly bonded interface under longitudinal shear. The proposed imperfect interface model is a natural generalization of the shear lag (or the spring layer) model. By virtue of the complex variable method, we first consider the case where an isolated circular multiferroic fiber is imperfectly bonded to an infinite multiferroic matrix. Very concise expressions for the complex field potentials characterizing the magnetoelectroelastic fields inside and outside the circular fiber are obtained when the matrix is subjected to the remote uniform magnetoelectroelastic loading. The Mori-Tanaka mean-field method is then employed to derive the effective moduli of the multiferroic fibrous composite made of randomly distributed fibers reinforced to the matrix. Particularly we demonstrate that the interfacial imperfection in elasticity, electricity, and magnetism will always cause a significant reduction in the magnetoelectric coefficient of the BaTiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} fibrous composite.

  13. 4D fibrous materials: characterising the deployment of paper architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulakkal, Manu C.; Seddon, Annela M.; Whittell, George; Manners, Ian; Trask, Richard S.

    2016-09-01

    Deployment of folded paper architecture using a fluid medium as the morphing stimulus presents a simple and inexpensive methodology capable of self-actuation; where the underlying principles can be translated to develop smart fibrous materials capable of programmable actuations. In this study we characterise different paper architectures and their stimuli mechanisms for folded deployment; including the influence of porosity, moisture, surfactant concentration, temperature, and hornification. We observe that actuation time decreases with paper grammage; through the addition of surfactants, and when the temperature is increased at the fluid–vapour interface. There is a clear effect of hydration, water transport and the interaction of hydrogen bonds within the fibrous architecture which drives the deployment of the folded regions. The importance of fibre volume fraction and functional fillers in shape recovery was also observed, as well as the effect of a multilayer composite paper system. The design guidelines shown here will inform the development of synthetic fibrous actuators for repeated deployment.

  14. Frontorbital Fibrous Dysplasia Resection and Reconstruction With Custom Polyetherlatone Alloplast.

    PubMed

    Nahumi, Nadav; Shohet, Michael R; Bederson, Joshua B; Elahi, Ebrahim

    2015-11-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign, pathological development of bone. Craniofacial bones are the most commonly involved and can potentially cause visual disturbance, proptosis, orbital dystopia, and facial deformity. This case involves a 13-year-old girl with significant proptosis (20 mm left, 17.5 mm right) and downward displacement of the left globe (1.5 mm) due to fibrous dysplasia. Reconstruction was performed with computed tomography-derived and 3D printed custom polyetheretherketone (PEEK) implantation. PEEK is a nonabsorbable, nonporous thermoplastic polymer notable for its ability to be modified intraoperatively and ideal imaging properties postoperatively. Never, to our knowledge, has PEEK been used for primary reconstruction of the frontal orbital region in fibrous dysplasia in a child. The lesion was successfully repaired with excellent aesthetic and no apparent damage to neurovascular or ocular structures. PMID:26594985

  15. Fibrous minerals from Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Manuela; Nestola, Fabrizio; Ghiara, Maria R.; Capitelli, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    A survey on fibrous minerals coming from the densely populated area of Campania around the Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex (Italy) was performed by means of a multi-methodological approach, based on morphological analyses, EMPA/WDS and SEM/EDS applications, and unit-cell determination through X-ray diffraction data. Such mineralogical investigation aims to provide suitable tools to the identification of fibrous natural phases, to improve the knowledge of both geochemical, petrogenetic and regional mineralogy of Somma-Vesuvius area, and to emphasize the presence of minerals with fibrous habit in all volcanic environments. The survey also fits well in the calls of health and environment of Horizon 2020 program of the European Commission (Climate Action, Environment, Resource Efficiency and Raw Materials).

  16. 4D fibrous materials: characterising the deployment of paper architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulakkal, Manu C.; Seddon, Annela M.; Whittell, George; Manners, Ian; Trask, Richard S.

    2016-09-01

    Deployment of folded paper architecture using a fluid medium as the morphing stimulus presents a simple and inexpensive methodology capable of self-actuation; where the underlying principles can be translated to develop smart fibrous materials capable of programmable actuations. In this study we characterise different paper architectures and their stimuli mechanisms for folded deployment; including the influence of porosity, moisture, surfactant concentration, temperature, and hornification. We observe that actuation time decreases with paper grammage; through the addition of surfactants, and when the temperature is increased at the fluid-vapour interface. There is a clear effect of hydration, water transport and the interaction of hydrogen bonds within the fibrous architecture which drives the deployment of the folded regions. The importance of fibre volume fraction and functional fillers in shape recovery was also observed, as well as the effect of a multilayer composite paper system. The design guidelines shown here will inform the development of synthetic fibrous actuators for repeated deployment.

  17. Fluidized bed combustor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horio, M.; Rengarajan, P.; Krishnan, R.; Wen, C. Y.

    1977-01-01

    A general mathematical model for the prediction of performance of a fluidized bed coal combustor (FBC) is developed. The basic elements of the model consist of: (1) hydrodynamics of gas and solids in the combustor; (2) description of gas and solids contacting pattern; (3) kinetics of combustion; and (4) absorption of SO2 by limestone in the bed. The model is capable of calculating the combustion efficiency, axial bed temperature profile, carbon hold-up in the bed, oxygen and SO2 concentrations in the bubble and emulsion phases, sulfur retention efficiency and particulate carry over by elutriation. The effects of bed geometry, excess air, location of heat transfer coils in the bed, calcium to sulfur ratio in the feeds, etc. are examined. The calculated results are compared with experimental data. Agreement between the calculated results and the observed data are satisfactory in most cases. Recommendations to enhance the accuracy of prediction of the model are suggested.

  18. Fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sowards, N.K.; Murphy, M.L.

    1991-10-29

    This patent describes a vessel. It comprises a fluid bed for continuously incinerating fuel comprising tire segments and the like which comprise metallic wire tramp and for concurrently removing tramp and bed materials at a bottom effluent exit means of the vessel, the vessel further comprising static air distributor means at the periphery of the bed comprising a substantially centrally unobstructed relatively large central region in which the fluid bed and fuel only are disposed and through which bed material and tramp migrate without obstruction to and through the effluent exit means, downwardly and inwardly stepped lower vessel wall means and a plurality of peripherally located centrally directed vertically and horizontally offset spaced air influent means surrounding the central region and associated with the stepped lower vessel wall means by which the bed is supported and fluidized.

  19. Heat Transfer in High-Temperature Fibrous Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran

    2002-01-01

    The combined radiation/conduction heat transfer in high-porosity, high-temperature fibrous insulations was investigated experimentally and numerically. The effective thermal conductivity of fibrous insulation samples was measured over the temperature range of 300-1300 K and environmental pressure range of 1.33 x 10(exp -5)-101.32 kPa. The fibrous insulation samples tested had nominal densities of 24, 48, and 72 kilograms per cubic meter and thicknesses of 13.3, 26.6 and 39.9 millimeters. Seven samples were tested such that the applied heat flux vector was aligned with local gravity vector to eliminate natural convection as a mode of heat transfer. Two samples were tested with reverse orientation to investigate natural convection effects. It was determined that for the fibrous insulation densities and thicknesses investigated no heat transfer takes place through natural convection. A finite volume numerical model was developed to solve the governing combined radiation and conduction heat transfer equations. Various methods of modeling the gas/solid conduction interaction in fibrous insulations were investigated. The radiation heat transfer was modeled using the modified two-flux approximation assuming anisotropic scattering and gray medium. A genetic-algorithm based parameter estimation technique was utilized with this model to determine the relevant radiative properties of the fibrous insulation over the temperature range of 300-1300 K. The parameter estimation was performed by least square minimization of the difference between measured and predicted values of effective thermal conductivity at a density of 24 kilograms per cubic meters and at nominal pressures of 1.33 x 10(exp -4) and 99.98 kPa. The numerical model was validated by comparison with steady-state effective thermal conductivity measurements at other densities and pressures. The numerical model was also validated by comparison with a transient thermal test simulating reentry aerodynamic heating

  20. Bioreactors: Waste-water treatment. April 1979-January 1990 (A Bibliography from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for April 1979-January 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of bioreactors for wastewater treatment. Stirred tank, photobio, plate column, fluidized and nonfluidized bed, biofilm, oxidizing, composting, hollow, and porous membrane reactors, in conjunction with various microbiological, chemical, and physical technologies, are included. Applications in municipal treatment, food processing, chemical, agricultural, mining, and oil refining industries are reviewed. (Contains 111 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  1. Bed rest in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Catherine; Stone, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    The use of bed rest in medicine dates back to Hippocrates, who first recommended bed rest as a restorative measure for pain. With the formalization of prenatal care in the early 1900s, maternal bed rest became a standard of care, especially toward the end of pregnancy. Antepartum bed rest is a common obstetric management tool, with up to 95% of obstetricians utilizing maternal activity restriction in some way in their practice. Bed rest is prescribed for a variety of complications of pregnancy, from threatened abortion and multiple gestations to preeclampsia and preterm labor. Although the use of bed rest is pervasive, there is a paucity of data to support its use. Additionally, many well-documented adverse physical, psychological, familial, societal, and financial effects have been discussed in the literature. There have been no complications of pregnancy for which the literature consistently demonstrates a benefit to antepartum bed rest. Given the well-documented adverse effects of bed rest, disruption of social relationships, and financial implications of this intervention, there is a real need for scientific investigation to establish whether this is an appropriate therapeutic modality. Well-designed randomized, controlled trials of bed rest versus normal activity for various complications of pregnancy are required to lay this debate to rest once and for all. PMID:21425272

  2. [Fibrous dysplasia of bone in a 12-year old girl].

    PubMed

    Bieniasz, Jolanta; Maj, Anna; Noczyńska, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a rare congenital bone disease, usually coming out before the age of 30. It is 2.5% of all bone tumours and 7.5 % of benign tumours of bones. The authors present a case of a 12-years old girl with fibrous dysplasia of bone admitted to the Department with hyperparathyroidism suspicion. Pathological changes were localized in the orbital cavity and sinuses. The diagnosis was established on the basis of the clinical course, imaging and histopathological examinations. The therapy with pamidronian acid was applied.

  3. Solitary Fibrous Tumor in a Female Urinary Bladder.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Hiba J; Menon, Sharifa

    2016-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors of the bladder are extremely rare especially in the females. This is the third case of SFT in a female urinary bladder. We are presenting a case of 36-years-old female who underwent a procedure for what thought to be cervical myoma. Cystectomy and bilateral ureteral re-implantation were performed. Mass showed to be solitary fibrous tumor of the urinary bladder. These tumors are rarely occur in extrapleural spaces. Only few cases had been reported in the urinary bladder including 2 in the female and 10 in the male bladder.

  4. Solitary Fibrous Tumor in a Female Urinary Bladder.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Hiba J; Menon, Sharifa

    2016-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors of the bladder are extremely rare especially in the females. This is the third case of SFT in a female urinary bladder. We are presenting a case of 36-years-old female who underwent a procedure for what thought to be cervical myoma. Cystectomy and bilateral ureteral re-implantation were performed. Mass showed to be solitary fibrous tumor of the urinary bladder. These tumors are rarely occur in extrapleural spaces. Only few cases had been reported in the urinary bladder including 2 in the female and 10 in the male bladder. PMID:27335777

  5. Solitary fibrous tumor of maxilla: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Heera, R; Chandran, M Renu; Padmakumar, S K; Rajeev, R

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a ubiquitous rare mesenchymal neoplasm. Pleura is the favored site of origin and is rare in the oral cavity. SFT occurs across a wide histopathologic spectrum. Fibrous form characterized by hyalinized, thick-walled vessels with opened lumina and strong CD34 reactivity constitute one end and on the other end, a cellular form representing the conventional hemangiopericytoma, with branched, thin-walled vessels and focal or negative CD34 reactivity characterize the spectrum. A case of oral SFT in a 30-year-old female patient with its clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features is being presented here. PMID:27721623

  6. Interfacial Micromechanics in Fibrous Composites: Design, Evaluation, and Models

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Zhenkun; Li, Xuan; Qin, Fuyong; Qiu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances of interfacial micromechanics in fiber reinforced composites using micro-Raman spectroscopy are given. The faced mechanical problems for interface design in fibrous composites are elaborated from three optimization ways: material, interface, and computation. Some reasons are depicted that the interfacial evaluation methods are difficult to guarantee the integrity, repeatability, and consistency. Micro-Raman study on the fiber interface failure behavior and the main interface mechanical problems in fibrous composites are summarized, including interfacial stress transfer, strength criterion of interface debonding and failure, fiber bridging, frictional slip, slip transition, and friction reloading. The theoretical models of above interface mechanical problems are given. PMID:24977189

  7. Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tataroğlu, Canten; Çulhacı, Nil; Çeçen, Emre

    2015-01-01

    Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma is a rare soft tissue tumor of uncertain differentiation and low metastatic potential, which occurs predominantly in children and young adults. It occurs mostly within the extremities, trunk, head and neck. It can be associated with systemic manifestations such as anemia, pyrexia and malaise. Its morphology is distinct, with an outer shell of lymphoid tissue, sheets of dendritic-like tumor cells with bland nuclei and blood-filled cystic cavities. Herein, we present a case of angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma with systemic symptoms before any mass was clinically detectable, arising in the scalp of a 10-year-old girl. PMID:26613231

  8. Kinetics of adsorption with granular, powdered, and fibrous activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Shmidt, J.L.; Pimenov, A.V.; Lieberman, A.I.; Cheh, H.Y.

    1997-08-01

    The properties of three different types of activated carbon, fibrous, powdered, and granular, were investigated theoretically and experimentally. The adsorption rate of the activated carbon fiber was found to be two orders of magnitude higher than that of the granular activated carbon, and one order of magnitude higher than that of the powdered activated carbon. Diffusion coefficients of methylene blue in the fibrous, powdered, and granular activated carbons were determined experimentally. A new method for estimating the meso- and macropore surface areas in these carbons was proposed.

  9. Interfacial micromechanics in fibrous composites: design, evaluation, and models.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhenkun; Li, Xuan; Qin, Fuyong; Qiu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances of interfacial micromechanics in fiber reinforced composites using micro-Raman spectroscopy are given. The faced mechanical problems for interface design in fibrous composites are elaborated from three optimization ways: material, interface, and computation. Some reasons are depicted that the interfacial evaluation methods are difficult to guarantee the integrity, repeatability, and consistency. Micro-Raman study on the fiber interface failure behavior and the main interface mechanical problems in fibrous composites are summarized, including interfacial stress transfer, strength criterion of interface debonding and failure, fiber bridging, frictional slip, slip transition, and friction reloading. The theoretical models of above interface mechanical problems are given. PMID:24977189

  10. Multifocal peritoneal calcifying fibrous tumour: incidental finding at cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gatt, Noel; Falzon, Sharon; Ratynska, Marzena

    2011-01-01

    Calcifying fibrous tumour (CFT) is a benign tumour of elusive aetiology and a potential for local recurrence. Despite its peculiar histological characteristics it can still be confused with interrelated differential diagnosis like inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) or solitary fibrous tumours. The clinical differential diagnosis is however much wider. To date seven cases of multiple peritoneal CFTs are on record. The authors present a case discovered incidentally during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, with no previous history and no radiological diagnosis achieved despite having undergone magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and normal routine perioperative investigation. The patient is disease-free 12 months after diagnosis. The case report is followed by a detailed literature review. PMID:22689663

  11. The role of bioreactors in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ivan; Wendt, David; Heberer, Michael

    2004-02-01

    Ex vivo engineering of living tissues is a rapidly developing area with the potential to impact significantly on a wide-range of biomedical applications. Major obstacles to the generation of functional tissues and their widespread clinical use are related to a limited understanding of the regulatory role of specific physicochemical culture parameters on tissue development, and the high manufacturing costs of the few commercially available engineered tissue products. By enabling reproducible and controlled changes of specific environmental factors, bioreactor systems provide both the technological means to reveal fundamental mechanisms of cell function in a 3D environment, and the potential to improve the quality of engineered tissues. In addition, by automating and standardizing tissue manufacture in controlled closed systems, bioreactors could reduce production costs, thus facilitating a wider use of engineered tissues.

  12. Bioreactor-Based Tumor Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Guller, A.E.; Grebenyuk, P.N.; Shekhter, A.B.; Zvyagin, A.V.; Deyev, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on modeling of cancer tumors using tissue engineering technology. Tumor tissue engineering (TTE) is a new method of three-dimensional (3D) simulation of malignant neoplasms. Design and development of complex tissue engineering constructs (TECs) that include cancer cells, cell-bearing scaffolds acting as the extracellular matrix, and other components of the tumor microenvironment is at the core of this approach. Although TECs can be transplanted into laboratory animals, the specific aim of TTE is the most realistic reproduction and long-term maintenance of the simulated tumor properties in vitro for cancer biology research and for the development of new methods of diagnosis and treatment of malignant neoplasms. Successful implementation of this challenging idea depends on bioreactor technology, which will enable optimization of culture conditions and control of tumor TECs development. In this review, we analyze the most popular bioreactor types in TTE and the emerging applications. PMID:27795843

  13. Chromium detoxification by fixed-film bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chirwa, E.M.N.; Wang, Y.T.

    1996-11-01

    In this study, completely mixed, continuous flow bioreactors were utilized to detoxify chromium. Glass beads were incorporated as a support medium for two strains of bacteria, Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens LB300 (LB300), growing aerobically in two separate reactors. Aerobic conditions were maintained in the reactors by continuously supplying fresh air to the liquid through gas exchange chambers installed on the recycle line of the bioreactors. Results obtained showed that near complete removal of chromate was possible for influent concentrations up to 200 mg/L for Bacillus sp., and up to 100 mg/L for LB300 at 24 hours liquid detention time. Similar results were obtained for corresponding loading rates at 12 hours and 6 hours liquid detention time.

  14. Bioreactor and process design for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Show, Kuan-Yeow; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. It has the potential for renewable biofuel to replace current hydrogen production which rely heavily on fossil fuels. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of advances in bioreactor and bioprocess design for biohydrogen production. The state-of-the art of biohydrogen production is discussed emphasizing on production pathways, factors affecting biohydrogen production, as well as bioreactor configuration and operation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined.

  15. Bioreactor and process design for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Show, Kuan-Yeow; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. It has the potential for renewable biofuel to replace current hydrogen production which rely heavily on fossil fuels. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of advances in bioreactor and bioprocess design for biohydrogen production. The state-of-the art of biohydrogen production is discussed emphasizing on production pathways, factors affecting biohydrogen production, as well as bioreactor configuration and operation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined. PMID:21624834

  16. Design concepts for bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Peterson, G. R.; Beard, B.; Boshe, C.; Dunlop, E. H.

    1987-01-01

    Microbial food sources are becoming viable and more efficient alternatives to conventional food sources, especially in the context of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) in space habitats. Two bioreactor design concepts presented represent two dissimilar approaches to grappling with the absence of gravity in space habitats and deserve to be tested for adoption as important components of the life support function aboard spacecraft, space stations and other extra-terrestrial habitats.

  17. Oxygen transfer in a pressurized airlift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Campani, Gilson; Ribeiro, Marcelo Perencin Arruda; Horta, Antônio Carlos Luperni; Giordano, Roberto Campos; Badino, Alberto Colli; Zangirolami, Teresa Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Airlift bioreactors (ALBs) offer advantages over conventional systems, such as simplicity of construction, reduced risk of contamination, and efficient gas-liquid dispersion with low power consumption. ALBs are usually operated under atmospheric pressure. However, in bioprocesses with high oxygen demand, such as high cell density cultures, oxygen limitation may occur even when operating with high superficial gas velocity and air enriched with oxygen. One way of overcoming this drawback is to pressurize the reactor. In this configuration, it is important to assess the influence of bioreactor internal pressure on the gas hold-up, volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a), and volumetric oxygen transfer rate (OTR). Experiments were carried out in a concentric-tube airlift bioreactor with a 5 dm(3) working volume, equipped with a system for automatic monitoring and control of the pressure, temperature, and inlet gas flow rate. The results showed that, in disagreement with previous published results for bubble column and external loop airlift reactors, overpressure did not significantly affect k(L)a within the studied ranges of pressure (0.1-0.4 MPa) and superficial gas velocity in the riser (0.032-0.065 m s(-1)). Nevertheless, a positive effect on OTR was observed: it increased up to 5.4 times, surpassing by 2.3 times the oxygen transfer in a 4 dm(3) stirred tank reactor operated under standard cultivation conditions. These results contribute to the development of non-conventional reactors, especially pneumatic bioreactors operated using novel strategies for oxygen control.

  18. Bioreactor Yields Extracts for Skin Cream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Johnson Space Flight Center researchers created a unique rotating-wall bioreactor that simulates microgravity conditions, spurring innovations in drug development and medical research. Renuèll Int'l Inc., based in Aventure, Florida, licensed the technology and used it to produce a healing skin care product, RE`JUVEL. In a Food and Drug Administration test, RE`JUVEL substantially increased skin moisture and elasticity while reducing dark blotches and wrinkles.

  19. MELiSSA third compartment: Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi axenic cultures in bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruvellier, Nelly; Lasseur, Christophe; Poughon, Laurent; Creuly, Catherine; Dussap, Gilles

    Nitrogen is a key element for the life and its balance on Earth is regulated by the nitrogen cycle. This loop includes several steps among which nitrification that permits the transformation of the ammonium into nitrate. The MELiSSA loop is an artificial ecosystem designed for life support systems (LSS). It is based on the carbon and nitrogen cycles and the recycling of the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew. In this order, all the wastes are collected in the first compartment to degrade them into organic acids and CO2. These compounds are joining the second compartment which is a photoheterotrophic compartment where at the outlet an organic-free medium containing ammonium is produced. This solution will be the substrate of the third compartment where nitrification is done. This compartment has to oxidize the ammonium into nitrate, and this biological reaction needs two steps. In the MELiSSA loop, the nitrification is carried out by two bacteria: Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC® 19718™ which is oxidizing ammonia into nitrite and Nitrobacter winogradskyi ATCC® 25391™ which is producing nitrate from nitrite in the third compartment. These two bacteria are growing in axenic conditions on a fixed bed bioreactor filled with Biostyr® beads. The nitrogen compounds are controlled by Ionic Chromatography and colorimetric titration for each sample. The work presented here deals with the culture of both bacteria in pure cultures and mixed cultures in stirred and aerated bioreactors of different volumes. The first aim of our work is the characterization of the bacteria growth in bioreactors and in the nitrifying fixed-bed column. The experimental results confirm that the growth is slow; the maximal growth rate in suspended cultures is 0.054h-1 for Nitrosomonas europaea and 0.022h-1 for Nitrobacter winogradskyi. Mixed cultures are difficult to control and operate but one could be done for more than 500 hours. The characterization of the

  20. Zinc deprivation of methanol fed anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Fermoso, Fernando G.; Collins, Gavin; Bartacek, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The effect of omitting zinc from the influent of mesophilic (30 °C) methanol fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors, and latter zinc supplementation to the influent to counteract the deprivation, was investigated by coupling the UASB reactor performance to the microbial ecology of the bioreactor sludge. Limitation of the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) on methanol due to the absence of zinc from the influent developed after 137 days of operation. At that day, the SMA in medium with a complete trace metal solution except Zn was 3.4 g CH4-COD g VSS−1 day−1, compared to 4.2 g CH4-COD g VSS−1 day−1 in a medium with a complete (including zinc) trace metal solution. The methanol removal capacity during these 137 days was 99% and no volatile fatty acids accumulated. Two UASB reactors, inoculated with the zinc-deprived sludge, were operated to study restoration of the zinc limitation by zinc supplementation to the bioreactor influent. In a first reactor, no changes to the operational conditions were made. This resulted in methanol accumulation in the reactor effluent after 12 days of operation, which subsequently induced acetogenic activity 5 days after the methanol accumulation started. Methanogenesis could not be recovered by the continuous addition of 0.5 μM ZnCl2 to the reactor for 13 days. In the second reactor, 0.5 μM ZnCl2 was added from its start-up. Although the reactor stayed 10 days longer methanogenically than the reactor operated without zinc, methanol accumulation was observed in this reactor (up to 1.1 g COD-MeOH L−1) as well. This study shows that zinc limitation can induce failure of methanol fed UASB reactors due to acidification, which cannot be restored by resuming the continuous supply of the deprived metal. PMID:18283507