Baryons in the Field Correlator Method
Kezerashvili, R. Ya.; Narodetskii, I. M.; Veselov, A. I.
2009-12-17
The ground and P-wave excited states of nnn, nns and ssn baryons are studied in the framework of the field correlator method using the running strong coupling constant in the Coulomb-like part of the three-quark potential. The string correction for the confinement potential of the orbitally excited baryons, which is the leading contribution of the proper inertia of the rotating strings, is estimated.
Hybrid star structure with the Field Correlator Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burgio, G. F.; Zappalà, D.
2016-03-01
We explore the relevance of the color-flavor locking phase in the equation of state (EoS) built with the Field Correlator Method (FCM) for the description of the quark matter core of hybrid stars. For the hadronic phase, we use the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) many-body theory, and its relativistic counterpart, i.e. the Dirac-Brueckner (DBHF). We find that the main features of the phase transition are directly related to the values of the quark-antiquark potential V1, the gluon condensate G2 and the color-flavor superconducting gap Δ. We confirm that the mapping between the FCM and the CSS (constant speed of sound) parameterization holds true even in the case of paired quark matter. The inclusion of hyperons in the hadronic phase and its effect on the mass-radius relation of hybrid stars is also investigated.
Field methods to measure surface displacement and strain with the Video Image Correlation method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maddux, Gary A.; Horton, Charles M.; Mcneill, Stephen R.; Lansing, Matthew D.
1994-01-01
The objective of this project was to develop methods and application procedures to measure displacement and strain fields during the structural testing of aerospace components using paint speckle in conjunction with the Video Image Correlation (VIC) system.
a Data Field Method for Urban Remotely Sensed Imagery Classification Considering Spatial Correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Y.; Qin, K.; Zeng, C.; Zhang, E. B.; Yue, M. X.; Tong, X.
2016-06-01
Spatial correlation between pixels is important information for remotely sensed imagery classification. Data field method and spatial autocorrelation statistics have been utilized to describe and model spatial information of local pixels. The original data field method can represent the spatial interactions of neighbourhood pixels effectively. However, its focus on measuring the grey level change between the central pixel and the neighbourhood pixels results in exaggerating the contribution of the central pixel to the whole local window. Besides, Geary's C has also been proven to well characterise and qualify the spatial correlation between each pixel and its neighbourhood pixels. But the extracted object is badly delineated with the distracting salt-and-pepper effect of isolated misclassified pixels. To correct this defect, we introduce the data field method for filtering and noise limitation. Moreover, the original data field method is enhanced by considering each pixel in the window as the central pixel to compute statistical characteristics between it and its neighbourhood pixels. The last step employs a support vector machine (SVM) for the classification of multi-features (e.g. the spectral feature and spatial correlation feature). In order to validate the effectiveness of the developed method, experiments are conducted on different remotely sensed images containing multiple complex object classes inside. The results show that the developed method outperforms the traditional method in terms of classification accuracies.
Correlation-based methods in calibrating an FBG sensor with strain field non-uniformity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cieszczyk, S.
2015-12-01
Fibre Bragg gratings have many sensing applications, mainly for measuring strain and temperature. The physical quantity that influences grating uniformly along its length causes a related shift of the Bragg wavelength. Many peak detection algorithms have been proposed, among which the most popular are the detection of maximum intensity, the centroid detection, the least square method, the cross-correlation, auto-correlation and fast phase correlation. Nonuniform gratings elongation is a cause of spectrum deformation. The introduction of non-uniformity can be intentional or appear as an unintended effect of placing sensing elements in the tested structure. Heterogeneous impacts on grating may result in additional errors and the difficulty in tracking the Bragg wavelength based on a distorted spectrum. This paper presents the application of correlation methods of peak wavelength shifts estimation for non-uniform Bragg grating elongation. The autocorrelation, cross-correlation and fast phase correlation algorithms are considered and experimental spectra measured for axisymmetric strain field along the Bragg grating are analyzed. The strain profile consists of constant and variable components. The results of this study indicate the properties of correlation algorithms applied to moderately non-uniform elongation of an FBG sensor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berry, Alain; Robin, Olivier
2016-08-01
This paper aims at identifying the autospectral density and spatial correlation functions of random excitations acting on the surface of a thin plate, from its measured vibration response. The general framework is the Virtual Fields Method (VFM), which was previously applied by the authors to the identification of deterministic excitations on plates. In the present paper, the VFM framework is extended to the case of spatially correlated excitations. It is shown that extraction of the loading power spectral density requires measuring power spectral density functions of transverse displacements and bending curvatures, which can be typically derived from contactless Laser Doppler Vibrometry measurements. The paper details the implementation of the VFM for random excitations, presents numerical simulations and experimental results for diffuse acoustic field excitation of a plate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Lebin; Guo, Baoqiao; Xie, Huimin
2015-04-01
This paper presents an effective methodology for characterizing the mechanical parameters of composites using digital image correlation combined with the virtual fields method. By using a three-point bending test configuration, this method can identify all mechanical parameters of the material with merely a single test. Successful results verified that this method is especially effective for characterizing composite materials. In this study, the method is applied to measure the orthotropic elastic parameters of fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites before and after the hygrothermal aging process. The results indicate that the hygrothermal aging environment significantly influences the mechanical property of a composite. The components of the parameters in the direction of the fiber bundle decreased significantly. From the accuracy analysis, we found that the actual measurement accuracy is sensitive to a shift of the horizontal edges and rotation of the vertical edges.
On the anomalous mass defect of strange stars in the Field Correlator Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pereira, F. I. M.
2016-09-01
We investigate general aspects of the mass defects of strange stars in the context of the Field Correlator Method, without magnetic field. The main parameters of the model that enter the corresponding nonperturbative equation of state of the quark gluon plasma are the gluon condensate G2 and the large distance static Q Q bar potential V1. We calculate mass defects of stellar configurations in the central density range 11 < log ρc < 18. In general, the mass defects are strongly dependent on the model parameters. For a large range of values of G2 and V1, we obtain anomalous mass defects with magnitudes around 1053 erg, of the same order of the observed energies of gamma-ray bursts and neutrino emissions in SN1987A, and of the theoretically predicted energies of the quark-novae explosions.
Baryons in the field correlator method: Effects of the running strong coupling
Kezerashvili, R. Ya.; Narodetskii, I. M.; Veselov, A. I.
2009-02-01
The ground and P-wave excited states of nnn, nns, and ssn baryons are studied in the framework of the field correlator method using the running strong coupling constant in the Coulomb-like part of the three-quark potential. The running coupling is calculated up to two loops in the background perturbation theory. The three-quark problem has been solved using the hyperspherical functions method. The masses of the S- and P-wave baryons are presented. Our approach reproduces and improves the previous results for the baryon masses obtained for the freezing value of the coupling constant. The string correction for the confinement potential of the orbitally excited baryons, which is the leading contribution of the proper inertia of the rotating strings, is estimated.
New method for estimation of fluence complexity in IMRT fields and correlation with gamma analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanušová, T.; Vondráček, V.; Badraoui-Čuprová, K.; Horáková, I.; Koniarová, I.
2015-01-01
A new method for estimation of fluence complexity in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) fields is proposed. Unlike other previously published works, it is based on portal images calculated by the Portal Dose Calculation algorithm in Eclipse (version 8.6, Varian Medical Systems) in the plane of the EPID aS500 detector (Varian Medical Systems). Fluence complexity is given by the number and the amplitudes of dose gradients in these matrices. Our method is validated using a set of clinical plans where fluence has been smoothed manually so that each plan has a different level of complexity. Fluence complexity calculated with our tool is in accordance with the different levels of smoothing as well as results of gamma analysis, when calculated and measured dose matrices are compared. Thus, it is possible to estimate plan complexity before carrying out the measurement. If appropriate thresholds are determined which would distinguish between acceptably and overly modulated plans, this might save time in the re-planning and re-measuring process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, K. Q.; Li, Z. X.; Li, Z. P.; Yao, J. M.; Meng, J.
2015-02-01
We report the first global study of dynamic correlation energies (DCEs) associated with rotational motion and quadrupole shape vibrational motion in a covariant energy density functional (CEDF) for 575 even-even nuclei with proton numbers ranging from Z =8 to Z =108 by solving a five-dimensional collective Hamiltonian, the collective parameters of which are determined from triaxial relativistic mean field plus BCS calculation using the PC-PK1 force. After taking into account these beyond mean-field DCEs, the root-mean-square (rms) deviation with respect to nuclear masses is reduced significantly down to 1.14 MeV, which is smaller than those of other successful CEDFs: NL3* (2.96 MeV), DD-ME2 (2.39 MeV), DD -ME δ (2.29 MeV), and DD-PC1 (2.01 MeV). Moreover, the rms deviation for two-nucleon separation energies is reduced by ˜34 % in comparison with the cranking prescription.
Field and intensity correlation in random media
Sebbah; Pnini; Genack
2000-11-01
We have obtained the spectral and spatial field correlation functions, C(E)(Deltaomega) and C(E)(Deltax), respectively, from measurement of the microwave field spectrum at a series of points along a line on the output of a random dielectric medium. C(E)(Deltaomega) and C(E)(Deltax) are shown to be the Fourier transforms, respectively, of the time of flight distribution, obtained from pulsed measurements, and of the specific intensity. Unlike C(E)(Deltaomega), the imaginary part of C(E)(Deltax) is shown to vanish as a result of the isotropy of the correlation function in the output plane. The complex square of the field correlation function gives the short-range or C1 contribution to the intensity correlation function C. Longer-range contributions to the intensity correlation function are obtained directly by subtracting C1 from C and are in good agreement with theory.
Speeding up local correlation methods
Kats, Daniel
2014-12-28
We present two techniques that can substantially speed up the local correlation methods. The first one allows one to avoid the expensive transformation of the electron-repulsion integrals from atomic orbitals to virtual space. The second one introduces an algorithm for the residual equations in the local perturbative treatment that, in contrast to the standard scheme, does not require holding the amplitudes or residuals in memory. It is shown that even an interpreter-based implementation of the proposed algorithm in the context of local MP2 method is faster and requires less memory than the highly optimized variants of conventional algorithms.
Pisutha-Arnond, N; Chan, V W L; Iyer, M; Gavini, V; Thornton, K
2013-01-01
We introduce a new approach to represent a two-body direct correlation function (DCF) in order to alleviate the computational demand of classical density functional theory (CDFT) and enhance the predictive capability of the phase-field crystal (PFC) method. The approach utilizes a rational function fit (RFF) to approximate the two-body DCF in Fourier space. We use the RFF to show that short-wavelength contributions of the two-body DCF play an important role in determining the thermodynamic properties of materials. We further show that using the RFF to empirically parametrize the two-body DCF allows us to obtain the thermodynamic properties of solids and liquids that agree with the results of CDFT simulations with the full two-body DCF without incurring significant computational costs. In addition, the RFF can also be used to improve the representation of the two-body DCF in the PFC method. Last, the RFF allows for a real-space reformulation of the CDFT and PFC method, which enables descriptions of nonperiodic systems and the use of nonuniform and adaptive grids. PMID:23410466
Correlation method of electrocardiogram analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strinadko, Marina M.; Timochko, Katerina B.
2002-02-01
The electrocardiograph method is the informational source for functional heart state characteristics. The electrocardiogram parameters are the integrated map of many component characteristics of the heart system and depend on disturbance requirements of each device. In the research work the attempt of making the skeleton diagram of perturbation of the heart system is made by the characteristic description of its basic components and connections between them through transition functions, which are written down by the differential equations of the first and second order with the purpose to build-up and analyze electrocardiogram. Noting the vector character of perturbation and the various position of heart in each organism, we offer own coordinate system connected with heart. The comparative analysis of electrocardiogram was conducted with the usage of correlation method.
Continuity of scalar fields with logarithmic correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajeev, S. G.; Ranken, Evan
2015-08-01
We apply select ideas from the modern theory of stochastic processes in order to study the continuity/roughness of scalar quantum fields. A scalar field with logarithmic correlations (such as a massless field in 1 +1 spacetime dimensions) has the mildest of singularities, making it a logical starting point. Instead of the usual inner product of the field with a smooth function, we introduce a moving average on an interval which allows us to obtain explicit results and has a simple physical interpretation. Using the mathematical work of Dudley, we prove that the averaged random process is in fact continuous, and give a precise modulus of continuity bounding the short-distance variation.
Iterative method for generating correlated binary sequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usatenko, O. V.; Melnik, S. S.; Apostolov, S. S.; Makarov, N. M.; Krokhin, A. A.
2014-11-01
We propose an efficient iterative method for generating random correlated binary sequences with a prescribed correlation function. The method is based on consecutive linear modulations of an initially uncorrelated sequence into a correlated one. Each step of modulation increases the correlations until the desired level has been reached. The robustness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm are tested by generating sequences with inverse power-law correlations. The substantial increase in the strength of correlation in the iterative method with respect to single-step filtering generation is shown for all studied correlation functions. Our results can be used for design of disordered superlattices, waveguides, and surfaces with selective transport properties.
Atomic electron correlations in intense laser fields
DiMauro, L.F.; Sheehy, B.; Walker, B.; Agostini, P.A.; Kulander, K.C.
1998-11-01
This talk examines two distinct cases in strong optical fields where electron correlation plays an important role in the dynamics. In the first example, strong coupling in a two-electron-like system is manifested as an intensity-dependent splitting in the ionized electron energy distribution. This two-electron phenomenon (dubbed continuum-continuum Autler-Townes effect) is analogous to a strongly coupled two-level, one-electron atom but raises some intriguing questions regarding the exact nature of electron-electron correlation. The second case examines the evidence for two-electron ionization in the strong-field tunneling limit. Although their ability to describe the one-electron dynamics has obtained a quantitative level of understanding, a description of the two (multiple) electron ionization remains unclear.
Atomic electron correlations in intense laser fields
Agostini, P A; DiMauro, L F; Kulander, K; Sheehy, B; Walker, B
1998-09-03
Abstract. This talk examines two distinct cases in strong opbical fields where electron correlation plays an important role in the dynamic.s. In the first. example, strong coupling in a two-electron-like system is manifested as an intensity-dependent splitting in the ionized electron energy distribution. This two-electron phenomenon (dubbed continuum-continuum Autler-Townes effect) is analogous to a strongly coupled two- level, one-electron atom but raises some intriguing questions regarding the exact nature of electron-electron correlation. The second case examines the evidence for two-electron ionization in the strong-field tunneling limit. Although our ability to describe the one- electron dynamics has obtained a quantitative level of understanding, a description of the two (multiple) electron ionization remains unc
Variational methods for field theories
Ben-Menahem, S.
1986-09-01
Four field theory models are studied: Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics (PQED) in (2 + 1) dimensions, free scalar field theory in (1 + 1) dimensions, the Quantum XY model in (1 + 1) dimensions, and the (1 + 1) dimensional Ising model in a transverse magnetic field. The last three parts deal exclusively with variational methods; the PQED part involves mainly the path-integral approach. The PQED calculation results in a better understanding of the connection between electric confinement through monopole screening, and confinement through tunneling between degenerate vacua. This includes a better quantitative agreement for the string tensions in the two approaches. Free field theory is used as a laboratory for a new variational blocking-truncation approximation, in which the high-frequency modes in a block are truncated to wave functions that depend on the slower background modes (Boron-Oppenheimer approximation). This ''adiabatic truncation'' method gives very accurate results for ground-state energy density and correlation functions. Various adiabatic schemes, with one variable kept per site and then two variables per site, are used. For the XY model, several trial wave functions for the ground state are explored, with an emphasis on the periodic Gaussian. A connection is established with the vortex Coulomb gas of the Euclidean path integral approach. The approximations used are taken from the realms of statistical mechanics (mean field approximation, transfer-matrix methods) and of quantum mechanics (iterative blocking schemes). In developing blocking schemes based on continuous variables, problems due to the periodicity of the model were solved. Our results exhibit an order-disorder phase transition. The transfer-matrix method is used to find a good (non-blocking) trial ground state for the Ising model in a transverse magnetic field in (1 + 1) dimensions.
Problems with the Method of Correlated Vectors
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ashton, M.C.; Lee, K.
2005-01-01
The method of correlated vectors has been used widely to identify variables that are associated with general intelligence (g). Briefly, this method involves finding the correlation between the vector of intelligence subtests' g-loadings and the vector of those subtests' correlations with the variable in question. We describe two major problems…
Variational Methods for Field Theories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben-Menahem, Shahar
The thesis has four parts, dealing with four field theory models: Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics (PQED) in (2 + 1) dimensions, free scalar field theory in (1 + 1) dimensions, the Quantum XY model in (1 + 1) dimensions, and the (1 + 1) dimensional Ising model in a transverse magnetic field. The last three parts deal exclusively with variational methods; the PQED part involves mainly the path-integral approach. The PQED calculation results in a better understanding of the connection between electric confinement through monopole screening, and confinement through tunneling between degenerate vacua. This includes a better quantitative agreement for the string tensions in the two approaches. In the second part, we use free field theory as a loboratory for a new variational blocking-tuncation approximation, in which the high-frequency modes in a block are truncated to wave functions that depend on the slower background modes(Born-Oppenheimer approximation). This "adiabatic truncation" method gives very accurate results for ground -state energy density and correlation functions. Without the adiabatic method, a much larger number of state per block must be kept to get comparable results. Various adiabatic schemes, with one variable kept per site and then two variables per site, are used. For the XY model, several trial wave functions for the ground state are explored, with an emphasis on the periodic Gaussian. A connection is established with the vortex Coulomb gas of the Eclidean path integral approach. The approximations used are taken from the realms of statistical mechanics (mean field approximation, transfer-matrix methods) and of quantum mechanics (iterative blocking schemes). In developing blocking schemes based on continuous variables, problems due to the periodicity of the model were solved. Our results exhibit an order-disorder phase transition. This transition is a rudimentary version of the actual transition known to occur in the XY model, and is
Using of Correlating monomineral thermobarometry for mantle peridotites (correlating methods).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashchepkov, I. V.; Pokhilenko, N. P.; Sobolev, N. V.; Rotman, A. Y.; Afanasiev, V. P.; Logvinova, A. M.; Vladykin, N. V.; Kostrovitsky, S. I.; Karpenko, M. A.; Vishnyakova, E. V.
2005-12-01
Correlating monomineral thermobarometry using kimberlite mega- and xenocrysts and xenoliths allows to determine mantle layering with concentrate from kimberlites or placers. Orthopyroxene method (Brey, Kohler,1990)-(McGregor, 1974) was used for calibration of others. Clinopyroxene. Po =0.04*Kd *ToC/(1-2.4*Fe)-5.5 where KD = Na/Ca *Mg/(Al+Cr)and polynomial P = 0.00006*Po3 - 0.0156*Po2 + 1.6757*Po (R2 = 0.8245). The ToC (Nimis -Taylor, 2000) are corrected ToC= 000001*TooC**2 +0.9575*TooC+107.01 Garnet. Thermometers based on: 1) OPx's (Brey, Kohler,1990) estimates, ToC =5272.5*(Ln(KD)/P)3+10265* (Ln(KD)/P)2+ 6472* Ln(KD)/P +2113 where KD= MgO*TiO2/((CaO+MgO)2* FeO*Al2O3 2) CPx (Nimis, Taylor, 2000), : T0oC =362.05*(Ln(KD)/P)3+1880.4* (Ln(KD))/P2+2659.6* Ln(KD)/P +1695.5 where KD= Na2O*MnO*TiO2/(CaO+MgO)* FeO*Al2O3, 3) Gar-Cpx (Krogh, 1988) KD= Na2O*MnO*TiO2/(CaO+MgO)* FeO*Al2O3, 4)Ni in garnet thermometry (Griffin, 1989) with Ni(ppm) =88,877*E**(-5.021*Ni'), (R2=0.69) where Ni' =MnO*ln(FeO)/ln(MgO)*1.1-0.193*TiO2 +0.003*ln(Na2O)- 0.003*Cr2O3+0.0035*CaO+0.004*Al2O3 ToC =0.0004*Ni3-0.0304*Ni2 +7.6318*Ni+ 597.2 ( R2 = 0.69) Chromite P=0.86347*(Cr/(Cr+Al)* ToC/14+Ti*0.1) the second approximation P=0.0004*Po3-0.0342*Po2+1.5323*Po The temperatures are determined using monomineral version of the Ol-Sp thermometer (Taylor et al.,1998) Fo=0.06+0.0005*P for P >30 kbar and Fo=0.095+0.0001*Po for the lower pressures. The Sp-Ol oxybarometer (Taylor et al ., 1998) give the lineal correlation with monomineral version made in the same manner (R-0,96). Ilmenite. P= (TiO2-23.)*2.15-(ToC-700)/20*MgO*Cr2O3-1.5*MnO)*ToC/1273 and further P=10*(60-Po)/60+Po. Monomineral version Ol-Il thermometer (Taylor et al ., 1998) where Fo=0.11+0.00025*P for pressures lower then 30 kbar and Fo=0.10+0.00025*P for greater pressures. The monomineral fO2 oxybarometer same Fo content . Data for 7 kimberlite fields in Yakutia show large scale variations of the mantle different part of Siberian platform
Correlation theory-based signal processing method for CMF signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yan-lin; Tu, Ya-qing
2016-06-01
Signal processing precision of Coriolis mass flowmeter (CMF) signals affects measurement accuracy of Coriolis mass flowmeters directly. To improve the measurement accuracy of CMFs, a correlation theory-based signal processing method for CMF signals is proposed, which is comprised of the correlation theory-based frequency estimation method and phase difference estimation method. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed method eliminates the effect of non-integral period sampling signals on frequency and phase difference estimation. The results of simulations and field experiments demonstrate that the proposed method improves the anti-interference performance of frequency and phase difference estimation and has better estimation performance than the adaptive notch filter, discrete Fourier transform and autocorrelation methods in terms of frequency estimation and the data extension-based correlation, Hilbert transform, quadrature delay estimator and discrete Fourier transform methods in terms of phase difference estimation, which contributes to improving the measurement accuracy of Coriolis mass flowmeters.
A new 'Implicit correlation' method for cross-correlation sampling in MCNPX-PoliMi
Marcath, M. J.; Larsen, E. W.; Clarke, S. D.; Pozzi, S. A.
2013-07-01
Monte Carlo particle transport codes used to accurately model detector response are traditionally run in fully analog mode. Analog simulations of cross-correlation measurements with these codes are extremely time-consuming because the probability of correlated detection is extremely small, approximately equal to the product of the probabilities of a single detection in each detector. The new 'implicit correlation' method described here increases the number of correlation event scores thereby reducing variance and required computation times. The cost of the implicit correlation method is comparable to the cost of simulating single event detection for the lowest absolute detector efficiency in the problem. This method is especially useful in the nuclear non-proliferation and safeguards fields for simulating correlation measurements of shielded special nuclear material. The new method was implemented in MCNPX-PoliMi for neutron-neutron cross-correlations with a Cf-252 spontaneous fission source measured by two detectors of variable stand-offs. The method demonstrated good agreement with analog simulation results for multiple measurement geometries. Small differences between non-analog and analog cross-correlation distributions are attributed to known features of the specific problem simulated that will not be present in practical applications. (authors)
Density Functional Plus Dynamical Mean Field Theory of Correlated Oxides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millis, Andrew
2015-03-01
The density functional plus dynamical mean field method is outlined and a few recent successes including applications to spin crossover molecules, oxide superlattices and metal-insulator transitions in bulk transition metals are outlined. Insights from the method into the essential role played by lattice distortions (both rotations and bond length changes) in determining the phase diagrams of correlated materials are presented. The key theoretical issue of the double counting correction is outlined, different approaches are compared, and a connection to the energy level differences between strongly and weakly correlated orbitals is presented. Charge transfer across oxide interfaces shown to depend crucially on the double counting correction, suggesting that experiments on oxide superlattices may provide insights into this important problem. Future directions are discussed. This work is performed in collaboration with Jia Chen, Hung Dang, Hyowon Park and Chris Marianetti. This research supported by the DOE Office of Science, Grant ER 046169.
New Analysis Methods In Photon Correlation Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nash, P. J.; King, T. A.
1983-06-01
This paper describes the analysis of photon correlation spectroscopy decay curves by a significant new method based on the fitting of sums of positive exponentials by the S-exponential sum fitting method. The method fits a positive exponential sum to a given data set providing a best weighted least squares fit. No initial setting of any of the parameters is required and the number of exponential coefficients does not have to be preset in the program but is determined by the number of components apparent above the noise level. Results will be discussed for application in scattering systems which may be single or multiple component. Systems generating single, double or multiple exponential decay functions derived from computer simulation or photon correlation exneriments are considered and fitting analysis with varying noise levels.
Understanding GRETINA using angular correlation method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Austin, Madeline
2015-10-01
The ability to trace the path of gamma rays through germanium is not only necessary for taking full advantage of GRETINA but also a promising possibility for homeland security defense against nuclear threats. This research tested the current tracking algorithm using the angular correlation method by comparing results from raw and tracked data to the theoretical model for Co-60. It was found that the current tracking method is unsuccessful in reproducing angular correlation. Variations to the tracking algorithm were made in the FM value, tracking angle, number of angles of separation observed, and window of coincidence in attempt to improve correlation results. From these variations it was observed that having a larger FM improved results, reducing the number of observational angles worsened correlation, and that overall larger tracking angles improved with larger windows of coincidence and vice-verse. Future research would be to refine the angle of measurement for raw data and to explore the possibility of an energy dependence by testing other elements. This work is supported by the United States Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Contract Number DE-AC02-06CH11357
Removal of spurious correlations between spikes and local field potentials.
Zanos, Theodoros P; Mineault, Patrick J; Pack, Christopher C
2011-01-01
Single neurons carry out important sensory and motor functions related to the larger networks in which they are embedded. Understanding the relationships between single-neuron spiking and network activity is therefore of great importance and the latter can be readily estimated from low-frequency brain signals known as local field potentials (LFPs). In this work we examine a number of issues related to the estimation of spike and LFP signals. We show that spike trains and individual spikes contain power at the frequencies that are typically thought to be exclusively related to LFPs, such that simple frequency-domain filtering cannot be effectively used to separate the two signals. Ground-truth simulations indicate that the commonly used method of estimating the LFP signal by low-pass filtering the raw voltage signal leads to artifactual correlations between spikes and LFPs and that these correlations exert a powerful influence on popular metrics of spike-LFP synchronization. Similar artifactual results were seen in data obtained from electrophysiological recordings in macaque visual cortex, when low-pass filtering was used to estimate LFP signals. In contrast LFP tuning curves in response to sensory stimuli do not appear to be affected by spike contamination, either in simulations or in real data. To address the issue of spike contamination, we devised a novel Bayesian spike removal algorithm and confirmed its effectiveness in simulations and by applying it to the electrophysiological data. The algorithm, based on a rigorous mathematical framework, outperforms other methods of spike removal on most metrics of spike-LFP correlations. Following application of this spike removal algorithm, many of our electrophysiological recordings continued to exhibit spike-LFP correlations, confirming previous reports that such relationships are a genuine aspect of neuronal activity. Overall, these results show that careful preprocessing is necessary to remove spikes from LFP
Field method for sulfide determination
Wilson, B L; Schwarser, R R; Chukwuenye, C O
1982-01-01
A simple and rapid method was developed for determining the total sulfide concentration in water in the field. Direct measurements were made using a silver/sulfide ion selective electrode in conjunction with a double junction reference electrode connected to an Orion Model 407A/F Specific Ion Meter. The method also made use of a sulfide anti-oxidant buffer (SAOB II) which consists of ascorbic acid, sodium hydroxide, and disodium EDTA. Preweighed sodium sulfide crystals were sealed in air tight plastic volumetric flasks which were used in standardization process in the field. Field standards were prepared by adding SAOB II to the flask containing the sulfide crystals and diluting it to the mark with deionized deaerated water. Serial dilutions of the standards were used to prepare standards of lower concentrations. Concentrations as low as 6 ppB were obtained on lake samples with a reproducibility better than +- 10%.
Huang, Xinchuan; Valeev, Edward F; Lee, Timothy J
2010-12-28
One-particle basis set extrapolation is compared with one of the new R12 methods for computing highly accurate quartic force fields (QFFs) and spectroscopic data, including molecular structures, rotational constants, and vibrational frequencies for the H(2)O, N(2)H(+), NO(2)(+), and C(2)H(2) molecules. In general, agreement between the spectroscopic data computed from the best R12 and basis set extrapolation methods is very good with the exception of a few parameters for N(2)H(+) where it is concluded that basis set extrapolation is still preferred. The differences for H(2)O and NO(2)(+) are small and it is concluded that the QFFs from both approaches are more or less equivalent in accuracy. For C(2)H(2), however, a known one-particle basis set deficiency for C-C multiple bonds significantly degrades the quality of results obtained from basis set extrapolation and in this case the R12 approach is clearly preferred over one-particle basis set extrapolation. The R12 approach used in the present study was modified in order to obtain high precision electronic energies, which are needed when computing a QFF. We also investigated including core-correlation explicitly in the R12 calculations, but conclude that current approaches are lacking. Hence core-correlation is computed as a correction using conventional methods. Considering the results for all four molecules, it is concluded that R12 methods will soon replace basis set extrapolation approaches for high accuracy electronic structure applications such as computing QFFs and spectroscopic data for comparison to high-resolution laboratory or astronomical observations, provided one uses a robust R12 method as we have done here. The specific R12 method used in the present study, CCSD(T)(R12), incorporated a reformulation of one intermediate matrix in order to attain machine precision in the electronic energies. Final QFFs for N(2)H(+) and NO(2)(+) were computed, including basis set extrapolation, core-correlation, scalar
Variational methods for field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben-Menahem, Shahar
1986-09-01
The thesis is presented in four parts dealing with field theory models: Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics (PQED) in (2+1) dimensions, free scalar field theory in (1+1) dimensions, the Quantum XY model in (1+1) dimensions, and the (1+1) dimensional Ising model in a transverse magnetic field. The last three parts deal exclusively with variational methods; the PQED part involves mainly the path integral approach. The PQED calculation results in a better understanding of the connection between electric confinement through monopole screening, and confinement through tunneling between degenerate vacua. Free field theory is used as a laboratory for a new variational blocking truncation approximation, in which the high frequency modes in a block are truncated to wave functions that depend on the slower background model (Born Oppenheimer approximation). For the XY model, several trial wave functions for the ground state are explored, with an emphasis on the periodic Gaussian. In the 4th part, the transfer matrix method is used to find a good (non blocking) trial ground state for the Ising model in a transverse magnetic field in (1+1) dimensions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, Gary G.; Alexander, David
1999-01-01
A method is presented for constructing the coronal magnetic field from photospheric magnetograms and observed coronal loops. A set of magnetic field lines generated from magnetogram data is parameterized and then deformed by varying the parameterized values. The coronal flux tubes associated with this field are adjusted until the correlation between the field lines and the observed coronal loops is maximized. A mathematical formulation is described which ensures that (1) the normal component of the photospheric field remains unchanged, (2) the field is given in the entire corona over an active region, (3) the field remains divergence-free, and 4electric currents are introduced into the field. It is demonstrated that a parameterization of a potential field, comprising a radial stretching of the field, can provide a match for a simple bipolar active region, AR 7999, which crossed the central meridian on 1996 November 26. The result is a non-force-free magnetic field with the Lorentz force being of the order of 10(exp -5.5) g per s(exp 2) resulting from an electric current density of 0.79 micro A per m(exp 2). Calculations show that the plasma beta becomes larger than unity at a strong non-radial currents requires low height of about 0.25 solar radii supporting the non-force-free conclusion. The presence of such strong non-radial currents requires large transverse pressure gradients fo maintain a magnetostatic atmosphere, required by the relatively persistent nature of the coronal structures observed in AR 7999. This scheme is an important tool in generating a magnetic field solution consistent with the coronal flux tube observations and the observed photospheric magnetic field.
Ergodicity test of the eddy correlation method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, J.; Hu, Y.; Yu, Y.; Lü, S.
2014-07-01
The turbulent flux observation in the near-surface layer is a scientific issue which researchers in the fields of atmospheric science, ecology, geography science, etc. are commonly interested in. For eddy correlation measurement in the atmospheric surface layer, the ergodicity of turbulence is a basic assumption of the Monin-Obukhov (M-O) similarity theory, which is confined to steady turbulent flow and homogenous surface; this conflicts with turbulent flow under the conditions of complex terrain and unsteady, long observational period, which the study of modern turbulent flux tends to focus on. In this paper, two sets of data from the Nagqu Station of Plateau Climate and Environment (NaPlaCE) and the cooperative atmosphere-surface exchange study 1999 (CASE99) were used to analyze and verify the ergodicity of turbulence measured by the eddy covariance system. Through verification by observational data, the vortex of atmospheric turbulence, which is smaller than the scale of the atmospheric boundary layer (i.e., its spatial scale is less than 1000 m and temporal scale is shorter than 10 min) can effectively meet the conditions of the average ergodic theorem, and belong to a wide sense stationary random processes. Meanwhile, the vortex, of which the spatial scale is larger than the scale of the boundary layer, cannot meet the conditions of the average ergodic theorem, and thus it involves non-ergodic stationary random processes. Therefore, if the finite time average is used to substitute for the ensemble average to calculate the average random variable of the atmospheric turbulence, then the stationary random process of the vortex, of which spatial scale was less than 1000 m and thus below the scale of the boundary layer, was possibly captured. However, the non-ergodic random process of the vortex, of which the spatial scale was larger than that of the boundary layer, could not be completely captured. Consequently, when the finite time average was used to substitute
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saranath, K. M.; Ramji, M.
2015-05-01
Joining of materials using welding results in the formation of material zones with varying microstructure across the weld. Extraction of the mechanical properties of those individual heterogeneous zones are important in designing components and structures comprised of welds. In this study, the zone wise local extraction of the elastic and plastic properties of an electron beam welded Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy has been carried out using both the uniform stress method (USM) and the virtual fields method (VFM) involving digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The surface strain field obtained using DIC technique from a transverse weld specimen tensile testing is used for extracting the zone wise strain evolution. Initially, using uniform stress assumption, zone wise full range stress-strain curves are extracted. In USM methodology, the elastic and plastic material models are fitted to the zone wise stress-strain curves and required parameters are extracted from it. But inherent disadvantage is lot of images need to be processed for the parameter extraction. Recently, VFM is gaining lot of popularity in characterization domain as it is robust, accurate and faster. VFM is based on the principle of virtual work where, the weak form of local equilibrium equations and kinematically admissible virtual displacement fields are utilized for parameter extraction. Hollomon's power law is used here as the hardening rule. Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, yield stress, strength coefficient and strain hardening exponent are the parameters extracted zone wise using both USM and VFM. A Vicker's microhardness measurement is also conducted across the weld zone towards mapping the strength behavior. Fusion zone has reported higher yield strength, strength coefficient and Poisson's ratio. Young's modulus value is found decreasing from base metal towards the fusion zone. The trend observed in parameter variation across the weld zone obtained by both USM and VFM compares very well. Due
Distance correlation methods for discovering associations in large astrophysical databases
Martínez-Gómez, Elizabeth; Richards, Mercedes T.; Richards, Donald St. P. E-mail: mrichards@astro.psu.edu
2014-01-20
High-dimensional, large-sample astrophysical databases of galaxy clusters, such as the Chandra Deep Field South COMBO-17 database, provide measurements on many variables for thousands of galaxies and a range of redshifts. Current understanding of galaxy formation and evolution rests sensitively on relationships between different astrophysical variables; hence an ability to detect and verify associations or correlations between variables is important in astrophysical research. In this paper, we apply a recently defined statistical measure called the distance correlation coefficient, which can be used to identify new associations and correlations between astrophysical variables. The distance correlation coefficient applies to variables of any dimension, can be used to determine smaller sets of variables that provide equivalent astrophysical information, is zero only when variables are independent, and is capable of detecting nonlinear associations that are undetectable by the classical Pearson correlation coefficient. Hence, the distance correlation coefficient provides more information than the Pearson coefficient. We analyze numerous pairs of variables in the COMBO-17 database with the distance correlation method and with the maximal information coefficient. We show that the Pearson coefficient can be estimated with higher accuracy from the corresponding distance correlation coefficient than from the maximal information coefficient. For given values of the Pearson coefficient, the distance correlation method has a greater ability than the maximal information coefficient to resolve astrophysical data into highly concentrated horseshoe- or V-shapes, which enhances classification and pattern identification. These results are observed over a range of redshifts beyond the local universe and for galaxies from elliptical to spiral.
Field correlations of laser arrays in atmospheric turbulence.
Baykal, Yahya
2014-03-01
Correlations of the fields at the receiver plane are evaluated after a symmetrical radial laser array beam incident field propagates in a turbulent atmosphere. The laser array configuration is composed of a number of the same size laser beamlets symmetrically located around a ring having a radius that determines the distance of the ring from the origin. The variations of the correlations of the received field originating from such laser array incidence versus the diagonal length starting from a receiver point are examined for various laser array parameters, turbulence parameters, and the locations of the reception points. Laser array parameters consist of the ring radius and the number and size of the beamlets. Structure constant, link length, and wavelength are the turbulence parameters whose effects on the field correlation of the laser arrays are also investigated.
Deformation-phase measurement by digital speckle correlation method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Ran; Sun, Ping
2016-10-01
A novel algorithm which extracts the out-of-plane component of deformation phase from two continuous fringe patterns is proposed. The velocity field between two consecutive frames is estimated by digital speckle correlation method (DSCM). After that, according to the optical flow constrained equation, the whole-field deformation-phase map is obtained by the estimations of the velocity field and the local frequency of the original image. The operation of the proposed method is simple compared with other phase demodulation methods. Moreover, the new method works perfectly at the areas with dense fringes. In this paper, the proposed algorithm is introduced. Meanwhile, in order to verify the effectiveness, the new algorithm is applied to simulated interferogram and real fringe pattern with a centrally loaded and edge-clamped plate. The results of simulation and experiment show that the new method can demodulate the out-of-plane component of deformation phase from the visible in-plane velocity field without unwrapping process. Further, dynamic deformation-phase extraction will be realized when we know the time interval of two continuous images. The proposed algorithm provides a new approach for whole-field deformation-phase measurement and dynamic deformation measurement.
Orientation correlation and local field in liquid nitrobenzene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shelton, David P.
2016-06-01
Hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) is sensitive to long-range molecular orientation correlation in isotropic liquids composed of dipolar molecules. Measurements of the polarization, angle, and spectral dependence for HRS from liquid nitrobenzene (NB) are analyzed to determine the NB molecular orientation correlations at long range. The longitudinal and transverse orientation correlation functions for r > 3 nm are BL(r) = (a/r)3 and BT(r) = - BL(r)/2, where a = 0.20 ± 0.01 nm. Measurements of HRS induced by dissolved ions are also analyzed and combined with molecular dynamics simulation and dielectric response results, to determine the molecular dipole moment μ = 3.90 ± 0.04 D, Kirkwood orientation correlation factor gK = 0.68 ± 0.02, and local field factor f(0) = 0.85 ± 0.04 × Onsager local field factor in liquid nitrobenzene.
Cathodic protection design using the regression and correlation method
Niembro, A.M.; Ortiz, E.L.G.
1997-09-01
A computerized statistical method which calculates the current demand requirement based on potential measurements for cathodic protection systems is introduced. The method uses the regression and correlation analysis of statistical measurements of current and potentials of the piping network. This approach involves four steps: field potential measurements, statistical determination of the current required to achieve full protection, installation of more cathodic protection capacity with distributed anodes around the plant and examination of the protection potentials. The procedure is described and recommendations for the improvement of the existing and new cathodic protection systems are given.
Scalings of field correlations and heat transport in turbulent convection.
Verma, Mahendra K; Mishra, Pankaj K; Pandey, Ambrish; Paul, Supriyo
2012-01-01
Using direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh-Bénard convection under free-slip boundary condition, we show that the normalized correlation function between the vertical velocity field and the temperature field, as well as the normalized viscous dissipation rate, scales as Ra-0.22 for moderately large Rayleigh number Ra. This scaling accounts for the Nusselt number Nu exponent of approximately 0.3, as observed in experiments. Numerical simulations also reveal that the aforementioned normalized correlation functions are constants for the convection simulation under periodic boundary conditions.
Correlation Reflectometry for Turbulence and Magnetic Field Measurements in Fusion Plasmas
G.J. Kramer; R. Nazikian; and E. Valeo
2002-07-09
For the interpretation of correlation reflectometry data a fast two-dimensional full wave code has been developed in which realistic plasma geometries are used. Results of this code are compared with experiments and turbulence correlation lengths and fluctuation levels are extracted with statistical optics methods. It is shown that in general the measured reflectometer correlation length is not equal to the turbulence correlation length. The code is also used to study the possibility of O-X correlation reflectometry in FIRE for the determination of the local magnetic field strength. It was found that this is only possible at very low fluctuation levels.
Correlation analysis of magnetic field and density fluctuations in SSX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parks, Holden; Rock, Ariel; Schaffner, David; Brown, Michael; SSX Team
2015-11-01
The cross correlation and cross spectrum of magnetic field and density fluctuations of plasmas created by the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX) MHD wind tunnel are examined. The SSX MHD wind tunnel produces dynamic magnetized plasma plumes with typical values B ~ 0 . 2 T, n >=1021 m-3, and Ti >= 20 eV. Magnetic field fluctuations of these plasmas are measured with a Ḃ probe and local density fluctuations are measured with a double Langmuir probe inserted radially within 1 mm of the Ḃ probe. The axial distance of both probes from the plasma source is varied to examine plasmas of different ``turbulent ages.'' Linearized MHD theory admits three types of waves - slow, fast, and Alfvén - each with different correlation values between magnetic field and density. By taking the Fourier transforms of B (t) and n (t) time series data, the cross spectrum B~* (f) ñ (f) is calculated, and the correlation between magnetic field and density can be determined as a function of frequency. Preliminary results of SSX data analysis indicate a pressure balanced structure present at 100 kHz, likely in the form of a flux tube, as well as predominately positive correlations in the frequency range 100 kHz to 10 MHz. Work supported by DOE OFES and NSF CMSO.
Structure of correlation functions in single-field inflation
Shandera, Sarah
2009-06-15
Many statistics available to constrain non-Gaussianity from inflation are simplest to use under the assumption that the curvature correlation functions are hierarchical. That is, if the n-point function is proportional to the (n-1) power of the two-point function amplitude and the fluctuations are small, the probability distribution can be approximated by expanding around a Gaussian in moments. However, single-field inflation with higher derivative interactions has a second small number, the sound speed, that appears in the problem when non-Gaussianity is significant and changes the scaling of correlation functions. Here we examine the structure of correlation functions in the most general single scalar field action with higher derivatives, formalizing the conditions under which the fluctuations can be expanded around a Gaussian distribution. We comment about the special case of the Dirac-Born-Infeld action.
Use of digital image correlation and ultrasound: analysis of thigh muscle displacement fields.
Affagard, Jean-Sébastien; Feissel, Pierre; Bensamoun, Sabine F
2015-08-01
The understanding of the mechanical behavior of the muscle tissue is an important field of investigation with different applications in medicine, car crash and sport. Currently, few in vivo imaging techniques are able to characterize the mechanical properties of muscle. Thus, the development of an in vivo identification method is a current thematic where the displacement field measurements could be used for further interpretations. This study aims at presenting the displacement fields measured in the anterior, posterior, lateral and medial parts of the thigh muscles using ultrasound and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) techniques. The results of the displacement field measurements confirmed and are correlated with the ultrasound observations.
Jet engine noise and infrared plume correlation field campaign
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cunio, Phillip M.; Weber, Reed A.; Knobel, Kimberly R.; Smith, Christine; Draudt, Andy
2015-09-01
Jet engine noise can be a health hazard and environmental pollutant, particularly affecting personnel working in close proximity to jet engines, such as airline mechanics. Mitigating noise could reduce the potential for hearing loss in runway workers; however, there exists a very complex relationship between jet engine design parameters, operating conditions, and resultant noise power levels, and understanding and characterizing this relationship is a key step in mitigating jet engine noise effects. We demonstrate initial results highlighting the utility of high-speed imaging (hypertemporal imaging) in correlating the infrared signatures of jet engines with acoustic noise. This paper builds on prior theoretical analysis of jet engine infrared signatures and their potential relationships to jet engine acoustic emissions. This previous work identified the region of the jet plume most likely to emit both in infrared and in acoustic domains, and it prompted the investigation of wave packets as a physical construct tying together acoustic and infrared energy emissions. As a means of verifying these assertions, a field campaign to collect relevant data was proposed, and data collection was carried out with a bank of infrared instruments imaging a T700 turboshaft engine undergoing routine operational testing. The detection of hypertemporal signatures in association with acoustic signatures of jet engines enables the use of a new domain in characterizing jet engine noise. This may in turn enable new methods of predicting or mitigating jet engine noise, which could lead to socioeconomic benefits for airlines and other operators of large numbers of jet engines.
Probing correlations of early magnetic fields using μ-distortion
Ganc, Jonathan; Sloth, Martin S. E-mail: sloth@cp3.dias.sdu.dk
2014-08-01
The damping of a non-uniform magnetic field between the redshifts of about 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 6} injects energy into the photon-baryon plasma and causes the CMB to deviate from a perfect blackbody spectrum, producing a so-called μ-distortion. We can calculate the correlation (μ T) of this distortion with the temperature anisotropy T of the CMB to search for a correlation ( B{sup 2}ζ) between the magnetic field B and the curvature perturbation ζ; knowing the ( B{sup 2}ζ) correlation would help us distinguish between different models of magnetogenesis. Since the perturbations which produce the μ-distortion will be much smaller scale than the relevant density perturbations, the observation of this correlation is sensitive to the squeezed limit of ( B{sup 2}ζ), which is naturally parameterized by b{sub NL} (a parameter defined analogously to f{sub NL}). We find that a PIXIE-like CMB experiments has a signal to noise S/N≈ 1.0 × b{sub NL} ( B-tilde {sub μ}/10nG){sup 2}, where B-tilde {sub μ} is the magnetic field's strength on μ-distortion scales normalized to today's redshift; thus, a 10 nG field would be detectable with b{sub NL}=O(1). However, if the field is of inflationary origin, we generically expect it to be accompanied by a curvature bispectrum (ζ{sup 3}) induced by the magnetic field. For sufficiently small magnetic fields, the signal ( B{sup 2} ζ) will dominate, but for B-tilde {sub μ}∼> 1 nG, one would have to consider the specifics of the inflationary magnetogenesis model. We also discuss the potential post-magnetogenesis sources of a ( B{sup 2}ζ) correlation and explain why there will be no contribution from the evolution of the magnetic field in response to the curvature perturbation.
Large N correlation functions in superconformal field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego; Russo, Jorge G.
2016-06-01
We compute correlation functions of chiral primary operators in mathcal{N}=2 super-conformal theories at large N using a construction based on supersymmetric localization recently developed by Gerchkovitz et al. We focus on mathcal{N}=4 SYM as well as on supercon-formal QCD. In the case of mathcal{N}=4 we recover the free field theory results as expected due to non-renormalization theorems. In the case of superconformal QCD we study the planar expansion in the large N limit. The final correlators admit a simple generalization to a finite N formula which exactly matches the various small N results in the literature.
Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields
Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L
2013-08-06
Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.
Petascale Many Body Methods for Complex Correlated Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pruschke, Thomas
2012-02-01
Correlated systems constitute an important class of materials in modern condensed matter physics. Correlation among electrons are at the heart of all ordering phenomena and many intriguing novel aspects, such as quantum phase transitions or topological insulators, observed in a variety of compounds. Yet, theoretically describing these phenomena is still a formidable task, even if one restricts the models used to the smallest possible set of degrees of freedom. Here, modern computer architectures play an essential role, and the joint effort to devise efficient algorithms and implement them on state-of-the art hardware has become an extremely active field in condensed-matter research. To tackle this task single-handed is quite obviously not possible. The NSF-OISE funded PIRE collaboration ``Graduate Education and Research in Petascale Many Body Methods for Complex Correlated Systems'' is a successful initiative to bring together leading experts around the world to form a virtual international organization for addressing these emerging challenges and educate the next generation of computational condensed matter physicists. The collaboration includes research groups developing novel theoretical tools to reliably and systematically study correlated solids, experts in efficient computational algorithms needed to solve the emerging equations, and those able to use modern heterogeneous computer architectures to make then working tools for the growing community.
Riemann correlator in de Sitter including loop corrections from conformal fields
Fröb, Markus B.; Verdaguer, Enric
2014-07-01
The Riemann correlator with appropriately raised indices characterizes in a gauge-invariant way the quantum metric fluctuations around de Sitter spacetime including loop corrections from matter fields. Specializing to conformal fields and employing a method that selects the de Sitter-invariant vacuum in the Poincaré patch, we obtain the exact result for the Riemann correlator through order H{sup 4}/m{sub p}{sup 4}. The result is expressed in a manifestly de Sitter-invariant form in terms of maximally symmetric bitensors. Its behavior for both short and long distances (sub- and superhorizon scales) is analyzed in detail. Furthermore, by carefully taking the flat-space limit, the explicit result for the Riemann correlator for metric fluctuations around Minkowki spacetime is also obtained. Although the main focus is on free scalar fields (our calculation corresponds then to one-loop order in the matter fields), the result for general conformal field theories is also derived.
Propagation of rotational field correlation through atmospheric turbulence.
Nairat, Mazen; Voelz, David
2014-04-01
A general formulation is presented that describes the propagation of the rotational field correlation of an optical beam through atmospheric turbulence. The associated influence on the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a single photon is described analytically. The analysis predicts the probability of change in the OAM state due to the process of propagating through turbulence. The probability of a change in an OAM state depends on the Fresnel number and on the ratio of the beam diameter to the Fried parameter.
Dynamics of Coulomb correlations in semiconductors in high magnetic fields
Fromer, Neil Alan
2002-05-01
Current theories have been successful in explaining many nonlinear optical experiments in undoped semiconductors. However, these theories require a ground state which is assumed to be uncorrelated. Strongly correlated systems of current interest, such as a two dimensional electron gas in a high magnetic field, cannot be explained in this manner because the correlations in the ground state and the low energy collective excitations cause a breakdown of the conventional techniques. We perform ultrafast time-resolved four-wave mixing on $n$-modulation doped quantum wells, which contain a quasi-two dimensional electron gas, in a large magnetic field, when only a single Landau level is excited and also when two levels are excited together. We find evidence for memory effects and as strong coupling between the Landau levels induced by the electron gas. We compare our results with simulations based on a new microscopic approach capable of treating the collective effects and correlations of the doped electrons, and find a good qualitative agreement. By looking at the individual contributions to the model, we determine that the unusual correlation effects seen in the experiments are caused by the scattering of photo-excited electron-hole pairs with the electron gas, leading to new excited states which are not present in undoped semiconductors, and also by exciton-exciton interactions mediated by the long-lived collective excitations of the electron gas, inter-Landau level magnetoplasmons.
Piston ring microwelding: Field/lab correlation and prevention
Shuster, M.; Mahler, F.; Deis, M.; Macy, D.; Frame, R.
1996-12-31
This paper will discuss the microwelding phenomenon between aluminum pistons and iron piston rings in internal combustion engines. The mechanism of microwelding as observed on field run engine hardware has been correlated with the microwelding mechanism generated in an accelerated laboratory bench test. Hardness distribution measurements, metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and EDS spectrometer have been used in the analysis of this surface damage mechanism. In this work, the metallurgical parameters were formulated which describe the microwelding phenomenon after field usage and after accelerated testing. It was demonstrated that the high output water-cooled two-stroke engine accelerated bench test reproduces the field run engine microwelding phenomenon in 30 minutes. It was shown that the best prevention of the microwelding phenomenon was provided when the piston and piston ring surfaces were separated by a soft, wear and heat resistant coating, integrally bonded to the piston ring.
3D displacement field measurement with correlation based on the micro-geometrical surface texture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bubaker-Isheil, Halima; Serri, Jérôme; Fontaine, Jean-François
2011-07-01
Image correlation methods are widely used in experimental mechanics to obtain displacement field measurements. Currently, these methods are applied using digital images of the initial and deformed surfaces sprayed with black or white paint. Speckle patterns are then captured and the correlation is performed with a high degree of accuracy to an order of 0.01 pixels. In 3D, however, stereo-correlation leads to a lower degree of accuracy. Correlation techniques are based on the search for a sub-image (or pattern) displacement field. The work presented in this paper introduces a new correlation-based approach for 3D displacement field measurement that uses an additional 3D laser scanner and a CMM (Coordinate Measurement Machine). Unlike most existing methods that require the presence of markers on the observed object (such as black speckle, grids or random patterns), this approach relies solely on micro-geometrical surface textures such as waviness, roughness and aperiodic random defects. The latter are assumed to remain sufficiently small thus providing an adequate estimate of the particle displacement. The proposed approach can be used in a wide range of applications such as sheet metal forming with large strains. The method proceeds by first obtaining cloud points using the 3D laser scanner mounted on a CMM. These points are used to create 2D maps that are then correlated. In this respect, various criteria have been investigated for creating maps consisting of patterns, which facilitate the correlation procedure. Once the maps are created, the correlation between both configurations (initial and moved) is carried out using traditional methods developed for field measurements. Measurement validation was conducted using experiments in 2D and 3D with good results for rigid displacements in 2D, 3D and 2D rotations.
Correlation studies on surface particle detection methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterson, Ronald V.; White, James C.
1988-01-01
The accurate determination of dust levels on optical surfaces is necessary to assess sensor system performance. A comparison study was made on several particle measurement methods including those based on direct imaging and light scattering. The effectiveness of removing the particles from the surface prior to determining particle size distributions was also assessed. These studies revealed that some methods, especially those requiring particle removal before analysis, are subject to large systematic errors affecting particle size distributions. Thus, an understanding of the particle measurement methods employed is necessary before any surface cleanliness or obstruction value assignments are accepted as true representations of an optical surface contamination condition.
Correlation-Based Image Reconstruction Methods for Magnetic Particle Imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishihara, Yasutoshi; Kuwabara, Tsuyoshi; Honma, Takumi; Nakagawa, Yohei
Magnetic particle imaging (MPI), in which the nonlinear interaction between internally administered magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and electromagnetic waves irradiated from outside of the body is utilized, has attracted attention for its potential to achieve early diagnosis of diseases such as cancer. In MPI, the local magnetic field distribution is scanned, and the magnetization signal from MNPs within a selected region is detected. However, the signal sensitivity and image resolution are degraded by interference from magnetization signals generated by MNPs outside of the selected region, mainly because of imperfections (limited gradients) in the local magnetic field distribution. Here, we propose new methods based on correlation information between the observed signal and the system function—defined as the interaction between the magnetic field distribution and the magnetizing properties of MNPs. We performed numerical analyses and found that, although the images were somewhat blurred, image artifacts could be significantly reduced and accurate images could be reconstructed without the inverse-matrix operation used in conventional image reconstruction methods.
Caillat, J.; Scrinzi, A.; Koch, O.; Kreuzer, W.
2005-01-01
The multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach for the description of correlated few-electron dynamics in the presence of strong laser fields is introduced and a comprehensive description of the method is given. Total ionization and electron spectra for the ground and first excited ionic channels are calculated for one-dimensional model systems with up to six active electrons. Strong correlation effects are found in the shape of photoelectron peaks and the dependence of ionization on molecule size.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gary, G. A.
1998-01-01
The reconstruction of the coronal magnetic field is carried out using a perturbation procedure. A set of magnetic field lines generated from magnetogram data is parameterized and then deformed by varying the parameterized values. The coronal fluxtubes associated with this field are adjusted until the correlation between the field lines and the observed coronal loops is maximized. A mathematical formulation is described which ensures (1) that the normal component of the photospheric field remains unchanged, (2) that the field is given in the entire corona, (3) that the field remains divergence free, and (4) that electrical currents are introduced into the field. It is demonstrated that a simple radial parameterization of a potential field, comprising a radial stretching of the field, can provide a match for a simple bipolar active region, AR 7999, which crossed the central meridian on 1996 Nov 26. At a coronal height of 30 km, the resulting magnetic field is a non-force free magnetic field with the maximum Lorentz force being on the order of 2.6 x 10(exp -9) dyn resulting from an electric current density of $0.13 mu A/ sq m. This scheme is an important tool in generating a magnetic field solution consistent with the coronal flux tube observations and the observed photospheric magnetic field.
An improved correlation method for determining the period of a torsion pendulum
Luo Jie; Wang Dianhong
2008-09-15
Considering variation of environment temperature and unhomogeneity of background gravitational field, an improved correlation method was proposed to determine the variational period of a torsion pendulum with high precision. The result of processing experimental data shows that the uncertainty of determining the period with this method has been improved about twofolds than traditional correlation method, which is significant for the determination of gravitational constant with time-of-swing method.
An improved correlation method for determining the period of a torsion pendulum.
Luo, Jie; Wang, Dian-Hong
2008-09-01
Considering variation of environment temperature and unhomogeneity of background gravitational field, an improved correlation method was proposed to determine the variational period of a torsion pendulum with high precision. The result of processing experimental data shows that the uncertainty of determining the period with this method has been improved about twofolds than traditional correlation method, which is significant for the determination of gravitational constant with time-of-swing method.
Correlated continuous-time random walks in external force fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magdziarz, Marcin; Metzler, Ralf; Szczotka, Wladyslaw; Zebrowski, Piotr
2012-05-01
We study the anomalous diffusion of a particle in an external force field whose motion is governed by nonrenewal continuous time random walks with correlated waiting times. In this model the current waiting time Ti is equal to the previous waiting time Ti-1 plus a small increment. Based on the associated coupled Langevin equations the force field is systematically introduced. We show that in a confining potential the relaxation dynamics follows power-law or stretched exponential pattern, depending on the model parameters. The process obeys a generalized Einstein-Stokes-Smoluchowski relation and observes the second Einstein relation. The stationary solution is of Boltzmann-Gibbs form. The case of an harmonic potential is discussed in some detail. We also show that the process exhibits aging and ergodicity breaking.
Information form the previously approved extended abstract A standardized area source measurement method based on mobile tracer correlation was used for methane emissions assessment in 52 field deployments...
Theoretical method for analyzing quantum dynamics of correlated photons
Koshino, Kazuki; Nakatani, Masatoshi
2009-05-15
We present a theoretical method for the efficient analysis of quantum nonlinear dynamics of correlated photons. Since correlated photons can be regarded as a superposition of uncorrelated photons, semiclassical analysis can be applied to this problem. The proposed method is demonstrated for a V-type three-level atom as a nonlinear optical system.
Extracting flat-field images from scene-based image sequences using phase correlation.
Caron, James N; Montes, Marcos J; Obermark, Jerome L
2016-06-01
Flat-field image processing is an essential step in producing high-quality and radiometrically calibrated images. Flat-fielding corrects for variations in the gain of focal plane array electronics and unequal illumination from the system optics. Typically, a flat-field image is captured by imaging a radiometrically uniform surface. The flat-field image is normalized and removed from the images. There are circumstances, such as with remote sensing, where a flat-field image cannot be acquired in this manner. For these cases, we developed a phase-correlation method that allows the extraction of an effective flat-field image from a sequence of scene-based displaced images. The method uses sub-pixel phase correlation image registration to align the sequence to estimate the static scene. The scene is removed from sequence producing a sequence of misaligned flat-field images. An average flat-field image is derived from the realigned flat-field sequence.
Extracting flat-field images from scene-based image sequences using phase correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caron, James N.; Montes, Marcos J.; Obermark, Jerome L.
2016-06-01
Flat-field image processing is an essential step in producing high-quality and radiometrically calibrated images. Flat-fielding corrects for variations in the gain of focal plane array electronics and unequal illumination from the system optics. Typically, a flat-field image is captured by imaging a radiometrically uniform surface. The flat-field image is normalized and removed from the images. There are circumstances, such as with remote sensing, where a flat-field image cannot be acquired in this manner. For these cases, we developed a phase-correlation method that allows the extraction of an effective flat-field image from a sequence of scene-based displaced images. The method uses sub-pixel phase correlation image registration to align the sequence to estimate the static scene. The scene is removed from sequence producing a sequence of misaligned flat-field images. An average flat-field image is derived from the realigned flat-field sequence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Kaiyu; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Hao; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong
2015-11-01
Two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been proven to be a powerful technique for chemical, biological, and medical studies. Heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC) are two frequently used 2D NMR methods. In combination with spatially encoded techniques, a heteronuclear 2D NMR spectrum can be acquired in several seconds and may be applied to monitoring chemical reactions. However, it is difficult to obtain high-resolution NMR spectra in inhomogeneous fields. Inspired by the idea of tracing the difference of precession frequencies between two different spins to yield high-resolution spectra, we propose a method with correlation acquisition option and J-resolved-like acquisition option to ultrafast obtain high-resolution HSQC/HMBC spectra and heteronuclear J-resolved-like spectra in inhomogeneous fields.
Acoustic ship signature measurements by cross-correlation method.
Fillinger, Laurent; Sutin, Alexander; Sedunov, Alexander
2011-02-01
Cross-correlation methods were applied for the estimation of the power spectral density and modulation spectrum of underwater noise generated by moving vessels. The cross-correlation of the signal from two hydrophones allows the separation of vessel acoustic signatures in a busy estuary. Experimental data recorded in the Hudson River are used for demonstration that cross-correlation method measured the same ship noise and ship noise modulation spectra as conventional methods. The cross-correlation method was then applied for the separation of the acoustic signatures of two ships present simultaneously. Presented methods can be useful for ship traffic monitoring and small ship classification, even in noisy harbor environments. PMID:21361436
Historic Methods for Capturing Magnetic Field Images
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kwan, Alistair
2016-01-01
I investigated two late 19th-century methods for capturing magnetic field images from iron filings for historical insight into the pedagogy of hands-on physics education methods, and to flesh out teaching and learning practicalities tacit in the historical record. Both methods offer opportunities for close sensory engagement in data-collection…
Historic Methods for Capturing Magnetic Field Images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwan, Alistair
2016-03-01
I investigated two late 19th-century methods for capturing magnetic field images from iron filings for historical insight into the pedagogy of hands-on physics education methods, and to flesh out teaching and learning practicalities tacit in the historical record. Both methods offer opportunities for close sensory engagement in data-collection processes.
Hakoda, Masaru; Hirota, Yusuke
2013-09-01
The purpose of this study is to develop a system analyzing cell activity by the dielectrophoresis method. Our previous studies revealed a correlation between the growth activity and dielectric property (Re[K(ω)]) of mouse hybridoma 3-2H3 cells using dielectrophoretic levitation. Furthermore, it was clarified that the differentiation activity of many stem cells could be evaluated by the Re[K(ω)] without differentiation induction. In this paper, 3-2H3 cells exposed to an alternating current (AC) electric field or a direct current (DC) electric field were cultivated, and the influence of damage by the electric field on the growth activity of the cells was examined. To evaluate the activity of the cells by measuring the Re[K(ω)], the correlation between the growth activity and the Re[K(ω)] of the cells exposed to the electric field was examined. The relations between the cell viability, growth activity, and Re[K(ω)] in the cells exposed to the AC electric field were obtained. The growth activity of the cells exposed to the AC electric field could be evaluated by the Re[K(ω)]. Furthermore, it was found that the adverse effects of the electric field on the cell viability and the growth activity were smaller in the AC electric field than the DC electric field.
Direct correlation of internal gradients and pore size distributions with low field NMR.
Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Lizhi; Liao, Guangzhi; Blümich, Bernhard
2016-06-01
Internal magnetic field gradients Gint, which arise from the magnetic susceptibility difference Δχ between solid matrix and fluid in porous media relate to the pore geometry. However, this relationship is complex and not well understood. Here we correlate internal-gradient distributions to pore-size distributions directly to examine internal gradients in detail at low field NMR. The pore-size distributions were obtained by the method of Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF), and the internal-gradient distributions were measured with the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) method. The internal-gradient-pore-size distributions correlation maps were obtained for water in packs of glass beads with different diameter and in a sandstone sample. The relationship between internal gradients and pore structure is analyzed in detail by considering the restricted diffusion of fluids in porous samples. For each case diffusion regimes are assigned by plotting normalized CPMG data and comparing the diffusion lengths, the dephasing lengths and pore diameters. In the free-diffusion limit, the correlation maps reveal the true relationship between pore structure and internal gradients so that Δχ can be approximated from the correlation maps. This limit is met most easily at low field. It provides information about porous media, which is expected to benefit the oil industry, in particular NMR well logging.
Direct correlation of internal gradients and pore size distributions with low field NMR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Lizhi; Liao, Guangzhi; Blümich, Bernhard
2016-06-01
Internal magnetic field gradients Gint, which arise from the magnetic susceptibility difference Δχ between solid matrix and fluid in porous media relate to the pore geometry. However, this relationship is complex and not well understood. Here we correlate internal-gradient distributions to pore-size distributions directly to examine internal gradients in detail at low field NMR. The pore-size distributions were obtained by the method of Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF), and the internal-gradient distributions were measured with the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) method. The internal-gradient-pore-size distributions correlation maps were obtained for water in packs of glass beads with different diameter and in a sandstone sample. The relationship between internal gradients and pore structure is analyzed in detail by considering the restricted diffusion of fluids in porous samples. For each case diffusion regimes are assigned by plotting normalized CPMG data and comparing the diffusion lengths, the dephasing lengths and pore diameters. In the free-diffusion limit, the correlation maps reveal the true relationship between pore structure and internal gradients so that Δχ can be approximated from the correlation maps. This limit is met most easily at low field. It provides information about porous media, which is expected to benefit the oil industry, in particular NMR well logging.
Direct correlation of internal gradients and pore size distributions with low field NMR.
Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Lizhi; Liao, Guangzhi; Blümich, Bernhard
2016-06-01
Internal magnetic field gradients Gint, which arise from the magnetic susceptibility difference Δχ between solid matrix and fluid in porous media relate to the pore geometry. However, this relationship is complex and not well understood. Here we correlate internal-gradient distributions to pore-size distributions directly to examine internal gradients in detail at low field NMR. The pore-size distributions were obtained by the method of Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF), and the internal-gradient distributions were measured with the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) method. The internal-gradient-pore-size distributions correlation maps were obtained for water in packs of glass beads with different diameter and in a sandstone sample. The relationship between internal gradients and pore structure is analyzed in detail by considering the restricted diffusion of fluids in porous samples. For each case diffusion regimes are assigned by plotting normalized CPMG data and comparing the diffusion lengths, the dephasing lengths and pore diameters. In the free-diffusion limit, the correlation maps reveal the true relationship between pore structure and internal gradients so that Δχ can be approximated from the correlation maps. This limit is met most easily at low field. It provides information about porous media, which is expected to benefit the oil industry, in particular NMR well logging. PMID:27111138
Topology based methods for vector field comparisons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batra, Rajesh Kumar
Vector fields are commonly found in almost all branches of the physical sciences. Aerodynamics, dynamical systems, electromagnetism, and global climate modeling are a few examples. These multivariate data fields are often large, and no general, automated method exists for comparing these fields. Existing methods require either subjective visual judgments, or data interface compatibility, or domain specific knowledge. A topology based method intrinsically eliminates all of the above limitations and has the additional advantage of significantly compressing the vector field by representing only key features of the flow. Therefore, large databases are compactly represented and quickly searched. Topology is a natural framework for the study of many vector fields. It provides rules of an organizing principle, a flow grammar, that can describe and connect together the properties common to flows. Helman and Hesselink first introduced automated methods to extract and visualize this grammar. This work extends their method by introducing automated methods for vector topology comparison. Basic two-dimensional flows are first compared. The theory is extended to compare three-dimensional flow fields and the topology on no-slip surfaces. Concepts from graph theory and linear programming are utilized to solve these problems. Finally, the first automated method for higher order singularity comparisons is introduced using mathematical theories from geometric (Clifford) algebra.
Teaching Geographic Field Methods Using Paleoecology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walsh, Megan K.
2014-01-01
Field-based undergraduate geography courses provide numerous pedagogical benefits including an opportunity for students to acquire employable skills in an applied context. This article presents one unique approach to teaching geographic field methods using paleoecological research. The goals of this course are to teach students key geographic…
Investigation of correlation properties of light fields by Fresnel diffraction from a step
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseini, S. R.; Tavassoly, M. T.
2013-12-01
We introduce a new method, based on Fresnel diffraction of light from a step, for the study of correlation properties (temporal and spatial) of optical fields. The method renders to measure wavelength, coherence length, and coherence width by recording the visibility of the diffraction fringes versus optical path difference and spacing of the interfering beams. In addition, the method permits to specify the spectral line shape, particularly, of lights with short coherence lengths and the spatial coherence behavior of the lights with short coherence widths. Since, in the introduced method the optical path difference can be varied by changing the light incident angle, practically, in an interval of 90º, a large volume of data is acquired which leads to reliable and accurate study of the subject. The method can be applied easily using modest equipment. We have applied the method to the study of correlation properties of the lights emitted by LED, incandescent bulb, and Hg lamp.
Recovering the Green's function from field-field correlations in an open scattering medium (L)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derode, Arnaud; Larose, Eric; Tanter, Mickael; de Rosny, Julien; Tourin, Arnaud; Campillo, Michel; Fink, Mathias
2003-06-01
The possibility of recovering the Green's function from the field-field correlations of coda waves in an open multiple scattering medium is investigated. The argument is based on fundamental symmetries of reciprocity, time-reversal invariance, and the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff theorem. A criterion is defined, indicating how sources should be placed inside an open medium in order to recover the Green's function between two passive receivers. The case of noise sources is also discussed. Numerical experiments of ultrasonic wave propagation in a multiple scattering medium are presented to support the argument.
Electric-field correlation in quantum charged fluids coupled to the radiation field.
Jancovici, B
2006-11-01
In a recent paper [S. El Boustani, P. R. Buenzli, and P. A. Martin, Phys. Rev. E 73, 036113 (2006)] about quantum charges in equilibrium with radiation, among other things the asymptotic form of the electric-field correlation has been obtained by a microscopic calculation. It has been found that this correlation has a long-range algebraic decay of the form 1/r3 (except in the classical limit). The macroscopic approach, in the Course of Theoretical Physics of Landau and Lifshitz, gives no such decay. In this Brief Report we revisit and complete the macroscopic approach of Landau and Lifshitz and suggest that, perhaps, the use of a classical electromagnetic field by El Boustani was not justified.
Intra-field CDU map correlation between SEMs and aerial image characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ning, Guoxiang; Philipp, Peter; Litt, Lloyd C.; Meusemann, Stefan; Thaler, Thomas; Schulz, Kristian; Tschinkl, Martin; Ackmann, Paul
2014-09-01
Reticle critical dimension uniformity (CDU) is one of the major sources of wafer CD variations which include both inter-field variations and intra-field variations. Generally, wafer critical dimension (CD) measurement sample size interfield is much less than intra-field. Intra-field CDU correction requires time-consumption of metrology. In order to improve wafer intra-field CDU, several methods can be applied such as intra-field dose correction to improve wafer intra-field CDU. Corrections can be based on CD(SEM) or aerial image metrology data from the reticle. Reticle CDU and wafer CDU maps are based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) metrology, while reticle inspection intensity mapping (NuFLare 6000) and wafer level critical dimension (WLCD) utilize aerial images or optical techniques. Reticle inspecton tools such as those from KLA and NuFlare, offer the ability to collect optical measurement data to produce an optical CDU map. WLCD of Zeiss has the advantage of using the same illumination condition as the scanner to measure the aerial images or optical CD. In this study, the intra-field wafer CDU map correlation between SEMs and aerial images are characterized. The layout of metrology structures is very important for the correlation between wafer intra-field CDU, measured by SEM, and the CDU determined by aerial images. The selection of metrology structures effects on the correlation to SEM CD to wafer is also demonstrated. Both reticle CDU, intensity CDU and WLCD are candidates for intra-field wafer CDU characterization and the advantages and limitations of each approach are discussed.
Human Biology, A Guide to Field Methods.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weiner, J. S.; Lourie, J. A.
The aim of this handbook is to provide, in a form suitable for use in the field, instructions on the whole range of methods required for the fulfillment of human biological studies on a comparative basis. Certain of these methods can be used to carry out the rapid surveys on growth, physique, and genetic constitution. They are also appropriate for…
Cartridge case image matching using effective correlation area based method.
Yammen, S; Muneesawang, P
2013-06-10
A firearm leaves a unique impression on fired cartridge cases. The cross-correlation function plays an important role in matching the characteristic features on the cartridge case found at the crime scene with a specific firearm, for accurate firearm identification. This paper proposes that the computational forensic techniques of alignment and effective correlation area-based approaches to image matching are essential to firearm identification. Specifically, the reference and the corresponding cartridge cases are aligned according to the phase-correlation criterion on the transform domain. The informative segments of the breech face marks are identified by a cross-covariance coefficient using the coefficient value in a window located locally in the image space. The segments are then passed to the measurement of edge density for computing effective correlation areas. Experimental results on a new dataset show that the correlation system can make use of the best properties of alignment and effective correlation area-based approaches, and can attain significant improvement of image-correlation results, compared with the traditional image-matching methods for firearm identification, which employ cartridge-case samples. An analysis of image-alignment score matrices suggests that all translation and scaling parameters are estimated correctly, and contribute to the successful extraction of effective correlation areas. It was found that the proposed method has a high discriminant power, compared with the conventional correlator. This paper advocates that this method will enable forensic science to compile a large-scale image database to perform correlation of cartridge case bases, in order to identify firearms that involve pairwise alignments and comparisons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felder, Thomas C.; Gambogi, William J.; Kopchick, James G.; Amspacher, Lucas; Peacock, R. Scott; Foltz, Benjamin; Stika, Katherine M.; Bradley, Alexander Z.; Hamzavy, Babak; Yu, Bao-Ling; Garreau-iles, Lucie; Fu, Oakland; Hu, Hongjie; Trout, T. John
2015-09-01
Matching accelerated test results to field observations is an important objective in the photovoltaic industry. We continue to develop test methods to strengthen correlations. We have previously reported good correlation of FTIR spectra between accelerated tests and field measurements. The availability of portable FTIR spectrometers has made measurement in the field convenient and reliable. Recently, nano-indentation has shown promise to correlate changes in backsheet mechanical properties. A precisely shaped stylus is pressed into a sample, load vs displacement recorded and mechanical properties of interest calculated in a nondestructive test. This test can be done on full size modules, allowing area variations in mechanical properties to be recorded. Finally, we will discuss optical profilometry. In this technique a white light interferogram of a surface is Fourier transformed to produce a three-dimensional image. Height differences from 1 nm to 5 mm can be detected over an area of a few cm. This technique can be used on minimodules, and is useful to determine crack and defect dimensions. Results will be presented correlating accelerated tests with fielded modules covering spectroscopic, mechanical, and morphological changes.
Modified methods of stellar magnetic field measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kholtygin, A. F.
2014-12-01
The standard methods of the magnetic field measurement, based on an analysis of the relation between the Stokes V-parameter and the first derivative of the total line profile intensity, were modified by applying a linear integral operator \\hat{L} to both sides of this relation. As the operator \\hat{L}, the operator of the wavelet transform with DOG-wavelets is used. The key advantage of the proposed method is an effective suppression of the noise contribution to the line profile and the Stokes parameter V. The efficiency of the method has been studied using model line profiles with various noise contributions. To test the proposed method, the spectropolarimetric observations of the A0 star α2 CVn, the Of?p star HD 148937, and the A0 supergiant HD 92207 were used. The longitudinal magnetic field strengths calculated by our method appeared to be in good agreement with those determined by other methods.
Bringing the cross-correlation method up to date
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Statler, Thomas
1995-01-01
The cross-correlation (XC) method of Tonry & Davis (1979, AJ, 84, 1511) is generalized to arbitrary parametrized line profiles. In the new algorithm the correlation function itself, rather than the observed galaxy spectrum, is fitted by the model line profile: this removes much of the complication in the error analysis caused by template mismatch. Like the Fourier correlation quotient (FCQ) method of Bender (1990, A&A, 229, 441), the inferred line profiles are, up to a normalization constant, independent of template mismatch as long as there are no blended lines. The standard reduced chi(exp 2) is a good measure of the fit of the inferred velocity distribution, largely decoupled from the fit of the spectral template. The updated XC method performs as well as other recently developed methods, with the added virtue of conceptual simplicity.
Measuring Collisionless Damping in Heliospheric Plasmas using Field-Particle Correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, K. G.; Howes, G. G.
2016-08-01
An innovative field-particle correlation technique is proposed that uses single-point measurements of the electromagnetic fields and particle velocity distribution functions to investigate the net transfer of energy from fields to particles associated with the collisionless damping of turbulent fluctuations in weakly collisional plasmas, such as the solar wind. In addition to providing a direct estimate of the local rate of energy transfer between fields and particles, it provides vital new information about the distribution of that energy transfer in velocity space. This velocity-space signature can potentially be used to identify the dominant collisionless mechanism responsible for the damping of turbulent fluctuations in the solar wind. The application of this novel field-particle correlation technique is illustrated using the simplified case of the Landau damping of Langmuir waves in an electrostatic 1D-1V Vlasov-Poisson plasma, showing that the procedure both estimates the local rate of energy transfer from the electrostatic field to the electrons and indicates the resonant nature of this interaction. Modifications of the technique to enable single-point spacecraft measurements of fields and particles to diagnose the collisionless damping of turbulent fluctuations in the solar wind are discussed, yielding a method with the potential to transform our ability to maximize the scientific return from current and upcoming spacecraft missions, such as the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Solar Probe Plus missions.
Semi-spectrum correlation methods for fingerprint recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perju, Veacheslav L.; Casasent, David P.; Perju, Veacheslav V.; Saranciuc, Dorian I.
2003-08-01
There are presented the results of the investigations of the fingerprints' images correlation recognition in conditions of different distortions -- scale, angular orientation change, image's surface reducing, noises' influence. There are examined possibilities of the person's identification and their verification. There are proposed and investigated the method of the fingerprints' semi-spectrums recognition and the method of the fingerprints' space-dependent recognition.
Emergent gauge fields and their nonperturbative effects in correlated electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Ki-Seok; Tanaka, Akihiro
2015-06-01
The history of modern condensed matter physics may be regarded as the competition and reconciliation between Stoner’s and Anderson’s physical pictures, where the former is based on momentum-space descriptions focusing on long wave-length fluctuations while the latter is based on real-space physics emphasizing emergent localized excitations. In particular, these two view points compete with each other in various nonperturbative phenomena, which range from the problem of high Tc superconductivity, quantum spin liquids in organic materials and frustrated spin systems, heavy-fermion quantum criticality, metal-insulator transitions in correlated electron systems such as doped silicons and two-dimensional electron systems, the fractional quantum Hall effect, to the recently discussed Fe-based superconductors. An approach to reconcile these competing frameworks is to introduce topologically nontrivial excitations into the Stoner’s description, which appear to be localized in either space or time and sometimes both, where scattering between itinerant electrons and topological excitations such as skyrmions, vortices, various forms of instantons, emergent magnetic monopoles, and etc. may catch nonperturbative local physics beyond the Stoner’s paradigm. In this review paper, we discuss nonperturbative effects of topological excitations on dynamics of correlated electrons. First, we focus on the problem of scattering between itinerant fermions and topological excitations in antiferromagnetic doped Mott insulators, expected to be relevant for the pseudogap phase of high Tc cuprates. We propose that nonperturbative effects of topological excitations can be incorporated within the perturbative framework, where an enhanced global symmetry with a topological term plays an essential role. In the second part, we go on to discuss the subject of symmetry protected topological states in a largely similar light. While we do not introduce itinerant fermions here, the
Yuan, Naiming; Fu, Zuntao; Zhang, Huan; Piao, Lin; Xoplaki, Elena; Luterbacher, Juerg
2015-01-01
In this paper, a new method, detrended partial-cross-correlation analysis (DPCCA), is proposed. Based on detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), this method is improved by including partial-correlation technique, which can be applied to quantify the relations of two non-stationary signals (with influences of other signals removed) on different time scales. We illustrate the advantages of this method by performing two numerical tests. Test I shows the advantages of DPCCA in handling non-stationary signals, while Test II reveals the “intrinsic” relations between two considered time series with potential influences of other unconsidered signals removed. To further show the utility of DPCCA in natural complex systems, we provide new evidence on the winter-time Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the winter-time Nino3 Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly (Nino3-SSTA) affecting the Summer Rainfall over the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River (SRYR). By applying DPCCA, better significant correlations between SRYR and Nino3-SSTA on time scales of 6 ~ 8 years are found over the period 1951 ~ 2012, while significant correlations between SRYR and PDO on time scales of 35 years arise. With these physically explainable results, we have confidence that DPCCA is an useful method in addressing complex systems. PMID:25634341
Direct correlation of diffusion and pore size distributions with low field NMR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Lizhi; Liao, Guangzhi; Song, Yi-Qiao
2016-08-01
The time-dependent diffusion coefficient (D) is a powerful tool to probe microstructure in porous media, and can be obtained by the NMR method. In a real porous sample, molecular diffusion is very complex. Here we present a new method which directly measures the relationship between effective diffusion coefficients and pore size distributions without knowing surface relaxivity. This method is used to extract structural information and explore the relationship between D and a in porous media having broad pore size distributions. The diffusion information is encoded by the Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) method and the pore size distributions are acquired by the Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF) method. Two model samples were measured to verify this method. Restricted diffusion was analyzed, and shows that most fluid molecules experience pore wall. The D(a) curves obtained from correlation maps were fitted to the Padé approximant equation and a good agreement was found between the fitting lines and the measured data. Then a sandstone sample with unknown structure was measured. The state of confined fluids was analyzed and structural information, such as pore size distributions, were extracted. The D - T1 correlation maps were also obtained using the same method, which yielded surface relaxivities for different samples. All the experiments were conducted on 2 MHz NMR equipment to obtain accurate diffusion information, where internal gradients can be neglected. This method is expected to have useful applications in the oil industry, particularly for NMR logging in the future.
Direct correlation of diffusion and pore size distributions with low field NMR.
Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Lizhi; Liao, Guangzhi; Song, Yi-Qiao
2016-08-01
The time-dependent diffusion coefficient (D) is a powerful tool to probe microstructure in porous media, and can be obtained by the NMR method. In a real porous sample, molecular diffusion is very complex. Here we present a new method which directly measures the relationship between effective diffusion coefficients and pore size distributions without knowing surface relaxivity. This method is used to extract structural information and explore the relationship between D and a in porous media having broad pore size distributions. The diffusion information is encoded by the Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) method and the pore size distributions are acquired by the Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF) method. Two model samples were measured to verify this method. Restricted diffusion was analyzed, and shows that most fluid molecules experience pore wall. The D(a) curves obtained from correlation maps were fitted to the Padé approximant equation and a good agreement was found between the fitting lines and the measured data. Then a sandstone sample with unknown structure was measured. The state of confined fluids was analyzed and structural information, such as pore size distributions, were extracted. The D - T1 correlation maps were also obtained using the same method, which yielded surface relaxivities for different samples. All the experiments were conducted on 2MHz NMR equipment to obtain accurate diffusion information, where internal gradients can be neglected. This method is expected to have useful applications in the oil industry, particularly for NMR logging in the future. PMID:27371788
Relaxation method of compensation in an optical correlator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juday, Richard D.; Daiuto, Brian J.
1987-01-01
An iterative method is proposed for the sharpening of programmable filters in a 4-f optical correlator. Continuously variable spatial light modulators (SLMs) permit the fine adjustment of optical processing filters so as to compensate for the departures from ideal behavior of a real optical system. Although motivated by the development of continuously variable phase-only SLMs, the proposed sharpening method is also applicable to amplitude modulators and, with appropriate adjustments, to binary modulators as well. A computer simulation is presented that illustrates the potential effectiveness of the method: an image is placed on the input to the correlator, and its corresponding phase-only filter is adjusted (allowed to relax) so as to produce a progressively brighter and more centralized peak in the correlation plane. The technique is highly robust against the form of the system's departure from ideal behavior.
A method for characterizing photon radiation fields
Whicker, J.J.; Hsu, H.H.; Hsieh, F.H.; Borak, T.B.
1999-04-01
Uncertainty in dosimetric and exposure rate measurements can increase in areas where multi-directional and low-energy photons (< 100 keV) exist because of variations in energy and angular measurement response. Also, accurate measurement of external exposures in spatially non-uniform fields may require multiple dosimetry. Therefore, knowledge of the photon fields in the workplace is required for full understanding of the accuracy of dosimeters and instruments, and for determining the need for multiple dosimeters. This project was designed to develop methods to characterize photon radiation fields in the workplace, and to test the methods in a plutonium facility. The photon field at selected work locations was characterized using TLDs and a collimated NaI(Tl) detector from which spatial variations in photon energy distributions were calculated from measured spectra. Laboratory results showed the accuracy and utility of the method. Field measurement results combined with observed work patterns suggested the following: (1) workers are exposed from all directions, but not isotropically, (2) photon energy distributions were directionally dependent, (3) stuffing nearby gloves into the glovebox reduced exposure rates significantly, (4) dosimeter placement on the front of the chest provided for a reasonable estimate of the average dose equivalent to workers` torsos, (5) justifiable conclusions regarding the need for multiple dosimetry can be made using this quantitative method, and (6) measurements of the exposure rates with ionization chambers pointed with open beta windows toward the glovebox provided the highest measured rates, although absolute accuracy of the field measurements still needs to be assessed.
Near-Surface Flow Fields Deduced Using Correlation Tracking and Time-Distance Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeRosa, Marc; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Toomre, Juri
1999-01-01
Near-photospheric flow fields on the Sun are deduced using two independent methods applied to the same time series of velocity images observed by SOI-MDI on SOHO. Differences in travel times between f modes entering and leaving each pixel measured using time-distance helioseismology are used to determine sites of supergranular outflows. Alternatively, correlation tracking analysis of mesogranular scales of motion applied to the same time series is used to deduce the near-surface flow field. These two approaches provide the means to assess the patterns and evolution of horizontal flows on supergranular scales even near disk center, which is not feasible with direct line-of-sight Doppler measurements. We find that the locations of the supergranular outflows seen in flow fields generated from correlation tracking coincide well with the locations of the outflows determined from the time-distance analysis, with a mean correlation coefficient after smoothing of bar-r(sub s) = 0.840. Near-surface velocity field measurements can used to study the evolution of the supergranular network, as merging and splitting events are observed to occur in these images. The data consist of one 2048-minute time series of high-resolution (0.6" pixels) line-of-sight velocity images taken by MDI on 1997 January 16-18 at a cadence of one minute.
Nonlocal exchange correlation in screened-exchange densityfunctional methods
Lee, Byounghak; Wang, Lin-Wang; Spataru, Catalin D.; Louie,Steven G.
2007-04-22
We present a systematic study on the exchange-correlationeffects in screened-exchange local density functional method. Toinvestigate the effects of the screened-exchange potential in the bandgap correction, we have compared the exchange-correlation potential termin the sX-LDA formalism with the self-energy term in the GWapproximation. It is found that the band gap correction of the sX-LDAmethod primarily comes from the downshift of valence band states,resulting from the enhancement of bonding and the increase of ionizationenergy. The band gap correction in the GW method, on the contrary, comesin large part from the increase of theconduction band energies. We alsostudied the effects of the screened-exchange potential in the totalenergy by investigating the exchange-correlation hole in comparison withquantum Monte Carlo calculations. When the Thomas-Fermi screening isused, the sX-LDA method overestimates (underestimates) theexchange-correlation hole in short (long) range. From theexchange-correlation energy analysis we found that the LDA method yieldsbetter absolute total energy than sX-LDA method.
Two-particle photoemission from strongly correlated systems: A dynamical mean-field approach
Napitu, B. D.; Berakdar, J.
2010-05-15
We study theoretically the simultaneous photoinduced two-particle excitations of strongly correlated systems on the basis of the Hubbard model. Under certain conditions specified in this work, the corresponding transition probability is related to the two-particle spectral function which we calculate using three different methods: the dynamical mean-field theory combined with quantum Monte Carlo technique, the first-order perturbation theory and the ladder approximations. The results are analyzed and compared for systems at the verge of the metal-insulator transitions. The dependencies on the electronic correlation strength and on doping are explored. In addition, the account for the orbital degeneracy allows an insight into the influence of interband correlations on the two-particle excitations. A suitable experimental realization is discussed.
Field evaluation of a VOST sampling method
Jackson, M.D.; Johnson, L.D.; Fuerst, R.G.; McGaughey, J.F.; Bursey, J.T.; Merrill, R.G.
1994-12-31
The VOST (SW-846 Method 0030) specifies the use of Tenax{reg_sign} and a particular petroleum-based charcoal (SKC Lot 104, or its equivalent), that is no longer commercially available. In field evaluation studies of VOST methodology, a replacement petroleum-based charcoal has been used: candidate replacement sorbents for charcoal were studied, and Anasorb{reg_sign} 747, a carbon-based sorbent, was selected for field testing. The sampling train was modified to use only Anasorb{reg_sign} in the back tube and Tenax{reg_sign} in the two front tubes to avoid analytical difficulties associated with the analysis of the sequential bed back tube used in the standard VOST train. The standard (SW-846 Method 0030) and the modified VOST methods were evaluated at a chemical manufacturing facility using a quadruple probe system with quadruple trains. In this field test, known concentrations of the halogenated volatile organic compounds, that are listed in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Title 3, were introduced into the VOST train and the modified VOST train, using the same certified gas cylinder as a source of test compounds. Statistical tests of the comparability of methods were performed on a compound-by-compound basis. For most compounds, the VOST and modified VOST methods were found to be statistically equivalent.
New Methods of Magnetic Field Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kholtygin, A. F.
2015-04-01
The standard methods of magnetic field measurements, based on the relation between the Stokes V parameter and the first derivative of the line profile intensity were modified by applying a linear integral transform to both sides of this relation. We used the wavelet integral transform with the DOG wavelets. The key advantage of the proposed method is the effective suppression of the noise contribution both to the line profile and the Stokes V parameter. To test the proposed method, spectropolarimetric observations of the young O star θ1 Ori C were used. We also demonstrate that the smoothed Time Variation Spectra (smTVS) can be used as a tool for detecting the local stellar magnetic fields.
An Explicitly Correlated Wavelet Method for the Electronic Schroedinger Equation
Bachmayr, Markus
2010-09-30
A discretization for an explicitly correlated formulation of the electronic Schroedinger equation based on hyperbolic wavelets and exponential sum approximations of potentials is described, covering mathematical results as well as algorithmic realization, and discussing in particular the potential of methods of this type for parallel computing.
Insights on why graphic correlation (Shaw's method) works.
Edwards, L.E.
1984-01-01
In 1964 A.B.Shaw presented a method of correlating fossilferous sedimentary rocks based on interpretation of graphic plots of first- and last-occurrences of taxa. Because there is no way to determine the true total ranges of fossil taxa, it is instructive to test the accuracy of the method using hypothetical datasets. The dataset used here consists of 16 taxa in six sections with differing known rates of rock accumulation. In all graphs, a single straight-line correlation was a reasonable interpretation. The resulting ranges after the first and third rounds of compositing reproduce the 'true' ranges but with small errors. Slight errors in the positioning of individual correlation lines are more likely to lengthen ranges artificially than to shorten them. Shaw's method works well because, whereas actually sampled ranges will be shorter than true ranges, errors in correlation will be likely to extend some ranges. This or any exercise using simulated data is useful only if the hypothetical situation resembles real geologic situations and if insights derived from the hypothetical dataset provide insights into real situations. The method is only as good as the available data. -Author
Electric Field Quantitative Measurement System and Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)
2016-01-01
A method and system are provided for making a quantitative measurement of an electric field. A plurality of antennas separated from one another by known distances are arrayed in a region that extends in at least one dimension. A voltage difference between at least one selected pair of antennas is measured. Each voltage difference is divided by the known distance associated with the selected pair of antennas corresponding thereto to generate a resulting quantity. The plurality of resulting quantities defined over the region quantitatively describe an electric field therein.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakaya, Shinji; Yohmei, Taiyoh; Koike, Akihisa; Hirayama, Tetsuhiro; Yoden, Toshiaki; Nishigaki, Makoto
2002-08-01
Structural planes, such as fractures, bedding planes, schistosity, and so on, induce heterogeneity of permeability field in geologic bodies. One of the ways to demonstrate the heterogeneity is to geostatistically infer the spatial correlation structure. This paper presents a newly developed geostatistical technique for estimating the three-dimensional heterogeneous permeability field. In the presented method, the plane-directional anisotropy of spatial correlation structure of the three-dimensional permeability field is determined by estimating semivariograms in multiplane directions, using limited in situ measurement data of basement rock permeability. A case study of a dam site shows that the spatial correlation of permeability in the direction parallel to the fault planes is greater than that perpendicular to it. Direction of the largest anisotropy of the spatial correlation of the permeability field is concordant with the strike of the major faults.
Interpolation method for pair correlations in classical crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Kryuchkov, Nikita P.; Ivlev, Alexei V.
2016-06-01
Effects of anharmonicity on the pair correlation function of classical crystals are studied. The recently proposed shortest-graph approach using the Gaussian representation of the individual correlation peaks (the peak width is determined by the length of the shortest graph connecting a given pair of particles) is further improved, to account for anharmonic corrections due to finite temperatures and hard-sphere-like interactions. Two major effects are identified, leading to a modification of the correlation peaks at large or short distances: (i) the peaks at large distances, well described by Gaussians, should be calculated from the finite-temperature phonon spectra; (ii) at short distances, the correlation peaks deviate significantly from the Gaussian form due to the lattice discreteness. We propose the analytical interpolation method, based on the shortest-graph approach, which includes both effects. By employing the molecular dynamics simulations, the accuracy of the method is verified for three- and two-dimensional crystals with the Yukawa, inverse-power-law, and pseudo-hard-sphere pair interactions. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by calculating the phase diagram of a three-dimensional Yukawa system.
Interpolation method for pair correlations in classical crystals.
Yurchenko, Stanislav O; Kryuchkov, Nikita P; Ivlev, Alexei V
2016-06-15
Effects of anharmonicity on the pair correlation function of classical crystals are studied. The recently proposed shortest-graph approach using the Gaussian representation of the individual correlation peaks (the peak width is determined by the length of the shortest graph connecting a given pair of particles) is further improved, to account for anharmonic corrections due to finite temperatures and hard-sphere-like interactions. Two major effects are identified, leading to a modification of the correlation peaks at large or short distances: (i) the peaks at large distances, well described by Gaussians, should be calculated from the finite-temperature phonon spectra; (ii) at short distances, the correlation peaks deviate significantly from the Gaussian form due to the lattice discreteness. We propose the analytical interpolation method, based on the shortest-graph approach, which includes both effects. By employing the molecular dynamics simulations, the accuracy of the method is verified for three- and two-dimensional crystals with the Yukawa, inverse-power-law, and pseudo-hard-sphere pair interactions. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by calculating the phase diagram of a three-dimensional Yukawa system. PMID:27157408
Fast electronic structure methods for strongly correlated molecular systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Head-Gordon, Martin; Beran, Gregory J. O.; Sodt, Alex; Jung, Yousung
2005-01-01
A short review is given of newly developed fast electronic structure methods that are designed to treat molecular systems with strong electron correlations, such as diradicaloid molecules, for which standard electronic structure methods such as density functional theory are inadequate. These new local correlation methods are based on coupled cluster theory within a perfect pairing active space, containing either a linear or quadratic number of pair correlation amplitudes, to yield the perfect pairing (PP) and imperfect pairing (IP) models. This reduces the scaling of the coupled cluster iterations to no worse than cubic, relative to the sixth power dependence of the usual (untruncated) coupled cluster doubles model. A second order perturbation correction, PP(2), to treat the neglected (weaker) correlations is formulated for the PP model. To ensure minimal prefactors, in addition to favorable size-scaling, highly efficient implementations of PP, IP and PP(2) have been completed, using auxiliary basis expansions. This yields speedups of almost an order of magnitude over the best alternatives using 4-center 2-electron integrals. A short discussion of the scope of accessible chemical applications is given.
A robust correlation method to detect heterogeneous heart valve symptoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suboh, Mohd Zubir; Mansor, Muhammad Naufal; Junoh, Ahmad Kadri; Daud, Wan Suhana Wan; Muhamad, Wan Zuki Azman Wan; Idris, Azrini
2015-05-01
Heart valve disease affects a large number of patients. During the past decade, major advances have occurred in diagnostic techniques of heart valve disease. In this paper, we present an alternative method in classifying heart valve disease using correlation analysis and neural network classifier based on heart sound signal. The heart sound signals used in this study were taken from heart sound manipulator software. First, the signal was converted into frequency domain. Then, power spectrum of the sample is determined and cross-correlated with a reference sample (also in power spectrum form) to get different pattern of correlation plot. Seven different heart sounds of normal and other abnormal sounds from heart valve disease were classified into their classes. The result shows that 98.70% of the samples had been correctly classified by the system.
A field day of soil regulation methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kempter, Axel; Kempter, Carmen
2015-04-01
The subject Soil plays an important role in the school subject geography. In particular in the upper classes it is expected that the knowledge from the area of Soil can be also be applied in other subjects. Thus, e.g., an assessment of economy and agricultural development and developing potential requires the interweaving of natural- geographic and human-geographic factors. The treatment of the subject Soil requires the desegregation of the results of different fields like Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Accordingly the subject gives cause to professional-covering lessons and offers the opportunity for practical work as well as excursions. Beside the mediation of specialist knowledge and with the support of the methods and action competences, the independent learning and the practical work should have a special emphasis on the field excursion by using stimulating exercises oriented to solving problems and mastering the methods. This aim should be achieved by the interdisciplinary treatment of the subject Soil in the task-oriented learning process on the field day. The methods and experiments should be sensibly selected for both the temporal and material supply constraints. During the field day the pupils had to categorize soil texture, soil colour, soil profile, soil skeleton, lime content, ion exchanger (Soils filter materials), pH-Value, water retention capacity and evidence of different ions like e.g. Fe3+, Mg2+, Cl- and NO3-. The pupils worked on stations and evaluated the data to receive a general view of the ground at the end. According to numbers of locations, amount of time and group size, different procedures can be offered. There are groups of experts who carry out the same experiment at all locations and split for the evaluation in different groups or each group ran through all stations. The results were compared and discussed at the end.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Di; Kamlah, Marc
2015-11-01
Digital image correlation, a noncontact and nondestructive method, was employed to monitor the deformation of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics. This method is based on imaging a speckle pattern on the specimen surface during the test and subsequently correlating each image of the deformed pattern to that in the reference state. In our work, both longitudinal and transverse strains were calculated from imaging a bulk sample under a ±2 kV/mm electric field. Compared with linear variable displacement transducer data, the results from this correlation method were validated. At the same time, based on this optical technique, different strain-electric field butterfly loops can be drawn from correspondingly selected regions of interest. Combined with contour plots of strain on the surface of the sample, the deformation of bulk ceramic sample under uniaxial electric field loading without any mechanical constraints is proven to be highly homogenous under macro-observing scale.
Gutnisky, Diego A; Josić, Kresimir
2010-05-01
Experimental advances allowing for the simultaneous recording of activity at multiple sites have significantly increased our understanding of the spatiotemporal patterns in neural activity. The impact of such patterns on neural coding is a fundamental question in neuroscience. The simulation of spike trains with predetermined activity patterns is therefore an important ingredient in the study of potential neural codes. Such artificially generated spike trains could also be used to manipulate cortical neurons in vitro and in vivo. Here, we propose a method to generate spike trains with given mean firing rates and cross-correlations. To capture this statistical structure we generate a point process by thresholding a stochastic process that is continuous in space and discrete in time. This stochastic process is obtained by filtering Gaussian noise through a multivariate autoregressive (AR) model. The parameters of the AR model are obtained by a nonlinear transformation of the point-process correlations to the continuous-process correlations. The proposed method is very efficient and allows for the simulation of large neural populations. It can be optimized to the structure of spatiotemporal correlations and generalized to nonstationary processes and spatiotemporal patterns of local field potentials and spike trains. PMID:20032244
Characterizing Intra-Die Spatial Correlation Using Spectral Density Fitting Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Qiang; Luk, Wai-Shing; Tao, Jun; Yan, Changhao; Zeng, Xuan
In this paper, a spectral domain method named the SDF (Spectral Density Fitting) method for intra-die spatial correlation function extraction is presented. Based on theoretical analysis of random field, the spectral density, as the spectral domain counterpart of correlation function, is employed to estimate the parameters of the correlation function effectively in the spectral domain. Compared with the existing extraction algorithm in the original spatial domain, the SDF method can obtain the same quality of results in the spectral domain. In actual measurement process, the unavoidable measurement error with arbitrary frequency components would greatly confound the extraction results. A filtering technique is further developed to diminish the high frequency components of the measurement error and recover the data from noise contamination for parameter estimation. Experimental results have shown that the SDF method is practical and stable.
Improved methods for fan sound field determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cicon, D. E.; Sofrin, T. G.; Mathews, D. C.
1981-01-01
Several methods for determining acoustic mode structure in aircraft turbofan engines using wall microphone data were studied. A method for reducing data was devised and implemented which makes the definition of discrete coherent sound fields measured in the presence of engine speed fluctuation more accurate. For the analytical methods, algorithms were developed to define the dominant circumferential modes from full and partial circumferential arrays of microphones. Axial arrays were explored to define mode structure as a function of cutoff ratio, and the use of data taken at several constant speeds was also evaluated in an attempt to reduce instrumentation requirements. Sensitivities of the various methods to microphone density, array size and measurement error were evaluated and results of these studies showed these new methods to be impractical. The data reduction method used to reduce the effects of engine speed variation consisted of an electronic circuit which windowed the data so that signal enhancement could occur only when the speed was within a narrow range.
Used digital speckle correlation method to measure vibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Haitao; Zhen, Zhiqiang; Tang, Zhengxin
2009-11-01
Used digital speckle correlation method (DSCM) to measure is researched. The experiment is designed and the laser irradiates a PZT which is driven by some signal to obtain the dynamic speckle patterns. The dynamic speckle patterns are shot by CCD, then the DSCM is used to process the sequential images and also the experiment is simulated. The movement of reflection target is controlled by PZT which is driven by the different model signal. When the reflection target is moving, the dynamic speckle patterns are shot by CCD, the sequential images are stored in computer through an image board. Then the digital speckle correlation method is used to process the sequential images. There are three output parameters after the images correlation calculation: (xi ,yi) and α that represent for position and moving direction of the object, Initial (xi ,yi) is (0,0). (▵xi , ▵yi) represents pixel difference in coordinates of two adjacent images. α is the angle specifying the direction of the object's motion relative to the x-axis: αɛ[00,900]. Varying the speed of the aluminum plate, variant values of (▵xi ,▵i) are obtained and varying the direction of numeric control caterpillar track, variant values of α were obtained. From the obtained displacement and the collected frequency, the vibration frequency was obtained. The experimental results show the DSCM can confirm the frequency and displacement of vibration, and have a good agreement with the simulation results, and the results show the digital speckle correlation method can be used to measure vibation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nunes, D. M.; Ranciaro Neto, A.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.
2016-07-01
In this work we investigated the nature of the one-magnon eigenstates in a disordered chain at the presence of a non-uniform magnetic field. In our study, we analyzed the one-dimensional ferromagnetic Heisenberg model within the one-magnon framework. The spin-spin interaction was considered as a correlated disorder distribution with power law spectrum S(k) ∝k-α. By using numerical methods we calculated the time evolution of a initially localized Gaussian wave-packet. Our results reveal that for weak correlations (α < 1), the magnetic wave-packet remains localized around the initial position and for α > 1, we got an oscillatory profile similar to the Bloch-like phenomenology. We calculate the frequency of these oscillations and observed that it is in a good agreement with the semi-classical approach traditionally used to explain the Block-like oscillatory behavior.
Correlating Species and Spectral Diversity using Remote Sensing in Successional Fields in Virginia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aneece, I.; Epstein, H. E.
2015-12-01
Conserving biodiversity can help preserve ecosystem properties and function. As the increasing prevalence of invasive plant species threatens biodiversity, advances in remote sensing technology can help monitor invasive species and their effects on ecosystems and plant communities. To assess whether we could study the effects of invasive species on biodiversity using remote sensing, we asked whether species diversity was positively correlated with spectral diversity, and whether correlations differed among spectral regions along the visible and near-infrared range. To answer these questions, we established community plots in secondary successional fields at the Blandy Experimental Farm in northern Virginia and collected vegetation surveys and ground-level hyperspectral data from 350 to 1025 nm wavelengths. Pearson correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between spectral diversity and species diversity in the visible ranges of 350-499 nm (Pearson correlation=0.69, p=0.01), 500-589 nm (Pearson=0.64, p=0.03), and 590-674 nm (Pearson=0.70, p=0.01), slight positive correlation in the red edge range of 675-754 nm (Pearson=0.56, p=0.06), and no correlation in the near-infrared ranges of 755-924 nm (Pearson=-0.06, p=0.85) and 925-1025 nm (Pearson=0.30, p=0.34). These differences in correlations across spectral regions may be due to the elements that contribute to signatures in those regions and spectral data transformation methods. To investigate the role of pigment variability in these correlations, we estimated chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin concentrations of five dominant species in the plots using vegetation indices. Although interspecific variability in pigment levels exceeded intraspecific variability, chlorophyll (F value=118) was more varied within species than carotenoids (F=322) and anthocyanins (F=126), perhaps contributing to the lack of correlation between species diversity and spectral diversity in the red edge region. Interspecific
Application of the Graphic Correlation method to Pliocene marine sequences
Dowsett, H.J.
1989-01-01
Biostratigraphy - the use of paleontological evidence to establish relative chronologies, forms the cornerstone of many sedimentary geological investigations. Several different approaches to biochronology are available. Traditional interval zones, defined on lowest and/or highest occurrences of selected taxa, are used to place bodies of rock in a relative chronological framework. Fossil datum levels, which are more numerous than zones, are often used as chronohorizons for correlation purposs. The Graphic Correlation method, like interval zonations, synthesizes information from a number of different taxa but does not assume synchrony of any one taxon. A magnetobiostratigraphic model for deep-sea Pliocene sequences has been constructed by graphic correlation of Deep Sea Drilling project cores from the North Atlantic (606), Caribbean Sea (502), South Atlantic (516), Tasman Sea (590), Equatorial Pacific (573) and North Pacific (577). All cores are hydraulic piston cores which contain abundant planktonic foraminifers, calcareous nannofossils and which record many of the magnetic reversals expected in the Pliocene. The model is based on internally consistent paleontologic data gathered by the author. This study demonstrates the advantages of graphic correlation over conventional biostratigraphic procedures. Accurate inter-regional correlations can be made between core sites without resorting to multiple microfossil zonations and without invoking synchrony of fossil events. Important results of this study are: (1) many Pliocene planktonic foraminifer and calcareous nannofossil events are diachronous by more than 0.20 m.y., (2) Globorotalia truncatulinoides first occurs in the Southwest Pacific Ocean, approximately 0.50 m.y. earlier than previously reported, (3) a previously undetected hiatus of short duration (0.38 m.y.) exists just above the Cochiti subchron at DSDP 577A. ?? 1989.
Duality relations in the auxiliary field method
Silvestre-Brac, Bernard
2011-05-15
The eigenenergies {epsilon}{sup (N)}(m;{l_brace}n{sub i}, l{sub i{r_brace}}) of a system of N identical particles with a mass m are functions of the various radial quantum numbers n{sub i} and orbital quantum numbers l{sub i}. Approximations E{sup (N)}(m;Q) of these eigenenergies, depending on a principal quantum number Q({l_brace}n{sub i}, l{sub i{r_brace}}), can be obtained in the framework of the auxiliary field method. We demonstrate the existence of numerous exact duality relations linking quantities E{sup (N)}(m;Q) and E{sup (p)}(m';Q') for various forms of the potentials (independent of m and N) and for both nonrelativistic and semirelativistic kinematics. As the approximations computed with the auxiliary field method can be very close to the exact results, we show with several examples that these duality relations still hold, with sometimes a good accuracy, for the exact eigenenergies {epsilon}{sup (N)}(m;{l_brace}n{sub i}, l{sub i{r_brace}}).
Quench field sensitivity of two-particle correlation in a Hubbard model
Zhang, X. Z.; Lin, S.; Song, Z.
2016-01-01
Short-range interaction can give rise to particle pairing with a short-range correlation, which may be destroyed in the presence of an external field. We study the transition between correlated and uncorrelated particle states in the framework of one- dimensional Hubbard model driven by a field. We show that the long time-scale transfer rate from an initial correlated state to final uncorrelated particle states is sensitive to the quench field strength and exhibits a periodic behavior. This process involves an irreversible energy transfer from the field to particles, leading to a quantum electrothermal effect. PMID:27250080
Waveform correlation methods for identifying populations of calibration events
Harris, D.B.
1997-07-01
An approach for systematically screening large volumes of continuous data for repetitive events identified as mining explosions on basis of temporal and amplitude population characteristics. The method extends event clustering through waveform correlation with a new source-region-specific detector. The new signal subspace detector generalizes the matched filter and can be used to increase the number of events associated with a given cluster, thereby increasing the reliability of diagnostic cluster population characteristics. The method can be applied to obtain bootstrap ground truth explosion waveforms for testing discriminants, where actual ground truth is absent. The same events, if associated with to a particular mine, may help calibrate velocity models. The method may also assist earthquake hazard risk assessment by providing what amounts to blasting logs for identified mines. The cluster event lists can be reconciled against earthquake catalogs to screen explosions, otherwise hard to identify from the catalogs.
Quantum correlated cluster mean-field theory applied to the transverse Ising model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimmer, F. M.; Schmidt, M.; Maziero, Jonas
2016-06-01
Mean-field theory (MFT) is one of the main available tools for analytical calculations entailed in investigations regarding many-body systems. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in ameliorating this kind of method, mainly with the aim of incorporating geometric and correlation properties of these systems. The correlated cluster MFT (CCMFT) is an improvement that succeeded quite well in doing that for classical spin systems. Nevertheless, even the CCMFT presents some deficiencies when applied to quantum systems. In this article, we address this issue by proposing the quantum CCMFT (QCCMFT), which, in contrast to its former approach, uses general quantum states in its self-consistent mean-field equations. We apply the introduced QCCMFT to the transverse Ising model in honeycomb, square, and simple cubic lattices and obtain fairly good results both for the Curie temperature of thermal phase transition and for the critical field of quantum phase transition. Actually, our results match those obtained via exact solutions, series expansions or Monte Carlo simulations.
Quantum correlated cluster mean-field theory applied to the transverse Ising model.
Zimmer, F M; Schmidt, M; Maziero, Jonas
2016-06-01
Mean-field theory (MFT) is one of the main available tools for analytical calculations entailed in investigations regarding many-body systems. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in ameliorating this kind of method, mainly with the aim of incorporating geometric and correlation properties of these systems. The correlated cluster MFT (CCMFT) is an improvement that succeeded quite well in doing that for classical spin systems. Nevertheless, even the CCMFT presents some deficiencies when applied to quantum systems. In this article, we address this issue by proposing the quantum CCMFT (QCCMFT), which, in contrast to its former approach, uses general quantum states in its self-consistent mean-field equations. We apply the introduced QCCMFT to the transverse Ising model in honeycomb, square, and simple cubic lattices and obtain fairly good results both for the Curie temperature of thermal phase transition and for the critical field of quantum phase transition. Actually, our results match those obtained via exact solutions, series expansions or Monte Carlo simulations.
Quantum correlated cluster mean-field theory applied to the transverse Ising model.
Zimmer, F M; Schmidt, M; Maziero, Jonas
2016-06-01
Mean-field theory (MFT) is one of the main available tools for analytical calculations entailed in investigations regarding many-body systems. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in ameliorating this kind of method, mainly with the aim of incorporating geometric and correlation properties of these systems. The correlated cluster MFT (CCMFT) is an improvement that succeeded quite well in doing that for classical spin systems. Nevertheless, even the CCMFT presents some deficiencies when applied to quantum systems. In this article, we address this issue by proposing the quantum CCMFT (QCCMFT), which, in contrast to its former approach, uses general quantum states in its self-consistent mean-field equations. We apply the introduced QCCMFT to the transverse Ising model in honeycomb, square, and simple cubic lattices and obtain fairly good results both for the Curie temperature of thermal phase transition and for the critical field of quantum phase transition. Actually, our results match those obtained via exact solutions, series expansions or Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:27415217
Note: Dynamic strain field mapping with synchrotron X-ray digital image correlation
Lu, L.; Fan, D.; Luo, S. N.; Bie, B. X.; Ran, X. X.; Qi, M. L.; Parab, N.; Sun, J. Z.; Liao, H. J.; Hudspeth, M. C.; Claus, B.; Fezzaa, K.; Sun, T.; Chen, W.; Gong, X. L.
2014-07-15
We present a dynamic strain field mapping method based on synchrotron X-ray digital image correlation (XDIC). Synchrotron X-ray sources are advantageous for imaging with exceptional spatial and temporal resolutions, and X-ray speckles can be produced either from surface roughness or internal inhomogeneities. Combining speckled X-ray imaging with DIC allows one to map strain fields with high resolutions. Based on experiments on void growth in Al and deformation of a granular material during Kolsky bar/gas gun loading at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 32ID, we demonstrate the feasibility of dynamic XDIC. XDIC is particularly useful for dynamic, in-volume, measurements on opaque materials under high strain-rate, large, deformation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Qile; Guo, Jing; Hu, Zhigang; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan; Cai, Hua; Liu, Xianglin
2011-05-01
The GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) monthly gravity models have been independently produced and published by several research institutions, such as Center for Space Research (CSR), GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and Delft Institute of Earth Observation and Space Systems (DEOS). According to their processing standards, above institutions use the traditional variational approach except that the DEOS exploits the acceleration approach. The background force models employed are rather similar. The produced gravity field models generally agree with one another in the spatial pattern. However, there are some discrepancies in the gravity signal amplitude between solutions produced by different institutions. In particular, 10%-30% signal amplitude differences in some river basins can be observed. In this paper, we implemented a variant of the traditional variational approach and computed two sets of monthly gravity field solutions using the data from January 2005 to December 2006. The input data are K-band range-rates (KBRR) and kinematic orbits of GRACE satellites. The main difference in the production of our two types of models is how to deal with nuisance parameters. This type of parameters is necessary to absorb low-frequency errors in the data, which are mainly the aliasing and instrument errors. One way is to remove the nuisance parameters before estimating the geopotential coefficients, called NPARB approach in the paper. The other way is to estimate the nuisance parameters and geopotential coefficients simultaneously, called NPESS approach. These two types of solutions mainly differ in geopotential coefficients from degree 2 to 5. This can be explained by the fact that the nuisance parameters and the gravity field coefficients are highly correlated, particularly at low degrees. We compare these solutions with the official and published ones by means of spectral analysis. It is
a Task-Oriented Disaster Information Correlation Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linyao, Q.; Zhiqiang, D.; Qing, Z.
2015-07-01
With the rapid development of sensor networks and Earth observation technology, a large quantity of disaster-related data is available, such as remotely sensed data, historic data, case data, simulated data, and disaster products. However, the efficiency of current data management and service systems has become increasingly difficult due to the task variety and heterogeneous data. For emergency task-oriented applications, the data searches primarily rely on artificial experience based on simple metadata indices, the high time consumption and low accuracy of which cannot satisfy the speed and veracity requirements for disaster products. In this paper, a task-oriented correlation method is proposed for efficient disaster data management and intelligent service with the objectives of 1) putting forward disaster task ontology and data ontology to unify the different semantics of multi-source information, 2) identifying the semantic mapping from emergency tasks to multiple data sources on the basis of uniform description in 1), and 3) linking task-related data automatically and calculating the correlation between each data set and a certain task. The method goes beyond traditional static management of disaster data and establishes a basis for intelligent retrieval and active dissemination of disaster information. The case study presented in this paper illustrates the use of the method on an example flood emergency relief task.
Method for measuring radial impurity emission profiles using correlations of line integrated signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuldkepp, M.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.
2006-04-01
A method of determining radial impurity emission profiles is outlined. The method uses correlations between line integrated signals and is based on the assumption of cylindrically symmetric fluctuations. Measurements at the reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R show that emission from impurities expected to be close to the edge is clearly different in raw as well as analyzed data to impurities expected to be more central. Best fitting of experimental data to simulated correlation coefficients yields emission profiles that are remarkably close to emission profiles determined using more conventional techniques. The radial extension of the fluctuations is small enough for the method to be used and bandpass filtered signals indicate that fluctuations below 10kHz are cylindrically symmetric. The novel method is not sensitive to vessel window attenuation or wall reflections and can therefore complement the standard methods in the impurity emission reconstruction procedure.
Robust full-field measurement considering rotation using digital image correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Rong; Qian, Hao; Zhang, Dongsheng
2016-10-01
Digital image correlation (DIC) has been widely accepted as a method for displacement and strain measurement and is applied in a variety of engineering fields. Most DIC algorithms encounter errors in measuring the deformation in conditions that involve rotation since they are designed without considering rotation of the deformed object. In this paper, a robust and automated DIC method capable of determining full-field displacement and strain components with random rotations has been presented. The algorithm starts with the determination of the initial position of the seed point in the integer-pixel domain. An approximate rotational angle between the reference and the deformed subset is estimated using an automated feature matching technology. A two-step Newton-Raphson algorithm has been developed for optimizing a suite of variables including displacement, strain and the rotational angle to achieve subpixel accuracy. A reliable propagation scheme, which enables rapid determination of the initial guess for full-field analysis is also proposed. Results from numerical simulations are used to validate the feasibility of the proposed DIC method. An application to 3-point bending with large deflection shows that the algorithm can be employed to measure displacement or strain parameters of the deformed object with arbitrary angles of rotation.
A new method of field MRTD test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhibin; Song, Yan; Liu, Xianhong; Xiao, Wenjian
2014-09-01
MRTD is an important indicator to measure the imaging performance of infrared camera. In the traditional laboratory test, blackbody is used as simulated heat source which is not only expensive and bulky but also difficult to meet field testing requirements of online automatic infrared camera MRTD. To solve this problem, this paper introduces a new detection device for MRTD, which uses LED as a simulation heat source and branded plated zinc sulfide glass carved four-bar target as a simulation target. By using high temperature adaptability cassegrain collimation system, the target is simulated to be distance-infinite so that it can be observed by the human eyes to complete the subjective test, or collected to complete objective measurement by image processing. This method will use LED to replace blackbody. The color temperature of LED is calibrated by thermal imager, thereby, the relation curve between the LED temperature controlling current and the blackbody simulation temperature difference is established, accurately achieved the temperature control of the infrared target. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the device in field testing of thermal imager MRTD can be limited within 0.1K, which greatly reduces the cost to meet the project requirements with a wide application value.
Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method
McEwan, Thomas E.
1996-01-01
A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments.
Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method
McEwan, T.E.
1996-11-19
A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments. 12 figs.
Dynamical Mean-Field Theory of Electronic Correlations in Models and Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vollhardt, Dieter
2010-11-01
The concept of electronic correlations plays an important role in modern condensed matter physics. It refers to interaction effects which cannot be explained within a static mean-field picture as provided by Hartree-Fock theory. Electronic correlations can have a very strong influence on the properties of materials. For example, they may turn a metal into an insulator (Mott-Hubbard metal-insulator transition). In these lecture notes I (i) introduce basic notions of the physics of correlated electronic systems, (ii) discuss the construction of mean-field theories by taking the limit of high lattice dimensions, (iii) explain the simplifications of the many-body perturbation theory in this limit which provide the basis for the formulation of a comprehensive mean-field theory for correlated fermions, the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), (v) derive the DMFT self-consistency equations, and (vi) apply the DMFT to investigate electronic correlations in models and materials.
A field method for measurement of infiltration
Johnson, A.I.
1963-01-01
The determination of infiltration--the downward entry of water into a soil (or sediment)--is receiving increasing attention in hydrologic studies because of the need for more quantitative data on all phases of the hydrologic cycle. A measure of infiltration, the infiltration rate, is usually determined in the field by flooding basins or furrows, sprinkling, or measuring water entry from cylinders (infiltrometer rings). Rates determined by ponding in large areas are considered most reliable, but the high cost usually dictates that infiltrometer rings, preferably 2 feet in diameter or larger, be used. The hydrology of subsurface materials is critical in the study of infiltration. The zone controlling the rate of infiltration is usually the least permeable zone. Many other factors affect infiltration rate--the sediment (soil) structure, the condition of the sediment surface, the distribution of soil moisture or soil- moisture tension, the chemical and physical nature of the sediments, the head of applied water, the depth to ground water, the chemical quality and the turbidity of the applied water, the temperature of the water and the sediments, the percentage of entrapped air in the sediments, the atmospheric pressure, the length of time of application of water, the biological activity in the sediments, and the type of equipment or method used. It is concluded that specific values of the infiltration rate for a particular type of sediment are probably nonexistent and that measured rates are primarily for comparative use. A standard field-test method for determining infiltration rates by means of single- or double-ring infiltrometers is described and the construction, installation, and operation of the infiltrometers are discussed in detail.
Correlation measurements as a probe of fluctuations and dynamics of optical fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foster, Gregory Thomas
Correlation functions are a powerful tool for characterizing the statistical properties of light. They provide information about the fluctuation properties of the electromagnetic field. In addition, features of correlation functions can distinguish between fluctuations that are classical or quantum mechanical in origin. This thesis details measurements of correlation functions of the optical fields emitted from a noise- driven laser and from a cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) system. The two-time intensity correlation of the light from a noise driven diode laser was measured and found to agree with a classical model for the laser response to noise. The dependence of the intensity correlation on the spectral shape of the noise and on the operating current of the laser was also investigated. The intensity correlation function was measured in two independent ways. Intensity correlation measurements were used to probe the dynamical properties of a cavity QED source, a collection of atoms coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field defined by an optical cavity. The transmitted light exhibits nonclassical features in the intensity correlation that arise from the strong coupling between the atoms and the quantized field. The size of the nonclassical correlations are found to be in good agreement with a model that takes into account the experimental conditions. To directly observe the underlying electromagnetic field fluctuations in the cavity QED system, a novel technique is implemented to correlate a record of a homodyne photocurrent with a photon detection. This conditional measurement allows the observation of the time resolved quantum fluctuations of the amplitude of the squeezed electromagnetic wave emitted from the cavity QED system. The Fourier transform of the normalized field correlation multiplied by the source flux yields the spectrum of squeezing. This shows a reduction of the fluctuations below the standard quantum limit at the atom-field
Fu, Jiawei; Pierron, Fabrice; Ruiz, Pablo D
2013-12-01
This paper presents a methodology for stiffness identification from depth-resolved three-dimensional (3-D) full-field deformation fields. These were obtained by performing digital volume correlation on optical coherence tomography volume reconstructions of silicone rubber phantoms. The effect of noise and reconstruction uncertainties on the performance of the correlation algorithm was first evaluated through stationary and rigid body translation tests to give an indication of the minimum strain that can be reliably measured. The phantoms were then tested under tension, and the 3-D deformation fields were used to identify the elastic constitutive parameters using a 3-D manually defined virtual fields method. The identification results for the cases of uniform and heterogeneous strain fields were compared with those calculated analytically through the constant uniaxial stress assumption, showing good agreement.
Structure-specific magnetic field inhomogeneities and its effect on the correlation time.
Ziener, Christian H; Bauer, Wolfgang R; Melkus, Gerd; Weber, Thomas; Herold, Volker; Jakob, Peter M
2006-12-01
We describe the relationship between the correlation time and microscopic spatial inhomogeneities in the static magnetic field. The theory takes into account diffusion of nuclear spins in the inhomogeneous field created by magnetized objects. A simple general expression for the correlation time is obtained. It is shown that the correlation time is dependent on a characteristic length, the diffusion coefficient of surrounding medium, the permeability of the surface and the volume fraction of the magnetized objects. For specific geometries (spheres and cylinders), exact analytical expressions for the correlation time are given. The theory can be applied to contrast agents (magnetically labeled cells), capillary network, BOLD effect and so forth.
Dipion decays of heavy quarkonium in the field correlator method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simonov, Yu. A.
2008-06-01
The mechanism of dipion transitions nS → n'Sππ ( n = 3, 2; n' = 2, 1) in bottomonium and charmonium is studied with the use of the chiral string-breaking Lagrangian allowing for the emission of any number of π( K, ν), and not containing fitting parameters. The transition amplitude contains two terms: M = a - b, where the first term ( a) refers to subsequent one-pion emission, Upsilon (nS) to π Bbar B^ * to π Upsilon (n'S)π , and the second term ( b) refers to two-pion emission, Upsilon (nS) to π π Bbar B to π π Upsilon (n'S) . The one parameter formula for the dipion mass distribution is derived, dw/dq˜ (phase space) × | η - x|2, where x = ( q 2 - 4 m {π/2})/( q {max/2} - 4 m {π/2}), q 2 m= M {ππ/2}. The parameter ν dependent on the process is calculated, using SHO wave functions and imposing PCAC restrictions (Adler zero) on amplitudes a and b. The resulting dipion mass distributions are in agreement with experimental data.
Phase Correlations at Neighboring Intensity Critical Points in Gaussian Random Wave Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freund, Isaac
1998-11-01
Phase correlations are studied for neighboring critical points of the intensity in an isotropic Gaussian random wave field. Significant correlations and anticorrelations are found that extend out to at least the fifth nearest neighbors. A theoretical interpretation of the empirical data is attempted within the framework of the phase autocorrelation and the probability-density functions of extended two-dimensional random phase fields. It is found, however, that adaptations of these theoretical models are unable to account satisfactorily, or even qualitatively, for the extensive phase correlations that are present in these fields.
Soil Identification using Field Electrical Resistivity Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Rosli, S.; Chitral, W. D.; Fauziah, A.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Aziman, M.; Ismail, B.
2015-06-01
Geotechnical site investigation with particular reference to soil identification was important in civil engineering works since it reports the soil condition in order to relate the design and construction of the proposed works. In the past, electrical resistivity method (ERM) has widely being used in soil characterization but experienced several black boxes which related to its results and interpretations. Hence, this study performed a field electrical resistivity method (ERM) using ABEM SAS (4000) at two different types of soils (Gravelly SAND and Silty SAND) in order to discover the behavior of electrical resistivity values (ERV) with type of soils studied. Soil basic physical properties was determine thru density (p), moisture content (w) and particle size distribution (d) in order to verify the ERV obtained from each type of soil investigated. It was found that the ERV of Gravelly SAND (278 Ωm & 285 Ωm) was slightly higher than SiltySAND (223 Ωm & 199 Ωm) due to the uncertainties nature of soils. This finding has showed that the results obtained from ERM need to be interpreted based on strong supported findings such as using direct test from soil laboratory data. Furthermore, this study was able to prove that the ERM can be established as an alternative tool in soil identification provided it was being verified thru other relevance information such as using geotechnical properties.
Digital image correlation for full-field time-resolved assessment of arterial stiffness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campo, Adriaan; Soons, Joris; Heuten, Hilde; Ennekens, Guy; Goovaerts, Inge; Vrints, Christiaan; Lava, Pascal; Dirckx, Joris
2014-01-01
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) of the arterial system is a very important parameter to evaluate cardiovascular health. Currently, however, there is no golden standard for PWV measurement. Digital image correlation (DIC) was used for full-field time-resolved assessment of displacement, velocity, acceleration, and strains of the skin in the neck directly above the common carotid artery. By assessing these parameters, propagation of the pulse wave could be tracked, leading to a new method for PWV detection based on DIC. The method was tested on five healthy subjects. As a means of validation, PWV was measured with ultrasound (US) as well. Measured PWV values were between 3.68 and 5.19 m/s as measured with DIC and between 5.14 and 6.58 m/s as measured with US, with a maximum absolute difference of 2.78 m/s between the two methods. DIC measurements of the neck region can serve as a test base for determining a robust strategy for PWV detection, they can serve as reference for three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction models, or they may even evolve into a screening method of their own. Moreover, full-field, time-resolved DIC can be adapted for other applications in biomechanics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Yeonsoo; Moon, Seyoung; Oh, Youngjin; Kim, Yonghwi; Kim, Donghyun
2012-10-01
In this report, we have studied the effectiveness of field-target overlap to evaluate detection sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors. The investigation used theoretical analysis based on the transfer matrix method, which was experimentally confirmed by thin film-based detection in sandwich and reverse sandwich immunoglobulin G (IgG) assays. Both theoretical and experimental results show that strong correlation exists between the overlap and the sensitivity with the coefficient of correlation higher than 95% in all the cases that we have considered. We have also confirmed the correlation in diffraction grating-based SPR measurement of IgG/anti-IgG interactions. The correlation elucidates the mechanism behind the far-field detection sensitivity of SPR biosensors and can lead to the enhancement of SPR biosensing with molecular scale sensitivity.
Mathematical correlation of modal parameter identification methods via system realization theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, J. N.
1986-01-01
A unified approach is introduced using system realization theory to derive and correlate modal parameter identification methods for flexible structures. Several different time-domain and frequency-domain methods are analyzed and treated. A basic mathematical foundation is presented which provides insight into the field of modal parameter identification for comparison and evaluation. The relation among various existing methods is established and discussed. This report serves as a starting point to stimulate additional research towards the unification of the many possible approaches for modal parameter identification.
Work toward a standardized version of a mobile tracer correlation measurement method is discussed. The method used for assessment of methane emissions from 15 landfills in 56 field deployments from 2009 to 2013. This general area source measurement method uses advances in instrum...
Field methods for measuring concentrated flow erosion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castillo, C.; Pérez, R.; James, M. R.; Quinton, J. N.; Taguas, E. V.; Gómez, J. A.
2012-04-01
Many studies have stressed the importance of gully erosion in the overall soil loss and sediment yield of agricultural catchments, for instance in recent years (Vandaele and Poesen, 1995; De Santisteban et al., 2006; Wu el al, 2008). Several techniques have been used for determining gully erosion in field studies. The conventional techniques involved the use of different devices (i.e. ruler, pole, tape, micro-topographic profilers, total station) to calculate rill and gully volumes through the determination of cross sectional areas and length of reaches (Casalí et al, 1999; Hessel and van Asch, 2003). Optical devices (i.e. laser profilemeters) have also been designed for the purpose of rapid and detailed assessment of cross sectional areas in gully networks (Giménez et al., 2009). These conventional 2d methods provide a simple and un-expensive approach for erosion evaluation, but are time consuming to carry out if a good accuracy is required. On the other hand, remote sensing techniques are being increasingly applied to gully erosion investigation such as aerial photography used for big-scale, long-term, investigations (e.g. Martínez-Casasnovas et al., 2004; Ionita, 2006), airborne and terrestrial LiDAR datasets for gully volume evaluation (James et al., 2007; Evans and Lindsay, 2010) and recently, major advances in 3D photo-reconstruction techniques (Welty et al. 2010, James et al., 2011). Despite its interest, few studies simultaneously compare the accuracies of the range of conventional and remote sensing techniques used, or define the most suitable method for a particular scale, given and time and cost constraints. That was the reason behind the International Workshop Innovations in the evaluation and measurement of rill and gully erosion, held in Cordoba in May 2011 and from which derive part of the materials presented in this abstract. The main aim of this work was to compare the accuracy and time requirements of traditional (2D) and recently developed
Antecedents and correlates of visual field deficits in children born extremely preterm
Msall, Michael E.; Skranes, Jon; Dammann, Olaf; Allred, Elizabeth; Leviton, Alan
2014-01-01
Aim We sought to identify the antecedents and correlates of visual field deficits (VFDs) at age 2 years among infants born before the 28th week of gestation. Methods The visual fields of 1023 infants were assessed by confrontation at age 2 years. We compared the ante-and postnatal characteristics and exposures of the 65 infants with a VFD to their peers who did not have a VFD. We used time-oriented logistic regression risk models to assess the associations of potential antecedents and correlates with a VFD. Results In the final regression model, VFD was associated with maternal consumption of aspirin during the current pregnancy, recurring/persistent acidemia during the first 3 postnatal days, cerebral ventriculomegaly seen on neonatal ultrasound, prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and supplemental oxygen and ventilator dependence at 36 weeks post-menstrual age. Birth before the 27th week was also associated with increased risk, but its significance was diminished by the addition of postnatal variables. Conclusion In this sample of extremely preterm born infants, antenatal as well as early and late postnatal characteristics and exposures are associated with an increased risk of having a VFD. Our study adds to our knowledge about the complex etiology of visual deficits of prematurity, and supports a multifactorial cause of these deficits. PMID:25455711
THEORETICAL ESTIMATES OF TWO-POINT SHEAR CORRELATION FUNCTIONS USING TANGLED MAGNETIC FIELDS
Pandey, Kanhaiya L.; Sethi, Shiv K.
2012-03-20
The existence of primordial magnetic fields can induce matter perturbations with additional power at small scales as compared to the usual {Lambda}CDM model. We study its implication within the context of a two-point shear correlation function from gravitational lensing. We show that a primordial magnetic field can leave its imprints on the shear correlation function at angular scales {approx}< a few arcminutes. The results are compared with CFHTLS data, which yield some of the strongest known constraints on the parameters (strength and spectral index) of the primordial magnetic field. We also discuss the possibility of detecting sub-nano Gauss fields using future missions such as SNAP.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Weizhuo; Mottershead, John E.; Siebert, Thorsten; Pipino, Andrea
2012-04-01
The availability of high speed digital cameras has enabled three-dimensional (3D) vibration measurement by stereography and digital image correlation (DIC). The 3D DIC technique provides non-contact full-field measurements on complex surfaces whereas conventional modal testing methods employ point-wise frequency response functions. It is proposed to identify the modal properties by utilising the domain-wise responses captured by a DIC system. This idea will be illustrated by a case study in the form a car bonnet of 3D irregular shape typical of many engineering structures. The full-field measured data are highly redundant, but the application of image processing using functional transformation enables the extraction of a small number of shape features without any significant loss of information from the raw DIC data. The complex bonnet surface on which the displacement responses are measured is essentially a 2-manifold. It is possible to apply surface parameterisation to 'flatten' the 3D surface to form a 2D planar domain. Well-developed image processing techniques are defined on planar domains and used to extract features from the displacement patterns on the surface of a specimen. An adaptive geometric moment descriptor (AGMD), defined on surface parametric space, is able to extract shape features from a series of full-field transient responses under random excitation. Results show the effectiveness of the AGMD and the obtained shape features are demonstrated to be succinct and efficient. Approximately 14 thousand data points of raw DIC measurement are represented by 20 shape feature terms at each time step. Shape-descriptor frequency response functions (SD-FRFs) of the response field and the loading field are derived in the shape feature space. It is seen that the SD-FRF has a similar format to the conventional receptance FRF. The usual modal identification procedure is applied to determine the natural frequencies, damping factors and eigen-shape-feature vectors
CORRELATIONS OF PLASMA DENSITY AND MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH IN THE HELIOSHEATH
Gutynska, O.; Safrankova, J.; Nemecek, Z.; Richardson, J. D.
2010-10-20
The crossing of the termination shock (TS) by Voyager 2 in 2007 at 84 AU allows a comparison of fluctuations in different heliosheath regions. The Letter concentrates on MHD waves that exhibit a significant correlation between the magnetic field strength and plasma density. The correlations between both quantities were computed on 2 hr time intervals in the frequency range of 1 x 10{sup -4} to 4 x 10{sup -3} Hz. We separate the data into two regions with different magnetic field behavior; the post-TS region with many crossings of the current sheet and the unipolar region where the magnetic field direction remains nearly constant. We find that typical correlation coefficients in these regions are about 0.55-0.65, larger than in Earth's magnetosheath. The largest correlations occur when the spectrum of magnetic field fluctuations is dominated by low frequencies.
Correlation between proton anisotropy and magnetic field direction in the distant geotail
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klecker, B.; Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.
1984-01-01
A statistical analysis has been conducted of the anisotropy of suprathermal protons and the polarity of the magnetic field during April 10-16, 1983. At this time, ISEE-3 was at lunar distances in the geomagnetic tail of the earth, and well within the nominal magnetopause. The first-order anisotropy is presently correlated with the latitude angle and the z-component of the magnetic field. The anisotropy direction's frequency distribution is strongly peaked in the earthward and tailward direction, indicating fast earthward and tailward flows. For large anisotropies, and within 5 earth radii of the nominal neutral sheet position, a strong correlation is found between the earthward-streaming suprathermal protons and the northward polarity of the magnetic field; large tailward anisotropies are generally correlated with southward magnetic field polarity. This correlation is most simply interpreted in terms of a neutral line or reconnection model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ishii, M.; Sugiura, M.; Iyemori, T.; Slavin, J. A.
1992-01-01
The satellite-observed high correlations between magnetic and electric field perturbations in the high-latitude field-aligned current regions are investigated by examining the dependence of the relationship between Delta-B and E on spatial scale, using the electric and magnetic field data obtained by DE 2 in the polar regions. The results are compared with the Pedersen conductivity inferred from the international reference ionosphere model and the Alfven wave velocity calculated from the in situ ion density and magnetic field measurements.
Dispersion-Corrected Mean-Field Electronic Structure Methods.
Grimme, Stefan; Hansen, Andreas; Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Bannwarth, Christoph
2016-05-11
Mean-field electronic structure methods like Hartree-Fock, semilocal density functional approximations, or semiempirical molecular orbital (MO) theories do not account for long-range electron correlation (London dispersion interaction). Inclusion of these effects is mandatory for realistic calculations on large or condensed chemical systems and for various intramolecular phenomena (thermochemistry). This Review describes the recent developments (including some historical aspects) of dispersion corrections with an emphasis on methods that can be employed routinely with reasonable accuracy in large-scale applications. The most prominent correction schemes are classified into three groups: (i) nonlocal, density-based functionals, (ii) semiclassical C6-based, and (iii) one-electron effective potentials. The properties as well as pros and cons of these methods are critically discussed, and typical examples and benchmarks on molecular complexes and crystals are provided. Although there are some areas for further improvement (robustness, many-body and short-range effects), the situation regarding the overall accuracy is clear. Various approaches yield long-range dispersion energies with a typical relative error of 5%. For many chemical problems, this accuracy is higher compared to that of the underlying mean-field method (i.e., a typical semilocal (hybrid) functional like B3LYP). PMID:27077966
Pillet, N.; Berger, J.-F.; Caurier, E.
2008-08-15
Applying a variational multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing method whose purpose is to include correlations beyond the mean field in a unified way without particle number and Pauli principle violations, we investigate pairing-like correlations in the ground states of {sup 116}Sn, {sup 106}Sn, and {sup 100}Sn. The same effective nucleon-nucleon interaction, namely, the D1S parametrization of the Gogny force, is used to derive both the mean field and correlation components of nuclear wave functions. Calculations are performed using an axially symmetric representation. The structure of correlated wave functions, their convergence with respect to the number of particle-hole excitations, and the influence of correlations on single-particle level spectra and occupation probabilities are analyzed and compared with results obtained with the same two-body effective interaction from BCS, Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov, and particle number projected after variation BCS approaches. Calculations of nuclear radii and the first theoretical excited 0{sup +} states are compared with experimental data.
Investigation of real materials with strong electronic correlations by the LDA+DMFT method.
Anisimov, V I; Lukoyanov, A V
2014-02-01
Materials with strong electronic correlations are at the cutting edge of experimental and theoretical studies, capturing the attention of researchers for a great variety of interesting phenomena: metal-insulator, phase and magnetic spin transitions, `heavy fermion' systems, interplay between magnetic order and superconductivity, appearance and disappearance of local magnetic moments, and transport property anomalies. It is clear that the richness of physical phenomena for these compounds is a result of partially filled 3d, 4f or 5f electron shells with local magnetic moments preserved in the solid state. Strong interactions of d and f electrons with each other and with itinerant electronic states of the material are responsible for its anomalous properties. Electronic structure calculations for strongly correlated materials should explicitly take into account Coulombic interactions between d or f electrons. Recent advances in this field are related to the development of the LDA+DMFT method, which combines local density approximation (LDA) with dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) to account for electronic correlation effects. In recent years, LDA+DMFT has allowed the successful treatment not only of simple systems but also of complicated real compounds. Nowadays, the LDA+DMFT method is the state-of-the-art tool for investigating correlated metals and insulators, spin and metal-insulator transitions (MIT) in transition-metal compounds in paramagnetic and magnetically ordered phases.
A method to transfer speckle patterns for digital image correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhenning; Quan, Chenggen; Zhu, Feipeng; He, Xiaoyuan
2015-09-01
A simple and repeatable speckle creation method based on water transfer printing (WTP) is proposed to reduce artificial measurement error for digital image correlation (DIC). This technique requires water, brush, and a piece of transfer paper that is made of prefabricated decal paper, a protected sheet, and printed speckle patterns. The speckle patterns are generated and optimized via computer simulations, and then printed on the decal paper. During the experiments, operators can moisten the basement with water and the brush, so that digital patterns can be simply transferred to the carriers’ surfaces. Tensile experiments with an extended three-dimensional (3D) DIC system are performed to test and verify the validity of WTP patterns. It is shown that by comparing with a strain gage, the strain error is less than 50με in a uniform tensile test. From five carbon steel tensile experiments, Lüders bands in both WTP patterns and spray paint patterns are demonstrated to propagate symmetrically. In the necking part where the strain is up to 66%, WTP patterns are proved to adhere to the specimens well. Hence, WTP patterns are capable of maintaining coherence and adherence to the specimen surface. The transfer paper, working as the role of strain gage in the electrometric method, will contribute to speckle creation.
Allahyarov, Elshad; Löwen, Hartmut; Zhu, Lei
2016-07-28
Mixing dielectric polymers with high permittivity (high-k) inclusions can affect their electrical properties. In actuation applications of dielectric elastomers, the polarized inclusions generate additional volume polarization-related electrostriction. In energy storage applications, it is possible to store more energy in dielectric composites because of additional polarization of the inclusions and interfaces. However, mixing an electroactive polymer with high-k inclusions also brings several disadvantages. The expulsion of the field from the interior of high-k fillers and the presence of two poles on the filler surface along the applied field direction result in higher local fields EL near the inclusion poles. The resulting field enhancement lowers the breakdown field (Eb) threshold for the material and therefore compromises the actuation and energy storage capabilities of dielectric composites. To mitigate this issue, the dependence of EL on the morphology of inclusion distribution, the field localization effect in chained configurations, and the role of the dipole-dipole correlation effects in the enhancement of the dipolar field of inclusions are analyzed. We show that the dipolar correlation effects are strong in large inclusion composites and their contribution to the inclusion dipole moment μ and to the local fields EL can reach 30-50%. A new method for deriving the composite permittivity from the field EL distribution, based on a caged probe technique, is also presented. PMID:27357433
Field evaluation of endotoxin air sampling assay methods.
Thorne, P S; Reynolds, S J; Milton, D K; Bloebaum, P D; Zhang, X; Whitten, P; Burmeister, L F
1997-11-01
This study tested the importance of filter media, extraction and assay protocol, and bioaerosol source on the determination of endotoxin under field conditions in swine and poultry confinement buildings. Multiple simultaneous air samples were collected using glass fiber (GF) and polycarbonate (PC) filters, and these were assayed using two methods in two separate laboratories: an endpoint chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay (QCL) performed in water and a kinetic chromogenic LAL assay (KQCL) performed in buffer with resistant-parallel line estimation analysis (KLARE). In addition, two aqueous filter extraction methods were compared in the QCL assay: 120 min extraction at 22 degrees C with vigorous shaking and 30 min extraction at 68 degrees C with gentle rocking. These extraction methods yielded endotoxin activities that were not significantly different and were very highly correlated. Reproducibility of endotoxin determinations from duplicate air sampling filters was very high (Cronbach alpha all > 0.94). When analyzed by the QCL method GF filters yielded significantly higher endotoxin activity than PC filters. QCL and KLARE methods gave similar estimates for endotoxin activity from PC filters; however, GF filters analyzed by the QCL method yielded significantly higher endotoxin activity estimates, suggesting enhancement of the QCL assay or inhibition of the KLARE asay with GF filters. Correlation between QCL-GF and QCL-PC was high (r = 0.98) while that between KLARE-GF and KLARE-PC was moderate (r = 0.68). Analysis of variance demonstrated that assay methodology, filter-type, barn-type, and interactions between assay and filter-type and between assay and barn-type were important factors influencing endotoxin exposure assessment.
Scheibe, Timothy D.; Dong, Hailiang; Xie, YuLong
2007-06-01
It has been widely observed in field experiments that the apparent rate of bacterial attachment, particularly as parameterized by the collision efficiency in filtration-based models, decreases with transport distance (i.e., exhibits scale-dependency). This effect has previously been attributed to microbial heterogeneity; that is, variability in cell-surface properties within a single monoclonal population. We demonstrate that this effect could also be interpreted as a field-scale manifestation of local-scale correlation between physical heterogeneity (hydraulic conductivity variability) and reaction heterogeneity (attachment rate coefficient variability). A field-scale model of bacterial transport developed for the South Oyster field research site located near Oyster, Virginia, and observations from field experiments performed at that site, are used as the basis for this study. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of bacterial transport were performed under four alternative scenarios: 1) homogeneous hydraulic conductivity (K) and attachment rate coefficient (Kf), 2) heterogeneous K, homogeneous Kf, 3) heterogeneous K and Kf with local correlation based on empirical and theoretical relationships, and 4) heterogeneous K and Kf without local correlation. The results of the 3D simulations were analyzed using 1D model approximations following conventional methods of field data analysis. An apparent decrease with transport distance of effective collision efficiency was observed only in the case where the local properties were both heterogeneous and correlated. This effect was observed despite the fact that the local collision efficiency was specified as a constant in the 3D model, and can therefore be interpreted as a scale effect associated with the local correlated heterogeneity as manifested at the field scale.
Field-measured drag area is a key correlate of level cycling time trial performance.
Peterman, James E; Lim, Allen C; Ignatz, Ryan I; Edwards, Andrew G; Byrnes, William C
2015-01-01
Drag area (Ad ) is a primary factor determining aerodynamic resistance during level cycling and is therefore a key determinant of level time trial performance. However, Ad has traditionally been difficult to measure. Our purpose was to determine the value of adding field-measured Ad as a correlate of level cycling time trial performance. In the field, 19 male cyclists performed a level (22.1 km) time trial. Separately, field-determined Ad and rolling resistance were calculated for subjects along with projected frontal area assessed directly (AP ) and indirectly (Est AP ). Also, a graded exercise test was performed to determine [Formula: see text] peak, lactate threshold (LT), and economy. [Formula: see text] peak ([Formula: see text]) and power at LT were significantly correlated to power measured during the time trial (r = 0.83 and 0.69, respectively) but were not significantly correlated to performance time (r = - 0.42 and -0.45). The correlation with performance time improved significantly (p < 0.05) when these variables were normalized to Ad . Of note, Ad alone was better correlated to performance time (r = 0.85, p < 0.001) than any combination of non-normalized physiological measure. The best correlate with performance time was field-measured power output during the time trial normalized to Ad (r = - 0.92). AP only accounted for 54% of the variability in Ad . Accordingly, the correlation to performance time was significantly lower using power normalized to AP (r = - 0.75) or Est AP (r = - 0.71). In conclusion, unless normalized to Ad , level time trial performance in the field was not highly correlated to common laboratory measures. Furthermore, our field-measured Ad is easy to determine and was the single best predictor of level time trial performance.
Magnetic field transfer device and method
Wipf, Stefan L.
1990-01-01
A magnetic field transfer device includes a pair of oppositely wound inner coils which each include at least one winding around an inner coil axis, and an outer coil which includes at least one winding around an outer coil axis. The windings may be formed of superconductors. The axes of the two inner coils are parallel and laterally spaced from each other so that the inner coils are positioned in side-by-side relation. The outer coil is outwardly positioned from the inner coils and rotatable relative to the inner coils about a rotational axis substantially perpendicular to the inner coil axes to generate a hypothetical surface which substantially encloses the inner coils. The outer coil rotates relative to the inner coils between a first position in which the outer coil axis is substantially parallel to the inner coil axes and the outer coil augments the magnetic field formed in one of the inner coils, and a second position 180.degree. from the first position, in which the augmented magnetic field is transferred into the other inner coil and reoriented 180.degree. from the original magnetic field. The magnetic field transfer device allows a magnetic field to be transferred between volumes with negligible work being required to rotate the outer coil with respect to the inner coils.
Magnetic field transfer device and method
Wipf, S.L.
1990-02-13
A magnetic field transfer device includes a pair of oppositely wound inner coils which each include at least one winding around an inner coil axis, and an outer coil which includes at least one winding around an outer coil axis. The windings may be formed of superconductors. The axes of the two inner coils are parallel and laterally spaced from each other so that the inner coils are positioned in side-by-side relation. The outer coil is outwardly positioned from the inner coils and rotatable relative to the inner coils about a rotational axis substantially perpendicular to the inner coil axes to generate a hypothetical surface which substantially encloses the inner coils. The outer coil rotates relative to the inner coils between a first position in which the outer coil axis is substantially parallel to the inner coil axes and the outer coil augments the magnetic field formed in one of the inner coils, and a second position 180[degree] from the first position, in which the augmented magnetic field is transferred into the other inner coil and reoriented 180[degree] from the original magnetic field. The magnetic field transfer device allows a magnetic field to be transferred between volumes with negligible work being required to rotate the outer coil with respect to the inner coils. 16 figs.
Abstract - A standardized version of a mobile tracer correlation measurement method was developed and used for assessment of methane emissions from 15 landfills in 56 field deployments from 2009 to 2013. This general area source measurement method uses advances in instrumentation...
Bootstrapping conformal field theories with the extremal functional method.
El-Showk, Sheer; Paulos, Miguel F
2013-12-13
The existence of a positive linear functional acting on the space of (differences between) conformal blocks has been shown to rule out regions in the parameter space of conformal field theories (CFTs). We argue that at the boundary of the allowed region the extremal functional contains, in principle, enough information to determine the dimensions and operator product expansion (OPE) coefficients of an infinite number of operators appearing in the correlator under analysis. Based on this idea we develop the extremal functional method (EFM), a numerical procedure for deriving the spectrum and OPE coefficients of CFTs lying on the boundary (of solution space). We test the EFM by using it to rederive the low lying spectrum and OPE coefficients of the two-dimensional Ising model based solely on the dimension of a single scalar quasiprimary--no Virasoro algebra required. Our work serves as a benchmark for applications to more interesting, less known CFTs in the near future. PMID:24483643
Bootstrapping conformal field theories with the extremal functional method.
El-Showk, Sheer; Paulos, Miguel F
2013-12-13
The existence of a positive linear functional acting on the space of (differences between) conformal blocks has been shown to rule out regions in the parameter space of conformal field theories (CFTs). We argue that at the boundary of the allowed region the extremal functional contains, in principle, enough information to determine the dimensions and operator product expansion (OPE) coefficients of an infinite number of operators appearing in the correlator under analysis. Based on this idea we develop the extremal functional method (EFM), a numerical procedure for deriving the spectrum and OPE coefficients of CFTs lying on the boundary (of solution space). We test the EFM by using it to rederive the low lying spectrum and OPE coefficients of the two-dimensional Ising model based solely on the dimension of a single scalar quasiprimary--no Virasoro algebra required. Our work serves as a benchmark for applications to more interesting, less known CFTs in the near future.
GW correlation effects on plutonium quasiparticle energies: changes in crystal-field splitting
Albers, Robert C; Chantis, Athanasios N; Svane, Axel; Christensen, Niels E
2009-01-01
We present results for the electronic structure of plutonium by using a recently developed quasiparticle self-consistent GW method (QSGW). We consider a paramagnetic solution without spin-orbit interaction as a function of volume for the face-centered cubic (fcc) unit cell. We span unit-cell volumes ranging from 10% greater than the equilibrium volume of the 8 phase to 90 % of the equivalent for the a phase of Pu. The self-consistent GW quasiparticle energies are compared to those obtained within the Local Density Approximation (LDA). The goal of the calculations is to understand systematic trends in the effects of electronic correlations on the quasiparticle energy bands of Pu as a function of the localization of the J orbitals. We show that correlation effects narrow the f bands in two significantly different ways. Besides the expected narrowing of individual f bands (flatter dispersion), we find that an even more significant effect on the f bands is a decrease in the crystal-field splitting of the different bands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.
2013-03-01
Using the field theoretic renormalization group technique the model of passively advected weak magnetic field by an incompressible isotropic helical turbulent flow is investigated up to the second order of the perturbation theory (two-loop approximation) in the framework of an extended Kazantsev-Kraichnan model of kinematic magnetohydrodynamics. Statistical fluctuations of the velocity field are taken in the form of a Gaussian distribution with zero mean and defined noise with finite correlations in time. The two-loop analysis of all possible scaling regimes is done and the influence of helicity on the stability of scaling regimes is discussed and shown in the plane of exponents ɛ - η, where ɛ characterizes the energy spectrum of the velocity field in the inertial range E ∞ k 1 - 2ɛ, and η is related to the correlation time at the wave number k which is scaled as k -2 + η. It is shown that in non-helical case the scaling regimes of the present vector model are completely identical and have also the same properties as those obtained in the corresponding model of passively advected scalar field. Besides, it is also shown that when the turbulent environment under consideration is helical then the properties of the scaling regimes in models of passively advected scalar and vector (magnetic) fields are essentially different. The results demonstrate the importance of the presence of a symmetry breaking in a given turbulent environment for investigation of the influence of an internal tensor structure of the advected field on the inertial range scaling properties of the model under consideration and will be used in the analysis of the influence of helicity on the anomalous scaling of correlation functions of passively advected magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yilmaz, Hasan
2016-03-01
Structured illumination enables high-resolution fluorescence imaging of nanostructures [1]. We demonstrate a new high-resolution fluorescence imaging method that uses a scattering layer with a high-index substrate as a solid immersion lens [2]. Random scattering of coherent light enables a speckle pattern with a very fine structure that illuminates the fluorescent nanospheres on the back surface of the high-index substrate. The speckle pattern is raster-scanned over the fluorescent nanospheres using a speckle correlation effect known as the optical memory effect. A series of standard-resolution fluorescence images per each speckle pattern displacement are recorded by an electron-multiplying CCD camera using a commercial microscope objective. We have developed a new phase-retrieval algorithm to reconstruct a high-resolution, wide-field image from several standard-resolution wide-field images. We have introduced phase information of Fourier components of standard-resolution images as a new constraint in our algorithm which discards ambiguities therefore ensures convergence to a unique solution. We demonstrate two-dimensional fluorescence images of a collection of nanospheres with a deconvolved Abbe resolution of 116 nm and a field of view of 10 µm × 10 µm. Our method is robust against optical aberrations and stage drifts, therefore excellent for imaging nanostructures under ambient conditions. [1] M. G. L. Gustafsson, J. Microsc. 198, 82-87 (2000). [2] H. Yilmaz, E. G. van Putten, J. Bertolotti, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, Optica 2, 424-429 (2015).
Correlation of LANDSAT lineaments with Devonian gas fields in Lawrence County, Ohio
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, G. O.
1981-01-01
In an effort to locate sources of natural gas in Ohio, the fractures and lineaments in Black Devonian shale were measured by: (1) field mapping of joints, swarms, and fractures; (2) stereophotointerpretation of geomorphic lineaments with precise photoquads; and (3) by interpreting the linear features on LANDSAT images. All results were compiled and graphically represented on 1:250,000 scale maps. The geologic setting of Lawrence County was defined and a field fracture map was generated and plotted as rose patterns at the exposure site. All maps were compared, contrasted, and correlated by superimposing each over the other as a transparency. The LANDSAT lineaments had significant correlation with the limits of oil and gas producing fields. These limits included termination of field production as well as extensions to other fields. The lineaments represent real rock fractures with zones of increased permeability in the near surface bedrock.
Correlation of LANDSAT lineaments with Devonian gas fields in Lawrence County, Ohio
Johnson, G.O.
1981-01-01
In an effort to locate sources of natural gas in Ohio, the fractures and lineaments in Black Devonian shale were measured by: (1) field mapping of joints, swarms, and fractures (2) stereophotointerpretation of geomorphic lineaments with precise photoquads and (3) by interpreting the linear features on LANDSAT images. All results were compiled and graphically represented on 1:250,000 scale maps. The geologic setting of Lawrence County was defined and a field fracture map was generated and plotted as rose patterns at the exposure site. All maps were compared, contrasted, and correlated by superimposing each over the other as a transparency. The LANDSAT lineaments had significant correlation with the limits of oil and gas producing fields. These limits included termination of field production as well as extensions to other fields. The lineaments represent real rock fractures with zones of increased permeability in the near surface bedrock.
Centanni, T M; Engineer, C T; Kilgard, M P
2013-07-01
Different speech sounds evoke unique patterns of activity in primary auditory cortex (A1). Behavioral discrimination by rats is well correlated with the distinctness of the A1 patterns evoked by individual consonants, but only when precise spike timing is preserved. In this study we recorded the speech-evoked responses in the primary, anterior, ventral, and posterior auditory fields of the rat and evaluated whether activity in these fields is better correlated with speech discrimination ability when spike timing information is included or eliminated. Spike timing information improved consonant discrimination in all four of the auditory fields examined. Behavioral discrimination was significantly correlated with neural discrimination in all four auditory fields. The diversity of speech responses across recordings sites was greater in posterior and ventral auditory fields compared with A1 and anterior auditor fields. These results suggest that, while the various auditory fields of the rat process speech sounds differently, neural activity in each field could be used to distinguish between consonant sounds with accuracy that closely parallels behavioral discrimination. Earlier observations in the visual and somatosensory systems that cortical neurons do not rely on spike timing should be reevaluated with more complex natural stimuli to determine whether spike timing contributes to sensory encoding.
Forest health monitoring: Field methods guide
Tallent-Halsell, N.G.
1994-10-01
This guide is intended to instruct Forest Health Monitors when collecting data on forest health indicators; site condition, growth and regeneration, crown condition, tree damage and mortality assessment, photosynthetically active radiation, vegetation structure, ozone bioindicator species, lichen community structure and field logistics. This guide contains information on measuring, observing and recording data related to the above listed forest health indicators. Pertinent quality assurance information is also included.
Stream temperature investigations: field and analytic methods
Bartholow, J.M.
1989-01-01
Alternative public domain stream and reservoir temperature models are contrasted with SNTEMP. A distinction is made between steady-flow and dynamic-flow models and their respective capabilities. Regression models are offered as an alternative approach for some situations, with appropriate mathematical formulas suggested. Appendices provide information on State and Federal agencies that are good data sources, vendors for field instrumentation, and small computer programs useful in data reduction.
Methods for the study of transverse momentum differential correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Monika; Pruneau, Claude A.
2009-02-01
We introduce and compare three differential correlation functions for the study of transverse-momentum correlations in p+p and A+A collisions. These consist of inclusive and eventwise and a differential version of the correlation measure C~ introduced by Gavin [1] for experimental study of the viscosity per unit entropy of the matter produced in A+A collisions. We study the quantitative difference between the three observables on the basis of PYTHIA simulations of p+p collisions and A+A collisions consisting of an arbitrary superposition of p+p collision events at s=200 GeV. We observe that inclusive and eventwise correlation functions are remarkably similar to each other whereas the observable C~ differs quantitatively from the two. We study the robustness and efficiency dependencies of these observables based on truncated Taylor expansions in efficiency in p+p collisions and on the basis of Monte Carlo simulation using an ad hoc detector efficiency parametrization. We find that all the three observables are essentially independent of detector efficiency. We additionally study the scaling of the correlation measures and find all the observables exhibit an approximate 1/N dependence of the number of participants (N) in A+A collisions. Finally, we study the impact of flowlike anisotropy on the inclusive correlation function and find flow imparts azimuthal modulations similar to those observed with two-particle densities.
Methods for the study of transverse momentum differential correlations
Sharma, Monika; Pruneau, Claude A.
2009-02-15
We introduce and compare three differential correlation functions for the study of transverse-momentum correlations in p+p and A+A collisions. These consist of inclusive and eventwise and a differential version of the correlation measure C-tildeintroduced by Gavin for experimental study of the viscosity per unit entropy of the matter produced in A+A collisions. We study the quantitative difference between the three observables on the basis of PYTHIA simulations of p+p collisions and A+A collisions consisting of an arbitrary superposition of p+p collision events at {radical}(s)=200 GeV. We observe that inclusive and eventwise correlation functions are remarkably similar to each other whereas the observable C-tilde differs quantitatively from the two. We study the robustness and efficiency dependencies of these observables based on truncated Taylor expansions in efficiency in p+p collisions and on the basis of Monte Carlo simulation using an ad hoc detector efficiency parametrization. We find that all the three observables are essentially independent of detector efficiency. We additionally study the scaling of the correlation measures and find all the observables exhibit an approximate 1/N dependence of the number of participants (N) in A+A collisions. Finally, we study the impact of flowlike anisotropy on the inclusive correlation function and find flow imparts azimuthal modulations similar to those observed with two-particle densities.
P-O-B(3) linkages in borophosphate glasses evidenced by high field (11)B/(31)P correlation NMR.
Tricot, G; Raguenet, B; Silly, G; Ribes, M; Pradel, A; Eckert, H
2015-06-01
The long-standing debate about the presence of P-O-B(3) linkages in glasses has been solved by high-field scalar correlation NMR. Previously suggested by dipolar NMR methods, the presence of such species has been definitively demonstrated by (11)B((31)P) J-HMQC NMR techniques. The results indicate that borophosphate networks contain P-O-B(3) bonds and thus present a higher degree of atomic homogeneity than previously thought. PMID:25891539
Ma, Manman; Xu, Zhenli
2014-12-28
Electrostatic correlations and variable permittivity of electrolytes are essential for exploring many chemical and physical properties of interfaces in aqueous solutions. We propose a continuum electrostatic model for the treatment of these effects in the framework of the self-consistent field theory. The model incorporates a space- or field-dependent dielectric permittivity and an excluded ion-size effect for the correlation energy. This results in a self-energy modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck or Poisson-Boltzmann equation together with state equations for the self energy and the dielectric function. We show that the ionic size is of significant importance in predicting a finite self energy for an ion in an inhomogeneous medium. Asymptotic approximation is proposed for the solution of a generalized Debye-Hückel equation, which has been shown to capture the ionic correlation and dielectric self energy. Through simulating ionic distribution surrounding a macroion, the modified self-consistent field model is shown to agree with particle-based Monte Carlo simulations. Numerical results for symmetric and asymmetric electrolytes demonstrate that the model is able to predict the charge inversion at high correlation regime in the presence of multivalent interfacial ions which is beyond the mean-field theory and also show strong effect to double layer structure due to the space- or field-dependent dielectric permittivity.
Self-consistent field model for strong electrostatic correlations and inhomogeneous dielectric media
Ma, Manman Xu, Zhenli
2014-12-28
Electrostatic correlations and variable permittivity of electrolytes are essential for exploring many chemical and physical properties of interfaces in aqueous solutions. We propose a continuum electrostatic model for the treatment of these effects in the framework of the self-consistent field theory. The model incorporates a space- or field-dependent dielectric permittivity and an excluded ion-size effect for the correlation energy. This results in a self-energy modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck or Poisson-Boltzmann equation together with state equations for the self energy and the dielectric function. We show that the ionic size is of significant importance in predicting a finite self energy for an ion in an inhomogeneous medium. Asymptotic approximation is proposed for the solution of a generalized Debye-Hückel equation, which has been shown to capture the ionic correlation and dielectric self energy. Through simulating ionic distribution surrounding a macroion, the modified self-consistent field model is shown to agree with particle-based Monte Carlo simulations. Numerical results for symmetric and asymmetric electrolytes demonstrate that the model is able to predict the charge inversion at high correlation regime in the presence of multivalent interfacial ions which is beyond the mean-field theory and also show strong effect to double layer structure due to the space- or field-dependent dielectric permittivity.
Dispersion Method Using Focused Ultrasonic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jungsoon; Kim, Moojoon; Ha, Kanglyel; Chu, Minchul
2010-07-01
The dispersion of powders into liquids has become one of the most important techniques in high-tech industries and it is a common process in the formulation of various products, such as paint, ink, shampoo, beverages, and polishing media. In this study, an ultrasonic system with a cylindrical transducer is newly introduced for pure nanoparticle dispersion. The acoustics pressure field and the characteristics of the shock pulse caused by cavitation are investigated. The frequency spectrum of the pulse from the collapse of air bubbles in the cavitation is analyzed theoretically. It was confirmed that a TiO2 water suspension can be dispersed effectively using the suggested system.
X-ray microtomography using correlation of near-field speckles for material characterization
Zanette, Irene; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Zhou, Tunhe; Burvall, Anna; Larsson, Daniel H.; Thibault, Pierre; Hertz, Hans M.; Pfeiffer, Franz
2015-01-01
Nondestructive microscale investigation of objects is an invaluable tool in life and materials sciences. Currently, such investigation is mainly performed with X-ray laboratory systems, which are based on absorption-contrast imaging and cannot access the information carried by the phase of the X-ray waves. The phase signal is, nevertheless, of great value in X-ray imaging as it is complementary to the absorption information and in general more sensitive to visualize features with small density differences. Synchrotron facilities, which deliver a beam of high brilliance and high coherence, provide the ideal condition to develop such advanced phase-sensitive methods, but their access is limited. Here we show how a small modification of a laboratory setup yields simultaneously quantitative and 3D absorption and phase images of the object. This single-shot method is based on correlation of X-ray near-field speckles and represents a significant broadening of the capabilities of laboratory-based X-ray tomography. PMID:26424447
X-ray microtomography using correlation of near-field speckles for material characterization.
Zanette, Irene; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Zhou, Tunhe; Burvall, Anna; Larsson, Daniel H; Thibault, Pierre; Hertz, Hans M; Pfeiffer, Franz
2015-10-13
Nondestructive microscale investigation of objects is an invaluable tool in life and materials sciences. Currently, such investigation is mainly performed with X-ray laboratory systems, which are based on absorption-contrast imaging and cannot access the information carried by the phase of the X-ray waves. The phase signal is, nevertheless, of great value in X-ray imaging as it is complementary to the absorption information and in general more sensitive to visualize features with small density differences. Synchrotron facilities, which deliver a beam of high brilliance and high coherence, provide the ideal condition to develop such advanced phase-sensitive methods, but their access is limited. Here we show how a small modification of a laboratory setup yields simultaneously quantitative and 3D absorption and phase images of the object. This single-shot method is based on correlation of X-ray near-field speckles and represents a significant broadening of the capabilities of laboratory-based X-ray tomography. PMID:26424447
Correlation functions in the two-dimensional Ising model in a magnetic field at T = Tc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delfino, G.; Simonetti, P.
1996-02-01
The one- and two-particle form factors of the energy operator in the two-dimensional Ising model in a magnetic field at T = Tc are exactly computed within the form factor bootstrap approach. Together with the matrix elements of the magnetisation operator already computed by G. Delfino and G. Mussardo [Nucl. Phys. B 455 (1995) 724], they are used to write down the large distance expansion for the correlators of the two relevant fields of the model.
Evaluation of Test/Analysis Correlation Methods for Crash Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lyle, Karen H.; Bark, Lindley W.; Jackson, Karen E.
2001-01-01
A project has been initiated to improve crash test and analysis correlation. The work in this paper concentrated on the test and simulation results for a fuselage section. Two drop tests of the section were conducted. The first test was designed to excite the linear structural response for comparison with finite element modal analysis results. The second test was designed to provide data for correlation with crash simulations. An MSC.Dytran model was developed to generate nonlinear transient dynamic results. Following minor modifications, the same model was executed in MSC.Nastran to generate modal analysis results. The results presented in this paper concentrate on evaluation of correlation methodologies for crash test data and finite element simulation results.
PHREATOPHYTE WATER USE ESTIMATED BY EDDY-CORRELATION METHODS.
Weaver, H.L.; Weeks, E.P.; Campbell, G.S.; Stannard, D.I.; Tanner, B.D.
1986-01-01
Water-use was estimated for three phreatophyte communities: a saltcedar community and an alkali-Sacaton grass community in New Mexico, and a greasewood rabbit-brush-saltgrass community in Colorado. These water-use estimates were calculated from eddy-correlation measurements using three different analyses, since the direct eddy-correlation measurements did not satisfy a surface energy balance. The analysis that seems to be most accurate indicated the saltcedar community used from 58 to 87 cm (23 to 34 in. ) of water each year. The other two communities used about two-thirds this quantity.
Theory and simulation of anisotropic pair correlations in ferrofluids in magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elfimova, Ekaterina A.; Ivanov, Alexey O.; Camp, Philip J.
2012-05-01
Anisotropic pair correlations in ferrofluids exposed to magnetic fields are studied using a combination of statistical-mechanical theory and computer simulations. A simple dipolar hard-sphere model of the magnetic colloidal particles is studied in detail. A virial-expansion theory is constructed for the pair distribution function (PDF) which depends not only on the length of the pair separation vector, but also on its orientation with respect to the field. A detailed comparison is made between the theoretical predictions and accurate simulation data, and it is found that the theory works well for realistic values of the dipolar coupling constant (λ = 1), volume fraction (φ ⩽ 0.1), and magnetic field strength. The structure factor is computed for wavevectors either parallel or perpendicular to the field. The comparison between theory and simulation is generally very good with realistic ferrofluid parameters. For both the PDF and the structure factor, there are some deviations between theory and simulation at uncommonly high dipolar coupling constants, and with very strong magnetic fields. In particular, the theory is less successful at predicting the behavior of the structure factors at very low wavevectors, and perpendicular Gaussian density fluctuations arising from strongly correlated pairs of magnetic particles. Overall, though, the theory provides reliable predictions for the nature and degree of pair correlations in ferrofluids in magnetic fields, and hence should be of use in the design of functional magnetic materials.
Theory and simulation of anisotropic pair correlations in ferrofluids in magnetic fields.
Elfimova, Ekaterina A; Ivanov, Alexey O; Camp, Philip J
2012-05-21
Anisotropic pair correlations in ferrofluids exposed to magnetic fields are studied using a combination of statistical-mechanical theory and computer simulations. A simple dipolar hard-sphere model of the magnetic colloidal particles is studied in detail. A virial-expansion theory is constructed for the pair distribution function (PDF) which depends not only on the length of the pair separation vector, but also on its orientation with respect to the field. A detailed comparison is made between the theoretical predictions and accurate simulation data, and it is found that the theory works well for realistic values of the dipolar coupling constant (λ = 1), volume fraction (φ ≤ 0.1), and magnetic field strength. The structure factor is computed for wavevectors either parallel or perpendicular to the field. The comparison between theory and simulation is generally very good with realistic ferrofluid parameters. For both the PDF and the structure factor, there are some deviations between theory and simulation at uncommonly high dipolar coupling constants, and with very strong magnetic fields. In particular, the theory is less successful at predicting the behavior of the structure factors at very low wavevectors, and perpendicular Gaussian density fluctuations arising from strongly correlated pairs of magnetic particles. Overall, though, the theory provides reliable predictions for the nature and degree of pair correlations in ferrofluids in magnetic fields, and hence should be of use in the design of functional magnetic materials. PMID:22612098
Color night vision method based on the correlation between natural color and dual band night image
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa; Zhang, Chuang; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guo-hua
2009-07-01
Color night vision technology can effectively improve the detection and identification probability. Current color night vision method based on gray scale modulation fusion, spectrum field fusion, special component fusion and world famous NRL method, TNO method will bring about serious color distortion, and the observers will be visual tired after long time observation. Alexander Toet of TNO Human Factors presents a method to fuse multiband night image a natural day time color appearance, but it need the true color image of the scene to be observed. In this paper we put forward a color night vision method based on the correlation between natural color image and dual band night image. Color display is attained through dual-band low light level images and their fusion image. Actual color image of the similar scene is needed to obtain color night vision image, the actual color image is decomposed to three gray-scale images of RGB color module, and the short wave LLL image, long wave LLL image and their fusion image are compared to them through gray-scale spatial correlation method, and the color space mapping scheme is confirmed by correlation. Gray-scale LLL images and their fusion image are adjusted through the variation of HSI color space coefficient, and the coefficient matrix is built. Color display coefficient matrix of LLL night vision system is obtained by multiplying the above coefficient matrix and RGB color space mapping matrix. Emulation experiments on general scene dual-band color night vision indicate that the color display effect is approving. This method was experimented on dual channel dual spectrum LLL color night vision experimental apparatus based on Texas Instruments digital video processing device DM642.
Spectral methods and cluster structure in correlation-based networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heimo, Tapio; Tibély, Gergely; Saramäki, Jari; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János
2008-10-01
We investigate how in complex systems the eigenpairs of the matrices derived from the correlations of multichannel observations reflect the cluster structure of the underlying networks. For this we use daily return data from the NYSE and focus specifically on the spectral properties of weight W=|-δ and diffusion matrices D=W/sj-δ, where C is the correlation matrix and si=∑jW the strength of node j. The eigenvalues (and corresponding eigenvectors) of the weight matrix are ranked in descending order. As in the earlier observations, the first eigenvector stands for a measure of the market correlations. Its components are, to first approximation, equal to the strengths of the nodes and there is a second order, roughly linear, correction. The high ranking eigenvectors, excluding the highest ranking one, are usually assigned to market sectors and industrial branches. Our study shows that both for weight and diffusion matrices the eigenpair analysis is not capable of easily deducing the cluster structure of the network without a priori knowledge. In addition we have studied the clustering of stocks using the asset graph approach with and without spectrum based noise filtering. It turns out that asset graphs are quite insensitive to noise and there is no sharp percolation transition as a function of the ratio of bonds included, thus no natural threshold value for that ratio seems to exist. We suggest that these observations can be of use for other correlation based networks as well.
Methods of Assessing Replicability in Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
King, Jason E.
Theoretical hypotheses generated from data analysis of a single sample should not be advanced until the replicability issue is treated. At least one of three questions usually arises when evaluating the invariance of results obtained from a canonical correlation analysis (CCA): (1) "Will an effect occur in subsequent studies?"; (2) "Will the size…
Advanced Fuzzy Potential Field Method for Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance
Park, Jong-Wook; Kwak, Hwan-Joo; Kang, Young-Chang; Kim, Dong W.
2016-01-01
An advanced fuzzy potential field method for mobile robot obstacle avoidance is proposed. The potential field method primarily deals with the repulsive forces surrounding obstacles, while fuzzy control logic focuses on fuzzy rules that handle linguistic variables and describe the knowledge of experts. The design of a fuzzy controller—advanced fuzzy potential field method (AFPFM)—that models and enhances the conventional potential field method is proposed and discussed. This study also examines the rule-explosion problem of conventional fuzzy logic and assesses the performance of our proposed AFPFM through simulations carried out using a mobile robot. PMID:27123001
Advanced Fuzzy Potential Field Method for Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance.
Park, Jong-Wook; Kwak, Hwan-Joo; Kang, Young-Chang; Kim, Dong W
2016-01-01
An advanced fuzzy potential field method for mobile robot obstacle avoidance is proposed. The potential field method primarily deals with the repulsive forces surrounding obstacles, while fuzzy control logic focuses on fuzzy rules that handle linguistic variables and describe the knowledge of experts. The design of a fuzzy controller--advanced fuzzy potential field method (AFPFM)--that models and enhances the conventional potential field method is proposed and discussed. This study also examines the rule-explosion problem of conventional fuzzy logic and assesses the performance of our proposed AFPFM through simulations carried out using a mobile robot. PMID:27123001
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mariani, F.
1979-01-01
Some aspects of the problem of obtaining precise, absolute determination of the vector of low magnetic fields existing in the interplanetary medium are addressed. In the case of a real S/C, there is always the possibility of a spurious field which includes the spacecraft residual field and/or possible field from the sensors, due to both electronic drifts or changes of the magnetic properties of the sensor core. These latter effects may occur during storage of the sensors prior to launching and/or in-flight. The reliability is demonstrated for a method which postulates that there should be no correlation between changes in measured field magnitude and changes in the measured inclination of the field with respect to any one of three fixed Cartesian component directions. Application of this minimum correlation technique to data from IMP-8 and Helios 1-2 shows it is appropriate for determination of the zero offset corrections of triaxial magnetometers. In general, a number of the order of 1000 consecutive data points is sufficient for a good determination.
Strain analysis of pressure vessels contained pits based on digital image correlation method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Wan; Feng, Xiu; Li, Junrui; Shi, Xinfeng; Bai, Tian
2016-01-01
This investigation applied the digital image correlation technique (DIC) on a pressure vessel that contained several surface pit defects under high pressure. Data on the deformation of the defects and peripheral area is obtained by this method. The results show that the stress and strain increase with the depth among different pits and are the largest at the bottom of any given pit. This method has proven to be a good choice for this type of experiment, where elastic and plastic surface strains need to be measured. The DIC can satisfy the requirements of being in situ, in real time, full-field and make non-contact measurements with more accurate and obvious experimental results compared with traditional measurement methods and pressure vessel test regulations. Also, it is a new, effective way for monitoring defects in online pressure vessels as well as a reliable basis for pressure vessels' safety evaluation.
Correlating the EMC analysis and testing methods for space systems in MIL-STD-1541A
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perez, Reinaldo J.
1990-01-01
A study was conducted to improve the correlation between the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) analysis models stated in MIL-STD-1541A and the suggested testing methods used for space systems. The test and analysis methods outlined in MIL-STD-1541A are described, and a comparative assessment of testing and analysis techniques as they relate to several EMC areas is presented. Suggestions on present analysis and test methods are introduced to harmonize and bring the analysis and testing tools in MIL-STD-1541A into closer agreement. It is suggested that test procedures in MIL-STD-1541A must be improved by providing alternatives to the present use of shielded enclosures as the primary site for such tests. In addition, the alternate use of anechoic chambers and open field test sites must be considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skornyakov, S. L.; Anisimov, V. I.
2015-04-01
In this review, we describe general ideas of the LDA+DMFT method which merges dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) and density functional theory (in particular the local density approximation (LDA)). Nowadays, the LDA+DMFT computational scheme is the most powerful numerical tool for studying physical properties of real materials and chemical compounds. It incorporates the advantage of DMFT to treat the full range of local dynamical Coulomb correlations and the ability of band methods to describe material-specific band dispersion caused by the lattice periodicity. We briefly discuss underlying physical ideas of LDA+DMFT and its mathematical implementation. Then different algorithms applied to solution of the DMFT impurity problem are briefly described. We then give examples of successful applications of the LDA+DMFT method to study spectral and magnetic properties of recently synthesized compounds like pnictide superconductors as well as classic charge-transfer systems NiO and MnO.
Lyakin, D V; Ryabukho, V P
2013-10-31
The results of theoretical and experimental studies of the longitudinal correlation properties of an optical field with broad angular and frequency spectra and manifestations of these properties in interference microscopy are presented. The joint and competitive influence of the angular and frequency spectra of the object-probing field on the longitudinal resolution and on the amplitude of the interference microscope signals from the interfaces between the media inside a multilayer object is demonstrated. The method of compensating the so-called defocusing effect that arises in the interference microscopy using objectives with a large numerical aperture is experimentally demonstrated, which consists in using as a light source in the interference microscope an illuminating interferometer with a frequency-broadband light source. This method of compensation may be used as the basis of simultaneous determination of geometric thickness and refractive index of media forming a multilayer object. (optical fields)
Evaluation of field methods for vertical high resolution aquifer characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vienken, T.; Tinter, M.; Rogiers, B.; Leven, C.; Dietrich, P.
2012-12-01
The delineation and characterization of subsurface (hydro)-stratigraphic structures is one of the challenging tasks of hydrogeological site investigations. The knowledge about the spatial distribution of soil specific properties and hydraulic conductivity (K) is the prerequisite for understanding flow and fluid transport processes. This is especially true for heterogeneous unconsolidated sedimentary deposits with a complex sedimentary architecture. One commonly used approach to investigate and characterize sediment heterogeneity is soil sampling and lab analyses, e.g. grain size distribution. Tests conducted on 108 samples show that calculation of K based on grain size distribution is not suitable for high resolution aquifer characterization of highly heterogeneous sediments due to sampling effects and large differences of calculated K values between applied formulas (Vienken & Dietrich 2011). Therefore, extensive tests were conducted at two test sites under different geological conditions to evaluate the performance of innovative Direct Push (DP) based approaches for the vertical high resolution determination of K. Different DP based sensor probes for the in-situ subsurface characterization based on electrical, hydraulic, and textural soil properties were used to obtain high resolution vertical profiles. The applied DP based tools proved to be a suitable and efficient alternative to traditional approaches. Despite resolution differences, all of the applied methods captured the main aquifer structure. Correlation of the DP based K estimates and proxies with DP based slug tests show that it is possible to describe the aquifer hydraulic structure on less than a meter scale by combining DP slug test data and continuous DP measurements. Even though correlations are site specific and appropriate DP tools must be chosen, DP is reliable and efficient alternative for characterizing even strongly heterogeneous sites with complex structured sedimentary aquifers (Vienken et
Field-measured drag area is a key correlate of level cycling time trial performance
Peterman, James E.; Lim, Allen C.; Ignatz, Ryan I.; Edwards, Andrew G.
2015-01-01
Drag area (Ad) is a primary factor determining aerodynamic resistance during level cycling and is therefore a key determinant of level time trial performance. However, Ad has traditionally been difficult to measure. Our purpose was to determine the value of adding field-measured Ad as a correlate of level cycling time trial performance. In the field, 19 male cyclists performed a level (22.1 km) time trial. Separately, field-determined Ad and rolling resistance were calculated for subjects along with projected frontal area assessed directly (AP) and indirectly (Est AP). Also, a graded exercise test was performed to determine \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$\\end{document}V˙O2 peak, lactate threshold (LT), and economy. \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$\\end{document}V˙O2 peak (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\mathrm{l}~\\min ^{-1}$\\end{document}lmin−1) and power at LT were significantly correlated to power measured during the time trial (r = 0.83 and 0.69, respectively) but were not significantly correlated to performance time (r = − 0.42 and −0.45). The correlation with performance time improved significantly (p < 0.05) when these variables were normalized to Ad. Of note, Ad alone was better correlated to performance time (r = 0.85, p < 0.001) than any combination of non-normalized physiological
Field testing method for photovaltaic modules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, Gerber N.
For remote areas, where solar photovoltaic modules are the only source of power, it is essential to perform preventive maintenance to insure that the PV system works properly; unfortunately, prices for PV testers range from 1,700 to 8,000. To address this issue, a portable inexpensive tester and analysis methodology have been developed. Assembling a simple tester, which costs $530 and weighs about 5 pounds, and using the Four-Parameters PV Model, we characterized the current-voltage (I-V) curve at environmental testing conditions; and then employing radiation, temperature, and age degradation sensitivity equations, we extrapolated the I-V curve to standard testing conditions. After applying the methodology to three kinds of silicon modules (mono-crystalline, multi-crystalline, and thin-film), we obtained maximum power points up to 97% of the manufacturer's specifications. Therefore, based on these results, it is reasonably accurate and affordable to verify the performance of solar modules in the field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pohl, A.; Semenov, A.; Hübers, H.-W.; Hoehl, A.; Ries, M.; Wüstefeld, G.; Ulm, G.; Ilin, K.; Thoma, P.; Siegel, M.
2016-03-01
Decaying oscillations of the electric field in repetitive pulses of coherent synchrotron radiation in the terahertz frequency range was evaluated by means of time-resolving and correlation techniques. Comparative analysis of real-time voltage transients of the electrical response and interferograms, which were obtained with an ultrafast zero-bias Schottky diode detector and a Martin-Puplett interferometer, delivers close values of the pulse duration. Consistent results were obtained via the correlation technique with a pair of Golay Cell detectors and a pair of resonant polarisation-sensitive superconducting detectors integrated on one chip. The duration of terahertz synchrotron pulses does not closely correlate with the duration of single-cycle electric field expected for the varying size of electron bunches. We largely attribute the difference to the charge density oscillations in electron bunches and to the low-frequency spectral cut-off imposed by both the synchrotron beamline and the coupling optics of our detectors.
Reliability of field methods for estimating body fat.
Loenneke, Jeremy P; Barnes, Jeremy T; Wilson, Jacob M; Lowery, Ryan P; Isaacs, Melissa N; Pujol, Thomas J
2013-09-01
When health professionals measure the fitness levels of clients, body composition is usually estimated. In practice, the reliability of the measurement may be more important than the actual validity, as reliability determines how much change is needed to be considered meaningful. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of two bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) devices (in athlete and non-athlete mode) and compare that to 3-site skinfold (SKF) readings. Twenty-one college students attended the laboratory on two occasions and had their measurements taken in the following order: body mass, height, SKF, Tanita body fat-350 (BF-350) and Omron HBF-306C. There were no significant pairwise differences between Visit 1 and Visit 2 for any of the estimates (P>0.05). The Pearson product correlations ranged from r = 0.933 for HBF-350 in the athlete mode (A) to r = 0.994 for SKF. The ICC's ranged from 0.93 for HBF-350(A) to 0.992 for SKF, and the MD's ranged from 1.8% for SKF to 5.1% for BF-350(A). The current study found that SKF and HBF-306C(A) were the most reliable (<2%) methods of estimating BF%, with the other methods (BF-350, BF-350(A), HBF-306C) producing minimal differences greater than 2%. In conclusion, the SKF method presented with the best reliability because of its low minimal difference, suggesting this method may be the best field method to track changes over time if you have an experienced tester. However, if technical error is a concern, the practitioner may use the HBF-306C(A) because it had a minimal difference value comparable to SKF. PMID:23701358
Strongly correlated states of a small cold-atom cloud from geometric gauge fields
Julia-Diaz, B.; Dagnino, D.; Barberan, N.; Guenter, K. J.; Dalibard, J.; Grass, T.; Lewenstein, M.
2011-11-15
Using exact diagonalization for a small system of cold bosonic atoms, we analyze the emergence of strongly correlated states in the presence of an artificial magnetic field. This gauge field is generated by a laser beam that couples two internal atomic states, and it is related to Berry's geometrical phase that emerges when an atom follows adiabatically one of the two eigenstates of the atom-laser coupling. Our approach allows us to go beyond the adiabatic approximation, and to characterize the generalized Laughlin wave functions that appear in the strong magnetic-field limit.
Barinova, O.I.; Kalinina, E.E.; Ovtchinnikova, M.I. )
1993-09-01
In the course of studies of the oil and gas fields of the former USSR (including Romashkinskoye, Western Uzbekistan, Orenburg, Odoptu-more, and Karachaganak), methods have been developed to subdivide the rock sequences into sedimentation cycles and subcyles, and to identify washouts and breaks in the section. An IBM-PC program (MSLA) has been developed that enables subdivision and correlation of the well section to be made according to the multilevel hierarchy model of sequences devised by Guberman. With the help of the MSLA program, this model can be applied to well-correlation problems where there are no preliminary data available such as geological markers, cores, or ditch samples. The technique has been used in studies of the structure of oil and gas fields involving computer models and as an [open quotes]expert[close quotes] system.
Dzhumagulova, K N; Masheyeva, R U; Ott, T; Hartmann, P; Ramazanov, T S; Bonitz, M; Donkó, Z
2016-06-01
The influence of an external homogeneous magnetic field on the quasilocalization of the particles-characterized quantitatively by cage correlation functions-in strongly coupled three-dimensional Yukawa systems is investigated via molecular dynamics computer simulations over a wide domain of the system parameters (coupling and screening strengths, and magnetic field). The caging time is found to be enhanced by the magnetic field B. The anisotropic migration of the particles in the presence of magnetic field is quantified via computing directional correlation functions, which indicate a more significant increase of localization in the direction perpendicular to B, while a moderate increase is also found along the B field lines. Associating the particles' escapes from the cages with jumps of a characteristic length, a connection is found with the diffusion process: the diffusion coefficients derived from the decay time of the directional correlation functions in both the directions perpendicular to and parallel with B are in very good agreement with respective diffusion coefficients values obtained from their usual computation based on the mean-squared displacement of the particles. PMID:27415379
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Masheyeva, R. U.; Ott, T.; Hartmann, P.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Bonitz, M.; Donkó, Z.
2016-06-01
The influence of an external homogeneous magnetic field on the quasilocalization of the particles—characterized quantitatively by cage correlation functions—in strongly coupled three-dimensional Yukawa systems is investigated via molecular dynamics computer simulations over a wide domain of the system parameters (coupling and screening strengths, and magnetic field). The caging time is found to be enhanced by the magnetic field B . The anisotropic migration of the particles in the presence of magnetic field is quantified via computing directional correlation functions, which indicate a more significant increase of localization in the direction perpendicular to B , while a moderate increase is also found along the B field lines. Associating the particles' escapes from the cages with jumps of a characteristic length, a connection is found with the diffusion process: the diffusion coefficients derived from the decay time of the directional correlation functions in both the directions perpendicular to and parallel with B are in very good agreement with respective diffusion coefficients values obtained from their usual computation based on the mean-squared displacement of the particles.
XPCS study of dynamic correlation in polyurethane gel-carbonyl iron composite under magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigoriew, Helena; Wiegart, Lutz; Boczkowska, Anna; Mirkowska, Monika
2010-10-01
An X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) study of composite-type material consisting of polyurethane gel and carbonyl iron micrometric spheres was performed under magnetic fields of 0, 300 and 600 mT. The onion-like spheres structure was destroyed during the composite processing. The following conclusions were obtained from the study: -The polyurethane matrix is preferred as a source for the observed dynamic effects. -Below 300mT the material dynamics in direction of the outer magnetic field are very clear. -For 600 mT the dependence of the dynamics on magnetic field direction disappears, but the correlation rate is much higher. These findings may be caused by a disturbance of the polymer mesostructure by larger strain leading to its cross-linking.
On a spectral method for forward gravity field modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Root, B. C.; Novák, P.; Dirkx, D.; Kaban, M.; van der Wal, W.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.
2016-07-01
This article reviews a spectral forward gravity field modelling method that was initially designed for topographic/isostatic mass reduction of gravity data. The method transforms 3D spherical density models into gravitational potential fields using a spherical harmonic representation. The binomial series approximation in the approach, which is crucial for its computational efficiency, is examined and an error analysis is performed. It is shown that, this method cannot be used for density layers in crustal and upper mantle regions, because it results in large errors in the modelled potential field. Here, a correction is proposed to mitigate this erroneous behaviour. The improved method is benchmarked with a tesseroid gravity field modelling method and is shown to be accurate within ±4 mGal for a layer representing the Moho density interface, which is below other errors in gravity field studies. After the proposed adjustment the method can be used for the global gravity modelling of the complete Earth's density structure.
The Geomagnetic Field and Correlations with Multiple Sclerosis: A Possible Etiology of Disease
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wade, Brett
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease that results in a demyelinating process of the central nervous system. It is the most common, progressive, neurological disease affecting young adults, and there is no cure. A curious feature of MS is its distinct global prevalence with high rates of occurrence between 40 and 60 degrees latitude. While genetics may partially explain this phenomenon, studies have shown that the influence of genetics is modest. Many non-genetic variables, such as viruses, vitamin D, smoking, diet, hormones, etc., have been shown to be related to the expression of MS but none of these variables have been determined to be necessarily strong enough to exclude other factors. The geomagnetic field, which is a non-uniform, three dimensional entity which protects all living things from ionizing radiation, is suggested in this research to be related to global MS prevalence. This study hypothesized that either the total field, the vertical field, or the horizontal field strength of the geomagnetic field will be correlated with MS. Using secondary sources of prevalence studies (N=131) and geomagnetic data, the results supported all three hypotheses with the strongest correlation being an inverse relationship between the horizontal field and MS (r = -.607). The explanation for the inverse relationship being most strongly correlated with MS prevalence is explained by the fact that the horizontal aspect of the geomagnetic field has a protective effect from incoming cosmic radiation. Chronic exposure to high levels of background radiation can have deleterious health effects. This research suggests that living in areas of a weak horizontal field increases a person's exposure to ionizing radiation and therefore increases the risk for developing MS. While it was not the intention of this research, it became clear that an explanation which explained the results of this research and also attempted to unify the mechanisms of all non
Evaluation method based on the image correlation for laser jamming image
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Che, Jinxi; Li, Zhongmin; Gao, Bo
2013-09-01
The jamming effectiveness evaluation of infrared imaging system is an important part of electro-optical countermeasure. The infrared imaging devices in the military are widely used in the searching, tracking and guidance and so many other fields. At the same time, with the continuous development of laser technology, research of laser interference and damage effect developed continuously, laser has been used to disturbing the infrared imaging device. Therefore, the effect evaluation of the infrared imaging system by laser has become a meaningful problem to be solved. The information that the infrared imaging system ultimately present to the user is an image, so the evaluation on jamming effect can be made from the point of assessment of image quality. The image contains two aspects of the information, the light amplitude and light phase, so the image correlation can accurately perform the difference between the original image and disturbed image. In the paper, the evaluation method of digital image correlation, the assessment method of image quality based on Fourier transform, the estimate method of image quality based on error statistic and the evaluation method of based on peak signal noise ratio are analysed. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of these methods are analysed. Moreover, the infrared disturbing images of the experiment result, in which the thermal infrared imager was interfered by laser, were analysed by using these methods. The results show that the methods can better reflect the jamming effects of the infrared imaging system by laser. Furthermore, there is good consistence between evaluation results by using the methods and the results of subjective visual evaluation. And it also provides well repeatability and convenient quantitative analysis. The feasibility of the methods to evaluate the jamming effect was proved. It has some extent reference value for the studying and developing on electro-optical countermeasures equipments and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Shoji; Yamamoto, Osamu; Kobayashi, Tetsuo
This paper presents a generalized equivalent multipole-moment method for calculating three-dimensional Laplacian fields in multi-spherical system. The Greengard & Rokhlin's M2M, M2L, and L2L formulae enable the multipole-moment method to calculate the fields in general arrangement of multi-spheres, which involve exclusive and multi-layered spherical arrangement. We applied this method to electric field calculation in biological structures induced by ELF magnetic fields. The induced electric fields in a three eccentric and exclusive spheres system, which models human head with two eyeballs, are calculated under the application of homogeneous and magnetic-dipole fields. The validity of this method is successfully confirmed by comparing the calculated fields with those by the fast-multipole surface-charge-simulation method.
Correlations in V1 are reduced by stimulation outside the receptive field.
Snyder, Adam C; Morais, Michael J; Kohn, Adam; Smith, Matthew A
2014-08-20
The trial-to-trial response variability of nearby cortical neurons is correlated. These correlations may strongly influence population coding performance. Numerous studies have shown that correlations can be dynamically modified by attention, adaptation, learning, and potent stimulus drive. However, the mechanisms that influence correlation strength remain poorly understood. Here we test whether correlations are influenced by presenting stimuli outside the classical receptive field (RF) of visual neurons, where they recruit a normalization signal termed surround suppression. We recorded simultaneously the activity of dozens of cells using microelectrode arrays implanted in the superficial layers of V1 in anesthetized, paralyzed macaque monkeys. We presented annular stimuli that encircled--but did not impinge upon--the RFs of the recorded cells. We found that these "extra-classical" stimuli reduced correlations in the absence of stimulation of the RF, closely resembling the decorrelating effects of stimulating the RFs directly. Our results suggest that normalization signals may be an important mechanism for modulating correlations. PMID:25143603
Correlation of the summary method with learning styles.
Sarikcioglu, Levent; Senol, Yesim; Yildirim, Fatos B; Hizay, Arzu
2011-09-01
The summary is the last part of the lesson but one of the most important. We aimed to study the relationship between the preference of the summary method (video demonstration, question-answer, or brief review of slides) and learning styles. A total of 131 students were included in the present study. An inventory was prepared to understand the students' learning styles, and a satisfaction questionnaire was provided to determine the summary method selection. The questionnaire and inventory were collected and analyzed. A comparison of the data revealed that the summary method with video demonstration received the highest score among all the methods tested. Additionally, there were no significant differences between learning styles and summary method with video demonstration. We suggest that such a summary method should be incorporated into neuroanatomy lessons. Since anatomy has a large amount of visual material, we think that it is ideally suited for this summary method.
Classical fields method for a relativistic interacting Bose gas
Witkowska, Emilia; Zin, Pawel; Gajda, Mariusz
2009-01-15
We formulate a classical fields method for the description of relativistic interacting bosonic particles at nonzero temperatures. The method relies on the assumption that at low temperatures the Bose field can be described by a c-number function. We discuss a very important role of the cutoff momentum which divides the field into a dominant classical part and a small quantum correction. We illustrate the method by studying the thermodynamics of a relativistic Bose field which is governed by the Klein-Gordon equation with a {lambda}{psi}{sup 4} term responsible for the interactions.
Some equivalences between the auxiliary field method and envelope theory
Buisseret, Fabien; Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard
2009-03-15
The auxiliary field method has been recently proposed as an efficient technique to compute analytical approximate solutions of eigenequations in quantum mechanics. We show that the auxiliary field method is completely equivalent to the envelope theory, which is another well-known procedure to analytically solve eigenequations, although relying on different principles a priori. This equivalence leads to a deeper understanding of both frameworks.
Correlations between bulk parameters in relativistic and nonrelativistic hadronic mean-field models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, B. M.; Dutra, M.; Lourenço, O.; Delfino, A.
2015-07-01
In this work, we study the arising of correlations among some isoscalar (Ko, Qo, and Io) and isovector (J , Lo, Ksymo, Qsymo, and Isymo) bulk parameters in nonrelativistic and relativistic hadronic mean-field models. For the former, we investigate correlations in Skyrme and Gogny parametrizations, as well as in the nonrelativistic (NR) limit of relativistic point-coupling models. We provide analytical correlations among bulk parameters for the NR limit, discussing the conditions in which they are linear ones. Based on a recent study [Santos et al., Phys. Rev. C 90, 035203 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevC.90.035203], we also show that some correlations presented in the NR limit are reproduced for relativistic models presenting cubic and quartic self-interactions in the scalar field σ , mostly studied in this work in the context of the relativistic framework. We also discuss how the crossing points, observed in the density dependence of some bulk parameters, can be seen as a signature of linear correlations between the specific bulk quantity presenting the crossing and its immediately next order parameter.
Method for making field-structured memory materials
Martin, James E.; Anderson, Robert A.; Tigges, Chris P.
2002-01-01
A method of forming a dual-level memory material using field structured materials. The field structured materials are formed from a dispersion of ferromagnetic particles in a polymerizable liquid medium, such as a urethane acrylate-based photopolymer, which are applied as a film to a support and then exposed in selected portions of the film to an applied magnetic or electric field. The field can be applied either uniaxially or biaxially at field strengths up to 150 G or higher to form the field structured materials. After polymerizing the field-structure materials, a magnetic field can be applied to selected portions of the polymerized field-structured material to yield a dual-level memory material on the support, wherein the dual-level memory material supports read-and-write binary data memory and write once, read many memory.
Correlation study of knee joint proprioception test results using common test methods
Li, Lin; Ji, Zhong-Qiu; Li, Yan-Xia; Liu, Wei-Tong
2016-01-01
[Purpose] To study the correlation of the results obtained from different proprioception test methods, namely, the joint angle reset method, the motion minimum threshold measurement method, and the force sense reproduction method, performed on the same subjects’ knees. [Subjects and Methods] Different proprioception test methods, the joint angle reset method, the motion minimum threshold measurement method and the force sense reproduction method were used to test the knees of 30 healthy young men. [Results] Correlations were found in the following descending order from strong to weak: the correlation between the joint angle reset method and the force sense reproduction method (correlation coefficient of 0.41), the correlation between the joint angle reset method and the motion minimum threshold measurement method (correlation coefficient of 0.29), the correlation between the motion minimum threshold measurement method and the force sense reproduce method (correlation coefficient of 0.15). [Conclusion] No correlation was found among the results obtained using the joint angle reset method, the motion minimum threshold measurement method and the force sense reproduction method. Therefore, no correlation was found among the position sense, the motion sense and the force sense represented by these methods. Using the results of only one of the test methods to represent proprioception is one-sided. Force sensation depends more on the sensory input of information from the Golgi tendon organs, motion sense depends more on the input information of the muscle spindles, and position sense relies on the double input information of the muscle spindles and the Golgi tendon organs. PMID:27065533
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koutselos, Andreas D.
1996-06-01
The dynamic and transport properties of swarms of ions in a uniform electrostatic field are studied by using a molecular dynamics method. For a representative system, K+ in Ar, using a universal interaction model potential, second and third order ion-velocity correlation functions are determined at various field strengths. From them, Fickian diffusion coefficients parallel and perpendicular to the field, as well as higher order diffusion coefficients, Qzzz, are obtained within estimated overall accuracy 5% and 7%, respectively. Comparisons of the Fickian diffusion coefficients against results of the moment solution of Boltzmann kinetic equation and a Monte Carlo simulation method using the same interaction potential as well as against experimental data, reveal consistency among all calculation procedures and in addition agreement with drift tube measurements. These comparisons provide new tests for the accuracy of the employed interaction potential. The method has been applied for up to third order velocity correlations and diffusion coefficients but it is extendible to higher order dynamic and transport properties.
Speeding up local correlation methods: System-inherent domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kats, Daniel
2016-07-01
A new approach to determine local virtual space in correlated calculations is presented. It restricts the virtual space in a pair-specific manner on the basis of a preceding approximate calculation adapting automatically to the locality of the studied problem. The resulting pair system-inherent domains are considerably smaller than the starting domains, without significant loss in the accuracy. Utilization of such domains speeds up integral transformations and evaluations of the residual and reduces memory requirements. The system-inherent domains are especially suitable in cases which require high accuracy, e.g., in generation of pair-natural orbitals, or for which standard domains are problematic, e.g., excited-state calculations.
Speeding up local correlation methods: System-inherent domains.
Kats, Daniel
2016-07-01
A new approach to determine local virtual space in correlated calculations is presented. It restricts the virtual space in a pair-specific manner on the basis of a preceding approximate calculation adapting automatically to the locality of the studied problem. The resulting pair system-inherent domains are considerably smaller than the starting domains, without significant loss in the accuracy. Utilization of such domains speeds up integral transformations and evaluations of the residual and reduces memory requirements. The system-inherent domains are especially suitable in cases which require high accuracy, e.g., in generation of pair-natural orbitals, or for which standard domains are problematic, e.g., excited-state calculations. PMID:27394095
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kempinger, Susan; Fraleigh, Robert; Lammert, Paul; Crespi, Vincent; Samarth, Nitin; Schiffer, Peter
By studying the field dependent magnetization switching process in perpendicular artificial spin ice arrays arrays, we hope to gain insight in to the dynamical properties of interacting spin systems. To this end, we have used diffraction-limited Kerr imaging to study lithographically patterned arrays of single domain, nanoscale islands of Co/Pt multilayers. We can tune the interaction strength and introduce geometric frustration in to the patterned systems by changing the lattice spacing and geometry of the arrays. Using MOKE microscopy we are able to optically resolve, spatially isolate, and extract the switching field of each island in an array in the presence of an external field. These switching fields allow us to calculate the magnetization and nearest neighbor spin-spin correlation throughout a hysteresis loop. These quantities help us determine the effect of increased interactions and geometric frustration on the switching process of dipole coupled arrays. Funded by DOE.
Study on Two Methods for Nonlinear Force-Free Extrapolation Based on Semi-Analytical Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, S.; Zhang, H. Q.; Su, J. T.; Song, M. T.
2011-03-01
In this paper, two semi-analytical solutions of force-free fields (Low and Lou, Astrophys. J. 352, 343, 1990) have been used to test two nonlinear force-free extrapolation methods. One is the boundary integral equation (BIE) method developed by Yan and Sakurai ( Solar Phys. 195, 89, 2000), and the other is the approximate vertical integration (AVI) method developed by Song et al. ( Astrophys. J. 649, 1084, 2006). Some improvements have been made to the AVI method to avoid the singular points in the process of calculation. It is found that the correlation coefficients between the first semi-analytical field and extrapolated field using the BIE method, and also that obtained by the improved AVI method, are greater than 90% below a height 10 of the 64×64 lower boundary. For the second semi-analytical field, these correlation coefficients are greater than 80% below the same relative height. Although differences between the semi-analytical solutions and the extrapolated fields exist for both the BIE and AVI methods, these two methods can give reliable results for heights of about 15% of the extent of the lower boundary.
Low Field Squid MRI Devices, Components and Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor); Eom, Byeong H. (Inventor); Hahn, Inseob (Inventor)
2014-01-01
Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods are disclosed. They include a portable low field (SQUID)-based MRI instrument and a portable low field SQUID-based MRI system to be operated under a bed where a subject is adapted to be located. Also disclosed is a method of distributing wires on an image encoding coil system adapted to be used with an NMR or MRI device for analyzing a sample or subject and a second order superconducting gradiometer adapted to be used with a low field SQUID-based MRI device as a sensing component for an MRI signal related to a subject or sample.
Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor); Eom, Byeong H (Inventor); Hahn, Inseob (Inventor)
2010-01-01
Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods are disclosed. They include a portable low field (SQUID)-based MRI instrument and a portable low field SQUID-based MRI system to be operated under a bed where a subject is adapted to be located. Also disclosed is a method of distributing wires on an image encoding coil system adapted to be used with an NMR or MRI device for analyzing a sample or subject and a second order superconducting gradiometer adapted to be used with a low field SQUID-based MRI device as a sensing component for an MRI signal related to a subject or sample.
Low Field Squid MRI Devices, Components and Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor); Eom, Byeong H. (Inventor); Hahn, Inseob (Inventor)
2013-01-01
Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods are disclosed. They include a portable low field (SQUID)-based MRI instrument and a portable low field SQUID-based MRI system to be operated under a bed where a subject is adapted to be located. Also disclosed is a method of distributing wires on an image encoding coil system adapted to be used with an NMR or MRI device for analyzing a sample or subject and a second order superconducting gradiometer adapted to be used with a low field SQUID-based MRI device as a sensing component for an MRI signal related to a subject or sample.
Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor); Eom, Byeong H. (Inventor); Hahn, Inseob (Inventor)
2011-01-01
Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods are disclosed. They include a portable low field (SQUID)-based MRI instrument and a portable low field SQUID-based MRI system to be operated under a bed where a subject is adapted to be located. Also disclosed is a method of distributing wires on an image encoding coil system adapted to be used with an NMR or MRI device for analyzing a sample or subject and a second order superconducting gradiometer adapted to be used with a low field SQUID-based MRI device as a sensing component for an MRI signal related to a subject or sample.
Correlation functions with fusion-channel multiplicity in {mathcal{W}}_3 Toda field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belavin, Vladimir; Estienne, Benoit; Foda, Omar; Santachiara, Raoul
2016-06-01
Current studies of {mathcal{W}}_N Toda field theory focus on correlation functions such that the {mathcal{W}}_N highest-weight representations in the fusion channels are multiplicity-free. In this work, we study {mathcal{W}}_3 Toda 4-point functions with multiplicity in the fusion channel. The conformal blocks of these 4-point functions involve matrix elements of a fully-degenerate primary field with a highest-weight in the adjoint representation of mathfrak{s}{mathfrak{l}}_3 , and a fully-degenerate primary field with a highest-weight in the fundamental representation of mathfrak{s}{mathfrak{l}}_3 . We show that, when the fusion rules do not involve multiplicities, the matrix elements of the fully-degenerate adjoint field, between two arbitrary descendant states, can be computed explicitly, on equal footing with the matrix elements of the semi-degenerate fundamental field. Using null-state conditions, we obtain a fourth-order Fuchsian differential equation for the conformal blocks. Using Okubo theory, we show that, due to the presence of multiplicities, this differential equation belongs to a class of Fuchsian equations that is different from those that have appeared so far in {mathcal{W}}_N theories. We solve this equation, compute its monodromy group, and construct the monodromy-invariant correlation functions. This computation shows in detail how the ambiguities that are caused by the presence of multiplicities are fixed by requiring monodromy-invariance.
Trifonov, Dimitar A.; Angelow, Andrey K.
2011-04-07
Dynamical invariants and statistical properties of the quantized electromagnetic field in nonstationary linear media (dielectric and/or conductive) are considered in the framework of Choi-Yeon quantization scheme. It is shown that in the eigenstates of linear dynamical invariant the Robertson-Schroedinger uncertainty relation is minimized, both for the photon annihilation operator quadratures and for the electric and magnetic field components. The time evolution of initial Glauber coherent states and Fock (photon number) states is considered. On an initial coherent state the medium conductivity and the time-dependent electric permeability both are shown to act as squeezing and correlating factors.
Quantum correlations of three-qubit states driven by a classical random external field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Youneng; Fang, Maofa; Zhang, Shiyang; Liu, Xiang
2015-03-01
In this paper, we exploit the notions of tripartite quantum discord {{D}(3)}, tripartite negativity {{N}(3)}, and entanglement witnesses (EWs), respectively, as a measure of quantum correlations in a model of three noninteracting qubits subject to a classical random external field. We compare the dynamics of {{D}(3)} with that of entanglement for the initial entangled pure or mixed GHZ- and W-type states. We find that the quantum correlations dynamics depend on the input configuration of the purity of the initial states. The results show that {{D}(3)} may be more robust than entanglement and no sudden death of the {{D}(3)} occurs, whereas entanglement displays periodically sudden death and revivals in the regions for GHZ- and W-type states driven by a classical random external field. Furthermore, we also show that the survival partial entanglement can be detected by means of the suitable EWs.
Quantum Correlation of Two Entangled Atoms Interacting with the Binomial Optical Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Tang-Kun; Tao, Yu; Shan, Chuan-Jia; Liu, Ji-bing
2016-10-01
Quantum correlations of two atoms in a system of two entangled atoms interacting with the binomial optical field are investigated. In eight different initial states of the two atoms, the influence of the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction, probabilities of a the Bernoulli trial and particle number of the binomial optical field on the temporal evolution of the geometrical quantum discord between two atoms are discussed. The result shows that two atoms always exist the correlation for different parameters. In addition, when and only when the two atoms are initially in the maximally entangled state, the temporal evolution of geometrical quantum discord is not affected by the parameters, and always keep in the degree of geometrical quantum discord that is a fixed value.
Sound Source Identification Through Flow Density Measurement and Correlation With Far Field Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, J.; Seasholtz, R. G.
2001-01-01
Sound sources in the plumes of unheated round jets, in the Mach number range 0.6 to 1.8, were investigated experimentally using "casuality" approach, where air density fluctuations in the plumes were correlated with the far field noise. The air density was measured using a newly developed Molecular Rayleigh scattering based technique, which did not require any seeding. The reference at the end provides a detailed description of the measurement technique.
Localization of incipient tip vortex cavitation using ray based matched field inversion method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Dongho; Seong, Woojae; Choo, Youngmin; Lee, Jeunghoon
2015-10-01
Cavitation of marine propeller is one of the main contributing factors of broadband radiated ship noise. In this research, an algorithm for the source localization of incipient vortex cavitation is suggested. Incipient cavitation is modeled as monopole type source and matched-field inversion method is applied to find the source position by comparing the spatial correlation between measured and replicated pressure fields at the receiver array. The accuracy of source localization is improved by broadband matched-field inversion technique that enhances correlation by incoherently averaging correlations of individual frequencies. Suggested localization algorithm is verified through known virtual source and model test conducted in Samsung ship model basin cavitation tunnel. It is found that suggested localization algorithm enables efficient localization of incipient tip vortex cavitation using a few pressure data measured on the outer hull above the propeller and practically applicable to the typically performed model scale experiment in a cavitation tunnel at the early design stage.
Pulsed photoacoustic Doppler flowmetry using a cross correlation method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunker, J.; Beard, P.
2010-02-01
The feasibility of making spatially resolved measurements of blood flow using pulsed photoacoustic Doppler techniques has been explored. Doppler time shifts were quantified via cross-correlation of pairs of photoacoustic waveforms generated within a blood-simulating phantom using pairs of laser light pulses. The photoacoustic waves were detected using a focussed or planar PZT ultrasound transducer. This approach was found to be effective for quantifying the linear motion of micron-scale absorbers imprinted on an acetate sheet moving with velocities in the range 0.15 to 1.50 ms-1. The effect of the acoustic spot diameter and the time separation between the laser pulses on measurement resolution and the maximum measurable velocity is discussed. The distinguishing advantage of pulsed rather than continuous-wave excitation is that spatially resolved velocity measurements can be made. This offers the prospect of mapping flow within the microcirculation and thus providing insights into the perfusion of tumours and other pathologies characterised by abnormalities in flow status.
Correlation of Puma airloads: Evaluation of CFD prediction methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strawn, Roger C.; Desopper, Andre; Miller, Judith; Jones, Alan
1989-01-01
A cooperative program was undertaken by research organizations in England, France, Australia and the U.S. to study the capabilities of computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD) to predict the aerodynamic loading on helicopter rotor blades. The program goal is to compare predictions with experimental data for flight tests of a research Puma helicopter with rectangular and swept tip blades. Two topics are studied. First, computed results from three CFD codes are compared for flight test cases where all three codes use the same partial inflow-angle boundary conditions. Second, one of the CFD codes (FPR) is iteratively coupled with the CAMRAD/JA helicopter performance code. These results are compared with experimental data and with an uncoupled CAMRAD/JA solution. The influence of flow field unsteadiness is found to play an important role in the blade aerodynamics. Alternate boundary conditions are suggested in order to properly model this unsteadiness in the CFD codes.
Correlation of Puma airfoils - Evaluation of CFD prediction methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strawn, Roger C.; Desopper, Andre; Miller, Judith; Jones, Alan
1989-01-01
A cooperative program was undertaken by research organizations in England, France, Australia and the U.S. to study the capabilities of computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD) to predict the aerodynamic loading on helicopter rotor blades. The program goal is to compare predictions with experimental data for flight tests of a research Puma helicopter with rectangular and swept tip blades. Two topics are studied. First, computed results from three CFD codes are compared for flight test cases where all three codes use the same partial inflow-angle boundary conditions. Second, one of the CFD codes (FPR) is iteratively coupled with the CAMRAD/JA heilcopter performance code. These results are compared with experimental data and with an uncoupled CAMRAD/JA solution. The influence of flow field unsteadiness is found to play an important role in the blade aerodynamics. Alternate boundary conditions are suggested in order to properly model this unsteadiness in the CFD codes.
Correlation effects in strong-field ionization of heteronuclear diatomic molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larsson, H. R.; Bauch, S.; Sørensen, L. K.; Bonitz, M.
2016-01-01
We develop a time-dependent theory to investigate electron dynamics and photoionization processes of diatomic molecules interacting with strong laser fields including electron-electron correlation effects. We combine the recently formulated time-dependent generalized-active-space configuration interaction theory [D. Hochstuhl and M. Bonitz, Phys. Rev. A 86, 053424 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.86.053424; S. Bauch et al., Phys. Rev. A 90, 062508 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.90.062508] with a prolate spheroidal basis set including localized orbitals and continuum states to describe the bound electrons and the outgoing photoelectron. As an example, we study the strong-field ionization of the two-center four-electron lithium hydride molecule in different intensity regimes. By using single-cycle pulses, two orientations of the asymmetric heteronuclear molecule are investigated: Li-H, with the electrical field pointing from H to Li, and the opposite case of H-Li. The preferred orientation for ionization is determined and we find a transition from H-Li, for low intensity, to Li-H, for high intensity. The influence of electron correlations is studied at different levels of approximation, and we find a significant change in the preferred orientation. For certain intensity regimes, even an interchange of the preferred configuration is observed, relative to the uncorrelated simulations. Further insight is provided by detailed comparisons of photoelectron angular distributions with and without correlation effects taken into account.
Effect of charge on the ferroelectric field effect in strongly correlated oxides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xuegang; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Zhang, Le; Zhao, Weiwei; Xu, Xiaoshan; Hong, Xia
We present a systematic study of the effect of charge on the ferroelectric field effect modulation of various strongly correlated oxide materials. We have fabricated high quality epitaxial heterostructures composed of a ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) gate and a correlated oxide channel, including Sm0.5Nd0.5NiO3 (SNNO), La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO), SNNO/LSMO bilayers, and NiCo2O4 (NCO). The Hall effect measurements reveal a carrier density of ~4 holes/u.c. (0.4 cm2V-1s-1) for SNNO to ~2 holes/u.c. (27 cm2V-1s-1) for NCO. We find the magnitude of the field effect is closely related to both the intrinsic carrier density and carrier mobility of the channel material. For devices employing the SNNO/LSMO bilayer channel, we believe the charge transfer between the two correlated oxides play an important role in the observed resistance modulation. The screening capacitor of the channel materials and the interfacial defect states also have significant impact on the retention characteristics of the field effect. Our study reveals the critical role of charge in determining the interfacial coupling between ferroelectric and magnetic oxides, and has important implications in developing ferroelectric-controlled Mott memory devices.
Correlates of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Method Effects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Quilty, Lena C.; Oakman, Jonathan M.; Risko, Evan
2006-01-01
Investigators of personality assessment are becoming aware that using positively and negatively worded items in questionnaires to prevent acquiescence may negatively impact construct validity. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) has demonstrated a bifactorial structure typically proposed to result from these method effects. Recent work suggests…
Huang, Yuqing; Zhang, Zhiyong; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong
2014-01-01
Background Two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful and non-invasive tool for the analysis of molecular structures, conformations, and dynamics. However, the inhomogeneity of magnetic fields experienced by samples will destroy spectral information and hinder spectral analysis. In this study, a new pulse sequence is proposed based on the modulation of distant dipolar field to recover high-resolution 2D spin-echo correlated spectroscopy (SECSY) from inhomogeneous fields. Method and Material By using the new sequence, the correlation information between coupled spins and the J coupled information with straightforward multiplet patterns can be obtained free from inhomogeneous line broadening. In addition, the new sequence is also suitable for non-J coupled spin systems. Although three-dimensional acquisition is needed, the evolution of indirect detection dimensions is carefully designed and the ultrafast acquisition scheme is utilized to improve the acquisition efficiency. A chemical solution of butyl methacrylate (C8H14O2) in DMSO (C2H6SO) in a deshimmed magnetic field was tested to demonstrate the implementation details of the new sequence. The performance of the new sequence relative to the conventional SECSY sequence was shown by using an aqueous solution of main brain metabolites in a deshimmed magnetic field. Conclusion The results reveal that the new sequence provides an attractive way to eliminate the inhomogeneous spectral line broadening for the spin-echo correlated spectrum and is a promising tool for the study of metabolites in metabonomics, even for the applications on in vivo and in situ high-resolution 2D NMR spectroscopy. PMID:24392105
Correlation of Coronal Plasma Properties and Solar Magnetic Field in a Decaying Active Region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Young, Peter R.; Muglach, Karin; Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio
2016-08-01
We present the analysis of a decaying active region observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode during 2009 December 7–11. We investigated the temporal evolution of its structure exhibited by plasma at temperatures from 300,000 to 2.8 million degrees, and derived the electron density, differential emission measure, effective electron temperature, and elemental abundance ratios of Si/S and Fe/S (as a measure of the First Ionization Potential (FIP) Effect). We compared these coronal properties to the temporal evolution of the photospheric magnetic field strength obtained from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. We find that, while these coronal properties all decreased with time during this decay phase, the largest change was at plasma above 1.5 million degrees. The photospheric magnetic field strength also decreased with time but mainly for field strengths lower than about 70 Gauss. The effective electron temperature and the FIP bias seem to reach a “basal” state (at 1.5 × 106 K and 1.5, respectively) into the quiet Sun when the mean photospheric magnetic field (excluding all areas <10 G) weakened to below 35 G, while the electron density continued to decrease with the weakening field. These physical properties are all positively correlated with each other and the correlation is the strongest in the high-temperature plasma. Such correlation properties should be considered in the quest for our understanding of how the corona is heated. The variations in the elemental abundance should especially be considered together with the electron temperature and density.
Correlation of Coronal Plasma Properties and Solar Magnetic Field in a Decaying Active Region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Young, Peter R.; Muglach, Karin; Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio
2016-08-01
We present the analysis of a decaying active region observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode during 2009 December 7-11. We investigated the temporal evolution of its structure exhibited by plasma at temperatures from 300,000 to 2.8 million degrees, and derived the electron density, differential emission measure, effective electron temperature, and elemental abundance ratios of Si/S and Fe/S (as a measure of the First Ionization Potential (FIP) Effect). We compared these coronal properties to the temporal evolution of the photospheric magnetic field strength obtained from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. We find that, while these coronal properties all decreased with time during this decay phase, the largest change was at plasma above 1.5 million degrees. The photospheric magnetic field strength also decreased with time but mainly for field strengths lower than about 70 Gauss. The effective electron temperature and the FIP bias seem to reach a “basal” state (at 1.5 × 106 K and 1.5, respectively) into the quiet Sun when the mean photospheric magnetic field (excluding all areas <10 G) weakened to below 35 G, while the electron density continued to decrease with the weakening field. These physical properties are all positively correlated with each other and the correlation is the strongest in the high-temperature plasma. Such correlation properties should be considered in the quest for our understanding of how the corona is heated. The variations in the elemental abundance should especially be considered together with the electron temperature and density.
Identity method for particle number fluctuations and correlations
Gorenstein, M. I.
2011-08-15
An incomplete particle identification distorts the observed event-by-event fluctuations of the hadron chemical composition in nucleus-nucleus collisions. A new experimental technique called the identity method was recently proposed. It eliminated the misidentification problem for one specific combination of the second moments in a system of two hadron species. In the present paper, this method is extended to calculate all the second moments in a system with an arbitrary number of hadron species. Special linear combinations of the second moments are introduced. These combinations are presented in terms of single-particle variables and can be found experimentally from the event-by-event averaging. The mathematical problem is then reduced to solving a system of linear equations. The effect of incomplete particle identification is fully eliminated from the final results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, D. A.
1990-01-01
The Helios, IMP 8, ISEE 3, ad Voyager 2 spacecraft are used to examine the solar cycle and heliocentric distance dependence of the correlation between density n and magnetic field magnitude B in the solar wind. Previous work had suggested that this correlation becomes progressively more negative with heliocentric distance out to 9.5 AU. Here it is shown that this evolution is not a solar cycle effect, and that the correlations become even more strongly negative at heliocentric distance larger than 9.5 AU. There is considerable variability in the distributions of the correlations at a given heliocentric distance, but this is not simply related to the solar cycle. Examination of the evolution of correlations between density and speed suggest that most of the structures responsible for evolution in the anticorrelation between n and B are not slow-mode waves, but rather pressure balance structures. The latter consist of both coherent structures such as tangential discontinuities and the more generally pervasive 'pseudosound' which may include the coherent structures as a subset.
Yoritomo, John Y; Weaver, Richard L
2016-07-01
Inasmuch as ambient noise fields are often not fully diffuse the question arises as to how, or whether, noise cross-correlations converge to Green's function in practice. Well-known theoretical estimates suggest that the quality of convergence scales with the square root of the product of integration time and bandwidth. However, correlations from natural environments often show random features too large to be consistent with fluctuations from insufficient integration time. Here it is argued that empirical seismic correlations suffer in practice from spurious arrivals due to scatterers, and not from insufficient integration time. Estimates are sought for differences by considering a related problem consisting of waves from a finite density of point sources. The resulting cross-correlations are analyzed for their mean and variance. The mean is, as expected, Green's function with amplitude dependent on noise strength. The variance is found to have support for all times up to its maximum at the main arrival. The signal-to-noise ratio there scales with the square root of source density. Numerical simulations support the theoretical estimates. The result permits estimates of spurious arrivals' impact on identification of cross-correlations with Green's function and indicates that spurious arrivals may affect estimates of amplitudes, complicating efforts to infer attenuation. PMID:27475191
Behavioral type–environment correlations in the field: a study of three-spined stickleback
Pearish, Simon; Hostert, Lauren; Bell, Alison M.
2014-01-01
Behavioral type–environment correlations occur when specific behavioral types of individuals are more common in certain environments. Behavioral type–environment correlations can be generated by several different mechanisms that are probably very common such as niche construction and phenotypic plasticity. Moreover, behavioral type–environment correlations have important ecological and evolutionary implications. However, few studies have examined behavioral type–environment correlations in natural populations. In this study, we asked whether some behavioral types of three-spined stickleback were more likely to occur in certain social environments (alone or in a shoal with other stickleback) or in certain microhabitats in a river (in the open or under cover). We found that individuals that were in shoals with other stickleback at the time of collection from the field emerged from a refuge more quickly compared to individuals that were found alone. In addition, fish that were alone in an open microhabitat explored more of a pool compared to fish that were alone in cover, but this difference did not occur among fish that were in shoals at the time of collection. Subsequent analyses of gut contents suggested that differences in microhabitat use were consistent over time. Our study provides some of the first evidence for behavioral type–environment correlations in a natural population of non-human animals. PMID:24688167
Yoritomo, John Y; Weaver, Richard L
2016-07-01
Inasmuch as ambient noise fields are often not fully diffuse the question arises as to how, or whether, noise cross-correlations converge to Green's function in practice. Well-known theoretical estimates suggest that the quality of convergence scales with the square root of the product of integration time and bandwidth. However, correlations from natural environments often show random features too large to be consistent with fluctuations from insufficient integration time. Here it is argued that empirical seismic correlations suffer in practice from spurious arrivals due to scatterers, and not from insufficient integration time. Estimates are sought for differences by considering a related problem consisting of waves from a finite density of point sources. The resulting cross-correlations are analyzed for their mean and variance. The mean is, as expected, Green's function with amplitude dependent on noise strength. The variance is found to have support for all times up to its maximum at the main arrival. The signal-to-noise ratio there scales with the square root of source density. Numerical simulations support the theoretical estimates. The result permits estimates of spurious arrivals' impact on identification of cross-correlations with Green's function and indicates that spurious arrivals may affect estimates of amplitudes, complicating efforts to infer attenuation.
Method of using triaxial magnetic fields for making particle structures
Martin, James E.; Anderson, Robert A.; Williamson, Rodney L.
2005-01-18
A method of producing three-dimensional particle structures with enhanced magnetic susceptibility in three dimensions by applying a triaxial energetic field to a magnetic particle suspension and subsequently stabilizing said particle structure. Combinations of direct current and alternating current fields in three dimensions produce particle gel structures, honeycomb structures, and foam-like structures.
Field Comparison of Methods for Measuring Soil CO2 Flux
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A variety of techniques are available for measurement of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) flux in the field, and each method has inherent advantages and disadvantages. On five dates in October, 2005 we measured soil CO2 emissions in a central Iowa soybean field using: i)eddy covariance, ii)a commercially a...
A New Method for Coronal Magnetic Field Reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Sibaek; Choe, Gwangson; Lim, Daye
2015-08-01
We present a new, simple, variational method for reconstruction of coronal force-free magnetic fields based on vector magnetogram data. Our method employs vector potentials for magnetic field description in order to ensure the divergence-free condition. As boundary conditions, it only requires the normal components of magnetic field and current density so that the boundary conditions are not over-specified as in many other methods. The boundary normal current distribution is initially fixed once and for all and does not need continual adjustment as in stress-and-relax type methods. We have tested the computational code based on our new method in problems with known solutions and those with actual photospheric data. When solutions are fully given at all boundaries, the accuracy of our method is almost comparable to best performing methods in the market. When magnetic field data are given only at the photospheric boundary, our method excels other methods in most “figures of merit” devised by Schrijver et al. (2006). Furthermore the residual force in the solution is at least an order of magnitude smaller than that of any other method. It can also accommodate the source-surface boundary condition at the top boundary. Our method is expected to contribute to the real time monitoring of the sun required for future space weather forecasts.
FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCB METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT
This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil...
New Method for Solving Inductive Electric Fields in the Ionosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanhamäki, H.
2005-12-01
We present a new method for calculating inductive electric fields in the ionosphere. It is well established that on large scales the ionospheric electric field is a potential field. This is understandable, since the temporal variations of large scale current systems are generally quite slow, in the timescales of several minutes, so inductive effects should be small. However, studies of Alfven wave reflection have indicated that in some situations inductive phenomena could well play a significant role in the reflection process, and thus modify the nature of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling. The input to our calculation method are the time series of the potential part of the ionospheric electric field together with the Hall and Pedersen conductances. The output is the time series of the induced rotational part of the ionospheric electric field. The calculation method works in the time-domain and can be used with non-uniform, time-dependent conductances. In addition no particular symmetry requirements are imposed on the input potential electric field. The presented method makes use of special non-local vector basis functions called Cartesian Elementary Current Systems (CECS). This vector basis offers a convenient way of representing curl-free and divergence-free parts of 2-dimensional vector fields and makes it possible to solve the induction problem using simple linear algebra. The new calculation method is validated by comparing it with previously published results for Alfven wave reflection from uniformly conducting ionosphere.
Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.
2007-10-01
Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields that are developed using water flooding and thermal steam treatment are considered. The results of pilot testing of processes based on these methods carried out at West Siberian and Chinese oil fields are analysed. The attention is focused on the processes that make use of surfactant blends and alkaline buffer solutions and thermotropic gel-forming systems.
Visualizing confusion matrices for multidimensional signal detection correlational methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Yue; Wischgoll, Thomas; Blaha, Leslie M.; Smith, Ross; Vickery, Rhonda J.
2013-12-01
Advances in modeling and simulation for General Recognition Theory have produced more data than can be easily visualized using traditional techniques. In this area of psychological modeling, domain experts are struggling to find effective ways to compare large-scale simulation results. This paper describes methods that adapt the web-based D3 visualization framework combined with pre-processing tools to enable domain specialists to more easily interpret their data. The D3 framework utilizes Javascript and scalable vector graphics (SVG) to generate visualizations that can run readily within the web browser for domain specialists. Parallel coordinate plots and heat maps were developed for identification-confusion matrix data, and the results were shown to a GRT expert for an informal evaluation of their utility. There is a clear benefit to model interpretation from these visualizations when researchers need to interpret larger amounts of simulated data.
Characterization of a random anisotropic conductivity field with Karhunen-Loeve methods
Cherry, Matthew R.; Sabbagh, Harold S.; Pilchak, Adam L.; Knopp, Jeremy S.
2014-02-18
While parametric uncertainty quantification for NDE models has been addressed in recent years, the problem of stochastic field parameters such as spatially distributed electrical conductivity has only been investigated minimally in the last year. In that work, the authors treated the field as a one-dimensional random process and Karhunen-Loeve methods were used to discretize this process to make it amenable to UQ methods such as ANOVA expansions. In the present work, we will treat the field as a two dimensional random process, and the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the integral operator will be determined via Galerkin methods. The Karhunen-Loeve methods is extended to two dimensions and implemented to represent this process. Several different choices for basis functions will be discussed, as well as convergence criteria for each. The methods are applied to correlation functions collected over electron backscatter data from highly micro textured Ti-7Al.
Using force fields methods for locating transition structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jensen, Frank
2003-11-01
A previously proposed strategy of using force field methods for generating approximations to the geometry of transition structures is extended to also estimating an approximate Hessian matrix. These two components allow an automated method for locating first order saddle points, which is an essential requisite for studying chemical reactions of systems with many degrees of freedom. The efficiency of using an approximate force field Hessian matrix for initiating the geometry optimization is compared with the use of an exact Hessian. The force field Hessian in general requires more geometry steps to converge, but the additional computational cost is offset by the savings from not calculating the exact Hessian at the initial geometry.
Spatial correlation in the ambient core noise field of a turbofan engine.
Miles, Jeffrey Hilton
2012-06-01
An acoustic transfer function relating combustion noise and turbine exit noise in the presence of enclosed ambient core noise is investigated using a dynamic system model and an acoustic system model for the particular turbofan engine studied and for a range of operating conditions. Measurements of cross-spectra magnitude and phase between the combustor and turbine exit and auto-spectra at the turbine exit and combustor are used to show the presence of indirect and direct combustion noise over the frequency range of 0-400 Hz. The procedure used evaluates the ratio of direct to indirect combustion noise. The procedure used also evaluates the post-combustion residence time in the combustor which is a factor in the formation of thermal NO(x) and soot in this region. These measurements are masked by the ambient core noise sound field in this frequency range which is observable since the transducers are situated within an acoustic wavelength of one another. An ambient core noise field model based on one and two dimensional spatial correlation functions is used to replicate the spatially correlated response of the pair of transducers. The spatial correlation function increases measured attenuation due to destructive interference and masks the true attenuation of the turbine. PMID:22712936
Spatial Correlation in the Ambient Core Noise Field of a Turbofan Engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miles, Jeffrey Hilton
2012-01-01
An acoustic transfer function relating combustion noise and turbine exit noise in the presence of enclosed ambient core noise is investigated using a dynamic system model and an acoustic system model for the particular turbofan engine studied and for a range of operating conditions. Measurements of cross-spectra magnitude and phase between the combustor and turbine exit and auto-spectra at the turbine exit and combustor are used to show the presence of indirect and direct combustion noise over the frequency range of 0 400 Hz. The procedure used evaluates the ratio of direct to indirect combustion noise. The procedure used also evaluates the post-combustion residence time in the combustor which is a factor in the formation of thermal NOx and soot in this region. These measurements are masked by the ambient core noise sound field in this frequency range which is observable since the transducers are situated within an acoustic wavelength of one another. An ambient core noise field model based on one and two dimensional spatial correlation functions is used to replicate the spatially correlated response of the pair of transducers. The spatial correlation function increases measured attenuation due to destructive interference and masks the true attenuation of the turbine.
Force-free magnetic fields - The magneto-frictional method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, W. H.; Sturrock, P. A.; Antiochos, S. K.
1986-01-01
The problem under discussion is that of calculating magnetic field configurations in which the Lorentz force j x B is everywhere zero, subject to specified boundary conditions. We choose to represent the magnetic field in terms of Clebsch variables in the form B = grad alpha x grad beta. These variables are constant on any field line so that each field line is labeled by the corresponding values of alpha and beta. When the field is described in this way, the most appropriate choice of boundary conditions is to specify the values of alpha and beta on the bounding surface. We show that such field configurations may be calculated by a magneto-frictional method. We imagine that the field lines move through a stationary medium, and that each element of magnetic field is subject to a frictional force parallel to and opposing the velocity of the field line. This concept leads to an iteration procedure for modifying the variables alpha and beta, that tends asymptotically towards the force-free state. We apply the method first to a simple problem in two rectangular dimensions, and then to a problem of cylindrical symmetry that was previously discussed by Barnes and Sturrock (1972). In one important respect, our new results differ from the earlier results of Barnes and Sturrock, and we conclude that the earlier article was in error.
Empirical source strength correlations for rans-based acoustic analogy methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kube-McDowell, Matthew Tyndall
JeNo is a jet noise prediction code based on an acoustic analogy method developed by Mani, Gliebe, Balsa, and Khavaran. Using the flow predictions from a standard Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics solver, JeNo predicts the overall sound pressure level and angular spectra for high-speed hot jets over a range of observer angles, with a processing time suitable for rapid design purposes. JeNo models the noise from hot jets as a combination of two types of noise sources; quadrupole sources dependent on velocity fluctuations, which represent the major noise of turbulent mixing, and dipole sources dependent on enthalpy fluctuations, which represent the effects of thermal variation. These two sources are modeled by JeNo as propagating independently into the far-field, with no cross-correlation at the observer location. However, high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics solutions demonstrate that this assumption is false. In this thesis, the theory, assumptions, and limitations of the JeNo code are briefly discussed, and a modification to the acoustic analogy method is proposed in which the cross-correlation of the two primary noise sources is allowed to vary with the speed of the jet and the observer location. As a proof-of-concept implementation, an empirical correlation correction function is derived from comparisons between JeNo's noise predictions and a set of experimental measurements taken for the Air Force Aero-Propulsion Laboratory. The empirical correlation correction is then applied to JeNo's predictions of a separate data set of hot jets tested at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Metrics are derived to measure the qualitative and quantitative performance of JeNo's acoustic predictions, and the empirical correction is shown to provide a quantitative improvement in the noise prediction at low observer angles with no freestream flow, and a qualitative improvement in the presence of freestream flow. However, the results also demonstrate
Glanzer, Simon; Schrank, Evelyne; Zangger, Klaus
2013-01-01
Homonuclear two- and multidimensional NMR spectra are standard experiments for the structure determination of small to medium-sized molecules. In the large majority of homonuclear correlated spectra the diagonal contains the most intense peaks. Cross-peaks near the diagonal could overlap with huge tails of diagonal peaks and can therefore be easily overlooked. Here we present a general method for the suppression of peaks along the diagonal in homonuclear correlated spectra. It is based on a spatially selective excitation followed by the suppression of magnetization which has not changed the frequency during the mixing process. In addition to the auto correlation removal, these experiments are also less affected by magnetic field inhomogeneities due to the slice selective excitation, which on the other side leads to a reduced intensity compared to regular homonuclear correlated spectra. PMID:23665403
Density Fluctuation in Asymmetric Nozzle Plumes and Correlation with Far Field Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, J.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.
2001-01-01
A comparative experimental study of air density fluctuations in the unheated plumes of a circular, 4-tabbed-circular, chevron-circular and 10-lobed rectangular nozzles was performed at a fixed Mach number of 0.95 using a recently developed Rayleigh scattering based technique. Subsequently, the flow density fluctuations are cross-correlated with the far field sound pressure fluctuations to determine sources for acoustics emission. The nearly identical noise spectra from the baseline circular and the chevron nozzles are found to be in agreement with the similarity in spreading, turbulence fluctuations, and flow-sound correlations measured in the plumes. The lobed nozzle produced the least low frequency noise, in agreement with the weakest overall density fluctuations and flow-sound correlation. The tabbed nozzle took an intermediate position in the hierarchy of noise generation, intensity of turbulent fluctuation and flow-sound correlation. Some of the features in the 4-tabbed nozzle are found to be explainable in terms of splitting of the jet in a central large core and 4 side jetlets.
Soltanzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Daliri, Mohammad Reza
2014-01-01
Introduction Direction and latency of electrical connectivity between different sites of brain explains brain neural functionality. We compared efficiency of cross correlation and phase locking methods in time lag estimation which are based on local field potential (LFP) and LFP-spike signals, respectively. Methods Signals recorded from MT area of a macaque's brain was used in a simulation approach. The first signal was real brain activity and the second was identical to the first one, but with two kinds of delayed and not delayed forms. Time lag between two signals was estimated by cross correlation and phase locking methods. Results Both methods estimated the time lags with no errors. Phase locking was not as time efficient as correlation. In addition, phase locking suffered from temporal self bias. Discussion Correlation was a more efficient method. Phase locking was not considered as a proper method to estimate the time lags between brain sites due to time inefficiency and self bias, the problems which are reported for the first time about this method. PMID:25337381
Comparison of electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines.
Korpinen, Leena; Kuisti, Harri; Tarao, Hiroo; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Elovaara, Jarmo
2014-01-01
The object of the study was to investigate extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines. The authors compared two different methods under power lines: in Method A, the sensor was placed on a tripod; and Method B required the measurer to hold the meter horizontally so that the distance from him/her was at least 1.5 m. The study includes 20 measurements in three places under 400 kV power lines. The authors used two commercial three-axis meters, EFA-3 and EFA-300. In statistical analyses, they did not find significant differences between Methods A and B. However, in the future, it is important to take into account that measurement methods can, in some cases, influence ELF electric field measurement results, and it is important to report the methods used so that it is possible to repeat the measurements.
Quasiparticles of strongly correlated Fermi liquids at high temperatures and in high magnetic fields
Shaginyan, V. R.
2011-08-15
Strongly correlated Fermi systems are among the most intriguing, best experimentally studied and fundamental systems in physics. There is, however, lack of theoretical understanding in this field of physics. The ideas based on the concepts like Kondo lattice and involving quantum and thermal fluctuations at a quantum critical point have been used to explain the unusual physics. Alas, being suggested to describe one property, these approaches fail to explain the others. This means a real crisis in theory suggesting that there is a hidden fundamental law of nature. It turns out that the hidden fundamental law is well forgotten old one directly related to the Landau-Migdal quasiparticles, while the basic properties and the scaling behavior of the strongly correlated systems can be described within the framework of the fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT). The phase transition comprises the extended quasiparticle paradigm that allows us to explain the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior observed in these systems. In contrast to the Landau paradigm stating that the quasiparticle effective mass is a constant, the effective mass of new quasiparticles strongly depends on temperature, magnetic field, pressure, and other parameters. Our observations are in good agreement with experimental facts and show that FCQPT is responsible for the observed NFL behavior and quasiparticles survive both high temperatures and high magnetic fields.
Quasiparticles of strongly correlated Fermi liquids at high temperatures and in high magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaginyan, V. R.
2011-08-01
Strongly correlated Fermi systems are among the most intriguing, best experimentally studied and fundamental systems in physics. There is, however, lack of theoretical understanding in this field of physics. The ideas based on the concepts like Kondo lattice and involving quantum and thermal fluctuations at a quantum critical point have been used to explain the unusual physics. Alas, being suggested to describe one property, these approaches fail to explain the others. This means a real crisis in theory suggesting that there is a hidden fundamental law of nature. It turns out that the hidden fundamental law is well forgotten old one directly related to the Landau-Migdal quasiparticles, while the basic properties and the scaling behavior of the strongly correlated systems can be described within the framework of the fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT). The phase transition comprises the extended quasiparticle paradigm that allows us to explain the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior observed in these systems. In contrast to the Landau paradigm stating that the quasiparticle effective mass is a constant, the effective mass of new quasiparticles strongly depends on temperature, magnetic field, pressure, and other parameters. Our observations are in good agreement with experimental facts and show that FCQPT is responsible for the observed NFL behavior and quasiparticles survive both high temperatures and high magnetic fields.
Application of a force field algorithm for creating strongly correlated multiscale sphere packings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zauner, Thomas
2016-05-01
This work presents a protocol driven force field algorithm, used to create multiscale correlated dense sphere packings. It was developed as part of a tool chain for the reconstruction of realistic multiscale porous rock samples. It overcomes limitations of Monte-Carlo or deposition based approaches, that are quite common in this field and were used previously. The new algorithm can create large, low porosity sphere packings with radius distributions covering two decades. Highly correlated structures that model pore clogging and sedimentation can be generated. To achieve this, an adequate force field and proper termination strategies are necessary. By changing the algorithm parameters in a controlled way during the simulation, a complex protocol driven process can be established. The implementation of the algorithm targets large parallel computer platforms to perform simulations with more than 10 million spheres. This article includes an application of the algorithm used to generate a highly polydisperse sphere packing with roughly 106 spheres and radii from 1 to 100 μm. The continuum description of this packing is discretized at resolutions from 0.25 to 1 μm and investigated using geometric and statistical characterizations and results from Lattice-Boltzmann flow simulations. These resolution dependent results affirm that reliable, predictive calculations for multiscale porous microstructures depend on the availability of large realistic continuum models. To obtain such models the algorithm presented herein can be used as a starting point.
CORRELATING THE INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD WITH PROTOSTELLAR JETS AND ITS SOURCES
Targon, C. G.; Rodrigues, C. V.
2011-12-10
This paper combines new CCD polarimetric data with previous information about protostellar objects in a search for correlations involving the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). Specifically, we carried out an optical polarimetric study of a sample of 28 fields of 10' Multiplication-Sign 10' located in the neighborhood of protostellar jets and randomly spread over the Galaxy. The polarimetry of a large number of field stars is used to estimate both the average and dispersion of the ISMF direction in each region. The results of the applied statistical tests are as follows. Concerning the alignment between the jet direction and the ISMF, the whole sample does not show alignment. There is, however, a statistically significant alignment for objects of Classes 0 and I. Regarding the ISMF dispersion, our sample presents values slightly larger for regions containing T Tauri objects than for those harboring younger protostars. Moreover, the ISMF dispersion in regions containing high-mass objects tends to be larger than in those including only low-mass protostars. In our sample, the mean interstellar polarization as a function of the average interstellar extinction in a region reaches a maximum value around 3% for A(V) = 5, after which it decreases. Our data also show a clear correlation of the mean value of the interstellar polarization with the dispersion of the ISMF: the larger the dispersion, the smaller the polarization. Based on a comparison of our and previous results, we suggest that the dispersion in regions forming stars is larger than in quiescent regions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patra, Rajkumar; Ghosh, S.; Sheremet, E.; Jha, Menaka; Rodriguez, R. D.; Lehmann, D.; Ganguli, A. K.; Schmidt, H.; Schulze, S.; Hietschold, M.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Schmidt, O. G.
2014-10-01
Detailed results from field emission studies of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) coated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films, pristine LaB6 films, and pristine MWCNT films are reported. The films have been synthesized by a combination of chemical and physical deposition processes. An impressive increase in field enhancement factor and temporal stability as well as a reduction in turn-on field and threshold field are observed in LaB6-coated MWCNTs compared to pristine MWCNT and pristine LaB6 films. Surface morphology of the films has been examined by scanning electron microscopy. Introduction of LaB6 nanoparticles on the outer walls of CNTs LaB6-coated MWCNTs films is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The presence of LaB6 was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results and further validated by the Raman spectra. Raman spectroscopy also shows 67% increase in defect concentration in MWCNTs upon coating with LaB6 and an upshift in the 2D band that could be attributed to p-type doping. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveal a reduction in the work function of LaB6-coated MWCNT with respect to its pristine counterpart. The enhanced field emission properties in LaB6-coated MWCNT films are correlated with a change in microstructure and work function.
Patra, Rajkumar; Ghosh, S.; Sheremet, E.; Rodriguez, R. D.; Lehmann, D.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Jha, Menaka; Ganguli, A. K.; Schmidt, H.; Schulze, S.; Hietschold, M.; Schmidt, O. G.
2014-10-28
Detailed results from field emission studies of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB{sub 6}) coated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films, pristine LaB{sub 6} films, and pristine MWCNT films are reported. The films have been synthesized by a combination of chemical and physical deposition processes. An impressive increase in field enhancement factor and temporal stability as well as a reduction in turn-on field and threshold field are observed in LaB{sub 6}-coated MWCNTs compared to pristine MWCNT and pristine LaB{sub 6} films. Surface morphology of the films has been examined by scanning electron microscopy. Introduction of LaB{sub 6} nanoparticles on the outer walls of CNTs LaB{sub 6}-coated MWCNTs films is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The presence of LaB{sub 6} was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results and further validated by the Raman spectra. Raman spectroscopy also shows 67% increase in defect concentration in MWCNTs upon coating with LaB{sub 6} and an upshift in the 2D band that could be attributed to p-type doping. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveal a reduction in the work function of LaB{sub 6}-coated MWCNT with respect to its pristine counterpart. The enhanced field emission properties in LaB{sub 6}-coated MWCNT films are correlated with a change in microstructure and work function.
Temperament in bullheads: do laboratory and field explorative behaviour variables correlate?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobler, Alexander; Engelen, Brecht; Knaepkens, Guy; Eens, Marcel
2009-10-01
The relevance of temperament traits for life history strategy or productivity is increasingly acknowledged. Temperament traits are often either observed in captivity or in the wild, but studies combining both observations are very rare. We examine whether exploratory behaviour in the bullhead ( Cottus perifretum), assayed under laboratory conditions, predicts this behaviour under field conditions. Forty-three PIT-tagged individuals were first assayed for exploration of a novel environment in the aquarium and then released into an unfamiliar stream stretch, where they were later relocated using a mobile antenna. Explorative behaviour assayed in the laboratory was significantly positively related to the exploration in the field, thus predicting distance moved in the field release. Both in the laboratory and in the field, explorative behaviour was not related to individual body length. When bullheads that did not leave the refuge in the aquarium (laboratory assay) and, therefore, did not explore the new environment were excluded from the analysis, the correlation between laboratory and field explorative behaviour variables became weaker. However, overall, our results illustrate that exploration rate of bullheads in isolated single-individual experiments can be used to predict this behaviour in the natural ecosystem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Tyler; Adams, Mike; Bunker, Austin; Hodges, Jeffery; Stufflebeam, Michael; Evenson, William; Matheson, Phil; Zacate, Matthew
2009-10-01
Materials contain defects, which affect crystal properties such as damping of the correlation signal,G2(t), in time and broadening of the frequency spectrum in perturbed angular correlation (PAC) experiments. We attribute this inhomogeneous broadening (IHB) to the random static defects that produce a distribution of electric field gradients (EFGs). Our goal is to find a relationship between the amount of broadening and the concentration of defects. After simulating the EFGs from random configurations of defects, we map our results from the Vzz-Vxx plane to a coordinate system optimized for the EFG distribution through a Czjzek transformation, followed by a conformal mapping. From histograms in this space, we can define probability distribution functions with parameters that vary according to defect concentration. This allows us to calculate the broadened G2(t) spectrum for any concentration, and, in reverse, identify concentrations given a broadened G2(t) spectrum.
Quantum Correlations of Two Two-level Atoms Interacting with a Single Mode Vacuum Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Ke; Fang, Mao-Fa
2015-04-01
The quantum correlations (QC) of two two-level atoms interacting with a single mode vacuum field are investigated. The relationship between the quantum discord (QD) and the entanglement of formation (EOF), the influence of the atomic dipole-dipole interaction along with two-atom initial states on QC of two atoms are discussed. The results indicate that when two-atom is initially in an entangled state, QD is consistent with EOF. Compared with the quantumness of correlations, the latter is always larger than the former, and the larger the initial QE, the larger the QD. Meanwhile, there is no occurrence of sudden death phenomenon of QC throughout the temporal evolution. Moreover, QD is more robust than QE under strong dipole-dipole interaction, and then the relative stable QC resources can be achieved.
Observation of correlated electronic decay in expanding clusters triggered by near-infrared fields
Schütte, B.; Arbeiter, M.; Fennel, T.; Jabbari, G.; Kuleff, A.I.; Vrakking, M.J.J.; Rouzée, A.
2015-01-01
When an excited atom is embedded into an environment, novel relaxation pathways can emerge that are absent for isolated atoms. A well-known example is interatomic Coulombic decay, where an excited atom relaxes by transferring its excess energy to another atom in the environment, leading to its ionization. Such processes have been observed in clusters ionized by extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray lasers. Here, we report on a correlated electronic decay process that occurs following nanoplasma formation and Rydberg atom generation in the ionization of clusters by intense, non-resonant infrared laser fields. Relaxation of the Rydberg states and transfer of the available electronic energy to adjacent electrons in Rydberg states or quasifree electrons in the expanding nanoplasma leaves a distinct signature in the electron kinetic energy spectrum. These so far unobserved electron-correlation-driven energy transfer processes may play a significant role in the response of any nano-scale system to intense laser light. PMID:26469997
Observation of correlated electronic decay in expanding clusters triggered by near-infrared fields.
Schütte, B; Arbeiter, M; Fennel, T; Jabbari, G; Kuleff, A I; Vrakking, M J J; Rouzée, A
2015-01-01
When an excited atom is embedded into an environment, novel relaxation pathways can emerge that are absent for isolated atoms. A well-known example is interatomic Coulombic decay, where an excited atom relaxes by transferring its excess energy to another atom in the environment, leading to its ionization. Such processes have been observed in clusters ionized by extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray lasers. Here, we report on a correlated electronic decay process that occurs following nanoplasma formation and Rydberg atom generation in the ionization of clusters by intense, non-resonant infrared laser fields. Relaxation of the Rydberg states and transfer of the available electronic energy to adjacent electrons in Rydberg states or quasifree electrons in the expanding nanoplasma leaves a distinct signature in the electron kinetic energy spectrum. These so far unobserved electron-correlation-driven energy transfer processes may play a significant role in the response of any nano-scale system to intense laser light. PMID:26469997
FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT
The Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) pentachlorophenol (PCP) method uses a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a megabore capillary column and flame ionization detector (FID) and electron capture detector (ECD) to identify and quantify PCP. The FASP PCP method is design...
Tahmasebi Birgani, Mohamad J.; Chegeni, Nahid; Zabihzadeh, Mansoor; Hamzian, Nima
2014-04-01
Equivalent field is frequently used for central axis depth-dose calculations of rectangular- and irregular-shaped photon beams. As most of the proposed models to calculate the equivalent square field are dosimetry based, a simple physical-based method to calculate the equivalent square field size was used as the basis of this study. The table of the sides of the equivalent square or rectangular fields was constructed and then compared with the well-known tables by BJR and Venselaar, et al. with the average relative error percentage of 2.5 ± 2.5% and 1.5 ± 1.5%, respectively. To evaluate the accuracy of this method, the percentage depth doses (PDDs) were measured for some special irregular symmetric and asymmetric treatment fields and their equivalent squares for Siemens Primus Plus linear accelerator for both energies, 6 and 18 MV. The mean relative differences of PDDs measurement for these fields and their equivalent square was approximately 1% or less. As a result, this method can be employed to calculate equivalent field not only for rectangular fields but also for any irregular symmetric or asymmetric field.
Geochemical field method for determination of nickel in plants
Reichen, L.E.
1951-01-01
The use of biogeochemical data in prospecting for nickel emphasizes the need for a simple, moderately accurate field method for the determination of nickel in plants. In order to follow leads provided by plants of unusual nickel content without loss of time, the plants should be analyzed and the results given to the field geologist promptly. The method reported in this paper was developed to meet this need. Speed is acquired by elimination of the customary drying and controlled ashing; the fresh vegetation is ashed in an open dish over a gasoline stove. The ash is put into solution with hydrochloric acid and the solution buffered. A chromograph is used to make a confined spot with an aliquot of the ash solution on dimethylglyoxime reagent paper. As little as 0.025% nickel in plant ash can be determined. With a simple modification, 0.003% can be detected. Data are given comparing the results obtained by an accepted laboratory procedure. Results by the field method are within 30% of the laboratory values. The field method for nickel in plants meets the requirements of biogeochemical prospecting with respect to accuracy, simplicity, speed, and ease of performance in the field. With experience, an analyst can make 30 determinations in an 8-hour work day in the field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, Ramachandra; Mitic, Jelena; Serov, Alexandre; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Lasser, Theo
2007-03-01
The solid immersion lens (SIL) as a tool for increasing the field confinement as well as providing optimal performance by aberration compensation in a confocal fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) system is illustrated here. Using Zernike polynomials we show that aberration compensation and the resultant pre-shaping of the incident wavefront enables near diffraction-limited performance. This is explained based on vectorial computations for high apertures in the Debye approximation. The obtained axial resolution parameters are compared with the obtained diffusion times in a SIL-FCS experiment for measurements in solutions done at the single molecule level.
Electric field gradients at indium sites in spinels measured by perturbed angular correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasquevich, A. F.
2005-07-01
The Electric Field Gradient (EFG) at 111Cd isotope (produced by the Electron Capture (EC) decay of 111In) has been measured using Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) technique in many spinels. In the present work, data arising from such experiments were collected. The experimental EFG values, obtained at room temperature, at the B site of normal spinels are compared with those calculated considering the monopole moment of the ions and the dipole polarization of the anions. This comparison allows the determination of the u-parameter, which gives the anion position in the lattice.
Loethen, Yvette L; Kauffman, John F; Buhse, Lucinda F; Rodriguez, Jason D
2015-11-01
A new spectral library-based approach that is capable of screening a diverse set of finished drug products using only an active pharmaceutical ingredient spectral library is described in this paper. This approach obviates the need for a comprehensive drug product library, thereby streamlining the use of spectral library-based tests for anti-counterfeiting efforts, specifically to target finished drug products containing the wrong active ingredient or no active ingredient at all. Both laboratory-based and portable spectrometers are used in the study to demonstrate the usefulness and transferability of the spectral correlation method for field screening. The spectral correlation between the active pharmaceutical ingredient and finished drug product spectra is calculated using both full spectral analysis and targeted spectral regions analysis of six types of antimalarial, antibiotic and antiviral products. The spectral regions were determined using a moving window spectral correlation algorithm, and the use of specific spectral regions is shown to be crucial in screening finished drug products using only the active pharmaceutical ingredient spectrum. This comprehensive screening spectral correlation method is tested on seven different validation samples from different manufacturers as those used to develop the method, as well as simulated counterfeits which were prepared to mimic falsified drugs containing no active ingredient. The spectral correlation method is successful in correctly identifying 100% of the authentic products and simulated counterfeit samples tested. PMID:26401527
Loethen, Yvette L; Kauffman, John F; Buhse, Lucinda F; Rodriguez, Jason D
2015-11-01
A new spectral library-based approach that is capable of screening a diverse set of finished drug products using only an active pharmaceutical ingredient spectral library is described in this paper. This approach obviates the need for a comprehensive drug product library, thereby streamlining the use of spectral library-based tests for anti-counterfeiting efforts, specifically to target finished drug products containing the wrong active ingredient or no active ingredient at all. Both laboratory-based and portable spectrometers are used in the study to demonstrate the usefulness and transferability of the spectral correlation method for field screening. The spectral correlation between the active pharmaceutical ingredient and finished drug product spectra is calculated using both full spectral analysis and targeted spectral regions analysis of six types of antimalarial, antibiotic and antiviral products. The spectral regions were determined using a moving window spectral correlation algorithm, and the use of specific spectral regions is shown to be crucial in screening finished drug products using only the active pharmaceutical ingredient spectrum. This comprehensive screening spectral correlation method is tested on seven different validation samples from different manufacturers as those used to develop the method, as well as simulated counterfeits which were prepared to mimic falsified drugs containing no active ingredient. The spectral correlation method is successful in correctly identifying 100% of the authentic products and simulated counterfeit samples tested.
A new method to measure galaxy bias by combining the density and weak lensing fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pujol, Arnau; Chang, Chihway; Gaztañaga, Enrique; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre; Bacon, David J.; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J.; Crocce, Martin; Fosalba, Pablo; Manera, Marc; Vikram, Vinu
2016-10-01
We present a new method to measure redshift-dependent galaxy bias by combining information from the galaxy density field and the weak lensing field. This method is based on the work of Amara et al., who use the galaxy density field to construct a bias-weighted convergence field κg. The main difference between Amara et al.'s work and our new implementation is that here we present another way to measure galaxy bias, using tomography instead of bias parametrizations. The correlation between κg and the true lensing field κ allows us to measure galaxy bias using different zero-lag correlations, such as <κgκ>/<κκ> or <κgκg>/<κgκ>. Our method measures the linear bias factor on linear scales, under the assumption of no stochasticity between galaxies and matter. We use the Marenostrum Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (MICE) simulation to measure the linear galaxy bias for a flux-limited sample (i < 22.5) in tomographic redshift bins using this method. This article is the first that studies the accuracy and systematic uncertainties associated with the implementation of the method and the regime in which it is consistent with the linear galaxy bias defined by projected two-point correlation functions (2PCF). We find that our method is consistent with a linear bias at the per cent level for scales larger than 30 arcmin, while non-linearities appear at smaller scales. This measurement is a good complement to other measurements of bias, since it does not depend strongly on σ8 as do the 2PCF measurements. We will apply this method to the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data in a follow-up article.
Time-dependent mean field theory for quench dynamics in correlated electron systems.
Schiró, Marco; Fabrizio, Michele
2010-08-13
A simple and very flexible variational approach to the out-of-equilibrium quantum dynamics in strongly correlated electron systems is introduced through a time-dependent Gutzwiller wave function. As an application, we study the simple case of a sudden change of the interaction in the fermionic Hubbard model and find at the mean-field level an extremely rich behavior. In particular, a dynamical transition between small and large quantum quench regimes is found to occur at half-filling, in accordance with the analysis of Eckstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 056403 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.056403, obtained by dynamical mean-field theory, that turns into a crossover at any finite doping.
Correlated Dirac semimetal by periodized cluster dynamical mean-field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qing-Xiao; He, Rong-Qiang; Lu, Zhong-Yi
2015-10-01
The periodized cluster dynamical mean-field theory (PCDMFT) combined with exact diagonalization as the impurity solver has been applied to the half-filled standard Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice. A correlated Dirac semimetal is found for weak interactions and it transforms into an antiferromagnetic insulating phase for strong interactions via a first-order quantum phase transition, not intervened by a spin liquid phase in between. In this application, the PCDMFT introduces the partial translation symmetry, but cures well the problem caused by the translation symmetry breaking in the cluster dynamical mean-field theory studies for the same model, which gives rise to a spurious insulating phase in the weakly interacting region.
Direct calculation of correlation length based on quasi-cumulant method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Noboru
2014-03-01
We formulate a method of directly obtaining a correlation length without full calculation of correlation functions, as a high-temperature series. The method is based on the quasi-cumulant method, which was formulated by the author in J. Stat. Phys. 111, 1049-1090 (2003) as a complementary method for the high-temperature series expansion originally for an SU(n) Heisenberg model, but is applicable to general spin models according to our recent reformulation. A correlation function divided by its lowest-order nonzero contribution has properties very similar to a generating function of some kind of moments, which we call quasi-moments. Their corresponding quasi-cumulants can be also derived, whose generating function is related to the correlation length. In addition, applications to other numerical methods such as the quantum Monte Carlo method are also discussed. JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25914008.
Stevens, Fred J.
1992-01-01
A novel method of electric field flow fractionation for separating solute molecules from a carrier solution is disclosed. The method of the invention utilizes an electric field that is periodically reversed in polarity, in a time-dependent, wave-like manner. The parameters of the waveform, including amplitude, frequency and wave shape may be varied to optimize separation of solute species. The waveform may further include discontinuities to enhance separation.
Direct field method for root biomass quantification in agroecosystems.
Frasier, Ileana; Noellemeyer, Elke; Fernández, Romina; Quiroga, Alberto
2016-01-01
The present article describes a field auger sampling method for row-crop root measurements. In agroecosystems where crops are planted in a specific design (row crops), sampling procedures for root biomass quantification need to consider the spatial variability of the root system. This article explains in detail how to sample and calculate root biomass considering the sampling position in the field and the differential weight of the root biomass in the inter-row compared to the crop row when expressing data per area unit. This method is highly reproducible in the field and requires no expensive equipment and/or special skills. It proposes to use a narrow auger thus reducing field labor with less destructive sampling, and decreases laboratory time because samples are smaller. The small sample size also facilitates the washing and root separation with tweezers. This method is suitable for either winter- or summer crop roots. •Description of a direct field method for row-crop root measurements.•Description of data calculation for total root-biomass estimation per unit area.•The proposed method is simple, less labor- and less time consuming. PMID:27630821
A stereoscopic correlation method for measuring the altitude of the near infrared airglow layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faivre, M.; Pautet, D.; Moreels, G.; Clairemidi, J.; Colas, F.
A program for determining the altitude of the barycenter of the near-infrared emssive layer at the mesopause level has been undertaken. The objective is to measure the two geometric parameters of the emissive layer: its altitude and thickness in order to correlate these values with the parameters of the dynamic processes that propagate at those altitudes. A first set of correlated observations was obtained in september 2000. Two cameras were set in simultaneous operation at Pic du Midi Observatory (Hautes-Pyrénées, altitude 2860 m) and at Pic de Château-Renard (Hautes-Alpes, altitude 2989 m). The azimuths of the lines of sight were opposite along the line that joined the two observation points. The star images were removed using a numerical filter. Then the perspective inversion method developed by Pautet (Applied Optics 41, 823-831, 2002) was used to provide images of the emissive layer as seen by a virtual camera located vertically above the observation sites. The intensity correlation coefficient is computed for matched pixel blocks. The results for the night of September 8-9, 2000 will be presented. In the region where the fields of view of the cameras superimpose, the altitude for the maximum of the airglow intensity is 87.3 km. This value is the mean value for the altitude determinations. The median value is the same: 87.3 km. The emissive layer profile is retrieved with a height resolution of 0.2 km. The layer thickness at half-maximum is 1.8 km with an asymetry coefficient equal to 0.2. The layer is located between the extreme altitudes of 85.4 and 89.9 km. In conclusion, a precise method for retrieving the near-IR airglow layer altitude with a precision of 0.2 km has been developed and will be used for measuring the altitude of the layer barycenter at different points of the wave field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sugiura, M.; Maynard, N. C.; Farthing, W. H.; Heppner, J. P.; Ledley, B. G.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.
1982-01-01
Initial results of the electric and magnetic field observations from the DE-2 satellite show a remarkably good correlation between the north-south component of the electric field and the east-west component of the magnetic field in many passes of the field-aligned current regions. For a dayside cusp pass on August 15, 1981 the coefficient of correlation between these components was 0.996. A preliminary inspection of the available data from the first 6 months of the DE operation indicates that the similarity between the electric and magnetic field signatures of the field-aligned currents is a commonly observed feature at all local times. This high correlation is interpreted to be an indication that the closure of the field-aligned current is essentially meridional. When the correlation between these components is not good, the closure current is likely to be flowing along the auroral belt. When the correlation between the electric and magnetic fields is high, it is possible to estimate the height-integrated Pedersen conductivity from the observed field components.
A regularization method for extrapolation of solar potential magnetic fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gary, G. A.; Musielak, Z. E.
1992-01-01
The mathematical basis of a Tikhonov regularization method for extrapolating the chromospheric-coronal magnetic field using photospheric vector magnetograms is discussed. The basic techniques show that the Cauchy initial value problem can be formulated for potential magnetic fields. The potential field analysis considers a set of linear, elliptic partial differential equations. It is found that, by introducing an appropriate smoothing of the initial data of the Cauchy potential problem, an approximate Fourier integral solution is found, and an upper bound to the error in the solution is derived. This specific regularization technique, which is a function of magnetograph measurement sensitivities, provides a method to extrapolate the potential magnetic field above an active region into the chromosphere and low corona.
Method of determining interwell oil field fluid saturation distribution
Donaldson, Erle C.; Sutterfield, F. Dexter
1981-01-01
A method of determining the oil and brine saturation distribution in an oil field by taking electrical current and potential measurements among a plurality of open-hole wells geometrically distributed throughout the oil field. Poisson's equation is utilized to develop fluid saturation distributions from the electrical current and potential measurement. Both signal generating equipment and chemical means are used to develop current flow among the several open-hole wells.
Lehman, Graeme; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G
2013-04-01
Baseball-specific athleticism, potential, and performance have been difficult to predict. Increased muscle strength and power can increase throwing velocity but the majority of research has focused on the upper body. The present study sought to determine if bilateral or unilateral lower-body field testing correlates with throwing velocity. Baseball throwing velocity scores were correlated to the following tests: medicine ball (MB) scoop toss and squat throw, bilateral and unilateral vertical jumps, single and triple broad jumps, hop and stop in both directions, lateral to medial jumps, 10- and 60-yd sprints, and both left and right single-leg 10-yd hop for speed in 42 college baseball players. A multiple regression analysis (forward method), assessing the relationship between shuffle and stretch throwing velocities and lower-body field test results determined that right-handed throwing velocity from the stretch position was most strongly predicted by lateral to medial jump right (LMJR) and body weight (BW; R = 0.322), whereas lateral to medial jump left (LMJL; R = 0.688) predicted left stretch throw. Right-handed shuffle throw was most strongly predicted by LMJR and MB scoop (R = 0.338), whereas LMJL, BW, and LMJR all contributed to left-handed shuffle throw (R = 0.982). Overall, this study found that lateral to medial jumps were consistently correlated with high throwing velocity in each of the throwing techniques, in both left-handed and right-handed throwers. This is the first study to correlate throwing velocity with a unilateral jump in the frontal plane, mimicking the action of the throwing stride. PMID:22706576
Lehman, Graeme; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G
2013-04-01
Baseball-specific athleticism, potential, and performance have been difficult to predict. Increased muscle strength and power can increase throwing velocity but the majority of research has focused on the upper body. The present study sought to determine if bilateral or unilateral lower-body field testing correlates with throwing velocity. Baseball throwing velocity scores were correlated to the following tests: medicine ball (MB) scoop toss and squat throw, bilateral and unilateral vertical jumps, single and triple broad jumps, hop and stop in both directions, lateral to medial jumps, 10- and 60-yd sprints, and both left and right single-leg 10-yd hop for speed in 42 college baseball players. A multiple regression analysis (forward method), assessing the relationship between shuffle and stretch throwing velocities and lower-body field test results determined that right-handed throwing velocity from the stretch position was most strongly predicted by lateral to medial jump right (LMJR) and body weight (BW; R = 0.322), whereas lateral to medial jump left (LMJL; R = 0.688) predicted left stretch throw. Right-handed shuffle throw was most strongly predicted by LMJR and MB scoop (R = 0.338), whereas LMJL, BW, and LMJR all contributed to left-handed shuffle throw (R = 0.982). Overall, this study found that lateral to medial jumps were consistently correlated with high throwing velocity in each of the throwing techniques, in both left-handed and right-handed throwers. This is the first study to correlate throwing velocity with a unilateral jump in the frontal plane, mimicking the action of the throwing stride.
A simplified BBGKY hierarchy for correlated fermions from a stochastic mean-field approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacroix, Denis; Tanimura, Yusuke; Ayik, Sakir; Yilmaz, Bulent
2016-04-01
The stochastic mean-field (SMF) approach allows to treat correlations beyond mean-field using a set of independent mean-field trajectories with appropriate choice of fluctuating initial conditions. We show here that this approach is equivalent to a simplified version of the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy between one-, two-, ..., N -body degrees of freedom. In this simplified version, one-body degrees of freedom are coupled to fluctuations to all orders while retaining only specific terms of the general BBGKY hierarchy. The use of the simplified BBGKY is illustrated with the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model. We show that a truncated version of this hierarchy can be useful, as an alternative to the SMF, especially in the weak coupling regime to get physical insight in the effect beyond mean-field. In particular, it leads to approximate analytical expressions for the quantum fluctuations both in the weak and strong coupling regime. In the strong coupling regime, it can only be used for short time evolution. In that case, it gives information on the evolution time-scale close to a saddle point associated to a quantum phase-transition. For long time evolution and strong coupling, we observed that the simplified BBGKY hierarchy cannot be truncated and only the full SMF with initial sampling leads to reasonable results.
Qin, Zhuo-Ming; Ma, Bao-Chen; Yuan, Xiao-Yuan; Xu, Huai-Ying; He, Ye-Feng; Cui, Zhi-Zhong
2007-01-01
Twenty-four isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) prevailing during 1997 -- 2005 in China were collected. These isolates were purified by CEF plaque assay and replicated in SPF chicken embryos. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) genes of these viruses were cloned and sequenced. The HN gene sequences of thirty-six NDV reference strains in GenBank were also used in this study. The amino acid homologing of these viruses were compared and analyzed. The correlations among different fragments of HN gene were also analyzed. The results indicated that the homology of Chinese field NDV strains was 94.4%-99.4%, but 86.9%-89% compared with LaSota and Clone30, 87.9%-89.9% to F48E9, and 87.2%-96.2% to foreign NDV strains. There had the nearest distances among Chinese NDV isolates as compared with that of the LaSota, Clone30 and F48E9 by the phylogenetic tree. However, the distances of seven foreign NDV isolates were very close to Chinese NDV isolates as compared with these of the other foreign NDV isolates. We also found that all the Chinese field isolates were devoid of glycosylation site in position 538 -- 540. There were good correlations between different length amino acid fragments and the genomes of HN, especially the 5'-terminus first 80aa.
Correlation patterns of NIKKEI index constituents. Towards a mean-field model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Kaizoji, Taisei; Pichl, Lukáš
2007-09-01
An analysis of minute-tick data from the Japanese stock index market is reported for a three-year period of 2000/7/4-2003/6/30. Correlation patterns and principal component distributions were determined for 180 constituents of the NIKKEI 225 index, excluding the effects of after-hours trading and constituent revisions. The first principal component describes about 30% of the total variance in constituent log returns (subject to slow decrease with the size of the correlation window), suggesting that a small number of physical parameters may describe the internal dynamics of the index, allowing for an adiabatic representation of index dynamics, and a self-consistent mean-field model of its constituents. Finally, it is shown that the introduction of a time gap into minute-tick data significantly improves the correlations of the price-weighed index with its constituents, even when such gap inserts are strictly penalized. This phenomenon corresponds to a heterogenous response time of index constituents to the adiabatic collective motion and also demonstrates the inhomogeneous nature of equidistant time ticks in financial trading.
Haney, Matthew M.; Mikesell, T. Dylan; van Wijk, Kasper; Nakahara, Hisashi
2012-01-01
Using ambient seismic noise for imaging subsurface structure dates back to the development of the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method in the 1950s. We present a theoretical analysis of the SPAC method for multicomponent recordings of surface waves to determine the complete 3 × 3 matrix of correlations between all pairs of three-component motions, called the correlation matrix. In the case of isotropic incidence, when either Rayleigh or Love waves arrive from all directions with equal power, the only non-zero off-diagonal terms in the matrix are the vertical–radial (ZR) and radial–vertical (RZ) correlations in the presence of Rayleigh waves. Such combinations were not considered in the development of the SPAC method. The method originally addressed the vertical–vertical (ZZ), RR and TT correlations, hence the name spatial autocorrelation. The theoretical expressions we derive for the ZR and RZ correlations offer additional ways to measure Rayleigh wave dispersion within the SPAC framework. Expanding on the results for isotropic incidence, we derive the complete correlation matrix in the case of generally anisotropic incidence. We show that the ZR and RZ correlations have advantageous properties in the presence of an out-of-plane directional wavefield compared to ZZ and RR correlations. We apply the results for mixed-component correlations to a data set from Akutan Volcano, Alaska and find consistent estimates of Rayleigh wave phase velocity from ZR compared to ZZ correlations. This work together with the recently discovered connections between the SPAC method and time-domain correlations of ambient noise provide further insights into the retrieval of surface wave Green’s functions from seismic noise.
Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films
Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.
1999-01-01
A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display.
Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films
Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.
1999-05-11
A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties is disclosed. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display. 3 figs.
Walker, S C
2012-03-01
Broadband noise correlation methods for the passive extraction of information about the propagation of waves between distant sensor locations have received considerable attention in the literature. For the case of an isotropic ambient field distribution, there is a well-defined relationship between the expectation value of the wave coherence over the sensors and point-to-point wave propagation. Experimental applications, however, must contend with ambient field anisotropy as well as the performance limitations associated with stochastic fluctuations. This paper explores the influence of ambient field directionality on both (1) the connection between the measured wave coherence and sensor-to-sensor propagation and on (2) the rate at which measurements stochastically converge to the expectation value of the underlying wave coherence. Due to diffraction, the relationship between the measured wave coherence and sensor-to-sensor propagation is shown to be robust to even highly directional ambient field features. While the fluctuations of a stochastic system are generally known to depend on bandwidth and measurement duration, the rate of stochastic convergence depends additionally on the cross-spectral power density (coherent power) relative to the power-spectral density (total incident power). Practical experimental implications of these results are discussed.
Lowry, R.P.; Carpenter, C.B.; Gurley, K.E.; Merrill, J.P.
1983-07-01
Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) induces a unique state of immunosuppression. Although permanent bone marrow chimerism has been obtained in rodents prepared by TLI, uniform marrow engraftment has been more difficult to obtain in larger mammals. Accordingly, studies were performed to assess the immunologic perturbations induced by TLI in inbred LEW rats, and to explore the effect of altering field size of irradiation on the induction of suppressor cells and the success of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Additional abdominal shielding to protect a single kidney (right) from irradiation during TLI presented successful of bone marrow engraftment (WF leads to LEW, N . 5) but chimerism was uniformly obtained (N . 3) using the full irradiation field (P less than .05) Lymphopenia and a relative monocytosis were noted in all rats subjected to TLI. Although TLI using the full irradiation field eliminated alloreactivity of nylon-wool-purified spleen cells, significant, if reduced, alloreactivity was noted in rats subjected to TLI using smaller irradiation fields. Irradiated (1500 rads) nylon-wool-purified splenic T cells of rats subjected to TLI using the full field effected significantly greater suppression (P less than .001) of a normal mixed lymphocyte culture than did cells from rats subjected to TLI with right kidney shields in place (relative response reduced to 15.2 +/- 5.7% versus 64.3 +/- 11.7%). Success of bone marrow engraftment in rats prepared by TLI was correlated, therefore, with the induction of a profound lymphopenia, elimination of alloreactivity, and the development of a potent splenic suppressor system.
Multi-scale Anti-correlation Between Electron Density and Magnetic Field Strength in the Solar Wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Shuo; He, J.-S.; Marsch, E.; Tu, C.-Y.; Pedersen, A.; Rème, H.; Trotignon, J. G.
2011-02-01
This work focuses on the relation between the electron density and the magnetic field strength in the solar wind, and aims to reveal its compressive nature and to determine the level of compressibility. For this purpose, we choose a period of quiet solar wind data obtained at 1 AU by the Cluster C1 satellite. The electron density is derived with a sampling time as high as 0.2 s from the spacecraft-potential measurements made by the Electric Field and Waves instrument. We use the wavelet cross-coherence method to analyze the correlation between the electron density and the magnetic field strength on various scales. We find a dominant anti-correlation between them at different timescales ranging from 1000 s down to 10 s, a result which has never been reported before. This may indicate the existence of pressure-balanced structures (PBSs) with different sizes in the solar wind. The small (mini) PBSs appear to be embedded in the large PBSs, without affecting the pressure balance between the large structures. Thus, a nesting of these possible multi-scale PBSs is found. Moreover, we find for the first time that the relative fluctuation spectra of both the electron number density and the magnetic field strength look almost the same in the range from 0.01 Hz to 2.5 Hz, implying a similar cascading for these two types of fluctuations. Probable formation mechanisms for the multi-scale possible PBSs are discussed. The results of our work are believed to be helpful for understanding the compressive nature of solar wind turbulence as well as the connections between the solar wind streams and their coronal sources.
[A method for redshift determination of quasars based on cross correlation].
Liu, Rong; Duan, Fu-qing; Luo, A-li
2005-07-01
This paper presents a novel method for redshift determination of quasars. Firstly, a group of redshifts were determined using the emission line info extracted from the observed spectrum; Secondly, the template was redshifted according to the candidates, and the correlation between the observed spectrum and the redshifted template was measured. Finally, the redshift candidate corresponding to the highest correlation was chosen as the redshift. Compared with the existing methods based on spectral line matching, the proposed method has a lower dependence on the quality of spectral line extraction. Experiments show that this method is robust and superior to the methods based on spectral linematching.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Subramanyam, Guru; VanKeuls, Fred W.; Miranda, Felix A.; Canedy, Chadwick L.; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Venkatesan, Thirumalai; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy
2000-01-01
The correlation of electric field and critical design parameters such as the insertion loss, frequency ability return loss, and bandwidth of conductor/ferroelectric/dielectric microstrip tunable K-band microwave filters is discussed in this work. This work is based primarily on barium strontium titanate (BSTO) ferroelectric thin film based tunable microstrip filters for room temperature applications. Two new parameters which we believe will simplify the evaluation of ferroelectric thin films for tunable microwave filters, are defined. The first of these, called the sensitivity parameter, is defined as the incremental change in center frequency with incremental change in maximum applied electric field (EPEAK) in the filter. The other, the loss parameter, is defined as the incremental or decremental change in insertion loss of the filter with incremental change in maximum applied electric field. At room temperature, the Au/BSTO/LAO microstrip filters exhibited a sensitivity parameter value between 15 and 5 MHz/cm/kV. The loss parameter varied for different bias configurations used for electrically tuning the filter. The loss parameter varied from 0.05 to 0.01 dB/cm/kV at room temperature.
Finite-temperature electron correlations in the framework of a dynamic local-field correction
Schweng, H.K.; Boehm, H.M. )
1993-07-15
The quantum-mechanical version of the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjoelander (STLS) approximation is applied to finite temperatures. This approximation has two main advantages. First, it includes a dynamic local-field correction and second, it gives positive values for the pair-distribution function in the short-range region at zero temperature. This is even valid for rather low densities. After a description of the numerical difficulties arising with the use of a dynamic approximation, the results for the static-structure factor and the pair-distribution function are discussed thoroughly. Detailed work is performed on the static part of the local-field correction, with special emphasis put on the investigation of its structure. A peak is found at a wave vector [ital q][approx]2.8 (in units of the Fermi wave vector) for small temperatures, which tends towards higher values of [ital q] with increasing temperature. This peak causes an attractive particle-hole interaction in a certain [ital q] region and thus gives rise to the appearance of a charge-density wave. A parametric description is given for the static local-field correction in order to simplify further applications. Furthermore, the exchange-and-correlation free energy is considered. The results are compared with the STLS results and with the modified convolution approach.
Time domain averaging and correlation-based improved spectrum sensing method for cognitive radio
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shenghong; Bi, Guoan
2014-12-01
Based on the combination of time domain averaging and correlation, we propose an effective time domain averaging and correlation-based spectrum sensing (TDA-C-SS) method used in very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) environments. With the assumption that the received signals from the primary users are deterministic, the proposed TDA-C-SS method processes the received samples by a time averaging operation to improve the SNR. Correlation operation is then performed with a correlation matrix to determine the existence of the primary signal in the received samples. The TDA-C-SS method does not need any prior information on the received samples and the associated noise power to achieve improved sensing performance. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed TDA-C-SS method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, Jayanta; Seasholtz, Richard G.
2003-01-01
Noise sources in high-speed jets were identified by directly correlating flow density fluctuation (cause) to far-field sound pressure fluctuation (effect). The experimental study was performed in a nozzle facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in support of NASA s initiative to reduce the noise emitted by commercial airplanes. Previous efforts to use this correlation method have failed because the tools for measuring jet turbulence were intrusive. In the present experiment, a molecular Rayleigh-scattering technique was used that depended on laser light scattering by gas molecules in air. The technique allowed accurate measurement of air density fluctuations from different points in the plume. The study was conducted in shock-free, unheated jets of Mach numbers 0.95, 1.4, and 1.8. The turbulent motion, as evident from density fluctuation spectra was remarkably similar in all three jets, whereas the noise sources were significantly different. The correlation study was conducted by keeping a microphone at a fixed location (at the peak noise emission angle of 30 to the jet axis and 50 nozzle diameters away) while moving the laser probe volume from point to point in the flow. The following figure shows maps of the nondimensional coherence value measured at different Strouhal frequencies ([frequency diameter]/jet speed) in the supersonic Mach 1.8 and subsonic Mach 0.95 jets. The higher the coherence, the stronger the source was.
Background field method and the cohomology of renormalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anselmi, Damiano
2016-03-01
Using the background field method and the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, we prove a key theorem on the cohomology of perturbatively local functionals of arbitrary ghost numbers in renormalizable and nonrenormalizable quantum field theories whose gauge symmetries are general covariance, local Lorentz symmetry, non-Abelian Yang-Mills symmetries and Abelian gauge symmetries. Interpolating between the background field approach and the usual, nonbackground approach by means of a canonical transformation, we take advantage of the properties of both approaches and prove that a closed functional is the sum of an exact functional plus a functional that depends only on the physical fields and possibly the ghosts. The assumptions of the theorem are the mathematical versions of general properties that characterize the counterterms and the local contributions to the potential anomalies. This makes the outcome a theorem on the cohomology of renormalization, rather than the whole local cohomology. The result supersedes numerous involved arguments that are available in the literature.
Field Science Ethnography: Methods For Systematic Observation on an Expedition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clancey, William J.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The Haughton-Mars expedition is a multidisciplinary project, exploring an impact crater in an extreme environment to determine how people might live and work on Mars. The expedition seeks to understand and field test Mars facilities, crew roles, operations, and computer tools. I combine an ethnographic approach to establish a baseline understanding of how scientists prefer to live and work when relatively unemcumbered, with a participatory design approach of experimenting with procedures and tools in the context of use. This paper focuses on field methods for systematically recording and analyzing the expedition's activities. Systematic photography and time-lapse video are combined with concept mapping to organize and present information. This hybrid approach is generally applicable to the study of modern field expeditions having a dozen or more multidisciplinary participants, spread over a large terrain during multiple field seasons.
Hyperspectral Imaging and Related Field Methods: Building the Science
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Steffen, Konrad; Wessman, Carol
1999-01-01
The proposal requested funds for the computing power to bring hyperspectral image processing into undergraduate and graduate remote sensing courses. This upgrade made it possible to handle more students in these oversubscribed courses and to enhance CSES' summer short course entitled "Hyperspectral Imaging and Data Analysis" provided for government, industry, university and military. Funds were also requested to build field measurement capabilities through the purchase of spectroradiometers, canopy radiation sensors and a differential GPS system. These instruments provided systematic and complete sets of field data for the analysis of hyperspectral data with the appropriate radiometric and wavelength calibration as well as atmospheric data needed for application of radiative transfer models. The proposed field equipment made it possible to team-teach a new field methods course, unique in the country, that took advantage of the expertise of the investigators rostered in three different departments, Geology, Geography and Biology.
Work function measurements by the field emission retarding potential method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, L. W.; Strayer, R. W.; Mackie, W. A.
1971-01-01
Using the field emission retarding potential method true work functions have been measured for the following monocrystalline substrates: W(110), W(111), W(100), Nb(100), Ni(100), Cu(100), Ir(110) and Ir(111). The electron elastic and inelastic reflection coefficients from several of these surfaces have also been examined near zero primary beam energy.
Unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity: The field infiltrometer method
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Theory: Field methods to measure the unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity assume presence of steady-state water flow. Soil infiltrometers are desired to apply water onto the soil surface at constant negative pressure. Water is applied to the soil from the Marriott device through a porous membrane...
Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron
1997-04-01
A new screening method for fuel contamination in soils was recently developed as American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Method D-583 1-95, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This method uses low-toxicity chemicals and can be used to screen organic-rich soils. In addition, it is fast, easy, and inexpensive to perform. The screening method calls for extracting a sample of soil with isopropyl alcohol following treatment with calcium oxide. The resulting extract is filtered, and the ultraviolet absorbance of the extract is measured at 254 nm. Depending on the available information concerning the contaminant fuel type and availability of the contaminant fuel for calibration, the method can be used to determine the approximate concentration of fuel contamination, an estimated value of fuel contamination, or an indication of the presence or absence of fuel contamination. Fuels containing aromatic compounds, such as diesel fuel and gasoline, as well as other aromatic-containing hydrocarbon materials, such as motor oil, crude oil, and coal oil, can be determined. The screening method for fuels in soils was evaluated by conducting a collaborative study on the method and by using the method to screen soil samples at an actual field site. In the collaborative study, a sand and an organic soil spiked with various concentrations of diesel fuel were tested. Data from the collaborative study were used to determine the reproducibility (between participants) and repeatability (within participant) precision of the method for screening the test materials. The collaborative study data also provide information on the performance of portable field equipment versus laboratory equipment for performing the screening method and a comparison of diesel concentration values determined using the screening method versus a laboratory method. Data generated using the method to screen soil samples in the field provide information on the performance of the method in
A field-space conformal-solution method: Binary vapor-liquid phase behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Storvick, T. S.; Fox, J. R.
1990-01-01
The field-space conformal solution method provides an entirely new thermodynamic framework for the description of fluid mixtures in terms of the properties of a pure reference fluid. The utility and performance of the method are examined in the special case of vapor-liquid equilibrium correlation for simple mixtures. This is one of several cases in which field-space methods have numerical or theoretical advantages over methods presently used in mixture property correlation; only properties along the vapor pressure curve of the purefluid reference system are required for a complete description of the mixture phase behavior. Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for three binary hydrocarbon mixtures, n-butane + n-pentane, n-butane + n-hexane, and n-butane + n-octane, are correlated with a simple implementation of the method having two independent mixture parameters. Two pure-fluid equations of state, a Peng-Robinson equation and a 32-constant modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation, are tested as reference systems. The effects of differences in the quality of the reference system and of a range of mixture component size ratios are examined.
A comparative study of the MQD method and several correlation-based PIV evaluation algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gui, L.; Merzkirch, W.
The Minimum Quadratic Difference (MQD) method is compared with methods conventionally used for the evaluation of PIV recordings, i.e. correlation-based evaluation with fixed interrogation windows (auto- or cross-correlation) and correlation-based tracking. The comparison is performed by studying the evaluation accuracy achieved when applying these methods to pairs of synthetic PIV recordings for which the true displacements are known. The influence of the magnitude of the particle image displacement, evaluation window size, density of particle image distribution, and particle image size on the accuracy are investigated. In all these cases the best results in terms of a statistical error are obtained with the MQD method. The superiority of the MQD method can be explained with its potential of accounting for non-uniformities in the particle image distribution and a non-uniform illumination. It is also shown that the conventional correlation-based methods may produce principal errors that are non-existent for the MQD method. The evaluation speed achievable for the MQD method by making use of the FFT is comparable to that common for the generally used auto- or cross-correlation algorithm. Finally, a quantitative explanation is given for the often observed phenomenon that PIV velocity results tend to be smaller than the true values.
RECONSTRUCTING THE INITIAL DENSITY FIELD OF THE LOCAL UNIVERSE: METHODS AND TESTS WITH MOCK CATALOGS
Wang Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Yang Xiaohu; Van den Bosch, Frank C.
2013-07-20
Our research objective in this paper is to reconstruct an initial linear density field, which follows the multivariate Gaussian distribution with variances given by the linear power spectrum of the current cold dark matter model and evolves through gravitational instabilities to the present-day density field in the local universe. For this purpose, we develop a Hamiltonian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to obtain the linear density field from a posterior probability function that consists of two components: a prior of a Gaussian density field with a given linear spectrum and a likelihood term that is given by the current density field. The present-day density field can be reconstructed from galaxy groups using the method developed in Wang et al. Using a realistic mock Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7, obtained by populating dark matter halos in the Millennium simulation (MS) with galaxies, we show that our method can effectively and accurately recover both the amplitudes and phases of the initial, linear density field. To examine the accuracy of our method, we use N-body simulations to evolve these reconstructed initial conditions to the present day. The resimulated density field thus obtained accurately matches the original density field of the MS in the density range 0.3{approx}<{rho}/ {rho}-bar {approx}<20 without any significant bias. In particular, the Fourier phases of the resimulated density fields are tightly correlated with those of the original simulation down to a scale corresponding to a wavenumber of {approx}1 h Mpc{sup -1}, much smaller than the translinear scale, which corresponds to a wavenumber of {approx}0.15 h Mpc{sup -1}.
φq-field theory for portfolio optimization: “fat tails” and nonlinear correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sornette, D.; Simonetti, P.; Andersen, J. V.
2000-08-01
Physics and finance are both fundamentally based on the theory of random walks (and their generalizations to higher dimensions) and on the collective behavior of large numbers of correlated variables. The archetype examplifying this situation in finance is the portfolio optimization problem in which one desires to diversify on a set of possibly dependent assets to optimize the return and minimize the risks. The standard mean-variance solution introduced by Markovitz and its subsequent developments is basically a mean-field Gaussian solution. It has severe limitations for practical applications due to the strongly non-Gaussian structure of distributions and the nonlinear dependence between assets. Here, we present in details a general analytical characterization of the distribution of returns for a portfolio constituted of assets whose returns are described by an arbitrary joint multivariate distribution. In this goal, we introduce a non-linear transformation that maps the returns onto Gaussian variables whose covariance matrix provides a new measure of dependence between the non-normal returns, generalizing the covariance matrix into a nonlinear covariance matrix. This nonlinear covariance matrix is chiseled to the specific fat tail structure of the underlying marginal distributions, thus ensuring stability and good conditioning. The portfolio distribution is then obtained as the solution of a mapping to a so-called φq field theory in particle physics, of which we offer an extensive treatment using Feynman diagrammatic techniques and large deviation theory, that we illustrate in details for multivariate Weibull distributions. The interaction (non-mean field) structure in this field theory is a direct consequence of the non-Gaussian nature of the distribution of asset price returns. We find that minimizing the portfolio variance (i.e. the relatively “small” risks) may often increase the large risks, as measured by higher normalized cumulants. Extensive
Godin, Bruno; Agneessens, Richard; Gerin, Patrick; Delcarte, Jérôme
2014-06-18
We compared the detergent fiber and dietary fiber methods to analyze the cellulose and hemicellulose contents of commelinid and non-commelinid magnoliophyta biomass. A good linear correlation was found between both methods. Compared to the more accurate dietary fiber method, the detergent fiber method overestimates the content of cellulose, whereas the detergent fiber method, as compared to the dietary fiber method, overestimates and underestimates the hemicellulose content in commelinid and non-commelinid magnoliophyta biomass, respectively. Because of the good linear correlations, conversion factors were determined to predict the cellulose, hemicellulose, and xylan contents to be expected from the dietary fiber method, on the basis of analyses made by the faster, cheaper, and more commonly practiced detergent fiber method. Nevertheless, the dietary fiber method offers the advantage of providing the detailed composition of the hemicelluloses (xylan, arabinan, hemicellulosic glucan, galactan, and mannan), and that is of interest for biorefining purposes.
Inductive crystal field control in layered metal oxides with correlated electrons
Balachandran, P. V.; Cammarata, A.; Rondinelli, J. M.; Nelson-Cheeseman, B. B.; Bhattacharya, A.
2014-07-01
We show that the NiO{sub 6} crystal field energies can be tailored indirectly via heterovalent A cation ordering in layered (La,A)NiO{sub 4} Ruddlesden–Popper (RP) oxides, where A = Sr, Ca, or Ba, using density functional calculations. We leverage as a driving force the electrostatic interactions between charged [LaO]{sup 1+} and neutral [AO]{sup 0} planes to inductively tune the Ni–O bond distortions, without intentional doping or epitaxial strain, altering the correlated d-orbital energies. We use this strategy to design cation ordered LaCaNiO{sub 4} and LaBaNiO{sub 4} with distortions favoring enhanced Ni e{sub g} orbital polarization, and find local electronic structure signatures analogous to those in RP La-cuprates, i.e., parent phases of the high-temperature superconducting oxides.
Perceptual and cognitive neural correlates of the useful field of view test in older adults.
O'Brien, Jennifer L; Lister, Jennifer J; Peronto, Carol L; Edwards, Jerri D
2015-10-22
The Useful Field of View Test (UFOV) is often used as a behavioral assessment of age-related decline in visual perception and cognition. Poor performance may reflect slowed processing speed, difficulty dividing attention, and difficulty ignoring irrelevant information. However, the underlying neural correlates of UFOV performance have not been identified. The relationship between older adults' UFOV performance and event-related potential (ERP) components reflecting visual processing was examined. P1 amplitude increased with better UFOV performance involving object identification (subtest 1), suggesting that this task is associated with stimulus processing at an early perceptual level. Better performance in all UFOV subtests was associated with faster speed of processing, as reflected by decreases in P3b latency. Current evidence supports the hypothesis that the UFOV recruits both early perceptual and later cognitive processing involved in attentional control. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26236026
Lessons Learned from the Wide Field Camera 3 TV1 Test Campaign and Correlation Effort
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peabody, Hume; Stavley, Richard; Bast, William
2007-01-01
In January 2004, shortly after the Columbia accident, future servicing missions to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) were cancelled. In response to this, further work on the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument was ceased. Given the maturity level of the design, a characterization thermal test (TV1) was completed in case the mission was re-instated or an alternate mission found on which to fly the instrument. This thermal test yielded some valuable lessons learned with respect to testing configurations and modeling/correlation practices, including: 1. Ensure that the thermal design can be tested 2. Ensure that the model has sufficient detail for accurate predictions 3. Ensure that the power associated with all active control devices is predicted 4. Avoid unit changes for existing models. This paper documents the difficulties presented when these recommendations were not followed.
Inductive crystal field control in layered metal oxides with correlated electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balachandran, P. V.; Cammarata, A.; Nelson-Cheeseman, B. B.; Bhattacharya, A.; Rondinelli, J. M.
2014-07-01
We show that the NiO6 crystal field energies can be tailored indirectly via heterovalent A cation ordering in layered (La,A)NiO4 Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) oxides, where A = Sr, Ca, or Ba, using density functional calculations. We leverage as a driving force the electrostatic interactions between charged [LaO]1 + and neutral [AO]0 planes to inductively tune the Ni-O bond distortions, without intentional doping or epitaxial strain, altering the correlated d-orbital energies. We use this strategy to design cation ordered LaCaNiO4 and LaBaNiO4 with distortions favoring enhanced Ni eg orbital polarization, and find local electronic structure signatures analogous to those in RP La-cuprates, i.e., parent phases of the high-temperature superconducting oxides.
Interferometric methods for mapping static electric and magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pozzi, Giulio; Beleggia, Marco; Kasama, Takeshi; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.
2014-02-01
The mapping of static electric and magnetic fields using electron probes with a resolution and sensitivity that are sufficient to reveal nanoscale features in materials requires the use of phase-sensitive methods such as the shadow technique, coherent Foucault imaging and the Transport of Intensity Equation. Among these approaches, image-plane off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope has acquired a prominent role thanks to its quantitative capabilities and broad range of applicability. After a brief overview of the main ideas and methods behind field mapping, we focus on theoretical models that form the basis of the quantitative interpretation of electron holographic data. We review the application of electron holography to a variety of samples (including electric fields associated with p-n junctions in semiconductors, quantized magnetic flux in superconductors and magnetization topographies in nanoparticles and other magnetic materials) and electron-optical geometries (including multiple biprism, amplitude and mixed-type set-ups). We conclude by highlighting the emerging perspectives of (i) three-dimensional field mapping using electron holographic tomography and (ii) the model-independent determination of the locations and magnitudes of field sources (electric charges and magnetic dipoles) directly from electron holographic data.
Gravitational collapse of scalar fields via spectral methods
Oliveira, H. P. de; Rodrigues, E. L.; Skea, J. E. F.
2010-11-15
In this paper we present a new numerical code based on the Galerkin method to integrate the field equations for the spherical collapse of massive and massless scalar fields. By using a spectral decomposition in terms of the radial coordinate, the field equations were reduced to a finite set of ordinary differential equations in the space of modes associated with the Galerkin expansion of the scalar field, together with algebraic sets of equations connecting modes associated with the metric functions. The set of ordinary differential equations with respect to the null coordinate is then integrated using an eighth-order Runge-Kutta method. The numerical tests have confirmed the high accuracy and fast convergence of the code. As an application we have evaluated the whole spectrum of black hole masses which ranges from infinitesimal to large values obtained after varying the amplitude of the initial scalar field distribution. We have found strong numerical evidence that this spectrum is described by a nonextensive distribution law.
Long-term comparison of energy flux calculation methods over an agricultural field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolle, O.
1996-05-01
Since March 1990 micrometeorological measurements were carried out over an agricultural field with varying land use (wheat, barley, sunflowers, mustard) using a profile mast and an energy balance mast with an eddy correlation system for the sensible heat flux. Soil temperature, soil heat flux, soil moisture and precipitation were measured as well. Long-term measurements allow statistical analysis of the energy fluxes and comparisons of different methods for their calculation (eddy correlation, flux profile, Bowen ratio and the residual method). For the sensible heat flux a good agreement was found using these different methods after applying all necessary corrections. The latent heat flux shows greater deviations in the daily cycle between the flux profile method and the residual method due to the shape of the humidity profiles which often and especially at night show a maximum at heights between 1 m and 4 m, even if the soil is free of vegetation. This could be a consequence of the patchiness of the agricultural area, the position of the station on top of a hillock or high water absorption of the soil, respectively. The residual method seems to give more reliable results for the actual evapotranspiration than the flux profile method or the Bowen ratio method if an eddy correlation system is used to determine the sensible heat flux. Differences in the soil heat flux measured with heat flux plates and determined using the profiles of soil temperature and soil moisture can be explained by the heat flux plates being a disturbance to the soil matrix.
Multiresolution and Explicit Methods for Vector Field Analysis and Visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielson, Gregory M.
1997-01-01
This is a request for a second renewal (3d year of funding) of a research project on the topic of multiresolution and explicit methods for vector field analysis and visualization. In this report, we describe the progress made on this research project during the second year and give a statement of the planned research for the third year. There are two aspects to this research project. The first is concerned with the development of techniques for computing tangent curves for use in visualizing flow fields. The second aspect of the research project is concerned with the development of multiresolution methods for curvilinear grids and their use as tools for visualization, analysis and archiving of flow data. We report on our work on the development of numerical methods for tangent curve computation first.
Potential theoretic methods for far field sound radiation calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.; Stenger, Edward J.; Scott, J. R.
1995-01-01
In the area of computational acoustics, procedures which accurately predict the far-field sound radiation are much sought after. A systematic development of such procedures are found in a sequence of papers by Atassi. The method presented here is an alternate approach to predicting far field sound based on simple layer potential theoretic methods. The main advantages of this method are: it requires only a simple free space Green's function, it can accommodate arbitrary shapes of Kirchoff surfaces, and is readily extendable to three-dimensional problems. Moreover, the procedure presented here, though tested for unsteady lifting airfoil problems, can easily be adapted to other areas of interest, such as jet noise radiation problems. Results are presented for lifting airfoil problems and comparisons are made with the results reported by Atassi. Direct comparisons are also made for the flat plate case.
New electric field methods in chemical relaxation spectrometry.
Persoons, A; Hellemans, L
1978-01-01
New stationary relaxation methods for the investigation of ionic and dipolar equilibria are presented. The methods are based on the measurement of non-linearities in conductance and permittivity under high electric field conditions. The chemical contributions to the nonlinear effects are discussed in their static as well as their dynamic behavior. A sampling of experimental results shows the potential and range of possible applications of the new techniques. It is shown that these methods will become useful in the study of nonlinear responses to perturbation, in view of the general applicability of the experimental principles involved. PMID:708817
Photolysis rates in correlated overlapping cloud fields: Cloud-J 7.3c
Prather, M. J.
2015-08-14
A new approach for modeling photolysis rates (J values) in atmospheres with fractional cloud cover has been developed and is implemented as Cloud-J – a multi-scattering eight-stream radiative transfer model for solar radiation based on Fast-J. Using observations of the vertical correlation of cloud layers, Cloud-J 7.3c provides a practical and accurate method for modeling atmospheric chemistry. The combination of the new maximum-correlated cloud groups with the integration over all cloud combinations by four quadrature atmospheres produces mean J values in an atmospheric column with root mean square (rms) errors of 4 % or less compared with 10–20 % errorsmore » using simpler approximations. Cloud-J is practical for chemistry–climate models, requiring only an average of 2.8 Fast-J calls per atmosphere vs. hundreds of calls with the correlated cloud groups, or 1 call with the simplest cloud approximations. Another improvement in modeling J values, the treatment of volatile organic compounds with pressure-dependent cross sections, is also incorporated into Cloud-J.« less
Photolysis rates in correlated overlapping cloud fields: Cloud-J 7.3
Prather, M. J.
2015-05-27
A new approach for modeling photolysis rates (J values) in atmospheres with fractional cloud cover has been developed and implemented as Cloud-J – a multi-scattering eight-stream radiative transfer model for solar radiation based on Fast-J. Using observed statistics for the vertical correlation of cloud layers, Cloud-J 7.3 provides a practical and accurate method for modeling atmospheric chemistry. The combination of the new maximum-correlated cloud groups with the integration over all cloud combinations represented by four quadrature atmospheres produces mean J values in an atmospheric column with root-mean-square errors of 4% or less compared with 10–20% errors using simpler approximations. Cloud-Jmore » is practical for chemistry-climate models, requiring only an average of 2.8 Fast-J calls per atmosphere, vs. hundreds of calls with the correlated cloud groups, or 1 call with the simplest cloud approximations. Another improvement in modeling J values, the treatment of volatile organic compounds with pressure-dependent cross sections is also incorporated into Cloud-J.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacDowall, R. J.; Golla, T.; Reiner, M. J.; Farrell, W. M.
2015-12-01
Variability of the numerous varieties of Jovian radio emission has been associated with aspects of solar wind (SW) and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) parameters outside the magnetosphere. Here we demonstrate multiple-parameter correlations that relate each of several Jovian emissions, including bKOM and quasi-periodic bursts, to the SW and IMF impacting the Jovian magnetosphere. The data used are from the Ulysses spacecraft with radio data from the Unified Radio and Plasma wave (URAP) instrument, which provides high-quality remote radio observations of the Jovian emissions. The URAP observations are correlated with SW and IMF data from the relevant instruments on Ulysses, propagated to the nose of the Jovian magnetosphere with a sophisticated code. Because the aphelion of the Ulysses orbit was at the Jovian distance from the Sun, Ulysses spent ample time near Jupiter in 1991-1992 and 2003-2004, which are the intervals analyzed. Our results can be inverted such that radio observations by a Jovian orbiter, such as Cassini or Juno, are able to identify SW/IMF changes based on the behavior of the radio emissions.
Radar analyses of mesoscale meteorological phenomena during the AVE/VAS correlation field experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huebner, G. L.
1984-01-01
Radar data were collected during the selected critical times of the field experiment and subsequently analyzed for specific items. The analyses of the radar data for the AVE/VAS experiment provided statistically significant values for each of the 10 Km by 10 Km grids within radar range. The resulting information for correlation with satellite data included the following derived items that were averaged for each grid area: (1) rainfall rate in mm/hr; (2) dBZ (reflectivity) values; (3) accumulated rainfall values per hour; (4) accumulated rainfall values for a 6-hour period; (5) vertically integrated liquid water content per square meter; and (6) vertical height of the radar axis at the midpoint of each grid. Additional products derived from radar data are being investigated. An example of one such product is the derivation of the errors in integrated rainfall with different sampling periods. This is of significance for correlation with satellite data in that normally a step-function type of rainfall rate is used to derive the total rainfall over a period.
CMB-galaxy correlation in Unified Dark Matter scalar field cosmologies
Bertacca, Daniele; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Raccanelli, Alvise; Piattella, Oliver F.; Pietrobon, Davide; Giannantonio, Tommaso E-mail: alvise.raccanelli@port.ac.uk E-mail: davide.pietrobon@jpl.nasa.gov E-mail: sabino.matarrese@pd.infn.it
2011-03-01
We present an analysis of the cross-correlation between the CMB and the large-scale structure (LSS) of the Universe in Unified Dark Matter (UDM) scalar field cosmologies. We work out the predicted cross-correlation function in UDM models, which depends on the speed of sound of the unified component, and compare it with observations from six galaxy catalogues (NVSS, HEAO, 2MASS, and SDSS main galaxies, luminous red galaxies, and quasars). We sample the value of the speed of sound and perform a likelihood analysis, finding that the UDM model is as likely as the ΛCDM, and is compatible with observations for a range of values of c{sub ∞} (the value of the sound speed at late times) on which structure formation depends. In particular, we obtain an upper bound of c{sub ∞}{sup 2} ≤ 0.009 at 95% confidence level, meaning that the ΛCDM model, for which c{sub ∞}{sup 2} = 0, is a good fit to the data, while the posterior probability distribution peaks at the value c{sub ∞}{sup 2} = 10{sup −4} . Finally, we study the time dependence of the deviation from ΛCDM via a tomographic analysis using a mock redshift distribution and we find that the largest deviation is for low-redshift sources, suggesting that future low-z surveys will be best suited to constrain UDM models.
Thyroid hormones correlate with field metabolic rate in ponies, Equus ferus caballus.
Brinkmann, Lea; Gerken, Martina; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John R; Riek, Alexander
2016-08-15
During winter, free-living herbivores are often exposed to reduced energy supply at the same time that energy needs for thermoregulation increase. Several wild herbivores as well as robust horse breeds reduce their metabolism during times of low ambient temperature and food shortage. Thyroid hormones (THs) affect metabolic intensity and a positive effect of THs on basal metabolic rate (BMR) has been demonstrated in mammals and birds. As BMR and field metabolic rate (FMR) are often assumed to be intrinsically linked, THs may represent a reliable indicator for FMR. To test this hypothesis, 10 Shetland pony mares were kept under semi-extensive central European conditions. During the winter season, one group was fed 60% and one group 100% of their maintenance energy requirements. We measured FMR, locomotor activity, resting heart rate and TH levels in summer and winter. FMR, locomotor activity, resting heart rate and total T3 concentrations decreased substantially in winter compared with summer, whereas total T4 increased. Food restriction led to a reduced FMR and resting heart rate, while THs and locomotor activity were not affected. Across both seasons, FMR, resting heart rate and locomotor activity were positively correlated with total T3 but negatively and more weakly correlated with total T4.
Radio-Optical Galaxy Shape Correlations in theCOSMOS Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tunbridge, Ben; Harrison, Ian; Brown, Michael L.
2016-09-01
We investigate the correlations in galaxy shapes between optical and radio wavelengths using archival observations of the COSMOS field. Cross-correlation studies between different wavebands will become increasingly important for precision cosmology as future large surveys may be dominated by systematic rather than statistical errors. In the case of weak lensing, galaxy shapes must be measured to extraordinary accuracy (shear systematics of <0.01%) in order to achieve good constraints on dark energy parameters. By using shape information from overlapping surveys in optical and radio bands, robustness to systematics may be significantly improved without loss of constraining power. Here we use HST-ACS optical data, VLA radio data, and extensive simulations to investigate both our ability to make precision measurements of source shapes from realistic radio data, and to constrain the intrinsic astrophysical scatter between the shapes of galaxies as measured in the optical and radio wavebands. By producing a new image from the VLA-COSMOS L-band radio visibility data that is well suited to galaxy shape measurements, we are able to extract precise measurements of galaxy position angles. Comparing to corresponding measurements from the HST optical image, we set a lower limit on the intrinsic astrophysical scatter in position angles, between the optical and radio bands, of σα > 0.212π radians (or 38.2°) at a 95% confidence level.
Thyroid hormones correlate with field metabolic rate in ponies, Equus ferus caballus.
Brinkmann, Lea; Gerken, Martina; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John R; Riek, Alexander
2016-08-15
During winter, free-living herbivores are often exposed to reduced energy supply at the same time that energy needs for thermoregulation increase. Several wild herbivores as well as robust horse breeds reduce their metabolism during times of low ambient temperature and food shortage. Thyroid hormones (THs) affect metabolic intensity and a positive effect of THs on basal metabolic rate (BMR) has been demonstrated in mammals and birds. As BMR and field metabolic rate (FMR) are often assumed to be intrinsically linked, THs may represent a reliable indicator for FMR. To test this hypothesis, 10 Shetland pony mares were kept under semi-extensive central European conditions. During the winter season, one group was fed 60% and one group 100% of their maintenance energy requirements. We measured FMR, locomotor activity, resting heart rate and TH levels in summer and winter. FMR, locomotor activity, resting heart rate and total T3 concentrations decreased substantially in winter compared with summer, whereas total T4 increased. Food restriction led to a reduced FMR and resting heart rate, while THs and locomotor activity were not affected. Across both seasons, FMR, resting heart rate and locomotor activity were positively correlated with total T3 but negatively and more weakly correlated with total T4. PMID:27312472
A combined method for correlative 3D imaging of biological samples from macro to nano scale
Kellner, Manuela; Heidrich, Marko; Lorbeer, Raoul-Amadeus; Antonopoulos, Georgios C.; Knudsen, Lars; Wrede, Christoph; Izykowski, Nicole; Grothausmann, Roman; Jonigk, Danny; Ochs, Matthias; Ripken, Tammo; Kühnel, Mark P.; Meyer, Heiko
2016-01-01
Correlative analysis requires examination of a specimen from macro to nano scale as well as applicability of analytical methods ranging from morphological to molecular. Accomplishing this with one and the same sample is laborious at best, due to deformation and biodegradation during measurements or intermediary preparation steps. Furthermore, data alignment using differing imaging techniques turns out to be a complex task, which considerably complicates the interconnection of results. We present correlative imaging of the accessory rat lung lobe by combining a modified Scanning Laser Optical Tomography (SLOT) setup with a specially developed sample preparation method (CRISTAL). CRISTAL is a resin-based embedding method that optically clears the specimen while allowing sectioning and preventing degradation. We applied and correlated SLOT with Multi Photon Microscopy, histological and immunofluorescence analysis as well as Transmission Electron Microscopy, all in the same sample. Thus, combining CRISTAL with SLOT enables the correlative utilization of a vast variety of imaging techniques. PMID:27759114
Extending methods: using Bourdieu's field analysis to further investigate taste
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schindel Dimick, Alexandra
2015-06-01
In this commentary on Per Anderhag, Per-Olof Wickman and Karim Hamza's article Signs of taste for science, I consider how their study is situated within the concern for the role of science education in the social and cultural production of inequality. Their article provides a finely detailed methodology for analyzing the constitution of taste within science education classrooms. Nevertheless, because the authors' socially situated methodology draws upon Bourdieu's theories, it seems equally important to extend these methods to consider how and why students make particular distinctions within a relational context—a key aspect of Bourdieu's theory of cultural production. By situating the constitution of taste within Bourdieu's field analysis, researchers can explore the ways in which students' tastes and social positionings are established and transformed through time, space, place, and their ability to navigate the field. I describe the process of field analysis in relation to the authors' paper and suggest that combining the authors' methods with a field analysis can provide a strong methodological and analytical framework in which theory and methods combine to create a detailed understanding of students' interest in relation to their context.
Detection of gravity field source boundaries using deconvolution method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuo, Boxin; Hu, Xiangyun; Liang, Yin; Han, Qi
2014-12-01
Complications arise in the interpretation of gravity fields because of interference from systematic degradations, such as boundary blurring and distortion. The major sources of these degradations are the various systematic errors that inevitably occur during gravity field data acquisition, discretization and geophysical forward modelling. To address this problem, we evaluate deconvolution method that aim to detect the clear horizontal boundaries of anomalous sources by the suppression of systematic errors. A convolution-based multilayer projection model, based on the classical 3-D gravity field forward model, is innovatively derived to model the systematic error degradation. Our deconvolution algorithm is specifically designed based on this multilayer projection model, in which three types of systematic error are defined. The degradations of the different systematic errors are considered in the deconvolution algorithm. As the primary source of degradation, the convolution-based systematic error is the main object of the multilayer projection model. Both the random systematic error and the projection systematic error are shown to form an integral part of the multilayer projection model, and the mixed norm regularization method and the primal-dual optimization method are therefore employed to control these errors and stabilize the deconvolution solution. We herein analyse the parameter identification and convergence of the proposed algorithms, and synthetic and field data sets are both used to illustrate their effectiveness. Additional synthetic examples are specifically designed to analyse the effects of the projection systematic error, which is caused by the uncertainty associated with the estimation of the impulse response function.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitali, Ettore; Shi, Hao; Qin, Mingpu; Zhang, Shiwei
2016-08-01
We address the calculation of dynamical correlation functions for many fermion systems at zero temperature, using the auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo method. The two-dimensional Hubbard hamiltonian is used as a model system. Although most of the calculations performed here are for cases where the sign problem is absent, the discussions are kept general for applications to physical problems when the sign problem does arise. We study the use of twisted boundary conditions to improve the extrapolation of the results to the thermodynamic limit. A strategy is proposed to drastically reduce finite size effects relying on a minimization among the twist angles. This approach is demonstrated by computing the charge gap at half filling. We obtain accurate results showing the scaling of the gap with the interaction strength U in two dimensions, connecting to the scaling of the unrestricted Hartree-Fock method at small U and Bethe ansatz exact result in one dimension at large U . An alternative algorithm is then proposed to compute dynamical Green functions and correlation functions which explicitly varies the number of particles during the random walks in the manifold of Slater determinants. In dilute systems, such as ultracold Fermi gases, this algorithm enables calculations with much more favorable complexity, with computational cost proportional to basis size or the number of lattice sites.
Subjective perceptual methods for comparing backpacks in the field.
Legg, S J; Barr A, A; Hedderley, D I
2003-07-15
Subjective perceptual methods have provided useful information in the laboratory about small differences in backpack design when physiological and biomechanical comparisons are ineffective, but have never been used in the field. This study therefore evaluated, in a controlled field trial with 10 male participants, the suitability of quantitative and qualitative subjective perceptual approaches to distinguish between subtle design differences in two backpacks, each loaded to 15 kg. In addition, initial quantitative subjective impressions about the two backpacks during a 15 min simulated 'in-shop' trial were compared with post-field trial backpack preference. In the simulated 'in-shop' trial the participants 'tried out' the backpack in a manner that was very similar to the way that they would normally try out a backpack as if they were considering buying one in an 'outdoor' shop. It included donning and doffing the pack several times and walking around the room wearing the backpack. In the controlled field trial, participants carried the two backpacks for approximately 15 min around a 1313 m hilly outdoor track at a self-selected walking pace which elicited a moderate exercise intensity. Seven participants preferred backpack A. Three preferred backpack B. The qualitative approach, which required participants to provide free-format written responses to semi-structured open-ended questions immediately after the field trial, successfully identified specific reasons underlying participants' preferences. The main reasons for preferring backpack A were better balance, weight distribution, stability up and down hill and over obstacles, fewer pressure points on their back and easier strap location and adjustment. The quantitative approach, which involved participants responding to written post-field trial questions on visual analogue or category ratio rating scales, was generally unsuccessful in distinguishing between backpacks. Thus, qualitative subjective perceptual
Abnormality degree detection method using negative potential field group detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hongli; Liu, Shulin; Li, Dong; Shi, Kunju; Wang, Bo; Cui, Jiqiang
2015-09-01
Online monitoring methods have been widely used in many major devices, however the normal and abnormal states of equipment are estimated mainly based on the monitoring results whether monitored parameters exceed the setting thresholds. Using these monitoring methods may cause serious false positive or false negative results. In order to precisely monitor the state of equipment, the problem of abnormality degree detection without fault sample is studied with a new detection method called negative potential field group detectors(NPFG-detectors). This method achieves the quantitative expression of abnormality degree and provides the better detection results compared with other methods. In the process of Iris data set simulation, the new algorithm obtains the successful results in abnormal detection. The detection rates for 3 types of Iris data set respectively reach 100%, 91.6%, and 95.24% with 50% training samples. The problem of Bearing abnormality degree detection via an abnormality degree curve is successfully solved.
Magnetic field sensing subject to correlated noise with a ring spin chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Li-Sha; Xu, Bao-Ming; Zou, Jian; Shao, Bin
2016-09-01
In this paper, we focus on the magnetic field sensing subject to a correlated noise. We use a ring spin chain with only the nearest neighbor interactions as our probe to estimate both the intensity B and the direction θ of the magnetic field when the probe reaches its steady state. We numerically calculate the quantum Fisher information (QFI) to characterize the estimation precision. On the one hand, for estimating B, we find that the coupling between spins in the probe plays an important role in the precision, and the largest value of the QFI can be achieved when θ = π/2 together with an optimal coupling. Moreover, for any direction, the precision scaling can be better than the Heisenberg-limit (HL) with a proper coupling. On the other hand, for estimating θ, we find that our probe can perform a high precision detection for θ ~ π/2, with the QFI much larger than that for any other directions, especially when the coupling is tuned to the optimal value. And we find that the precision scaling for θ ~ π/2 can be better than the HL, but for other directions, the precision scaling is only limited to the standard quantum limit (SQL). Due to the computational complexity we restrict the number of spins in the probe to 60.
Magnetic field sensing subject to correlated noise with a ring spin chain.
Guo, Li-Sha; Xu, Bao-Ming; Zou, Jian; Shao, Bin
2016-01-01
In this paper, we focus on the magnetic field sensing subject to a correlated noise. We use a ring spin chain with only the nearest neighbor interactions as our probe to estimate both the intensity B and the direction θ of the magnetic field when the probe reaches its steady state. We numerically calculate the quantum Fisher information (QFI) to characterize the estimation precision. On the one hand, for estimating B, we find that the coupling between spins in the probe plays an important role in the precision, and the largest value of the QFI can be achieved when θ = π/2 together with an optimal coupling. Moreover, for any direction, the precision scaling can be better than the Heisenberg-limit (HL) with a proper coupling. On the other hand, for estimating θ, we find that our probe can perform a high precision detection for θ ~ π/2, with the QFI much larger than that for any other directions, especially when the coupling is tuned to the optimal value. And we find that the precision scaling for θ ~ π/2 can be better than the HL, but for other directions, the precision scaling is only limited to the standard quantum limit (SQL). Due to the computational complexity we restrict the number of spins in the probe to 60. PMID:27623048
Magnetic field sensing subject to correlated noise with a ring spin chain
Guo, Li-Sha; Xu, Bao-Ming; Zou, Jian; Shao, Bin
2016-01-01
In this paper, we focus on the magnetic field sensing subject to a correlated noise. We use a ring spin chain with only the nearest neighbor interactions as our probe to estimate both the intensity B and the direction θ of the magnetic field when the probe reaches its steady state. We numerically calculate the quantum Fisher information (QFI) to characterize the estimation precision. On the one hand, for estimating B, we find that the coupling between spins in the probe plays an important role in the precision, and the largest value of the QFI can be achieved when θ = π/2 together with an optimal coupling. Moreover, for any direction, the precision scaling can be better than the Heisenberg-limit (HL) with a proper coupling. On the other hand, for estimating θ, we find that our probe can perform a high precision detection for θ ~ π/2, with the QFI much larger than that for any other directions, especially when the coupling is tuned to the optimal value. And we find that the precision scaling for θ ~ π/2 can be better than the HL, but for other directions, the precision scaling is only limited to the standard quantum limit (SQL). Due to the computational complexity we restrict the number of spins in the probe to 60. PMID:27623048
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y.; Le, G.; Boardsen, S. A.; Slavin, J. A.; Strangeway, R. J.
2008-05-01
Field-aligned currents (FACs) are the currents flowing into and out of the ionosphere which connect to the magnetosphere. They provide an essential linkage between the solar wind - magnetosphere system and the ionosphere, and the understanding of these currents is important for global magnetosphere dynamics and space weather prediction. The three spacecraft ST-5 constellation provides an unprecedented opportunity to study in situ FAC dynamics in time scales (10 sec to 10 min) that can not be achieved previously with single spacecraft studies or large-spaced conjugate spacecraft studies. In this study, we use the magnetic field observations during the whole ST-5 mission and their corresponding solar wind conditions to study the dependence of FAC current sheet motion and intensity on solar wind conditions. FAC peak current densities show very good correlations with some solar wind parameters, including IMF Bz, dynamic pressure, Ey, and some IMF angles, but not with other parameters. Instant FAC speeds show generally much weaker dependence on solar wind conditions comparing to FAC peak current densities. This obvious uncorrelation between FAC peak current densities and speeds implies that FAC peak current densities are more consistently controlled by solar wind conditions and geomagnetic activities, while FAC speeds are more oscillatory, sometimes with higher speeds during quieter times and lower speeds during more turbulent times.
Magnetic field sensing subject to correlated noise with a ring spin chain.
Guo, Li-Sha; Xu, Bao-Ming; Zou, Jian; Shao, Bin
2016-09-13
In this paper, we focus on the magnetic field sensing subject to a correlated noise. We use a ring spin chain with only the nearest neighbor interactions as our probe to estimate both the intensity B and the direction θ of the magnetic field when the probe reaches its steady state. We numerically calculate the quantum Fisher information (QFI) to characterize the estimation precision. On the one hand, for estimating B, we find that the coupling between spins in the probe plays an important role in the precision, and the largest value of the QFI can be achieved when θ = π/2 together with an optimal coupling. Moreover, for any direction, the precision scaling can be better than the Heisenberg-limit (HL) with a proper coupling. On the other hand, for estimating θ, we find that our probe can perform a high precision detection for θ ~ π/2, with the QFI much larger than that for any other directions, especially when the coupling is tuned to the optimal value. And we find that the precision scaling for θ ~ π/2 can be better than the HL, but for other directions, the precision scaling is only limited to the standard quantum limit (SQL). Due to the computational complexity we restrict the number of spins in the probe to 60.
An Efficient Method for Far-field Tsunami Forecasting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hossen, M. J.; Cummins, P. R.; Dettmer, J.; Baba, T.
2015-12-01
We have developed a hybrid method to forecast far-field tsunamis by combining traditional, least-squares inversion for initial sea surface displacement (LSQ) and time reverse imaging (TRI). This method has the same source representation as LSQ, which involves dividing the source region into a grid of "point" sources. For each of these, a tsunami Green's function (GF) is computed using a basis function for sea surface displacement whose support is concentrated near the grid point. Instead of solving the linear inverse problem for initial sea surface displacement using regularized least-squares, we apply the TRI method to estimate initial sea surface displacement at each source grid point by convolving GFs with time-reversed observed waveforms recorded near the source region. This tsunami-source estimate is then used to forecast tsunami waveforms at greater distance. We apply this method to the 2011 Tohoku, Japan tsunami because of the availability of an extensive set of high-quality tsunami waveform recordings. The results show that the method can predict tsunami waveforms having good agreement with observed waveforms at near-field stations not part of the source estimation, and excellent agreement with far-field waveforms. The spatial distribution of cumulative sea surface displacement agrees well with other models obtained in more sophisticated inversions, but the temporal resolution of this method does not resolve source kinematics. The method has potential for application in tsunami warning systems, as it is computationally efficient and can be applied to estimate the initial source model by applying precomputed Green's functions in order to provide more accurate and realistic tsunami predictions.
Process system and method for fabricating submicron field emission cathodes
Jankowski, Alan F.; Hayes, Jeffrey P.
1998-01-01
A process method and system for making field emission cathodes exists. The deposition source divergence is controlled to produce field emission cathodes with height-to-base aspect ratios that are uniform over large substrate surface areas while using very short source-to-substrate distances. The rate of hole closure is controlled from the cone source. The substrate surface is coated in well defined increments. The deposition source is apertured to coat pixel areas on the substrate. The entire substrate is coated using a manipulator to incrementally move the whole substrate surface past the deposition source. Either collimated sputtering or evaporative deposition sources can be used. The position of the aperture and its size and shape are used to control the field emission cathode size and shape.
Two-Way Gene Interaction From Microarray Data Based on Correlation Methods
Alavi Majd, Hamid; Talebi, Atefeh; Gilany, Kambiz; Khayyer, Nasibeh
2016-01-01
Background Gene networks have generated a massive explosion in the development of high-throughput techniques for monitoring various aspects of gene activity. Networks offer a natural way to model interactions between genes, and extracting gene network information from high-throughput genomic data is an important and difficult task. Objectives The purpose of this study is to construct a two-way gene network based on parametric and nonparametric correlation coefficients. The first step in constructing a Gene Co-expression Network is to score all pairs of gene vectors. The second step is to select a score threshold and connect all gene pairs whose scores exceed this value. Materials and Methods In the foundation-application study, we constructed two-way gene networks using nonparametric methods, such as Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and Blomqvist’s measure, and compared them with Pearson’s correlation coefficient. We surveyed six genes of venous thrombosis disease, made a matrix entry representing the score for the corresponding gene pair, and obtained two-way interactions using Pearson’s correlation, Spearman’s rank correlation, and Blomqvist’s coefficient. Finally, these methods were compared with Cytoscape, based on BIND, and Gene Ontology, based on molecular function visual methods; R software version 3.2 and Bioconductor were used to perform these methods. Results Based on the Pearson and Spearman correlations, the results were the same and were confirmed by Cytoscape and GO visual methods; however, Blomqvist’s coefficient was not confirmed by visual methods. Conclusions Some results of the correlation coefficients are not the same with visualization. The reason may be due to the small number of data.
Two-Way Gene Interaction From Microarray Data Based on Correlation Methods
Alavi Majd, Hamid; Talebi, Atefeh; Gilany, Kambiz; Khayyer, Nasibeh
2016-01-01
Background Gene networks have generated a massive explosion in the development of high-throughput techniques for monitoring various aspects of gene activity. Networks offer a natural way to model interactions between genes, and extracting gene network information from high-throughput genomic data is an important and difficult task. Objectives The purpose of this study is to construct a two-way gene network based on parametric and nonparametric correlation coefficients. The first step in constructing a Gene Co-expression Network is to score all pairs of gene vectors. The second step is to select a score threshold and connect all gene pairs whose scores exceed this value. Materials and Methods In the foundation-application study, we constructed two-way gene networks using nonparametric methods, such as Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and Blomqvist’s measure, and compared them with Pearson’s correlation coefficient. We surveyed six genes of venous thrombosis disease, made a matrix entry representing the score for the corresponding gene pair, and obtained two-way interactions using Pearson’s correlation, Spearman’s rank correlation, and Blomqvist’s coefficient. Finally, these methods were compared with Cytoscape, based on BIND, and Gene Ontology, based on molecular function visual methods; R software version 3.2 and Bioconductor were used to perform these methods. Results Based on the Pearson and Spearman correlations, the results were the same and were confirmed by Cytoscape and GO visual methods; however, Blomqvist’s coefficient was not confirmed by visual methods. Conclusions Some results of the correlation coefficients are not the same with visualization. The reason may be due to the small number of data. PMID:27621916
Warren, Joshua L.; Mwanza, Jean-Claude; Tanna, Angelo P.; Budenz, Donald L.
2016-01-01
Purpose We developed a statistical model to improve the detection of glaucomatous visual field (VF) progression as defined by the consensus of expert clinicians. Methods We developed new methodology in the Bayesian setting to properly model the progression status of a patient (as determined by a group of expert clinicians) as a function of changes in spatially correlated sensitivities at each VF location jointly. We used a spatial probit regression model that jointly incorporates all highly correlated VF changes in a single framework while accounting for structural similarities between neighboring VF regions. Results Our method had improved model fit and predictive ability compared to competing models as indicated by the deviance information criterion (198.15 vs. 201.29–213.38), a posterior predictive model selection metric (130.08 vs. 142.08–155.59), area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.80 vs. 0.59–0.72; all P values < 0.018), and optimal sensitivity (0.92 vs. 0.28–0.82). Simulation study results suggest that estimation (reduction of mean squared errors) and inference (correct coverage of 95% credible intervals) for the model parameters are improved when spatial modeling is incorporated. Conclusions We developed a statistical model for the detection of VF progression defined by clinician expert consensus that accounts for spatially correlated changes in visual sensitivity over time, and showed that it outperformed competing models in a number of areas. Translational Relevance This model may easily be incorporated into routine clinical practice and be useful for detecting glaucomatous VF progression defined by clinician expert consensus. PMID:27622079
Warren, Joshua L.; Mwanza, Jean-Claude; Tanna, Angelo P.; Budenz, Donald L.
2016-01-01
Purpose We developed a statistical model to improve the detection of glaucomatous visual field (VF) progression as defined by the consensus of expert clinicians. Methods We developed new methodology in the Bayesian setting to properly model the progression status of a patient (as determined by a group of expert clinicians) as a function of changes in spatially correlated sensitivities at each VF location jointly. We used a spatial probit regression model that jointly incorporates all highly correlated VF changes in a single framework while accounting for structural similarities between neighboring VF regions. Results Our method had improved model fit and predictive ability compared to competing models as indicated by the deviance information criterion (198.15 vs. 201.29–213.38), a posterior predictive model selection metric (130.08 vs. 142.08–155.59), area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.80 vs. 0.59–0.72; all P values < 0.018), and optimal sensitivity (0.92 vs. 0.28–0.82). Simulation study results suggest that estimation (reduction of mean squared errors) and inference (correct coverage of 95% credible intervals) for the model parameters are improved when spatial modeling is incorporated. Conclusions We developed a statistical model for the detection of VF progression defined by clinician expert consensus that accounts for spatially correlated changes in visual sensitivity over time, and showed that it outperformed competing models in a number of areas. Translational Relevance This model may easily be incorporated into routine clinical practice and be useful for detecting glaucomatous VF progression defined by clinician expert consensus.
Madi, K; Tozzi, G; Zhang, Q H; Tong, J; Cossey, A; Au, A; Hollis, D; Hild, F
2013-09-01
Measurements of three-dimensional displacements in a scaffold implant under uniaxial compression have been obtained by two digital volume correlation (DVC) methods, and compared with those obtained from micro-finite element models. The DVC methods were based on two approaches, a local approach which registers independent small volumes and yields discontinuous displacement fields; and a global approach where the registration is performed on the whole volume of interest, leading to continuous displacement fields. A customised mini-compression device was used to perform in situ step-wise compression of the scaffold within a micro-computed tomography (μCT) chamber, and the data were collected at steps of interest. Displacement uncertainties, ranging from 0.006 to 0.02 voxel (i.e. 0.12-0.4 μm), with a strain uncertainty between 60 and 600 με, were obtained with a spatial resolution of 32 voxels using both approaches, although the global approach has lower systematic errors. Reduced displacement and strain uncertainties may be obtained using the global approach by increasing the element size; and using the local approach by increasing the number of intermediary sub-volumes. Good agreements between the results from the DVC measurements and the FE simulations were obtained in the primary loading direction as well as in the lateral directions. This study demonstrates that volumetric strain measurements can be obtained successfully using DVC, which may be a useful tool to investigate mechanical behaviour of porous implants.
Spectral and network methods in the analysis of correlation matrices of stock returns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heimo, Tapio; Saramäki, Jari; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Kaski, Kimmo
2007-09-01
Correlation matrices inferred from stock return time series contain information on the behaviour of the market, especially on clusters of highly correlating stocks. Here we study a subset of New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) traded stocks and compare three different methods of analysis: (i) spectral analysis, i.e. investigation of the eigenvalue-eigenvector pairs of the correlation matrix, (ii) asset trees, obtained by constructing the maximal spanning tree of the correlation matrix, and (iii) asset graphs, which are networks in which the strongest correlations are depicted as edges. We illustrate and discuss the localisation of the most significant modes of fluctuation, i.e. eigenvectors corresponding to the largest eigenvalues, on the asset trees and graphs.
A self-consistent field method for galactic dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hernquist, Lars; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.
1992-01-01
The present study describes an algorithm for evolving collisionless stellar systems in order to investigate the evolution of systems with density profiles like the R exp 1/4 law, using only a few terms in the expansions. A good fit is obtained for a truncated isothermal distribution, which renders the method appropriate for galaxies with flat rotation curves. Calculations employing N of about 10 exp 6-7 are straightforward on existing supercomputers, making possible simulations having significantly smoother fields than with direct methods such as tree-codes. Orbits are found in a given static or time-dependent gravitational field; the potential, phi(r, t) is revised from the resultant density, rho(r, t). Possible scientific uses of this technique are discussed, including tidal perturbations of dwarf galaxies, the adiabatic growth of central masses in spheroidal galaxies, instabilities in realistic galaxy models, and secular processes in galactic evolution.
A Method for Evaluating Volt-VAR Optimization Field Demonstrations
Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.
2014-08-31
In a regulated business environment a utility must be able to validate that deployed technologies provide quantifiable benefits to the end-use customers. For traditional technologies there are well established procedures for determining what benefits will be derived from the deployment. But for many emerging technologies procedures for determining benefits are less clear and completely absent in some cases. Volt-VAR Optimization is a technology that is being deployed across the nation, but there are still numerous discussions about potential benefits and how they are achieved. This paper will present a method for the evaluation, and quantification of benefits, for field deployments of Volt-VAR Optimization technologies. In addition to the basic methodology, the paper will present a summary of results, and observations, from two separate Volt-VAR Optimization field evaluations using the proposed method.
Method for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields
Lee, K.H.; Xie, G.Q.
1994-12-13
A method is described for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields, and for interpreting the electromagnetic data using ray tomography, in order to determine the earth conductivity with high accuracy and resolution. The imaging method includes the steps of placing one or more transmitters, at various positions in a plurality of transmitter holes, and placing a plurality of receivers in a plurality of receiver holes. The transmitters generate electromagnetic signals which diffuse through a medium, such as earth, toward the receivers. The measured diffusion field data H is then transformed into wavefield data U. The travel times corresponding to the wavefield data U, are then obtained, by charting the wavefield data U, using a different regularization parameter [alpha] for each transform. The desired property of the medium, such as conductivity, is then derived from the velocity, which in turn is constructed from the wavefield data U using ray tomography. 13 figures.
Method for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields
Lee, Ki H.; Xie, Gan Q.
1994-01-01
A method for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields, and for interpreting the electromagnetic data using ray tomography, in order to determine the earth conductivity with high accuracy and resolution. The imaging method includes the steps of placing one or more transmitters, at various positions in a plurality of transmitter holes, and placing a plurality of receivers in a plurality of receiver holes. The transmitters generate electromagnetic signals which diffuse through a medium, such as earth, toward the receivers. The measured diffusion field data H is then transformed into wavefield data U. The traveltimes corresponding to the wavefield data U, are then obtained, by charting the wavefield data U, using a different regularization parameter .alpha. for each transform. The desired property of the medium, such as conductivity, is then derived from the velocity, which in turn is constructed from the wavefield data U using ray tomography.
The reduced basis method for the electric field integral equation
Fares, M.; Hesthaven, J.S.; Maday, Y.; Stamm, B.
2011-06-20
We introduce the reduced basis method (RBM) as an efficient tool for parametrized scattering problems in computational electromagnetics for problems where field solutions are computed using a standard Boundary Element Method (BEM) for the parametrized electric field integral equation (EFIE). This combination enables an algorithmic cooperation which results in a two step procedure. The first step consists of a computationally intense assembling of the reduced basis, that needs to be effected only once. In the second step, we compute output functionals of the solution, such as the Radar Cross Section (RCS), independently of the dimension of the discretization space, for many different parameter values in a many-query context at very little cost. Parameters include the wavenumber, the angle of the incident plane wave and its polarization.
Phase demodulation method from a single fringe pattern based on correlation with a polynomial form.
Robin, Eric; Valle, Valéry; Brémand, Fabrice
2005-12-01
The method presented extracts the demodulated phase from only one fringe pattern. Locally, this method approaches the fringe pattern morphology with the help of a mathematical model. The degree of similarity between the mathematical model and the real fringe is estimated by minimizing a correlation function. To use an optimization process, we have chosen a polynomial form such as a mathematical model. However, the use of a polynomial form induces an identification procedure with the purpose of retrieving the demodulated phase. This method, polynomial modulated phase correlation, is tested on several examples. Its performance, in terms of speed and precision, is presented on very noised fringe patterns. PMID:16353793
Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C
2011-03-01
We demonstrate a novel technique for face recognition. Our approach relies on the performances of a strongly discriminating optical correlation method along with the robustness of the independent component analysis (ICA) model. Simulations were performed to illustrate how this algorithm can identify a face with images from the Pointing Head Pose Image Database. While maintaining algorithmic simplicity, this approach based on ICA representation significantly increases the true recognition rate compared to that obtained using our previously developed all-numerical ICA identity recognition method and another method based on optical correlation and a standard composite filter. PMID:21368935
Field's stain--a rapid staining method for Acanthamoeba spp.
Pirehma, M; Suresh, K; Sivanandam, S; Anuar, A K; Ramakrishnan, K; Kumar, G S
1999-10-01
Acanthamoeba sp. is a free-living amoeba known to cause chronic central nervous system infection or eye infection in humans. Many cases remain undetected for want of a good detection system. We report for the first time a rapid staining method to facilitate the identification of Acanthamoeba sp. using the modified Field's staining technique. A. castellanii, which was used in the present experiment, is maintained in our laboratory in mycological peptone medium (Gibco). The cultures were pooled together and smears were made on glass slides for staining purposes. Different types of stains such as Field's stain, modified Field's stain, Wright's stain, Giemsa stain, Ziehl-Neelsen stain, and trichrome stain were used to determine the best stain for the identification of this amoeba. The concentration of various stains and the duration of staining were varied to provide the best color and contrast for each stain. Acanthamoeba was also obtained from the brain of experimentally infected mice and was stained with various stains as mentioned above to determine the best stain for use in identifying the presence of this parasite in experimentally infected animals. The modified Field's stain gives a very good color contrast as compared with other stains. Furthermore, it takes only 20 s to be carried out using the least number of reagents, making it suitable for both laboratory and field use.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roldan, Alberto
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine and document whether there is a correlation between relevance (applicability) focused courses and rigor (scholarly research) focused courses with pedagogical instructional methods or andragogical instructional methods in undergraduate business schools, and how it affects learning behavior and final course…
Yuan Luqi; Das, Sumanta
2011-06-15
We study the polarization-dependent second-order correlation of a pair of photons emitted in a four-level radiative cascade driven by an external field. It is found that the quantum correlations of the emitted photons, degraded by the energy splitting of the intermediate levels in the radiative cascade, can be efficiently revived by a far-detuned external field. The physics of this revival is linked to an induced Stark shift and the formation of dressed states in the system by the nonresonant external field. Furthermore, we investigated the competition between the effect of the coherent external field and incoherent dephasing of the intermediate levels. We find that the degradation of quantum correlations due to the incoherent dephasing can be contained for small dephasing with the external field. We also studied the nonlocality of the correlations by evaluating the Bell inequality in the linear polarization basis for the radiative cascade. We find that the Bell parameter decreases rapidly with increase in the intermediate-level energy splitting or incoherent dephasing rate to the extent that there is no violation. However, the presence of an external field leads to control over the degrading mechanisms and preservation of nonlocal correlation among the photons. This in turn can induce a violation of Bell's inequality in the radiative cascade for arbitrary intermediate-level splitting and small incoherent dephasing.
Work function measurements by the field emission retarding potential method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strayer, R. W.; Mackie, W.; Swanson, L. W.
1973-01-01
Description of the theoretical foundation of the field electron retarding potential method, and review of its experimental application to the measurement of single crystal face work functions. The results obtained from several substrates are discussed. An interesting and useful fallout from the experimental approach described is the ability to accurately measure the elastic and inelastic reflection coefficient for impinging electrons to near zero-volt energy.
Lidar Tracking of Multiple Fluorescent Tracers: Method and Field Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eberhard, Wynn L.; Willis, Ron J.
1992-01-01
Past research and applications have demonstrated the advantages and usefulness of lidar detection of a single fluorescent tracer to track air motions. Earlier researchers performed an analytical study that showed good potential for lidar discrimination and tracking of two or three different fluorescent tracers at the same time. The present paper summarizes the multiple fluorescent tracer method, discusses its expected advantages and problems, and describes our field test of this new technique.
[Methods of dosimetry in evaluation of electromagnetic fields' biological action].
Rubtsova, N B; Perov, S Iu
2012-01-01
Theoretical and experimental dosimetry can be used for adequate evaluation of the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. In view of the tough electromagnetic environment in aircraft, pilots' safety is of particular topicality. The dosimetric evaluation is made from the quantitative characteristics of the EMF interaction with bio-objects depending on EM energy absorption in a unit of tissue volume or mass calculated as a specific absorbed rate (SAR) and measured in W/kg. Theoretical dosimetry employs a number of computational methods to determine EM energy, as well as the augmented method of boundary conditions, iterative augmented method of boundary conditions, moments method, generalized multipolar method, finite-element method, time domain finite-difference method, and hybrid methods combining several decision plans modeling the design philosophy of navigation, radiolocation and human systems. Because of difficulties with the experimental SAR estimate, theoretical dosimetry is regarded as the first step in analysis of the in-aircraft conditions of exposure and possible bio-effects.
Performance of FFT methods in local gravity field modelling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forsberg, Rene; Solheim, Dag
1989-01-01
Fast Fourier transform (FFT) methods provide a fast and efficient means of processing large amounts of gravity or geoid data in local gravity field modelling. The FFT methods, however, has a number of theoretical and practical limitations, especially the use of flat-earth approximation, and the requirements for gridded data. In spite of this the method often yields excellent results in practice when compared to other more rigorous (and computationally expensive) methods, such as least-squares collocation. The good performance of the FFT methods illustrate that the theoretical approximations are offset by the capability of taking into account more data in larger areas, especially important for geoid predictions. For best results good data gridding algorithms are essential. In practice truncated collocation approaches may be used. For large areas at high latitudes the gridding must be done using suitable map projections such as UTM, to avoid trivial errors caused by the meridian convergence. The FFT methods are compared to ground truth data in New Mexico (xi, eta from delta g), Scandinavia (N from delta g, the geoid fits to 15 cm over 2000 km), and areas of the Atlantic (delta g from satellite altimetry using Wiener filtering). In all cases the FFT methods yields results comparable or superior to other methods.
How to combine correlated data sets-A Bayesian hyperparameter matrix method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Y.-Z.; Berndsen, A.
2014-07-01
We construct a “hyperparameter matrix” statistical method for performing the joint analyses of multiple correlated astronomical data sets, in which the weights of data sets are determined by their own statistical properties. This method is a generalization of the hyperparameter method constructed by Lahav et al. (2000) and Hobson et al. (2002) which was designed to combine independent data sets. The advantage of our method is to treat correlations between multiple data sets and gives appropriate relevant weights of multiple data sets with mutual correlations. We define a new “element-wise” product, which greatly simplifies the likelihood function with hyperparameter matrix. We rigorously prove the simplified formula of the joint likelihood and show that it recovers the original hyperparameter method in the limit of no covariance between data sets. We then illustrate the method by applying it to a demonstrative toy model of fitting a straight line to two sets of data. We show that the hyperparameter matrix method can detect unaccounted systematic errors or underestimated errors in the data sets. Additionally, the ratio of Bayes' factors provides a distinct indicator of the necessity of including hyperparameters. Our example shows that the likelihood we construct for joint analyses of correlated data sets can be widely applied to many astrophysical systems.
Lin, Lixin; Wang, Yunjia; Teng, Jiyao; Xi, Xiuxiu
2015-01-01
The measurement of soil total nitrogen (TN) by hyperspectral remote sensing provides an important tool for soil restoration programs in areas with subsided land caused by the extraction of natural resources. This study used the local correlation maximization-complementary superiority method (LCMCS) to establish TN prediction models by considering the relationship between spectral reflectance (measured by an ASD FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer) and TN based on spectral reflectance curves of soil samples collected from subsided land which is determined by synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) technology. Based on the 1655 selected effective bands of the optimal spectrum (OSP) of the first derivate differential of reciprocal logarithm ([log{1/R}]'), (correlation coefficients, p < 0.01), the optimal model of LCMCS method was obtained to determine the final model, which produced lower prediction errors (root mean square error of validation [RMSEV] = 0.89, mean relative error of validation [MREV] = 5.93%) when compared with models built by the local correlation maximization (LCM), complementary superiority (CS) and partial least squares regression (PLS) methods. The predictive effect of LCMCS model was optional in Cangzhou, Renqiu and Fengfeng District. Results indicate that the LCMCS method has great potential to monitor TN in subsided lands caused by the extraction of natural resources including groundwater, oil and coal. PMID:26213935
Lin, Lixin; Wang, Yunjia; Teng, Jiyao; Xi, Xiuxiu
2015-01-01
The measurement of soil total nitrogen (TN) by hyperspectral remote sensing provides an important tool for soil restoration programs in areas with subsided land caused by the extraction of natural resources. This study used the local correlation maximization-complementary superiority method (LCMCS) to establish TN prediction models by considering the relationship between spectral reflectance (measured by an ASD FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer) and TN based on spectral reflectance curves of soil samples collected from subsided land which is determined by synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) technology. Based on the 1655 selected effective bands of the optimal spectrum (OSP) of the first derivate differential of reciprocal logarithm ([log{1/R}]′), (correlation coefficients, p < 0.01), the optimal model of LCMCS method was obtained to determine the final model, which produced lower prediction errors (root mean square error of validation [RMSEV] = 0.89, mean relative error of validation [MREV] = 5.93%) when compared with models built by the local correlation maximization (LCM), complementary superiority (CS) and partial least squares regression (PLS) methods. The predictive effect of LCMCS model was optional in Cangzhou, Renqiu and Fengfeng District. Results indicate that the LCMCS method has great potential to monitor TN in subsided lands caused by the extraction of natural resources including groundwater, oil and coal. PMID:26213935
Lin, Lixin; Wang, Yunjia; Teng, Jiyao; Xi, Xiuxiu
2015-01-01
The measurement of soil total nitrogen (TN) by hyperspectral remote sensing provides an important tool for soil restoration programs in areas with subsided land caused by the extraction of natural resources. This study used the local correlation maximization-complementary superiority method (LCMCS) to establish TN prediction models by considering the relationship between spectral reflectance (measured by an ASD FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer) and TN based on spectral reflectance curves of soil samples collected from subsided land which is determined by synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) technology. Based on the 1655 selected effective bands of the optimal spectrum (OSP) of the first derivate differential of reciprocal logarithm ([log{1/R}]'), (correlation coefficients, p < 0.01), the optimal model of LCMCS method was obtained to determine the final model, which produced lower prediction errors (root mean square error of validation [RMSEV] = 0.89, mean relative error of validation [MREV] = 5.93%) when compared with models built by the local correlation maximization (LCM), complementary superiority (CS) and partial least squares regression (PLS) methods. The predictive effect of LCMCS model was optional in Cangzhou, Renqiu and Fengfeng District. Results indicate that the LCMCS method has great potential to monitor TN in subsided lands caused by the extraction of natural resources including groundwater, oil and coal.
Two-gluon rapidity correlations of strong colour field in pp, pA and AA collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Ye-Yin; Xu, Ming-Mei; Zhang, Heng-Ying; Wu, Yuan-Fang
2016-11-01
Using the CGC formalism, we calculate the two-gluon rapidity correlations of strong colour fields in pp, pA and AA collisions, respectively. If one trigger gluon is fixed at central rapidity, a ridge-like correlation pattern is obtained in symmetry pp and AA collisions, and a huge bump-like correlation pattern is presented in asymmetry pA collisions. It is demonstrated that long-range ridge-like rapidity correlations are caused by the stronger correlation with the gluon of colour source. These features are independent of the azimuthal angular of two selected gluon. They are qualitatively consistent with current observed data at LHC. The transverse momentum and incident energy dependence of the ridge and bump-like correlations are also systematically studied. The ridge is more likely observed at higher incident energy and lower transverse momentum of trigger gluon.
Correlations of Surface Deformation and 3D Flow Field in a Compliant Wall Turbulent Channel Flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jin; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph
2015-11-01
This study focuses on the correlations between surface deformation and flow features, including velocity, vorticity and pressure, in a turbulent channel flow over a flat, compliant Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wall. The channel centerline velocity is 2.5 m/s, and the friction Reynolds number is 2.3x103. Analysis is based on simultaneous measurements of the time resolved 3D velocity and surface deformation using tomographic PIV and Mach-Zehnder Interferometry. The volumetric pressure distribution is calculated plane by plane by spatially integrating the material acceleration using virtual boundary, omni-directional method. Conditional sampling based on local high/low pressure and deformation events reveals the primary flow structures causing the deformation. High pressure peaks appear at the interface between sweep and ejection, whereas the negative deformations peaks (dent) appear upstream, under the sweeps. The persistent phase lag between flow and deformations are presumably caused by internal damping within the PDMS. Some of the low pressure peaks and strong ejections are located under the head of hairpin vortices, and accordingly, are associated with positive deformation (bump). Others bumps and dents are correlated with some spanwise offset large inclined quasi-streamwise vortices that are not necessarily associated with hairpins. Sponsored by ONR.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, S.; Garcia, A.; Lucas, A.; Appéré, T.; Le Gall, A.; Reffet, E.; Le Corre, L.; Le Mouélic, S.; Cornet, T.; Courrech du Pont, S.; Narteau, C.; Bourgeois, O.; Radebaugh, J.; Arnold, K.; Barnes, J. W.; Stephan, K.; Jaumann, R.; Sotin, C.; Brown, R. H.; Lorenz, R. D.; Turtle, E. P.
2014-02-01
Vast fields of linear dunes have been observed in the equatorial regions of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. As the Cassini mission, in orbit around Saturn since July 2004 and extended until May 2017, carries on, the high-resolution coverage of Titan's surface increases, revealing new dune fields and allowing refinements in the examination of their properties. In this paper, we present the joint analysis of Cassini's microwave and infrared global scale observations of Titan. Integrating within an up-to-date global map of Titan all the Cassini RADAR and VIMS (Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) images - the latter being empirically corrected for atmospheric scattering and surface photometry, from July 2004 through July 2013 and June 2010 respectively, we found very good qualitative and quantitative spatial matching between the geographic distribution of the dune fields and a specific infrared spectral unit (namely the “dark brown” unit). The high degree of spatial correlation between dunes and the “dark brown” unit has important implications for Titan's geology and climate. We found that RADAR-mapped dunes and the “dark brown” unit are similarly confined within the equatorial belt (±30° in latitudes) with an equivalent distribution with latitude, suggesting an increasing sediment availability and mobility at Titan's tropics relative to higher latitudes, compatible with the lower ground humidity predicted in equatorial regions by General Circulation Models. Furthermore, the strong correlation between RADAR-mapped dunes and the VIMS “dark brown” unit (72%) allows us to better constrain the total surface area covered by dune material, previously estimated from the extrapolation of the RADAR observations alone. According to our calculations, dune material cover 17.5 ± 1.5% of Titan's surface area, equivalent to a total surface area of 14.6 ± 1.2 million km2 (˜1.5 times the surface area of Earth's Sahara desert). The VIMS “dark brown
Modeling enzymatic transition states by force field methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, M. B.; Jensen, H. J. A.; Jensen, F.
The SEAM method, which models a transition structure as a minimum on the seam of two diabatic surfaces represented by force field functions, has been used to generate 20 transition structures for the decarboxylation of orotidine by the orotidine-5prime-monophosphate decarboxylase enzyme. The dependence of the TS geometry on the flexibility of the system has been probed by fixing layers of atoms around the active site and using increasingly larger nonbonded cutoffs. The variability over the 20 structures is found to decrease as the system is made more flexible. Relative energies have been calculated by various electronic structure methods, where part of the enzyme is represented by a force field description and the effects of the solvent are represented by a continuum model. The relative energies vary by several hundreds of kJ/mol between the transition structures, and tests showed that a large part of this variation is due to changes in the enzyme structure at distances more than 5 Å from the active site. There are significant differences between the results obtained by pure quantum methods and those from mixed quantum and molecular mechanics methods.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Suzanne Weaver; Beattie, Christopher A.
1991-01-01
On-orbit testing of a large space structure will be required to complete the certification of any mathematical model for the structure dynamic response. The process of establishing a mathematical model that matches measured structure response is referred to as model correlation. Most model correlation approaches have an identification technique to determine structural characteristics from the measurements of the structure response. This problem is approached with one particular class of identification techniques - matrix adjustment methods - which use measured data to produce an optimal update of the structure property matrix, often the stiffness matrix. New methods were developed for identification to handle problems of the size and complexity expected for large space structures. Further development and refinement of these secant-method identification algorithms were undertaken. Also, evaluation of these techniques is an approach for model correlation and damage location was initiated.
Sun, Guo-xiang; Miao, Ju-ru; Wang, Yu; Sun, Yu-qing
2002-01-01
The morphine in opium powder has been quantitatively determined by addition and correlation method (ACM), in which capillary zone electrophoresis was applied, and the average recovery was 100.6%. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of migration time was not more than 2.4%, the RSD of relative migration time was not more than 1.1%, and the RSD of the relative area was not more than 0.51%. Meanwhile, the contrast test has been done by the calibration curve method with an internal standard correlation. The content of morphine in opium powder determined by ACM was the same as that by using the calibration curve method with an internal standard correlated. The study shows that ACM is simple, quick and accurate.
Ling, Hangjian; Katz, Joseph
2014-09-20
This paper deals with two issues affecting the application of digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for measuring the spatial distribution of particles in a dense suspension, namely discriminating between real and virtual images and accurate detection of the particle center. Previous methods to separate real and virtual fields have involved applications of multiple phase-shifted holograms, combining reconstructed fields of multiple axially displaced holograms, and analysis of intensity distributions of weakly scattering objects. Here, we introduce a simple approach based on simultaneously recording two in-line holograms, whose planes are separated by a short distance from each other. This distance is chosen to be longer than the elongated trace of the particle. During reconstruction, the real images overlap, whereas the virtual images are displaced by twice the distance between hologram planes. Data analysis is based on correlating the spatial intensity distributions of the two reconstructed fields to measure displacement between traces. This method has been implemented for both synthetic particles and a dense suspension of 2 μm particles. The correlation analysis readily discriminates between real and virtual images of a sample containing more than 1300 particles. Consequently, we can now implement DHM for three-dimensional tracking of particles when the hologram plane is located inside the sample volume. Spatial correlations within the same reconstructed field are also used to improve the detection of the axial location of the particle center, extending previously introduced procedures to suspensions of microscopic particles. For each cross section within a particle trace, we sum the correlations among intensity distributions in all planes located symmetrically on both sides of the section. This cumulative correlation has a sharp peak at the particle center. Using both synthetic and recorded particle fields, we show that the uncertainty in localizing the axial
Correction methods for finite-acceptance effects in two-particle correlation analyses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Saehanseul; Morsch, Andreas; Loizides, Constantin; Schuster, Tim
2016-08-01
Two-particle angular correlations have been widely used as a tool to explore particle production mechanisms in heavy-ion collisions. The mixed-event technique is generally used as a standard method to correct for finite-acceptance effects. We demonstrate that event mixing only provides an approximate acceptance correction, and propose new methods for finite-acceptance corrections. Starting from discussions about 2-dimensional correction procedures, new methods are derived for specific assumptions on the properties of the signal, such as uniform signal distribution or δ-function-like trigger particle distribution, and suitable for two-particle correlation analyses from particles at mid-rapidity and jet-hadron or high p T -triggered hadron-hadron correlations. Per-trigger associated particle yields from the mixed-event method and the new methods are compared through Monte Carlo simulations containing well-defined correlation signals. Significant differences are observed at large pseudorapidity differences in general and especially for asymmetric particle distribution like that produced in proton-nucleus collisions. The applicability and validity of the new methods are discussed in detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weygand, James M.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Dasso, S.; Kivelson, M. G.; Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C.
2009-07-01
Magnetic field data from nine spacecraft in the magnetospheric plasma sheet and the solar wind are employed to determine the correlation scale and the magnetic Taylor microscale from simultaneous multiple-point measurements for multiple intervals with a range of mean magnetic field directions. We have determined that in the solar wind the Taylor scale is independent of direction relative to the mean magnetic field, but the correlation scale along the mean magnetic field (2.7 × 106 ± 0.2 × 106 km) is longer than along the perpendicular direction (1.5 × 106 ± 0.1 × 106 km). Within the plasma sheet we found that the correlation scale varies from 16,400 ± 1000 km along the mean magnetic field direction to 9200 ± 600 km in the perpendicular direction. The Taylor scale is also longer parallel to the magnetic field (2900 ± 100 km) than perpendicular to it (1100 ± 100 km). In the solar wind the ratio of the parallel correlation scale to the perpendicular correlation scale is 2.62 ± 0.79; in the plasma sheet the ratio is 1.78 ± 0.16, which indicates that the turbulence in both regions is anisotropic. The correlation and Taylor scales may be used to estimate effective magnetic Reynolds numbers separately for each angular channel. Reynolds numbers were found to be approximately independent of the angle relative to the mean magnetic field. These results may be useful in magnetohydrodynamic modeling of the solar wind and the magnetosphere and can contribute to our understanding of solar and galactic cosmic ray diffusion in the heliosphere.
Puurtinen, Merja; Viik, Jari; Takano, Noriyuki; Malmivuo, Jaakko; Hyttinen, Jari
2009-05-01
New portable electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement systems are emerging into market. Some use nonstandard bipolar electrode montage and sometimes very small interelectrode distances to improve the usability of the system. Modeling could provide a straightforward method to test new electrode systems. The aim of this study was to assess whether modeling the electrodes' measuring sensitivity with lead field method can provide a simple tool for testing a number of new electrode locations. We evaluated whether the actual ECG signal strength can be estimated by lead fields with two realistic 3D finite difference method (FDM) thorax models. We compared the modeling results to clinical body surface potential map (BSPM) data from 236 normal patients and studied 117 unipolar and 42 bipolar leads. In the case of unipolar electrodes the modeled measuring sensitivities correlated well with the clinical data (r=0.86, N=117, p<0.05). In the case of bipolar electrodes the correlation was moderate (r=0.62 between Model 1 and clinical data, r=0.71 between Model 2 and clinical data, N=42 and p<0.05 for both). Based on this we can conclude that lead field analysis based on realistic thorax models provides a good initial prediction for designing new electrode montages and measurement systems.
Determination of traces of cobalt in soils: A field method
Almond, H.
1953-01-01
The growing use of geochemical prospecting methods in the search for ore deposits has led to the development of a field method for the determination of cobalt in soils. The determination is based on the fact that cobalt reacts with 2-nitroso-1-naphthol to yield a pink compound that is soluble in carbon tetrachloride. The carbon tetrachloride extract is shaken with dilute cyanide to complex interfering elements and to remove excess reagent. The cobalt content is estimated by comparing the pink color in the carbon tetrachloride with a standard series prepared from standard solutions. The cobalt 2-nitroso-1-naphtholate system in carbon tetrachloride follows Beer's law. As little as 1 p.p.m. can be determined in a 0.1-gram sample. The method is simple and fast and requires only simple equipment. More than 40 samples can be analyzed per man-day with an accuracy within 30% or better.
Students Correlate Direct and Indirect investigative methods at Elkhorn Slough, CA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia-Garcia, A.; Lopez, M.; Sims, H.; King, N.; Hochstaedter, A.
2013-12-01
Students at Monterey Peninsula College (MPC, a public two-year college in central California) investigate the 3-500 year history of a coastal estuary by collecting and comparing sediment cores and sub-bottom seismic data. Sedimentation at Elkhorn Slough, the second largest estuary along the central California coast, has been influenced by both natural and anthropogenic factors within the last 100 years. In the classroom, students are first introduced to fundamental principles of sedimentation and stratigraphy, as well as seismic wave propagation. In the field, a collaborative program with the Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve (ESNERR) enables students to first collect 30-50cm PVC sediment cores from the mudflats of the estuary. Typical cores show layers that vary in proportions of sand and mud. Students interpret changes in depositional environment that could have caused the variation in sand and mud proportion. Second, students participate in the collection of sub-bottom seismic data. The students use an EdgeTech SB-424 full-spectrum sub-bottom chirp profiler using its default pulse which generates a sweep frequency of 4 kHz to 24 kHz for 10 ms. It has a vertical resolution of 40 cm. Students run seismic transects in the same area as the cores are collected. After field work is completed, students compare the direct methods (the cores) with the indirect methods (the seismic data) to understand the spatial extent of the layers they see in the cores. Principle outcomes include experience with the advantages and disadvantages of the coring and seismic data collection. Students discover that the stratigraphic information collected in the cores can be correlated over wider areas using the seismic information. In particular, the cores taken show a recent layer of mud over a sand/peat layer. The seismic data also shows the contact between the two layers as a sharp reflector due to the contrast in seismic properties of the two sediments. The overlying
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, TianLin; Xiao, LiZhi; Li, Xin; Liu, HuaBing; Zhang, ZongFu
2014-09-01
Internal magnetic gradient plays a significant role in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements of fluid saturated porous media. The quantitative characterization and application of this physical phenomenon could effectively improve the accuracy of NMR measurements and interpretations. In this paper, by using the equivalent magnetic dipole method, the three-dimensional distribution of internal induced magnetic field and its gradients in the randomly packed water saturated glass beads are quantitatively characterized. By simulating the diffusive motion of water molecules in porous media with random walk method, the computational dephasing effects equation related to internal gradients is deduced. Thereafter, the echo amplitudes are obtained and the corresponding T 2- G spectrum is also inverted. For the sake of verifying the simulation results, an experiment is carried out using the Halbach core analyzing system ( B 0=0.18 T, G=2.3 T/m) to detect the induced internal field and gradients. The simulation results indicate the equivalent internal gradient is a distribution of 0.12-0.3 T/m, which matched well with the experimental results.
Angular correlation functions of X-ray point-like sources in the full exposure XMM-LSS field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elyiv, A.; Clerc, N.; Plionis, M.; Surdej, J.; Pierre, M.; Basilakos, S.; Chiappetti, L.; Gandhi, P.; Gosset, E.; Melnyk, O.; Pacaud, F.
2012-01-01
Aims: Our aim is to study the large-scale structure of different types of AGN using the medium-deep XMM-LSS survey. Methods: We measure the two-point angular correlation function of 5700 and 2500 X-ray point-like sources over the 11 sq. deg. XMM-LSS field in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and hard (2-10 keV) bands. For the conversion from the angular to the spatial correlation function we used the Limber integral equation and the luminosity-dependent density evolution model of the AGN X-ray luminosity function. Results: We have found significant angular correlations with the power-law parameters γ = 1.81 ± 0.02, θ0 = 1.3'' ± 0.2'' for the soft, and γ = 2.00 ± 0.04, θ0 = 7.3'' ± 1.0'' for the hard bands. The amplitude of the correlation function w(θ) is higher in the hard than in the soft band for fx ≲ 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 and lower above this flux limit. We confirm that the clustering strength θ0 grows with the flux limit of the sample, a trend which is also present in the amplitude of the spatial correlation function, but only for the soft band. In the hard band, it remains almost constant with r0 ≃ 10h-1 Mpc, irrespective of the flux limit. Our analysis of AGN subsamples with different hardness ratios shows that the sources with a hard-spectrum are more clustered than soft-spectrum ones. This result may be a hint that the two main types of AGN populate different environments. Finally, we find that our clustering results correspond to an X-ray selected AGN bias factor of 2.5 for the soft band sources (at a median bar{z} ≃ 1.1) and 3.3 for the hard band sources (at a median bar{z} ≃ 1), which translates into a host dark matter halo mass of 1013h-1M⊙ and 1013.7h-1M⊙ for the soft and hard bands, respectively. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Olivier Garcet who has initiated the present work just before his sudden death.
Comparison of Methods for Identifying Noise Sources in Far-Field Acoustic Signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tenney, Andrew; Lewalle, Jacques
2013-11-01
Three different methods of extracting intermittent wave packets from unstructured background within complex time series signals were analyzed and compared. The algorithms are denoted ``cross correlation,'' ``denoising,'' and ``TFLE (Time-Frequency-Lag event)'' methods respectively. All three methods utilize Mexican Hat or Morlet wavelets for the transformation of time domain signals into time-frequency domain signals. Within the denoising and cross correlation algorithms, events are identified through comparison of high energy excerpts of each signal captured by individual far-field microphones, while the TFLE algorithm simply defines events by their contributions to positive correlation values. The goal of this analysis is to quantify the advantages and disadvantages of each of these methods. The results lend themselves to determining the validity of these methods as noise source identification algorithms to be used in jet noise characterization. This work is supported in part by Spectral Energies LLC, under an SBIR grant from AFRL; and by the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering REU Program at SU.
Christiansen, Helena E; Mehinto, Alvine C; Yu, Fahong; Perry, Russell W; Denslow, Nancy D; Maule, Alec G; Mesa, Matthew G
2014-06-15
Toxic compounds such as organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) have been detected in fish, birds, and aquatic mammals that live in the Columbia River or use food resources from within the river. We developed a custom microarray for largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and used it to investigate the molecular effects of contaminant exposure on wild fish in the Columbia River. Using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) we identified 72 probes representing 69 unique genes with expression patterns that correlated with hepatic tissue levels of OCs, PCBs, or PBDEs. These genes were involved in many biological processes previously shown to respond to contaminant exposure, including drug and lipid metabolism, apoptosis, cellular transport, oxidative stress, and cellular chaperone function. The relation between gene expression and contaminant concentration suggests that these genes may respond to environmental contaminant exposure and are promising candidates for further field and laboratory studies to develop biomarkers for monitoring exposure of wild fish to contaminant mixtures found in the Columbia River Basin. The array developed in this study could also be a useful tool for studies involving endangered sucker species and other sucker species used in contaminant research. PMID:24050789
Christiansen, Helena E; Mehinto, Alvine C; Yu, Fahong; Perry, Russell W; Denslow, Nancy D; Maule, Alec G; Mesa, Matthew G
2014-06-15
Toxic compounds such as organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) have been detected in fish, birds, and aquatic mammals that live in the Columbia River or use food resources from within the river. We developed a custom microarray for largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and used it to investigate the molecular effects of contaminant exposure on wild fish in the Columbia River. Using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) we identified 72 probes representing 69 unique genes with expression patterns that correlated with hepatic tissue levels of OCs, PCBs, or PBDEs. These genes were involved in many biological processes previously shown to respond to contaminant exposure, including drug and lipid metabolism, apoptosis, cellular transport, oxidative stress, and cellular chaperone function. The relation between gene expression and contaminant concentration suggests that these genes may respond to environmental contaminant exposure and are promising candidates for further field and laboratory studies to develop biomarkers for monitoring exposure of wild fish to contaminant mixtures found in the Columbia River Basin. The array developed in this study could also be a useful tool for studies involving endangered sucker species and other sucker species used in contaminant research.
Christiansen, Helena E.; Mehinto, Alvina C.; Yu, Fahong; Perry, Russell W.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Maule, Alec G.; Mesa, Matthew G.
2014-01-01
Toxic compounds such as organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) have been detected in fish, birds, and aquatic mammals that live in the Columbia River or use food resources from within the river. We developed a custom microarray for largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and used it to investigate the molecular effects of contaminant exposure on wild fish in the Columbia River. Using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) we identified 72 probes representing 69 unique genes with expression patterns that correlated with hepatic tissue levels of OCs, PCBs, or PBDEs. These genes were involved in many biological processes previously shown to respond to contaminant exposure, including drug and lipid metabolism, apoptosis, cellular transport, oxidative stress, and cellular chaperone function. The relation between gene expression and contaminant concentration suggests that these genes may respond to environmental contaminant exposure and are promising candidates for further field and laboratory studies to develop biomarkers for monitoring exposure of wild fish to contaminant mixtures found in the Columbia River Basin. The array developed in this study could also be a useful tool for studies involving endangered sucker species and other sucker species used in contaminant research.
Bocian, Renata; Kłos-Wojtczak, Paulina; Konopacki, Jan
2016-09-01
The theta rhythm discovered in the posterior hypothalamus area (PHa) differs from theta observed in the hippocampal formation. In comparison to hippocampal spontaneous theta, the theta recorded in the PHa is rarely registered, has lower amplitude, often disappears, and sometimes returns after a few minutes. These features indicate that spontaneous theta recorded in the PHa is not an appropriate experimental model to search for the correlation between PHa cell discharges and local field potential. In this paper we present standard experimental conditions necessary to record theta-related cells in the PHa in anesthetized rats. Three pharmacological agents were used in the experiments to induce PHa theta rhythm in urethanized rats: carbachol (CCH), carbenoxolone and kainic acid, which are potent enough to induce well-synchronized PHa theta. However, CCH was found to be the best pharmacological tool to induce PHa theta oscillations, due to its longest duration of action and lack of preliminary epileptogenic effects. It seems that CCH-induced theta can be the most suitable pharmacological model for experiments with the use of protocol of long-lasting recordings of PHa theta-related cell discharges. PMID:27353451
Static and dynamical quantum correlations in phases of an alternating-field X Y model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chanda, Titas; Das, Tamoghna; Sadhukhan, Debasis; Pal, Amit Kumar; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2016-10-01
We investigate the static and dynamical patterns of entanglement in an anisotropic X Y model with an alternating transverse magnetic field, which is equivalent to a two-component one-dimensional Fermi gas on a lattice, a system realizable with current technology. Apart from the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases, the model possesses a dimer phase which is not present in the transverse X Y model. At zero temperature, we find that the first derivative of bipartite entanglement can detect all the three phases. We analytically show that the model has a "factorization line" on the plane of system parameters, in which the zero-temperature state is separable. Along with investigating the effect of temperature on entanglement in a phase plane, we also report a nonmonotonic behavior of entanglement with respect to temperature in the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases, which is surprisingly absent in the dimer phase. Since the time dynamics of entanglement in a realizable physical system plays an important role in quantum information processing tasks, the evolutions of entanglement at small as well as large time are examined. Consideration of large-time behavior of entanglement helps us to prove that in this model, entanglement is always ergodic. We observe that other quantum correlation measures can qualitatively show similar features in zero and finite temperatures. However, unlike nearest-neighbor entanglement, the nearest-neighbor information-theoretic measures can be both ergodic as well as nonergodic, depending on the system parameters.
Peppernick, Samuel J.; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.
2011-01-21
We present results of a combined two-photon photoemission and scanning electron microscopy investigation to determine the electromagnetic enhancement factors of silver-coated spherical nanoparticles deposited on an atomically flat mica substrate. Femtosecond laser excitation, of the nanoparticles, produces intense photoemission, attributed to near-resonant excitation of localized surface plasmons. Enhancement factors are determined by comparing the respective two-photon photoemission yield measured for equal areas between single nanoparticles to that of the surrounding flat surface. For s-polarized, 400 nm (~ 3.1 eV) femtosecond radiation a distribution of enhancement factors are found with a large percentage (77%) of the nanoparticles falling within a median range. A correlated scanning electron microscopy analysis demonstrated that the nanoparticles typifying the median of the distribution were characterized by ideal spherical shapes and defect-free morphologies. The single largest enhancement factors were in contrast produced by a very small percentage (8%) of the total, for which evidence of silver defect anomalies were found that contributed to the overall structure of the nanoparticle. Comparisons are made between the experimentally measured enhancement factors and previously reported theoretical predictions of the localized surface plasmon near-field intensities for isolated nanometer-sized silver spheres.
Bracken, M B; Belanger, K; Hellenbrand, K; Addesso, K; Patel, S; Triche, E; Leaderer, B P
1998-09-01
The home wiring code is the most widely used metric for studies of residential electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure and health effects. Despite the fact that wiring code often shows stronger correlations with disease outcome than more direct EMF home assessments, little is known about potential confounders of the wiring code association. In a study carried out in southern Connecticut in 1988-1991, the authors used strict and widely used criteria to assess the wiring codes of 3,259 homes in which respondents lived. They also collected other home characteristics from the tax assessor's office, estimated traffic density around the home from state data, and interviewed each subject (2,967 mothers of reproductive age) for personal characteristics. Women who lived in very high current configuration wiring coded homes were more likely to be in manual jobs and their homes were older (built before 1949, odds ratio (OR) = 73.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 29.53-181.65) and had lower assessed value and higher traffic densities (highest density quartile, OR = 3.99, 95% CI 1.17-13.62). Because some of these variables have themselves been associated with health outcomes, the possibility of confounding of the wiring code associations must be rigorously evaluated in future EMF research.
Correlation between cell migration and reactive oxygen species under electric field stimulation.
Wu, Shang-Ying; Hou, Hsien-San; Sun, Yung-Shin; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Lo, Kai-Yin
2015-09-01
Cell migration is an essential process involved in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Electric fields (EFs) are one of the many physical and chemical factors known to affect cell migration, a phenomenon termed electrotaxis or galvanotaxis. In this paper, a microfluidics chip was developed to study the migration of cells under different electrical and chemical stimuli. This chip is capable of providing four different strengths of EFs in combination with two different chemicals via one simple set of agar salt bridges and Ag/AgCl electrodes. NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were seeded inside this chip to study their migration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in response to different EF strengths and the presence of β-lapachone. We found that both the EF and β-lapachone level increased the cell migration rate and the production of ROS in an EF-strength-dependent manner. A strong linear correlation between the cell migration rate and the amount of intracellular ROS suggests that ROS are an intermediate product by which EF and β-lapachone enhance cell migration. Moreover, an anti-oxidant, α-tocopherol, was found to quench the production of ROS, resulting in a decrease in the migration rate. PMID:26487906
Comparison of Methods for Determining Boundary Layer Edge Conditions for Transition Correlations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liechty, Derek S.; Berry, Scott A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Horvath, Thomas J.
2003-01-01
Data previously obtained for the X-33 in the NASA Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel have been reanalyzed to compare methods for determining boundary layer edge conditions for use in transition correlations. The experimental results were previously obtained utilizing the phosphor thermography technique to monitor the status of the boundary layer downstream of discrete roughness elements via global heat transfer images of the X-33 windward surface. A boundary layer transition correlation was previously developed for this data set using boundary layer edge conditions calculated using an inviscid/integral boundary layer approach. An algorithm was written in the present study to extract boundary layer edge quantities from higher fidelity viscous computational fluid dynamic solutions to develop transition correlations that account for viscous effects on vehicles of arbitrary complexity. The boundary layer transition correlation developed for the X-33 from the viscous solutions are compared to the previous boundary layer transition correlations. It is shown that the boundary layer edge conditions calculated using an inviscid/integral boundary layer approach are significantly different than those extracted from viscous computational fluid dynamic solutions. The present results demonstrate the differences obtained in correlating transition data using different computational methods.
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TRAPPING IONS IN A MAGNETIC FIELD
Luce, J.S.
1962-04-17
A method and apparatus are described for trapping ions within an evacuated container and within a magnetic field utilizing dissociation and/or ionization of molecular ions to form atomic ions and energetic neutral particles. The atomic ions are magnetically trapped as a result of a change of charge-to- mass ratio. The molecular ions are injected into the container and into the path of an energetic carbon arc discharge which dissociates and/or ionizes a portion of the molecular ions into atomic ions and energetic neutrals. The resulting atomic ions are trapped by the magnetic field to form a circulating beam of atomic ions, and the energetic neutrals pass out of the system and may be utilized in a particle accelerator. (AEC)
Magnetic Field Configuration Models and Reconstruction Methods: a comparative study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-haddad, Nada; Möstl, Christian; Roussev, Ilia; Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Poedts, Stefaan; Hidalgo, Miguel Angel; Marubashi, Katsuhide; Savani, Neel
2012-07-01
This study aims to provide a reference to different magnetic field models and reconstruction methods. In order to understand the dissimilarities of those models and codes, we analyze 59 events from the CDAW list, using four different magnetic field models and reconstruction techniques; force- free reconstruction (Lepping et al.(1990); Lynch et al.(2003)), magnetostatic reconstruction, referred as Grad-Shafranov (Hu & Sonnerup(2001); Mostl et al.(2009)), cylinder reconstruction (Marubashi & Lepping(2007)), elliptical, non-force free (Hidalgo et al.(2002)). The resulted parameters of the reconstructions, for the 59 events are compared, statistically, as well as in more details for some cases. The differences between the reconstruction codes are discussed, and suggestions are provided as how to enhance them. Finally we look at 2 unique cases under the microscope, to provide a comprehensive idea of the different aspects of how the fitting codes work.
Magnetic field adjustment structure and method for a tapered wiggler
Halbach, Klaus
1988-03-01
An improved method and structure is disclosed for adjusting the magnetic field generated by a group of electromagnet poles spaced along the path of a charged particle beam to compensate for energy losses in the charged particles which comprises providing more than one winding on at least some of the electromagnet poles; connecting one respective winding on each of several consecutive adjacent electromagnet poles to a first power supply, and the other respective winding on the electromagnet pole to a different power supply in staggered order; and independently adjusting one power supply to independently vary the current in one winding on each electromagnet pole in a group whereby the magnetic field strength of each of a group of electromagnet poles may be changed in smaller increments.
Magnetic field adjustment structure and method for a tapered wiggler
Halbach, Klaus
1988-01-01
An improved method and structure is disclosed for adjusting the magnetic field generated by a group of electromagnet poles spaced along the path of a charged particle beam to compensate for energy losses in the charged particles which comprises providing more than one winding on at least some of the electromagnet poles; connecting one respective winding on each of several consecutive adjacent electromagnet poles to a first power supply, and the other respective winding on the electromagnet pole to a different power supply in staggered order; and independently adjusting one power supply to independently vary the current in one winding on each electromagnet pole in a group whereby the magnetic field strength of each of a group of electromagnet poles may be changed in smaller increments.
A canonical correlation analysis based method for contamination event detection in water sources.
Li, Ruonan; Liu, Shuming; Smith, Kate; Che, Han
2016-06-15
In this study, a general framework integrating a data-driven estimation model is employed for contamination event detection in water sources. Sequential canonical correlation coefficients are updated in the model using multivariate water quality time series. The proposed method utilizes canonical correlation analysis for studying the interplay between two sets of water quality parameters. The model is assessed by precision, recall and F-measure. The proposed method is tested using data from a laboratory contaminant injection experiment. The proposed method could detect a contamination event 1 minute after the introduction of 1.600 mg l(-1) acrylamide solution. With optimized parameter values, the proposed method can correctly detect 97.50% of all contamination events with no false alarms. The robustness of the proposed method can be explained using the Bauer-Fike theorem. PMID:27264637
A squash preparation method for root meristem field studies.
Dubrovsky, J G; Contreras-Burciaga, L
1998-03-01
We present a field method for squash preparation of root apical meristem that does not require dry ice for cell adhesion to a slide. The method is based on the use of a weak gelatin solution as a stabilizing agent to prevent cell loss. Alcian blue 8GX was used as a counterstain for better recognition of cell shapes. Root meristems of Sonoran Desert succulents were used to illustrate the method. Fixed root tips were stained by Feulgen and squashes were prepared in a 1:2 mixture of solution A (45% acetic acid) and solution B (3:1 mixture of 0.5% gelatin in water:0.02% of alcian blue 8GX in 45% acetic acid). After squashing, the material was lightly dried for 5-6 min, then dehydrated and mounted in Canada balsam. Our method permits observation of chromosomes, recognition of meristematic and nonmeristematic cells, and estimation of mitotic indices and thus recognition of growing, dormant, and dead roots. The method can be used for estimation of cell division cycle time by colchicine and other methods where squash preparation is required.
Reconstruction of radiating sound fields using minimum energy method.
Bader, Rolf
2010-01-01
A method for reconstructing a pressure field at the surface of a radiating body or source is presented using recording data of a microphone array. The radiation is assumed to consist of many spherical radiators, as microphone positions are present in the array. These monopoles are weighted using a parameter alpha, which broadens or narrows the overall radiation directivity as an effective and highly intuitive parameter of the radiation characteristics. A radiation matrix is built out of these weighted monopole radiators, and for different assumed values of alpha, a linear equation solver reconstructs the pressure field at the body's surface. It appears that from these many arbitrary reconstructions, the correct one minimizes the reconstruction energy. The method is tested, localizing the radiation points of a Balinese suling flute, reconstructing complex radiation from a duff frame drum, and determining the radiation directivity for the first seven modes of an Usbek tambourine. Stability in terms of measurement noise is demonstrated for the plain method, and additional highly effective algorithm is added for a noise level up to 0 dB. The stability of alpha in terms of minimal reconstruction energy is shown over the whole range of possible values for alpha. Additionally, the treatment of unwanted room reflections is discussed, still leading to satisfactory results in many cases. PMID:20058977
Iterative Methods to Solve Linear RF Fields in Hot Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spencer, Joseph; Svidzinski, Vladimir; Evstatiev, Evstati; Galkin, Sergei; Kim, Jin-Soo
2014-10-01
Most magnetic plasma confinement devices use radio frequency (RF) waves for current drive and/or heating. Numerical modeling of RF fields is an important part of performance analysis of such devices and a predictive tool aiding design and development of future devices. Prior attempts at this modeling have mostly used direct solvers to solve the formulated linear equations. Full wave modeling of RF fields in hot plasma with 3D nonuniformities is mostly prohibited, with memory demands of a direct solver placing a significant limitation on spatial resolution. Iterative methods can significantly increase spatial resolution. We explore the feasibility of using iterative methods in 3D full wave modeling. The linear wave equation is formulated using two approaches: for cold plasmas the local cold plasma dielectric tensor is used (resolving resonances by particle collisions), while for hot plasmas the conductivity kernel (which includes a nonlocal dielectric response) is calculated by integrating along test particle orbits. The wave equation is discretized using a finite difference approach. The initial guess is important in iterative methods, and we examine different initial guesses including the solution to the cold plasma wave equation. Work is supported by the U.S. DOE SBIR program.
C-Field Methods for Non-Equilibrium Bose Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, Matthew J.; Wright, Tod M.; Blakie, P. Blair; Bradley, Ashton S.; Ballagh, Rob J.; Gardiner, Crispin W.
2013-02-01
We review c-field methods for simulating the non-equilibrium dynamics of degenerate Bose gases beyond the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii approximation. We describe three separate approaches that utilise similar numerical methods, but have distinct regimes of validity. Systems at finite temperature can be treated with either the closed-system projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation (PGPE), or the open-system stochastic projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation (SPGPE). These are both applicable in quantum degenerate regimes in which thermal fluctuations are significant. At low or zero temperature, the truncated Wigner projected Gross Pitaevskii equation (TWPGPE) allows for the simulation of systems in which spontaneous collision processes seeded by quantum fluctuations are important. We describe the regimes of validity of each of these methods, and discuss their relationships to one another, and to other simulation techniques for the dynamics of Bose gases. The utility of the SPGPE formalism in modelling non-equilibrium Bose gases is illustrated by its application to the dynamics of spontaneous vortex formation in the growth of a Bose-Einstein condensate.
A statistical method for studying correlated rare events and their risk factors
Xue, Xiaonan; Kim, Mimi Y; Wang, Tao; Kuniholm, Mark H; Strickler, Howard D
2016-01-01
Longitudinal studies of rare events such as cervical high-grade lesions or colorectal polyps that can recur often involve correlated binary data. Risk factor for these events cannot be reliably examined using conventional statistical methods. For example, logistic regression models that incorporate generalized estimating equations often fail to converge or provide inaccurate results when analyzing data of this type. Although exact methods have been reported, they are complex and computationally difficult. The current paper proposes a mathematically straightforward and easy-to-use two-step approach involving (i) an additive model to measure associations between a rare or uncommon correlated binary event and potential risk factors and (ii) a permutation test to estimate the statistical significance of these associations. Simulation studies showed that the proposed method reliably tests and accurately estimates the associations of exposure with correlated binary rare events. This method was then applied to a longitudinal study of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype and risk of cervical high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. Results showed statistically significant associations of two HLA alleles among HIV-negative but not HIV-positive women, suggesting that immune status may modify the HLA and cervical HSIL association. Overall, the proposed method avoids model nonconvergence problems and provides a computationally simple, accurate, and powerful approach for the analysis of risk factor associations with rare/uncommon correlated binary events. PMID:25854937
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, H. T.; Hu, B. L.
2012-09-01
We calculate the expectation values of the stress-energy bitensor defined at two different spacetime points x, x‧ of a massless, minimally coupled scalar field with respect to a quantum state at finite temperature T in a flat N-dimensional spacetime by means of the generalized zeta-function method. These correlators, also known as the noise kernels, give the fluctuations of energy and momentum density of a quantum field which are essential for the investigation of the physical effects of negative energy density in certain spacetimes or quantum states. They also act as the sources of the Einstein-Langevin equations in stochastic gravity which one can solve for the dynamics of metric fluctuations as in spacetime foams. In terms of constitutions these correlators are one rung above (in the sense of the correlation—BBGKY or Schwinger-Dyson—hierarchies) the mean (vacuum and thermal expectation) values of the stress-energy tensor which drive the semiclassical Einstein equation in semiclassical gravity. The low- and the high-temperature expansions of these correlators are also given here: at low temperatures, the leading order temperature dependence goes like TN while at high temperatures they have a T2 dependence with the subleading terms exponentially suppressed by e-T. We also discuss the singular behavior of the correlators in the x‧ → x coincident limit as was done before for massless conformal quantum fields. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker’s 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.
Use of petroleum-based correlations and estimation methods for synthetic fuels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antoine, A. C.
1980-01-01
Correlations of hydrogen content with aromatics content, heat of combustion, and smoke point are derived for some synthetic fuels prepared from oil and coal syncrudes. Comparing the results of the aromatics content with correlations derived for petroleum fuels shows that the shale-derived fuels fit the petroleum-based correlations, but the coal-derived fuels do not. The correlations derived for heat of combustion and smoke point are comparable to some found for petroleum-based correlations. Calculated values of hydrogen content and of heat of combustion are obtained for the synthetic fuels by use of ASTM estimation methods. Comparisons of the measured and calculated values show biases in the equations that exceed the critical statistics values. Comparison of the measured hydrogen content by the standard ASTM combustion method with that by a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method shows a decided bias. The comparison of the calculated and measured NMR hydrogen contents shows a difference similar to that found with petroleum fuels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patterson, Barbara E.
The purpose of this research is to compare students' perceptions of the learning environment in a traditional science classroom and a field study classroom. This mixed methods study used a sequential explanatory design. Phase one was the quantitative phase using two survey tools. A modified version of the "What is happening in this Classroom Survey" (WIHIC) (Fraser et al., 1996) and the "Test of Science Related Attitudes" (TOSRA) (Fraser, 1982) was administered to 60 fifth grade students from one school. Data was then disaggregated by socioeconomic class and ethnicity. Results from Phase one showed that students prefer the classroom for investigation and prefer the field environment for enjoyment of science. Differences in ethnicity and class were small but Hispanic students prefer the field for investigation and equity. Students that are low socio-economic class rank cooperation in the field higher than the classroom and students that do not qualify for free or reduced lunch prefer the field environment for enjoyment of science. Finally, there are strong correlations for the variables of cooperation, investigation, equity and enjoyment of science in both the classroom and the field environment. Questions raised from the analysis of the survey data were further explored through qualitative data collection methods in phase two. Student responses to three questions were coded using template analysis to provide answers to the "how and why" field experience effects students' attitudes toward science. Three themes emerged from the coding of the results. These results showed that students are physically engaged, develop a sense of place and learn skills in the field that reinforce concepts learned in the classroom. This information will help teachers in developing quality and meaningful experiences for all students. "Closing the gaps among minority groups while improving achievement of all students constitutes the dual goals of education in the nation" (Lee et al., 2004
Nondestructive acoustic electric field probe apparatus and method
Migliori, Albert
1982-01-01
The disclosure relates to a nondestructive acoustic electric field probe and its method of use. A source of acoustic pulses of arbitrary but selected shape is placed in an oil bath along with material to be tested across which a voltage is disposed and means for receiving acoustic pulses after they have passed through the material. The received pulses are compared with voltage changes across the material occurring while acoustic pulses pass through it and analysis is made thereof to determine preselected characteristics of the material.
Antonov, N V; Gulitskiy, N M
2015-10-01
In this work we study the generalization of the problem considered in [Phys. Rev. E 91, 013002 (2015)] to the case of finite correlation time of the environment (velocity) field. The model describes a vector (e.g., magnetic) field, passively advected by a strongly anisotropic turbulent flow. Inertial-range asymptotic behavior is studied by means of the field theoretic renormalization group and the operator product expansion. The advecting velocity field is Gaussian, with finite correlation time and preassigned pair correlation function. Due to the presence of distinguished direction n, all the multiloop diagrams in this model vanish, so that the results obtained are exact. The inertial-range behavior of the model is described by two regimes (the limits of vanishing or infinite correlation time) that correspond to the two nontrivial fixed points of the RG equations. Their stability depends on the relation between the exponents in the energy spectrum E∝k(⊥)(1-ξ) and the dispersion law ω∝k(⊥)(2-η). In contrast to the well-known isotropic Kraichnan's model, where various correlation functions exhibit anomalous scaling behavior with infinite sets of anomalous exponents, here the corrections to ordinary scaling are polynomials of logarithms of the integral turbulence scale L. PMID:26565343
Antonov, N V; Gulitskiy, N M
2015-10-01
In this work we study the generalization of the problem considered in [Phys. Rev. E 91, 013002 (2015)] to the case of finite correlation time of the environment (velocity) field. The model describes a vector (e.g., magnetic) field, passively advected by a strongly anisotropic turbulent flow. Inertial-range asymptotic behavior is studied by means of the field theoretic renormalization group and the operator product expansion. The advecting velocity field is Gaussian, with finite correlation time and preassigned pair correlation function. Due to the presence of distinguished direction n, all the multiloop diagrams in this model vanish, so that the results obtained are exact. The inertial-range behavior of the model is described by two regimes (the limits of vanishing or infinite correlation time) that correspond to the two nontrivial fixed points of the RG equations. Their stability depends on the relation between the exponents in the energy spectrum E∝k(⊥)(1-ξ) and the dispersion law ω∝k(⊥)(2-η). In contrast to the well-known isotropic Kraichnan's model, where various correlation functions exhibit anomalous scaling behavior with infinite sets of anomalous exponents, here the corrections to ordinary scaling are polynomials of logarithms of the integral turbulence scale L.
Geostatistical joint inversion of seismic and potential field methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamsipour, Pejman; Chouteau, Michel; Giroux, Bernard
2016-04-01
Interpretation of geophysical data needs to integrate different types of information to make the proposed model geologically realistic. Multiple data sets can reduce uncertainty and non-uniqueness present in separate geophysical data inversions. Seismic data can play an important role in mineral exploration, however processing and interpretation of seismic data is difficult due to complexity of hard-rock geology. On the other hand, the recovered model from potential field methods is affected by inherent non uniqueness caused by the nature of the physics and by underdetermination of the problem. Joint inversion of seismic and potential field data can mitigate weakness of separate inversion of these methods. A stochastic joint inversion method based on geostatistical techniques is applied to estimate density and velocity distributions from gravity and travel time data. The method fully integrates the physical relations between density-gravity, on one hand, and slowness-travel time, on the other hand. As a consequence, when the data are considered noise-free, the responses from the inverted slowness and density data exactly reproduce the observed data. The required density and velocity auto- and cross-covariance are assumed to follow a linear model of coregionalization (LCM). The recent development of nonlinear model of coregionalization could also be applied if needed. The kernel function for the gravity method is obtained by the closed form formulation. For ray tracing, we use the shortest-path methods (SPM) to calculate the operation matrix. The jointed inversion is performed on structured grid; however, it is possible to extend it to use unstructured grid. The method is tested on two synthetic models: a model consisting of two objects buried in a homogeneous background and a model with stochastic distribution of parameters. The results illustrate the capability of the method to improve the inverted model compared to the separate inverted models with either gravity
A new method to infer higher-order spike correlations from membrane potentials.
Reimer, Imke C G; Staude, Benjamin; Boucsein, Clemens; Rotter, Stefan
2013-10-01
What is the role of higher-order spike correlations for neuronal information processing? Common data analysis methods to address this question are devised for the application to spike recordings from multiple single neurons. Here, we present a new method which evaluates the subthreshold membrane potential fluctuations of one neuron, and infers higher-order correlations among the neurons that constitute its presynaptic population. This has two important advantages: Very large populations of up to several thousands of neurons can be studied, and the spike sorting is obsolete. Moreover, this new approach truly emphasizes the functional aspects of higher-order statistics, since we infer exactly those correlations which are seen by a neuron. Our approach is to represent the subthreshold membrane potential fluctuations as presynaptic activity filtered with a fixed kernel, as it would be the case for a leaky integrator neuron model. This allows us to adapt the recently proposed method CuBIC (cumulant based inference of higher-order correlations from the population spike count; Staude et al., J Comput Neurosci 29(1-2):327-350, 2010c) with which the maximal order of correlation can be inferred. By numerical simulation we show that our new method is reasonably sensitive to weak higher-order correlations, and that only short stretches of membrane potential are required for their reliable inference. Finally, we demonstrate its remarkable robustness against violations of the simplifying assumptions made for its construction, and discuss how it can be employed to analyze in vivo intracellular recordings of membrane potentials.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tomas, Jose M.; Hontangas, Pedro M.; Oliver, Amparo
2000-01-01
Assessed two models for confirmatory factor analysis of multitrait-multimethod data through Monte Carlo simulation. The correlated traits-correlated methods (CTCM) and the correlated traits-correlated uniqueness (CTCU) models were compared. Results suggest that CTCU is a good alternative to CTCM in the typical multitrait-multimethod matrix, but…
Lasheras, R J; Bello-Gálvez, C; Rodríguez-Celis, E M; Anzano, J
2011-08-30
The methods of linear and rank correlation and normalized coordinates (MNC) have been applied to the identification of organic solid materials with a very similar chemical composition by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The present study evaluated these three statistical methods using an Echelle spectrometer coupled with an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD). Moreover, three instrumental parameters (laser pulse energy, delay time and integration time) were evaluated in terms of their influence on the signal-to-noise ratio of carbon and hydrogen emission lines. The probability of a right identification can be estimated by means the described methods in this paper. Methods of correlation provide better identification and discrimination than normalized coordinates at a 95% confidence level.
Path planning in uncertain flow fields using ensemble method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tong; Le Maître, Olivier P.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Knio, Omar M.
2016-08-01
An ensemble-based approach is developed to conduct optimal path planning in unsteady ocean currents under uncertainty. We focus our attention on two-dimensional steady and unsteady uncertain flows, and adopt a sampling methodology that is well suited to operational forecasts, where an ensemble of deterministic predictions is used to model and quantify uncertainty. In an operational setting, much about dynamics, topography, and forcing of the ocean environment is uncertain. To address this uncertainty, the flow field is parametrized using a finite number of independent canonical random variables with known densities, and the ensemble is generated by sampling these variables. For each of the resulting realizations of the uncertain current field, we predict the path that minimizes the travel time by solving a boundary value problem (BVP), based on the Pontryagin maximum principle. A family of backward-in-time trajectories starting at the end position is used to generate suitable initial values for the BVP solver. This allows us to examine and analyze the performance of the sampling strategy and to develop insight into extensions dealing with general circulation ocean models. In particular, the ensemble method enables us to perform a statistical analysis of travel times and consequently develop a path planning approach that accounts for these statistics. The proposed methodology is tested for a number of scenarios. We first validate our algorithms by reproducing simple canonical solutions, and then demonstrate our approach in more complex flow fields, including idealized, steady and unsteady double-gyre flows.
Path planning in uncertain flow fields using ensemble method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tong; Le Maître, Olivier P.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Knio, Omar M.
2016-10-01
An ensemble-based approach is developed to conduct optimal path planning in unsteady ocean currents under uncertainty. We focus our attention on two-dimensional steady and unsteady uncertain flows, and adopt a sampling methodology that is well suited to operational forecasts, where an ensemble of deterministic predictions is used to model and quantify uncertainty. In an operational setting, much about dynamics, topography, and forcing of the ocean environment is uncertain. To address this uncertainty, the flow field is parametrized using a finite number of independent canonical random variables with known densities, and the ensemble is generated by sampling these variables. For each of the resulting realizations of the uncertain current field, we predict the path that minimizes the travel time by solving a boundary value problem (BVP), based on the Pontryagin maximum principle. A family of backward-in-time trajectories starting at the end position is used to generate suitable initial values for the BVP solver. This allows us to examine and analyze the performance of the sampling strategy and to develop insight into extensions dealing with general circulation ocean models. In particular, the ensemble method enables us to perform a statistical analysis of travel times and consequently develop a path planning approach that accounts for these statistics. The proposed methodology is tested for a number of scenarios. We first validate our algorithms by reproducing simple canonical solutions, and then demonstrate our approach in more complex flow fields, including idealized, steady and unsteady double-gyre flows.
Alasil, Tarek; Wang, Kaidi; Yu, Fei; Field, Matthew G.; Lee, Hang; Baniasadi, Neda; de Boer, Johannes F.; Coleman, Anne L.; Chen, Teresa C.
2015-01-01
Purpose To determine the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness at which visual field (VF) damage becomes detectable and associated with structural loss. Design Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods Eighty seven healthy and 108 glaucoma subjects (one eye per subject) were recruited from an academic institution. All patients had VF examinations (Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm 24-2 test of the Humphrey visual field analyzer 750i; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography RNFL scans (Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). Comparison of RNFL thicknesses values with VF threshold values showed a plateau of VF threshold values at high RNFL thickness values and then a sharp decrease at lower RNFL thickness values. A broken stick statistical analysis was utilized to estimate the tipping point at which RNFL thickness values are associated with VF defects. The slope for the association between structure and function was computed for data above and below the tipping point. Results The mean RNFL thickness value that was associated with initial VF loss was 89 μm. The superior RNFL thickness value that was associated with initial corresponding inferior VF loss was 100 μm. The inferior RNFL thickness value that was associated with initial corresponding superior VF loss was 73 μm. The differences between all the slopes above and below the aforementioned tipping points were statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusions In open angle glaucoma, substantial RNFL thinning or structural loss appears to be necessary before functional visual field defects become detectable. PMID:24487047
Combining Heterogeneous Correlation Matrices: Simulation Analysis of Fixed-Effects Methods
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hafdahl, Adam R.
2008-01-01
Monte Carlo studies of several fixed-effects methods for combining and comparing correlation matrices have shown that two refinements improve estimation and inference substantially. With rare exception, however, these simulations have involved homogeneous data analyzed using conditional meta-analytic procedures. The present study builds on…
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A method of correlation between the Thin Film Micro-Oxidation (TFMO) test with isothermal thermogravimetric analysis is reported utilizing a soybean oil system. Utilizing a kinetic model, pseudo-rate constants and “activation energy” can be calculated from weight loss data. This model accounts for o...
Finding the "g"-Factor in Brain Structure Using the Method of Correlated Vectors
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colom, Roberto; Jung, Rex E.; Haier, Richard J.
2006-01-01
It is unclear whether brain mechanisms underlying human intelligence are distributed throughout the brain or mainly concentrated in the frontal lobes. Data are inconsistent possibly due, at least in part, to the different ways the construct of intelligence is measured. Here we apply the method of correlated vectors to determine how the general…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Lu; Wang, Hongbo; Zhou, Jiangfan; Yang, Rong; Zhang, Hui
2014-11-01
In this paper, the aperture change of the aluminium alloy aerospace structure under real load is researched. Static experiments are carried on which is simulated the load environment of flight course. Compared with the traditional methods, through experiments results, it's proved that 3D digital speckle correlation method has good adaptability and precision on testing aperture change, and it can satisfy measurement on non-contact,real-time 3D deformation or stress concentration. The test results of new method is compared with the traditional method.
PHASE CORRELATION METHOD FOR THE ALIGNMENT OF TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE IMAGES
Druckmueller, M.
2009-12-01
A modified phase correlation method, based on Fourier transform, which enables the alignment of solar coronal images taken during the total solar eclipses, is presented. The method enables the measurement of translation, rotation, and scaling factor between two images. With the application of this technique, pairs of images with different exposure times, different brightness scale, such as linear for CCD and nonlinear for images taken with photographic film, and even images from different emission lines can be aligned with sub-pixel precision.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chinthalapalli, Srinivas; Bornet, Aurélien; Segawa, Takuya F.; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey
2012-07-01
A half-century quest for improving resolution in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has enabled the study of molecular structures, biological interactions, and fine details of anatomy. This progress largely relied on the advent of sophisticated superconducting magnets that can provide stable and homogeneous fields with temporal and spatial variations below ΔB0/B0<0.01ppm. In many cases however, inherent properties of the objects under investigation, pulsating arteries, breathing lungs, tissue-air interfaces, surgical implants, etc., lead to fluctuations and losses of local homogeneity. A new method dubbed “long-lived-coherence correlation spectroscopy” (LLC-COSY) opens the way to overcome both inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening, which arise from local variations in static fields and fluctuating dipole-dipole interactions, respectively. LLC-COSY makes it possible to obtain ultrahigh resolution two-dimensional spectra, with linewidths on the order of Δν=0.1 to 1 Hz, even in very inhomogeneous fields (ΔB0/B0>10ppm or 5000 Hz at 9.7 T), and can improve resolution by a factor up to 9 when the homogeneous linewidths are determined by dipole-dipole interactions. The resulting LLC-COSY spectra display chemical shift differences and scalar couplings in two orthogonal dimensions, like in “J spectroscopy.” LLC-COSY does not require any sophisticated gradient switching or frequency-modulated pulses. Applications to in-cell NMR and to magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of selected volume elements in MRI appear promising, particularly when susceptibility variations tend to preclude high resolution.
Classical-field methods for atom-molecule systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahlberg, Catarina E.; Gardiner, C. W.
2013-02-01
We extend classical-field methods [Blakie , Adv. Phys.ADPHAH0001-873210.1080/00018730802564254 57, 363 (2008)] to provide a description of atom-molecule systems. We use a model of Bose-Einstein condensation of atoms close to a Feshbach resonance, in which the tunable scattering length of the atoms is described using a system of coupled atom and molecule fields [Holland , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.86.1915 86, 1915 (2001)]. We formulate the basic theoretical methods for a coupled atom-molecule system, including the determination of the phenomenological parameters in our system, the Thomas-Fermi description of Bose-Einstein condensate, the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, and the Bogoliubov excitation spectrum for a homogenous condensed system. We apply this formalism to the special case of Bragg scattering from a uniform condensate and find that for moderate and large scattering lengths, there is a dramatic difference in the shift of the peak of the Bragg spectra, compared to that based on a structureless atom model. The result is compatible with the experimental results of Papp [Phys. Rev. LettPRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.101.135301 101, 135301 (2008)] for Bragg scattering from a nonuniform condensate.
Brambilla, E.; Gatti, A.; Bache, M.; Lugiato, L.A.
2004-02-01
We study the spatial correlations of quantum fluctuations that can be observed in multimode parametric down-conversion in the regime of high gain. We investigate both a type-I and a type-II phase-matching configuration: in the latter case spatial correlations at the quantum level are shown to exist both in the near-field and in the far-field zones of the down-converted light. In the stationary and plane-wave approximation we treat the problem analytically. A stochastic model is solved numerically to obtain quantitative results beyond this approximation. The finite transverse size and pulse duration of the pump beam and other features of the system, such as spatial walk-off and diffraction are taken into account, and we show that correlations beyond the standard quantum limit exist for values of parameters consistent with realistic experiments.
Dobrev, Ivo; Furlong, Cosme; Cheng, Jeffrey T; Rosowski, John J
2014-09-01
Understanding the human hearing process would be helped by quantification of the transient mechanical response of the human ear, including the human tympanic membrane (TM or eardrum). We propose a new hybrid high-speed holographic system (HHS) for acquisition and quantification of the full-field nanometer transient (i.e., >10 kHz) displacement of the human TM. We have optimized and implemented a 2 þ 1 frame local correlation (LC) based phase sampling method in combination with a high-speed (i.e., >40 K fps) camera acquisition system. To our knowledge, there is currently no existing system that provides such capabilities for the study of the human TM. The LC sampling method has a displacement difference of <11 nm relative to measurements obtained by a four-phase step algorithm. Comparisons between our high-speed acquisition system and a laser Doppler vibrometer indicate differences of <10 μs. The high temporal (i.e., >40 kHz) and spatial (i.e., >100 k data points) resolution of our HHS enables parallel measurements of all points on the surface of the TM, which allows quantification of spatially dependent motion parameters, such as modal frequencies and acoustic delays. Such capabilities could allow inferring local material properties across the surface of the TM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobrev, Ivo; Furlong, Cosme; Cheng, Jeffrey T.; Rosowski, John J.
2014-09-01
Understanding the human hearing process would be helped by quantification of the transient mechanical response of the human ear, including the human tympanic membrane (TM or eardrum). We propose a new hybrid high-speed holographic system (HHS) for acquisition and quantification of the full-field nanometer transient (i.e., >10 kHz) displacement of the human TM. We have optimized and implemented a 2+1 frame local correlation (LC) based phase sampling method in combination with a high-speed (i.e., >40 K fps) camera acquisition system. To our knowledge, there is currently no existing system that provides such capabilities for the study of the human TM. The LC sampling method has a displacement difference of <11 nm relative to measurements obtained by a four-phase step algorithm. Comparisons between our high-speed acquisition system and a laser Doppler vibrometer indicate differences of <10 μs. The high temporal (i.e., >40 kHz) and spatial (i.e., >100 k data points) resolution of our HHS enables parallel measurements of all points on the surface of the TM, which allows quantification of spatially dependent motion parameters, such as modal frequencies and acoustic delays. Such capabilities could allow inferring local material properties across the surface of the TM.
Dobrev, Ivo; Furlong, Cosme; Cheng, Jeffrey T.; Rosowski, John J.
2014-01-01
Abstract. Understanding the human hearing process would be helped by quantification of the transient mechanical response of the human ear, including the human tympanic membrane (TM or eardrum). We propose a new hybrid high-speed holographic system (HHS) for acquisition and quantification of the full-field nanometer transient (i.e., >10 kHz) displacement of the human TM. We have optimized and implemented a 2+1 frame local correlation (LC) based phase sampling method in combination with a high-speed (i.e., >40 K fps) camera acquisition system. To our knowledge, there is currently no existing system that provides such capabilities for the study of the human TM. The LC sampling method has a displacement difference of <11 nm relative to measurements obtained by a four-phase step algorithm. Comparisons between our high-speed acquisition system and a laser Doppler vibrometer indicate differences of <10 μs. The high temporal (i.e., >40 kHz) and spatial (i.e., >100 k data points) resolution of our HHS enables parallel measurements of all points on the surface of the TM, which allows quantification of spatially dependent motion parameters, such as modal frequencies and acoustic delays. Such capabilities could allow inferring local material properties across the surface of the TM. PMID:25191832
Boscá, A.; Pedrós, J.; Martínez, J.; Calle, F.
2015-01-28
Due to its intrinsic high mobility, graphene has proved to be a suitable material for high-speed electronics, where graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) has shown excellent properties. In this work, we present a method for extracting relevant electrical parameters from GFET devices using a simple electrical characterization and a model fitting. With experimental data from the device output characteristics, the method allows to calculate parameters such as the mobility, the contact resistance, and the fixed charge. Differentiated electron and hole mobilities and direct connection with intrinsic material properties are some of the key aspects of this method. Moreover, the method output values can be correlated with several issues during key fabrication steps such as the graphene growth and transfer, the lithographic steps, or the metalization processes, providing a flexible tool for quality control in GFET fabrication, as well as a valuable feedback for improving the material-growth process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Keller, Ole
1995-07-01
An external reflection scanning near-field optical microscope with shear force regulation of the tip-surface distance is described. Near-field optical and shear force topographical images are compared for various samples. It is shown that the most important correlative relationships between these images can be deduced from symmetry considerations. The possibility of extracting additional information from the optical images is demonstrated on images of human blood cells.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weygand, James M.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Dasso, S.; Kivelson, M. G.
2011-08-01
Simultaneous multiple point measurements of the magnetic field from 11 spacecraft are employed to determine the correlation scale and the magnetic Taylor microscale of the solar wind as functions of the mean magnetic field direction and solar wind speed. We find that the Taylor scale is independent of direction relative to the mean magnetic field in both the slow (<450 km/s) and the fast (>600 km/s) solar wind, but the Taylor scale is longer along the mean magnetic field direction in the intermediate (600 km/s ≥ speed ≥ 450 km/s) solar wind. The correlation scale, on the other hand, varies with angle from the mean magnetic field direction. In the slow solar wind the ratio of the parallel correlation scale to the perpendicular correlation scale is 2.55 ± 0.76, decreases to 2.15 ± 0.18 in the intermediate solar wind, and becomes 0.71 ± 0.29 in the fast solar wind. Thus, solar wind turbulence is anisotropic, dominated by quasi two-dimensional turbulence in both the slow and intermediate solar wind, and by slab type turbulence in the fast solar wind. The correlation and Taylor scales may be used to estimate effective magnetic Reynolds numbers separately for each angular channel. To within the uncertainty, no dependence on the solid angle relative to the mean magnetic field could be identified for the Reynolds number. These results may be useful in magnetohydrodynamic modeling of the solar wind and can contribute to our understanding of solar and galactic cosmic ray diffusion in the heliosphere.
Electric vehicle chassis dynamometer test methods at JPL and their correlation to track tests
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marte, J.; Bryant, J.
1983-01-01
Early in its electric vehicle (EV) test program, JPL recognized that EV test procedures were too vague and too loosely defined to permit much meaningful data to be obtained from the testing. Therefore, JPL adopted more stringent test procedures and chose the chassis dynamometer rather than the track as its principal test technique. Through the years, test procedures continued to evolve towards a methodology based on chassis dynamometers which would exhibit good correlation with track testing. Based on comparative dynamometer and track test results on the ETV-1 vehicle, the test methods discussed in this report demonstrate a means by which excellent track-to-dynamometer correlation can be obtained.
Wissler, R W; Lichtig, C; Hughes, R; Al-Sadir, J; Glagov, S
1975-05-01
A description is presented of a new and simple procedure for ventricular volume determination by means of pressure fixation of the heart and preparation of plastic molds of the ventricles which can be used to displace water in a graduated cylinder to determine the volume of the mold. Correlations between postmortem ventricular volume as measured by this method and antemortem stroke volume or clinical cardiac status indicate that a large left ventricular volume is often correlated with a low cardiac output and cardiogenic shock. PMID:1119371
Verevkin, S.P.; Heintz, A.
1999-12-01
Vaporization enthalpies are indispensable for the assessment of the environmental fate and behavior of environmental contaminants. The temperature dependencies of retention indices of a set of 80 esters with branched molecular structures were measured on a nonpolar gas chromatographic column. The correlation gas chromatography method and reliable data set of 16 esters selected from the literature were used to derive a correlation for the prediction of the standard molar enthalpies of vaporization {Delta}{sub 1}{sup g}H{sub m}{sup {degree}} at the temperature T = 298.15 K. Experimental values of {Delta}{sub 1}{sup g}H{sub m}{sup {degree}} for 64 branched esters were obtained with the help of this correlation. The vaporization enthalpies of isopentyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and neopentyl pivalate were additionally obtained by the transpiration method from the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure measured in a flow system and used for checking the validity of the correlation gas chromatography method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Qiang; Luk, Wai-Shing; Tao, Jun; Zeng, Xuan; Cai, Wei
In this paper, a novel intra-die spatial correlation extraction method referred to as MLEMTC (Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Multiple Test Chips) is presented. In the MLEMTC method, a joint likelihood function is formulated by multiplying the set of individual likelihood functions for all test chips. This joint likelihood function is then maximized to extract a unique group of parameter values of a single spatial correlation function, which can be used for statistical circuit analysis and design. Moreover, to deal with the purely random component and measurement error contained in measurement data, the spatial correlation function combined with the correlation of white noise is used in the extraction, which significantly improves the accuracy of the extraction results. Furthermore, an LU decomposition based technique is developed to calculate the log-determinant of the positive definite matrix within the likelihood function, which solves the numerical stability problem encountered in the direct calculation. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method is efficient and practical.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Wei-Huang; Tian, Yuan; Luo, Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Xu, Jia-Hao; Wang, Dian-Hong
2016-09-01
In the measurement of the gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method, the accurate estimation of the amplitude of the useful angular acceleration generated by source masses depends on the effective subtraction of the spurious gravitational signal caused by room fixed background masses. The gravitational background signal is of time-varying frequency, and mainly consists of the prominent fundamental frequency and second harmonic components. We propose an improved correlation method to estimate the amplitudes of the prominent components of the gravitational background signal with high precision. The improved correlation method converts a sinusoidal signal with time-varying frequency into a standard sinusoidal signal by means of the stretch processing of time. Based on Gaussian white noise model, the theoretical result shows the uncertainty of the estimated amplitude is proportional to /σ √{ N T } , where σ and N are the standard deviation of noise and the number of the useful signal period T, respectively.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kryuchkyan, Gagik YU.; Kheruntsyan, Karen V.
1994-01-01
Two schemes of four-wave mixing oscillators with nondegenerate pumps are proposed for above-threehold generation of squeezed light with nonzero mean-field amplitudes. Noise and correlation properties and optical spectra of squeezed-light beams generated in these schemes are discussed.
A Multipole Expansion Method for Analyzing Lightning Field Changes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koshak, William J.; Krider, E. Philip; Murphy, Martin J.
1999-01-01
Changes in the surface electric field are frequently used to infer the locations and magnitudes of lightning-caused changes in thundercloud charge distributions. The traditional procedure is to assume that the charges that are effectively deposited by the flash can be modeled either as a single point charge (the Q model) or a point dipole (the P model). The Q model has four unknown parameters and provides a good description of many cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes. The P model has six unknown parameters and describes many intracloud (IC) discharges. In this paper we introduce a new analysis method that assumes that the change in the cloud charge can be described by a truncated multipole expansion, i.e., there are both monopole and dipole terms in the unknown source distribution, and both terms are applied simultaneously. This method can be used to analyze CG flashes that are accompanied by large changes in the cloud dipole moment and complex IC discharges. If there is enough information content in the measurements, the model can also be generalized to include quadrupole and higher order terms. The parameters of the charge moments are determined using a dme-dimensional grid search in combination with a linear inversion, and because of this, local minima in the error function and the associated solution ambiguities are avoided. The multipole method has been tested on computer-simulated sources and on natural lightning at the NASA Kennedy Space Center and U.S. Air Force Eastern Range.
Variability and correlations in muskmelon in relation to the cultivation method.
Molina, R V; Nuez, F; Cuartero, J; Goméz-Guillamón, M L; Abadía, J
1989-09-01
Six fruit characters have been measured in 23 cultivars of Cucumis melo, representing a wide geographical range. Plants were grown both in the greenhouse and in the field. When the 23 cultivars were analyzed together, the largest component of variance was found between cultivars under both growth conditions, suggesting the existence of large genetic diversity for all the characters studied. Generally, variance between plants within cultivars was less than or equal to variance between fruits within plant. This indicates that environmental variation is the most important part of the variation within cultivars. Correlations between pairs of characters at cultivar, plant and fruit levels were calculated from the variance-covariance components. In the majority of paired traits, the correlation values indicated that genetic and environmental factors may act in the same direction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Najafi, Khadijeh; Freericks, James
We investigate the nonlinear electronic transport across a multilayered heterostructure which consists of Mott insulator layers connected to ballistic metal leads on both sides. To create current flow, we turn on an electric field in the leads for a finite period of time and then turn it off and let the system reach the steady state by adding an electric field over the correlated region. We use nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory to obtain the current-voltage relation. To do so, we current bias the device, and adjust the voltage profile to ensure current conservation and charge conservation throughout. The calculation ultimately works directly in the steady-state limit.
Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y. G.; Liu, Xiaolan; Kopparapu, N. K.; Xin, Hangshu; Liu, J.; Guo, Jianhua
2015-01-01
Four methods were adopted, including the mobile nylon bag (MNB) method, modified three-step in vitro (MTS) method, original three-step in vitro (OTS) method, and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) estimating method, to evaluate the intestinal digestibility of rumen undegradable protein (DRUP) of 10 types of concentrates and 7 types of roughages. After correlation analysis to determine the DRUP values using the MNB, MTS, OTS, and ADIN methods, the study aimed to find out appropriate methods to replace the MNB method due to its disadvantages such as high price, long time period, and use of a duodenal T-fistula. Three dairy cows with a permanent ruminal fistula and duodenal T-fistula were used in a single-factor experimental design. The results showed that the determined DRUP values using the MNB method for soybean meal, cottonseed meal, rapeseed meal, sunflower meal, corn germ meal, corn, rice bran, barley, wheat bran, corn fiber feed, Alfalfa (Zhao dong), Alfalfa (Long mu 801), Alfalfa (Long mu 803), grass (North), Grass (Inner Mongolia), corn silage and corn straw were 98.13%, 87.37%, 88.47%, 82.60%, 75.40%, 93.23%, 69.27%, 91.27%, 72.37%, 79.03%, 66.72%, 68.64%, 73.57%, 50.47%, 51.52%, 54.05%, and 43.84%, respectively. The coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.964) of the results between the MTS method and the MNB method was higher than that (R2 = 0.942) between the OTS method and the MNB method. The coefficient of determination of the DRUP values of the concentrates among the in vitro method (including the MTS and OTS methods) and the MNB method was higher than that of the roughage. There was a weak correlation between the determined DRUP values in concentrates obtained from the ADIN method and those from the MNB method, and there was a significant correlation (p<0.01) between the determined DRUP values of the roughage obtained from the MNB method and those obtained from ADIN method. The DRUP values were significantly correlated with the nutritional
Hypersensitivity to P. officinalis pollen: correlation of IgE with skin testing methods.
Cvitanović, S; Grbić, D; Zekan, L; Boban, M; Vrdoljak, E; Parpura, V; Petrović, S; Marusić, M
1989-01-01
Fifty pollinosis patients, who have reported contact with P. officinalis, were tested for skin sensitivity with P. officinalis pollen extract. Intracutaneous testing and the skin prick method were employed and their sensitivity verified with regard to serum concentrations of specific IgE antibodies determined with the RAST method. Two criteria of the skin prick method evaluation were employed. The intracutaneous method correlated best with RAST. In contrast to intracutaneous testing, the skin prick method did not produce any false-positive results; however, due to a few false-negative cases observed, it appeared that in borderline-negative cases the skin prick method would require determination of serum IgE antibodies to reach a clear-cut diagnosis.
Apparatus and method for producing an artificial gravitational field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccanna, Jason (Inventor)
1993-01-01
An apparatus and method is disclosed for producing an artificial gravitational field in a spacecraft by rotating the same around a spin axis. The centrifugal force thereby created acts as an artificial gravitational force. The apparatus includes an engine which produces a drive force offset from the spin axis to drive the spacecraft towards a destination. The engine is also used as a counterbalance for a crew cabin for rotation of the spacecraft. Mass of the spacecraft, which may include either the engine or crew cabin, is shifted such that the centrifugal force acting on that mass is no longer directed through the center of mass of the craft. This off-center centrifugal force creates a moment that counterbalances the moment produced by the off-center drive force to eliminate unwanted rotation which would otherwise be precipitated by the offset drive force.
Methods for Quantitative Interpretation of Retarding Field Analyzer Data
Calvey, J.R.; Crittenden, J.A.; Dugan, G.F.; Palmer, M.A.; Furman, M.; Harkay, K.
2011-03-28
Over the course of the CesrTA program at Cornell, over 30 Retarding Field Analyzers (RFAs) have been installed in the CESR storage ring, and a great deal of data has been taken with them. These devices measure the local electron cloud density and energy distribution, and can be used to evaluate the efficacy of different cloud mitigation techniques. Obtaining a quantitative understanding of RFA data requires use of cloud simulation programs, as well as a detailed model of the detector itself. In a drift region, the RFA can be modeled by postprocessing the output of a simulation code, and one can obtain best fit values for important simulation parameters with a chi-square minimization method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimwood, A.; Messa, A.; Bamber, J. C.
2015-03-01
A combined correlation method is introduced to optical coherence elastography for axial displacement estimation. Its performance is compared with that of amplitude correlation tracking and phase shift estimation. Relative sensitivities to small (sub-micron), and large (pixel-scale) axial displacements are analysed for a Perspex test object and gelatine phantom. The combined correlation method exhibited good overall performance, with a larger dynamic range than phase shift estimation and higher sensitivity than amplitude correlation tracking.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weygand, J. M.; Kivelson, M. G.; Matthaeus, M. H.; Dasso, S.; Kistler, L. M.
2009-04-01
ACE, Cluster, Geotail, IMP-8, Interball, THEMIS, and Wind data from many different intervals in the solar wind are employed to determine the magnetic correlation scale and the Taylor microscale from simultaneous multiple point measurements. For this study we define the correlation scale as the exponential decay constant of the correlation coefficient as a function of spacecraft separation and the Taylor scale as the radius of curvature of the correlation coefficient values at zero separation. The present determination of the Taylor scale makes use of a novel extrapolation technique to derive a statistically stable estimate from a range of measurements at small spatial separations [Weygand et al., 2007]. Using all the slow solar wind data (600 km/s), the correlation scale length is found to be smallest (about 1.3x106 km) in the direction parallel to the magnetic field and largest (about 2.2x106 km) in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. The anisotropies in the turbulent magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind are consistent with slow solar containing mainly two-dimensional turbulence and the fast solar wind having mostly slab type turbulence. The effective magnetic Reynolds number can be expressed in terms of the correlation scale and the Taylor scale. The difference in the Taylor and correlation scale in the parallel and perpendicular direction indicates that the effective magnetic Reynolds number varies with the direction of the magnetic field and has values between 1x106 and 8x106 . Knowledge of the effective magnetic Reynolds number may be useful in magnetohydrodynamic modeling of the solar wind and galactic cosmic ray diffusion in the heliosphere.
FSM model correlation identification method based on invert-repeated m-sequence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Luo-lan; Wang, Qiang
2014-09-01
Fast steering mirror (FSM) is one of the most important components in electro-optical tracking system and access to FSM model is the basis for controlling and fault diagnosis. This paper presented a correlation identification method based on Invert-Repeated m-sequence which can be used in the electro-optical tracking system to achieve the model of FSM under low sampling rate. Firstly, this article discussed the properties of the Invert-Repeated m-sequence and program implemented in matlab language, then analyzed the principle of correlation identification method based on Invert-Repeated m-sequence by utilizing Wiener-Hopf equation which is simple to achieve with strong anti-jamming capability and small perturbations on the system. Finally, a FSM model with the experiment data got by Dynamic Signal Analyzer was built in Matlab/Simulink and identified by the method mentioned in the paper. The experiment showed that correlation identification method which has certain actual application value, based on Invert-Repeated m-sequence can obtain more accurate recognition results even if the FSM system's output signal contained large variance noise.
Combining Monte Carlo and mean-field-like methods for inference in hidden Markov random fields.
Forbes, Florence; Fort, Gersende
2007-03-01
Issues involving missing data are typical settings where exact inference is not tractable as soon as nontrivial interactions occur between the missing variables. Approximations are required, and most of them are based either on simulation methods or on deterministic variational methods. While variational methods provide fast and reasonable approximate estimates in many scenarios, simulation methods offer more consideration of important theoretical issues such as accuracy of the approximation and convergence of the algorithms but at a much higher computational cost. In this work, we propose a new class of algorithms that combine the main features and advantages of both simulation and deterministic methods and consider applications to inference in hidden Markov random fields (HMRFs). These algorithms can be viewed as stochastic perturbations of variational expectation maximization (VEM) algorithms, which are not tractable for HMRF. We focus more specifically on one of these perturbations and we prove their (almost sure) convergence to the same limit set as the limit set of VEM. In addition, experiments on synthetic and real-world images show that the algorithm performance is very close and sometimes better than that of other existing simulation-based and variational EM-like algorithms.
Singular boundary method for global gravity field modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cunderlik, Robert
2014-05-01
The singular boundary method (SBM) and method of fundamental solutions (MFS) are meshless boundary collocation techniques that use the fundamental solution of a governing partial differential equation (e.g. the Laplace equation) as their basis functions. They have been developed to avoid singular numerical integration as well as mesh generation in the traditional boundary element method (BEM). SBM have been proposed to overcome a main drawback of MFS - its controversial fictitious boundary outside the domain. The key idea of SBM is to introduce a concept of the origin intensity factors that isolate singularities of the fundamental solution and its derivatives using some appropriate regularization techniques. Consequently, the source points can be placed directly on the real boundary and coincide with the collocation nodes. In this study we deal with SBM applied for high-resolution global gravity field modelling. The first numerical experiment presents a numerical solution to the fixed gravimetric boundary value problem. The achieved results are compared with the numerical solutions obtained by MFS or the direct BEM indicating efficiency of all methods. In the second numerical experiments, SBM is used to derive the geopotential and its first derivatives from the Tzz components of the gravity disturbing tensor observed by the GOCE satellite mission. A determination of the origin intensity factors allows to evaluate the disturbing potential and gravity disturbances directly on the Earth's surface where the source points are located. To achieve high-resolution numerical solutions, the large-scale parallel computations are performed on the cluster with 1TB of the distributed memory and an iterative elimination of far zones' contributions is applied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lal, Achchhe; Palekar Shailesh, P.
2016-01-01
The second order statistics of mixed mode stress intensity factors (MSIF) of single edge V-notched angle ply laminated composite plate subjected to uniaxial tensile load with uncertinity in the system properties using displacement correlation method (DCM) is evaluated. The random system properties such as material properties, crack opening and crack length are modelled as combined uncorrelated and correlated random system variables. A C0 finite element method (FEM) based on higher order shear deformation plate theory (HSDT) is used for basic formulation. The Taylor series based first order perturbation technique (FOPT), second order perturbation technique (SOPT) are used and direct Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is performed to evaluate the statistics (mean and coefficient of variance) of the mixed mode SIFs. The present work signifies the accurate analysis of frature behaviour by influence of different random variables and fibre orientations on the fracture behaviour in angle ply laminates.
Giger, Maryellen L.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Armato, Samuel; Doi, Kunio
1999-10-26
A method and system for the computerized registration of radionuclide images with radiographic images, including generating image data from radiographic and radionuclide images of the thorax. Techniques include contouring the lung regions in each type of chest image, scaling and registration of the contours based on location of lung apices, and superimposition after appropriate shifting of the images. Specific applications are given for the automated registration of radionuclide lungs scans with chest radiographs. The method in the example given yields a system that spatially registers and correlates digitized chest radiographs with V/Q scans in order to correlate V/Q functional information with the greater structural detail of chest radiographs. Final output could be the computer-determined contours from each type of image superimposed on any of the original images, or superimposition of the radionuclide image data, which contains high activity, onto the radiographic chest image.
Poulsen, O M; Olsen, E; Christensen, J M; Vinzent, P; Petersen, O H
1995-01-01
OBJECTIVES--The geltape method is a new method for optical measurement of total amount of dust on surfaces. The objectives were to study the potential applicability of this method to measurements of work related cobalt exposure during painting of plates with cobalt dye. METHODS--Consecutive series of work related geltape prints were taken from surfaces inside and outside the ventilation cabins of two plate painters during two full working days. The amount of dust picked up by the geltapes was measured optically with a field monitor. Also, personal air samples were collected on filters at the different work processes. In the laboratory the contents of cobalt on the geltape prints and the filters were measured with inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. RESULTS--The key results were: (a) when the geltape prints were taken from surfaces inside the cabins the optically measured area of the geltapes covered with total dust (area (%)) correlated well with the chemically measured amount of cobalt present on the geltapes. Linear correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.91 for geltape prints taken on the floor and 0.94 for prints taken on the ceiling; (b) the cumulative airborne cobalt exposure, calculated from data on work related exposure by personal sampling, correlated with the area (%) of geltape prints taken from the ceiling of the cabin (R2 = 0.98); (c) the geltape method could be used to distinguish both between work processes with different levels of cobalt exposure, and between plate painters subjected to significant differences in airborne cobalt exposure. CONCLUSION--The geltape method could produce measures of the work related exposures as well as whole day exposure for cobalt. The geltape results correlated with measurements of personal airborne cobalt exposure. In this industry the profile of exposure is well-defined in time, and it seems reasonable to apply this fast and low cost method in routine exposure surveillance to obtain a more detailed
A free-field method to calibrate bone conduction transducers.
Pollard, Kimberly A; Tran, Phuong K; Letowski, Tomasz R
2013-02-01
Bone conduction communication systems employ a variety of transducers with different physical and electroacoustic properties, and these transducers may be worn at various skull locations. Testing these systems thus requires a reliable means of transducer calibration that can be implemented across different devices, skull locations, and settings. Unfortunately, existing calibration standards do not meet these criteria. Audiometric bone conduction standards focus on only one device model and on limited skull locations. Furthermore, while mechanical couplers may be used for calibration, the general human validity of their results is suspect. To address the need for more flexible, human-centered calibration methods, the authors investigated a procedure for bone transducer calibration, analogous to free-field methods for calibrating air conduction headphones. Participants listened to1s third-octave noise bands (125-12,500 Hz) alternating between a bone transducer and a loudspeaker and adjusted the bone transducer to match the perceived loudness of the loudspeaker at each test frequency. Participants tested two transducer models and two skull locations. Intra- and inter-subject reliability was high, and the resulting data differed by transducer, by location, and from the mechanical coupler. The described procedure is flexible to transducer model and skull location, requires only basic equipment, and directly yields perceptual data. PMID:23363104
Generalized method of eigenoscillations for near-field optical microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Bor-Yuan; Zhang, Lingfeng; Castro Neto, Antonio; Basov, Dimitri; Fogler, Michael
2015-03-01
Electromagnetic interaction between a sub-wavelength particle (the ``probe'') and a material surface (the ``sample'') is studied theoretically. The interaction is shown to be governed by a series of resonances (eigenoscillations), corresponding to surface polariton modes localized near the probe. The resonance parameters depend on the dielectric function and geometry of the probe, as well as the surface reflectivity of the material. Calculation of such resonances is carried out for several axisymmetric particle shapes (spherical, spheroidal, and pear-shaped). For spheroids an efficient numerical method is proposed, capable of handling cases of large or strongly momentum-dependent surface reflectivity. The method is applied to modeling near-field spectroscopy studies of various materials. For highly resonant materials such as aluminum oxide (by itself or covered with graphene) a rich structure of the simulated signal is found, including multi-peak spectra and nonmonotonic approach curves. These features have a strong dependence on physical parameters, e.g., the probe shape. For less resonant materials such as silicon oxide the dependence is weaker, and the spheroid model is generally applicable.
Comparison of aquatic macroinvertebrate samples collected using different field methods
Lenz, Bernard N.; Miller, Michael A.
1996-01-01
Government agencies, academic institutions, and volunteer monitoring groups in the State of Wisconsin collect aquatic macroinvertebrate data to assess water quality. Sampling methods differ among agencies, reflecting the differences in the sampling objectives of each agency. Lack of infor- mation about data comparability impedes data shar- ing among agencies, which can result in duplicated sampling efforts or the underutilization of avail- able information. To address these concerns, com- parisons were made of macroinvertebrate samples collected from wadeable streams in Wisconsin by personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey- National Water Quality Assessment Program (USGS-NAWQA), the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR), the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Forest Service (USDA-FS), and volunteers from the Water Action Volunteer-Water Quality Monitoring Program (WAV). This project was part of the Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality (ITFM) Wisconsin Water Resources Coordination Project. The numbers, types, and environmental tolerances of the organ- isms collected were analyzed to determine if the four different field methods that were used by the different agencies and volunteer groups provide comparable results. Additionally, this study com- pared the results of samples taken from different locations and habitats within the same streams.
Linear-scaling explicitly correlated treatment of solids: Periodic local MP2-F12 method
Usvyat, Denis
2013-11-21
Theory and implementation of the periodic local MP2-F12 method in the 3*A fixed-amplitude ansatz is presented. The method is formulated in the direct space, employing local representation for the occupied, virtual, and auxiliary orbitals in the form of Wannier functions (WFs), projected atomic orbitals (PAOs), and atom-centered Gaussian-type orbitals, respectively. Local approximations are introduced, restricting the list of the explicitly correlated pairs, as well as occupied, virtual, and auxiliary spaces in the strong orthogonality projector to the pair-specific domains on the basis of spatial proximity of respective orbitals. The 4-index two-electron integrals appearing in the formalism are approximated via the direct-space density fitting technique. In this procedure, the fitting orbital spaces are also restricted to local fit-domains surrounding the fitted densities. The formulation of the method and its implementation exploits the translational symmetry and the site-group symmetries of the WFs. Test calculations are performed on LiH crystal. The results show that the periodic LMP2-F12 method substantially accelerates basis set convergence of the total correlation energy, and even more so the correlation energy differences. The resulting energies are quite insensitive to the resolution-of-the-identity domain sizes and the quality of the auxiliary basis sets. The convergence with the orbital domain size is somewhat slower, but still acceptable. Moreover, inclusion of slightly more diffuse functions, than those usually used in the periodic calculations, improves the convergence of the LMP2-F12 correlation energy with respect to both the size of the PAO-domains and the quality of the orbital basis set. At the same time, the essentially diffuse atomic orbitals from standard molecular basis sets, commonly utilized in molecular MP2-F12 calculations, but problematic in the periodic context, are not necessary for LMP2-F12 treatment of crystals.
Improvement on the correlated-Hartree-Fock method and application to atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamagami, Hiroshi; Takada, Yasutami; Yasuhara, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Akira
1994-04-01
Based on the recent paper of Yasuhara and Takada [Phys. Rev. B 43, 7200 (1991)] on a screened-exchange potential for band calculations, an improvement is made on the correlated Hartree-Fock method for inhomogeneous many-electron systems so as to yield excellent results for both the total energies and the ionization potentials of atoms in the Periodic Table from He to Ca.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubino, V.; Lapusta, N.; Rosakis, A.
2012-12-01
Mapping full-field displacements and strains on the Earth's surface during an earthquake is of paramount importance to enhance our understanding of earthquake mechanics. In this study, the feasibility of such measurements using image correlation methods is investigated in a laboratory earthquake setup. Earthquakes are mimicked in the laboratory by dynamic rupture propagating along an inclined frictional interface formed by two Homalite plates under compression, using the configuration developed by Rosakis and coworkers (e.g., Rosakis et al., 2007). In our study, the interface is partially glued, in order to confine the rupture before it reaches the ends of the specimen. The specimens are painted with a speckle pattern to provide the surface with characteristic features for image matching. Images of the specimens are taken before and after dynamic rupture with a 4 Megapixels resolution CCD camera. The digital images are analyzed with two software packages: VIC-2D (Correlated Solutions Inc.) and COSI-Corr (Leprince et. al, 2007). Both VIC-2D and COSI-Corr are able to characterize the full-field static displacement of a dynamic crack. For example, in a case with secondary mode I cracks, the correlation analysis performed with either software clearly shows (i) the relative displacement (slip) along the frictional interface, (ii) the rupture arrest on the glued boundaries, and (iii) the presence of two wing cracks. The obtained displacement measurements are converted to strains, using de-noising techniques. The digital image correlation method is then used in combination with high-speed photography. We will report our progress on the study of a spontaneously expanding sub-Rayleigh shear crack advancing along an interface containing a patch of favorable heterogeneity, such as a preexisting subcritical crack or a patch with higher prestress. According to the predictions of Liu and Lapusta (2008), intersonic transition and propagation can be achieved in the presence of a
Ludwig, Karl
2012-01-01
Successful X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy studies often require that signals be optimized while minimizing power density in the sample to decrease radiation damage and, at free-electron laser sources, thermal impact. This suggests exploration of scattering outside the Fraunhofer far-field diffraction limit d(2)/λ < R, where d is the incident beam size, λ is the photon wavelength and R is the sample-to-detector distance. Here it is shown that, in an intermediate regime d(2)/λ > R > dξ/λ, where ξ is the structural correlation length in the material, the ensemble averages of the scattered intensity and of the structure factor are equal. Similarly, in the regime d(2)/λ > R > dξ(τ)/λ, where ξ(τ) is a time-dependent dynamics length scale of interest, the ensemble-averaged correlation functions g(1)(τ) and g(2)(τ) of the scattered electric field are also equal to their values in the far-field limit. This broadens the parameter space for X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy experiments, but detectors with smaller pixel size and variable focusing are required to more fully exploit the potential for such studies.
Entropy correlation distance method. The Euro introduction effect on the Consumer Price Index
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miśkiewicz, Janusz
2010-04-01
The idea of entropy was introduced in thermodynamics, but it can be used in time series analysis. There are various ways to define and measure the entropy of a system. Here the so called Theil index, which is often used in economy and finance, is applied as it were an entropy measure. In this study the time series are remapped through the Theil index. Then the linear correlation coefficient between the remapped time series is evaluated as a function of time and time window size and the corresponding statistical distance is defined. The results are compared with the the usual correlation distance measure for the time series themselves. As an example this entropy correlation distance method (ECDM) is applied to several series, as those of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) in order to test some so called globalisation processes. Distance matrices are calculated in order to construct two network structures which are next analysed. The role of two different time scales introduced by the Theil index and a correlation coefficient is also discussed. The evolution of the mean distance between the most developed countries is presented and the globalisation periods of the prices discussed. It is finally shown that the evolution of mean distance between the most developed countries on several networks follows the process of introducing the European currency - the Euro. It is contrasted to the GDP based analysis. It is stressed that the entropy correlation distance measure is more suitable in detecting significant changes, like a globalisation process than the usual statistical (correlation based) measure.
Fast Electron Correlation Methods for Molecular Clusters without Basis Set Superposition Errors
Kamiya, Muneaki; Hirata, So; Valiev, Marat
2008-02-19
Two critical extensions to our fast, accurate, and easy-to-implement binary or ternary interaction method for weakly-interacting molecular clusters [Hirata et al. Mol. Phys. 103, 2255 (2005)] have been proposed, implemented, and applied to water hexamers, hydrogen fluoride chains and rings, and neutral and zwitterionic glycine–water clusters with an excellent result for an initial performance assessment. Our original method included up to two- or three-body Coulomb, exchange, and correlation energies exactly and higher-order Coulomb energies in the dipole–dipole approximation. In this work, the dipole moments are replaced by atom-centered point charges determined so that they reproduce the electrostatic potentials of the cluster subunits as closely as possible and also self-consistently with one another in the cluster environment. They have been shown to lead to dramatic improvement in the description of short-range electrostatic potentials not only of large, charge-separated subunits like zwitterionic glycine but also of small subunits. Furthermore, basis set superposition errors (BSSE) known to plague direct evaluation of weak interactions have been eliminated by com-bining the Valiron–Mayer function counterpoise (VMFC) correction with our binary or ternary interaction method in an economical fashion (quadratic scaling n2 with respect to the number of subunits n when n is small and linear scaling when n is large). A new variant of VMFC has also been proposed in which three-body and all higher-order Coulomb effects on BSSE are estimated approximately. The BSSE-corrected ternary interaction method with atom-centered point charges reproduces the VMFC-corrected results of conventional electron correlation calculations within 0.1 kcal/mol. The proposed method is significantly more accurate and also efficient than conventional correlation methods uncorrected of BSSE.
Zhou, Jingyu; Tian, Shulin; Yang, Chenglin
2014-01-01
Few researches pay attention to prediction about analog circuits. The few methods lack the correlation with circuit analysis during extracting and calculating features so that FI (fault indicator) calculation often lack rationality, thus affecting prognostic performance. To solve the above problem, this paper proposes a novel prediction method about single components of analog circuits based on complex field modeling. Aiming at the feature that faults of single components hold the largest number in analog circuits, the method starts with circuit structure, analyzes transfer function of circuits, and implements complex field modeling. Then, by an established parameter scanning model related to complex field, it analyzes the relationship between parameter variation and degeneration of single components in the model in order to obtain a more reasonable FI feature set via calculation. According to the obtained FI feature set, it establishes a novel model about degeneration trend of analog circuits' single components. At last, it uses particle filter (PF) to update parameters for the model and predicts remaining useful performance (RUP) of analog circuits' single components. Since calculation about the FI feature set is more reasonable, accuracy of prediction is improved to some extent. Finally, the foregoing conclusions are verified by experiments. PMID:25147853
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Y.; Pinel, V.; Trouvé, E.; Pathier, E.; Perrin, J.; Bascou, P.; Jouanne, F.
2013-04-01
The coseismic surface displacement field and slip distribution at depth due to the Kashmir earthquake (Mw = 7.6, 2005) have been analysed by different authors using subpixel correlation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and optical images, teleseismic analysis, GPS measurements, as well as in situ field measurements. In this paper, first, we use 23 sets of measurement from subpixel correlation of SAR images and differential interferometry to retrieve the 3-D coseismic surface displacement field. The obtained horizontal and vertical components along the fault trace are then compared, respectively, to equivalent measurements obtained from subpixel correlation of two optical ASTER images and in situ field measurements. Second, the coseismic fault geometry parameters and slip distribution at depth are estimated. In addition to the one segment slip model as reported in previous work, a two segments slip model that better fits the surface fault break is proposed. The improvement of the two segments slip model in interpreting the measured displacement field is highlighted through comparison of residuals of both slip models. Taking advantage of differential interferometry measurements that provide precise and continuous information in the far field of the fault, firstly, a wedge thrust according to Bendick et al. to the Northwest of the main rupture built on our two segments model is tested. According to the obtained results, the residual of the two segments main rupture plus wedge thrust model is slightly smaller than the residual of the two segments model to the Northwest of the Balakot-Bagh fault. Secondly, we test the sensitivity of our slip model to the presence of slip along a décollement as evidenced by Jouanne et al. through post-seismic analysis. The results indicate that the estimations of the coseismic displacement field and slip distribution in this paper are not significantly biased by such post-seismic displacement and that most coseismic displacement
The effect of bulk and surface fields on correlations in the semi-infinite ferromagnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.
1990-05-01
The three-dimensional semi-infinite Ising-like ferromagnet, in which surface and bulk interactions may be different, is considered. The bulk and surface external magnetic fields are applied parallel to the magnetization. The response of a spin to small additional uniform magnetic field and the responses of a spin to small additional uniform magnetic fields applied in different planes parallel to the surface are studied. The analytical formulae for susceptibilities describing these responses are obtained. The Landau continuum theory is used. The effect of the surface field on the susceptibilities at temperatures below and close to the ordinary phase transition temperature is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaji, D.; Morimoto, K.
2015-08-01
A double-layered target system and an identification method (target ID) for individual targets mounted on a rotating wheel using correlation with evaporation residues were newly developed for the study of superheavy elements (SHE). The target system can be used in three modes: conventional single-layered mode, double-layered mode, and energy-degrader mode. The target ID method can be utilized for masking a target, measuring an excitation function without changing the beam energy from the accelerator, and searching for SHE nuclides using multiple targets during a single irradiation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moin, P.; Kim, J.
1984-01-01
An investigation into the existence of hairpin vortices in turbulent channel flow is conducted using a database generated by the large eddy simulation technique. It is shown that away from the wall the distribution of the inclination angle of vorticity vector attains its maximum at about 45 deg to the wall. Two point correlations of velocity and vorticity fluctuations strongly support a flow model consisting of vortical structures inclined at 45 deg to the wall. The instantaneous vorticity vectors plotted in planes inclined at 45 deg show that the flow contains an appreciable number of hairpins. Vortex lines are used to display the three dimensional structure of hairpins, which are shown to be generated from deformation of transverse vortex filaments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamandy, T.; Andersson, L.; Fowler, C. M.; Ergun, R.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Brain, D. A.
2015-12-01
The Langmuir Probe and Waves Instrument (LPW) onboard the MAVEN spacecraft is the first Langmuir probe to map out the upper atmosphere of Mars. The instrument provides measurements (amongst other variables) of electron density (Ne) and temperature (Te). The overarching scientific goal of MAVEN is to determining how Mars lost its atmosphere and to understand the physical processes governing this escape and the above quantities play a crucial role in understanding this. Ne and Te information is critical for determining the efficiency of the different photochemical reaction rates and thereby in understanding the upper atmospheric composition. Understanding the upper atmosphere allows the MAVEN mission to calculate escape rates. Photochemical reactions and collisions dominate below the exobase region (~150-~180 km). Above the exobase, particles with energies greater than the Mars gravity well can escape. On the dayside solar EUV heats the atmosphere at lower altitudes and produces the ionosphere. It is of great interest to understand the how the electron density and temperature correlate. The presented study therefore shows the correlation between Ne and Te. This study investigates how different solar zenith angles affect these quantities and evaluates if closed magnetic field lines (as expected to occur over crustal magnetic fields) change the correlation between the two. Many previous studies have shown that crustal fields affect the plasma at high altitudes. In this study we present how the magnetic field influences the photochemical and the plasma processes close to the exobase via analyzing Ne and Te.
Teaching Geographic Field Methods to Cultural Resource Management Technicians
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mires, Peter B.
2004-01-01
There are perhaps 10,000 technicians in the United States who work in the field known as cultural resource management (CRM). The typical field technician possesses a bachelor's degree in anthropology, geography, or a closely allied discipline. The author's experience has been that few CRM field technicians receive adequate undergraduate training…
Yi, W J; Park, K S; Lee, C H; Rhee, C S
2003-07-01
Ciliary beating and metachronal waves are fundamental to effective mucociliary transport. The ciliary beat frequencies (CBFs) and metachronal wave directions of multiple cilia beating in culture media were measured simultaneously using digital microscopic images. The degree of synchronisation between ciliary beats was determined by the correlation between ciliary signals at two different locations. The wave propagation directions of cilia were determined from a two-dimensional correlation map by a principal axis method. The standard deviation of measured wave directions in a region of interest was defined as a measure of metachronal wave disorder (MWD). Considerable variation was found in the beat frequencies and metachronal wave directions of cilia beating on epithelium. The pooled mean of MWDs was 23.4 +/- 8.8 degrees, and the pooled mean of CBFs was 10.1 +/- 1.9 Hz on 120 cells from five healthy subjects. The means of the MWD and the CBF from subjects were highly correlated (correlation = -0.83). The higher the CBF, the lower the level of the MWD.
Watt, M.; Moosavi, S.; Cunningham, S. C.; Kirkegaard, J. A.; Rebetzke, G. J.; Richards, R. A.
2013-01-01
Background and Aims Root length and depth determine capture of water and nutrients by plants, and are targets for crop improvement. Here we assess a controlled-environment wheat seedling screen to determine speed, repeatability and relatedness to performance of young and adult plants in the field. Methods Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and diverse genotypes were grown in rolled, moist germination paper in growth cabinets, and primary root number and length were measured when leaf 1 or 2 were fully expanded. For comparison, plants were grown in the field and root systems were harvested at the two-leaf stage with either a shovel or a soil core. From about the four-leaf stage, roots were extracted with a steel coring tube only, placed directly over the plant and pushed to the required depth with a hydraulic ram attached to a tractor. Key Results In growth cabinets, repeatability was greatest (r = 0·8, P < 0·01) when the paper was maintained moist and seed weight, pathogens and germination times were controlled. Scanned total root length (slow) was strongly correlated (r = 0·7, P < 0·01) with length of the two longest seminal axile roots measured with a ruler (fast), such that 100–200 genotypes were measured per day. Correlation to field-grown roots at two sites at two leaves was positive and significant within the RILs and cultivars (r = 0·6, P = 0·01), and at one of the two sites at the five-leaf stage within the RILs (r = 0·8, P = 0·05). Measurements made in the field with a shovel or extracted soil cores were fast (5 min per core) and had significant positive correlations to scanner measurements after root washing and cleaning (>2 h per core). Field measurements at two- and five-leaf stages did not correlate with root depth at flowering. Conclusions The seedling screen was fast, repeatable and reliable for selecting lines with greater total root length in the young vegetative phase in the field. Lack of significant correlation with reproductive stage
Correlation of firing pin impressions based on congruent matching cross-sections (CMX) method.
Zhang, Hao; Song, John; Tong, Mingsi; Chu, Wei
2016-06-01
Comparison of firing pin impressions of cartridge cases is an important part of firearms evidence identification. However, compared with breach face impressions, there is only a limited surface area over which firing pin impressions can be compared. Furthermore, the curvature of firing pin impressions makes it difficult to perform automatic correlations of the surfaces. In this study, a new method and related algorithm named congruent matching cross-sections (CMX) are proposed. Each firing pin impression is sliced into layers and the resulting circular cross-sections are converted to two dimensional linear profiles by a polar coordinate transformation. The differential profile extraction method is used for extracting the high frequency micro-features, or the individual characteristics, for accurate correlation. Three parameters are proposed for determining whether these pairwise firing pin impressions are fired from the same firearm. The cross-correlation function (CCF) is used for quantifying similarity of the pairwise profiles which represent the two correlated firing pin images. If the correlated cartridge pair is fired from the same firearm, the maximum CCF value between each of the profile pairs from the reference and the correlated firing pin impressions will be high. The other two parameters relate to the horizontal (or angular) and vertical range of relative shifts that the profiles undergo to obtain the maximum CCF. These shifts are the phase angle θ which corresponds to a horizontal shift of the 2D profiles and the vertical shift distance of slice section, i.e. where the profiles match in the depth of the impression. These shift parameters are used to determine the congruency of the pairwise profile patterns. When these parameter values and their statistical distributions are collected for analysis, the CMX number is derived as a key parameter for a conclusive identification or exclusion. Validation tests using 40 cartridge cases of three different
Correlation of firing pin impressions based on congruent matching cross-sections (CMX) method.
Zhang, Hao; Song, John; Tong, Mingsi; Chu, Wei
2016-06-01
Comparison of firing pin impressions of cartridge cases is an important part of firearms evidence identification. However, compared with breach face impressions, there is only a limited surface area over which firing pin impressions can be compared. Furthermore, the curvature of firing pin impressions makes it difficult to perform automatic correlations of the surfaces. In this study, a new method and related algorithm named congruent matching cross-sections (CMX) are proposed. Each firing pin impression is sliced into layers and the resulting circular cross-sections are converted to two dimensional linear profiles by a polar coordinate transformation. The differential profile extraction method is used for extracting the high frequency micro-features, or the individual characteristics, for accurate correlation. Three parameters are proposed for determining whether these pairwise firing pin impressions are fired from the same firearm. The cross-correlation function (CCF) is used for quantifying similarity of the pairwise profiles which represent the two correlated firing pin images. If the correlated cartridge pair is fired from the same firearm, the maximum CCF value between each of the profile pairs from the reference and the correlated firing pin impressions will be high. The other two parameters relate to the horizontal (or angular) and vertical range of relative shifts that the profiles undergo to obtain the maximum CCF. These shifts are the phase angle θ which corresponds to a horizontal shift of the 2D profiles and the vertical shift distance of slice section, i.e. where the profiles match in the depth of the impression. These shift parameters are used to determine the congruency of the pairwise profile patterns. When these parameter values and their statistical distributions are collected for analysis, the CMX number is derived as a key parameter for a conclusive identification or exclusion. Validation tests using 40 cartridge cases of three different
Protein carbonyl levels correlate with performance in elite field hockey players.
Rosa-Lima, Frederico Luis; Lannes, Luiz; Viana-Gomes, Diego; Pierucci, Anna Paola T R; Salerno, Verônica P
2015-07-01
Excess and incorrectly selected exercise can degrade athletic performance from an imbalance in redox homeostasis and oxidative stress, but well-planned training and nutrition can improve antioxidant capacity. The aim of the study was to investigate how nutrient intake could influence oxidative stress and cell lesion biomarkers after 5 days of training followed by a game. Blood was collected from 10 athletes at the start of training (basal), after training (pre-game), and postgame. Their acceleration capacity also was measured pre- and postgame. Blood analysis showed an increase in lactate concentration postgame (13%) and total antioxidant capacity increased both pre-game (13.1%) and postgame (12.7%), all in comparison with basal levels. An oxidative stress marker, protein carbonyl (PC), increased 3-fold over the course of the game, which correlated with a decreased acceleration (r = 0.749). For biomarkers of tissue damage, creatine kinase and aspartate transaminase (AST) increased postgame by 150% and 75%, respectively. The AST variation had a high negative correlation with energy and carbohydrate consumption and a moderate correlation with lipid and vitamin C intake. Protein intake had a positive but moderate correlation with reduced glutathione. The observed correlations suggest that nutritional monitoring can improve exercise physiological homeostasis and that PC serves as a good biomarker for oxidative stress and performance loss. PMID:25962716
Protein carbonyl levels correlate with performance in elite field hockey players.
Rosa-Lima, Frederico Luis; Lannes, Luiz; Viana-Gomes, Diego; Pierucci, Anna Paola T R; Salerno, Verônica P
2015-07-01
Excess and incorrectly selected exercise can degrade athletic performance from an imbalance in redox homeostasis and oxidative stress, but well-planned training and nutrition can improve antioxidant capacity. The aim of the study was to investigate how nutrient intake could influence oxidative stress and cell lesion biomarkers after 5 days of training followed by a game. Blood was collected from 10 athletes at the start of training (basal), after training (pre-game), and postgame. Their acceleration capacity also was measured pre- and postgame. Blood analysis showed an increase in lactate concentration postgame (13%) and total antioxidant capacity increased both pre-game (13.1%) and postgame (12.7%), all in comparison with basal levels. An oxidative stress marker, protein carbonyl (PC), increased 3-fold over the course of the game, which correlated with a decreased acceleration (r = 0.749). For biomarkers of tissue damage, creatine kinase and aspartate transaminase (AST) increased postgame by 150% and 75%, respectively. The AST variation had a high negative correlation with energy and carbohydrate consumption and a moderate correlation with lipid and vitamin C intake. Protein intake had a positive but moderate correlation with reduced glutathione. The observed correlations suggest that nutritional monitoring can improve exercise physiological homeostasis and that PC serves as a good biomarker for oxidative stress and performance loss.
Pg-pPg Time Delays from Sparse Networks Using the Time-Frequency Correlation Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearce, F.; Lu, R.; Toksoz, M. N.
2008-12-01
The arrival times of primary phases generally produce poor estimates of focal depth, particularly for shallow events. While depth phases may be detected at teleseismic distances, no reliable methods currently exist for identifying regional depth phase time delays, such as Pg-pPg. Scattering from crustal heterogeneities obscures the Pg-pPg time delay by producing multiplicative noise within the Pg time window. The theory of Time Reversed Acoustics (TRA) states that the autocorrelation of Pg time windows produces a clear sidelobe at the Pg-pPg time delay. Using large Pg time windows (i.e. including more scattering) and stacking the autocorrelations from an array of receivers improves the reconstruction of the sidelobe at the Pg-pPg time delay. In this paper, we expand the TRA concept to develop the Time-Frequency Correlation (TFC) method for measuring Pg-pPg time delays, which incorporates signal-processing techniques used in Sonar and Radar applications. The TFC method applies a 2D correlation function in time delay and frequency delay to the analytic representation of each Pg time window. Stacking the 2D correlation functions better identifies the sidelobe at the Pg-pPg time delay. Tests of the TFC method on synthetic Pg time windows provide guidance in detecting the Pg-pPg time delays for events with different source time functions, focal depths, and scattering distributions. We apply the TFC method to measure Pg-pPg time delays for 33 local earthquakes from the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) catalog. We include only catalog events with the most accurate locations ('A'), catalog depths between 2 and 16 km (±2 km), and magnitudes between 3.0 and 6.0. For each event, the TFC method uses a station array that is sparse (N < 20), narrow aperture (Δθ < 90°), and located greater than 300 km from the catalog epicenter. The Pg-pPg time delays are converted to focal depths assuming vertical propagation within the SCEDC 3D model at each event
Benech, N; Brum, J; Catheline, S; Gallot, T; Negreira, C
2013-05-01
In a lossless system, the causal and acausal Green's function for elastic waves can be retrieved by cross-correlating the elastic field at two positions. This field, composed of converging and diverging waves, is interpreted in the frame of a time-reversal process. In this work, the near-field effects on the spatio-temporal focusing of elastic waves are analyzed through the elastodynamic Green's function. Contrary to the scalar field case, the spatial focusing is not symmetric preserving the directivity pattern of a simple source. One important feature of the spatial asymmetry is its dependency on the Poisson ratio of the solid. Additionally, it is shown that the retrieval of the bulk wave speed values is affected by diffraction. The correction factor depends on the relative direction between the source and the observed field. Experimental verification of the analysis is carried out on the volume of a soft-solid. A low-frequency diffuse-like field is generated by random impacts at the sample's free surface. The displacement field is imaged using ultrasound by a standard speckle tracking technique. One important application of this work is in the estimation of the shear elastic modulus in soft biological tissues, whose quantification can be useful in non-invasive diagnosis of various diseases. PMID:23654383
Castillo, Rogelio; Alonso, Gustavo; Palacios, Javier C.
2004-02-15
A method for nonlinear analysis of instabilities in boiling water reactors (BWRs) is presented. Both the Dominant Lyapunov Exponent method and the Slope of the Correlation Integral (SOCI) method are used to analyze the average power reactor monitor (APRM) signals from a BWR. The main advantage of using the two methods in a complementary manner is that doing so results in an enhancement of the capability to analyze noisy systems, such as the APRM signals in a BWR. Previously, such nonlinear analysis had been performed using independently either the Dominant Lyapunov Exponent Method or the SOCI method. These two methods are sensitive to noise in a signal and normally require large amounts of data for a reliable analysis.This proposed system for nonlinear analysis is composed first of a home-developed computer program called 'SLOPE', which is based on the SOCI method. Then, the signal analysis is also performed by the 'LENNS' code, which is used to obtain the dominant Lyapunov exponent. Since only the dominant Lyapunov exponent is computed, there is no need to acquire large amounts of data; thus, computational processing time is greatly reduced, even in the case of noisy data.The system was used to analyze BWR signals containing stationary and nonstationary limit cycles. It was found that this method satisfactorily calculates the limit cycles, extracting useful information from noisy signals.
Time-dependent methods for calculating thermal rate coefficients using flux correlation functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thachuk, Mark; Schatz, George C.
1992-11-01
In this paper we study numerical methods for calculating thermal rate coefficients using flux correlation functions, with the goal of determining optimal methods for producing values with a specified accuracy. In all cases we employ grid based methods for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in one mathematical dimension for a simple barrier potential function. The solutions are used to determine the propagator matrix elements needed to evaluate the flux correlation functions. Within this framework, we examine (1) several time-dependent methods for propagating the wave packets, (2) several procedures for evaluating the action of the Hamiltonian on the wave function, (3) the choice of complex time contours for evaluating the rate coefficient expression, (4) alternatives for estimating the initial short-time evolution of the wave packet (which starts as a δ function), (5) quadrature methods for evaluating the spatial and time integrals appearing in the flux correlation function, and (6) special numerical strategies which can dramatically improve the accuracy of the calculation, particularly at low temperatures. We find that several methods yield rate coefficients accurate to 1% or 0.1% using about the same computational effort. These include (a) split-operator time propagators combined with fast-Fourier-transform evaluations of the wave-function derivatives, and (b) the Chebyshev time propagator combined with either an eleventh-order finite-difference or fifth-order spline evaluation of the wave-function derivatives. These finite-difference and spline methods can also be used competitively with the split-operator approach provided that a Crank-Nicholson approximation is utilized in evaluating the action of the kinetic-energy propagator. It was also found that inaccuracies in estimating the initial short-time behavior of the wave function could limit the effectiveness of the more accurate methods. A multigrid approach based on the split
On the no-field method for void time determination in flow field-flow fractionation.
Martin, Michel; Hoyos, Mauricio
2011-07-01
Elution time measurements of colloidal particles injected in a symmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (flow FFF) system when the inlet and outlet cross-flow connections are closed have been performed. This no-field method has been proposed earlier for void time (and void volume) determination in flow FFF Giddings et al. (1977). The elution times observed were much larger than expected on the basis of the channel geometrical volume and the flow rate. In order to explain these discrepancies, a flow model allowing the carrier liquid to flow through the porous walls toward the reservoirs located behind the porous elements and along these reservoirs was developed. The ratio between the observed elution time and expected one is found to depend only on a parameter which is a function of the effective permeability and thickness of the porous elements and of the channel thickness and length. The permeabilities of the frits used in the system were measured. Their values lead to predicted elution times in reasonable agreement with experimental ones, taking into account likely membrane protrusion inside the channel on system assembly. They comfort the basic feature of the flow model, in the no-field case. The carrier liquid mostly bypasses the channel to flow along the system mainly in the reservoir. It flows through the porous walls toward the reservoirs near channel inlet and again through the porous walls from the reservoirs to the channel near channel outlet before exiting the system. In order to estimate the extent of this bypassing process, it is desirable that the hydrodynamic characteristics of the permeable elements (permeability and thickness) are provided by flow FFF manufacturers. The model applies to symmetrical as well as asymmetrical flow FFF systems. PMID:21256498
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montilla, I.; Tallon, M.; Langlois, M.; Béchet, C.; Collados Vera, M.
2014-08-01
Solar Adaptive Optics (AO) shares many issues with night-time AO, but it also has its own particularities. The wavefront sensing is performed using correlations to efficiently work on the solar granulation as a reference. The field of view for that measurement usually is around 10". A sensor collecting such a wide field of view averages wavefront information from different sky directions, and the anisoplanatism thus has a peculiar impact on the performance of solar AO and MCAO systems. Since we are entering the era of large solar telescopes (European Solar Telescope, Advanced Technology Solar Telescope) understanding this issue is crucial to evaluate its impact on the performance of future AO systems. In this paper we model the correlating wide field sensor and the way it senses the high altitude turbulence. Thanks to this improved modelling, we present an analysis of the influence of this sensing on the performance of each AO configuration, conventional AO and MCAO. In addition to the analytical study, simulations similar to the case of the EST AO systems with FRiM-3D (the Fractal Iterative Method for Atmospheric tomography) are used in order to highlight the relative influence of design parameters. In particular, results show the performance evolution when increasing the telescope diameter. We analyse the effect of high altitude turbulence correlation showing that increasing the diameter of the telescope does not degrade the performance when correcting on the same spatial and temporal scales.
Evaluation of different field methods for measuring soil water infiltration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Fonseca, Francisco
2010-05-01
Soil infiltrability, together with rainfall characteristics, is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the direct measurement of water infiltration rates or its indirect deduction from other soil characteristics or properties has become indispensable for the evaluation and modelling of the previously mentioned processes. Indirect deductions from other soil characteristics measured under laboratory conditions in the same soils, or in other soils, through the so called "pedo-transfer" functions, have demonstrated to be of limited value in most of the cases. Direct "in situ" field evaluations have to be preferred in any case. In this contribution we present the results of past experiences in the measurement of soil water infiltration rates in many different soils and land conditions, and their use for deducing soil water balances under variable climates. There are also presented and discussed recent results obtained in comparing different methods, using double and single ring infiltrometers, rainfall simulators, and disc permeameters, of different sizes, in soils with very contrasting surface and profile characteristics and conditions, including stony soils and very sloping lands. It is concluded that there are not methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil conditions by the land management, but also due to the manipulation of the surface
Correlation mapping method of OCT for visualization blood vessels in brain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izotova, O. A.; Kalyanov, A. L.; Lychagov, V. V.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.
2013-11-01
The burning issue in modern medicine is the diagnosis and treatment of various life-threatening diseases, in particular the diseases of brain. One of them is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). It occurs especially among newborn babies and is hard-diagnosed. In order to understand the nature of the ICH, the microcirculation of blood, which serves key functions within the body, is analyzed. On this basis a series of experiments was done, in the results of which it was showed, that latent stage of ICH is characterized by decrease of venous blood outflow and the loss of sensitivity of sagittal vein to vasoconstrictor effect of adrenaline. So, stress-related changes of the cerebral venous blood flow (CVBF) can be the source of this disease. In this paper registration CVBF was made with the help of commercially available Thorlabs Swept Source OCT System, using the correlation mapping method. In this method values of correlation coefficient of several images are analyzed. In the result of the algorithm the correlation map was obtained. By the resulting map the diameter of vessels was calculated, which is necessary for examination of effects of adrenalin to the vessels and identification symptoms of ICH.
Prediction of shear wave velocity using empirical correlations and artificial intelligence methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maleki, Shahoo; Moradzadeh, Ali; Riabi, Reza Ghavami; Gholami, Raoof; Sadeghzadeh, Farhad
2014-06-01
Good understanding of mechanical properties of rock formations is essential during the development and production phases of a hydrocarbon reservoir. Conventionally, these properties are estimated from the petrophysical logs with compression and shear sonic data being the main input to the correlations. This is while in many cases the shear sonic data are not acquired during well logging, which may be for cost saving purposes. In this case, shear wave velocity is estimated using available empirical correlations or artificial intelligent methods proposed during the last few decades. In this paper, petrophysical logs corresponding to a well drilled in southern part of Iran were used to estimate the shear wave velocity using empirical correlations as well as two robust artificial intelligence methods knows as Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN). Although the results obtained by SVR seem to be reliable, the estimated values are not very precise and considering the importance of shear sonic data as the input into different models, this study suggests acquiring shear sonic data during well logging. It is important to note that the benefits of having reliable shear sonic data for estimation of rock formation mechanical properties will compensate the possible additional costs for acquiring a shear log.
[Development and application of electroanalytical methods in biomedical fields].
Kusu, Fumiyo
2015-01-01
To summarize our electroanalytical research in the biomedical field over the past 43 years, this review describes studies on specular reflection measurement, redox potential determination, amperometric acid sensing, HPLC with electrochemical detection, and potential oscillation across a liquid membrane. The specular reflection method was used for clarifying the adsorption of neurotransmitters and their related drugs onto a gold electrode and the interaction between dental alloys and compound iodine glycerin. A voltammetric screening test using a redox potential for the antioxidative effect of flavonoids was proposed. Amperometric acid sensing based on the measurement of the reduction prepeak current of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (VK3) or 3,5-di-tert-buty1-1,2-benzoquinone (DBBQ) was applied to determine acid values of fats and oils, titrable acidity of coffee, and enzyme activity of lipase, free fatty acids (FFAs) in serum, short-chain fatty acids in feces, etc. The electrode reactions of phenothiazines, catechins, and cholesterol were applied to biomedical analysis using HPLC with electrochemical detection. A three-channel electrochemical detection system was utilized for the sensitive determination of redox compounds in Chinese herbal medicines. The behavior of barbituric acid derivatives was examined based on potential oscillation measurements.
A Simple Method to Predict Threshold Shear Velocity in the Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, J.; Okin, G. S.; Herrick, J. E.; Miller, M. E.; Munson, S. M.; Belnap, J.
2009-12-01
A very important parameter in predicting wind erosion is the threshold shear velocity, which is the minimal shear velocity required to initiate deflation of soil particles. Modeling and wind tunnel are primary methods in predicting threshold shear velocity. However, most models have limited applications in the presence of roughness elements, and running a wind tunnel in the field is labor-intensive and time-consuming. Soil crust (both physical and biological) is known to be a crucial factor affecting soil stability and threshold shear velocity. In this report, a simple and portable field method was tested in multiple locations of Utah for the estimation of threshold shear velocity. This method includes measuring size of holes (length and width) induced by shooting a “bullet ball” or “BB” gun, applying a pocket penetrometer, and a torvane on soil surface in the field. In the first stage of the experiment, a conventional wind tunnel was run in combination with BB gun, penetrometer, and torvane in field conditions for a range of soil texture. Results from both the BB gun and penetrometer applied at 45 degree to the ground were significantly correlated with the threshold shear velocity obtained using the wind tunnel (R2=0.70, P<0.001). In the second stage, BB gun and penetrometer method was applied to a serial of sites which have BSNE wind erosion monitors and known horizontal sediment fluxes. Our results showed that a combination of BB gun and penetrometer is able to provide decent prediction of threshold shear velocity in the presence of vegetation under different soil physical and biological conditions.
A new field method to characterise the runoff generation potential of burned hillslopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick; Langhans, Christoph
2016-04-01
The prediction of post fire runoff generation is critical for the estimation of post fire erosion processes and rates. Typical field measures for determining infiltration model parameters include ring infiltrometers, tension infiltrometers, rainfall simulators and natural runoff plots. However predicting the runoff generating potential of post-fire hillslopes is difficult due to the high spatial variability of soil properties relative to the size of the measurement method, the poorly understood relationship between water repellence and runoff generation, known scaling issues with all the above hydraulic measurements, and logistical limitations for measurements in remote environments. In this study we tested a new field method for characterizing surface runoff generation potential that overcomes these limitations and is quick, simple and cheap to apply in the field. The new field method involves the manual application of a 40mm depth of Brilliant Blue FCF food dye along a 10cm wide and 5m long transect along the contour under slightly-ponded conditions. After 24 hours the transect is excavated to a depth of 10cm and the percentage dyed area within the soil profile recorded manually. The dyed area is an index of infiltration potential of the soil during intense rainfall events, and captures both spatial variability and water repellence effects. The dye measurements were made adjacent to long term instrumented post fire rainfall-runoff plots on 7 contrasting soil types over a 6 month period, and the results show surprisingly strong correlations (r2 = 0.9) between the runoff-ratio from the plots and the dyed area. The results are used to develop an initial conceptual model that links the dye index with an infiltration model and parameters suited to burnt hillslopes. The capacity of this method to provide a simple, and reliable indicator of post fire runoff potential from different fire severities, soil types and treatments is explored in this presentation.
Murg, V; Verstraete, F; Schneider, R; Nagy, P R; Legeza, Ö
2015-03-10
We study the tree-tensor-network-state (TTNS) method with variable tensor orders for quantum chemistry. TTNS is a variational method to efficiently approximate complete active space (CAS) configuration interaction (CI) wave functions in a tensor product form. TTNS can be considered as a higher order generalization of the matrix product state (MPS) method. The MPS wave function is formulated as products of matrices in a multiparticle basis spanning a truncated Hilbert space of the original CAS-CI problem. These matrices belong to active orbitals organized in a one-dimensional array, while tensors in TTNS are defined upon a tree-like arrangement of the same orbitals. The tree-structure is advantageous since the distance between two arbitrary orbitals in the tree scales only logarithmically with the number of orbitals N, whereas the scaling is linear in the MPS array. It is found to be beneficial from the computational costs point of view to keep strongly correlated orbitals in close vicinity in both arrangements; therefore, the TTNS ansatz is better suited for multireference problems with numerous highly correlated orbitals. To exploit the advantages of TTNS a novel algorithm is designed to optimize the tree tensor network topology based on quantum information theory and entanglement. The superior performance of the TTNS method is illustrated on the ionic-neutral avoided crossing of LiF. It is also shown that the avoided crossing of LiF can be localized using only ground state properties, namely one-orbital entanglement.
Kausik, Ravinath; Fatkullin, Nail; Hüsing, Nicola; Kimmich, Rainer
2007-05-01
The chain dynamics of short-chain perfluoropolyether melts confined in Vycor nanoporous media has been characterized by field cycling nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry and the dipolar correlation effect. The slowdown of motions under confinement, leading to larger residual dipolar couplings, has been probed by looking at the quotient of stimulated and primary echoes. Using field cycling relaxometry, it has been shown that there is strong evidence of reptation-like motion, even for such short-chain polymers as shown by the frequency and molecular weight dependences of the spin-lattice relaxation time.
Ambrose, W.P.; Goodwin, P.M.; Martin, J.C.; Keller, R.A.
1994-03-01
Pulsed excitation, time correlated single photon counting and time gated detection are used in near-field optical microscopy to enhance fluorescence images and measure the fluorescence lifetimes of single molecules of Rhodamine 6G on silica surfaces. Time gated detection is used to reject prompt scattered background and to improve the image signal to noise ratio. The excited state lifetime of a single Rhodamine 6G molecule is found to depend on the position of the near-field probe. We attribute the lifetime variations to spontaneous emission rate alterations by the fluorescence reflected from and quenching by the aluminum coated probe.
Dissipative transverse-field Ising model: Steady-state correlations and spin squeezing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Tony E.; Chan, Ching-Kit
2013-12-01
We study the transverse-field Ising model with infinite-range coupling and spontaneous emission on every site. We find that there is spin squeezing in steady state due to the presence of the transverse field. This means that there is still entanglement, despite the decoherence from spontaneous emission. We analytically calculate fluctuations beyond mean-field theory using a phase-space approach, which involves converting the master equation into a Fokker-Planck equation for the Wigner function. Our calculations are relevant to current experiments with trapped ions.
Method of correlating a core sample with its original position in a borehole
Vinegar, H. J.; Wellington, S. L.
1985-09-24
A method of correlating a core sample with its original position in a borehole. The borehole is logged to determine the bulk density of the formation surrounding the borehole. The core sample is scanned with a computerized axial tomographic scanner (CAT) to determine the attenuation coefficients at a plurality of points in a plurality of cross sections along the core sample. The bulk density log is then compared with the attenuation coefficients to determine the position to which the core sample correlates in the borehole. Alternatively, the borehole can be logged to determine the photoelectric absorption of the formation surrounding the borehole, and this log can be compared with data derived from scanning the core sample with a CAT at two different energy levels.
Extension of the weak-line approximation and application to correlated-k methods
Conley, A.J.; Collins, W.D.
2011-03-15
Global climate models require accurate and rapid computation of the radiative transfer through the atmosphere. Correlated-k methods are often used. One of the approximations used in correlated-k models is the weakline approximation. We introduce an approximation T/sub g/ which reduces to the weak-line limit when optical depths are small, and captures the deviation from the weak-line limit as the extinction deviates from the weak-line limit. This approximation is constructed to match the first two moments of the gamma distribution to the k-distribution of the transmission. We compare the errors of the weak-line approximation with T/sub g/ in the context of a water vapor spectrum. The extension T/sub g/ is more accurate and converges more rapidly than the weak-line approximation.
A new method of UCN production using a spatially alternating magnetic field with spin flips
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakai, K.; Asahi, K.; Ogawa, H.; Goto, A.; Yogo, K.; Suga, T.; Miyoshi, H.; Kameda, D.; Utsuro, M.; Okumura, K.; Hino, M.; Yoshimi, A.
2001-06-01
Neutrons with energies E below the Fermi effective potential Ueff~0.2 μeV are called ultracold neutrons (UCN), which are totally reflected from a surface of material and thus can be stored in a bottle. The UCN in a bottle are of a great advantage for high-precision measurements in fundamental physics with neutrons, where the UCN density ρUCN takes the key role. We have proposed a new method for the production of UCN, which is based on the repeated application of a field-gradient force on a magnetic moment realized with a spatially alternating field and the correlated spin flips. To evaluate the feasibility and performance of the method, a computer simulation of neutron decelerating and transporting processes has been performed. The result indicates that the UCN density ρUCN in a storage bottle in the present method reaches quite large values as ρUCN~2.2×103 n/cm3 in a realistic condition. An experiment to test the principle and to explore the technical ingredients of the present method is being conducted using the UCN beam from the supermirror turbine at KUR. .
Variational formulation of perturbative explicitly-correlated coupled-cluster methods.
Torheyden, Martin; Valeev, Edward F
2008-06-21
We present a variational formulation of the recently-proposed CCSD(2)(R12) method [Valeev, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2008, 10, 106]. The centerpiece of this approach is the CCSD(2)(R12) Lagrangian obtained via Löwdin partitioning of the coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) Hamiltonian. Extremization of the Lagrangian yields the second-order basis set incompleteness correction for the CCSD energy. We also developed a simpler Hylleraas-type functional that only depends on one set of geminal amplitudes by applying screening approximations. This functional is used to develop a diagonal orbital-invariant version of the method in which the geminal amplitudes are fixed at the values determined by the first-order cusp conditions. Extension of the variational method to include perturbatively the effect of connected triples produces the method that approximates the complete basis-set limit of the standard CCSD plus perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] method. For a set of 20 small closed-shell molecules, the method recovered at least 94.5/97.3% of the CBS CCSD(T) correlation energy with the aug-cc-pVDZ/aug-cc-pVTZ orbital basis set. For 12 isogyric reactions involving these molecules, combining the aug-cc-pVTZ correlation energies with the aug-cc-pVQZ Hartree-Fock energies produces the electronic reaction energies with a mean absolute deviation of 1.4 kJ mol(-1) from the experimental values. The method has the same number of optimized parameters as the corresponding CCSD(T) model, does not require any modification of the coupled-cluster computer program, and only needs a small triple-zeta basis to match the precision of the considerably more expensive standard quintuple-zeta CCSD(T) computation.
Towards prediction of correlated material properties using quantum Monte Carlo methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, Lucas
Correlated electron systems offer a richness of physics far beyond noninteracting systems. If we would like to pursue the dream of designer correlated materials, or, even to set a more modest goal, to explain in detail the properties and effective physics of known materials, then accurate simulation methods are required. Using modern computational resources, quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) techniques offer a way to directly simulate electron correlations. I will show some recent results on a few extremely challenging materials including the metal-insulator transition of VO2, the ground state of the doped cuprates, and the pressure dependence of magnetic properties in FeSe. By using a relatively simple implementation of QMC, at least some properties of these materials can be described truly from first principles, without any adjustable parameters. Using the QMC platform, we have developed a way of systematically deriving effective lattice models from the simulation. This procedure is particularly attractive for correlated electron systems because the QMC methods treat the one-body and many-body components of the wave function and Hamiltonian on completely equal footing. I will show some examples of using this downfolding technique and the high accuracy of QMC to connect our intuitive ideas about interacting electron systems with high fidelity simulations. The work in this presentation was supported in part by NSF DMR 1206242, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research, Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program under Award Number FG02-12ER46875, and the Center for Emergent Superconductivity, Department of Energy Frontier Research Center under Grant No. DEAC0298CH1088. Computing resources were provided by a Blue Waters Illinois grant and INCITE PhotSuper and SuperMatSim allocations.
Analysis of field-scale spatial correlations and variations of soil nutrients using geostatistics.
Liu, Ruimin; Xu, Fei; Yu, Wenwen; Shi, Jianhan; Zhang, Peipei; Shen, Zhenyao
2016-02-01
Spatial correlations and soil nutrient variations are important for soil nutrient management. They help to reduce the negative impacts of agricultural nonpoint source pollution. Based on the sampled available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK), soil nutrient data from 2010, the spatial correlation, was analyzed, and the probabilities of the nutrient's abundance or deficiency were discussed. This paper presents a statistical approach to spatial analysis, the spatial correlation analysis (SCA), which was originally developed for describing heterogeneity in the presence of correlated variation and based on ordinary kriging (OK) results. Indicator kriging (IK) was used to assess the susceptibility of excess of soil nutrients based on crop needs. The kriged results showed there was a distinct spatial variability in the concentration of all three soil nutrients. High concentrations of these three soil nutrients were found near Anzhou. As the distance from the center of town increased, the concentration of the soil nutrients gradually decreased. Spatially, the relationship between AN and AP was negative, and the relationship between AP and AK was not clear. The IK results showed that there were few areas with a risk of AN and AP overabundance. However, almost the entire study region was at risk of AK overabundance. Based on the soil nutrient distribution results, it is clear that the spatial variability of the soil nutrients differed throughout the study region. This spatial soil nutrient variability might be caused by different fertilizer types and different fertilizing practices.
Wu, H; de Boer, J F; Chen, L; Chen, T C
2015-01-01
Purpose To study the correlation between glaucomatous visual field (VF) defects assessed by standard automated perimetry (SAP) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a modified OCT-based peripapillary RNFL structure–function map. Patients and methods Perimetric glaucoma patients and age-matched normal control subjects were recruited from a university hospital clinic. All eyes underwent testing with the Spectralis spectral domain OCT and SAP on the same day. An OCT-based correspondence map, which correlated VF areas with peripapillary RNFL sectors was created to evaluate the relationship between glaucomatous RNFL thinning and VF loss in six nerve fiber layer bundle areas. Correlations of RNFL thinning with corresponding VF defects were examined using Spearman rank-order correlations. To demonstrate the association between localized VF defects and RNFL thickness, the theoretical curves were made according to an established log-linear model. The measured RNFL thickness values and VF defects were presented in the same scatterplot for each sector. Results Fifty-six glaucoma patients and 85 normal subjects were included in the study. Significant association between localized VF loss and RNFL thinning was found in corresponding areas. Data from the current study fit well with established log-linear models, which compare RNFL thickness values with VF defects. Conclusion Analysis of RNFL thinning in eyes with localized glaucomatous VF defects showed good structure–function correlation in a new OCT-based structure–function correspondence map. PMID:25633881
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neil, Simon R. T.; Maeda, Kiminori; Henbest, Kevin B.; Goez, Martin; Hemmens, Robert; Timmel, Christiane R.; Mackenzie, Stuart R.
2010-04-01
Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) combined with phase-sensitive detection is employed to study the effects of static magnetic fields on radical recombination reactions. The chemical system comprises the photochemically generated thionine semiquinone radical and a 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) cationic radical in a micellar solution of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Data obtained using the modulated CEAS technique, describing the magnetic field effect (MFE) on reaction yields, are shown to be superior to those obtained using conventional transient absorption (TA) flash photolysis methods typically employed for these measurements. The high sensitivity afforded by modulated CEAS detection is discussed in terms of the new possibilities it offers such as the measurement of magnetic field effects in real biological systems which have hitherto been largely beyond the detection capabilities of existing techniques.
Comparison of Laboratory and Field Remote Sensing Methods to Measure Forage Quality
Guo, Xulin; Wilmshurst, John F.; Li, Zhaoqin
2010-01-01
Recent research in range ecology has emphasized the importance of forage quality as a key indicator of rangeland condition. However, we lack tools to evaluate forage quality at scales appropriate for management. Using canopy reflectance data to measure forage quality has been conducted at both laboratory and field levels separately, but little work has been conducted to evaluate these methods simultaneously. The objective of this study is to find a reliable way of assessing grassland quality through measuring forage chemistry with reflectance. We studied a mixed grass ecosystem in Grasslands National Park of Canada and surrounding pastures, located in southern Saskatchewan. Spectral reflectance was collected at both in-situ field level and in the laboratory. Vegetation samples were collected at each site, sorted into the green grass portion, and then sent to a chemical company for measuring forage quality variables, including protein, lignin, ash, moisture at 135 °C, Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Total Digestible, Digestible Energy, Net Energy for Lactation, Net Energy for Maintenance, and Net Energy for Gain. Reflectance data were processed with the first derivative transformation and continuum removal method. Correlation analysis was conducted on spectral and forage quality variables. A regression model was further built to investigate the possibility of using canopy spectral measurements to predict the grassland quality. Results indicated that field level prediction of protein of mixed grass species was possible (r2 = 0.63). However, the relationship between canopy reflectance and the other forage quality variables was not strong. PMID:20948940
Gearbox coupling modulation separation method based on match pursuit and correlation filtering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Guolin; Ding, Kang; Lin, Huibin
2016-01-01
The vibration signal of faulty gearbox commonly involves complex coupling modulation components. The method of sparse representation has been successfully used for gearbox fault diagnosis, but most of the literatures only focus on the extraction of impact modulation and always neglect the steady modulation representing the distributed faults. This paper presents a new method for separating coupling modulation from vibration signal of gearbox based on match pursuit and correlation filtering. To separate the steady modulation caused by distributed fault and the impact modulation caused by impact fault, two sub-dictionaries are specially designed according to the gearbox operating and structural parameters and the characteristics of vibration signal. The new dictionaries have clear physical meaning and good adaptability. In addition, an amplitude recovery step is conducted to improve the matching accuracy in the match pursuit. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can separate the coupling components of gearbox vibration signal effectively under intensive background noise.
Application of linear-scale differential analysis in phase correlation method of image stitching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezzubik, Vitalii V.; Belashenkov, Nickolai R.; Losev, Sergei V.
2016-03-01
A robust method of creation of panoramic images which does not consume much processing resources is proposed and investigated. The phase correlation (PC) method is taken as a basic one because of simplicity of its algorithm and low computing time due to application of FFT technique. Standard PC procedure is modified by preprocessing of source frames of panoramic images in spatial domain. Preprocessing comprises Linear-Scale Differential Analysis (LSDA) with sequent content-dependent thresholding of intensity gradients. Method is proved for artificially blurred and noise corrupted images. It is shown that new robust algorithm allows to increase the productivity of creation of panoramic images keeping the probability of successive stitching close to maximum even for low-quality source frames.