Science.gov

Sample records for fick laws

  1. A linear Fick's law calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Seymour S.; Bryant, Pat D.; Woodside, William F.

    1982-10-01

    A small animal calorimeter is described that is based on the direct application of Fick's law. Heat flow is channeled through a circular disk of magnesium and the temperature difference between the inside and outside surface of the disk is detected by means of solid-state temperature transducers. The device is calibrated using a light-weight electrical resistive source and is shown to be linear in its response and to have an e-folding time of 4.8 min. A rat was introduced into the calorimeter and its heat energy expenditure rate was observed in both the sedated and unsedated states.

  2. Fick's Law Assisted Propagation for Semisupervised Learning.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chen; Tao, Dacheng; Fu, Keren; Yang, Jie

    2015-09-01

    How to propagate the label information from labeled examples to unlabeled examples is a critical problem for graph-based semisupervised learning. Many label propagation algorithms have been developed in recent years and have obtained promising performance on various applications. However, the eigenvalues of iteration matrices in these algorithms are usually distributed irregularly, which slow down the convergence rate and impair the learning performance. This paper proposes a novel label propagation method called Fick's law assisted propagation (FLAP). Unlike the existing algorithms that are directly derived from statistical learning, FLAP is deduced on the basis of the theory of Fick's First Law of Diffusion, which is widely known as the fundamental theory in fluid-spreading. We prove that FLAP will converge with linear rate and show that FLAP makes eigenvalues of the iteration matrix distributed regularly. Comprehensive experimental evaluations on synthetic and practical datasets reveal that FLAP obtains encouraging results in terms of both accuracy and efficiency.

  3. Eggshell conductance--Fick's or Stefan's law?

    PubMed

    Simkiss, K

    1986-08-01

    The diffusion of gases through the avian eggshell has usually been interpreted as an example of Fick's law, and this appears to be the best explanation for gas exchange through narrow long pores. Many eggshells, however, contain more elaborate pores, of which the funnel-shaped type is the most common. It is suggested that most of the resistance to diffusion through these types of pores is best explained by Stefan's law of diffusion through apertures. The implications of this theory to the understanding of pore functions are discussed.

  4. Armand Imbert, Adolf Fick, and their tonometry law

    PubMed Central

    Mark, H H

    2012-01-01

    ‘The basis of tonometry by applanation, even of tonometry as a whole, is Fick's law, or Imbert-Fick's law, which actually is a much more accurate name'. It is affirmatively cited solely in the ophthalmic and optometric literature, and in patent applications for new tonometers, but as a law of physics underlying clinical practice, it has been challenged both on theoretical grounds and on empirical, evidence-based, data. As the diagnosis and treatment success of glaucoma are primarily determined by tonometry, it seemed profitable to explore in historical context the genesis of this ‘law' that was said to be the basis of the method. PMID:22020170

  5. Armand Imbert, Adolf Fick, and their tonometry law.

    PubMed

    Mark, H H

    2012-01-01

    'The basis of tonometry by applanation, even of tonometry as a whole, is Fick's law, or Imbert-Fick's law, which actually is a much more accurate name'. It is affirmatively cited solely in the ophthalmic and optometric literature, and in patent applications for new tonometers, but as a law of physics underlying clinical practice, it has been challenged both on theoretical grounds and on empirical, evidence-based, data. As the diagnosis and treatment success of glaucoma are primarily determined by tonometry, it seemed profitable to explore in historical context the genesis of this 'law' that was said to be the basis of the method.

  6. Fractional generalization of Fick's law: a microscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Calvo, I; Sánchez, R; Carreras, B A; van Milligen, B Ph

    2007-12-01

    In the study of transport in inhomogeneous systems it is common to construct transport equations invoking the inhomogeneous Fick law. The validity of this approach requires that at least two ingredients be present in the system. First, finite characteristic length and time scales associated with the dominant transport process must exist. Second, the transport mechanism must satisfy a microscopic symmetry: global reversibility. Global reversibility is often satisfied in nature. However, many complex systems exhibit a lack of finite characteristic scales. In this Letter we show how to construct a generalization of the inhomogeneous Fick law that does not require the existence of characteristic scales while still satisfying global reversibility.

  7. Ohm's Law, Fick's Law, Joule's Law, and Ground Water Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    1999-02-01

    Starting from the contributions of Ohm, Fick and Joule during the nineteenth century, an integral expression is derived for a steady-state groundwater flow system. In general, this integral statement gives expression to the fact that the steady-state groundwater system is characterized by two dependent variables, namely, flow geometry and fluid potential. As a consequence, solving the steady-state flow problem implies the finding of optimal conditions under which flow geometry and the distribution of potentials are compatible with each other, subject to the constraint of least action. With the availability of the digital computer and powerful graphics software, this perspective opens up possibilities of understanding the groundwater flow process without resorting to the traditional differential equation. Conceptual difficulties arise in extending the integral expression to a transient groundwater flow system. These difficulties suggest that the foundations of groundwater hydraulics deserve to be reexamined.

  8. Homogenization of reconstructed crystal surfaces: Fick's law of diffusion.

    PubMed

    Margetis, Dionisios

    2009-05-01

    Fick's law for the diffusion of adsorbed atoms (adatoms) on crystal surfaces below roughening is generalized to account for surface reconstruction. In this case, material parameters vary spatially at the microscale, and the coarse graining for crystal steps via Taylor expansions is not strictly applicable. By invoking elements of the theory of composites in one independent space dimension, we homogenize the microscale description to derive the macroscopic adatom flux from step kinetics. This approach relies on a multiscale expansion for the adatom density. The effective surface diffusivity is determined through appropriate discrete averages of microscale kinetic parameters.

  9. Understanding diffusion theory and Fick's law through food and cooking.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Larissa; Nyberg, Kendra; Rowat, Amy C

    2015-09-01

    Diffusion is critical to physiological processes ranging from gas exchange across alveoli to transport within individual cells. In the classroom, however, it can be challenging to convey the concept of diffusion on the microscopic scale. In this article, we present a series of three exercises that use food and cooking to illustrate diffusion theory and Fick's first law. These exercises are part of a 10-wk undergraduate course that uses food and cooking to teach fundamental concepts in physiology and biophysics to students, including nonscience majors. Consistent demonstration of practical applications in a classroom setting has the potential to fundamentally change how students view the role of science in their lives (15).

  10. Reevaluation of the employment of Fick's law for diffusion dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Cross, John H

    2003-04-15

    This paper reconsiders the means of applying Fick's first law to passive diffusion dosimeters. The performance of the organic vapor monitor (OVM), a commercially available dosimeter, is modeled in terms of gradients, which are generated by evaporating a compound from the dosimeter. The fluxes induced by the gradients are determined gravimetrically. The ratio of a flux and a gradient is reported as a Fick's law proportionality constant, the sampling rate. The sampling rate for the gradient across the OVM is calculated from a harmonic average of the sampling rates of two other gradients. The OVM sampling rates for nine compounds determined by the new methodology agree well with published values. Further analysis of the other two gradients provides a value for an apparent reduction in sampling rate in the absence of airflow across the dosimeter (a boundary-layer effect). Procedures are also described to validate measured air concentrations by determining the sampling rates before and after exposure and by correcting for the boundary-layer effect. Sampling rates were found to be stable during 2-4-day exposures in a variety of conditions. In contrast, the boundary-layer effect caused the measured air concentrations to be substantially lower than the estimated true air concentrations.

  11. A Tale of Two Fishes or a Quick Fix for Fick's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robischon, Marcel A.

    2014-01-01

    Gas diffusion, as a basis for complex biological processes such as respiration, is a core principle for understanding fundamental physiology. Students, however, often find these concepts challenging, in particular when expressed formally as in Fick's law of gas diffusion. This introduction to Fick's law uses the representations of…

  12. Fick's law, green-kubo formula, and Heisenberg's equation of motion

    PubMed

    Lee

    2000-09-18

    Fick's law is important in transport theory and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The Heisenberg equation of motion for density is examined to see how it could be reduced to the diffusion equation, which is exactly equivalent to Fick's law. Conditions that are required have been noted and their implications explored.

  13. Diffusive mass transfer by nonequilibrium fluctuations: Fick's law revisited.

    PubMed

    Brogioli, D; Vailati, A

    2001-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical works have shown that giant fluctuations are present during diffusion in liquid systems. We use linearized fluctuating hydrodynamics to calculate the net mass transfer due to these nonequilibrium fluctuations. Remarkably, the mass flow turns out to coincide with the usual Fick's one. The renormalization of the hydrodynamic equations allows us to quantify the gravitational modifications of the diffusion coefficient induced by the gravitational stabilization of long wavelength fluctuations.

  14. Transport in Nanoporous Materials Including MOFs: The Applicability of Fick's Laws.

    PubMed

    Titze, Tobias; Lauerer, Alexander; Heinke, Lars; Chmelik, Christian; Zimmermann, Nils E R; Keil, Frerich J; Ruthven, Douglas M; Kärger, Jörg

    2015-11-23

    Diffusion in nanoporous host-guest systems is often considered to be too complicated to comply with such "simple" relationships as Fick's first and second law of diffusion. However, it is shown herein that the microscopic techniques of diffusion measurement, notably the pulsed field gradient (PFG) technique of NMR spectroscopy and microimaging by interference microscopy (IFM) and IR microscopy (IRM), provide direct experimental evidence of the applicability of Fick's laws to such systems. This remains true in many situations, even when the detailed mechanism is complex. The limitations of the diffusion model are also discussed with reference to the extensive literature on this subject.

  15. Molecular self-diffusion in nanoscale cylindrical pores and classical Fick's law predictions.

    PubMed

    Cui, S T

    2005-08-01

    Molecular-dynamics calculations are carried out to study the self-diffusion of water molecules confined in cylindrical pores. It is found that the classical Fick's law description provides a surprisingly accurate prediction for the general behaviors of self-diffusion even for pore size of a few molecular diameters. The diffusion coefficient in the axial direction is reduced relative to bulk fluids for pore size less than about ten molecular diameters. In the radial direction, the mean-square displacement accurately follows Fick's law prediction, but with an average diffusion coefficient slightly lower than the bulk value. The origin of the diffusion behaviors is traced to the molecular motion in the restricted geometry of the cylindrical pores.

  16. A numerical investigation of the Fick's law of diffusion in room acoustics.

    PubMed

    Visentin, Chiara; Prodi, Nicola; Valeau, Vincent; Picaut, Judicaël

    2012-11-01

    In this paper the validity of the Fick's law of diffusion in room acoustics is investigated in the stationary state. The Fick's law, underlying the room-acoustics diffusion model, assumes a proportionality relationship between the local sound intensity and the energy density gradient, the proportionality constant being the so-called diffusion coefficient. This relationship, based on an analogy with the behavior of real particles in a scattering medium, is assessed by using a numerical tool simulating the actual dynamics of sound particles in a room. Two types of room geometries are considered: rooms with proportionate dimensions and long rooms. Concerning proportionate rooms the numerical analysis highlights the presence of weak variations of the reverberant energy density, generating an intensity vector pattern which is shown to be correctly described by the theoretical Fick's law and homogeneous diffusion. Conversely, inside long rooms, an estimate of the local value of the diffusion coefficient is carried out, showing that the reverberant sound field is well described by a spatially varying diffusion coefficient (non-homogeneous diffusion). The rate of increase of the estimated diffusion coefficient depends on the cross-sectional area of the room and on the boundaries absorption coefficient.

  17. Cholesterol's decoupling effect on membrane partitioning and permeability revisited: is there anything beyond Fick's law of diffusion?

    PubMed

    Missner, Andreas; Horner, Andreas; Pohl, Peter

    2008-10-01

    In general, Fick's law of diffusion describes membrane permeation of hydrophobic or amphiphilic molecules. In contrast to this, Thomae et al. recently identified the volume ratio between barrier and aqueous compartments as important additional determinants of membrane permeability (Pm) [A.V. Thomae, T. Koch, C. Panse, H. Wunderli-Allenspach, and S.D. Kramer, Comparing the lipid membrane affinity and permeation of drug-like acids: the intriguing effects of cholesterol and charged lipids, Pharm. Res. 24 (2007) 1457-1472.]. This new theory was supported by the striking observation that low concentrations of cholesterol increased Pm of salicylic acid. As Fick's law is of fundamental importance to all membrane transport processes, we reinvestigated this phenomenon. We measured the electrophoretic mobility of vesicles and used electrochemical scanning microscopy to study the adsorption of the SA anion to lipid vesicular bilayers and SA transport through planar lipid bilayers, respectively. As predicted by Fick's law, Pm of SA decreased continuously with increasing cholesterol content. Thomae et al. made the contrasting artifactual observation because their kinetic approach lacked the required time resolution and led to an underestimation of Pm by five orders of magnitude. We conclude that there is nothing beyond Fick's law of diffusion. It is still valid.

  18. Validity of the second Fick's law for modeling ion-exchange diffusion in non-crystalline viscoelastic media (glasses)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagantsev, D. K.; Ivanenko, D. V.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that, in general case, the diffusion equation (or the second Fick's law) does not provide an adequate description of ion-exchange transport phenomena in viscoelastic media, including glassy or any other non-crystalline media. In this connection the general phenomenological model of ion-exchange diffusion in viscoelastic media has been developed. A theoretical analysis of the model shows that, in the case of a linear dependence of medium density on the concentration of diffusing ions, the necessary and sufficient condition of the absolute validity of the diffusion equation in viscoelastic media is Φ ≫ 1, where Φ = τD/τR is the dimensionless value (or criterion of similarity), with τD = L2/D being the characteristic time of diffusion and τR = η/G being the characteristic time of stress relaxation, where L, D, η, and G are the characteristic length of diffusion, the diffusivity, the viscosity, and the shear modulus, respectively. The value of 1/Φ characterizes the accuracy which is provided if the second Fick's law is used in the simulation of ion-exchange diffusion in viscoelastic media. We have demonstrated the applicability of this criterion experimentally. Our experimental studies on ion-exchange diffusion in an oxide glass (typical viscoelastic media) have shown that under the condition the Φ > 105 the experimental concentration profiles are close to those predicted by the second Fick's law to within an accuracy of 1%.

  19. [A new dynamic model of release for not-corroded drug system--revision and use of Fick's first law].

    PubMed

    Lin, Y P; Lu, W L

    1997-11-01

    Based on the facts that the diffusion coefficient in original Fick's first law is not a strict constant but changes with concentration and that the original Fick's first law is only suitable for the stable diffusion with constant concentration gradient but many experiments have shown that the concentration gradient is a function of time. The authors suggest that the diffusion coefficient and the concentration gradient should be revised, respectively, as a concentration function and a time function. That is, [formula: see text] So, the Fick's first law is revised as [formula: see text] In the formula, dW/dt represents the rate of diffusion. D0 is the intrinsic diffusion coefficient that is a constant only concerning the temperature and the character of the substance diffused. A is the area of diffusion surface, alpha is the constant concerning the change of concentration gradient, C0 and C is, respectively, the concentration on the diffusion surface at time t0 and any time t. Based on this, the dynamic model of release on the preparations not-corroded is derived: [formula: see text] Here, k0 is the release constant concerning D0, temperature, C0 and A. The model gave better results than other models in common use for simulating the release dynamic process and the physical meanings of the model parameters are explicit.

  20. Osmotic dehydration of tomato in sucrose solutions: Fick's law classical modeling.

    PubMed

    Bui, Huu-Thuan; Makhlouf, Joseph; Ratti, Cristina

    2009-06-01

    Osmotic dehydration of tomato was modeled by the classical Fick's law including shrinkage, convective resistance at the interface and the presence of water bulk flow. Tomato slices having 8 mm thickness were osmotically dehydrated in sucrose solutions at 50, 60, and 70 degrees Brix and at 35, 45, and 55 degrees C. Other experiments were done in a 70 degrees Brix sucrose solution at 35 degrees C with tomato slices of 4, 6, and 8 mm thickness and at different motion levels (velocities 0, 0.053, and 0.107 m/s). Tomato weight, water content, and degrees Brix of the products were measured as a function of processing time (20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 min). Results showed that temperature, concentration, thickness, and solution movement significantly influenced water loss and sucrose gain during the osmotic dehydration of tomato. The model predicted the modifications of soluble solid content and water content as a function of time in close agreement with the experimental data. Experimental Sherwood number correlations for sucrose and water were determined as Sh(s) = 1.3 Re(0.5)Sc(s) (0.15) and Sh(w) = 0.11 Re(0.5)Sc(w) (0.5), respectively. The effective diffusion coefficients of water (4.97 10(-11)- 2.10 10(-10) m(2)/s) and sucrose (3.18 10(-11)- 1.69 10(-10) m(2)/s) depended only on temperature through an Arrhenius-type relationship.

  1. Stationary flow, first passage times, and macroscopic Fick's first diffusion law: application to flow enhancement by particle trapping.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Wolfgang R; Nadler, Walter

    2005-06-22

    A generalized macroscopic Fick's first diffusion law is derived which describes steady-state particle flow between two baths explicitly as a function of the concentration gradient, acting as the thermodynamic driving force, times a functional of the first passage time. The latter is shown to be the ratio of the number of particles trapped between the baths and the first passage time. Particle trapping is shown to be a powerful mechanism by which flow can be enhanced. This is analyzed for two examples: a potential and an entropy trap.

  2. Fick's Insights on Liquid Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2004-10-07

    In 1855, Adolph Fick published ''On Liquid Diffusion'', mathematically treating salt movements in liquids as a diffusion process, analogous to heat diffusion. Less recognized is the fact that Fick also provided a detailed account of the implications of salt diffusion to transport through membranes. A careful look at Fick (1855) shows that his conceptualization of molecular diffusion was more comprehensive than could be captured with the mathematical methods available to him, and therefore his expression, referred to as Fick's Law, dealt only with salt flux. He viewed salt diffusion in liquids as a binary process, with salt moving in one way and water moving in the other. Fick's analysis of the consequences of such a binary process operating in a hydrophilic pore in a membrane offers insights that are relevant to earth systems. This paper draws attention to Fick's rationale, and its implications to hydrogeological systems. Fick (1829-1901; Figure 1), a gifted scientist, published the first book on medical physics (Fick, 1858), discussing the application of optics, solid mechanics, gas diffusion, and heat budget to biological systems. Fick's paper is divisible into two parts. The first describes his experimental verification of the applicability of Fourier's equation to liquid diffusion. The second is a detailed discussion of diffusion through a membrane. Although Fick's Law specifically quantifies solute flux, Fick visualized a simultaneous movement of water and stated, ''It is evident that a volume of water equal to that of the salt passes simultaneously out of the upper stratum into the lower.'' (Fick, 1855, p.30). Fick drew upon Fourier's model purely by analogy. He assumed that concentration gradient impelled salt movement, without inquiring why concentration gradient should constitute a driving force. As for water movement, he stated intuitively, ''a force of suction comes into play on each side of the membrane, proportional to the difference of concentration

  3. Fick's second law transformed: one path to cloaking in mass diffusion.

    PubMed

    Guenneau, S; Puvirajesinghe, T M

    2013-06-01

    Here, we adapt the concept of transformational thermodynamics, whereby the flux of temperature is controlled via anisotropic heterogeneous diffusivity, for the diffusion and transport of mass concentration. The n-dimensional, time-dependent, anisotropic heterogeneous Fick's equation is considered, which is a parabolic partial differential equation also applicable to heat diffusion, when convection occurs, for example, in fluids. This theory is illustrated with finite-element computations for a liposome particle surrounded by a cylindrical multi-layered cloak in a water-based environment, and for a spherical multi-layered cloak consisting of layers of fluid with an isotropic homogeneous diffusivity, deduced from an effective medium approach. Initial potential applications could be sought in bioengineering.

  4. Fick's second law transformed: one path to cloaking in mass diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Guenneau, S.; Puvirajesinghe, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we adapt the concept of transformational thermodynamics, whereby the flux of temperature is controlled via anisotropic heterogeneous diffusivity, for the diffusion and transport of mass concentration. The n-dimensional, time-dependent, anisotropic heterogeneous Fick's equation is considered, which is a parabolic partial differential equation also applicable to heat diffusion, when convection occurs, for example, in fluids. This theory is illustrated with finite-element computations for a liposome particle surrounded by a cylindrical multi-layered cloak in a water-based environment, and for a spherical multi-layered cloak consisting of layers of fluid with an isotropic homogeneous diffusivity, deduced from an effective medium approach. Initial potential applications could be sought in bioengineering. PMID:23536540

  5. Assessment of dermal absorption by thermogravimetric analysis: Development of a diffusion model based on Fick's second law.

    PubMed

    Rauma, Matias; Johanson, Gunnar

    2009-11-01

    Recent work in our laboratory shows that it is possible to reproducibly measure the weight change over time of a piece of porcine skin exposed to a chemical vapor by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), that is, using a microbalance maintained at constant temperature and humidity. Here, we develop a diffusion model by which the TGA skin weight curve can be interpreted. A TGA-specific analytical solution for Fick's second law of diffusion was derived. The solution contains two chemical-dependent parameters; a diffusion coefficient (D) and a skin/air partition coefficient (P). The resulting function was fitted to weight curves from 83 experiments with 4 chemicals; n-butyl acetate, methanol, 2-propanol, and toluene. In most experiments, a single weight function could not adequately describe the shape of the weight curve, therefore up to five parallel compartments, each with its parameter set Di and Pi, were tested. A two-compartment model was adequate for 58% of the experiments according to the Akaike Information Criterion. Dermal penetration of the chemicals was also measured with Franz diffusion cells. The diffusion coefficients obtained by the two methods agreed well.

  6. [The theoretical analysis of Fick's equation. On the centennial of the use of Fick's principle in physiology].

    PubMed

    Karpman, V L

    1975-09-01

    In the first section Adolf Fick's outstanding scientific performances are pointed out in their historical sequence, particularly the derivation of the laws of diffusion (1855) and the basic equation for determining the heart-minute-volume (Fm) by O2-absorption per time (V02) and arteriovenous O2-difference (AVD), known as Fick's Principle. The latter was derived theoretically in 1870 by Fick, but it found it practical employment by other investigators, in dog not before 1886 and in man not earlier than 1930. In the following two sections the universality of Fick's Principle is shown by explaining its internal relation 1. to Fick's first law of diffusion and 2. to the general law of solution. This is done by mathematical transformation of the relations (formulas)of the physical resp. the physiological standards (parameters). By analyzing the diffusion of a substance into a streaming fluid according to the first diffusion law, perfectly isomorphic equations to Fick's Principle (No. 7 and No. 9) are obtained by what Fick's formula as a determinant of the heart-minute-volume is just proved to be derivable from Fick's first diffusion law. Furthermore by transforming the trivial formula for the determination of substance concentration in a fluid provement is given, that Fick's Principle may be considered a variant of the solution theory. By this the internal relation of the so-called dilution respectively indicating methods depending on the Stewart-Hamilton-Principle to the original Fick's Principle is made visible. In the last section an attempt is made to produce a relation to 1. the so-called physical methods determining the minute volume which primarily are known as a measurement for stroke volume and frequency, and, besides that, 2. to Vierordt's equation, by which the heart-minute-volume is determinable from circulating blood volume and circulation time. This trial is made by equating the value of the minute volume given by Fick's Principle (VO2/AVD) with the

  7. Understanding Diffusion Theory and Fick's Law through Food and Cooking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Larissa; Nyberg, Kendra; Rowat, Amy C.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion is critical to physiological processes ranging from gas exchange across alveoli to transport within individual cells. In the classroom, however, it can be challenging to convey the concept of diffusion on the microscopic scale. In this article, we present a series of three exercises that use food and cooking to illustrate diffusion…

  8. A comparison of Fick and Maxwell-Stefan diffusion formulations in PEMFC gas diffusion layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, Michael; Wetton, Brian

    2016-04-01

    This paper explores the mathematical formulations of Fick and Maxwell-Stefan diffusion in the context of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell cathode gas diffusion layers. The simple Fick law with a diagonal diffusion matrix is an approximation of Maxwell-Stefan. Formulations of diffusion combined with mass-averaged Darcy flow are considered for three component gases. For this application, the formulations can be compared computationally in a simple, one dimensional setting. Despite the models' seemingly different structure, it is observed that the predictions of the formulations are very similar on the cathode when air is used as oxidant. The two formulations give quite different results when the Nitrogen in the air oxidant is replaced by helium (this is often done as a diagnostic for fuel cells designs). The two formulations also give quite different results for the anode with a dilute Hydrogen stream. These results give direction to when Maxwell-Stefan diffusion, which is more complicated to implement computationally in many codes, should be used in fuel cell simulations.

  9. Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, W. R.; Cox, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the legal issues relative to water quality covering publications of 1977. Consideration is given to federal laws, Supreme Court cases, and the impact of federal environmental laws on local government. A list of 47 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Gas transport in unsaturated porous media: the adequacy of Fick's law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorstenson, D.C.; Pollock, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    The increasing use of natural unsaturated zones as repositories for landfills and disposal sites for hazardous wastes (chemical and radioactive) requires a greater understanding of transport processes in the unsaturated zone. For volatile constituents an important potential transport mechanism is gaseous diffusion. Diffusion, however, cannot be treated as an independent isolated transport mechanism. A complete understanding of multicomponent gas transport in porous media (unsaturated zones) requires a knowledge of Knudsen transport, the molecular and nonequimolar components of diffusive flux, and viscous (pressure driven) flux. This review presents a brief discussion of the underlying principles and interrelationships among each of the above flux mechanisms. -from Authors

  11. Oxygen removal from water versus arterial oxygen delivery: calibrating the Fick equation in Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Anthony P; Eliason, Erika J; Clark, Timothy D; Steinhausen, Maria F

    2014-10-01

    While it is well known that O2 is directly removed from the water by skin and gill tissues of fish, the mismatch between O2 removal from water (O2 uptake; [Formula: see text]) and the O2 delivered to tissues by the primary circulation (O2 consumption; [Formula: see text]) has never been measured directly. Using data from four recent studies that simultaneously measured [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in 2-5 kg Pacific salmon, our analysis revealed that sockeye salmon can remove an additional 12-48 % more O2 from the water than the primary circulation delivers to the systemic tissues. This percentage did not change significantly during swimming activity, a result that contradicts an earlier prediction that the difference should decrease when [Formula: see text] increases during exercise. In resting Chinook salmon, a similar percentage difference in simultaneously measured [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] was observed, yet the difference tended to disappear during acute heat stress to a near lethal temperature. These results emphasize that caution should be exercised when using the Fick equation to estimate cardiac output because the overestimate of cardiac output that results from using the Fick equation in Pacific salmon is not small, may not be fixed and may exist in other teleosts. PMID:25031037

  12. When is the next extending of Fick-Jacobs equation necessary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinay, Pavol

    2013-08-01

    Applicability of the effective one-dimensional equations, such as Fick-Jacobs equation and its extensions, describing diffusion of particles in 2D or 3D channels with varying cross section A(x) along the longitudinal coordinate x, is studied. The leading nonstationary correction to Zwanzig-Reguera-Rubí equation [R. Zwanzig, J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3926 (1992), 10.1021/j100189a004; D. Reguera and J. M. Rubí, Phys. Rev. E 64, 061106 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevE.64.061106] is derived and tested on the exactly solvable model, diffusion in a 2D linear cone. The effects of such correction are demonstrated and discussed on elementary nonstationary processes, a time dependent perturbation of the stationary flow and calculation of the mean first passage time.

  13. [The Fick method underestimates pulmonary flow calculation in patients subjected to bidirectional Glenn procedure].

    PubMed

    Alva, Carlos; Gómez, Felipe David; Ortegón Cardeña, José; Yáñez Gutiérrez, Lucelli; Lazcano, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    In patients with Bidirectional Glenn who have undergone surgery, the superior caval venous flow provides the only pulmonary blood supply. This is the effective pulmonary flow and at the same time its volume is not enough to overflow the single ventricle. The unsaturated, inferior vena cava flow is not oxygenated, since it goes across the interatrial septal communication and gets mixed in the left ventricle with the pulmonary venous blood. In this work, a bidirectional Glenn case is analyzed. The hemodynamic data before and after the operation are shown. It was evident from this case that the use of the Fick method to measure pulmonary flow in patients with bidirectional Glenn operation is not appropriate. Alternative methods, such as Doppler echocardiography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging, are recommended. A literature review on this subject was carefully done.

  14. Transformed Fourier and Fick equations for the control of heat and mass diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Guenneau, S.; Petiteau, D.; Zerrad, M.; Amra, C.; Puvirajesinghe, T.

    2015-05-15

    We review recent advances in the control of diffusion processes in thermodynamics and life sciences through geometric transforms in the Fourier and Fick equations, which govern heat and mass diffusion, respectively. We propose to further encompass transport properties in the transformed equations, whereby the temperature is governed by a three-dimensional, time-dependent, anisotropic heterogeneous convection-diffusion equation, which is a parabolic partial differential equation combining the diffusion equation and the advection equation. We perform two dimensional finite element computations for cloaks, concentrators and rotators of a complex shape in the transient regime. We precise that in contrast to invisibility cloaks for waves, the temperature (or mass concentration) inside a diffusion cloak crucially depends upon time, its distance from the source, and the diffusivity of the invisibility region. However, heat (or mass) diffusion outside cloaks, concentrators and rotators is unaffected by their presence, whatever their shape or position. Finally, we propose simplified designs of layered cylindrical and spherical diffusion cloaks that might foster experimental efforts in thermal and biochemical metamaterials.

  15. Transformed Fourier and Fick equations for the control of heat and mass diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenneau, S.; Petiteau, D.; Zerrad, M.; Amra, C.; Puvirajesinghe, T.

    2015-05-01

    We review recent advances in the control of diffusion processes in thermodynamics and life sciences through geometric transforms in the Fourier and Fick equations, which govern heat and mass diffusion, respectively. We propose to further encompass transport properties in the transformed equations, whereby the temperature is governed by a three-dimensional, time-dependent, anisotropic heterogeneous convection-diffusion equation, which is a parabolic partial differential equation combining the diffusion equation and the advection equation. We perform two dimensional finite element computations for cloaks, concentrators and rotators of a complex shape in the transient regime. We precise that in contrast to invisibility cloaks for waves, the temperature (or mass concentration) inside a diffusion cloak crucially depends upon time, its distance from the source, and the diffusivity of the invisibility region. However, heat (or mass) diffusion outside cloaks, concentrators and rotators is unaffected by their presence, whatever their shape or position. Finally, we propose simplified designs of layered cylindrical and spherical diffusion cloaks that might foster experimental efforts in thermal and biochemical metamaterials.

  16. Current of interacting particles inside a channel of exponential cavities: Application of a modified Fick-Jacobs equation.

    PubMed

    Suárez, G; Hoyuelos, M; Mártin, H

    2016-06-01

    Recently a nonlinear Fick-Jacobs equation has been proposed for the description of transport and diffusion of particles interacting through a hard-core potential in tubes or channels of varying cross section [Suárez et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 012135 (2015)]PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.91.012135. Here we focus on the analysis of the current and mobility when the channel is composed by a chain of asymmetric cavities and a force is applied in one or the opposite direction, for both interacting and noninteracting particles, and compare analytical and Monte Carlo simulation results. We consider a cavity with a shape given by exponential functions; the linear Fick-Jacobs equation for noninteracting particles can be exactly solved in this case. The results of the current difference (when a force is applied in opposite directions) are more accurate for the modified Fick-Jacobs equation for particles with hard-core interaction than for noninteracting ones. PMID:27415230

  17. Results of the oxygen Fick method in a closed blood circulation model including "total arteriovenous diffusive shunt of oxygen".

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Mustafa; Akay, Ahmet

    2004-09-01

    It is considered that arteriovenous diffusive shunts of oxygen may cause inaccuracy of the oxygen Fick method as[Formula: see text] where[Formula: see text] is the pulmonary oxygen uptake,[Formula: see text] is the cardiac output, and CaO(2) and CvO(2) are the arterial and venous oxygen contents, respectively.A simple circulation model, including the whole circulation with nine well-mixed compartments (C1, ... C9), is constructed: the[Formula: see text] is assigned as constant as 6000 ml min(-1); the blood portions of 60 ml move at an interval of 600 ms. C1 and C2 compartments, each having 60 ml volume, represent the blood of pulmonary microcirculation, C3 represents the arterial blood with a volume of 1500 ml, C4, ..., C8, each also having a volume of 60 ml, represent the blood of peripheral microcirculation, whereas C9 represents the venous blood with a volume of 3000 ml. The pulmonary oxygen uptake[Formula: see text], related to C1 and C2, the oxygen release[Formula: see text], related to C4,...,C8, as well as a "total arteriovenous diffusive shunt of oxygen"[Formula: see text], from the arterial blood (C3) to the venous blood (C9), are calculated simultaneously. The alveolar gas has a constant oxygen partial pressure, and the pulmonary diffusion capacity is also constant; similar to modeling the pulmonry, oxygen diffusion, constant partial oxygen pressures for all peripheral tissues as well as constant diffusion capacities for all peripheral oxygen diffusion are also assigned. The diffusion capacities for the[Formula: see text] (between C3 and C9) are arbitrarily assigned.The Fick method gives incorrect results depending on the total arteriovenous diffusive shunt of oxygen[Formula: see text]. But the mechanism determining the magnitude of[Formula: see text] remains unclear.

  18. Limit laws for Zipf's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2011-01-01

    In this communication we establish stochastic limit laws leading from Zipf's law to Pareto's and Heaps' laws. We consider finite ensembles governed by Zipf's law and study their asymptotic statistics as the ensemble size tends to infinity. A Lorenz-curve analysis establishes three types of limit laws for the ensembles' statistical structure: 'communist', 'monarchic', and Paretian. Further considering a dynamic setting in which the ensembles grow stochastically in time, a functional central limit theorem analysis establishes a Gaussian approximation for the ensembles' stochastic growth. The Gaussian approximation provides a generalized and corrected formulation of Heaps' law.

  19. Comparison of PulsioFlex® uncalibrated pulse contour method and a modified Fick principle with transpulmonary thermodilution measurements in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Grensemann, J; Defosse, J M; Wieland, C; Wild, U W; Wappler, F; Sakka, S G

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring of cardiac index (CI) by uncalibrated pulse contour (PC) methods has been shown to be inaccurate in critically ill patients. We tested accuracy and trending of a new pulse contour method and a modified Fick method using central venous oxygen saturation. We studied 21 critically ill and mechanically ventilated patients (age 20-86 years) monitored by PC (PulsioFlex®) and transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD, PiCCO2®) as reference. At baseline, reference and PC-derived CI (CIPC) were recorded and CI obtained by Fick's method (FM, CIFICK). After four hours, measurements were performed analogously for trending analysis. CI are given in l/min/m2 as mean±standard deviation. At baseline CITPTD was 3.7±0.7, CIPC 3.8±0.7 and CIFICK 5.2±1.8. After 4 hours, CITPTD was 3.5±0.6, CIPC 3.8±1.2 and CIFICK 4.8±1.7. Mean bias for PC at baseline was -0.1 (limits of agreement [LOA] -1.4 to 1.2) and -0.4 (LOA -2.6 to 1.9) after four hours. Percentage errors (PE) were 34% and 60% respectively. FM revealed a bias of -1.5 (LOA -4.8 to 1.8, PE 74%) at baseline and -1.5 (LOA -4.5 to 1.4, PE 68%) at four hours. With an exclusion window of 10% of mean cardiac index, trending analysis by polar plots showed an angular bias of 5° (radial LOA±57°) for PC and 16° (radial LOA±51°) for FM. Although PC values at baseline were marginally acceptable, both methods fail to yield clinically acceptable absolute values. Likewise, trending ability is not adequate for both methods to be used in critically ill patients.

  20. Comparison of PulsioFlex® uncalibrated pulse contour method and a modified Fick principle with transpulmonary thermodilution measurements in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Grensemann, J; Defosse, J M; Wieland, C; Wild, U W; Wappler, F; Sakka, S G

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring of cardiac index (CI) by uncalibrated pulse contour (PC) methods has been shown to be inaccurate in critically ill patients. We tested accuracy and trending of a new pulse contour method and a modified Fick method using central venous oxygen saturation. We studied 21 critically ill and mechanically ventilated patients (age 20-86 years) monitored by PC (PulsioFlex®) and transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD, PiCCO2®) as reference. At baseline, reference and PC-derived CI (CIPC) were recorded and CI obtained by Fick's method (FM, CIFICK). After four hours, measurements were performed analogously for trending analysis. CI are given in l/min/m2 as mean±standard deviation. At baseline CITPTD was 3.7±0.7, CIPC 3.8±0.7 and CIFICK 5.2±1.8. After 4 hours, CITPTD was 3.5±0.6, CIPC 3.8±1.2 and CIFICK 4.8±1.7. Mean bias for PC at baseline was -0.1 (limits of agreement [LOA] -1.4 to 1.2) and -0.4 (LOA -2.6 to 1.9) after four hours. Percentage errors (PE) were 34% and 60% respectively. FM revealed a bias of -1.5 (LOA -4.8 to 1.8, PE 74%) at baseline and -1.5 (LOA -4.5 to 1.4, PE 68%) at four hours. With an exclusion window of 10% of mean cardiac index, trending analysis by polar plots showed an angular bias of 5° (radial LOA±57°) for PC and 16° (radial LOA±51°) for FM. Although PC values at baseline were marginally acceptable, both methods fail to yield clinically acceptable absolute values. Likewise, trending ability is not adequate for both methods to be used in critically ill patients. PMID:27456179

  1. Law 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  2. Space Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines the salient characteristics of Space Law. It analyzes the origins and evolution of Space Law, its main international principles, and some current topics of interest to the scientific community: the delimitation of airspace and outer space, intellectual property, and criminal responsibility.

  3. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses (1) a Michigan court decision concerning reverse discrimination and voluntary affirmative action policies; (2) the Massachusetts Supreme Court's rejection of the work-to-rule strategy; and (3) an Arkansas law that will allow teachers failing a basic skills and literacy test to be fired only when their state certification expires. (MLF)

  4. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes three current issues in school law, including school district suits over potentially carcinogenic asbestos insulation, a California judge's finding that captionless educational television discriminates against hearing-impaired students, and the federal government's attempt to keep the Fairfax (Virginia) school system from charging…

  5. The Fokker-Planck law of diffusion and pattern formation in heterogeneous environments.

    PubMed

    Bengfort, Michael; Malchow, Horst; Hilker, Frank M

    2016-09-01

    We analyze the influence of spatially inhomogeneous diffusion on several common ecological problems. Diffusion is modeled with Fick's law and the Fokker-Planck law of diffusion. We discuss the differences between the two formalisms and when to use either the one or the other. In doing so, we start with a pure diffusion equation, then turn to a reaction-diffusion system with one logistically growing component which invades the spatial domain. We also look at systems of two reacting components, namely a trimolecular oscillating chemical model system and an excitable predator-prey model. Contrary to Fickian diffusion, spatial inhomogeneities promote spatial and spatiotemporal pattern formation in case of Fokker-Planck diffusion.

  6. A Relationship between Lotka's Law, Bradford's Law, and Zipf's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ye-Sho; Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F.

    1986-01-01

    A common functional relationship among Lotka's law, Bradford's law, and Zipf's law is derived. The proof takes explicit account of the sequences of observed values of the variables by means of an index. This approach results in a more realistic and precise formulation of each law. (Author/EM)

  7. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  8. Teaching Global Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses problem of American students' limited knowledge of international issues and laws. Provides articles for secondary school students on law around the world, South Africa, Russia, folk law, and alternatives to the adversary system and suggests relevant resources. (KC)

  9. Tax Law System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  10. Innovations in Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at historical and recent innovations in law. The first article examines the code of laws developed by the ancient Hebrews which influenced Roman law, English law, and the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The second article explores Thomas Jefferson's writing of the Declaration of…

  11. Investigating Coulomb's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Ellis; Koehlinger, Mervin; Kowalski, Ludwik; Swackhamer, Gregg

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of a computer-linked camera to demonstrate Coulomb's law. Suggests a way of reducing the difficulties in presenting Coulomb's law by teaching the inverse square law of gravity and the inverse square law of electricity in the same unit. (AIM)

  12. [International malpractice law].

    PubMed

    Stellpflug, M H

    2001-10-01

    According to German Civil Law the liability of a physician in telemedicine can be based on the breach of contractual duties or tort. In telemedicine doctor and patient are separated by distance. In the case of cross border telemedicine Medical Malpractice Law becomes an international issue with many new questions arising. The rules and regulations of "private international law" determine which law has to be applied. The German private international law allows the patient to choose either the law of the state in which the doctor acts or that state in which the therapeutical damage is being suffered. Another important question arises in determining the jurisdiction (of a court). The European agreements give the patient the right to choose. A "choice of jurisdiction clause" or a "choice of law clause" can help to decide with binding force which law and what jurisdiction has to be applied. However, various regulations concerned with consumer protection restrict the permission of such agreements.

  13. Civil Law Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  14. [International malpractice law].

    PubMed

    Stellpflug, M H

    2001-10-01

    According to German Civil Law the liability of a physician in telemedicine can be based on the breach of contractual duties or tort. In telemedicine doctor and patient are separated by distance. In the case of cross border telemedicine Medical Malpractice Law becomes an international issue with many new questions arising. The rules and regulations of "private international law" determine which law has to be applied. The German private international law allows the patient to choose either the law of the state in which the doctor acts or that state in which the therapeutical damage is being suffered. Another important question arises in determining the jurisdiction (of a court). The European agreements give the patient the right to choose. A "choice of jurisdiction clause" or a "choice of law clause" can help to decide with binding force which law and what jurisdiction has to be applied. However, various regulations concerned with consumer protection restrict the permission of such agreements. PMID:11688223

  15. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  16. Communication, Law, and Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anapol, Malthon M.

    The author takes the position that communication is an essential, but often overlooked component of law and justice; furthermore, some of the current problems in the area of law and justice are basically communication problems. The author traces the early development of communication and law as closely related disciplines, with emphasis on the…

  17. The Laws Are Yours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawyers' Wives of Wisconsin, Racine.

    The pamphlet briefly describes various facets of the law and legal system in Wisconsin, and defines many legal terms. The objective is to further public understanding of the law and of the legal profession, particularly in Wisconsin. No attempt is made to answer specific legal questions. Sections cover civil and criminal law; the federal court…

  18. Henry's Law: A Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Robert M.; Peticolas, Warner L.

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective view of Henry's law and its applicability in any specific system at a finite concentration is tested. It can be concluded that Henry's law is only a limiting law and is adequate at low mole fractions but is useful for practical purposes where high precision is not required.

  19. On Teaching Natural Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, David F.

    1978-01-01

    A brief look at Columbia, Harvard, and Notre Dame law schools shows that the American tradition in teaching natural law has not been strong. The value of teaching natural law is discussed, a separate course or seminar is seen as the most effective option, and a selection of available sources for such a course is appended. (JMD)

  20. Preventive School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, William C., Jr.

    The purpose of this chapter is to suggest outlines of a preventive law practice, raise issues, and provoke further thought and discussion concerning the application of preventive law principles and techniques to the management and operation of educational systems. The theory of preventive law and some of its premises are examined in order to…

  1. Campus Common Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Gordon Morris

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

  2. Zipf's law in multifragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Campi, X.; Krivine, H.

    2005-11-01

    We discuss the meaning of Zipf's law in nuclear multifragmentation. We remark that Zipf's law is a consequence of a power-law fragment size distribution with exponent {tau}{approx_equal}2. We also recall why the presence of such a distribution is not a reliable signal of a liquid-gas phase transition.

  3. Water, law, science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryIn a world with water resources severely impacted by technology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end, this paper is an earth scientist's attempt to comprehend essential elements of water law, and to examine their connections to science. Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with a priori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science, observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while in law, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law in Europe and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago by Roman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason. Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the sea were governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that these elements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as private property. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jus gentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast, jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jus gentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in which science plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all. This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, follows their evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit of science inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving water and environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In a technological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of water law. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophical understanding of the relationships between science and law will contribute to their constructively coming together in the service of society.

  4. International law and law enforcement firearms.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Normia, Pertti

    2004-01-01

    Several international agreements set constraints on the legitimate use of firearms as representing lethal force. Their meaning in terms of weapons technology must take into account their operational frame of reference, and legitimate warfare can be regarded as a law enforcement operation with similar principles on the use of force. Changes in weapons technology, such as new types of ammunition, transforming firearms into weapons with less-lethal and even humanitarian options, require new interpretations of the legislation. A division into lethal and non-lethal weapons is an oversimplification and the separation of international humanitarian law into military and law enforcement provisions can be questioned from the technical aspect. The type of technology acceptable for law enforcement use of firearms should be defined. An assessment for weapon injury should not be based on lethality, but rather on the potential for tissue damage and its reversibility. PMID:15015547

  5. International law and law enforcement firearms.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Normia, Pertti

    2004-01-01

    Several international agreements set constraints on the legitimate use of firearms as representing lethal force. Their meaning in terms of weapons technology must take into account their operational frame of reference, and legitimate warfare can be regarded as a law enforcement operation with similar principles on the use of force. Changes in weapons technology, such as new types of ammunition, transforming firearms into weapons with less-lethal and even humanitarian options, require new interpretations of the legislation. A division into lethal and non-lethal weapons is an oversimplification and the separation of international humanitarian law into military and law enforcement provisions can be questioned from the technical aspect. The type of technology acceptable for law enforcement use of firearms should be defined. An assessment for weapon injury should not be based on lethality, but rather on the potential for tissue damage and its reversibility.

  6. Approximation of Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-03-01

    Approximation of laws is an important theme in the philosophy of science. If we can make sense of the idea that two scientific laws are "close" to each other, then we can also analyze such methodological notions as approximate explanation of laws, approximate reduction of theories, approximate empirical success of theories, and approximate truth of laws. Proposals for measuring the distance between quantitative scientific laws were given in Niiniluoto (1982, 1987). In this paper, these definitions are reconsidered as a response to the interesting critical remarks by Liu (1999).

  7. [Sources of law].

    PubMed

    Gutierrez Luna, M

    2004-12-01

    In it first article, the Civil Code establishes that the sources of Spanish law are law, custom, and the general principles of law as well as the circumstances in which each one of them is applied. The Spanish Constitution (SC) is the Law of Laws. It gathers the fundamental rights of the person who should respect the guidelines of the lower ranking. The Law is the guideline having the maximum category below the SC, its elaboration corresponds to the General Courts although the executive power may legislate in certain circumstances (by delegation of the legislative power or by emergency). Executive power elaborates Regulations that are technical developments of the laws. The regulations of the Regional Communities have the rank of law in their geographic setting and for the material in which it has competence. The validly agreed upon international treaties form a part of the Spanish set of rules after being published in the Official State Bulletin. The Spanish legal system is hierarchical, the rules coming from community law are within the peak of the pyramidal structure, with preference on the constitution, followed by laws and rules.

  8. Water, law, science

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  9. On Hack's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigon, Riccardo; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Maritan, Amos; Giacometti, Achille; Tarboton, David G.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    1996-11-01

    Hack's law is reviewed, emphasizing its implications for the elongation of river basins as well as its connections with their fractal characteristics. The relation between Hack's law and the internal structure of river basins is investigated experimentally through digital elevation models. It is found that Hack's exponent, elongation, and some relevant fractal characters are closely related. The self-affine character of basin boundaries is shown to be connected to the power law decay of the probability of total contributing areas at any link and to Hack's law. An explanation for Hack's law is derived from scaling arguments. From the results we suggest that a statistical framework referring to the scaling invariance of the entire basin structure should be used in the interpretation of Hack's law.

  10. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  11. Law and medical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, D A

    1979-01-01

    Summarising the interrelationship between law and medical ethics, I would say that in cases which do not touch the patient's body or integrity, such as professional secrecy, statutory law may take precedence over rules of medical ethics. But in cases where the human subject becomes a victim because of domestic statutory laws which are in contradiction with medical ethics, the medical practitioners should insist on adhering to their professional standards in such a way that the legislators will have to adapt their legislations to the laws of humanity and public conscience. Legislators, as well as medical practitioners, should not forget that the term 'being' is preceded and qualified by 'human'. PMID:469871

  12. School Law Update...Preventive School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

    A wide variety of contemporary legal issues are addressed in the 15 separate papers that make up this volume. The introductory chapter by William C. Bednar, Jr. provides a broad-based rationale for "Preventive School Law." Chapters 2 and 3, both by Gerald A. Caplan, review "Current Issues in Reduction-in-Force" and "First Amendment Claims by…

  13. Know Your Laws. French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ledun, Andree

    This French language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the…

  14. Know Your Laws. German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Karch, Hannelore

    This German language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the…

  15. Know Your Laws. Czechoslovakian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ziembinski, Vera

    This Czechoslovakian language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  16. Know Your Laws. Polish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Kopania, Margaret

    This Polish language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the…

  17. Know Your Laws. Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.

    This Italian language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult students with law they will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the…

  18. Know Your Laws. Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ackerson, Leonor

    This Spanish language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of…

  19. Science and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Donald; Merrill, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    Explaines the role of the Carnegie Commission which was formed to explore the relationship between the disciplines of science, technology, and the law. Discusses concerns about the individual right of privacy in projects such as the Human Genome Project. Focuses on the panel on Science, Technology, and Law which was established in 1999. (YDS)

  20. Teaching Information Technology Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  1. Lotka's Law Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, William Gray

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the literature that has become associated with Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity (a general theoretical estimate of author productivity in the sciences) and attempts to identify the important factors of Lotka's original methodology that should be considered when attempting to test applicability of Lotka's Law. Forty-seven references…

  2. Information Law and Copyright.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Peter A.

    1986-01-01

    Because of information law's inability to keep up with rapid changes in information technology and impreciseness of the law, copyrighting of databases poses unique problems. Interpretation of fair use doctrine, privately owned computer "downloading," impact of federal electronic filing, and questions concerning information businesses need to be…

  3. Law Studies Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seminole County Board of Public Instruction, Sanford, FL. Dept. of Curriculum Services.

    This law studies curriculum guide describes a course designed to provide secondary students with the opportunity to acquire an understanding of the U.S. legal process. The law studies course is intended to develop corresponding concepts and skills in conjunction with the content presented. The content areas of the curriculum include: (1)…

  4. Social Studies: Law Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  5. Reinventing Howard's Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Gwendolyn

    2001-01-01

    Describes efforts by Alice Gresham Bullock, dean of the Howard University School of Law, to improve the school (including building a new library and improving relations with faculty) and restore Howard to its previous stature as a leader in civil rights law. (EV)

  6. Teachers and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Louis; And Others

    This book is designed to promote legal literacy for public school teachers. It examines a wide range of constitutional, statutory, and case law that directly affects their work. Its purpose is to provide teachers with the knowledge necessary to comply with the law, assert their rights, and bring violations to the attention of administrators and…

  7. Charles' Law of Gases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment that uses air to test Charles' law. Reinforces the student's intuitive feel for Charles' law with quantitative numbers they can see, introduces the idea of extrapolating experimental data to obtain a theoretical value, and gives a physical quantitative meaning to the concept of absolute zero. (JRH)

  8. Law and Marine Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockrath, Joseph

    1976-01-01

    The University of Delaware Marine Studies has implemented courses in coastal zone law and policy and maritime law. The courses attempt to integrate the scientist's or engineer's work with public policy formation. The program emphasizes historical and current issues and the economic, cultural, and political forces operating in decision-making…

  9. Indian Law Enforcement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, David

    Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

  10. The Law of Elasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…

  11. Language and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  12. Laws for Young Mountaineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanawha County Board of Education, Charleston, WV.

    This booklet introduces secondary grade students to the criminal laws of West Virginia. It can easily be adapted and used by educators in other states. The authors believe that young people must recognize and understand these laws and the mechanisms which society uses to implement and enforce them if they are to function as an integral, important,…

  13. Pop Goes the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Law School Admission Council recently reported that applications were heading toward a 30-year low, reflecting, as a "New York Times" article put it, "increased concern over soaring tuition, crushing student debt, and diminishing prospects of lucrative employment upon graduation." Since 2004 the number of law-school applicants has dropped from…

  14. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ("Found Chem" 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all "ceteris paribus" laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are…

  15. Child Labor Laws in Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Jerry H.

    Child labor laws have not attracted much attention in recent years. Much of the basic legislation and the case law dates from the early part of the 20th century. This paper discusses the Mississippi statutory law on the subject, compares that law with legislation in five other States, and discusses case law in Mississippi and in other States.…

  16. Internal transport properties of macroporous sugar polyacrylate hydrogels: microsphere diffusion described by phenomenological laws.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brett D; Soto, Carissa M; Taitt, Chris; Charles, Paul T

    2008-04-01

    We have determined the internal transport properties of heterogeneous, macroporous hydrogels based on the regioregular sugar polyacrylate poly(6-acryloyl-beta-O-methyl-galactopyranoside). This was accomplished by measuring the diffusive flux of variously sized polystyrene microspheres and combining these results with solutions of phenomenological transport laws (the Navier-Stokes equations and Fick's Law with an assumption of first-order irreversible sphere capture by the gel polymer). This enabled calculation of gel properties such as average pore diameters (ca. 11.76 microm) and the diffusivities of the polystyrene spheres in the gel. These values range from 76% to 83% of that in free solution and correlate closely with the equilibrium solution content of the gel (82.3%). This approach has also enabled calculation of the sphere capture rates (2.4 x 10(-3) to 9.6 x 10(-5) s(-1)). These low capture rates indicate that the gel is extremely non-adhesive towards the spheres, and a linear correlation with sphere form drag area (r(2) = 1) was found. The pore sizes of the hydrated gel were observed via DIC light microscopy and the visible effective diameters corresponded very closely to the calculated values (11.66 vs. 11.76 microm). The diffusion/capture of inert spheres in the hydrogel can thus be described in a non-destructive manner by straightforward application of phenomenological transport laws. This result is significant in that these laws were intended to describe macroscopic ensembles of very large numbers of particles in continuous media, not small numbers (i.e., hundreds) in discontinuous media.

  17. Electrodynamic force law controversy.

    PubMed

    Graneau, P; Graneau, N

    2001-05-01

    Cavalleri et al. [Phys. Rev. E 52, 2505 (1998); Eur. J. Phys. 17, 205 (1996)] have attempted to resolve the electrodynamic force law controversy. This attempt to prove the validity of either the Ampère or Lorentz force law by theory and experiment has revealed only that the two are equivalent when predicting the force on part of a circuit due to the current in the complete circuit. However, in our analysis of internal stresses, only Ampère's force law agrees with experiment. PMID:11415053

  18. Sexuality and Australian law.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The author describes the changing legal environment concerning same-sex relationships in the common law world with special reference to Australia. He refers to shifts in public opinion recorded in opinion polls; important decisions of human rights courts and tribunals; and changes in national law and court decisions. He then reviews the Australian constitutional setting which divides lawmaking responsibility on such subjects between the federal, State and Territory legislatures. He describes initiatives adopted in the States and Territories and the more modest changes effected in federal law and practice. He concludes on a note of optimism concerning Australia's future reforms affecting discrimination on the grounds of sexuality.

  19. Epilepsy and criminal law.

    PubMed

    Paul, G M; Lange, K W

    1992-04-01

    Automatic episodes of aggressive or violent behaviour may occur during or after an epileptic fit. Epileptic automatisms are regarded by the law as 'insane automatisms'. A person who commits a crime during the course of a seizure is therefore legally insane and must be committed to a psychiatric hospital. The law of insanity is inappropriate when applied to epileptic automatisms. A change in the law is therefore necessary to remove epileptic offenders from the legal ambit of insanity, and to save them the threat of detention in a mental hospital as a consequence of their crime.

  20. Anomalous law of cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  1. Anomalous law of cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  2. Anomalous law of cooling.

    PubMed

    Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  3. The LSU Law Center -- Canada Bijuralism Conference. Introduction: Global Law and the Law School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costonis, John J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces papers from a conference focused on the bijural programs of Louisiana State University Law Center and McGill University Faculty of Law. The programs educate all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

  4. Disobeying Immoral Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Elfie

    1994-01-01

    Describes how one teacher continued to teach after becoming pregnant, even though this was against school policy. Reminds teachers that Henry Thoreau claimed it is moral to disobey an immoral law. (HB)

  5. The Biogenetic Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapadia, Ramesh

    1975-01-01

    A criterion for development of syllabi for mathematics courses is discussed. This criterion is based on the biogenetic law that individuals develop through all the stages of the development of the species. (SD)

  6. Preventive Law on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Paul; Tribbensee, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how, by fostering a teamwork relationship between administrators and university attorneys, the preventive law approach can effectively identify risks and develop strategies and policies in advance of any individual legal dispute. (EV)

  7. The "Natural Law Tradition."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnis, John

    1986-01-01

    A discussion of natural law outlines some of the theory and tradition surrounding it and examines its relationship to the social science and legal curriculum and to the teaching of jurisprudence. (MSE)

  8. The matching law

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Peter

    1972-01-01

    The matching law may be viewed either as an empirical generalization, and therby subject to disproof, or as part of a system of equations used to define the utility (“value”) of a reinforcer. In the latter case it is tautologous, and not subject to disproof within the defining context. A failure to obtain matching will most often be a signal that the independent variables have not been properly scaled. If, however, the proper transformations have been made on the independent variables, and matching is not obtained, the experimental paradigm may be outside the purview of the matching law. At that point, reinterpretations or revisions of the law are called for. The theoretical matching law is but one of many possible ways to define utility, and it may eventually be rejected in favor of a more useful definition. PMID:16811604

  9. Potential conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Kunzinger, Michael; Popovych, Roman O.

    2008-10-15

    We prove that potential conservation laws have characteristics depending only on local variables if and only if they are induced by local conservation laws. Therefore, characteristics of pure potential conservation laws have to essentially depend on potential variables. This statement provides a significant generalization of results of the recent paper by Bluman et al. [J. Math. Phys. 47, 113505 (2006)]. Moreover, we present extensions to gauged potential systems, Abelian and general coverings, and general foliated systems of differential equations. An example illustrating possible applications of these results is given. A special version of the Hadamard lemma for fiber bundles and the notions of weighted jet spaces are proposed as new tools for the investigation of potential conservation laws.

  10. Consequences of Lotka's Law for the Law of Bradford.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, L.

    1985-01-01

    After discussion of the equivalency of the information laws of Bradford, Leimkuhler, Lotka, and Mandelbrot, aberrations from Leimkuhler's law (including "Groos droop" as encountered in practice) are studied. Other aberrations of Leimkuhler's law are explained, starting from generalization of verbal formulation of Bradford's Law. (18 references)…

  11. Rediscovering Kepler's laws using Newton's gravitation law and NASA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springsteen, Paul; Keith, Jason

    2010-03-01

    Kepler's three laws of planetary motion were originally discovered by using data acquired from Tycho Brache's naked eye observations of the planets. We show how Kepler's third law can be reproduced using planetary data from NASA. We will also be using Newton's Gravitational law to explain why Kepler's three laws exist as they do.

  12. Water laws and concepts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1970-01-01

    Throughout human history various laws and customs have developed concerning the individual rights and rights in common to the waters of the earth. Many existing laws and concepts are clearly influenced by the environment in which they originated and reflect the relative abundance or scarcity of water. Many concepts reflect the people's original interests in the water and once established have been passed from generation to generation with little modification. Some laws and concepts have been carried by people in their migrations and colonial expansions to vastly different environments, with rather curious consequences. In many places water laws that had been well adapted to the natural environment have become less tenable because of man's activities in modifying that environment, or because of increasing use of water: Increasing consumptive use shifts the water economy toward lesser abundance or increasing deficiency; increasing nonconsumptive use results in pollution of the water resources, so that they become less suitable for other users. The water-rights systems in the United States vary from State to State: some are reasonably fitted to their environment, some have outlived their place in history, some are wasteful of water, some show favoritism to certain special interests or segments of the population. Water-use rights are universally recognized as real property, with constitutional protection against deprivation without due process of law.

  13. Fractal probability laws.

    PubMed

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    We explore six classes of fractal probability laws defined on the positive half-line: Weibull, Frechét, Lévy, hyper Pareto, hyper beta, and hyper shot noise. Each of these classes admits a unique statistical power-law structure, and is uniquely associated with a certain operation of renormalization. All six classes turn out to be one-dimensional projections of underlying Poisson processes which, in turn, are the unique fixed points of Poissonian renormalizations. The first three classes correspond to linear Poissonian renormalizations and are intimately related to extreme value theory (Weibull, Frechét) and to the central limit theorem (Lévy). The other three classes correspond to nonlinear Poissonian renormalizations. Pareto's law--commonly perceived as the "universal fractal probability distribution"--is merely a special case of the hyper Pareto class.

  14. "Insanity" in civil law.

    PubMed

    Kern, S R

    1986-07-01

    The issue of "insanity" is rarely alluded to in the area of civil law. As a consequence, the legal standard for insanity is not clearly understood by many psychiatrists. The standard derives from case law and is based upon statutory law in the criminal sector. A civil case will be presented where the question of "insanity" was raised. In this case an individual committed suicide and his insurance company refused to pay the beneficiaries of his life insurance policy based upon a provision in his policy that excluded payment in situations of suicide. His beneficiaries sued, claiming that the deceased was insane at the time of his suicide and therefore not responsible for his actions. The standard for insanity in New Jersey and the reasoning of the psychiatrists will be presented.

  15. Physical Laws for Mechanobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    2007-01-01

    Higher-level physical laws applicable to biological tissues are presented that will permit the modeling of metabolic activity at the cellular level, including variations in the mass of a tissue. Here the tissue is represented as a fluid/solid mixture, wherein molecular solutes transport within the fluid, and cells can migrate throughout the porous solid. Variations in mass can arise via exchanges in mass between the constituent phases within a control volume such that mass is conserved in the tissue overall. The governing balance laws for mass, momentum, energy, and entropy are a special case of those describing a chemically reacting mixture with diffusion. Thermodynamic constraints on the constitutive structure are addressed. Biophysics; Biomechanics; Brownian motion; Cell migration; Mixture theory; Thermodynamic laws; Tissue mechanics

  16. The trespasses of property law.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify a limit to the appropriate application of property law to the use and storage of bodily material. I argue here that property law ought to be limited to protecting 'contingent rights' and that recent cases where property rights have been recognised in semen represent the application of property law beyond this limit. I also suggest how the law ought to develop in order to avoid the overextensive use of property law.

  17. Law 20-30: Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, John; Jackson, Landis

    Law 20, in the Alberta (Canada) educational system, is an introductory course with three core modules: (1) "Nature of Law and Civil Law System," (2) "Contract Law," and (3) "Family Law." Law 30 consists of (1) "Basic Rights and Responsibilities," (2) "Labour Law," and (3) "Property Law." Two optional modules are available in each course if it is…

  18. Discipline and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1996-01-01

    Some superintendents'"zero-tolerance" stance on guns, drugs, and disruptive student behavior conflicts with federal laws (Individuals with Disabilities Act and Americans with Disabilities Act), which apply a "zero-reject" policy to many categories of students with disabilities. Superintendents should revamp policies and practices and think twice…

  19. Athletics and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appenzeller, Herb

    This book answers questions concerning athletics and the law. The chapters include trends in litigation, disruptive behavior, the changing attitude of the court toward married athletes, training rules, and good conduct codes. They include the problem of athletic travel, the changing role of state athletic associations with their diverse rules,…

  20. School Law Update--1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhehey, M. A., Ed.

    This book is a collection of 26 addresses made at the 23rd annual convention of the National Organization on Legal Problems of Education. It discusses issues surrounding school law in elementary, secondary, and higher education in 1977 and before. Some of the topics covered include collective bargaining, employee layoff, sex discrimination and…

  1. Law in Outer Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William G.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current practice and fascinating future of legal issues involved in outer space exploration and colonization. Current space law, by necessity, addresses broad principles rather than specific incidents. Nonetheless, it covers a variety of issues including commercial development, rescue agreements, object registration,…

  2. The Gas Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    Inquires into the individual names and dates which are associated with the various perfect gas laws on the basis of published and historically researched works. Indicates the presence of eight features in giving a scientist credit for a scientific discovery. (CC)

  3. Lectures on Law Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettleship, Lois

    Three lectures on law enforcement are presented that were prepared for study purposes at Johnson County Community College. The first lecture examines the fundamental ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and discusses their influence on the American Revolution, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. Major provisions of the Bill of…

  4. Wisconsin Law Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Law School.

    A substantial portion of this issue of the Wisconsin Law Review is devoted to collective negotiations in higher education. Articles included are: "The Status and Trends of Collective Negotiations for Faculty in Higher Education," by Donald H. Wollett; "The Scope of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education," by Michael H. Moskow; "Collective…

  5. Law as Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Joan Heiges

    1989-01-01

    Shows how teachers can increase students' general appreciation of literature and improve students' writing skills by studying literature with legal issues and images of the law. Cites several examples of such literature, including Geoffrey Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales," William Shakespeare's "Measure for Measure," and Jonathan Swift's "Gulliver's…

  6. [Epilepsy and Canon Law].

    PubMed

    Bonduelle, M

    1987-01-01

    The Canon Law (Codex Iuris Canonici), promulgated in 1917, was a classification of laws and jurisprudence which ruled the early Church, governed the ecclesiastical condition of Roman Church until its reorganisation in 1983. It forbade to be ordained or to exercise orders already received to "those who are or were epileptics either not quite in their right mind or possessed by the Evil One". All the context and in particular the paragraph which treated of bodily lacks, indicated that between these three conditions, there was juxtaposition and no confusion. The texts specified the foundations of these dispositions, not in a malefic view of epilepsy inherited from Morbus Sacer of Antiquity, but in decency and on account of risk incured by Eucharist in case of fit. Some derogations could attenuate the severity of these dispositions--as jurisprudence had taken progresses of Epileptology and therapeutics into consideration. In the new Code of Canon Law (1983) physical disabilities were removed from the text and also possessed evil and epilepsy, the only impediment being "insanity or other psychic defect" appreciation of which is done by experts. Concerning poorly controlled epilepsies, we believe that experts will be allowed to express their opinion and a new jurisprudence will make up for the silence of the law.

  7. Law and the Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idleman, Hillis K.

    One of eleven modules developed for secondary school consumer education, this document emphasizes the need of the consumer, especially the disadvantaged consumer, to understand the law and the protection it can offer. The material is presented in three columns: understandings (usually formulated as questions followed by commentary), suggested…

  8. Public Relations & the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Frank

    This monograph synthesizes the laws and regulations that form the basis of the right to representation in the court of public opinion by all who would seek to influence public and private decisions. It expresses the framework of human and social values that underlie this constitutional freedom and that give public relations and other management…

  9. Preventive Law Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Martha V.; Gullatt, David E.; Hardin, Dawn T.; Jannik, Catherine; Tollett, John R.

    This curriculum guide presents a context for preservice education and/or professional development in education law for teachers. Section 1, "Teacher Liability," discusses "Duty to Supervise,""Providing Reasonable Care,""Duty,""Preventing Student-to-Student Sexual Harassment,""Reporting Child Abuse,""Issuing Permission Slips,""Defense for…

  10. Environment Law Review--1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, H. Floyd; And Others

    This is the first of several volumes to be published annually in the field of environmental law. It contains material from periodicals published in early 1970, 1969, and several articles of special significance which appeared in periodicals bearing 1968 dates. It has been collected primarily for lawyers so they may have, in convenient reference…

  11. Reading and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Robert J., II, Ed.; Kilarr, Gary, Ed.

    The seven articles in this book examine the complex issues raised by new laws that affect reading instruction. The following topics are discussed: the origins of judicial activism in education; the decline in support for public education and in esteem for educators; reflected by the shift in responsibility for educational policy making; the…

  12. Environmental Law II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Continuing Legal Education in Colorado, Inc., Denver.

    Presented are papers delivered at a 1976 Colorado environmental law conference. Included in the publication are the conference schedule, the text of nine papers, background information on authors, and bibliography listings for each paper. Titles and topics of the papers are the following: (1) Water Resources Development and the Environment…

  13. Team Teaching School Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanko, John G.; Rogina, Raymond P.

    2005-01-01

    Graduate students preparing themselves for a career in school administration are typically apprehensive about the legal issues they will face in their first administrative position. After teaching school law for the first time, the author believed that there had to be a more effective way to reach these students rather than the traditional methods…

  14. Desegregation Law; An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Integrated Education Associates, Evanston, IL.

    This booklet is comprised of the following: (i) School desegregation law: recent developments (by J. Harold Flannery), dealing with several threshold questions such as: What is illegal school segregation? What must be done about it and by whom? What will be the role of the courts after desegregation? (ii) School desegregation--the past five years,…

  15. School Law: Background Checks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1988-01-01

    In an Oklahoma case, the district court ruled that the school district had failed to investigate the background of a teacher convicted of a second sexual abuse charge. School districts should examine personnel polices and practices, and the school lawyer should review state laws, regulations, and court cases. (MLF)

  16. Boyle's Law Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermens, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that ideal experiments fit into course time constraints and be meaningful, relevant to course content, safe, inexpensive, simple, reproducible, and easy to set up/maintain. Describes a Boyle's Law experiment that uses a minimum of equipment and meets the foregoing criteria. Apparatus used, procedures, and safety precautions are…

  17. A Boyle's Law Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sathe, Dileep V.

    1984-01-01

    The usual apparatus for demonstrating Boyle's law produces reasonably accurate results, but is not impressive as a demonstration because students cannot easily appreciate the change in pressure. An apparatus designed to produce a more effective demonstration is described. Procedures employed are also described. (JN)

  18. Charles's Law- -The Truth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spurgin, CB

    1989-01-01

    Errors in the teaching of the concepts of Charles's Law are traced back through history to a major French physics text published in 1816. Relevant original sources are quoted and remedies are suggested. Five major criticisms are summarized. (Author/CW)

  19. ADHD and School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    A review of the research and legal literature summarizes the status of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under school law. Following a brief introduction, discussion of ADHD as a disability notes the impact of ADHD on overall functioning and provides a table of diagnostic criteria for subtypes of ADHD. The following section focuses…

  20. Demonstrating Newton's Second Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricker, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an apparatus for demonstrating the second law of motion. Provides sample data and discusses the merits of this method over traditional methods of supplying a constant force. The method produces empirical best-fit lines which convincingly demonstrate that for a fixed mass, acceleration is proportional to force. (DDR)

  1. Archie's law - a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Paul W. J.

    2016-07-01

    When scientists apply Archie's first law they often include an extra parameter a, which was introduced about 10 years after the equation's first publication by Winsauer et al. (1952), and which is sometimes called the "tortuosity" or "lithology" parameter. This parameter is not, however, theoretically justified. Paradoxically, the Winsauer et al. (1952) form of Archie's law often performs better than the original, more theoretically correct version. The difference in the cementation exponent calculated from these two forms of Archie's law is important, and can lead to a misestimation of reserves by at least 20 % for typical reservoir parameter values. We have examined the apparent paradox, and conclude that while the theoretical form of the law is correct, the data that we have been analysing with Archie's law have been in error. There are at least three types of systematic error that are present in most measurements: (i) a porosity error, (ii) a pore fluid salinity error, and (iii) a temperature error. Each of these systematic errors is sufficient to ensure that a non-unity value of the parameter a is required in order to fit the electrical data well. Fortunately, the inclusion of this parameter in the fit has compensated for the presence of the systematic errors in the electrical and porosity data, leading to a value of cementation exponent that is correct. The exceptions are those cementation exponents that have been calculated for individual core plugs. We make a number of recommendations for reducing the systematic errors that contribute to the problem and suggest that the value of the parameter a may now be used as an indication of data quality.

  2. Hubble's Law Implies Benford's Law for Distances to Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Fox, Ronald F.

    2016-03-01

    A recent article by Alexopoulos and Leontsinis presented empirical evidence that the first digits of the distances from the Earth to galaxies are a reasonably good fit to the probabilities predicted by Benford's law, the well known logarithmic statistical distribution of significant digits. The purpose of the present article is to give a theoretical explanation, based on Hubble's law and mathematical properties of Benford's law, why galaxy distances might be expected to follow Benford's law. The new galaxy-distance law derived here, which is robust with respect to change of scale and base, to additive and multiplicative computational or observational errors, and to variability of the Hubble constant in both time and space, predicts that conformity to Benford's law will improve as more data on distances to galaxies becomes available. Conversely, with the logical derivation of this law presented here, the recent empirical observations may be viewed as independent evidence of the validity of Hubble's law.

  3. Vermont Law School's Unique Master of Studies in Environmental Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suagee, Dean B.

    2003-01-01

    Vermont Law School offers a 1-year master of studies in environmental law for which the only prerequisite is a bachelor's degree. A fellowship program waives tuition and provides stipends for American Indians taking the program. Courses on federal Indian law complement the program. The Native community at nearby Dartmouth College provides social…

  4. Bayes and the Law

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Berger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes’ theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods. We argue that Bayesian Networks (BNs), which automatically produce the necessary Bayesian calculations, provide an opportunity to address most concerns about using Bayes in the law. PMID:27398389

  5. Ethics and Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilacoba Ramos, Andrés

    2007-04-01

    Ethics are the set of moral rules that govern human conduct. Hegel, for his part, asserted that ethicity implied the full realization of freedom, as well as the suppression of it as arbitrariness. In this paper, we point out that, through the relation between Law and Ethics, we can discover how high are the Ethics of a society, as well as the adherence of its members to it.

  6. Upstream health law.

    PubMed

    Sage, William M; McIlhattan, Kelley

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, entrepreneurs are aggressively developing new technologies and business models designed to improve individual and population health, not just to deliver specialized medical care. Consumers of these goods and services are not yet "patients"; they are simply people. As this sector of the health care industry expands, it is likely to require new forms of legal governance, which we term "upstream health law." PMID:25565619

  7. Laws of population growth.

    PubMed

    Rozenfeld, Hernán D; Rybski, Diego; Andrade, José S; Batty, Michael; Stanley, H Eugene; Makse, Hernán A

    2008-12-01

    An important issue in the study of cities is defining a metropolitan area, because different definitions affect conclusions regarding the statistical distribution of urban activity. A commonly employed method of defining a metropolitan area is the Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), based on rules attempting to capture the notion of city as a functional economic region, and it is performed by using experience. The construction of MSAs is a time-consuming process and is typically done only for a subset (a few hundreds) of the most highly populated cities. Here, we introduce a method to designate metropolitan areas, denoted "City Clustering Algorithm" (CCA). The CCA is based on spatial distributions of the population at a fine geographic scale, defining a city beyond the scope of its administrative boundaries. We use the CCA to examine Gibrat's law of proportional growth, which postulates that the mean and standard deviation of the growth rate of cities are constant, independent of city size. We find that the mean growth rate of a cluster by utilizing the CCA exhibits deviations from Gibrat's law, and that the standard deviation decreases as a power law with respect to the city size. The CCA allows for the study of the underlying process leading to these deviations, which are shown to arise from the existence of long-range spatial correlations in population growth. These results have sociopolitical implications, for example, for the location of new economic development in cities of varied size. PMID:19033186

  8. Sexuality and the law.

    PubMed

    Portelli, C J

    1998-01-01

    Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care. PMID:12295182

  9. Enforcing pollution control laws

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.S.; Harrington, W.; Vaughan, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The heightened environmental consciousness of the 1970s prompted passage of a multitude of ambitious and unprecedented laws designed to clean up the environment and protect it for future generations. But beyond the mere passing of laws lay the difficult tasks of implementing, monitoring, and enforcing them. The authors of this book describe the current state of air and water pollution monitoring and enforcement activity a decade later, within the context of relevant legal, technological, and statistical developments. They mediate between the concerns of the theoretical literature-where it is generally assumed that violations are discovered and punished-and the real world-where violations are rarely discovered and almost never punished. Monitoring and enforcement procedures to date have been aimed at achieving initial rather than continuing compliance with regulations. The authors contend that it is time for a new approach focusing on the enduring problems of compliance. Economic models are used to show the extent of the difficulties involved in monitoring and enforcing pollution control laws on a continuous basis.

  10. Henry's Law and Noisy Knuckles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Doris R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Henry's Law which describes the relationship between the pressure of gas and the concentration of that gas in a solution. Presents an application of Henry's Law to the cracking of knuckles. (CCM)

  11. Turning around Newton's Second Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.

  12. Immigration Law & the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrini, Michelle, Ed.; Parins, Claire, Ed.; Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine is designed to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on immigration law and the American Dream. It includes 11 articles: (1) "U.S. Immigration Policy and Globalization" (P. Martin; S. Martin) explains how the…

  13. Lawyers, Law Students, and People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Thomas L.; Redmount, Robert S.

    Despite the myths and the movies, law teaching does little more than the most obvious things for its students. It is a sometimes clever, often boring, initiation rite for the legal profession, and it serves up reams of information about the law. However, the materials of law are the materials of human beings, and these experiences have to be…

  14. Practical Law in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Melinda, Ed.

    This book was written for teachers and students as a New Mexico supplement to "Street Law: A Course in Practical Law" (West Publishing Company, 1980), a text used in many high school law classes. The book may also be used as a teacher and student resource for civics, government, and other courses in the high school curriculum, or lay people might…

  15. Freedom under Law. Revised edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Public Schools, CO.

    This pamphlet identifies and explains Colorado laws as they apply to juveniles and adults. The handbook was specifically developed to help teenagers know how the laws protect them and how they are expected to comply with them. Two short sections discuss the necessity of having laws and give definitions of 12 legal terms such as felony and petty…

  16. Higher Education and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Nordin, Virginia Davis

    The proliferation of laws, regulations, and judicial opinions affecting higher education and the nature of the impact of these laws on the academic community are examined. Designed for use by both students and practitioners, the book employs the "case method" design based on the belief that law cases furnish the best sources for study and review…

  17. Estimation in the Power Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Hoben

    1981-01-01

    Psychophysicists neglect to consider how error should be characterized in applications of the power law. Failures of the power law to agree with certain theoretical predictions are examined. A power law with lognormal product structure is proposed and approximately unbiased parameter estimates given for several common estimation situations.…

  18. Accommodating Law Faculty with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Bonnie Poitras; Smith, Joseph F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The obligations of law schools, under federal law, to accommodate faculty with disabilities are examined. Employment provisions of the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the definition of a disabled individual are reviewed, and real and hypothetical scenarios in hiring and employing law teachers are…

  19. Tax Breaks for Law Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, Alan L.

    1981-01-01

    A guide to federal income tax law as it affects law students is presented. Some costs that may constitute valuable above-the-line deductions are identified: moving expenses, educational expenses, job-seeking expenses, and income averaging. Available from Washington and Lee University School of Law, Lexington, VA 24450, $5.50 sc) (MLW)

  20. Law-Focused Education: Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls. Malcolm Price Lab. School.

    This law-focused resource booklet is intended to help secondary level students learn about the civil law portion of Iowa's judicial system. The materials are designed to help students understand how to deal with conflict in a peaceful and orderly manner and how to cope with decision making in personal law situations as related to the family, the…

  1. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-07-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ( Found Chem 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all ceteris paribus laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally different to the laws of physics, because they involve approximations. Christie ( Stud Hist Philos Sci 25:613-629, 1994) and Christie and Christie ( Of minds and molecules. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 34-50, 2000) agree that the laws of chemistry are operationally different to the laws of physics, but claim that the distinction between exact and approximate laws is too simplistic to taxonomise them. Approximations in chemistry involve diverse kinds of activity and often what counts as a scientific law in chemistry is dictated by the context of its use in scientific practice. This paper addresses the question of what makes chemical laws distinctive independently of the separate question as to how they are related to the laws of physics. From an analysis of some candidate ceteris paribus laws in chemistry, this paper argues that there are two distinct kinds of ceteris paribus laws in chemistry; idealized and approximate chemical laws. Thus, while Christie ( Stud Hist Philos Sci 25:613-629, 1994) and Christie and Christie ( Of minds and molecules. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 34--50, 2000) are correct to point out that the candidate generalisations in chemistry are diverse and heterogeneous, a distinction between idealizations and approximations can nevertheless be used to successfully taxonomise them.

  2. Environmental law institute

    SciTech Connect

    Futrell, J.W.

    1993-10-01

    Congress and the Clinton Administration must consider reauthorizing some of the country's most important environmental statutes during a time of increasing environmental concern and decreasing financial resources. The debate over the U.S. environmental direction is fierce; yet if history is any guide, the result of the commotion will be better policy. The constant tugging and pulling may slog the law-making process, but resulting policy is often much better because of it. Fundamental policy issues continue to be as pertinent today as they were in the 1970s.

  3. On integrable conservation laws

    PubMed Central

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo; Moro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We study normal forms of scalar integrable dispersive (not necessarily Hamiltonian) conservation laws, via the Dubrovin–Zhang perturbative scheme. Our computations support the conjecture that such normal forms are parametrized by infinitely many arbitrary functions that can be identified with the coefficients of the quasi-linear part of the equation. Moreover, in general, we conjecture that two scalar integrable evolutionary partial differential equations having the same quasi-linear part are Miura equivalent. This conjecture is also consistent with the tensorial behaviour of these coefficients under general Miura transformations. PMID:25568614

  4. Epilepsy and law.

    PubMed

    Beran, Roy G

    2008-05-01

    Epilepsy can define who one is rather than the diagnosis one has. It may be considered under the rubric of disability with legislative protection against discrimination. Those seeking remedy should investigate alternative dispute resolution in preference to litigation. Many areas of the life of a person with epilepsy deserve examination when considering epilepsy and law. Just some of these include: duty of care; informed consent; driving; research; social interactions; insurance; recreational pursuits; employment; and privacy. This article examines the legal implications and ramifications of these selected topics, acknowledging that the limited scope of the article has only exposed the tip of the iceberg to encourage further exploration. PMID:18234559

  5. PSYCHIATRY AND THE LAW

    PubMed Central

    Zeifert, Mark

    1957-01-01

    In Rex vs. Arnold (1724) it was held that to avail himself of the defense of insanity “a man must be totally deprived of his understanding and memory, so as not to know what he is doing, no more than an infant, a brute, or a wild beast.” Although there has been some modification of this formula in most jurisdictions, the courts still operate under the McNaghten Rule (1843) which is no more logical and actually is more difficult to apply. That such a situation exists in 1956 is a reflection on the indifference of society—and particularly the courts which it elects—as well as on the failure of modern psychiatry to communicate its viewpoint to society. If we are to correct the sad formulae of the “right and wrong” and “policeman at the elbow” tests, we must have more study and better methods of communication in this area. A similar state of confusion exists in the methods of commitment of mentally ill people to psychiatric hospitals. The methods prescribed by law are archaic and cruel—and again reflect the failure of modern psychiatry to communicate its understanding to the legislatures and courts. There are many other areas of conflict between law (which looks to the past for its insights) and psychiatry (which seeks for its concepts in the current scientific advances). PMID:13383383

  6. Psychiatry and the law.

    PubMed

    ZEIFERT, M

    1957-01-01

    In Rex vs. Arnold (1724) it was held that to avail himself of the defense of insanity "a man must be totally deprived of his understanding and memory, so as not to know what he is doing, no more than an infant, a brute, or a wild beast." Although there has been some modification of this formula in most jurisdictions, the courts still operate under the McNaghten Rule (1843) which is no more logical and actually is more difficult to apply. That such a situation exists in 1956 is a reflection on the indifference of society-and particularly the courts which it elects-as well as on the failure of modern psychiatry to communicate its viewpoint to society. If we are to correct the sad formulae of the "right and wrong" and "policeman at the elbow" tests, we must have more study and better methods of communication in this area.A similar state of confusion exists in the methods of commitment of mentally ill people to psychiatric hospitals. The methods prescribed by law are archaic and cruel-and again reflect the failure of modern psychiatry to communicate its understanding to the legislatures and courts. There are many other areas of conflict between law (which looks to the past for its insights) and psychiatry (which seeks for its concepts in the current scientific advances).

  7. Fault tolerant control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, U. L.; Ho, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    A systematic procedure for the synthesis of fault tolerant control laws to actuator failure has been presented. Two design methods were used to synthesize fault tolerant controllers: the conventional LQ design method and a direct feedback controller design method SANDY. The latter method is used primarily to streamline the full-state Q feedback design into a practical implementable output feedback controller structure. To achieve robustness to control actuator failure, the redundant surfaces are properly balanced according to their control effectiveness. A simple gain schedule based on the landing gear up/down logic involving only three gains was developed to handle three design flight conditions: Mach .25 and Mach .60 at 5000 ft and Mach .90 at 20,000 ft. The fault tolerant control law developed in this study provides good stability augmentation and performance for the relaxed static stability aircraft. The augmented aircraft responses are found to be invariant to the presence of a failure. Furthermore, single-loop stability margins of +6 dB in gain and +30 deg in phase were achieved along with -40 dB/decade rolloff at high frequency.

  8. Relations between Continuous Versions of Bibliometric Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Ronald

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrates how the addition of a third "hidden" variable to the two parameters in Lotka's law makes this law equivalent, in a strictly logical sense, with Mandelbrot's law. Similarly, Lotka's inverse square law is made equivalent with Leimkuhler's law. It is also shown how Pareto's law fits into this framework. (29 references) (Author/CLB)

  9. Zipf law: an extreme perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-04-01

    Extreme value theory (EVT) asserts that the Fréchet law emerges universally from linearly scaled maxima of collections of independent and identically distributed random variables that are positive-valued. Observations of many real-world sizes, e.g. city-sizes, give rise to the Zipf law: if we rank the sizes decreasingly, and plot the log-sizes versus the log-ranks, then an affine line emerges. In this paper we present an EVT approach to the Zipf law. Specifically, we establish that whenever the Fréchet law emerges from the EVT setting, then the Zipf law follows. The EVT generation of the Zipf law, its universality, and its associated phase transition, are analyzed and described in detail.

  10. Videofile for Law Enforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Components of a videotape storage and retrieval system originally developed for NASA have been adapted as a tool for law enforcement agencies. Ampex Corp., Redwood City, Cal., built a unique system for NASA-Marshall. The first application of professional broadcast technology to computerized record-keeping, it incorporates new equipment for transporting tapes within the system. After completing the NASA system, Ampex continued development, primarily to improve image resolution. The resulting advanced system, known as the Ampex Videofile, offers advantages over microfilm for filing, storing, retrieving, and distributing large volumes of information. The system's computer stores information in digital code rather than in pictorial form. While microfilm allows visual storage of whole documents, it requires a step before usage--developing the film. With Videofile, the actual document is recorded, complete with photos and graphic material, and a picture of the document is available instantly.

  11. LAWS hurricane studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molinari, John

    1995-01-01

    The Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) has recently been deselected from the Earth Observing System (EOS). A broad range of orbital altitudes and laser power are being considered for future wind lidar missions. As a result, as was anticipated in the proposed work, it may be impossible to meaningfully study tropical cyclones with lidar wind data because data coverage (i.e., swath width) is insufficient. Research on this grant has focused on how to maximize the benefits of a wind lidar regardless of the choice of platform or laser. Our studies have shown that major unsolved problems in tropical meteorology relate to the structure, dynamics, and role in tropical cyclogenesis of 'easterly waves'. These disturbances exist almost everywhere in the global subtropics. Results are described that focus upon easterly wave impacts on eastern Pacific tropical cyclogenesis. The availability of wind lidar data would create tremendous opportunities for the study of these waves and their role in the general circulation.

  12. Feminism, law, and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, K H

    1996-03-01

    Feminist legal theory provides a healthy skepticism toward legal doctrine and insists that we reexamine even formally gender-neutral rules to uncover problematic assumptions behind them. The article first outlines feminist legal theory from the perspectives of liberal, cultural, and radical feminism. Examples of how each theory influences legal practice, case law, and legislation are highlighted. Each perspective is then applied to a contemporary bioethical issue, egg donation. Following a brief discussion of the common themes shared by feminist jurisprudence, the article incorporates a narrative reflecting on the integration of the common feminist themes in the context of the passage of the Maryland Health Care Decisions Act. The article concludes that gender does matter and that an understanding of feminist legal theory and practice will enrich the analysis of contemporary bioethical issues.

  13. Evaluating the laws defining blindness.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, E

    1992-06-01

    The law defining legal blindness was written in 1935, and has not been updated since. A historical view of the background in the development of this law and a comparison to laws used in other countries helps to point out some problems with the current definition. As the population gets older, the prevalence of visual impairment will be increasing. To administer programs, distribute funding, and ensure adequate care, the problems inherent in the definition of legal blindness must be addressed, and the law must be revised. PMID:1634739

  14. Teaching of Administrative Law in the New Grade of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domínguez Alonso, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of Administrative Law in the new grade of law poses numerous challenges and opportunities in the new model of Bologna. It's really important work of research and students in class presentations. It is also important to motivate students to study the issues and cases brought before classes and to use virtual platforms to interact with…

  15. Library Laws Handbook: State Laws Relating to Michigan Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Library, Lansing.

    This document presents excerpts and copies of state laws relating to Michigan libraries. The following are included: the Preamble of the Constitution of Michigan of 1963; Legislative Council Act (excerpt); Incompatible Public Offices; Freedom of Information Act; Open Meetings Act; Laws, Documents, and Reports (excerpts); Administrative Procedures…

  16. Educational Opportunities in "Law and Medicine" in Law Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Harold L.

    1975-01-01

    Noting the rapid expansion of forensic or legal medicine the author reports a survey conducted to determine the medical-legal education opportunities in American law schools. Findings showed that in 73 percent of the schools courses in law and medicine or forensic psychiatry are offered but many are limited in scope. (JT)

  17. Everyday Law for Children. The Everyday Law Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, David J.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides an accessible introduction to laws that affect children and families, and the dominant public debates that surround and drive these laws. Using real-world examples, the book exposes the tension between reliance on the private, autonomous family and the public's desire to secure child wellbeing. A look at some public systems,…

  18. Bijuralism in Law's Empire and in Law's Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasirer, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    Using the example of McGill University's bijural program, explores how teaching the common and civil law traditions together provides an opportunity to teach in law's "cosmos" rather than its "empire," so that a bijural legal education can plainly and confidently ally itself with the great university tradition of prizing knowledge over…

  19. Experimental Verification of Boyle's Law and the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Dragia Trifonov

    2007-01-01

    Two new experiments are offered concerning the experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law. To carry out the experiments, glass tubes, water, a syringe and a metal manometer are used. The pressure of the saturated water vapour is taken into consideration. For educational purposes, the experiments are characterized by their…

  20. Living Together under the Law: An Elementary Education Law Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    Designed for use by teachers in grades 1 through 6, this program is intended to teach children about the nature and function of rules and law. The program is comprised of 10 sequential themes. The first three themes are that rules and laws are essential and play an important role in our lives; have certain characteristics in common; and evolve…

  1. Experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov Ivanov, Dragia

    2007-03-01

    We offer two new experiments concerning the experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law. To carry out the experiments we use glass tubes, water, a syringe and a metal manometer. The pressure of the saturated water vapour is taken into consideration. For educational purposes, the experiments are characterized by their accessibility and the considerable precision of results.

  2. Economics of mining law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  3. Practical Law in Utah. Utah Supplement to "Street Law." Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City. Statewide Clearinghouse on Law-Related Education.

    This textbook for high school students on law in Utah supplements "Street Law: A Course in Practical Law," a program in law-related education in use across the United States. The introduction explains the meaning of law, how laws are made in Utah, and the functions of the state court system. Following chapters elucidate the branches of law,…

  4. School Law in Review, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.

    This is a compilation of presentations delivered at the National School Boards Association Council of School Attorneys' Annual School Law Seminar: (1) "Environmental Hazards for Urban Schools Facing the New Challenge" (Kelly Frels, Kevin A. Ewing, Timothy A. Wilkins, Jason B. Hutt); (2) "How Accommodating? High-Stakes Testing and Federal Laws That…

  5. Preventive Law for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Harold L.

    This chapter focuses on the need for a revised relationship between schools and the courts through the concept of preventive law. The chapter reviews court cases and presents an overview of conflict resolution models and strategies for reducing litigation. Preventive law assumes that greater use of its strategies affords a lesser need for conflict…

  6. Ohio Laws for Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Patrick

    Presented are texts of Ohio state laws regarding the provision and funding of special educational programs, school attendance, and related issues. Laws regarding special educational programs deal with such topics as classes and training of teachers for the handicapped, inspection of classes, programs for the gifted, definition of handicapped…

  7. Playing FAIR in Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Craig K.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Brigham Young University's reading and study skills course for law students, which is designed to increase reading speed and comprehension. Explains the use of the FAIR (Facts, Action, Issues, and Reasoning) system for analyzing law cases. Covers student reactions and modifications implemented in course design. (AYC)

  8. Exact law of live nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel, Mark Ya.

    2005-07-01

    Exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal- environment interactions (metabolism etc) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kind of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  9. California's New School Finance Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindman, Erick L.

    Following a touch-and-go struggle in the California legislature, a school finance reform law, known as the Property Tax Relief Act of 1972, was passed. The contents of this act were affected in part by the California Supreme Court decision--Serrano vs Priest. The new law includes boosts in foundation programs, expressed in dollar amounts per pupil…

  10. Interpretation of the Omori law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    The known Omori law is presented in the form of differential equation that describes the evolution of the aftershock activity. This equation is derived hypothetically with taking into account deactivation of the faults in epicentral zone of the main shock. A generalization of the Omori law is proposed.

  11. Molecular Size and Raoult's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    1985-01-01

    The concept of an ideal solution is ordinarily introduced in freshman chemistry by means of Raoult's Law, which states that the vapor pressure of a volatile component of a solution is proportional to its mole fraction. The relationship of this law to molecular size is discussed. (JN)

  12. The Coming Law School Bubble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Michael I.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author explains how forty years of politicized hiring in the law schools has left its destructive mark. The results are potentially catastrophic: Market forces and internal law school policies may be combining to produce a legal education bubble the likes of which the country has never seen. (Contains 11 footnotes.)

  13. Anisotropic power-law inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro; Watanabe, Masa-aki E-mail: jiro@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2010-12-01

    We study an inflationary scenario in supergravity model with a gauge kinetic function. We find exact anisotropic power-law inflationary solutions when both the potential function for an inflaton and the gauge kinetic function are exponential type. The dynamical system analysis tells us that the anisotropic power-law inflation is an attractor for a large parameter region.

  14. The First Law of Elasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girill, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Boyle-Mariotte gas law was formulated in terms of pneumatic springs," subsumed by Hooke under his own stress-strain relation, and generally regarded as a law of elasticity. The subsequent development of Boyle's principle and elasticity provide thought-provoking test cases for Kuhn's notations of paradigm and puzzle solving in physics.…

  15. Ocean and Coastal Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, David A.

    First of all, this is not the typical book that one expects to see reviewed in Eos, but, read on. It should be clear, by now, even to the most esoteric geophysicist, that lawyers and jurists are taking very close looks at many coastal zone and offshore marine activities. More importantly, there are a wide variety of laws (both at the state and the national levels) and international regulations that determine how we now use or will use our coastal region including how and where we will do marine scientific research. Recently, a Presidential Proclamation (March 1983) declared a 200-mile exclusive economic zone for the United States. The President, in the accompanying statements to the Proclamation, has called special attention to polymetallic sulfide deposits (Is someone in the White House reading Eos?) in what will now be U.S. waters (i.e., the Juan de Fuca region). Well, if you or your colleagues want to know more about U.S. and individual state rules for management and use of our marine areas, this might be the book for you.

  16. Science without laws.

    PubMed

    Schweber, Silvan S

    2009-01-01

    During the 1970s, something deeply consequential happened in the cultural, economic, and social relationships between science and technology. Paul Forman has proposed that the abrupt reversal of the culturally ascribed primacy in the science-technology relationship circa 1980 be taken as a demarcation of postmodernity from modernity. Modernity's most basic cultural presuppositions-the superiority of theory to practice, the elevation of the public over the private and that of the disinterested over the interested, and the belief that the means sanctify the ends-were ascribed to science. In postmodernity, science is subsumed under technology, and the status of technology relative to science reflects our pragmatic-utilitarian subordination of means to ends. These cultural changes have resonated with deep epistemological and ontological changes within the sciences themselves, and all these have manifested themselves in universities becoming entrepreneurial, and the consequences thereof. Science Without Laws insightfully illustrates some of the changes within the life and human sciences by analyzing the role played by model systems and case studies.

  17. Hack's Law: Sinuosity, convexity, elongation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willemin, James H.

    2000-11-01

    Hack's law, an empirical, power law relationship between drainage basin area and the length of the main stream channel, has long been taken to imply that drainage basins become more elongate (relatively longer and narrower) with increasing basin size. A study of the geometry of 38 basins from three distinct geomorphic settings shows that this geometric interpretation of Hack's law is only occasionally true: Even though Hack's power law relationship holds between basin area and main channel length, these basins do not necessarily become more elongate with increasing size. Rather, Hack's law is an expression of a balance between changes in basin shape and changes in channel planform geometry. For the basins in this study, changes in channel sinuosity play the most important role in this balance; changes in basin shape are far less regular. Local conditions appear to determine the partitioning of importance between changes in basin shape and channel sinuosity.

  18. Human rights and health law.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2006-08-01

    Important statutory and common law developments are changing the landscape of health law in Australia. Human rights considerations are formally included amongst the factors to be applied in the interpretation of statutory provisions and evaluating the lawfulness of actions on the part of government instrumentalities. The Human Rights Act 2004 (ACT) and the Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Vic) create limited bills of rights at State/Territory level in two Australian jurisdictions. Although neither is entrenched, they have the potential to make it more difficult for government to promulgate laws that are inconsistent with human rights, as defined. They will have important repercussions for the evolution of health law in these jurisdictions. The decision of Royal Women's Hospital v Medical Practitioners Board (Vic) [2006] VSCA 85 by the Victorian Court of Appeal has also provided a legitimation for parties to incorporate human rights perspectives in submissions about the interpretation of statutory provisions where health rights are in conflict.

  19. Reflections on international medical law.

    PubMed

    Wattad, Mohammed S; Hrevtsova, Radmyla Yu

    2011-12-01

    Does international medical law exist, in the first place, as an independent area of study? If so, is it urgently required in an era of comparative studies? Namely, to what extent, if at all, international studies differ from comparative ones? Besides, what are the particular characteristics of such international discipline? Namely, what are the particular features of this field that elaborate on our legal and scientific understanding in sketching possible definition for this notion of "international medical law?" In addition, how does international medical law correlate with health, ethics and health policies in our globalized world? And finally, what are the challenges that might face the international community, once the concept of "international medical law" is acknowledged? This papers aims at establishing the conceptual grounds for these questions, thus calling for the acknowledgment of a new field of study described as "international medical law".

  20. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  1. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  2. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  3. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  4. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  5. State medical marijuana laws: understanding the laws and their limitations.

    PubMed

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Chriqui, Jamie F; Reichmann, Deborah A; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M

    2002-01-01

    Significant attention has been given to the debate regarding allowances for medical marijuana use since the 1996 California and Arizona ballot initiatives. State medical marijuana allowances, however, have existed since the mid-1970s. Much of the current debate stems from confusion about the various ways states approach the issue. In this paper, we present original legal research on current state medical marijuana laws identifying four different ways states statutorily enable the medical use of marijuana. We discuss the tension these approaches have with federal law as well as their implications regarding real access for patients. In addition, we present information on how a small number of states are trying to deal with the issue of access within the context of their medical marijuana laws, and discuss the implication of various supply approaches on the enforcement of other state marijuana laws.

  6. Zipf's Law in Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Chikara; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2003-02-01

    Using data from gene expression databases on various organisms and tissues, including yeast, nematodes, human normal and cancer tissues, and embryonic stem cells, we found that the abundances of expressed genes exhibit a power-law distribution with an exponent close to -1; i.e., they obey Zipf’s law. Furthermore, by simulations of a simple model with an intracellular reaction network, we found that Zipf’s law of chemical abundance is a universal feature of cells where such a network optimizes the efficiency and faithfulness of self-reproduction. These findings provide novel insights into the nature of the organization of reaction dynamics in living cells.

  7. 76 FR 4369 - Special Law Enforcement Commissions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Special Law Enforcement Commissions AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the online publication of the Interim Special Law Enforcement Commission Policy, Rules and Procedures, the Interim Special Law Enforcement Commission...

  8. Outer space law: A problem of astronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, V.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of space law is discussed from the point of view of similarities and differences between hypothetical space law and current (1932) aviation law. International legal aspects and economic and cultural effects are also addressed.

  9. An alternative to Zoe's Law.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, James

    2015-03-01

    Under the criminal law of New South Wales, the destruction of a foetus (other than in the course of a medical procedure) constitutes grievous bodily harm to the pregnant woman. Charges can be laid for offences against the woman, but not against the foetus. Many are dissatisfied with this. The Crimes Amendment (Zoe's Law) Bill 2013 (No 2) (NSW) aimed to change this by providing that a foetus is taken to be a living person for the purposes of certain offences. The Bill was strongly opposed on the basis that according personhood to a foetus in this way will have undesirable consequences that could erode the reproductive rights of women. The public debate over how the criminal law addresses the destruction of a foetus has centred on Zoe's Law. This article proposes an alternative amendment. that aims, to accommodate the concerns of the Bill's supporters and its detractors.

  10. Friction laws for lubricated nanocontacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzio, R.; Boragno, C.; Valbusa, U.

    2006-09-01

    We have used friction force microscopy to probe friction laws for nanoasperities sliding on atomically flat substrates under controlled atmosphere and liquid environment, respectively. A power law relates friction force and normal load in dry air, whereas a linear relationship, i.e., Amontons' law, is observed for junctions fully immersed in model lubricants, namely, octamethylciclotetrasiloxane and squalane. Lubricated contacts display a remarkable friction reduction, with liquid and substrate specific friction coefficients. Comparison with molecular dynamics simulations suggests that load-bearing boundary layers at junction entrance cause the appearance of Amontons' law and impart atomic-scale character to the sliding process; continuum friction models are on the contrary of limited predictive power when applied to lubrication effects. An attempt is done to define general working conditions leading to the manifestation of nanoscale lubricity due to adsorbed boundary layers.

  11. International law and communicable diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2002-01-01

    Historically, international law has played a key role in global communicable disease surveillance. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation-states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, communicable diseases have continued to re-shape the boundaries of global health governance through legally binding and "soft-law" regimes negotiated and adopted within the mandate of multilateral institutions - the World Health Organization, the World Trade Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the Office International des Epizooties. The globalization of public health has employed international law as an indispensable tool in global health governance aimed at diminishing human vulnerability to the mortality and morbidity burdens of communicable diseases. PMID:12571722

  12. An alternative to Zoe's Law.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, James

    2015-03-01

    Under the criminal law of New South Wales, the destruction of a foetus (other than in the course of a medical procedure) constitutes grievous bodily harm to the pregnant woman. Charges can be laid for offences against the woman, but not against the foetus. Many are dissatisfied with this. The Crimes Amendment (Zoe's Law) Bill 2013 (No 2) (NSW) aimed to change this by providing that a foetus is taken to be a living person for the purposes of certain offences. The Bill was strongly opposed on the basis that according personhood to a foetus in this way will have undesirable consequences that could erode the reproductive rights of women. The public debate over how the criminal law addresses the destruction of a foetus has centred on Zoe's Law. This article proposes an alternative amendment. that aims, to accommodate the concerns of the Bill's supporters and its detractors. PMID:25980199

  13. The brain and the law.

    PubMed Central

    Chorvat, Terrence; McCabe, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Much has been written about how law as an institution has developed to solve many problems that human societies face. Inherent in all of these explanations are models of how humans make decisions. This article discusses what current neuroscience research tells us about the mechanisms of human decision making of particular relevance to law. This research indicates that humans are both more capable of solving many problems than standard economic models predict, but also limited in ways those models ignore. This article discusses how law is both shaped by our cognitive processes and also shapes them. The article considers some of the implications of this research for improving our understanding of how our current legal regimes operate and how the law can be structured to take advantage of our neural mechanisms to improve social welfare. PMID:15590613

  14. International Megan's Law of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Smith, Christopher H. [R-NJ-4

    2009-03-19

    04/27/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Collective Bargaining Laws in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrander, Kenneth H.

    1975-01-01

    This author discusses the five elements in the pattern of emerging education legislation. As more states develop laws governing collective bargaining, they will look to the states that have blazed the way, as outlined here. (Editor)

  16. International law and communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2002-01-01

    Historically, international law has played a key role in global communicable disease surveillance. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation-states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, communicable diseases have continued to re-shape the boundaries of global health governance through legally binding and "soft-law" regimes negotiated and adopted within the mandate of multilateral institutions - the World Health Organization, the World Trade Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the Office International des Epizooties. The globalization of public health has employed international law as an indispensable tool in global health governance aimed at diminishing human vulnerability to the mortality and morbidity burdens of communicable diseases.

  17. Law in the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Ronald A.

    1970-01-01

    An evaluation is made of existing teacher guides and curricula, and proposals are given for curriculum improvements in the areas of Jurisprudence, Law, and Civics at the elementary and secondary level. (EJS)

  18. Novel Third-Law Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonc, William

    1995-01-01

    Presents an easy method to demonstrate Third-Law interactions using identical button magnets sliding along a smooth (nonmagnetic) knitting needle. Explains the gravitational and magnetic interactions in the case of horizontal and vertical positions of the needle. (JRH)

  19. Health Law as Social Justice.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2014-01-01

    Health law is in the midst of a dramatic transformation. From a relatively narrow discipline focused on regulating relationships among individual patients, health care providers, and third-party payers, it is expanding into a far broader field with a burgeoning commitment to access to health care and assurance of healthy living conditions as matters of social justice. Through a series of incremental reform efforts stretching back decades before the Affordable Care Act and encompassing public health law as well as the law of health care financing and delivery, reducing health disparities has become a central focus of American health law and policy. This Article labels, describes, and furthers a nascent "health justice" movement by examining what it means to view health law as an instrument of social justice. Drawing on the experiences of the reproductive justice, environmental justice, and food justice movements, and on the writings of political philosophers and ethicists on health justice, I propose that health justice offers an alternative to the market competition and patient rights paradigms that currently dominate health law scholarship, advocacy, and reform. I then examine the role of law in reducing health disparities through the health justice lens. I argue that the nascent health justice framework suggests three commitments for the use of law to reduce health disparities. First, to a broader inquiry that views access to health care as one among many social determinants of health deserving of public attention and resources. Second, to probing inquiry into the effects of class, racial, and other forms of social and cultural bias on the design and implementation of measures to reduce health disparities. And third, to collective action grounded in community engagement and participatory parity. In exploring these commitments, I highlight tensions within the social justice framework and between the social justice framework and the nascent health justice movement

  20. Health Law as Social Justice.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2014-01-01

    Health law is in the midst of a dramatic transformation. From a relatively narrow discipline focused on regulating relationships among individual patients, health care providers, and third-party payers, it is expanding into a far broader field with a burgeoning commitment to access to health care and assurance of healthy living conditions as matters of social justice. Through a series of incremental reform efforts stretching back decades before the Affordable Care Act and encompassing public health law as well as the law of health care financing and delivery, reducing health disparities has become a central focus of American health law and policy. This Article labels, describes, and furthers a nascent "health justice" movement by examining what it means to view health law as an instrument of social justice. Drawing on the experiences of the reproductive justice, environmental justice, and food justice movements, and on the writings of political philosophers and ethicists on health justice, I propose that health justice offers an alternative to the market competition and patient rights paradigms that currently dominate health law scholarship, advocacy, and reform. I then examine the role of law in reducing health disparities through the health justice lens. I argue that the nascent health justice framework suggests three commitments for the use of law to reduce health disparities. First, to a broader inquiry that views access to health care as one among many social determinants of health deserving of public attention and resources. Second, to probing inquiry into the effects of class, racial, and other forms of social and cultural bias on the design and implementation of measures to reduce health disparities. And third, to collective action grounded in community engagement and participatory parity. In exploring these commitments, I highlight tensions within the social justice framework and between the social justice framework and the nascent health justice movement

  1. Allometric scaling laws of metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Jafferson Kamphorst Leal; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Barbosa, Lauro A.

    2006-12-01

    One of the most pervasive laws in biology is the allometric scaling, whereby a biological variable Y is related to the mass M of the organism by a power law, Y=YM, where b is the so-called allometric exponent. The origin of these power laws is still a matter of dispute mainly because biological laws, in general, do not follow from physical ones in a simple manner. In this work, we review the interspecific allometry of metabolic rates, where recent progress in the understanding of the interplay between geometrical, physical and biological constraints has been achieved. For many years, it was a universal belief that the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of all organisms is described by Kleiber's law (allometric exponent b=3/4). A few years ago, a theoretical basis for this law was proposed, based on a resource distribution network common to all organisms. Nevertheless, the 3/4-law has been questioned recently. First, there is an ongoing debate as to whether the empirical value of b is 3/4 or 2/3, or even nonuniversal. Second, some mathematical and conceptual errors were found these network models, weakening the proposed theoretical arguments. Another pertinent observation is that the maximal aerobically sustained metabolic rate of endotherms scales with an exponent larger than that of BMR. Here we present a critical discussion of the theoretical models proposed to explain the scaling of metabolic rates, and compare the predicted exponents with a review of the experimental literature. Our main conclusion is that although there is not a universal exponent, it should be possible to develop a unified theory for the common origin of the allometric scaling laws of metabolism.

  2. Exact law of live nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel‧, Mark Ya.

    2005-08-01

    The exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal-environment interactions (metabolism, etc.) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single-cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such a law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kinds of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species-specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single-cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  3. Teaching medical ethics and law.

    PubMed

    Parker, Malcolm

    2012-03-01

    The teaching of medical ethics is not yet characterised by recognised, standard requirements for formal qualifications, training and experience; this is not surprising as the field is still relatively young and maturing. Under the broad issue of the requirements for teaching medical ethics are numerous more specific questions, one of which concerns whether medical ethics can be taught in isolation from considerations of the law, and vice versa. Ethics and law are cognate, though distinguishable, disciplines. In a practical, professional enterprise such as medicine, they cannot and should not be taught as separate subjects. One way of introducing students to the links and tensions between medical ethics and law is to consider the history of law via its natural and positive traditions. This encourages understanding of how medical practice is placed within the contexts of ethics and law in the pluralist societies in which most students will practise. Four examples of topics from medical ethics teaching are described to support this claim. Australasian medical ethics teachers have paid less attention to the role of law in their curricula than their United Kingdom counterparts. Questions like the one addressed here will help inform future deliberations concerning minimal requirements for teaching medical ethics.

  4. Casuistry as common law morality.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    This article elaborates on the relation between ethical casuistry and common law reasoning. Despite the frequent talk of casuistry as common law morality, remarks on this issue largely remain at the purely metaphorical level. The article outlines and scrutinizes Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin's version of casuistry and its basic elements. Drawing lessons for casuistry from common law reasoning, it is argued that one generally has to be faithful to ethical paradigms. There are, however, limitations for the binding force of paradigms. The most important limitations--the possibilities of overruling and distinguishing paradigm norms--are similar in common law and in casuistry, or so it is argued. These limitations explain why casuistry is not necessarily overly conservative and conventional, which is one line of criticism to which casuists can now better respond. Another line of criticism has it that the very reasoning from case to case is extremely unclear in casuistry. I suggest a certain model of analogical reasoning to address this critique. All my suggestions to understand and to enhance casuistry make use of common law reasoning whilst remaining faithful to Jonsen and Toulmin's main ideas and commitments. Further developed along these lines, casuistry can appropriately be called "common law morality." PMID:26576963

  5. Surface Processes and Hack's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walcott, R.

    2010-12-01

    Hack’s law describes the non-linear relationship between the area of a catchment and the length of the longest stream within it. First described in the 1950’s based on a small area in the Appalachians, more recent studies have suggested that this relationship is consistent for over 13 orders of magnitude. As a result Hack’s law is generally considered as one of the fundamental morphological relationships of geomorphology and much effort has been devoted to understanding its origins. This law suggests that catchments are scale independent, however, recent work has demonstrated that the form of catchments varies depending on the type of surface processes operating within the catchment. In this paper we analyse the relationship between hillslope processes and Hack’s law for catchments that range over several orders of magnitude in size in the Himalaya and Chile. We show that Hack’s law varies systematically depending on the mean slope of a catchment. As the dominant process that operates within a catchment also varies with slope and scales with catchment size our findings have important implications for the robustness of Hack’s law and the scale independence of catchments.

  6. Entropic Corrections to Coulomb's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendi, S. H.; Sheykhi, A.

    2012-04-01

    Two well-known quantum corrections to the area law have been introduced in the literatures, namely, logarithmic and power-law corrections. Logarithmic corrections, arises from loop quantum gravity due to thermal equilibrium fluctuations and quantum fluctuations, while, power-law correction appears in dealing with the entanglement of quantum fields in and out the horizon. Inspired by Verlinde's argument on the entropic force, and assuming the quantum corrected relation for the entropy, we propose the entropic origin for the Coulomb's law in this note. Also we investigate the Uehling potential as a radiative correction to Coulomb potential in 1-loop order and show that for some value of distance the entropic corrections of the Coulomb's law is compatible with the vacuum-polarization correction in QED. So, we derive modified Coulomb's law as well as the entropy corrected Poisson's equation which governing the evolution of the scalar potential ϕ. Our study further supports the unification of gravity and electromagnetic interactions based on the holographic principle.

  7. Casuistry as common law morality.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    This article elaborates on the relation between ethical casuistry and common law reasoning. Despite the frequent talk of casuistry as common law morality, remarks on this issue largely remain at the purely metaphorical level. The article outlines and scrutinizes Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin's version of casuistry and its basic elements. Drawing lessons for casuistry from common law reasoning, it is argued that one generally has to be faithful to ethical paradigms. There are, however, limitations for the binding force of paradigms. The most important limitations--the possibilities of overruling and distinguishing paradigm norms--are similar in common law and in casuistry, or so it is argued. These limitations explain why casuistry is not necessarily overly conservative and conventional, which is one line of criticism to which casuists can now better respond. Another line of criticism has it that the very reasoning from case to case is extremely unclear in casuistry. I suggest a certain model of analogical reasoning to address this critique. All my suggestions to understand and to enhance casuistry make use of common law reasoning whilst remaining faithful to Jonsen and Toulmin's main ideas and commitments. Further developed along these lines, casuistry can appropriately be called "common law morality."

  8. MENDEL'S LAW OF HEREDITY.

    PubMed

    Castle, W E

    1903-09-25

    1. The basic principle in Mendel's discoveries is that of the purity of t. he germcells; in accordance with this a cross-bred animal or plant produces germ-cells bearing only one of each pair of characters in which its parents differ. From it follows the occurrence in the second and later hybrid generations of a definite number of forms in definite numerical proportions. 2. Mendel's principle of dominance is realized in the heredity of a considerable number of characters among both animals and plants. In accordance with this principle, hybrid offspring have visibly the character of only one parent or the other, though they transmit those of both parents. 3. In other cases the hybrid has a distinctive character of its own. This may approximate more or less closely the character of one parent or the other, or it may be entirely different from both. Frequently the distinctive hybrid character resembles a lost ancestral character. In some cases of this sort, as in coat-color of mammals, the hybrid character probably results from a recomibination of the characters seen in one or both parents, with certain Other characters latent (that is, recessive) in one parent or the other. 4. There have been observed the following exceptions to the principle of dominance, or to the principle of purity of the germ-cells, or to both: (a) Mosaic inheritance, in which a pair of characters ordinarily related as dominant and recessive occur in a balanced relationship, side by side in the hybrid individual and frequently in its germ-cells also. This balanced condition, once obtained, is usually stable under close breeding, but is readily disturbed by cross-breeding, giving place then to the normal dominance. (b) Stable (self-perpetuating) hybrid forms result from certain crosses. These constitute an exception to both the law of dominance and to that of purity of the germ-cells. For the hybrid is like neither parent, but the characters of both parents exist in a stable union in the mature

  9. Power Laws and Market Crashes ---Empirical Laws on Bursting Bubbles---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaizoji, T.

    In this paper, we quantitatively investigate the statistical properties of a statistical ensemble of stock prices. We selected 1200 stocks traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, and formed a statistical ensemble of daily stock prices for each trading day in the 3-year period from January 4, 1999 to December 28, 2001, corresponding to the period of the forming of the internet bubble in Japn, and its bursting in the Japanese stock market. We found that the tail of the complementary cumulative distribution function of the ensemble of stock prices in the high value of the price is well described by a power-law distribution, P (S > x) ˜ x^{-α}, with an exponent that moves in the range of 1.09 < α < 1.27. Furthermore, we found that as the power-law exponents α approached unity, the bubbles collapsed. This suggests that Zipf's law for stock prices is a sign that bubbles are going to burst.

  10. The scope of Baker's law.

    PubMed

    Pannell, John R; Auld, Josh R; Brandvain, Yaniv; Burd, Martin; Busch, Jeremiah W; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier; Conner, Jeffrey K; Goldberg, Emma E; Grant, Alannie-Grace; Grossenbacher, Dena L; Hovick, Stephen M; Igic, Boris; Kalisz, Susan; Petanidou, Theodora; Randle, April M; de Casas, Rafael Rubio; Pauw, Anton; Vamosi, Jana C; Winn, Alice A

    2015-11-01

    Baker's law refers to the tendency for species that establish on islands by long-distance dispersal to show an increased capacity for self-fertilization because of the advantage of self-compatibility when colonizing new habitat. Despite its intuitive appeal and broad empirical support, it has received substantial criticism over the years since it was proclaimed in the 1950s, not least because it seemed to be contradicted by the high frequency of dioecy on islands. Recent theoretical work has again questioned the generality and scope of Baker's law. Here, we attempt to discern where the idea is useful to apply and where it is not. We conclude that several of the perceived problems with Baker's law fall away when a narrower perspective is adopted on how it should be circumscribed. We emphasize that Baker's law should be read in terms of an enrichment of a capacity for uniparental reproduction in colonizing situations, rather than of high selfing rates. We suggest that Baker's law might be tested in four different contexts, which set the breadth of its scope: the colonization of oceanic islands, metapopulation dynamics with recurrent colonization, range expansions with recurrent colonization, and colonization through species invasions.

  11. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  12. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  13. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National... CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance to determine the applicable law for assessment of liability. (a) A claim is settled under the law and...

  14. Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct…

  15. [Law-making "pioneers" of scientometrics].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András; Schubert, Gábor

    2016-01-10

    The three much cited laws of scientometrics are the laws of Bradford, Lotka and Zipf. The authors briefly review the scientific career of the men behind the names, and that how they discovered the laws named after them. An outline is also given of the scientific aftermath of the laws and of the oeuvre of their eponym. PMID:26726143

  16. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National... CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance to determine the applicable law for assessment of liability. (a) A claim is settled under the law and...

  17. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  18. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  19. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  20. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  1. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  2. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National... CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance to determine the applicable law for assessment of liability. (a) A claim is settled under the law and...

  3. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  4. [Law-making "pioneers" of scientometrics].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András; Schubert, Gábor

    2016-01-10

    The three much cited laws of scientometrics are the laws of Bradford, Lotka and Zipf. The authors briefly review the scientific career of the men behind the names, and that how they discovered the laws named after them. An outline is also given of the scientific aftermath of the laws and of the oeuvre of their eponym.

  5. A new Newton's law of cooling?

    PubMed

    Kleiber, M

    1972-12-22

    Several physiologists confuse Fourier's law of animal heat flow with Newton's law of cooling. A critique of this error in 1932 remained ineffective. In 1969 Molnar tested Newton's cooling law. In 1971 Strunk found Newtonian cooling unrealistic for animals. Unfortunately, he called the Fourier formulation of animal heat flow, requiring post-Newtonian observations, a "contemporary Newtonian law of cooling."

  6. Zeroth Law, Entropy, Equilibrium, and All That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagaratna, Sebastian G.

    2008-01-01

    The place of the zeroth law in the teaching of thermodynamics is examined in the context of the recent discussion by Gislason and Craig of some problems involving the establishment of thermal equilibrium. The concept of thermal equilibrium is introduced through the zeroth law. The relation between the zeroth law and the second law in the…

  7. Education Law Texts Usage: Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kathleen A.; Zirkel, Perry A.

    1998-01-01

    Identifies the textbooks professors use in education law courses, based on a survey of 110 members of the Education Law Association during 1996-97. Almost half preferred Alexander and Alexander's "American School Law," with McCarthy and Caqmbron-McCabe's "Public School Law" a close second. Only 44% required or suggested additional nontextbook…

  8. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  9. Law-Related Education: Trends and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rosemary V.; Darnley, Susan M.

    The report analyzes law-related education programs and materials developed during the period 1968-78. Specifically, it examines program motivations, assumptions, project development, and the relationship of law-related education to civic education. Law-related education is seen to include the study of the role of law in society, the legal…

  10. An indentation fatigue strength law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Baoxing; Yonezu, Akio; Chen, Xi

    2010-05-01

    Indentation fatigue, where a cyclic load is applied on the sample via an indenter, emerges as an alternative approach for measuring the fatigue properties of materials. We have carried out indentation fatigue tests on a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) bulk material, as well as on TiN and NiP films/coatings deposited on SUS304 steel substrates, and demonstrate that a simple power-law relationship can be established between the indentation load amplitude and number of cycles to failure. Such a law is very similar to the conventional fatigue strength law obtained from uniaxial tests. The agreement between the fatigue stress exponents obtained by uniaxial and indentation fatigue tests suggests the potential applicability of the indentation fatigue technique for extracting the fatigue properties of materials.

  11. [Medical Devices Law for anesthesiologists].

    PubMed

    Regner, M

    2015-09-01

    The Medical Devices Law is a relatively new legal system, which has replaced the still well-known medical devices regulations in Germany. The Medical Devices Law in Germany is based on European directives, which have been translated into national law with the Medical Devices Act. The Medical Devices Act is a framework of regulations and incorporates a number of decrees that address specific topics within the medical devices directives and in turn individual regulations refer to guidelines and recommendations from other sources which provide detailed technical information on specific topics. Overall, the Medical Devices Act represents a very complex legal system, which needs to be permanently observed with respect to continuous updating and adjustment. In this article the design and the structure are described but most of all the article filters significant problem areas that need to be considered when using and operating medical devices, especially for anesthesiologists.

  12. Origins of Newton's First Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2015-02-01

    Anyone who has taught introductory physics should know that roughly a third of the students initially believe that any object at rest will remain at rest, whereas any moving body not propelled by applied forces will promptly come to rest. Likewise, about half of those uninitiated students believe that any object moving at a constant speed must be continually pushed if it is to maintain its motion.1 That's essentially Aristotle's law of motion and it is so "obviously" borne out by experience that it was accepted by scholars for 2000 years, right through the Copernican Revolution. But, of course, it's fundamentally wrong. This paper tells the story of how the correct understanding, the law of inertia, evolved and how Newton came to make it his first law.

  13. Newton's Laws, Euler's Laws and the Speed of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Chemical engineering students begin their studies of mechanics in a department of physics where they are introduced to the mechanics of Newton. The approach presented by physicists differs in both perspective and substance from that encountered in chemical engineering courses where Euler's laws provide the foundation for studies of fluid and solid…

  14. Teaching Law to Online Law Students at RMIT University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babacan, Alperhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the online Juris Doctor Program (JD Program) at RMIT University. The first part of the paper provides a brief overview of the JD Program, the graduate capabilities of the Program and key principles associated with the teaching of law to online postgraduate students. In line with the literature in the area of online teaching…

  15. Snell's Law for Spin Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stigloher, J.; Decker, M.; Körner, H. S.; Tanabe, K.; Moriyama, T.; Taniguchi, T.; Hata, H.; Madami, M.; Gubbiotti, G.; Kobayashi, K.; Ono, T.; Back, C. H.

    2016-07-01

    We report the experimental observation of Snell's law for magnetostatic spin waves in thin ferromagnetic Permalloy films by imaging incident, refracted, and reflected waves. We use a thickness step as the interface between two media with different dispersion relations. Since the dispersion relation for magnetostatic waves in thin ferromagnetic films is anisotropic, deviations from the isotropic Snell's law known in optics are observed for incidence angles larger than 25 ° with respect to the interface normal between the two magnetic media. Furthermore, we can show that the thickness step modifies the wavelength and the amplitude of the incident waves. Our findings open up a new way of spin wave steering for magnonic applications.

  16. Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Stefan; Hänggi, Peter; Dunkel, Jörn

    2014-12-01

    The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations underlying microcanonical thermostatistics. Here we provide a detailed comparison of the most commonly considered microcanonical entropy definitions, focusing specifically on whether they satisfy or violate the zeroth, first, and second laws of thermodynamics. Our analysis shows that, for a broad class of systems that includes all standard classical Hamiltonian systems, only the Gibbs volume entropy fulfills all three laws simultaneously. To avoid ambiguities, the discussion is restricted to exact results and analytically tractable examples.

  17. Testing Bernoulli’s law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan; Petrova, Hristina

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we present three different methods for testing Bernoulli’s law that are different from the standard ‘tube with varying cross-section’. They are all applicable to high-school level physics education, with varying levels of theoretical and experimental complexity, depending on students’ skills, and may even be useful for university-level educators. Our experiments are well-suited for use in project-based learning, either individually or as a single large project revolving around Bernoulli’s law. We also present examples of data we have collected with our experimental setups.

  18. Space law and space resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Nathan C.

    1992-01-01

    Space industrialization is confronting space law with problems that are changing old and shaping new legal principles. The return to the Moon, the next logical step beyond the space station, will establish a permanent human presence there. Science and engineering, manufacturing and mining will involve the astronauts in the settlement of the solar system. These pioneers, from many nations, will need a legal, political, and social framework to structure their lives and interactions. International and even domestic space law are only the beginning of this framework. Dispute resolution and simple experience will be needed in order to develop, over time, a new social system for the new regime of space.

  19. Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Stefan; Hänggi, Peter; Dunkel, Jörn

    2014-12-01

    The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations underlying microcanonical thermostatistics. Here we provide a detailed comparison of the most commonly considered microcanonical entropy definitions, focusing specifically on whether they satisfy or violate the zeroth, first, and second laws of thermodynamics. Our analysis shows that, for a broad class of systems that includes all standard classical Hamiltonian systems, only the Gibbs volume entropy fulfills all three laws simultaneously. To avoid ambiguities, the discussion is restricted to exact results and analytically tractable examples. PMID:25615053

  20. Innovative telecommunications for law enforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The operation of computer-aided dispatch, mobile digital communications, and automatic vehicle location systems used in law enforcement is discussed, and characteristics of systems used by different agencies are compared. With reference to computer-aided dispatch systems, the data base components, dispatcher work load, extent of usage, and design trends are surveyed. The capabilities, levels of communication, and traffic load of mobile digital communications systems are examined. Different automatic vehicle location systems are distinguished, and two systems are evaluated. Other aspects of the application of innovative technology to operational command, control, and communications systems for law enforcement agencies are described.

  1. Can the square law be validated

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III.

    1989-03-01

    This paper addresses the question of validating the homogeneous Lanchestrian square law of attrition by the use of historical data. The available data and some analysis techniques are examined. The result is that the homogeneous Lanchester square law cannot be regarded as a proven attrition algorithm for warfare; however, the square law cannot be regarded as disproved either. To validate the square law or any other proposed attrition law, data on more battles are required. 21 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Ethics and the law: the law and assisted human conception.

    PubMed

    Brahams, D

    1990-07-01

    This article aims to provide no more than a brief summary and overview of some of the principal legal questions which arise in connection with assisted human conception. There is no requirement of legal suitability for natural parenthood, though a child may be removed from parental care at birth if its welfare is considered to be at risk. Where medical or other assistance is required, however, the law and social judgments may impinge on the freedom of individuals to procreate. Commercial surrogacy has recently been criminalized, but private surrogacy arrangements without reward are not illegal--although any contract would probably be unenforceable through the courts. If medical intervention is required to achieve assisted conception, the availability of resources for NHS treatment, the physical and mental health of the prospective mother and father, and the welfare (or lack of it) of any prospective child, may be factors in deciding whether an infertility unit will offer treatment. Such practices must not operate unfairly and must not discriminate on racial grounds. If treatment is provided, and a woman becomes pregnant, the ordinary abortion laws will apply and, it is thought, will extend to the selective reduction of a multiple pregnancy--there is no claim in English law for 'wrongful birth'. AID does not constitute adultery, and the law has recently been reformed to recognize children born following AID as legitimate to their social parents. A child may be regarded as the legitimate child of a surrogate mother's marriage, but where the baby is genetically distinct from the surrogate mother, the law, and is uncertain and as yet could be conflicting claims of parenthood without legislation. The storage and disposal of human gametes and embryos may raise problems of 'ownership'. PMID:2207612

  3. 7 CFR 4284.906 - State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State laws, local laws, regulatory commission...-Added Producer Grant Program General § 4284.906 State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations. If there are conflicts between this subpart and State or local laws or regulatory...

  4. 7 CFR 4284.906 - State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State laws, local laws, regulatory commission...-Added Producer Grant Program General § 4284.906 State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations. If there are conflicts between this subpart and State or local laws or regulatory...

  5. 7 CFR 4284.906 - State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State laws, local laws, regulatory commission...-Added Producer Grant Program General § 4284.906 State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations. If there are conflicts between this subpart and State or local laws or regulatory...

  6. A Law of Physics in the Classroom: The Case of Ohm's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipnis, Nahum

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties in learning Ohm's Law suggest a need to refocus it from the law for a part of the circuit to the law for the whole circuit. Such a revision may improve understanding of Ohm's Law and its practical applications. This suggestion comes from an analysis of the history of the law's discovery and its teaching. The historical materials this…

  7. The Law and Health Personnel; A Study of Minnesota Law Related to Selected Health Manpower Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Rehabilitation Foundation, Minneapolis, Minn. Inst. for Interdisciplinary Studies.

    This report surveys Minnesota laws relating to the use of health manpower. It presents a summary of Minnesota licensure laws as they apply to categories of health personnel and paramedical personnel currently unrecognized by the law. An analysis is also made of malpractice decisional law to examine whether such laws prohibit or inhibit optimal…

  8. Sweeping Changes in Immigration Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danilov, Dan P.

    1978-01-01

    Among the changes in Immigration Laws are the rectification of the long-standing inequity between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres by instituting identical preference systems, the provision for the adjustment from a non-immigrant visa status to that of a permanent resident, and amendments to the Labor Certification requirements. (NQ)

  9. Various Paths to Faraday's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redzic, Dragan V.

    2008-01-01

    In a recent note, the author presented a derivation of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction for a closed filamentary circuit C(t) which is moving at relativistic velocities and also changing its shape as it moves via the magnetic vector potential. Recently, Kholmetskii et al, while correcting an error in an equation, showed that it can be…

  10. Dyslexia Laws in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and…

  11. Effective Learning & Teaching in Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burridge, Roger, Ed.; Hinett, Karen, Ed.; Paliwala, Abdul, Ed.; Varnava, Tracey, Ed.

    This book discusses key issues for the effective teaching of law from a range of experts in the United Kingdom. It includes material on teaching and the support of learning and on using learning materials and information technology in legal education. The chapters are: (1) Revising Legal Education (Tracey Varnava and Roger Burridge); (2) Learning…

  12. Faraday's Law and Seawater Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Luca, R.

    2010-01-01

    Using Faraday's law, one can illustrate how an electromotive force generator, directly utilizing seawater motion, works. The conceptual device proposed is rather simple in its components and can be built in any high school or college laboratory. The description of the way in which the device generates an electromotive force can be instructive not…

  13. Censorship, Schooling, and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Louis; Sorenson, Gail Paulus

    1979-01-01

    This essay highlights issues in the legal aspects of school related censorship and summarizes the current law under the following categories: general considerations, the Tinker principle, prior review of student publications, censorship of classroom speech and materials, and censorship of library resources. (Author)

  14. School Law in Review, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soronen, Lisa, Ed.

    This is a compilation of presentations delivered at the National School Boards Association Council of School Attorneys' Annual School Law Seminar: "From Vouchers to One Nation Under God: A Review of Recent Decisions Affecting the Separation of Church and State in the Context of Public Education" (Jay Worona); "ACLJ Memorandum: Religion in the…

  15. Biorhythms and Law School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Martin, A.

    1978-01-01

    A study, conducted to test the influence of biorhythms on law school performance, focused on academic disadvantages, absenteeism and withdrawal, biorhythm compatibility among students and teacher, and study efficiency. One conclusion is that outside employment and basic ability are more important than biorhythms in determining success. (JMD)

  16. The Law and the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Today's Education, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The Office of General Counsel of the National Education Association highlights 10 federal court decisions made in 1981-82 concerning education which are likely to shape the law in the future. Rulings on mandatory busing, handicapped education, book censorship, school employee rights, and creationism are included. (PP)

  17. Mental Health and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Henry C.

    1982-01-01

    Briefly reviews historical development of mental health and the law as a multidisciplinary field and considers variety of information seekers addressing certain topics of special importance. Pertinent information sources and services are outlined. Fifteen references and a recommended core library for fellowship programs in forensic psychiatry are…

  18. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-04-01

    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold up to age 106. At that age the death rate is about 50%. Beyond 106 there is so far no convincing statistical evidence available because the number of survivors are too small even in large nations. However, assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis using historical data over a time period of almost two centuries. Another prediction arising from this fixed-point model, is that, above a given population threshold, the lifespan of the oldest persons is independent of the size of their national community. This prediction is also supported by empirical evidence.

  19. Origin of the Natural Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Milo; Haselhurst, Geoff

    2000-05-01

    Before the wave theory of matter natural laws were observed, but not predicted by a physical cause. Their existence was faith in Nature, a God. Now, using a spherical wave structure of the electron-positron, natural laws are predicted exactly as observed - not God-given, but a consequence of the wave structure of matter. The prediction of laws, of electron spin, of Feynman diagrams, the Pauli Principle, etc.from physical waves is over-whelming proof that the wave description is correct. Just three Principles are used: I - A scalar wave equation whose spherical solutions are the electron; II - A prescription for density of the quantum wave medium (a quantitative Mach's Principle); III - A Minimum Amplitude Principle for waves in space. The Schroedinger Equation and Special Relativity are a Doppler of motion between wave structures. The inertia law and momentum conservation result from Principle II. Energy conservation is an exchange mechanism implicit in II. Spin arises from wave rotation at centers. General relativity is the large scale equivalent of the 3 principles. References: http://members/tripod.com/mwolff

  20. A Simple Boyle's Law Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Don L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate Boyle's law that provides pressure measurements in a familiar unit (psi) and makes no assumptions concerning atmospheric pressure. Items needed include bathroom scales and a 60-ml syringe, castor oil, disposable 3-ml syringe and needle, modeling clay, pliers, and a wooden block. Commercial devices use a…

  1. Law, Humanities and the Hinterlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Elliott M.

    1979-01-01

    Harvard University's Fellowships in Law and the Humanities program is an example of one effort to enrich legal education with humanistic values. Suggestions as to what is sought and what can be achieved by efforts to humanize legal education are offered, and some of the barriers blocking this goal are discussed. (JMD)

  2. Making School Bully Laws Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Edmondson, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, bully prevention activities moved from the local districts to the state houses where legislators amended public school laws to incorporate safety regulations. For instance, the 2001 authorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, referred to as No Child Left Behind, included the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and…

  3. Measuring Law for Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremper, Charles; Thomas, Sue; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations that combine social science and law have tremendous potential to illuminate the effects of governmental policies and yield insights into how effectively policy makers' efforts achieve their aims. This potential is infrequently achieved, however, because such interdisciplinary research contains often overlooked substantive and…

  4. Probing Planck's Law at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, I.; Gabelli, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the physics around an incandescent lamp. Using a consumer-grade digital camera, we combine electrical and optical measurements to explore Planck's law of black-body radiation. This simple teaching experiment is successfully used to measure both Stefan's and Planck's constants. Our measurements lead to a strikingly accurate value for…

  5. Lotka's Law and Institutional Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Praveen; Garg, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the applicability of Lotka's Law, negative binomial distribution, and lognormal distribution for institutional productivity in the same way as it is to authors and their productivity. Results indicate that none of the distributions are applicable for institutional productivity in engineering sciences. (Author/LRW)

  6. Lotka's Law: A Testing Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pao, Miranda Lee

    1985-01-01

    A step-by-step outline is presented for testing the applicability of Lotka's law of scientific productivity. Steps include the computation of the values of the exponent and constant based on Lotka's method and the test for significance of observed frequency distribution against the estimated theoretical distribution derived from Lotka's formula.…

  7. Referential Cohesion in Law Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Richard

    A study examined cohesive reference in a newspaper report of a law case, with the intention of helping students read such texts. Occurrences of two classes of items signaling referential cohesion were analyzed: personals (personal pronouns and possessive adjectives) and demonstratives (including the definite article). Factors that might lead a…

  8. Personal Law and Consumer Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, David

    1972-01-01

    There is little doubt at Minnetonka High School that the integrated personal law and consumer problems course is effective. The areas studied promote variety, concentration on vital matters, and student interest in the business department as a source of general education. (Author)

  9. I ``Saw'' Newton's Three Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Mike

    2012-11-01

    Would you like to build an inexpensive, highly visible, quickly assembled device that dramatically illustrates Newton's three laws of motion? This model incorporates sturdiness, high-profile visibility, and a student interest component that is sure to capture and hold their attention.

  10. The Law of the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Jean-Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Recounts problems related to the law of the sea and suggests that these problems could be dealt with in the classroom in an interdisciplinary manner. Problems include pollution control, fishing rights, development of deep sea mineral deposits, and shore access. (Author/DB)

  11. The Law of Information Inconservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Qi Quan

    1990-01-01

    Compares the notion of the conservation or inconservation of information with the laws of conservation of matter and energy. The theory of entropy in physics and its significance in information theory is discussed, and the essential nature of information is considered. (LRW)

  12. Covariant Formulation of Hooke's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gron, O.

    1981-01-01

    Introducing a four-vector strain and a four-force stress, Hooke's law is written as a four-vector equation. This formulation is shown to clarify seemingly paradoxical results in connection with uniformly accelerated motion, and rotational motion with angular acceleration. (Author/JN)

  13. Family Law: Notes from China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Cynthia J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the newly emerging legal system of the People's Republic of China, particularly the 1980 marriage law and its effects on marriage customs and divorce. In China, many roles perceived as social work roles are blended with the role of attorney. (JAC)

  14. What Does the Law Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author provides legal explanations to the following concerns: (1) case law on specific learning disability (SLD) eligibility; (2) recent developments on response to intervention (RTI); (3) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) rules; and (4) the Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) regulation. The author's…

  15. Power Laws in Firm Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Fujimoto, S.; Watanabe, T.

    We estimate firm productivity for about 3.2 million firms from30 countries. We find that the distribution of firm productivity in each country, which is measured by total factor productivity (TFP), has a power law upper tail. However, the power law exponent of a TFP distribution in a country tends to be greater than that of a sales distribution in that country, indicating that the upper tail of a TFP distribution is less heavy compared to that of a sales distribution. We also find that the power law exponent of a TFP distribution tends to be greater than the power law exponents associated with the number of workers or tangible fixed assets. Given the idea that the sales of a firm is determined by the amount of various inputs employed by the firm (i.e., ``production function'' in the terminology of economics), these results suggest that the heavy tail of a sales distribution in a country comes not from the tail of a TFP distribution, but from the tail of the distribution of the number of workers or tangible fixed assets.

  16. Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…

  17. Cryonic Suspension and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, George P.; Hall, Clare

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes three central problems which adversely affect use, development, and perfection of cryonic suspension of individuals: the extent to which a physician may be guilty of malpractice in assisting with a suspension; the need for a recognition of suspension; and the present effect of the law's anachronistic treatment of estate devolution upon a…

  18. School Law in Review 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Association for Continuing Education, Vancouver (British Columbia).

    This compilation of the presentations delivered at the NSBA Council of School Attorneys' Annual School Law Seminar includes the following papers: (1) "The 'Dimensions' of Trial Advocacy" (Keith Evans); (2) "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Who Has It and Who Doesn't" (Jerry L. Wyckoff); (3) "Student-to-Student Sexual Harassment and…

  19. The Law and Private Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is one of a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. A general discussion of the sources of legal limitations upon private police activities and personnel and sources of legal powers is…

  20. Law and the Student Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, George E.; Webster, John B.

    Court cases and legal decisions involving the student press in the late 1960s and early 1970s are brought together in this book in order to show how the law has been applied to school officials and student journalists in high school, college, and the underground. The ten chapters cover the following topics: censorship, libel, obscenity, contempt,…

  1. [Forensic psychiatry and Islamic law].

    PubMed

    Geferakos, G; Lykouras, L; Douzenis, A

    2014-01-01

    Islam is the second most popular monotheistic religion in the world. Its followers, the Muslims, are about 1.2 billion people and are the majority in 56 countries around the globe. Islam is an holistic way and model of life and its rules, according to a large proportion of Muslims, should have more power than the laws deriving from any secular authority. This means that the divine laws, as depicted from Islam's holy scripts, should be the laws of the land. In the strict Islamic states, as Saudi Arabia, the Islamic law or the Shari'ah prevails. Shari'ah means the path, the road each faithful Muslim should follow according to the rules of God. The Islamic views on mental health have some interesting characteristics: on the one hand, the moral necessity for the protection and care of the vulnerable individuals is very strong, but on the other hand superstitions and stigmatization influence the peoples' attitude against mental health patients. At the beginning of its historical course, Islamic world was a pioneer concerning mental health care. Unfortunately, as time passed by, we have observed considerable regression. In our days mental health services provided in most of the Islamic states cannot be considered adequate according to modern Western standards. The same course characterizes the Forensic Psychiatric services and the relevant legislation in the Islamic world.

  2. Privacy Law and Print Photojournalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykhouse, Caroline Dow

    Reviews of publications about privacy law, of recent court actions, and of interviews with newspaper photographers and attorneys indicate that torts of privacy often conflict with the freedoms to publish and to gather news. Although some guidelines have already been established (about running distorted pictures, "stealing" pictures, taking…

  3. Marsupial robots for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Robin R.

    2001-02-01

    Marsupial robots are a type of heterogeneous mobile robot team. A mother robot transports, supports, and recovers one or more daughter robots. This paper will cover the marsupial robot concept, the application of law enforcement, and recent results in collaborative teleoperation for the related task of urban search and rescue.

  4. Copyright Law Symposium. No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers, New York, NY.

    This book presents the five national prizewinning papers in the twenty-third copyright law symposium conducted by the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP). Titles of the papers are "The USSR Joins the Universal Copyright Convention" (first prize), "Copyright Misuse: Thirty Years Waiting for the Other Shoe" (second prize),…

  5. Fire and Water Demonstrate Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Luca, R.; Ganci, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe two classroom experiments that can be interpreted by means of Bernoulli's law. The first experiment uses a lighted candle in front of a mirror and a stream of air that is sent obliquely towards the mirror. The purpose of this experiment is to find out which way the flame will bend if air is blown at a given…

  6. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  7. The Seed Is the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antone, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Since humanities arise from a specific place and from the people of that place, this article will focus on Peacemaker's revolutionary teachings about the seed of law. Long before the people from across the ocean arrived here on Turtle Island (North America) there was much warfare happening. According to John Mohawk (2001, para. 1), an Iroquoian…

  8. Derivation of Jurin's Law Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Miranda, Maria Tirado

    2011-01-01

    The capillary rise/fall of a liquid within a thin capillary tube is described by the well-established Jurin's law. The liquid reaches an equilibrium height/depth as the capillary pressure is balanced by the hydrostatic pressure. When the adhesion force at the three-phase contact line is counteracted by the liquid weight, the liquid column also…

  9. Laws of reflection and Snell's law revisited by video modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-07-01

    Video modelling is being used, nowadays, as a tool for teaching and learning several topics in Physics. Most of these topics are related to kinematics. In this work we show how video modelling can be used for demonstrations and experimental teaching in optics, namely the laws of reflection and the well-known Snell's Law of light. Videos were recorded with a photo camera at 30 frames/s, and analysed with the open source software Tracker. Data collected from several frames was treated with the Data Tool module, and graphs were built to obtain relations between incident, reflected and refraction angles, as well as to determine the refractive index of Perspex. These videos can be freely distributed in the web and explored with students within the classroom, or as a homework assignment to improve student's understanding on specific contents. They present a large didactic potential for teaching basic optics in high school with an interactive methodology.

  10. Report of the Committee on Environmental Law

    SciTech Connect

    Schroth, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    This year's report is in two parts. The first describes the committee's activities during 1980-81, and the second discusses developments in environmental law during the same period. Three major projects conducted included a new annual law journal on oceans, water pollution, oil pollution, and environmental case handling; the Cousteau essay contest and a study on the developments in state environmental law. The developments discussed in environmental law included: federal common law of nuisance, FWPCA, SMCRA, solid waste, NEPA, superfund law, environmental settlements, Clean Air Act debate, and other developments. (DP)

  11. Law

    SciTech Connect

    Henrichs, R.; Cooper, L.I. )

    1990-06-01

    Administrative and judicial enforcement actions were a prominent aspect of the legal developments during 1989. Important regulatory and judicial developments also kept the interest of the regulatory community. However, 1989 will not be remembered for the passage of major federal environmental legislative initiatives or revisions. This article highlights significant final and proposed rulemakings, reports, articles, court decisions, and enforcement actions in the following areas: Clean Water Act (CWA); Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA); Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); Clean Air Act (CAA); Comprehensive Environmental Response, Cooperation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund); Marine Protection Resources and Sanctuaries Act (Marine Protection); general topic of acid rain; and Endangered Species Act (Endangered Species). Although this article has been expanded in 1989, it should not be considered exhaustive.

  12. Snell's Law for Spin Waves.

    PubMed

    Stigloher, J; Decker, M; Körner, H S; Tanabe, K; Moriyama, T; Taniguchi, T; Hata, H; Madami, M; Gubbiotti, G; Kobayashi, K; Ono, T; Back, C H

    2016-07-15

    We report the experimental observation of Snell's law for magnetostatic spin waves in thin ferromagnetic Permalloy films by imaging incident, refracted, and reflected waves. We use a thickness step as the interface between two media with different dispersion relations. Since the dispersion relation for magnetostatic waves in thin ferromagnetic films is anisotropic, deviations from the isotropic Snell's law known in optics are observed for incidence angles larger than 25° with respect to the interface normal between the two magnetic media. Furthermore, we can show that the thickness step modifies the wavelength and the amplitude of the incident waves. Our findings open up a new way of spin wave steering for magnonic applications. PMID:27472134

  13. Shallow-water conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapenko, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The derivation of basic conservation laws in the shallow-water theory from the multidimensional integral laws of conservation of mass and total momentum describing the plane-parallel flow of an ideal incompressible fluid above a horizontal bottom is proposed. The restrictions on flow parameters arising in this case have the integral form and are much weaker in comparison with the requirement of flow potentiality and the condition of long-wavelength approximation. The last fact substantiates the use of the shallow-water model for the mathematical modeling of a much wider class of wave flows, the parameters of which are not related directly to the restrictions of the long-wavelength approximation.

  14. Law of Conservation of Muons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Feinberg, G.; Weinberg, S.

    1961-02-01

    A multiplicative selection rule for mu meson-electron transitions is proposed. A "muon parity" = -1 is considered for the muon and its neutrino, while the "muon parity" for all other particles is +1. The selection rule then states that (-1) exp(no. of initial (-1) parity particles) = (-1) exp(no. of final (-1) parity particles). Several reactions that are forbidden by an additive law but allowed by the multiplicative law are suggested; these reactions include mu{sup +} .> e{sup +} + nu{sub mu} + {ovr nu}{sub e}, e{sup -} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + mu{sup -}, and muonium .> antimuonium (mu{sup +} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + e{sup +}). An intermediate-boson hypothesis is suggested. (T.F.H.)

  15. [Pneumoconiosis law and occupational physician].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuo

    2013-10-01

    Pneumoconiosis law describes mainly the medical examination and its treatment for health care management. The revision of the medical examination and construction of the law has been performed according to the times. The main revised points are 1) digital images such as CR and DR are accepted as a substitute of chest Xrays, 2) the standard values in pulmonary function test are based on values of Japanese, and 3) bronchogenic carcinoma was recognized as a complication of pneumoconiosis. It is important to maintain occupational health management in order to avoid the onset of pneumoconiosis. Furthermore, an official notice from the ministry of health, labour and welfare established guidelines for the treatment of manufactured nanomaterials. It is important to actively maintain and update occupational health management to protect against materials of unknown harmful effects.

  16. Constructing cities, deconstructing scaling laws

    PubMed Central

    Arcaute, Elsa; Hatna, Erez; Ferguson, Peter; Youn, Hyejin; Johansson, Anders; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cities can be characterized and modelled through different urban measures. Consistency within these observables is crucial in order to advance towards a science of cities. Bettencourt et al. have proposed that many of these urban measures can be predicted through universal scaling laws. We develop a framework to consistently define cities, using commuting to work and population density thresholds, and construct thousands of realizations of systems of cities with different boundaries for England and Wales. These serve as a laboratory for the scaling analysis of a large set of urban indicators. The analysis shows that population size alone does not provide us enough information to describe or predict the state of a city as previously proposed, indicating that the expected scaling laws are not corroborated. We found that most urban indicators scale linearly with city size, regardless of the definition of the urban boundaries. However, when nonlinear correlations are present, the exponent fluctuates considerably. PMID:25411405

  17. Arranged marriages annulled by law.

    PubMed

    Zhu, H

    1996-06-01

    The arranged marriages of 210 young people in Yongle Town in Zunyi County of Guizhou Province were dissolved in 1995. The proportion of child betrothals, which generally happens among close relatives, is as high as 85% in the town. Some engagements, known as fetus betrothals or belt betrothals, are arranged before the children are born or while they are still infants strapped (belted) to their mothers. Dissemination of information from the Constitution, the Marriage Law, and the Regulations on the Registration of Marriage concerning marriage, healthier births, and good upbringing of children, and other information on reproductive health, has shown young people that they have the freedom to love and marry of their own free will, that their marriage is protected by law, and that consanguineous marriage is harmful to the health of future generations. Some convinced their parents that their arranged marriages should be annulled.

  18. Modeling Treated LAW Feed Evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    DANIEL, WE

    2004-07-08

    This task examines the potential of the treated waste feed blends to form sodium-aluminum silicate precipitates when evaporated using the zeolite database. To investigate the behavior of the blended pretreated waste feed, an OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI ESP) model of the treated low activity waste (LAW) evaporator was built. A range of waste feed compositions representative of Envelope A, B, and C were then fed into the OLI model to predict various physical and chemical properties of the evaporator concentrates. Additional runs with treated LAW evaporator were performed to compare chemical and physical property model predictions and experimental results for small-scale radioactive tests of the treated feed evaporation process.

  19. [Drug trafficking and international law].

    PubMed

    Marini, Luca

    2002-01-01

    The production, the commerce and the use of drugs and other substances are ruled by several conventions of international law, that, at first, have had as object the production and the commerce of drugs for lawful purposes, and the measures required to prevent and to repress, at certain conditions, abuses and unlawful traffics. Just more recently, following some solicitations noticed by the International Community, and according to the concept of "well-balanced approach" described in the text, the measures introduced in this way were supported by a more incisive international movement, fit for the repression of unlawful traffics of drugs and to the adoption of suitable measures of prevention, also to avoid, at national level, sanitary, social and economical implications of the criminal phenomenon.

  20. Environmental issues and the law.

    PubMed Central

    Henrichs, R

    1992-01-01

    This report first briefly reviews the history and lessons learned from our legislation regarding protection of our environment. Then, these lessons are combined with principles of general jurisprudence to suggest avenues for regulation of industrial ecology. Even though the law has important limitations, it can be used as a tool to identify national goals and to promote their achievement by means of incentives or sanctions. PMID:11607266

  1. [Circumcision: history, religion and law].

    PubMed

    Totaro, Angelo; Volpe, Andrea; Racioppi, Marco; Pinto, Francesco; Sacco, Emilio; Bassi, Pier Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the circumcision procedure during history, its therapeutic and preventive goals, with focus on bioethical, economic and law issues. The origins of this practice are lost in antiquity. It was performed since 3000 BC by the Egyptians for hygienic and religious reasons. Moreover, male circumcision is a religious commandment in Judaism and Islam, and it is customary in some Oriental Orthodox and other Christian churches of Africa. Nowadays, circumcision is performed as a routine procedure by the Jews and the Muslims for religious reasons. The world prevalence of men with circumcision is 12.5-33%, especially in USA, Canada, Islamic people and Africa; in Europe the prevalence rate is low (in Great Britain it is 1.5%). Currently, male circumcision is being highly debated because of ethical, law and scientific issues and the different roles of this procedure: therapeutic, prophylactic (but there is no universal consensus) and ritualistic role. Nowadays, in Italy there is a strong debate about the consensus for this practice and its indications. The Italian law does not allow performing ritualistic circumcision, as a free of charge procedure in public hospitals, at the government's expenses, because the Italian law must protect different religious cultures, in name of the laity of the State. Thus, national bioethical committee (CNB) has established that ritualistic circumcision may only be performed on a paying basis in public hospitals. As a protective practice, circumcision has decreased in the entire world because of the improvement of hygienical conditions and, above all, the lack of unanimous consent on the real usefulness of protective circumcision, even if several studies have recently demonstrated the protecting role of male circumcision against HIV infection. PMID:21452153

  2. Bayesian second law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolotta, Anthony; Carroll, Sean M.; Leichenauer, Stefan; Pollack, Jason

    2016-08-01

    We derive a generalization of the second law of thermodynamics that uses Bayesian updates to explicitly incorporate the effects of a measurement of a system at some point in its evolution. By allowing an experimenter's knowledge to be updated by the measurement process, this formulation resolves a tension between the fact that the entropy of a statistical system can sometimes fluctuate downward and the information-theoretic idea that knowledge of a stochastically evolving system degrades over time. The Bayesian second law can be written as Δ H (ρm,ρ ) + F |m≥0 , where Δ H (ρm,ρ ) is the change in the cross entropy between the original phase-space probability distribution ρ and the measurement-updated distribution ρm and F |m is the expectation value of a generalized heat flow out of the system. We also derive refined versions of the second law that bound the entropy increase from below by a non-negative number, as well as Bayesian versions of integral fluctuation theorems. We demonstrate the formalism using simple analytical and numerical examples.

  3. Facilitation for law enforcement technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David A.

    1997-02-01

    In todays world of rapid technology development, emerging technologies present to law enforcement agencies, one of a very limited number of legal responses to criminal initiatives. Yet in spite of the existence of very sophisticated enforcement technologies, many law enforcement organizations seem to lag behind in several important areas of technology response and adaptation. This paper will propose the idea that what is needed is a closer partnership between private industry`technology adaptors' and government officials who are the problem `identifiers'. This marriage of necessity would produce immediate operational results focussed on todays enforcement problems and tomorrows emerging solutions. The paper will also present the concept of the establishment of an independent body tasked with the creation of an enforcement technology `adaptor' registry for authorized and innovative, enforcement technology applications specialists. This registry would be created to assist enforcement agencies with the location and/or creation of new law enforcement technologies/products. These persons would locate and/or create quick response technology innovations developed to provide operational `fixes' and technologies designed to address emerging enforcement problems. The presentation will conclude by providing examples of up to 12 different existing technologies devices currently available (but not generally known by government agencies).

  4. Bayesian second law of thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Bartolotta, Anthony; Carroll, Sean M; Leichenauer, Stefan; Pollack, Jason

    2016-08-01

    We derive a generalization of the second law of thermodynamics that uses Bayesian updates to explicitly incorporate the effects of a measurement of a system at some point in its evolution. By allowing an experimenter's knowledge to be updated by the measurement process, this formulation resolves a tension between the fact that the entropy of a statistical system can sometimes fluctuate downward and the information-theoretic idea that knowledge of a stochastically evolving system degrades over time. The Bayesian second law can be written as ΔH(ρ_{m},ρ)+〈Q〉_{F|m}≥0, where ΔH(ρ_{m},ρ) is the change in the cross entropy between the original phase-space probability distribution ρ and the measurement-updated distribution ρ_{m} and 〈Q〉_{F|m} is the expectation value of a generalized heat flow out of the system. We also derive refined versions of the second law that bound the entropy increase from below by a non-negative number, as well as Bayesian versions of integral fluctuation theorems. We demonstrate the formalism using simple analytical and numerical examples. PMID:27627241

  5. Law and regulation of benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Feitshans, I L

    1989-01-01

    OSHA has created final benzene regulations after extensive rulemakings on two occasions, 1978 and 1987. These standards have been the subject of extensive litigation for nearly 20 years. This article examines in detail the conceptual underpinnings of the Benzene Case, (which was decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1980) in light of U.S. administrative law precedents that have set limits upon administrative discretion under the test for "substantial evidence" and the "hard look doctrine." This article also addresses recent developments in the wake of the Benzene Case and their implications for benzene regulations following the "significant risk" doctrine in that case. This article briefly describes other national, regional, and international laws governing the use of benzene. This article concludes that the revisions of the benzene regulation and subsequent rulemaking provide substantial evidence of scientific underpinnings for regulatory action and that laws from other nations reflect an international consensus that occupational exposure to benzene is a proper subject of regulation. Such regulations and policies are therefore likely to withstand scrutiny and remain enforceable as widely accepted norms. PMID:2792048

  6. Large & Small: Exploring the Laws of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creutz, E.

    1976-01-01

    Illustrates how both large entities (such as stars and galaxies) and small entities (such as fundamental particles) obey the same physical laws. Discusses quantum mechanics, Newton's laws, and general relativity. (MLH)

  7. Demonstrating Newton's Third Law: Changing Aristotelian Viewpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests techniques to help eliminate students' misconceptions involving Newton's Third Law. Approaches suggested include teaching physics from a historical perspective, using computer programs with simulations, rewording the law, drawing free-body diagrams, and using demonstrations and examples. (PR)

  8. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  9. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  10. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  11. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  12. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  13. Introduction to Law-Related Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Timothy H.

    1989-01-01

    Defines Law-Related Education and describes its goals: citizenship and ethics education, delinquency prevention, teaching survival, and critical thinking skills. Justifies Law-Related Education's place in the social studies curriculum. (CH)

  14. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating...

  15. Rediscovering Kepler's Third Law using NASA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, Jason; Springsteen, Paul

    2009-10-01

    Kepler's three laws of planetary motion were discovered around four hundred years ago using data that was meticulously gathered by Tycho Brahe through naked eye observations. Here we will show that the same Kepler's result illustrated in his third planetary law still holds today, by using modern data from NASA. In addition, we discuss how all three of Kepler's laws of planetary motion can be derived directly from Newton's Gravitational law.

  16. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating...

  17. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating...

  18. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating...

  19. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating...

  20. Automatism, medicine and the law.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, P

    1990-01-01

    The law on automatism is undergoing change. For some time there has been a conflict between the medical and the legal views. The medical profession believes that the present division between sane and insane automatism makes little medical sense. Insane automatism is due to an internal factor, that is, a disease of the brain, while sane automatism is due to an external factor, such as a blow on the head or an injection of a drug. This leads to the situation where, for example, the hypoglycaemia resulting from injected insulin would be sane automatism, while hypoglycaemia while results from an islet tumour would be insane automatism. This would not matter if the consequences were the same. However, sane automatism leads to an acquittal, whereas insane automatism leads to committal to a secure mental hospital. This article traces the development of the concept of automatism in the 1950s to the present time, and looks at the anomalies in the law as it now stands. It considers the medical conditions of, and the law relating to, epilepsy, alcohol and drug automatism, hypoglycaemic automatisms, transient global amnesia, and hysterical automatisms. Sleep automatisms, and offences committed during a somnambulistic automatism, are also discussed in detail. The article also examines the need of the Courts to be provided with expert evidence and the role that the qualified medical practitioner should take. It clarifies the various points which medical practitioners should consider when assessing whether a defence of automatism is justified on medical grounds, and in seeking to establish such a defence. The present law is unsatisfactory, as it does not allow any discretion in sentencing on the part of the judge once a verdict of not guilty by virtue of insane automatism has been passed. The judge must sentence the defendant to detention in a secure mental hospital. This would certainly be satisfactory where violent crimes have been committed. However, it is inappropriate in

  1. 32 CFR 842.111 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.111 Section 842.111 National... CLAIMS Claims Under the National Guard Claims Act (32 U.S.C. 715) § 842.111 Applicable law. (a) Extent of... the United States. The law of the place where the act or omission occurs governs liability. The...

  2. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  3. 32 CFR 842.51 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.51 Section 842.51 National... CLAIMS Military Claims Act (10 U.S.C. 2733) § 842.51 Applicable law. This paragraph provides the existing law governing liability, measurement of liability and the effects of settlement upon awards....

  4. 32 CFR 750.46 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable law. 750.46 Section 750.46 National... Military Claims Act § 750.46 Applicable law. (a) Claims arising within the United States, Territories, Commonwealth, and Possessions. The law of the place where the act or omission occurred will be applied...

  5. 27 CFR 72.31 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laws applicable. 72.31... Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.31 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the applicable customs laws. (Sec. 613, 618, 46 Stat. 756, as amended, 757, as...

  6. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  7. 26 CFR 403.35 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laws applicable. 403.35 Section 403.35 Internal... DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.35 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the customs laws applicable to remission...

  8. Admission to Law School: New Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Marjorie M.; Zedeck, Sheldon

    2012-01-01

    Standardized tests have been increasingly controversial over recent years in high-stakes admission decisions. Their role in operationalizing definitions of merit and qualification is especially contested, but in law schools this challenge has become particularly intense. Law schools have relied on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and an INDEX…

  9. 49 CFR 95.13 - Antitrust laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antitrust laws. 95.13 Section 95.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 95.13 Antitrust laws. The activities of advisory committees are subject to the antitrust laws and committee members are not immune from...

  10. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  11. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not...

  12. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the “2007 ACH Rules” are available from NACHA—The Electronic Payments... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States...

  13. Quantum physics explains Newton's laws of motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogborn, Jon; Taylor, Edwin F.

    2005-01-01

    Newton was obliged to give his laws of motion as fundamental axioms. But today we know that the quantum world is fundamental, and Newton’s laws can be seen as consequences of fundamental quantum laws. This article traces this transition from fundamental quantum mechanics to derived classical mechanics.

  14. School Law: Cases and Concepts. Seventh Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMorte, Michael W.

    This book examines the sizable body of school law that outlines legally defensible decisions. A substantial part of it contains edited, reported, and verbatim decisions. Historical perspective is provided, as well as specific case and statutory law. Chapter 1 discusses sources of law for educators, state school board policies, attorneys-general…

  15. Ranking Techniques and the Empirical Log Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Bertram C.

    1984-01-01

    Four empirical laws of bibliometrics--anomalous number, Lotka's, Zipf's, and Bradford's--together with Laplace's "law of succession" and de Solla Price's cumulative advantage distribution are shown to be almost identical. A simple model shows that the frequency forms conform with inverse square law over appropriate interval. (Fifteen references)…

  16. The Rate Laws for Reversible Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Edward L.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on the rate laws for reversible reactions. Indicates that although prediction of the form of the rate law for a reverse reaction given the rate law for the forward reaction is not certain, the number of possibilities is limited because of relationships described. (JN)

  17. The new Russian law on psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, D

    1994-01-01

    On July 2, 1992, President Boris Yeltsin signed into effect a law that has the potential for advancing human rights of psychiatric clients in the Russian Federation. The author provides a comparative analysis of the U.S. and Russian psychiatric laws, demonstrating a striking similarity of the laws in terms of substance and scope.

  18. The first mental health law of China.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yang; Wang, Jijun; Xie, Bin

    2015-02-01

    The first mental health law of China entered into effect on May 1, 2013. This was the biggest event in the mental health field in China. The present review introduces its legislative process, its main idea, and the principle and essence of formulating this mental health law. Current problems of the law and possible countermeasures are also discussed.

  19. LAW, VOL. 1, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARTMAN, PAUL; RABKIN, SOL

    THIS IS THE FIRST ISSUE OF A NEW PUBLICATION WHICH WILL PROVIDE PERIODIC REPORTS ON CIVIL RIGHTS LEGISLATION. IT CONTAINS A 1965 STATE-BY-STATE SUMMARY OF NEW LAWS AND LAWS WHICH HAVE BEEN STRENGTHENED TO FURTHER PROTECT CIVIL RIGHTS. MOST OF THESE LAWS PROHIBIT DISCRIMINATION IN HOUSING, HIRING PRACTICES, AND PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS. THE REPORT…

  20. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., the present value of any periodic payment upon which the award is based, is computed, unless the law... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National... CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance...

  1. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., the present value of any periodic payment upon which the award is based, is computed, unless the law... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National... CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance...

  2. Safe Haven Laws and School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopels, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    "Safe haven" laws are designed to protect infants from being killed or otherwise harmed. This article examines the safe haven laws from the states that comprise the Midwest School Social Work Council and the variations between these laws regarding the age of the infant, where the infant can be left, who is allowed to leave the infant, whether…

  3. A Law-Related Education for Alaskans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surgeon, Donald L.

    This paper reviews law-related education and suggests ways to implement this type of education in Alaska's secondary schools. Ten reasons for teaching law-related education are presented including the following: research demonstrates the effectiveness of such education; increases student interest in the law; helps students become effective…

  4. Special Education and the Law. Issuegram 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citron, Christiane Hyde

    Various state and federal laws related to education of the handicapped are outlined to aid state educators in identifying needs and formulating public school policy. Constitutional and statutory law concerning the educational rights of the handicapped are listed, including the Constitution, state constitutions, Public Law 94-142, and Section 504…

  5. 32 CFR 750.46 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable law. 750.46 Section 750.46 National... Military Claims Act § 750.46 Applicable law. (a) Claims arising within the United States, Territories, Commonwealth, and Possessions. The law of the place where the act or omission occurred will be applied...

  6. 27 CFR 72.31 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Laws applicable. 72.31... Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.31 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the applicable customs laws. (Sec. 613, 618, 46 Stat. 756, as amended, 757, as...

  7. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  8. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not...

  9. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  10. 32 CFR 750.46 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable law. 750.46 Section 750.46 National... Military Claims Act § 750.46 Applicable law. (a) Claims arising within the United States, Territories, Commonwealth, and Possessions. The law of the place where the act or omission occurred will be applied...

  11. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  12. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  13. 27 CFR 72.31 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Laws applicable. 72.31... Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.31 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the applicable customs laws. (Sec. 613, 618, 46 Stat. 756, as amended, 757, as...

  14. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  15. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  16. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  17. 50 CFR 665.936 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International law. 665.936 Section 665... National Monument § 665.936 International law. The regulations in this subpart shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is...

  18. 50 CFR 665.906 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International law. 665.906 Section 665... National Monument § 665.906 International law. The regulations in this subpart shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is...

  19. 32 CFR 537.5 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable law. 537.5 Section 537.5 National... THE UNITED STATES § 537.5 Applicable law. (a) Basis for recovery. (1) Most recovery assertions are.... These actions or omissions must constitute a tort as determined by the law of place of...

  20. 32 CFR 537.5 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicable law. 537.5 Section 537.5 National... THE UNITED STATES § 537.5 Applicable law. (a) Basis for recovery. (1) Most recovery assertions are.... These actions or omissions must constitute a tort as determined by the law of place of...

  1. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  2. 32 CFR 842.111 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.111 Section 842.111 National... CLAIMS Claims Under the National Guard Claims Act (32 U.S.C. 715) § 842.111 Applicable law. (a) Extent of... the United States. The law of the place where the act or omission occurs governs liability. The...

  3. 22 CFR 232.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 232.16 Section 232.16 Foreign...-74-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 232.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and...

  4. 50 CFR 665.906 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International law. 665.906 Section 665... National Monument § 665.906 International law. The regulations in this subpart shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is...

  5. 32 CFR 842.51 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.51 Section 842.51 National... CLAIMS Military Claims Act (10 U.S.C. 2733) § 842.51 Applicable law. This paragraph provides the existing law governing liability, measurement of liability and the effects of settlement upon awards....

  6. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  7. 32 CFR 842.111 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.111 Section 842.111 National... CLAIMS Claims Under the National Guard Claims Act (32 U.S.C. 715) § 842.111 Applicable law. (a) Extent of... the United States. The law of the place where the act or omission occurs governs liability. The...

  8. 32 CFR 750.46 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable law. 750.46 Section 750.46 National... Military Claims Act § 750.46 Applicable law. (a) Claims arising within the United States, Territories, Commonwealth, and Possessions. The law of the place where the act or omission occurred will be applied...

  9. 26 CFR 403.35 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Laws applicable. 403.35 Section 403.35 Internal... DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.35 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the customs laws applicable to remission...

  10. 26 CFR 403.35 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Laws applicable. 403.35 Section 403.35 Internal... DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.35 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the customs laws applicable to remission...

  11. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not...

  12. 50 CFR 665.936 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International law. 665.936 Section 665... National Monument § 665.936 International law. The regulations in this subpart shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is...

  13. 22 CFR 232.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 232.16 Section 232.16 Foreign...-74-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 232.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and...

  14. 49 CFR 95.13 - Antitrust laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antitrust laws. 95.13 Section 95.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 95.13 Antitrust laws. The activities of advisory committees are subject to the antitrust laws and committee members are not immune from...

  15. 32 CFR 842.111 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.111 Section 842.111 National... CLAIMS Claims Under the National Guard Claims Act (32 U.S.C. 715) § 842.111 Applicable law. (a) Extent of... the United States. The law of the place where the act or omission occurs governs liability. The...

  16. 26 CFR 403.35 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Laws applicable. 403.35 Section 403.35 Internal... DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.35 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the customs laws applicable to remission...

  17. 32 CFR 842.51 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.51 Section 842.51 National... CLAIMS Military Claims Act (10 U.S.C. 2733) § 842.51 Applicable law. This paragraph provides the existing law governing liability, measurement of liability and the effects of settlement upon awards....

  18. 32 CFR 537.5 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable law. 537.5 Section 537.5 National... THE UNITED STATES § 537.5 Applicable law. (a) Basis for recovery. (1) Most recovery assertions are.... These actions or omissions must constitute a tort as determined by the law of place of...

  19. 27 CFR 72.31 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Laws applicable. 72.31... Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.31 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the applicable customs laws. (Sec. 613, 618, 46 Stat. 756, as amended, 757, as...

  20. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not a citizen, national,...

  1. Laws of Scattering Applied to Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kevin L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study that examined Top 40 singles chart data to determine whether the frequency distribution of artist productivity fit either of two laws of scatter (Lotka Law of Scientific Productivity or Bradford Law of Scatter). Possible reasons for the lack of statistical significance found between the theoretical and observed distributions are…

  2. LAW EVERYONE SHOULD KNOW, ADULT COURSE OUTLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GAENZLE, LAWRENCE W.; AND OTHERS

    THIS LATEST REVISION OF THE INTRODUCTORY COURSE IN LAW FOR LAYMEN (AS PRACTICED IN NEW YORK STATE) DISCUSSES THE NEW DIVORCE LAW, CAPITAL PUNISHMENT, PROTECTION AGAINST SELF-INCRIMINATION, AND TAKING AGAINST A WILL, AS WELL AS OTHER CHANGES IN THE LAW SINCE THE LAST REVISION IN 1961. COURSE 1 INCLUDES SESSIONS ON WILLS DEFINED, WILLS AND ESTATE…

  3. Property Tax Laws of Texas. A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jay D., Jr.

    This booklet is basically a summary of a law book on the same subject by the same author. Although the 25 chapters of the larger work correspond directly to the chapters of the summary, this publication is not a law book in the usual sense. Rather, it is intended primarily to provide a simplified view of the property tax laws of Texas for tax…

  4. 49 CFR 95.13 - Antitrust laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antitrust laws. 95.13 Section 95.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 95.13 Antitrust laws. The activities of advisory committees are subject to the antitrust laws and committee members are not immune from...

  5. 27 CFR 72.31 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Laws applicable. 72.31... Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.31 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the applicable customs laws. (Sec. 613, 618, 46 Stat. 756, as amended, 757, as...

  6. 32 CFR 537.5 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicable law. 537.5 Section 537.5 National... THE UNITED STATES § 537.5 Applicable law. (a) Basis for recovery. (1) Most recovery assertions are.... These actions or omissions must constitute a tort as determined by the law of place of...

  7. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not...

  8. 26 CFR 403.35 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Laws applicable. 403.35 Section 403.35 Internal... DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.35 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the customs laws applicable to remission...

  9. The Law Clerk's Duty of Confidentiality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Judges were surveyed for their views on their law clerks' responsibility for confidentiality. Background is outlined, results are presented, and guidelines for law clerk conduct are suggested. The questionnaire is appended. Available from: Executive Editor, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 3400 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104, $6.50.…

  10. The second laws of quantum thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Fernando; Horodecki, Michał; Ng, Nelly; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Wehner, Stephanie

    2015-03-17

    The second law of thermodynamics places constraints on state transformations. It applies to systems composed of many particles, however, we are seeing that one can formulate laws of thermodynamics when only a small number of particles are interacting with a heat bath. Is there a second law of thermodynamics in this regime? Here, we find that for processes which are approximately cyclic, the second law for microscopic systems takes on a different form compared to the macroscopic scale, imposing not just one constraint on state transformations, but an entire family of constraints. We find a family of free energies which generalize the traditional one, and show that they can never increase. The ordinary second law relates to one of these, with the remainder imposing additional constraints on thermodynamic transitions. We find three regimes which determine which family of second laws govern state transitions, depending on how cyclic the process is. In one regime one can cause an apparent violation of the usual second law, through a process of embezzling work from a large system which remains arbitrarily close to its original state. These second laws are relevant for small systems, and also apply to individual macroscopic systems interacting via long-range interactions. By making precise the definition of thermal operations, the laws of thermodynamics are unified in this framework, with the first law defining the class of operations, the zeroth law emerging as an equivalence relation between thermal states, and the remaining laws being monotonicity of our generalized free energies. PMID:25675476

  11. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  12. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  13. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign... § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the United...

  14. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the United...

  15. The second laws of quantum thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Fernando; Horodecki, Michał; Ng, Nelly; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Wehner, Stephanie

    2015-03-17

    The second law of thermodynamics places constraints on state transformations. It applies to systems composed of many particles, however, we are seeing that one can formulate laws of thermodynamics when only a small number of particles are interacting with a heat bath. Is there a second law of thermodynamics in this regime? Here, we find that for processes which are approximately cyclic, the second law for microscopic systems takes on a different form compared to the macroscopic scale, imposing not just one constraint on state transformations, but an entire family of constraints. We find a family of free energies which generalize the traditional one, and show that they can never increase. The ordinary second law relates to one of these, with the remainder imposing additional constraints on thermodynamic transitions. We find three regimes which determine which family of second laws govern state transitions, depending on how cyclic the process is. In one regime one can cause an apparent violation of the usual second law, through a process of embezzling work from a large system which remains arbitrarily close to its original state. These second laws are relevant for small systems, and also apply to individual macroscopic systems interacting via long-range interactions. By making precise the definition of thermal operations, the laws of thermodynamics are unified in this framework, with the first law defining the class of operations, the zeroth law emerging as an equivalence relation between thermal states, and the remaining laws being monotonicity of our generalized free energies.

  16. 32 CFR 750.46 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... claim. If there is no foreign law on contributory or comparative negligence, apply traditional rules of... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable law. 750.46 Section 750.46 National... Military Claims Act § 750.46 Applicable law. (a) Claims arising within the United States,...

  17. 32 CFR 842.111 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... apportioned if local law applies comparative negligence. (3) Proceeds from private insurance policies are not... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.111 Section 842.111 National... CLAIMS Claims Under the National Guard Claims Act (32 U.S.C. 715) § 842.111 Applicable law. (a) Extent...

  18. Evaluation of the Tennessee Child Restraint Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allan F.

    This paper reports on a study of the effects of a Tennessee law aimed at increasing the protection of children in cars. The law, which came into force January 1, 1978, requires parents to use child restraints properly when transporting their children who are less than 4 years old. Alternatively, the law permits children to be held in arms, a…

  19. Islamic Law in the Modern World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, Gregory C.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that cultural differences and the media provide inaccurate impressions of both Islamic law and Euro-American law. Describes the historical background of Islamic law and the struggle between forces of fundamentalism and reform. Argues that the 2 legal systems have converged in the past 40 years. (CFR)

  20. Why Catholic Universities Should Engage International Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, William P.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that Catholic universities should vigorously engage international law for at least three reasons. First, international law is an indispensible dialogue partner for Catholic Social Teaching (CST). Since CST belongs in Catholic higher education, so too does international law. Second, in numerous ways and on a global scale,…

  1. [Expertise in the context of criminal law].

    PubMed

    Vermylen, Yvo

    2005-01-01

    The procedures of expert investigations in criminal law are different from those in civil law. Being an expert in criminal law investigations assumes thorough knowledge of dentistry, forensic investigations and of rules and procedures to follow. Adequate training and continuous education are mandatory.

  2. Should Principals Know More about Law?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctor, Tyrus L.

    2013-01-01

    Educational law is a critical piece of the education conundrum. Principals reference law books on a daily basis in order to address the wide range of complex problems in the school system. A principal's knowledge of law issues and legal decision-making are essential to provide effective feedback for a successful school.

  3. Language and Content: The Case of Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Colin J.

    A discussion of the teaching and learning of English for special purposes focuses on the interrelationship of content and language, particularly in the case of education for the legal professions. It is noted that law students must both study a large corpus of case and statute law and legal principles and learn the language of the law, with its…

  4. A Course Offering in Jewish Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorff, Elliott N.; Rosett, Arthur L.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a course taught at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law. Content was divided into four segments: an introduction to the literature and a brief history of its development, court procedures, marriage and family law, and commercial law. Origins of the course and problems, especially that of comparing two legal systems…

  5. The Minus Sign in Faraday's Law Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Colm; Hurley, Donal

    2013-01-01

    By introducing the mathematical concept of orientation, the significance of the minus sign in Faraday's law may be made clear to students with some knowledge of vector calculus. For many students, however, the traditional approach of treating the law as a relationship between positive scalars and of relying on Lenz's law to provide the information…

  6. Can Law Become Curricula's Guidance Counselor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goslin, Kimberly G.

    2008-01-01

    This article asserts that curricula, a living text, ought to take into consideration the virtues of fairness, justice, and integrity as found in law, in order to judge controversial issues of curriculum. This assertion is argued through a comparison of jurisprudence and pedagogy, as well as law and curricula. Dworkin's (1986) contention of "law as…

  7. Law School Confidential: The Complete Law School Survival Guide--by Students, for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert H.

    This book aims to give students a thorough overview of the contemporary law school experience. It provides a comprehensive chronological account of what to expect, drawn from the experiences of recent law school graduates, designated the "'Law School Confidential' mentors." The chapters are: (1) "Thinking about Law School? Think Again..."; (2)…

  8. The Golden Arches Meet the Hallowed Halls: Franchise Law and the Law School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Danaya

    1995-01-01

    A law school course in franchise law focuses on how various legal issues and categories interact within the context of the narrowly defined business relationship of a franchise. Four major topics included federal and state disclosure regulations, trademarks and service marks, common law contract issues, and antitrust law. Class exercises included…

  9. Teaching Comparative Law in the 21st Century: Beyond the Civil/Common Law Dichotomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that the inexorable shift to transnational and global legal practice demands a comparable shift in methods of teaching comparative law to move it beyond its current American common law/European civil law myopia. Proposes an introductory course, Law in Comparative Cultures, which exposes students to a panoply of international legal systems.…

  10. The Gauss and Ampere Laws: Different Laws but Similar Difficulties for Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guisasola, Jenaro; Almudi, Jose M.; Salinas, Julia; Zuza, Kristina; Ceberio, Mikel

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to analyse university students' reasoning regarding two laws of electromagnetism: Gauss's law and Ampere's law. It has been supposed that the problems seen in understanding and applying both laws do not spring from students' misconceptions. Students habitually use reasoning known in the literature as 'common sense' methodology that…

  11. Justice: Law and Responsibility. A Case Study Approach to Law Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seminole County Public Schools, Sanford, FL.

    Teacher-developed law-related education lessons that can be integrated into secondary school world history and U.S. history courses are provided. The first of two major sections contains law lessons for world history. Lessons are varied and deal with topics such as sources of the law, laws in early civilizations (Rome, Greece, and Egypt), the Code…

  12. Fourier's law: insight from a simple derivation.

    PubMed

    Dubi, Y; Di Ventra, M

    2009-04-01

    The onset of Fourier's law in a one-dimensional quantum system is addressed via a simple model of weakly coupled quantum systems in contact with thermal baths at their edges. Using analytical arguments we show that the crossover from the ballistic (invalid Fourier's law) to diffusive (valid Fourier's law) regimes is characterized by a thermal length scale, which is directly related to the profile of the local temperature. In the same vein, dephasing is shown to give rise to classical Fourier's law, similarly to the onset of Ohm's law in mesoscopic conductors.

  13. Government 101: how an idea becomes law.

    PubMed

    Griffith, James T

    2006-01-01

    The passing of a law is frequently accompanied by media attention and citizen apathy. In today's healthcare delivery situation, we should understand how a bill becomes law and what happens to the idea that engenders that process. Laws arise from the recommendations of ordinary citizens, but the recommendations follow a complicated process developed by the writers of our constitution to prevent abuses. Laws begin as ideas, they become bills considered by the legislature, they are expanded and enforced by the executive branch, and they are further interpreted by the judiciary branch. The laws governing healthcare issues are particularly complex, as most arise from the state legislatures.

  14. Culture, law and psychiatry in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Schultz-Ross, R A; Jenkins, L

    1998-12-01

    Hawaii is a set of islands with a broad mix of cultures. The law is American, but it was predominantly derived from English Common Law. Thus, the law is derived from a very distant culture. Theoretically, this 'transplanted' law could cause difficulties for people from Pacific cultures. Indeed, it appears to create difficulties for individuals with mental illness. A substantial number of these people are arrested for disobedience of a law that is not sensible for their culture. This problem is an example of the need for cultural knowledge when a psychiatrist conducts an examination for the legal system. An individual may appear legally guilty or medically insane when acting within cultural norms.

  15. The girl child and law.

    PubMed

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  16. The girl child and law.

    PubMed

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  17. Enforcing women's rights through law.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J

    1995-06-01

    Because women have to be equal partners in development to insure its sustainability, the human rights of women must be foremost on development agendas. Ratification of and adherence to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (the Women's Convention) would be a powerful international tool in this regard. In various countries, progress towards legalizing rights for women is passing through a first stage which focusses on the protection of specific rights to a second stage in which sex is included as a prohibited ground of discrimination to a third stage which addresses the pervasive and structural nature of the violation of women's rights. It is expected that governments will renew their commitment to the Women's Convention at the Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW) and, thus, take more seriously their obligations to report progress and remove reservations. Regional initiatives, such as the Organization of American States' 1994 Convention on the Prevention, Punishment, and Eradication of Violence Against Women, can also be used to protect women's rights, and the application of national constitutions and domestic laws remains the first line of defence for women. Particular attention must be paid to laws which apply to property rights, nationality, equality within the family, reproductive and other health issues, and violence against women. The Draft Plan of Action prepared for the WCW challenges states to specify their plans to eliminate discrimination. While this Plan may prove to lack vision, women's nongovernmental organizations are playing a major role in accelerating the movement of international and domestic law towards justice for women.

  18. Law reform, politics and mental health.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M D

    1983-03-01

    A major problem of democratic government is to get lawmakers to address controversial and sensitive subjects such as mental health law reform. By reference to current and past projects in the Australian Law Reform Commission, its Chairman outlines the way in which permanent law reform agencies can mobilise expert and community opinion to help the lawmaking process address sufficiently the needs of law reform. After outlining briefly the history of mental health law reform in English-speaking countries, the author suggests that moves for reform tend to come in 'cycles' or 'waves'. This is especially so in federations such as Australia. Reforms introduced in South Australia in 1976 are now working their way into the laws of other jurisdictions of Australia, where mental health law is basically a state concern. The reforms deal with such matters as legal representation for persons involuntarily committed and stricter definitions of circumstances for and objectives of hospitalisation of the mentally ill. Some comments are offered on new approaches to the defence of insanity in criminal trials following the jury verdict in the Hinkley case arising out of an attempt on the life of a President of the United States. The implications of this and other cases for the 'anti-psychiatry' movement are referred to and discussed. The author concludes with comments on the implications of mental health law reform for democracies. He suggests a law for law reform agencies in reconciling needs for law reform and community tolerance of change.

  19. Law and the brain: introduction.

    PubMed Central

    Zeki, Semir; Goodenough, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    Combining law and the brain as a matter for study requires the integration not just of two apparently remote fields of study but also of two profoundly different orientations towards research and study. We believe that, in spite of the difficulties, such a combination, perhaps even emerging in a new specialized discipline in the future, will not only enrich both fields but is the ineluctable consequence of the current assault on the secrets of the brain. The effort to bring the fields together is therefore a worthy task, and this issue is the first systematic effort to test this expectation. PMID:15590607

  20. Law sets up oceans commission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In an anticipated move, U.S. President Bill Clinton on August 7 signed into law the Oceans Act of 2000.The bipartisan legislation, which takes effect on January 20,2001, establishes a commission on ocean policy to examine federal ocean policy and environmental and economic trends affecting oceans and coasts.The act—which grew out of a call issued by Clinton at the National Oceans Conference in Monterey, California in 1998—requires the commission to submit recommendations to Congress and the president within 18 months of its appointment, and for the President to submit proposals to Congress about the use and stewardship of ocean and coastal resources.

  1. Diving, adaptation, and Fitts law.

    PubMed

    Kerr, R

    1978-12-01

    To assess Welford's dual controlling factor interpretation of Fitts' law, 20 scuba divers performed a reciprocal tapping task. In an attempt to separate the two factors, the subjects were tested on land and underwater. This does not change the basic parameters of the task but does put the subjects under informational stress, in that underwater the movement is less ballistic in nature and should require the processing of more information (feedback) in each tap. On land, the contributions of movement amplitude and precision were approximately equal. However, the relative changes in contribution of these factors to movement time underwater suggests that these parameters do in fact represent separate controlling factors.

  2. UN adopts Law of Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    After more than 8 years of diplomatic wrangling, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was adopted on April 30 by a vote of 130 to 4. The United States, Israel, Turkey, and Venezuela voted against the treaty; 17 nations—including the Soviet Union, West Germany, and Britain—abstained.The treaty, which would give nations the exclusive rights to natural resources in the continental shelf up to approximately 650 km offshore, will be signed in December. The treaty becomes effective 1 year after at least 60 nations ratify it.

  3. Henry's law constants of polyols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, S.; Müller, J.-F.

    2014-05-01

    Henry's law constants (HLC) are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. Depending on the case, infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs), solid state pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediary results. For most compounds, these are the first values reported, while others compare favourably with literature data in most cases. Using these values and those from a previous work (Compernolle and Müller, 2014), an assessment is made on the partitioning of polyols, diacids and hydroxy acids to droplet and aqueous aerosol.

  4. Sunday Liquor Laws and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Many jurisdictions have considered relaxing Sunday alcohol sales restrictions, yet such restrictions' effects on public health remain poorly understood. This paper analyzes the effects of legalization of Sunday packaged liquor sales on crime, focusing on the phased introduction of such sales in Virginia beginning in 2004. Differences-in-differences and triple-differences estimates indicate the liberalization increased minor crime by 5% and alcohol-involved serious crime by 10%. The law change did not affect domestic crime or induce significant geographic or inter-temporal crime displacement. The costs of this additional crime are comparable to the state's revenues from increased liquor sales. PMID:22125348

  5. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  6. Feedback control laws for highly maneuverable aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William L.; Balas, Gary J.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a study of the application of H infinity and mu synthesis techniques to the design of feedback control laws for the longitudinal dynamics of the High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are presented. The objective of this study is to develop methods for the design of feedback control laws which cause the closed loop longitudinal dynamics of the HARV to meet handling quality specifications over the entire flight envelope. Control law designs are based on models of the HARV linearized at various flight conditions. The control laws are evaluated by both linear and nonlinear simulations of typical maneuvers. The fixed gain control laws resulting from both the H infinity and mu synthesis techniques result in excellent performance even when the aircraft performs maneuvers in which the system states vary significantly from their equilibrium design values. Both the H infinity and mu synthesis control laws result in performance which compares favorably with an existing baseline longitudinal control law.

  7. Patent Law for Computer Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closa, Daniel; Gardiner, Alex; Giemsa, Falk; Machek, Jörg

    More than five centuries ago the first patent statute was passed by the Venetian senate. It already had most of the features of modern patent law, recognizing the public interest in innovation and granting exclusive right in exchange for a full disclosure. Some 350 years later the industrial revolution led to globalisation. The wish to protect intellectual property on a more international level evolved and supranational treaties were negotiated. Patent laws are still different in many countries, however, and inventors are sometimes at a loss to understand which basic requirements should be satisfied if an invention is to be granted a patent. This is particularly true for inventions implemented on a computer. While roughly a third of all applications (and granted patents) relate, in one way or another, to a computer, applications where the innovation mainly resides in software or in a business method are treated differently by the major patent offices. The procedures at the USPTO, JPO and EPO and, in particular, the differences in the treatment of applications centring on software are briefly explained. In later sections of this book, a wealth of examples will be presented. The methodology behind the treatment of these examples is explained.

  8. Aerosol backscatter studies supporting LAWS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry

    1989-01-01

    Optimized Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE), Laser True Airspeed System (LATAS) algorithm for low backscatter conditions was developed. The algorithm converts backscatter intensity measurements from focused continuous-wave (CW) airborne Doppler lidar into backscatter coefficients. The performance of optimized algorithm under marginal backscatter signal conditions was evaluated. The 10.6 micron CO2 aerosol backscatter climatologies were statistically analyzed. Climatologies reveal clean background aerosol mode near 10(exp -10)/kg/sq m/sr (mixing ratio units) through middle and upper troposhere, convective mode associated with planetary boundary layer convective activity, and stratospheric mode associated with volcanically-generated aerosols. Properties of clean background mode are critical to design and simulation studies of Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS), a MSFC facility Instrument on the Earth Observing System (Eos). Previous intercomparisons suggested correlation between aerosol backscatter at CO2 wavelength and water vapor. Field measurements of backscatter profiles with MSFC ground-based Doppler lidar system (GBDLS) were initiated in late FY-88 to coincide with independent program of local rawinsonde releases and overflights by Multi-spectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS), a multi-channel infrared radiometer capable of measuring horizontal and vertical moisture distributions. Design and performance simulation studies for LAWS would benefit from the existence of a relationship between backscatter and water vapor.

  9. Numerical simulation of conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; To, Wai-Ming

    1992-01-01

    A new numerical framework for solving conservation laws is being developed. This new approach differs substantially from the well established methods, i.e., finite difference, finite volume, finite element and spectral methods, in both concept and methodology. The key features of the current scheme include: (1) direct discretization of the integral forms of conservation laws, (2) treating space and time on the same footing, (3) flux conservation in space and time, and (4) unified treatment of the convection and diffusion fluxes. The model equation considered in the initial study is the standard one dimensional unsteady constant-coefficient convection-diffusion equation. In a stability study, it is shown that the principal and spurious amplification factors of the current scheme, respectively, are structurally similar to those of the leapfrog/DuFort-Frankel scheme. As a result, the current scheme has no numerical diffusion in the special case of pure convection and is unconditionally stable in the special case of pure diffusion. Assuming smooth initial data, it will be shown theoretically and numerically that, by using an easily determined optimal time step, the accuracy of the current scheme may reach a level which is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the MacCormack scheme, with virtually identical operation count.

  10. The Louisiana State University Law Center's Bijural Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costonis, John J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the bijural program of Louisiana State University Law Center. The program educates all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

  11. McGill's Integrated Civil and Common Law Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morissette, Yves-Marie

    2002-01-01

    Describes the bijural program of McGill University Faculty of Law. The program educates all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

  12. Scaling Laws for Mesoscale and Microscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Spletzer, Barry

    1999-08-23

    The set of laws developed and presented here is by no means exhaustive. Techniques have been present to aid in the development of additional scaling laws and to combine these and other laws to produce additional useful relationships. Some of the relationships produced here have yielded perhaps surprising results. Examples include the fifth order scaling law for electromagnetic motor torque and the zero order scaling law for capacitive motor power. These laws demonstrate important facts about actuators in small-scale systems. The primary intent of this introduction into scaling law analysis is to provide needed tools to examine possible areas of the research in small-scale systems and direct research toward more fruitful areas. Numerous examples have been included to show the validity of developing scaling laws based on first principles and how real world systems tend to obey these laws even when many other variables may potentially come into play. Development of further laws may well serve to provide important high-level direction to the continued development of small-scale systems.

  13. 5 CFR 2421.9 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 2421.9 Section... Administrative Law Judge. Administrative Law Judge means the Chief Administrative Law Judge or any Administrative Law Judge designated by the Chief Administrative Law Judge to conduct a hearing in cases under 5...

  14. 12 CFR 213.9 - Relation to state laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relation to state laws. 213.9 Section 213.9... LEASING (REGULATION M) § 213.9 Relation to state laws. (a) Inconsistent state law. A state law that is... a lessor cannot comply with a state law without violating a provision of this part, the state law...

  15. [Does population ecology have general laws?].

    PubMed

    Turchin, P V

    2002-01-01

    There is a widespread opinion among ecologists that ecology lacks general laws. In this paper the author argues that this opinion is mistaken. Taking the case of population dynamics, the author points out that there are several very general law-like propositions that provide the theoretical basis for most population dynamics models that were developed to address specific issues. Some of these foundational principles, like the law of exponential growth, are logically very similar to certain law of physics (Newton's law of intertia, for example, is almost a direct analogue of exponential growth). The author discusses two other principles (population self-limitation and resource-consumer oscillations), as well as the more elementary postulates that underlie them. None of the "laws" that the author proposes for population ecology are new. Collectively ecologists have been using these general principles in guiding development of their models and experiments since the days of Lotka, Volterra, and Gause.

  16. NGRI and Megan's Law: no exit?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth J; Watson, Clarence

    2008-01-01

    Megan's Law, an effort to enhance community safety by requiring sex offenders to register and to notify their communities, often for life, has been enacted in all jurisdictions of the United States. Although the ostensible intent of the law is nonpunitive, many registrants feel it infringes on their freedom. Nevertheless, the law has passed constitutional scrutiny. Megan's Law pertains principally to convicted sex offenders, including those adults and juveniles who have entered guilty pleas. This article reveals that many jurisdictions require individuals found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) to register if the offense in question falls under Megan's Law. Thus, insanity acquittees run the risk of interminable supervision. We discuss a recent challenge to the Arkansas registration law and the decision's implications for planning forensic mental health testimony.

  17. Surface conservation laws at microscopically diffuse interfaces.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kevin T; Bazant, Martin Z

    2007-11-01

    In studies of interfaces with dynamic chemical composition, bulk and interfacial quantities are often coupled via surface conservation laws of excess surface quantities. While this approach is easily justified for microscopically sharp interfaces, its applicability in the context of microscopically diffuse interfaces is less theoretically well-established. Furthermore, surface conservation laws (and interfacial models in general) are often derived phenomenologically rather than systematically. In this article, we first provide a mathematically rigorous justification for surface conservation laws at diffuse interfaces based on an asymptotic analysis of transport processes in the boundary layer and derive general formulae for the surface and normal fluxes that appear in surface conservation laws. Next, we use nonequilibrium thermodynamics to formulate surface conservation laws in terms of chemical potentials and provide a method for systematically deriving the structure of the interfacial layer. Finally, we derive surface conservation laws for a few examples from diffusive and electrochemical transport.

  18. Jupiter, Tether, and Lenz's Law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Russell

    1999-01-01

    Jupiter has a large, complex, and intense magnetic field that is thought to arise from electrical currents in the rapidly spinning metallic hydrogen interior. The strong magnetic field can induce currents when the conductive tether is directed toward or away from Jupiter. The currents can be stored and used for both propulsion and power generation. Therefore, our spacecraft might be able to visit several Jovian moons or maintain in the orbit around Jupiter. In our future space traveling, we also can use this technical skill to travel to other planets without any fuel. First-year physics textbooks describe Lenz's Law in which current is induced in a conductor moving through a stationary magnetic field. A demonstration of induced current in a stationary conductor and moving magnetic field is described, which may have space-tether application.

  19. The iron law of politics.

    PubMed

    Salzman, Philip Carl

    2004-09-01

    Political philosophers have doubted the compatibility of various major values, such as equality and freedom. Ethnographic and historical evidence has indicated the presence of (1) economic equality and individual freedom in the absence of civil peace in segmentary societies based on self-help; (2) economic equality and civil peace in the absence of individual freedom in corporate societies; and (3) individual freedom and civil peace in the absence of economic equality in mercantile and capitalist societies. However, little if any evidence has documented all three -- economic equality, individual freedom, civil peace -- in stable coexistence. By way of delineating the relations between and among the values in question, I offer "The Iron Law of Politics," which asserts that economic equality, individual freedom, and civil peace cannot all exist simultaneously in any society, although any two of the three can.

  20. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

  1. Patent law for the dermatologist.

    PubMed

    Mei, Dan Feng; Liu, Josephine

    2013-12-01

    An exciting discovery in the laboratory may translate to a commercial product. How does the patent system fit into the picture? We first discuss the circumstances under which an invention is granted a patent. What is the purpose of a patent and what are the functions of the patent system? Who can apply for a patent? What makes an invention patentable? A patent does not automatically grant a right to make or sell a product. This is because multiple patents can cover a single pharmaceutical product. Understanding the patent landscape covering a product of interest is key to evaluating the risk of infringing another's exclusivity rights. We use a hypothetical example relating to skin cancer to guide a discussion of patent law.

  2. Commentary: Zoophilia and the law.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Rebekah; Fedoroff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We support the observation of Holoyda and Newman that common definitions of zoophilia are confusing and that legal definitions of bestiality and sentencing implications are inconsistent. We take issue with their contention that the finding of a history of sex with animals may be a significant risk factor for future harm to humans. We oppose their recommendation for new laws against bestiality to improve psychiatric knowledge about zoophilia. Instead, we advocate for better diagnostic criteria than are provided by the DSM-5, together with the provision of treatment to promote healthful sexual interests and activities by humans and the safety of animals. We believe this is best accomplished by not treating sexual interactions with animals simply as risk factors. Instead they should be assessed as signs of zoophilia, which is a psychiatric disorder for which treatment is available.

  3. Smoothing and the second law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Marshal L.

    1987-01-01

    The technique of obtaining second-order oscillation-free total -variation-diminishing (TVD), scalar difference schemes by adding a limited diffusive flux ('smoothing') to a second-order centered scheme is explored. It is shown that such schemes do not always converge to the correct physical answer. The approach presented here is to construct schemes that numerically satisfy the second law of thermodynamics on a cell-by-cell basis. Such schemes can only converge to the correct physical solution and in some cases can be shown to be TVD. An explicit scheme with this property and second-order spatial accuracy was found to have extremely restrictive time-step limitation. Switching to an implicit scheme removed the time-step limitation.

  4. Smoothing and the second law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Marshal L.

    1986-01-01

    The technique of obtaining second order, oscillation free, total variation diminishing (TVD), scalar difference schemes by adding a limited diffusion flux (smoothing) to a second order centered scheme is explored. It is shown that such schemes do not always converge to the correct physical answer. The approach presented here is to construct schemes that numerically satisfy the second law of thermodynamics on a cell by cell basis. Such schemes can only converge to the correct physical solution and in some cases can be shown to be TVD. An explicit scheme with this property and second order spatial accuracy was found to have an extremely restrictive time step limitation (Delta t less than Delta x squared). Switching to an implicit scheme removed the time step limitation.

  5. National law enforcement telecommunications network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, N. B.; Garrison, G. W.; Sohn, R. L.; Gallop, D. L.; Goldstein, B. L.

    1975-01-01

    Alternative approaches are analyzed to a National Law Enforcement Telecommunications Network (NALECOM) designed to service all state-to-state and state-to-national criminal justice communications traffic needs in the United States. Network topology options were analyzed, and equipment and personnel requirements for each option were defined in accordance with NALECOM functional specifications and design guidelines. Evaluation criteria were developed and applied to each of the options leading to specific conclusions. Detailed treatments of methods for determining traffic requirements, communication line costs, switcher configurations and costs, microwave costs, satellite system configurations and costs, facilities, operations and engineering costs, network delay analysis and network availability analysis are presented. It is concluded that a single regional switcher configuration is the optimum choice based on cost and technical factors. A two-region configuration is competitive. Multiple-region configurations are less competitive due to increasing costs without attending benefits.

  6. Henry's law constants of polyols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, S.; Müller, J.-F.

    2014-12-01

    Henry's law constants (HLC) are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. While deriving HLC and depending on the case, also infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs), solid state vapour pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediate results. An error analysis on the intermediate quantities and the obtained HLC is included. For most compounds, these are the first values reported, while others compare favourably with literature data in most cases. Using these values and those from a previous work (Compernolle and Müller, 2014), an assessment is made on the partitioning of polyols, diacids and hydroxy acids to droplet and aqueous aerosol.

  7. Seabed mining law in turmoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    When it was realized last December that the United States would not sign the United Nations (U.N.) Law of the Sea Convention, it was suspected that the issue of deep seabed mining was a preeminent factor. According to a recent discussion by members of the Marine Resources Project of the University of Manchester, U.K. (New Sci., January 1983), the thinking of many national delegations was focused on the aspects of ocean-floor nodule mining. The United States would rather make less sweeping agreements, limited to those countries that already have deep-sea mining investments. Such an agreement has been made on an interim basis between the United States, France, West Germany, and the United Kingdom. Third World nations, on the other hand, have a vested interest in having the convention signed, because they would share in the profits.

  8. Risk relativism and physical law.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In two 1959 papers, one coauthored, Jerome Cornfield asserts that 'relative' measures are more useful for causal inference while 'absolute' measures are more useful for public health purposes. In one of these papers (the single-authored one), he asks how epidemiology should respond to the fact that its domain is not a highly 'articulated' one-it is not susceptible to being subsumed under general laws. What is the connection between these issues? There has recently been some backlash against 'risk relativism', and Charles Poole has recently dismantled the mathematical argument for the first claim. However the problem with 'Cornfield's Principle' seems to go much deeper. The whole attempt to partition measures into absolute and relative is fundamentally mistaken. Why, then, has it seemed so appealing? Perhaps one reason is the influence that early education in the physical sciences continues to exert on the way epidemiologists think, and their response to the low articulation of their domain of study.

  9. Biological weapons and US law.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J R

    1997-08-01

    During the past 8 years, the US Congress has developed a comprehensive legal framework to prevent the illegitimate use of toxins and infectious agents. As part of this framework, Congress has defined as a federal crime virtually every step in the process of developing or acquiring a biological agent for use as a weapon. At the same time, Congress has vested federal law enforcement agencies with broad civil and investigative powers to enable the government to intervene before such weapons are used or even developed. Finally, Congress has directed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to establish a regulatory regime to monitor the location and transfer of hazardous biological agents and to insure that any use of such agents complies with appropriate biosafety requirements. PMID:9244312

  10. Abortion laws in African Commonwealth countries.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1981-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the range of current (1981) abortion laws in the African Commonwealth countries, traces the origins of the laws to their colonial predecessors, and discusses legal reform that would positively provide for legal termination of pregnancy. The authors claim that the range of these laws demonstrates an evolution that leads from customary/common law (Lesotho and Swaziland) to basic law (Botswana, The Gambia, Malawi, Mauritius, Nigeria's Northern States and Seychelles) to developed law (Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria's Southern States, Sierra Leone, and Uganda), and, finally, to advanced law (Zambia and Zimbabwe). The authors call for treating abortion as an issue of health and welfare as opposed to one of crime and punishment. Since most of the basic law de jure is treated and administered as developed law de facto, the authors suggest decriminalizing abortion and propose ways in which to reform the law: clarifying existing law; liberalizing existing law to allow abortion based upon certain indications; limiting/removing women's criminal liability for seeking an abortion; allowing hindsight contraception; protecting providers treating women in good faith; publishing recommended fees for services to protect poor women; protecting providers who treat women with incomplete abortion; and punishing providers who fail to provide care to women in need, with the exception of those seeking protection under a conscience clause. The authors also suggest clarifying the means by which health services involving pregnancy termination may be delivered, including: clarification of the qualifications of practitioners who may treat women; specification of the facilities that may treat women, perhaps broken down by gestational duration of the pregnancy; specifying gestational limits during which the procedure can be performed; clarifying approval procedures and consents; and allowing for conscientious objections to performing the procedure.

  11. Microscopic aspects implied by the Second Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondepudi, D. K.

    1987-07-01

    It is conventional to try to arrive at the Boltzmann principle and the Second Law starting with the laws of dynamics at the microscopic level. In this article the opposite view is presented: Starting with the Second Law, microscopic properties are derived. A classical result of Wien is developed into a general theorem, and the possibility of deriving the Boltzmann principle as a consequence of Carnot's theorem is discussed.

  12. Law Schools Customize Degrees to Students' Taste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Going to law school to get a law degree has become a little like going to an ice-cream parlor for a scoop of vanilla. Plenty of people still do it, but many schools' brochures--like the elaborate flavor-and-topping menus on ice-cream parlor walls--now tempt them with something different, something more. Law students can have their "juris doctor"…

  13. Hyperbolic conservation laws and numerical methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveque, Randall J.

    1990-01-01

    The mathematical structure of hyperbolic systems and the scalar equation case of conservation laws are discussed. Linear, nonlinear systems and the Riemann problem for the Euler equations are also studied. The numerical methods for conservation laws are presented in a nonstandard manner which leads to large time steps generalizations and computations on irregular grids. The solution of conservation laws with stiff source terms is examined.

  14. A Logical Model of Private International Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung, Phan Minh; Sartor, Giovanni

    We provide a logical analysis of private international law, the body of law establishing when courts of a country should decide a case (jurisdiction) and what legal system they should apply to this purpose (choice of law). A formal model of the resulting interaction among multiple legal systems is proposed based on modular argumentation. It is argued that this model may be useful for understanding this rather esoteric, but increasingly important, domain of the law. Moreover, it might be useful for modelling the way in which interactions between heterogeneous agents, belonging to different and differently regulated virtual societies, can be governed without recourse to a central regulatory agency.

  15. True reason for Zipf's law in language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahui, Wang; Menghui, Li; Zengru, Di

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of word frequency have historically used data that included English, French, or other language, data typically described by Zipf's law. Using data on traditional and modern Chinese literatures, we show here that Chinese character frequency stroked Zipf's law based on literature before Qin dynasty; however, it departed from Zipf's law based on literature after Qin dynasty. Combined with data about English dictionaries and Chinese dictionaries, we show that the true reason for Zipf's Law in language is that growth and preferential selection mechanism of word or character in given language.

  16. Justice foundations for the Comprehensive Law Movement.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Authors examining the developing dispute resolution alternatives to the adversarial system have identified nine converging "vectors" or alternatives in what has been termed the Comprehensive Law Movement. These authors have sought to understand how the developing vectors can remain separate and vibrant movements while sharing common ground. Some analyze these developments as being within law and legal practice, others see them as alternative approaches to law, and still others take a combined approach. It will be impossible to understand how these vectors have meaningful differences from law and legal practice if the search is limited to looking within law and legal practice. It will be impossible to understand how these vectors have meaningful commonalities with law and legal practice if the search is limited to looking external to law and legal practice. Instead of comparing the vectors with the adversarial system, higher order criteria are required. What is needed is a comprehensive and internally consistent super-system of norms; one that can be used to evaluate the adversarial system and the evolving vectors on an equal footing. An Aristotelian natural law virtue theory of justice can: (a) provide a functional guiding definition of justice; (b) serve as a comprehensive and internally consistent super-system of norms; and (c) provide the theoretical and evaluative foundation required to clarify the relationships among the adversarial system and the developing vectors. Finally, it will become clear why the Comprehensive Law Movement might be more appropriately conceptualized as the Comprehensive Justice Movement. PMID:20880589

  17. Integrating International Business Law Concepts into a High School Business Law Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Cathleen J.; McDonald, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    Outlines international business content for a high school business law curriculum: history of international business law, World Trade Organization, international disputes, contracts and sales, financing/banking, currency, taxation, intellectual property, transportation, and multinational corporations. Considers whether to teach international…

  18. 43 CFR 2650.3 - Lawful entries, lawful settlements, and mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lawful entries, lawful settlements, and mining claims. 2650.3 Section 2650.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... mining claims....

  19. Zipf's Law and Heaps' Law Can Predict the Size of Potential Words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Y.; Takayasu, H.; Takayasu, M.

    We confirm Zipf's law and Heaps' law using various types ofdocuments such as literary works, blogs, and computer programs. Independent of the document type, the exponents of Zipf' law are estimated to be approximately 1, whereas Heaps' exponents appear to be dependent on the observation size, and the estimated values are scattered around 0.5. By definition, randomly shuffled documents reproduce Zipf's law and Heaps' law. However, artificially generated documents using the empirically observed Zipf's law and number of distinct words do not reproduce Heaps' law. We demonstrate that Heaps' law holds for artificial documents in which a certain number of distinct words are added to empirically observed distinct words. This suggests that the number of potential distinct words considered in the creation of a given document can be predicted.

  20. Investigating a New Way To Teach Law: A Computer-based Commercial Law Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the successful use of an interactive, computer-based format supplemented by online chats to provide a two-credit-hour commercial law course at the University of Tennessee College of Law. (EV)

  1. [What does the law say]?].

    PubMed

    Toure, A

    1990-07-01

    This article addresses the illegality of the practice of sexual mutilation (female circumcision) which includes excision and infibulation in Mali in particular, but which are universally practiced in Sub- Saharan Africa and Europe. The principal question asked is what legislation exists to protect women against sexual mutilation (SM). Article 171 of Mali's Penal Code of 1961 states that any interventions that cause death, or any substance that are administered to a person voluntarily that cause them injury or sickness where they are incapacitated from work will be punished from 6 months to 3 years of imprisonment and fined 20,000 - 200,000 francs and the person imposing the infliction shall also receive 10 years probation. However, if the illness results in a permanent state of incapacity the penalty will be from 5-10 years of hard labor. If the person dies the penalty will be 5-20 years of hard labor and 20 years of probation. While Article 163 of the Penal Code is more direct, and states that any injuries or voluntary violence imposed on a person without intent of death will be punished from 5-20 years of forced labor and 20 years probation. Article 166 of the Penal Code is the most direct regarding SM and states that when violence are injuries aimed at mutilating, amputating, deprivation of parts of the body or loss of the senses such as eyes or any other the penalty shall be from 5-10 year of forced labor. Mali has not enforced any of these laws. Yet Malian citizens practicing SM and the death of their children have been condemned in France with prison sentence. Recommendations to fight the war against Sm should include 3 strategies: 1) a national IEC campaign; 2) integrating the practice of Sm into the curriculum of all teaching institutions; and 3) changing the existing laws to make them more explicit as acts of torture and providing administrative, political and legislative support towards the eradication of such an inhuman practice.

  2. Changing the Order of Newton's Laws--Why & How the Third Law Should Be First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue; Rayner, John P.; Gore, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Newton's laws are difficult both for teachers and students at all levels. This is still the case despite a long history of critique of the laws as presented in the classroom. For example, more than 50 years ago Eisenbud and Weinstock proposed reformulations of the laws that put them on a sounder, more logically consistent base than is presented in…

  3. Law and Pop Culture: Teaching and Learning about Law Using Images from Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Paul R.

    2000-01-01

    Believes that using popular culture images of law, lawyers, and the legal system is an effective way for teaching about real law. Offers examples of incorporating popular culture images when teaching about law. Includes suggestions for teaching activities, a mock trial based on Dr. Seuss's book "Yertle the Turtle," and additional resources. (CMK)

  4. Price's Square Root Law: Empirical Validity and Relation to Lotka's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Paul Travis

    1988-01-01

    Presents Price's law, which states that half of the literature on a subject will be contributed by the square root of total number of authors publishing in that area, and assesses it against empirical evidence and simulated productivity distributions. The discussion covers this law's relation to Lotka's law and its empirical validity. (Author/CLB)

  5. Law Day Stories: An Anthology of Stories about Lawyers, Lawmakers, and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    Dedicated to celebrating the importance of law in U.S. life, the 19 stories collected in this volume are about legislators who enact the law, judges who interpret it, and lawyers who practice it. The stories describe the contributions to the United States through the law of distinguished individuals, emphasizing the devotion of many lawyers to…

  6. The Pattern of Indoor Smoking Restriction Law Transitions, 1970–2009: Laws Are Sticky

    PubMed Central

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Zerbe, Brandon; Song, Anna V.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the pattern of the passage of smoking laws across venues (government and private workplaces, restaurants, bars) and by strength (no law to 100% smoke-free). Methods. We conducted transition analyses of local and state smoking restrictions passed between 1970 and 2009, with data from the Americans for Nonsmokers’ Rights Ordinance Database. Results. Each decade, more laws were enacted, from 18 passed in the 1970s to 3172 in the first decade of this century, when 91% of existing state laws were passed. Most laws passed took states and localities from no law to some level of smoking restriction, and most new local (77%; 5148/6648) and state (73%; 115/158) laws passed in the study period did not change strength. Conclusions. Because these laws are “sticky”—once a law has passed, strength of the law and venues covered do not change often—policymakers and advocates should focus on passing strong laws the first time, rather than settling for less comprehensive laws with the hope of improving them in the future. PMID:23763408

  7. You-Me-And the Three R's of Law. Elementary Law Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trace, Faustina M.

    Fourteen units of increasing difficulty and abstraction for grade levels one through six examine the responsibility to law, rights and privileges of law, reasons for laws, and justice. Each unit presents the objective, suggested activities, and topics for discussion. Grade 1 focusses on responsibility, sharing, taking turns, respect for private…

  8. Singular Lyapunov spectra and conservation laws.

    PubMed

    Bohr, T.; Grinstein, G.; Jayaprakash, C.

    1995-06-01

    We give analytic arguments and numerical evidence to show that the presence of conservation laws can produce a singularity in the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents for extended dynamical systems of low spatial dimensionality. This phenomenon can be used, e.g., for finding hidden conservation laws. (c) 1995 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Can Law Foster Social-Ecological Resilience?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Law plays an essential role in shaping natural resource and environmental policy. Unfortunately, many of the environmental laws now in place were developed around the prevailing scientific understanding in the 1960s and 1970s the natural world existed within an envelope of predic...

  10. In Digital Age, Sunshine Laws Turn Hazy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2013-01-01

    School board members are struggling to interpret laws that govern where and how they do business now that as many conversations take place digitally as they do face to face. As online and digital interactions increase, so too does public concern that officials have more opportunities to violate state open-meetings and open-records laws meant to…

  11. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  12. Law School Intentions of Undergraduate Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Thomas; Flanagan, David J.; Palmer, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that influence business students' intentions to enroll in law school. Scant research has focused on factors that influence business students' decisions to enroll in law school. This paper attempts to fill that gap. Hypotheses about student intentions are based on Ajzen & Fishbein's (1977) Theory…

  13. 33 CFR 401.66 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable laws. 401.66 Section 401.66 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.66 Applicable laws. (a)...

  14. 33 CFR 335.5 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable laws. 335.5 Section 335.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... OF DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL INTO WATERS OF THE U.S. OR OCEAN WATERS § 335.5 Applicable laws. (a)...

  15. 20 CFR 401.135 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other laws. 401.135 Section 401.135 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY AND DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.135 Other laws. When the FOIA does not apply, we may...

  16. The Principal: The Law and Student Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Permuth, Steve; And Others

    Intended to serve as a practical guide for principals, this book analyzes the implications of recent court interpretations of constitutional and statutory law as it applies to the disciplinary policies and practices of schools. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the law on the actions of school administrators in Illinois, and several sections of…

  17. The Federal Wage Garnishment Law. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    The Federal Wage Garnishment Law limits the amount of an employee's disposable earnings which may be garnisheed in any one week, and protects him from discharge because of garnishment for any one indebtedness. Coverage of the garnishment law, an explanation of garnishment, wages subject to garnishment, and restrictions on the garnishment amount…

  18. Youth and the Law. First Edition 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Council of America, Cleveland, OH. Social Science Program.

    This student book for the nine week, junior high course "Youth and the Law" addresses juvenile delinquency. The content is organized by chapters dealing with growing up, juvenile crime, causes of delinquency laws, vandalism and shoplifting, and four case studies in delinquency. The students are asked to consider what adolescence is and how it…

  19. Update on Law-Related Education, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of three issues of a serial devoted to law-related education (LRE) that offers background information on a wide range of legal issues and teaching strategies for LRE. The title themes for the three issues include: (1) "Speech, Press, Religion, Assembly, Petition"; (2) "Law in the New Information Age"; and (3) "Human Rights."…

  20. Continuing Controversy in Equal Employment Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Carl W.; Robles, Martin J.

    1980-01-01

    Some current controversies in the growing body of equal employment law are examined: wage comparability in the context of sex discrimination; procedural sections of the laws and related litigation; class actions by the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission; the scope of litigation; and the criteria for conferring standing on the plaintiff.…